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Sample records for saffron crocus sativus

  1. with Crocus sativus L (saffron

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    Hamzeh Pooryousef

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Evaluation of symbiosis between Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF and Saffron (Crocus Sativus L. is important because this strategic plant encounters with many environmental stresses such as climatic and edaphic stresses during seasons and the AMF can let the crops increase their productivity along with the improvement of their resistance to stress factors and pathogens Materials and methods: The spores of AMF around rhizosphere of saffron were studied in three fields of Gonabad, Khorasan province, Iran (2013-14. Moreover, the colonization of mycorrhizal fungi with saffron and sorghum trap were studied in three regions using morphologic and molecular methods by nested PCR and amplification of small subunit of rRNA gene fragments. Results: Three species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, Scutellospora dipurpurescens, Funneliformis caledonius and Rhizophagus aggregatus were identified in the soil around rhizosphere of the saffron of three regions. The colonization of sorghum trap in the soil of saffron cultivation areas was among 21 -41%, while the colonization in the natural Saffron field was 1.5% and just in one area. However, the nested PCR results revealed the colonization of Saffron in all 3 regions.  These results showed the colonization of Saffron by Rhizophagus iranicus and F. caledonius. Discussion and conclusion: The genus and species diversity of AMF Saffron and Sorghum are different. Moreover, the hereby proposed molecular method is a more precise approach to identify AMF colonization with Saffron while classical methods may provide different and misleading results.

  2. Saffron (Crocus sativus L., a monomorphic or polymorphic species?

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    Zahra Nemati

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Saffron (Crocus sativus L. which contains exceptional anti-cancer properties is presently the world's most expensive spice. Iran is known as the original habitat of Crocus L. and a significant source of high-quality cultivated saffron production and export. Considering the importance of this species, we used 27 microsatellite markers to assess molecular variability and discriminating capacity of markers regarding their effectiveness in establishing genetic relationships in Iranian Crocus ecotypes. Thirty eight Iranian cultivated saffron ecotypes and 29 wild allies were evaluated in this research. The results from molecular analyses, including a molecular phylogenetic network and RB analysis, revealed two major groups and five subgroups, regardless of their geographical origins. Also, the results showed a clear distinction between C. sativus and other species of Crocus genus, taking into account their close relationship with C. speciosus and C. hausknechtii, which are assumed to be the two closest relatives of Iranian cultivated saffron among species studied. In this paper, we observed for the first time extensive genetic diversity among Iranian C. sativus despite their asexual reproduction. Considering suitable climatic conditions in Iran for cultivating saffron and the country’s leading high-quality production of Crocus sativus worldwide, studies on great genetic variability among Iranian C. sativus ecotypes as well as wild relatives native to Iran will further highlight the value of this crop. In addition, our results provide valuable information for genetic improvement, reduction of strong genetic erosion, and conservation of costly heritable resources of C. sativus in future breeding programs.

  3. Stigma variability in saffron (Crocus sativus L.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-02-18

    Feb 18, 2009 ... mainly as a dye in industry, as a spice in cooking, as a food colorant, and as a .... stigmas and stored in different boxes for statistical analysis. In addition, the .... Biomedical properties of saffron and its potential use in cancer ...

  4. Crocus sativus L. (saffron for cancer chemoprevention: A mini review

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    Prasan R. Bhandari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is one of the most feared diseases globally and there has been a sustained rise in its incidence in both developing and developed countries. Despite the growing therapeutic options for patients with cancer, their efficacy is time-limited and non-curative. Hence to overcome these drawbacks, an incessant screening for superior and safer drugs has been ongoing for numerous decades, resulting in the detection of anti-cancer properties of several phytochemicals. Chemoprevention using readily available natural substances from vegetables, fruits, herbs and spices is one of the significantly important approaches for cancer prevention in the present era. Among the spices, Crocus sativus L. (saffron; 番紅花 fān hóng huā has generated interest because pharmacological experiments have established numerous beneficial properties including radical scavenging, anti-mutagenic and immuno-modulating effects. The more powerful components of saffron are crocin, crocetin and safranal. Studies in animal models and with cultured human malignant cell lines have demonstrated antitumor and cancer preventive activities of saffron and its main ingredients. This review provides a brief insight into the anticancer properties of saffron and its components.

  5. Chemical Weed Control in Saffron (Crocus sativus Fields

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    majid abbaspoor

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Saffron is derived from the stigmas of the saffron (Crocus sativus L. It is the world’s most expensive spice and has been widely used in many countries. It is also increasingly used for medicinal purposes. Weed control in this perennial, small and low growing crop, needs a lot of labor work. Chemical approach is one of the most effective methods for weed control in saffron. Currently, some herbicide options are available for applications in saffron. For example, satisfactory broadleaved weed control would be achieved by post-emergence application of metribuzin and ioxynil after harvesting saffron flowers. Application of glyphosate and/or 2, 4-D / 2, 4-DB are used to clean up the beds prior to the new season’s flowering and growth of saffron in New Zealand. The selective weed control of weeds in saffron has not been widely reported elsewhere but some in Iran. The choice of herbicide(s depends on the kind of weeds present. In some literatures metribuzin showed promising results for weed control in saffron fields. It is selectively used for control of annual grasses and numerous broad-leaved weeds. The objective of this study was the evaluation of the efficacy of 15 herbicides with different mode of actions, selected on the basis of dominant weed flora and previous studies, on weeds grown in saffron fields. Materials and Methods A field study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of herbicides for weed control in saffron (Crocus sativus in Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center of Khorasan Razavi Province, Mashhad, in 2014-2015 growing season. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design with three replications. Treatments were consisted of metsulfuron-methyl + sulfosulfuron (Total® at dose of 40 g ha-1, sulfosulfuron (Apirus® at dose of 26.6 g ha-1, oxadiazon (Ronestar® at dose of 2 l ha-1, oxyflurofen (Goal® at dose of 2 l ha-1, mesosulfuron + idosulfuron + diflufenican

  6. Therapeutic Potential of Saffron Crocus (Crocus sativus L.

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    Zeliha Selamoglu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Herbal plants are using for folk medicine since immemorial times. Hippocrates who is the father of medicine, refer to 400 medicinal plants and advised ‘‘let food be your medicine and let medicine be your food’’. Most of plants are using today for medicine. It is still acceptable today that prevention is more important than treatment. Saffron was utilized in folk remedy against scarlet fever, smallpox, colds, asthma, eye and heart diseases, tumours, and cancer.

  7. The effects of Crocus sativus (saffron and its constituents on nervous system: A review

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    Mohammad Reza Khazdair

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Saffron or Crocus sativus L. (C. sativus has been widely used as a medicinal plant to promote human health, especially in Asia. The main components of saffron are crocin, picrocrocin and safranal. The median lethal doses (LD50 of C. sativus are 200 mg/ml and 20.7 g/kg in vitro and in animal studies, respectively. Saffron has been suggested to be effective in the treatment of a wide range of disorders including coronary artery diseases, hypertension, stomach disorders, dysmenorrhea and learning and memory impairments. In addition, different studies have indicated that saffron has anti-inflammatory, anti-atherosclerotic, antigenotoxic and cytotoxic activities. Antitussive effects of stigmas and petals of C. sativus and its components, safranal and crocin have also been demonstrated. The anticonvulsant and anti-Alzheimer properties of saffron extract were shown in human and animal studies. The efficacy of C. sativus in the treatment of mild to moderate depression was also reported in clinical trial. Administration of C. sativus and its constituents increased glutamate and dopamine levels in the brain in a dose-dependent manner. It also interacts with the opioid system to reduce withdrawal syndrome. Therefore, in the present article, the effects of C. sativus and its constituents on the nervous system and the possible underlying mechanisms are reviewed. Our literature review showed that C. sativus and its components can be considered as promising agents in the treatment of nervous system disorders.

  8. Evaluation of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) adulteration with plant adulterants by (1)H NMR metabolite fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrakis, Eleftherios A; Cagliani, Laura R; Polissiou, Moschos G; Consonni, Roberto

    2015-04-15

    In the present work, a preliminary study for the detection of adulterated saffron and the identification of the adulterant used by means of (1)H NMR and chemometrics is reported. Authentic Greek saffron and four typical plant-derived materials utilised as bulking agents in saffron, i.e., Crocus sativus stamens, safflower, turmeric, and gardenia were investigated. A two-step approach, relied on the application of both OPLS-DA and O2PLS-DA models to the (1)H NMR data, was adopted to perform authentication and prediction of authentic and adulterated saffron. Taking into account the deficiency of established methodologies to detect saffron adulteration with plant adulterants, the method developed resulted reliable in assessing the type of adulteration and could be viable for dealing with extensive saffron frauds at a minimum level of 20% (w/w). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Smooth muscle relaxant activity of Crocus sativus (saffron and its constituents: possible mechanisms

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    Amin Mokhtari-Zaer

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Saffron, Crocus sativus L. (C. sativus is rich in carotenoids and used in traditional medicine for treatment of various conditions such as coughs, stomach disorders, amenorrhea, asthma and cardiovascular disorders. These therapeutic effects of the plant are suggested to be due to its relaxant effect on smooth muscles. The effect of C. sativus and its constituents on different smooth muscles and the underlying mechanisms have been studied. Several studies have shown the relaxant effects of C. sativus and its constituents including safranal, crocin, crocetin and kaempferol on blood vessels. In addition, it was reported that saffron stigma lowers systolic blood pressure. The present review highlights the relaxant effects of C. sativus and its constituents on various smooth muscles. The possible mechanisms of this relaxing effect including activation of ß2-adrenoceptors, inhibition of histamine H1 and muscarinic receptors and calcium channels and modulation of nitric oxide (NO are also reviewed.

  10. Antihyperlipidemic effect of crude extract of saffron stigma (Crocus sativus) in healthy male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Iliass Lahmass; Sabir Ouahhoud; Assia Sabouni; Mohammed Elyoubi; Redouane Benabbas; Rachid Elmoussaoui; Mohammed Choukri; Ennouamane Saalaoui

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigated for the first time the antihyperlipidemic ef-fects of crude extract of stigmas from Crocus sativus (saffron) against hyperlipidemia induced by tartrazine (synthetic dye) in normal male rats. Thirty adult male albino rats weighing about 150 - 200 g, were divided into 5 groups (n = 6) and daily treatment was given orally. Clinical biochemis-try and metabolic parameters were evaluated at the end of the experiment and after 105 days. (n=6, for all groups). Our data ...

  11. Latent potyvirus infections in Crocus sativus artwrightianus: an underestimated problem in saffron?

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    Maria GRILLI CAIOLA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false IT X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 In over two decades, while studying saffron reproductive biology, we frequently found ultrastructural alterations typical of potyvirus infection in stigmas, styles and leaves of Crocus sativus (saffron and C. cartwrightianus (wild and ornamental species, a putative ancestor of saffron from different provenance. This suggests that these viruses are widely diffused in cultivated Crocus spp., possibly causing latent infections. The few data found in literature, while highlighting the general lack of attention given by plant virologists to Crocus spp., nevertheless confi rm that potyviruses, particularly Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV, can cause asymptomatic infections in these host species. The reasons and possible implications of widely distributed potyvirus latent infections in Crocus spp. are reported and discussed, with the aim of increasing general awareness of these viruses, and of encouraging sanitary selection programs focused on saffron, that could improve the quantity and quality of yields of the most expensive spice commodity grown.

  12. Razi’s Al-Hawi and saffron (Crocus sativus: a review

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    Hamid Mollazadeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional knowledge can be used as a source for development of new medicines. In the present study, we compare the data on saffron in Razi's Al-Hawi book with modern scientific studies. A computerized search of published articles was performed using MEDLINE, Scopus as well as native references. The search terms used were saffron, Crocus sativus, crocetin, crocin, safranal, Razi, and Al-Hawi. A variety of properties of saffron including diuretic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, appetite suppressant, hypnotic, antidepressant, and bronchodilator effects were mentioned in Al-Hawi. Modern studies also confirmed most of these characteristics. This review indicates that the pharmacological data on saffron and its constituents are similar to those found in Razi’s Al-Hawi monograph and it can be concluded that ethnobotanical information and ancient sources have precious data about medicinal plants that lead to finding new compounds for treatment of several diseases.

  13. A Comprehensive Look at Nitrogen and Phosphorus Use Efficiency in Saffron (Crocus Sativus L.

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    Alireza Koocheki

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Saffron (Crocus sativus L. is an annual plant from a biological aspect, but it has a perennial cycle in the field conditions. Cytological impairments such as triploid and self-incompatibility mechanisms are considered as the most important reasons for male-sterility in saffron. Therefore, saffron reproduction is made by meristems tissues and establishment of new daughter corms which are produced by the mother corms. During the growing season, mother corms deteriorate gradually with increasing daughter corms growth. Each daughter corm is considered as a mother corm for replanting in the next growing season. Duo to the life cycle of saffron as a perennial plant in the field conditions, the gradual deterioration of mother corms during the growing season and also the remobilization of nitrogen and phosphorus from aerial part to daughter corms at the end of each growing season, the study of acquisition and use efficiency of nitrogen and phosphorus in saffron is more complicated than other annual or biannual plants. Firstly, the objective of this review article is to describe the nitrogen and phosphorus concentration in aerial parts and daughter corms in saffron. In addition, relevant literature related to the most important strategies for improving nitrogen and phosphorus use efficiency is reviewed. Secondly, the relationship between nitrogen and phosphorus use efficiency in saffron is discussed.

  14. Therapeutic effects of saffron (Crocus sativus L. in digestive disorders: a review

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    Alireza Rezaee Khorasany

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Saffron, the dried red-orange stigmas of Crocus sativus L, has been known as a flavoring agent, food coloring and traditional herbal medicine. Pharmacological effects of saffron are mainly attributed to crocin, crocetin, picrocrocin and safranal. These components especially crocin, have significant effects including antidepressant and anticonvulsant, analgesic, anti-cancer and other therapeutic effects on different parts of our body namely cardiovascular, immune, respiratory, genital-urinary and central nervous system. According to the reports and findings, saffron plays a key role to cure different digestive system disorders via chemopreventive, inhibition of cell proliferation, induction of apoptosis, antioxidant effects and radical scavenging, genoprotective property, prevention of lipid peroxidation and anti-inflammatory processes. The outcome of the above mentioned mechanisms shows potential therapeutic properties of saffron against liver cancer, hepatotoxicity, fatty liver, hyperlipidemia, stomach cancer, peptic ulcer, colon cancer, ulcerative colitis, diabetes and pancreas cancer and ileum contractions. According to global statistics, the susceptibility to intestinal diseases is considered as a significant matter and can be important in health planning in any community. Several strategies for treatment and prevention of the digestive system diseases have provided that the use of herbal remedies seems effective and useful. Considering the available findings, the present study aims to introduce saffron as a prophylactic and therapeutic agent against gastrointestinal tract disorders. However, further clinical studies seem necessary in various aspects of saffron effects in different parts of body to verify these findings.

  15. Avicenna's (Ibn Sina) the Canon of Medicine and saffron (Crocus sativus): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Nassiri-Asl, Marjan

    2013-04-01

    In this review, we introduce the traditional uses of saffron and its pharmacological activities as described by either Avicenna in Book II, Canon of Medicine (al-Qanun fi al-tib) or from recent scientific studies. Modern pharmacological findings on saffron are compared with those mentioned in Avicenna's monograph. A computerized search of published articles was performed using MEDLINE, Scopus and Web of Science databases as well as local references. The search terms used were saffron, Crocus sativus, crocin, crocetin, safranal, picrocrocin, Avicenna and 'Ibn Sina'. Avicenna described various uses of saffron, including its use as an antidepressant, hypnotic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, bronchodilatory, aphrodisiac, inducer of labour, emmenagogue and others. Most of these effects have been studied in modern pharmacology and are well documented. The pharmacological data on saffron and its constituents, including crocin, crocetin and safranal, are similar to those found in Avicenna's monograph. This review indicates that the evaluation of plants based on ethnobotanical information and ancient books may be a valuable approach to finding new biological activities and compounds. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Safety evaluation of saffron stigma (Crocus sativus L. aqueous extract and crocin in patients with schizophrenia

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    Bentolhoda Mousavi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Saffron is the stigma of Crocus sativus L., which has the potentials to play a role in the treatment of many diseases. Although many researches are now going on this precious spice, there are few data on saffron safety in human, especially in patients with chronic mental illnesses. This study aimed to evaluate the short-term safety and tolerability of both saffron and crocin (its major constituent in adult patients with schizophrenia. Materials and Methods: The capsules of saffron aqueous extract (SAE and crocin were used to evaluate short-term safety and tolerability in patients with schizophrenia. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study was performed on patients with schizophrenia. The patients were all male and were divided into three 22-patient groups. While receiving their normal treatment, they also received a 12 week treatment with SAE (15 mg twice daily, crocin (15 mg twice daily or placebo. Results: A total of 61 patients completed the trial; none of them reported a serious side effect. WBC count increased significantly in patients receiving saffron aqua extract (SAE, but it was within the normal range and had no clinical significance. Other hematologic components, markers of thyroid, liver and kidney or inflammation markers had no statistically significant difference among the groups. Conclusions: This study showed that SAE and crocin in doses of 15 mg twice daily were safely tolerated in patients with schizophrenia.

  17. Hormone and Microorganism Treatments in the Cultivation of Saffron (Crocus Sativus L. Plants

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    Aynur Ozkul Acikgoz

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The difficult cultivation of the saffron plant (Crocus Sativus L. make the spice of the same name made from its dried stigmas very valuable. It is estimated that some 75,000 blossoms or 225,000 hand-picked stigmas are required to make a single pound of saffron, which explains why it is the world’s most expensive spice. The aim of this study was to identify ways of increasing the fertility and production of saffron. For this purpose, the treatment of saffron bulbs with a synthetic growth hormone – a mixture of Polystimulins A6 and K – and two different microorganism based materials – biohumus or vermicompost and Effective Microorganisms™ (EM – in four different ways (hormone alone, biohumus alone, EM alone and EM+biohumus was investigated to determine whether these treatments have any statistically meaningful effects on corms and stigmas. It has been shown that EM + biohumus was the most effective choice for improved saffron cultivation.

  18. Barcoding Melting Curve Analysis for Rapid, Sensitive, and Discriminating Authentication of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) from Its Adulterants

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Chao; Cao, Liang; Yuan, Yuan; Chen, Min; Jin, Yan; Huang, Luqi

    2014-01-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is one of the most important and expensive medicinal spice products in the world. Because of its high market value and premium price, saffron is often adulterated through the incorporation of other materials, such as Carthamus tinctorius L. and Calendula officinalis L. flowers, Hemerocallis L. petals, Daucus carota L. fleshy root, Curcuma longa L. rhizomes, Zea may L., and Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. stigmas. To develop a straightforward, nonsequencing method for rapi...

