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Sample records for saffron crocus sativus

  1. Stigma variability in saffron (Crocus sativus L.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-02-18

    Feb 18, 2009 ... Cytological and morphological studies showed that this characteristic is unstable and is not genetically controlled. Key words: Chromosome count, Crocus sativus, saffron, stigma, triploid. INTRODUCTION. Archeological and historical sources indicate that saffron. (Crocus sativus L., Iridaceae) cultivation is a ...

  2. Saffron (Crocus sativus L., a monomorphic or polymorphic species?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Nemati

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Saffron (Crocus sativus L. which contains exceptional anti-cancer properties is presently the world's most expensive spice. Iran is known as the original habitat of Crocus L. and a significant source of high-quality cultivated saffron production and export. Considering the importance of this species, we used 27 microsatellite markers to assess molecular variability and discriminating capacity of markers regarding their effectiveness in establishing genetic relationships in Iranian Crocus ecotypes. Thirty eight Iranian cultivated saffron ecotypes and 29 wild allies were evaluated in this research. The results from molecular analyses, including a molecular phylogenetic network and RB analysis, revealed two major groups and five subgroups, regardless of their geographical origins. Also, the results showed a clear distinction between C. sativus and other species of Crocus genus, taking into account their close relationship with C. speciosus and C. hausknechtii, which are assumed to be the two closest relatives of Iranian cultivated saffron among species studied. In this paper, we observed for the first time extensive genetic diversity among Iranian C. sativus despite their asexual reproduction. Considering suitable climatic conditions in Iran for cultivating saffron and the country’s leading high-quality production of Crocus sativus worldwide, studies on great genetic variability among Iranian C. sativus ecotypes as well as wild relatives native to Iran will further highlight the value of this crop. In addition, our results provide valuable information for genetic improvement, reduction of strong genetic erosion, and conservation of costly heritable resources of C. sativus in future breeding programs.

  3. Stigma variability in saffron ( Crocus sativus L.) | Ghaffari | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The obstacle to improving Crocus sativus is its sterility caused by being triploid. Thus, the discovery of the new variant of saffron with increased number of stigmas was welcomed as a reason for improving its yield. The study of development and the process of budding of the corm of saffron showed that these flowers occur by ...

  4. Razi's Al-Hawi and saffron (Crocus sativus): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollazadeh, Hamid; Emami, Seyyed Ahmad; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2015-12-01

    Traditional knowledge can be used as a source for development of new medicines. In the present study, we compare the data on saffron in Razi's Al-Hawi book with modern scientific studies. A computerized search of published articles was performed using MEDLINE, Scopus as well as native references. The search terms used were saffron, Crocus sativus, crocetin, crocin, safranal, Razi, and Al-Hawi. A variety of properties of saffron including diuretic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, appetite suppressant, hypnotic, antidepressant, and bronchodilator effects were mentioned in Al-Hawi. Modern studies also confirmed most of these characteristics. This review indicates that the pharmacological data on saffron and its constituents are similar to those found in Razi's Al-Hawi monograph and it can be concluded that ethnobotanical information and ancient sources have precious data about medicinal plants that lead to finding new compounds for treatment of several diseases.

  5. Safety evaluation of saffron (Crocus sativus) tablets in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modaghegh, Mohammad-Hadi; Shahabian, Masoud; Esmaeili, Habib-Allah; Rajbai, Omid; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2008-12-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus) stigma tablets were evaluated for short-term safety and tolerability in healthy adult volunteers. The study was a double-blind, placebo-controlled design consisting of a 1 week treatment of saffron tablets. Volunteers were divided into 3 groups of 10 each (5 males and 5 females). Group I received placebo; groups 2 and 3 received 200 and 400mg saffron tablets, respectively, for 7 days. General measures of health were recorded during the study such as hematological, biochemical and electrocardiographic parameters done in pre- and post-treatment periods. Clinical examination showed no gross changes in all volunteers after intervention. Saffron with higher dose (400mg) decreased standing systolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressures significantly. Saffron decreased slightly some hematological parameters such as red blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit and platelets. Saffron increased sodium, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine. This study showed that saffron tablets may change some hematological and biochemical parameters. However, these alterations were in normal ranges and they were not important clinically.

  6. Quality traits of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) produced in the Italian Alps

    OpenAIRE

    Giorgi Annamaria; Pentimalli Daniela; Giupponi Luca; Panseri Sara

    2017-01-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is a perennial herbaceous geophyte in the Iridaceae family. It propagates vegetatively by corm. All saffron production processes are generally conducted by hand: from bulb implantation, harvesting of flowers to stigma separation. Saffron is the most expensive spice in the world because of the intensive hand labour required for production. The increasing interest in Crocus sativus cultivation and production in the Italian Alpine area could increase revenues for the ...

  7. Anticarcinogenic effect of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) and its ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarghandian, Saeed; Borji, Abasalt

    2014-01-01

    Conventional and newly emerging treatment procedures such as chemotherapy, catalytic therapy, photodynamic therapy and radiotherapy have not succeeded in reversing the outcome of cancer diseases to any drastic extent, which has led researchers to investigate alternative treatment options. The extensive repertoire of traditional medicinal knowledge systems from various parts of the world are being re-investigated for their healing properties Crocus sativus L., commonly known as saffron, is the raw material for one of the most expensive spice in the world, and it has been used in folk medicine for centuries. Chemical analysis has shown the presence of more than 150 components in saffron stigmas. The more powerful components of saffron are crocin, crocetin and safranal. Studies in animal models and with cultured human malignant cell lines have demonstrated antitumor and cancer preventive activities of saffron and its main ingredients, possible mechanisms for these activities are discussed. More direct evidence of anticancer effectiveness of saffron as chemo-preventive agent may come from trials that use actual reduction of cancer incidence as the primary endpoint. This review discusses recent literature data and our results on the cancer chemopreventive activities of saffron and its main ingredients. PMID:24761112

  8. Crocus sativus L. (saffron) for cancer chemoprevention: A mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Prasan R

    2015-04-01

    Cancer is one of the most feared diseases globally and there has been a sustained rise in its incidence in both developing and developed countries. Despite the growing therapeutic options for patients with cancer, their efficacy is time-limited and non-curative. Hence to overcome these drawbacks, an incessant screening for superior and safer drugs has been ongoing for numerous decades, resulting in the detection of anti-cancer properties of several phytochemicals. Chemoprevention using readily available natural substances from vegetables, fruits, herbs and spices is one of the significantly important approaches for cancer prevention in the present era. Among the spices, Crocus sativus L. (saffron; fān hóng huā) has generated interest because pharmacological experiments have established numerous beneficial properties including radical scavenging, anti-mutagenic and immuno-modulating effects. The more powerful components of saffron are crocin, crocetin and safranal. Studies in animal models and with cultured human malignant cell lines have demonstrated antitumor and cancer preventive activities of saffron and its main ingredients. This review provides a brief insight into the anticancer properties of saffron and its components.

  9. Can Saffron (Crocus sativus) be effective in the treatment of leishmaniasis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagherani, Nooshin

    2013-10-01

    Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease caused by Leishmania, transmitted by the bite of some sandfly species. It is endemic in 88 countries throughout the world. Pentavalent antimonials are the standard therapy for leismaniasis. Saffron (crocus sativus) belongs to the iridaceae family. This paper will outline the benefits and challenges of repurposing saffron for treating leishmaniasis.

  10. Chemical investigation of gamma-irradiated saffron (Crocus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zareena, A V; Variyar, P S; Gholap, A S; Bongirwar, D R

    2001-02-01

    Changes in aroma and coloring properties of saffron (Crocus sativus) after gamma-irradiation at doses of 2.5 and 5 kGy (necessary for microbial decontamination) were investigated. The volatile essential oil constituents responsible for aroma of the spice were isolated by steam distillation and then subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). No significant qualitative changes were observed in these constituents upon irradiation, although a trained sensory panel could detect slight quality deterioration at a dose of 5 kGy. Carotene glucosides that impart color to the spice were isolated by solvent extraction and then subjected to thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Fractionation of the above pigments into aglycon and glucosides was achieved by using ethyl acetate and n-butanol, respectively. Analysis of these fractions by HPLC revealed a decrease in glucosides and an increase in aglycon content in irradiated samples. The possibility of degradation of pigments during gamma irradiation is discussed.

  11. The effects of Crocus sativus (saffron) and its constituents on nervous system: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazdair, Mohammad Reza; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Rezaee, Ramin; M Tsatsakis, Aristidis

    2015-01-01

    Saffron or Crocus sativus L. (C. sativus) has been widely used as a medicinal plant to promote human health, especially in Asia. The main components of saffron are crocin, picrocrocin and safranal. The median lethal doses (LD50) of C. sativus are 200 mg/ml and 20.7 g/kg in vitro and in animal studies, respectively. Saffron has been suggested to be effective in the treatment of a wide range of disorders including coronary artery diseases, hypertension, stomach disorders, dysmenorrhea and learning and memory impairments. In addition, different studies have indicated that saffron has anti-inflammatory, anti-atherosclerotic, antigenotoxic and cytotoxic activities. Antitussive effects of stigmas and petals of C. sativus and its components, safranal and crocin have also been demonstrated. The anticonvulsant and anti-Alzheimer properties of saffron extract were shown in human and animal studies. The efficacy of C. sativus in the treatment of mild to moderate depression was also reported in clinical trial. Administration of C. sativus and its constituents increased glutamate and dopamine levels in the brain in a dose-dependent manner. It also interacts with the opioid system to reduce withdrawal syndrome. Therefore, in the present article, the effects of C. sativus and its constituents on the nervous system and the possible underlying mechanisms are reviewed. Our literature review showed that C. sativus and its components can be considered as promising agents in the treatment of nervous system disorders.

  12. The effects of Crocus sativus (saffron and its constituents on nervous system: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Khazdair

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Saffron or Crocus sativus L. (C. sativus has been widely used as a medicinal plant to promote human health, especially in Asia. The main components of saffron are crocin, picrocrocin and safranal. The median lethal doses (LD50 of C. sativus are 200 mg/ml and 20.7 g/kg in vitro and in animal studies, respectively. Saffron has been suggested to be effective in the treatment of a wide range of disorders including coronary artery diseases, hypertension, stomach disorders, dysmenorrhea and learning and memory impairments. In addition, different studies have indicated that saffron has anti-inflammatory, anti-atherosclerotic, antigenotoxic and cytotoxic activities. Antitussive effects of stigmas and petals of C. sativus and its components, safranal and crocin have also been demonstrated. The anticonvulsant and anti-Alzheimer properties of saffron extract were shown in human and animal studies. The efficacy of C. sativus in the treatment of mild to moderate depression was also reported in clinical trial. Administration of C. sativus and its constituents increased glutamate and dopamine levels in the brain in a dose-dependent manner. It also interacts with the opioid system to reduce withdrawal syndrome. Therefore, in the present article, the effects of C. sativus and its constituents on the nervous system and the possible underlying mechanisms are reviewed. Our literature review showed that C. sativus and its components can be considered as promising agents in the treatment of nervous system disorders.

  13. Identification of safranal as the main allelochemical from saffron (Crocus sativus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardani, Hossein; Sekine, Takayuki; Azizi, Majid; Mishyna, Maryia; Fujii, Yoshiharu

    2015-05-01

    Dried parts of 75 medicinal plant species collected from different regions in Iran were assayed by the Dish Pack Method for volatile allelopathic activity, using Lactuca sativa (lettuce) as the test plant. The highest (60%) inhibition was observed for saffron (stigma of Crocus sativus), followed by Dracocephalum kotschyi, Solanum nigrum and Artemisia aucheri. Safranal was identified as the main chemical by Headspace Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (HS- GC-MS) analyses of saffron. Moreover, the EC50 of safranal was evaluated as 1.2 μg/L (ppb). This is the first report on allelopathic activity of safranal as a bioactive compound identified from saffron.

  14. Evaluation of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) adulteration with plant adulterants by (1)H NMR metabolite fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrakis, Eleftherios A; Cagliani, Laura R; Polissiou, Moschos G; Consonni, Roberto

    2015-04-15

    In the present work, a preliminary study for the detection of adulterated saffron and the identification of the adulterant used by means of (1)H NMR and chemometrics is reported. Authentic Greek saffron and four typical plant-derived materials utilised as bulking agents in saffron, i.e., Crocus sativus stamens, safflower, turmeric, and gardenia were investigated. A two-step approach, relied on the application of both OPLS-DA and O2PLS-DA models to the (1)H NMR data, was adopted to perform authentication and prediction of authentic and adulterated saffron. Taking into account the deficiency of established methodologies to detect saffron adulteration with plant adulterants, the method developed resulted reliable in assessing the type of adulteration and could be viable for dealing with extensive saffron frauds at a minimum level of 20% (w/w). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Clinical Applications of Saffron (Crocus sativus) and its Constituents: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshiri, M; Vahabzadeh, M; Hosseinzadeh, H

    2015-06-01

    Commonly known as saffron, Crocus sativus L and its active components have shown several useful pharmacological effects such as anticonvulsant, antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, radical scavenger effects, learning and memory improving effects, etc. There has been an increasing body of data on saffron use in medical databases within the last 20 years. In the current review, the strengths and weaknesses of some of the clinical trials about different pharmacological effects of saffron will be discussed C. sativus extract has been studied in 8 anti-depressant clinical trials in comparison to placebo or some antidepressant drugs, in which saffron showed effectiveness as an antidepressant drug. Clinical trials on anti-Alzheimer effect of saffron demonstrated that it was more effective than the placebo, and as effective as donepezil. 2 clinical trials on antipruritic and complexion promoter in skin care effects of saffron both confirmed that saffron was more efficient than the placebo. In another clinical trial, it was proved that in addition to the weight loss treatment, saffron could reduce snacking frequency. Clinical trials conducted on women with premenstrual syndrome showed that saffron could reduce suffering symptoms more than the placebo and similar to standard treatments.Furthermore, additional clinical trials on effects of saffron on erection dysfunction, allergies, cardiovascular and immune system as well as its safety, toxicity and human pharmacokinetics are reviewed herein. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Smooth muscle relaxant activity of Crocus sativus (saffron) and its constituents: possible mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari-Zaer, Amin; Khazdair, Mohammad Reza; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Saffron, Crocus sativus L. (C. sativus) is rich in carotenoids and used in traditional medicine for treatment of various conditions such as coughs, stomach disorders, amenorrhea, asthma and cardiovascular disorders. These therapeutic effects of the plant are suggested to be due to its relaxant effect on smooth muscles. The effect of C. sativus and its constituents on different smooth muscles and the underlying mechanisms have been studied. Several studies have shown the relaxant effects of C. sativus and its constituents including safranal, crocin, crocetin and kaempferol on blood vessels. In addition, it was reported that saffron stigma lowers systolic blood pressure. The present review highlights the relaxant effects of C. sativus and its constituents on various smooth muscles. The possible mechanisms of this relaxing effect including activation of ß2-adrenoceptors, inhibition of histamine H1 and muscarinic receptors and calcium channels and modulation of nitric oxide (NO) are also reviewed. PMID:26468456

  17. Evaluation of Crocus sativus L. (saffron) on male erectile dysfunction: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsa, Ali; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Molaei, Mahmood; Shakeri, Mohammad Taghi; Rajabi, Omid

    2009-08-01

    In this study, the effect of Crocus sativus (saffron) was studied on male erectile dysfunction (ED). Twenty male patients with ED were followed for ten days in which each morning they took a tablet containing 200mg of saffron. Patients underwent the nocturnal penile tumescence (NPT) test and the international index of erectile function questionnaire (IIEF-15) at the start of the treatment and at the end of the ten days. After the ten days of taking saffron there was a statistically significant improvement in tip rigidity and tip tumescence as well as base rigidity and base tumescence. ILEF-15 total scores were significantly higher in patients after saffron treatment (before treatment 22.15+/-1.44; after treatment 39.20+/-1.90, pSaffron showed a positive effect on sexual function with increased number and duration of erectile events seen in patients with ED even only after taking it for ten days.

  18. Quality traits of saffron (Crocus sativus L. produced in the Italian Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgi Annamaria

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Saffron (Crocus sativus L. is a perennial herbaceous geophyte in the Iridaceae family. It propagates vegetatively by corm. All saffron production processes are generally conducted by hand: from bulb implantation, harvesting of flowers to stigma separation. Saffron is the most expensive spice in the world because of the intensive hand labour required for production. The increasing interest in Crocus sativus cultivation and production in the Italian Alpine area could increase revenues for the rural farming economy. Twenty eight dried saffron samples were collected from different farmers of the Italian Alpine area (Lombardia, Trentino Alto Adige, Piemonte and Veneto between November 2015 and March 2016. Each sample was processed to determine their moisture content and amount of picrocrocin, crocins and safranal using the methods established by the International Organization for Standardization for saffron (ISO 3632 1,2:2010-2011. Over 82.1 % of the samples analyzed were ranked in the highest quality category of the ISO 3632. A high quality saffron product can be produced in the Italian Alpine area suggesting that this crop could serve as a sustainable source of economic revenues to diversified farms in the Alps.

  19. Latent potyvirus infections in Crocus sativus artwrightianus: an underestimated problem in saffron?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria GRILLI CAIOLA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false IT X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 In over two decades, while studying saffron reproductive biology, we frequently found ultrastructural alterations typical of potyvirus infection in stigmas, styles and leaves of Crocus sativus (saffron and C. cartwrightianus (wild and ornamental species, a putative ancestor of saffron from different provenance. This suggests that these viruses are widely diffused in cultivated Crocus spp., possibly causing latent infections. The few data found in literature, while highlighting the general lack of attention given by plant virologists to Crocus spp., nevertheless confi rm that potyviruses, particularly Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV, can cause asymptomatic infections in these host species. The reasons and possible implications of widely distributed potyvirus latent infections in Crocus spp. are reported and discussed, with the aim of increasing general awareness of these viruses, and of encouraging sanitary selection programs focused on saffron, that could improve the quantity and quality of yields of the most expensive spice commodity grown.

  20. Razi’s Al-Hawi and saffron (Crocus sativus): a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollazadeh, Hamid; Emami, Seyyed Ahmad; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Traditional knowledge can be used as a source for development of new medicines. In the present study, we compare the data on saffron in Razi’s Al-Hawi book with modern scientific studies. A computerized search of published articles was performed using MEDLINE, Scopus as well as native references. The search terms used were saffron, Crocus sativus, crocetin, crocin, safranal, Razi, and Al-Hawi. A variety of properties of saffron including diuretic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, appetite suppressant, hypnotic, antidepressant, and bronchodilator effects were mentioned in Al-Hawi. Modern studies also confirmed most of these characteristics. This review indicates that the pharmacological data on saffron and its constituents are similar to those found in Razi’s Al-Hawi monograph and it can be concluded that ethnobotanical information and ancient sources have precious data about medicinal plants that lead to finding new compounds for treatment of several diseases. PMID:26877844

  1. Razi’s Al-Hawi and saffron (Crocus sativus: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Mollazadeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional knowledge can be used as a source for development of new medicines. In the present study, we compare the data on saffron in Razi's Al-Hawi book with modern scientific studies. A computerized search of published articles was performed using MEDLINE, Scopus as well as native references. The search terms used were saffron, Crocus sativus, crocetin, crocin, safranal, Razi, and Al-Hawi. A variety of properties of saffron including diuretic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, appetite suppressant, hypnotic, antidepressant, and bronchodilator effects were mentioned in Al-Hawi. Modern studies also confirmed most of these characteristics. This review indicates that the pharmacological data on saffron and its constituents are similar to those found in Razi’s Al-Hawi monograph and it can be concluded that ethnobotanical information and ancient sources have precious data about medicinal plants that lead to finding new compounds for treatment of several diseases.

  2. Cloning and expression of the allergen Cro s 2 profilin from saffron (Crocus sativus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varasteh, Abdol-Reza; Moghadam, Maliheh; Vahedi, Fatemeh; Kermani, Tayyebeh; Sankian, Mojtaba

    2009-09-01

    Profilin is a panallergen that is recognized by IgE in allergic patients. Allergy to saffron (Crocus sativus) pollen has been described in people exposed to its pollen. Saffron contains a profilin that may cause allergic reactions in atopic subjects. The aim of this study was to describe the cloning, expression and purification of saffron profilin from pollen. Cloning of saffron profilin was performed by polymerase chain reaction using specific primers from saffron pollen RNA. Expression was carried out in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) using a vector pET-102- TOPO. A recombinant fusion protein was expressed and the recombinant profilin was purified by metal precipitation. Immunological characterization was performed by immunoblotting experiments. The 34kDa- recombinant saffron profilin, Cro s 2, as a fusion protein was purified. Immunoblotting tested with the sera of allergic patients showed a specific reaction with the recombinant Cro s 2 band. The sequence of Cro s 2 showed a high degree of identity and similarity to other plant profilins and the recombinant saffron profilin, Cro s 2, may be used for target-specific diagnosis and structural analyses and investigation of cross reactivity of Cro s 2 with other plant profilins.

  3. Therapeutic effects of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) in digestive disorders: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorasany, Alireza Rezaee; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2016-05-01

    Saffron, the dried red-orange stigmas of Crocus sativus L, has been known as a flavoring agent, food coloring and traditional herbal medicine. Pharmacological effects of saffron are mainly attributed to crocin, crocetin, picrocrocin and safranal. These components especially crocin, have significant effects including antidepressant and anticonvulsant, analgesic, anti-cancer and other therapeutic effects on different parts of our body namely cardiovascular, immune, respiratory, genital-urinary and central nervous system. According to the reports and findings, saffron plays a key role to cure different digestive system disorders via chemopreventive, inhibition of cell proliferation, induction of apoptosis, antioxidant effects and radical scavenging, genoprotective property, prevention of lipid peroxidation and anti-inflammatory processes. The outcome of the above mentioned mechanisms shows potential therapeutic properties of saffron against liver cancer, hepatotoxicity, fatty liver, hyperlipidemia, stomach cancer, peptic ulcer, colon cancer, ulcerative colitis, diabetes and pancreas cancer and ileum contractions. According to global statistics, the susceptibility to intestinal diseases is considered as a significant matter and can be important in health planning in any community. Several strategies for treatment and prevention of the digestive system diseases have provided that the use of herbal remedies seems effective and useful. Considering the available findings, the present study aims to introduce saffron as a prophylactic and therapeutic agent against gastrointestinal tract disorders. However, further clinical studies seem necessary in various aspects of saffron effects in different parts of body to verify these findings.

  4. Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) increases glucose uptake and insulin sensitivity in muscle cells via multipathway mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Changkeun; Lee, Hyunkyoung; Jung, Eun-Sun; Seyedian, Ramin; Jo, MiNa; Kim, Jehein; Kim, Jong-Shu; Kim, Euikyung

    2012-12-15

    Saffron (Crocus sativus Linn.) has been an important subject of research in the past two decades because of its various biological properties, including anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and anti-atherosclerotic activities. On the other hand, the molecular bases of its actions have been scarcely understood. Here, we elucidated the mechanism of the hypoglycemic actions of saffron through investigating its signaling pathways associated with glucose metabolism in C(2)C(12) skeletal muscle cells. Saffron strongly enhanced glucose uptake and the phosphorylation of AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase)/ACC (acetyl-CoA carboxylase) and MAPKs (mitogen-activated protein kinases), but not PI 3-kinase (Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase)/Akt. Interestingly, the co-treatment of saffron and insulin further improved the insulin sensitivity via both insulin-independent (AMPK/ACC and MAPKs) and insulin-dependent (PI 3-kinase/Akt and mTOR) pathways. It also suggested that there is a crosstalk between the two signaling pathways of glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle cells. These results could be confirmed from the findings of GLUT4 translocation. Taken together, AMPK plays a major role in the effects of saffron on glucose uptake and insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle cells. Our study provides important insights for the possible mechanism of action of saffron and its potential as a therapeutic agent in diabetic patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Therapeutic effects of saffron (Crocus sativus L. in digestive disorders: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Rezaee Khorasany

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Saffron, the dried red-orange stigmas of Crocus sativus L, has been known as a flavoring agent, food coloring and traditional herbal medicine. Pharmacological effects of saffron are mainly attributed to crocin, crocetin, picrocrocin and safranal. These components especially crocin, have significant effects including antidepressant and anticonvulsant, analgesic, anti-cancer and other therapeutic effects on different parts of our body namely cardiovascular, immune, respiratory, genital-urinary and central nervous system. According to the reports and findings, saffron plays a key role to cure different digestive system disorders via chemopreventive, inhibition of cell proliferation, induction of apoptosis, antioxidant effects and radical scavenging, genoprotective property, prevention of lipid peroxidation and anti-inflammatory processes. The outcome of the above mentioned mechanisms shows potential therapeutic properties of saffron against liver cancer, hepatotoxicity, fatty liver, hyperlipidemia, stomach cancer, peptic ulcer, colon cancer, ulcerative colitis, diabetes and pancreas cancer and ileum contractions. According to global statistics, the susceptibility to intestinal diseases is considered as a significant matter and can be important in health planning in any community. Several strategies for treatment and prevention of the digestive system diseases have provided that the use of herbal remedies seems effective and useful. Considering the available findings, the present study aims to introduce saffron as a prophylactic and therapeutic agent against gastrointestinal tract disorders. However, further clinical studies seem necessary in various aspects of saffron effects in different parts of body to verify these findings.

  6. Identification and possible role of a MYB transcription factor from saffron (Crocus sativus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Gómez, Lourdes; Trapero-Mozos, Almudena; Gómez, Maria Dolores; Rubio-Moraga, Angela; Ahrazem, Oussama

    2012-03-15

    The MYB family is the most abundant group of transcription factors described for plants. Plant MYB genes have been shown to be involved in the regulation of many aspects of plant development. No MYB genes are described for saffron, the dried stigma of Crocus sativus, utilized as a colorant for foodstuffs. In this study, we used RACE-PCR to isolate a full length cDNA of 894bp with a 591bp open reading frame, encoding a putative CsMYB1 from C. sativus. Comparison between gDNA and cDNA revealed no introns. Homology studies indicated that the deduced amino acid sequence is similar to members of the R2R3 MYB subfamily. Expression analysis showed the presence of high transcript levels in stigma tissue and low levels in tepals, whereas no signal was detected in either anthers or leaves. The RT-PCR analysis revealed that CsMYB1 expression is developmentally regulated during stigma development. Furthermore, expression analysis in stigmas from different Crocus species showed a correlation with stigma morphology. No transcripts were found in stigma tissues of Crocus species characterized by branched stigma morphology. Taken together, these results suggest that CsMYB1 may be involved in the regulation of stigma morphology in Crocus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Influence of GA3 and NAA on certain carbohydrate fractions in corms of saffron crocus (Crocus sativus L. during development

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    Nikhil K. Chrungoo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of gibberellic acid (GA3 and napthaleneacetic acid (NAA to corms of saffron crocus (Crocus sativus L. markedly influenced degradation of reserve carbohydrates in the corm tissues. GA3 stimulated the breakdown of starch and promoted the accumulation of soluble sugars, especially sucrose. Although NAA treatment stimulated starch breakdown for the first 14 days after the treatment, the effect was less pronounced as compared to that of GA3. NAA treatment promoted the accumulation of reducing sugars but suppressed accumulation of non reducing sugars in the corm tissues. Corms treated with GA3 showed an increased accumulation of total pentoses and total ketoses. In NAA treated corms, accumulation of total pentoses was stimulated but that of total ketoses was suppressed. The effects of GA3 and NAA on carbohydrate changes in the corm tissues are discussed in the light of their effects on bud development.

  8. Crocus sativus L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-10-18

    Oct 18, 2007 ... 25: 159-168. Mcmaster GS, Willem WW (1997). Growing degree-days: One equation, two interpretations, Agric. For. Meteorol. 87: 291-300. Molina RV, Valero M, Navarro Y, Guardiola JL, Garcia-Luis A (2005). Temperature effects on flower formation in saffron (Crocus sativus. L.), Sci. Hortic., 103: 361-379.

  9. Bacillus subtilis FZB24® Affects Flower Quantity and Quality of Saffron (Crocus sativus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharaf-Eldin, Mahmoud; Elkholy, Shereen; Fernández, José-Antonio; Junge, Helmut; Cheetham, Ronald; Guardiola, José; Weathers, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    The effect of Bacillus subtilis FZB24® on saffron (Crocus sativus L.) was studied using saffron corms from Spain and the powdered form of B. subtilis FZB24®. Corms were soaked in water or in B. subtilis FZB24 spore solution for 15min before sowing. Some corms were further soil drenched with the spore solution 6, 10 or 14 weeks after sowing. Growth and saffron stigma chemical composition were measured. Compared to untreated controls, application of B. subtilis FZB24 significantly increased leaf length, flowers per corm, weight of the first flower stigma, total stigma biomass; microbe addition also significantly decreased the time required for corms to sprout and the number of shoot sprouts. Compared to the controls, picrocrocin, crocetin and safranal compounds were significantly increased when the plants were soil drenched with the spore solution 14 weeks after sowing; in contrast crocin was highest in untreated controls. Results of this study suggest that application of B. subtilis FZB24® may provide some benefit to saffron growers by speeding corm growth (earlier shoot emergence) and increasing stigma biomass yield by 12%. While some treatment conditions also increased saffron chemical composition, these were generally not the same treatments that simultaneously improved growth yields and thus, more study is required. PMID:18622904

  10. Avicenna's (Ibn Sina) the Canon of Medicine and saffron (Crocus sativus): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Nassiri-Asl, Marjan

    2013-04-01

    In this review, we introduce the traditional uses of saffron and its pharmacological activities as described by either Avicenna in Book II, Canon of Medicine (al-Qanun fi al-tib) or from recent scientific studies. Modern pharmacological findings on saffron are compared with those mentioned in Avicenna's monograph. A computerized search of published articles was performed using MEDLINE, Scopus and Web of Science databases as well as local references. The search terms used were saffron, Crocus sativus, crocin, crocetin, safranal, picrocrocin, Avicenna and 'Ibn Sina'. Avicenna described various uses of saffron, including its use as an antidepressant, hypnotic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, bronchodilatory, aphrodisiac, inducer of labour, emmenagogue and others. Most of these effects have been studied in modern pharmacology and are well documented. The pharmacological data on saffron and its constituents, including crocin, crocetin and safranal, are similar to those found in Avicenna's monograph. This review indicates that the evaluation of plants based on ethnobotanical information and ancient books may be a valuable approach to finding new biological activities and compounds. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Safety evaluation of saffron stigma (Crocus sativus L.) aqueous extract and crocin in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Bentolhoda; Bathaie, Seyedeh Zahra; Fadai, Farbod; Ashtari, Zabihollah; Ali Beigi, Neda; Farhang, Sara; Hashempour, Sara; Shahhamzei, Nasim; Heidarzadeh, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Saffron is the stigma of Crocus sativus L., which has the potentials to play a role in the treatment of many diseases. Although many researches are now going on this precious spice, there are few data on saffron safety in human, especially in patients with chronic mental illnesses. This study aimed to evaluate the short-term safety and tolerability of both saffron and crocin (its major constituent) in adult patients with schizophrenia. The capsules of saffron aqueous extract (SAE) and crocin were used to evaluate short-term safety and tolerability in patients with schizophrenia. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study was performed on patients with schizophrenia. The patients were all male and were divided into three 22-patient groups. While receiving their normal treatment, they also received a 12 week treatment with SAE (15 mg twice daily), crocin (15 mg twice daily) or placebo. A total of 61 patients completed the trial; none of them reported a serious side effect. WBC count increased significantly in patients receiving saffron aqua extract (SAE), but it was within the normal range and had no clinical significance. Other hematologic components, markers of thyroid, liver and kidney or inflammation markers had no statistically significant difference among the groups. This study showed that SAE and crocin in doses of 15 mg twice daily were safely tolerated in patients with schizophrenia.

  12. Bacillus subtilis FZB24 affects flower quantity and quality of saffron (Crocus sativus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharaf-Eldin, Mahmoud; Elkholy, Shereen; Fernández, José-Antonio; Junge, Helmut; Cheetham, Ronald; Guardiola, José; Weathers, Pamela

    2008-08-01

    The effect of Bacillus subtilis FZB24 on saffron ( Crocus sativus L.) was studied using saffron corms from Spain and the powdered form of B. SUBTILIS FZB24(R). Corms were soaked in water or in B. subtilis FZB24 spore solution for 15 min before sowing. Some corms were further soil drenched with the spore solution 6, 10 or 14 weeks after sowing. Growth and saffron stigma chemical composition were measured. Compared to untreated controls, application of B. subtilis FZB24 significantly increased leaf length, flowers per corm, weight of the first flower stigma, total stigma biomass; microbe addition also significantly decreased the time required for corms to sprout and the number of shoot sprouts. Compared to the controls, picrocrocin, crocetin and safranal compounds were significantly increased when the plants were soil drenched with the spore solution 14 weeks after sowing; in contrast crocin was highest in untreated controls. Results of this study suggest that application of B. subtilis FZB24 may provide some benefit to saffron growers by speeding corm growth (earlier shoot emergence) and increasing stigma biomass yield by 12 %. While some treatment conditions also increased saffron chemical composition, these were generally not the same treatments that simultaneously improved growth yields and thus, more study is required.

  13. Study on diuretic activity of saffron (stigma of Crocus sativus L. Aqueous extract in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabi Shariatifar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Saffron is the most expensive spice in the world and consists of the dried stigmas of Crocus sativus L. It is used as food coloring and flavoring in food industry and traditional cooking and also in folk medicine as antispasmodic, carminative, stomachic, expectorant, aphrodisiac and cardiotonic. The present study has evaluated the diuretic activity of aqueous extract of dried saffron (stigma of Crocussativus in rat. Aqueous extracts of saffron were administered to experimental rats orally as doses of 60, 120 and 240 mg/kg body weight (BW and compared with hydrochlorothiazide (10 mg/kg B.W., intraperitoneally, a potent diuretic as positive control and normal saline solution as placebo for control group. The measured parameters for diuretic activity were total urine volume, urine electrolytes concentration such as sodium and potassium, creatinine and urea concentration. The treated rats with aqueous extract of saffron as doses of 120 and 240 mg/kg BW showed higher urine output when compared to the control group. Also, it has shown a significant dose-dependent increase in the excretion of electrolytes when compared to the control group. Our findings proved the diuretic activity of saffron which is used in traditional medicine, it can be an effective and safe strategy for related dysfunction. Also further studies are needed to identify the mechanisms of action, probably other effects and interactions with other medicines.

  14. Hormone and Microorganism Treatments in the Cultivation of Saffron (Crocus Sativus L. Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aynur Ozkul Acikgoz

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The difficult cultivation of the saffron plant (Crocus Sativus L. make the spice of the same name made from its dried stigmas very valuable. It is estimated that some 75,000 blossoms or 225,000 hand-picked stigmas are required to make a single pound of saffron, which explains why it is the world’s most expensive spice. The aim of this study was to identify ways of increasing the fertility and production of saffron. For this purpose, the treatment of saffron bulbs with a synthetic growth hormone – a mixture of Polystimulins A6 and K – and two different microorganism based materials – biohumus or vermicompost and Effective Microorganisms™ (EM – in four different ways (hormone alone, biohumus alone, EM alone and EM+biohumus was investigated to determine whether these treatments have any statistically meaningful effects on corms and stigmas. It has been shown that EM + biohumus was the most effective choice for improved saffron cultivation.

  15. Safety evaluation of saffron stigma (Crocus sativus L. aqueous extract and crocin in patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bentolhoda Mousavi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Saffron is the stigma of Crocus sativus L., which has the potentials to play a role in the treatment of many diseases. Although many researches are now going on this precious spice, there are few data on saffron safety in human, especially in patients with chronic mental illnesses. This study aimed to evaluate the short-term safety and tolerability of both saffron and crocin (its major constituent in adult patients with schizophrenia. Materials and Methods: The capsules of saffron aqueous extract (SAE and crocin were used to evaluate short-term safety and tolerability in patients with schizophrenia. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study was performed on patients with schizophrenia. The patients were all male and were divided into three 22-patient groups. While receiving their normal treatment, they also received a 12 week treatment with SAE (15 mg twice daily, crocin (15 mg twice daily or placebo. Results: A total of 61 patients completed the trial; none of them reported a serious side effect. WBC count increased significantly in patients receiving saffron aqua extract (SAE, but it was within the normal range and had no clinical significance. Other hematologic components, markers of thyroid, liver and kidney or inflammation markers had no statistically significant difference among the groups. Conclusions: This study showed that SAE and crocin in doses of 15 mg twice daily were safely tolerated in patients with schizophrenia.

  16. Psychological and neuroendocrinological effects of odor of saffron (Crocus sativus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Hajime; Toyoshima, Kumiko; Komaki, Ryoichi

    2011-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the effects of saffron odor on symptoms unique to women, such as premenstrual syndrome (PMS), dysmenorrhea (menstrual pain) and irregular menstruation. Thirty-five women with a normal sense of smell were exposed to saffron odor for 20 min. Saliva samples were then collected to measure levels of cortisol (C), testosterone (T) and 17-β estradiol (E) by enzyme immunoassay, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) was administered as a psychological test. Saffron odor significantly decreased C levels after short-term stimulation (20 min) in both follicular and luteal phases. E level after exposure to saffron odor was increased in both the follicular- and luteal-phase groups. STAI score decreased in the follicular and luteal phases in the saffron group. The present findings support the existence of physiological and psychological effects of saffron odor in women. Our results indicate that saffron odor exert some effects in the treatment of PMS, dysmenorrhea and irregular menstruation. This is the first report to suggest that saffron odor may be effective in treating menstrual distress. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Constituents of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) as Potential Candidates for the Treatment of Anxiety Disorders and Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitsikas, Nikolaos

    2016-03-02

    Anxiety disorders and schizophrenia are common public health issues. The dried stigma of the plant Crocus sativus L., (C. sativus) commonly known as saffron are used in folk medicine for various purposes. Several lines of evidence suggest that C. sativus, crocins and safranal are implicated in anxiety and schizophrenia. Here, I intend to critically review advances in research of these emerging molecules for the treatment of anxiety and schizophrenia, discuss their advantages over currently used anxiolytics and neuroleptics, as well remaining challenges. Current analysis shows that C. sativus and its components might be a promising class of compounds for the treatment of the above mentioned psychiatric diseases.

  18. Constituents of Saffron (Crocus sativus L. as Potential Candidates for the Treatment of Anxiety Disorders and Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Pitsikas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders and schizophrenia are common public health issues. The dried stigma of the plant Crocus sativus L., (C. sativus commonly known as saffron are used in folk medicine for various purposes. Several lines of evidence suggest that C. sativus, crocins and safranal are implicated in anxiety and schizophrenia. Here, I intend to critically review advances in research of these emerging molecules for the treatment of anxiety and schizophrenia, discuss their advantages over currently used anxiolytics and neuroleptics, as well remaining challenges. Current analysis shows that C. sativus and its components might be a promising class of compounds for the treatment of the above mentioned psychiatric diseases.

  19. Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) and major depressive disorder: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausenblas, Heather Ann; Saha, Debbie; Dubyak, Pamela Jean; Anton, Stephen Douglas

    2013-11-01

    Due to safety concerns and side effects of many antidepressant medications, herbal psychopharmacology research has increased, and herbal remedies are becoming increasingly popular as alternatives to prescribed medications for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). Of these, accumulating trials reveal positive effects of the spice saffron (Crocus sativus L.) for the treatment of depression. A comprehensive and statistical review of the clinical trials examining the effects of saffron for treatment of MDD is warranted. The purpose of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis of published randomized controlled trials examining the effects of saffron supplementation on symptoms of depression among participants with MDD. We conducted electronic and non-electronic searches to identify all relevant randomized, double-blind controlled trials. Reference lists of all retrieved articles were searched for relevant studies. The criteria for study selection included the following: (1) adults (aged 18 and older) with symptoms of depression, (2) randomized controlled trial, (3) effects of saffron supplementation on depressive symptoms examined, and (4) study had either a placebo control or antidepressant comparison group. Using random effects modeling procedures, we calculated weighted mean effect sizes separately for the saffron supplementation vs placebo control groups, and for the saffron supplementation vs antidepressant groups. The methodological quality of all studies was assessed using the Jadad score. The computer software Comprehensive Meta-analysis 2 was used to analyze the data. Based on our pre-specified criteria, five randomized controlled trials (n = 2 placebo controlled trials, n = 3 antidepressant controlled trials) were included in our review. A large effect size was found for saffron supplementation vs placebo control in treating depressive symptoms (M ES = 1.62, P saffron supplementation significantly reduced depression symptoms compared to the

  20. The Effect of Chronic Administration of Saffron (Crocus sativus) Stigma Aqueous Extract on Systolic Blood Pressure in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imenshahidi, Mohsen; Razavi, Bibi Marjan; Faal, Ayyoob; Gholampoor, Ali; Mousavi, Seyed Mehran; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2013-11-01

    Crocus sativus L. (saffron), which belongs to the Iridaceae family, is widely cultivated in Iran. Cardiovascular effects of saffron has been established in some studies but the effects of chronic administration of saffron (C. sativus) stigma aqueous extract on blood pressure has not been investigated. In this study the effects of saffron (C. sativus) stigma aqueous extract on blood pressure of normotensive and desoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt induced hypertensive rats, in chronic exposure was evaluated. Five weeks administration of three doses saffron aqueous extract (10, 20 and 40 mg/Kg/day) and spironolactone (50 mg/Kg/day) in different groups of normotensive and hypertensive rats (at the end of 4 weeks treatment by DOCA-salt) was carried out and their effects on mean systolic blood pressure (MSBP) and heart rate (HR) were evaluated using tail cuff method. The duration of the effect of saffron on systolic blood pressure (SBP), was also evaluated. Our results indicated that chronic administration of saffron aqueous extract could reduce the MSBP in DOCA salt treated rats in a dose dependent manner. This compound did not decrease the MSBP in normotensive rats. The data also showed that antihypertensive effects of saffron did not persist. It is concluded that saffron aqueous extract possesses antihypertensive and normalizing effect on BP in chronic administration.

  1. Sudan dyes in adulterated saffron (Crocus sativus L.): Identification and quantification by (1)H NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrakis, Eleftherios A; Cagliani, Laura R; Tarantilis, Petros A; Polissiou, Moschos G; Consonni, Roberto

    2017-02-15

    Saffron, the dried red stigmas of Crocus sativus L., is considered as one of the most expensive spices worldwide, and as such, it is prone to adulteration. This study introduces an NMR-based approach to identify and determine the adulteration of saffron with Sudan I-IV dyes. A complete (1)H and (13)C resonance assignment for Sudan I-IV, achieved by two-dimensional homonuclear and heteronuclear NMR experiments, is reported for the first time. Specific different proton signals for the identification of each Sudan dye in adulterated saffron can be utilised for quantitative (1)H NMR (qHNMR), a well-established method for quantitative analysis. The quantification of Sudan III, as a paradigm, was performed in varying levels (0.14-7.1g/kg) by considering the NMR signal occurring at 8.064ppm. The high linearity, accuracy and rapidity of investigation enable high resolution (1)H NMR spectroscopy to be used for evaluation of saffron adulteration with Sudan dyes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Antihyperlipidemic effect of crude extract of saffron stigma (Crocus sativus in healthy male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliass Lahmass

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated for the first time the antihyperlipidemic ef-fects of crude extract of stigmas from Crocus sativus (saffron against hyperlipidemia induced by tartrazine (synthetic dye in normal male rats. Thirty adult male albino rats weighing about 150 - 200 g, were divided into 5 groups (n = 6 and daily treatment was given orally. Clinical biochemis-try and metabolic parameters were evaluated at the end of the experiment and after 105 days. (n=6, for all groups. Our data revealed that the meta-bolic parameters like consumption of food and water, pH and urine vol-ume have not been affected; also the difference between liver, right kid-ney and heart weight was not significant. The levels of cholesterol and triglyceride were significantly increased in group 2 and group 3 compared to control group. There was no significant difference in the level of cholesterol and triglyceride in group 4. Treatment with saffron alone did not have any significant effects on the level of fat compared to control group. The oral administration of the crude extract of saffron revealed good hypolipidemic effects in adult male albino rats. These results suggest that aqueous saffron extract reduced plasma cholesterol and decreased triglyceride. Therefore, it could conceivably lead to suitable changes in blood lipid profiles. [J Med Allied Sci 2017; 7(1.000: 20-25

  3. Mechanism behind the anti-tumour potential of saffron (Crocus sativus L.): The molecular perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sweta; Sarwat, Maryam; Khan, Tajdar H

    2017-07-01

    Cancer is a disorder which has noted a significant rise in incidence worldwide and continues to be the largest cause of mortality. It has a dramatic impact on human life expectancy and quality of life in spite of the increase in technology and the treatments available for cancer patients. These new therapeutic options being chemotherapy, radiotherapy, photolytic therapy and catalytic therapy are known to have many adverse reactions and also no better positive outcomes than before. Hence, research is now focused more on utilizing the vast repertoire of traditional medicinal knowledge i.e. the use of flora for treatment of cancer rather than the use of chemicals. One such herb is the Crocus sativus L., commonly known as Saffron, rich in carotenoids - crocin, crocetin and safranal. Various studies have been carried out over the past few years to confirm the anti-cancer properties of saffron, both in vivo using animal models and in vitro using human malignant cell lines on various types of cancers with positive results. The proposed mechanism of actions has also been worked upon. This review is aimed to provide a brief overview on the anti-tumor potential of saffron focusing on the molecular mechanism involved. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Effects of Salicylic Acid on Carotenoids and Antioxidant Activity of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Tajik

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Saffron (Crocus sativus L., the most valuable medicinal food product, belongs to the Iridaceae family which has been widely used as a coloring and flavoring agent. The stigmas contain three major compounds, crocins (carotenoid compound responsible for color, picrocrocin (responsible for taste and safranal (responsible for odor. It has been used for medicinal purposes, as a spice and condiment for food and as a dye since ancient times. Numerous studies have shown crocins as main carotenoids of saffron to be capable of a variety of pharmacological effects, such as protection against cardiovascular diseases, inhibition of cancer cell development. Salicylic acid (SA is a signaling molecule and a hormone-like substance that plays an important role in the plant physiological processes. In order of importance of saffron as valuable product, the aim of this study is to investigate effects of salicylic acid application (0.01, 0.1 and 1 mM on crocin and safranal content and antioxidant activity of stigma. Results showed that SA application at 1 mM were the most effective treatments in increase of crocin content and stronger antioxidant activity, but SA had a negative effect on safranal content and the highest quantity of this compound was observed in control plants.

  5. Influence of culinary processing time on saffron's bioactive compounds (Crocus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Neira, Lidia; Lage-Yusty, María Asunción; López-Hernández, Julia

    2014-12-01

    Saffron, the dried stigmas of Crocus sativus L., is used as a condiment spice. The major bioactive compounds are crocins, picrocrocin and safranal, which are responsible for the sensory profile of saffron (color, flavor and aroma, respectively), and also health-promoting properties. In this paper, the effect on the bioactive compounds of different cooking times in boiling water at 100 °C in samples of Saffron from La Mancha (safranal, picrocrocin, trans-crocin 4, cis-crocin 4 and trans-crocin 3) was investigated. Performance characteristics of High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Variable Wavelength Detector method, parameters of linearity, limits of detection and quantification are reported. High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Photo Diode Array-Mass Spectrometry was used as a confirmatory technique in crocins identification. When the samples are subjected to different cooking times, they present different behaviors, depending on the bioactive compound. In this way, no changes were observed in the concentration of picrocrocin, while heat culinary treatment adversely affects the concentrations of crocins and safranal.

  6. AFLP and MS-AFLP analysis of the variation within saffron crocus (Crocus sativus L.) germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busconi, Matteo; Colli, Licia; Sánchez, Rosa Ana; Santaella, Marcela; De-Los-Mozos Pascual, Marcelino; Santana, Omar; Roldán, Marta; Fernández, José-Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The presence and extent of genetic variation in saffron crocus are still debated, as testified by several contradictory articles providing contrasting results about the monomorphism or less of the species. Remarkably, phenotypic variations have been frequently observed in the field, such variations are usually unstable and can change from one growing season to another. Considering that gene expression can be influenced both by genetic and epigenetic changes, epigenetics could be a plausible cause of the alternative phenotypes. In order to obtain new insights into this issue, we carried out a molecular marker analysis of 112 accessions from the World Saffron and Crocus Collection. The accessions were grown for at least three years in the same open field conditions. The same samples were analysed using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) and Methyl Sensitive AFLP in order to search for variation at the genetic (DNA sequence) and epigenetic (cytosine methylation) level. While the genetic variability was low (4.23% polymorphic peaks and twelve (12) effective different genotypes), the methyl sensitive analysis showed the presence of high epigenetic variability (33.57% polymorphic peaks and twenty eight (28) different effective epigenotypes). The pattern obtained by Factorial Correspondence Analysis of AFLP and, in particular, of MS-AFLP data was consistent with the geographical provenance of the accessions. Very interestingly, by focusing on Spanish accessions, it was observed that the distribution of the accessions in the Factorial Correspondence Analysis is not random but tends to reflect the geographical origin. Two clearly defined clusters grouping accessions from the West (Toledo and Ciudad Real) and accessions from the East (Cuenca and Teruel) were clearly recognised.

  7. AFLP and MS-AFLP analysis of the variation within saffron crocus (Crocus sativus L. germplasm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Busconi

    Full Text Available The presence and extent of genetic variation in saffron crocus are still debated, as testified by several contradictory articles providing contrasting results about the monomorphism or less of the species. Remarkably, phenotypic variations have been frequently observed in the field, such variations are usually unstable and can change from one growing season to another. Considering that gene expression can be influenced both by genetic and epigenetic changes, epigenetics could be a plausible cause of the alternative phenotypes. In order to obtain new insights into this issue, we carried out a molecular marker analysis of 112 accessions from the World Saffron and Crocus Collection. The accessions were grown for at least three years in the same open field conditions. The same samples were analysed using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP and Methyl Sensitive AFLP in order to search for variation at the genetic (DNA sequence and epigenetic (cytosine methylation level. While the genetic variability was low (4.23% polymorphic peaks and twelve (12 effective different genotypes, the methyl sensitive analysis showed the presence of high epigenetic variability (33.57% polymorphic peaks and twenty eight (28 different effective epigenotypes. The pattern obtained by Factorial Correspondence Analysis of AFLP and, in particular, of MS-AFLP data was consistent with the geographical provenance of the accessions. Very interestingly, by focusing on Spanish accessions, it was observed that the distribution of the accessions in the Factorial Correspondence Analysis is not random but tends to reflect the geographical origin. Two clearly defined clusters grouping accessions from the West (Toledo and Ciudad Real and accessions from the East (Cuenca and Teruel were clearly recognised.

  8. In vitro variation in antibacterial activity plant extracts on Glaucium elegans and saffron (Crocus sativus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Heidari Soureshjani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The increase in antibiotic resistance has resulted in decreasing number active antimicrobial agents available to treat infections by multi-drug resistant (MDR bacteria. The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial activity of the extracts of Glaucium elegans and saffron (Crocus sativus onios plant species against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enteritidis, Bacillus anthracis and Proteus by disc diffusion method. The methanol extract of G. elegans was found to have a significant antibacterial efficiency (p≤0.05 as compared to the methanol extract of onios plant. These finding pinpoint the efficiency of these extracts to inhibit microbial growth. The bactericidal activity described here represents an added safety value for G. elegans possesses the significant antibacterial activity.

  9. Effect of split foliar fertilisation on the quality and quantity of active constituents in saffron (Crocus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabani-Foroutagheh, Mehdi; Hamidoghli, Yousef; Mohajeri, Seyed Ahmad

    2014-07-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is one of the most expensive medicinal and aromatic plants in the world. Due to the excessive application of chemical fertilisers in saffron farms and alkalinity of most cultivated soils, split foliar fertilisation has been suggested. The primary goal of this study was to propose split foliar fertilisation as a technique in increasing the quality and quantity of active constituents in saffron. HPLC analysis was used to quantify the most important saffron components; crocins (colour), picrocrocin (taste), and safranal (odour). This study was carried out in Kashmar, Iran, to determine the effect of split foliar fertilisations on quality and quantity of saffron in 2011 and 2012. A split-plot design experiment based on randomised complete block with three replications was conducted to examine three fertiliser types in three regimes for split foliar fertilisation. Statistical analysis showed that split foliar fertilisation and the fertiliser type significantly increased saffron yield, number of flowers and crocin; whereas it decreased the picrocrocin and safranal content of the saffron stigmas (P saffron yield and colour but decreased the taste and the odour of saffron. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Saponins from the Spanish saffron Crocus sativus are efficient adjuvants for protein-based vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Díaz, Nathaly; Salaun, Bruno; Perret, Rachel; Sierro, Sophie; Romero, Jackeline F; Fernández, Jose-Antonio; Rubio-Moraga, Angela; Romero, Pedro

    2012-01-05

    Protein and peptide-based vaccines provide rigorously formulated antigens. However, these purified products are only weakly immunogenic by themselves and therefore require the addition of immunostimulatory components or adjuvants in the vaccine formulation. Various compounds derived from pathogens, minerals or plants, possess pro-inflammatory properties which allow them to act as adjuvants and contribute to the induction of an effective immune response. The results presented here demonstrate the adjuvant properties of novel saponins derived from the Spanish saffron Crocus sativus. In vivo immunization studies and tumor protection experiments unambiguously establish the value of saffron saponins as candidate adjuvants. These saponins were indeed able to increase both humoral and cellular immune responses to protein-based vaccines, ultimately providing a significant degree of protection against tumor challenge when administered in combination with a tumor antigen. This preclinical study provides an in depth immunological characterization of a new saponin as a vaccine adjuvant, and encourages its further development for use in vaccine formulations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Saffron (Crocus sativus) aqueous extract and its constituent crocin reduces stress-induced anorexia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halataei, Bahar-al-Sadat; Khosravi, Maryam; Arbabian, Sedigheh; Sahraei, Hedayat; Golmanesh, Leila; Zardooz, Homeira; Jalili, Cyrus; Ghoshooni, Hassan

    2011-12-01

    In the present study, the effects of an ethanol and aqueous extract of saffron Crocus sativus and its constituents safranal and crocin on the stress-induced reduction in food intake, weight gain and anorexic time in mice were investigated. Male albino mice (20-25 g) were irregularly exposed to a trial of electroshock stress for 7 days. Then, the anorexic time as well as the animal's food intake and weight were recorded. In addition, blood samples were obtained on days 1 and 7 for corticosterone determination. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of the aqueous but not the ethanol extract (10, 50 and 100 mg/kg) significantly reduced the anorexic time. The results were similar for crocin (1, 5 and 10 mg/kg; i.p.). In addition, a reduction in weight gain was observed in the controls as well as in the groups that received alcohol extract or safranal. However, this was not observed in animals treated with aqueous extract or crocin. The plasma corticosterone level did not increase in the aqueous extract and crocin treated animals. It can be concluded that the saffron aqueous extract and its constituent crocin reduce side effects of electroshock stress in mice. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Evaluation of antioxidant activities of bioactive compounds and various extracts obtained from saffron (Crocus sativus L.): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahaiee, Somayeh; Moini, Sohrab; Hashemi, Maryam; Shojaosadati, Seyed Abbas

    2015-04-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus L. stigma), the most valuable medicinal food product, belongs to the Iridaceae family which has been widely used as a coloring and flavoring agent. These properties are basically related to its crocins, picrocrocin and safranal contents which have all demonstrated health promoting properties. The present review article highlights the phytochemical constituents (phenolic and flavonoid compounds, degraded carotenoid compounds crocins and crocetin) that are important in antioxidant activity of saffron extracts. However, the synergistic effect of all the bioactive components presence in saffron gave a significant antioxidant activity similar to vegetables rich in carotenoids. Our study provides an updated overview focused on the antioxidant activity of saffron related to its bioactive compounds to design the different functional products in food, medicine and cosmetic industries.

  13. Phenological growth stages of saffron plant (Crocus sativus L.) according to the BBCH Scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Corcoles, H.; Brasa-Ramos, A.; Montero-Garcia, F.; Romero-Valverde, M.; Montero-Riquelme, F.

    2015-07-01

    Phenological studies are important for understanding the influence of climate dynamics on vegetative growth, flowering and fruiting on plants and can be used in many scientific subjects, such as Agronomy, Botany and Plant Biology, but also Climatology as a result of the current global interest in climate change monitoring. The purpose of the detailed specific culture descriptions of the principal growth stages in plants is to provide an instrument for standardization of data recording. To date, there was no coding method to describe developmental stages on saffron plant (Crocus sativus L.). Because of the increasing world-wide interest on this crop, a novel growth development code based on the BBCH extended scale is proposed in this paper. Six principal growth stages were set up, starting from sprouting, cataphylls and flowers appearance, plant appearance and development, replacement corms development, plant senescence and corm dormancy. Each principal growth stage is subdivided into secondary growth stages. Descriptive keys with illustrations are included to make effective use of the system. (Author)

  14. Large intraspecific genetic variation within the Saffron-Crocus group (Crocus L., Series Crocus; Iridaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bjarne; Orabi, Jihad; Pedersen, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    Series Crocus comprises ten autumn-flowering species, including the cultivated Crocus sativus, Saffron-Crocus. Interspecific genetic variation was examined in all species of the series, except for C. naqabensis. Intraspecific genetic and morphological variation was considered in the three Greek...

  15. Low power continuous wave laser induced optical nonlinearities in saffron ( Crocus Sativus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasibov, H.; Mamedbeili, I.

    2010-12-01

    We report on the low power CW laser induced nonlinear optical responses of Saffron (stigmata of Crocus Savitus L.) ethanol and methanol extracts. The optical nonlinearities were investigated by performing Z-scan measurements at 470 and 535 nm wavelengths. At both wavelengths the material has a strong nonlinear refraction, mainly of thermal origin. However, only at 470 nm wavelength the material exhibit pronounced saturable nonlinear absorption. Long-term (70 days) stability measurements indicated that the nonlinearities in the Saffron extracts are due to their nonvolatile components. This study shows that there is great potential for Saffron extracts to be used in nonlinear photonic applications.

  16. Barcoding melting curve analysis for rapid, sensitive, and discriminating authentication of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) from its adulterants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chao; Cao, Liang; Yuan, Yuan; Chen, Min; Jin, Yan; Huang, Luqi

    2014-01-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is one of the most important and expensive medicinal spice products in the world. Because of its high market value and premium price, saffron is often adulterated through the incorporation of other materials, such as Carthamus tinctorius L. and Calendula officinalis L. flowers, Hemerocallis L. petals, Daucus carota L. fleshy root, Curcuma longa L. rhizomes, Zea may L., and Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. stigmas. To develop a straightforward, nonsequencing method for rapid, sensitive, and discriminating detection of these adulterants in traded saffron, we report here the application of a barcoding melting curve analysis method (Bar-MCA) that uses the universal chloroplast plant DNA barcoding region trnH-psbA to identify adulterants. When amplified at DNA concentrations and annealing temperatures optimized for the curve analysis, peaks were formed at specific locations for saffron (81.92°C) and the adulterants: D. carota (81.60°C), C. tinctorius (80.10°C), C. officinalis (79.92°C), Dendranthema morifolium (Ramat.) Tzvel. (79.62°C), N. nucifera (80.58°C), Hemerocallis fulva (L.) L. (84.78°C), and Z. mays (84.33°C). The constructed melting curves for saffron and its adulterants have significantly different peak locations or shapes. In conclusion, Bar-MCA could be a faster and more cost-effective method to authenticate saffron and detect its adulterants.

  17. Crocus sativus L. (saffron) attenuates isoproterenol-induced myocardial injury via preserving cardiac functions and strengthening antioxidant defense system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdeva, Jaspreet; Tanwar, Vineeta; Golechha, Mahaveer; Siddiqui, Khalid M; Nag, Tapas C; Ray, Ruma; Kumari, Santosh; Arya, Dharamvir S

    2012-09-01

    Saffron (dried stigmas of Crocus sativus L.), a naturally derived plant product, has long been used as a traditional ancient medicine against various human diseases. The aim of the series of experiments was to systematically determine whether saffron exerts cardioprotection in isoproterenol-induced myocardial damage. Male Wistar rats (150-175 g) were divided into five groups: control, isoproterenol (ISO) and three saffron (200, 400 and 800 mg/kg) treatment groups. Aqueous extract of saffron or vehicle was administered orally to rats for four weeks. On days 28 and 29, the animals in ISO and saffron treatment groups were administered ISO (85 mg/kg, s.c.) at an interval of 24 h. On day 30, after recording hemodynamics and left ventricular functions, animals were sacrificed for biochemical, histopathological and electromicroscopical examinations. Isoproterenol challenged animals showed depressed hemodynamics and left ventricular functions as evident by decreased left ventricular rate of peak positive and negative pressure change and elevated left ventricular end-diastolic pressure. Structural and ultrastructural studies further confirmed the damage which was reconfirmed by increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (psaffron at all the doses exerted significant cardioprotective effect by preserving hemodynamics and left ventricular functions, maintaining structural integrity and augmenting antioxidant status. Among the different doses used, saffron at 400mg/kg dose exhibited maximum protective effects which could be due to maintenance of the redox status of the cell reinforcing its role as an antioxidant. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Saffron (Crocus sativus) for depression: a systematic review of clinical studies and examination of underlying antidepressant mechanisms of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopresti, Adrian L; Drummond, Peter D

    2014-11-01

    Saffron, a spice derived from the flower of Crocus sativus, has now undergone several trials examining its antidepressant effects and, in a recent meta-analysis, was confirmed to be effective for the treatment of major depression. To provide an expanded systematic analysis of the completed clinical studies on saffron and depression, detailing dosages, extract sources, standardisations, safety profile and treatment duration; and, through a narrative review, to examine its potential antidepressant mechanisms of action. In the systematic review of clinical trials, electronic databases were searched for high-quality, randomised, double-blind studies, with placebo or antidepressant controls. A narrative review of in vivo and in vitro studies was conducted to examine its potential antidepressant mechanisms of action. In the systematic review, six studies were identified. In the placebo-comparison trials, saffron had large treatment effects and, when compared with antidepressant medications, had similar antidepressant efficacy. Saffron's antidepressant effects potentially are due to its serotonergic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, neuro-endocrine and neuroprotective effects. Research conducted so far provides initial support for the use of saffron for the treatment of mild-to-moderate depression. Further research is required to expand our understanding of the role and actions of saffron in major depression. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Immunomodulatory and antioxidant effects of saffron aqueous extract (Crocus sativus L.) on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarghandian, Saeed; Azimi-Nezhad, Mohsen; Farkhondeh, Tahereh

    Crocus sativus L. (saffron) has many biological effects such as antioxidant property. The present study investigated the immunomodulatory effects of the aqueous saffron extract on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. In this study, the rats were divided into the following groups of 9 animals each: control, untreated diabetic, three saffron extract-treated diabetic groups. Diabetes was induced by STZ in rats. Saffron was administered 3 days after STZ administration; these injections were continued to the end of the study (4 weeks). At the end of the 4-week period, blood was drawn for biochemical assays and the abdominal aorta was removed for detecting the inflammatory cytokines expression. We found that saffron decreased blood glucose, malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, total lipids, triglycerides, cholesterol levels significantly (psaffron-treated diabetic groups compared with the untreated groups, in a dose dependent manner (psaffron-treated diabetic rats inhibited the expression of inflammatory cytokines in the abdominal aorta versus the untreated diabetic rats. Our results validate the use of saffron as a treatment against diabetes mellitus and its vascular complications. Copyright © 2016 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials examining the effectiveness of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) on psychological and behavioral outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausenblas, Heather Ann; Heekin, Kacey; Mutchie, Heather Lee; Anton, Stephen

    2015-07-01

    Throughout the past three decades, increased scientific attention has been given to examining saffron's (Crocus sativus L.) use as a potential therapeutic or preventive agent for a number of health conditions, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and depression. The purpose of this systematic review is to examine and categorize the current state of scientific evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) regarding the efficacy of saffron on psychological/behavioral outcomes. Electronic and non-electronic systematic searches were conducted to identify all relevant human clinical research on saffron. The search strategy was extensive and was designed according to the "Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA)." Reference lists of articles that met the inclusion criteria were searched. Only English language studies were reviewed. Saffron trials in combination with other substances and saffron safety studies were considered, in accordance with the PRISMA statement. Included studies must have a control group. Included studies must measure a physiological and/or a behavioral outcome. The methodological quality of all included studies was independently evaluated by two reviewers using the Jadad score. Mean scores and P-values of measures were compared both inter- and intra-study for each parameter (i.e., depression). Twelve studies met our inclusion criteria. These studies examined the effects of saffron on psychological/behavioral outcomes of: major depressive disorder (n=6), premenstrual syndrome (n = 1), sexual dysfunction and infertility (n=4), and weight loss/snacking behaviors (n=1). The data from these studies support the efficacy of saffron as compared to placebo in improving the following conditions: depressive symptoms (compared to anti-depressants and placebo), premenstrual symptoms, and sexual dysfunction. In addition, saffron use was also effective in reducing excessive snacking behavior. Findings from initial

  1. Effect of polymer/nanosilver composite packaging on long-term microbiological status of Iranian saffron (Crocus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Mona; Bayat, Mansour; Mozaffari Nejad, Amir Sasan; Sabokbar, Azar; Anvar, Amir Ali

    2016-05-01

    Crocus sativus L. (saffron) is a valuable plant which is native to Iran. Saffron is the dried stigmata of the flowering part of the plant that is usually contaminated with different bacteria and fungi through production process. Antimicrobial properties of silver nanoparticles are well recognized. To survey the effects of nanosilver packaging on microbiological status of spiked, saffron samples over a six month period were chosen. Saffron samples from five regions of Khorasan province were purchased and de novo frequencies of microbial contaminants were determined using standard procedures. Totally 35 g of saffron was spiked with known numbers of four bacterial and two fungal species and packaged into one gram packets. The packaging materials consisted of polyethylene polymers containing 0, 400, 800, 1200 or 4000 ppm nanosilver (as Ag). Total and differential numbers of spiked microorganisms in the packaged saffrons were enumerated at initial and at six time points of seven, 14, 28, 64, 90 and 180 days. Baird-Parker agar (BP agar), Kenner Fecal (KF), Salmonella-Shigella agar (SS agar), Violet Red Bile Glucose Agar (VRBGA), and Sabouraud Dextrose agar (SD agar) media were used for enumeration of the six spiked microorganisms including Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Salmonella Enteritidis, Enterobacter species and Escherichia coli, Fusarium oxysporum and Aspergillus flavus, respectively. Direct antibacterial activity of the composites was also determined. De novo frequencies of microorganisms in five saffron samples were at acceptable levels with dominance of fungi species. Nanosilver embedded packages accelerated the reduction in live microbial numbers in saffron samples and the efficacy was the best in packages containing 4000 ppm nanosilver particles. Nanosilver packaging can significantly reduce microbial burden of saffron.

  2. Novel quantitative real-time PCR approach to determine safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) adulteration in saffron (Crocus sativus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Caterina; Costa, Joana; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Mafra, Isabel

    2017-08-15

    This work intended to develop DNA-based methods to detect and quantify safflower as an adulterant in saffron. Species-specific PCR and real-time PCR with EvaGreen dye targeting the ITS region of Carthamus tinctorius L. (safflower) were successfully proposed. The assays allowed absolute and relative sensitivities of 2pg of safflower DNA (∼1.4 DNA copies) and 0.1% of safflower in saffron (Crocus sativus L.), respectively. A normalised real-time PCR approach was also proposed in the range of 0.1-20% (w/w) of safflower in saffron, which was successfully validated and applied to commercial saffron samples (stigmas, powders and seasonings). From 19 samples, three were positive to safflower, though at levels below the limit of detection, suggesting cross-contamination rather than adulteration. In this work, specific, sensitive and accurate tools were proposed to authenticate saffron. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first successful attempt to quantify safflower by a DNA-based approach. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of aqueous extract of Crocus sativus L. (saffron) stigma against subacute effect of diazinon on specific biomarkers in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moallem, Seyed Adel; Hariri, Alireza Timcheh; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2014-03-01

    In this study, the effect of aqueous extract of Crocus sativus L. (saffron) stigma was studied against subacute toxicity of diazinon (DZN) on specific biochemical markers in rats. Vitamin E (200 IU/kg) and the aqueous extract of saffron at doses 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg were injected intraperitoneally three times per week alone or with DZN (20 mg/kg/day, orally) for 4 weeks. Red blood cell (RBC) cholinesterase activity was inhibited by DZN and this effect was not affected by vitamin E or saffron plus DZN. The levels of serum tumor necrosis factor-α (inflammation marker), direct 8-iso-prostaglandin F(2α) (oxidative stress marker) and soluble protein-100 β (S100β, neuronal damage marker) were increased significantly by DZN. The saffron extract inhibited the effect of DZN on these biomarkers levels. However, vitamin E was able to only reduce 8-iso-prostaglandin F(2α) and S100β levels. This study showed that the aqueous extract of saffron prevents DZN-induced rise of several specific inflammation, oxidative stress and neuronal damage biomarkers.