  19. Antihyperlipidemic effect of crude extract of saffron stigma (Crocus sativus in healthy male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliass Lahmass

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated for the first time the antihyperlipidemic ef-fects of crude extract of stigmas from Crocus sativus (saffron against hyperlipidemia induced by tartrazine (synthetic dye in normal male rats. Thirty adult male albino rats weighing about 150 - 200 g, were divided into 5 groups (n = 6 and daily treatment was given orally. Clinical biochemis-try and metabolic parameters were evaluated at the end of the experiment and after 105 days. (n=6, for all groups. Our data revealed that the meta-bolic parameters like consumption of food and water, pH and urine vol-ume have not been affected; also the difference between liver, right kid-ney and heart weight was not significant. The levels of cholesterol and triglyceride were significantly increased in group 2 and group 3 compared to control group. There was no significant difference in the level of cholesterol and triglyceride in group 4. Treatment with saffron alone did not have any significant effects on the level of fat compared to control group. The oral administration of the crude extract of saffron revealed good hypolipidemic effects in adult male albino rats. These results suggest that aqueous saffron extract reduced plasma cholesterol and decreased triglyceride. Therefore, it could conceivably lead to suitable changes in blood lipid profiles. [J Med Allied Sci 2017; 7(1.000: 20-25

  20. AFLP and MS-AFLP analysis of the variation within saffron crocus (Crocus sativus L. germplasm.

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    Matteo Busconi

    Full Text Available The presence and extent of genetic variation in saffron crocus are still debated, as testified by several contradictory articles providing contrasting results about the monomorphism or less of the species. Remarkably, phenotypic variations have been frequently observed in the field, such variations are usually unstable and can change from one growing season to another. Considering that gene expression can be influenced both by genetic and epigenetic changes, epigenetics could be a plausible cause of the alternative phenotypes. In order to obtain new insights into this issue, we carried out a molecular marker analysis of 112 accessions from the World Saffron and Crocus Collection. The accessions were grown for at least three years in the same open field conditions. The same samples were analysed using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP and Methyl Sensitive AFLP in order to search for variation at the genetic (DNA sequence and epigenetic (cytosine methylation level. While the genetic variability was low (4.23% polymorphic peaks and twelve (12 effective different genotypes, the methyl sensitive analysis showed the presence of high epigenetic variability (33.57% polymorphic peaks and twenty eight (28 different effective epigenotypes. The pattern obtained by Factorial Correspondence Analysis of AFLP and, in particular, of MS-AFLP data was consistent with the geographical provenance of the accessions. Very interestingly, by focusing on Spanish accessions, it was observed that the distribution of the accessions in the Factorial Correspondence Analysis is not random but tends to reflect the geographical origin. Two clearly defined clusters grouping accessions from the West (Toledo and Ciudad Real and accessions from the East (Cuenca and Teruel were clearly recognised.

  1. Phenological growth stages of saffron plant (Crocus sativus L. according to the BBCH Scale

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    Horacio Lopez-Corcoles

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Phenological studies are important for understanding the influence of climate dynamics on vegetative growth, flowering and fruiting on plants and can be used in many scientific subjects, such as Agronomy, Botany and Plant Biology, but also Climatology as a result of the current global interest in climate change monitoring. The purpose of the detailed specific culture descriptions of the principal growth stages in plants is to provide an instrument for standardization of data recording. To date, there was no coding method to describe developmental stages on saffron plant (Crocus sativus L.. Because of the increasing world-wide interest on this crop, a novel growth development code based on the BBCH extended scale is proposed in this paper. Six principal growth stages were set up, starting from sprouting, cataphylls and flowers appearance, plant appearance and development, replacement corms development, plant senescence and corm dormancy. Each principal growth stage is subdivided into secondary growth stages. Descriptive keys with illustrations are included to make effective use of the system.

  2. Phenological growth stages of saffron plant (Crocus sativus L.) according to the BBCH Scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Corcoles, H.; Brasa-Ramos, A.; Montero-Garcia, F.; Romero-Valverde, M.; Montero-Riquelme, F.

    2015-07-01

    Phenological studies are important for understanding the influence of climate dynamics on vegetative growth, flowering and fruiting on plants and can be used in many scientific subjects, such as Agronomy, Botany and Plant Biology, but also Climatology as a result of the current global interest in climate change monitoring. The purpose of the detailed specific culture descriptions of the principal growth stages in plants is to provide an instrument for standardization of data recording. To date, there was no coding method to describe developmental stages on saffron plant (Crocus sativus L.). Because of the increasing world-wide interest on this crop, a novel growth development code based on the BBCH extended scale is proposed in this paper. Six principal growth stages were set up, starting from sprouting, cataphylls and flowers appearance, plant appearance and development, replacement corms development, plant senescence and corm dormancy. Each principal growth stage is subdivided into secondary growth stages. Descriptive keys with illustrations are included to make effective use of the system. (Author)

  3. Barcoding melting curve analysis for rapid, sensitive, and discriminating authentication of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) from its adulterants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chao; Cao, Liang; Yuan, Yuan; Chen, Min; Jin, Yan; Huang, Luqi

    2014-01-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is one of the most important and expensive medicinal spice products in the world. Because of its high market value and premium price, saffron is often adulterated through the incorporation of other materials, such as Carthamus tinctorius L. and Calendula officinalis L. flowers, Hemerocallis L. petals, Daucus carota L. fleshy root, Curcuma longa L. rhizomes, Zea may L., and Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. stigmas. To develop a straightforward, nonsequencing method for rapid, sensitive, and discriminating detection of these adulterants in traded saffron, we report here the application of a barcoding melting curve analysis method (Bar-MCA) that uses the universal chloroplast plant DNA barcoding region trnH-psbA to identify adulterants. When amplified at DNA concentrations and annealing temperatures optimized for the curve analysis, peaks were formed at specific locations for saffron (81.92°C) and the adulterants: D. carota (81.60°C), C. tinctorius (80.10°C), C. officinalis (79.92°C), Dendranthema morifolium (Ramat.) Tzvel. (79.62°C), N. nucifera (80.58°C), Hemerocallis fulva (L.) L. (84.78°C), and Z. mays (84.33°C). The constructed melting curves for saffron and its adulterants have significantly different peak locations or shapes. In conclusion, Bar-MCA could be a faster and more cost-effective method to authenticate saffron and detect its adulterants.

  4. Barcoding Melting Curve Analysis for Rapid, Sensitive, and Discriminating Authentication of Saffron (Crocus sativus L. from Its Adulterants

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    Chao Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Saffron (Crocus sativus L. is one of the most important and expensive medicinal spice products in the world. Because of its high market value and premium price, saffron is often adulterated through the incorporation of other materials, such as Carthamus tinctorius L. and Calendula officinalis L. flowers, Hemerocallis L. petals, Daucus carota L. fleshy root, Curcuma longa L. rhizomes, Zea may L., and Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. stigmas. To develop a straightforward, nonsequencing method for rapid, sensitive, and discriminating detection of these adulterants in traded saffron, we report here the application of a barcoding melting curve analysis method (Bar-MCA that uses the universal chloroplast plant DNA barcoding region trnH-psbA to identify adulterants. When amplified at DNA concentrations and annealing temperatures optimized for the curve analysis, peaks were formed at specific locations for saffron (81.92°C and the adulterants: D. carota (81.60°C, C. tinctorius (80.10°C, C. officinalis (79.92°C, Dendranthema morifolium (Ramat. Tzvel. (79.62°C, N. nucifera (80.58°C, Hemerocallis fulva (L. L. (84.78°C, and Z. mays (84.33°C. The constructed melting curves for saffron and its adulterants have significantly different peak locations or shapes. In conclusion, Bar-MCA could be a faster and more cost-effective method to authenticate saffron and detect its adulterants.

  5. Genetic and Epigenetic Approaches for the Possible Detection of Adulteration and Auto-Adulteration in Saffron (Crocus sativus L. Spice

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    Giovanna Soffritti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Saffron (Crocus sativus L. is very expensive and, because of this, often subject to adulteration. Modern genetic fingerprinting techniques are an alternative low cost technology to the existing chemical techniques, which are used to control the purity of food products. Buddleja officinalis Maxim, Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, Curcuma longa L., Carthamus tinctorius L. and Calendula officinalis L. are among the most frequently-used adulterants in saffron spice. Three commercial kits were compared concerning the ability to recover PCR-grade DNA from saffron, truly adulterated samples and possible adulterants, with a clear difference among them, mainly with the processed samples. Only one of the three kits was able to obtain amplifiable DNA from almost all of the samples, with the exception of extracts. On the recovered DNA, new markers were developed based on the sequence of the plastid genes matK and rbcL. These primers, mainly those developed on matK, were able to recognize saffron and the adulterant species and also in mixtures with very low percentages of adulterant. Finally, considering that the addition of different parts of saffron flowers is one of the most widespread adulterations, by analyzing the DNA of the different parts of the flower (styles, stamens and tepals at the genetic and epigenetic level, we succeeded in finding differences between the three tissues that can be further evaluated for a possible detection of the kind of fraud.

  6. The Effect of Different Hormones on Callus Induction, Regeneration and Multiplication of Saffron (Crocus Sativus L. Corms

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    Abbas Safarnejad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Saffron (Crocus sativus; Iridaceae is an important economic and medicinal crop in Iran. The saffron that is an herbaceous triploid geophyte is used mainly as a source of secondary metabolites having aromatic and medicinal value. The plant develops annually from buds on the mother corm – i.e. a thickened stem - which acts as a resting, perennating storage organ. In this research in vitro propagation of Crocus sativus through direct and indirect methods has been studied. Corm slices as explants were sterilized and transferred to MS media with different concentrations of plant growth regulators. The results showed that use of HgCl2 0.15% for 20 minutes is the best treatment for sterilization. The results of ANOVA of direct regeneration indicated that the most corm formation was observed in 2 mg/l BAP. Maximum callus induction was achieved on MS supplemented with 1 mg/l 2,4-D + 2 mg/l BAP. As results indicate the most number of embryos were obtained in MS medium containing 0.15 mg/ l NAA. Also this medium was suitable for germination of embryo. Corm formation was only observed in MS supplemented with1 mg/l 2, 4-D + 2 mg/l BAP in the indirect method. The corm was transferred to JF pot for adaptation and then it was transferred to the pot and soil for growing.

  7. Study on Effect of Type of Explant and Hormone on Callus Induction and Regeneration in Saffron (Crocus sativus L.

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    Mohsen Sajjadi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Saffron (Crocus sativus L. is one of the medicinal plants that contain active components and medicinal materials. Tissue culture of saffron can improve the quality and quantity of the saffron product, increase its export and the farmers’ income. In this study, 36 different types of hormone combinations in the dark and 9 different treatments of hormone combinations in cold (4°C, using different saffron explants (bulb, leaf, scales around leaf and distal parts of the leaf were studied in tissue culture. To investigate the growth of corms, the callus formation and the regeneration rate, three replications for each treatment were used and the length of shoot (cm, the callus formation percentage and the regeneration percentage were measured and statistical analysis was performed. Among the types of explants, only explants from bulbs produced the callus on MS medium containing 2 mg.l-1 BAP and 1 mg.l-1 IBA in both the dark and cold conditions. The highest percentage of regeneration was obtained in MS medium with hormonal composition of 0.3 mg.l-1 TDZ, 1 mg.l-1 BAP, 2 mg.l-1 IBA and 0.01 mg.l-1 GA3 in the cold conditions.

  8. Effect of aqueous extract of saffron (crocus sativus L.) against gamma radiation-induced skeletal muscles damage in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Tahawy, N.A; Said, U.Z

    2010-01-01

    Muscular strength is important in sport as well as in daily activities. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative damage are the most important factors in radiation-induced acute damage to muscle tissue. Saffron, obtained from dried stigmas of Crocus sativus L. (Iridaceae), is a highly valued spice, commonly used in flavouring and food colouring in different parts of the world and is known to possess the richest source of carotenoids. The present study was designed to investigate the efficacy of an aqueous extract of saffron to protect against radiation-induced oxidative damage in rat's skeletal muscle. Saffron was supplemented orally, via gavages to rats at a dose of 80 mg/ kg body wt/ day for 2 week pre- and 1 week post-exposure to 5 Gy (one shot dose) of whole body gamma-irradiation. Animals were sacrificed 1, 2 and 3 weeks post radiation exposure. The results revealed that whole body gamma-irradiation of rats induce oxidative stress in skeletal muscles obvious by significant elevation in the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances associated with significant decreases in superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. Also, radiation-induces skeletal muscles damage evidenced by significant decreases in the level of pyruvic acid, creatine phosphokinase, glutamate dehydrogenase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities as well as significant increases in lactic acid, total iron, and copper and calcium levels. Saffron treated-irradiated rats showed significantly less severe damage and remarkable improvement in all the measured parameters, compared to irradiated rats. It could be concluded that saffron by attenuating radiation-induced oxidative stress might play a role in maintaining skeletal muscle integrity.

  9. Effects of Bed Type, Corm Weight and Lifting Time on Quantitative and Qualitative Criteria of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.

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    A. Mollafiilabi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Saffron (Crocus sativus L. as the most important medicinal and agricultural crop of the world has therapeutic properties including laxative, stomach stimulant, anti cancer, anti inflammation and against spasm. One of the reasons of lower yield in traditional farms of Iran is using small corms of old farms. Combining the date of corm lifting and the duration of 25°C incubation, corms could be flowered from early September to mid-December. The results showed that corm weight of saffron affects significantly on flowering and yield. Soils covered by mulch or surface mulch compared with soils lack of mulch have a higher thermal adjustment so that in higher ambient temperature the soil can be warm later and at night they lose their warmth later. This research was conducted to find the effects of corm weight, planting beds under hydroponics at commercial level and determination of the best time of corm lifting from farm and its transfer for production and their interaction under controlled conditions on yield and other characters of this precious crop. Material and Methods In order to study effects of corm weight and time of its lifting from farm in planting beds an experiment was conducted as factorial in the form of RCBD in three replicates at the agric. Research complex of Fadak and Research Institute of Food Science and Technology (RIFST in 2010. Factors under study were: two corm weights (8 to 10 and more than 10 g, two planting beds (stone wool and peat moss and six lifting times (mid June, early July, mid July, early August , mid August and early October. For 40 days, 457 corms per m-2 were stored in incubation with 85% relative humidity and 25°C temperature at the darkness. Then, saffron corms were transferred in growth chamber with 17° C in 8/16 h light and dark. Characteristics such as number of flower, fresh weight of flower, dry weight of flower, fresh and dry weight of stigma, fresh and dry weight of style, fresh and dry

  10. Effect of drought stress, corm size and corm tunic on morphoecophysiological characteristics of saffron (Crocus sativus L. in greenhouse conditions

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    M. Sabet Teimouri

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effects of corm tunic, corm weight and drought stress on saffron (Crocus sativus L., an experiment was conducted at the greenhouse of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. Treatment were combination of four corm weights range (2-4, 4-6, 6-8 and 8-10 g, two levels of water availability (100% field capacity and drought and two levels of corm tunic (natural corm with tunic and without tunic as factorial arrangement based on completely randomized block design with three replications. The corms were divided to four groups based on their weights and removed tunics of corm in tunic free treatment. Results indicated that the highest biomass produced in irrigation, corms with tunic with maximum weight. Both chlorophyll a and b contents decreased significantly under drought stress and chlorophyll b content was 50% of chlorophyll a content. Effect of corm size and corm tunic and interaction of these treatments imposed a significant effect on the leaf number per plant, leaf weight and chlorophyll content. Effect of corm tunic in 8-10 g corm size increased ch (a/ch (b ratio and leaf number. The relative water content was decreased in drought treatment in both tunic and tunicless treatments and the best corm weight in all treatment was 6-8g and could be useful to tolerate drought stress.

  11. Hepatoprotective effect of Crocus sativus (saffron petals extract against acetaminophen toxicity in male Wistar rats

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    Arash Omidi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Acetaminophen (APAP toxicity is known to be common and potentially fatal. This study aims to investigate the protective effects of hydroalcoholic extract, remaining from Crocus sativus petals (CSP against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity by measuring the blood parameters and studying the histopathology of liver in male rats. Materials and Methods: Wister rats (24 were randomly assigned into four groups including: I healthy, receiving normal saline; II Intoxicated, receiving only APAP (600 mg/kg; III pre-treated with low dose of CSP (10 mg /kg and receiving APAP (600 mg/kg; IV pre-treated with high dose of CSP (20 mg/kg and receiving APAP (600 mg/kg. Results: The APAP treatment resulted in higher levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and bilirubin, along with lower total protein and albumin concentration than the control group. The administration of CSP with a dose of 20 mg/kg was found to result in lower levels of AST, ALT and bilirubin, with a significant higher concentration of total protein and albumin. The histopathological results regarding liver pathology, revealed sever conditions including cell swelling, severe inflammation and necrosis in APAP-exposed rats, which was quiet contrasting compared to the control group. The pre-treated rats with low doses of ‍CSP showed hydropic degeneration with mild necrosis in centrilobular areas of the liver, while the same subjects with high doses of ‍CSP appeared to have only mild hepatocyte degeneration. Conclusions: Doses of 20 mg/kg of CSP ameliorates APAP–induced acute liver injury in rats. It was concluded that the antioxidant property of CSP resulted in reducing the oxidative stress complications of toxic levels of APAP in intoxicated rats.

  12. Potential application of machine vision technology to saffron (Crocus sativus L.) quality characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiani, Sajad; Minaei, Saeid

    2016-12-01

    Saffron quality characterization is an important issue in the food industry and of interest to the consumers. This paper proposes an expert system based on the application of machine vision technology for characterization of saffron and shows how it can be employed in practical usage. There is a correlation between saffron color and its geographic location of production and some chemical attributes which could be properly used for characterization of saffron quality and freshness. This may be accomplished by employing image processing techniques coupled with multivariate data analysis for quantification of saffron properties. Expert algorithms can be made available for prediction of saffron characteristics such as color as well as for product classification. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. In silico identification of miRNAs and their target genes and analysis of gene co-expression network in saffron (Crocus sativus L.) stigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinati, Zahra; Shamloo-Dashtpagerdi, Roohollah; Behpouri, Ali

    2016-01-01

    As an aromatic and colorful plant of substantive taste, saffron (Crocus sativus L.) owes such properties of matter to growing class of the secondary metabolites derived from the carotenoids, apocarotenoids. Regarding the critical role of microRNAs in secondary metabolic synthesis and the limited number of identified miRNAs in C. sativus, on the other hand, one may see the point how the characterization of miRNAs along with the corresponding target genes in C. sativus might expand our perspectives on the roles of miRNAs in carotenoid/apocarotenoid biosynthetic pathway. A computational analysis was used to identify miRNAs and their targets using EST (Expressed Sequence Tag) library from mature saffron stigmas. Then, a gene co- expression network was constructed to identify genes which are potentially involved in carotenoid/apocarotenoid biosynthetic pathways. EST analysis led to the identification of two putative miRNAs (miR414 and miR837-5p) along with the corresponding stem- looped precursors. To our knowledge, this is the first report on miR414 and miR837-5p in C. sativus. Co-expression network analysis indicated that miR414 and miR837-5p may play roles in C. sativus metabolic pathways and led to identification of candidate genes including six transcription factors and one protein kinase probably involved in carotenoid/apocarotenoid biosynthetic pathway. Presence of transcription factors, miRNAs and protein kinase in the network indicated multiple layers of regulation in saffron stigma. The candidate genes from this study may help unraveling regulatory networks underlying the carotenoid/apocarotenoid biosynthesis in saffron and designing metabolic engineering for enhanced secondary metabolites. PMID:28261627

  14. The toxicity of saffron (Crocus sativus L. and its constituents against normal and cancer cells

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    Alireza Milajerdi

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: In conclusion, emerging evidence suggests that saffron extract and its crocin, crocetin and safranal have a selective toxicity effects against cancer cells and also may have cancer preventive functions. However, Saffron and its constituent's toxicity against normal cells is negligible and they are even non-toxic in oral administration.