  4. Genetic and Epigenetic Approaches for the Possible Detection of Adulteration and Auto-Adulteration in Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) Spice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffritti, Giovanna; Busconi, Matteo; Sánchez, Rosa Ana; Thiercelin, Jean-Marie; Polissiou, Moschos; Roldán, Marta; Fernández, José Antonio

    2016-03-11

    Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is very expensive and, because of this, often subject to adulteration. Modern genetic fingerprinting techniques are an alternative low cost technology to the existing chemical techniques, which are used to control the purity of food products. Buddleja officinalis Maxim, Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, Curcuma longa L., Carthamus tinctorius L. and Calendula officinalis L. are among the most frequently-used adulterants in saffron spice. Three commercial kits were compared concerning the ability to recover PCR-grade DNA from saffron, truly adulterated samples and possible adulterants, with a clear difference among them, mainly with the processed samples. Only one of the three kits was able to obtain amplifiable DNA from almost all of the samples, with the exception of extracts. On the recovered DNA, new markers were developed based on the sequence of the plastid genes matK and rbcL. These primers, mainly those developed on matK, were able to recognize saffron and the adulterant species and also in mixtures with very low percentages of adulterant. Finally, considering that the addition of different parts of saffron flowers is one of the most widespread adulterations, by analyzing the DNA of the different parts of the flower (styles, stamens and tepals) at the genetic and epigenetic level, we succeeded in finding differences between the three tissues that can be further evaluated for a possible detection of the kind of fraud.

  5. Genetic and Epigenetic Approaches for the Possible Detection of Adulteration and Auto-Adulteration in Saffron (Crocus sativus L. Spice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Soffritti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Saffron (Crocus sativus L. is very expensive and, because of this, often subject to adulteration. Modern genetic fingerprinting techniques are an alternative low cost technology to the existing chemical techniques, which are used to control the purity of food products. Buddleja officinalis Maxim, Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, Curcuma longa L., Carthamus tinctorius L. and Calendula officinalis L. are among the most frequently-used adulterants in saffron spice. Three commercial kits were compared concerning the ability to recover PCR-grade DNA from saffron, truly adulterated samples and possible adulterants, with a clear difference among them, mainly with the processed samples. Only one of the three kits was able to obtain amplifiable DNA from almost all of the samples, with the exception of extracts. On the recovered DNA, new markers were developed based on the sequence of the plastid genes matK and rbcL. These primers, mainly those developed on matK, were able to recognize saffron and the adulterant species and also in mixtures with very low percentages of adulterant. Finally, considering that the addition of different parts of saffron flowers is one of the most widespread adulterations, by analyzing the DNA of the different parts of the flower (styles, stamens and tepals at the genetic and epigenetic level, we succeeded in finding differences between the three tissues that can be further evaluated for a possible detection of the kind of fraud.

  6. The Effect of Different Hormones on Callus Induction, Regeneration and Multiplication of Saffron (Crocus Sativus L. Corms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Safarnejad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Saffron (Crocus sativus; Iridaceae is an important economic and medicinal crop in Iran. The saffron that is an herbaceous triploid geophyte is used mainly as a source of secondary metabolites having aromatic and medicinal value. The plant develops annually from buds on the mother corm – i.e. a thickened stem - which acts as a resting, perennating storage organ. In this research in vitro propagation of Crocus sativus through direct and indirect methods has been studied. Corm slices as explants were sterilized and transferred to MS media with different concentrations of plant growth regulators. The results showed that use of HgCl2 0.15% for 20 minutes is the best treatment for sterilization. The results of ANOVA of direct regeneration indicated that the most corm formation was observed in 2 mg/l BAP. Maximum callus induction was achieved on MS supplemented with 1 mg/l 2,4-D + 2 mg/l BAP. As results indicate the most number of embryos were obtained in MS medium containing 0.15 mg/ l NAA. Also this medium was suitable for germination of embryo. Corm formation was only observed in MS supplemented with1 mg/l 2, 4-D + 2 mg/l BAP in the indirect method. The corm was transferred to JF pot for adaptation and then it was transferred to the pot and soil for growing.

  7. Study on Effect of Type of Explant and Hormone on Callus Induction and Regeneration in Saffron (Crocus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Sajjadi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Saffron (Crocus sativus L. is one of the medicinal plants that contain active components and medicinal materials. Tissue culture of saffron can improve the quality and quantity of the saffron product, increase its export and the farmers’ income. In this study, 36 different types of hormone combinations in the dark and 9 different treatments of hormone combinations in cold (4°C, using different saffron explants (bulb, leaf, scales around leaf and distal parts of the leaf were studied in tissue culture. To investigate the growth of corms, the callus formation and the regeneration rate, three replications for each treatment were used and the length of shoot (cm, the callus formation percentage and the regeneration percentage were measured and statistical analysis was performed. Among the types of explants, only explants from bulbs produced the callus on MS medium containing 2 mg.l-1 BAP and 1 mg.l-1 IBA in both the dark and cold conditions. The highest percentage of regeneration was obtained in MS medium with hormonal composition of 0.3 mg.l-1 TDZ, 1 mg.l-1 BAP, 2 mg.l-1 IBA and 0.01 mg.l-1 GA3 in the cold conditions.

  8. The safety assessment of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) on sympathovagal balance and heart rate variability; a comparison with amiodarone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joukar, Siyavash; Dehesh, Mohammad-Moein

    2015-12-01

    Dry stigmas of the Crocus sativus L. (Saffron) are well known in world as a popular flavouring and therapeutic agent. The anxiolytic, antidepressant, anticonvulsant and antiarrhythmic effects of saffron suggest that it may affect the autonomic control of the heart. This study assessed its safety on cardiac sympathovagal balance and heart rate variability in rat. Experimental groups were control, Saf50, Saf100, Saf200 (received saffron at dosages of 50 and 100 and 200 mg/kg/d, orally, respectively) and Amio (received 30 mg/mL/kg/d of amiodarone, orally, for 7 days) groups. On day 8, the frequency domain and time domain indices of animals' electrocardiograms were calculated. The heart rate decreased and RR interval increased in Saf200 and Amio groups (Psaffron not only has no harmful effect on activity of cardiac autonomic nervous system, but it may improve the stability of heart sympathovagal balance in normal rat. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Effect of Drought Stress on the Growth and Development of Saffron (Crocus Sativus. L in Eastern Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibtissam Mzabri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Saffron (Crocus sativus L.; Iridaceae is the most expensive spice in the world. It has been cultivated in Morocco for centu-ries and has represented a traditional staple for culinary, medical and cosmetic uses. The present work is about the study of the effect of drought stress on Saffron’s mor-pho-physiological and biochemical param-eters. An experiment has been carried out on a 4-year-old saffron plantation planted in an open field located in the experimental station of the Faculty of Sciences of Oujda. The experimental treatment included three water regimes (T0: Control receiving 100% ET0, T1: moderate water deficit receiving 60% ET0, T2: pronounced water deficit re-ceiving only 40% ET0. The results show that the increase in drought stress levels has slightly influenced the different param-eters of saffron growth. At the foliar level, the effect of stress has resulted in a de-crease in the chlorophyll content, a slight decrease in the PSII quantum yield and a Proline content accumulation as soluble sugars and total phenols, which resulted in keeping the relative water content (RWC and the Malondialdehyde (MAD content at a level similar to that of the control. In gen-eral, the morpho-physiological adaptation traits were observed even at severe level of water stress (40% ET0 which resulted in an acceptable decrease in stigmas yield.

  10. Identification and characterization of Burkholderia isolates obtained from bacterial rot of saffron (Crocus sativus L. grown in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIO FIORI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty five isolates of Burkholderia gladioli, the causal agent of a bacterial disease recently reported on saffron (Crocus sativus L. grown in central Sardinia (Italy, were characterized using different approaches. The characteristic symptoms of the disease on saffron plants were rot of emerging shoots and leaves and spots on leaves and corms. In the field, the disease was destructive and reduced flowering by about 80%. Two types of colonies of bacteria cultured from affected plants were selected on the basis of their characteristic morphology and pigment production on nutrient-glucose-agar. One type was round, wrinkled, and producing yellowish pigment; while the second was round, smooth and without pigment. All 25 selected isolates were pathogenic on saffron leaves and corms. Ten were pathogenic on gladiolus and lily leaves. None of the tested isolates was pathogenic on onion plants. The isolates were characterized by conventional tests, Biolog, PCR and PCR-RFLP analysis. Conventional tests and PCR identified all isolates as B. gladioli. PCR-RFLP analysis of 16S rDNA products digested with the three restriction enzymes Alu I, Dde I and Bss KI, identified ten of the isolates as B. gladioli pv. gladioli. Sequencing and comparison of the 16S rDNA PCR products confirmed that ten of of the isolates were B. gladioli and the remaining 15 were an unidentified Burkholderia species. Sequencing the gene encoding for b-subunit polypeptide of DNA gyrase (gyrB did not assist identification of these isolates. This study suggests that other Burkholderia species are involved with bacterial softrot of saffron in Sardinia, and further studies are in progress to verify this hypothesis.

  11. Antioxidant activity, cytotoxic activity and metabolic profiling of juices obtained from saffron (Crocus sativus L.) floral by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberoso, Carlo I G; Rosa, Antonella; Montoro, Paola; Fenu, Maurizio Antonio; Pizza, Cosimo

    2016-05-15

    Juices obtained from cold-pressed saffron (Crocus sativus L.) floral by-products were evaluated as a potential source of compounds with antioxidant and cytotoxic activities. Floral by-products were split in two batches for extraction 24 and 48h after flower harvesting, respectively. The in vitro anti-oxidant activity of these extracts was tested using the FRAP and DPPH assays, and two biological models of lipid oxidation (activity in preventing cholesterol degradation and protection against Cu(2+)-mediated degradation of the liposomal unsaturated fatty acids). The cytotoxic activity was evaluated using the MTT assay. The results show that extracts obtained 48h post-harvest contained higher levels of total polar phenols and had the highest antioxidant activity in all of the performed assays. The LC-DAD and LC-ESI-(HR)MS(n) metabolic profiles showed high levels of kaempferol derivatives and anthocyanins. This study suggests that juices from saffron floral by-products could potentially be used to develop new products for the food and health industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of a Topical Saffron (Crocus sativus L) Gel on Erectile Dysfunction in Diabetics: A Randomized, Parallel-Group, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadzadeh-Moghadam, Hossein; Nazari, Seyed Mohammad; Shamsa, Ali; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Esmaeeli, Habibollah; Asadpour, Amir Abbas; Khajavi, Abdoljavad

    2015-10-01

    Erectile dysfunction is a man's persistent or recurrent inability to achieve and maintain erection for a satisfactory sexual relationship. As diabetes is a major risk factor for erectile dysfunction, the prevalence of erectile dysfunction among diabetic men has been reported as 35% to 90%. This randomized, parallel-group, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial investigated the effects of a topical saffron (Crocus sativus L) gel on erectile dysfunction in diabetic men. Patients were randomly allocated to 2 equal groups (with 25 patients each). The intervention group was treated with topical saffron, and the control received a similar treatment with placebo. The 2 groups were assessed using the International Index of Erectile Function Questionnaire before the intervention and 1 month after the intervention. Compared to placebo, the prepared saffron gel could significantly improve erectile dysfunction in diabetic patients (P saffron can be considered as a treatment option for diabetic men with erectile dysfunction. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Frequency-dependent electrophysiological remodeling of the AV node by hydroalcohol extract of Crocus sativus L. (saffron) during experimental atrial fibrillation: the role of endogenous nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khori, Vahid; Alizadeh, Ali Mohammad; Yazdi, Hamidreza; Rakhshan, Elnaz; Mirabbasi, Abbas; Changizi, Shima; Mazandarani, Masumeh; Nayebpour, Mohsen

    2012-06-01

    The study assessed the hydroalcohol extract effects of Crocus sativus L. (saffron) on (i) the basic and rate-dependent electrophysiological properties of the AV node, (ii) remodeling of the AV node during experimental atrial fibrillation (AF) and (iii) the role of nitric oxide (NO) in the effects of saffron on the AV node. Stimulation protocols in isolated AV node were used to quantify AV nodal recovery, facilitation and fatigue in four groups of rabbits (n = 8-16 per group). In addition, the nodal response to AF was evaluated at multiple cycle lengths and during AF. Saffron had a depressant effect on AV nodal rate-dependent properties; further, it increased Wenckebach block cycle length, functional refractory period, facilitation and fatigue (p saffron on the AV node (p Saffron increased the zone of concealment in experimental AF (p saffron. Saffron increased the AV nodal refractoriness and zone of concealment. These depressant effects of saffron were mediated by endogenous NO. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Quality control of saffron (Crocus sativus L.): development of SCAR markers for the detection of plant adulterants used as bulking agents.

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    Marieschi, Matteo; Torelli, Anna; Bruni, Renato

    2012-11-07

    A method based on sequence-characterized amplified regions (SCARs) was developed from random amplified polymorphic DNA markers (RAPDs) specific for Arnica montana L., Bixa orellana L., Calendula officinalis L., Carthamus tinctorius L., Crocus vernus L. (Hill), Curcuma longa L., and Hemerocallis sp. to detect these common bulking agents in commercial saffron (Crocus sativus). The method enabled the unequivocal detection of low amounts (up to 1%) of each adulterant, allowing the preemptive rejection of suspect samples. Its enforcement limits the number of samples to be subjected to further evaluation with pharmacognostic or phytochemical analyses, especially when multiple batches have to be evaluated in a short time. The dimension of the amplicons is suitable for the analysis of degraded DNA obtained from dried, stored, processed, and finely ground commercial material. Proper SCAR markers may represent a fast, sensitive, reliable, and low-cost screening method for the authentication of dried commercial saffron material.

  15. Effect of ethanol extract of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) on the inhibition of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in C57bl/6 mice.

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    Ghazavi, A; Mosayebi, G; Salehi, H; Abtahi, H

    2009-05-01

    In this study, effect of ethanol extract of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) in the treatment of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE) in C57BL/6 mice was evaluated. EAE was induced by immunization of 8 week old mice with MOG(35-55) with complete Freunds adjuvant. Therapy with saffron was started on day the immunization. Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) was assessed by Ferric Reducing-Antioxidant Power (FRAP) method. Nitric oxide (NO) production was also estimated by Griess reaction. For histological analysis, mice brain was harvested and sections were stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin. After daily oral dosage the saffron significantly reduced the clinical symptoms in C57BL/6 mice with EAE. Also, treated mice displayed a delayed disease onset compared with control mice. TAC production was significantly elevated in saffron treated mice. Effect of saffron on serum NO production was not significant. Typical spinal cord leukocyte infiltration was observed in control mice compared with saffron treated mice. These results suggest for the first time that saffron is effective in the prevention of symptomatic EAE by inhibition of oxidative stress and leukocyte infiltration to CNS and may be potentially useful for the treatment of Multiple Sclerosis (MS).

  16. GC-MS-olfactometric characterization of the most aroma-active components in a representative aromatic extract from Iranian saffron (Crocus sativus L.).

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    Amanpour, Asghar; Sonmezdag, A Salih; Kelebek, Hasim; Selli, Serkan

    2015-09-01

    Aroma and aroma-active compounds of Iranian saffron (Crocus sativus L.) were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry. The saffron aromatic extracts were obtained by four different extraction techniques including solvent-assisted flavour evaporation (SAFE), liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), solid phase extraction (SPE), and simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE) and compared to achieve a representative aromatic extract from saffron. According to sensory analysis, the aromatic extract obtained by SAFE was the most representative of saffron odour. A total of 28 aroma compounds were identified in saffron. Ketones were quantitatively the most dominant volatiles in saffron, followed by aldehydes and acids. Aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) was used for the determination of aroma-active compounds of saffron. A total of nine aroma-active compounds were detected in the aromatic extract. On the basis of the flavour dilution (FD) factor, the most powerful aroma active compounds were safranal (FD = 512), 4-ketoisophorone (FD = 256) and dihydrooxophorone (FD = 128). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of saffron stigma (Crocus sativus L.) in mothers suffering from mild-to-moderate postpartum depression.

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    Tabeshpour, Jamshid; Sobhani, Farzaneh; Sadjadi, Seyed Alireza; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Mohajeri, Seyed Ahmad; Rajabi, Omid; Taherzadeh, Zhila; Eslami, Saeid

    2017-12-01

    Numerous adverse effects of antidepressants as well as the attitudes of breastfeeding mothers, who prefer to consume herbal medicine rather than chemical drugs, encouraged us to assess the effects of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) on mothers suffering from mild-to-moderate postpartum depressive disorder. A double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled trial was conducted on 60 new mothers who had a maximum score of 29 on the Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition (BDI-II). They were randomly assigned to the saffron (15 mg/Bid) or placebo group. The primary outcome was a change in the BDI-II scores 8 weeks after treatment compared to the baseline. The response and remission rates were considered to be secondary outcome measures. Saffron had a more significant impact on the BDI-II scores than the placebo. The mean BDI-II scores decreased from 20.3 ± 5.7 to 8.4 ± 3.7 for the saffron group (p saffron group were in remission compared to 43% of the placebo group (p saffron group. When administered to treat minor PPD in breastfeeding mothers, saffron had a more significant impact on the BDI-II than the placebo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of drought stress, corm size and corm tunic on morphoecophysiological characteristics of saffron (Crocus sativus L. in greenhouse conditions

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    M. Sabet Teimouri

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effects of corm tunic, corm weight and drought stress on saffron (Crocus sativus L., an experiment was conducted at the greenhouse of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. Treatment were combination of four corm weights range (2-4, 4-6, 6-8 and 8-10 g, two levels of water availability (100% field capacity and drought and two levels of corm tunic (natural corm with tunic and without tunic as factorial arrangement based on completely randomized block design with three replications. The corms were divided to four groups based on their weights and removed tunics of corm in tunic free treatment. Results indicated that the highest biomass produced in irrigation, corms with tunic with maximum weight. Both chlorophyll a and b contents decreased significantly under drought stress and chlorophyll b content was 50% of chlorophyll a content. Effect of corm size and corm tunic and interaction of these treatments imposed a significant effect on the leaf number per plant, leaf weight and chlorophyll content. Effect of corm tunic in 8-10 g corm size increased ch (a/ch (b ratio and leaf number. The relative water content was decreased in drought treatment in both tunic and tunicless treatments and the best corm weight in all treatment was 6-8g and could be useful to tolerate drought stress.

  19. Evaluation of Reciprocal Pharmaceutical Effects and Antibacterial Activity of Silver Nanoparticles and Methanolic Extract of Crocus sativus L. (Saffron on Some Bacterial Strains

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    Anahita Samiee Zafarghandi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs are the most prominent nanoparticles which are recognized for their high antimicrobial efficacy. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the reciprocal pharmaceutical effects and antibacterial activity of Ag-NPs and methanolic extract of Crocus sativus L. (saffron on some bacterial strains. Materials and Methods: For evaluation of antibacterial activity of Ag-NPs and methanolic extract of C. sativus L. (saffron on some bacteria, agar well diffusion method was used. Minimal inhibition concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC were determined for saffron extract, Ag-NPs, and their combination on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and S. pyogenes and S. epidermidis. Results: The combination of medium concentrations of Ag-NPs (500 μg/mL and saffron extract (50 mg/mL was in the optimum mode to eliminate S. epidermidis and S. pyogenes. The results showed that saffron extract, Ag-NPs, and their combined form had antibacterial effects on these bacteria. Conclusion: It is suggested to evaluate the synergistic effects of active components of the extract and antimicrobial preservatives used in food, health, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries.

  20. Protective effects of saffron (Crocus sativus) against lethal ventricular arrhythmias induced by heart reperfusion in rat: a potential anti-arrhythmic agent.

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    Joukar, Siyavash; Ghasemipour-Afshar, Elham; Sheibani, Mohammad; Naghsh, Nooshin; Bashiri, Alireza

    2013-07-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) has been used as a cuisine spice in eastern and western societies for thousands of years. In traditional medicine, saffron is recommended for the treatment of various kinds of disorders including heart palpitations. We investigated the hypothesis of the protective effect of saffron on lethal cardiac arrhythmias induced by heart ischemia-reperfusion in rat. Animals were divided into a control (CTL) group that received tap water, Saf50, Saf100 and Saf200 groups that were orally treated with aqueous extracts of saffron, at dosages of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg/day, respectively, and amiodarone (Amio) group that orally received 30 mg/kg/day for seven days. On day 8, heart ischemia-reperfusion was induced by ligation and releasing of the left anterior descending coronary artery. During reperfusion, the numbers and durations of ventricular fibrillation (VF) decreased in all groups compared to the CTL group (p saffron only significantly prolonged the QTcn interval. The results suggest that pretreatment with saffron, especially at the dosage of 100 mg/kg/day, attenuates the susceptibility and incidence of fatal ventricular arrhythmia during the reperfusion period in the rat. This protective effect is apparently mediated through reduction of electrical conductivity and prolonging the action potential duration.

  1. Effects of saffron (Crocus sativus L. aqueous extract in the conversion of larvae to pupa and pupa to mature of fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster M.

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    Fatemeh Fani Yazdi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Saffron (Crocus sativusL., a native plant from Iran and especially of Khorasan region, has a specific place for people's diet. According to several studies about effects of saffron and because there are no specific studies on the effects of saffron aqueos extract on the development of Drosophila melanogaster as an animal model, this subject evaluated in conversion of larvae to pupa and pupa to mature of fruit flies. 5 pairs of 3-day-old wild D. melanogaster were transferred to every culture plate containing different concentrations of saffron aqueos extract in order to intercross and oviposition and were brought out after 8 hrs. The percent of larvae to pupa transitionand pupa to mature conversion, were evaluated in all concentrations. The obtained data were evaluated statistically using SAS software and the mean of data were compared using Tukey test with minimum significance level of pD. elanogaster depends on dose proportionately. It means that saffron has some effects on the percentage of conversion of larvae to pupa, pupa to mature in low volumes and increased consuming concentrations of saffron may have inverse effects on that.

  2. In silico identification of miRNAs and their target genes and analysis of gene co-expression network in saffron (Crocus sativus L.) stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinati, Zahra; Shamloo-Dashtpagerdi, Roohollah; Behpouri, Ali

    2016-12-01

    As an aromatic and colorful plant of substantive taste, saffron (Crocus sativus L.) owes such properties of matter to growing class of the secondary metabolites derived from the carotenoids, apocarotenoids. Regarding the critical role of microRNAs in secondary metabolic synthesis and the limited number of identified miRNAs in C. sativus, on the other hand, one may see the point how the characterization of miRNAs along with the corresponding target genes in C. sativus might expand our perspectives on the roles of miRNAs in carotenoid/apocarotenoid biosynthetic pathway. A computational analysis was used to identify miRNAs and their targets using EST (Expressed Sequence Tag) library from mature saffron stigmas. Then, a gene co- expression network was constructed to identify genes which are potentially involved in carotenoid/apocarotenoid biosynthetic pathways. EST analysis led to the identification of two putative miRNAs (miR414 and miR837-5p) along with the corresponding stem- looped precursors. To our knowledge, this is the first report on miR414 and miR837-5p in C. sativus. Co-expression network analysis indicated that miR414 and miR837-5p may play roles in C. sativus metabolic pathways and led to identification of candidate genes including six transcription factors and one protein kinase probably involved in carotenoid/apocarotenoid biosynthetic pathway. Presence of transcription factors, miRNAs and protein kinase in the network indicated multiple layers of regulation in saffron stigma. The candidate genes from this study may help unraveling regulatory networks underlying the carotenoid/apocarotenoid biosynthesis in saffron and designing metabolic engineering for enhanced secondary metabolites.

  3. Potential application of machine vision technology to saffron (Crocus sativus L.) quality characterization.

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    Kiani, Sajad; Minaei, Saeid

    2016-12-01

    Saffron quality characterization is an important issue in the food industry and of interest to the consumers. This paper proposes an expert system based on the application of machine vision technology for characterization of saffron and shows how it can be employed in practical usage. There is a correlation between saffron color and its geographic location of production and some chemical attributes which could be properly used for characterization of saffron quality and freshness. This may be accomplished by employing image processing techniques coupled with multivariate data analysis for quantification of saffron properties. Expert algorithms can be made available for prediction of saffron characteristics such as color as well as for product classification. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. A double-blind, randomized and placebo-controlled trial of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) in the treatment of anxiety and depression.

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    Mazidi, Mohsen; Shemshian, Maryam; Mousavi, Seyed Hadi; Norouzy, Abdolreza; Kermani, Tayebe; Moghiman, Toktam; Sadeghi, Akram; Mokhber, Naghme; Ghayour-Mobarhan, Majid; Ferns, Gordon A A

    2016-06-01

    Depression and anxiety are prevalent serious psychiatric disorders. Several drugs are used to treat these conditions but these are often associated with serious side effects. For this reason alternative therapies, including herbal medication such as saffron, have been proposed. We aimed to assess the effects of saffron extract for the treatment of anxiety and depression using a 12-week double-blind, placebo-controlled trial design. Sixty adult patients with anxiety and depression were randomized to receive a 50 mg saffron capsule (Crocus sativus L. stigma) or a placebo capsule twice daily for 12 weeks. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) questionnaires were used at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks after initiating medication. 54 subjects completed the trial. Saffron supplements had a significant effect on the BDI and BAI scores of subjects in comparison to placebo at the 12 week time-point (pSaffron appears to have a significant impact in the treatment of anxiety and depression disorder. Side effects were rare.

  5. Use of in vitro assays to assess the potential antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) in human lung cancer cell line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarghandian, Saeed; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein; Davoodi, Saideh

    2010-01-01

    Background: Saffron is harvested from the dried, dark red stigmas of Crocus sativus flowers. It is used as a spice for flavoring and coloring food as a perfume. It is often used for treating several diseases. We investigated the potential of the ethanolic extract of saffron to induce antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects in cultured carcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial cells in comparison with non-malignant (L929) cells. Materials and Methods: Both cells were cultured in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium and treated with the ethanolic extract of saffron at various concentrations for two consecutive days. Our study resulted in sequences of events marked by apoptosis, such as loss of cell viability, morphology changes that were evaluated by MTT assay and invert-microscope, respectively. Results: The results showed that the ethanolic extract of saffron decreased cell viability in malignant cells as a concentration and time-dependent manner. The IC 50 values against the lung cancer cell line were determined as 1500 and 565 μg/ml after 24 and 48 h, respectively. However, the extract at different concentrations could not significantly decrease the cell viability in L929 cells. Morphology of MCF7 cells treated with the ethanolic extract confirmed the MTT results. Conclusion: We also showed that even higher concentrations of saffron is safe for L929, but the extract exerts pro-apoptotic effects in a lung cancer-derived cell line and could be considered as a potential chemotherapeutic agent in lung cancer. PMID:21120034

  6. Effects of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) Stigma Extract and its Active Constituent Crocin on Neuropathic Pain Responses in a Rat Model of Chronic Constriction Injury.

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    Safakhah, Hossein Ali; Taghavi, Tahereh; Rashidy-Pour, Ali; Vafaei, Abbas Ali; Sokhanvar, Mina; Mohebbi, Narges; Rezaei-Tavirani, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the therapeutic effects of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) and its main constituent crocin on neuropathic pain behavioral responses induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI) in rats. Adult male Wistar rats (200 to 250 g) were randomly assigned into 5 groups: Sham + saline, CCI + saline, CCI+ saffron (30 mg/kg), CCI + crocin (15 mg/kg) and CCI + crocin (30 mg/kg). CCI was induced by applying 4 loose ligatures around the sciatic nerve. Two weeks after nerve lesion, injections of saline, saffron or crocin were started and continued until 26(th) day post-surgery. Pain behavioral responses including mechanical allodynia (von Frey filament testing) and thermal hyperalgesia were measured in 14, 17, 20, 23, 26, and 40(th) days after CCI. CCI significantly increased pain behavioral responses. Saffron and crocin (30 mg/kg) decreased thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia on day 26, and this effect continued until the day 40. Crocin at lower dose (15 mg/kg) was ineffective. These findings indicate that treatment of saffron and crocin after CCI may have a therapeutic effect against neuropathic pain, suggesting that these substances may offer new strategies for the treatment of this highly debilitating condition.

  7. Effect of ionic detergents, nonionic detergents, and chaotropic agents on polyphenol oxidase activity from dormant saffron (Crocus sativus L.) corms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeidian, Shahriar; Keyhani, Ezzatollah; Keyhani, Jacqueline

    2007-05-02

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO; EC 1.14.18.1) catalyzes the hydroxylation of monophenols to o-diphenols (cresolase activity) and the oxidation of o-diphenols to o-quinones (catecholase activity), leading to browning in plants and produce. Further interest in the enzyme has been triggered by the active role that it plays in plant defense systems. PPO can be found in latent forms and is activated in vitro by various agents including urea, detergents, and proteases. The activation of PPO from several sources by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) has been extensively investigated, but reports on the effect of other detergents or on the differential effect of detergents on each of PPO's activities are scarce. In addition, investigations on the enzyme in other plant parts besides fruits and vegetables are also scarce. Here, the effect of various detergents and chaotropic agents on PPO from dormant saffron (Crocus sativus L.) corm extract was investigated. SDS and sarkosyl activated the cresolase activity, while only SDS activated the catecholase activity. All other detergents tested, in milli- or micromolar concentrations, inhibited the cresolase activity but barely affected the catecholase activity. In contrast, urea and guanidine-HCl drastically inhibited the catecholase activity but moderately inhibited the cresolase activity. The same effects were obtained on the partially purified enzyme. Results identified a PPO, present in dormant corms, which was activated only by anionic detergents and was inhibited by other reputed activating agents such as urea. Results also emphasized the differences in structure and accessibility of the active sites for cresolase and catecholase activities.

  8. Assessing saffron (Crocus sativus L.) adulteration with plant-derived adulterants by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy coupled with chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrakis, Eleftherios A; Polissiou, Moschos G

    2017-01-01

    Saffron, the dried red stigmas of the plant Crocus sativus L., is well-known as one of the most important and expensive spices worldwide. It is thus highly susceptible to fraudulent practices that employ, among others, plant-derived adulterants. This study presents an application of diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and chemometric techniques for evaluating adulteration of saffron with six characteristic adulterants of plant origin, i.e. C. sativus stamens, calendula, safflower, turmeric, buddleja, and gardenia. The proposed method involved a three-step process for the detection of adulteration as well as for the identification and quantification of adulterants. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was applied to perform authentication of saffron based on mid-infrared fingerprints (4000-600cm-1), resulting in 99% correct classification of pure saffron and saffron adulterated at 5-20% (w/w) levels. Adulterant identification in positive samples was performed with high sensitivity and specificity by a six-class PLS-DA model, with spectroscopic data from the region 2000-600cm-1. Subsequently, partial least squares (PLS) regression models were built for the quantification of each adulterant. By using synergy interval PLS (siPLS) for variable selection, models with improved performance were developed, with detection limits ranging from 1.0% to 3.1% (w/w). The results obtained illustrate that this strategy based on DRIFTS has the potential to complement existing methodologies for the rapid and cost-effective assessment of typical saffron frauds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Determining the most effective traits to improve saffron (Crocus sativus L.) yield.

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    Bayat, Mahdi; Rahimi, Mehdi; Ramezani, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    To determine the effective traits to improve saffron yield, a split plot design based on RBCD was done in Mashhad region in Iran for three years (2012-2014). The results showed that all traits except number of daughter corm, fresh weight of daughter corm and dry leaf weight had low general heritability. Results of genotypic and phenotypic coefficients of variation and genetic advance demonstrated that the majority of traits had a low diversity and the selection did not have any effect in improving the traits. As a result, the best way to increase saffron yield is improvement of farm management. It was also found that saffron yield had the highest phenotypic and genotypic correlations with fresh and dry weight of daughter corm and dry and fresh flower weight. Therefore, the efforts to improve these traits will increase saffron yield. According to the present study 5-Jun to 5-Jul was found to be the best sowing date for planting saffron. Also, the Mashhad and Torbat ecotypes were the best ecotypes in this study. Phenotypic and genotypic path analysis showed that in the first step three traits number of daughter corm, fresh flower weight and flower number and in the second step traits fresh weight of daughter corm, dry flower weight and dry leaf weight interred to the regression model and had the highest positive direct and indirect effects on saffron yield. Mainly, it can be derived that the implementation of correct farm management including appropriate sowing date, saffron ecotypes, proper density, bigger and higher quality saffron corm can play an important role in improving yield components and subsequently increasing saffron yield.

  10. Effect of Crocus sativus L. (saffron) on coagulation and anticoagulation systems in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayatollahi, Hossein; Javan, Atefeh Ordoei; Khajedaluee, Mohammad; Shahroodian, Masood; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2014-04-01

    Saffron showed some effects on blood coagulation and platelet aggregation in in vitro and in vivo studies. In a clinical trial with a limited number volunteers, saffron tablets influenced on bleeding time. In this study, the effect of saffron on plasma level of fibrinogen, factor VII (as coagulant agent), C and S protein (as anti-coagulant agent), PT and PTT in a larger sample size was evaluated. The study was a double-blind, placebo-controlled study consisting of 1 week treatment with 200 mg and 400 mg saffron tablets. Sixty healthy volunteers (age range 20-50 years) were selected for the study. The volunteers were divided into three groups of 20 each. Group 1 received placebo; Groups 2 and 3 received 200 mg and 400 mg saffron tablets, respectively, for 7 days (1 tablet per day). Before and after 7 days treatment and also 1 month after that, blood samples were taken. The plasma levels of fibrinogen, factor VII, C and S protein, PT and PTT were evaluated. Statistical analysis showed no difference between groups for any of evaluated factors. This study rejected any effect of saffron with dose of 200 and 400 mg for 1 week on coagulant and anticoagulant system. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. HPLC/PDA/ESI-MS evaluation of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) adulteration.

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    Sabatino, Leonardo; Scordino, Monica; Gargano, Maria; Belligno, Adalgisa; Traulo, Pasqualino; Gagliano, Giacomo

    2011-12-01

    The present study evaluated the reliability of the ISO/TS 3632-2 UV-Vis spectrometric method for saffron classification, making experiments on saffron samples to which were added increasing concentrations of common saffron spice adulterants (safflower, marigold and turmeric). The results showed that the ISO/TS 3632-2 method is not able to detect addition of up to 10-20%, w/w, of saffron adulterants. For additions from 20 to 50%, w/w, of the three adulterants, saffron was classified in a wrong category; addition of higher than 50%, w/w, determined variations in the investigated parameters that did not allow identification of the product as "saffron". In all cases, the method did not permit the recognition of the nature of the adulterant. On the contrary, the specificity of the HPLC/PDA/MS technique allowed the unequivocal identification of adulterant characteristic marker molecules that could be recognized by the values of absorbance and mass. The selection of characteristic ions of each marker molecule has revealed concentrations of up to 5%, w/w, for safflower and marigold and up to 2% for turmeric. In addition, the high dyeing power of turmeric allowed the determination of 2%, w/w, addition using exclusively the HPLC/PDA technique.

  12. Characterization of Bacteria Isolated from the Saffron (Crocus sativus L. Rhizosphere

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    Jami Al-Ahmadi Majid

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available One purpose of assessing the soil alive and active community is the identification of beneficial bacteria to use them as biological fertilizers, replacing or supplementing synthetic fertilizers. Such biofertilizers are predicted for the sustainability of agricultural production, especially for low input systems such as saffron fields. The aim of this work was to isolate and identify saffron rhizobacteria and to evaluate their possible effects on saffron growth. During 2013/14, some bacteria were isolated from the rhizosphere of the saffron plantations of different age in Gol village, Birjand, Iran. In total, 12 bacteria species were identified based on phenotypic traits and 16S rDNA sequences analysis. The strains were identified as B. subtilis, B. anthracis, B. cereus, B. megaterium, Bacillus sp., Paenibacillus, Pseudomonas fluorescens, P. putida, Escherichia coli, Pectobacterium sp. and Pantoea sp., with the dominant population belonging to the genus Bacillus. In the field study, inoculation of soil with these strains did not affect the leaf dry weight of the cultivated saffron, however, the strains of P. fluorescens increased the leaf area while P. fluorescens, Paenibacillus, Pectobacterium and B. megaterium increased the number of daughter corms and Azotobacter, B. cereus, B. subtilis and B. megaterium increased the corm weight. Our finding revealed that some bacteria present in the soil of perennial saffron plantations have a promising potential for developing as a plant growth promoting rhizobacteria.

  13. Potential of Crocus sativus (saffron) and its constituent, crocin, as hypolipidemic and antioxidant in rats.

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    Asdaq, Syed Mohammed Basheeruddin; Inamdar, Mohammed Naseeruddin

    2010-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the hypolipidemic and antioxidant potential of saffron and its active constituent, crocin, in hyperlipidemic rats. The animals fed either with normal fat diet or high fat diet were administered orally saffron (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg) or crocin (4.84, 9.69, and 19.38 mg/kg) in their respective groups for five consecutive days. Biochemical estimations of triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase enzyme activity (GSHPx), total glutathione (GSH), and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) in serum and superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS), ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP), and total sulfhydryl (SH) groups in liver tissue homogenate were carried out. Both saffron and crocin were effective in decreasing the elevated levels of TG, TC, ALP, AST, ALT, MDA, GSHPx, GSH, and GSSG in serum and increasing SOD, CAT, FRAP, and SH values in liver tissue with reduction in TBARS. The saffron was found to be superior to crocin indicating the involvement of other potential constituents of saffron apart from crocin for its synergistic behavior of quenching the free radicals and ameliorating the damages of hyperlipidemia.

  14. Gas chromatography of safranal as preferable method for the commercial grading of saffron (Crocus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bononi, Monica; Milella, Paola; Tateo, Fernando

    2015-06-01

    We present a new extraction protocol, using ethyl alcohol as a solvent, to evaluate safranal by gas chromatography (GC). A linear response was obtained with R(2)=0.995 and a reproducibility standard deviation of 4.7-6.0%. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation were 0.05 and 0.25gkg(-1), respectively. The GC data for several samples of powdered saffron from different origins were compared to specific absorbance values measured according to the ISO Normative 3632-1:2011 method. The aroma strength of saffron samples quantitated by GC and the specific absorbance values of safranal by the UV method did not correlate. Quantitative evaluation of safranal by GC appears to be more specific and useful for commercial comparisons of saffron quality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of Corm Density on Yield and Qualitative Traits of Saffron (Crocus sativus L. under Different Urea and Biological Fertilizers in Shahr-e-Rey Region

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    Alireza pazoki

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available To study the effect of corm density on yield and qualitative traits of saffron (Crocus sativus L. under different biological and chemical nitrogen fertilizers, a factorial experiment based on completely randomized block design with 3 replications was done in 2014 at Shahr-e-Rey region (Ghomi Abad. The experimental factors were: corm density in 3 levels (60, 120 and 180 corm per square meter and biological and chemical nitrogen fertilizers in 4 levels (without fertilizer application, 150 kg.ha-1 of Urea, 5 L.ha-1 of Nitroxin and 75 kg.ha-1 of Urea +5 L.ha-1 of Nitroxin. The results indicated that the corm density affects number of daughter corm, fresh daughter corm weight, corm diameter, dry stigma and style weight, dry and fresh flower weight significantly. Mean comparisons also indicated that by increasing corm density from 6o to 180, saffron dry yield of saffron improved by 2.7 fold. However, increasing corm density reduced corm diameter, fresh corm daughter weight and their numbers per square meter. It can be concluded that nitroxin as an organic fertilizer, increases vegetative traits and saffron dry yield (stigma + style weight to 2.08 kg.ha-1 and highly improves in qualitative traits like Safranal, Picrocrocin, and Crocin. It can be also said that combined use of nitroxin and urea would be an alternative method to reduce application of urea.

  16. Saffron (Crocus sativus) pretreatment confers cardioprotection against ischemia-reperfusion injuries in isolated rabbit heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, Moni; Chahine, Nathalie; Salem, Charelle; Chahine, Ramez

    2016-12-01

    Restoration of blood flow to the ischemic myocardium is imperative to avoid demise of cardiomyocytes, but is paradoxically associated with irreversible damage to cardiac tissues due to the excessive generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We have previously reported that saffron, a natural antioxidant, attenuated ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injuries in vitro; however, its role in a meaningful cardiac recovery remains unknown. Here, we show that saffron supplement (oral administration for 6 weeks) reduced myocardial damage and restored cardiac function in an IR model of rabbit hearts. This was evidenced by improved left ventricle pressure, heart rate and coronary flow, and left ventricle end diastolic pressure (LVEDP) in IR hearts (isolated from rabbits pre-exposed to saffron (S/IR)). Electrophysiological recordings revealed a significant decline in both premature ventricle contraction and ventricle tachycardia/fibrillation in S/IR compared to IR hearts. This was paralleled by increased expression of the contractile proteins α-actinin and Troponin C in the myocardium of S/IR hearts. Histological examination combined to biochemical analysis indicated that hearts pre-exposed to saffron exhibited reduced infarct size, lower lipid peroxidation, with increased glutathione peroxidase activity, and oxidation of nitro blue tetrazolium (by reactive oxygen species). Furthermore, in contrast with IR hearts, saffron pretreatment induced restoration of the phosphorylation level of the survival proteins Akt and 4EBP1 and reduced activity of p38. Collectively, our data demonstrate that the natural antioxidant saffron plays a pivotal role in halting IR-associated cardiac injuries and emerges as a novel preventive tool for ischemic heart disease.

  17. Picrocrocin kinetics in aqueous saffron spice extracts (Crocus sativus L.) upon thermal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Ana M; Carmona, Manuel; Jarén-Galán, Manuel; Mosquera, M Isabel Mínguez; Alonso, Gonzalo L

    2011-01-12

    The kinetics of picrocrocin degradation in aqueous extracts of saffron upon thermal treatment from 5 to 70 °C have been studied, together with the degradation of purified picrocrocin in water at 100 °C. The best fits to experimental data were found for a second-order kinetics model. Picrocrocin showed high stability with half-life periods (t(1/2)) ranging from >3400 h at 5 °C in saffron extracts to 9 h in the experiments with purified picrocrocin at 100 °C. In saffron extracts, the evolution of the rate constant (k) with temperature showed maximum values at 35 °C, and filtration of the extracts contributed to picrocrocin stability. In the case of purified picrocrocin, the generation of safranal in the first 5 h (yield up to 7.4%) was confirmed. Spectrometric parameters used in saffron quality control (E(1cm)(1%) 257 nm and ΔΕ(pic)) were not appropriate for documenting the evolution of picrocrocin.

  18. Study of energy efficiency of saffron (Crocus sativus L. in Southern Khorasan

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    E. Moayedi Shahraki

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to perform each component of agricultural practices, its plan should be rationalized economically and technically. In a study for recognition patterns of energy inputs and outputs in saffron fields of Southern Khorasan, Iran, during a five years exploitation period, two questionnaires were prepared, one for the first cultivation year, and another for crop management and harvest during four subsequent years. In each questionnaire some questions were included to obtain direct and indirect inputs and outputs of energy flows in saffron fields. About seventy questionnaires were filled by direct interview with farmers. Results showed the highest energy input in the first year is supplied by farm manure which approach to 91.16% of total used energy. During four next years, however, nitrogen fertilizer (mainly as urea form was the main energy input with 37.67% of total used energy. The daughter corms and crop shoots consist the main sources of energy outputs, as energy efficiency was 41% for a five exploitation period, which is similar to some annual crops such as tomato and lettuce in USA. Although energy efficiency of saffron production is very low in Southern Khorasan, but most of saffron fields is cultivated ecologically, with low external inputs, and this crop play an important role in rural livelihood, because of its high economic efficiency and employment than other local cultivated crops.

  19. The Effect of Increased Temperature on Flowering Behaviour of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.

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    A. Koocheki

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Flowering in saffron requires a period of incubation at high temperatures for flower differentiation followed by a period of low temperatures for flower emergence. Global warming could adversely affect the flowering of saffron because of its high sensitivity to temperature. Flowering behaviour of saffron in response to rising temperature was studied in an experiment conducted in controlled environment. Corms with identical sizes were collected form green or fully withered field grown plants and sown in plastic pots. Pots were incubated in 25, 27 and 30 °C for 70, 90 and 120 days. By the end of each incubation period, pots incubated in 25, 27 and 30 °C were transferred to 17, 19 and 21 °C, respectively. Days to flowering, development rate and growth characteristics of saffron were measured in alternative temperature regimes of 25/17, 27/19 and 30/21 °C in combination with 3 incubation periods and in 3 replications. The results indicated that increasing incubation temperature up to 27 °C had no significant effects on saffron flowering behaviour however, no flower was appeared from corms incubated in 30°C. Increased duration of incubation period had adverse effects on flower emergence and corms incubated for 120 days were only flowered in 27/19 °C temperature regime. The optimal flowering response and the highest number of vegetative buds was obtained when 90 days incubation period at 27 °C was followed by a period for flower emergence at 17°C. Corms lifted from green or withered plants showed similar response to temperature regimes and incubation periods. However, in average duration of sowing to flowering was 5 days longer in corms lifted from green plants. Comparing the results of this research with daily temperature in the main saffron production areas of Khorasan provinces showed that increasing mean daily temperature by 2 °C during summer and autumn results in a considerable delay in flowering of saffron.

  20. Role of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) and honey syrup on aluminum-induced hepatotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shati, Ali A; Alamri, Saad A

    2010-10-01

    To study the biochemical and molecular hepatotoxicity induced by aluminium chloride (AlCl3) and the protective role of saffron and honey against such toxicity. This study was performed in the Department of Biology, College of Science, King Khalid University, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between July and August 2009. Two mice strains, BALB/c and C57BL/6 (20 animals from each strain), were used and randomly divided into 4 groups: control group; AlCl3 group; AlCl3+saffron group; and AlCl3+honey group. Changes in liver biochemical markers such as gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and total bilirubin and lipid peroxidation levels were estimated. Induced and suppressed mRNA in the liver homogenate was scanned followed by up- and down- regulated genes were isolated, cloned, and sequenced. There was a significant increase in the cholesterol levels, triglycerides, GGT, ALT, AST, ALP, lipid peroxidation, and presence of hyperglycemia in the AlCl3 group compared to the control. However, treating those animals exposed to AlCl3 by saffron and honey improved the disrupted liver biochemical markers and alleviated the increase of lipid peroxidation. Seven down-regulated genes (3 BALB/c and 4 C57BL/6) and 5 up-regulated genes (2 BALB/c and 3 C57BL/6) were observed. Aa2-245 gene was observed as being up-regulated in AlCl3+ saffron and AlCl3+honey groups in the BALB/c strain. The use of saffron and honey minimized the toxic effect of AlCl3 in the liver by alleviating its disruptive effect on the biochemical and molecular levels.

  1. Botany, Taxonomy and Cytology of Crocus sativus series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, R. B.

    2010-01-01

    Saffron is produced from the dried styles of Crocus sativus L. (Iridaceae) which is unknown as wild plant, representing a sterile triploid. These belong to subgenus Crocus series Crocus sativus – series are closely related species; and are difficult to be separated taxonomically and have a complex cytology. Botany of C. sativus – series, taxonomy of their species and their infraspecific taxa are presented, and their distribution, ecology and phenology; full description and chromosome counts are provided with key to their identification. PMID:22131743

  2. Picrocrocin content and quality categories in different (345) worldwide samples of saffron ( Crocus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Campo, C Priscila; Carmona, Manuel; Maggi, Luana; Kanakis, Charalabos D; Anastasaki, Eirini G; Tarantilis, Petros A; Polissiou, Moschos G; Alonso, Gonzalo L

    2010-01-27

    In this paper, 345 saffron samples were analyzed from different countries to study their picrocrocin content using different analytical techniques. The E1cm 1% of 257 nm results from all samples are inflated in comparison by the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) data, because of the interferences with the crocetin ester pool and especially with those with a lower trans/cis relation. A picrocrocin range update is proposed for International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 3632 normative because category III should be incremented up to 50 units, while category II should be incremented up to 60 units. More accurate data are achieved when the deltaEpic measurement is carried out. Consequently, improvements to the ISO method are suggested. Fourier transform (FT)-near-infrared spectrometry analysis has also been carried out, showing excellent results from the calibration with HPLC data. This spectrophotometric technique could be used by saffron enterprises to obtain quick and more accurate data for picrocrocin determination.

  3. Study of energy efficiency of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) in Southern Khorasan

    OpenAIRE

    E. Moayedi Shahraki; M Jami Al-ahmadi; M.A Behdani

    2016-01-01

    In order to perform each component of agricultural practices, its plan should be rationalized economically and technically. In a study for recognition patterns of energy inputs and outputs in saffron fields of Southern Khorasan, Iran, during a five years exploitation period, two questionnaires were prepared, one for the first cultivation year, and another for crop management and harvest during four subsequent years. In each questionnaire some questions were included to obtain direct and indir...

  4. Effect of Different Heavy Metals on Physiological Traits of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.

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    Majid Rostami

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the concentration of different heavy metals, such as lead, copper, nickel and other heavy metals in air, soil and water can pose negative effects on the entire ecosystem and cause harmful health consequences for all forms of life. The major sources of pollution in many parts of world are overburdens of mine, industrial effluents, fertilizers and pesticides. In order to study the effects of different heavy metals on some of the physiological attributes of saffron such as photosynthetic pigments, Prolin and carbohydrates of leaf and the amount of crocin in the saffron stigmas, an experiment was conducted based on completely randomized design (CRD with four replications and seven treatments. The experimental treatments were control and six different heavy metals (i.e. nickel nitrate, silver nitrate, zinc nitrate, copper carbonate, lead nitrate and manganese sulfate. Before sowing the corms, all of the heavy metals were added to the soil based on the concentration of 500 mg.kg-1 soil. The effects of experimental treatments on chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll and chlorophyll a/b were significant, but there was no significant effect on leaf carotenoids. Proline and soluble carbohydrates were significantly affected by the treatments. However, the effects of these treatments on reducing carbohydrates were not significant. Heavy metals also had significant effects on crocin content of the saffron stigmas. By using all of the heavy metals except for nickel nitrate, the amount of crocin increased.

  5. Evaluation of the effects of soil texture on yield and growth of saffron (Crocus sativus L.

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    Mahsa Aghhavani Shajari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to study the effect of soil texture on flower and corm yield of saffron. This experiment was carried out based on Randomized Complete Block Design with four treatments and four replications in box at Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, in 2011. Treatments included of: 1- 100% field soil + cow manure, 2- 70% field soil + 30% sand, 3- 70% field soil + 30% sand + cow manure and 4- 70% sand + 30% field soil + cow manure. Results showed that the effect of soil texture was significant on all flower and corm properties. The highest flower and stigma fresh weight per box (1.59 and 0.10 g, respectively and petal dry weight (0.12 g were observed in 70% sand + 30% field soil + cow manure. The highest corm number in 2-3 cm diameter per box was obtained in 70% field soil + 30% sand + cow manure (3.75 numbers. Treatment of 70% sand + 30% field soil + cow manure produced the highest corm number in 3-6 g (1.75 numbers and 6-9 g (1.25 numbers per box, but the lowest values of most studied indices were obtained in 100% field soil + cow manure. Generally, our results indicated that light soil texture has more advantages than heavy soil texture in saffron cultivation. Therefore, soil modification through lighter soil application can improve saffron flower and corm yield.

  6. Quantification of crocetin esters in saffron (Crocus sativus L.) using Raman spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasaki, Eirini G; Kanakis, Charalabos D; Pappas, Christos; Maggi, Luana; Zalacain, Amaya; Carmona, Manuel; Alonso, Gonzalo L; Polissiou, Moschos G

    2010-05-26

    The feasibility of Raman spectroscopy for predicting the content of crocetin esters (crocins), and coloring strength was assessed. 114 samples from Greece, Iran, Italy and Spain were divided into two sets: a calibration set with 49 samples and a validation one with 65 samples. Calibration models for crocetin esters (r 0.97, RMSEC 0.92, RMSEP 0.97, RPD 3.46) and coloring strength (r 0.95, RMSEC 12.2, RMSEP 11.3, RPD 2.59) were built in the spectral region 1700-955 cm(-1) using partial least-squares (PLS) regression. The calibration models were validated using cross-validation, leaving one sample out (r 0.97, RMSECV 1.09 for crocetin esters and r 0.93, RMSECV 14.5 for coloring strength). The crocetin esters content as determined by liquid chromatography fluctuated between 18.8 and 31.7 mg/100 g saffron. The corresponding values, as calculated using the Raman method, fluctuated between 19.2 and 32.0 mg/100 g saffron. The coloring strength determined by the reference method ranged from 177.0 to 296.7 units, while with the Raman method the values were between 186.8 and 297.6 units. The results, as compared to the reference methods (liquid chromatography and UV-vis spectrophotometry), show that the proposed methodology gives data with acceptable accuracy. The proposed models can be used as a tool for rapid screening of quality in saffron samples.

  7. Determining the most effective traits to improve saffron (Crocus sativus L.) yield

    OpenAIRE

    Bayat, Mahdi; Rahimi, Mehdi; Ramezani, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    To determine the effective traits to improve saffron yield, a split plot design based on RBCD was done in Mashhad region in Iran for three years (2012–2014). The results showed that all traits except number of daughter corm, fresh weight of daughter corm and dry leaf weight had low general heritability. Results of genotypic and phenotypic coefficients of variation and genetic advance demonstrated that the majority of traits had a low diversity and the selection did not have any effect in impr...

  8. Effect of ultrasonic waves on crocin and safranal content and expression of their controlling genes in suspension culture of saffron (Crocus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taherkhani, Tofigh; Asghari Zakaria, Rasool; Omidi, Mansoor; Zare, Naser

    2017-11-10

    The expression of biosynthesis controlling genes of crocin and safranal in saffron (Crocus sativus) can be influenced by ultrasonic waves. Sterilized saffron corms were cultured in a ½-MS medium supplemented by 2-4-D and BAP.  Saffron callus cells were treated with ultrasonic waves in a cellular suspension culture under optimal growth conditions. The samples were collected at 24 and 72 hours after treatment in three replications. The secondary metabolites were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography and the gene expression was analysed by the real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results indicate that this elicitor can influence the expressions of genes CsBCH, CsLYC and CsGT-2; the ultrasonic waves acted as an effective mechanical stimulus to the suspension cultures. The analysis of variance of the ultrasonically produced amounts of safranal and crocin indicates that there is a significant difference between once- and twice-treated samples in that the amount of safranal was the highest within the samples taken from the twice-treated suspension culture at 72 h after the ultrasound treatment, and the crocin was maximised after 24 h passed the twice-applied ultrasound treatment.

  9. Geographical origin differentiation of saffron spice (Crocus sativus L. stigmas) - Preliminary investigation using chemical and multi-element (H, C, N) stable isotope analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggi, Luana; Carmona, Manuel; Kelly, Simon D; Marigheto, Niusa; Alonso, Gonzalo L

    2011-09-15

    A preliminary study of the bulk hydrogen, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope composition of 28 authentic saffron samples produced from Crocus sativus L. cultivated in the typical production areas of Western Macedonia in Greece (8), Khorasan Province in Iran (7), Sardinia in Italy (6) and Castilla-La Mancha in Spain (7) is described. A chemical characterisation of 16 key quality parameters was also completed on the same samples by UV-Vis, HPLC and GC analyses. Multivariate analysis of the data revealed that 60.7% of saffron samples could be correctly assigned to their respective production countries using the chemical parameters. However, the combined bio-element stable isotope data reliably classified 100% of the saffron samples according to their respective geographical origins using posterior cross validation. Further work is required to establish the long-term stability of these models with respect to different years of production and other major producers such as India and Morocco. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The effects of different levels of applied wheat straw in different dates on saffron (Crocus sativus L. daughter corms and flower initiation criteria in the second year

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    Parviz Rezvani Moghaddam

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effects of different levels of applied wheat straw as mulch in different dates on flower characteristics and corms behavior of Saffron (Crocus sativus L. in the second year, a field experiment was conducted as factorial layout based on a randomized complete block design with three replications at Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran in years of 2010-2011 and 2011-2012. The experimental treatments were all combination of different levels of wheat straw as mulch (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 t. ha-1 based on surface applied method in three different dates (June, August and October. The results showed that the applied wheat straw as mulch in different dates had significant effects on flower characteristics of saffron (flower number, fresh and dried flower and stigma+ style yields. Based on these results, applied wheat straw as mulch in October had highest effects on increasing flower number, fresh and dried flower yields (by 46, 61 and 65%, respectively. In addition, applied wheat straw as mulch had significant effects on number and yield of replacement corms. The applied straw as mulch in October increased yield of replacement corms with 12 g or higher weight and total corm yield of saffron by 104 and 103 %, respectively, as compared to control treatment.

  11. Effect of Crocus sativus Stigma (saffron alone or in combination with chloroquine on chloroquine sensitive strain of Plasmodium berghei in mice

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    Pestechian Nader

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In malaria treatment protocols, treatment failure or drug resistance of synthesized drugs like alkaloids related to quinine, and aminoquinolines are the main problems now. Therefore, discovering efficient drugs or combination therapy of blood schizonticidal drugs with different mechanisms or different targets in the parasite is a crucial effort to solve this problem. In this study, the effectiveness of Crocus sativus Stigma (saffron individually and in combination with chloroquine, was considered against chloroquine–sensitive strain of Plasmodium berghei.Methods: At the first stage, using 4 day suppressive Peter’s test in mice, ED50 and survival times of saffron methanol extract, and its aqueous and ethyl acetate fractions and chloroquine on P. berghei were calculated. Then, based on the toxicity and survival time results, combination therapy was conducted with the best saffron fraction and chloroquine against the parasite.Results: The saffron extract, aqueous and ethyl acetate fractions resulted in suppression of parasitemia with ED50 values of 587.0 ± 78.7, 323.7 ± 37.2, and 508.7 ± 35.6 mg/kg, respectively. Combination of ethyl acetate fraction with chloroquine, potentiated the antimalarial property and the survived percent of the treated mice on days 7, 14, and 28 significantly more than chloroquine or ethyl acetate fraction alone.Conclusion: Saffron and its fractions individually can be effective in reducing the parasitemia in mice. The outcome of combination of ethyl acetate fraction with chloroquine on the mice showed synergistic effect on the chloroquine–sensitive strain of parasite.

  12. Nanostructured lipid dispersions for topical administration of crocin, a potent antioxidant from saffron (Crocus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Elisabetta; Drechsler, Markus; Mariani, Paolo; Panico, Anna Maria; Cardile, Venera; Crascì, Lucia; Carducci, Federica; Graziano, Adriana Carol Eleonora; Cortesi, Rita; Puglia, Carmelo

    2017-02-01

    Crocin, a potent antioxidant obtained from saffron, shows anticancer activity in in vivo models. Unfortunately unfavorable physicochemical features compromise its use in topical therapy. The present study describes the preparation and characterization of nanostructured lipid dispersions as drug delivery systems for topical administration of crocin and the evaluation of antioxidant and antiproliferative effects of crocin once encapsulated into nanostructured lipid dispersions. Nanostructured lipid dispersions based on monoolein in mixture with sodium cholate and sodium caseinate have been characterized by cryo-TEM and PCS. Crocin permeation was evaluated in vitro by Franz cells, while the oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay was used to evaluate the antioxidant activity. Furthermore, the antiproliferative activity was tested in vitro by the MTT test using a human melanoma cell line. The emulsification of monoolein with sodium cholate and sodium caseinate led to dispersions of cubosomes, hexasomes, sponge systems and vesicles, depending on the employed emulsifiers. Permeation and shelf life studies demonstrated that nanostructured lipid dispersions enabled to control both rate of crocin diffusion through the skin and crocin degradation. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay pointed out an interesting and prolonged antioxidant activity of crocin while the MTT test showed an increase of crocin cytotoxic effect after incorporation in nanostructured lipid dispersions. This work has highlighted that nanostructured lipid dispersions can protect the labile molecule crocin from degradation, control its skin diffusion and prolong antioxidant activity, therefore suggesting the suitability of nanostructured lipid dispersions for crocin topical administration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of Osmolytic Agents on Somatic Embryogenesis of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.

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    Maryam VAHEDI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A protocol for callus induction from meristem tissues and subsequent somatic embryo formation were established in this study. Explants were taken from apical and lateral meristems of saffron and these explants were cultured on MS medium supplemented with combinations of 2.4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2.4-D and Kinetin (Kn. The effects of osmotic agents such as abscisic acid (ABA, polyethylene glycol (PEG and Gelrite on somatic embryogenesis were also investigated. After 45 and 60 days of culture, calli were induced from apical and lateral meristems, respectively. The apical meristems yielded higher quality calli when compared to the lateral meristems. The highest frequency of callogenesis and the growth rate of callus were achieved from apical meristems on Murashige and Skoogs (MS medium supplemented with 2.4-D (2 mg/l and Kinetin (0.5 mg/l. After 45 days of subculture, the segments of nodular calli were transferred to plant growth regulator (PGR- free media for induction of pre-embryogenesis embryo formation. Pre-matured embryos were cultured on MS medium supplemented with different osmotic agents such as Gelrite, ABA and PEG to study their effects on embryo maturation. Both PEG and ABA proved more effective for somatic embryo maturation as compared to Gelrite.

  14. Effects of Osmolytic Agents on Somatic Embryogenesis of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.

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    Maryam VAHEDI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A protocol for callus induction from meristem tissues and subsequent somatic embryo formation were established in this study. Explants were taken from apical and lateral meristems of saffron and these explants were cultured on MS medium supplemented with combinations of 2.4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2.4-D and Kinetin (Kn. The effects of osmotic agents such as abscisic acid (ABA, polyethylene glycol (PEG and Gelrite on somatic embryogenesis were also investigated. After 45 and 60 days of culture, calli were induced from apical and lateral meristems, respectively. The apical meristems yielded higher quality calli when compared to the lateral meristems. The highest frequency of callogenesis and the growth rate of callus were achieved from apical meristems on Murashige and Skoogs (MS medium supplemented with 2.4-D (2 mg/l and Kinetin (0.5 mg/l. After 45 days of subculture, the segments of nodular calli were transferred to plant growth regulator (PGR- free media for induction of pre-embryogenesis embryo formation. Pre-matured embryos were cultured on MS medium supplemented with different osmotic agents such as Gelrite, ABA and PEG to study their effects on embryo maturation. Both PEG and ABA proved more effective for somatic embryo maturation as compared to Gelrite.

  15. Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) powder as an ingredient of rye bread: an anti-diabetic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajerska, Joanna; Mildner-Szkudlarz, Sylwia; Podgórski, Tomasz; Oszmatek-Pruszyńska, Ewa

    2013-09-01

    In this study, a most consumer-acceptable rye bread (RB) containing saffron (S) powder (RB+S) was designed to verify its anti-diabetic properties, and to compare these effects with those of RB and S separately, matched to a similar dose of bioactive components, used in the high-fat (HF) diet in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced Wistar rats. After baking, beneficial antioxidant and sensory properties for RB enriched with 0.12% S were achieved. Twenty-four severely diabetic rats (fasting blood glucose (FBG) ≥350 mg/dL) were randomized to incorporate either 0.08% of pure S, or RB enriched with 0.12% S (the diet provided 0.08% of S), or RB alone into their diet for 5 weeks. As controls, nontreated, HF-feeding STZ-induced rats (positive control-HF/STZ) and rats receiving normal laboratory diet (negative control-C) were used. A significant FBG-lowering effect was observed (47%, 53%, and 54% reduction vs. HF/STZ; P<.05) after S, RB, and RB+S treatment. Improvements in the rats' glycemia were achieved by β-cell regeneration and increases in insulin secretion. Only in the S and RB+S group of rats, a significant (P<.05) increase in relative pancreas (vs. HF/STZ) was noted. A significant (P<.05) reduction in the concentration of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) was achieved, whereas the ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) was not changed after S, RB and RB+S treatment (vs. HF/STZ). Triglyceride (TG) concentrations after S, RB, and RB+S treatment were significantly decreased (P<.05) versus HF/STZ. Both S and RB can be used in diabetic therapy, but no additional metabolic effect was achieved after consumption of RB+S.

  16. In vitro cormlet production of saffron (Crocus sativus L. Kashmirianus) and their flowering response under greenhouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parray, Javid A; Kamili, Azra N; Hamid, Rehana; Husaini, Amjad M

    2012-01-01

    A complete protocol for the saffron cormlet production under in vitro conditions and subsequent flowering under greenhouse conditions is described. Highest number of cormlets (70.0 ± 0.30) per corm slice (explant) could be regenerated on Murashige and Skoog (MS) half strength medium supplemented with thidiazuron (TDZ) (20 µM), Indole acetic acid (IAA) (10 µM), and sucrose (40 g/l). Maximum germination (90%) of these cormlets could be achieved on MS medium containing 6-benzyl amino purine (BAP) (20 µM) and α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) (15 µM). In order to increase the size of the in vitro raised cormlets, these were cultured on MS medium containing TDZ (15 µM) and IAA in the range of 1.5-30 µM. Maximum increase in cormlet size could be attained on TDZ (15 µM) + IAA (12.5 µM) + sucrose (30 g/l), and the average size of cormlets was 2.5g. In another experiment, apical vegetative buds of actively growing corms were cultured for cormlet development, and corms of size 2.5g could be developed on MS medium with NAA (15 µM), BAP (20 µM), and sucrose (30 g/l). The in vitro developed cormlets were dried under shade at 25 ± 2°C for 7 d. These were then planted in small cups containing clay loam soil and kept in green house at 20 ± 2°C. In vitro developed cormlets with mean weight 2.5 g showed maximum flowering (25%) as well as vegetative growth (55%), while only 19% cormlets of 2.0 g flowered. To our knowledge this is the first report on successful flowering from in vitro raised cormlets under greenhouse.

  17. In vitro bactericidal and fungicidal activities of various extracts of saffron (Crocus sativus L. stigmas from Jammu & Kashmir, India

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    Syed Muzaffar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial activities of methanolic and petroleum ether extracts of Croccus sativus L. (saffron stigmas, were tested against various bacterial strains (Proteus vulgaris, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and fungi (Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus fumigatus by agar well diffusion method. Minimal inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal and fungicidal concentration values of each active extract were also determined. The results showed a strong activity of the petroleum ether and methanolic extracts of saffron stigmas against bacteria and fungi used as test organisms. The results of different antimicrobial assays also indicate that the extracts had significantly higher bactericidal than fungicidal activities (p < 0.05. The results suggest that these extracts can be used in pharmaceutical and food formulations for inhibiting pathogenic bacterial and fungal species.

  18. Effects of maternal corm weight and different levels of cow manure on corm and flower yield of saffron (Crocus sativus L.

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    fatemeh Hassanzadeh Aval

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effects of different maternal corm weight and different levels of cow manure on saffron (Crocus sativus L. production, an experiment was conducted at the Agricultural Research Station, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad during 2011- 2012 and 2012- 2013 growing seasons. For this purpose a factorial experiment was used based on complete randomized block design with three replications and 16 treatments. The experimental treatments were done at 4 levels of maternal corm weight (1.1- 3, 3.1- 5, 5.1- 7 and 7.1- 9 g and 4 levels of cow manure (0, 20, 40 and 60 t.ha-1. Variance analysis results for studied characteristics of saffron corm showed that maternal corm weight, cow manure and maternal corm weight × cow manure had significant effects on these characteristics. Among the experimental treatments, maternal corm with 7.1- 9 g weight and the use rate of 60 t.ha-1 of cow manure treatment had both the highest total corm number (510 corm.m-2 and corm yield (1044 g.m-2. It seems that the corms with higher weight in the first year produce larger number of replacement corm than the corms with lower weight. The saffron flower yield characteristics showed that flower yield in the first year increased by increasing the maternal corm weight. The results of variance analysis of the number of flowers and fresh and dry yield of flower and stigma of saffron in the second year showed that the maternal corm weight, cow manure and maternal corm weight × cow manure had significant effects on them. These characteristics increased by increasing the maternal corm weight and levels of cow manure. It seems that producing replacement corm with high weight in the first year, requires large amount of maternal corm and high levels of cow manure usage.

  19. Efficacy of Crocus sativus (saffron) in treatment of major depressive disorder associated with post-menopausal hot flashes: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashani, Ladan; Esalatmanesh, Sophia; Eftekhari, Farzaneh; Salimi, Samrand; Foroughifar, Tahereh; Etesam, Farnaz; Safiaghdam, Hamideh; Moazen-Zadeh, Ehsan; Akhondzadeh, Shahin

    2018-01-13

    Due to concerns regarding the side effects of hormone therapy, many studies have focused on the development of non-hormonal agents for treatment of hot flashes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of saffron (stigma of Crocus sativus) in treatment of major depressive disorder associated with post-menopausal hot flashes. Sixty women with post-menopausal hot flashes participated in this study. The patients randomly received either saffron (30 mg/day, 15 mg twice per day) or placebo for 6 weeks. The patients were assessed using the Hot Flash-Related Daily Interference Scale (HFRDIS), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and the adverse event checklist at baseline and also at the second, fourth, and sixth weeks of the study. Fifty-six patients completed the trial. Baseline characteristics of the participants did not differ significantly between the two groups. General linear model repeated measures demonstrated significant effect for time × treatment interaction on the HFRDIS score [F (3, 162) = 10.41, p = 0.0001] and HDRS score [F (3, 162) = 5.48, p = 0.001]. Frequency of adverse events was not significantly different between the two groups. Results from this study revealed that saffron is a safe and effective treatment in improving hot flashes and depressive symptoms in post-menopausal healthy women. On the other hand, saffron, with fewer side effects, may provide a non-hormonal and alternative herbal medicine option in treatment of women with hot flashes.