  15. Effect of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) enrichment on antioxidant and sensorial properties of wheat flour pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armellini, R; Peinado, I; Pittia, P; Scampicchio, M; Heredia, A; Andres, A

    2018-07-15

    Saffron, used in cookery as a flavouring and colouring agent, is well-known for its antioxidant and beneficial health properties. In the present work, the effect of saffron addition (0-control, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4%, w/w) in the formulation of fresh pasta was evaluated on textural, physical-chemical, and sensory properties of the cooked product. Content and retention of the bioactive molecules of saffron (crocins) were evaluated by HPLC along with the corresponding antioxidant activity of enriched pasta. The presence of saffron significantly influenced textural and physical-chemical properties of pasta. Higher saffron concentrations enhanced the antioxidant activity of pasta with the higher values of crocins in samples enriched with 0.4% saffron extract even after 3 min of cooking (4.23-5.06 mg/g db). Sensory analysis showed an increased acceptability of the saffron enriched pasta for all descriptors selected (visual aspect, colour, aroma, taste, chewiness, hardness, gumminess and overall acceptability). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of the Extinction Coefficient, Radiation Absorption and Use Efficiency of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.

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    Seyyedeh Maliheh Mirhashemi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Leaf area index, light extinction coefficient and radiation use efficiency are important eco-physiological characteristics for realization of crops growth, development and radiation absorption. In order to determine the leaf area index (LAI, light extinction coefficient (K and radiation use efficiency (RUE of saffron during the first and second growing seasons, four experiments were started in 2011 and ended in 2014, at the Research Farm of the Agriculture Faculty, the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. Saffron corms with weights between 13 to15 g and density of 50 plant.m2 were cultivated in 2011 and 2012. In all experimental years during the growing season, crop sampling was taken for required measurements including the leaf area index and shoot dry weight of saffron once every 14 days. The results showed that by increasing the age of saffron from 1 year to two years, the maximum LAI of saffron increased from 0.33 to 1.81, and light extinction coefficient decreased from 1.20 to 0.54. The increasing trend of LAI was coincident with fraction of absorbed radiation for all four years of the experiment. In the first and the second growing seasons, the amount of fraction of absorbed radiation gradually increased with increasing LAI and at 1083 and 1034 GDD reached its maximum value, respectively. In saffron farms when the plant was one year old and two years old, the mean value of RUE was 0.68 and 1.73 g.MJ-1 PAR, respectively. These results indicate that by increasing the saffron age and LAI, the value of K decreases and consequently radiation absorption and use efficiency will‎ increase.

  17. The Effect of Increased Temperature on Flowering Behaviour of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.

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    A. Koocheki

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Flowering in saffron requires a period of incubation at high temperatures for flower differentiation followed by a period of low temperatures for flower emergence. Global warming could adversely affect the flowering of saffron because of its high sensitivity to temperature. Flowering behaviour of saffron in response to rising temperature was studied in an experiment conducted in controlled environment. Corms with identical sizes were collected form green or fully withered field grown plants and sown in plastic pots. Pots were incubated in 25, 27 and 30 °C for 70, 90 and 120 days. By the end of each incubation period, pots incubated in 25, 27 and 30 °C were transferred to 17, 19 and 21 °C, respectively. Days to flowering, development rate and growth characteristics of saffron were measured in alternative temperature regimes of 25/17, 27/19 and 30/21 °C in combination with 3 incubation periods and in 3 replications. The results indicated that increasing incubation temperature up to 27 °C had no significant effects on saffron flowering behaviour however, no flower was appeared from corms incubated in 30°C. Increased duration of incubation period had adverse effects on flower emergence and corms incubated for 120 days were only flowered in 27/19 °C temperature regime. The optimal flowering response and the highest number of vegetative buds was obtained when 90 days incubation period at 27 °C was followed by a period for flower emergence at 17°C. Corms lifted from green or withered plants showed similar response to temperature regimes and incubation periods. However, in average duration of sowing to flowering was 5 days longer in corms lifted from green plants. Comparing the results of this research with daily temperature in the main saffron production areas of Khorasan provinces showed that increasing mean daily temperature by 2 °C during summer and autumn results in a considerable delay in flowering of saffron.

  18. Effect of Corm Density on Yield and Qualitative Traits of Saffron (Crocus sativus L. under Different Urea and Biological Fertilizers in Shahr-e-Rey Region

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    Alireza pazoki

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available To study the effect of corm density on yield and qualitative traits of saffron (Crocus sativus L. under different biological and chemical nitrogen fertilizers, a factorial experiment based on completely randomized block design with 3 replications was done in 2014 at Shahr-e-Rey region (Ghomi Abad. The experimental factors were: corm density in 3 levels (60, 120 and 180 corm per square meter and biological and chemical nitrogen fertilizers in 4 levels (without fertilizer application, 150 kg.ha-1 of Urea, 5 L.ha-1 of Nitroxin and 75 kg.ha-1 of Urea +5 L.ha-1 of Nitroxin. The results indicated that the corm density affects number of daughter corm, fresh daughter corm weight, corm diameter, dry stigma and style weight, dry and fresh flower weight significantly. Mean comparisons also indicated that by increasing corm density from 6o to 180, saffron dry yield of saffron improved by 2.7 fold. However, increasing corm density reduced corm diameter, fresh corm daughter weight and their numbers per square meter. It can be concluded that nitroxin as an organic fertilizer, increases vegetative traits and saffron dry yield (stigma + style weight to 2.08 kg.ha-1 and highly improves in qualitative traits like Safranal, Picrocrocin, and Crocin. It can be also said that combined use of nitroxin and urea would be an alternative method to reduce application of urea.

  19. Study a possibility of saffron (Crocus sativus L. production in vertical culture

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    Lorin ali ahmad

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years many research studies have been carried out to use a vertical planting system for production of some plants. Although saffron is one of the most expensive spices in the word, there is no investigation about saffron production in a vertical planting system. Therefore, the growth and production of saffron plant in two different systems (vertical and horizontal were studied in the agricultural research field of the Tarbiat Modares University during the 2013-2014 growing seasons. In the vertical system, saffron corms were planted in fabric bags containing potting soil. The fabric bags were hanged on a cube of metal with an area of each side of the cube being equal to 2.25 square meters. In the horizontal system, the corms were planted in three plots with the area of each plots being 2.25 square meters. The results showed that in the vertical planting system, the number of flowers, flower dry weight and dry weight of stigma per unit area of land (10 flower, 347.34 and 0.56 mg respectively were significantly higher than those obtained in the horizontal culture (They were almost three times higher .In contrast, the numbers and dry weight of lateral corms (2.4 corm and 0.36 g respectively and the dry weight of apical corm (0.88 g in the horizontal system were significantly greater than those obtained in the vertical system. Dry weight of leaf and root were significantly greater in the vertical system. The total number of buds and leaves were more in the horizontal culture. However, the maximum leaf length of the vertical planting system was higher than those of the horizontal system.

  20. Impact of use of different sources of humic, bio and nano fertilizers and nitrogen levels on saffron (.Crocus sativus L flower yield

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    aliasghar armak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at investigating the effect of using humic, bio and nano fertilizers and levels of nitrogen fertilizers in flower yield of saffron (Crocus sativus L. at the University of Torbat Heydarieh research farm located in Zaveh in 2014-2015. Treatments consisted of three levels of nitrogen application and use of fertilizer sources as the main factor, including Bioumik, Super Humic, combined Super Humic and Bioumik, Humi Ful, Nitrokara and no fertilizer as sub plots as split plot based on randomized complete block design with 18 treatments and three replications. Analysis of data showed that the effect of year and fertilizer sources on all traits measured was significant. The effect of nitrogen treatments was significant (at 1% except on number of flowers, dry style, mean dry weight stigma, and mean dry weight. Fertilizer sources increased all measured traits significantly. Application of Biomic increased petals and sepals dry weight (736.34 g/m2 by 46.78% in comparison with the control (464.19 g/m2. The highest dry weight stigma (524.2 g/m2 was seen in Super Humic + Bioumik treatment compared to the control group (443.1 g/m2. Super Humic treatment increased dry weight stigma by 86.49% relative to control. It seems that the use of humic, bio and nano fertilizers has a good effect on saffron performance.

  1. Effect of corm planting density, organic and chemical fertilizers on formation and phosphorus uptake of saffron (Crocus sativus L. replacement corms during phonological stages

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    Hassan Feizi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Saffron (Crocus sativus L. propagates by replacement corms producing from the mother corm after flowering during each season. In order to investigate the effect of corm planting density, organic and chemical fertilizers on formation and phosphorus uptake of saffron replacement corms during phonological stages, a field experiment was conducted as factorial layout based on randomized complete block design with three replications, at Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, during 2013 and 2014 growing seasons. The experimental treatments were all combination of different levels of planting density (25, 50, 75 and 100 corms per m2 and fertilizer sources (manure 25 t. ha-1, chemical fertilizer (N 150 kg ha-1 + P 75 kg ha-1 and control. Due to different sampling dates of replacement corms during phonological stages (21 November, 21 December, 20 January, 20 April and 21 May, respectively, the experimental data were analyzed as factorial - split in time based on a randomized complete block design. Based on results, the highest number of replacement corms lower than 4 g (5.8 corms per plant were observed in fifth sampling stage and then decreased. In all levels of planting density (25 to 100 corms per m2, the effects of manure on increasing the number, weight and phosphorus content of replacement corms in range of 4.1 to 8 and 8.1 to 12 g per plant were significantly higher than chemical fertilizer. In fifth sampling stage, by applying the manure, the weight and phosphorus content of replacement corms in range of 8.1 to 12 g per plant were significantly increased (approximately twice, as compared to chemical fertilizer. It seems the decrease in saffron yield as result to decreasing the corm planting density can be slightly offset by increasing the percentage of larger corms formation per plant.

  2. Effects of Planting Dates, Irrigation Management and Cover Crops on Growth and Yield of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.

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    A Koocheki

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Saffron as a winter active plant with low water requirement is the most strategic medicinal plant in arid and semi-arid parts of Iran. This slow-growing plant has narrow leaves and no aerial stem, hence weeds can be overcome it. Moreover, because of its root and canopy structure an important part of different resources is not used by this low input crop. Therefore, the use of associated crops could be an effective way for increasing resources use efficiencies (Koocheki et al., 2016. Appropriate corm planting date is another important factor that affects saffron growth and yield. Results of some studies show that late spring is the best time for corm planting (Ghasemi-Rooshnavand, 2009; Koocheki et al., 2016. In addition, irrigation management has been evaluated in some studies, but irrigation immediately after corm planting has not been investigated previously. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of irrigation management, planting date and the use of some companion crops on flowering of saffron during two growth cycles. Materials and methods This experiment was carried out as a split-split plot experiment based on a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications at Research Station, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran in 2009-2011. Experimental factors included: planting date of saffron as main factor (first of June, first of August and first of October, 2009, the irrigation management as sub factor (irrigation and no irrigation after each planting date and the companion crops as sub-sub factor [Persian clover (Trifolium resupinatum, Bitter vetch (Lathyrus sativus and control. Corm planting was done in 10×25 cm distances with 12 cm depth. In the second year irrigation was done again in the plots which were irrigated after planting in the first year at the same previous dates. Companion crops were sown after first flower picking (November, 2009, then their residue were returned to the soil in

  3. Crocus sativus L

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-06-25

    709-712. Sivanesan I, Jana S, Jeong BR (2014). In-vitro shoot regeneration and microcorm development in Crocus vernus (L.) hill. Pak. J. Bot. 46(2):693-697. Sivanesan I, Jeong BR (2012). Identification of somaclonal variants in.

  4. Effects of Different Corm Densities and Bed Types on Flower Yield Components of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.

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    A. Mollafilabi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Saffron is among the most precious agricultural and medicinal plants of the world and has a specific placement in Iran exports. In Iran total cultivation area was 93000 ha in 2017 that from which about 96% devoted to two main provinces of saffron production including Khorasan-Razavi and South Khorasan with total production of 351 ton saffron. Saffron has unique characters including low water requirement, saffron irrigation in times that other crops do not need, farm utilization for some years, ease of transportation, lack of need to special machinery and complex technology, high capacity to use labor in time of picking flowers, occupation and in the end prevention from immigration and exchange income that make this crop becomes superior in those regions that lack of industrial perspectives and having water limitations. Organic fertilizers have effective role in saffron production including physical improvement of saffron soil, temperature relief, penetration improvement, porosity increase, and soil reducdtion in hardiness, and cause to saffron flowering. Several factors like climate, diseases, irrigation, storage, planting date, chemical and biological fertilizers and animal manure are very effective in saffron quantity and quality. Saffron yield depends on several factors like soil, crop density, planting method, corm size, geographical location, climatic factors like temperature fluctuations specially in time of flowering, rate of rainfall, cultural management and utilization period. The aim of this study was to determine possible effects of corm density and bed type on flower yield components and stigma yield of saffron. Materials and methods In order to evaluate effects of corm density and bed type on reproductive characters, yield components of flower and saffron stigma an experiment was conducted in the form of factorial as RCBD with three replicates at the research farm of Khorasan Science and Technology Part (KSTP during

  5. Crocus sativus L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-10-18

    Oct 18, 2007 ... as cow manure (Behzad et al., 1992b; Behnia et al.,. 1999; Unal and Çavuşoğlu, 2005). Similarly, McGimpsey et al. (1997) reported that application of sawdust mulch increased stigma yield. These findings suggested that natural materials improving soil structure might have more effect on saffron yield than ...

  6. Effects of humic acid application and mother corm weight on yield and growth of saffron (Crocus sativus L.

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    A Koocheki

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Saffron as a food, spicy and medicinal plant has more than 62000 ha under cultivation with about 250 tons annual dry stigma production in Iran, which includes about 90% of its world production. Therefore, this plant has a specific value in agricultural export products of Iran (Fallahi et al., 2014. Due to the important role of saffron in Iran’s agroecosystems, the improvement of its agronomic practices is essential. Nutritional management and mother corms size are two of the main factors affecting growth and yield of saffron. Humic acid is an eco-friendly fertilizer that improves the physical, chemical and biological properties of soil. This nutritional source has hormonal compounds and exerts a positive effect on elements absorption, quality and yield of plants. In addition, in saffron cultivation, it is possible to produce considerable amounts of stigma by using of standard mother corms with a minimum weight of 8 g. Because, large corms have a positive effect on stigma yield especially in the first growth cycle and the weight of replacement corms and consequently saffron flowering in the other growth cycles (Nassiri Mahallati et al., 2008. Therefore, the aim of this research was to investigate the interaction effects of mother corm size and different rates of humic acid on growth and yield of saffron. Materials and methods This experiment was carried out as factorial based on randomized completely block design with three replications in research farm of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, during two growing season (2009-2011. Experimental factors were consisted of mother corm weight (4-5, 6-8 and 9-10 g and application of humic acid (0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 kg.ha-1. Mother corm planting was in early October, 2009 with 10×20 cm corms distances and planting depth of 10cm. Humic acid (dissolved in water was used along with the first autumnal irrigation in two season growth. Flower and stigma yield of saffron were measured

  7. Cloning, Structural Characterization, and Phylogenetic Analysis of Flower MADS-Box Genes from Crocus (Crocus sativus L.

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    Athanasios S. Tsaftaris

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Crocus (Crocus sativus L. is a crop species cultivated for its flowers and, more specifically, for its red stigmas. The flower of crocus is bisexual and sterile, since crocus is a triploid species. Its perianth consists of six petaloid tepals: three tepals in whorl 1 (outer tepals and three tepals in whorl 2 (inner tepals. The androecium consists of three distinct stamens and the gynoecium consists of a single compound pistil with three carpels, a single three-branched style, and an inferior ovary. The dry form of the stigmas constitutes the commercial saffron used as a food additive, in the coloring industry, and in medicine. In order to uncover and understand the molecular mechanisms controlling flower development in cultivated crocus and its relative wild progenitor species, and characterize a number of crocus flower mutants, we have cloned and characterized different, full-length, cDNA sequences encoding MADS-box transcription factor proteins involved in flower formation.

  8. The Effect of Pre-emergence Application of some Common Herbicides on Weed Population, Vegetative Growth, Flower and Corm Characteristics of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.

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    R. Sadrabadi Haghighi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Intoduction: Saffron (Corocus sativus L. as the most expensive crop has special position among export products of Iran. Currently, Iran is the biggest saffron producer and exporter in the world. Much of saffron in Iran produced in South and Razavi provinces (6. One of the problems in saffron production of these regions is weed control. Weed competing with saffron for water, nutrients, light cause reduction of product (3, 7. Among control methods of weed, use of herbicides is not common in saffron fields. The main reason is the evidences about herbicides damage. For example, Zare Hosseini et al (14 observed application of herbicides of Iodosulfuron methyl sodium + Mesosulfuron- methyl+ Mefenpyr-diethyl destroyed grasses and broadleaf, but it destroyed saffron plant too. Haloxyfop- R methyl ester damaged grasses, but decreased stigma yield. This study aimed to investigate the effect of pre-emergence herbicides on weed population changes; the performance characteristics of saffron and saffron corms were implemented. Materials and Methods: An experiment was conducted in a 4-year saffron farm located in Shahn Abad village, Zaveh city in Khorasan Razavi province in 2011- 2012. It was in a completely randomized block design with eight treatments and three replications. The treatments included six pre-emergence herbicides including Metribuzin 70% WP (850 g.ha-1, Oxyfluorfen24% EC (1 l.ha-1, Ioxynil 22.5% EC (1.5 l.ha-1, Etalfluorelin 33.3%EC (3 l.ha-1, Trifluoralin 48%EC (2 l.ha-1 and Chloridazon 80 %WP (5 Kg.ha-1 + Desmedipham 15.7% EC (5 l.ha-1 along with weed free and weedy check. Herbicides applied after irrigation simultaneously with crust breaking. The measurement characteristics included the number of flowers, fresh and dry weight of flower and stigma, leaf dry weight, leaf length, corm number and weight of saffron, weed type and wet and dry weight of dominant weeds. Herbicide treatments after irrigation were performed simultaneously with Crust

  9. Evaluation of yield and identifying potential regions for Saffron (Crocus sativus L. cultivation in Khorasan Razavi province according to temperature parameters

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    Moein Tosan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Saffron is cultivated in most part of Iran, because of low water requirement and well adaptation to diverse environmental condition. In recent years, for many reasons such as low water requirement, saffron cultivation areas has been increased especially in Khorasan Razavi province. Temperature is one of the most important factors in saffron flowering phenomena. The aim of this research was to evaluate the response of saffron to temperature in Khorasan Razavi province counties (Torbat-e-Heydarieh, Gonabad, Nishabour, Sabzevar and Ghoochan. Climatic data (monthly minimum, average, maximum temperatures and diurnal temperature range and saffron yield data were collected for past 20 years period. The stepwise regression methods were used to remove extra parameters and only keep the most important ones. By using these equations and ArcGIS software zoning, Spline method was find the best for saffron crop zoning. The results of linear regression in Gonabad showed that minimum, maximum and average temperature and also diurnal temperature range in March and April months had the greatest impact on saffron yield. For each of the four indices (the minimum, maximum and average temperature and also diurnal temperature range the best area for saffron cultivation was the southern part of the province (particularly Gonabad; so by increasing distance from this area to north areas (such as Kashmar, Torbat-e-Heydarieh, Sabzevar, Nishabour, Mashhad and finally Ghoochan saffron yield reduced by 30 to 50 percent. Therefore, the northern areas of the province had relatively low saffron yield. According to result of this research, saffron yield in Khorasan Razavi province was significantly influenced by temperature parameters. Flowering which basically is the most important stage of plant growth, is directly setting up with temperature.

  10. Geographical identification of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) by linear discriminant analysis applied to the UV-visible spectra of aqueous extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Archivio, Angelo Antonio; Maggi, Maria Anna

    2017-03-15

    We attempted geographical classification of saffron using UV-visible spectroscopy, conventionally adopted for quality grading according to the ISO Normative 3632. We investigated 81 saffron samples produced in L'Aquila, Città della Pieve, Cascia, and Sardinia (Italy) and commercial products purchased in various supermarkets. Exploratory principal component analysis applied to the UV-vis spectra of saffron aqueous extracts revealed a clear differentiation of the samples belonging to different quality categories, but a poor separation according to the geographical origin of the spices. On the other hand, linear discriminant analysis based on 8 selected absorbance values, concentrated near 279, 305 and 328nm, allowed a good distinction of the spices coming from different sites. Under severe validation conditions (30% and 50% of saffron samples in the evaluation set), correct predictions were 85 and 83%, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Petals of Crocus sativus L. as a potential source of the antioxidants crocin and kaempferol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeka, Keti; Ruparelia, Ketan C; Continenza, Maria A; Stagos, Dimitrios; Vegliò, Francesco; Arroo, Randolph R J

    2015-12-01

    Saffron from the province of L'Aquila, in the Abruzzo region of Italy, is highly prized and has been awarded a formal recognition by the European Union with EU Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) status. Despite this, the saffron regions are abandoned by the younger generations because the traditional cultivation of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is labour intensive and yields only one crop of valuable saffron stamens per year. Petals of the saffron Crocus have had additional uses in traditional medicine and may add value to the crops for local farmers. This is especially important because the plant only flowers between October and November, and farmers will need to make the best use of the flowers harvested in this period. Recently, the petals of C. sativus L., which are considered a waste material in the production of saffron spice, were identified as a potential source of natural antioxidants. The antioxidants crocin and kaempferol were purified by flash column chromatography, and identified by thin layer chromatography (TLC), HPLC-DAD, infrared (IR), and nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H &(13)C NMR) spectroscopy. The antioxidant activity was determined with the ABTS and DPPH tests. The antioxidant activities are mainly attributed to carotenoid and flavonoid compounds, notably glycosides of crocin and kaempferol. We found in dried petals 0.6% (w/w) and 12.6 (w/w) of crocin and kaempferol, respectively. Petals of C. sativus L. have commercial potential as a source for kaempferol and crocetin glycosides, natural compounds with antioxidant activity that are considered to be the active ingredients in saffron-based herbal medicine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. New Hydrogels Enriched with Antioxidants from Saffron Crocus Can Find Applications in Wound Treatment and/or Beautification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeka, Keti; Ruparelia, Ketan C; Sansone, Claudia; Macchiarelli, Guido; Continenza, Maria Adelaide; Arroo, Randolph R J

    2018-01-01

    Saffron extracts have a long history of application as skin protectant, possibly due to their ability to scavenge free radicals. In this work, the performance of a hydrogel enriched with antioxidant compounds isolated from saffron crocus (Crocus sativus L.) petals was tested. These hydrogels could be considered as new drug delivery system. Hydrogels are crosslinked polymer networks that absorb large quantities of water but retain the properties of a solid, thus making ideal dressings for sensitive skin. We tested antioxidant-enriched hydrogels on primary mouse fibroblasts. Hydrogels enriched with kaempferol and crocin extracted from saffron petals showed good biocompatibility with in vitro cultured fibroblasts. These new types of hydrogels may find applications in wound treatment and/or beautification. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. To Evaluate the Effect of Soil Physical and Chemical Characteristics on the Growth Characteristics of Saffron (Crocus sativus L. Corms in Tornbat-e Heydariyeh Area

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    Fariba Zarghani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Saffron is one of the most economically important plants across Iran and all over the world. The most important cultivated areas of saffron are in Khorasan-e Razavi and Southern Khorasan provinces (Jihad Keshavarzi Khorasan Razavi, 2013. The corm is the reservoir of photosynthetic materials and plays an important role in the saffron life cycle. Corm size and physicochemical characteristics of soil determine the growth and yield of saffron (Aytekin et al., 2008. It has been advised to use corms with diameter more than 2.5 cm (Kafi et al., 2002. Despite the importance of this plant, few studies have been conducted on the effects of soil characteristics on the growth of the plant in natural field conditions. Therefore, the objective which we will try to achieve is: to evaluate the effect of soil physical and chemical characteristics of the growth of saffron corm and determine the most important effect characteristics. Materials and methods In September 2012, 30 samples of 3 to 5 years old saffron corms were taken from the fields with similar management in Torbat Heydariyeh. The surrounding soil corms (depth of 0 to 30 cm were sampled, too. Dry weight of corms was measured in the laboratory. Air dried soil samples were passed through a 2 mm sieve and used for physical-chemical analyses. Soil texture was determined by using pipet method. Total nitrogen, available phosphorous, available potassium, soil organic carbon and calcium carbonate equivalent were measured in bulk soil samples. Calcium, magnesium, sodium, EC and pH were measured in the saturated soil paste. Fe, Cu and Zn were extracted by DTPA and measured by atomic adsorption spectroscopy. Correlation, regression and neural network technique were used to analyze the data and to identify the most important soil characteristics on the corms characteristics. Results and discussion Diameter and dry weight of corms with mean values of 34.04 mm and 3.72 g, ranged from 22.8 to 51.7 mm

  14. Effect of Nutrient Solution Concentration, Time and Frequency of Foliar Application on Growth of Leaf and Daughter Corms of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.

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    R Khorasani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of different levels of nutrient solution concentration and times and frequencies of foliar applications on dry weight, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium concentrations of leaf and corm of saffron, a pot experiment was conducted as a completely randomized design with factorial arrangement and three replications under open door conditions in research garden of ferdowsi university, faculty of agriculture. The experimental treatments were included 4 levels of solution concentration (0, 4, 8 and 12 per 1000 and 7 levels of time and frequency of foliar applications (F1: foliar application on 3th February, F2: foliar application on 18th February, F3: foliar application on 5th March, F4: foliar applications on 3th and 18th February, F5: foliar applications on 3th February and 5th March, F6: foliar applications on 18th February and 5th March, F7: foliar applications on 3th and 18th February and 5th March. Results of variance analysis showed that fresh and dry weight of corm and leaf were not influenced by concentration, time and frequency of foliar applications. Also, comparison of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium concentrations of leaf and corm showed that there was no significant difference between levels of foliar treatments and control. Therefore, it seems that due attention to pattern of leaf and low nutrient demand of saffron, foliar applications in different levels of nutrient solution concentrations and times and frequencies of foliar applications could not increase vegetative growth and consequently, could not improve the growth and nutritional properties of saffron corms.

  15. Effect of different levels of municipal waste compost and maternal corm weight on yield and vegetative characteristics of saffron (Crocus sativus L.

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    Zohre Gholizade

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effects of different municipal waste compost levels of and maternal corm weights on yield and vegetative characteristics of saffron, an experiment was conducted with a factorial arrangement based on randomized complete block design with three replications at the Agricultural Research Station, University of Birjand during the growing season of 2014-2015. The treatments were four levels of municipal waste compost (0, 5, 10 and 20 t.ha-1 and three mother corm weights (0.1- 4, 4.1- 8 and 8.1- 12 g. The traits included the number of flower, fresh weight of flower, stigma and fresh weight of corm with scale, weight and diameter replacement and number of buds. The results showed that the effect of municipal waste compost was significant on total weight corm with scale, diameter of center corm and replacement corm, weight of fresh flower and stigma. The highest corm weight and number of replacement corms were obtained for treatment 10 t. ha-1 compost (21.33 g. plant -1 and 2.33 number, respectively, while the control had the lowest values (with 16.4 g. plant -1 and 1.66 number. The effect of mother corm weight was significant on the vegetative characteristics of saffron. The highest corm weight with scale, diameter of replacement, flower yield and fresh weight of flower and stigma were observed for 8.1-12 g. The most fresh  and dry weight of stigma (0.31 and 0.11 g. m -1, respectively were observed from treatment  mother corm weight 8.1-12 g, while the lowest values (0.06 and 0.03 g. m -1 were 0.1- 4g.  Interaction between municipal waste compost and corm weight had a significant effect on the weight of fresh flower, sepal, stigma and the number of lateral buds and the highest fresh weight of flower (9.36 g. m-2 and stigma (0.41 g. m-2 were observed for treatment 10 t. ha-1 and 8.1-12g. Generally, the findings of the current study revealed that the use of municipal waste compost (10 t. ha-1 and large mother corms (8/1-12 g

  16. A comprehensive review of the pharmacological potential of Crocus sativus and its bioactive apocarotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhari, Syed Imran; Manzoor, Mahreen; Dhar, M K

    2018-02-01

    Crocus sativus is an herbaceous plant that belongs to family Iridaceae. It is commonly known as saffron and has been used for medicinal purposes since many centuries in India and other parts of the world. Saffron of commercial importance comprises of dried stigmas of the plant and is rich in flavonoids, vitamins, and carotenoids. Carotenoids represent the main components of saffron and their cleavage results in the formation of apocarotenoids such as crocin, picrocrocin, and safranal. Studies conducted during the past two decades have revealed the immense therapeutic potential of saffron. Most of the therapeutic properties are due to the presence of unique apocarotenoids having strong free radical scavenging activity. The mode of action of these apocarotenoids could be: modulatory effects on detoxifying enzymes involved in combating oxidative stress, decreasing telomerase activity, increased the proapoptotic effect, inhibition of DNA, RNA and protein synthesis, and by a strong binding capacity of crocetin with tRNA. The present review focuses on the therapeutic role of saffron and its bio oxidative cleavage products and also highlights the possible molecular mechanism of action. The findings reported in this review describes the wide range of applications of saffron and attributes its free radical scavenging nature the main property which makes this spice a potent chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of various diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Cloning and characterization of a glucosyltransferase from Crocus sativus stigmas involved in flavonoid glucosylation

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    Ahrazem Oussama

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flavonol glucosides constitute the second group of secondary metabolites that accumulate in Crocus sativus stigmas. To date there are no reports of functionally characterized flavonoid glucosyltransferases in C. sativus, despite the importance of these compounds as antioxidant agents. Moreover, their bitter taste makes them excellent candidates for consideration as potential organoleptic agents of saffron spice, the dry stigmas of C. sativus. Results Using degenerate primers designed to match the plant secondary product glucosyltransferase (PSPG box we cloned a full length cDNA encoding CsGT45 from C. sativus stigmas. This protein showed homology with flavonoid glucosyltransferases. In vitro reactions showed that CsGT45 catalyses the transfer of glucose from UDP_glucose to kaempferol and quercetin. Kaempferol is the unique flavonol present in C. sativus stigmas and the levels of its glucosides changed during stigma development, and these changes, are correlated with the expression levels of CsGT45 during these developmental stages. Conclusion Findings presented here suggest that CsGT45 is an active enzyme that plays a role in the formation of flavonoid glucosides in C. sativus.

  18. Elucidation and functional characterization of CsPSY and CsUGT promoters in Crocus sativus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Archana; Mishra, Sonal; Kaul, Sanjana; Dhar, Manoj K

    2018-01-01

    The dried stigmas of Crocus sativus constitute the saffron, which is considered to be the costliest spice of the world. Saffron is valuable for its constituents, which are mainly apocarotenoids. In order to enhance the production of apocarotenoids, it is imperative to understand the regulation of apocarotenoid biosynthetic pathway. In C. sativus, although the pathway has been elucidated, the information regarding the regulation of the pathwaygenes is scanty. During the present investigation, the characterization of promoters regulating the expression of two important genes i.e. CsPSY and CsUGT was performed. We successfully cloned the promoters of both the genes, which were functionally characterized in Crocus sativus and Nicotiana tabaccum. In silico analysis of the promoters demonstrated the presence of several important cis regulatory elements responding tolight, hormonesand interaction with transcription factors (TFs). Further analysis suggested the regulation of CsPSY promoter by Abscisic acid (ABA) and that of CsUGT by Gibberellic acid (GA). In addition, we also observed ABA and GA mediated modulation in the expression of significant TFs and CsPSY and CsUGT transcripts. Overall, the study addresses issues related to regulation of key genes of apocarotenoid pathway in C.sativus.

  19. Allelopathic effects of leaf and corm water extract of saffron (Crocus sativus L. on germination and seedling growth of flixweed (Descurainia sophia L. and downy brome (Bromus tectorum L.

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    Zeinab Alipoor

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in two factorial experiment based on completely randomized design with three replications at research laboratory of faculty of agriculture in University of Birjand in 2013. Factors included saffron organs at 2 levels (leaves and corms and water extract concentrations at 5 levels (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 percent.The allelopathic effects of saffron leaves and corms on seed germination and seedling growth characteristics of flixweed (Descurainia sophia L. and downy brome (Bromus tectorum L. were studied in two separate experiments. Results indicated lowest seed germination percentage of downy brome and flixweed were observed at concentration of 2% of corm extract (by 65% and 66% reduce compared to control, respectively. The rate of germination of downy brome decreased (by 71% compared to control with concentration of 2% of leaf extract but the rate of germination on flixweed was not significantly affected by extract concentrations. Different concentrations of leaf and corm extracts significantly decreased length and weight of plumule and radicals of two weeds. A logistic model provided a successful estimation of relationship between leaf water extract and germination percentage of two weeds. Based on orthogonal comparison tests, the allelopathic inhibition effects of saffron leaves and corms were more on downy brome and flixweed, respectively.

  20. Interaction of IBA and NAA with enzymes in root induction of Crocus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2010-01-11

    Jan 11, 2010 ... Key words: Crocus sativus L., saffron, root formation, IBA, NAA. .... square coefficient. ... Interaction of medium and hormone and its effect on mean number of root per ... It is apparent in Table2 that the fluctuations in protein.

  1. Effects of Crocetin Esters and Crocetin from Crocus sativus L. on Aortic Contractility in Rat Genetic Hypertension

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    Silvia Llorens

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Endothelial dysfunction, characterized by an enhancement in vasoconstriction, is clearly associated with hypertension. Saffron (Crocus sativus L. bioactive compounds have been recognized to have hypotensive properties. Recently, we have reported that crocetin exhibits potent vasodilator effects on isolated aortic rings from hypertensive rats. In this work, we have aimed to analyze the anticontractile ability of crocetin or crocetin esters pool (crocins isolated from saffron. Thus, we have studied the effects of saffron carotenoids on endothelium-dependent and -independent regulation of smooth muscle contractility in genetic hypertension. Methods: We have measured the isometric responses of aortic segments with or without endothelium obtained from spontaneously hypertensive rats. The effects of carotenoids were studied by assessing the endothelial modulation of phenylephrine-induced contractions (10−9–10−5 M in the presence or absence of crocetin or crocins. The role of nitric oxide and prostanoids was analyzed by performing the experiments with L-NAME (NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester or indomethacin (both 10−5 M, respectively. Results: Crocetin, and to a minor extent crocins, diminished the maximum contractility of phenylephrine in intact rings, while crocins, but not crocetin, increased this contractility in de-endothelizated vessels. In the intact vessels, the effect of crocetin on contractility was unaffected by indomethacin but was abolished by L-NAME. However, crocetin but not crocins, lowered the already increased contractility caused by L-NAME. Conclusions: Saffron compounds, but especially crocetin have endothelium-dependent prorelaxing actions. Crocins have procontractile actions that take place via smooth muscle cell mechanisms. These results suggest that crocetin and crocins activate different mechanisms involved in the vasoconstriction pathway in hypertension.

  2. Crocus sativus Petals: Waste or Valuable Resource? The Answer of High-Resolution and High-Resolution Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righi, Valeria; Parenti, Francesca; Tugnoli, Vitaliano; Schenetti, Luisa; Mucci, Adele

    2015-09-30

    Intact Crocus sativus petals were studied for the first time by high-resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (HR-MAS NMR) spectroscopy, revealing the presence of kinsenoside (2) and goodyeroside A (3), together with 3-hydroxy-γ-butyrolactone (4). These findings were confirmed by HR-NMR analysis of the ethanol extract of fresh petals and showed that, even though carried out rapidly, partial hydrolysis of glucopyranosyloxybutanolides occurs during extraction. On the other hand, kaempferol 3-O-sophoroside (1), which is "NMR-silent" in intact petals, is present in extracts. These results suggest to evaluate the utilization of saffron petals for phytopharmaceutical and nutraceutical purposes to exploit a waste product of massive production of commercial saffron and point to the application of HR-MAS NMR for monitoring bioactive compounds directly on intact petals, avoiding the extraction procedure and the consequent hydrolysis reaction.

  3. LC-DAD-MS (ESI+) analysis and antioxidant capacity of crocus sativus petal extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Termentzi, Aikaterini; Kokkalou, Eugene

    2008-04-01

    In this study, various fractions isolated from the petals of Crocus sativus were assessed at first for their phenolic content both qualitatively and quantitatively and secondly for their antioxidant activity. The phytochemical analysis was carried out by LC-DAD-MS (ESI (+)) whereas the antioxidant potential was evaluated by applying two methodologies, the DPPH. radical scavenging activity test and the Co(II)-induced luminol chemiluminescence procedure. According to data obtained from these antioxidant tests, the diethyl ether, ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions demonstrated the strongest antioxidant capacity. Interestingly, the major constituents identified in these fractions correspond to kaempferol, quercetin, naringenin and some flavanone and flavanol derivatives glycosylated and esterified with phenylpropanoic acids. In addition, the presence of some nitrogen-containing substances, as well as other phenolics and phenylpropanoic derivatives was also traced. The identification and structural elucidation of all substances isolated in this study was achieved by both comparing available literature data and by proposed fragmentation mechanisms based on evaluating the LC-DAD-MS (ESI (+)) experimental data. The quantitative analysis data obtained thus far have shown that Crocus sativus petals are a rich source of flavonoids. Such a fact suggests that the good antioxidant capacity detected in the various fractions of Crocus sativus petals could be attributed to the presence of flavonoids, since it is already known that these molecules exert antioxidant capability. The latter, along with the use of Crocus sativus in food and pharmaceutical industry is discussed.