  20. A Perspective on Crocus sativus L. (Saffron) Constituent Crocin: A Potent Water-Soluble Antioxidant and Potential Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, John W; Gao, Song

    2017-02-08

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia, in which the death of brain cells causes memory loss and cognitive decline. Several factors are thought to play roles in the development and course of AD. Existing medical therapies only modestly alleviate and delay cognitive symptoms. Current research has been focused on developing antibodies to remove the aggregates of amyloid-β (Aβ) and tau protein. This approach has achieved removal of Aβ; however, no cognitive improvement in AD patients has been reported. The biological properties of saffron, the dry stigma of the plant Crocus sativus L., and particularly its main constituent crocin, have been studied extensively for many conditions including dementia and traumatic brain injury. Crocin is a unique antioxidant because it is a water-soluble carotenoid. Crocin has shown potential to improve learning and memory as well as protect brain cells. A search of the studies on saffron and crocin that have been published in recent years for their impact on AD as well as crocin's effects on Aβ and tau protein has been conducted. This review demonstrates that crocin exhibits multifunctional protective activities in the brain and could be a promising agent applied as a supplement or drug for prevention or treatment of AD.

  1. Impact of use of different sources of humic, bio and nano fertilizers and nitrogen levels on saffron (.Crocus sativus L flower yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    aliasghar armak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at investigating the effect of using humic, bio and nano fertilizers and levels of nitrogen fertilizers in flower yield of saffron (Crocus sativus L. at the University of Torbat Heydarieh research farm located in Zaveh in 2014-2015. Treatments consisted of three levels of nitrogen application and use of fertilizer sources as the main factor, including Bioumik, Super Humic, combined Super Humic and Bioumik, Humi Ful, Nitrokara and no fertilizer as sub plots as split plot based on randomized complete block design with 18 treatments and three replications. Analysis of data showed that the effect of year and fertilizer sources on all traits measured was significant. The effect of nitrogen treatments was significant (at 1% except on number of flowers, dry style, mean dry weight stigma, and mean dry weight. Fertilizer sources increased all measured traits significantly. Application of Biomic increased petals and sepals dry weight (736.34 g/m2 by 46.78% in comparison with the control (464.19 g/m2. The highest dry weight stigma (524.2 g/m2 was seen in Super Humic + Bioumik treatment compared to the control group (443.1 g/m2. Super Humic treatment increased dry weight stigma by 86.49% relative to control. It seems that the use of humic, bio and nano fertilizers has a good effect on saffron performance.

  2. Effect of corm planting density, organic and chemical fertilizers on formation and phosphorus uptake of saffron (Crocus sativus L. replacement corms during phonological stages

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    Hassan Feizi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Saffron (Crocus sativus L. propagates by replacement corms producing from the mother corm after flowering during each season. In order to investigate the effect of corm planting density, organic and chemical fertilizers on formation and phosphorus uptake of saffron replacement corms during phonological stages, a field experiment was conducted as factorial layout based on randomized complete block design with three replications, at Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, during 2013 and 2014 growing seasons. The experimental treatments were all combination of different levels of planting density (25, 50, 75 and 100 corms per m2 and fertilizer sources (manure 25 t. ha-1, chemical fertilizer (N 150 kg ha-1 + P 75 kg ha-1 and control. Due to different sampling dates of replacement corms during phonological stages (21 November, 21 December, 20 January, 20 April and 21 May, respectively, the experimental data were analyzed as factorial - split in time based on a randomized complete block design. Based on results, the highest number of replacement corms lower than 4 g (5.8 corms per plant were observed in fifth sampling stage and then decreased. In all levels of planting density (25 to 100 corms per m2, the effects of manure on increasing the number, weight and phosphorus content of replacement corms in range of 4.1 to 8 and 8.1 to 12 g per plant were significantly higher than chemical fertilizer. In fifth sampling stage, by applying the manure, the weight and phosphorus content of replacement corms in range of 8.1 to 12 g per plant were significantly increased (approximately twice, as compared to chemical fertilizer. It seems the decrease in saffron yield as result to decreasing the corm planting density can be slightly offset by increasing the percentage of larger corms formation per plant.

  3. Isolation of a CENTRORADIALIS/TERMINAL FLOWER1 homolog in saffron (Crocus sativus L.): characterization and expression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaftaris, Athanasios; Pasentsis, Konstantinos; Kalivas, Apostolos; Michailidou, Sofia; Madesis, Panagiotis; Argiriou, Anagnostis

    2012-08-01

    Genes in the phosphatidyl-ethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP) family are instrumental in regulating the fate of meristems and flowering time. To investigate the role of these genes in the monocotyledonous plant Crocus (Crocus sativus L), an industrially important crop cultivated for its nutritional and medicinal properties, we have cloned and characterized a CENTRORADIALIS/TERMINAL FLOWER1 (CEN/TFL1) like gene, named CsatCEN/TFL1-like, the first reported CEN/TFL1 gene characterized from such a perennial geophyte. Sequence analysis revealed that CsatCEN/TFL1 shows high similarity to its homologous PEBP family genes CEN/TFL1, FT and MFT from a variety of plant species and maintains the same exon/intron organization. Phylogenetic analysis of the CsatCEN/TFL1 amino acid sequence confirmed that the isolated sequences belong to the CEN/TFL1 clade of the PEBP family. CsatCEN/TFL1 transcripts could be detected in corms, flower and flower organs but not in leaves. An alternative spliced transcript was also detected in the flower. Comparison of expression levels of CsatCEN/TFL1 and its alternative spliced transcript in wild type flower and a double flower mutant showed no significant differences. Overexpression of CsatCEN/TFL1 transcript in Arabidopsis tfl1 plants reversed the phenotype of early flowering and terminal flowering of the tfl1 plants to a normal one. Computational analysis of the obtained promoter sequences revealed, next to common binding motifs in CEN/TFL1-like genes as well as other flowering gene promoters, the presence of two CArG binding sites indicative of control of CEN/TFL1 by MADS-box transcription factors involved in crocus flowering and flower organ formation.

  4. Effects of Planting Dates, Irrigation Management and Cover Crops on Growth and Yield of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.

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    A Koocheki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Saffron as a winter active plant with low water requirement is the most strategic medicinal plant in arid and semi-arid parts of Iran. This slow-growing plant has narrow leaves and no aerial stem, hence weeds can be overcome it. Moreover, because of its root and canopy structure an important part of different resources is not used by this low input crop. Therefore, the use of associated crops could be an effective way for increasing resources use efficiencies (Koocheki et al., 2016. Appropriate corm planting date is another important factor that affects saffron growth and yield. Results of some studies show that late spring is the best time for corm planting (Ghasemi-Rooshnavand, 2009; Koocheki et al., 2016. In addition, irrigation management has been evaluated in some studies, but irrigation immediately after corm planting has not been investigated previously. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of irrigation management, planting date and the use of some companion crops on flowering of saffron during two growth cycles. Materials and methods This experiment was carried out as a split-split plot experiment based on a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications at Research Station, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran in 2009-2011. Experimental factors included: planting date of saffron as main factor (first of June, first of August and first of October, 2009, the irrigation management as sub factor (irrigation and no irrigation after each planting date and the companion crops as sub-sub factor [Persian clover (Trifolium resupinatum, Bitter vetch (Lathyrus sativus and control. Corm planting was done in 10×25 cm distances with 12 cm depth. In the second year irrigation was done again in the plots which were irrigated after planting in the first year at the same previous dates. Companion crops were sown after first flower picking (November, 2009, then their residue were returned to the soil in

  5. Intestinal formation of trans-crocetin from saffron extract (Crocus sativus L.) and in vitro permeation through intestinal and blood brain barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautenschläger, M; Sendker, J; Hüwel, S; Galla, H J; Brandt, S; Düfer, M; Riehemann, K; Hensel, A

    2015-01-15

    Extracts of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) have traditionally been used against depressions. Recent preclinical and clinical investigations have rationalized this traditional use. Trans-crocetin, a saffron metabolite originating from the crocin apocarotenoids, has been shown to exert strong NMDA receptor affinity and is thought to be responsible for the CNS activity of saffron. Pharmacokinetic properties of the main constituents from saffron have only been described to a limited extent. Therefore the present in vitro study aimed to determine if crocin-1 and trans-crocetin are able to pass the intestinal barrier and to penetrate the blood brain barrier (BBB). Additionally, the intestinal conversion of glycosylated crocins to the lipophilic crocetin had to be investigated. Experiments with Caco-2 cells and two different porcine BBB systems were conducted. Further on, potential intestinal metabolism of saffron extract was investigated by ex vivo experiments with murine intestine. In vitro Caco-2 monolayer cell culture was used for investigation of intestinal permeation of crocin-1 and trans-crocetin. In vitro models of porcine brain capillary endothelial cells (BCEC) and blood cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB) were used for monitoring permeation characteristics of trans-crocetin through the blood brain barrier (BBB). Intestine tissue and feces homogenates from mice served for metabolism experiments. Crocin-1, even at high concentrations (1000 µM) does not penetrate Caco-2 monolayers in relevant amounts. In contrast, trans-crocetin permeates in a concentration-independent manner (10-114 µM) the intestinal barrier by transcellular passage with about 32% of the substrate being transported within 2 h and a permeation coefficient of Papp 25.7 × 10(-)(6) ± 6.23 × 10(-)(6) cm/s. Trans-crocetin serves as substrate for pGP efflux pump. Trans-crocetin permeates BBB with a slow but constant velocity over a 29 h period (BCEC system: Papp 1.48 × 10(-)(6) ± 0

  6. Anti-inflammatory properties of drugs from saffron crocus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poma, Anna; Fontecchio, Gabriella; Carlucci, Giuseppe; Chichiriccò, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    The medicinal uses of saffron (Crocus sativus Linnaeus) have a long history beginning in Asian countries since the Late Bronze Age. Recent studies have validated its potential to lower the risk of several diseases. Some metabolites derived from saffron stigmas exert numerous therapeutic effects due to hypolipidemic, antitussive, antioxidant, antidiabetic activities and many others. Water and ethanol extracts of Crocus sativus L. are cardioprotective and counteract neurodegenerative disorders. Many of these medicinal properties of saffron can be attributed to a number of its compounds such as crocetin, crocins and other substances having strong antioxidant and radical scavenger properties against a variety of radical oxygen species and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Botany, worldwide spreading of cultivars, biochemical pathways, active constituents and chemical detection methods are reviewed. Therapeutic uses of saffron principles with particular regard to those exhibiting antioxidant and thus anti-inflammatory features are discussed. To date, very few adverse health effects of saffron have been demonstrated. At high doses (more than 5 g/die day), it should be avoided in pregnancy owing to its uterine stimulation activity.

  7. Identification of differentially accumulated proteins associated with embryogenic and non-embryogenic calli in saffron (Crocus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifi Golandam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Somatic embryogenesis (SE is a complex biological process that occurs under inductive conditions and causes fully differentiated cells to be reprogrammed to an embryo like state. In order to get a better insight about molecular basis of the SE in Crocus sativus L. and to characterize differentially accumulated proteins during the process, a proteomic study based on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry has been carried out. Results We have compared proteome profiles of non-embryogenic and embryogenic calli with native corm explants. Total soluble proteins were phenol-extracted and loaded on 18 cm IPG strips for the first dimension and 11.5% sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels for the second dimension. Fifty spots with more than 1.5-fold change in abundance were subjected to mass spectrometry analysis for further characterization. Among them 36 proteins could be identified, which are classified into defense and stress response, protein synthesis and processing, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, secondary metabolism, and nitrogen metabolism. Conclusion Our results showed that diverse cellular and molecular processes were affected during somatic to embryogenic transition. Differential proteomic analysis suggests a key role for ascorbate metabolism during early stage of SE, and points to the possible role of ascorbate-glutathione cycle in establishing somatic embryos.

  8. Molecular phylogeny, diversity, community structure, and plant growth promoting properties of fungal endophytes associated with the corms of saffron plant: An insight into the microbiome of Crocus sativus Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Zahoor Ahmed; Mirza, Dania Nazir; Arora, Palak; Riyaz-Ul-Hassan, Syed

    2016-12-01

    A total of 294 fungal endophytes were isolated from the corms of Crocus sativus at two stages of crocus life cycle collected from 14 different saffron growing sites in Jammu and Kashmir (J & K) State, India. Molecular phylogeny assigned them into 36 distinct internal transcribed spacer (ITS) genotypes which spread over 19 genera. The diversity of endophytes was higher at the dormant than at the vegetative stage. The Saffron microbiome was dominated by Phialophora mustea and Cadophora malorum, both are dark septate endophytes (DSEs). Some endophytes were found to possess antimicrobial properties that could be helpful for the host in evading the pathogens. These endophytes generally produced significant quantities of indole acetic acid (IAA) as well. However, thirteen of the endophytic taxa were found to cause corm rot in the host with different levels of severity under in vitro as well as in vivo conditions. This is the first report of community structure and biological properties of fungal endophytes associated with C. sativus, which may eventually help us to develop agro-technologies, based on plant-endophyte interactions for sustainable cultivation of saffron. The endophytes preserved ex situ, in this study, may also yield bioactive natural products for pharmacological and industrial applications. Copyright © 2016 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The study of the E-class SEPALLATA3-like MADS-box genes in wild-type and mutant flowers of cultivated saffron crocus (Crocus sativus L.) and its putative progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaftaris, Athanasios; Pasentsis, Konstantinos; Makris, Antonios; Darzentas, Nikos; Polidoros, Alexios; Kalivas, Apostolos; Argiriou, Anagnostis

    2011-09-15

    To further understand flowering and flower organ formation in the monocot crop saffron crocus (Crocus sativus L.), we cloned four MIKC(c) type II MADS-box cDNA sequences of the E-class SEPALLATA3 (SEP3) subfamily designated CsatSEP3a/b/c/c_as as well as the three respective genomic sequences. Sequence analysis showed that cDNA sequences of CsatSEP3 c and c_as are the products of alternative splicing of the CsatSEP3c gene. Bioinformatics analysis with putative orthologous sequences from various plant species suggested that all four cDNA sequences encode for SEP3-like proteins with characteristic motifs and amino acids, and highlighted intriguing sequence features. Phylogenetically, the isolated sequences were closest to the SEP3-like genes from monocots such as Asparagus virgatus, Oryza sativa, Zea mays, and the dicot Arabidopsis SEP3 gene. All four isolated C. sativus sequences were strongly expressed in flowers and in all flower organs: whorl1 tepals, whorl2 tepals, stamens and carpels, but not in leaves. Expression of CsatSEP3a/b/c/c_as cDNAs was compared in wild-type and mutant flowers. Expression of the isolatedCsatSEP3-like genes in whorl1 tepals together with E-class CsatAP1/FUL subfamily and B-class CsatAP3 and CsatPI subfamilies of genes, fits the ABCE "quartet model," an extended form of the original ABC model proposed to explain the homeotic transformation of whorl1 sepals into whorl1 tepals in Liliales and Asparagales plants such as C. sativus. This conclusion was also supported by the interaction of the CsatSEP3b protein with CsatAP1/FUL and CsatAP3 proteins. In contrast, expression of both B-class CsatAP3 and CsatPI genes and the C-class CsatAGAMOUS genes together with E-class CsatSEP3-like genes in carpels, without any phenotypic effects on carpels, raises questions about the role of these gene classes in carpel formation in this non-grass monocot and requires further experimentation. Finally, taking advantage of the size and sequence differences in

  10. An open label, randomized, fixed-dose, crossover study comparing efficacy and safety of sildenafil citrate and saffron (Crocus sativus Linn.) for treating erectile dysfunction in men naïve to treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarinejad, M R; Shafiei, N; Safarinejad, S

    2010-01-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus Linn.) have been perceived by the public as a strong aphrodisiac herbal product. However, studies addressing the potential beneficial effects of saffron on erectile function (EF) in men with ED are lacking. Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of saffron administration on EF in men with ED. After a 4-week baseline assessment, 346 men with ED (mean age 46.6+/-8.4 years) were randomized to receive on-demand sildenafil for 12 weeks followed by 30 mg saffron twice daily for another 12 weeks or vice versa, separated by a 2-week washout period. To determine the type of ED, penile color duplex Doppler ultrasonography before and after intracavernosal injection with 20 microg prostaglandin E(1), pudendal nerve conduction tests and impaired sensory-evoked potential studies were performed. Subjects were assessed with an International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaire, Sexual Encounter Profile (SEP) diary questions, patient and partner versions of the Erectile Dysfunction Inventory of Treatment Satisfaction (EDITS) questionnaire and the Global Efficacy Question (GEQ) 'Has the medication you have been taking improved your erections?' No significant improvements were observed with regard to the IIEF sexual function domains, SEP questions and EDITS scores with saffron administration. The mean changes from baseline values in IIEF-EF domain were +87.6% and +9.8% in sildenafil and placebo groups, respectively (P=0.08). We did not observe any improvement in 15 individual IIEF questions in patients while taking saffron. Treatment satisfaction as assessed by partner versions of EDITS was found to be very low in saffron patients (72.4 vs 25.4, P=0.001). Mean per patient 'yes' responses to GEQ was 91.2 and 4.2% for sildenafil and saffron, respectively (P=0.0001). These findings do not support a beneficial effect of saffron administration in men with ED.

  11. The effect of saffron (Crocus sativus) extract for healing of second-degree burn wounds in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorasani, Ghasemali; Hosseinimehr, Seyed Jalal; Zamani, Peyman; Ghasemi, Maryam; Ahmadi, Amirhossein

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of pollen of saffron extract cream in the treatment of thermal induced burn wounds and to compare its results with silver sulfadiazine (SSD) in rats. Animals were divided into four groups and administrated a topical cream including control, base, saffron (20%) or SSD (1%) at 24 hour after a burn injury that was induced by hot water. In special days, according to a pre-planned schedule, animal's weight, wound size, as well as skin histo-pathology were determined in different groups under topical treatments. On day 25, average size of wound was 5.5, 4, 0.9 and 4.1 cm2 in control, base, saffron and silver groups. The wound size of saffron group was significantly smaller than other groups. Histological comparison has shown that saffron significantly increased re-epithelialization in burn wounds, as compared to other cream-treated wounds. Although the exact mechanism of saffron is unclear, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of saffron may have contributed to the wound healing. The results of this study raise the possibility of potential efficacy of saffron in accelerating wound healing in burn injuries.

  12. Protective effect of Crocus sativus L. (Saffron) extract on spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farjah, Gholam Hossein; Salehi, Shadi; Ansari, Mohammad Hasan; Pourheidar, Bagher

    2017-03-01

    Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury of spinal cord is leading to the paraplegia observed. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of the saffron extract on spinal cord I/R injury. Thirty five male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 5 groups: intact, sham surgery, normal saline (NS), low dose saffron aqua extract, high dose saffron aqua extract. The mean motor deficit index (MDI) scores were significantly lower in the saffron extract groups than in the NS group at 48 hr after spinal cord ischemia (Pextract groups significantly decreased plasma level of malondialdehyde than in the NS Group (Pextract group than in the NS and low saffron group (Pextract may protect spinal cord neurons from I/R injury.

  13. Effects of sulfur water extraction on anthocyanins properties of tepals in flower of saffron (Crocus sativus L)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lotfi, L; Kalbasi-Ashtari, A; Hamedi, M; Ghorbani, F

    2015-01-01

    ...) was used to extract anthocyanins from saffron tepals. The extraction process was compared with acidified ethanol solution at similar extraction times of 20, 40, 60, 120, and 180 min at 40 °C...

  14. The impact of saffron (Crocus sativus supplementation on visual function in patients with dry age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Riazi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to evaluate the impact of saffron supplementation on visual function in patients with dry age-related macular degeneration (ARMD. Fifty-four participants, 23 males and 31 females, with dry ARMD were assigned to one of the following two groups. The treatment group (n=29 consumed 50 mg saffron daily during a 3-month period, while 25 subjects served as the control group. Visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and retinal thickness were measured at the beginning and at the end of the study. Quality of life was evaluated using the Melbourne low vision index before and after treatment. Significant increases in visual acuity and contrast sensitivity were found in the saffron group but not in the control group. Changes in macular thickness were not statistically different between the two groups. Short-term consumption of saffron may slow down the progression of disease and improve visual function, especially contrast sensitivity, in patients with dry ARMD.

  15. [Effects of saffron (Crocus sativus l. iridaceae) on blood level of follicle-stimulating hormone, and number and dynamics of body weight of offspring in female rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimova, U F; Kamilova, N K; Babaev, Kh F; Shukurova, P A; Hasanova, S I; Abbasov, R Y

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews the effects of saffron Сrocus sativus L. Iridaceae which grow in Azerbaijan on blood level of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and number and dynamics of body weight of offspring in female rats. The findings indicated that the per os administration of alcoholic extract of saffron was able to decrease the FSH levels in blood of the 12-month-old rats as compared to that in the control group, involving the animals of the same age which have not received the saffron extract, and was close to the FSH levels reported for the 6-month rats. There was also an increase in number and body weight of pups from rats receiving the saffron extract prior to pairing with the intact males.

  16. Chemical, microbiological, textural, color, and sensory characteristics of pressed ewe milk cheeses with saffron (Crocus sativus L.) during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licón, C C; Carmona, M; Molina, A; Berruga, M I

    2012-08-01

    Adding saffron to dairy products represents an innovative practice to introduce them to niche markets. This paper represents a contribution to this field, as few studies have evaluated the influence of this spice on general aspects and ripening parameters of cheese. In this work, pasteurized ewe milk pressed cheeses with saffron were made to study compositional, microbiological, color, textural, and sensory characteristics in relation to saffron concentration and ripening time. The main changes were observed on sensory characteristics and color. In addition, compositional, textural, and microbiological changes could be observed; among them, saffron cheeses were firmer and more elastic but less prone to fracture. A remarkable result that could lead to further studies is that saffron addition slightly slowed down growth of total and lactic acid bacteria. This resulted in a slightly lower rate of pH decrease during pressing and, as a consequence, lower salt and water content. Compositional differences were not evident by the end of the ripening period. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Crocetin, a carotenoid derived from saffron (Crocus sativus L.), improves acetylcholine-induced vascular relaxation in hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Andrea; Serrano-Díaz, Jessica; Nava, Eduardo; D'Alessandro, Anna Maria; Alonso, Gonzalo Luis; Carmona, Manuel; Llorens, Sílvia

    2014-01-01

    Hypertension is associated with endothelial dysfunction characterized by decreased vasorelaxation. Crocetin, a bioactive compound of saffron, exhibits favorable cardiovascular properties. We analyze the vasomodulatory effects of crocetin in hypertension. Myographical experiments were performed to compare the relaxation induced by acetylcholine (ACH) on aortic rings from normotensive (Wistar) and hypertensive (SHR) rats, incubated with or without crocetin or saffron extract and L-NAME or indomethacin. Extracts were also assayed in deendothelialized rings. UV-vis spectrophotometry and HPLC-DAD were used to characterize and quantify the saffron used. Crocetin enhanced the ACH relaxations in aorta from hypertensive (strongly) and normotensive rats (weakly). Saffron extract did not modify this. Crocetin plus L-NAME abolished the relaxant response in SHR but not in Wistar aorta. Crocetin plus indomethacin did not modify the indomethacin response in either SHR or Wistar aorta. Crocetin in rubbed segments did not modify the ACH responses. In contrast, saffron increased this response in rubbed segments from SHR but not Wistar rats. Crocetin exerts healthy vasomodulatory effects in hypertension, strongly improving endothelium-dependent ACH relaxations via endothelial nitric oxide but not the cyclooxygenase pathway. This work proposes that crocetin supplements are a possible complement in the therapy of hypertension. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Crocus sativus L

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-06-25

    Jun 25, 2014 ... The natural propagation rate of such plant species is relatively low; therefore an in vitro multiplication ... taken for efficient corm multiplication and in-vitro .... ts/020 Saffron.pdf. Devi K, Sharma M, Sing M, Ahuja PS (2011). In vitro cormlet production and growth evaluation under greenhouse conditions in ...

  19. PTR-TOF-MS and HPLC analysis in the characterization of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) from Italy and Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, E; Taiti, C; Heimler, D; Vignolini, P; Romani, A; Mancuso, S

    2016-02-01

    Saffron samples from Italy and Iran were analyzed for their content in aroma and bioactive compounds with different analytical techniques. HPLC was used for the identification and quantification of crocins, picrocrocin, safranal and flavonoids content, while the novel proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer was employed for the aroma compounds analysis. Italian saffron turned out to be richer in total crocins and safranal contents. Sample characterization was performed with an unsupervised statistical approach; tests involving different numbers of parameters deriving from the two analytical techniques were performed. The results achieved showed that the best samples classification was obtained by joining the information acquired from both techniques; following such an approach, a sharper separation between Iranian and Italian samples was achieved. Finally, among the variables that most contribute to the description of variability, isophorone, safranal and picrocrocin were identified to be the most significant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Saffron (Crocus sativus) ethanolic extract and its constituent, safranal, inhibits morphine-induced place preference in mice.

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    Ghoshooni, H; Daryaafzoon, M; Sadeghi-Gharjehdagi, S; Zardooz, H; Sahraei, H; Tehrani, S P; Noroozzadeh, A; Bahrami-Shenasfandi, F; Kaka, G H; Sadraei, S H

    2011-10-15

    The effects of saffron ethanolic extract and its constituent, safranal, on the acquisition and expression of morphine-induced place preference (CPP) in male Swiss Webster mice (20-25 g) were investigated in the present study. An unbiased place conditioning method was applied for assessment of morphine reward properties. The saffron extract and safranal were administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) during (acquisition) or after induction (expression) of morphine CPP. In a pilot study, the extract and safranal were alone administered to the animals to assess if they have any reward properties. Subcutaneous (s.c.) of morphine (4 and 8 mg kg(-1)) and extract (50 mg kg(-1); i.p.) induced CPP. Extract (10, 50 and 100 mg kg(-1); i.p.) reduced the acquisition and expression of morphine CPP. The same results were obtained when safranal (1, 5 and 10 mg kg(-1), i.p.) was used. It may be concluded that both ethanolic saffron extract and safranal can inhibit the acquisition and expression of morphine-induced CPP in the mice.

  1. Effects of humic acid application and mother corm weight on yield and growth of saffron (Crocus sativus L.

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    A Koocheki

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Saffron as a food, spicy and medicinal plant has more than 62000 ha under cultivation with about 250 tons annual dry stigma production in Iran, which includes about 90% of its world production. Therefore, this plant has a specific value in agricultural export products of Iran (Fallahi et al., 2014. Due to the important role of saffron in Iran’s agroecosystems, the improvement of its agronomic practices is essential. Nutritional management and mother corms size are two of the main factors affecting growth and yield of saffron. Humic acid is an eco-friendly fertilizer that improves the physical, chemical and biological properties of soil. This nutritional source has hormonal compounds and exerts a positive effect on elements absorption, quality and yield of plants. In addition, in saffron cultivation, it is possible to produce considerable amounts of stigma by using of standard mother corms with a minimum weight of 8 g. Because, large corms have a positive effect on stigma yield especially in the first growth cycle and the weight of replacement corms and consequently saffron flowering in the other growth cycles (Nassiri Mahallati et al., 2008. Therefore, the aim of this research was to investigate the interaction effects of mother corm size and different rates of humic acid on growth and yield of saffron. Materials and methods This experiment was carried out as factorial based on randomized completely block design with three replications in research farm of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, during two growing season (2009-2011. Experimental factors were consisted of mother corm weight (4-5, 6-8 and 9-10 g and application of humic acid (0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 kg.ha-1. Mother corm planting was in early October, 2009 with 10×20 cm corms distances and planting depth of 10cm. Humic acid (dissolved in water was used along with the first autumnal irrigation in two season growth. Flower and stigma yield of saffron were measured

  2. The effect of soil physiochemical characteristics and field age on agronomic traits of saffron (Crocus sativus L.

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    E. Azizi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to Investigation some soil characteristics and filed age effects on flower and corm yield of saffron, an experiment was conducted as factorial based on complete randomized design with five replications in two regions of Neyshabur during growing season 2009-2010. Treatments were included different filed ages (2, 4 and 6 years and two geographical regions (Eshagh abad and Soltan abad. Different characteristics such as fresh and dry weight of corm, corm number, number of corm sprout and flower and stigma yield of saffron were determined. Soil physical and chemical characteristics such as soil texture, pH and EC were measured. Results showed that effect of filed age on all characteristics was statistically significant. Flower and stigma yield were affected by region and filed age and region interaction significantly. Positive significant regression was shown between field age and parameters such as fresh and dry weight of corm, number of corm sprout and corm number. With increasing field age to 4 years, saffron yield increased and then decreased. Results showed that changes in stigma and flower yield was significantly related to physical and chemical soil criteria (soil texture, EC, pH characteristics. Significant negative correlations were observed between clay percentage of soil with corm number, corm dry weight, flower and stigma in.

  3. affron® a novel saffron extract (Crocus sativus L.) improves mood in healthy adults over 4 weeks in a double-blind, parallel, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

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    Kell, Graham; Rao, Amanda; Beccaria, Gavin; Clayton, Paul; Inarejos-García, Antonio Manuel; Prodanov, Marin

    2017-08-01

    In recent years phytotherapy has been explored as a source for alternative treatments for mood disorders. One potential candidate is saffron (Crocus sativus L.), whose main bioactive components are crocins and safranal. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of affron®, a standardised stigmas extract from Crocus sativus L. for improving mood, stress, anxiety and sleep quality in healthy adults. In this 3 arm study, 128 participants self-reporting low mood but not diagnosed with depression, were given affron® at 28mg/day, 22mg/day, or a placebo treatment in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial for 4 weeks. Mood was measured at baseline and at the end of the study, using the POMS (primary outcome measure) and PANAS questionnaires, and the DASS-21 scale. Sleep was monitored using Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Analysis indicated a significant decrease in negative mood and symptoms related to stress and anxiety at a 28mg/day dose (with a significant difference between 28mg/day and placebo on the POMS Total Mood Disturbance scale, p<0.001, d=-1.10), but no treatment effect at the 22mg/day dose. The main weaknesses of this investigation were found in the self-reporting nature of both the screening and the testing. affron® increased mood, reduced anxiety and managed stress without side effects, offering a natural alternative to standard treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Quantification of main bioactive metabolites from saffron (Crocus sativus) stigmas by a micellar electrokinetic chromatographic (MEKC) method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonda, Sándor; Parizsa, Péter; Surányi, Gyula; Gyémánt, Gyöngyi; Vasas, Gábor

    2012-07-01

    Saffron is an expensive spice, cultivated in many regions of the world. Its chief metabolites include crocins, which are responsible for the coloring ability, safranal, which is the main essential oil constituent, and picrocrocin which is the main bitter constituent of the spice. A simple micellar capillary electrochromatographic (MEKC) method capable of quantifying all three types of main constituents was established. The pH, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) content and electrolyte concentration of the background electrolyte was optimized. A simple extraction protocol was developed which can extract all metabolites of different polarity from the saffron stigmas. Optimal background electrolyte composed of 20 mM disodium phosphate, 5mM sodium tetraborate, 100 mM SDS, pH was set 9.5. Optimal extracting solvent was the background electrolyte, incubated with the sample for 60 min. The proposed method allows quantification of picrocrocin, safranal, crocetin- Di-(β-D-gentiobiosyl) ester and crocetin (β-D-glycosyl)-(β-D-gentiobiosyl) ester within 17.5 min, with limit of detection values ranging from 0.006 to 0.04 mg/ml, from a single stigma. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of sulfur water extraction on anthocyanins properties of tepals in flower of saffron (Crocus sativus L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfi, L; Kalbasi-Ashtari, A; Hamedi, M; Ghorbani, F

    2015-02-01

    A sulfur solution with different metabisulfite concentrations (100, 400, 700, 1,000 and 2,000 ppm) was used to extract anthocyanins from saffron tepals. The extraction process was compared with acidified ethanol solution at similar extraction times of 20, 40, 60, 120, and 180 min at 40 °C. The recovery of anthocyanins with sulfur solution was higher than ethanol extraction and reached to 700 mg anthocyanins/100 g, when the sulfur concentration and extraction time were 700 ppm and 60 min, respectively. HPLC analysis showed that anthocyanins extracted with sulfur solution followed by partial desulfurization and reducing sulfur content (to less than 250 ppm) had around 100 % more cyanidin 3 glucosides and 100 % less pelargonidin 3,5 glucosides in comparison with ethanol extraction. Additionally, the color of low-sulfured anthocyanins had more saturation (chroma), less lightness, and more stability than the one extracted with ethanol solution. While monomeric and polymeric anthocyanins extracted with sulfur solution had less than 1 % changes after 3 h extraction time, they had more than 12 % changes when they extracted with alcoholic solution at similar conditions. Overall, the sulfur method had a potential to extract stable anthocyanins from waste and discarded saffron tepals in aqueous solvent, and with higher quantity and quality (more attractive color) than conventional ethanol extraction method.

  6. FT-IR, FT-Raman spectroscopic study of carotenoids from saffron ( Crocus sativus L.) and some derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarantilis, Petros A.; Beljebbar, Abdelilah; Manfait, Michel; Polissiou, Moschos

    1998-04-01

    The carotenoids of saffron, crocins (CRCs), were extracted and their derivatives, dimethylcrocetin (DMCRT) and crocetin (CRT) were prepared from the extract by alkaline hydrolysis in methanol (DMCRT) and by alkaline hydrolysis in water followed by acidification (CRT), respectively. FT-IR, FT-Raman spectroscopies were used to study these compounds. The FT-IR spectra of CRCs, DMCRT and CRT have characteristic absorbance bands between 1706 and 1664 cm -1 ( νCO) and in the region between 1243 and 1228 cm -1 ( νC-O). Two main Raman lines were observed near 1540 and 1166 cm -1 which are respectively assigned to ( νCC) and ( νC-C) stretching modes.

  7. Effects of saffron (Crocus sativus petal ethanolic extract on hematology, antibody response, and spleen histology in rats

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    Atefeh Babaei

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Saffron petal is a by-product that contains flavonoids and anthocyanins. In order to study the effects of saffron petal extract (SPE on blood parameters, immune system, and spleen histology, five treatments (n=6 were used in a completely randomized design. Materials and Methods: The treatments were 0, 75, 150, 225, and 450 mg/kg body weight of SPE. The SPE was injected intraperitoneally to 30 rats (10-week old, weighing 225±15 g for 14 days. Immunization was performed using 1×108 sheep red blood cells (SRBC on days 0 and 7 subcutaneously in all treatment groups. On day 15, blood was collected from the heart of rats after anesthesia. One part of samples were poured in heparinized tubes for counting whole blood cells (CBC and different white blood cells (WBC and the other part was used to measure IgG using ELISA technique. The spleen was stained by hematoxylin- eosin for histological study. The data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA program and the means evaluation was done using Tukey’s test. Results are presented as mean±SD. Results: Results showed no significant difference between treatments and control group regarding the amount of RBC, HGB, HCT, and PLT. The level of IgG at 75 mg/kg was significantly increased in comparison with other groups. No changes were observed in spleen histology. Conclusion: The results indicate that use of SPE at dose of 75 mg/kg causes an increase in antibody response without any change in hematological parameters and spleen histology.

  8. Cloning, Structural Characterization, and Phylogenetic Analysis of Flower MADS-Box Genes from Crocus (Crocus sativus L.

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    Athanasios S. Tsaftaris

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Crocus (Crocus sativus L. is a crop species cultivated for its flowers and, more specifically, for its red stigmas. The flower of crocus is bisexual and sterile, since crocus is a triploid species. Its perianth consists of six petaloid tepals: three tepals in whorl 1 (outer tepals and three tepals in whorl 2 (inner tepals. The androecium consists of three distinct stamens and the gynoecium consists of a single compound pistil with three carpels, a single three-branched style, and an inferior ovary. The dry form of the stigmas constitutes the commercial saffron used as a food additive, in the coloring industry, and in medicine. In order to uncover and understand the molecular mechanisms controlling flower development in cultivated crocus and its relative wild progenitor species, and characterize a number of crocus flower mutants, we have cloned and characterized different, full-length, cDNA sequences encoding MADS-box transcription factor proteins involved in flower formation.

  9. Spatial relationships between seed bank and seedling populations of Hordeum spontaneum and Cardaria draba in saffron (Crocus sativus L. fields

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    hasan makariyan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Geostatistical techniques were used to characterize the spatial relationship between Hordeum spontaneum and Cardaria draba seedling and seed bank over the course of one growing season (2004-2005 in three saffron fields, located in Southern Khorasan, Iran. The density and spatial distribution of weeds varied widely with fields. The emergence percentage was higher for Cardaria draba than for H. spontaneum in all fields. Semivariograms showed spatial autocorrelation in seed bank and seedling populations of H. spontaneum and C. draba in all fields. Cross-semivariograms showed moderate to strong (63.3 to 94.7% and strong spatial continuity (78.4 to 95.4 %. between seed bank and seedling population densities of H. spontaneum and C. draba, respectively. Grey-scale field maps of C. draba seed banks corresponded visually to maps of seedling populations and could have been used to target control efforts, but visual correspondence between H. spontaneum seed bank and seedling maps was poor. Seed bank and seedling mapping may be useful for site-specific management, but additional information is needed to understand variation in the relationships between these two populations over time and space.

  10. Changes of antioxidant enzyme activities and isoenzyme profiles during in vitro shoot formation in saffron (Crocus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Golandam; Ebrahimzadeh, H

    2010-03-01

    Among the different concentrations of Thidiazuron (TDZ) and between the two media Gamborg (B5) and Murashige and Skoog (MS), the highest frequency of shoot formation could be seen in the MS medium with TDZ concentration of 4.54 microM. Among the different concentrations of Naphtalene acetic acid (NAA) and Benzyl adenine (BA) in the two aforementioned media, the maximum proliferation and rooting of saffron shoots were obtained in a B5 medium containing 2.22 microM NAA and 2.68 microM BA. Peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), esterase (EST) and polyphenoloxidase (PPO) measurements proved that all the enzymes had a similar pattern of changes, according to which their concentrations increased in the first stages of development and then decreased. The same pattern was observed for polyphenoloxidase in a B5 medium while in the MS medium a reverse pattern was observed. The enzyme concentration decreased and then increased during shoot formation. The results show the principal role of antioxidant enzymes in the complicated process of organogenesis.

  11. The effect of high density and depth of planting on agronomic characteristic of Saffron (Crocus sativus L. and corms behavior

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    A Koocheki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of high density and depth of planting on agronomic characteristic of Saffron, a field experiment was conducted as a complete randomized block design with three replications in Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran during two growing seasons of 2008-2009 and 2009-2010. Treatments were six levels of high densities (8, 11, 13, 16, 19 and 21 ton corms per hectare and three planting depths (5, 10 and 15 cm. Results indicated that the flowering rate increased in the second year and maximum and minimum of flower number, dry weight of flower and stigma were observed in 10 cm and 5 cm planting depth, respectively. With increasing corm density, flower number, dry weight of flower and stigma were increased significantly and maximum flower number, dry weight of flower and stigma were obtained in 19 and 21 tone corm per hectare. Result of this study showed that the maximum flower and stigma yield was obtained with 10cm planting depth and 19 t.ha-1. The highest and lowest number of corms observed in 21 and 8 t.ha-1 corms planting with 213.17 and 80.22 corms in m2, respectively; however, the maximum dry weight of corm was obtained in 11 tone corms per hectare. The maximum and the minimum of corm number was found in 5 cm and 15 cm planting depth but the highest and lowest dry weights of corm was obtained in 15 cm and 5cm planting depth, respectively.

  12. Saffron (Crocus sativus) intake provides nutritional preconditioning against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in Wild Type and ApoE(-/-) mice: Involvement of Nrf2 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efentakis, P; Rizakou, A; Christodoulou, E; Chatzianastasiou, A; López, M G; León, R; Balafas, E; Kadoglou, N P E; Tseti, I; Skaltsa, H; Kostomitsopoulos, N; Iliodromitis, E K; Valsami, G; Andreadou, I

    2017-10-01

    Saffron is an antioxidant herbal derivative; however, its efficacy as a nutritional cardioprotective agent has not been fully elucidated. We investigated the cardioprotective properties of a standardized saffron aqueous extract (SFE) against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in Wild-Type (WT) and ApoE(-/-) mice and the underlying molecular mechanisms. WT and ApoE(-/-) mice were subjected to 30 min I and 2 h R, with the following per os interventions for 4 weeks: 1) WT Control Group, receiving Water for Injection (WFI); 2) WT Crocus Group, receiving SFE at a dose of 60 mg/kg/day; 3) WT Crocus + Wort group, receiving SFE as described above and wortmannin at a dose of 60 μg/kg bolus 15 min before R; 4) ApoE(-/-) Control Group, receiving WFI; 5) ApoE(-/-) Crocus Group, receiving SFE at a dose of 60 mg/kg/day and 6) ApoE(-/-) Crocus + Wort: receiving SFE as described above and wortmannin at a dose of 60 μg/kg bolus, 15 min before R. Ischemic area/area at risk (I/R%) ratio was measured. Blood samples and ischemic myocardial tissue were collected at the 10th min of reperfusion for assessment of troponin I, malondialdehyde (MDA), nitrotyrosine (NT), p-eNOS, eNOS, p-Akt, Akt, p-p42/p-p44, p-GSK3β, GSK3β, IL-6, Nrf2, HO-1 and MnSOD expression. The effect of SFE on Nrf2 expression was also evaluated in vitro. SFE reduced infarct size in WT (16.15 ± 3.7% vs 41.57 ± 2.48%, ***p < 0.001) and in ApoE(-/-) mice (16.14 ± 1.47% vs 45.57 ± 1.73%, ***p < 0.001). The administration of wortmannin resulted in partial inhibition of the infarct size limitation efficacy of SFE (in both WT and Apo-E(-/-) mice). Mice receiving SFE showed increased levels of eNOS, p-Akt, p-ERK1/2, p-44/p-42 and p-GSK3β-Ser9 and reduced expression of IL-6 and iNOS; furthermore, SFE reduced the levels of MDA and NT. SFE induced Nrf2 expression and its downstream targets, HO-1 and MnSOD in the myocardium of the treated animals, and induced Nrf2 expression in vitro in a dose

  13. Comparative expression analysis of senescence gene CsNAP and B-class floral development gene CsAP3 during different stages of flower development in Saffron (Crocus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wafai, Asrar H; Bukhari, Shoiab; Mokhdomi, Taseem A; Amin, Asif; Wani, Zubair; Hussaini, Amjad; Mir, Javid I; Qadri, Raies A

    2015-07-01

    Crocus sativus, a monocot triploid species belonging to the Iridaceae family, is cultivated for its red stigmatic lobes of the carpel that constitute saffron. Flower development has been extensively studied in different plants. Different floral developmental pathways have been deciphered in many plants. In Crocus sativus, flower is the most important part and understanding the pathway underlying the flower development can pave the way for new avenues to improve its productivity and quality. The combination of class A genes (including APETALA1; CsAP1 and APETALA2; CsAP2), class B genes (including APETALA3; CsAP3 and PISTILLATA; CsPI) and class C genes (including AGAMOUS; CsAG) that are active in each whorl, determines the identity of the organs that will later develop in that whorl. CsAP3 is a class B homeotic gene which promotes petal and stamen formation and has a very important role in flower development. It also activates other genes playing pivotal role in flower development. It has been earlier reported that CsAP3 gene has direct role in activation of CsNAP gene which promotes senescence in plants. Present work was focused on study of relative gene expression changes of CsAP3 and CsNAP gene during different stages of flower development. CsAP3 gene expression was found maximum during late-preanthesis stages of stigma development. Expression increases from stage 5 to stage 6 of flower development and then reduces again from stage 6 to stage 7. CsNAP gene had moderate expression during stage 3 to stage 4 transition and its expression increased abruptly from stage 6 to stage 7 of flower development. There is no direct concordance in the expression of CsAP3 and CsNAP gene expression in saffron. We may conclude that some other factor(s) may be responsible for initiation of CsNAP expression and CsAP3 gene may directly/indirectly be involved in regulating the factors responsible for CsNAP activation.

  14. Quantitation of Crocins and picrocrocin in saffron by HPLC: application to quality control and phytochemical differentiation from other crocus taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulakiotis, Nikolaos Stavros; Gikas, Evangelos; Iatrou, Gregoris; Lamari, Fotini N; Tsarbopoulos, Anthony

    2015-05-01

    A chromatographic method was developed and fully validated for the determination of the major saffron constituents, i.e., picrocrocin and five major crocins. Dried samples (styles of Crocus sativus and other Crocus taxa) were extracted with MeOH : water (1 : 1, v/v), and chromatographic separation of the analytes was achieved by reversed-phase chromatography using a gradient elution. Full validation was performed using spiked samples with analytes, which were isolated, purified, and characterized by MS due to a lack of commercial standards. The method showed a good fit (r2 > 0.999) for all analytes with limit of quantitation values in the range of 1-15 µg/mL, and demonstrated adequate intra- and inter-precision (saffron samples and of indigenous Crocus taxa and allowed for the first time the absolute quantitation of several Crocus components. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Crocus sativus L. (saffron) stigma aqueous extract induces apoptosis in alveolar human lung cancer cells through caspase-dependent pathways activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarghandian, Saeed; Borji, Abasalt; Farahmand, Seyed Kazem; Afshari, Reza; Davoodi, Saeideh

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide, lung cancer is the most common form of cancer. Saffron has been used in folk medicine for centuries. We investigated the potential of saffron to induce cytotoxic and apoptotic effects in lung cancer cells (A549). We also examined the caspase-dependent pathways activation of saffron-induced apoptosis against the A549 cells. A549 cells were incubated with different concentrations of saffron extract; then cell morphological changes, cell viability, and apoptosis were determined by the normal invertmicroscope, MTT assay, Annexin V and propidium iodide, and flow cytometric analysis, respectively. Activated caspases were detected by treatment of saffron in lung cancer cells using fluorescein-labeled inhibitors of polycaspases. The proliferation of the A549 cells were decreased after treatment with saffron in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The percentage of apoptotic cells increased with saffron concentrations. Saffron induced morphological changes, decreased percentage of viable cells, and induced apoptosis. Saffron could induce apoptosis in the A549 cells and activate caspase pathways. The levels of caspases involved in saffron-induced apoptosis in the A549 cells indicating caspase-dependent pathway were induced by saffron. The anticancer activity of the aqueous extract of saffron could be attributed partly to its inhibition of the cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis in cancer cells through caspase-dependent pathways activation.

  16. Crocus sativus L. (Saffron Stigma Aqueous Extract Induces Apoptosis in Alveolar Human Lung Cancer Cells through Caspase-Dependent Pathways Activation

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    Saeed Samarghandian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, lung cancer is the most common form of cancer. Saffron has been used in folk medicine for centuries. We investigated the potential of saffron to induce cytotoxic and apoptotic effects in lung cancer cells (A549. We also examined the caspase-dependent pathways activation of saffron-induced apoptosis against the A549 cells. A549 cells were incubated with different concentrations of saffron extract; then cell morphological changes, cell viability, and apoptosis were determined by the normal invertmicroscope, MTT assay, Annexin V and propidium iodide, and flow cytometric analysis, respectively. Activated caspases were detected by treatment of saffron in lung cancer cells using fluorescein-labeled inhibitors of polycaspases. The proliferation of the A549 cells were decreased after treatment with saffron in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The percentage of apoptotic cells increased with saffron concentrations. Saffron induced morphological changes, decreased percentage of viable cells, and induced apoptosis. Saffron could induce apoptosis in the A549 cells and activate caspase pathways. The levels of caspases involved in saffron-induced apoptosis in the A549 cells indicating caspase-dependent pathway were induced by saffron. The anticancer activity of the aqueous extract of saffron could be attributed partly to its inhibition of the cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis in cancer cells through caspase-dependent pathways activation.

  17. Hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic extract of Crocus sativus L. (Saffron stigma in comparison with silymarin against rifampin induced hepatotoxicity in rats

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    Daryoush Mohajeri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anti-tuberculous drug Rifampin is a potent hepatotoxicant. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effect of ethanolic extract of Crocus sativus L. stigma (EECSL.S in comparison with standard drug silimarin against rifampin-induced hepatotoxicity in the rats. Materials and Method: 40 male Wistar rats with the mean body weight of 200±20 gr and age of 10 weeks were randomly assigned into 5 groups of 8 animals and kept in specific cages with 12/12 h light/dark cycle at 21±2οC. Group I as normal control received normal saline (10 ml/kg and group II as toxicant control received rifampin (500 mg/kg. Group Ш as positive control received silymarin plus rifampin (500 mg/kg and groups IV and V (50 mg/kg received EECSL.S at 40 mg/kg and 80 mg/kg plus rifampin, respectively. All the treatments were carried out through the gavage dissolving in 10 ml/kg normal saline daily for 1 month. At the end of experiment, levels of liver function marker enzymes (Aspartate aminotransferase, Alanine aminotransferase and Alkaline Phosphatase, total bilirubin, albumin and total proteins were assessed in serum of the rats. Moreover, histopathological observation was assayed at the degree of hepatic injury. Results: In rifampin-treated rats, silymarin and EECSL.S (40 and 80 mg/kg significantly decreased the levels of serum biomarker of hepathic injury and total bilirubin and elevated the levels of albumin and total proteins. Histopathologically, silymarin and EECSL.S ameliorated rifampin induced hepatic injury. Histopathological changes were in agreement with biochemical findings.Conclusion: Results indicated that EECSL.S (80 mg/kg equals with silymarin as standard drug, point of view hepatoprotective effects against rifampin-induced hepatotoxicity

  18. Petals of Crocus sativus L. as a potential source of the antioxidants crocin and kaempferol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeka, Keti; Ruparelia, Ketan C; Continenza, Maria A; Stagos, Dimitrios; Vegliò, Francesco; Arroo, Randolph R J

    2015-12-01

    Saffron from the province of L'Aquila, in the Abruzzo region of Italy, is highly prized and has been awarded a formal recognition by the European Union with EU Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) status. Despite this, the saffron regions are abandoned by the younger generations because the traditional cultivation of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is labour intensive and yields only one crop of valuable saffron stamens per year. Petals of the saffron Crocus have had additional uses in traditional medicine and may add value to the crops for local farmers. This is especially important because the plant only flowers between October and November, and farmers will need to make the best use of the flowers harvested in this period. Recently, the petals of C. sativus L., which are considered a waste material in the production of saffron spice, were identified as a potential source of natural antioxidants. The antioxidants crocin and kaempferol were purified by flash column chromatography, and identified by thin layer chromatography (TLC), HPLC-DAD, infrared (IR), and nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H &(13)C NMR) spectroscopy. The antioxidant activity was determined with the ABTS and DPPH tests. The antioxidant activities are mainly attributed to carotenoid and flavonoid compounds, notably glycosides of crocin and kaempferol. We found in dried petals 0.6% (w/w) and 12.6 (w/w) of crocin and kaempferol, respectively. Petals of C. sativus L. have commercial potential as a source for kaempferol and crocetin glycosides, natural compounds with antioxidant activity that are considered to be the active ingredients in saffron-based herbal medicine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Identification of Crocus sativus and its Adulterants from Chinese Markets by using DNA Barcoding Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei-Juan; Li, Fei-Fei; Liu, Yu-Jing; Long, Chun-Lin

    2015-03-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is a common but very expensive herbal medicine. As an important traditional medicine, it has an outstanding effect in treating irregular and painful menstruation. Recently, the over-demand tendency of saffron results in an unusual phenomenon in the medicinal markets. Adulterants and saffron-like substitutes are intentionally mixed into medicinal markets and pharmacies or online stores, affecting drug safety and food quality. Our study aimed to identify saffron from its adulterants via DNA barcoding. Samples (13 saffron + 4 others containing Carthamus tinctorius or Chrysanthemum x morifolium) obtained from 12 different provinces of China. Through DNA barcoding, samples were compared using three candidate markers, trnH-psbA, rbcL-a and ITS2. trnH-psbA and rbcL-a were capable of distinguishing different accessions. ITS2 could identify samples even at intra-specific level. According to these three barcodes, four samples were identified saffron-like substitutes. The adulterant rate in Chinese markets reaches as high as 33.33% that may cause health risks and further may reduce saffron efficacy once is being used as herbal remedy. In order to make a distinction between C. sativus with other genera as adulterants, DNA barcoding is suggested.

  20. Geographical identification of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) by linear discriminant analysis applied to the UV-visible spectra of aqueous extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Archivio, Angelo Antonio; Maggi, Maria Anna

    2017-03-15

    We attempted geographical classification of saffron using UV-visible spectroscopy, conventionally adopted for quality grading according to the ISO Normative 3632. We investigated 81 saffron samples produced in L'Aquila, Città della Pieve, Cascia, and Sardinia (Italy) and commercial products purchased in various supermarkets. Exploratory principal component analysis applied to the UV-vis spectra of saffron aqueous extracts revealed a clear differentiation of the samples belonging to different quality categories, but a poor separation according to the geographical origin of the spices. On the other hand, linear discriminant analysis based on 8 selected absorbance values, concentrated near 279, 305 and 328nm, allowed a good distinction of the spices coming from different sites. Under severe validation conditions (30% and 50% of saffron samples in the evaluation set), correct predictions were 85 and 83%, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Investigation of the neuroprotective action of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) in aluminum-exposed adult mice through behavioral and neurobiochemical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linardaki, Zacharoula I; Orkoula, Malvina G; Kokkosis, Alexandros G; Lamari, Fotini N; Margarity, Marigoula

    2013-02-01

    In the present study, the possible reversal effects of saffron against established aluminum (Al)-toxicity in adult mice, were investigated. Control, Al-treated (50 mg AlCl(3)/kg/day diluted in the drinking water for 5 weeks) and Al+saffron (Al-treatment as previously plus 60 mg saffron extract/kg/day intraperitoneally for the last 6 days), groups of male Balb-c mice were used. We assessed learning/memory, the activity of acetylcholinesterase [AChE, salt-(SS)/detergent-soluble(DS) isoforms], butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE, SS/DS isoforms), monoamine oxidase (MAO-A, MAO-B), the levels of lipid peroxidation (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH), in whole brain and cerebellum. Brain Al was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry, while, for the first time, crocetin, the main active metabolite of saffron, was determined in brain after intraperitoneal saffron administration by HPLC. Al intake caused memory impairment, significant decrease of AChE and BuChE activity, activation of brain MAO isoforms but inhibition of cerebellar MAO-B, significant elevation of brain MDA and significant reduction of GSH content. Although saffron extract co-administration had no effect on cognitive performance of mice, it reversed significantly the Al-induced changes in MAO activity and the levels of MDA and GSH. AChE activity was further significantly decreased in cerebral tissues of Al+saffron group. The biochemical changes support the neuroprotective potential of saffron under toxicity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) Tea Intake Prevents Learning/Memory Defects and Neurobiochemical Alterations Induced by Aflatoxin B1 Exposure in Adult Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linardaki, Zacharoula I; Lamari, Fotini N; Margarity, Marigoula

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the potential neurotoxic effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and the preventive effects of saffron. Male Balb-c mice received AFB1 (0.6 mg/kg/day intraperitoneally for 4 days), saffron infusion (90 mg styles/200 mL, ad libitum access for 2 weeks) or saffron infusion plus AFB1 (saffron treatment as previously plus 0.6 mg AFB1/kg/day intraperitoneally for the last 4 days). Control mice were intraperitoneally injected with DMSO:saline (1:1, v/v) during AFB1 treatment. Learning/memory was assessed by passive avoidance task. The activity of acetylcholinesterase [AChE, salt-(SS)/detergent-soluble(DS) isoforms], butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE, SS/DS isoforms), monoamine oxidase (MAO-A, MAO-B), the levels of lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde, MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH), were determined in whole brain (minus cerebellum) and cerebellum. We demonstrate for the first time that AFB1 administration impaired the memory of adult mice and decreased significantly whole brain AChE and BuChE activity, cerebellar AChE activity and cerebral GSH content. Moreover, MAO isoforms activity in whole brain, MAO-B activity in cerebellum and MDA levels of both tissues were significantly higher after AFB1 treatment. Pre-treatment with saffron prevented memory decline, activation of MAO-A and MAO-B in whole brain and cerebellum, respectively, and lipid peroxidation triggered by AFB1. Interestingly, the activity of AChE isoforms in whole brain, DS-AChE in cerebellum and GSH levels of both tissues were further significantly decreased in saffron +AFB1-treated mice compared with AFB1 group. Our findings support the neuroprotective efficacy of saffron against AFB1 in adult mice.

  3. Effects of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) and its active constituent, crocin, on recognition and spatial memory after chronic cerebral hypoperfusion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Sadeghnia, Hamid Reza; Ghaeni, Fatemeh Abbasi; Motamedshariaty, Vahideh Sadat; Mohajeri, Seyed Ahmad

    2012-03-01

    Cerebral ischemia produces brain damage and related behavioral deficits such as memory. In this study, a rat model of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion was used to determine whether saffron extract and crocin, which are potent antioxidants and free radical scavengers, can reduce vascular cognitive impairment. Male adult Wistar rats were administered different doses of an aqueous solution of crocin or hydroalcohol extract of saffron intraperitoneally (i.p.) 5 days after permanent occlusion of the common carotid arteries. Spatial learning and memory were assessed in training trials, 7-11 days after common carotid artery ligation using the Morris water maze. The results showed that the escape latency time was significantly reduced from 24.64 s in the control group to 8.77 and 10.47 s by crocin (25 mg/kg) and saffron extract (250 mg/kg). The traveled distance to find the platform was also changed from 772 cm in the control group to 251 and 294 cm in the crocin (25 mg/kg) and saffron extract (250 mg/kg) groups. The percentages of time spent in the target quadrant, in comparison with the control group (24.16%), increased to 34.25% in the crocin (25 mg/kg) and 34.85% in the saffron extract (250 mg/kg) group. This study suggests that saffron extract and crocin improve spatial cognitive abilities following chronic cerebral hypoperfusion and that these effects may be related to the antioxidant effects of these compounds. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Quantification of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) Metabolites Crocins, Picrocrocin and Safranal for Quality Determination of the Spice Grown Under Different Environmental Moroccan Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The primary goal of this study was to propose a sustainable substitute crop with high added value in some Moroccan agricultural areas with low and erratic rainfalls, for their socio-economical development. The quality of the saffron spice crop produced under different Moroccan environmental conditio...

  5. Geographical classification of Italian saffron (Crocus sativus L.) based on chemical constituents determined by high-performance liquid-chromatography and by using linear discriminant analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Archivio, Angelo Antonio; Giannitto, Andrea; Maggi, Maria Anna; Ruggieri, Fabrizio

    2016-12-01

    One hundred and forty-four Italian saffron samples produced in the years from 2009 to 2015 in five distinct areas located in four different regions, Abruzzo (L'Aquila), Tuscany (Florence), Umbria (Cascia and Città della Pieve) and Sardinia, have been analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. Intensities of the chromatographic peaks attributed to crocins, safranal, picrocrocin and its derivatives and flavonoids were considered as variables in linear discriminant analysis to attempt geographical classification. The results revealed that spices produced at different sites of the Italian territory can be discriminated with good accuracy. The differentiation of saffron cultivated in Sardinia from those produced in Central Italy was mainly attributed to different contents of the most abundant crocins. Good differentiation of spices produced in close sites of Central Italy was also observed, 88% of validation samples being correctly classified; some minor crocins are responsible for such discrimination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Rapid determination of crocetin esters and picrocrocin from saffron spice (Crocus sativus L.) using UV-visible spectrophotometry for quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Ana M; Carmona, Manuel; Zalacain, Amaya; Carot, José M; Jabaloyes, José M; Alonso, Gonzalo L

    2008-05-14

    The aim of this work was the development of multivariate models able to determine the content of the main crocetin esters and picrocrocin from spectrophotometric data that could be used for routine quality control of saffron. These compounds were determined with HPLC in Spanish saffron, and their absorbance spectra from 190 to 700 nm were simultaneously monitored. Partial least-squares regression (PLSR) models have been obtained and applied to the determination of individual crocetin esters, to the sum of crocetin esters, and to picrocrocin. A modification of the Kennard-Stone algorithm was used to divide the pool of samples into calibration and validation subsets. The best predictions were obtained with the sum of crocetin esters model, followed by the model for cis-crocetin (beta- D-glucosyl)-(beta- D-gentiobiosyl) ester, trans-crocetin di-(beta- D-gentiobiosyl) ester, and trans-crocetin (beta- D-glucosyl)-(beta- D-gentiobiosyl) ester, whereas the worst predictions were found with the picrocrocin and trans-crocetin (beta- D-gentiobiosyl) ester models. These models may enhance quality control in saffron enterprises.

  7. To Evaluate the Effect of Soil Physical and Chemical Characteristics on the Growth Characteristics of Saffron (Crocus sativus L. Corms in Tornbat-e Heydariyeh Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Zarghani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Saffron is one of the most economically important plants across Iran and all over the world. The most important cultivated areas of saffron are in Khorasan-e Razavi and Southern Khorasan provinces (Jihad Keshavarzi Khorasan Razavi, 2013. The corm is the reservoir of photosynthetic materials and plays an important role in the saffron life cycle. Corm size and physicochemical characteristics of soil determine the growth and yield of saffron (Aytekin et al., 2008. It has been advised to use corms with diameter more than 2.5 cm (Kafi et al., 2002. Despite the importance of this plant, few studies have been conducted on the effects of soil characteristics on the growth of the plant in natural field conditions. Therefore, the objective which we will try to achieve is: to evaluate the effect of soil physical and chemical characteristics of the growth of saffron corm and determine the most important effect characteristics. Materials and methods In September 2012, 30 samples of 3 to 5 years old saffron corms were taken from the fields with similar management in Torbat Heydariyeh. The surrounding soil corms (depth of 0 to 30 cm were sampled, too. Dry weight of corms was measured in the laboratory. Air dried soil samples were passed through a 2 mm sieve and used for physical-chemical analyses. Soil texture was determined by using pipet method. Total nitrogen, available phosphorous, available potassium, soil organic carbon and calcium carbonate equivalent were measured in bulk soil samples. Calcium, magnesium, sodium, EC and pH were measured in the saturated soil paste. Fe, Cu and Zn were extracted by DTPA and measured by atomic adsorption spectroscopy. Correlation, regression and neural network technique were used to analyze the data and to identify the most important soil characteristics on the corms characteristics. Results and discussion Diameter and dry weight of corms with mean values of 34.04 mm and 3.72 g, ranged from 22.8 to 51.7 mm

  8. Comparison of the Anxiolytic Effects of Saffron (Crocus sativus. L and Diazepam Before Herniorrhaphy Surgery: A Double Blind Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Basiri-Moghadam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Anxiety is an unpleasant state of feeling agitation and pressure induced by the patient’s fear of hospitalization, anesthesia or surgery. Objectives The present study is aimed to compare the effects of dried extract of saffron and diazepam on soothing the pre-herniorrhaphy surgery anxiety. Patients and Methods In this double blind clinical study, during 8 months, 102 patients were studied in 2012. all the patients in intervention group (n = 50 received 25 mg dried extract of saffron and participants in control group (n = 52 received 5 mg oral diazepam. Level of anxiety of the patients was measured using speillberger state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI before intervention and 3 hours after administration (immediately after entering the surgery room filled out by the patients. The patients in the two groups were compared concerning level of anxiety before/after intervention. The two groups of participants had almost equal demographic features. Results According to the results, level of trait anxiety in the intervention groups decreased from 37.24 ± 7.4 to 34.72 ± 7.45 and the trend among the control group was vice versa and increased from 34.51 ± 10.74 to 38.8 ± 9.97. The data showed significant relation between level of trait anxiety before and after intervention in control and experiment groups (P = 0.019. Conclusions Considering the findings, in comparison to diazepam, dried extract of saffron at 25 mg dose is more effective on soothing anxiety.

  9. Effect of Nutrient Solution Concentration, Time and Frequency of Foliar Application on Growth of Leaf and Daughter Corms of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Khorasani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of different levels of nutrient solution concentration and times and frequencies of foliar applications on dry weight, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium concentrations of leaf and corm of saffron, a pot experiment was conducted as a completely randomized design with factorial arrangement and three replications under open door conditions in research garden of ferdowsi university, faculty of agriculture. The experimental treatments were included 4 levels of solution concentration (0, 4, 8 and 12 per 1000 and 7 levels of time and frequency of foliar applications (F1: foliar application on 3th February, F2: foliar application on 18th February, F3: foliar application on 5th March, F4: foliar applications on 3th and 18th February, F5: foliar applications on 3th February and 5th March, F6: foliar applications on 18th February and 5th March, F7: foliar applications on 3th and 18th February and 5th March. Results of variance analysis showed that fresh and dry weight of corm and leaf were not influenced by concentration, time and frequency of foliar applications. Also, comparison of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium concentrations of leaf and corm showed that there was no significant difference between levels of foliar treatments and control. Therefore, it seems that due attention to pattern of leaf and low nutrient demand of saffron, foliar applications in different levels of nutrient solution concentrations and times and frequencies of foliar applications could not increase vegetative growth and consequently, could not improve the growth and nutritional properties of saffron corms.

  10. 21 CFR 73.500 - Saffron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Saffron. 73.500 Section 73.500 Food and Drugs FOOD... EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.500 Saffron. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive saffron is the dried stigma of Crocus sativus L. The definition of saffron in this paragraph is for the purpose of...

  11. Effect of different levels of municipal waste compost and maternal corm weight on yield and vegetative characteristics of saffron (Crocus sativus L.

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    Zohre Gholizade

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effects of different municipal waste compost levels of and maternal corm weights on yield and vegetative characteristics of saffron, an experiment was conducted with a factorial arrangement based on randomized complete block design with three replications at the Agricultural Research Station, University of Birjand during the growing season of 2014-2015. The treatments were four levels of municipal waste compost (0, 5, 10 and 20 t.ha-1 and three mother corm weights (0.1- 4, 4.1- 8 and 8.1- 12 g. The traits included the number of flower, fresh weight of flower, stigma and fresh weight of corm with scale, weight and diameter replacement and number of buds. The results showed that the effect of municipal waste compost was significant on total weight corm with scale, diameter of center corm and replacement corm, weight of fresh flower and stigma. The highest corm weight and number of replacement corms were obtained for treatment 10 t. ha-1 compost (21.33 g. plant -1 and 2.33 number, respectively, while the control had the lowest values (with 16.4 g. plant -1 and 1.66 number. The effect of mother corm weight was significant on the vegetative characteristics of saffron. The highest corm weight with scale, diameter of replacement, flower yield and fresh weight of flower and stigma were observed for 8.1-12 g. The most fresh  and dry weight of stigma (0.31 and 0.11 g. m -1, respectively were observed from treatment  mother corm weight 8.1-12 g, while the lowest values (0.06 and 0.03 g. m -1 were 0.1- 4g.  Interaction between municipal waste compost and corm weight had a significant effect on the weight of fresh flower, sepal, stigma and the number of lateral buds and the highest fresh weight of flower (9.36 g. m-2 and stigma (0.41 g. m-2 were observed for treatment 10 t. ha-1 and 8.1-12g. Generally, the findings of the current study revealed that the use of municipal waste compost (10 t. ha-1 and large mother corms (8/1-12 g

  12. Meta-analysis of Saffron (.Crocus sativus L Agronomical Researches, with an Emphasis on the Consumption of Organic Fertilizers and Agronomical Practices in Iran

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    mohamad mokhtari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies that investigated the impact of organic fertilizers (manure, compost and biological fertilizers and agronomical practices (density, method, date and depth of planting on saffron yield have a long history in Iran. Due to the distribution and inconsistency in the results obtained from different studies, a meta-analytic approach was used in the current study. for this aim, 47 organic fertilizers studies and 44 agronomical practices studies were selected from 202 gathered studies and analyzed. The criteria for the selection of studies were the adequacy of data for the present meta-analysis. Among the individual fertilizer studies, manure fertilizer had the highest impact on saffron dry weight (g= 1.493 at 95% confidence interval. Average amount, 40 to 50ton/ha of cow manure, 20 to 30ton/ha of compost that is used as a combination with Biofertilizer (Nitroxin with Nitrogen-fixing bacteria were more effective than higher amounts of these fertilizers will be alone. Among the agronomical practices studies, plant density had the highest and depth of planting had the lowest effect size on economical yield and number of flower. The optimal density for maximum yield was 50-100 corm per (m2, optimal consumed weight average 9-12 ton per hectare observed, optimal weight of any corm was 10-20 (g. Among planting methods, row-mass method was the best optimal (inter-planting was 20 cm and intra-planting 10 cm. The best planting dates was the end of May and the first decade of Jun. Optimal planting depth was 15-20cm. Homogeneity between organic fertilizers studies was accepted and the homogeneity between agronomical practices except depth of planting studies was accepted. This heterogeneity was caused by factors such as age of farms and different regions that had the most impact on heterogeneity and effect size. The present meta-analysis aims to provide a better understanding of agronomical and fertilizers management and offer the best possible management

  13. Short communication: investigating the effect of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) nano-sizing on its colour extraction efficiency: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abootalebian, Mehrdad; Karbasi, Maryam; Sadeghi, Maliheh; Abdinian, Mahnaz; Polikarpov, Igor

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated the effect of saffron nano-sizing on its the colour extraction yield. The whole stigma was ball-milled at three different times (10, 20 and 100 h), immediately or with a 24 h delay was submitted to absorption test, and then the colour extraction efficiency was determined. When stigma was milled for 100 h, its particle size was reduced to less than 20 nm, as shown by SEM and TEM images, and its extraction efficiency was considerably increased by 19.8% as compared with the stigma blended for 10 min. However with a 24 h delay between the end of milling and absorption test, the yield of colour extraction significantly decreased. The recommended milling conditions resulting in extraction efficiency of 16.2% (in comparison with stigma blended for 10 min) were determined to be the milling for 10 h with initial tendering prior to milling operation.