  4. Characterization of a Glucosyltransferase Enzyme Involved in the Formation of Kaempferol and Quercetin Sophorosides in Crocus sativus1[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapero, Almudena; Ahrazem, Oussama; Rubio-Moraga, Angela; Jimeno, Maria Luisa; Gómez, Maria Dolores; Gómez-Gómez, Lourdes

    2012-01-01

    UGT707B1 is a new glucosyltransferase isolated from saffron (Crocus sativus) that localizes to the cytoplasm and the nucleus of stigma and tepal cells. UGT707B1 transcripts were detected in the stigma tissue of all the Crocus species analyzed, but expression analysis of UGT707B1 in tepals revealed its absence in certain species. The analysis of the glucosylated flavonoids present in Crocus tepals reveals the presence of two major flavonoid compounds in saffron: kaempferol-3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1-2)-β-d-glucopyranoside and quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1-2)-β-d-glucopyranoside, both of which were absent from the tepals of those Crocus species that did not express UGT707B1. Transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants constitutively expressing UGT707B1 under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter have been constructed and their phenotype analyzed. The transgenic lines displayed a number of changes that resembled those described previously in lines where flavonoid levels had been altered. The plants showed hyponastic leaves, a reduced number of trichomes, thicker stems, and flowering delay. Levels of flavonoids measured in extracts of the transgenic plants showed changes in the composition of flavonols when compared with wild-type plants. The major differences were observed in the extracts from stems and flowers, with an increase in 3-sophoroside flavonol glucosides. Furthermore, a new compound not detected in ecotype Columbia wild-type plants was detected in all the tissues and identified as kaempferol-3-O-sophoroside-7-O-rhamnoside. These data reveal the involvement of UGT707B1 in the biosynthesis of flavonol-3-O-sophorosides and how significant changes in flavonoid homeostasis can be caused by the overproduction of a flavonoid-conjugating enzyme. PMID:22649274

  5. Molecular cloning and characterisation of a pathogenesis-related protein CsPR10 from Crocus sativus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Gómez, L; Rubio-Moraga, A; Ahrazem, O

    2011-03-01

    Plants have developed many mechanisms to protect themselves against most potential microbial pathogens and diseases. Among these mechanisms, pathogenesis-related proteins are produced as part of the active defence to prevent attack. In this study, a full-length cDNA encoding the CsPR10 protein was identified in fresh saffron stigmas (Crocus sativus). The deduced amino acid sequence from the nucleotide sequence of the coding region showed homology with PR10 proteins. The clone expressed as a protein in fusion with a GST tag produced a 47-kDa protein in E. coli. CsPR10 had ribonuclease activity, with features common to class II-type ribonucleases; its specific activity was quantified as 68.8 U·mg(-1) protein, thus falling within the range of most PR10 proteins exhibiting RNase activity. Antifungal activity of CsPR10 was assayed against Verticillium dahliae, Penicillium sp. and Fusarium oxysporum. CsPR10 inhibited only F. oxysporum growth, and antifungal potency was reflected in a IC(50) of 8.3 μm. Expression analysis showed the presence of high transcript levels in anther and tepal tissues, low levels in stigmas and roots, and no signal detected in leaves. This protein seems to be involved in the active defence response through activation of the jasmonic acid pathway. © 2010 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  6. Neuroprotective effect of safranal, an active ingredient of Crocus sativus , in a rat model of transient cerebral ischemia

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    Hamid R. Sadeghnia

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Safranal is a monoterpene aldehyde found in saffron (Crocus sativus L. petals. It has been previously reported that safranal has a wide range of activities such as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we examined the effect of safranal on brain injuries in a transient model of focal cerebral ischemia. Transient focal cerebral ischemia was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion for 30 min, followed by 24 h of reperfusion. Safranal in the doses of 72.5 and 145 mg/kg was administered intraperitoneally at 0, 3, and 6 h after reperfusion. Neurobehavioral deficit, infarct volume, hippocampal cell loss and markers of oxidative stress including thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, total sulfhydryl (SH content, and antioxidant capacity (using FRAP assay were also assessed. The focal cerebral ischemia induced a significant increase in the neurological score, infarct volume and neuronal cell loss in the ipsilateral hippocampal CA1 and CA3 subfields (p < 0.001 and also oxidative stress markers (p < 0.01. Following safranal administration, the total SH content and antioxidant capacity significantly increased, while marked decreases were observed in the neurological score, infarct volume and hippocampal cell loss, as well as TBARS level. This study concluded that safranal had protective effects on ischemic reperfusion injury in the rat model of stroke. Such effects of safranal may have been exerted mainly by suppressing the production of free radicals and increasing antioxidant activity.

  7. Effect of 60Co γ-irradiation on germination rate of corms and selection of a higher temperature-tolerance mutant 'zf893' of Crocus sativus L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qiaosheng; Wang Zhiping; Pan Jianyong; Li Xuebing; Xu Bujin; Zou Fenglian; Lu Gang

    2009-01-01

    The effects of 60 Co γ-rays irradiation on germination rate of corms of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) were studied and the results were as follows: (1) The corm germination rate raised with the corm fresh weight M (g) increasing, and the corms of 3 60 Co γ-rays, the typical radiation effect of dose on germination rate were obtained, and the semi-lethal dose (D 50 ) for the corms of 3 60 Co γ-rays and the stigma productivity of ZF893 was 1.3 times as that of the parent, for the field growing period, total weight of daughter corms and flower numbers of ZF893 were 22%, 27% and 30% higher than that of the parent, respectively. (4) The soluble protein SDS-PAGE patterns between ZF893 and it's parent were very similar, but the 54.8kD bands were much stronger in ZF893 and the 20.9 kD bands which were clear in ZF893, but were nearly absent in it's parent. (authors)

  8. Application of response surface methodology to optimise supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of volatile compounds from Crocus sativus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Qingsong; Huang, Yuqiu; Zhou, Aicun; Guo, Haipeng; Zhang, Ailian; Wang, Yong

    2014-05-01

    Crocus sativus has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine for a long time. The volatile compounds of C. sativus appear biologically active and may act as antioxidants as well as anticonvulsants, antidepressants and antitumour agents. In order to obtain the highest possible yield of essential oils from C. sativus, response surface methodology was employed to optimise the conditions of supercritical fluid carbon dioxide extraction of the volatile compounds from C. sativus. Four factorswere investigated: temperature, pressure, extraction time and carbon dioxide flow rate. Furthermore, the chemical compositions of the volatile compounds extracted by supercritical fluid extraction were compared with those obtained by hydro-distillation and Soxhlet extraction. The optimum extraction conditions were found to be: optimised temperature 44.9°C, pressure 34.9 MPa, extraction time 150.2 min and CO₂ flow rate 10.1 L h⁻¹. Under these conditions, the mean extraction yield was 10.94 g kg⁻¹. The volatile compounds extracted by supercritical fluid extraction and Soxhlet extraction contained a large amount of unsaturated fatty acids. Response surface methodology was successfully applied for supercritical fluid CO₂ extraction optimisation of the volatile compounds from C. sativus. The study showed that pressure and CO₂ flow rate had significant effect on volatile compounds yield produced by supercritical fluid extraction. This study is beneficial for the further research operating on a large scale. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Saffron: Its Phytochemistry, Developmental Processes, and Biotechnological Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrazem, Oussama; Rubio-Moraga, Angela; Nebauer, Sergio G; Molina, Rosa Victoria; Gómez-Gómez, Lourdes

    2015-10-14

    The present state of knowledge concerning developmental processes and the secondary metabolism of saffron, Crocus sativus L. (Iridaceae), along with the genes involved in these processes so far known, is reviewed. Flowers and corms constitute the most valuable parts of saffron. Corm and flower development are two key aspects to be studied in saffron to increase the yield and quality of the spice, to raise its reproductive rate, and to implement new production systems. Important knowledge about the physiology of flowering and vegetative growth has been acquired in recent years, but there is still only limited information on molecular mechanisms controlling these processes. Although some genes involved in flower formation and meristem transition in other species have been isolated in saffron, the role of these genes in this species awaits further progress. Also, genes related with the synthesis pathway of abscisic acid and strigolactones, growth regulators related with bud endodormancy and apical dominance (paradormancy), have been isolated. However, the in-depth understanding of these processes as well as of corm development is far from being achieved. By contrast, saffron phytochemicals have been widely studied. The different flower tissues and the corm have been proved to be an important source of phytochemicals with pharmacological properties. The biotechnological prospects for saffron are here reviewed on the basis of the discovery of the enzymes involved in key aspects of saffron secondary metabolism, and we also analyze the possibility of transferring current knowledge about flowering and vegetative propagation in model species to the Crocus genus.

  10. Comparison of different tandem mass spectrometric techniques (ESI-IT, ESI- and IP-MALDI-QRTOF and vMALDI-TOF/RTOF) for the analysis of crocins and picrocrocin from the stigmas of Crocus sativus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulakiotis, Nikolaos Stavros; Pittenauer, Ernst; Halabalaki, Maria; Tsarbopoulos, Anthony; Allmaier, Günter

    2012-03-30

    The expensive spice saffron originating from the stigmas of Crocus sativus L. and also applied in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) constitutes a complex mixture of glycoconjugates varying not only in the aglycon structure, but also in glycosylation pattern. Therefore, various tandem mass spectrometric techniques were evaluated for their usefulness in structural elucidation. Three selected constituents of the stigmas of Crocus sativus L., trans- and cis-crocin-4 as well as picrocrocin, were isolated and purified by HPLC and finally analyzed by ESI-MS (ion trap, QqRTOF), IP-MALDI-MS (QqRTOF) and vMALDI-MS (TOF/RTOF) in combination with tandem mass spectrometry in collision energy regimes ranging from a few eV (LE) to 20 keV (HE) collisions for the first time. These data aid in structurally elucidating minor, unknown glycoconjugates originating from this plant-derived spice. LE-CID of isomeric crocins on either an ion trap with ESI or a QqRTOF-instrument with ESI or IP-MALDI as desorption/ionization technique only yielded a limited number of structurally diagnostic sodiated product ions related to the carbohydrate moiety as well as to the intact aglycon in contrast to true HE-CID. The low MW constituent picrocrocin did not yield useful LE-CID spectra, but showed a high number of structurally diagnostic product ions by HE-CID utilizing a vMALDI TOF/RTOF-instrument. The highest number of structurally diagnostic product ions allowing also determination of the carbohydrate linkage of the gentiobiose-moiety of isomeric crocins ((0,4)A(2), (3,5)A(2) product ions indicating a 1→6 carbohydrate linkage) was only achievable by HE-CID. Fragmentation of the aglycon was not observed by any collision energy regime applied. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Evaluation of protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Crocus sativus petals on preventing of gentamicin induced peliosis hepatis and hepatic telangiectasis in rats: short communication

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    Arash Omidi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Peliosis hepatis is a rare liver disease characterized by blood-filled cavities scattered irregularly throughout the liver. Risk factors for peliosis include chronic illness such as AIDS, tuberculosis, cancer also use of some drugs such as anabolic steroids and azathioprine. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the curative properties of crocus sativus petals on induced peliosis hepatis in rats. Thirty two male Wistar rats (weight: 180-220 g were randomly divided into four equal groups: group 1 (healthy group received only IP normal saline, group2 received IP 80mg/kg.bw gentamicin, group3 IP 80mg/kg.bw gentamicin+ 40mg/kg crocus sativus petal extract, and group 4 was given IP 80mg/kg.bw gentamicin+ 40mg/kg crocus sativus petal extract. At the end of the experiment, the rats were anesthetized and their blood samples were collected through cardiac puncture for AST and ALT measurement.Then, the livers of the subjects were excised and fixed in formalin. It was found that AST significantly increased in gentamicin group (P<0.05 compared to the healthy group and groups treated by means of crocus sativus petal extract .Moreover, there was no significant differences between the groups administered the extract and those given gentamicin. Histologically,heterogeneous multiple blood-filled cavities were observed in gentamicin group (2 and the treatment groups (3 and 4. The results of the present study show that doses of hydroalcoholic extract of crocus sativus do not effect on peliosis hepatic and telangiectasis due to gentamicin sulfate in rats

  12. Cardiovascular effects of saffron and its active constituents: A review article

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    B. Marjan Razavi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available (Crocus sativus L. Commonly known as saffron, is a perennial stem less herb of the iridaceae family, widely cultivated in Iran and other countries. It is used as a flavoring and coloring agent for many thousands of years. In traditional medicine, saffron has been used for various purposes including abortion, as a fever reducer, an analgesic, expectorant, antispasmodic, aphrodisiac, sedative, digestive and a carminative. Various pharmacological studies have been described that saffron and its constituents exhibit different beneficial properties, including antioxidant, anticancer, anticonvulsant, antiischemic, antigenotoxic, antidote, antiapoptotic, antitussive, antidepressive, sedative and hypnotic, hypolipidemic, antinociceptive and antiinflammatory effects. Research projects have also revealed that saffron also exhibits protective effects against cardiovascular diseases including cardiac ischemia, arrhythmia, hypertension and atherosclerosis. In this review article, the effects of saffron and its active constituents on cardiovascular system were introduced.

  13. The Effect of Subchronic Administration of the Aqueous and Hydro-alcoholic Extracts of Crocus sativus from Estahbanat, Fars Province, on Mice

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    M Emamghoreishi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: In Iranian traditional medicine, Crocus sativus L. has been defined as an exultant plant. The present study was undertaken to determine the effect of subchronic administration of aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of Crocus sativus on mice. Methods: The effect of subchronic i.p. administration of different doses of the aqueous extract (50, 100, 200, 400 mg/kg or water and the hydro-alcoholic extract (100, 200, 400, 800 mg/kg or water of Crocus sativus stigma on immobility, climbing, and swimming behaviors were evaluated in the forced swimming test in mice. Fluoxetine (20 mg/kg and imipramine (15 mg/kg were used as reference drugs. Additionally, the effect of both plant preparations on spontaneous activity was examined. The collected data was analyzed using One-way ANOVA. Results: The aqueous extract at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg produced a significant reduction in immobility along with an increase in climbing behavior which is similar to those which have been observed with imipramine. The hydro-alcoholic extract did not show significant effects on immobility, climbing and swimming behaviors of all studied doses, compared to control group. The aqueous extract of all studied doses and the hydro-alcoholic extract at dose of 1600 mg/kg decreased spontaneous activity. Conclusion: The results of this study suggests that the aqueous, but not hydro-alcoholic, extract of Crocus sativus stigma from Estahbanat in Fars province, in subchronic administration possess an antidepressant-like activity which may be mediated through norepinephrine system.

  14. Comparative Metagenomics Reveal Phylum Level Temporal and Spatial Changes in Mycobiome of Belowground Parts of Crocus sativus.

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    Sheetal Ambardar

    Full Text Available Plant-fungal associations have been explored by routine cultivation based approaches and cultivation based approaches cannot catalogue more than 5% of fungal diversity associated with any niche. In the present study, an attempt has been made to catalogue fungal diversity associated with belowground parts i.e. rhizosphere and cormosphere, of Crocus sativus (an economically important herb during two growth stages, using cultivation independent ITS gene targeted approach, taking bulk soil as reference. The 454 pyrosequencing sequence data analysis suggests that the fungal diversity was niche and growth stage specific. Fungi diversity, in the present case, was not only different between the two organs (roots and corm but the dominance pattern varies between the cormosphere during two growth stages. Zygomycota was dominant fungal phylum in the rhizosphere whereas Basidiomycota was dominant in cormosphere during flowering stage. However in cormosphere though Basidiomycota was dominant phylum during flowering stage but Zygomycota was dominant during dormant stage. Interestingly, in cormosphere, the phyla which was dominant at dormant stage was rare at flowering stage and vice-versa (Basidiomycota: Flowering = 93.2% Dormant = 0.05% and Zygomycota: Flowering = 0.8% Dormant = 99.7%. At genus level, Rhizopus was dominant in dormant stage but was rare in flowering stage (Rhizopus: Dormant = 99.7% Flowering = 0.55%. This dynamics is not followed by the bulk soil fungi which was dominated by Ascomycota during both stages under study. The genus Fusarium, whose species F. oxysporum causes corm rot in C. sativus, was present during both stages with slightly higher abundance in roots. Interestingly, the abundance of Rhizopus varied a great deal in two stages in cormosphere but the abundance of Fusarium was comparable in two growth stages (Bulk soil Flowering = 0.05%, Rhizosphere Flowering = 1.4%, Cormosphere Flowering = 0.06%, Bulk soil Dormant = 2.47% and

  15. EPR study of the free radicals in the spices and pigments turmeric and saffron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troup, G.J.; Hutton, D.R.; Hunter, C.A.; Hewitt, D.; Mulinacci, N.; Romani, A.; Giaccherini, K. Anon

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The spices Turmeric (curcuma longa) and Saffron (crocus sativus) have also been used as pigments. The EPR spectrum of each shows a readily detectable free radical signal. EPR spectra of the available pure chief active colorants in solid form also give free radical signals. Curcumin (turmeric) is a 'linear' symmetric phenolic, so is expected to do so. The peptide turmerin (commercially unavailable), containing sulphur, may also contribute to the ESR signal. Crocetin (saffron) is a 'linear' molecule, related to the beta-carotenes, which do not give free radical signals: but it does, presumably because of its particular resonant structure properties

  16. A Study on the Performance of the Saffron Separator for Different Air Flows

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    Abbas Moghanizadeh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Saffron, the dried stigmas of Crocus sativus, is extremely appreciated for its extraordinary color, taste and aroma. At the present time, nearly all the saffron harvest and post harvest processes are carried out manually. To increase the quality and development of economic role of saffron, it is essential to go beyond the traditional method of harvest of saffron. Considering that saffron components terminal velocities are different, a separator is planned and constructed to separate stigma from other parts of saffron flower. This separator is designed on the basis of aerodynamic and physical properties of saffron flower. The purpose of this study is to analyze the performance of a saffron separator for different air flows to increase the level of automation and efficiency of post-harvest operations. The results show that the maximum stigma separation happens when the air flow speed in outlet B is 3 m/s. finally, this data will be applied to find the optimum areas of outlet B and D, as two main parameters which have significant effect on the efficiency of saffron separator.

  17. Challenges of climate change: omics-based biology of saffron plants and organic agricultural biotechnology for sustainable saffron production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husaini, Amjad M

    2014-01-01

    Kashmir Valley is a major saffron (Crocus sativus Kashmirianus) growing area of the world, second only to Iran in terms of production. In Kashmir, saffron is grown on uplands (termed in the local language as "Karewas"), which are lacustrine deposits located at an altitude of 1585 to 1677 m above mean sea level (amsl), under temperate climatic conditions. Kashmir, despite being one of the oldest historical saffron-producing areas, faces a rapid decline of saffron industry. Among many other factors responsible for decline of saffron industry the preponderance of erratic rainfalls and drought-like situation have become major challenges imposed by climate change. Saffron has a limited coverage area as it is grown as a 'niche crop' and is a recognized "geographical indication," growing under a narrow microclimatic condition. As such it has become a victim of climate change effects, which has the potential of jeopardizing the livelihood of thousands of farmers and traders associated with it. The paper discusses the potential and actual impact of climate change process on saffron cultivation in Kashmir; and the biotechnological measures to address these issues.

  18. Some reasons for saffron yield loss over the last 30 years period (Review Article

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    Alireza Koocheki

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Saffron (Crocus sativus L. is a perennial plant which grows basically in arid and semi-arid regions of Iran. Despite saffron’s adaptation to these regions, the assessment of changes in cultivation area over the last 30 years reveals that cultivation of this crop has sharply increased. According to the available statistics, there are 21 provinces where saffron is cultivated on about 84,000 hectares of land. Nonetheless, saffron yield per unit area has aggressively fallen from 5.1 kg ha-1 in 1982 to 3.2 kg ha-1 in 2015. Saffron yield loss can be caused by several factors, such as mismanagement in agriculture section, economics and post-harvest processing as well as the recent droughts. Lack of attention to these factors could lead to further decline in saffron yield in the future. The saffron yield loss over the last 30 years is an alert for saffron-related institutions such as the universities, research centers and Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO to pay more attention to this crop and prepare more comprehensive programs. In developing these programs, the importance of government policies for planning and approving enough budget is to be highlighted. In this review, first we focus on the reasons for saffron yield loss during the last 30 years and then we try to provide some solutions in relation to these reasons.

  19. Fermentation conditions optimization of secondary metabolites of crocus sativus L in endophytic fungi

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    DU Yan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper,Endophytic fungi,isolated from corm of saffron,were selected.Strains Q31 fermentation conditions on production of carotenoids were studied.Three kinds of carbon sources were selected.Study found that sucrose could promote cell growth and carotenoid accumulation,and amount of mycelium had an increase of 50.83% in the experimental group than the control group.Carotenoid yield was 23.15 times of the control group.Select three kinds of nitrogen and crosscombinations between them,found that add ammonium sulfate,Mycelium of experimental group had an increased of 86.43% than the control group and carotenoid yield was 5.91 times of the control group.the optimal conditions was found by orthogonal test:sucrose 40 g/L,ammonium sulfate 1.0 g/L,bottling amout 100 mL/250 mL,Inoculum size 5%.By using LC-MS to analyze secondary metabolites of endophytic fungi Q31 from saffron,we found it could steady metabolize one kind of carotinoid,its peak time was 22.447min,maximum absorption peaks were 414.4 and 438.3nm,MW was 738.