  14. Crocins transport in Crocus sativus: the long road from a senescent stigma to a newborn corm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Moraga, Angela; Trapero, Almudena; Ahrazem, Oussama; Gómez-Gómez, Lourdes

    2010-09-01

    Saffron, the desiccated stigmas of Crocus sativus, is highly appreciated by its peculiar colour, flavour and aroma. The main compounds that accumulated throughout stigma development in C. sativus are crocetin, its glucoside derivatives, crocins, and picrocrocin, all of which increased as stigmas reached a fully developed stage. After anthesis, and in the absence of fertilization, the flower enters in a senescence programme, which represents the ultimate stage of floral development and results in wilting of whole flower. The programmed senescence of flowers allows the removal of a metabolically active tissue. We studied the composition of saffron apocarotenoids during the senescence of C. sativus flowers, and observed that changes in crocins were due to their transport from the senescent stigma to the ovaries and the developing corm. Afterwards, deglucosylation of crocins in these tissues results in crocetin accumulation. This mobilization mimics the export to storage cells (resorbed) of different compounds during leaf senescence avoiding loss of nutrients in leaves that would otherwise be cycled back into the soil system through leaf litter decomposition. In C. sativus, the resorbed apocarotenoids are stored within the developing corm, where they are not further detected in the advanced stages of development, suggesting that they are metabolized during the early and active phases of corm development, where the glucose molecules from crocins might contribute to cell initiation and elongation. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Cloning and characterization of a glucosyltransferase from Crocus sativus stigmas involved in flavonoid glucosylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahrazem Oussama

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flavonol glucosides constitute the second group of secondary metabolites that accumulate in Crocus sativus stigmas. To date there are no reports of functionally characterized flavonoid glucosyltransferases in C. sativus, despite the importance of these compounds as antioxidant agents. Moreover, their bitter taste makes them excellent candidates for consideration as potential organoleptic agents of saffron spice, the dry stigmas of C. sativus. Results Using degenerate primers designed to match the plant secondary product glucosyltransferase (PSPG box we cloned a full length cDNA encoding CsGT45 from C. sativus stigmas. This protein showed homology with flavonoid glucosyltransferases. In vitro reactions showed that CsGT45 catalyses the transfer of glucose from UDP_glucose to kaempferol and quercetin. Kaempferol is the unique flavonol present in C. sativus stigmas and the levels of its glucosides changed during stigma development, and these changes, are correlated with the expression levels of CsGT45 during these developmental stages. Conclusion Findings presented here suggest that CsGT45 is an active enzyme that plays a role in the formation of flavonoid glucosides in C. sativus.

  16. Azafrán I (Crocus sativus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Martín, Gema; Pérez-Urria Carril, Elena

    2014-01-01

    El presente trabajo muestra una recopilación sobre las características de Crocus sativus L., el azafrán, una especie, muy apreciada desde la antigüedad. Se consideran aspectos básicos botánicos y bioquímicos así como datos sobre el cultivo, y su comercialización.

  17. Crocus sativus L.: A comprehensive review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Srivastava, R; Ahmed, H; Dixit, R K; Dharamveer; Saraf, S A

    2010-01-01

    .... sativus possesses a number of medicinally important activities such as antihypertensive, anticonvulsant, antitussive, antigenototoxic and cytotoxic effects, anxiolytic aphrodisiac, antioxidant, anti...

  18. Determination of antioxidant activity of saffron taken from the flower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-03

    Aug 3, 2011 ... Laboratory of Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Lebanese University, Lebanon. Accepted 19 ... Key words: Crocus sativus, oxidative stress, free radicals, Lebanese saffron, antioxidant activity, free radicals scavengers. ..... cellular aging and atherosclerosis, heart disease, stroke,.

  19. Interaction of IBA and NAA with enzymes in root induction of Crocus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of auxin type on some antioxidative enzymes during in vitro root induction of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) was investigated to reveal the variation of activities and isoenzyme banding patterns during root induction of saffron (C. sativus L.). Indole-3- butyric acid (IBA) and naphtalene acetic acid (NAA) at different ...

  20. De novo transcriptome assembly and comprehensive expression profiling in Crocus sativus to gain insights into apocarotenoid biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Mukesh; Srivastava, Prabhakar Lal; Verma, Mohit; Ghangal, Rajesh; Garg, Rohini

    2016-03-03

    Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is commonly known as world's most expensive spice with rich source of apocarotenoids and possesses magnificent medicinal properties. To understand the molecular basis of apocarotenoid biosynthesis/accumulation, we performed transcriptome sequencing from five different tissues/organs of C. sativus using Illumina platform. After comprehensive optimization of de novo transcriptome assembly, a total of 105, 269 unique transcripts (average length of 1047 bp and N50 length of 1404 bp) were obtained from 206 million high-quality paired-end reads. Functional annotation led to the identification of many genes involved in various biological processes and molecular functions. In total, 54% of C. sativus transcripts could be functionally annotated using public databases. Transcriptome analysis of C. sativus revealed the presence of 16721 SSRs and 3819 transcription factor encoding transcripts. Differential expression analysis revealed preferential/specific expression of many transcripts involved in apocarotenoid biosynthesis in stigma. We have revealed the differential expression of transcripts encoding for transcription factors (MYB, MYB related, WRKY, C2C2-YABBY and bHLH) involved in secondary metabolism. Overall, these results will pave the way for understanding the molecular basis of apocarotenoid biosynthesis and other aspects of stigma development in C. sativus.

  1. A Study on the Performance of the Saffron Separator for Different Air Flows

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas Moghanizadeh; Mehdi Neshat

    2014-01-01

    Saffron, the dried stigmas of Crocus sativus, is extremely appreciated for its extraordinary color, taste and aroma. At the present time, nearly all the saffron harvest and post harvest processes are carried out manually. To increase the quality and development of economic role of saffron, it is essential to go beyond the traditional method of harvest of saffron. Considering that saffron components terminal velocities are different, a separator is planned and constructed to separate stigma fr...

  2. Patents on Therapeutic and Cosmetic Applications of Bioactives of Crocus Sativus L. and their Production through Synthetic Biology Methods: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawalbhakta, Mitali; Telang, Manasi

    2017-01-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) has a long history of use as a food additive and a traditional medicine for treating a number of disorders. Prominent bioactives of saffron are crocin, crocetin and safranal. The aim of this study was to carry out an extensive patent search to collect information on saffron bioactives and their derivatives as therapeutic and cosmeceutical agents. All patents related to the area of interest published globally till date have been reviewed. Moreover, a recent synthetic biology approach to cost effective and consistent production of saffron bioactives has been highlighted. A patent search strategy was designed based on keywords and concepts related to Crocus sativus L. and its bioactives- safranal, crocin and crocetin in combination with different patent classification codes relevant to the technology areas. This search strategy was employed to retrieve patents from various patent databases. The patents which focused on therapeutic or cosmetic applications and claimed compositions comprising crocin, crocetin or safranal as the main active component were selected and analysed. Maximum patenting activity was noticed towards the use of these bioactives in the treatment of neurological disorders followed by multiple uses of the same compound, use in treatment of metabolic disorders and use as cosmeceuticals. Interestingly, there were no patent records related to use of these bioactives in treating infectious disorders. Our patent analysis points out the populous and less explored uses of saffron bioactives and areas where there is further scope for research and growth. Recently developed synthetic biology approach is contributory in improving availability, consistency and cost effectiveness of saffron bioactives. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. A prospective double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study of the effect of saffron (Crocus sativus Linn.) on semen parameters and seminal plasma antioxidant capacity in infertile men with idiopathic oligoasthenoteratozoospermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarinejad, Mohammad Reza; Shafiei, Nayyer; Safarinejad, Shiva

    2011-04-01

    Male factor infertility is a multifactorial disorder that affects a significant percentage of infertile couples; however, many of them remained untreated. In recent years, considerable numbers of infertile men have sought 'herbal remedies' as an effective treatment. Among 'herbal remedies', saffron is recommended for male infertility in our community. The effect of saffron was evaluated compared with placebo for the treatment of idiopathic male factor infertility. The study included 260 infertile men with idiopathic oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT) who were randomized to saffron 60 mg/day (130, group 1) or a similar regimen of placebo (130, group 2) for 26 weeks. The two groups were compared for changes in semen parameters and total seminal plasma antioxidant capacity. Saffron administration did not result in beneficial effects. At the end of the study no statistically significant improvements were observed in either group in any of the studied semen parameters (sperm density, morphology and motility) (all p = 0.1). At the end of the trial, patients in group 1 had a mean motility of 25.7 ± 2.4%, which was not statistically different from the mean of 24.9 ± 2.8% in the placebo group (p = 0.1). Normal sperm morphology was 18.7 ± 4.7% and 18.4 ± 4.3%, in groups 1 and 2, respectively (p = 0.1). Patients treated with saffron and placebo had a mean sperm density of 20.5 ± 4.6% and 21.4 ± 4.6% per mL, respectively (p = 0.1). Saffron administration did not improve total seminal plasma antioxidant capacity, compared with baseline (p = 0.1) and placebo subjects (p = 0.1). Based on Pearson correlations, each semen parameter did not correlate significantly with treatment duration, including sperm density (r = 0.146, p = 0.13), percent of motile sperm (r = 0.145, p = 0.15) and percent of sperm with normal morphology (r = 0.125, p = 0.30). Saffron does not statistically significantly improve semen parameters in infertile men with idiopathic OAT. If medical

  4. The Effect of Ethanolic The effect of ethanolic extract of Saffron (Crocus sativus L. on improving the spatial memory parameters in the experimental models of Parkinson disease in male rats

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    Homeyra Hatami

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: The axial role of the oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of Parkinson disease has been identified. On the other hand, the learning and memory impairment in Parkinson disease has a distinguished outlook. Since Saffron has antioxidative stress effects, the aim of the present study is to investigate the improving effects of Saffron extract on the spatial memory parameters in the experimental models of Parkinson disease in male rats. Methods & Materials: In this experimental study, 35 male rats weighing approximately 250±50 gram were randomly divided in five equal groups: control, sham (saline + ascorbat, Parkinson's model (injection of 6-OHDA, 2/5 μg/ μl and 2 groups of Parkinson's model + saffron extract pretreatment (5 and 10 μg/rat for 5 days. The Parkinson’s induction model was made by intracerebral injection of 6 – hydroxy dopamine. The Morris Water maze was used for studying the spatial learning and memory.  The data analysis was performed by using One-Way ANOVA. Results: Intracerebral injection of 6- hydroxy dopamine increased the time latency required for finding the hidden platform and damaged the spatial memory (P<0.05. The pretreatment of Saffron extract (5 and 10 μg/rat, 5 days improved the reduced spatial memory in Parkinson's rats (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The Saffron extract is able to restore the spatial memory parameters such as the time latency and the distance travelled for finding the hidden platform in Parkinson's rats as compared to the level of the control group.

  5. An EST database from saffron stigmas

    OpenAIRE

    Chiusano Maria Luisa; Pizzichini Daniele; D'Agostino Nunzio; Giuliano Giovanni

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Saffron (Crocus sativus L., Iridaceae) flowers have been used as a spice and medicinal plant ever since the Greek-Minoan civilization. The edible part – the stigmas – are commonly considered the most expensive spice in the world and are the site of a peculiar secondary metabolism, responsible for the characteristic color and flavor of saffron. Results We produced 6,603 high quality Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) from a saffron stigma cDNA library. This collection is access...

  6. Allelopathic effects of leaf and corm water extract of saffron (Crocus sativus L. on germination and seedling growth of flixweed (Descurainia sophia L. and downy brome (Bromus tectorum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Alipoor

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in two factorial experiment based on completely randomized design with three replications at research laboratory of faculty of agriculture in University of Birjand in 2013. Factors included saffron organs at 2 levels (leaves and corms and water extract concentrations at 5 levels (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 percent.The allelopathic effects of saffron leaves and corms on seed germination and seedling growth characteristics of flixweed (Descurainia sophia L. and downy brome (Bromus tectorum L. were studied in two separate experiments. Results indicated lowest seed germination percentage of downy brome and flixweed were observed at concentration of 2% of corm extract (by 65% and 66% reduce compared to control, respectively. The rate of germination of downy brome decreased (by 71% compared to control with concentration of 2% of leaf extract but the rate of germination on flixweed was not significantly affected by extract concentrations. Different concentrations of leaf and corm extracts significantly decreased length and weight of plumule and radicals of two weeds. A logistic model provided a successful estimation of relationship between leaf water extract and germination percentage of two weeds. Based on orthogonal comparison tests, the allelopathic inhibition effects of saffron leaves and corms were more on downy brome and flixweed, respectively.

  7. The comparison of micro elements (Mn, Fe and Zn and heavy metals (Co, Cr and Cd in the soil of perennial farms of saffron (Crocus sativus L. in southern Khorasan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Behdani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to study concentrations of soil micro and heavy metal elements in some saffron planting regions of Birjand Province, an experiment was performed as factorial layout based on a completely randomized block design with three replications at year 2013. Treatments were three field ages (annual, triennial and quinquennial and five saffron regions including Aryan shahr, Hosseinabad, Khosef, Golferiz and Mahmoei. Soil microelement and hevey methal concentrations such as Fe, Zn, Mn, Co, Cr and Cd of soil were measured. The results showed that the concentrations of Fe, Zn, Mn and Cr in soil were significantly affected by field age (p≤0.05. Effect of planting region was significant on soil Fe, Zn, Mn, Co and Cr concentrations (p≤0.01. Interaction effects between field age and planting region were significant on Fe, Zn and Co concentrations (p≤0.01. By increasing in field age soil Zn concentration was declined and heavy metal concentrations such as Co, Cr and Cd of soil were enhanced. Mn concentration in the quinquennial fields was 29 and 34% higher than annual and triennial first fields, respectively. Co content in the quinquennial fields was 53 and 46% higher than annual and triennial first fields, respectively. The maximum and minimum Fe concentrations were observed with 1.65 and 0.77 ppm for the fields of Khosef and Hosseinabad, respectively. The highest and lowest Fe concentrations were obtained with 2.436 and 0.77 ppm for the annual fields of Khosef and Hosseinabad, respectively. The highest Co concentrations were recorded in Hosseinabad and Khosef fields with 8.7 and 4.31 ppm, respectively. Thus, it is recommended to use ecological managemens such as reducing the application of chemical fertilizers and improving the organic fertilizers to decline the concentrations of these elements in saffron fields.

  8. Flavonoid Determination in the Quality Control of Floral Bioresidues from Crocus sativus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Díaz, Jéssica; Sánchez, Ana M; Martínez-Tomé, Magdalena; Winterhalter, Peter; Alonso, Gonzalo L

    2014-04-09

    A high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection method (HPLC-DAD) was validated for the analysis of floral bioresidues obtained in saffron spice production by using three different solvent mixtures [water/hydrochloric acid (HCl) (100:1, v/v), water/acetonitrile/trifluoroacetic acid (47:50:3, v/v/v), and water/acetonitrile/HCl (50:50:1, v/v/v)]. Fifteen phenolic compounds were tentatively identified, kaempferol 3-O-sophoroside and delphinidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside being the main ones. The extracts showed very different phenolic profiles obtained by HPLC-DAD coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MSn), and several experiments were carried out to explain this. The use of acetonitrile as solvent causes the chromatographic splitting of the peak of the delphinidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside into two peaks. Results obtained in this paper show that the extract prepared with water/HCl (100:1, v/v) would be the best suited for determining phenolic compounds in the quality control of the floral bioresidues from Crocus sativus L.

  9. Evaluation of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of saffron, Crocus sativus L., and its constituents, safranal and crocin in allodynia and hyperalgesia induced by chronic constriction injury model of neuropathic pain in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Bahareh; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2012-07-01

    The current study was designed to evaluate therapeutic potential of systemically administered ethanolic and aqueous extracts of saffron as well as its bioactive ingredients, safranal and crocin, in chronic constriction injury (CCI)-induced neuropathic pain in rats. The von Frey filaments, acetone drop, and radiant heat test were performed to assess the degree of mechanical allodynia, thermal allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia respectively, at different time intervals, i.e., one day before surgery and 3, 5, 7 and 10 days post surgery. The ambulatory behavior was evaluated using the open field test. A 7-day treatment with the ethanolic and aqueous extracts (50,100 and 200 mg/kg, i.p.) and safranal (0.025, 0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg, i.p.), attenuated the behavioral symptoms of neuropathic pain in a dose dependent manner. Crocin even at the high dose (50 mg/kg) failed to produce any protective role. However, gabapentine (100 mg/kg) as a reference drug significantly alleviated all behavioral manifestations of neuropathic pain compared to control group. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that ethanolic and aqueous extracts of saffron as well as safranal could be useful in treatment of different kinds of neuropathic pains and as an adjuvant to conventional medicines. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. [Molecular identity of Crocus sativus and its misused substitutes by ITS sequence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Jian; Tang, Lin; Liu, Yan-jun; He, Wei; Chen, Fang

    2007-04-01

    To find the patterns of the rDNA ITS sequence variation of Crocus sativus, Chrysanthemum chanetii, Nelumbo nucifera, Zea mays and Garthamus tinctorius and to establish the molecular biological method for the identification of C. sativus and the others. After the total DNA of Crocus sativus, C. vernus-w and C. vernus-p were extracted, the ITS sequence was amplified by PCR with universal primer of ITS and PCR product was sequenced after purification and cloning. The ITS sequences of Chrysanthemrnum chanetii, Nelumbo nucifera, Zea mays and Garthamus tinctorius were obtained from GenBank. The complete ITS sequence of Crocus sativus, C. vernus-w and C. vernus-p, including ITSI rDNA, 5.8S rDNA, ITS2 rDNA were measured. The GenBank accession No. was DQ094185, DQ224363 and DQ224364 respectively. The similarity of ITS sequence between C. sativus and the two garden species of C. vernus was above 91%; the identity was 99.84% between C. vernus-w and C. vernus-p. The range of diversity between C. sativus and other herbs was above 46% based on ITS1 and above 41% based on ITS2. C. sativus can be distinguished from misused substitutes by the ITS sequence. The ITS sequence is an available molecular marker for identification of the C. sativus.

  11. Crocus sativus Petals: Waste or Valuable Resource? The Answer of High-Resolution and High-Resolution Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righi, Valeria; Parenti, Francesca; Tugnoli, Vitaliano; Schenetti, Luisa; Mucci, Adele

    2015-09-30

    Intact Crocus sativus petals were studied for the first time by high-resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (HR-MAS NMR) spectroscopy, revealing the presence of kinsenoside (2) and goodyeroside A (3), together with 3-hydroxy-γ-butyrolactone (4). These findings were confirmed by HR-NMR analysis of the ethanol extract of fresh petals and showed that, even though carried out rapidly, partial hydrolysis of glucopyranosyloxybutanolides occurs during extraction. On the other hand, kaempferol 3-O-sophoroside (1), which is "NMR-silent" in intact petals, is present in extracts. These results suggest to evaluate the utilization of saffron petals for phytopharmaceutical and nutraceutical purposes to exploit a waste product of massive production of commercial saffron and point to the application of HR-MAS NMR for monitoring bioactive compounds directly on intact petals, avoiding the extraction procedure and the consequent hydrolysis reaction.

  12. Effects of Crocetin Esters and Crocetin from Crocus sativus L. on Aortic Contractility in Rat Genetic Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Llorens

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Endothelial dysfunction, characterized by an enhancement in vasoconstriction, is clearly associated with hypertension. Saffron (Crocus sativus L. bioactive compounds have been recognized to have hypotensive properties. Recently, we have reported that crocetin exhibits potent vasodilator effects on isolated aortic rings from hypertensive rats. In this work, we have aimed to analyze the anticontractile ability of crocetin or crocetin esters pool (crocins isolated from saffron. Thus, we have studied the effects of saffron carotenoids on endothelium-dependent and -independent regulation of smooth muscle contractility in genetic hypertension. Methods: We have measured the isometric responses of aortic segments with or without endothelium obtained from spontaneously hypertensive rats. The effects of carotenoids were studied by assessing the endothelial modulation of phenylephrine-induced contractions (10−9–10−5 M in the presence or absence of crocetin or crocins. The role of nitric oxide and prostanoids was analyzed by performing the experiments with L-NAME (NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester or indomethacin (both 10−5 M, respectively. Results: Crocetin, and to a minor extent crocins, diminished the maximum contractility of phenylephrine in intact rings, while crocins, but not crocetin, increased this contractility in de-endothelizated vessels. In the intact vessels, the effect of crocetin on contractility was unaffected by indomethacin but was abolished by L-NAME. However, crocetin but not crocins, lowered the already increased contractility caused by L-NAME. Conclusions: Saffron compounds, but especially crocetin have endothelium-dependent prorelaxing actions. Crocins have procontractile actions that take place via smooth muscle cell mechanisms. These results suggest that crocetin and crocins activate different mechanisms involved in the vasoconstriction pathway in hypertension.

  13. An overview on saffron, phytochemicals, and medicinal properties

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Reza Gohari; Soodabeh Saeidnia; Mahdie Kourepaz Mahmoodabadi

    2013-01-01

    Saffron is the most valuable medicinal food product because of its importance in Iran's agricultural economy. The dried stigmas of the plant Crocus sativus (Iridaceae) are processing to produce saffron as a well-known spice which has some other importance in pharmaceutics, cosmetics, perfumery, and textile dye-producing industries. Recently, reports about the pharmacological activity of this plant increase its importance in the world. The world's annual saffron production is estimated around ...

  14. Role of saffron and its constituents on cancer chemoprevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiyu; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Wen, Xiao-Dong; Shoyama, Yukihiro; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2014-01-01

    Context Cancer dramatically impacts human life expectancy and quality of life. Natural substances from vegetables, herbs and spices could be beneficial in the prevention or treatment of a variety of cancers. Crocus sativus, which has been used as a folk medicine for treating diseases for ages, showed obvious cancer chemoprevention potential. Objective This article focuses on the effects of Crocus sativus and its main ingredients, such as crocin, on cancer therapeutics. Methods We reviewed research data from saffron, a spice derived from the flower of Crocus sativus, and its constituents using the major databases, viz., Web of Science, SciFinder, and PubMed. Results and conclusion Saffron possesses free radical-scavenging properties and antitumor activities. Significant cancer chemopreventive effects have been shown in both in vitro and in vivo models. Based on current data, saffron and its ingredients could be considered as a promising candidate for clinical anticancer trials. PMID:23570520

  15. Role of saffron and its constituents on cancer chemoprevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiyu; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Wen, Xiao-Dong; Shoyama, Yukihiro; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2013-07-01

    Cancer dramatically impacts human life expectancy and quality of life. Natural substances from vegetables, herbs and spices could be beneficial in the prevention or treatment of a variety of cancers. Crocus sativus (Iridaceae), which has been used as a folk medicine for treating diseases for ages, showed obvious cancer chemoprevention potential. This article focuses on the effects of Crocus sativus and its main ingredients, such as crocin, on cancer therapeutics. We reviewed research data from saffron, a spice derived from the flower of Crocus sativus, and its constituents using the major databases, namely, Web of Science, SciFinder and PubMed. Saffron possesses free radical-scavenging properties and antitumor activities. Significant cancer chemopreventive effects have been shown in both in vitro and in vivo models. Based on current data, saffron and its ingredients could be considered as a promising candidate for clinical anticancer trials.

  16. Stigma variability in saffron ( Crocus sativus L.) | Ghaffari | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more information about how to print, save, and work with PDFs, Highwire Press provides a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs.

  17. Skin depigmentation activity of Crocus sativus extract cream | Aktar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the antioxidant activity of Crucus sativus extract and its effect on human skin using a non-invasive probe mexameter. Methods: The antioxidant activity of C. sativus extract was determined using DPPH method. Water in oil (w/o) topical cream of C. sativus extract (3 %) was formulated and compared ...

  18. SELF INCOMPATIBILITY MECHANISMS IN THE CROCUS SATIVUS AGGREGATE (IRIDACEAE: A PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. ZANIER

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Two molecular mechanisms responsible for SI (Self-Incompatibility in dicotyledons were tested in the C. sativus L. aggregate. RNase and peroxidase activity assays were carried out on crude extract from un-, self- and cross-pollinated styles of C. sativus (male-sterile, C. thomasii Ten. (outfertile and C. cartwrightianus Herb (out-fertile. Results on RNase activity indicate that in the Crocus species studied the rejection mechanism of SI is not based on stylar RNase. Data on peroxidase activity indicate a relationship between pollen tube presence in the style and stylar peroxidase activity. Stylar peroxidase activity increase is related to pollen tube presence but does not stop tube growth. Compatible and incompatible pollen tubes grow along the style and their discrimination occurs in another region of the gynoecium.

  19. Post-harvest degradation of carotenoid glucose esters in saffron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, S; Umezaki, Y; Shoyama, Y; Saito, H; Nishi, K; Irino, N

    1994-10-01

    It has been found that an indoor cultivation system of Crocus sativus L. is more favorable with regard to the quality of saffron, as compared to the usual cultivation in an open field. Carotenoid glucose esters increase from the period before blooming and reach the maximum in the full blooming period, and are sensitive for the presence of oxygen, light irradiation, and beta-glucosidase. Moreover, it is evident that storage of saffron at -20 degrees C promotes the constant supply of saffron with a homogeneous pharmacological activity.

  20. The carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase CCD2 catalysing the synthesis of crocetin in spring crocuses and saffron is a plastidial enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrazem, Oussama; Rubio-Moraga, Angela; Berman, Judit; Capell, Teresa; Christou, Paul; Zhu, Changfu; Gómez-Gómez, Lourdes

    2016-01-01

    The apocarotenoid crocetin and its glycosylated derivatives, crocins, confer the red colour to saffron. Crocetin biosynthesis in saffron is catalysed by the carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase CCD2 (AIG94929). No homologues have been identified in other plant species due to the very limited presence of crocetin and its derivatives in the plant kingdom. Spring Crocus species with yellow flowers accumulate crocins in the stigma and tepals. Four carotenoid CCDs, namely CaCCD1, CaCCD2 and CaCCD4a/b and CaCCD4c were first cloned and characterized. CaCCD2 was localized in plastids, and a longer CCD2 version, CsCCD2L, was also localized in this compartment. The activity of CaCCD2 was assessed in Escherichia coli and in a stable rice gene function characterization system, demonstrating the production of crocetin in both systems. The expression of all isolated CCDs was evaluated in stigma and tepals at three key developmental stages in relation with apocarotenoid accumulation. CaCCD2 expression parallels crocin accumulation, but C14 apocarotenoids most likely are associated to the CaCCD1 activity in Crocus ancyrensis flowers. The specific CCD2 localization and its membrane interaction will contribute to the development of a better understanding of the mechanism of crocetin biosynthesis and regulation in the chromoplast. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  1. Toxicology effects of saffron and its constituents: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostan, Hasan Badie; Mehri, Soghra; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) has been considered as a medicinal plant since ancient times and also widely used as food additive for its color, taste and odor. The pharmacological properties of saffron and its main constituents, crocin and safranal have been evaluated using different in vivo and in vitro models. Additionally, other lines of studies have found toxicological effects of saffron. However, a comprehensive review that covers all aspects of its toxicity has not been published yet. The current study provides classified information about the toxic effects of saffron and its constituents in various exposure conditions including acute, sub-acute, sub-chronic and chronic studies. Therapeutic doses of saffron exhibits no significant toxicity in both clinical and experimental investigations. PMID:28293386

  2. Saffron: Its Phytochemistry, Developmental Processes, and Biotechnological Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrazem, Oussama; Rubio-Moraga, Angela; Nebauer, Sergio G; Molina, Rosa Victoria; Gómez-Gómez, Lourdes

    2015-10-14

    The present state of knowledge concerning developmental processes and the secondary metabolism of saffron, Crocus sativus L. (Iridaceae), along with the genes involved in these processes so far known, is reviewed. Flowers and corms constitute the most valuable parts of saffron. Corm and flower development are two key aspects to be studied in saffron to increase the yield and quality of the spice, to raise its reproductive rate, and to implement new production systems. Important knowledge about the physiology of flowering and vegetative growth has been acquired in recent years, but there is still only limited information on molecular mechanisms controlling these processes. Although some genes involved in flower formation and meristem transition in other species have been isolated in saffron, the role of these genes in this species awaits further progress. Also, genes related with the synthesis pathway of abscisic acid and strigolactones, growth regulators related with bud endodormancy and apical dominance (paradormancy), have been isolated. However, the in-depth understanding of these processes as well as of corm development is far from being achieved. By contrast, saffron phytochemicals have been widely studied. The different flower tissues and the corm have been proved to be an important source of phytochemicals with pharmacological properties. The biotechnological prospects for saffron are here reviewed on the basis of the discovery of the enzymes involved in key aspects of saffron secondary metabolism, and we also analyze the possibility of transferring current knowledge about flowering and vegetative propagation in model species to the Crocus genus.

  3. Crocins, the active constituents of Crocus Sativus L., counteracted ketamine-induced behavioural deficits in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiadou, Georgia; Grivas, Vasilios; Tarantilis, Petros A; Pitsikas, Nikolaos

    2014-02-01

    Experimental evidence indicates that the non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist ketamine impairs cognition and can mimic certain aspects of positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia in rodents. Crocins are among the active components of the plant Crocus sativus L. and were found to be effective in different models of psychiatric disorders including anxiety and depression. The present study was designed to investigate the ability of crocins to counteract schizophrenia-like behavioural deficits produced by ketamine in rats. Crocin's ability to counteract hypermotility, stereotypies and ataxia induced by ketamine was evaluated in a motor activity cage. The ability of crocins to reverse ketamine-induced memory deficits was assessed using the novel object recognition task (NORT). The social interaction test was used in order to examine the effects of crocins on ketamine-induced social withdrawal. Crocins (50 but not 30 mg/kg, i.p.) attenuated ketamine (25 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced hypermotility, stereotypies and ataxia. In a subsequent study, post-training administration of crocins (15 and 30 mg/kg, i.p.) reversed ketamine (3 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced performance deficits in the NORT. Finally, crocins (50 but not 30 mg/kg, i.p.) counteracted the ketamine (8 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced social isolation in the social interaction test. Our findings show that crocins attenuated schizophrenia-like behavioural deficits induced by the non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine in rats.

  4. An EST database from saffron stigmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, Nunzio; Pizzichini, Daniele; Chiusano, Maria Luisa; Giuliano, Giovanni

    2007-01-01

    Background Saffron (Crocus sativus L., Iridaceae) flowers have been used as a spice and medicinal plant ever since the Greek-Minoan civilization. The edible part – the stigmas – are commonly considered the most expensive spice in the world and are the site of a peculiar secondary metabolism, responsible for the characteristic color and flavor of saffron. Results We produced 6,603 high quality Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) from a saffron stigma cDNA library. This collection is accessible and searchable through the Saffron Genes database http://www.saffrongenes.org. The ESTs have been grouped into 1,893 Clusters, each corresponding to a different expressed gene, and annotated. The complete set of raw EST sequences, as well as of their electopherograms, are maintained in the database, allowing users to investigate sequence qualities and EST structural features (vector contamination, repeat regions). The saffron stigma transcriptome contains a series of interesting sequences (putative sex determination genes, lipid and carotenoid metabolism enzymes, transcription factors). Conclusion The Saffron Genes database represents the first reference collection for the genomics of Iridaceae, for the molecular biology of stigma biogenesis, as well as for the metabolic pathways underlying saffron secondary metabolism. PMID:17925031

  5. An EST database from saffron stigmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiusano Maria Luisa

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Saffron (Crocus sativus L., Iridaceae flowers have been used as a spice and medicinal plant ever since the Greek-Minoan civilization. The edible part – the stigmas – are commonly considered the most expensive spice in the world and are the site of a peculiar secondary metabolism, responsible for the characteristic color and flavor of saffron. Results We produced 6,603 high quality Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs from a saffron stigma cDNA library. This collection is accessible and searchable through the Saffron Genes database http://www.saffrongenes.org. The ESTs have been grouped into 1,893 Clusters, each corresponding to a different expressed gene, and annotated. The complete set of raw EST sequences, as well as of their electopherograms, are maintained in the database, allowing users to investigate sequence qualities and EST structural features (vector contamination, repeat regions. The saffron stigma transcriptome contains a series of interesting sequences (putative sex determination genes, lipid and carotenoid metabolism enzymes, transcription factors. Conclusion The Saffron Genes database represents the first reference collection for the genomics of Iridaceae, for the molecular biology of stigma biogenesis, as well as for the metabolic pathways underlying saffron secondary metabolism.

  6. An EST database from saffron stigmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, Nunzio; Pizzichini, Daniele; Chiusano, Maria Luisa; Giuliano, Giovanni

    2007-10-09

    Saffron (Crocus sativus L., Iridaceae) flowers have been used as a spice and medicinal plant ever since the Greek-Minoan civilization. The edible part - the stigmas - are commonly considered the most expensive spice in the world and are the site of a peculiar secondary metabolism, responsible for the characteristic color and flavor of saffron. We produced 6,603 high quality Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) from a saffron stigma cDNA library. This collection is accessible and searchable through the Saffron Genes database http://www.saffrongenes.org. The ESTs have been grouped into 1,893 Clusters, each corresponding to a different expressed gene, and annotated. The complete set of raw EST sequences, as well as of their electopherograms, are maintained in the database, allowing users to investigate sequence qualities and EST structural features (vector contamination, repeat regions). The saffron stigma transcriptome contains a series of interesting sequences (putative sex determination genes, lipid and carotenoid metabolism enzymes, transcription factors). The Saffron Genes database represents the first reference collection for the genomics of Iridaceae, for the molecular biology of stigma biogenesis, as well as for the metabolic pathways underlying saffron secondary metabolism.

  7. Influencia de diferentes condiciones de cultivo forzado de Crocus Sativus l. En la calidad del azafrán

    OpenAIRE

    García Rodríguez, María del Valle

    2016-01-01

    Crocus sativus L. es cultivado para la obtención de azafrán. La producción de esta especia ha tenido pocos avances tecnológicos a lo largo de la historia; la mayoría de sus operaciones siguen realizándose igual que hace siglos. En la actualidad, el azafrán además de ser un colorante, saborizante y aromatizante natural muy valorado en la industria alimentaria, está tomando especial importancia en la industria farmacéutica y nutracéutica, debido a sus numerosas propiedades biomédicas, atribuida...

  8. Comparison of different tandem mass spectrometric techniques (ESI-IT, ESI- and IP-MALDI-QRTOF and vMALDI-TOF/RTOF) for the analysis of crocins and picrocrocin from the stigmas of Crocus sativus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulakiotis, Nikolaos Stavros; Pittenauer, Ernst; Halabalaki, Maria; Tsarbopoulos, Anthony; Allmaier, Günter

    2012-03-30

    The expensive spice saffron originating from the stigmas of Crocus sativus L. and also applied in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) constitutes a complex mixture of glycoconjugates varying not only in the aglycon structure, but also in glycosylation pattern. Therefore, various tandem mass spectrometric techniques were evaluated for their usefulness in structural elucidation. Three selected constituents of the stigmas of Crocus sativus L., trans- and cis-crocin-4 as well as picrocrocin, were isolated and purified by HPLC and finally analyzed by ESI-MS (ion trap, QqRTOF), IP-MALDI-MS (QqRTOF) and vMALDI-MS (TOF/RTOF) in combination with tandem mass spectrometry in collision energy regimes ranging from a few eV (LE) to 20 keV (HE) collisions for the first time. These data aid in structurally elucidating minor, unknown glycoconjugates originating from this plant-derived spice. LE-CID of isomeric crocins on either an ion trap with ESI or a QqRTOF-instrument with ESI or IP-MALDI as desorption/ionization technique only yielded a limited number of structurally diagnostic sodiated product ions related to the carbohydrate moiety as well as to the intact aglycon in contrast to true HE-CID. The low MW constituent picrocrocin did not yield useful LE-CID spectra, but showed a high number of structurally diagnostic product ions by HE-CID utilizing a vMALDI TOF/RTOF-instrument. The highest number of structurally diagnostic product ions allowing also determination of the carbohydrate linkage of the gentiobiose-moiety of isomeric crocins ((0,4)A(2), (3,5)A(2) product ions indicating a 1→6 carbohydrate linkage) was only achievable by HE-CID. Fragmentation of the aglycon was not observed by any collision energy regime applied. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Cardiovascular effects of saffron and its active constituents: A review article

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    B. Marjan Razavi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available (Crocus sativus L. Commonly known as saffron, is a perennial stem less herb of the iridaceae family, widely cultivated in Iran and other countries. It is used as a flavoring and coloring agent for many thousands of years. In traditional medicine, saffron has been used for various purposes including abortion, as a fever reducer, an analgesic, expectorant, antispasmodic, aphrodisiac, sedative, digestive and a carminative. Various pharmacological studies have been described that saffron and its constituents exhibit different beneficial properties, including antioxidant, anticancer, anticonvulsant, antiischemic, antigenotoxic, antidote, antiapoptotic, antitussive, antidepressive, sedative and hypnotic, hypolipidemic, antinociceptive and antiinflammatory effects. Research projects have also revealed that saffron also exhibits protective effects against cardiovascular diseases including cardiac ischemia, arrhythmia, hypertension and atherosclerosis. In this review article, the effects of saffron and its active constituents on cardiovascular system were introduced.

  10. Crocus sativus, Serenoa repens and Pinus massoniana extracts modulate inflammatory response in isolated rat prostate challenged with LPS.

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    Chiavaroli, A; Recinella, L; Ferrante, C; Locatelli, M; Carradori, S; Macchione, N; Zengin, G; Leporini, L; Leone, S; Martinotti, S; Brunetti, L; Vacca, M; Menghini, L; Orlando, G

    Prostatitis is a common prostate disease that could be promoted by bacterial or non-bacterial infectious agents. In addition, inflammatory pathways involved in prostatitis have been increasingly studied, and herbal extracts endowed with anti-inflammatory effects are under investigation, individually or in combination, for their efficacy in alleviating the burden of inflammation, with possible improvements in symptoms. Serenoa repens (Serenoa), in combination with Crocus sativus (Crocus) and Pinus massoniana (Pinus), has previously shown to improve sexual function and limit urinary symptoms in patients suffering from concomitant erectile dysfunction and lower urinary tract symptoms. In this context, the aim of the present study is to evaluate the efficacy of Serenoa, Crocus and Pinus extracts, either alone or in combination, on immortalized prostate cells (PC3) and in an experimental model of bacterial prostatitis constituted by ex vivo prostate specimens challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We found that the tested extracts were able to reduce ROS production by PC3 cells and NFkB and PGE2 activity in prostate specimens challenged with LPS. In addition, the pharmacological association of the extracts displayed synergistic effects indicating a rational use of the mixture of the tested extracts as a novel anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory formulation in bacterial prostatitis. Finally, we performed analytical and in vitro evaluation to better characterize the phytochemical profile and the mechanism of action of selected secondary metabolites.

  11. Evaluation of protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Crocus sativus petals on preventing of gentamicin induced peliosis hepatis and hepatic telangiectasis in rats: short communication

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    Arash Omidi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Peliosis hepatis is a rare liver disease characterized by blood-filled cavities scattered irregularly throughout the liver. Risk factors for peliosis include chronic illness such as AIDS, tuberculosis, cancer also use of some drugs such as anabolic steroids and azathioprine. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the curative properties of crocus sativus petals on induced peliosis hepatis in rats. Thirty two male Wistar rats (weight: 180-220 g were randomly divided into four equal groups: group 1 (healthy group received only IP normal saline, group2 received IP 80mg/kg.bw gentamicin, group3 IP 80mg/kg.bw gentamicin+ 40mg/kg crocus sativus petal extract, and group 4 was given IP 80mg/kg.bw gentamicin+ 40mg/kg crocus sativus petal extract. At the end of the experiment, the rats were anesthetized and their blood samples were collected through cardiac puncture for AST and ALT measurement.Then, the livers of the subjects were excised and fixed in formalin. It was found that AST significantly increased in gentamicin group (P<0.05 compared to the healthy group and groups treated by means of crocus sativus petal extract .Moreover, there was no significant differences between the groups administered the extract and those given gentamicin. Histologically,heterogeneous multiple blood-filled cavities were observed in gentamicin group (2 and the treatment groups (3 and 4. The results of the present study show that doses of hydroalcoholic extract of crocus sativus do not effect on peliosis hepatic and telangiectasis due to gentamicin sulfate in rats

  12. Diversity of culturable bacterial endophytes of saffron in Kashmir, India.

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    Sharma, Tanwi; Kaul, Sanjana; Dhar, Manoj K

    2015-01-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus) is a medicinally important plant. The Kashmir valley (J&K, India) emblematizes one of the major and quality saffron producing areas in the world. Nonetheless, the area has been experiencing a declining trend in the production of saffron during the last decade. Poor disease management is one of the major reasons for declining saffron production in the area. Endophytes are known to offer control against many diseases of host plant. During the present study, culturable bacterial endophytes were isolated from saffron plant, identified and assessed for plant growth promoting activities. Molecular and phylogenetic analysis grouped the fifty-four bacterial isolates into eleven different taxa, viz. Bacillus licheniformis, B. subtilis, B. cereus, B. humi, B. pumilus, Paenibacillus elgii, B. safensis, Brevibacillus sp., Pseudomonas putida, Staphylococcus hominis and Enterobacter cloacae. The results were also supported with the identification based on BIOLOG system. B. licheniformis was the dominant endophyte in both leaves and corms of saffron. 81 % isolates showed lipase activity, 57 % cellulase, 48 % protease, 38 % amylase, 33 % chitinase and 29 % showed pectinase activity. 24 % of the isolates were phosphate solublizers, 86 % showed siderophore production and 80 % phytohormone production potential. The present repository of well characterized bacterial endophytes of saffron, have plant growth promoting potential which can be explored further for their respective roles in the biology of the saffron plant.

  13. Experimental Ground of Application of Extract from Saffron Inoculun under Heart Ischemia

    OpenAIRE

    , R.A. Sadykhzadeh

    2016-01-01

    According to studies the extract of saffron (Crocus sativus L) introduced per of prior to pituitary spasm, realizes anti-ischemic effect, levelling deviations in ECG indicators. In order to evaluate the mechanism of therapeutic action we studied the saffron’s influence towards the intensity of lipid peroxydation, the condition of antioxidant system of the organism itself and the system of blood coagulation in rats during experimental cardiac ischemia. Our experimental data indicate that saffr...

  14. Saffron: a natural product with potential pharmaceutical applications.

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    Christodoulou, Eirini; Kadoglou, Nikolaos P E; Kostomitsopoulos, Nikolaos; Valsami, Georgia

    2015-12-01

    Recently, a great deal of interest has been developed to isolate and investigate novel bioactive components from natural resources with health beneficial effects. Saffron is the dried stigma of Crocus sativus L. and has been used for centuries in traditional medicine mainly for its healing properties, as well as for the treatment of various pathological conditions. Objectives of the present review are to unravel its therapeutic properties and investigate the potential applications of saffron in contemporary therapy of a wide spectrum of diseases and summarize previous and current evidence regarding the biological/pharmacological activities of saffron and its active ingredients and their possible therapeutic uses. Recent phytochemistry and pharmacological experiments have indicated that crocin and safranal, the major active ingredients of saffron, exert important actions, such as antioxidant, anti-tumor, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory and anti-atherosclerotic. Unfortunately, the vast majority of those data derive from in vitro studies, whereas a limited number of in vivo experiments support the aforementioned effects. In addition to studies with mechanistic implications, very few clinical trials provide preliminary evidence of saffron potentiality to alleviate depression and increase cognitive function in patients with Alzheimer's disease. The history and structural features of saffron constituents are given in the first part of the review, followed by a comprehensive and critical presentation of the published preclinical and clinical studies and review papers on the pharmacology and possible therapeutic uses of saffron and its main active components crocin and safranal. © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  15. A Study on the Performance of the Saffron Separator for Different Air Flows

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    Abbas Moghanizadeh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Saffron, the dried stigmas of Crocus sativus, is extremely appreciated for its extraordinary color, taste and aroma. At the present time, nearly all the saffron harvest and post harvest processes are carried out manually. To increase the quality and development of economic role of saffron, it is essential to go beyond the traditional method of harvest of saffron. Considering that saffron components terminal velocities are different, a separator is planned and constructed to separate stigma from other parts of saffron flower. This separator is designed on the basis of aerodynamic and physical properties of saffron flower. The purpose of this study is to analyze the performance of a saffron separator for different air flows to increase the level of automation and efficiency of post-harvest operations. The results show that the maximum stigma separation happens when the air flow speed in outlet B is 3 m/s. finally, this data will be applied to find the optimum areas of outlet B and D, as two main parameters which have significant effect on the efficiency of saffron separator.

  16. Challenges of climate change: omics-based biology of saffron plants and organic agricultural biotechnology for sustainable saffron production.

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    Husaini, Amjad M

    2014-01-01

    Kashmir Valley is a major saffron (Crocus sativus Kashmirianus) growing area of the world, second only to Iran in terms of production. In Kashmir, saffron is grown on uplands (termed in the local language as "Karewas"), which are lacustrine deposits located at an altitude of 1585 to 1677 m above mean sea level (amsl), under temperate climatic conditions. Kashmir, despite being one of the oldest historical saffron-producing areas, faces a rapid decline of saffron industry. Among many other factors responsible for decline of saffron industry the preponderance of erratic rainfalls and drought-like situation have become major challenges imposed by climate change. Saffron has a limited coverage area as it is grown as a 'niche crop' and is a recognized "geographical indication," growing under a narrow microclimatic condition. As such it has become a victim of climate change effects, which has the potential of jeopardizing the livelihood of thousands of farmers and traders associated with it. The paper discusses the potential and actual impact of climate change process on saffron cultivation in Kashmir; and the biotechnological measures to address these issues.

  17. The Effect of Subchronic Administration of the Aqueous and Hydro-alcoholic Extracts of Crocus sativus from Estahbanat, Fars Province, on Mice

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    M Emamghoreishi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: In Iranian traditional medicine, Crocus sativus L. has been defined as an exultant plant. The present study was undertaken to determine the effect of subchronic administration of aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of Crocus sativus on mice. Methods: The effect of subchronic i.p. administration of different doses of the aqueous extract (50, 100, 200, 400 mg/kg or water and the hydro-alcoholic extract (100, 200, 400, 800 mg/kg or water of Crocus sativus stigma on immobility, climbing, and swimming behaviors were evaluated in the forced swimming test in mice. Fluoxetine (20 mg/kg and imipramine (15 mg/kg were used as reference drugs. Additionally, the effect of both plant preparations on spontaneous activity was examined. The collected data was analyzed using One-way ANOVA. Results: The aqueous extract at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg produced a significant reduction in immobility along with an increase in climbing behavior which is similar to those which have been observed with imipramine. The hydro-alcoholic extract did not show significant effects on immobility, climbing and swimming behaviors of all studied doses, compared to control group. The aqueous extract of all studied doses and the hydro-alcoholic extract at dose of 1600 mg/kg decreased spontaneous activity. Conclusion: The results of this study suggests that the aqueous, but not hydro-alcoholic, extract of Crocus sativus stigma from Estahbanat in Fars province, in subchronic administration possess an antidepressant-like activity which may be mediated through norepinephrine system.

  18. Efficacy of a formulation containing Serenoa repens, Crocus sativus and Pinus massoniana extracts in men with concomitant LUTS and erectile dysfunction.

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    Quarto, Giuseppe; Cola, Arturo; Perdonà, Sisto

    2017-06-01

    The relationship between lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and erectile dysfunction (ED) has received increased attention recently. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of IDIProst® Gold, a product containing Serenoa repens, Crocus sativus and Pinus massoniana bark extract (PMBE), in improving sexual function, urinary symptoms and quality of life in patients with concomitant LUTS and ED. A total 140 men (mean age 48 years) were enrolled and treated in this study. All patients were administered IDIProst® Gold (Crocus sativus, PMBE, Serenoa repens) once daily for three months. At visit (T0) and after ninety days of treatment (T90), the patients were evaluated and asked to complete two self-administered questionnaires: International Prostate Symptoms Score (IPSS), International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5). The main outcomes were the improved IIEF-5 and IPSS scores in the 40-60 age group. The secondary outcome was the improved quality of life score among treated patients. The baseline mean scores at T0 were 17.29 and 15.12 for the IPSS and IIEF-5 respectively. After three months of treatment (T90), the questionnaire results were as follows: 10.21 and 20.53 for IPSS and IIEF-5 respectively. Statistically significant differences (PSerenoa repens, Crocus sativus and PMBE) for three months significantly improved sexual function, urinary symptoms and quality of life in patients with concomitant LUTS and ED, especially in the 40-60 age group.

  19. Comparative Metagenomics Reveal Phylum Level Temporal and Spatial Changes in Mycobiome of Belowground Parts of Crocus sativus.

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    Sheetal Ambardar

    Full Text Available Plant-fungal associations have been explored by routine cultivation based approaches and cultivation based approaches cannot catalogue more than 5% of fungal diversity associated with any niche. In the present study, an attempt has been made to catalogue fungal diversity associated with belowground parts i.e. rhizosphere and cormosphere, of Crocus sativus (an economically important herb during two growth stages, using cultivation independent ITS gene targeted approach, taking bulk soil as reference. The 454 pyrosequencing sequence data analysis suggests that the fungal diversity was niche and growth stage specific. Fungi diversity, in the present case, was not only different between the two organs (roots and corm but the dominance pattern varies between the cormosphere during two growth stages. Zygomycota was dominant fungal phylum in the rhizosphere whereas Basidiomycota was dominant in cormosphere during flowering stage. However in cormosphere though Basidiomycota was dominant phylum during flowering stage but Zygomycota was dominant during dormant stage. Interestingly, in cormosphere, the phyla which was dominant at dormant stage was rare at flowering stage and vice-versa (Basidiomycota: Flowering = 93.2% Dormant = 0.05% and Zygomycota: Flowering = 0.8% Dormant = 99.7%. At genus level, Rhizopus was dominant in dormant stage but was rare in flowering stage (Rhizopus: Dormant = 99.7% Flowering = 0.55%. This dynamics is not followed by the bulk soil fungi which was dominated by Ascomycota during both stages under study. The genus Fusarium, whose species F. oxysporum causes corm rot in C. sativus, was present during both stages with slightly higher abundance in roots. Interestingly, the abundance of Rhizopus varied a great deal in two stages in cormosphere but the abundance of Fusarium was comparable in two growth stages (Bulk soil Flowering = 0.05%, Rhizosphere Flowering = 1.4%, Cormosphere Flowering = 0.06%, Bulk soil Dormant = 2.47% and

  20. Effect of Aqueous Extract of Crocus sativus L. on Morphine-Induced Memory Impairment

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    Sayede Maryam Naghibi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the effect of aqueous extracts of saffron on morphine-induced memory impairment was investigated. On the training trial, the mice received an electric shock when the animals were entered into the dark compartment. Twenty-four and forty-eight hours later, the time latency for entering the dark compartment was recorded and defined as the retention trial. The mice were divided into (1 control, (2 morphine which received morphine before the training in the passive avoidance test, (3–5 three groups treated by 50, 150 and 450 mg/kg of saffron extract before the training trial, and (6 and 7 the two other groups received 150 and 450 mg/kg of saffron extract before the retention trial. The time latency in morphine-treated group was lower than control (P < 0.01. Treatment of the animals by 150 and 450 mg/kg of saffron extract before the training trial increased the time latency at 24 and 48 hours after the training trial (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01. Administration of both 150 and 450 mg/kg doses of the extract before retention trials also increased the time latency (P < 0.01. The results revealed that the saffron extract attenuated morphine-induced memory impairment.

  1. Study of cytotoxic and apoptogenic properties of saffron extract in human cancer cell lines.

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    Tavakkol-Afshari, Jalil; Brook, Azam; Mousavi, Seyed Hadi

    2008-11-01

    Saffron (dried stigmas of Crocus sativus L.) has been used as a spice, food colorant and medicinal plant for millennia. In this study cytotoxic effect of saffron extract was evaluated in HepG2 and HeLa cell lines. Meanwhile role of apoptosis and ROS were explored. Malignant and non-malignant cells (L929) were cultured in DMEM medium and incubated with different concentrations of ethanolic saffron extract. Cell viability was quantitated by MTT assay. Apoptotic cells were determined using PI staining of DNA fragmentation by flow cytometry (sub-G1 peak). ROS was measured using DCF-DA by flow cytometry analysis. Saffron could decrease cell viability in malignant cells as a concentration and time-dependent manner. The IC50 values against HeLa and HepG2 were determined 800 and 950 microg/ml after 48 h, respectively. Saffron induced a sub-G1 peak in flow cytometry histogram of treated cells compared to control indicating apoptotic cell death is involved in saffron toxicity. This toxicity was also independent of ROS production. It might be concluded that saffron could cause cell death in HeLa and HepG2 cells, in which apoptosis or programmed cell death plays an important role. Saffron could be also considered as a promising chemotherapeutic agent in cancer treatment in future.

  2. An overview on saffron, phytochemicals, and medicinal properties.

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    Gohari, Ahmad Reza; Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Mahmoodabadi, Mahdie Kourepaz

    2013-01-01

    Saffron is the most valuable medicinal food product because of its importance in Iran's agricultural economy. The dried stigmas of the plant Crocus sativus (Iridaceae) are processing to produce saffron as a well-known spice which has some other importance in pharmaceutics, cosmetics, perfumery, and textile dye-producing industries. Recently, reports about the pharmacological activity of this plant increase its importance in the world. The world's annual saffron production is estimated around 300 tons per year (Iran produces 76% of total) and also saffron is considered to be the most expensive spice in the world; hence, there are efforts for its artificial production or defraud. Therefore, the quality conservation of saffron needs to certify in the international trade market following international ISO or the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) criteria and standards. In this paper, the recent (or sometimes less documented) reports on phytochemistry, pharmacology, and standard methods for quality evaluation of saffron, as a medicinal food spice, from field cultivation to market are reviewed.

  3. Saffron administration prevents selenite-induced cataractogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makri, Olga E.; Ferlemi, Anastasia-Varvara; Lamari, Fotini N.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The present study sought to investigate whether Crocus sativus stigmas (saffron) extract prevents selenium-induced cataractogenesis in vivo, and to study its possible protective mechanism. Methods Wistar rat pups were randomized into three groups. Group I (control) received subcutaneous injection of normal saline on postnatal day 10. Groups II (selenite-treated) and III (selenite+saffron-treated) received subcutaneous injection of sodium selenite (20 µmol/kg body weight) on postnatal day 10. Group III also received intraperitoneal injections of saffron extract (60 mg/kg body weight) on postnatal days 9 and 12. On postpartum day 21, rats were sacrificed and the lenses were isolated and examined for cataract formation. Activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and glutathione levels, as markers of antioxidant defense, were measured in the isolated lenses. Levels of the indicator of lipid peroxidation, malondialdehyde, and protein oxidation (sulfhydryl content) in the lens were also determined. The effect of the different treatments on lens protein profile was evaluated through an estimation of the soluble to insoluble protein ratio and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of the water-soluble fraction (WSF) of lens proteins. Results Saffron demonstrated significant protection against selenite-induced cataractogenesis in vivo. The mean activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and glutathione levels were significantly increased in group III compared to the selenite-treated group. Saffron significantly prevented selenite-induced lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, and proteolysis and insolubilization of the lens WSF. Conclusions Saffron extract prevented selenite-induced cataract formation in Wistar rats, possibly through the reinforcement of antioxidant status, reduction of the intensity of lipid peroxidation, protection of the sulfhydryl groups, and inhibition of

  4. Saffron administration prevents selenite-induced cataractogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makri, Olga E; Ferlemi, Anastasia-Varvara; Lamari, Fotini N; Georgakopoulos, Constantine D

    2013-01-01

    The present study sought to investigate whether Crocus sativus stigmas (saffron) extract prevents selenium-induced cataractogenesis in vivo, and to study its possible protective mechanism. Wistar rat pups were randomized into three groups. Group I (control) received subcutaneous injection of normal saline on postnatal day 10. Groups II (selenite-treated) and III (selenite+saffron-treated) received subcutaneous injection of sodium selenite (20 µmol/kg body weight) on postnatal day 10. Group III also received intraperitoneal injections of saffron extract (60 mg/kg body weight) on postnatal days 9 and 12. On postpartum day 21, rats were sacrificed and the lenses were isolated and examined for cataract formation. Activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and glutathione levels, as markers of antioxidant defense, were measured in the isolated lenses. Levels of the indicator of lipid peroxidation, malondialdehyde, and protein oxidation (sulfhydryl content) in the lens were also determined. The effect of the different treatments on lens protein profile was evaluated through an estimation of the soluble to insoluble protein ratio and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of the water-soluble fraction (WSF) of lens proteins. Saffron demonstrated significant protection against selenite-induced cataractogenesis in vivo. The mean activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and glutathione levels were significantly increased in group III compared to the selenite-treated group. Saffron significantly prevented selenite-induced lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, and proteolysis and insolubilization of the lens WSF. Saffron extract prevented selenite-induced cataract formation in Wistar rats, possibly through the reinforcement of antioxidant status, reduction of the intensity of lipid peroxidation, protection of the sulfhydryl groups, and inhibition of proteolysis of the lens WSF. These findings

  5. Molecular Modeling and Dynamic Simulation of Arabidopsis Thaliana Carotenoid Cleavage Dioxygenase Gene: A Comparison with Bixa orellana and Crocus Sativus.

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    Priya, R; Sneha, P; Rivera Madrid, Renata; Doss, C George Priya; Singh, Pooja; Siva, Ramamoorthy

    2017-09-01

    Carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (CCD) gene, ubiquitously found in numerous types of plants, are eminent in synthesizing the various volatile compounds (β-ionone, C13 -norisoprenoid, geranylacetone) known as apocarotenoids. These apocarotenoids have various biological functions such as volatile signals, allelopathic interaction and plant defense. In Arabidopsis genome sequence, four potential CCD genes have been identified namely CCD1, CCD4, CCD7, and CCD8. These four genes give rise to diverse biological functions with almost similar sequence identity. In this investigation, an in silico analysis was proposed to study CCD proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana, aiming at constructing three-dimensional (3D) structure for CCD1 proteins of Bixa orellana and Crocus sativus to observe the structural difference among AtCCD (A. thaliana CCD) proteins. The quality of modeled structures was evaluated using RAMPAGE, PSVS protein validation server and Q Mean server. Finally, we utilised molecular dynamics simulation to identify the stability of the predicted CCD protein structures. The molecular dynamic simulation also revealed that AtCCD4 protein showed lesser stability when compared to other CCD proteins. Overall results from molecular dynamics analysis predicted that BoCCD1, CsCCD1, and AtCCD1 show similar structural characteristics. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 2712-2721, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Fermentation conditions optimization of secondary metabolites of crocus sativus L in endophytic fungi

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    DU Yan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper,Endophytic fungi,isolated from corm of saffron,were selected.Strains Q31 fermentation conditions on production of carotenoids were studied.Three kinds of carbon sources were selected.Study found that sucrose could promote cell growth and carotenoid accumulation,and amount of mycelium had an increase of 50.83% in the experimental group than the control group.Carotenoid yield was 23.15 times of the control group.Select three kinds of nitrogen and crosscombinations between them,found that add ammonium sulfate,Mycelium of experimental group had an increased of 86.43% than the control group and carotenoid yield was 5.91 times of the control group.the optimal conditions was found by orthogonal test:sucrose 40 g/L,ammonium sulfate 1.0 g/L,bottling amout 100 mL/250 mL,Inoculum size 5%.By using LC-MS to analyze secondary metabolites of endophytic fungi Q31 from saffron,we found it could steady metabolize one kind of carotinoid,its peak time was 22.447min,maximum absorption peaks were 414.4 and 438.3nm,MW was 738.

  7. Historical uses of saffron: Identifying potential new avenues for modern research

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    Seyedeh Zeinab Mousavi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: During the ancient times, saffron (Crocus sativus L. had many uses around the world; however, some of these uses were forgotten throughout the history. But a newly formed interest in natural active compounds brought back the attention toward historical uses of saffron. Understanding different uses of saffron in the past can help us finding the best uses at present.In this study, wereviewed different uses of saffron throughout the history among different nations. Methods: ISI web of Science and Medline, along with references of traditional Iranian medicine were searched for historical uses of saffron. Results: Saffron has been known since more than 3000 years ago by many nations. It was valued not only as a culinary condiment, but also as a dye, perfume and as a medicinal herb. Its medicinal uses ranged from treating eye problems to genitourinary and many other diseases in various cultures. It was also used as a tonic agent and antidepressant drug among many nations. Conclusion(s: Saffron has had many different uses such as a food additive and a palliative agent for many human diseases. Thus, as an important medicinal herb, it is a good candidate with many promising potentials to be considered for new drug design.

  8. Saffron: A Natural Potent Antioxidant as a Promising Anti-Obesity Drug

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    Mashmoul, Maryam; Azlan, Azrina; Khaza’ai, Huzwah; Mohd Yusof, Barakatun Nisak; Mohd Noor, Sabariah

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is associated with various diseases, particularly diabetes, hypertension, osteoarthritis and heart disease. Research on possibilities of herbal extracts and isolated compounds from natural products for treating obesity has an upward trend. Saffron (Crocus Sativus L. Iridaceae) is a source of plant polyphenols/carotenoids, used as important spice and food colorant in different parts of the world. It has also been used in traditional medicine for treatment of different types of illnesses since ancient times. Many of these medicinal properties of saffron can be attributed to a number of its compounds such as crocetin, crocins and other substances having strong antioxidant and radical scavenger properties against a variety of radical oxygen species and pro-inflammatory cytokines. The aim of this article is to assess the potential role of saffron and its constituents in the regulation of metabolic functions, which can beneficially alter obesity pathophysiology. PMID:26784466

  9. Saffron: A Natural Potent Antioxidant as a Promising Anti-Obesity Drug

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    Maryam Mashmoul

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with various diseases, particularly diabetes, hypertension, osteoarthritis and heart disease. Research on possibilities of herbal extracts and isolated compounds from natural products for treating obesity has an upward trend. Saffron (Crocus Sativus L. Iridaceae is a source of plant polyphenols/carotenoids, used as important spice and food colorant in different parts of the world. It has also been used in traditional medicine for treatment of different types of illnesses since ancient times. Many of these medicinal properties of saffron can be attributed to a number of its compounds such as crocetin, crocins and other substances having strong antioxidant and radical scavenger properties against a variety of radical oxygen species and pro-inflammatory cytokines. The aim of this article is to assess the potential role of saffron and its constituents in the regulation of metabolic functions, which can beneficially alter obesity pathophysiology.

  10. Quality and functionality of saffron: quality control, species assortment and affinity of extract and isolated saffron compounds to NMDA and sigma1 (sigma-1) receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechtenberg, Matthias; Schepmann, Dirk; Niehues, Michael; Hellenbrand, Nils; Wünsch, Bernhard; Hensel, Andreas

    2008-06-01

    Extracts from saffron, the dried stigmata from Crocus sativus L., are being used more and more in preclinical and clinical trials for the treatment of cancer and depression. Because of the known quality problems of saffron, HPLC methods on RP(18) 2.5 microm and monolithic RP(18) material have been developed and validated for quality control including the quantification of crocins 1 to 5, crocetin, picrocrocin and the degradation products, the CIS-crocins. Additionally, a GC-MS method has allowed detection and quantification of the volatile compounds from the pentane extract of saffron. Both systems together allowed the comprehensive characterisation of saffron herbal material and extracts for clinical/preclinical trials. For effective preparation of the respective reference standards, a fast centrifugal partition chromatography (FCPC) method was developed allowing the quick isolation of crocins 1, 2, 5 and picrocrocin in good yields. Using these chromatographic methods and the reference standards, a representative survey of saffron from the global market indicated a high variability of quality, especially concerning the amounts of volatile compounds in saffron samples. A specification for high-quality saffron of >20% crocins, >6% picrocrocin and not less than 0.3% of volatiles, calculated as sum of safranal, isophorone and ketoisophorone, was developed. Because no detailed pharmacological studies are available to explain the clinical effects of saffron for the treatment of cancer and depression, receptor binding studies were performed. Saffron extracts and crocetin had a clear binding capacity at the PCP binding side of the NMDA receptor and at the sigma(1) receptor, while the crocins and picrocrocin were not effective. These data could give biochemical support for the above-mentioned pharmacological effects of saffron.

  11. Insight of Saffron Proteome by Gel-Electrophoresis.

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    Paredi, Gianluca; Raboni, Samanta; Marchesani, Francesco; Ordoudi, Stella A; Tsimidou, Maria Z; Mozzarelli, Andrea

    2016-01-29

    Saffron is a spice comprised of the dried stigmas and styles of Crocus sativus L. flowers and, since it is very expensive, it is frequently adulterated. So far, proteomic tools have never been applied to characterize the proteome of saffron or identify possible cases of fraud. In this study, 1D-Gel Electrophoresis was carried out to characterize the protein profile of (i) fresh stigmas and styles of the plant; (ii) dried stigmas and styles from different geographical origins (Spanish, Italian, Greek and Iranian) that had been stored for various periods of time after their processing; and (iii) two common plant adulterants, dried petals of Carthamus tinctorius L. and dried fruits of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis. A selective protein extraction protocol was applied to avoid interference from colored saffron metabolites, such as crocins, during electrophoretic analyses of saffron. We succeeded in separating and assigning the molecular weights to more than 20 proteins. In spite of the unavailability of the genome of saffron, we were able to identify five proteins by Peptide Mass Fingerprinting: phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase 3, heat shock cognate 70 KDa protein, crocetin glucosyltransferase 2, α-1,4-glucan-protein synthase and glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase-2. Our findings indicate that (i) few bands are present in all saffron samples independently of origin and storage time, with amounts that significantly vary among samples and (ii) aging during saffron storage is associated with a reduction in the number of detectable bands, suggesting that proteases are still active. The protein pattern of saffron was quite distinct from those of two common adulterants, such as the dried petals of Carthamus tinctorius and the dried fruits of Gardenia jasminoides indicating that proteomic analyses could be exploited for detecting possible frauds.

  12. Insight of Saffron Proteome by Gel-Electrophoresis

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    Gianluca Paredi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Saffron is a spice comprised of the dried stigmas and styles of Crocus sativus L. flowers and, since it is very expensive, it is frequently adulterated. So far, proteomic tools have never been applied to characterize the proteome of saffron or identify possible cases of fraud. In this study, 1D-Gel Electrophoresis was carried out to characterize the protein profile of (i fresh stigmas and styles of the plant; (ii dried stigmas and styles from different geographical origins (Spanish, Italian, Greek and Iranian that had been stored for various periods of time after their processing; and (iii two common plant adulterants, dried petals of Carthamus tinctorius L. and dried fruits of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis. A selective protein extraction protocol was applied to avoid interference from colored saffron metabolites, such as crocins, during electrophoretic analyses of saffron. We succeeded in separating and assigning the molecular weights to more than 20 proteins. In spite of the unavailability of the genome of saffron, we were able to identify five proteins by Peptide Mass Fingerprinting: phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase 3, heat shock cognate 70 KDa protein, crocetin glucosyltransferase 2, α-1,4-glucan-protein synthase and glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase-2. Our findings indicate that (i few bands are present in all saffron samples independently of origin and storage time, with amounts that significantly vary among samples and (ii aging during saffron storage is associated with a reduction in the number of detectable bands, suggesting that proteases are still active. The protein pattern of saffron was quite distinct from those of two common adulterants, such as the dried petals of Carthamus tinctorius and the dried fruits of Gardenia jasminoides indicating that proteomic analyses could be exploited for detecting possible frauds.

  13. The Effect of the Crocus Sativus L. Carotenoid, Crocin, on the Polymerization of Microtubules, in Vitro

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    Hossein Zarei Jaliani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Crocin, as the main carotenoid of saffron, has shown anti-tumor activity both in vitro and in vivo. Crocin might interact with cellular proteins and modulate their functions, but the exact target of this carotenoid and the other compounds of the saffron have not been discovered yet. Microtubular proteins, as one of the most important proteins inside the cells, have several functions in nearly all kinds of cellular processes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether crocin affects microtubule polymerization and tubulin structure. Materials and Methods: Microtubules were extracted from sheep brains after two cycles of temperature-dependant assembly-disassembly in the polymerization buffer (PMG. Then phosphocellulose P11 column was used to prepare MAP-free tubulin. Turbidimetric assay of microtubules was performed by incubation of tubulins at 37 ºC in PIPES buffer. To investigate the intrinsic fluorescence spectra of tubulins, the emission spectra of tryptophans was monitored. To test the interaction of crocin with tubulin in more details, ANS has been used. Results: Crocin extremely affected the tubulin polymerization and structure. Ultraviolet spectroscopy indicated that crocin increased polymerization of microtubules by nearly a factor of two. Fluorescence spectroscopic data also pointed to significant conformational changes of tubulin. Conclusion: We showed that crocin increased tubulin polymerization and microtubule nucleation rate and this effect was concentration dependant. After entering cell, crocin can modulate cellular proteins and their functions. Concerning the results of this study, crocin would be able to affect several cell processes through interaction with tubulin proteins or microtubules.

  14. Greek PDO saffron authentication studies using species specific molecular markers.

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    Bosmali, I; Ordoudi, S A; Tsimidou, M Z; Madesis, P

    2017-10-01

    Saffron, the spice produced from the red stigmas of the flower of Crocus sativus L. is a frequent target of fraud and mislabeling practices that cannot be fully traced using the ISO 3632 trade standard specifications and test methods. A molecular approach is proposed herein as a promising branding strategy for the authentication of highly esteemed saffron brands such as the Greek Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) "Krokos Kozanis". Specific ISSR (inter-simple sequence repeat) markers were used to assess for the first time, the within species variability of several populations of C. sativus L. from the cultivation area of "Krokos Kozanis" as well as the potential differences with the band pattern produced by other Crocus species. Then, species-specific markers were developed taking advantage of an advanced molecular technique such as the HRM analysis coupled with universal DNA barcoding regions (trnL) (Bar-HRM) and applied to saffron admixtures with some of the most common plant adulterants (Calendula officinalis, Carthamus tinctorius, Gardenia jasminoides, Zea mays and Curcuma longa). The sensitivity of the procedure was tested for turmeric as a case study whereas HPLC-fluorescence determination of secondary metabolites was also employed for comparison. The overall results indicated that the Bar-HRM approach is quite effective in terms of specificity and sensitivity. Its effectiveness regarding the detection of turmeric was comparable to that of a conventional HPLC method (0.5% vs 1.0%, w/w). Yet, the proposed DNA-based method is much faster, cost-effective and can be used even by non-geneticists, in any laboratory having access to an HRM-capable real-time PCR instrumentation. It can be, thus, regarded as a strong analytical tool in saffron authentication studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Dietary saffron reduced the blood pressure and prevented remodeling of the aorta in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats

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    Zohreh Nasiri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of nutritional saffron (Crocus sativus L. stigma hydroalcoholic extract on blood pressure (BP and histology of the aorta in normotensive and hypertensive rats. Materials and Methods:   Saffron (200 mg/kg/day was given orally for 5 weeks to normotensive and hypertensive rats. Hypertension was induced by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 40 mg/kg/day administration in drinking water, and BP was measured weekly. Histological examination of the thoracic aorta included staining with hematoxylin and eosin, orcein, and periodic acid Schiff methods. Results:  Saffron had no effect on normotensive rats, but on hypertensive rats, prevented BP elevation form the third week of treatment (P

  16. Study of genetic variation in some Iranian saffron accessions using molecular markers of RAPD and ISSR

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    Majid Shokrpour

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Saffron (Crocus sativus L. is one of the most valuable medicinal and spice herbs in the world. In spite of the ancient cultivation history in Iran, there are limited breeding studies on the plant due to its vegetative reproduction. In order to evaluation genetic diversity of Iranian saffron germplasm, sixty-five different saffron accessions from the main cultivation areas in Khorasan including Torbat heidarieh, Gonabad, Mahvelat, Ghaenat and Ferdows were collected and were studied by molecular markers. The used RAPD and ISSR primers produced 43 and 122 polymorphic markers loci, respectively, and totally 165 markers with average of 7.5 markers by each primer, totally. Diversity index ranged from 0.36 to 0.7 with average of 0.23. Also, marker index with the average of 0.16 varied in the range of 0.2 to 0.7. The accessions from Ghaenat and Mahvelat had the maximum (83.03% and the minimum (52.73% polymorphism, respectively. Grouping the studied saffron accessions using cluster analysis displayed four distinct groups which had little correspondence to their collection areas, while clustering for the main cultivation areas had relatively good correspondence to their geographical distances. So, it is expected to have nearly approaching improvements of qualitative and quantitative yields via the selection of superior clones of saffron. Key words: Saffron, Molecular variation, Germplasm, RAPD, ISSR, Khorasan region, clustering .

  17. Pattern recognition analysis of chromatographic fingerprints of Crocus sativus L. secondary metabolites towards source identification and quality control.

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    Aliakbarzadeh, Ghazaleh; Sereshti, Hassan; Parastar, Hadi

    2016-05-01

    Chromatographic fingerprinting is an effective methodology for authentication and quality control of herbal products. In the presented study, a chemometric strategy based on multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) and multivariate pattern recognition methods was used to establish a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) fingerprint of saffron. For this purpose, the volatile metabolites of 17 Iranian saffron samples, collected from different geographical regions, were determined using the combined method of ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction (UASE) and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME), coupled with GC-MS. The resolved elution profiles and the related mass spectra obtained by an extended MCR-ALS algorithm were then used to estimate the relative concentrations and to identify the saffron volatile metabolites, respectively. Consequently, 77 compounds with high reversed match factors (RMFs > 850) were successfully determined. The relative concentrations of these compounds were used to generate a new data set which was analyzed by multivariate data analysis methods including principal component analysis (PCA) and k-means. Accordingly, the saffron samples were categorized into five classes using these techniques. The results revealed that 11 compounds, as biomarkers of saffron, contributed to the class discrimination and characterization. Eleven biomarkers including nine secondary metabolites of saffron (safranal, α- and β-isophorone, phenylethyl alcohol, ketoisophorone, 2,2,6-trimethyl-1,4-cyclohexanedione, 2,6,6-trimethyl-4-oxo-2-cyclohexen-1-carbaldehyde, 2,4,4-trimethyl-3-carboxaldehyde-5-hydroxy-2,5-cyclohexadien-1-one, and 2,6,6-trimethyl-4-hydroxy-1-cyclohexene-1-carboxaldehyde (HTCC)), a primary metabolite (linoleic acid), and a long chain fatty alcohol (nanocosanol) were distinguished as the saffron fingerprint. Finally, the individual contribution of each biomarker to the classes was determined by the

  18. Molecular detection of some plant and non-plant frauds in commercial saffron using ITS marker

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    Nasrin Moshtaghi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Saffron (Crocus sativus L. is the most valuable food additive in the world which little production and high price of it caused some adulterations such as plant and chemical material similar to saffron. There are several methods for detecting these fraudulent based on morphological and chemical tests but they are not effective in some cases. In this research a novel molecular method based on ITS-2 marker is introduced. A common forward primer based on 5.8s rDNA for all plant frauds such as safflower, corn stigmas, pomegranate, turmeric and capsicum slices was designed then specific reverse primers based on ITS-2 for any frauds have been designed for polymerase chain reaction. Related ITS-2 bands were amplified in any adulterations in saffron. Specific primer for camel and cow meet fibers was designed based on cytochrome b gene and could amplified the related bands. Multiplex PCR with all of these primers could amplify all of the bands related to any adulterations. Furthermore, using 20% polyacrylamide gel lead to good segregation of bands. This method can be used successfully for detection of low percentage (1% of fraudulent in saffron. So this marker can be used efficiently for detection of these frauds in commercial saffron.

  19. Safranal, a saffron constituent, attenuates retinal degeneration in P23H rats.

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    Laura Fernández-Sánchez

    Full Text Available Saffron, an extract from Crocus sativus, has been largely used in traditional medicine for its antiapoptotic and anticarcinogenic properties. In this work, we investigate the effects of safranal, a component of saffron stigmas, in attenuating retinal degeneration in the P23H rat model of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. We demonstrate that administration of safranal to homozygous P23H line-3 rats preserves both photoreceptor morphology and number. Electroretinographic recordings showed higher a- and b-wave amplitudes under both photopic and scotopic conditions in safranal-treated versus non-treated animals. Furthermore, the capillary network in safranal-treated animals was preserved, unlike that found in untreated animals. Our findings indicate that dietary supplementation with safranal slows photoreceptor cell degeneration and ameliorates the loss of retinal function and vascular network disruption in P23H rats. This work also suggests that safranal could be potentially useful to retard retinal degeneration in patients with retinitis pigmentosa.

  20. Simultaneous quantification of crocetin esters and picrocrocin changes in Chinese saffron by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector during 15 years of storage.

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    Tong, Yingpeng; Yan, Yongqiu; Zhu, Xingyi; Liu, Ruoxi; Gong, Feng; Zhang, Ling; Wang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Saffron, which is made up of the dried stigmas of Crocus sativus L., has been successfully cultivated in China since 1970s and Zhejiang province is now the largest producing area in China, but the contents of crocetin esters and picrocrocin in saffron from Zhejiang province has not been determined simultaneously by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and changes of these constituents in Chinese saffron during storage for years has not been studied. To establish a simple method quantification of the five main compounds including picrocrocin and four crocetin esters in saffron from main producing areas of China and study the influence of storage time on the changes of saffron constituents. A simple, sensitive, and accurate HPLC method was developed for simultaneous determination of five major active components in saffron and eight samples which collected from the same farm of Zhejiang province in different years were analyzed. The correlation coefficient values (R (2) > 0.9997) indicated good correlations between the investigated compounds' concentrations and their peak areas within the test ranges. The limits of quantification and detection of the five compounds were 0.53-2.76 μg/mL and 0.11-0.77 μg/mL, respectively. The recoveries ranged from 94.67% to 101.31%, and the overall relative standard deviations for intra-day and inter-day were lower than 3.49%. The method was applied to study the changes of crocetin esters and picrocrocin contents in saffron samples during 15 years of storage. The losses of crocetin esters and picrocrocin in saffron with 1 -year storage were 52.2% and 54.3%, respectively. The trend then declined during subsequent storage. The developed method can be applied to the intrinsic quality control of saffron.

  1. Saffron: An Old Medicinal Plant and a Potential Novel Functional Food.

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    José Bagur, María; Alonso Salinas, Gonzalo Luis; Jiménez-Monreal, Antonia M; Chaouqi, Soukaina; Llorens, Silvia; Martínez-Tomé, Magdalena; Alonso, Gonzalo L

    2017-12-23

    The spice saffron is made from the dried stigmas of the plant Crocus sativus L. The main use of saffron is in cooking, due to its ability to impart colour, flavour and aroma to foods and beverages. However, from time immemorial it has also been considered a medicinal plant because it possesses therapeutic properties, as illustrated in paintings found on the island of Santorini, dated 1627 BC. It is included in Catalogues of Medicinal Plants and in the European Pharmacopoeias, being part of a great number of compounded formulas from the 16th to the 20th centuries. The medicinal and pharmaceutical uses of this plant largely disappeared with the advent of synthetic chemistry-produced drugs. However, in recent years there has been growing interest in demonstrating saffron's already known bioactivity, which is attributed to the main components-crocetin and its glycosidic esters, called crocins, and safranal-and to the synergy between the compounds present in the spice. The objective of this work was to provide an updated and critical review of the research on the therapeutic properties of saffron, including activity on the nervous and cardiovascular systems, in the liver, its antidepressant, anxiolytic and antineoplastic properties, as well as its potential use as a functional food or nutraceutical.

  2. Effects of enzymatic extraction on anthocyanins yield of saffron tepals (Crocos sativus) along with its color properties and structural stability.

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    Lotfi, Leila; Kalbasi-Ashtari, Ahmad; Hamedi, Mirmanoochehr; Ghorbani, Fereshteh

    2015-06-01

    An aqueous solution of Pectinex (containing cellulase, hemicellulase, and pectinase) at 1%, 2.5%, 5%, 7%, and 10% concentrations and 40(°)C was used to extract anthocyanins (Acys) of saffron tepals at 20, 40, 60, 120 and 180 min reaction times and compared with ethanol solvent under similar conditions. The Acys of the Pectinex solution reached 6.7 mg/g of tepal powder (∼40% more than the ethanol method) when the enzyme concentrations and extraction times were, respectively, 5% and 60 min. The Acys of aqueous enzymes had three times slower degradation rates and 50% more attractive chroma color than the ones recovered by ethanol solution after 3 h of extraction time. Additionally, the Acys of the ethanol solution lost its content sharply (>45%) and its chroma changed quickly (due to the browning and polymerization). High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed that Acys extracted with mixed enzymes had about 80% more cyanidin 3-glucosides and 20% less pelargonidin 3,5-glucosides than with the ethanol method. Most probably, the high content of cyanidin 3-glycosides in enzyme-extracted Acys of saffron tepals was the key factor for its high stability. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Effects of enzymatic extraction on anthocyanins yield of saffron tepals (Crocos sativus along with its color properties and structural stability

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    Leila Lotfi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An aqueous solution of Pectinex (containing cellulase, hemicellulase, and pectinase at 1%, 2.5%, 5%, 7%, and 10% concentrations and 40°C was used to extract anthocyanins (Acys of saffron tepals at 20, 40, 60, 120 and 180 min reaction times and compared with ethanol solvent under similar conditions. The Acys of the Pectinex solution reached 6.7 mg/g of tepal powder (∼40% more than the ethanol method when the enzyme concentrations and extraction times were, respectively, 5% and 60 min. The Acys of aqueous enzymes had three times slower degradation rates and 50% more attractive chroma color than the ones recovered by ethanol solution after 3 h of extraction time. Additionally, the Acys of the ethanol solution lost its content sharply (>45% and its chroma changed quickly (due to the browning and polymerization. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis showed that Acys extracted with mixed enzymes had about 80% more cyanidin 3-glucosides and 20% less pelargonidin 3,5-glucosides than with the ethanol method. Most probably, the high content of cyanidin 3-glycosides in enzyme-extracted Acys of saffron tepals was the key factor for its high stability.

  4. Crocins with high levels of sugar conjugation contribute to the yellow colours of early-spring flowering crocus tepals.

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    Angela Rubio Moraga

    Full Text Available Crocus sativus is the source of saffron spice, the processed stigma which accumulates glucosylated apocarotenoids known as crocins. Crocins are found in the stigmas of other Crocuses, determining the colourations observed from pale yellow to dark red. By contrast, tepals in Crocus species display a wider diversity of colours which range from purple, blue, yellow to white. In this study, we investigated whether the contribution of crocins to colour extends from stigmas to the tepals of yellow Crocus species. Tepals from seven species were analysed by UPLC-PDA and ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS revealing for the first time the presence of highly glucosylated crocins in this tissue. β-carotene was found to be the precursor of these crocins and some of them were found to contain rhamnose, never before reported. When crocin profiles from tepals were compared with those from stigmas, clear differences were found, including the presence of new apocarotenoids in stigmas. Furthermore, each species showed a characteristic profile which was not correlated with the phylogenetic relationship among species. While gene expression analysis in tepals of genes involved in carotenoid metabolism showed that phytoene synthase was a key enzyme in apocarotenoid biosynthesis in tepals. Expression of a crocetin glucosyltransferase, previously identified in saffron, was detected in all the samples. The presence of crocins in tepals is compatible with the role of chromophores to attract pollinators. The identification of tepals as new sources of crocins is of special interest given their wide range of applications in medicine, cosmetics and colouring industries.

  5. The effects of mother corm size and type of fertilizer on nitrogen use efficiency in saffron

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    Alireza Koocheki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mother corm size and nutrient management are the most important factors in relation to nitrogen uptake of saffron (Crocus sativus L.. In order to investigate the effects of mother corms size and type of fertilizer on uptake and use efficiency of nitrogen in Saffron, a field experiment was conducted as factorial layout based on a randomized complete block design with three replications at Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, during the years 2013 and 2014. The mother corm size (4 g and lower (small, 4.1–8 g (medium, 8.1-12 g (relatively large and over 12 g (large and fertilizer sources (cow manure 25 t ha-1, chemical fertilizer (N+P and control were the first and second experimental factors, respectively. In both years, the larger mother corms (8.1-12 g and more significantly resulted in greater nitrogen content (g m-2 of replacement corms and whole plant of saffron. In addition, uptake and use efficiency of nitrogen were significantly increased with increasing mother corms size. In the first and the second years, nitrogen use efficiency in manure treatment was significantly higher than that of chemical fertilizer (by 21 and 61%, respectively.

  6. Saffron: a promising natural medicine in the treatment of metabolic syndrome.

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    Razavi, Bibi Marjan; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2017-04-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a disorder which encompasses obesity, high blood glucose, high cholesterol levels and high blood pressure. Moreover, metabolic syndrome is considered as the most important risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). CVD is the leading cause of mortality in the world for both men and women. Several chemical drugs are available to treat metabolic risk factors, but because of the safety, efficacy, cultural acceptability and lesser side effects, nowadays herbal therapy has a critical role in the treatment of these CVD risk factors. Crocus sativus L. (saffron) is a perennial herb that belongs to the Iridaceae family. Saffron is an extensively used food additive for its colour and taste and has been widely used in traditional as well as modern medicine to treat several illnesses including cardiovascular diseases. Most of the unique properties of this plant are attributed to the presence of three major components, including crocin, safranal and crocetin. It has been proved that saffron has an important role in the management of metabolic syndrome because of its marvelous activities including anti-diabetic, anti-obesity, hypotensive and hypolipidaemic properties. In this review article, we discuss the beneficial properties of saffron and its active components to treat different components of metabolic syndrome and most relevant animal and human studies regarding the use of this plant in cardiovascular disease, with focus on the metabolic risk factors. This review also suggests that after randomised clinical trials, saffron may be implicated as a preventive or therapeutic agent against metabolic syndrome. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Energy analyses and greenhouse gas emissions assessment for saffron production cycle.

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    Bakhtiari, Amir Abbas; Hematian, Amir; Sharifi, Azin

    2015-10-01

    Population growth and world climate changes are putting high pressure on agri-food production systems. Exacerbating use of energy sources and expanding the environmental damaging symptoms are the results of these difficult situations. This study was conducted to determine the energy balance for saffron production cycle and investigate the corresponding greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Iran. Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is one of the main spice that historically cultivated in Iran. Data were obtained from 127 randomly selected saffron growers using a face to face questionnaire technique. The results revealed that in 5 years of saffron production cycle, the overall input and output energy use were to be 163,912.09 and 184,868.28 MJ ha(-1), respectively. The highest-level of energy consumption belongs to seeds (23.7 %) followed by chemical fertilizers (23.4 %). Energy use efficiency, specific energy, net energy, and energy productivity of saffron production were 1.1, 13.4 MJ kg(-1), 20,956.2 MJ ha(-1), and 0.1 kg MJ(-1), respectively. The result shows that the cultivation of saffron emits 2325.5 kg CO2 eq. ha(-1) greenhouse gas, in which around 46.5 % belonged to electricity followed by chemical fertilizers. In addition the Cobb-Douglas production function was applied into EViews 7 software to define the functional relationship. The results of econometric model estimation showed that the impact of human labor, electricity, and water for irrigation on stigma, human labor, electricity, and seed on corm and also human labor and farmyard manure (FYM) on flower and leaf yield were found to be statistically significant. Sensitivity analysis results of the energy inputs demonstrated that the marginal physical productivity (MPP) worth of electricity energy was the highest for saffron stigma and corm, although saffron flower and leaf had more sensitivity on chemicals energy inputs. Moreover, MPP values of renewable and indirect energies were higher than non-renewable and

  8. Preventive effects of hydroalcoholic extract of saffron on hematological parameters of experimental asthmatic rats

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    Somayyeh Vosooghi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the respiratory airways distinguished by edema and infiltration of inflammatory immune cells. To test our hypothesis about the anti-inflammatory effect of saffron, we examined effects of Crocus sativus (C. sativus extract as a prophylactic anti-inflammatory agent in sensitized rats. Materials and Methods: To induce experimental asthma, rats were sensitized with injection and inhalation of ovalbumin (OA. Forty male Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups (n=8 for each: control, sensitized (asthma, and sensitized and pretreated with three different concentrations of extract, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, 2 times a week (group asthma+50EX, group asthma+100EX, and group asthma+200EX. After 32 days, total white blood cells (WBC counts, red blood cells (RBC, and platelet counts in blood were examined. Results: Total WBC number and eosinophil and neutrophil percentage in blood were increased, but lymphocyte decreased in sensitized animals compared with those of control group (pConclusion: Our findings indicated that the extract of C. sativus could be useful to prevent asthma as an anti-inflammatory treatment.

  9. The Synergic Effects of Crocus Sativus L. and Low Frequency Electromagnetic Field on VEGFR2 Gene Expression in Human Breast Cancer Cells.

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    Mousavi, Marzieh; Baharara, Javad; Shahrokhabadi, Khadijeh

    2014-04-01

    Angiogenesis, which is required for embryonic development and many physiological events, plays crucial role in many pathological conditions such as tumor growth and metastasis. Recent studies indicate anticancer and antitumor properties of saffron against human cancers. Many processes are affected by Electromagnetic Field (EMF) and its effect on proliferation and gene expression were examined. In this experimental study, the synergic effects of saffron and EMF on VEGFR2 gene expression in MCF7 cells were investigated. Saffron was extracted using freeze dryer. MCF7 cells were grown in RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with 10% FBS and incubated at 37°C with 5% CO2. After 24 hr cells were treated with saffron extract at concentrations of 100, 200, 400 and 800 µg/ml. Forty eight hr after treatment all flasks were exposed with EMF (50 Hz, 0.004 T). Then total RNA was extracted and cDNA was synthetized using specific primer. Synthetized products were analyzed by Real Time PCR to determine expression level of VEGFR2. Data were analyzed by SPSS (ANOVA & Tukey). Critical inhibitory effect on VEGFR2 gene expression was 20% at 400 µg/ml. Synergic use of EMF and saffron extract showed most reduction (38%) at 100 µg/ml. On the other hand synergic use of 200, 400 and 800 µg/ml saffron aqua extract and EMF decline noticeably the VEGFR2 level of gene expression to 29, 35 and 36%, respectively. EMF itself also reduced VEGFR2 up to 25% in comparison with control group which is remarkable at p EMF which reveals induction of inhibitory effects of saffron on angiogenesis and could be also considered as a promising chemotherapeutic agent in breast cancer treatment.

  10. Effective isolation protocol for secondary metabolites from saffron: semi-preparative scale preparation of crocin-1 and trans-crocetin.

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    Lautenschläger, Marcus; Lechtenberg, Matthias; Sendker, Jandirk; Hensel, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Extracts from saffron, the dried stigmata from Crocus sativus L. are recognized as valuable tools for pharmaceutical development in neuroprotection and antidepressive therapy. One major lead compound is crocin-1 (1), which gets metabolized to the C20-dicarboxylic acid trans-crocetin (2) being responsible for potential NMDA-antagonistic effects in the central nervous system. Neither crocin-1 nor crocetin are commercially available in sufficient quality and to a reasonable price. The following protocol describes effective methods to obtain both compounds from an EtOH-water extract (2:8) in good yields (about 43% related to the starting material). Crocin-1 (purity>90%) can be obtained from the extract by means of partition chromatography (FCPC) in a single run without fractionation of the mobile phase by using only the stationary phase and in yields of about 48%, related to the saffron extract. Trans-crocetin can be obtained from the EtOH-water extract by enzymatic deglycosylation of crocins using commercially available cheap glycosidase mixtures as e.g. Röhm Enzyme® or RohamentCL®. Further polishing can be achieved by flash chromatography on MCI® stationary phase with yields between 6 and 11%. The protocols described provide effective isolation of crocin-1 and trans-crocetin reference compounds for further preclinical and analytical studies with saffron extracts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Saffron improved depression and reduced homocysteine level in patients with major depression: A Randomized, double-blind study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamali Jelodar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: A correlation between hyperhomocysteinemia, and depression has been reported. Saffron (Crocus sativus is recommended for treatment of depression; hence, in this study the effect of co-administration of saffron and fluoxetine on plasma homocysteine and depression was evaluated. Material and methods: This was a 4-week randomized and double-blind clinical trial which was conducted from March 2013 to February 2014. In this trial, 40 male and females (20-55 years old diagnosed with severe depression were selected and following filing the Beck form, were randomly divided into two groups.  Experimental group was treated with fluoxetine 20 mg/day and saffron 30 mg /day and the control group received placebo and fluoxetine 20 mg/day for four weeks. Before treatment and at the end of the study, fasting blood samples were collected. For females, blood samples were collected on the third day of their menstrual cycle. Results: A significant reduction of homocysteine levels was observed in both sex in the experimental group compared to before treatment (p

  12. Modulation of Type-1 and Type-2 Cannabinoid Receptors by Saffron in a Rat Model of Retinal Neurodegeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccarone, Rita; Rapino, Cinzia; Zerti, Darin; di Tommaso, Monia; Battista, Natalia; Di Marco, Stefano; Bisti, Silvia; Maccarrone, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Experimental studies demonstrated that saffron (Crocus sativus) given as a dietary supplement counteracts the effects of bright continuous light (BCL) exposure in the albino rat retina, preserving both morphology and function and probably acting as a regulator of programmed cell death [1]. The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether the neuroprotective effect of saffron on rat retina exposed to BCL is associated with a modulation of the endocannabinoid system (ECS). To this aim, we used eight experimental groups of Sprague-Dawley rats, of which six were exposed to BCL for 24 hours. Following retinal function evaluation, retinas were quickly removed for biochemical and morphological analyses. Rats were either saffron-prefed or intravitreally injected with selective type-1 (CB1) or type-2 (CB2) cannabinoid receptor antagonists before BCL. Prefeeding and intravitreally injections were combined in two experimental groups before BCL. BCL exposure led to enhanced gene and protein expression of retinal CB1 and CB2 without affecting the other ECS elements. This effect of BCL on CB1 and CB2 was reversed by saffron treatment. Selective CB1 and CB2 antagonists reduced photoreceptor death, preserved morphology and visual function of retina, and mitigated the outer nuclear layer (ONL) damage due to BCL. Of interest, CB2-dependent neuroprotection was more pronounced than that conferred by CB1. These data suggest that BCL modulates only distinct ECS elements like CB1 and CB2, and that saffron and cannabinoid receptors could share the same mechanism in order to afford retinal protection. PMID:27861558

  13. Modulation of Type-1 and Type-2 Cannabinoid Receptors by Saffron in a Rat Model of Retinal Neurodegeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Maccarone

    Full Text Available Experimental studies demonstrated that saffron (Crocus sativus given as a dietary supplement counteracts the effects of bright continuous light (BCL exposure in the albino rat retina, preserving both morphology and function and probably acting as a regulator of programmed cell death [1]. The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether the neuroprotective effect of saffron on rat retina exposed to BCL is associated with a modulation of the endocannabinoid system (ECS. To this aim, we used eight experimental groups of Sprague-Dawley rats, of which six were exposed to BCL for 24 hours. Following retinal function evaluation, retinas were quickly removed for biochemical and morphological analyses. Rats were either saffron-prefed or intravitreally injected with selective type-1 (CB1 or type-2 (CB2 cannabinoid receptor antagonists before BCL. Prefeeding and intravitreally injections were combined in two experimental groups before BCL. BCL exposure led to enhanced gene and protein expression of retinal CB1 and CB2 without affecting the other ECS elements. This effect of BCL on CB1 and CB2 was reversed by saffron treatment. Selective CB1 and CB2 antagonists reduced photoreceptor death, preserved morphology and visual function of retina, and mitigated the outer nuclear layer (ONL damage due to BCL. Of interest, CB2-dependent neuroprotection was more pronounced than that conferred by CB1. These data suggest that BCL modulates only distinct ECS elements like CB1 and CB2, and that saffron and cannabinoid receptors could share the same mechanism in order to afford retinal protection.

  14. Antitumor Effects of Saffron-Derived Carotenoids in Prostate Cancer Cell Models

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    Claudio Festuccia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Crocus sativus L. extracts (saffron are rich in carotenoids. Preclinical studies have shown that dietary intake of carotenoids has antitumor effects suggesting their potential preventive and/or therapeutic roles. We have recently reported that saffron (SE and crocin (CR exhibit anticancer activity by promoting cell cycle arrest in prostate cancer (PCa cells. It has also been demonstrated that crocetin esters are produced after SE gastrointestinal digestion by CR hydrolysis. The aim of the present report was to investigate if SE, crocetin (CCT, and CR affected in vivo tumor growth of two aggressive PCa cell lines (PC3 and 22rv1 which were xenografted in male nude mice treated by oral gavage with SE, CR, and CCT. We demonstrated that the antitumor effects of CCT were higher when compared to CR and SE and treatments reverted the epithelial-mesenchymal transdifferentiation (EMT as attested by the significant reduction of N-cadherin and beta-catenin expression and the increased expression of E-cadherin. Additionally, SE, CR, and CCT inhibited PCa cell invasion and migration through the downmodulation of metalloproteinase and urokinase expression/activity suggesting that these agents may affect metastatic processes. Our findings suggest that CR and CCT may be dietary phytochemicals with potential antitumor effects in biologically aggressive PCa cells.

  15. Antitumor Effects of Saffron-Derived Carotenoids in Prostate Cancer Cell Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festuccia, Claudio; Mancini, Andrea; Gravina, Giovanni Luca; Scarsella, Luca; Llorens, Silvia; Alonso, Gonzalo L.; Tatone, Carla; Di Cesare, Ernesto; Jannini, Emmanuele A.; Lenzi, Andrea; D'Alessandro, Anna M.; Carmona, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Crocus sativus L. extracts (saffron) are rich in carotenoids. Preclinical studies have shown that dietary intake of carotenoids has antitumor effects suggesting their potential preventive and/or therapeutic roles. We have recently reported that saffron (SE) and crocin (CR) exhibit anticancer activity by promoting cell cycle arrest in prostate cancer (PCa) cells. It has also been demonstrated that crocetin esters are produced after SE gastrointestinal digestion by CR hydrolysis. The aim of the present report was to investigate if SE, crocetin (CCT), and CR affected in vivo tumor growth of two aggressive PCa cell lines (PC3 and 22rv1) which were xenografted in male nude mice treated by oral gavage with SE, CR, and CCT. We demonstrated that the antitumor effects of CCT were higher when compared to CR and SE and treatments reverted the epithelial-mesenchymal transdifferentiation (EMT) as attested by the significant reduction of N-cadherin and beta-catenin expression and the increased expression of E-cadherin. Additionally, SE, CR, and CCT inhibited PCa cell invasion and migration through the downmodulation of metalloproteinase and urokinase expression/activity suggesting that these agents may affect metastatic processes. Our findings suggest that CR and CCT may be dietary phytochemicals with potential antitumor effects in biologically aggressive PCa cells. PMID:24900952

  16. Crocetin: an agent derived from saffron for prevention and therapy for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutheil, William G; Reed, Gregory; Ray, Amitabha; Anant, Shrikant; Dhar, Animesh

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of death in the United States and accounts for approximately 8 million deaths per year worldwide. Although there is an increasing number of therapeutic options available for patients with cancer, their efficacy is time-limited and non-curative. Approximately 50-60% cancer patients in the United States utilize agents derived from different parts of plants or nutrients (complementary and alternative medicine), exclusively or concurrently with traditional therapeutic regime such as chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. The need for new drugs has prompted studies evaluating possible anti-cancer agents in fruits, vegetables, herbs and spices. Saffron, a spice and a food colorant present in the dry stigmas of the plant Crocus sativus L., has been used as an herbal remedy for various ailments including cancer by the ancient Arabian, Indian and Chinese cultures. Crocetin, an important carotenoid constituent of saffron, has shown significant potential as an anti-tumor agent in animal models and cell culture systems. Crocetin affects the growth of cancer cells by inhibiting nucleic acid synthesis, enhancing anti-oxidative system, inducing apoptosis and hindering growth factor signaling pathways. This review discusses the studies on cancer preventive potential of crocetin and its future use as an anticancer agent.

  17. A preliminary study on antioxidant activities of saffron petal extracts in lambs

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    Arash Omidi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of saffron (Crocus sativus L petals on male lambs and was aimed at evaluating the antioxidant activity of this extract during a 15-day period. Fourteen male lambs were divided randomly into three treatment groups (n=4 each and a control group (normal saline; n=2. Saffron petal extract at 500, 1000 and 1500 mg/kg was administered by gavage once daily on days 1 and 3 of the experiment for treatment groups. Blood samples were obtained on days 6 and 14 of the study. Serum and plasma were stored at −21°C for further analysis. Heart rate, respiratory rate, rectal temperatures and body weight of each lamb were recorded in the distinctive intervals from day 0 to the last day of the study. Total antioxidant capacity levels were increased significantly with any dose of the extract on the first day of sampling. There was no statistical difference in the levels of malondialdehyde and total thiol between the treatment and the control group son the 6th and the 14th days of the experiment. Also, no significant differences were identified in the concentrations of glucose, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, uric acid, total cholesterol, triglyceride, albumin, globulin, total protein, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyle transferase, total bilirubin, direct and indirect bilirubin between control and treatment groups in male lambs during this study. Recorded vital signs and body weight in control and treatment groups showed no significant differences. The present results suggest that the hydroalcoholic extract of saffron petals has antioxidant activity in sheep.

  18. Biochemical and molecular aspects of aluminium chloride-induced neurotoxicity in mice and the protective role of Crocus sativus L. extraction and honey syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shati, A A; Elsaid, F G; Hafez, E E

    2011-02-23

    Aluminium has been proposed as an environmental factor that may affect several enzymes and other biomolecules related to neurotoxicity and Alzheimer's disease (AD). The promising protective effect of aqueous saffron extract and honey syrup on neurotoxicity induced by aluminuim chloride (AlCl(3)) may be derived from their own antioxidant properties. Balb/c and C57BL/6 mice (35-40 g) were injected with AlCl(3), 40 mg/kg/day for 45 days. Each mice strain was divided into four groups: AlCl(3) treated group, AlCl(3) plus water saffron extract group (administered with saffron extract at 200 mg/kg b.w. once a day for the experimental period), AlCl(3) plus honey syrup group (administered with honey syrup at 500 mg/kg b.w. for 45 days). The control group received no treatment. Oxidative stress and antioxidant status were estimated in the brain and differential display was performed for both mice strains to scan the mRNA in the treated and non treated groups. In addition, the up and down regulated genes were isolated, cloned and sequenced. The sequence analysis was performed and compared with the other genes cited on GenBank. The results show that there was a decrease in the activity of the antioxidant enzymes (P≤0.001) such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in the AlCl3 groups of both mice strains. The level of brain thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) showed a significant increase (P≤0.001) of lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the AlCl(3) groups. There was an indication of carcinogenicity in the AlCl(3) treated group representing an increase in serum tumor markers such as arginase and a-l-fucosidase. More than 350 band patterns were obtained and about 22 different up-down regulated genes were observed. The sequence analysis of the three selected up-regulated genes revealed that they are similar to B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), R-spondin and the inositol polyphosphate 4-phosphatase genes (INPP4B), respectively. The R

  19. Apical dominance in saffron and the involvement of the branching enzymes CCD7 and CCD8 in the control of bud sprouting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background In saffron (Crocus sativus), new corms develop at the base of every shoot developed from the maternal corm, a globular underground storage stem. Since the degree of bud sprouts influences the number and size of new corms, and strigolactones (SLs) suppress growth of pre-formed axillary bud, it was considered appropriate to investigate SL involvement in physiology and molecular biology in saffron. We focused on two of the genes within the SL pathway, CCD7 and CCD8, encoding carotenoid cleavage enzymes required for the production of SLs. Results The CsCCD7 and CsCCD8 genes are the first ones isolated and characterized from a non-grass monocotyledonous plant. CsCCD7 and CsCCD8 expression showed some overlapping, although they were not identical. CsCCD8 was highly expressed in quiescent axillary buds and decapitation dramatically reduced its expression levels, suggesting its involvement in the suppression of axillary bud outgrowth. Furthermore, in vitro experiments showed also the involvement of auxin, cytokinin and jasmonic acid on the sprouting of axillary buds from corms in which the apical bud was removed. In addition, CsCCD8 expression, but not CsCCD7, was higher in the newly developed vascular tissue of axillary buds compared to the vascular tissue of the apical bud. Conclusions We showed that production and transport of auxin in saffron corms could act synergistically with SLs to arrest the outgrowth of the axillary buds, similar to the control of above-ground shoot branching. In addition, jasmonic acid seems to play a prominent role in bud dormancy in saffron. While cytokinins from roots promote bud outgrowth. In addition the expression results of CsCCD8 suggest that SLs could positively regulate procambial activity and the development of new vascular tissues connecting leaves with the mother corm. PMID:24947472

  20. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U01063-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ) G1146P340FJ9.T0 Anolis carolinensis pooled normal... 44 6.0 1 ( EX148562 ) cr25_B14 Saffron... (Crocus sativus) mature stigma l... 44 6.0 1 ( EX144997 ) cr7_O10 Saffron (Crocus sativus) matu...re stigma la... 44 6.0 1 ( EX144453 ) cr16_B17 Saffron (Crocus sativus) mature stigma l... 44 6.0 1 ( EX144059 ) cr26_G03 Saffron... (Crocus sativus) mature stigma l... 44 6.0 1 ( EX143244 ) cr28_L05 Saffron... (Crocus sativus) mature stigma l... 44 6.0 1 ( EX142794 ) cr12_I11 Saffron (Crocus sativus)

  1. Novel carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase catalyzes the first dedicated step in saffron crocin biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frusciante, Sarah; Diretto, Gianfranco; Bruno, Mark; Ferrante, Paola; Pietrella, Marco; Prado-Cabrero, Alfonso; Rubio-Moraga, Angela; Beyer, Peter; Gomez-Gomez, Lourdes; Al-Babili, Salim; Giuliano, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Crocus sativus stigmas are the source of the saffron spice and accumulate the apocarotenoids crocetin, crocins, picrocrocin, and safranal, responsible for its color, taste, and aroma. Through deep transcriptome sequencing, we identified a novel dioxygenase, carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 2 (CCD2), expressed early during stigma development and closely related to, but distinct from, the CCD1 dioxygenase family. CCD2 is the only identified member of a novel CCD clade, presents the structural features of a bona fide CCD, and is able to cleave zeaxanthin, the presumed precursor of saffron apocarotenoids, both in Escherichia coli and in maize endosperm. The cleavage products, identified through high-resolution mass spectrometry and comigration with authentic standards, are crocetin dialdehyde and crocetin, respectively. In vitro assays show that CCD2 cleaves sequentially the 7,8 and 7′,8′ double bonds adjacent to a 3-OH-β-ionone ring and that the conversion of zeaxanthin to crocetin dialdehyde proceeds via the C30 intermediate 3-OH-β-apo-8′-carotenal. In contrast, zeaxanthin cleavage dioxygenase (ZCD), an enzyme previously claimed to mediate crocetin formation, did not cleave zeaxanthin or 3-OH-β-apo-8′-carotenal in the test systems used. Sequence comparison and structure prediction suggest that ZCD is an N-truncated CCD4 form, lacking one blade of the β-propeller structure conserved in all CCDs. These results constitute strong evidence that CCD2 catalyzes the first dedicated step in crocin biosynthesis. Similar to CCD1, CCD2 has a cytoplasmic localization, suggesting that it may cleave carotenoids localized in the chromoplast outer envelope. PMID:25097262

  2. Novel carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase catalyzes the first dedicated step in saffron crocin biosynthesis

    KAUST Repository

    Frusciante, Sarah

    2014-08-05

    Crocus sativus stigmas are the source of the saffron spice and accumulate the apocarotenoids crocetin, crocins, picrocrocin, and safranal, responsible for its color, taste, and aroma. Through deep transcriptome sequencing, we identified a novel dioxygenase, carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 2 (CCD2), expressed early during stigma development and closely related to, but distinct from, the CCD1 dioxygenase family. CCD2 is the only identified member of a novel CCD clade, presents the structural features of a bona fide CCD, and is able to cleave zeaxanthin, the presumed precursor of saffron apocarotenoids, both in Escherichia coli and in maize endosperm. The cleavage products, identified through high-resolution mass spectrometry and comigration with authentic standards, are crocetin dialdehyde and crocetin, respectively. In vitro assays show that CCD2 cleaves sequentially the 7,8 and 7′,8′ double bonds adjacent to a 3-OH-β-ionone ring and that the conversion of zeaxanthin to crocetin dialdehyde proceeds via the C30 intermediate 3-OH-β-apo-8′-carotenal. In contrast, zeaxanthin cleavage dioxygenase (ZCD), an enzyme previously claimed to mediate crocetin formation, did not cleave zeaxanthin or 3-OH-β-apo-8′-carotenal in the test systems used. Sequence comparison and structure prediction suggest that ZCD is an N-truncated CCD4 form, lacking one blade of the β-propeller structure conserved in all CCDs. These results constitute strong evidence that CCD2 catalyzes the first dedicated step in crocin biosynthesis. Similar to CCD1, CCD2 has a cytoplasmic localization, suggesting that it may cleave carotenoids localized in the chromoplast outer envelope.

  3. Effect of Zeolite Rates and Irrigation Management on Some Properties of Saffron Corms

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    Abbas Khashei Siuki

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Saffron (Crocus sativus L. is a subtropical and valuable crop which is reproduced by corms. Due to the importance of corm weight in saffron yield, it is important to study the different factors that affect yield such as drought stress. For this purpose, this research was conducted as a factorial design based on completely randomized design (CRD in the Agricultural Research Station of the University of Birjand during the period 2013-2015. The treatments consisted of Zeolite at four rates (0: Z0, 0.5: Z1, 1: Z2 and 2: Z3 as weight percentage and irrigation management at three levels (traditional: I1, deficit irrigation as 70% moisture depletion: I2 and full irrigation: I3 with three replications. The results showed that zeolite rates has a significant effect on corm weight, number of corms less than 2gr, number of 6-8gr corms and number of replacement corms (P≤0.01. Irrigation management also has a significant effect on corm weight (P≤0.01, number of corms 6-8gr and number of replacement corms (P≤0.05. The treatments with no zeolite amended (Z0I1, Z0I2 and Z0I3 showed a reduction in corm weight compared to Z3I3 (P≤0.05. Z3I3, Z3I2 and Z3I3 showed an increase in the number of replacement corms while Z0I1 and Z0I2 had the least number of replacement corms. In conclusion, Z2I1 is recommended as the best treatment by considering the reduction in zeolite and water used, which increased corm weight by 26.64%, 23.88% and 17.81% compared to Z0I1, Z0I2 and Z0I3, respectively.

  4. Hypoglycemic effects of three Iranian edible plants; jujube, barberry and saffron: Correlation with serum adiponectin level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmati, Mina; Asghari, Somaye; Zohoori, Elham; Karamian, Mehdi

    2015-11-01

    One of the most common disorders of the endocrine system is diabetes mellitus. This disease is associated with dyslipidemia. Adiponectin is a protein hormone that secreted by adipocytes and has an important role in regulating of glucose and fatty acid metabolic pathways. This study was designed to investigate the changes in serum level of adiponectin in diabetic rats treated with hydroalcoholic extracts of three medicinal plants; jujube (Ziziphus jujuba), barberry (Berberis vulgaris) and saffron (Crocus sativus) in comparison with quercetin. Streptozotocin -induced diabetic male rats were gavaged with specified doses of the extracts (25 and 100mg/kg) for two weeks. At the end of treatment period, fasting blood specimens were collected. The levels of adiponectin, fasting blood sugar (FBS), total Cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-C and LDL-C were measured. Statistical analysis showed that serum levels of triglyceride and VLDL decreased significantly (PJujube, other plant extracts had no effect on cholesterol. Jujube in two doses (25 and 100mg/kg) could increased significantly HDL-C (Pjujube extracts and quercetin in diabetic rats may be associated with increase in adiponectin level.

  5. Effect of Tribulus terrestris , ginger, saffron, and Cinnamomum on menopausal symptoms: a randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simin Taavoni

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Menopausal symptoms experienced by women vary widely, and while many women transition through menopause with manageable symptoms, others experience severe symptoms, which may impair their quality of life. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of Tribulus terrestris , ginger, saffron, and Cinnamomum on menopausal symptoms. A randomised, triple-blind, controlled trial design was used for this study. The participants were 80 postmenopausal women aged 50–60 years. A demographic data form and the Menopause Rating Scale were used to collect data. The women were randomly divided into two groups, each of which received either an Aphrodit capsule or a placebo twice a day for four weeks. The two bottles looked exactly the same, so that the investigator and the participants were not aware of the contents of the bottles. Each Aphrodit capsule contained 40 mg of Tribulus terrestris , 12.27 mg of Zingiber officinale, 3 mg of Crocus sativus extract, and 11 mg of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, while the placebo capsules contained 50 mg of starch. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse the data. A statistically significant change was reported in the menopausal symptoms of the intervention group compared with the placebo group. The results of the study demonstrate that the Aphrodit capsule was effective in reducing menopausal symptoms.

  6. Effect ofTribulus terrestris, ginger, saffron, and Cinnamomum on menopausal symptoms: a randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taavoni, Simin; Ekbatani, Neda Nazem; Haghani, Hamid

    2017-03-01

    Menopausal symptoms experienced by women vary widely, and while many women transition through menopause with manageable symptoms, others experience severe symptoms, which may impair their quality of life. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of Tribulus terrestris , ginger, saffron, and Cinnamomum on menopausal symptoms. A randomised, triple-blind, controlled trial design was used for this study. The participants were 80 postmenopausal women aged 50-60 years. A demographic data form and the Menopause Rating Scale were used to collect data. The women were randomly divided into two groups, each of which received either an Aphrodit capsule or a placebo twice a day for four weeks. The two bottles looked exactly the same, so that the investigator and the participants were not aware of the contents of the bottles. Each Aphrodit capsule contained 40 mg of Tribulus terrestris , 12.27 mg of Zingiber officinale , 3 mg of Crocus sativus extract, and 11 mg of Cinnamomum zeylanicum , while the placebo capsules contained 50 mg of starch. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse the data. A statistically significant change was reported in the menopausal symptoms of the intervention group compared with the placebo group. The results of the study demonstrate that the Aphrodit capsule was effective in reducing menopausal symptoms.

  7. Saffron Aqueous Extract Inhibits the Chemically-induced Gastric Cancer Progression in the Wistar Albino Rat

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    S. Zahra Bathaie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Gastric cancer is the first and second leading cause of cancer related death in Iranian men and women, respectively. Gastric cancer management is based on the surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. In the present study, for the first time, the beneficial effect of saffron (Crocus sativus L. aqueous extract (SAE on the 1-Methyl-3-nitro-1-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG-induced gastric cancer in rat was investigated. Materials and Methods: MNNG was used to induce gastric cancer and then, different concentrations of SAE were administered to rats. After sacrificing, the stomach tissue was investigated by both pathologist and flow cytometry, and several biochemical parameters was determined in the plasma (or serum and stomach of rats. Results: Pathologic data indicated the induction of cancer at different stages from hyperplasia to adenoma in rats; and the inhibition of cancer progression in the gastric tissue by SAE administration; so that, 20% of cancerous rats treated with higher doses of SAE was completely normal at the end of experiment and there was no rat with adenoma in the SAE treated groups. In addition, the results of the flow cytometry/ propidium iodide staining showed that the apoptosis/proliferation ratio was increased due to the SAE treatment of cancerous rats. Moreover, the significantly increased serum LDH and decreased plasma antioxidant activity due to cancer induction fell backwards after treatment of rats with SAE. But changes in the other parameters (Ca2+, tyrosine kinase activity and carcino-embryonic antigen were not significant. Conclusion: SAE inhibits the progression of gastric cancer in rats, in a dose dependent manner.

  8. The protective role of saffron petal extracts on gentamicininduced nephrotoxicity in rats

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    Arash Omidi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Different potentially therapeutic approaches to prevent or attenuate gentamicin sulfate (GM induced nephrotoxicity have been proposed. The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of the saffron petals extracts (Crocus sativus (SPE on male Wistar rats with kidney failure. Rats (40 were randomly assigned into five groups of 8 animals each: i the control group, that received normal saline (0.5 mL/kg; ii the GM group, that received GM (80 mg/kg by intraperitoneal (i.p. injection on a daily basis; iii the GM+SPE group that received the same dose of GM and SPE (40 mg/kg by i.p. injection on a daily basis; iv the GM+2SPE group, that received the same dose of GM and twofold of SPE (80 mg/kg by i.p. injection on a daily basis; whereas v 2SPE+GM group, that received 80 mg/kg of SPE a week before initiating the treatment with GM (prevention group. Significant differences were seen in the concentration of glucose, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, and creatinine between treatment groups and control in the male Wistar rats. GM was observed to cause nephrotoxicity, which was evidenced by an elevation of serum BUN and creatinine levels. The biochemical findings of the current study are concordant with those of histopathologic findings. The results of this study indicate that SPE especially in dose of 40 mg/kg can ameliorate harmful effects of GM on the kidney. The present results may suggest that the SPE have ameliorative effects on kidney failures induced by GM.

  9. Effect of drying temperature and air flow on the production and retention of secondary metabolites in saffron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Matthew J; Menary, Robert C; Davies, Noel W

    2005-07-27

    Safranal is the compound most responsible for the aroma of saffron spice and is, together with the suite of crocin pigments, the major determinant of the product quality. The content of safranal and pigments in saffron is determined by the method of postharvest treatment of the Crocus stigmas. A range of drying treatments involving different temperatures, with or without air flow, was applied to stigmas from three harvest dates. Dual solvent extractions combined with quantitative measurement using GC and HPLC-UV-vis techniques were used to analyze the secondary metabolite contents of the products. It was demonstrated that these methods overcame the previously reported problems in measuring the concentration of both pigments and safranal in saffron caused by the very different polarities and thus solubilities of these compounds. The results showed that a brief (20 min) initial period at a relatively high temperature (between 80 and 92 degrees C) followed by continued drying at a lower temperature (43 degrees C) produced saffron with a safranal content up to 25 times that of saffron dried only at lower temperatures. Evidence was provided suggesting that drying with significant air flow reduced the safranal concentration. The results, moreover, indicated that high-temperature treatment had allowed greater retention of crocin pigments than in saffron dried at intermediate temperatures (46-58 degrees C). The biochemical implications of the various treatments are discussed in relation to the potential for optimizing color and fragrance quality in the product.

  10. Increased Miscarriage Rate in Female Farmers Working in Saffron Fields: A Possible Effect of Saffron Toxicity

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    Mahmoud Ajam

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Exposure to saffron may increase the risk of miscarriage. Hence, it is suggested that pregnant women avoid contact with considerable amounts of saffron especially for female farmers working in saffron fields.

  11. Does Saffron Have Antisolar and Moisturizing Effects?

    OpenAIRE

    Golmohammadzadeh, Shiva; Jaafari, Mahmoud Reza; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of saffron as a natural sunscreen and moisturizer. The pollens of the saffron were dried and powdered in a grinder. The experimental formulations included a homosalate (8%) lotion reference, lotions with 2, 4 and 8% of grinded saffron, and the control lotion base without saffron. The lotions containing saffron were prepared like homosalate lotion reference according to FDA. The sun protection factors (SPFs) of the formulations were de...

  12. Synthetic food colours in saffron solutions, saffron rice and saffron chicken from restaurants in Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi-Khatoonabadi, Zhila; Amirpour, Mansooreh; AkbariAzam, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Saffron solutions, saffron rice and saffron chicken samples were considered for synthetic colours as additives, which are forbidden according to Iranian national standards. Samples were taken from restaurants of three locations and analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Of the total 573 samples, 52% were positive for at least one colour. The most prevalent colours were Tartrazine, Quinoline Yellow and Sunset Yellow, with 44%, 9.1% and 8.4% of the samples testing positive for these colours, respectively. Carmoisine and Ponceau were both detected only in 0.5% of the positive samples and found only in saffron solution. In conclusion, synthetic food colours, especially Tartrazine should be regarded as a potential risk in saffron and its related food. Therefore, new attempts for food safety and quality should be undertaken to eliminate the use of these colours in restaurants.

  13. Skin Depigmentation Activity of Crocus sativus Extract Cream

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    standard antioxidant. The experiments were carried out in triplicates. The decrease in absorbance means the increase in radical scavenging activity which was calculated using equation 1. SA (%) = {100-(At/Ac)}100 ……………...(1) [8] where SA is scavenging activity, At is the absence of test compounds and Ac is the.

  14. In vitro expression of apocarotenoid genes in Crocus sativus L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... Teale SA, Webster FX, Zhang A (1992). New aggregation pheromone for the bark beetle Ips pini and uses thereof. U.S. Patent 5: 167-955. Wang W, Chen M, Yang C, Liu W, Lan X, Liao Z (2009). The geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase gene from Ginkgo biloba: clonig, characterization and functional ...

  15. A comparative study of saffron aqueous extract and its active ingredient, crocin on the in vitro maturation, in vitro fertilization, and in vitro culture of mouse oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhber Maleki, Elham; Eimani, Hussein; Bigdeli, Mohammad Reza; Ebrahimi, Bita; Shahverdi, Abdol Hossein; Golkar Narenji, Afsane; Abedi, Reyhane

    2014-03-01

    Reactive oxygen species have effects on gamete quality and gamete interaction; they influence spermatozoa, oocytes, embryos, and their environment. In this study, we evaluated the antioxidant effect of different concentrations of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) aqueous extract (SAE) and its ingredient, crocin, on the improvement of in vitro maturation (IVM) and subsequent in vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo development of mouse oocytes. Cumulus oocyte complexes were collected from ovaries, and germinal vesicle oocytes were cultured in the presence of SAE and crocin. SAE was added at dosages of 5 μg/mL, 10 μg/mL, and 40 μg/mL; dosages of crocin were 50 μg/mL, 100 μg/mL, and 400 μg/mL. All dosages were added to maturation medium and a group without SAE or crocin was considered as the control group. Following IVM, metaphase II oocytes were fertilized and cultured in vitro in order to observe embryo development. Both SAE and crocin improved the rate of IVM, IVF, and in vitro culture. Addition of 40 μg/mL SAE to maturation medium significantly increased the rate of IVM, IVF, and in vitro culture (p < 0.05). Furthermore 100 μg/mL crocin significantly increased the IVM rate compared to the control group (p < 0.05). Use of SAE during IVM can affect on IVM, IVF, and early embryo development in a dose-dependent manner. SAE appears to have a stronger effect than pure crocin. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Extracted apocarotenoids from saffron stigmas and evaluated the quality of saffron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaobin, Feng; Xiaodong, Qian; Shuwen, Han; Chong, Yao; Yumei, Yuan; Guifen, Zhou

    2018-01-01

    Saffron is a kind of expensive spice and therapeutic agent. In order to establish a set of methods to evaluate the quality of saffron, High Performance Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (HPLC/MS) were used to identify the apocarotenoids extracted from saffron stigmas. TOPSIS method was applied to evaluate the qualities of saffron. The conditions of HPLC/MS and chemical fingerprints of saffron had been established. The 14 chromatographic peaks and 13 main apocarotenoids of saffron with high reproducibility, stability and specificity were confirmed. The qualities of 40 kinds of saffron from different countries and regions were ranked.

  17. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U11167-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available H12, ... 34 3.1 10 ( AC116986 ) Dictyostelium discoideum chromosome 2 map 2234041... 38 3.4 15 ( EX146977 ) cr28_P02 Saffron... (Crocus sativus) mature stigma l... 44 3.5 2 ( EX148295 ) cr36_J10 Saffron

  18. [Research progress on quality evaluation of saffron].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiang-di; Ouyang, Zhen; Yang, Bin

    2017-02-01

    Saffron, a precious spice and a traditional medicinal herb in the international trade market, has attracted much attention about its quality evaluation.Saffron has been successfully cultivated in some areas in China,such as Shanghai, Zhejiang, Jiangsu, but few studies were focused on the quality difference between saffron cultivated in China and in foreign countries, which obstructed the entrance of saffron cultivated in China into international trade market. The paper is to review the current research progress on quality evaluation of saffron from the following respects: the chemical composition, the identification of authenticity and adulterants, the detection of artificial colorants, the indexes and methods of quality evaluation,the quality evaluation of different specifications in the international trade market, and the parameters which affected the quality of saffron. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  19. Regression Models For Saffron Yields in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. H, Sanaeinejad; S. N, Hosseini

    Saffron is an important crop in social and economical aspects in Khorassan Province (Northeast of Iran). In this research wetried to evaluate trends of saffron yield in recent years and to study the relationship between saffron yield and the climate change. A regression analysis was used to predict saffron yield based on 20 years of yield data in Birjand, Ghaen and Ferdows cities.Climatologically data for the same periods was provided by database of Khorassan Climatology Center. Climatologically data includedtemperature, rainfall, relative humidity and sunshine hours for ModelI, and temperature and rainfall for Model II. The results showed the coefficients of determination for Birjand, Ferdows and Ghaen for Model I were 0.69, 0.50 and 0.81 respectively. Also coefficients of determination for the same cities for model II were 0.53, 0.50 and 0.72 respectively. Multiple regression analysisindicated that among weather variables, temperature was the key parameter for variation ofsaffron yield. It was concluded that increasing temperature at spring was the main cause of declined saffron yield during recent years across the province. Finally, yield trend was predicted for the last 5 years using time series analysis.

  20. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    2008-11-03

    Nov 3, 2008 ... turmeric. (Curcuma longa), asafoetida (Ferula foetida), long pepper (Piper longum), black pepper (Piper nigrum), carrot (Daucus carota), saffron(Crocus sativus), Moringa. (Moringa pterygosperma), bitter guard. (Momordica charantia) and fresh juices of pine apple have anthelminthic property5. Asta churna ...

  1. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 13, No 26 (2014)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro development and regeneration of microcorms in saffron (Crocus sativus L) · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. JI Mir, N Ahmed, W Shafi, R Rashid, MH Khan, MA Sheikh, UN Shah, S Zaffar, I Rather ...

  2. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 6, No 20 (2007)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of different growing media on flowering and corm formation of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. H Turhan, F Kahriman, CO Egesel, MK Gul ...

  3. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 3051 - 3100 of 11090 ... Vol 10, No 41 (2011), Determination of antioxidant activity of saffron taken from the flower of Crocus sativus grown in Lebanon, Abstract PDF. H Makhlouf, M Saksouk, J Habib, R Chahine. Vol 10, No 82 (2011), Determination of antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities and luteolin ...

  4. In vitro development and regeneration of microcorms in saffron ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    5 media containing NAA (21.6 µM) + BAP (22.2 µM). The above observations will be useful as the base to make a possible road way for production of quality planting material in saffron. Keywords: Saffron, growth regulators, micropropagation, ...

  5. Determination of antioxidant activity of saffron taken from the flower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, we determined the total polyphenols content in the Lebanese saffron and the antioxidant effects of different extracts from this saffron in vitro using electrolysis of physiological solution for generation of free radicals (FR) in the presence of colorimetric indicator N,N-di-ethyl-P-phenylenedialanine; the absorbance ...

  6. The Influence of Different Drying Methods on Constituents and Antioxidant Activity of Saffron from China

    OpenAIRE

    Yingpeng Tong; Xingyi Zhu; Yongqiu Yan; Ruoxi Liu; Feng Gong; Ling Zhang; Jiangning Hu; Ling Fang; Ruwei Wang; Ping Wang

    2015-01-01

    More and more saffron has been cultivated in China because of the increasing saffron demand, but no paper has studied the influence of drying methods on the quality of Chinese saffron. In this paper, three different dehydration treatments applied in actual production were evaluated: dehydration with electric oven, vacuum oven, and microwave. We determined that the highest quality of saffron will be obtained when fresh saffron is treated at higher temperatures (no more than 70°C) for a long ti...

  7. Kinetic Study of Free Radicals Scavenging by Saffron Petal Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ardalan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Saffron petal is the main by-product of saffron processing which is produced in large amounts, annually. The objectives of this study were to study the antioxidant activity and free radical-scavenging effects of saffron petal extracts. The ability of saffron petal to act as an antioxidant using the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free-radical method was investigated by applying the Uv–Vis spectrometry. The Uv–Vis spectra of reaction mixtures in acetonitrile revealed that saffron petal has a considerable effect on scavenging free radical. Kinetic studies were conducted by measuring the disappearance of DPPH in acetonitrile over the wavelength range of 515-522 nm under pseudo-first-order conditions at 37oC. Furthermore, the pseudo first order rate constants were determined

  8. A new Serbian endemic species of the genus Crocus (Iridaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harpke, D.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent research within the genus Crocus (Iridaceae let us doubt that Crocus adamii Gay from Serbia represents the same taxon as C. adamii s. str. of the locus classicus in the Caucasian Mountains. The latter belongs to a group of crocuses, which is distributed from the Anatolian Diagonal, a mountain belt in inner Anatolia, to Iran and the Caucasian Mountains. To infer (i if the Serbian C. adamii represents a new species and (ii its taxonomical and phylogenetic affiliation within the genus we combined morphological and molecular investigations. The results show the presence of a morphologically and molecularly differentiated lineages, which both share a close relationship e.g. to C. alexandrii, C. chrysanthus, and C. weldenii but not to C. adamii s. str., which indicates a new species. As a result, we here describe C. randjeloviciorum to honor the Serbian botanists Novica and Vladimir Ranđelović.

  9. Effect of saffron on rat sperm chromatin integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardani, Mohammad; Vaez, Ahmad; Razavi, Shahnaz

    2014-05-01

    Currently, relation between reactive oxygen species (ROS) ROS concentration and semen quality was indicated. Saffron has traditionally been not only considered as a food additive but also as a medicinal herb, which has a good antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protection potency of saffron and vitamin E on sperm chromatin integrity. Thirty adult male Wistar rats divided equally into saffron (100 mg/kg), vitamin E (100 mg/kg) and control (0.5cc distilled water /day) groups. After 60 days, cauda epididymis dissected and sperm cells were used for analysis of sperm chromatin packaging by chromomycin A3 (CMA3) staining, and sperm chromatin susceptibility to acid denaturation by acridine orange (AO) staining. The mean percentage of CMA3 positive sperm was significantly decreased in saffron and vitamin E groups relative to control group (psaffron and vitamin E groups as compared with control group (psaffron can protect sperm against DNA damage and chromatin anomalies.

  10. Microbiological quality of saffron from the main producer countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosano, Inmaculada; Pintado, Concepción; Acevedo, Olga; Novella, José Luis; Alonso, Gonzalo Luis; Carmona, Manuel; de la Rosa, Carmen; Rotger, Rafael

    2009-10-01

    A microbiological study of saffron spice was undertaken in the context of a European research project (Methodologies for Implementing International Standards for Saffron Purity and Quality, the acronym for which is SAFFIC), analyzing 79 samples obtained from the main producer countries, namely Greece, Iran, Italy, Morocco, and Spain. Current microbiological quality criteria are the same as for other spices, but saffron is added in minute quantities during the cooking process, so the health risk associated with microbial contamination might be lower. We did not detect Salmonella either by culture or by PCR methods in any sample, and Escherichia coli was only found in five samples. Enterobacteriaceae were frequently found (70.9% of the samples), but most of them belonged to species of probable environmental origin. Aerobic sporulated bacteria were also common, but only three samples contained Bacillus cereus at low levels (100 CFU g(-1), an acceptable value. Overall, microbial contamination in saffron was markedly lower than it was in other spices.

  11. Saffron Protection against Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis in Rats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mehrzad Bahtouee; Hossein Fatemikia; Khalil Pourkhalili; Euikyung Kim; Hamid Reza Rahimi; Zahra Tavosi; Abdol hamid.Esmaili; Abdollah Hajivandi; Yaghoob Hassan; Ramin Seyedian

    2017-01-01

    .... The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of saffron aqueous extract on this disorder paving the way for more investigation in treating idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in human. Methods: Male Wistar rats (250–300 gr...

  12. Pharmacokinetic Properties of Saffron and its Active Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Azar; Razavi, Bibi Marjan; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2017-11-13

    Saffron as a medicinal plant has many therapeutic effects. Phytochemical studies have reported that saffron is composed of at least four active ingredients which include crocin, crocetin, picrocrocin and safranal. The carotenoids of saffron are sensitive to oxygen, light, heat and enzymatic oxidization. However, regulation of these factors is required for saffron quality. Some pharmacologic effects of saffron and its active compounds include cardioprotective, neuroprotective, memory enhancer, antidepressant and anxiolytic. Among more than 150 chemicals of saffron, the most biologically active components are two carotenoids including crocin and crocetin. Most of the pharmacokinetic studies are related to these compounds. The pharmacokinetic studies have shown that crocin is not available after oral administration in blood circulation. Crocin is converted to crocetin in intestine but after intravenous injection, the level of crocetin in plasma is low. Crocetin can distribute in different tissues because of weak interaction between crocetin and albumin. Also it can penetrate blood-brain barrier and reach CNS by passive transcellular diffusion; thus it can be effective in neurodegenerative disorders. The large portion of crocin is eliminated via feces.

  13. Life cycle environmental impacts of saffron production in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanali, Majid; Shahvarooghi Farahani, Saeid; Shojaei, Hamidreza; Elhami, Behzad

    2017-02-01

    Saffron is regarded as an important crop in Iranian agricultural economics that needs to be investigated to produce the environmentally friendlier product. In the present study, saffron production as an important agricultural production system in Iran was evaluated thoroughly from an environmental point of view. Data were collected from saffron farmers in Southern Khorasan province of the country with face-to-face questionnaire method during cropping period of 2013-2014. The system boundary was considered from the production of raw input materials to the harvested saffron. In order to identify the main hotspot during cultivation, impact categories were considered using CML methodology and cumulative exergy demand (CExD) indicator. Based on the results, chemical fertilizers N and P were the main hotspots in abiotic depletion (AD), acidification (AC), global warming (GWP), and photochemical oxidation (PO) impact categories, while diesel fuel was the main hotspot in fresh water aquatic ecotoxicity (FE), marine aquatic ecotoxicity (ME), and terrestrial ecotoxicity (TE). Direct emission from diesel fuel combustion (saffron) was the main hotspot only in human toxicity (HT). The small farms had the highest amounts of AD, AC, EP, GWP, and PO indicators in comparison with the medium and large farms. Total CExD indicator for production of 1 kg saffron was 1894.23 MJ eq. Totally, large farms (bigger than 1 ha) had better environmental performance considering all the impact categories.

  14. The influence of nanocellulose coating on saffron quality during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Seid Mahdi; Bahrami, Iman; Dehnad, Danial; Shahidi, Seyyed Ahmad

    2018-02-01

    Since saffron is an added-value product, and the most expensive agricultural product, it is necessary to increase its shelf life, prevent its quality loss during storage, and maintain its organoleptic properties, enabling producers to export saffron with higher quality and better consumer acceptability. So, in this research, saffron samples were coated through applying different carbohydrate biopolymers: maltodextrin with DE=4 or DE=20 (MD4 and MD20) or their combination with nanocellulose fibres (MDC4 and MDC20). Finally, the experiments were carried out to measure rehydration ratio, water activity, crocin content, color values, and sensory properties of saffron samples coated by different materials. MDC4 resulted in the lowest rehydration ratio among coated samples since, first, lower DE degrees of biopolymer complexes decreased moisture adsorption and solubility of maltodextrin and second, crystalline nanocellulose fibres increased tortuous and bended pathways in materials and reduced penetration possibilities of water molecules. MDC4 was the most effective treatment in preventing crocin decrease. Indeed, film forming characteristic of maltodextrin with low hydrolysis degree and special structure of nanocellulose led to the maintenance of crocin bioactive ingredient. SEM observations revealed coating on saffron surfaces as a thin clear and brilliant layer which enhanced saffron acceptability for our panelists. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The influence of different drying methods on constituents and antioxidant activity of saffron from china.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Yingpeng; Zhu, Xingyi; Yan, Yongqiu; Liu, Ruoxi; Gong, Feng; Zhang, Ling; Hu, Jiangning; Fang, Ling; Wang, Ruwei; Wang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    More and more saffron has been cultivated in China because of the increasing saffron demand, but no paper has studied the influence of drying methods on the quality of Chinese saffron. In this paper, three different dehydration treatments applied in actual production were evaluated: dehydration with electric oven, vacuum oven, and microwave. We determined that the highest quality of saffron will be obtained when fresh saffron is treated at higher temperatures (no more than 70°C) for a long time by electric oven drying and vacuum oven drying. In microwave drying, treatments at lower microwave power and longer time benefit the quality of saffron. In addition, the influence of the drying method on antioxidants in saffron is discussed. The correlation between individual saffron profiles and the antioxidant value was estimated by spectrum-effect relationships analysis.

  16. The Influence of Different Drying Methods on Constituents and Antioxidant Activity of Saffron from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingpeng Tong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available More and more saffron has been cultivated in China because of the increasing saffron demand, but no paper has studied the influence of drying methods on the quality of Chinese saffron. In this paper, three different dehydration treatments applied in actual production were evaluated: dehydration with electric oven, vacuum oven, and microwave. We determined that the highest quality of saffron will be obtained when fresh saffron is treated at higher temperatures (no more than 70°C for a long time by electric oven drying and vacuum oven drying. In microwave drying, treatments at lower microwave power and longer time benefit the quality of saffron. In addition, the influence of the drying method on antioxidants in saffron is discussed. The correlation between individual saffron profiles and the antioxidant value was estimated by spectrum-effect relationships analysis.

  17. Cytotaxonomical studies on some Crocus L. taxa in Turkey

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-15

    Sep 15, 2009 ... Full Length Research Paper. Cytotaxonomical studies on some Crocus L. taxa in. Turkey. F. Candan1, L. Şik1* and T. Kesercioğlu2. 1Department of Biology, Science and Art Faculty, Celal Bayar University, Muradiye-Manisa, Turkey. 2Department of Science Educations, Buca Education Faculty, Dokuz Eylul ...

  18. Potential cultivation areas of Saffron and its economic effects on forest dwellers welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Mashayekhan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The maintenance of natural forest and forest dwellers welfare are vital to biodiversity conservation. For this purpose, introducing of Saffron cultivation as innovation in agricultural activities outside of the forest could be a key factor. To achieve this goal, it is necessary to determine the agronomic suitability and the appropriate spatial pattern for the Saffron cultivation. Geographic Information System (GIS was used to identify suitable areas for Saffron cultivation in the North of Khorasan Province, Iran. Relevant environment components such as climate factors (temperature and rainfall, topography (Digital Elevation Model and slope and land-use were considered. The results of this study were specially looking for potential cultivation areas for expanding Saffron and to develop suitable map for Saffron cultivation. We found that 69% (1887 ha of agricultural land have currently suitable for Saffron cultivation in North of Khorasan, Iran. The map of land suitability for cultivation of Saffron can be practiced for improving livelihood and forest conservation.