  20. Historical uses of saffron: Identifying potential new avenues for modern research

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    Seyedeh Zeinab Mousavi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: During the ancient times, saffron (Crocus sativus L. had many uses around the world; however, some of these uses were forgotten throughout the history. But a newly formed interest in natural active compounds brought back the attention toward historical uses of saffron. Understanding different uses of saffron in the past can help us finding the best uses at present. In this study, we reviewed different uses of saffron throughout the history among different nations.Methods: ISI web of Science and Medline, along with references of traditional Iranian medicine were searched for historical uses of saffron.Results: Saffron has been known since more than 3000 years ago by many nations. It was valued not only as a culinary condiment, but also as a dye, perfume and as a medicinal herb. Its medicinal uses ranged from treating eye problems to genitourinary and many other diseases in various cultures. It was also used as a tonic agent and antidepressant drug among many nations. Conclusion(s: Saffron has had many different uses such as a food additive and a palliative agent for many human diseases. Thus, as an important medicinal herb, it is a good candidate with many promising potentials to be considered for new drug design.

  1. Historical uses of saffron: Identifying potential new avenues for modern research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Zeinab Mousavi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: During the ancient times, saffron (Crocus sativus L. had many uses around the world; however, some of these uses were forgotten throughout the history. But a newly formed interest in natural active compounds brought back the attention toward historical uses of saffron. Understanding different uses of saffron in the past can help us finding the best uses at present.In this study, wereviewed different uses of saffron throughout the history among different nations. Methods: ISI web of Science and Medline, along with references of traditional Iranian medicine were searched for historical uses of saffron. Results: Saffron has been known since more than 3000 years ago by many nations. It was valued not only as a culinary condiment, but also as a dye, perfume and as a medicinal herb. Its medicinal uses ranged from treating eye problems to genitourinary and many other diseases in various cultures. It was also used as a tonic agent and antidepressant drug among many nations. Conclusion(s: Saffron has had many different uses such as a food additive and a palliative agent for many human diseases. Thus, as an important medicinal herb, it is a good candidate with many promising potentials to be considered for new drug design.

  2. Greek PDO saffron authentication studies using species specific molecular markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosmali, I; Ordoudi, S A; Tsimidou, M Z; Madesis, P

    2017-10-01

    Saffron, the spice produced from the red stigmas of the flower of Crocus sativus L. is a frequent target of fraud and mislabeling practices that cannot be fully traced using the ISO 3632 trade standard specifications and test methods. A molecular approach is proposed herein as a promising branding strategy for the authentication of highly esteemed saffron brands such as the Greek Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) "Krokos Kozanis". Specific ISSR (inter-simple sequence repeat) markers were used to assess for the first time, the within species variability of several populations of C. sativus L. from the cultivation area of "Krokos Kozanis" as well as the potential differences with the band pattern produced by other Crocus species. Then, species-specific markers were developed taking advantage of an advanced molecular technique such as the HRM analysis coupled with universal DNA barcoding regions (trnL) (Bar-HRM) and applied to saffron admixtures with some of the most common plant adulterants (Calendula officinalis, Carthamus tinctorius, Gardenia jasminoides, Zea mays and Curcuma longa). The sensitivity of the procedure was tested for turmeric as a case study whereas HPLC-fluorescence determination of secondary metabolites was also employed for comparison. The overall results indicated that the Bar-HRM approach is quite effective in terms of specificity and sensitivity. Its effectiveness regarding the detection of turmeric was comparable to that of a conventional HPLC method (0.5% vs 1.0%, w/w). Yet, the proposed DNA-based method is much faster, cost-effective and can be used even by non-geneticists, in any laboratory having access to an HRM-capable real-time PCR instrumentation. It can be, thus, regarded as a strong analytical tool in saffron authentication studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Radioprotective effects saffron and its combination with green tea against γ-radiation-induced DNA damage in Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koul, Apurva; Abraham, Suresh K.

    2016-01-01

    Protective effects of aqueous extract of saffron (dried stigmas of Crocus sativus L.) alone and its combination with green tea against γ-radiation-induced genotoxicity and oxidative stress were investigated in Swiss albino mice. Saffron (40 mg/kg bw) alone and in combination with green tea (40 mg/kg bw) were orally administered to mice for six consecutive days, followed by exposure to γ-radiation (2.25 Gy) on 6 th day after final feeding. Antigenotoxic effect of saffron was assayed using micronucleus test in bone marrow cells which showed a significant decrease in the number of micronucleated PCEs in saffron alone and its combination with green tea pre-treated animals when compared with the radiation alone treated animals. Saffron alone and its combination with green tea pre-treated animals showed a significant decrease in lipid peroxidation levels with a significant increase in the activity of antioxidant defense system enzymes, viz. acetylcholine esterase, glutathione-S-transferase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and non-enzymatic antioxidant (GSH), when compared with the radiation alone treated animals. Our results suggested that saffron in combination with green tea exhibits radioprotective effects against γ-radiation induced DNA damage and oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice. (author)

  4. Safranal, a saffron constituent, attenuates retinal degeneration in P23H rats.

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    Laura Fernández-Sánchez

    Full Text Available Saffron, an extract from Crocus sativus, has been largely used in traditional medicine for its antiapoptotic and anticarcinogenic properties. In this work, we investigate the effects of safranal, a component of saffron stigmas, in attenuating retinal degeneration in the P23H rat model of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. We demonstrate that administration of safranal to homozygous P23H line-3 rats preserves both photoreceptor morphology and number. Electroretinographic recordings showed higher a- and b-wave amplitudes under both photopic and scotopic conditions in safranal-treated versus non-treated animals. Furthermore, the capillary network in safranal-treated animals was preserved, unlike that found in untreated animals. Our findings indicate that dietary supplementation with safranal slows photoreceptor cell degeneration and ameliorates the loss of retinal function and vascular network disruption in P23H rats. This work also suggests that safranal could be potentially useful to retard retinal degeneration in patients with retinitis pigmentosa.

  5. Effects of enzymatic extraction on anthocyanins yield of saffron tepals (Crocos sativus along with its color properties and structural stability

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    Leila Lotfi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An aqueous solution of Pectinex (containing cellulase, hemicellulase, and pectinase at 1%, 2.5%, 5%, 7%, and 10% concentrations and 40°C was used to extract anthocyanins (Acys of saffron tepals at 20, 40, 60, 120 and 180 min reaction times and compared with ethanol solvent under similar conditions. The Acys of the Pectinex solution reached 6.7 mg/g of tepal powder (∼40% more than the ethanol method when the enzyme concentrations and extraction times were, respectively, 5% and 60 min. The Acys of aqueous enzymes had three times slower degradation rates and 50% more attractive chroma color than the ones recovered by ethanol solution after 3 h of extraction time. Additionally, the Acys of the ethanol solution lost its content sharply (>45% and its chroma changed quickly (due to the browning and polymerization. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis showed that Acys extracted with mixed enzymes had about 80% more cyanidin 3-glucosides and 20% less pelargonidin 3,5-glucosides than with the ethanol method. Most probably, the high content of cyanidin 3-glycosides in enzyme-extracted Acys of saffron tepals was the key factor for its high stability.

  6. Effects of Saffron on Cognition, Anxiety, and Depression in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moazen-Zadeh, Ehsan; Abbasi, Seyed Hesameddin; Safi-Aghdam, Hamideh; Shahmansouri, Nazila; Arjmandi-Beglar, Akram; Hajhosseinn Talasaz, Azita; Salehiomran, Abbas; Forghani, Saeedeh; Akhondzadeh, Shahin

    2018-04-01

    Cognitive decline, depression, and anxiety are among the major concerns in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Crocus sativus L. (saffron) seems to be a promising candidate for treatment of these conditions. In this 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, men and women with on-pump CABG, who had Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS) score >70 and age Patients were excluded if they had history of treatment with saffron or acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, comorbid neuropsychiatric disorders, serious medical conditions other than cardiovascular diseases, and hypersensitivity to herbal compounds. The primary outcome was defined as the difference in mean total score changes for WMS-Revised from the baseline to week 12 between the saffron and placebo groups. Secondary outcomes included difference in mean score changes from baseline to endpoint between the two treatment groups for Mini Mental Status Examination and subscales of Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale ( www.irct.ir ; IRCT201408071556N63). No significant difference was detected in primary or secondary outcomes between the saffron and placebo groups. Also, no significant time × treatment interaction effect was found for any of the scales. The results of this trial do not support the hypothesis of potential benefits of saffron in treatment of CABG-related neuropsychiatric conditions.

  7. Crocins with high levels of sugar conjugation contribute to the yellow colours of early-spring flowering crocus tepals.

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    Angela Rubio Moraga

    Full Text Available Crocus sativus is the source of saffron spice, the processed stigma which accumulates glucosylated apocarotenoids known as crocins. Crocins are found in the stigmas of other Crocuses, determining the colourations observed from pale yellow to dark red. By contrast, tepals in Crocus species display a wider diversity of colours which range from purple, blue, yellow to white. In this study, we investigated whether the contribution of crocins to colour extends from stigmas to the tepals of yellow Crocus species. Tepals from seven species were analysed by UPLC-PDA and ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS revealing for the first time the presence of highly glucosylated crocins in this tissue. β-carotene was found to be the precursor of these crocins and some of them were found to contain rhamnose, never before reported. When crocin profiles from tepals were compared with those from stigmas, clear differences were found, including the presence of new apocarotenoids in stigmas. Furthermore, each species showed a characteristic profile which was not correlated with the phylogenetic relationship among species. While gene expression analysis in tepals of genes involved in carotenoid metabolism showed that phytoene synthase was a key enzyme in apocarotenoid biosynthesis in tepals. Expression of a crocetin glucosyltransferase, previously identified in saffron, was detected in all the samples. The presence of crocins in tepals is compatible with the role of chromophores to attract pollinators. The identification of tepals as new sources of crocins is of special interest given their wide range of applications in medicine, cosmetics and colouring industries.

  8. Saffron: a promising natural medicine in the treatment of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Bibi Marjan; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2017-04-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a disorder which encompasses obesity, high blood glucose, high cholesterol levels and high blood pressure. Moreover, metabolic syndrome is considered as the most important risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). CVD is the leading cause of mortality in the world for both men and women. Several chemical drugs are available to treat metabolic risk factors, but because of the safety, efficacy, cultural acceptability and lesser side effects, nowadays herbal therapy has a critical role in the treatment of these CVD risk factors. Crocus sativus L. (saffron) is a perennial herb that belongs to the Iridaceae family. Saffron is an extensively used food additive for its colour and taste and has been widely used in traditional as well as modern medicine to treat several illnesses including cardiovascular diseases. Most of the unique properties of this plant are attributed to the presence of three major components, including crocin, safranal and crocetin. It has been proved that saffron has an important role in the management of metabolic syndrome because of its marvelous activities including anti-diabetic, anti-obesity, hypotensive and hypolipidaemic properties. In this review article, we discuss the beneficial properties of saffron and its active components to treat different components of metabolic syndrome and most relevant animal and human studies regarding the use of this plant in cardiovascular disease, with focus on the metabolic risk factors. This review also suggests that after randomised clinical trials, saffron may be implicated as a preventive or therapeutic agent against metabolic syndrome. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Rapid authentication of the precious herb saffron by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) based on internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mingming; Shi, Yuhua; Wu, Lan; Guo, Licheng; Liu, Wei; Xiong, Chao; Yan, Song; Sun, Wei; Chen, Shilin

    2016-05-05

    Saffron is one of the most expensive species of Chinese herbs and has been subjected to various types of adulteration because of its high price and limited production. The present study introduces a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) technique for the differentiation of saffron from its adulterants. This novel technique is sensitive, efficient and simple. Six specific LAMP primers were designed on the basis of the nucleotide sequence of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) nuclear ribosomal DNA of Crocus sativus. All LAMP amplifications were performed successfully, and visual detection occurred within 60 min at isothermal conditions of 65 °C. The results indicated that the LAMP primers are accurate and highly specific for the discrimination of saffron from its adulterants. In particular, 10 fg of genomic DNA was determined to be the limit for template accuracy of LAMP in saffron. Thus, the proposed novel, simple, and sensitive LAMP assay is well suited for immediate on-site discrimination of herbal materials. Based on the study, a practical standard operating procedure (SOP) for utilizing the LAMP protocol for herbal authentication is provided.

  10. Comparative efficacy and safety of Crocus sativus L. for treating mild to moderate major depressive disorder in adults: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang XY

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Xiangying Yang,1 Xiaolu Chen,1 Yixiao Fu,2 Qinghua Luo,2 Lian Du,2 Haitang Qiu,2 Tian Qiu,2 Li Zhang,1 Huaqing Meng2 1The First Branch, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Psychiatry, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China Purpose: To investigate the efficacy and safety of saffron in the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD in comparison to placebo and synthetic antidepressants. Patients and methods: We conducted a systematic search in several electronic databases as well as manual search in bibliographies of relevant studies. We included randomized controlled trials that investigated the efficacy and safety of saffron for treating MDD in adults in comparison to either placebo or synthetic antidepressants. Primary outcome was change in scores on depressive symptoms from baseline. Secondary outcomes included remission rate, response rate, and drop-out rate for all reasons. We chose a random-effects model in order to obtain more conservative results. Standardized mean differences (SMDs and odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were estimated as the overall effect index by inverse variance models. Results: Seven studies were included in this meta-analysis. Overall quality of these included studies was moderate. As for the primary outcome, saffron showed more improvements in depression symptoms when compared with placebo, with an SMD of -1.22 (95% CI -1.94, -0.49, P=0.001. Meanwhile, saffron was as effective as synthetic antidepressants, with an SMD of 0.16 (95% CI -0.25, 0.57, P=0.44. Moderate heterogeneity existed in our analysis. Through subgroup analyses, we found that treatment dosage and duration, types of synthetic antidepressants administered in the comparison group, and outcome measures could explain most of the variance. No differences were found in remission rate, response

  11. Preventive effects of hydroalcoholic extract of saffron on hematological parameters of experimental asthmatic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayyeh Vosooghi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the respiratory airways distinguished by edema and infiltration of inflammatory immune cells. To test our hypothesis about the anti-inflammatory effect of saffron, we examined effects of Crocus sativus (C. sativus extract as a prophylactic anti-inflammatory agent in sensitized rats. Materials and Methods: To induce experimental asthma, rats were sensitized with injection and inhalation of ovalbumin (OA. Forty male Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups (n=8 for each: control, sensitized (asthma, and sensitized and pretreated with three different concentrations of extract, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, 2 times a week (group asthma+50EX, group asthma+100EX, and group asthma+200EX. After 32 days, total white blood cells (WBC counts, red blood cells (RBC, and platelet counts in blood were examined. Results: Total WBC number and eosinophil and neutrophil percentage in blood were increased, but lymphocyte decreased in sensitized animals compared with those of control group (pConclusion: Our findings indicated that the extract of C. sativus could be useful to prevent asthma as an anti-inflammatory treatment.

  12. Saffron improved depression and reduced homocysteine level in patients with major depression: A Randomized, double-blind study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamali Jelodar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: A correlation between hyperhomocysteinemia, and depression has been reported. Saffron (Crocus sativus is recommended for treatment of depression; hence, in this study the effect of co-administration of saffron and fluoxetine on plasma homocysteine and depression was evaluated. Material and methods: This was a 4-week randomized and double-blind clinical trial which was conducted from March 2013 to February 2014. In this trial, 40 male and females (20-55 years old diagnosed with severe depression were selected and following filing the Beck form, were randomly divided into two groups.  Experimental group was treated with fluoxetine 20 mg/day and saffron 30 mg /day and the control group received placebo and fluoxetine 20 mg/day for four weeks. Before treatment and at the end of the study, fasting blood samples were collected. For females, blood samples were collected on the third day of their menstrual cycle. Results: A significant reduction of homocysteine levels was observed in both sex in the experimental group compared to before treatment (p

  13. Antitumor Effects of Saffron-Derived Carotenoids in Prostate Cancer Cell Models

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    Claudio Festuccia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Crocus sativus L. extracts (saffron are rich in carotenoids. Preclinical studies have shown that dietary intake of carotenoids has antitumor effects suggesting their potential preventive and/or therapeutic roles. We have recently reported that saffron (SE and crocin (CR exhibit anticancer activity by promoting cell cycle arrest in prostate cancer (PCa cells. It has also been demonstrated that crocetin esters are produced after SE gastrointestinal digestion by CR hydrolysis. The aim of the present report was to investigate if SE, crocetin (CCT, and CR affected in vivo tumor growth of two aggressive PCa cell lines (PC3 and 22rv1 which were xenografted in male nude mice treated by oral gavage with SE, CR, and CCT. We demonstrated that the antitumor effects of CCT were higher when compared to CR and SE and treatments reverted the epithelial-mesenchymal transdifferentiation (EMT as attested by the significant reduction of N-cadherin and beta-catenin expression and the increased expression of E-cadherin. Additionally, SE, CR, and CCT inhibited PCa cell invasion and migration through the downmodulation of metalloproteinase and urokinase expression/activity suggesting that these agents may affect metastatic processes. Our findings suggest that CR and CCT may be dietary phytochemicals with potential antitumor effects in biologically aggressive PCa cells.

  14. Candidate enzymes for saffron crocin biosynthesis are localized in multiple cellular compartments

    KAUST Repository

    Demurtas, Olivia Costantina; Frusciante, Sarah; Ferrante, Paola; Diretto, Gianfranco; Azad, Noraddin Hosseinpour; Pietrella, Marco; Aprea, Giuseppe; Taddei, Anna Rita; Romano, Elena; Mi, Jianing; Al-Babili, Salim; Frigerio, Lorenzo; Giuliano, Giovanni

    2018-01-01

    Saffron is composed of the dried stigmas of Crocus sativus and is the most expensive spice on Earth. Its red color is due to the apocarotenoid glycosides, crocins, which accumulate in the vacuole and reach up to 10% of the stigma dry weight. We have previously characterized the first dedicated enzyme in crocin biosynthesis, CsCCD2, which cleaves zeaxanthin to yield crocetin dialdehyde. In this work, we identified six putative aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) transcripts expressed in saffron stigmas. When expressed in E. coli, only one of corresponding proteins (CsALDH3I1), was able to convert crocetin dialdehyde into the crocin precursor, crocetin. CsALDH3I1 carries a C-terminal hydrophobic domain, similar to that of a Neurospora membrane-associated apocarotenoid dehydrogenase, YLO-1. We also characterized a UDP-glycosyltransferase enzyme, CsUGT74AD1, able to convert crocetin to crocins 1 and 2'. In vitro assays showed high specificity of CsALDH3I1 for crocetin dialdehyde and long chain apocarotenals, and of CsUGT74AD1 for crocetin. Upon extract fractionation, the CsCCD2, CsALDH3I1 and CsUGT74AD1 enzymes partitioned in the insoluble fraction, suggesting that they are associated to membranes or to large insoluble complexes. Immunogold labeling of saffron stigmas and confocal microscopy of fusions to Green Fluorescent Protein expressed in N. benthamiana leaves revealed that CsCCD2 localizes to plastids, CsALDH3I1 to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and CsUGT74AD1 to the cytoplasm, in association with cytoskeletal-like structures. Based on our and on literature data, we propose that the ER and cytoplasm function as

  15. Candidate enzymes for saffron crocin biosynthesis are localized in multiple cellular compartments

    KAUST Repository

    Demurtas, Olivia Costantina

    2018-05-29

    Saffron is composed of the dried stigmas of Crocus sativus and is the most expensive spice on Earth. Its red color is due to the apocarotenoid glycosides, crocins, which accumulate in the vacuole and reach up to 10% of the stigma dry weight. We have previously characterized the first dedicated enzyme in crocin biosynthesis, CsCCD2, which cleaves zeaxanthin to yield crocetin dialdehyde. In this work, we identified six putative aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) transcripts expressed in saffron stigmas. When expressed in E. coli, only one of corresponding proteins (CsALDH3I1), was able to convert crocetin dialdehyde into the crocin precursor, crocetin. CsALDH3I1 carries a C-terminal hydrophobic domain, similar to that of a Neurospora membrane-associated apocarotenoid dehydrogenase, YLO-1. We also characterized a UDP-glycosyltransferase enzyme, CsUGT74AD1, able to convert crocetin to crocins 1 and 2\\'. In vitro assays showed high specificity of CsALDH3I1 for crocetin dialdehyde and long chain apocarotenals, and of CsUGT74AD1 for crocetin. Upon extract fractionation, the CsCCD2, CsALDH3I1 and CsUGT74AD1 enzymes partitioned in the insoluble fraction, suggesting that they are associated to membranes or to large insoluble complexes. Immunogold labeling of saffron stigmas and confocal microscopy of fusions to Green Fluorescent Protein expressed in N. benthamiana leaves revealed that CsCCD2 localizes to plastids, CsALDH3I1 to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and CsUGT74AD1 to the cytoplasm, in association with cytoskeletal-like structures. Based on our and on literature data, we propose that the ER and cytoplasm function as

  16. Effect of Zeolite Rates and Irrigation Management on Some Properties of Saffron Corms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Khashei Siuki

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Saffron (Crocus sativus L. is a subtropical and valuable crop which is reproduced by corms. Due to the importance of corm weight in saffron yield, it is important to study the different factors that affect yield such as drought stress. For this purpose, this research was conducted as a factorial design based on completely randomized design (CRD in the Agricultural Research Station of the University of Birjand during the period 2013-2015. The treatments consisted of Zeolite at four rates (0: Z0, 0.5: Z1, 1: Z2 and 2: Z3 as weight percentage and irrigation management at three levels (traditional: I1, deficit irrigation as 70% moisture depletion: I2 and full irrigation: I3 with three replications. The results showed that zeolite rates has a significant effect on corm weight, number of corms less than 2gr, number of 6-8gr corms and number of replacement corms (P≤0.01. Irrigation management also has a significant effect on corm weight (P≤0.01, number of corms 6-8gr and number of replacement corms (P≤0.05. The treatments with no zeolite amended (Z0I1, Z0I2 and Z0I3 showed a reduction in corm weight compared to Z3I3 (P≤0.05. Z3I3, Z3I2 and Z3I3 showed an increase in the number of replacement corms while Z0I1 and Z0I2 had the least number of replacement corms. In conclusion, Z2I1 is recommended as the best treatment by considering the reduction in zeolite and water used, which increased corm weight by 26.64%, 23.88% and 17.81% compared to Z0I1, Z0I2 and Z0I3, respectively.