  19. Saffron authentication based on liquid chromatography high resolution tandem mass spectrometry and multivariate data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubert, Josep; Lacina, Ondrej; Zachariasova, Milena; Hajslova, Jana

    2016-08-01

    Saffron is one of the oldest and most expensive spices, which is often target of fraudulent activities. In this research, a new strategy of saffron authentication based on metabolic fingerprinting was developed. In the first phase, a solid liquid extraction procedure was optimized, the main aim was to isolate as maximal representation of small molecules contained in saffron as possible. In the second step, a detection method based on liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry was developed. Initially, principal component analysis (PCA) revealed clear differences between saffron cultivated and packaged in Spain, protected designation of origin (PDO), and saffron packaged in Spain of unknown origin, labeled Spanish saffron. Afterwards, orthogonal partial least square discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) was favorably used to discriminate between Spanish saffron. The tentative identification of markers showed glycerophospholipids and their oxidized lipids were significant markers according to their origin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. In vitro development and regeneration of microcorms in saffron ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-06-25

    709-712. Sivanesan I, Jana S, Jeong BR (2014). In-vitro shoot regeneration and microcorm development in Crocus vernus (L.) hill. Pak. J. Bot. 46(2):693-697. Sivanesan I, Jeong BR (2012). Identification of somaclonal variants in.

  1. POLLEN MORPHOLOGY OF CROCUS L.(IRIDACEAE IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UZUNDZHALIEVA KATYA SPASOVA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The pollen of the wild species from the genus Crocus L., spread in Bulgaria has been analyzed. The investigations, made by light microscope show that the pollen of these species is spherical in shape and round in outlines, comparatively big. These morphological characteristics of the pollen of the wild Bulgarian Crocuses define it as a primitive one [6]. The Scanning Electron Microscope investigations, made by Beug [1], established two types of pollen morphology. The results of our investigation led to the conclusion that the same types are also presented in Bulgarian species: – C.biflorus –type, or syncolpate and C.vernus – type, or inaperturate. Eight of the species belong to the first type and only C. pallasii belongs to the second. The pollen of C. reticulatus is with quite unclear aperture – maybe transition to the inaperturate type.

  2. Determination of saffron quality by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle García-Rodríguez, M; Serrano-Díaz, Jéssica; Tarantilis, Petros A; López-Córcoles, Horacio; Carmona, Manuel; Alonso, Gonzalo L

    2014-08-13

    The aim of this work was to propose a high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) method for determining the three main compounds responsible for determining the quality of saffron (crocetin esters, picrocrocin, and safranal) by preparing an aqueous extract according to the ISO 3632 standard to solve the difficulty that this standard has for aroma and taste determination by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. Toward this aim, laboratory-isolated picrocrocin, a safranal standard with a purity of ≥ 88%, trans-crocetin di(β-D-gentiobiosyl) ester (trans-4-GG) and trans-crocetin (β-D-glucosyl)-(β-D-gentiobiosyl) ester (trans-3-Gg) standards, both with a purity of ≥ 99%, and 50 different saffron spice samples from Italy, Iran, Greece, and Spain were used in the intralaboratory validation of the HPLC method. The analytical method proposed was adequate in terms of linearity, selectivity, sensitivity, and accuracy for determining the three foremost parameters that define the quality of saffron using only a saffron solution prepared according to the ISO 3632 standard.

  3. Desarrollo y expresión génica en cormos de azafrán (Crocus sativus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Ortí, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    El azafrán es un cultivo tradicional de la zona geográfica de la Mancha, conocido por ser una de las especias más caras del mundo y muy apreciado por sus cualidades colorantes, aromatizantes y sus propiedades medicinales. Es una planta monocotiledonea, triploide, estéril, que se propaga únicamente de forma vegetativa a partir de un órgano subterráneo especializado en la acumulación de reservas, el cormo. Para profundizar en el conocimiento de la fisiología y expresión génica del cormo, se def...

  4. Comparative anatomical study of the taxa from series Verni Mathew (Crocus L. in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raca, I.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The comparative leaf anatomy of three Crocus L. taxa from series Verni Mathew (Crocus heuffelianus Herb., Crocus tommasinianus Herbert and Crocus kosaninii Pulević in Serbia is introduced. The general outlook of the cross sections of the leaves was defined with microphotographs. More precisely, leaf shape, leaf surface, mesophyll parenchyma and vascular bundle features were examined. The biggest differences were found at the level of vascular bundles (xylem area, phloem area, sclerenchyma area and leaf blade features (section height, section length, arm length, white stripe width, lacuna area. In general, listed parameters had the lowest values in C. tommasinianus population, while the highest values could be found in population of C. heuffelianus. Further investigations should be focused on discovering more localities followed by surveying the ecological factors of the habitats.

  5. Applicability of PTR-MS in the quality control of saffron

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nenadis, Nikolaos; Heenan, Samuel; Tsimidou, Maria Z.; Ruth, Van Saskia

    2016-01-01

    The applicability of the emerging non-destructive technique, proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS), was explored for the first time in the quality control of saffron. Monitoring of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was achieved using a minute sample (35 mg). Fresh saffron was stored

  6. ANTIOXIDATIVE PROPERTIES OF WHITE SAFFRON EXTRACT (Curcuma mangga Val. IN THE IN VIVO ASSAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwiyati Pujimulyani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A study on the antioxidative properties of white saffron extract (in vivo has been conducted. The purpose of this study was to determine the antioxidative effects of white saffron extract in in vivo assay. Fresh white saffrons were peeled, washed, blanched at 100˚C in 0.5% citric acid solution for 5 minutes and grated. The ratio between grated white saffron and distilled water was 1:1; 1:2; 1:3 and 1:4. Then it was filtered in order to obtain white saffron extract. The extract was evaluated in terms of its antioxidant activity by using in vivo. Five-week old male Wistar rats were purchased from Experimental Animal Development Unit, Gadjah Mada University. After one week of adaptation, the rats were divided into six groups, feed and drinking water were provided ad libitum. White saffron extract was orally administrated using a syringe at 09.00 a.m and 14.00 p.m daily, for 14 days. The livers and serum were removed for analysis of thiobarbituric acid reactive subtances (TBARS, α-tocopherols and superoxide dismutase (SOD. The results of this study showed that white saffron extract has an antioxidative activity in the in vivo assay. The higher concentration of white saffron extract, the higher α-tocopherols and superoxide dismutase, but the TBARS value was lower. Keywords: Curcuma mangga Val., rat, antioxidant activity, in vivo

  7. PATTERNS OF FLOWER AND INFLORESCENCE ARCHITECTURE IN CROCUS L. (IRIDACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. CHOOB

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In Crocus, inflorescence characters are widely used for intrageneric systematics. Despite of this, spatial relations of flowers and involucral leaves are poorly documented. The focus of our study was the paracladial region and spatha leaves of C. flavus and C. vernus. The first indication of the lateral position of the flower in both species was zygomorphy of the androecium and gynoecium. In other Iridaceae (Freesia, Gladiolus stamens also have unequal length. The homeotic substitution of stamens by petaloid organs makes zygomorphy in Freesia more distinct, thus we propose that flowers have a latent genetic program for zygomorphization. The second indication is the bidentate shape of bracts and bracteoles in C. flavus and tridentate structure of the basal involucre in C. vernus, which we interpret as a fusion of the foliage leaf and the prophyll of the inflorescence. The shape and the position of the lateral inflorescences (paracladia were also investigated. In C. flavus, corms often born several paracladia in the axils of the green leaves, whereas in C. vernus we found a single paracladium in the axil of a scale inside the basal involucre. The correlation between the number of paracladia, their position and the spathe leaves were discovered. We propose to use these characters for the definition of two subgenera in Crocus.

  8. PATTERNS OF FLOWER AND INFLORESCENCE ARCHITECTURE IN CROCUS L. (IRIDACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. CHOOB

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available In Crocus, inflorescence characters are widely used for intrageneric systematics. Despite of this, spatial relations of flowers and involucral leaves are poorly documented. The focus of our study was the paracladial region and spatha leaves of C. flavus and C. vernus. The first indication of the lateral position of the flower in both species was zygomorphy of the androecium and gynoecium. In other Iridaceae (Freesia, Gladiolus stamens also have unequal length. The homeotic substitution of stamens by petaloid organs makes zygomorphy in Freesia more distinct, thus we propose that flowers have a latent genetic program for zygomorphization. The second indication is the bidentate shape of bracts and bracteoles in C. flavus and tridentate structure of the basal involucre in C. vernus, which we interpret as a fusion of the foliage leaf and the prophyll of the inflorescence. The shape and the position of the lateral inflorescences (paracladia were also investigated. In C. flavus, corms often born several paracladia in the axils of the green leaves, whereas in C. vernus we found a single paracladium in the axil of a scale inside the basal involucre. The correlation between the number of paracladia, their position and the spathe leaves were discovered. We propose to use these characters for the definition of two subgenera in Crocus.

  9. Effects of auxin and copper on growth of saffron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozafar Sharifi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Saffron is known as one of the most common spices and medicinal plant in the world. Little information is available on the effects of copper and growth regulators on morphological characteristics of saffron. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different concentrations of copper and auxin on morphological properties of root and leaf of saffron. This study was arranged as a factorial experiment in greenhouse condition and in hydroponic system. Copper was used in copper sulfate (CuSO4 form (0, 0.02, 0.1 and 0.2 mg/L and auxin in naphthalene acetic acid (NAA form (0, 1 and 2 g/L. Results showed that interaction of Naphthalene acetic acid 1 g/L and copper sulfate 0.1 mg/L increased root number, as well as root and leaf dry weight. Furthermore, naphthalene acetic acid 1 and 2 g/L in most treatments reduced the number of buds. Copper concentration of corm was increased in 0.2 mg/L copper sulfate.

  10. Response of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    and this was attributed to lack of scientific basis for advising farmers on application rates. It is also observed that information is scarce on response of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) to different source of animal manure. Against this background, there is need to study the effect of different organic manure source and rates in ...

  11. [Meadow saffron (Colchicum autumnale) in hay and colic in horses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphues, J; Meyer, H

    1990-06-01

    Following feeding of a new delivery of hay (bought in Southern Germany) 3 horses out of a unit of 17 developed colic within a few days one horse died. Post-mortem there was an intensive accumulation of serous or serous-haemorrhagic fluid in the thorax and abdomen. The hay was heavily contaminated by autumn crocus (colchicum autumnale)--about 1.48% of total mass. Other feedstuffs were of good quality and following removal of the affected hay no further cases of colic occurred. The pathological findings also indicated a colchicine intoxication.

  12. Metabolomic fingerprinting of saffron by LC/MS: novel authenticity markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guijarro-Díez, Miguel; Nozal, Leonor; Marina, María Luisa; Crego, Antonio Luis

    2015-09-01

    An untargeted metabolomic approach using liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry was developed in this work to identify novel markers for saffron authenticity which is an important matter related to consumer protection, quality assurance, active properties, and also economical impact (saffron is the most expensive spice). Metabolic fingerprinting of authentic and suspicious saffron samples from different geographical origin was obtained and analyzed. Different extracting protocols and chromatographic methodologies were evaluated to obtain the most adequate extracting and separation conditions. Using an ethanol/water mixture at pH 9.0 and an elution gradient with a fused core C18 column enabled obtaining the highest number of significant components between authentic and adulterated saffron. By using multivariate statistical analysis, predictive classification models for authenticity and geographical origin were obtained. Moreover, 84 and 29 significant metabolites were detected as candidates for markers of authenticity and geographical origin, respectively, from which only 34 metabolites were tentatively identified as authenticity markers of saffron, but none related to its geographical origin. Six characteristic compounds of saffron (kaempferol 3-O-glucoside, kaempferol 3-O-sophoroside, kaempferol 3,7-O-diglucoside, kaempferol 3,7,4'-O-triglucoside, kaempferol 3-O-sophoroside-7-O-glucoside, and geranyl-O-glucoside) were confirmed by comparing experimental MS/MS fragmentation patterns with those provided in scientific literature being proposed as novel markers of authenticity. Graphical Abstract Metabolomic fingerprinting of saffron.

  13. The Effect of Aqua Extract of Saffron with Resistance Training on Glycemic Indexes of Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SA Hosseini

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: According to the proven effectiveness of saffron resistance and physical activity on diabetes, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of glycemic indexes of saffron combined with resistance training on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Methods: The present experimental study was conducted on 36 adult male rats. After induction of diabetes, the rats were randomly divided into four equal groups, resistance exercise (five days a week, for six days and saffron extract (25 mg/L daily, resistance exercise combined with saffron extract and control groups. After a period of six weeks, glycemic indexes were measured. The gathered data were analyzed by klomogrov – Smirnov, one-way ANOVA and Tukey tests. Results: The results showed that fasting glucose in saffron aqua extract combined with resistance training group was significantly lower than both control and the RT groups ( p=0,014. Glycosylated hemoglobin group of saffron combined with resistance training was lower than the control group (p=0.011. Insulin resistance combined with resistance training in saffron aqua extract was lower than the control group (p=0.011. Conclusion: Six weeks of resistance training and consumption of saffron alone had a significant effect on glycemic indexes. However, saffron supplements with resistance training had a greater effect on control of fasting blood glucose. Key words: resistance training, saffron, glucose, HbA1C, insulin resistance, diabetes

  14. Determining the Most Important Soil Properties Affecting the Yield of Saffron in the Ghayenat Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    amir ranjbar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Saffron is one of the most important economic plants in the Khorasan province. Awareness of soil quality in agricultural lands is essential for the best management of lands and for obtaining maximum economic benefit. In general, plant growth is a function of environmental factors especially chemical and physical properties of soil (20. It has been demonstrated that there was a positive and high correlation between soil organic matter and saffron yield. Increasing the yield of saffron due to organic matter is probably due to soil nutrient, especially phosphorous and nitrogen and also improvement of soil physical quality (6, 28, 29. The yield of saffron in soils with high nitrogen as a result of vegetative growth is high (8. Shahandeh (6 found that most of the variation of saffron yield depends on soil properties. Due to the economic importance of saffron and the role of soil properties on saffron yield, this research was conducted to find the relationship between saffron yield and some soil physical and chemical properties, and to determine the contribution of soil properties that have the greatest impact on saffron yield in the Ghayenat area. Materials and Methods: This research was performed in 30 saffron fields (30 soil samples of the Ghayenat area (longitude 59° 10΄ 10.37˝ - 59° 11΄ 38.41˝ and latitude 33° 43΄ 35.08˝ - 33΄ 44΄ 02.78˝, which is located in the Khrasan province of Iran. In this research, 21 soil properties were regarded as the total data set (TDS. Then the principal component analysis (PCA was used to determine the most important soil properties affecting saffron yield as a minimum data set (MDS and the stepwise regression to estimate saffron yield. To estimate the yield of saffron in stepwise regression method, saffron yield was considered as a dependent variable and soil physical and chemical properties were considered to be independent variables. Results and Discussion: According to the PCA method

  15. Impact of saffron on rat sperm membrane integrity and spermatogenesis status

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Vaez; Mohammad Mardani; Shahnaz Razavi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Male factor has been considered as a 50% of infertility causes. One of the reasons for poor semen quality is oxidative stress. Saffron and vitamin E as antioxidant agent can be involved in free radical scavenging and improvement of semen quality. Materials and Methods: We divided 30 adult male Wistar rats into saffron (n = 10), vitamin E (n = 10) and control (n = 10) groups randomly. Saffron (100 mg/kg/day), vitamin E (100 mg/kg/day), and distilled water (0.5 ml/day) were fed ...

  16. Saffron Protection against Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis in Rats

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    Mehrzad Bahtouee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis has been accepted as an animal model for fibrosis in rats. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of saffron aqueous extract on this disorder paving the way for more investigation in treating idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in human. Methods: Male Wistar rats (250–300 gr were instilled a single dose of bleomycin (5 mg/kg via intratracheal tube (n=6 in 2015. Sham group received normal saline. Saffron aqueous extract (50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg were given orally in two different treated groups with bleomycin for 28 days. Lung Indices was calculated at the end of this experiment. Lung segments fixed in 10% formaldehyde were used for pathological preparation with Hematoxylin & Eosin and trichrome staining. Results: The body weight was decreased and lung Indices increased in bleomycin group (P<0.5. Bleomycin administration increased myeloperoxidase, malondialdehyde and finally TNF-α in lung tissue homogenates (P<0.05 compared with sham group. The fibrotic process and thickening of alveolar septa in treated rats with bleomycin were increased by H&E and Masson Trichrome staining. Saffron treatment (50 and 100 mg/kg attenuated the increase in MDA (264.43±10.4 nmol/g by the higher dose versus 378.4±18.1nmol/g, MPO (0.19±0.03 and 0.13± 0.04 IU/ml versus 0.39.2±0.05 IU/ml and TNF-α level (18.42±3.7 ng/ml and14.31±3.6 ng /ml versus 35.32±4.2 in lung homogenates compared to bleomycin group (P<0.05. It decreased collagen accumulation and alveolar destructive patterns in pulmonary fibrosis. Conclusion: This study introduces saffron as novel anti-fibrotic agent against bleomycin-induced fibrosis due to histological examinations and preventive effects on destructive enzyme release in rats.

  17. The genome of the cucumber, Cucumis sativus L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, S.W.; Li, R.Q.; Vossen, van der E.A.G.

    2009-01-01

    Cucumber is an economically important crop as well as a model system for sex determination studies and plant vascular biology. Here we report the draft genome sequence of Cucumis sativus var. sativus L., assembled using a novel combination of traditional Sanger and next-generation Illumina GA

  18. Extraction and characterization of Raphanus Sativus seed oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    that consumption of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) has positive influence on reduction of risks of a number of cancers and cardiovascular diseases, due to its content of some beneficial phytochemicals [1-3]. In traditional Chinese medicine, Raphanus sativus seed oil, which is rich in sulforaphene, is used to improve intestinal.

  19. Extraction and characterization of Raphanus Sativus seed oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of three different extraction methods on yield, physicochemical properties and bioactive ingredients of Raphanus sativus seed oil. Methods: Raphanus sativus seed oil was prepared by traditional solvent extraction (SE), super-critical carbon dioxide extraction (SCE) and sub-critical propane ...

  20. Green fuel production from saffron waste by dilute acid hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali ArastehNodeh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the dilute acid Hydrolysis of saffron waste as a lignocellulose biomass for fermentable sugar production as a green fuel is investigated. Saffron plant waste was collected, washed with distilled water, dried by being exposed to air and sunlight, milled by a disk mill up to 50 micrometers and kept in plastic at room temperature. The prepared biomass was heated in a specified acidic solution for a predetermined time period in the autoclave. The influences of 3 major parameters including temperature, acid concentration and time on the produced fermentable sugar is investigated by the response surface method. According to previous studies, the levels for pretreatment were: temperature (116, 124, 132, and 140oC, process time (20, 30, 40, and 50 minute and sulfuric acid concentration (0, 1, 2, and 3%. To determine the type and quantity of products, the filtered solution was analyzed by HPLC and the results (glucose, xylose and furfural were modeled by a quadratic equation. This model showed that glucose concentration was influenced by the quadratic power of acid concentration and time while xylose concentration was influenced by time and furfural depends on time alone. It may be concluded that high acid concentration, low temperature and medium time could produce maximum products (glucose and xylose with minimum inhibitor (furfural.

  1. Induction of somatic embryogenesis in saffron using thidiazuron (TDZ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheibani, M; Azghandi, A V; Nemati, S H

    2007-10-15

    In vitro propagation of saffron either through somatic embryogenesis or cormogenesis is considered to be an efficient alternative method for large-scale propagation of pathogen-free corms. In order to develop an efficient protocol for in vitro propagation of saffron, a factorial experiment was carried out based on completely randomized design to investigate the effects of various concentrations of TDZ (0, 0.1, 0.25 and 0.5 mg L(-1)) on somatic embryogenesis induction from 5 different types of corm explants (terminal or axillary buds, upper or lower parts of the corm tissue and terminal buds from pre-treated corms at 4 degrees C for 2 weeks). The results revealed that TDZ concentrations affected the induction of somatic embryogenesis significantly while different types of corm explants showed no significant effect on this process. Among TDZ concentrations used, 0.5 mg L(-1) was the most effective treatment for embryogenesis induction. Embryogenic calli (globular stage) proliferated well when subcultured into MS medium supplemented with 0.25 mg L(-1) TDZ before transferring to hormone-free MS medium containing 6% sucrose for maturation (scutellar or horn-shape stage). Matured embryos were transferred to half strength MS medium without growth regulators for further development, from which microcorms were produced at the basal part after 3 months.

  2. Models to Predict Flowering Time in the Main Saffron Production Regions of Khorasan Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behdani, M. A.; Koocheki, A.; Nassiri, M.; Rezvani, P.

    The objective of this study was to develop a thermal model that can be used for prediction of saffron flowering time. For this purpose, existing data on saffron flower emergence time were collected in a wide range of temperature regimes over the saffron production regions of Khorasan province, Iran. Linear second-order polynomial and 5-parameter beta models were used and statistically compared for their ability in predicting saffron flowering time as a function of temperature. The results showed a significant delay in flowering date across the temperature gradient. While beta model had a better statistical performance but the simple linear model also showed a good predicting ability and therefore, can be used as a reliable model.

  3. Descriptive analysis of Moroccan volatile saffron according to the storage and drying conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Chaouqi, Soukaina; Lage, Mounira; García-Rodríguez, María Valle; Alonso, Gonzalo Luis; Guedira, Taoufiq; Kribii, Abderrahim; Douaik, Ahmed; Carmona Delgado, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Drying is an important step for the preparation of saffron because it determines the aroma of the spice, it differs according to the regions and producer countries, which result a variations in the quality. There are several methods of drying which the critical elements are time, drying temperature, and equipment used. The storage conditions can also influence the quality of saffron, especially its three secondary components which are: crocin, safranal, and picrocrocin. The main a...

  4. Determining the Most Important Soil Properties Affecting the Yield of Saffron in the Ghayenat Area

    OpenAIRE

    amir ranjbar; H EMAMI; A. Karimi Karouyeh; R. Khorassani

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Saffron is one of the most important economic plants in the Khorasan province. Awareness of soil quality in agricultural lands is essential for the best management of lands and for obtaining maximum economic benefit. In general, plant growth is a function of environmental factors especially chemical and physical properties of soil (20). It has been demonstrated that there was a positive and high correlation between soil organic matter and saffron yield. Increasing the yield of s...

  5. Effects of mild temperature conditions during dehydration procedures on saffron quality parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Campo, C Priscila; Carmona, Manuel; Maggi, Luana; Kanakis, Charalabos D; Anastasaki, Eirini G; Tarantilis, Petros A; Polissiou, Moschos G; Alonso, Gonzalo L

    2010-03-15

    The dehydration procedure is responsible for saffron sensorial properties: colour, taste and aroma. Changes in the compounds responsible for these characteristics have been studied when dehydration processes at high and low temperature are employed. However, the evolution of these changes at mild temperatures is not available in the current bibliography. In this paper the effect of different mild conditions (18-20 degrees C for 24 h, 40-50 degrees C for 75 min and 55 degrees C for 75 min) applied to 45 saffron samples with the same origin was investigated. Crocetin esters, the compounds responsible for saffron colour, increased their content with no significant differences from other processes when high temperatures (55 degrees C) were used, thus producing a noticeable increment in saffron colouring capability. Similar behaviour was obtained for picrocrocin, the compound responsible for saffron taste, with higher average content at the highest temperature (55 degrees C) but without significant differences with the inferior conditions (40-50 degrees C). However, more volatile compounds were generated, especially safranal,at higher temperatures, e.g. 55 degrees C, during the dehydration procedure. The results found support the idea for employing mild to high temperatures during the dehydration process of saffron.

  6. Impact of saffron on rat sperm membrane integrity and spermatogenesis status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaez, Ahmad; Mardani, Mohammad; Razavi, Shahnaz

    2014-01-01

    Male factor has been considered as a 50% of infertility causes. One of the reasons for poor semen quality is oxidative stress. Saffron and vitamin E as antioxidant agent can be involved in free radical scavenging and improvement of semen quality. We divided 30 adult male Wistar rats into saffron (n = 10), vitamin E (n = 10) and control (n = 10) groups randomly. Saffron (100 mg/kg/day), vitamin E (100 mg/kg/day), and distilled water (0.5 ml/day) were fed by gavage to the animals for 60 consecutive days in aforementioned groups. After cervical dislocation, both testes and left epididymis of each animal were removed and the cauda epididymal spermatozoa were aspirated for analysis of sperm parameters. Sperm membrane integrity was assessed by hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST). In different groups, seminiferous tubule histological assessments were done after Hematoxylin -Eosin staining. The mean percentage of HOST positive sperm was increased in vitamin E and saffron groups as compared to control group. As we can see there was a significant difference among control and experimental groups (P saffron groups (P = 0.002). The evaluation of seminiferous tubules has shown no significant differences among groups. The present data suggest that saffron had superior antioxidant properties which can improve sperm parameters and membrane integrity so it can lead to develop fertility potential.

  7. The Effect of Saffron Decoction Consumption on Pregnant Mice and Their Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oveisi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In traditional medicine, saffron is used as a drug for treating many diseases. However there are many documents and evidences concerning its abortive and teratogenic effect especially in high doses. Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of saffron decoction consumption on pregnant mice and their offspring. Methods: In this study, 20 female mice after breeding and observation of vaginal plaque, randomly and equally divided into two groups. During pregnancy, animals were housed under the same environmental and nutritional condition while the test group received 0.5% saffron decoction as their drinks instead of tape water for control group. The pregnant mice were weighted during pregnancy and after delivery. Following the parturition, the number of live kids, their weight and sex and any pretended obvious abnormality were assigned. Results: The duration of pregnancy period and the number of live kids in test group were significantly less than control group while the mean infant’s weight in test group was more than control group. There was obvious one-eye blindness in 4 kids from saffron consumed group. In the case of mother's weight and sex ratio of live kids there was no significant difference between the two groups. Conclusion: This study indicated that saffron has a specific teratogenic effect on visual system and causes preterm labor and reduces the number of live infants which may be due to its abortive effect. Keywords: Saffron, Pregnancy, Infant, Teratogen, Mice

  8. Evaluation of quantitative relationships between saffron yield and nutrition (on farm trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohamad ali behdani

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to relate production of saffron and utilization of nutrients, a study was conducted in 2001 and 2002. Four selected locations for this study were Birjand, Gonabad, Qaen and Torbat-Haydariah, which are the main saffron production centers in Iran. This study was performed in 160 saffron farms, aged between 1 and 5 years. Manure, nitrogen and phosphorous fertilizers showed a positive linear relation with yield and length of flowering, while nitrogen and phosphorous showed a negative linear relation with start of flowering period. Yield of saffron showed a significant and positive correlation with the amount of applied manure and the saffron farms with age 4-5 year had highest yield. Our results showed that manure was the most effective factor in production of saffron. The beneficial effects of manure could be due to slow release of nutrients and enhancing soil physical properties. Stepwise regression analysis of yield and fertilizer application showed that 67 percent of yield variations was attributed to manure and phosphorous application.

  9. Quality assessment of the saffron samples using second-order spectrophotometric data assisted by three-way chemometric methods via quantitative analysis of synthetic colorants in adulterated saffron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoum, Saeed; Gholami, Ali; Hemmesi, Marjan; Abbasi, Saleheh

    2015-09-01

    Saffron is a valuable culinary spice that can be used not only for dyes and cooking, but also for many medical purposes. Due to its high price and restriction of its production, various fraud manners in its production have been growing. Addition of synthetic colorants to saffron is the most common way for adulteration. In this work, chemometric methods are proposed to resolve the three-dimensional absorbance spectra-pH data for simultaneous determination of the two colorants Tartrazin and Sunset yellow, in adulterated saffron. The rank deficiency in the concentration mode impaired the system. Therefore, to extirpate the ambiguity, which results from rank deficiency, three-way variation array V was generated by subtracting the first pH spectrum from each spectrum at each pH. This allows the extraction of extent reaction profile and mixture reaction spectral profiles, as well as the relative concentrations of the analytes.

  10. Challenges of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husaini, Amjad M

    2014-01-01

    Kashmir valley is a major saffron (Crocus sativus Kashmirianus) growing area of the world, second only to Iran in terms of production. In Kashmir, saffron is grown on uplands (termed in the local language as “Karewas”), which are lacustrine deposits located at an altitude of 1585 to 1677 m above mean sea level (amsl), under temperate climatic conditions. Kashmir, despite being one of the oldest historical saffron-producing areas faces a rapid decline of saffron industry. Among many other factors responsible for decline of saffron industry the preponderance of erratic rainfalls and drought-like situation have become major challenges imposed by climate change. Saffron has a limited coverage area as it is grown as a ‘niche crop’ and is a recognized “geographical indication,” growing under a narrow microclimatic condition. As such it has become a victim of climate change effects, which has the potential of jeopardizing the livelihood of thousands of farmers and traders associated with it. The paper discusses the potential and actual impact of climate change process on saffron cultivation in Kashmir; and the biotechnological measures to address these issues. PMID:25072266

  11. Structure of the floral parts of Crocus vernus (L. Hill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the climatic conditions of Lublin, Crocus vernus blooms from the third decade of March until the third decade of April. The flowers live for 3-4 days. Micromorphological investigations of the tepals and perianth tube as well as of the stamens and pistil were carried out using scanning electron microscopy. The anatomical features of the perianth segments and flower stem were examined with the use of light and fluorescence microscopy. Pollen grains were observed under a light microscope. It was found that the adaxial and abaxial epidermal cells formed papillae in the middle and lower part of the tepals. Much smaller papillae are formed in the upper region of the perianth tube. Elongated non-glandular and glandular trichomes, with spherical protrusions at the tip, are found at the base of the filaments. The filaments are distinguished by epidermal cells with a longitudinally striated cuticle and by the presence of papillae of varying number and size. The cylindrical papillae on the stigma of the pistil are covered by a wrinkled cuticle. The style is surrounded by the perianth tube along a significant length. A narrow space is formed between these organs, and it is filled by the nectar. Stylar channels are found in the style. We observed calcium oxalate crystals and numerous plastids in the parenchymal cells surrounding these channels. Inaperturate, spherical pollen grains are covered by numerous tryphine (or pollenkitt droplets. This paper also discusses the functions of the papillae found in the epidermis of the perianth and filaments.

  12. Assembly of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) somaclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarzyńska, Agnieszka; Kuśmirek, Wiktor; Pawełkowicz, Magdalena; PlÄ der, Wojciech; Nowak, Robert M.

    2017-08-01

    The development of next generation sequencing opens the possibility of using sequencing in various plant studies, such as finding structural changes and small polymorphisms between species and within them. Most analyzes rely on genomic sequences and it is crucial to use well-assembled genomes of high quality and completeness. Herein we compare commonly available programs for genomic assembling and newly developed software - dnaasm. Assemblies were tested on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) lines obtained by in vitro regeneration (somaclones), showing different phenotypes. Obtained results shows that dnaasm assembler is a good tool for short read assembly, which allows obtaining genomes of high quality and completeness.

  13. Mr. DuHamel's 1728 treatise on the violet root rot of saffron crocus : physical explanation of a disease that perishes several plants in the Gastinois, and saffron in particular

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zadoks, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    Contains an English translation and a reprint of the original treatise: Explication physique d'une maladie qui fait perir plusieurs plantes dans le Gastinois, et particulierement le Safran / par M. Du Hamel. Memoires de 'l'Academie Royale, 7 Avril 1728

  14. Controlling Aphelenchoides subtenuis nematodes with a hot water treatment in Crocus and Allium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van P.J.; Trompert, J.P.T.

    2011-01-01

    Several bulbous crops like Crocus, Allium and some species of Tulipa and Narcissus can be infected with the nematode Aphelenchoides subtenuis. The nematodes cause retarded growth, poor or no flowering and eventually death of the bulbs and corms. A hot water treatment after lifting the bulbs has

  15. Characterization of Cell Wall Composition of Radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. sativus) and Maturation Related Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Judith; Brett, Anika; Trierweiler, Bernhard; Bunzel, Mirko

    2016-11-16

    Cell wall composition affects the texture of plant-based foods. In addition, the main components of plant cell walls are dietary fiber constituents and are responsible for potential physiological effects that are largely affected by the structural composition of the cell walls. Radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. sativus) is known to develop a woody and firm texture during maturation and ripening, most likely due to changes in the cell wall composition. To describe these changes chemically, radish was cultivated and harvested at different time points, followed by detailed chemical analysis of insoluble fiber polysaccharides and lignin. During maturation, changes in polysaccharide profiles were observed, with a decrease in the portion of neutral pectic side chains and an increase in the xylan portion being predominant. Radish lignin was characterized by unexpectedly high incorporation of p-coumaryl alcohol into the polymer. Maturation dependent increases in lignin contents were accompanied by compositional changes of the lignin polymers with sinapyl alcohol being preferentially incorporated.

  16. Modelling the Chemical and Microbial Changes of Saffron Flower during Storage Using Artificial Neural Networks and Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Azarpazhooh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Saffron, as the most expensive agricultural and pharmaceutical product of the world, has a special value among plants. Since the Saffron harvesting period is short, its storage for later processing requires understanding the most effective factors affecting the quality of saffron and its deterioration. Therefore the effects of reposition thickness, storage temperature and storage time of saffron flowers on its chemical parameters including crocin, safranal and picrocrocin values of saffron stigma and its microbial quality indicators including total count, coliform and mold contamination were modelled. This was done using multi-layer perceptron artificial neural network (ANN and its structure and the learning parameters were optimized using genetic algorithm technique. The optimized MLP neural networkwas capable to predict the saffron quality characteristics during storage with coefficient of determinations higher than %94 and low error values (RMSE lower than 3.5 for all responses. The ANN model showed that reposition thickness has the lowest impact on chemical and microbial parameters deterioration while increasing storage temperature and time drastically increased loss of quality although the effect of storage time is lower than that of storage temperature.  Overall, keeping fresh saffron flowers at a low temperature near zero degrees centigrade is necessary for maximum retention of valuable chemical compounds and minimum microbial contamination development during saffron flower storage for further processing.

  17. Effects of Aqueous Extract of Saffron on Gamma-Amino Butyric Acid Content in Rat Hypothalami

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikpour Moghaddam

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Preliminary studies revealed that 4-aminobutyric acid (GABA is a key and major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. Evidence from many animal studies and even some clinical studies indicate that GABA is responsible for regulating behavior and also plays an important role in brain functions. Previous studies presented Glutamic acid decarboxylase as a catalyst for the conversion of glutamic acid to GABA. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of saffron on GABA content in the hypothalamus of rats. Materials and Methods Male rats weighing 190 - 210 g were used. They were maintained in a temperature-controlled room with a 12-hour light/dark illumination cycle. The rats were fed standard pellet feed and had access to water ad libitum. The animals were divided into three groups: The first group received a 250 µL intraperitoneal injection of 0.05 g/mL saffron (Group I. The second group received a 250 µL intraperitoneal injection of 0.1 g/mL saffron (Group II. The third group acted as the control and received only water (Group III. The time intervals chosen for this experiment were 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks following the administration of saffron. At least six animals were assigned to each experimental group. At each time interval, the animals were anaesthetized and brain tissue extracted, hypothalami separated and homogenized in PBS solution, rinsed with PBS, re-filtered, and centrifuged at 1200 g for 10 minutes. Results In this study, both doses of saffron (0.05 g/mL [Group I]; and 0.1 g/mL [Group II] caused significantly increased GABA content in each hypothalamus. GABA in Group I increased significantly compared to the control group (1.00 ± 0.05 [mean ± SD, n = 8] vs. 0.29 ± 0.05, mM. GABA in Group II also increased significantly compared to the control group (1.45 ± 0.07 [mean ± SD, n = 8] vs. 0.29 ± 0.05, mM. The effect of saffron on GABA was also dose dependent; the only exception occurring during the

  18. On the Traceability of Commercial Saffron Samples Using ¹H-NMR and FT-IR Metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consonni, Roberto; Ordoudi, Stella A; Cagliani, Laura R; Tsiangali, Maria; Tsimidou, Maria Z

    2016-02-29

    In previous works on authentic samples of saffron of known history (harvest and processing year, storage conditions, and length of time) some biomarkers were proposed using both FT-IR and NMR metabolomics regarding the shelf life of the product. This work addresses the difficulties to trace back the "age" of commercial saffron samples of unknown history, sets a limit value above which these products can be considered substandard, and offers a useful tool to combat saffron mislabeling and fraud with low-quality saffron material. Investigations of authentic and commercial saffron samples of different origin and harvest year, which had been stored under controlled conditions for different lengths of time, allowed a clear-cut clustering of samples in two groups according to the storage period irrespectively of the provenience. In this respect, the four-year cut off point proposed in our previous work assisted to trace back the "age" of unknown samples and to check for possible mislabeling practices.

  19. Near-infrared spectroscopy in saffron quality control: determination of chemical composition and geographical origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalacain, Amaya; Ordoudi, Stella A; Díaz-Plaza, Eva M; Carmona, Manuel; Blázquez, Inmaculada; Tsimidou, Maria Z; Alonso, Gonzalo L

    2005-11-30

    Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy has been applied for the first time to saffron spice to determine the chemical composition and geographical origin of 111 samples from the there main producers' countries: Iran, Greece, and Spain. The validation procedures with the results obtained by UV-vis and HPLC-DAD measurements demonstrated that this technique is appropriate to determine the following parameters: moisture and volatile content, coloring strength, (250 nm), and (330 nm), established on the ISO 3632 Technical Specification Normative and used to certify saffron quality in the international market. Also, it can be used to estimate the content of the five main crocetin glycosides, the compounds responsible for saffron color, the best correlations being for trans-crocetin di-(beta-D-gentibiosyl) ester (R2= 0.93), trans-crocetin (beta-D-glucosyl)-(beta-D-gentibiosyl) (R2= 0.94), and picrocrocin (R2= 0.92), the compound accepted as responsible for saffron bitterness. Finally, a discriminant analysis among the three geographical origins reveals that Iranian samples are the most different, whereas Greek and Spanish samples are more similar. All of these results reveal that NIRS spectroscopy has an enormous potential for its application to saffron quality control as the results are obtained in 2 min and without any sample manipulation.

  20. Effect of saffron petal extract on retention quality of fresh-cut watermelon cubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hamed kaveh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Saffron is considered as a valuable produce by producers and traders. Unfortunately, the use of its floral by products like petal which have proven to be antioxidant, antimicrobial and nutritional value is limited. In order to investigate the application of saffron petal extracts as an ameliorative on postharvest and processing quality of fresh-cut ‘Crimson Sweet’ watermelon, a completely randomized designed investigation was done on watermelon cubes with 1cm diameter (1±0.5 gram mean weight. Prepared watermelon cubes were divided into four groups and treated with saffron petal extract (10 % V/V for 10 minutes, UV irradiation (maximum wavelength 253.4 nm and 15W for 5 minutes, 10 minutes of saffron petal extract then UV irradiation for 5 minutes and control. After the application of treatments, fresh-cut watermelon cubes were stored at 5±0.5 ºC for 14 days. Sampling and observation of the studied characteristics (physiological loss in weight, soluble solid content, lycopene, microbial load and color quality (Chroma Hue was done every two days to find the trend of changes during the retention period. The results of experiment showed that petal extract of saffron could not decrease weight loss but it was significantly effective in lowering microbial load and increasing color quality, and prevention of lycopene degradation (P≤5%. Although treatment of UV+SPE had better efficiency to suppress microbial load significantly (P≤5%.

  1. Applicability of PTR-MS in the quality control of saffron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenadis, Nikolaos; Heenan, Samuel; Tsimidou, Maria Z; Van Ruth, Saskia

    2016-04-01

    The applicability of the emerging non-destructive technique, proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS), was explored for the first time in the quality control of saffron. Monitoring of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was achieved using a minute sample (35 mg). Fresh saffron was stored under selected conditions (25 and 40 °C, aw=0.64) over a five weeks period to produce lower quality material, which was used to prepare mixtures with fresh saffron. Analysis showed that the VOCs fingerprint changed upon storage, and the concentration of initially dominant VOC safranal decreased progressively. Examination of calculated and recorded fingerprints for various admixtures showed that PTR-MS VOCs analysis, in combination with chemometrics, could be used to screen for the presence of lower quality saffron in a commercial product in a few minutes. The technique can be used in a complementary fashion, adding to the battery of advanced analytical techniques available to address the quality and authenticity issues of saffron. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Mathematical modelling of cucumber (cucumis sativus) drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahari, N.; Hussein, S. M.; Nursabrina, M.; Hibberd, S.

    2014-07-01

    This paper investigates the applicability of using an experiment based mathematical model (empirical model) and a single phase mathematical model with shrinkage to describe the drying curve of cucumis sativus (cucumber). Drying experiments were conducted using conventional air drying and data obtained from these experiments were fitted to seven empirical models using non-linear least square regression based on the Levenberg Marquardt algorithm. The empirical models were compared according to their root mean square error (RMSE), sum of square error (SSE) and coefficient of determination (R2). A logarithmic model was found to be the best empirical model to describe the drying curve of cucumber. The numerical result of a single phase mathematical model with shrinkage was also compared with experiment data for cucumber drying. A good agreement was obtained between the model predictions and the experimental data.

  3. Use of non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis for the quality control of commercial saffron samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zougagh, M; Simonet, B M; Ríos, A; Valcárcel, M

    2005-09-02

    A non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis (NACE) method for quantifying the seven crocin metabolites that are the major biologically active ingredients of saffron was developed. Separation is done by using a fused silica capillary filled with a 12.5 mM H3BO3/37.5 mM sodium tetraborate methanolic solution as background electrolyte. The results obtained were compared with the total index "safranal value", widely used as a quality measure of saffron products. The comparison revealed that the proposed NACE method provides useful information not obtained in the safranal value. Infact, samples with a similar safranal value can contain crocin metabolites in different concentrations and relative proportions. This new method is very useful for quality control in commercial saffron samples.

  4. Effect of saffron extract on VEGF-A expression in MCF7 cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Mousavi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Various studies have focused on the anticancer effects of saffron. Angiogenesis or new blood vessel formation, which is required for embryonic development and many physiological events, plays a crucial role in many pathological conditions such as tumor growth. One of the main genes which is involved in the process of angiogenesis is VEGF-A. In this in vitro study, the effects of saffron extract on VEGF-A expression were examined. Methods: In this experimental study, the saffron extract was obtained by Soxhlet extractor and then the powder was frozen and dried in vacuum (lyophilisation using a freeze dryer. MCF7 cells were grown in RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with 10% Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS and incubated at 37˚C with 5% CO2. After 24 h of cell culture, their adhesion to the bottom flasks was investigated, then, they were treated by the aqueous extract of saffron at concentrations of 100, 200, 400 and 800 µg/ml. 48 hours after treatment, total RNA was extracted and cDNA was synthesized using the sequence of target gene. Finally, the synthesized products were analysed by Real Time PCR to determine the expression level of VEGF-A. Results: The results of data analysis showed the inhibitory effect of saffron extract in concentrations of 100, 200, 400 and 800 µg/ml on VEGF-A expression in MCF7 cells in comparison with control group, indicating the highest reduction of gen expression for the highest concentration of saffron extract (800 µg/ml. Conclusion: Results indicated a decrease in the expression of VEGF-A, specific biomarker of angiogenesis, in the treated samples compared to the control group.

  5. Investigation of weed species diversity and community structure in saffron fields of Khorasan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surur Khorramdel

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Weedy flora of agroecosystems is composed of many species that have evolved in response to cropping system practices by occupying the niches left available in agroecosystems. In order to study weed species diversity and community structure in the saffron fields of Khorasan province, a survey trial was carried out in seven counties (including Mashhad, Neyshabur, Birjandn, Ghaen, Gonabad, Torbat-e Jam and Torbat-e Heydari during 2014 and 2015 from vegetative growth, dormant to flowering stages of saffron randomly dropped 1×1 m2 quadrates in 50 fields based on a systematic method as W pattern. The counties were clustered by the hierarchical complete linkage method based on Euclidean. Biodiversity indices such as stability coefficient, Simpson, Shannon–Wiener, Margalef and Menhinick were computed. The results indicated that the dominant weeds in saffron fields belong to 19 families and 50 species. Poaceae, Brassicaceae, Asteraceae and Fabaceae were dominant families with 11, 9, 8 and 6 species, respectively. The majority of weed species were dicotyledonous, C3, noxious and annual plants. The highest stability coefficients in the stages of growth of saffron were calculated in Alhagi camelorum, Avena fatua and Achillea millefolium to be 30.81, 24.11 and 12.14, respectively. All weed species except for Alhagi camelorum (sustainable species and Avena fatua (temporary species were recognized as causal species. The maximum diversity indices for weed species were recorded at the vegetative phase of saffron. Correlation coefficient between weed density and yield loss of saffron was computed as R2=0.98. Based on diversity indices for weed species, different counties were clustered in three groups at 75% similarity level.

  6. Extraction and Determination of Crocin in Saffron Samples by Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Heydari

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The main component responsible for color in saffron is crocin with the chemical formula of C44H64O24. Crocin is one of several carotenoids in nature that is soluble in water. This solubility is one of the reasons for its widespread usage as a colorant in food and medicine compared to other carotenoids. The coloring strength of saffron is one of the major factors that determine the quality of the saffron stigma. It will be evaluated with measuring of crocin. Microextraction is the newest and easiest method that can be successfully applied for the preconcentration and separation of crocin in saffron samples. The advantages of this method are faster, cheaper and easier analysis by UV-Vis spectrophotometry in measurement of crocin compared to the chromatographic analysis methods. The studies showed that the type and volume of disperser and extractant solvent have a significant effect on the efficiency of crocin extraction. In this work, acetone as the disperser solvent and dichlorometane as the extractant solvent were found to be suitable combinations. Under the optimal conditions, the calibration curve was linear in the range of 0.15-0.00001 μg mL-1 and the limit of detection (LOD was calculated based on 3 Sb/m (where, Sb and m are the standard deviation of the blank and slop ratio of the calibration curve respectively was 0.000008 μg mL-1. The procedure was applied to saffron samples and the good recovery percent for the saffron samples was obtained.

  7. Controlling Aphelenchoides subtenuis nematodes with a hot water treatment in Crocus and Allium

    OpenAIRE

    Leeuwen, Van, P.J.; Trompert, J.P.T.

    2011-01-01

    Several bulbous crops like Crocus, Allium and some species of Tulipa and Narcissus can be infected with the nematode Aphelenchoides subtenuis. The nematodes cause retarded growth, poor or no flowering and eventually death of the bulbs and corms. A hot water treatment after lifting the bulbs has proved to be effective in controlling the nematodes. Due to a high incidence of infected stocks of bulbs a study was conducted to establish if the efficacy of the treatment could be improved by alterin...

  8. The detailed snowpack scheme Crocus and its implementation in SURFEX v7.2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Vionnet

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Detailed studies of snow cover processes require models that offer a fine description of the snow cover properties. The detailed snowpack model Crocus is such a scheme, and has been run operationally for avalanche forecasting over the French mountains for 20 yr. It is also used for climate or hydrological studies. To extend its potential applications, Crocus has been recently integrated within the framework of the externalized surface module SURFEX. SURFEX computes the exchanges of energy and mass between different types of surface and the atmosphere. It includes in particular the land surface scheme ISBA (Interactions between Soil, Biosphere, and Atmosphere. It allows Crocus to be run either in stand-alone mode, using a time series of forcing meteorological data or in fully coupled mode (explicit or fully implicit numerics with atmospheric models ranging from meso-scale models to general circulation models. This approach also ensures a full coupling between the snow cover and the soil beneath. Several applications of this new simulation platform are presented. They range from a 1-D stand-alone simulation (Col de Porte, France to fully-distributed simulations in complex terrain over a whole mountain range (Massif des Grandes Rousses, France, or in coupled mode such as a surface energy balance and boundary layer simulation over the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (Dome C.

  9. Rapid determination of crocins in saffron by near-infrared spectroscopy combined with chemometric techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuailing; Shao, Qingsong; Lu, Zhonghua; Duan, Chengli; Yi, Haojun; Su, Liyang

    2018-02-05

    Saffron is an expensive spice. Its primary effective constituents are crocin I and II, and the contents of these compounds directly affect the quality and commercial value of saffron. In this study, near-infrared spectroscopy was combined with chemometric techniques for the determination of crocin I and II in saffron. Partial least squares regression models were built for the quantification of crocin I and II. By comparing different spectral ranges and spectral pretreatment methods (no pretreatment, vector normalization, subtract a straight line, multiplicative scatter correction, minimum-maximum normalization, eliminate the constant offset, first derivative, and second derivative), optimum models were developed. The root mean square error of cross-validation values of the best partial least squares models for crocin I and II were 1.40 and 0.30, respectively. The coefficients of determination for crocin I and II were 93.40 and 96.30, respectively. These results show that near-infrared spectroscopy can be combined with chemometric techniques to determine the contents of crocin I and II in saffron quickly and efficiently. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Characterisation of secondary metabolites in saffron from central Italy (Cascia, Umbria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossignani, Lina; Urbani, Eleonora; Simonetti, Maria Stella; Maurizi, Angela; Chiesi, Claudia; Blasi, Francesca

    2014-01-15

    Saffron's quality depends on the concentration of secondary metabolites, such as crocins, picrocrocin and safranal. The aim of this research was to evaluate the influence of drying conditions on the secondary metabolite contents of saffron produced in the area of Cascia, in central Italy. Different aliquots of the same saffron sample were subjected to various dehydration conditions and analysed by UV-Vis spectrophotometry to determine crocins, picrocrocin and safranal.. Safranal was also analysed by high resolution gas chromatography, while the crocins and picrocrocin were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array and mass spectrometric detectors. The results of chromatographic analyses showed that the samples dried in the milder conditions had the lowest content of secondary metabolites. Moreover the sample dried at 60°C for 55min presented the highest contents of trans-crocin-4 and picrocrocin, while safranal was most represented in saffron dried at 55°C for 95min. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Phytochemical properties of Iranian organic saffron stigma: antioxidant, anticancer and apoptotic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behdani, M A; Hoshyar, R

    2016-12-30

    Agronomic and environmental factors affect quality and quantity of constituents in Saffron.  In this study, we compared chemical and antioxidant compounds of organic (OS) and inorganic (IOS) stigma of saffron and evaluated their anti-proliferative and apoptosis effects on cancer cells. Total antioxidant capacity of both saffron were characterized by FRAP, DPPH and Folin-Ciocalteu. HPLC and MTT methods were used to assay the amount of their secondary metabolites and anticancer effects, respectively. The expression of two apoptosis-related genes in treated cells evaluated by quantitative Real Time-PCR analysis. Our data indicated that OS has more secondary metabolites, antioxidant and cytotoxic properties compared to IOS. OS significantly inhibited cell viability in a dose- and time- dependent manner. Herb-induced apoptosis associated with increased expression of Bax and decreased Bcl2 gene leading eventually to a time-dependent increase in Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Therefore, we can suggest organic saffron has promising and selective inhibitory effects on cancer cell proliferation.

  12. Effects of gamma irradiation and silver nano particles on microbiological characteristics of saffron, using hurdle technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid Sales, E; Motamedi Sedeh, F; Rajabifar, S

    2012-03-01

    Saffron, a plant from the Iridaceae family, is the world's most expensive spice. Gamma irradiation and silver nano particles whose uses are gradually increasing worldwide, have positive effects on preventing decay by sterilizing the microorganisms and by improving the safety without compromising the nutritional properties and sensory quality of the foods. In the present study combination effects of gamma irradiation and silver nano particles packaging on the microbial contamination of saffron were considered during storage. A combination of hurdles can ensure stability and microbial safety of foods. For this purpose, saffron samples were packaged by Poly Ethylene films that posses up to 300 ppm nano silver particles as antimicrobial agents and then irradiated in cobalt-60 irradiator (gamma cell PX30, dose rate 0.55 Gry/Sec) to 0, 1, 2,3 and 4 kGy at room temperature. The antimicrobial activities against Total Aerobic Mesophilic Bacteria, Entrobacteriace, Escherichia Coli and Clostridium Perfringines were higher in the irradiated samples, demonstrating the inhibition zone for their growth. Irradiation of the saffron samples packaged by Poly Ethylene films with nano silver particles showed the best results for decreasing microbial contamination at 2 kGy and for Poly Ethylene films without silver nano particles; it was 4 kGy.

  13. Effect of saffron oral capsule on anxiety and quality of sleep of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the effect of oral capsule of saffron (a herbal medicine) on anxiety and quality of sleep of diabetic patients of a tertiary healthcare facility in Zabol, Iran in 2016. Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study on 50 diabetics of Zabol who met the inclusion criteria. Participants were randomly split into two ...

  14. Parabens as Agents for Improving Crocetin Esters’ Shelf-Life in Aqueous Saffron Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Martínez Tomé

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of parabens on the shelf-life of crocetin esters and picrocrocin in aqueous saffron solutions was studied. Degradation of saffron crocetin esters fits a first-order kinetics model, and the results indicated that the crocetin (β-D-glucosyl-(β-D-gentiobiosyl esters were more stable than the crocetin di-(β-D-gentiobiosyl esters regardless of whether trans and cis isomers were considered. Under all tested conditions both parabens gave good results, especially propyl paraben that showed a greater influence on the degradation rate constant, except for cis-crocetin di-(β-D-gentiobiosyl ester and cis-crocetin (β-D-glucosyl-(β-D-gentiobiosyl ester. In presence of propyl paraben (200 mg/L, the half-life periods of trans-crocetin di-(β-D-gentiobiosyl esterimproved considerably, up to four-fold. Special attention has been paid to the effect of propyl paraben on 46 saffrons with different crocetin ester contents. No differences were observed in terms of picrocrocin. By analysis of variance, it is noteworthy that there were differences between the mean content of crocetin esters for all analysed saffron, except for trans-crocetin (β-D-glucosyl-(β-D-gentiobiosyl ester.

  15. The anticancer effect of saffron in two p53 isogenic colorectal cancer cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Saffron extract, a natural product, has been shown to induce apoptosis in several tumor cell lines. Nevertheless, the p53-dependency of saffron’s mechanism of action in colon cancer remains unexplored. Material and methods In order to examine saffron’s anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects in colorectal cancer cells, we treated two p53 isogenic HCT116 cell lines (HCT wildtype and HCT p53−/−) with different doses of the drug and analyzed cell proliferation and apoptosis in a time-dependent manner. MTT viability and crystal violet assays were performed in order to determine the effective dose of saffron on both cell lines. The cell cycle progress was examined by Flow cytometric analysis. Apoptosis was assessed using Annexin-PI-staining and Western Blotting for caspase 3 and PARP cleavage. Autophagy was determined by Western Blotting of the light chain 3 (LC3)-II and Beclin 1 proteins. The protein content of phospho-H2AX (γH2AX), a sensor of DNA double strand breaks, was also analyzed by Western Blotting. Results Saffron extract induced a p53-dependent pattern of cell cycle distribution with a full G2/M stop in HCT116 p53 wildtype cells. However, it induced a remarkable delay in S/G2 phase transit with entry into mitosis in HCT116 p53 −/− cells. The apoptotic Pre-G1 cell fraction as well as Annexin V staining and caspase 3 cleavage showed a more pronounced apoptosis induction in HCT116 p53 wildtype cells. Obviously, the significantly higher DNA-damage, reflected by ɣH2AX protein levels in cells lacking p53, was coped by up-regulation of autophagy. The saffron-induced LC3-II protein level was a remarkable indication of the accumulation of autophagosomes, a response to the cellular stress condition of drug treatment. Conclusions This is the first study showing the effect of saffron in HCT116 colorectal cancer cells with different p53 status. Saffron induced DNA-damage and apoptosis in both cell lines. However, autophagy has delayed the

  16. Ameliorative Effect of Saffron Aqueous Extract on Hyperglycemia, Hyperlipidemia, and Oxidative Stress on Diabetic Encephalopathy in Streptozotocin Induced Experimental Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarghandian, Saeed; Azimi-Nezhad, Mohsen; Samini, Fariborz

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic encephalopathy is one of the severe complications in patients with diabetes mellitus. Findings indicate that saffron extract has antioxidant properties but its underlying beneficial effects on diabetic encephalopathy were unclear. In the present study, the protective activities of saffron were evaluated in diabetic encephalopathy. Saffron at 40 and 80 mg/kg significantly increased body weight and serum TNF-α and decreased blood glucose levels, glycosylated serum proteins, and serum advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) levels. Furthermore, significant increase in HDL and decrease (P saffron significantly increased GSH, SOD, and CAT but remarkably decreased cognitive deficit, serum TNF-α, and induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity in hippocampus tissue. Our findings indicated that saffron extract may reduce hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia risk and also reduce the oxidative stress in diabetic encephalopathy rats. This study suggested that saffron extract might be a promising candidate for the improvement of chemically induced diabetes and its complications. PMID:25114929

  17. The genome of the cucumber, Cucumis sativus L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Sanwen; Li, Ruiqiang; Zhang, Zhonghua

    2009-01-01

    Cucumber is an economically important crop as well as a model system for sex determination studies and plant vascular biology. Here we report the draft genome sequence of Cucumis sativus var. sativus L., assembled using a novel combination of traditional Sanger and next-generation Illumina GA...... ancestral chromosomes after divergence from Cucumis melo. The sequenced cucumber genome affords insight into traits such as its sex expression, disease resistance, biosynthesis of cucurbitacin and 'fresh green' odor. We also identify 686 gene clusters related to phloem function. The cucumber genome provides...... a valuable resource for developing elite cultivars and for studying the evolution and function of the plant vascular system....

  18. Consideration of fluorescence properties for the direct determination of erythrosine in saffron in the presence of other synthetic dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordoudi, S A; Tsimidou, M Z

    2011-04-01

    Direct selective detection of erythrosine in saffron in the presence of other synthetic dyes considers its fluorescence at 532 nm excitation/548 nm emission. Saffron pre-treatment was according to the ISO 3632-2 trade standard test methods. On account of calculated quantum yield values, none of the yellow dyes is expected to interfere. Among red ones, reservations about allura red AC, azorubine and red 2G were not verified by experimentation, signifying excellent method specificity. Detection and quantification limits (0.56 and 1.70 nM) were of the same magnitude as those reported in the literature after chromatographic separation of erythrosine. The percentage recovery from spiked saffron samples ranging from 63 to 141 was acceptable for residue levels in foods. The matrix effect from crocins (saffron pigments) was evidenced only at a lower spiking level (0.02 mg kg(-1)). The minimum required performance limit (MRPL) was 0.04 mg kg(-1), indicating that the method is appropriate for determining traces of erythrosine in saffron. The approach offers improved sensitivity (by three orders of magnitude) and specificity than the direct spectrophotometric detection of certain synthetic dyes in saffron and deserves attention by the ISO Technical Committee for 'Herbs, culinary spices and condiments'.

  19. Genome-wide identification, characterization, and evolutionary analysis of flowering genes in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinglei; Qiu, Yang; Cheng, Feng; Chen, Xiaohua; Zhang, Xiaohui; Wang, Haiping; Song, Jiangping; Duan, Mengmeng; Yang, Haohui; Li, Xixiang

    2017-12-19

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) belongs to the family Brassicaceae, and is an economically important root crop grown worldwide. Flowering is necessary for plant propagation, but it is also an important agronomic trait influencing R. sativus fleshy taproot yield and quality in the case of an imbalance between vegetative and reproductive growth. There is currently a lack of detailed information regarding the pathways regulating the flowering genes or their evolution in R. sativus. The release of the R. sativus genome sequence provides an opportunity to identify and characterize the flowering genes using a comparative genomics approach. We identified 254 R. sativus flowering genes based on sequence similarities and analyses of syntenic regions. The genes were unevenly distributed on the various chromosomes. Furthermore, we discovered the existence of R. sativus core function genes in the flowering regulatory network, which revealed that basic flowering pathways are relatively conserved between Arabidopsis thaliana and R. sativus. Additional comparisons with Brassica oleracea and Brassica rapa indicated that the retained flowering genes differed among species after genome triplication events. The R. sativus flowering genes were preferentially retained, especially those associated with gibberellin signaling and metabolism. Moreover, analyses of selection pressures suggested that the genes in vernalization and autonomous pathways were more variable than the genes in other R. sativus flowering pathways. Our results revealed that the core flowering genes are conserved between R. sativus and A. thaliana to a certain extent. Moreover, the copy number variation and functional differentiation of the homologous genes in R. sativus increased the complexity of the flowering regulatory networks after genome polyploidization. Our study provides an integrated framework for the R. sativus flowering pathways and insights into the evolutionary relationships between R. sativus flowering

  20. Technology transfer for cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L.) production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Technology transfer for cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L.) production under protected agriculture in uplands Balochistan, Pakistan. ... The cucumbers so harvested were of higher quality (no insect damage) and were sold at premium prices during the whole production cycle. Proper crop sequencing by considering the market ...

  1. A genetic linkage map of cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L) combining ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) and Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers are both simple and efficient maker systems adapted to many crops and for multiple purposes. In this study a genetic map based on SRAP and ISSR markers was constructed for cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) based on ...

  2. Interspecific hybridisation of Lathyrus sativus (Guaya) with wild ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lathyrus sativus is an economically important legume crop cultivated for food and forage in Asia and Africa. The use of this hardy drought ... during early stages of development. Embryo culture was attempted to rescue these immature embryos. The response of the interspecific hybrid embryos to in vitro culture varied.

  3. Bioactivity assessment and toxicity of crocin: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavizadeh, Seyedeh Hoda; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2014-02-01

    Since ancient times, saffron, the dried stigma of the plant Crocus sativus L. has been extensively used as a spice and food colorant; in folk medicine it has been reputed to be efficacious for the alleviation and treatment of ailments. In addition to the three founded major constituents including crocin, picrocrocin and safranal, presence of carotenoids, carbohydrates, proteins, anthocyanins, vitamins and minerals provide valuable insights into the health benefits and nutritional value of saffron. Of the carotenoids present in saffron, highly water-soluble crocin (mono and diglycosyl esters of a polyene dicarboxylic acid, named crocetin) is responsible for the majority of its color, and appears to possess various health-promoting properties, as an antioxidant, antitumor, memory enhancer, antidepressant, anxiolytic and aphrodisiac. It is also worth noting that the crocin principle of saffron exhibited high efficacy along with no major toxicity in experimental models. We would be remiss to not consider the great potential of saffron and crocin, which benefits the cuisine and health of human life throughout the world. The present study provides a comprehensive and updated report of empirical investigations on bioactivities and biological characteristics of crocin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Antimicrobial Effect of aqueous extract of saffron petals on some of food-borne bacterial pathogen

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    L Azami

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Ever-increasing public debates over the adverse effects that may result from exposure to the chemical preservatives have enhanced the interests for the consuming of preservative-free foods or at least the product containing natural preservatives. In this laboratory experiment, the antimicrobial effect of aqueous extracts of Saffron petals against Salmonella typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus were investigated using the disk diffusion method. Moreover, the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC of the extract was assessed by agar dilution and broth microdilution method. According to the results, S. typhimurium was found asthe most sensitive, while, S. aureus and E. coli O157:H7asthe most resistant species. MICs of the extract by microdilution method were estimated at 40 mg/ml for all of the 4 bacterial species. The results also revealed that the extract of Saffron petals could be used as a natural preservative against the aforementioned bacteria.

  5. Anti-atherogenic potential of jujube, saffron and barberry: anti-diabetic and antioxidant actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmati, Mina; Zohoori, Elham; Mehrpour, Omid; Karamian, Mehdi; Asghari, Somaye; Zarban, Asghar; Nasouti, Roya

    2015-01-01

    Atherogenic dyslipidemia, characterized by an increased level of lipoprotein (a) and a decreased level of adiponectin, is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases in diabetic patients. To reduce cardiovascular risk in diabetic patients, use of agents with antidiabetic and anti-atherogenic potential is required. Using an animal model of diabetes, we investigated the antiatherogenic potential of extracts of three medicinal plants: jujube, barberry, and saffron. For this, serum level of fasting blood glucose, lipid profile, malondialdehyde, total antioxidant capacity, adiponectin and lipoprotein (a) in diabetic control and extract treated groups were measured. Statistical analysis of measurements showed that serum levels of fasting blood glucose, triglyceride, and VLDL decreased significantly (P jujube extract. Jujube, saffron, and barberry extracts are beneficial in ameliorating oxidative stress and atherogenic risk of diabetic rats. This highlights the benefits of further investigating the cardio-protective potential of medicinal plant extracts and evaluating their usefulness as cardio protective agents in clinical practice. PMID:26600752

  6. Effect of Saffron aqua Extract on Angiogenesis in Chick Chorioalantoic Membrane

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    Javad Baharara

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies confirmed anticancer properties of saffron extract. Angiogenesis, formation of new blood vessels which is necessary in many physiological stages and pathological events such as tumor growth. So it would be an effective strategy to inhibit angiogenesis to treat many cancers and metastasis. In this experimental study, effects of saffron on angiogenesis in chick chorioalantoic membrane (CAM were investigated. Materials and Methods: Fifity ross fertilized eggs divided in 5 groups, including: control, sham exposed, experimental group 1, 2 and 3. In second day of incubation window was opened on eggs. In day 8 gelatin sponges contain gelatin and albumin was put on chorioalantoic membrane and was soaked with Saffron aqua extract in concentration 100, 400 and 800 μg/ml. In 12th day all cases were photographed by photo stereomicroscope. Numbers and lengths of vessels around the sponges were measured by Image J software. Data were analyzed with SPSS-16 in significant level p<0.05. Results: According to data analysis, changes had no correlation on the average length of blood vessels in the first experimental group (41.5±5.5 mm, compared with the control group, (44.5±2.4 mm. While in the second and third experimental group (40.2±2.1 mm and (38.4±3.8 mm these changes were significant (p=0.001. On the other hand, the average number of blood vessels in the first experimental group (22.07±5.2 in compare with the control group (27.46±4.4 shows a significant reduction (p=0.02, this decline between the second (18.80±4.4 and third (15.87±3.8 experimental groups was significant at the level of p=0.001. Conclusion: Saffron extract has a dose dependent inhibitory effect on angiogenesis in chick chorioalantoic membrane.

  7. Methods and Models for the Coupled Neutronics and Thermal-Hydraulics Analysis of the CROCUS Reactor at EFPL

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    A. Rais

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze the steady state and transient behavior of the CROCUS reactor, several methods and models need to be developed in the areas of reactor physics, thermal-hydraulics, and multiphysics coupling. The long-term objectives of this project are to work towards the development of a modern method for the safety analysis of research reactors and to update the Final Safety Analysis Report of the CROCUS reactor. A first part of the paper deals with generation of a core simulator nuclear data library for the CROCUS reactor using the Serpent 2 Monte Carlo code and also with reactor core modeling using the PARCS code. PARCS eigenvalue, radial power distribution, and control rod reactivity worth results were benchmarked against Serpent 2 full-core model results. Using the Serpent 2 model as reference, PARCS eigenvalue predictions were within 240 pcm, radial power was within 3% in the central region of the core, and control rod reactivity worth was within 2%. A second part reviews the current methodology used for the safety analysis of the CROCUS reactor and presents the envisioned approach for the multiphysics modeling of the reactor.

  8. Effects of saffron supplementation on the cardio-respiratory endurance in the healthy inactive girls

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    Abbas Meamarbashi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate the effect of saffron supplementation on the cardio-respiratory endurance factors in the healthy non-active girls. After filling a health and fitness questionnaire and perform 1-mile run test, 14 non-active female students were selected among the eligible students in the University of Mohaghegh Ardabili (Age: 20.7±1.38 years; BMI: 21.1±1.8 kg/m2 and they performed Bruce test on a computerized treadmill connected to a respiratory gas analyzer in three stages with one week interval. In this study, test has been done on subjects in stage one after placebo consumption. In the second stage, similarly test done after one week consumption of dry saffron stigma (300 mg/day and the results were measured. Analysis of Covariance and Bonferroni pair-wise comparison were used for the data analysis. Results showed that the consumption of 300 mg saffron for one week caused a significant enhancement in VO2, VO2max, and time to exhaustion and significant reduction in the resting blood pressure and resting heart rate as well as significant increase in fat oxidation and a significant reduction in carbohydrate consumption during the Bruce test (p

  9. Enhanced Bioaccessibility of Crocetin Sugar Esters from Saffron in Infusions Rich in Natural Phenolic Antioxidants

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    Stella A. Ordoudi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to examine whether and to what extent the bioaccessibility of the major saffron apocarotenoids, namely crocetin sugar esters (CRTSEs, is affected by the presence of strong water-soluble antioxidants, ingredients of the herbs found in commercial tea blends with saffron. An in vitro digestion model was applied to infusions from these products to investigate the possible changes. All of the studied infusions were rich in total phenols (9.9–22.5 mg caffeic acid equivalents/100 mg dry infusion and presented strong DPPH radical scavenging activity regardless of the composition of the corresponding herbal blends. RP-HPLC-DAD and LC-MS analysis enabled the grouping of the infusions into hydroxycinnamic acid-rich and in flavan-3-ol-rich ones. CRTSEs in herbal tea infusions were found to be significantly more bioaccessible (66.3%–88.6% than those in the reference saffron infusion (60.9%. The positive role of strong phenolic antioxidants (caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid on the stability of CRTSEs was also evidenced in model binary mixtures. On the contrary, cinnamic acid, exerting no antioxidant activity, did not have such an effect. Our findings suggest that strong radical scavengers may protect the crocetin sugar esters from oxidation during digestion when present in excess.