  17. Novel carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase catalyzes the first dedicated step in saffron crocin biosynthesis

    KAUST Repository

    Frusciante, Sarah; Diretto, Gianfranco; Bruno, Mark; Ferrante, Paola; Pietrella, Marco; Prado-Cabrero, Alfonso; Rubio-Moraga, Á ngela L.; Beyer, Peter D.; Gó mez-Gó mez, Lourdes; Al-Babili, Salim; Giuliano, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Crocus sativus stigmas are the source of the saffron spice and accumulate the apocarotenoids crocetin, crocins, picrocrocin, and safranal, responsible for its color, taste, and aroma. Through deep transcriptome sequencing, we identified a novel dioxygenase, carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 2 (CCD2), expressed early during stigma development and closely related to, but distinct from, the CCD1 dioxygenase family. CCD2 is the only identified member of a novel CCD clade, presents the structural features of a bona fide CCD, and is able to cleave zeaxanthin, the presumed precursor of saffron apocarotenoids, both in Escherichia coli and in maize endosperm. The cleavage products, identified through high-resolution mass spectrometry and comigration with authentic standards, are crocetin dialdehyde and crocetin, respectively. In vitro assays show that CCD2 cleaves sequentially the 7,8 and 7′,8′ double bonds adjacent to a 3-OH-β-ionone ring and that the conversion of zeaxanthin to crocetin dialdehyde proceeds via the C30 intermediate 3-OH-β-apo-8′-carotenal. In contrast, zeaxanthin cleavage dioxygenase (ZCD), an enzyme previously claimed to mediate crocetin formation, did not cleave zeaxanthin or 3-OH-β-apo-8′-carotenal in the test systems used. Sequence comparison and structure prediction suggest that ZCD is an N-truncated CCD4 form, lacking one blade of the β-propeller structure conserved in all CCDs. These results constitute strong evidence that CCD2 catalyzes the first dedicated step in crocin biosynthesis. Similar to CCD1, CCD2 has a cytoplasmic localization, suggesting that it may cleave carotenoids localized in the chromoplast outer envelope.

  18. Novel carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase catalyzes the first dedicated step in saffron crocin biosynthesis

    KAUST Repository

    Frusciante, Sarah

    2014-08-05

    Crocus sativus stigmas are the source of the saffron spice and accumulate the apocarotenoids crocetin, crocins, picrocrocin, and safranal, responsible for its color, taste, and aroma. Through deep transcriptome sequencing, we identified a novel dioxygenase, carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 2 (CCD2), expressed early during stigma development and closely related to, but distinct from, the CCD1 dioxygenase family. CCD2 is the only identified member of a novel CCD clade, presents the structural features of a bona fide CCD, and is able to cleave zeaxanthin, the presumed precursor of saffron apocarotenoids, both in Escherichia coli and in maize endosperm. The cleavage products, identified through high-resolution mass spectrometry and comigration with authentic standards, are crocetin dialdehyde and crocetin, respectively. In vitro assays show that CCD2 cleaves sequentially the 7,8 and 7′,8′ double bonds adjacent to a 3-OH-β-ionone ring and that the conversion of zeaxanthin to crocetin dialdehyde proceeds via the C30 intermediate 3-OH-β-apo-8′-carotenal. In contrast, zeaxanthin cleavage dioxygenase (ZCD), an enzyme previously claimed to mediate crocetin formation, did not cleave zeaxanthin or 3-OH-β-apo-8′-carotenal in the test systems used. Sequence comparison and structure prediction suggest that ZCD is an N-truncated CCD4 form, lacking one blade of the β-propeller structure conserved in all CCDs. These results constitute strong evidence that CCD2 catalyzes the first dedicated step in crocin biosynthesis. Similar to CCD1, CCD2 has a cytoplasmic localization, suggesting that it may cleave carotenoids localized in the chromoplast outer envelope.

  19. Effect of Tribulus terrestris, ginger, saffron, and Cinnamomum on menopausal symptoms: a randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taavoni, Simin; Haghani, Hamid

    2017-01-01

    Menopausal symptoms experienced by women vary widely, and while many women transition through menopause with manageable symptoms, others experience severe symptoms, which may impair their quality of life. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of Tribulus terrestris, ginger, saffron, and Cinnamomum on menopausal symptoms. A randomised, triple-blind, controlled trial design was used for this study. The participants were 80 postmenopausal women aged 50–60 years. A demographic data form and the Menopause Rating Scale were used to collect data. The women were randomly divided into two groups, each of which received either an Aphrodit capsule or a placebo twice a day for four weeks. The two bottles looked exactly the same, so that the investigator and the participants were not aware of the contents of the bottles. Each Aphrodit capsule contained 40 mg of Tribulus terrestris, 12.27 mg of Zingiber officinale, 3 mg of Crocus sativus extract, and 11 mg of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, while the placebo capsules contained 50 mg of starch. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse the data. A statistically significant change was reported in the menopausal symptoms of the intervention group compared with the placebo group. The results of the study demonstrate that the Aphrodit capsule was effective in reducing menopausal symptoms. PMID:28546803

  20. Effect of Tribulus terrestris , ginger, saffron, and Cinnamomum on menopausal symptoms: a randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simin Taavoni

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Menopausal symptoms experienced by women vary widely, and while many women transition through menopause with manageable symptoms, others experience severe symptoms, which may impair their quality of life. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of Tribulus terrestris , ginger, saffron, and Cinnamomum on menopausal symptoms. A randomised, triple-blind, controlled trial design was used for this study. The participants were 80 postmenopausal women aged 50–60 years. A demographic data form and the Menopause Rating Scale were used to collect data. The women were randomly divided into two groups, each of which received either an Aphrodit capsule or a placebo twice a day for four weeks. The two bottles looked exactly the same, so that the investigator and the participants were not aware of the contents of the bottles. Each Aphrodit capsule contained 40 mg of Tribulus terrestris , 12.27 mg of Zingiber officinale, 3 mg of Crocus sativus extract, and 11 mg of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, while the placebo capsules contained 50 mg of starch. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse the data. A statistically significant change was reported in the menopausal symptoms of the intervention group compared with the placebo group. The results of the study demonstrate that the Aphrodit capsule was effective in reducing menopausal symptoms.

  1. Effect of Tribulus terrestris, ginger, saffron, and Cinnamomum on menopausal symptoms: a randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taavoni, Simin; Ekbatani, Neda Nazem; Haghani, Hamid

    2017-03-01

    Menopausal symptoms experienced by women vary widely, and while many women transition through menopause with manageable symptoms, others experience severe symptoms, which may impair their quality of life. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of Tribulus terrestris , ginger, saffron, and Cinnamomum on menopausal symptoms. A randomised, triple-blind, controlled trial design was used for this study. The participants were 80 postmenopausal women aged 50-60 years. A demographic data form and the Menopause Rating Scale were used to collect data. The women were randomly divided into two groups, each of which received either an Aphrodit capsule or a placebo twice a day for four weeks. The two bottles looked exactly the same, so that the investigator and the participants were not aware of the contents of the bottles. Each Aphrodit capsule contained 40 mg of Tribulus terrestris , 12.27 mg of Zingiber officinale , 3 mg of Crocus sativus extract, and 11 mg of Cinnamomum zeylanicum , while the placebo capsules contained 50 mg of starch. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse the data. A statistically significant change was reported in the menopausal symptoms of the intervention group compared with the placebo group. The results of the study demonstrate that the Aphrodit capsule was effective in reducing menopausal symptoms.

  2. The protective role of saffron petal extracts on gentamicininduced nephrotoxicity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Omidi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Different potentially therapeutic approaches to prevent or attenuate gentamicin sulfate (GM induced nephrotoxicity have been proposed. The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of the saffron petals extracts (Crocus sativus (SPE on male Wistar rats with kidney failure. Rats (40 were randomly assigned into five groups of 8 animals each: i the control group, that received normal saline (0.5 mL/kg; ii the GM group, that received GM (80 mg/kg by intraperitoneal (i.p. injection on a daily basis; iii the GM+SPE group that received the same dose of GM and SPE (40 mg/kg by i.p. injection on a daily basis; iv the GM+2SPE group, that received the same dose of GM and twofold of SPE (80 mg/kg by i.p. injection on a daily basis; whereas v 2SPE+GM group, that received 80 mg/kg of SPE a week before initiating the treatment with GM (prevention group. Significant differences were seen in the concentration of glucose, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, and creatinine between treatment groups and control in the male Wistar rats. GM was observed to cause nephrotoxicity, which was evidenced by an elevation of serum BUN and creatinine levels. The biochemical findings of the current study are concordant with those of histopathologic findings. The results of this study indicate that SPE especially in dose of 40 mg/kg can ameliorate harmful effects of GM on the kidney. The present results may suggest that the SPE have ameliorative effects on kidney failures induced by GM.

  3. Saffron Aqueous Extract Inhibits the Chemically-induced Gastric Cancer Progression in the Wistar Albino Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zahra Bathaie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Gastric cancer is the first and second leading cause of cancer related death in Iranian men and women, respectively. Gastric cancer management is based on the surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. In the present study, for the first time, the beneficial effect of saffron (Crocus sativus L. aqueous extract (SAE on the 1-Methyl-3-nitro-1-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG-induced gastric cancer in rat was investigated. Materials and Methods: MNNG was used to induce gastric cancer and then, different concentrations of SAE were administered to rats. After sacrificing, the stomach tissue was investigated by both pathologist and flow cytometry, and several biochemical parameters was determined in the plasma (or serum and stomach of rats. Results: Pathologic data indicated the induction of cancer at different stages from hyperplasia to adenoma in rats; and the inhibition of cancer progression in the gastric tissue by SAE administration; so that, 20% of cancerous rats treated with higher doses of SAE was completely normal at the end of experiment and there was no rat with adenoma in the SAE treated groups. In addition, the results of the flow cytometry/ propidium iodide staining showed that the apoptosis/proliferation ratio was increased due to the SAE treatment of cancerous rats. Moreover, the significantly increased serum LDH and decreased plasma antioxidant activity due to cancer induction fell backwards after treatment of rats with SAE. But changes in the other parameters (Ca2+, tyrosine kinase activity and carcino-embryonic antigen were not significant. Conclusion: SAE inhibits the progression of gastric cancer in rats, in a dose dependent manner.

  4. Tissue Culture an Alternative for Commercial Corm Production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    compounds are found in extremely important proportion in stigmas (Sampathu ..... Phenolic compounds in corms of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) during bud development. ... multiplication and rhizome formation in ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) ...

  5. Skin Depigmentation Activity of Crocus sativus Extract Cream

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All rights reserved. ... 2Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009, PR China, ... targeting the needs of consumers with dry skin. ... The use of cosmetics can be safe if, no kind of.

  6. Synthetic food colours in saffron solutions, saffron rice and saffron chicken from restaurants in Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi-Khatoonabadi, Zhila; Amirpour, Mansooreh; AkbariAzam, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Saffron solutions, saffron rice and saffron chicken samples were considered for synthetic colours as additives, which are forbidden according to Iranian national standards. Samples were taken from restaurants of three locations and analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Of the total 573 samples, 52% were positive for at least one colour. The most prevalent colours were Tartrazine, Quinoline Yellow and Sunset Yellow, with 44%, 9.1% and 8.4% of the samples testing positive for these colours, respectively. Carmoisine and Ponceau were both detected only in 0.5% of the positive samples and found only in saffron solution. In conclusion, synthetic food colours, especially Tartrazine should be regarded as a potential risk in saffron and its related food. Therefore, new attempts for food safety and quality should be undertaken to eliminate the use of these colours in restaurants.

  7. Expression and Interaction Analysis among Saffron ALDHs and Crocetin Dialdehyde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Gómez-Gómez

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In saffron, the cleavage of zeaxanthin by means of CCD2 generates crocetin dialdehyde, which is then converted by an unknown aldehyde dehydrogenase to crocetin. A proteome from saffron stigma was released recently and, based on the expression pattern and correlation analyses, five aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs were suggested as possible candidates to generate crocetin from crocetin dialdehydes. We selected four of the suggested ALDHs and analyzed their expression in different tissues, determined their activity over crocetin dialdehyde, and performed structure modeling and docking calculation to find their specificity. All the ALDHs were able to convert crocetin dialdehyde to crocetin, but two of them were stigma tissue-specific. Structure modeling and docking analyses revealed that, in all cases, there was a high coverage of residues in the models. All of them showed a very close conformation, indicated by the low root-mean-square deviation (RMSD values of backbone atoms, which indicate a high similarity among them. However, low affinity between the enzymes and the crocetin dialdehyde were observed. Phylogenetic analysis and binding affinities calculations, including some ALDHs from Gardenia jasmonoides, Crocus sieberi, and Buddleja species that accumulate crocetin and Bixa orellana synthetizing the apocarotenoid bixin selected on their expression pattern matching with the accumulation of either crocins or bixin, pointed out that family 2 C4 members might be involved in the conversion of crocetin dialdehyde to crocetin with high specificity.

  8. Accidental poisoning with autumn crocus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrscek, Lucija; Lesnicar, Gorazd; Krivec, Bojan; Voga, Gorazd; Sibanc, Branko; Blatnik, Janja; Jagodic, Boris

    2004-01-01

    We describe a case of a 43-yr-old female with severe multiorgan injury after accidental poisoning with Colchicum autumnale, which was mistaken for wild garlic (Allium ursinum). Both plants grow on damp meadows and can be confused in the spring when both plants have leaves but no blossoms. The autumn crocus contains colchicine, which inhibits cellular division. Treatment consisted of supportive care, antibiotic therapy, and granulocyte-directed growth factor. The patient was discharged from the hospital after three weeks. Three years after recovery from the acute poisoning, the patient continued to complain of muscle weakness and intermittent episodes of hair loss.

  9. Large intraspecific genetic variation within the Saffron-Crocus group (Crocus L., Series Crocus; Iridaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bjarne; Orabi, Jihad; Pedersen, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    within populations, compared with low genetic variation between populations suggesting substantial gene flow between populations. In Neighbour-Net analysis, C. hadriaticus samples from mainland Greece were separated from Peloponnesian samples; C. cartwrightianus, C. hadriaticus and C. oreocreticus...

  10. Cucumis sativus L, Nasim variety

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... practice for reducing water consumption and improving product quality. ... Since cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L, Nasim variety) is considered as the main and ... to a significant yield increase (P<0.001), while MAD of 50% had the least yield.

  11. DNA fragmentation and cell cycle arrest: a hallmark of apoptosis induced by crocin from kashmiri saffron in a human pancreatic cancer cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakshi, Hamid; Sam, Smitha; Rozati, Roya; Sultan, Phalisteen; Islam, Tajamul; Rathore, Babita; Lone, Zahoor; Sharma, Manik; Triphati, Jagrati; Saxena, Ramesh Chand

    2010-01-01

    Apoptosis, a widely important mechanism that contributes to cell growth reduction, is reported to be induced by Crocus sativus in different cancer types. The present study was designed to elucidate apoptosis induction by crocin, a main component of Crocus sativus in a human pancreatic cancer cell line (BxPC-3). Cell viability was measured by MTT assay, Hoechest33258 staining was used to detect the chromatin condensation characteristic of apoptosis, and DNA fragmentation was assessed by gel electrophoresis and cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry. Crocin induced apoptosis and G1-phase cell cycle arrest of BxPC-3 cells, while decreasing cell viability in a dose dependent and time dependent manner. Cells treated with 10μg/L crocin exhibited apoptotic morphology (brightly blue-fluorescent condensed nuclei on Hoechst 33258 staining) and reduction of volume. DNA analysis revealed typical ladders as early as 12 hours after treatment indicative of apoptosis. Our preclinical study demonstrated a pancreatic cancer cell line to be highly sensitive to crocin-mediated growth inhibition and apoptotic cell death. Although the molecular mechanisms of crocin action are not yet clearly understood, it appears to have potential as a therapeutic agent.

  12. Determination of antioxidant activity of saffron taken from the flower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, we determined the total polyphenols content in the Lebanese saffron and the antioxidant effects of different extracts from this saffron in vitro using electrolysis of physiological solution for generation of free radicals (FR) in the presence of colorimetric indicator N,N-di-ethyl-P-phenylenedialanine; the absorbance ...