  10. On the Traceability of Commercial Saffron Samples Using 1H-NMR and FT-IR Metabolomics

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    Roberto Consonni

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In previous works on authentic samples of saffron of known history (harvest and processing year, storage conditions, and length of time some biomarkers were proposed using both FT-IR and NMR metabolomics regarding the shelf life of the product. This work addresses the difficulties to trace back the “age” of commercial saffron samples of unknown history, sets a limit value above which these products can be considered substandard, and offers a useful tool to combat saffron mislabeling and fraud with low-quality saffron material. Investigations of authentic and commercial saffron samples of different origin and harvest year, which had been stored under controlled conditions for different lengths of time, allowed a clear-cut clustering of samples in two groups according to the storage period irrespectively of the provenience. In this respect, the four-year cut off point proposed in our previous work assisted to trace back the “age” of unknown samples and to check for possible mislabeling practices.

  11. Anti-angiogenesis properties of Crocus pallasii subsp. haussknechtii, a popular ethnic food

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    M. Mosaddegh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Angiogenesis is essential for tumor survival. Inhibiting angiogenesis could be a mechanism for hindering tumor development. Numerous studies have now been focused on agiogenesis inhibitors and many of such studies have targeted plant materials. In the present study, Crocus pallasii subsp. haussknechtii has been evaluated for anti-angiogenesis properties. Methods: Anti-angiogenesis activity of the plant extracts and fractions has been investigated through wound healing assay in HUV-EC-C cells. The cytotoxic activity has also been evaluated by MTT assay. Results: The methanol extract and the methanol fraction of the corm along with the chloroform fraction of the aerial parts demonstrated to be cytotoxic to HUV-EC-C cells with IC50 values of 27.2, 74.1 and 60.0 μg/mL, respectively while the chloroform fraction of the corm showed the most considerable anti-angiogenesis property among the samples in wound healing assay. Conclusion: Regarding the results of the present study, Crocus pallasii subsp. haussknechtii is suggested for further studies in cancer research evaluations.

  12. Backcross introgression of the Cucumis hystrix chakr. genome increases genetic diveristy in U.S. processing cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genetic base of commercial cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is extremely narrow (about 3 to 8% polymorphism). Wide-based crosses within C. sativus [i.e., var. sativus x var. hardwickii (R.) Alef.] and interspecific hybridization attempts prior to 1995 have not substantially increased genetic diver...

  13. Backcross introgression of the Cucumis hystrix chakr. genome increases genetic diversity in U.S. processing cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genetic base of commercial cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is extremely narrow (about 3 to 8% polymorphism). Wide-based crosses within C. sativus [i.e., var. sativus x var. hardwickii (R.) Alef.] and interspecific hybridization attempts prior to 1995 have not substantially increased genetic diver...

  14. Accumulation of Transcripts Abundance after Barley Inoculation with Cochliobolus sativus

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    Mohammad Imad Eddin Arabi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Spot blotch caused by the hemibiotrophic pathogen Cochliobolus sativus has been the major yield-reducing factor for barley production during the last decade. Monitoring transcriptional reorganization triggered in response to this fungus is an essential first step for the functional analysis of genes involved in the process. To characterize the defense responses initiated by barley resistant and susceptible cultivars, a survey of transcript abundance at early time points of C. sativus inoculation was conducted. A notable number of transcripts exhibiting significant differential accumulations in the resistant and susceptible cultivars were detected compared to the non-inoculated controls. At the p-value of 0.0001, transcripts were divided into three general categories; defense, regulatory and unknown function, and the resistant cultivar had the greatest number of common transcripts at different time points. Quantities of differentially accumulated gene transcripts in both cultivars were identified at 24 h post infection, the approximate time when the pathogen changes trophic lifestyles. The unique and common accumulated transcripts might be of considerable interest for enhancing effective resistance to C. sativus.

  15. Transcriptome analysis of leaf tissue of Raphanus sativus by RNA sequencing.

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    Libin Zhang

    Full Text Available Raphanus sativus is not only a popular edible vegetable but also an important source of medicinal compounds. However, the paucity of knowledge about the transcriptome of R. sativus greatly impedes better understanding of the functional genomics and medicinal potential of R. sativus. In this study, the transcriptome sequencing of leaf tissues in R. sativus was performed for the first time. Approximately 22 million clean reads were generated and used for transcriptome assembly. The generated unigenes were subsequently annotated against gene ontology (GO database. KEGG analysis further revealed two important pathways in the bolting stage of R.sativus including spliceosome assembly and alkaloid synthesis. In addition, a total of 6,295 simple sequence repeats (SSRs with various motifs were identified in the unigene library of R. sativus. Finally, four unigenes of R. sativus were selected for alignment with their homologs from other plants, and phylogenetic trees for each of the genes were constructed. Taken together, this study will provide a platform to facilitate gene discovery and advance functional genomic research of R. sativus.

  16. An spatial zoning of Saffron cultivation based on climatic factors using hierarchical analysis process method (Case Study: Torbate Hydariyeh City

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    mahdieh rashid sorkh abadi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Between of effective factors in agricultural crops production, climatic conditions is an important task from the view of environmental variables. On the other hand the basic in agricultural development is having detailed knowledge of the environmental characteristics in any place and applying specific management. Saffron as the world's most valuable agricultural and medicinal product is among the plants that has acquired a significant role in the economic and social conditions of arid and semi-arid areas of Southern and Central Khorasan. Thereafter, this study with purpose of climatic conditions evaluation for Saffron cultivation in Torbate Heidariyeh City was conducted. For this reason, climatic data of 10 meteorological stations in the province was selected and with the help of Arc GIS software environment, the modeling and spatial analysis of information was conducted. using of suitable climatic conditions in different growth stages of Saffron, information layers were classified and the value of the maps was determined. Finally for the integrating of information layers using multi-criteria decision-making methods were used based on Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP, climatic potential map of Saffron cultivation in Torbate Heidariyeh City was prepared. The results of the study showed that the effect of rainfall, temperature and solar radiation climatic factors, appropriate the different growth stages, in each region is different and from the total 9570.2071 sq kms area of the Torbate Hidariyeh city according to Saffron cultivation zoning, 6% has a very good quality, 56% of the area has a good quality, 28% has relative conditions for cultivation, 8.5% has poor and 1.5% of the area has a quite unsuitable quality for the cultivation of Saffron.

  17. Effects of Saffron Corm and Leaf Extracts on Early Growth of Some Plants to Investigate the Possibility of Using Them as Associated Crop

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    Hamid-Reza FALLAHI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Saffron intercropping with other plants needs to preliminary investigations about the possible negative interactions between saffron and associated crop. In this study, allelopathic effects of saffron leaf and corm extracts on germination and seedling growth indices of alfalfa (Medicago sativa, arugula (Eruca sativa and rapeseed (Brassica napus was investigated in six separate experiments based on completely randomized design. Experimental treatments were consisted of different levels of saffron leaf and corm extracts including 0, 0.75, 1.5, 3 and 6%. The maximum germination percentage of all selected crops was obtained at control treatment (on average 92% and then decreased with increasing extracts concentration. So that, the germination percentage of arugula, canola and alfalfa in highest concentration of extracts were 18, 10 and 8% for leaf extract and 72, 68 and 93% for corm extract, respectively. The relatively similar trend was observed about germination rate, root and plumule lengths and dry weights. Therefore, the inhibitory effect of saffron leaf extract was more than corm extract on initial growth indices of studied plants. The lowest inhibitory effect of saffron leaf extract and even relatively high stimulatory effect of corm extract were obtained on alfalfa initial growth criteria. Considering the differences in allelochemicals mode of action and concentrations in laboratory bioassays with natural condition, it is necessary to investigate the effects of saffron residues on growth of selected associated crops in greenhouse and field scales for the final decision.

  18. Antioxidative Properties of White Saffron Extract (Curcuma mangga Val) in The B-Carotene Bleaching and DPPH-Radical Scavenging Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Pujimulyani, Dwiyati; Wazyka, Agung; Anggrahini, Sri; Santoso, Umar

    2014-01-01

    Study on antioxidative properties of white saffron extract in the emulsion system of b-carotene linoleic acid (b-carotene bleaching method) and DPPH-radical scavenging method was undertaken. The objective of this study was to examine the antioxidative activity of white saffron extract in the emulsion system of b-carotene linoleic acid and for radical scavenging activity by DPPH method. The extraction was carried out as follows: fresh white saffron was peeled and blanched in the 0.5% boiling c...

  19. The Safran-Crocus-Mepra results and avalanches in Iceland 2001-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraldsdóttir, S.; Ólafsson, H.; Durand, Y.; Giraud, G.; Mérindol, L.

    2003-04-01

    Numerical models, Safran, Crocus and Mepra (SCM) have been developed by Météo-France to predict the evolution of the snow pack and its stability with respect to avalanches. The Safran-Crocus models have been adapted to Icelandic weather conditions, where most avalanches are caused by heavy snow precipitation in strong winds. The adapted SCM-models were run operationally during the winter 2001-2002 for testing the avalanche danger prediction, knowing that the models did not take into account the transport of snow by wind. The performance of the models was analysed during 19 avalanche cycles, each consisting of 2-21 recorded avalanches. First indicators of avalanche danger in the models are weak snow layers, leading to moderate, or in most of the 19 cases, high danger of avalanches triggered by human activities. In 5 of these 19 avalanche cycles, the models predicted moderate or high natural avalanche danger. Besides the detection of weak layers the models provide an estimation of the amount of snow available for transport by wind. This together with the fact that the recorded mean wind speed exceeded 15 m/s in all cases make it possible to construct natural avalanche prediction criteria, where the key parameters from the models are the stability of the snow pack and an indication of the availability of snow for transport by wind. Used with the wind speed from observations or numerical weather prediction models the effect of blowing snow can be estimated. As a result the models turn out to be a very useful tool for predicting avalanche danger when considering simultaneously the blowing snow and its potential accumulation in the avalanche starting zones.

  20. Implementation of a physically based water percolation routine in the Crocus/SURFEX (V7.3) snowpack model

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amboise, Christopher J. L.; Müller, Karsten; Oxarango, Laurent; Morin, Samuel; Schuler, Thomas V.

    2017-09-01

    We present a new water percolation routine added to the one-dimensional snowpack model Crocus as an alternative to the empirical bucket routine. This routine solves the Richards equation, which describes flow of water through unsaturated porous snow governed by capillary suction, gravity and hydraulic conductivity of the snow layers. We tested the Richards routine on two data sets, one recorded from an automatic weather station over the winter of 2013-2014 at Filefjell, Norway, and the other an idealized synthetic data set. Model results using the Richards routine generally lead to higher water contents in the snow layers. Snow layers often reached a point at which the ice crystals' surface area is completely covered by a thin film of water (the transition between pendular and funicular regimes), at which feedback from the snow metamorphism and compaction routines are expected to be nonlinear. With the synthetic simulation 18 % of snow layers obtained a saturation of > 10 % and 0.57 % of layers reached saturation of > 15 %. The Richards routine had a maximum liquid water content of 173.6 kg m-3 whereas the bucket routine had a maximum of 42.1 kg m-3. We found that wet-snow processes, such as wet-snow metamorphism and wet-snow compaction rates, are not accurately represented at higher water contents. These routines feed back on the Richards routines, which rely heavily on grain size and snow density. The parameter sets for the water retention curve and hydraulic conductivity of snow layers, which are used in the Richards routine, do not represent all the snow types that can be found in a natural snowpack. We show that the new routine has been implemented in the Crocus model, but due to feedback amplification and parameter uncertainties, meaningful applicability is limited. Updating or adapting other routines in Crocus, specifically the snow compaction routine and the grain metamorphism routine, is needed before Crocus can accurately simulate the snowpack using the

  1. Increasing viability, numbers, and motility of sperm in men with normal spermatogenesis exposed to saffron extract after freezing- thawing process

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    Y. Khazaei

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sperm freezing method is used frequently in assisted reproductive techniques, on the other hand in different studies negative effect of freezing have been shown on different sperm parameters. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of saffron extract as an antioxidant, on the different sperm parameters in men with normal spermatogenesis after freezing-thawing process. Methods: In this case-control study, collecting of samples was done in 2015 year from the Infertility Treatment Center, ACECR Branch of Qazvin, Qazvin, Iran. These men had normal spermatogenesis and their spouse had infertility problem. Semen samples was divided in two groups, control without saffron extract, and case with 50 mg/ml saffron extract. Then, samples freezed with snap freezing method. After two weeks, they were thawed and different sperm parameters were assessed. Data were analyzed by two-tail T test. Findings: Our results showed, mean percent of viability (72±0.99, motility (87±0.43, and the number of sperm cells (62.5±3.8 in treaded group was elevated significantly (P0.05. Conclusion: Our results showed that possibly antioxidant agents of saffron extract could scavenge free radicals and thus, optimize different sperm parameters (viability, motility, and number after freezing and thawing.

  2. Unraveling Massive Crocins Transport and Accumulation through Proteome and Microscopy Tools during the Development of Saffron Stigma

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    Lourdes Gómez-Gómez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Crocins, the glucosides of crocetin, are present at high concentrations in saffron stigmas and accumulate in the vacuole. However, the biogenesis of the saffron chromoplast, the changes during the development of the stigma and the transport of crocins to the vacuole, are processes that remain poorly understood. We studied the process of chromoplast differentiation in saffron throughout stigma development by means of transmission electron microscopy. Our results provided an overview of a massive transport of crocins to the vacuole in the later developmental stages, when electron dense drops of a much greater size than plastoglobules (here defined “crocinoplast” were observed in the chromoplast, connected to the vacuole with a subsequent transfer of these large globules inside the vacuole. A proteome analysis of chromoplasts from saffron stigma allowed the identification of several well-known plastid proteins and new candidates involved in crocetin metabolism. Furthermore, expressions throughout five developmental stages of candidate genes responsible for carotenoid and apocarotenoid biogenesis, crocins transport to the vacuole and starch metabolism were analyzed. Correlation matrices and networks were exploited to identify a series of transcripts highly associated to crocetin (such as 1-Deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase (DXS, 1-Deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR, carotenoid isomerase (CRTISO, Crocetin glucosyltransferase 2 (UGT2, etc. and crocin (e.g., ζ-carotene desaturase (ZDS and plastid-lipid-associated proteins (PLAP2 accumulation; in addition, candidate aldehyde dehydrogenase (ADH genes were highlighted.

  3. Simultaneous quantification of five major biologically active ingredients of saffron by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, N; Lin, G; Kwan, Y W; Min, Z D

    1999-07-23

    A simple, sensitive and specific high-performance liquid chromatography-UV (HPLC-UV) method has been developed for the first time to simultaneously quantify the five major biologically active ingredients of saffron, namely crocin 1, crocin 2, crocin 3, crocin 4 and crocetin. Calibration curves were derived by spiking authentic compounds and internal standard, 13-cis-retinoic acid, into herbal samples prior to extraction. Extraction was conducted simply by stirring dried herb (20 mg) with 80% aqueous methanol (5 ml) at ambient temperature in the dark for 2 h. The HPLC assay was performed on a reversed-phase C18 column with linear gradient elution using methanol and 1% aqueous acetic acid. Calibrations were linear (r2 = 0.999) for all five analytes, with overall intra- and inter-day RSDs of less than 11%. The assay was successfully applied to the determination of four crocins and crocetin in three saffron samples and two Zhizi, another crocin-containing herb. Results indicate that the developed HPLC assay can be readily utilized as a quality control method for crocin-containing medicinal herbs.

  4. Functional proteomics reveals the protective effects of saffron ethanolic extract on hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Tai-Long; Wu, Tung-Ho; Wang, Pei-Wen; Leu, Yann-Lii; Sintupisut, Nardnisa; Huang, Chun-Hsun; Chang, Fang-Rong; Wu, Yang-Chang

    2013-08-01

    Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury is a common clinical problem and ROS may be a contributing factor on IR injury. The current study evaluates the potential protective effect of saffron ethanol extract (SEE) in a rat model upon hepatic IR injury. Caspases 3 and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) results showed increased cell death in the IR samples; reversely, minor apoptosis was detected in the SEE/IR group. Pretreatment with SEE significantly restored the content of antioxidant enzymes (SOD1 and catalase) and remarkably inhibited the intracellular ROS concentration in terms of reducing p47phox translocation. Proteome tools revealed that 20 proteins were significantly modulated in protein intensity between IR and SEE/IR groups. Particularly, SEE administration could attenuate the carbonylation level of several chaperone proteins. Network analysis suggested that saffron extract could alleviate IR-induced ER stress and protein ubiquitination, which finally lead to cell apoptosis. Taken together, SEE could reduce hepatic IR injury through modulating protein oxidation and our results might help to develop novel therapeutic strategies against ROS-caused diseases. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Inner Alienation: Diasporic Consciousness in Kamila Shamsie’s Salt and Saffron

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    Humaira Riaz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the ‘diasporic consciousness ‘of the fictional characters, incorporated in selected work of Pakistani expatriate writer Kamila Shamsie through the portrayal of cross-cultural differences. This study attempts to unravel the inner-alienation that sustains through specific discourses and events occurring in the lives of the expatriate fictional characters represented in Salt and Saffron (2000. The composite term used for this study is ‘diasporic consciousness’ that refers to a specific kind of awareness dominant among the contemporary transnational communities. It is also said to possess a dual nature. More specifically, it is defined in relationship to the memories of the homeland. It emphasizes on describing a myriad of experiences showing a particular state of mind and most prominently a sense of identity. Shamsie’s Salt and Saffron portrays the cross-cultural differences between Karachi and New York, and explores an irrational fear of place in which the characters initially find themselves trapped in. Keywords: Diaspora, Consciousness, Inner-Alienation, Culture

  6. Determination of total safranal by in situ acid hydrolysis in supercritical fluid media: Application to the quality control of commercial saffron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zougagh, Mohammed; Ríos, Angel; Valcárcel, Miguel

    2006-09-25

    A procedure allowing hydrolysis reactions to be conducted in a dynamic supercritical-CO2 medium was developed for quantifying total safranal (viz. free safranal present in the sample+safranal resulting from picrocrocin hydrolysis), which are the main component of the essential oil and responsible for the characteristic aroma of saffron. The proposed method allows total safranal amounts over the ranges 0.05-1.5 mg mL(-1) to be determined. The standard deviation achieved was 2%. This method was applied to the determination of safranal in natural saffron samples. The results obtained were compared with the "safranal value" total index, which is widely used as a quality measure of saffron products. The comparison revealed that the proposed method provides useful information not contained in the safranal value, based on the fact that, some samples with a high "safranal index" contain low concentrations of safranal. The proposed method is very useful for quality control in commercial saffron samples.

  7. Polyphenolics profile and antioxidant properties of Raphanus sativus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beevi, Syed Sultan; Mangamoori, Lakshmi Narasu; Gowda, Bandi Boje

    2012-01-01

    Raphanus sativus, a common cruciferous vegetable has been attributed to possess a number of pharmacological properties. Antioxidant and radical scavenging activity of R. sativus root extracted with solvents of varying polarity were evaluated using different model systems. Polyphenolic content was estimated to be in the range 13.18-63.54 mg g⁻¹ dry weight, with a considerable amount being obtained with polar solvents. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis indicated the presence of an array of polyphenolics. Catechin was found to be the most abundant phenolic compound in water extract and sinapic acid, the predominant phenolic compound in methanolic, ethyl acetate and hexane extracts. The methanolic extract showed significant ferric reducing ability, moderate metal chelating activity and strong radical scavenging activity. The methanolic extract could be successfully utilised as an ingredient in functional foods. However, water extract could be more pertinent to human nutrition as it contained a significant amount of catechin, which was comparable to traditional sources like green and black tea.

  8. Ameliorative Effect of Saffron Aqueous Extract on Hyperglycemia, Hyperlipidemia, and Oxidative Stress on Diabetic Encephalopathy in Streptozotocin Induced Experimental Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Samarghandian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic encephalopathy is one of the severe complications in patients with diabetes mellitus. Findings indicate that saffron extract has antioxidant properties but its underlying beneficial effects on diabetic encephalopathy were unclear. In the present study, the protective activities of saffron were evaluated in diabetic encephalopathy. Saffron at 40 and 80 mg/kg significantly increased body weight and serum TNF-α and decreased blood glucose levels, glycosylated serum proteins, and serum advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs levels. Furthermore, significant increase in HDL and decrease (P<0.05 in cholesterol, triglyceride, and LDL were observed after 28 days of treatment. At the end of experiments, the hippocampus tissue was used for determination of glutathione content (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT activities. Furthermore, saffron significantly increased GSH, SOD, and CAT but remarkably decreased cognitive deficit, serum TNF-α, and induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS activity in hippocampus tissue. Our findings indicated that saffron extract may reduce hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia risk and also reduce the oxidative stress in diabetic encephalopathy rats. This study suggested that saffron extract might be a promising candidate for the improvement of chemically induced diabetes and its complications.

  9. The Impact of Saffron on Symptoms of Withdrawal Syndrome in Patients Undergoing Maintenance Treatment for Opioid Addiction in Sabzevar Parish in 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nemat Shahi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective. Drug dependence is one of the serious problems around the world. Saffron is one of those beneficial medicinal plants which is embedded with a similar mechanism to methadone (e.g., inhibition of serotonin reuptake. Thus, it can be helpful in reducing the withdrawal symptoms. The aim of this study was to reduce the daily dose of methadone usage and reduce its side effects using saffron in the form of medicinal supplements. Methodology. This study was categorized as a clinical trial. Accordingly, 44 clients of addiction treatment centers in Sabzevar parish were randomly selected to participate in this study in 2016–2017. While the experimental group was treated with methadone syrup and self-made saffron capsules, the control group received methadone syrup and placebo capsules. Results. The results showed that the use of saffron and methadone alleviated the symptoms of withdrawal syndrome (p<0.001. Conclusion. Having reviewed the research participants, it was indicated that the introduction of saffron alleviated the symptoms of withdrawal syndrome in patients undergoing maintenance treatment for opioid addiction. Thus, it seems rational to make use of saffron in combination with methadone in order to alleviate the symptoms of withdrawal syndrome.

  10. Mutant selection in the self-incompatible plant radish (Raphanus sativusL.var. sativus) using two-step TILLING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohzuma, Kaori; Chiba, Motoko; Nagano, Soichiro; Anai, Toyoaki; Ueda, Miki U; Oguchi, Riichi; Shirai, Kazumasa; Hanada, Kousuke; Hikosaka, Kouki; Fujii, Nobuharu

    2017-06-01

    Radish ( Raphanus sativus L. var. sativus ), a widely cultivated root vegetable crop, possesses a large sink organ (the root), implying that photosynthetic activity in radish can be enhanced by altering both the source and sink capacity of the plant. However, since radish is a self-incompatible plant, improved mutation-breeding strategies are needed for this crop. TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes) is a powerful method used for reverse genetics. In this study, we developed a new TILLING strategy involving a two-step mutant selection process for mutagenized radish plants: the first selection is performed to identify a BC 1 M 1 line, that is, progenies of M 1 plants crossed with wild-type, and the second step is performed to identify BC 1 M 1 individuals with mutations. We focused on Rubisco as a target, since Rubisco is the most abundant plant protein and a key photosynthetic enzyme. We found that the radish genome contains six RBCS genes and one pseudogene encoding small Rubisco subunits. We screened 955 EMS-induced BC 1 M 1 lines using our newly developed TILLING strategy and obtained six mutant lines for the six RsRBCS genes, encoding proteins with four different types of amino acid substitutions. Finally, we selected a homozygous mutant and subjected it to physiological measurements.

  11. Mutant selection in the self-incompatible plant radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. sativus) using two-step TILLING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohzuma, Kaori; Chiba, Motoko; Nagano, Soichiro; Anai, Toyoaki; Ueda, Miki U.; Oguchi, Riichi; Shirai, Kazumasa; Hanada, Kousuke; Hikosaka, Kouki; Fujii, Nobuharu

    2017-01-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. sativus), a widely cultivated root vegetable crop, possesses a large sink organ (the root), implying that photosynthetic activity in radish can be enhanced by altering both the source and sink capacity of the plant. However, since radish is a self-incompatible plant, improved mutation-breeding strategies are needed for this crop. TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes) is a powerful method used for reverse genetics. In this study, we developed a new TILLING strategy involving a two-step mutant selection process for mutagenized radish plants: the first selection is performed to identify a BC1M1 line, that is, progenies of M1 plants crossed with wild-type, and the second step is performed to identify BC1M1 individuals with mutations. We focused on Rubisco as a target, since Rubisco is the most abundant plant protein and a key photosynthetic enzyme. We found that the radish genome contains six RBCS genes and one pseudogene encoding small Rubisco subunits. We screened 955 EMS-induced BC1M1 lines using our newly developed TILLING strategy and obtained six mutant lines for the six RsRBCS genes, encoding proteins with four different types of amino acid substitutions. Finally, we selected a homozygous mutant and subjected it to physiological measurements. PMID:28744180

  12. Current Mode Neutron Noise Measurements in the Zero Power Reactor CROCUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakari, O.; Lamirand, V.; Perret, G.; Braun, L.; Frajtag, P.; Pautz, A.

    2018-01-01

    The present article is an overview of developments and results regarding neutron noise measurements in current mode at the CROCUS zero power facility. Neutron noise measurements offer a non-invasive method to determine kinetic reactor parameters such as the prompt decay constant at criticality α = βeff / λ, the effective delayed neutron fraction βeff, and the mean generation time λ for code validation efforts. At higher detection rates, i.e. above 2×104 cps in the used configuration at 0.1 W, the previously employed pulse charge amplification electronics with BF3 detectors yielded erroneous results due to dead time effects. Future experimental needs call for higher sensitivity in detectors, higher detection rates or higher reactor powers, and thus a generally more versatile measurement system. We, therefore, explored detectors operated with current mode acquisition electronics to accommodate the need. We approached the matter in two ways: 1) By using the two compensated 10B-coated ionization chambers available in CROCUS as operational monitors. The compensated current signal of these chambers was extracted from coremonitoring output channels. 2) By developing a new current mode amplification station to be used with other available detectors in core. Characteristics and first noise measurements of the new current system are presented. We implemented post-processing of the current signals from 1)and 2) with the APSD/CPSD method to determine α. At two critical states (0.5 and 1.5 W), using the 10B ionization chambers and their CPSD estimate, the prompt decay constant was measured after 1.5 hours to be α=(156.9 ± 4.3) s-1 (1σ). This result is within 1σ of statistical uncertainties of previous experiments and MCNPv5-1.6 predictions using the ENDF/B-7.1 library. The newsystem connected to a CFUL01 fission chamber using the APSDestimate at 100 mW after 33 min yielded α = (160.8 ± 6.3) s-1, also within 1σ agreement. The improvements to previous neutron noise

  13. The use of cultivars of Raphanus sativus for cytokinin bioassay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Kubowicz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Six cultivars of radish (Raphanus sativus were tested for their usefulness in radish cytokinin bioassay by the method of Letham (1971. The best cultivar was found to be 'Sopel Lodu' which responds well to both zeatin and 2iP over a wide range of concentrations. The fresh weight of cotyledons increased at most by 71.5% (if treated with zeatin or 101.0% (if treated with 2iP compared to untreated cotyledons. This cultivar is also sensitive to the partially purified cytokinin-like fraction isolated from the pine (Pinus silvestris cambial region. The cultivar 'Sopel Lodu' is therefore proposed to be a suitable plant for cytokinin bioassays.

  14. Arsenic speciation in xylem sap of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihucz, Victor G; Tatár, Eniko; Virág, István; Cseh, Edit; Fodor, Ferenc; Záray, Gyula

    2005-10-01

    Flow injection analysis (FIA) and high-performance liquid chromatography double-focusing sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-DF-ICP-MS) were used for total arsenic determination and arsenic speciation of xylem sap of cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L.) grown in hydroponics containing 2 micromol dm(-3) arsenate or arsenite, respectively. Arsenite [As(III)], arsenate [As(V)] and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) were identified in the sap of the plants. Arsenite was the predominant arsenic species in the xylem saps regardless of the type of arsenic treatment, and the following concentration order was determined: As(III) > As(V) > DMA. The amount of total As, calculated taking into consideration the mass of xylem sap collected, was almost equal for both treatments. Arsenite was taken up more easily by cucumber than arsenate. Partial oxidation of arsenite to arsenate (nutrient solutions, which may explain the detection of arsenate in the saps of plants treated with arsenite.

  15. Preservation of saffron floral bio-residues by hot air convection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Díaz, Jéssica; Sánchez, Ana M; Alvarruiz, Andrés; Alonso, Gonzalo L

    2013-11-15

    Large amounts of floral bio-residues are wasted in saffron spice production, which need to be stabilized because of how quickly they deteriorate. These bio-residues are rich in phenolic compounds, and the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of drying temperatures and air flows on their color and phenolic composition. Anthocyanins and flavonols were degraded at 110 and 125°C. The best drying temperatures were 70 and 90°C for maintaining their physicochemical quality. The duration at 70°C was double than that of 90°C. Anthocyanins and flavonols were stable at 70 and 90°C with 2, 4, 6 and 8ms(-1). Dehydrations at 90°C with 2, 4 and 6ms(-1) were the most appropriate, due to a better color and greater similarity to control samples for their flavonols and anthocyanins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Vitamin E, Turmeric and Saffron in Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Adalier

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is a growing epidemic and currently there is no cure for the disease. The disease has a detrimental effect on families and will strain the economy and health care systems of countries worldwide. The paper provides a literature review on a few ongoing possible antioxidant therapy treatments for the disease. The paper highlights use of vitamin E, turmeric and saffron for an alternative antioxidant therapy approach. Clinical studies report their therapeutic abilities as protective agents for nerve cells against free radical damage, moderating acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity and reducing neurodegeneration, which are found as key factors in Alzheimer’s. The paper suggests that future research, with more clinical trials focused on more natural approaches and their benefits for AD treatment could be worthwhile.

  17. Development of computer code SAFFRON for evaluating breached pin performance in FBR's

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ukai, Shigeharu; Shikakura, Sakae (Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center); Sano, Yuji; Takita, Masami

    1994-07-01

    In order to evaluate the breached pin behavior in FBR, the breached pin performance analysis code SAFFRON was developed. Based on the results of run-beyond-cladding-breach test in FBR-II as a collaborative program between PNC and U.S.DOE, the following behaviors were taken into consideration; fuel sodium reaction product (FSRP) formation, resultant fuel expansion, breach extension of cladding and release of delayed neutron precursors into the coolant. Using 3-dimensional elastic analyses by finite element method, breached pin diameter increase is adequately predicted with the reduced Young's modulus of the breached fuel. The delayed neutron signal response in on-line diagnosis was evaluated in relation to the growth of FSRP and breached area enlargement. (author).

  18. Implementation of a physically based water percolation routine in the Crocus/SURFEX (V7.3 snowpack model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. L. D'Amboise

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a new water percolation routine added to the one-dimensional snowpack model Crocus as an alternative to the empirical bucket routine. This routine solves the Richards equation, which describes flow of water through unsaturated porous snow governed by capillary suction, gravity and hydraulic conductivity of the snow layers. We tested the Richards routine on two data sets, one recorded from an automatic weather station over the winter of 2013–2014 at Filefjell, Norway, and the other an idealized synthetic data set. Model results using the Richards routine generally lead to higher water contents in the snow layers. Snow layers often reached a point at which the ice crystals' surface area is completely covered by a thin film of water (the transition between pendular and funicular regimes, at which feedback from the snow metamorphism and compaction routines are expected to be nonlinear. With the synthetic simulation 18 % of snow layers obtained a saturation of  >  10 % and 0.57 % of layers reached saturation of  >  15 %. The Richards routine had a maximum liquid water content of 173.6 kg m−3 whereas the bucket routine had a maximum of 42.1 kg m−3. We found that wet-snow processes, such as wet-snow metamorphism and wet-snow compaction rates, are not accurately represented at higher water contents. These routines feed back on the Richards routines, which rely heavily on grain size and snow density. The parameter sets for the water retention curve and hydraulic conductivity of snow layers, which are used in the Richards routine, do not represent all the snow types that can be found in a natural snowpack. We show that the new routine has been implemented in the Crocus model, but due to feedback amplification and parameter uncertainties, meaningful applicability is limited. Updating or adapting other routines in Crocus, specifically the snow compaction routine and the grain metamorphism routine, is needed

  19. Extract of plant material of the genus Crocus L. having high levels of bio-insecticide activity

    OpenAIRE

    González-Coloma, Azucena; Reina, Matías; Lacret, Rodney; Nieuewenhuijs-Berbee, Alleta; Santana, Omar

    2015-01-01

    Las plagas de insectos fitófagos afectan una gran variedad de cultivos y tienen especial relevancia en sistemas agrícolas sostenibles donde los productos de síntesis están restringidos. La presente invención reivindica un extracto alcohólico de material vegetal del género Crocus L. con alta actividad bioinsecticida, que se caracteriza por comprender 3-O-β-D-glucopiranosil-(3R)-hidroxibutanolida, por ser fácilmente obtenible y por estar exento de problemas de toxicidad. La invención también re...

  20. Growth dynamics of saffron cod (Eleginus gracilis) and Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida) in the Northern Bering and Chukchi Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helser, Thomas E.; Colman, Jamie R.; Anderl, Delsa M.; Kastelle, Craig R.

    2017-01-01

    Saffron cod (Eleginus gracilis) and Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida) are two circumpolar gadids that serve as critically important species responsible for energy transfer in Arctic food webs of the northern Bering and Chukchi Seas. To understand the potential effects of sea ice loss and warming temperatures on these species' basic life history, information such as growth is needed. Yet to date, limited effort has been dedicated to the study of their growth dynamics. Based on a large sample of otoliths collected in the first comprehensive ecosystem integrated survey in the northern Bering and Chukchi Seas, procedures were developed to reliably estimate age from otolith growth zones and were used to study the growth dynamics of saffron and Arctic cod. Annual growth zone assignment was validated using oxygen isotope signatures in otoliths and otolith morphology analyzed and compared between species. Saffron cod attained larger asymptotic sizes (L∞=363 mm) and achieved their maximum size at a faster rate (K=0.378) than Arctic cod (L∞=209 mm; K=0.312). For both species, regional differences in growth were found (pSaffron cod grew to a significantly larger size at age in the northern Bering Sea when compared to the Chukchi Sea, particularly at younger ages. Arctic cod grew to smaller asymptotic size but at faster rates in the more northerly central (L∞=197 mm;K=0.324) and southern Chukchi Sea (L∞=221 mm;K=0.297) when compared to the northern Bering Sea (L∞=266 mm;K=0.171), suggesting a possible cline in growth rates with more northerly latitudes. Comparison of growth to two periods separated by 30 years indicate that both species exhibited a decline in maximum size accompanied by higher instantaneous growth rates in more recent years.

  1. Comparative evaluation of an ISO 3632 method and an HPLC-DAD method for safranal quantity determination in saffron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rodríguez, M Valle; López-Córcoles, Horacio; Alonso, Gonzalo L; Pappas, Christos S; Polissiou, Moschos G; Tarantilis, Petros A

    2017-04-15

    The aim of this work was a comparison of the ISO 3632 (2011) method and an HPLC-DAD method for safranal quantity determination in saffron. Samples from different origins were analysed by UV-vis according to ISO 3632 (2011) and by HPLC-DAD. Both methods were compared, and there was no correlation between the safranal content obtained by UV-vis and HPLC-DAD. An over-estimation in the UV-vis experiment was observed, which was related to the cis-crocetin esters content, as well as other compounds. The results demonstrated that there was no relationship between ISO quality categories and safranal content using HPLC-DAD. Therefore, HPLC-DAD might be preferable to UV-vis for determining the safranal content and the classification of saffron for commercial purposes. In addition, HPLC-DAD was adequate for determining the three foremost parameters that define the quality of saffron (crocetin esters, picrocrocin and safranal); therefore, this approach could be included in the ISO 3632 method (2011). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana as a Substitute for Sugar on Physicochemical, Rheological and Sensory Properties of Dietary Saffron Syrup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Hashemi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years production and usage of functional food and drinks is one of the public and scientist’s interest. Since carbohydrates have been recognizedas the major calorie source in many food baskets, most attention has been focused on substitution of sucrose with non-caloric sweeteners. Although both natural and synthetic sweeteners have been used in the formulation of food stuffs, deep concern is raised regarding safety aspects of synthetic ones. Stevia is a natural suitable sweetener that is currently being used as a substitute for sugar in many dietary and functional foods and drinks. In the present study the effect of using stevia sugar as a replacement for sucrose in the preparation of saffron beverages was investigated. Accordingly, saffron syrup was prepared with 5 treatments in which100%, 75%, 50%, 25% and 0% of stevia sugar replaced sucrose. Then, the physicochemical, rheological and sensory properties of saffron functional syrup were investigated. The results indicated that by increasing stevia brix level, density and viscosity increased but the syrups’ pH decreases. The best treatment was the sample containing 25% steviaand 75% sucrose that compared to other samples regarding sensory characteristics had a higher acceptance by consumer and regarding physicochemical and rheological characteristics more similar to the control sample.

  3. An image analysis of TLC patterns for quality control of saffron based on soil salinity effect: A strategy for data (pre)-processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sereshti, Hassan; Poursorkh, Zahra; Aliakbarzadeh, Ghazaleh; Zarre, Shahin; Ataolahi, Sahar

    2018-01-15

    Quality of saffron, a valuable food additive, could considerably affect the consumers' health. In this work, a novel preprocessing strategy for image analysis of saffron thin layer chromatographic (TLC) patterns was introduced. This includes performing a series of image pre-processing techniques on TLC images such as compression, inversion, elimination of general baseline (using asymmetric least squares (AsLS)), removing spots shift and concavity (by correlation optimization warping (COW)), and finally conversion to RGB chromatograms. Subsequently, an unsupervised multivariate data analysis including principal component analysis (PCA) and k-means clustering was utilized to investigate the soil salinity effect, as a cultivation parameter, on saffron TLC patterns. This method was used as a rapid and simple technique to obtain the chemical fingerprints of saffron TLC images. Finally, the separated TLC spots were chemically identified using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). Accordingly, the saffron quality from different areas of Iran was evaluated and classified. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Saffron supplements modulate serum pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance in patients with metabolic syndrome: A randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayyebeh Kermani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We have investigated the effect of a saffron supplement, given at a dose of 100 mg/kg, on prooxidant-antioxidant balance (PAB in individuals with metabolic syndrome. Materials and Methods: A randomized, placebo-controlled trial design was used in 75 subjects with metabolic syndrome who were randomly allocated to one of two study groups: (1 the case group received 100mg/kg saffron and (2 the placebo control group received placebo for 12 weeks. The serum PAB assay was applied to all subjects before (week 0 and after (weeks 6 and 12 the intervention. Results: There was a significant (p=0.035 reduction in serum PAB between week 0 to week 6 and also from week 0 to week 12.  Conclusion: Saffron supplements can modulate serum PAB in subjects with metabolic syndrome, implying an improvement in some aspects of oxidative stress or antioxidant protection.

  5. Arsenic speciation in xylem sap of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihucz, Victor G. [Joint Research Group of Environmental Chemistry of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and L. Eoetvoes University, Budapest (Hungary); Hungarian Satellite Centre of Trace Elements Institute to UNESCO, Budapest (Hungary); Tatar, Eniko [Hungarian Satellite Centre of Trace Elements Institute to UNESCO, Budapest (Hungary); L. Eoetvoes University, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Budapest (Hungary); Virag, Istvan [L. Eoetvoes University, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Budapest (Hungary); Cseh, Edit; Fodor, Ferenc [L. Eoetvoes University, Department of Plant Physiology, Budapest (Hungary); Zaray, Gyula [Joint Research Group of Environmental Chemistry of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and L. Eoetvoes University, Budapest (Hungary); Hungarian Satellite Centre of Trace Elements Institute to UNESCO, Budapest (Hungary); L. Eoetvoes University, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Budapest (Hungary)

    2005-10-01

    Flow injection analysis (FIA) and high-performance liquid chromatography double-focusing sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-DF-ICP-MS) were used for total arsenic determination and arsenic speciation of xylem sap of cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L.) grown in hydroponics containing 2 {mu}mol dm{sup -3} arsenate or arsenite, respectively. Arsenite [As(III)], arsenate [As(V)] and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) were identified in the sap of the plants. Arsenite was the predominant arsenic species in the xylem saps regardless of the type of arsenic treatment, and the following concentration order was determined: As(III) > As(V) > DMA. The amount of total As, calculated taking into consideration the mass of xylem sap collected, was almost equal for both treatments. Arsenite was taken up more easily by cucumber than arsenate. Partial oxidation of arsenite to arsenate (<10% in 48 h) was observed in the case of arsenite-containing nutrient solutions, which may explain the detection of arsenate in the saps of plants treated with arsenite. (orig.)

  6. Draft sequences of the radish (Raphanus sativus L.) genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitashiba, Hiroyasu; Li, Feng; Hirakawa, Hideki; Kawanabe, Takahiro; Zou, Zhongwei; Hasegawa, Yoichi; Tonosaki, Kaoru; Shirasawa, Sachiko; Fukushima, Aki; Yokoi, Shuji; Takahata, Yoshihito; Kakizaki, Tomohiro; Ishida, Masahiko; Okamoto, Shunsuke; Sakamoto, Koji; Shirasawa, Kenta; Tabata, Satoshi; Nishio, Takeshi

    2014-10-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L., n = 9) is one of the major vegetables in Asia. Since the genomes of Brassica and related species including radish underwent genome rearrangement, it is quite difficult to perform functional analysis based on the reported genomic sequence of Brassica rapa. Therefore, we performed genome sequencing of radish. Short reads of genomic sequences of 191.1 Gb were obtained by next-generation sequencing (NGS) for a radish inbred line, and 76,592 scaffolds of ≥ 300 bp were constructed along with the bacterial artificial chromosome-end sequences. Finally, the whole draft genomic sequence of 402 Mb spanning 75.9% of the estimated genomic size and containing 61,572 predicted genes was obtained. Subsequently, 221 single nucleotide polymorphism markers and 768 PCR-RFLP markers were used together with the 746 markers produced in our previous study for the construction of a linkage map. The map was combined further with another radish linkage map constructed mainly with expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat markers into a high-density integrated map of 1,166 cM with 2,553 DNA markers. A total of 1,345 scaffolds were assigned to the linkage map, spanning 116.0 Mb. Bulked PCR products amplified by 2,880 primer pairs were sequenced by NGS, and SNPs in eight inbred lines were identified. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  7. Efficacy of curcumin, and a saffron/curcumin combination for the treatment of major depression: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopresti, Adrian L; Drummond, Peter D

    2017-01-01

    Several studies have supported the antidepressant effects of curcumin (from the spice turmeric) and saffron for people with major depressive disorder. However, these studies have been hampered by poor designs, small sample sizes, short treatment duration, and similar intervention dosages. Furthermore, the antidepressant effects of combined curcumin and saffron administration are unknown. In a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 123 individuals with major depressive disorder were allocated to one of four treatment conditions, comprising placebo, low-dose curcumin extract (250mg b.i.d.), high-dose curcumin extract (500mg b.i.d.), or combined low-dose curcumin extract plus saffron (15mg b.i.d.) for 12 weeks. The outcome measures were the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology self-rated version (IDS-SR30) and Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). The active drug treatments (combined) were associated with significantly greater improvements in depressive symptoms compared to placebo (p=.031), and superior improvements in STAI-state (pdepression compared to the remainder of patients (response rates of 65% versus 35% respectively, p=.012). No differences were found between the differing doses of curcumin or the curcumin/saffron combination. Investigations with larger sample sizes are required to examine the efficacy of differing doses of curcumin and saffron/curcumin combination. Its effects in people with atypical depression also require examination in larger scale studies. Active drug treatments comprising differing doses of curcumin and combined curcumin/saffron were effective in reducing depressive and anxiolytic symptoms in people with major depressive disorder. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Characterisation of a new potyvirus species infecting meadow saffron Colchicum autumnale).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poutaraud, A; Desbiez, C; Lemaire, O; Lecoq, H; Herrbach, E

    2004-07-01

    The alkaloids contained in Colchicum autumnale seeds are used in numerous medicines. Good quality seeds are difficult to obtain from this undomesticated plant. Therefore, a research program was set up aiming to cultivate C. autumnale in order to improve alkaloid contents and seed yields. In this context, a collection was established in 1999 by transplanting corms from twelve different locations in Eastern France. However, serious symptoms of necrosis and decay have appeared in this collection since 2001. Electron microscopic observations of plants showing symptoms revealed the presence of filamentous particles and pinwheel-like structures characteristic of the Potyviridae family. Leaves and corms from symptomatic plants were assayed with potyvirus-specific Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay test. Positive reactions were obtained with plants from all the geographic origins, which exhibited flower breaking symptoms on petals. RT-PCR tests with family Potyviridae-specific primers confirmed the ELISA results and showed that the virus can be detected in corms, roots and flowers of symptomatic plants. The 3' region of the genome was cloned, sequenced and compared to other potyvirus species. Phylogenetic analyses suggest the presence of a new viral species tentatively named Meadow saffron breaking virus (MSBV) in C. autumnale.

  9. An Investigation into Separation of Impurity from Saffron Stigma Using an Electrostatic Separator

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    H Mortezapour

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a laboratory electrostatic separator was constructed and its separation potential of white saffron impurities from stigma was investigated. The device was comprised of a nylon ribbon which moves in contact with a woolen brush and was charged by the triboelectric effect. The charged ribbon, then, moved over the material pan. Since the electrostatic behavior vary from various materials, their attraction to the ribbon differ. The separation tests were conducted at three levels of ribbon position (with 1.5, 2.5 and 3.5 cm from the material pan, three drum speeds (50, 60 and 70 rpm and three working times (120, 18 and 240 seconds. The results showed that material absorption increased as working time increased and the ribbon distance decreased. Meanwhile, rising the speed from 50 to 60 rpm improved material absorption while, more increasing from 60 to 70 rpm reduced the absorption. A maximum impurity separation of 97% was observed with ribbon distance of 1.5 cm, ribbon speed of 60 rpm and working for 240 seconds. The minimum stigma losses were found to be about 2% when the ribbon distance and speed were 3.5 cm and 70 rpm, respectively, and the separator worked for 120 seconds.

  10. Natural Compounds from Saffron and Bear Bile Prevent Vision Loss and Retinal Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Fernández-Sánchez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available All retinal disorders, regardless of their aetiology, involve the activation of oxidative stress and apoptosis pathways. The administration of neuroprotective factors is crucial in all phases of the pathology, even when vision has been completely lost. The retina is one of the most susceptible tissues to reactive oxygen species damage. On the other hand, proper development and functioning of the retina requires a precise balance between the processes of proliferation, differentiation and programmed cell death. The life-or-death decision seems to be the result of a complex balance between pro- and anti-apoptotic signals. It has been recently shown the efficacy of natural products to slow retinal degenerative process through different pathways. In this review, we assess the neuroprotective effect of two compounds used in the ancient pharmacopoeia. On one hand, it has been demonstrated that administration of the saffron constituent safranal to P23H rats, an animal model of retinitis pigmentosa, preserves photoreceptor morphology and number, the capillary network and the visual response. On the other hand, it has been shown that systemic administration of tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA, the major component of bear bile, to P23H rats preserves cone and rod structure and function, together with their contact with postsynaptic neurons. The neuroprotective effects of safranal and TUDCA make these compounds potentially useful for therapeutic applications in retinal degenerative diseases.

  11. Development of breached pin performance analysis code SAFFRON (System of Analyzing Failed Fuel under Reactor Operation by Numerical method)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ukai, Shigeharu [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1995-03-01

    On the assumption of fuel pin failure, the breached pin performance analysis code SAFFRON was developed to evaluate the fuel pin behavior in relation to the delayed neutron signal response during operational mode beyond the cladding failure. Following characteristic behavior in breached fuel pin is modeled in 3-dimensional finite element method : pellet swelling by fuel-sodium reaction, fuel temperature change, and resultant cladding breach extension and delayed neutron precursors release into coolant. Particularly, practical algorithm of numerical procedure in finite element method was originally developed in order to solve the 3-dimensional non-linear contact problem between the swollen pellet due to fuel-sodium reaction and breached cladding. (author).

  12. Role of cucurbitacin C in resistance to spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) in cucumber (Cucumber sativus L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balkema-Boomstra, A.G.; Zijlstra, S.; Verstappen, F.W.A.; Inggamer, H.; Mercke, P.

    2003-01-01

    Cucurbitacins are bitter triterpenoid compounds that are toxic to most organisms and occur widely in wild and cultivated Cucurbitaceae. The only cucurbitacin identified in Cucumis sativus is cucurbitacin C. The bitter taste of cucumber has been correlated with resistance to the spider mite

  13. Oilseed Radish (Raphanus Sativus) Effects on Soil Structure and Soil Water Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus spp. oleifera) reduces nematode populations. Fall-incorporated radish biomass may also improve soil physical and hydraulic properties to increase the yield and quality of subsequently grown sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.). This field study determined radish effects on...

  14. Functional characterization of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Clade V MLO genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, Jeroen A.; Appiano, Michela; Bijsterbosch, Gerard; Visser, Richard G.F.; Schouten, Henk J.; Bai, Yuling

    2017-01-01

    Background: Powdery mildew (PM) causing fungi are well-known pathogens, infecting over 10.000 plant species, including the economically important crop cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Loss-of-function mutations in clade V MLO genes have previously been shown to lead to recessively inherited

  15. Effect of salinity on growth, water use and nutrient use in radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcelis, L.F.M.; Hooijdonk, van J.

    1999-01-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) plants were grown at five soil salinity levels (1, 2, 4, 9 and 13 dS m-1) to analyse the effects on growth, dry matter partitioning, leaf expansion and water and nutrient use. Salinity was varied by proportionally changing the concentration of all macro nutrients. When

  16. A Longitudinal Follow-Up Study of Saffron Supplementation in Early Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Sustained Benefits to Central Retinal Function

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    M. Piccardi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. In a previous randomized clinical trial (Falsini et al. (2010, it was shown that short-term Saffron supplementation improves retinal flicker sensitivity in early age-related macular degeneration (AMD. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the observed functional benefits from Saffron supplementation may extend over a longer follow-up duration. Design. Longitudinal, interventional open-label study. Setting. Outpatient ophthalmology setting. Participants. Twenty-nine early AMD patients (age range: 55–85 years with a baseline visual acuity >0.3. Intervention. Saffron oral supplementation (20 mg/day over an average period of treatment of 14 (±2 months. Measurements. Clinical examination and focal-electroretinogram-(fERG- derived macular (18° flicker sensitivity estimate (Falsini et al. (2010 every three months over a followup of 14 (±2 months. Retinal sensitivity, the reciprocal value of the estimated fERG amplitude threshold, was the main outcome measure. Results. After three months of supplementation, mean fERG sensitivity improved by 0.3 log units compared to baseline values (P<0.01, and mean visual acuity improved by two Snellen lines compared to baseline values (0.75 to 0.9, P<0.01. These changes remained stable over the follow-up period. Conclusion. These results indicate that in early AMD Saffron supplementation induces macular function improvements from baseline that are extended over a long-term followup.

  17. Site Location of Processing Industries for Saffron Packing - Package with the Goal of Economic Development of Rural Fields in Torbat Heydarieh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mahdieh pourjafarabadi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural processing industries in rural areas could bring the benefits of efficiency of products, increased employment and reduced agricultural waste. However, the success of the packaging for processing industries in the developing rural economy depends on the choice of the best location for the establishment of related industries. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal location of processing industries - depending on the direction of economic development in rural saffron packaging in the Torbat city. Information was collected in two ways from a library. The population of the study area was in the fields of Torbat city. 19 villages were selected as samples using Cochran formula, 356 households were defined as households in the sample. Then to locate the packaging processing industries for saffron use of index of localization of the human dimension was considered normal. The data collected for analysis was gathered by using questionnaires, and the AHP model and SPSS software package were used. In this regard, the results suggest that the correlation between processing industries - depending on the size of saffron and economic development in the rural fields is based on research. Thus, the best location for saffron processing industries in the region, the villages and Colonel Asad were identified considering the natural conditions and human factors (fertile soil, access roads, etc..

  18. Effects of crocin and safranal, saffron constituents, on the formalin-induced orofacial pain in rats

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    Amir Erfanparast

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Crocin and safranal are the main components of saffron, and have many biological functions such as anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. In the present study, we investigated the effects of crocin, safranal, morphine, diclofenac and naloxone in combined and separately on formalin-induced orofacial pain in rats. Materials and Methods: Subcutaneous injection of a diluted formalin solution (50 µl, 1.5% into the upper lip region produced a biphasic pattern of pain response (a neurogenic phase: 0-3 min and an inflammatory phase: 15-33 min. The time each animal spent face rubbing with ipsilateral forepaw was recorded and considered as an index of nociception Results: Intraperitoneal injections of crocin (12.5 and 25 mg/kg, safranal (0.25 and 0.5 mg/kg, diclofenac (5 and 10 mg/kg and morphine (1 and 2 mg/kg suppressed the second phase of pain. The second phase of pain was also reduced when low (ineffective doses of crocin (6.25 mg/kg and safranal (0.125 mg/kg were co-administered with low doses of diclofenac (2.5 mg/kg and morphine (0.5 mg/kg. The more antinociceptive effects were observed when the medium doses of the above-mentioned chemicals used together. Naloxone prevented morphine-induced antinociception, but did not inhibit the suppressive effects of crocin and safranal. Safranal at a high dose (0.5 mg/kg suppressed locomotor activity. Conclusion: The present results showed antinociceptive effects for crocin and safranal in inflammatory pain. Opioid receptors may not be involved in the antinociceptive effect of crocin and safranal. Crocin and safranal increased diclofenac-induced antinociception.

  19. Saffron and beetroot extracts encapsulated in maltodextrin, gum Arabic, modified starch and chitosan: Incorporation in a chewing gum system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chranioti, Charikleia; Nikoloudaki, Aspasia; Tzia, Constantina

    2015-08-20

    Maltodextrin (MD-21DE), gum Arabic (GA), gum Arabic-modified starch (GA-MS), modified starch-chitosan (MS-CH) and modified starch-maltodextrin-chitosan (MS-MD-CH) were used as agents for beetroot and saffron coloring-extracts microencapsulation by freeze drying. The produced powders were evaluated in terms of coloring strength (E) during storage at 40°C for 10 weeks and a first-order kinetic was applied. Color parameters (L(*), a(*), b(*), C(*) and ΔE(*)) and water sorption behavior was also studied. Moreover, incorporation of the powders in a chewing gum model system was conducted. The type of encapsulating agent significantly (PGA>GA-MS>MS-CH>MS-MD-CH. The water sorption study revealed that MD and GA kept their structural integrity up to water activities of 0.66 and 0.82, respectively. The chewing gum samples produced with coloring extracts encapsulated in GA-MS showed the greatest a(*)(for beetroot) and b(*) (for saffron) values indicating a better protection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Apparent expression of flower colours and internal variation of enzyme activities in some typical phenotypes of dyer's saffron cultivars

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    Koshi Saito

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical screening of four Carthamus pigments in phenotypically different cultivars of dyer's saffron was carried out by means of chromatographic techniques. The pigment composition in the floral part correlated well with the flower colour, supporting these components as idoneous chemotaxonomic markers. Among seven cultivars examined, three were orange-yellow and contained carthamin (red and precarthamin, safflor yellow A and safflor yellow B (orange-yellow (type 0. There were bright-yellow and also had the above four pigments (type Y. The seventh cultivar was ivory-white and produced no quinoidal chalcones in the florets (type W. Relative activities of three different enzymes were examined in soluble protein extracts from etiolated seedlings of the garden varieties. Monophenol monooxygenase (EC 1.14.18.1 and peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7. were distributed over all cultivars tested. The relative level of the enzyme activities could be ordered as follows: type 0, type W and type Y. The activity of a carthamin-synthesizing enzyme was found in the protein extracts from all garden forms examined. Its activity was most prominent in type O. The activity level in type W was inferior to that of type O. The catalytic intensity in type Y was found to even lower. The results were discussed as to the composition of the phenotypic markers and the distribution of the enzyme activities in three different garden forms of dyer's saffron cultivars.

  1. Insights into the species-specific metabolic engineering of glucosinolates in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) based on comparative genomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinglei; Qiu, Yang; Wang, Xiaowu; Yue, Zhen; Yang, Xinhua; Chen, Xiaohua; Zhang, Xiaohui; Shen, Di; Wang, Haiping; Song, Jiangping; He, Hongju; Li, Xixiang

    2017-11-22

    Glucosinolates (GSLs) and their hydrolysis products present in Brassicales play important roles in plants against herbivores and pathogens as well as in the protection of human health. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the formation of species-specific GSLs and their hydrolysed products in Raphanus sativus L., we performed a comparative genomics analysis between R. sativus and Arabidopsis thaliana. In total, 144 GSL metabolism genes were identified, and most of these GSL genes have expanded through whole-genome and tandem duplication in R. sativus. Crucially, the differential expression of FMOGS-OX2 in the root and silique correlates with the differential distribution of major aliphatic GSL components in these organs. Moreover, MYB118 expression specifically in the silique suggests that aliphatic GSL accumulation occurs predominantly in seeds. Furthermore, the absence of the expression of a putative non-functional epithiospecifier (ESP) gene in any tissue and the nitrile-specifier (NSP) gene in roots facilitates the accumulation of distinctive beneficial isothiocyanates in R. sativus. Elucidating the evolution of the GSL metabolic pathway in R. sativus is important for fully understanding GSL metabolic engineering and the precise genetic improvement of GSL components and their catabolites in R. sativus and other Brassicaceae crops.

  2. Effects of selenium accumulation on phytotoxicity, herbivory, and pollination ecology in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladun, Kristen R; Parker, David R; Tran, Khoa D; Trumble, John T

    2013-01-01

    Selenium (Se) has contaminated areas in the western USA where pollination is critical to the functioning of both agricultural and natural ecosystems, yet we know little about how Se can impact pollinators. In a two-year semi-field study, the weedy plant Raphanus sativus (radish) was exposed to three selenate treatments and two pollination treatments to evaluate the effects on pollinator-plant interactions. Honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) pollinators were observed to readily forage on R. sativus for both pollen and nectar despite high floral Se concentrations. Se treatment increased both seed abortion (14%) and decreased plant biomass (8-9%). Herbivory by birds and aphids was reduced on Se-treated plants, indicating a potential reproductive advantage for the plant. Our study sheds light on how pollutants such as Se can impact the pollination ecology of a plant that accumulates even moderate amounts of Se. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Early stages of somatic embryogenesis in root callus of grasspea (Lathyrus sativus L.

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    Barbara Piwowarczyk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Callus cultures from root explants of Lathyrus sativus L. Derek were tested for their morphogenic capacity. Primary explants (fragments of roots were cultivated on three induction media. We obtained three lines of callus tissue among which we identified two non-embryogenic lines and one embryogenic line. Callus originally cultivated on modified MS medium supplemented with 0.05 mg*L-1 picloram, formed embryo-like structures upon transfer to media containing 0.1 mg*L-1 picloram or 0.9 mg*L-12,4-D. Histological examinations confirmed embryogenity of obtained structures. Previous studies had revealed that, notwithstanding efficient callus induction and proliferation, its capacity to differentiate shoots or somatic embryos is limited. Consequently, rhizogenesis was only form of complete organogenesis obtained in our experiments. However attempts to develop the methods for indirect plant regeneration in L. sativus would allow creation of new genetic variations required to improvement of this species.

  4. Analysis of the effects of change in cropping pattern due to drought on saffron production in rural areas of the Zebarkhan district villages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdollah Sojasi Qidari

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Selection of a given cropping pattern can have serious results on the farmers’ life and rural society because of the multi dimensionality of agriculture. However, in many cases, farmers are inclined to change the cropping pattern because of changes in natural situations, changes in demand and consumption, etc. One of the most important and effective factors of change cropping pattern amongst Iranian farmers in recent years is the drought problem. One of the more current cultural method changes in the Khorasan region is inclination to saffron cultivation that can have various economic, social and environmental effects. Thus, this research paid attention to the investigation of changes from cultivation method from drought to the economic, social and environmental dimensions of saffron production amongst the villagers of the Zebarkhan district of the Khorasan Razavi province. Analytical-description methodology was used for this purpose. Data collection was done using the library- field methodology with researcher’s questionnaire whose narrative is 0.78 according to Cronbach's alpha method. Therefore, by using the Cochran formula with the intended level of 0.05, 142 farmers have been selected by available sampling method that have changed their cropping pattern to saffron production because of water shortages and drought. Then, their ideas were analyzed considering cases of economic, social and environmental effects of cropping pattern change to saffron production. The results showed meaningful changes in all research indices except for increase of cultivation surface area. Moreover, the most important changes of cropping pattern and switching over to saffron production have been identified using the Shannon entropy weighing method. In addition, the shown the revealed with continuation of differences of the changes in cropping pattern of saffron between the various villages were analyzed by using the multi-index TOPSIS. Finally, it was shown

  5. Development of genomic and EST-SSR markers in radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Nakatsuji, Ryoichi; Hashida, Tomoko; Matsumoto, Naoko; Tsuro, Masato; Kubo, Nakao; Hirai, Masashi

    2011-01-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) belongs to Brassicaceae family and is a close relative of Brassica. This species shows a wide morphological diversity, and is an important vegetable especially in Asia. However, molecular research of radish is behind compared to that of Brassica. For example, reports on SSR (simple sequence repeat) markers are limited. Here, we designed 417 radish SSR markers from SSR-enriched genomic libraries and the cDNA data. Of the 256 SSR markers succeeded in PCR, 130 showed...

  6. BEHAVIORAL EVIDENCE OF ANTIDEPRESSANT-LIKE ACTIVITY OF RAPHANUS SATIVUS L. VAR. CAUDATUS IN MICE

    OpenAIRE

    Younus, Ishrat; Siddiq, and Afshan

    2017-01-01

    Background: Currently-available antidepressant agents produce various adverse effects, and are expensive. At present, various plants are being evaluated for their possible role against numerous diseases, and no doubt, the role of traditional and complementary medicines in the development of effective therapy is incredible. The present study was designed to evaluate antidepressant-like activity of Raphanus sativus L. Var. caudatus at different doses in mice. Materials and Methods: Antidepressa...

  7. Biondication of Shartashsky forest park urban soil of Ekaterinburg using Raphanus Sativus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baglaeva Elena Mikhailovna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ekaterinburg is a large industrial center of Russia. The pollution of the environment with heavy metals is increasing due to the industrialization and human activities. Heavy metals present a very serious problem for all living beings. The aim of this paper is to identify the pollutant content changes in the environment using Raphanus Sativus. For bioindication of urbanized soil in Shartashsky forest park of Ekaterinburg city the growth of Raphanus Sativus was investigated at ten sample plots and a control one. The element concentration in the plants and soil samples was determined by X-ray analysis. The transition of zinc, titanium, iron and calcium from the soil into the Raphanus Sativus was assessed. The results of the correlation analysis of the content of chemical elements in the samples of plants and soil can be represented as a scheme: Ti (0.94> Zn (0.68> Ca (0.53> Fe (0.45. Spearman correlation coefficients are given in brackets. Zinc content in the soil and radish samples was found to be higher than the maximum allowable concentration defined in accordance with the Russian State Standard System. It is shown that radish can be used as an indicator of soil pollution with zinc.

  8. Polyphenolics profile, antioxidant and radical scavenging activity of leaves and stem of Raphanus sativus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beevi, Syed Sultan; Narasu, Mangamoori Lakshmi; Gowda, Bandi Boje

    2010-03-01

    Aerial parts (leaves and stem) of Raphanus sativus, which are usually discarded were found to possess potent antioxidant and radical scavenging activity, as measured by standard antioxidant assays. Methanolic and acetone extracts of R. sativus leaves had total polyphenolic content of 86.16 and 78.77 mg/g dry extract, which were comparable to the traditional rich sources such as green tea and black tea. HPLC identification of polyphenolics indicated the presence of catechin, protocatechuic acid, syringic acid, vanillic acid, ferulic acid, sinapic acid, o-coumaric acid, myricetin, and quercetin in leaves and stem. Among the different extraction solvents, methanolic extract of leaves and stem showed potent reductive capacity, significantly inhibited linoleic acid peroxidation and displayed metal chelating activity. Further, they scavenged free radicals effectively with IC50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration) of 31 and 42 microg/ml for DPPH radical, 23 and 52 microg/ml for superoxide radical, 67 and 197 microg/ml for hydrogen peroxide,and 56 and 62 microg/ml for nitric oxide, respectively. Leaves showed most potent antioxidant and radical scavenging activity as compared to stem, which may be accounted for the high polyphenolic content. Leaves and stem of R. sativus,often under-utilized part of this vegetable, thus possessed considerable amount of polyphenolics. Hence, it should be egarded as a potential source of natural antioxidants and could be effectively employed as an ingredient in health or in functional food.

  9. AHAS Trp-574-Leu substitution in Raphanus sativus L.: screening, enzyme activity and fitness cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercellino, Roman B; Pandolfo, Claudio E; Breccia, Gabriela; Cantamutto, Miguel; Presotto, Alejandro

    2018-01-03

    Feral radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is a problematic weed that has become resistant to AHAS (acetohydroxyacid synthase) inhibitor herbicides due to the Trp-574-Leu mutation. AHAS gene mutation that causes herbicide resistance may present negative pleiotropic effects on plant fitness. This study reports the effects of the Trp-574-Leu mutation on AHAS activity and reproductive traits of R. sativus. Eight out of 17 feral radish accessions presented resistant individuals to metsulfuron-methyl from 0.5 to up to more than 90.0 % and all the resistant individuals analyzed showed the Trp-574-Leu mutation. Without herbicide selection, the AHAS activity of a susceptible accession was 3.2-fold higher than the resistant one. The resistant accession was > 9000-fold more resistant to metsulfuron-methyl and imazethapyr than the susceptible one. Under low intraspecific competition during two growing seasons, the AHAS resistant feral radish accessions showed 22 - 38 and 21 - 47 % lower seed number and yield per plant than the susceptible ones. This is the first report of fitness cost associated with the AHAS Trp-574-Leu mutation in R. sativus populations. This fitness cost could reduce the frequency of the resistant allele without the herbicide selection. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Molecular characterization of a trisegmented chrysovirus isolated from the radish Raphanus sativus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liqiang; Liu, Jianning; Xu, Aixia; Wang, Ting; Chen, Jishuang; Zhu, Xiwu

    2013-09-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is cultivated worldwide and is of agronomic importance. dsRNAs associated with partitiviruses were previously found in many R. sativus varieties. In this study, three large dsRNAs from radish were cloned using a modified single primer amplification technique. These three dsRNAs-of lengths 3638, 3517 and 3299 bp-shared conserved untranslated terminal regions, and each contained a major open reading frame putatively encoding the chrysoviral replicase, capsid protein and protease respectively. Isometric virus-like particles (VLP), approximately 45nm in diameter, were isolated from the infected radish plants. Northern blotting indicated that these dsRNAs were encapsidated in the VLP. The virus containing these dsRNA genome segments was named Raphanus sativus chrysovirus 1 (RasCV1). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that RasCV1 is a new species of the Chrysoviridae family and forms a plant taxon with another putative plant chrysovirus, Anthurium mosaic-associated virus (AmaCV). Furthermore, no fungal mycelia were observed in radish leaf tissues stained with trypan blue. These results indicated that RasCV1 is most likely a plant chrysovirus rather than a chrysovirus in symbiotic fungi. An exhaustive BLAST analysis of RasCV1 and AmaCV revealed that chrysovirus-like viruses might widely exist in eudicot and monocot plants and that endogenization of chrysovirus segments into plant genome might have ever happened. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Lessons from neurolathyrism: A disease of the past & the future of Lathyrus sativus (Khesari dal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surya S Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurolathyrism is past history in India since Lathyrus sativus (khesari dal is no longer used as a staple. A consensus has evolved that khesari dal is harmless as part of a normal diet. L-ODAP (β-N-oxalyl-l-α-diamino propionic acid the neurotoxic amino acid, from this pulse, is detoxified in humans but not in animals but still no laboratory animal is susceptible to it under acceptable feeding regimens. L-ODAP is an activator of protein kinase C and consequential crucial downstream effects such as stabilization of hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1 could be extremely conducive to humans under a variety of situations. ODAP is gradually finding a place in several patents for this reason. Homoarginine the second amino acid from L. sativus can be a better substrate for endogenous generation of nitric oxide, a crucial signaling molecule associated with the cardiovasculature and control of hypertension. These features could make L. sativus a prized commodity as a functional food for the general cardiovasculature and overcome hypoxic events and is set to change the entire perception of this pulse and neurolathyrism.

  12. Antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of the flavonoid extract from Raphanus sativus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoc, Pham Thi Kim; Nguyet, Nguyen Thi Minh; Dao, Dong Thi Anh

    2017-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of flavonoid extract from white radish roots (Raphanus sativus L.). Antimicrobial activity was determined by agar diffusion method against 4 strains: Bacillus cereus, Staphylococus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi. Antioxidant activity was determined by ABTS* radical scavenging activity and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). The constituent elements of flavonoid extract were identified by LC-MS. Results showed that the flavonoid extract from Raphanus sativus L. had antibacterial activity against to all four tested bacteria strains with antibacterial ring diameters in the range 8 - 20 mm in the test concentrations from 100 to 1600 mg/ml. Minimum concentration to inhibit (MIC) in the range 20 - 40 mg/ml. In addition, the extract also has the ability to eliminate ABTS* free radical with IC50 = 7.074 µg/ml. The total antioxidant capacity of extract at concentration of 100 µg/ml was 3.424 ± 0.043 mg ascorbic acid/mg. In the extract, there are three flavonoids were found: rutin, quercetin and narigenin. This is the first time narigenin was found in Raphanus sativus L. extract.

  13. Protective effect of leaves of Raphinus sativus Linn on experimentally induced gastric ulcers in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaraj, V C; Gopala Krishna, B; Viswanatha, G L; Satya Prasad, V; Vinay Babu, S N

    2011-07-01

    Raphinus sativus Linn (Cruciferae) commonly known as 'Radish' is a multipurpose herb cultivated in different parts of the world for its edible roots and leaves. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antiulcer activity of leaf extracts of R. sativus Linn on acetic acid induced chronic gastric ulcer and pylorus ligation induced gastric ulcer in rats. The acute oral toxicity study revealed that all the extracts were safe up to 2000 mg/kg per oral dose; hence one-tenth of this dose was selected for evaluation of antiulcer activity. In acetic acid induced gastric ulcer models, the ERS, CRS, EARS and AQRS have offered significant protection against acetic acid induced ulcers when compared to control group. While in pylorus ligation induced ulcer model the ERS, EARS and AQRS showed significant protection by decreasing the ulcer index, total acidity and free acidity. In conclusion the leaf extracts of R. sativus Linn are found to possess antiulcer property in the experimental animal models of gastric ulcers, which is consistent with the literature report in the folk medicine.

  14. Indirect Electrochemical Analysis of Crocin in Phytochemical Sample

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    Riyaz Ahmad Dar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new electroanalytical method has been developed for the quantitative determination of crocin in a sample of stigmas of saffron (Crocus sativus L.. Crocin is polarographically inactive. However, cysteine in 0.02 M NaCl, pH=5.2±0.01 produces a well defined wave/peak with E1/2/Ep= –0.47/–0.45 V vs. Ag/AgCl. On recording polarograms of a set of solution containing a fixed concentration of cysteine and varying concentrations of crocin under aforesaid experimental conditions a gradual decrease in peak height/diffusion current and a negative shift in peak potential was observed. Thus, indicating cysteine-crocin interaction. Amperometric titration indicated crocin to cysteine ratio of 1:2. The above amperometric titration procedure has been used to determine the concentration of crocin in a sample of saffron. Crystallization process was carried out for the extraction of crocin from dried powder of saffron stigmas. The crystallized crocin was identified by UV-Visible spectrophotometry(at 255 nm and 442 nm and the quantitative analysis by the developed amperometric method. The concentration of crocin in saffron was found to be 2.13% and purity of isolated crocin 96.81%. The percent recovery varied from 98.56–100.31% and RSD (n=5 of 2.17%.The validation of the proposed procedure for the quantitative assay of crocin was examined via an evaluation of the repeatability, recovery, selectivity and relative standard deviation.

  15. Identification, expression, and functional analysis of CLE genes in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) storage root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gancheva, Maria S; Dodueva, Irina E; Lebedeva, Maria A; Tvorogova, Varvara E; Tkachenko, Alexandr A; Lutova, Ludmila A

    2016-01-27

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is a widespread agricultural plant forming storage root due to extensive secondary growth which involves cambium proliferation and differentiation of secondary conductive tissues. Closely related to the model object Arabidopsis thaliana, radish is a suitable model for studying processes of secondary growth and storage root development. CLE peptides are a group of peptide phytohormones which play important role in the regulation of primary meristems such as SAM, RAM, and procambium, as well as secondary meristems. However, the role of CLE peptides in lateral growth of root during storage root formation has not been studied to date. In present work we studied the role of CLE peptides in the development of storage root in radish. We have identified 18 CLE genes of radish (RsCLEs) and measured their expression in various plant organs and also at different stages of root development in R. sativus and Raphanus raphanistrum-its close relative which does not form storage root. We observed significant decline of expression levels for genes RsCLE1, 2, 11, 13, and 16, and also multifold increase of expression levels for genes RsCLE19, and 41 during secondary root growth in R. sativus but not in R. raphanistrum. Expression of RsCLE 2, 19, and 41 in R. sativus root was confined to certain types of tissues while RsCLE1, 11, 13, and 16 expressed throughout the root. Experiments on overexpression of RsCLE2, 19 and 41 or treatment of radish plants with synthetic CLE peptides revealed that CLE19 and CLE2 increase the number of xylem elements, and CLE41 induces the formation of extra cambium foci in secondary xylem. Expression levels of RsCLE2 and 19 strongly decrease in response to exogenous cytokinin, while auxin causes dramatic increase of RsCLE19 expression level and decrease of RsCLE41 expression. Our data allow us to hypothesize about the role of RsCLE2, 19 and 41 genes in the development of storage root of Raphanus sativus, e.g. RsCLE19 may play a

  16. Isothiocyanate profile and selective antibacterial activity of root, stem, and leaf extracts derived from Raphanus sativus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beevi, Syed Sultan; Mangamoori, Lakshmi Narasu; Dhand, Vivek; Ramakrishna, Damaraju Siva

    2009-01-01

    Acetone and hexane extracts derived from the root, stem, and leaf of Raphanus sativus were investigated for their antibacterial activity against foodborne and resistant pathogens, such as Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis, Salmonella typhimurium, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter cloacae, and Escherichia coli. Total and individual isothiocyanate (ITC) components and their relationship with the antibacterial activity of R. sativus were also evaluated. Both acetone and hexane fractions of root, stem, and leaf exhibited selective antibacterial activity against the organisms tested. Antibacterial activity was strongest in the acetone fraction of root with larger zone of inhibition and lower minimum inhibitory concentration. The results obtained were comparable to that seen with standard antibiotics. Of the different parts of R. sativus studied, root tended to be more active than the stem and leaf extracts in inhibiting the bacterial growth. Gas chromatographic analysis revealed the presence of variable amounts of five different ITCs such as allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), phenyl isothiocyanate (PITC), benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC), phenethyl isothiocyanate, and 4-(methylthio)-3-butenyl isothiocyanate (MTBITC) in different parts of the plant. The low linear correlation between the total ITC content and antibacterial activity implied that bacterial growth inhibitory ability of R. sativus was not dependent on the total ITC content. However, the antibacterial activity of R. sativus was well correlated with AITC, PITC, and BITC for all organisms except for Enteroc. faecalis, whose inhibitory effect was more related to MTBITC.

  17. Identification of Apo- Carotenoids' Crocin and Crocetin Isomers in Saffron Crude Extracts by HPLC Coupled to Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization and High Resolution Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noraddin Hosseinpour azad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main metabolites in saffron are the Apo- carotenoids’ Crocin and Crocetin. Color intensity and quality of saffron mostly depend on the presence of Crocins that are glycosylated steric form of Crocetin by glycosyltransferase enzyme. The aim of this study is the characterization of these metabolites in methanolic and chloroformic extracts of saffron stigmas during anthesis stage by LC-APCI-MS. Identification of cis and trans isomers of Crocin and Crocetin was done by three parameters such as mass spectra registered in the negative ion mode, retention time and absorption ratio related to each metabolites. The variability of these parameters made it possible to detect the Crocins isomer with regard to the attached position and the number of UDP- glucose and Gentiobiosyl molecules to Crocetin structure. Crocins was the mainly detected components as there are polar components that are classified in the carotenoeids groups and the strified form of Crocetin Glucose (β-D-Glucopyranosyl and Gentiobiose (β-D-Glucopyranosyl-D-Glucose. Also doubly charged ions were found for trans-isomers of Crocin-4, due to the high symmetry of their molecules. Based on the data gathered, the applied chromatograph Machin in this project is accurate and it is most sensitive tools to investigate about plants’ natural components like saffron, also the used APCI-MS in negative ions mode is the most efficient method to distinguish different steric forms of Crocin based on the ion’s fragments related to united reduction of glycosyl and gentiobiosyl as well as molecular fractions.

  18. Study of the relations of sink and source in saffron by means of correlation coefficients under different irrigation and fertilization levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Gholami

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Saffron is the main medicinal plant of Iran. In order to study the relations of sink and source between saffron leaves and corms, a split plot experiment was conducted on the basis of complete randomized block design with three replications in a field in the Ashkezar city of Yazd province during 2013-2014. The main plots and sub plots were irrigated with three levels (100%, 75% and 50% of ETc and the fertilization management methods including control (without any fertilizer or manure, applying 10 t/ha cow manure, 10 t/ha vermicompost by spreading, 10 t/ha vermicompost buried under planting corm rows, 5 t/ha vermicompost buried under planting corm rows, or spraying 10 l/ha Humaster Saffron fertilizer for 1 or 2 times after flowering. The Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated between leaf length in every measuring stage and the weight of biggest corm at the end of the first year (as daughter corm. The results showed that correlation coefficients were decreased until 40 days after emergence and then increased. The highest correlation coefficient reached around 80 days after emergence and followed until the end of the growth period. The best corm yield was reached for 10 t/ha vermicompost buried under planting corm rows. Also under different irrigation regimes, the best results were obtained through full irrigation treatment.

  19. Valorization of traditional foods: nutritional and bioactive properties of Cicer arietinum L. and Lathyrus sativus L. pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmento, Alzira; Barros, Lillian; Fernandes, Ângela; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2015-01-01

    The use of traditional foods can enrich our diet, perpetuating important elements of local knowledge and cultural inheritance. Raw, soaked and cooked samples of two Fabaceae species (Cicer arietinum L. and Lathyrus sativus L.) were characterized regarding nutritional and bioactive properties. L. sativus gave the highest carbohydrate, protein, ash, saturated fatty acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid content, and lowest fat and energy value. Furthermore, it also showed the highest concentration of flavonoids and antioxidant activity. Cicer arietinum gave the highest concentration of sugars, organic acids and tocopherols. The soaking process did not significantly affect macronutrients, but cooking (boiling) decreased protein, ash, sugars and organic acids, and increased carbohydrates, fat, tocopherols, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity. No differences were obtained for fatty acid composition. The present study highlights the nutritional profile and bioactive properties of these agricultural varieties of C. arietinum and L. sativus pulses, and valorizes their traditional consumption and the use in modern diets. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. The genome sequence of the North-European cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. unravels evolutionary adaptation mechanisms in plants.

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    Rafał Wóycicki

    Full Text Available Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L., a widely cultivated crop, has originated from Eastern Himalayas and secondary domestication regions includes highly divergent climate conditions e.g. temperate and subtropical. We wanted to uncover adaptive genome differences between the cucumber cultivars and what sort of evolutionary molecular mechanisms regulate genetic adaptation of plants to different ecosystems and organism biodiversity. Here we present the draft genome sequence of the Cucumis sativus genome of the North-European Borszczagowski cultivar (line B10 and comparative genomics studies with the known genomes of: C. sativus (Chinese cultivar--Chinese Long (line 9930, Arabidopsis thaliana, Populus trichocarpa and Oryza sativa. Cucumber genomes show extensive chromosomal rearrangements, distinct differences in quantity of the particular genes (e.g. involved in photosynthesis, respiration, sugar metabolism, chlorophyll degradation, regulation of gene expression, photooxidative stress tolerance, higher non-optimal temperatures tolerance and ammonium ion assimilation as well as in distributions of abscisic acid-, dehydration- and ethylene-responsive cis-regulatory elements (CREs in promoters of orthologous group of genes, which lead to the specific adaptation features. Abscisic acid treatment of non-acclimated Arabidopsis and C. sativus seedlings induced moderate freezing tolerance in Arabidopsis but not in C. sativus. This experiment together with analysis of abscisic acid-specific CRE distributions give a clue why C. sativus is much more susceptible to moderate freezing stresses than A. thaliana. Comparative analysis of all the five genomes showed that, each species and/or cultivars has a specific profile of CRE content in promoters of orthologous genes. Our results constitute the substantial and original resource for the basic and applied research on environmental adaptations of plants, which could facilitate creation of new crops with improved growth

  1. Allelopathic effect of Raphanus sativus on Urochloa decumbens and Lactuca sativa = Efeito alelopático de Raphanus sativus em Urochloa decumbens e Lactuca sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Navas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the allelopathic potential of an extract from the leaves and roots of Raphanus sativus, on the species Urochloa decumbens and Lactuca sativa L. To obtain the extract, the leaves and roots of R. sativus were used separately, crushed at a proportion of 200 g of leaves to 1 L of water to give a crude aqueous extract (100%. Dilutions of 60%, 40% and 20%, and the control were produced from this extract. Seeds of U. decumbens and L. sativa were evenly distributed over two sheets of germitest paper, with four replications of 40 seeds each. Germination was evaluated at 7 and 14 days after sowing, together with the germination speed index (GSI, length of the shoots and roots, and dry weight. The design was completely randomised, and the values submitted to analysis of variance by F-test and regression analysis. The leaf extract gave a reduction in the germination of L. sativa at all tested doses. With application of the root extract, an increase was seen in germination, in the GSI and length of the radicle in U. decumbens at doses of from 40%. Moreover, with application of the leaf extract, the length of the shoot and radicle were also greater, irrespective of the dose applied. There was no effect from the treatments on the dry mass of the species. = Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o potencial alelopático de extrato de folhas e raízes de Raphanus sativus, nas espécies Urochloa decumbens e Lactuca sativa L. Para obtenção do extrato, foram utilizadas separadamente folhas e raízes de R. sativus, trituradas na proporção de 200 g de folhas para 1 L de água, resultando no extrato aquoso bruto (100%. A partir desse extrato, foram realizadas as diluições de 60%, 40% e 20% e testemunha. Sementes de U. decumbens e L. sativa foram distribuídas uniformemente sobre duas folhas de papel germitest, com quatro repetições, com 40 sementes cada. As avaliações de germinação foram realizadas aos 7 e aos 14 dias

  2. Crocin has anti-inflammatory and protective effects in ischemia-reperfusion induced renal injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynab Mohamadi Yarijani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Crocus sativus (saffron has been widely used in traditional medicine. It has also been found to possess many beneficial properties in modern medicine. The most important ingredients of saffron are crocin, crocetin, safranal, and picrocrocin. This study evaluated the protective effects of crocin against the inflammation, oxidative stress, and functional disturbances of the kidney induced by renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R. Materials and Methods: Different doses of crocin (0, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg were administered intraperitoneally 30 min before I/R. The rats of the sham group were also injected with normal saline before the sham surgery. For induction of I/R, both renal artery and vein clamped for 30 min, bilaterally. The I/R-induced renal injuries were assessed by measuring leukocyte infiltration, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α mRNA expression levels, malondialdehyde (MDA and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP levels in the kidney tissue, and plasma creatinine and urea-nitrogen concentrations. Results: Except for the tissue level of FRAP which decreased, all other measured parameters increased following I/R induction. Pretreatment with all doses of crocin significantly reduced the severity of these disturbances (PP

  3. Crocus cancellatus subsp. damascenus stigmas: chemical profile, and inhibition of α-amylase, α-glucosidase and lipase, key enzymes related to type 2 diabetes and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizzo, Monica R; Marrelli, Mariangela; Pugliese, Alessandro; Conforti, Filomena; Nadjafi, Farsad; Menichini, Francesco; Tundis, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Spices are appreciated for their medicinal properties besides their use as food adjuncts to enhance the sensory quality of food. In this study, Crocus cancellatus subsp. damascenus was investigated for its antioxidant activities employing different in vitro systems. Stigma extract demonstrated a radical scavenging activity against both 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radicals with IC50 values of 34.6 and 21.6 µg/mL and a good ferric reducing ability (53.9 µM Fe(II)/g). In order to clarify the potential functional properties of this spice, the carbohydrate-hydrolysing enzymes and pancreatic lipase inhibitory properties were investigated. Crocus cancellatus subsp. damascenus extract inhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase with IC50 values of 57.1 and 68.6 µg/mL, respectively. The bioactivity was discussed in terms of phytochemicals content. The obtained results may be of interest from a functional point of view or as food additive and to promote the revalorization of this species.

  4. Nitrogen release from differently aged Raphanus sativus L. nitrate catch crops during mineralization at autumn temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag; Elsgaard, Lars; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind

    2016-01-01

    radish (Raphanus sativus, L.) has emerged as a promising nitrate catch crop in cereal cropping, although the course of remineralization of residue N following termination of this frost-sensitive crucifer remains obscured. We incubated radish residues of different age (different planting and harvest dates......) with a loamy sand soil; mineralization of residue N was determined after 1, 2, 4 and 7 months of incubation at 2 °C and 10 °C. Incubations with soil only and with residues of white mustard (Sinapis alba, L) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne, L.) were included as references. Using linear regression, net N...

  5. The complete mitochondrial genome of cultivated radish WK10039 (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Young-Min; Chung, Won-Hyung; Choi, Ah Young; Mun, Jeong-Hwan; Kim, Namshin; Yu, Hee-Ju

    2016-01-01

    We determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genome of radish cultivar WK10039 (Raphanus sativus L.). The total length of the mtDNA sequence is 244,054 bp, with GC content of 45.3%. The radish mtDNA contains 82 protein-coding genes, 17 tRNA genes, and 3 rRNA genes. Among the protein-coding genes, 34 encode proteins with known functions. There are two 5529 bp repeats in the radish mitochondrial genome that may contribute to DNA recombination resulting in at least three different forms of mtDNA in radish.

  6. Pengaruh Ekstrak Nenas (Ananas Sativus) Sebagai Koagulan Terhadap Kualitas Lembaran Karet

    OpenAIRE

    Hulu, Temali

    2013-01-01

    Pineapple (Ananas sativus) extract kept for 1 day (N-5), 3 days (N-4), 5 days (N-3), 7 days (N-2), and 9 days (N-1) as coagulant of natural rubber have been carried out. Coagulation rate of each coagulant has been tested and they have been compared to formic acid. The impurity, ash, nitrogen, and organic volatile content, as well as retention plasticity index and Mooney viscosity of the rubber sheets produced have been analysed follow the Standard Indonesia Rubber (SIR). Those results were c...

  7. Functional characterization of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Clade V MLO genes

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Jeroen A.; Appiano, Michela; Bijsterbosch, Gerard; Visser, Richard G.F.; Schouten, Henk J.; Bai, Yuling

    2017-01-01

    Background Powdery mildew (PM) causing fungi are well-known pathogens, infecting over 10.000 plant species, including the economically important crop cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Loss-of-function mutations in clade V MLO genes have previously been shown to lead to recessively inherited broad-spectrum resistance to PM in several species. In cucumber, one clade V MLO homolog (CsaMLO8) was previously identified as being a susceptibility factor to PM. Two other closely related homologs (CsaMLO1...

  8. Safety Assessment of Cucumis sativus (Cucumber)-Derived Ingredients as Used in Cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiume, Monice M; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2014-05-26

    The CIR Expert Panel assessed the safety of 6 Cucumis sativus (cucumber)-derived ingredients and found them safe in cosmetic formulations in the present practices of use and concentration. These ingredients are reported to function in cosmetics as skin-conditioning agents. Cucumber is a commonly consumed food with no history of significant adverse effects, suggesting that its ingredients should not pose any major safety issues following oral exposure. This assessment focused on the dermal exposure to the low concentrations of these ingredients as used in cosmetics. Some of the constituents of cucumbers have been assessed previously for safe use as cosmetic ingredients. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Investigation of the Use of "Cucumis Sativus" for Remediation of Chromium from Contaminated Environmental Matrices: An Interdisciplinary Instrumental Analysis Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Lynsey R.; Edwards, Michael R.; Farmer, Russell; Greenly, Kathryn J.; Hensler, Sherri; Jenkins, Scott E.; Joyce, J. Michael; Mann, Jason A.; Prentice, Boone M.; Puckette, Andrew E.; Shuford, Christopher M.; Porter, Sarah E. G.; Rhoten, Melissa C.

    2009-01-01

    An interdisciplinary, semester-long project is presented in which students grow Cucumis sativus (cucumber) plants from seeds and study the ability of the plants to remediate a heavy metal from contaminated soil or water or both. Phytoremediation strategies for environmental cleanup are presented as possible alternatives to chemical based clean-up…

  10. Use of molecular markers aids in the development of diverse inbred backcross lines in Beit Alpha cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beit Alpha cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is a Mediterranean fresh-market type with a relatively narrow genetic base. To broaden its base for plant improvement, 42 diverse accessions were compared employing a previously defined standard marker array to choose wide-based parental lines for use in bac...

  11. Screening of Cucumis sativus as a new arsenic-accumulating plant and its arsenic accumulation in hydroponic culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sun Hwa; Choi, Sun Ah; Yoon, Hyeon; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2011-01-01

    Phytoextraction is a remediation technology with a promising application for removing arsenic (As) from soils and waters. Several plant species were evaluated for their As accumulation capacity in hydroponic culture amended with As. Cucumis sativus (cucumber) displayed the highest tolerance against As among 4 plants tested in this study (corn, wheat, sorghum and cucumber). The germination ratio of Cucumis sativus was more than 50% at the high concentration of 5,000 mg-As/l. In Cucumis sativus grown in a solution contaminated with 25 mg-As/l, the accumulated As concentrations in the shoot and root were 675.5 ± 11.5 and 312.0 ± 163.4 mg/kg, respectively, and the corresponding values of the translocation and bioaccumulation factors for As were 1.9 ± 0.9 and 21.1 ± 8.4, respectively. These results indicate Cucumis sativus is to be a candidate plant for phytoextraction of As from soils and water.

  12. Metabolomic variation of brassica rapa var. rapa (var. raapstelen) and raphanus sativus l. at different developmental stages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jahangir, M.; Abdel-Farid, I.B.; Vos, de C.H.R.; Jonker, H.H.; Choi, Y.H.; Verpoorte, R.

    2014-01-01

    Brassica rapa (var. raapstelen) and Raphanus sativus (red radish) are being used as food and fodder while also known as model in recent plant research due to the diversity of metabolites as well as genetic resemblance to Arabidopsis. This study explains the change in metabolites (amino acids,

  13. First report of the crucifer pathogen Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis causing bacterial blight on radish (Raphanus sativus) in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis is a severe pathogen of crucifers across the U.S. We compared a strain isolated from diseased radish (Raphanus sativus) in Germany to pathotypes and additional strains of P. cannabina pv. alisalensis and P. syringae pv. maculicola. We demonstrated that the patho...

  14. Sulforaphene in Raphanus sativus L. var. caudatus Alef increased in late-bolting stage as well as anticancer activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piman Pocasap

    2017-11-01

    Conclusions: The reproductive parts (flower, pod, and dry seed of Raphanus sativus have the greatest isothiocyanate concentration, evidenced by a sulforaphene concentration higher than the sulforaphane. This result should inform the selection of the most appropriate harvesting stage and plant part for use as a potential chemopreventive agent.

  15. Oxidative Stress Induction by Lead in Leaves of Radish (Raphanus sativus Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadjet BITEUR

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress was induced by lead acetate (Pb in Raphanus sativus seedlings grown in a hydroponic system using sand as substrate. Thirty day old acclimated seeds were treated for 7 days with five Pb levels (0 as control, 100, 200, 500 and 1000 mg l-1. Parameters such as growth, oxidative damage markers (lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and hydrogen peroxide contents and enzymatic activities of catalase (CAT and peroxidase (POD were investigated. Lead concentration in plant tissues increased with increasing of Pb levels. Shoot fresh weight, chlorophyll and carotenoid concentration were significantly decreased at 100 mg l-1 Pb. Lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and H2O2 levels were increased at 500 and 1000 mg l-1 Pb compared to control treatment, in shoots. Peroxidase activity showed a straight correlation with H2O2 concentration, whereas CAT activity decreased only in shoots. These changes in enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants showed that the Pb exposition had a significant disturbance on Raphanus sativus plantlets and affect the biochemical and physiological processes.

  16. Genome-wide identification, characterization, and expression analysis of the MLO gene family in Cucumis sativus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, S J; Jing, Z; Shi, J L

    2013-12-11

    Mildew resistance locus o (MLO) is a plant-specific seven-transmembrane (TM) gene family. Several studies have revealed that certain members of the MLO gene family mediate powdery mildew susceptibility in three plant species, namely, Arabidopsis, barley, and tomato. The sequenced cucumber genome provides an opportunity to conduct a comprehensive overview of the MLO gene family. Fourteen genes (designated CsMLO01 through CsMLO14) have been identified within the Cucumis sativus genome by using an in silico cloning method with the MLO amino acid sequences of Arabidopsis thaliana and rice as probes. Sequence alignment revealed that numerous features of the gene family, such as TMs, a calmodulin-binding domain, peptide domains I and II, and 30 important amino acid residues for MLO function, are well conserved. Phylogenetic analysis of the MLO genes from cucumber and other plant species reveals seven different clades (I through VII). Three of these clades comprised MLO genes from A. thaliana, rice, maize, and cucumber, suggesting that these genes may have evolved after the divergence of monocots and dicots. In silico mapping showed that these CsMLOs were located on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 without any obvious clustering, except CsMLO01. To our knowledge, this paper is the first comprehensive report on MLO genes in C. sativus. These findings will facilitate the functional characterization of the MLOs related to powdery mildew susceptibility and assist in the development of disease resistance in cucumber.

  17. Evaluation of protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of saffron petals in prevention of acetaminophen-induced renal damages in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Omidi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years more attention has been given to herbal drugs in the treatment and prevention of drug toxicity because of the harmful effects of chemical drugs. In this study, directed for this purpose, research was conducted on the protective effect of hydro-ethanolic extract of saffron petals (SPE against acetaminophen (APAP induced acute nephrotoxicity. Twenty-four male Wistar rats were distributed into four groups of six each. Group I, as a control group, received normal saline (0.09% orally (PO. Group II, as an intoxicated group was treated with APAP, PO (600 mg/kg. In the groups III and IV, SPE in a dose of 10 and 20 mg/kg along with APAP (600 mg/kg was administered, respectively. At the end of the trial (8th day, blood was taken from the heart of rats for assessment of biochemical parameters and the right kidney was placed in 10% buffered formalin for histopathological evaluations. In the APAP treatment group, higher serum creatinine and uric acid were observed. SPE in a dose of 20 mg/kg significantly reduced serum creatinine and uric acid. In pathologic evaluation, a dose of 20 mg/kg of SPE prevented the kidney injuries induced by APAP. Tissues changes were in accordance with biochemical findings. It is likely that the SPE contributed to the prevention of acute nephrotoxicity induced by APAP.

  18. Assessing the uptake of arsenic and antimony from contaminated soil by radish (Raphanus sativus) using DGT and selective extractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Lien K; Pinch, Benjamin M; Bennett, William W; Teasdale, Peter R; Jolley, Dianne F

    2016-09-01

    The enrichment of soil arsenic (As) and antimony (Sb) is putting increasing pressure on the environment and human health. The biogeochemical behaviour of Sb and its uptake mechanisms by plants are poorly understood and generally assumed to be similar to that of As. In this study, the lability of As and Sb under agricultural conditions in historically contaminated soils was assessed. Soils were prepared by mixing historically As and Sb-contaminated soil with an uncontaminated soil at different ratios. The lability of As and Sb in the soils was assessed using various approaches: the diffusive gradients in thin films technique (DGT) (as CDGT), soil solution analysis, and sequential extraction procedure (SEP). Lability was compared to the bioaccumulation of As and Sb by various compartments of radish (Raphanus sativus) grown in these soils in a pot experiment. Irrespective of the method, all of the labile fractions showed that both As and Sb were firmly bound to the solid phases, and that Sb was less mobile than As, although total soil Sb concentrations were higher than total soil As. The bioassay demonstrated low bioaccumulation of As and Sb into R. sativus due to their low lability of As and Sb in soils and that there are likely to be differences in their mechanisms of uptake. As accumulated in R. sativus roots was much higher (2.5-21 times) than that of Sb, while the Sb translocated from roots to shoots was approximately 2.5 times higher than that of As. As and Sb in R. sativus tissues were strongly correlated with their labile concentrations measured by DGT, soil solution, and SEP. These techniques are useful measures for predicting bioavailable As and Sb in the historically contaminated soil to R. sativus. This is the first study to demonstrate the suitability of DGT to measure labile Sb in soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Transcriptome profiling of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) root and identification of genes involved in response to Lead (Pb) stress with next generation sequencing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Yan; Xu, Liang; Chen, Yinglong; Shen, Hong; Gong, Yiqin; Limera, Cecilia; Liu, Liwang

    2013-01-01

    Lead (Pb), one of the most toxic heavy metals, can be absorbed and accumulated by plant roots and then enter the food chain resulting in potential health risks for human beings. The radish (Raphanus sativus L...

  20. Extensive Chromosome Homoeology among Brassiceae Species Were Revealed by Comparative Genetic Mapping with High-Density EST-Based SNP Markers in Radish (Raphanus sativus L.)‡

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Hasegawa, Yoichi; Saito, Masako; Shirasawa, Sachiko; Fukushima, Aki; Ito, Toyoaki; Fujii, Hiroshi; Kishitani, Sachie; Kitashiba, Hiroyasu; Nishio, Takeshi

    2011-01-01

    A linkage map of expressed sequence tag (EST)-based markers in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) was constructed using a low-cost and high-efficiency single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping method named multiplex polymerase chain reaction–mixed probe dot-blot analysis developed in this study. Seven hundred and forty-six SNP markers derived from EST sequences of R. sativus were assigned to nine linkage groups with a total length of 806.7 cM. By BLASTN, 726 markers were found to have homologous genes in Arabidopsis thaliana, and 72 syntenic regions, which have great potential for utilizing genomic information of the model species A. thaliana in basic and applied genetics of R. sativus, were identified. By construction and analysis of the genome structures of R. sativus based on the 24 genomic blocks within the Brassicaceae ancestral karyotype, 23 of the 24 genomic blocks were detected in the genome of R. sativus, and half of them were found to be triplicated. Comparison of the genome structure of R. sativus with those of the A, B, and C genomes of Brassica species and that of Sinapis alba L. revealed extensive chromosome homoeology among Brassiceae species, which would facilitate transfer of the genomic information from one Brassiceae species to another. PMID:21816873

  1. Extensive chromosome homoeology among Brassiceae species were revealed by comparative genetic mapping with high-density EST-based SNP markers in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Hasegawa, Yoichi; Saito, Masako; Shirasawa, Sachiko; Fukushima, Aki; Ito, Toyoaki; Fujii, Hiroshi; Kishitani, Sachie; Kitashiba, Hiroyasu; Nishio, Takeshi

    2011-10-01

    A linkage map of expressed sequence tag (EST)-based markers in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) was constructed using a low-cost and high-efficiency single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping method named multiplex polymerase chain reaction-mixed probe dot-blot analysis developed in this study. Seven hundred and forty-six SNP markers derived from EST sequences of R. sativus were assigned to nine linkage groups with a total length of 806.7 cM. By BLASTN, 726 markers were found to have homologous genes in Arabidopsis thaliana, and 72 syntenic regions, which have great potential for utilizing genomic information of the model species A. thaliana in basic and applied genetics of R. sativus, were identified. By construction and analysis of the genome structures of R. sativus based on the 24 genomic blocks within the Brassicaceae ancestral karyotype, 23 of the 24 genomic blocks were detected in the genome of R. sativus, and half of them were found to be triplicated. Comparison of the genome structure of R. sativus with those of the A, B, and C genomes of Brassica species and that of Sinapis alba L. revealed extensive chromosome homoeology among Brassiceae species, which would facilitate transfer of the genomic information from one Brassiceae species to another.

  2. Hexane extract of Raphanus sativus L. roots inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in human cancer cells by modulating genes related to apoptotic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beevi, Syed Sultan; Mangamoori, Lakshmi Narasu; Subathra, Murugan; Edula, Jyotheeswara Reddy

    2010-09-01

    Raphanus sativus, a common cruciferous vegetable has been attributed to possess a number of pharmacological and therapeutic properties. It has been used in indigenous system of medicine for the treatment of various human ailments in India. This present study evaluated the chemopreventive efficacy of different parts of R. sativus such as root, stem and leaves, extracted with solvents of varying polarity and investigated the molecular mechanism leading to growth arrest and apoptotic cell death in human cancer cell lines. Of the different parts, significant growth inhibitory effect was observed with hexane extract of R. sativus root. Analysis of hexane extract by GC-MS revealed the presence of several isothiocyanates (ITCs) such as 4-(methylthio)-3-butenyl isothiocyanate (MTBITC), 4-(methylthio)-3-butyl isothiocyanate (erucin), 4-methylpentyl isothiocyanate, 4-pentenyl isothiocyanate and sulforaphene. R. sativus root extract induced cell death both in p53 proficient and p53 deficient cell lines through induction of apoptotic signaling pathway regardless of the p53 status of cells. The molecular mechanisms underlying R. sativus-induced apoptosis may involve interactions among Bcl(2) family genes, as evidenced by up-regulation of pro-apoptotic genes and down-regulation of anti-apoptotic genes along with activation of Caspase-3. Our findings present the first evidence that hexane extract of R. sativus root exerts potential chemopreventive efficacy and induces apoptosis in cancer cell lines through modulation of genes involved in apoptotic signaling pathway.

  3. A novel method for the quality control of saffron through the simultaneous analysis of authenticity and adulteration markers by liquid chromatography-(quadrupole-time of flight)-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guijarro-Díez, Miguel; Castro-Puyana, María; Crego, Antonio Luis; Marina, María Luisa

    2017-08-01

    A liquid chromatography-(quadrupole-time of flight)-mass spectrometry methodology was developed to assess the authenticity of saffron through the analysis of a group of kaempferol derivatives recently proposed as novel authenticity markers as a result of a metabolomic study of saffron (kaempferol 3-O-glucoside, kaempferol 3-O-sophoroside, kaempferol 3,7-O-diglucoside, kaempferol 3,7,4'-O-triglucoside, kaempferol 3-O-sophoroside-7-O-glucoside). Geniposide was also studied as an adulteration marker of saffron with gardenia. The optimized chromatographic conditions enabling the simultaneous separation of glycosylated kaempferols and geniposide consisted of the use of a C18 column and an elution gradient with acetonitrile and water as mobile phases (both with formic acid at 0.1%). A strategy was proposed to evaluate the minimum quantifiable adulteration percentage which was established at a 0.2% regardless of the adulterant employed. The analysis of nineteen commercial samples showed the method to be specific and suitable for saffron quality control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. DNA fragmentation and apoptosis induced by safranal in human prostate cancer cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Samarghandian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Apoptosis, an important mechanism that contributes to cell growth reduction, is reported to be induced by Crocus sativus (Saffron in different cancer types. However, limited effort has been made to correlate these effects to the active ingredients of saffron. The present study was designed to elucidate cytotoxic and apoptosis induction by safranal, the major coloring compound in saffron, in a human prostate cancer cell line (PC-3. Materials and Methods: PC-3 and human fetal lung fibroblast (MRC-5 cells were cultured and exposed to safranal (5, 10, 15, and 20 μg/ml. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay was performed to assess cytotoxicity. DNA fragmentation was assessed by gel electrophoresis. Cells were incubated with different concentrations of safranal, and cell morphologic changes and apoptosis were determined by the normal inverted microscope, Annexin V, and propidium iodide, followed by flow cytometric analysis, respectively. Results: MTT assay revealed a remarkable and concentration-dependent cytotoxic effect of safranal on PC-3 cells in comparison with non-malignant cell line. The morphologic alterations of the cells confirmed the MTT results. The IC 50 values against PC-3 cells were found to be 13.0 ΁ 0.07 and 6.4 ΁ 0.09 μg/ml at 48 and 72 h, respectively. Safranal induced an early and late apoptosis in the flow cytometry histogram of treated cells, indicating apoptosis is involved in this toxicity. DNA analysis revealed typical ladders as early as 48 and 72 h after treatment, indicative of apoptosis. Conclusions: Our preclinical study demonstrated a prostate cancer cell line to be highly sensitive to safranal-mediated growth inhibition and apoptotic cell death. Although the molecular mechanisms of safranal action are not clearly understood, it appears to have potential as a therapeutic agent.

  5. Root Glucosinolate Profiles for Screening of Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) Genetic Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Gibum; Lim, Sooyeon; Chae, Won Byoung; Park, Jeong Eun; Park, Hye Rang; Lee, Eun Jin; Huh, Jin Hoe

    2016-01-13

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.), a root vegetable, is rich in glucosinolates (GLs), which are beneficial secondary metabolites for human health. To investigate the genetic variations in GL content in radish roots and the relationship with other root phenotypes, we analyzed 71 accessions from 23 different countries for GLs using HPLC. The most abundant GL in radish roots was glucoraphasatin, a GL with four-carbon aliphatic side chain. The content of glucoraphasatin represented at least 84.5% of the total GL content. Indolyl GL represented only 3.1% of the total GL at its maximum. The principal component analysis of GL profiles with various root phenotypes showed that four different genotypes exist in the 71 accessions. Although no strong correlation with GL content and root phenotype was observed, the varied GL content levels demonstrate the genetic diversity of GL content, and the amount that GLs could be potentially improved by breeding in radishes.

  6. Raphanus sativus L. var niger as a source of phytochemicals for the prevention of cholesterol gallstones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Torres, Ibrahim Guillermo; De la O-Arciniega, Minarda; Gallegos-Estudillo, Janeth; Naranjo-Rodríguez, Elia Brosla; Domínguez-Ortíz, Miguel Ángel

    2014-02-01

    Raphanus sativus L. var niger (black radish) is a plant of the cruciferous family with important ethnobotanical uses for the treatment of gallstones in Mexican traditional medicine. It has been established that the juice of black radish decreases cholesterol levels in plasma and dissolves gallstones in mice. Glucosinolates, the main secondary metabolites of black radish, can hydrolyze into its respective isothiocyanates and have already demonstrated antioxidant properties as well as their ability to diminish hepatic cholesterol levels; such therapeutic effects can prevent the formation of cholesterol gallstones. This disease is considered a current problem of public health. In the present review, we analyze and discuss the therapeutic effects of the main glucosinolates of black radish, as well as the effects that this plant has on cholesterol gallstones disease. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Phytoextraction of heavy metals by canola (Brassica napus) and radish (Raphanus sativus) grown on multicontaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchiol, L.; Assolari, S.; Sacco, P.; Zerbi, G

    2004-11-01

    Phytoextraction can provide an effective in situ technique for removing heavy metals from polluted soils. The experiment reported in this paper was undertaken to study the basic potential of phytoextraction of Brassica napus (canola) and Raphanus sativus (radish) grown on a multi-metal contaminated soil in the framework of a pot-experiment. Chlorophyll contents and gas exchanges were measured during the experiment; the heavy metal phytoextraction efficiency of canola and radish were also determined and the phytoextraction coefficient for each metal calculated. Data indicated that both species are moderately tolerant to heavy metals and that radish is more so than canola. These species showed relatively low phytoremediation potential of multicontaminated soils. They could possibly be used with success in marginally polluted soils where their growth would not be impaired and the extraction of heavy metals could be maintained at satisfying levels.

  8. Milk prevents the degradation of daikon (Raphanus sativus L.) isothiocyanate and enhances its absorption in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippoushi, Katsunari; Ueda, Hiroshi; Takeuchi, Atsuko

    2014-10-15

    Epidemiological and experimental researches show that isothiocyanate (ITC), a class of phytochemical compounds that imparts a characteristic biting taste and pungent odour to cruciferous vegetables, such as daikon (Japanese white radish, Raphanus sativus L. Daikon Group), broccoli, cabbage, and Chinese cabbage, possesses anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties. The concentration of daikon ITC, which degrades in aqueous solution, was measured in mixtures of daikon juice and water, corn oil, or milk. Daikon juice mixed with corn oil or milk showed a higher concentration (1.4-fold) of daikon ITC than that in mixture with water; thus, corn oil and milk prevent the degradation of daikon ITC. Moreover, orally administered daikon juice with milk increased daikon ITC absorption in rats. Therefore, dishes or drinks that include raw daikon with corn oil or milk may promote the possible health benefits of daikon ITC by preventing ITC degradation and enhancing its absorption in vivo. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Mechanism Underlying the Onset of Internal Blue Discoloration in Japanese Radish (Raphanus sativus) Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teranishi, Katsunori; Masayasu, Nagata; Masuda, Daisuke

    2016-09-07

    The internal blue discoloration observed in Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus L.) roots is a physiological phenomenon caused by storage following harvest at approximately 20 °C and poses a serious problem for farmers. Here, we describe the mechanism underlying the onset of internal blue discoloration of three cultivars: Hukuhomare, SC8-260, and Yuto. Each cultivar was maintained under the same conditions. Additionally, Hukuhomare radish roots were maintained at three different cultivation conditions in a related experiment. The blue discoloration in radish roots was caused by the oxidation of 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin as a result of an increase in oxidative stress involving peroxidase. Thus, the extent of blue discoloration was influenced by the chemical balance involving 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin content, antioxidant capacity, and oxidation activity.

  10. Effects of plasma irradiation using various feeding gases on growth of Raphanus sativus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarinont, Thapanut; Amano, Takaaki; Attri, Pankaj; Koga, Kazunori; Hayashi, Nobuya; Shiratani, Masaharu

    2016-09-01

    In this work, we have studied the action of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma irradiation using various feeding gases on seeds of Raphanus sativus L. and analysis their growth. Our experimental data shows that Air, O2, and NO(10%)+N2 feeding gases plasma irradiation enhanced plant growth, whereas N2, He and Ar feeding gases plasma irradiation had little influence on plant growth. Moreover, humid air plasma irradiation was more effective in growth enhancement than dry one. More than 2.3 times faster growth was observed by 3 min air plasma irradiation with 40-90% relative humidity. The reactive species generated by plasma in gas phase were detected using optical emission spectroscopy and in liquid phase by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. We concluded that OH and O radicals were key species for plant growth enhancement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Biosynthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles using an endophytic fungal supernatant of Raphanus sativus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tej Singh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs from supernatant of endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. isolated from the healthy leaves of Raphanus sativus is studied. The synthesized AgNPs are characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. The structural analysis is done by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD method. The stability of AgNPs is studied by dynamic light scattering (DLS method. The size and shape of AgNPs are observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM and found to be spherical with an average particles size of 4–30 nm. Further, these AgNPs have been found to be highly toxic against human pathogenic bacteria, suggesting the possibility of using AgNPs as efficient antibacterial agents.

  12. Antimicrobial Activity of Sphingolipids Isolated from the Stems of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Yu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Three antimicrobial sphingolipids were separated by bioassay-guided isolation from the chloroform fraction of the crude methanol extract of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. stems and identified as (2S,3S,4R,10E-2-[(2'R-2-hydroxytetra-cosanoylamino]-1,3,4-octadecanetriol-10-ene (1, 1-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl(2S,3S,4R,10E-2-[(2'R-2-hydroxy-tetracosanoylamino]-1,3,4-octadecanetriol-10-ene (2 and soya-cerebroside I (3 by their physicochemical properties and spectroscopic analysis. They were evaluated to show antifungal and antibacterial activity on test microorganisms including four fungal and three bacterial species. Among them, compound 1, a relatively low polarity aglycone,  exhibited stronger antimicrobial activity than its corresponding glycoside 2. The results indicated that sphingolipids could be the main antimicrobial compounds in the crude methanol extract of cucumber stems.

  13. Application of silver nanoparticles synthesized from Raphanus sativus for catalytic degradation of organic dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Tej

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosynthesis of metal nanoparticles is gaining more importance owing to its simplicity, economical, sustainable route of synthesis of nanoparticles and ecofriendliness. Based on the search to improve and protect the environment by decreasing the use of toxic chemicals and eliminating biological risks in biomedical applications, the present article reports an environment friendly and unexploited methods for biofabrication of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs using Raphanus sativus leaf extract. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The absorption spectrum of the dark brown color silver colloids showed a single and prominent peak at 431nm, indicating the presence of AgNPs. Further, catalytic degradation of methylene blue (organic dye by using AgNPs was measured spectrophotometrically. The results revealed that biosynthesized AgNPs was found to be impressive in degrading methylene blue and can be used in water purification systems.

  14. EFECTO DE INOCULACIÓN DE MICROORGANISMOS EN CRECIMIENTO DE RÁBANO (Raphanus sativus EFEITO DA INOCULAÇÃO MICRORGANISMOS NO CRESCIMENTO DE RABANETE (Raphanus sativus EFFECT OF INOCULATION OF MICROORGANISMS ON RADISH GROWTH (Raphanus sativus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUZ INDIRA SOTELO D

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El efecto de la inoculación de microorganismos que pueden estimular el crecimiento en plantas, ha sido de gran interés para la producción de bioinsumos en los últimos años. Se inocularon cepas de Azotobacter sp, Bacillus pumilus y Bacillus licheniformis en un cultivo de rábano (Raphanus sativus, aisladas e identificadas de un proceso de compostaje de la empresa (GEO ®. Se realizó un diseño experimental de cinco tratamientos y un control, con 15 repeticiones para cada uno. Previo a la aplicación de los tratamientos cada cepa se sometió individualmente a crecimiento en caldo de cultivo. La aplicación de cada tratamiento se efectuó dos veces por aspersión, con un intervalo de 15 días durante el tiempo de cultivo. Las variables de respuesta que se evaluaron en el cultivo de rábano fueron: longitud de las plantas, número de hojas y peso seco del sistema radicular. Los resultados mostraron menor efectividad en la producción de biomasa radicular en el tratamiento T5 (mezcla de los tres microorganismos; además se encontró un mayor rendimiento en todas las variables de respuesta, con la utilización de la fertllización química. Sin embargo los tres microorganismos aplicados individualmente presentan resultados promisorios para la aplicación en cultivos agrícolas de ciclo corto.O efeito da inoculação de microrganismos que podem estimular o crescimento em plantas tem sido de grande interesse para a produção de bio-produtos nos últimos anos. Isolados foram inoculados Azotobacter sp, Bacillus pumilus e Bacillus licheniformis em uma cultura de rabanete (Raphanus sativus isolados e identificados em um processo de compostagem da empresa (GEO ®. Foi realizado um delineamento experimental de cinco tratamentos e controle, com 15 repetições para cada um. Antes da aplicação dos tratamentos, cada cepa foi submetida ao crescimento individual em caldo. A aplicação de cada tratamento foi realizada por aspersão duas vezes com um

  15. Occidental diffusion of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) 500–1300 CE: two routes to Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Harry S.; Daunay, Marie-Christine; Janick, Jules

    2012-01-01

    Background The cucumber, Cucumis sativus, is one of the most widely consumed fruit vegetables the world over. The history of its dispersal to the Occident from its centre of origin, the Indian subcontinent, has been incorrectly understood for some time, due to the confusion of cucumbers with vegetable melons. Iconographic and literary evidence has shown that cucumber was absent in Roman times, up to 500 CE, but present in Europe by late medieval times, 1300. The objective of the present investigation was to determine more accurately when the cucumber arrived in Europe and by what route. Findings and Conclusions The evidence for the movement of C. sativus westward is entirely lexicographical until the 10th century. Syriac, Persian and Byzantine Greek sources suggest the presence of cucumbers, to the east and north-east of the Mediterranean Sea (modern Iran, Iraq and Turkey), by the 6th or 7th century. Arabic medical writings suggest the presence of cucumbers in Spain as early as the mid-9th century and in Tunisia by the early 10th century. Descriptive evidence in Arabic establishes the presence of cucumbers in Andalusia by the second half of the 10th century. Latin translations from Arabic sources indicate the presence of cucumbers in southern Italy by the second half of the 11th century. These writings, together with lexicographical discrepancies in names of cucurbits in late medieval Latin writings, suggest that cucumber was introduced to Europe by two independent diffusions. One diffusion appears to have been overland from Persia into eastern and northern Europe and preceded the Islamic conquests. The other, subsequent diffusion into western and southern Europe, was probably by a mostly maritime route from Persia or the Indian subcontinent into Andalusia. PMID:22104164

  16. Boron excess affects photosynthesis and antioxidant apparatus of greenhouse Cucurbita pepo and Cucumis sativus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Marco; Remorini, Damiano; Pardossi, Alberto; Guidi, Lucia

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the behavior of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) under boron (B) excess. Plants were grown under greenhouse conditions in a sandy soil-peat mixture using a nutrient solution containing 0.2 (control), 10 and 20 mg L(-1) B. Visible symptoms were quantified and leaf B accumulation, gas exchanges, chlorophyll (Chl) a fluorescence, malondialdehyde by-products and antioxidants were investigated 20 days after the beginning of the treatments. Boron toxicity induced oxidative load and leaf necrotic burns coupled with the reduction of leaf growth and biomass accumulation in both species. Boron excess resulted in a decrease of Chl a/b ratio, potential (Fv/Fm) and actual (ΦPSII) PSII quantum efficiency, photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (gs), and transpiration (E) as well. A general stimulation of the antioxidant enzymes ascorbate peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase was observed, and a significant increase in the oxidized form of ascorbate and glutathione was evidenced for treated plants of both species. A difference between the two species was observed: C. pepo appeared to be more sensitive to B stress being damaged at all B concentration. C. sativus grown at 10 mg L(-1) B in nutrient solution showed some down-regulated mechanisms, i.e. increase in Chl b content and a good photochemical PSII efficiency as well as a higher amount of constitutive antioxidant molecules, that, however, are not sufficient to contrast the negative effects of B.

  17. Biotechnological Production of Inducible Defense-Related Proteins in Edible Radish (Raphanus Sativus) Found in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, Praval; Karmacharya, Anil; Sharma, Shishir; Nepal, Ashwini K.; Shrestha, Kanti

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fungal infection in plant leads to use of many hazardous antifungal chemicals. Alternative to these chemicals, defense related antifungal proteins can be used in case of fungal diseases. Aims: An experiment was done in two varieties of edible radish (Raphanus sativus var. Pyuthane Raato and Raphanus sativus var. all season) with aims to produce defense protein within the plant, to identify and perform molecular characterization of those antifungal proteins. The next aim was to compare the antifungal property of those proteins with commercially available synthetic pesticides. Methods: Both varieties of radish were infected with fungi (Alternaria alternata and Fusarium oxysporum). Protein samples were isolated from leaves following the standard protocol as described for β-glucuronidase (GUS) assay and were run along with the standard protein marker of 10-250kDa in sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) to identify and molecularly characterize them. Results: An additional band in the range of 37-50kDa was observed in the fungal infected samples, which was not seen on uninfected samples. The antifungal assay was carried out for every sample in 96 wells microtitre plate. The extracted protein samples from fungal inoculated plants showed the significant inhibition of fungal growth compared to other samples. On the basis of molecular weight and their antifungal properties, the protein samples from the fungal infected plant were found to be PR2 (Glucanase) and PR3 (Chitinase). Conclusion: Defense related proteins were successfully produced in two varieties of radish found in Nepal. The use of such biologically produced proteins may reduce the use of biologically harmful synthetic pesticides. PMID:24596739

  18. Development of male sterile Eruca sativa carrying a Raphanus sativus/Brassica oleracea cybrid cytoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nothnagel, Thomas; Klocke, Evelyn; Schrader, Otto; Linke, Bettina; Budahn, Holger

    2016-02-01

    Alloplasmic male sterile breeding lines of Eruca sativa were developed by intergeneric hybridization with CMS- Brassica oleracea, followed by recurrent backcrosses and determination of the breeding value. Male sterile breeding lines of rocket salad (Eruca sativa) were developed by intergeneric hybridization with cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) cauliflower (Brassica oleracea) followed by recurrent backcrosses. Five amphidiploid F1 plants (2n = 2x = 20, CE), achieved by manual crosses and embryo rescue, showed an intermediate habit. The plants were completely male sterile and lacked seed set after pollination with the Eruca parent. Allotetraploid F1-hybrid plants (4n = 4x = 40, CCEE) obtained after colchicine treatment were backcrossed six times with pollen of the Eruca parent to select alloplasmic diploid E. sativa lines. The hybrid status and the nucleo-cytoplasmic constellation were continuously controlled by RAPD and Southern analysis during subsequent backcrosses. The ploidy level was investigated by flow cytometry and chromosome analysis. Premeiotic (sporophytic) and postmeiotic (pollen abortive) defects during the anther development were observed in the alloplasmic E. sativus plants in comparison to the CMS-cauliflower donor. No further incompatibilities were noticed between the CMS-inducing cybrid cytoplasm and the E. sativa nuclear genome. The final alloplasmic E. sativa lines were diploid with 2n = 2x = 22 chromosomes and revealed complete male sterility and restored female fertility. Plant vigor and yield potential of the CMS-E. sativa BC5 lines were comparable to the parental E. sativus line. In conclusion, the employed cybrid-cytoplasm has been proven as a vital source of CMS for E. sativa. The developed lines are directly applicable for hybrid breeding of rocket salad.

  19. On the quality control of traded saffron by means of transmission Fourier-transform mid-infrared (FT-MIR) spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordoudi, Stella A; de los Mozos Pascual, Marcelino; Tsimidou, Maria Z

    2014-05-01

    The present study aimed to extend application of the FT-MIR technique to the quality control of traded saffron that suffers various types of fraud or mislabelling. Spectroscopic data were obtained for samples stored for different periods in the dark. Samples with the highest quality according to ISO 3632 specifications produced a typical spectrum profile (reference set). Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of spectroscopic data for this set along with HPLC-DAD analysis of major apocarotenoids assisted identification of FT-IR bands that carry information about desirable sensory properties that weaken during storage. The band at 1028cm(-1), associated with the presence of glucose moieties, along with intensities in the region 1175-1157cm(-1), linked with breakage of glycosidic bonds, were the most useful for diagnostic monitoring of storage effects on the evaluation and test set samples. FT-IR was found to be a promising, sensitive and rapid tool in the fight against saffron fraud. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cytomixis impairs meiosis and influences reproductive success in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MADU

    chromosomes between the proximate meiocytes through cytoplasmic channels or intercellular bridges. This striking phenomenon was first recorded by Koernicke (1901) in the pollen mother cells of Crocus sativus and subsequently reported by ...

  1. The effect of drought stress and exogenous abscisic acid on growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABA) on growth, protein content and antioxidative enzyme activity in leaves, roots and corms of Crocus sativus L. A comparative study of sample and control showed that leaf relative water content (RWC), length and number of leaves decreased ...

  2. The effect of drought stress and exogenous abscisic acid on growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-17

    ABA) on growth, protein content and antioxidative enzyme activity in leaves, roots and corms of Crocus sativus L. A comparative study of sample and control showed that leaf relative water content (RWC), length and number of ...

  3. Lead accumulation in the roots of grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.): a novel plant for phytoremediation systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunet, Judicaëlle; Repellin, Anne; Varrault, Gilles; Terryn, Nancy; Zuily-Fodil, Yasmine

    2008-11-01

    Eleven day-old grass pea plants (Lathyrus sativus L.) were grown hydroponically for 96 h in the presence of 0.5 mM lead nitrate (Pb(NO(3))(2)). The survival rate was 100%. The mean lead content (measured by ICP-OES) in root tissues was 153 mg Pb g(-1) dry matter. Over three quarters of the lead was not labile. Compared with control plants, lead-exposed plants showed a six-fold, two-fold and three and a half-fold reduction in their root calcium, zinc and copper contents, respectively. Together, these results suggested that Lathyrus sativus L. was tolerant to a deficiency in essential nutrients and able to store large amounts of lead in its root tissues. Therefore, it could be used for the development of new rhizofiltration systems.

  4. Toxic effects of Al-based coagulants on Brassica chinensis and Raphanus sativus growing in acid and neutral conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kaisong; Zhou, Qixing

    2005-04-01

    The ecotoxicological effects of aluminum (Al)-based coagulants are of concern because of their wide-ranging applications in wastewater treatment and water purification. As important Al-based coagulants, AlCl(3) and PAC (polyaluminum-chloride) were selected as examples to examine the toxic effects on representative vegetables including the cabbage Brassica chinensis and the radish Raphanus sativus over a range of exposure concentrations in neutral (pH 7.00) and acidic (pH 4.00) conditions, using seed germination and root elongation in the early-growth stage as indicators of toxicity. The results showed that root elongation of the two vegetables was a more sensitive indicator than was seed germination for evaluating the toxicity of Al. As a single influencing factor, H(+) had no significant direct effects on root elongation of Brassica chinensis and Raphanus sativus under the experimental conditions. The toxicity of Al played the main role in inhibiting root elongation and seed germination and was strongly related to changes in pH. There was a markedly positive relationship between the inhibitory rate of root elongation, seed germination, and the concentration of Al at pH 4.00 (p pH than at pH 4.00, but Raphanus sativus was more susceptible to AlCl(3) toxicity at a neutral pH than at pH 4.00. Both Raphanus sativus and Brassica chinensis had a more toxic response to a low concentration (pH is relevant when treatment solids are used in agriculture.

  5. Sulforaphene in Raphanus sativus L. var. caudatus Alef increased in late-bolting stage as well as anticancer activity

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    Piman Pocasap; Natthida Weerapreeyakul; Waraporn Tanthanuch; Kanjana Thumanu

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the concentration differences of sulforaphene and sulforaphane at various ages and in different parts of Raphanus sativus L. var. caudatus with respect to their potential cancer preventive effect on HCT116 colon cancer cells. Methods: FTIR–ATR and GC–MS were used to characterize the isothiocyanates in the plant extracts followed by HPLC for quantification. Antiproliferation and apoptosis induction were determined by using MTT assay and flow cytometry, respectively. ...

  6. Evaluation of the Toxic Effect of Lead on Some Parameters of Growth Radish Plant (Raphanus sativus L.

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    Houria Aoumeur,

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The lead pollution has become a serious problem threatening our ecosystems with detrimental effects on crop production and biodiversity, so much research is currently focused on new environmentally friendly methods such as phytoremediation .The work undertaken registers with a view to study the physiological, biochemical behavior of the plant radish (Raphanus sativus L.. In this context, the dose (250, 500 and 1000 mg / l of lead acetate were applied to radish (Raphanus sativus L. relative to a control (absence of the Lead, for a period of two months. The results show apparent changes in various parameters studied in stressed plants compared to controls. Macroscopic (inhibition of germination rate, decreased biomass and size reduction, physiological (disruption of water status, decreased chlorophyll pigments and carotenoids content were observed. Histological changes at the level of the rods (deformation of the walls of the medullary parenchyma cells, and roots (occlusion of xylem vessels were observed. However, a strong correlation between soil Lead and plant Lead was noticed. Accordingly, lead uptake by Raphanus sativus L. is influenced by its bioavailability in soil.

  7. An integrated molecular cytogenetic map of Cucumis sativus L. chromosome 2

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    Huang Sanwen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Integration of molecular, genetic and cytological maps is still a challenge for most plant species. Recent progress in molecular and cytogenetic studies created a basis for developing integrated maps in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.. Results In this study, eleven fosmid clones and three plasmids containing 45S rDNA, the centromeric satellite repeat Type III and the pericentriomeric repeat CsRP1 sequences respectively were hybridized to cucumber metaphase chromosomes to assign their cytological location on chromosome 2. Moreover, an integrated molecular cytogenetic map of cucumber chromosomes 2 was constructed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH mapping of 11 fosmid clones together with the cucumber centromere-specific Type III sequence on meiotic pachytene chromosomes. The cytogenetic map was fully integrated with genetic linkage map since each fosmid clone was anchored by a genetically mapped simple sequence repeat marker (SSR. The relationship between the genetic and physical distances along chromosome was analyzed. Conclusions Recombination was not evenly distributed along the physical length of chromosome 2. Suppression of recombination was found in centromeric and pericentromeric regions. Our results also indicated that the molecular markers composing the linkage map for chromosome 2 provided excellent coverage of the chromosome.

  8. Stress-responsive gene RsICE1 from Raphanus sativus increases cold tolerance in rice.

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    Man, Lili; Xiang, Dianjun; Wang, Lina; Zhang, Weiwei; Wang, Xiaodong; Qi, Guochao

    2017-03-01

    The ICE1 transcription factor plays a critical role in plant cold tolerance via triggering CBF/DREB1 cold-regulated signal networks. In this work, a novel MYC-type ICE1-like gene, RsICE1, was isolated from radish (Raphanus sativus L.), and its function in cold tolerance was characterized in rice. The RsICE1 gene was expressed constitutively with higher transcriptional levels in the roots and stems of radish seedlings. The NaCl, cold, and ABA treatments could significantly upregulate RsICE1 expression levels, but dehydration stress had a weak effect on its expression. Ectopic expression of the RsICE1 gene in rice conferred enhanced tolerance to low-temperature stress grounded on a higher survival rate, higher accumulation of soluble sugars and free proline content, a decline in electrolyte leakage and MDA levels, and higher chlorophyll levels relative to control plants. OsDREBL and OsTPP1, downstream cold-regulated genes, were remarkably upregulated at transcription levels in rice overexpressing RsICE1 under low-temperature stress, which indicated that RsICE1 was involved in CBF/DREB1 cold-regulated signal networks. Overall, the above data showed that RsICE1 played an active role in improving rice cold tolerance, most likely resulting from the upregulation of OsDREBL and OsTPP1 expression levels by interacting with the RsICE1 gene under low-temperature stress.

  9. Lactic acid bacteria population dynamics during spontaneous fermentation of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) roots in brine.

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    Pardali, Eleni; Paramithiotis, Spiros; Papadelli, Marina; Mataragas, Marios; Drosinos, Eleftherios H

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the microecosystem development and the dynamics of the lactic acid bacteria population during spontaneous fermentation of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) roots in brine at 20 and 30 °C. In both temperatures, lactic acid bacteria prevailed the fermentation; as a result, the pH value was reduced to ca. 3.6 and total titrable acidity increased to ca. 0.4% lactic acid. Enterococci population increased and formed a secondary microbiota while pseudomonads, Enterobacteriaceae and yeasts/molds populations were below enumeration limit already before the middle of fermentation. Pediococcus pentosaceus dominated during the first days, followed by Lactobacillus plantarum that prevailed the fermentation until the end. Lactobacillus brevis was also detected during the final days of fermentation. A succession at sub-species level was revealed by the combination of RAPD-PCR and rep-PCR analyses. Glucose and fructose were the main carbohydrates detected in brine and were metabolized into lactic acid, acetic acid and ethanol.

  10. Effect of Aqueous Extracts from Weed Species on Germination and Initial Growth in Raphanus sativus L.

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    Anisoara STRATU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The current paper presents the results of a study on the effects of aqueous extracts from five weed species (Amaranthus retroflexus, Cirsium arvense, Convolvulus arvensis, Echinochloa crus-galii, Setaria verticillata on germination and initial growth in Raphanus sativus L. The following indicators have been analyzed: indices of germination (the germination percentage; the speed of germination; the speed of accumulated germination and the coefficient of germination rate, the length of the root and hypocotyls, the pH of aqueous extracts, the UV-Vis absorption spectra of aqueous extracts. The results of the investigations showed the following aspects: the aqueous extracts reduced the values of calculated germination indices and root growth in the first ontogenetic stages of the test species; the pH of the extracts was slightly acid to neutral. Qualitative spectrophotometric analysis indicated the possible presence of phenolic and organic compounds in the extracts. C. arvense, S. verticillata and E. crus-galii presented the most pronounced effect on germination and growth processes.

  11. Cytokinin-dependent secondary growth determines root biomass in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Geupil; Lee, Jung-Hun; Rastogi, Khushboo; Park, Suhyoung; Oh, Sang-Hun; Lee, Ji-Young

    2015-08-01

    The root serves as an essential organ in plant growth by taking up nutrients and water from the soil and supporting the rest of the plant body. Some plant species utilize roots as storage organs. Sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas), cassava (Manihot esculenta), and radish (Raphanus sativus), for example, are important root crops. However, how their root growth is regulated remains unknown. In this study, we characterized the relationship between cambium and radial root growth in radish. Through a comparative analysis with Arabidopsis root expression data, we identified putative cambium-enriched transcription factors in radish and analysed their expression in representative inbred lines featuring distinctive radial growth. We found that cell proliferation activities in the cambium positively correlated with radial growth and final yields of radish roots. Expression analysis of candidate transcription factor genes revealed that some genes are differentially expressed between inbred lines and that the difference is due to the distinct cytokinin response. Taken together, we have demonstrated for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, that cytokinin-dependent radial growth plays a key role in the yields of root crops. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  12. Potency of Lobak Leaves (Raphanus sativus L. var. hortensis Back as Anticancer and Antimicrobial Candidates

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    ESTU RETNANINGTYAS

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available One of vegetables can preventive cancer and have been used traditionally to cure infection, such as lobak (Raphanus sativus L.. Ineffectiveness antibiotics to against microbial infections was still problem until now. Types of antibiotics and anticancer agents from natural resources should be explored and developed. This study was aimed to know toxicity effect and antimicrobial activity of active fractions from lobak leaves. Toxicity study was conducted using Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BST. Samples were prepared at the concentration of 100, 500, and 1000μg/mL. Antibacterial study against Staphylococcus aureus was conducted using agar-well diffusion method at concentration 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 100%. Ethyl acetate fraction from methanol extract is the most active that had larger clear zone in S. aureus culture (10,64 mm and insoluble ethyl acetate fraction from methanol extract is the most active against A. salina (84% death A. salina at 100 µg/mL. Bioactive compounds at active fraction were identified to contain polar compounds.

  13. Acetylcholine promotes the emergence and elongation of lateral roots of Raphanus sativus

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    Sugiyama, Kou-ichi

    2011-01-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) was grown on four layers of paper towel moistened with distilled water with and without acetylcholine (ACh) for five days in the dark after sowing. ACh at 1 nM promoted the growth (emergence and elongation) of lateral roots of radish plants, but had no effect on the stems and main roots. Moreover, ACh enhanced the dry weight of roots [main (primary) + lateral roots]. Neostigmine, an inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) also promoted the emergence and elongation of lateral roots, and atropine, a competitive inhibitor of ACh receptor, suppressed the emergence and elongation. ACh promoted the activities of glyceraldehyde-3-phosephate dehydrogenase (G-3-PD), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-specific isocitrate dehydrogenase (NAD-ICDH), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and cytochrome-c oxidase (Cyt-c OD) in seedlings. Moreover, ACh suppressed the activity of AChE and increased the amount of proteins and pyridine nucleotides (NAD and NADH) in the roots of the seedlings. It also increased the activities of NAD-forming enzymes [NAD synthetase and ATP-nicotinamide mononucleotide (ATP-NMN) adenyltransferase], and enhanced the amount of DNA in the roots of the seedlings. The relationship between ACh and the emergence and growth of lateral roots was discussed from a biochemical viewpoint. PMID:21900743

  14. Resistance Evaluation of Radish (Raphanus sativus L. Inbred Lines against Turnip mosaic virus

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    Ju-Yeon Yoon

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Leaves of twenties radish (Raphanus sativus L. inbred lines were mechanically inoculated with Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV strain HY to evaluate TuMV resistance of the radish inbred lines. The inoculated radish plants were incubated at 22°C±3°C and resistance assessment was examined using symptom development for 4 weeks. Based on the reactions of differential radish inbred lines, 16 radish lines were produced mild mosaic, mottling, mosaic and severe mosaic symptoms by TuMV infection. These results were confirmed by RT-PCR analysis of TuMV coat protein gene, suggesting that TuMV is responsible for the disease symptoms. Four resistant radish lines did not induce systemic mosaic symptoms on upper leaves and chlorosis in stem tissues for 4 weeks, showing they were symptomless by 8 weeks. Further examination of TuMV infection in the 4 radish lines showed no TuMV infection in all systemic leaves. These results suggest that the 4 radish lines are highly resistant to TuMV.

  15. [Role of phytochrome in organ formation processes in Cucumis sativus L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sysoeva, M I; Marovskaia, E F

    2013-01-01

    The role of phytochrome B in the organogenesis process in the apical and axillary shoot meristems during early ontogenesis stages in cucumber Cucumis sativus L. at photoperiods (day/night) 10/14, 16/8 h, and continuous light in comparison with wild type plants and phytochrome B-deficient mutant (lh-mutant) was investigated. In mutant phytochrome B, deficiency caused inhibition of initiation of leaves both in the leading shoot and off-shoots and increased the number of flower buds (IV stage of organogenesis). With continuous light, the number of off-shoots and flowers during stage IV of organogenesis in wild-type plants increased twofold in comparison with the mutant. Short-term temperature drops did not induce floral ontogenesis in mutants but increased the number of off-shoots in both experimental variants during a long photoperiod and continuous light situations. We propose that phytochrome B, by increasing the compactness of chromatin, may facilitate coordination of ontogenesis processes with changing environmental conditions.

  16. Herbivory differentially affects male and female reproductive traits of Cucumis sativus.

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    Thomson, V P; Nicotra, A B; Cunningham, S A

    2004-09-01

    Herbivory is an important selection pressure in the life history of plants. Most studies use seed or fruit production as an indication of plant fitness, but the impact of herbivory on male reproductive success is usually ignored. It is possible that plants compensate for resources lost to herbivory by shifting the allocation from seed production to pollen production and export, or vice versa. This study examined the impact of herbivory by Helix aspersa on both male and female reproductive traits of a monoecious plant, Cucumis sativus. The effects of herbivory on the relative allocation to male and fem