  13. The influence of nanocellulose coating on saffron quality during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Seid Mahdi; Bahrami, Iman; Dehnad, Danial; Shahidi, Seyyed Ahmad

    2018-02-01

    Since saffron is an added-value product, and the most expensive agricultural product, it is necessary to increase its shelf life, prevent its quality loss during storage, and maintain its organoleptic properties, enabling producers to export saffron with higher quality and better consumer acceptability. So, in this research, saffron samples were coated through applying different carbohydrate biopolymers: maltodextrin with DE=4 or DE=20 (MD4 and MD20) or their combination with nanocellulose fibres (MDC4 and MDC20). Finally, the experiments were carried out to measure rehydration ratio, water activity, crocin content, color values, and sensory properties of saffron samples coated by different materials. MDC4 resulted in the lowest rehydration ratio among coated samples since, first, lower DE degrees of biopolymer complexes decreased moisture adsorption and solubility of maltodextrin and second, crystalline nanocellulose fibres increased tortuous and bended pathways in materials and reduced penetration possibilities of water molecules. MDC4 was the most effective treatment in preventing crocin decrease. Indeed, film forming characteristic of maltodextrin with low hydrolysis degree and special structure of nanocellulose led to the maintenance of crocin bioactive ingredient. SEM observations revealed coating on saffron surfaces as a thin clear and brilliant layer which enhanced saffron acceptability for our panelists. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Influence of Different Drying Methods on Constituents and Antioxidant Activity of Saffron from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingpeng Tong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available More and more saffron has been cultivated in China because of the increasing saffron demand, but no paper has studied the influence of drying methods on the quality of Chinese saffron. In this paper, three different dehydration treatments applied in actual production were evaluated: dehydration with electric oven, vacuum oven, and microwave. We determined that the highest quality of saffron will be obtained when fresh saffron is treated at higher temperatures (no more than 70°C for a long time by electric oven drying and vacuum oven drying. In microwave drying, treatments at lower microwave power and longer time benefit the quality of saffron. In addition, the influence of the drying method on antioxidants in saffron is discussed. The correlation between individual saffron profiles and the antioxidant value was estimated by spectrum-effect relationships analysis.

  15. Cytotaxonomical studies on some Crocus L. taxa in Turkey

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-15

    Sep 15, 2009 ... The present study investigated the chromosome number and morphology of Crocus fleischeri Gay, C. pallasii Goldb subsp. pallasii, C. cancellatus Herbert subsp. lycius ... For identification of the plants, the book “Flora of Turkey” was used. (Mathew, 1984). Root tips of the plants were used for observing the ...

  16. Antiviral Effects of Saffron and its Major Ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleymani, Sepehr; Zabihollahi, Rezvan; Shahbazi, Sepideh; Bolhassani, Azam

    2018-01-01

    The lack of an effective vaccine against viral infections, toxicity of the synthetic anti-viral drugs and the generation of resistant viral strains led to discover novel inhibitors. Recently, saffron and its compounds were used to treat different pathological conditions. In this study, we tested the anti-HSV-1 and anti-HIV-1 activities of Iranian saffron extract and its major ingredients including crocin and picrocrocin as well as cytotoxicity in vitro. The data showed that the aqueous saffron extract was not active against HIV-1 and HSV-1 virions at certain doses (i.e., a mild activity), but crocin and picrocrocin indicated significant anti-HSV-1 and also anti-HIV-1 activities. Crocin inhibited the HSV replication at before and after entry of virions into Vero cells. Indeed, crocin carotenoid suppressed HSV penetration in the target cells as well as disturbed virus replication after entry into the cells. Picrocrocin was also effective for inhibiting virus entry and also its replication. This monoterpen aldehyde showed higher anti-HSV effects after virus penetrating in the cells. Generally, these sugar-containing compounds extracted from saffron showed to be effective antiherpetic drug candidates. The recent study is the first report suggesting antiviral activities for saffron extract and its major ingredients. Crocin and picrocrocin could be a promising anti-HSV and anti-HIV agent for herbal therapy against viral infections. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  17. POLLEN MORPHOLOGY OF CROCUS L.(IRIDACEAE IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UZUNDZHALIEVA KATYA SPASOVA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The pollen of the wild species from the genus Crocus L., spread in Bulgaria has been analyzed. The investigations, made by light microscope show that the pollen of these species is spherical in shape and round in outlines, comparatively big. These morphological characteristics of the pollen of the wild Bulgarian Crocuses define it as a primitive one [6]. The Scanning Electron Microscope investigations, made by Beug [1], established two types of pollen morphology. The results of our investigation led to the conclusion that the same types are also presented in Bulgarian species: – C.biflorus –type, or syncolpate and C.vernus – type, or inaperturate. Eight of the species belong to the first type and only C. pallasii belongs to the second. The pollen of C. reticulatus is with quite unclear aperture – maybe transition to the inaperturate type.

  18. Recent activities at the zero-power teaching reactor CROCUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girardin, G.; Chawla, R.

    2011-01-01

    CROCUS is a zero-power critical facility used mainly for educational purposes at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL) in Lausanne, Switzerland. It is a low-enriched-uranium fuelled, light-water moderated reactor, with the fission power limited to 100 W. The presentation will discuss the crucial role of CROCUS in teaching -- both as framework for reactor practicals offered to physics students at EPFL and as key educational tool in the recently established Swiss Master of Science in Nuclear Engineering. Regular development work is needed for the various instruments and components associated with the facility. As illustration, the recently completed refurbishment of the control rod system and the related calibration experiments will also be discussed.

  19. Contact dermatitis in saffron workers: clinical profile and identification of contact sensitizers in a saffron-cultivating area of Kashmir Valley of North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Iffat; Kamili, Afifa; Rasool, Farhan; Nehvi, Firdous; Rather, Parvaiz; Yasmin, Salwee; Pampori, Rafiq A; Jabeen, Yasmeen; Yaseen, Atiya; Bashir, Safia; Naaz, Saima

    2015-01-01

    Saffron, a bulbous perennial plant belonging to Iridaceae family, is the most expensive cultivated herb that is widely used for industrial and nonindustrial purposes. However, besides its attractive and valuable properties, contact dermatitis due to saffron is an uncommon reported entity. The aims of this study were to determine the clinical pattern patch-testing profile of contact dermatitis in saffron workers and to identify the most common allergens/sensitizers. One hundred ten saffron workers were patch-tested with 39 allergens, which included Indian standard series antigens, plant series antigens, and extracts from different parts of saffron flower. The allergens in Indian standard series accounted for 52.44% of positive reactions. Plant series and different parts of saffron accounted for 47.56% of the positive reactions. Among those patients with positive responses to the supplemental saffron allergens, 83.3% were of present or past relevance. The data observed in the present study confirm that the saffron dermatitis is a distinct clinical entity with characteristic clinical presentation and has a strong significance as an occupational allergen in those handling this plant. Patch testing with different parts of saffron flower has a role to play in finding out the etiological cause.

  20. A Matter of Contrast: Yellow Flower Colour Constrains Style Length in Crocus species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Lunau

    Full Text Available Most flowers display distinct colour patterns comprising two different areas. The peripheral large-area component of floral colour patterns attracts flower visitors from some distance and the central small-area component guides flower visitors towards landing sites. Whereas the peripheral colour is largely variable among species, the central colour, produced mostly by anthers and pollen or pollen mimicking floral guides, is predominantly yellow and UV-absorbing. This holds also for yellow flowers that regularly display a UV bull's eye pattern. Here we show that yellow-flowering Crocus species are a noticeable exception, since yellow-flowering Crocus species-being entirely UV-absorbing-exhibit low colour contrast between yellow reproductive organs and yellow tepals. The elongated yellow or orange-yellow style of Crocus flowers is a stamen-mimicking structure promoting cross-pollination by facilitating flower visitors' contact with the apical stigma before the flower visitors are touching the anthers. Since Crocus species possess either yellow, violet or white tepals, the colour contrast between the stamen-mimicking style and the tepals varies among species. In this study comprising 106 Crocus species, it was tested whether the style length of Crocus flowers is dependent on the corolla colour. The results show that members of the genus Crocus with yellow tepals have evolved independently up to twelve times in the genus Crocus and that yellow-flowering Crocus species possess shorter styles as compared to violet- and white-flowering ones. The manipulation of flower visitors by anther-mimicking elongated styles in Crocus flowers is discussed.

  1. A study on the possibility of production of aflatoxin B1 in saffron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Mohammadi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Saffron is the most important medicinal plants in the Khorasan Razavi and South Khorasan provinces, Iran. Aspergillus species can infect saffron tissues during harvesting, storage and transportation. Aflatoxin B1 is one of the important carcinogenic mycotoxin which is produced by Aspergillus species in saffron tissues. This study was carried out in order to investigate the production of aflatoxin B1 in saffron tissues from farm to food by TLC chromatography during the year 2015. Wet and dry saffron tissues and rice grains (with and without saffron extract were inoculated with Aspergillus flavus spore suspensions. Production of Aflatoxin B1 in inoculated tissues was investigated by the TLC chromatography method. The results showed that the wet leaves and rice grains were infected with Aspergillus species very quickly. However, this process was very slow in dry tissues. Aflatoxin B1 was detected in all of the tested samples. The amounts of Aflatoxin B1 in the wet saffron tissues and rice grains were more than those found in dry tissues and saffron rice, respectively. The amount of Aflatoxin B1 had a direct correlation with moisture in the environment and the tissues. The contamination of the tissues and production of AflatoxinB1 were increased with increasing the amount of moisture. The results showed that the packaging of saffron before complete drying of its tissue or storing it in conditions with high humidity can increase the risk of infection with the Aspergillus species and production of Aflatoxin B1 in them. Based on our data, saffron can reduce Aspergillus infection and aflatoxin B1 production but not inhibit it. Saffron extract reduces Aspergillus infection and Aflatoxin B1 production in food and grains.

  2. Effects of auxin and copper on growth of saffron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozafar Sharifi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Saffron is known as one of the most common spices and medicinal plant in the world. Little information is available on the effects of copper and growth regulators on morphological characteristics of saffron. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different concentrations of copper and auxin on morphological properties of root and leaf of saffron. This study was arranged as a factorial experiment in greenhouse condition and in hydroponic system. Copper was used in copper sulfate (CuSO4 form (0, 0.02, 0.1 and 0.2 mg/L and auxin in naphthalene acetic acid (NAA form (0, 1 and 2 g/L. Results showed that interaction of Naphthalene acetic acid 1 g/L and copper sulfate 0.1 mg/L increased root number, as well as root and leaf dry weight. Furthermore, naphthalene acetic acid 1 and 2 g/L in most treatments reduced the number of buds. Copper concentration of corm was increased in 0.2 mg/L copper sulfate.

  3. MORPHOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL STUDY ON ENDEMIC CROCUS OLIVIERI GAY SUBSP. ISTANBULENSIS MATHEW SUBSPECIES (IRIDACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadriye Yetişen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, morphological and anatomical properties of Crocus olivieri Gay subsp. istanbulensis Mathew were investigated. Cross-sections of root, scape and leaf parts of the plant were examined anddemonstrated by photographs. Most of the anatomical properties are similar to the other member of Iridaceae family. Sclerenchyma groups were observed around to leaf vascular bundle. Morphological and anatomical findings compared with other two subspecies of Crocus olivieri.

  4. Response of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The growth and yield of cucumber (Cucumus sativus L.) in response to application of goat ... The main plot treatment was organic manure source (goat dung and poultry dropping) while ... manure useful and important in soil fertility maintenance is their impact on soil fertility ... scarce and high cost of mineral fertilizer.

  5. MULTIORGAN INJURY AFTER ACCIDENTAL POISONING WITH AUTUMN CROCUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorazd Lešničar

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. A case of accidental poisoning with autumn crocus (Colchicum autumnale that was misinterpreted for wild garlic (Allium ursinum is presented. Both plants grow on damp meadows and can be easily wrongly identified especially before blooming period as they have similar, pointed leaves.Results. Considering anamnestic data, clinical picture and laboratory findings in 43-yr-old female, a poisoning with the colchicine plant alkaloid was suspected. Later, it was confirmed by toxicology analyses (chromatography and spectrometry of the collected serum and urine samples. Severe initial gastrointestinal disorders progressed into ileus, bone-marrow suppression and multi-organ failure.Conclusions. After the patient had received a symptomatic treatment with granulocyte-directed growth factor and a suitable antibiotic therapy for secondary infection, she recovered within three weeks from the onset of condition. The most persistent problem was alopecia. The disease did not entailed any permanent sequellae which was confirmed 3 years after the patient was considered cured.

  6. Comparison of chemical inputs consumption in saffron and wheat fields in Qaenat region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Yaghoubi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Commercialization of agricultural operations and use of pesticides and chemical fertilizers in agricultural production has been created serious environmental impacts. Due to this issue and in order to assess the amount of chemical fertilizer and pesticide inputs in saffron and wheat production systems, a study was conducted in Qaenat region (South Khorasan province, 50 wheat fields and 48 saffron fields were investigated during 2011-12. The results showed that average nitrogen fertilizer consumption was 222.38 and 57.83 kg.ha-1 in wheat and saffron production systems, respectively, which from sstatistically point of view the difference was significant. In addition, unlike wheat, the use of pesticides very low in saffron cultivation and in many saffron farms it was zero. Therefore, the results can be considered saffron is an healthier product and have greater potential to organic product. Also, the amounts of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers which were using in wheat in the study area were significantly different with recommended values. While in saffron production there was no significant difference between the values of consumed and recommended. Therefore, it seems, performing soil testing in each region and providing appropriate fertilizer formulas and required promotional-educational services in this regard, and raising public awareness is a good strategy for reducing the use of chemical inputs.

  7. A Comparative Study of information searching behavior of elite saffron farmers with that of normal saffron farmers in South Khorasan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    somaye zadehrahim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Saffron is one of export products which has a competitive advantage in Iran and saffron farmers need proper information in order to improve the quality of their agricultural performance. Thus, addressing and identification of their information behavior components, sources, and strategies as well as the challenges and problems would help the authorities to make proper policies and decisions. The present research has been conducted in order to compare elite saffron farmers’ information-searching behavior with that of normal saffron farmers in the South Khorasan province. The study population comprised of all the saffron farmers of South Khorasan province (N =17387. Using Morgan formula and cluster sampling, 375 people were selected for the purpose of this study. The results showed that saffron onion (M=3.58 of 5, pesticides and fertilizers (M=3.56 and farmland worker (3.54 were the main components of saffron farmers’ information-searching of the two groups, respectively. The sources of information for both groups included reference to past experience (M=2.68 of 5, neighboring saffron farmers (M=2.67, contact with informants (2.64 and other family members (M=2.64. The information available in local language (M=4 of 5, by native people (M=3.98, clear and intelligible information (M=3.98 and low cost (M=3.82 were among the main criteria that affect the behavior of the two groups in the use of information sources.  Also they are confronted with common problems such as lack of attention to the needs of farmers (M=3.57 of 5, and insufficient number of technical experts (M=3.42. It was also found that there was no significant relationship between information searching behavior of elite and normal saffron farmers and their performance (r= -0.08, p= 0.133. Regarding the “lack of attention to the needs of farmers by technical experts” as the most major problem, South Khorasan Organization of Agricultural Extension is advised to design and implement

  8. The morphological and anatomical studies on endemic crocus biflorus miller subsp. Pulchricolor (herbert) mathew (iridaceae) in turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akyol, Y.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the morphological and anatomical characteristics of Crocus biflorus subsp. pulchricolor (Iridaceae)were investigated. The subsp. pulchricolor has, 4 leaves, 1 mm broad, bracts drying brownish. these properties are characteristics of these plants. In anatomical studies, cross-sections of the root, stem and leaves were examined. These parts photographed and compared with the other crocus and Iridaceae family species. (author)

  9. Determining the Most Important Soil Properties Affecting the Yield of Saffron in the Ghayenat Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    amir ranjbar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Saffron is one of the most important economic plants in the Khorasan province. Awareness of soil quality in agricultural lands is essential for the best management of lands and for obtaining maximum economic benefit. In general, plant growth is a function of environmental factors especially chemical and physical properties of soil (20. It has been demonstrated that there was a positive and high correlation between soil organic matter and saffron yield. Increasing the yield of saffron due to organic matter is probably due to soil nutrient, especially phosphorous and nitrogen and also improvement of soil physical quality (6, 28, 29. The yield of saffron in soils with high nitrogen as a result of vegetative growth is high (8. Shahandeh (6 found that most of the variation of saffron yield depends on soil properties. Due to the economic importance of saffron and the role of soil properties on saffron yield, this research was conducted to find the relationship between saffron yield and some soil physical and chemical properties, and to determine the contribution of soil properties that have the greatest impact on saffron yield in the Ghayenat area. Materials and Methods: This research was performed in 30 saffron fields (30 soil samples of the Ghayenat area (longitude 59° 10΄ 10.37˝ - 59° 11΄ 38.41˝ and latitude 33° 43΄ 35.08˝ - 33΄ 44΄ 02.78˝, which is located in the Khrasan province of Iran. In this research, 21 soil properties were regarded as the total data set (TDS. Then the principal component analysis (PCA was used to determine the most important soil properties affecting saffron yield as a minimum data set (MDS and the stepwise regression to estimate saffron yield. To estimate the yield of saffron in stepwise regression method, saffron yield was considered as a dependent variable and soil physical and chemical properties were considered to be independent variables. Results and Discussion: According to the PCA method

  10. The genome of the cucumber, Cucumis sativus L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, S.W.; Li, R.Q.; Vossen, van der E.A.G.

    2009-01-01

    Cucumber is an economically important crop as well as a model system for sex determination studies and plant vascular biology. Here we report the draft genome sequence of Cucumis sativus var. sativus L., assembled using a novel combination of traditional Sanger and next-generation Illumina GA

  11. The genome of the cucumber, Cucumis sativus L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Sanwen; Li, Ruiqiang; Zhang, Zhonghua

    2009-01-01

    Cucumber is an economically important crop as well as a model system for sex determination studies and plant vascular biology. Here we report the draft genome sequence of Cucumis sativus var. sativus L., assembled using a novel combination of traditional Sanger and next-generation Illumina GA seq...

  12. Extraction and characterization of Raphanus Sativus seed oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    properties and bioactive ingredients of Raphanus sativus seed oil. Methods: Raphanus sativus seed oil was prepared by traditional solvent extraction (SE), super-critical carbon dioxide extraction (SCE) and sub-critical propane extraction (SPE). The yield, physicochemical properties, fatty acid composition and oxidative ...

  13. Design, construction and evaluation of a row singulator for saffron flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hamed bakhshi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Separation of stigma from petals is one of the required tasks in saffron production. The mechanical separation of saffron flowers may be performed through the following steps: I singulation of the flowers ii aligning the flowers iii cutting the style (Konje and iv separating the stigma from the petals. Because of the importance of saffron flower separation, a prototype device was constructed in this project for singulating and aligning of saffron flowers, prior to the cutting operation. This device can also be installed to work with other cutting and separating equipment and produce on an industrial scale. A pickup vacuum cylinder was used for singulating the flowers and an inclined V-shaped surface was employed for aligning of saffron flowers. The constructed apparatus was evaluated from the standpoint of singling efficiency and losses. For this purpose, three types of saffron flowers (buds, open short tail and long tail, three rotational speeds of pickup cylinder (6, 12 and 21.5 rpm, three levels of suction (30, 70 and 100 mm Hg, and four different inner diameters of finger’s nozzle (2, 3, 4 and 5 mm were used with three replications. The results of analysis on the constructed device showed that the highest efficiency (75% is observed for short tailopen saffron flowers with 5 mm inner diameter of sucking nozzles, suction of 100 mm Hg and the rotational speed of 6 rpm. To evaluate the performance of flower aligning, 100 saffron flowers with an average length of 5 cm were selected and tested with 5 replications. The average aligning with the correct direction obtained was equal to 84%.

  14. Isolation and characterization of microorganisms and volatiles associated with Moroccan saffron during different processing treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fancello, Francesco; Petretto, Giacomo; Sanna, Maria Lina; Pintore, Giorgio; Lage, Mounira; Zara, Severino

    2018-05-20

    Saffron may be spoiled by a variety of microorganisms during cultivation, harvesting, and post harvesting. As saffron can be dried and stored in different ways, this preliminary study explored the natural microbiota present in Moroccan saffron when subjected to different drying techniques. An analysis of the carotenoid-derived volatiles present in the saffron was also carried out. The culturable microbiota of the saffron samples dried using different methods, namely in the shade (also called natural), in the sun, or in the oven, were studied using classical and molecular approaches. The effect of the drying methods on head-space chemical volatiles was also determined. Eighty-two isolates grown in the different culture media were chosen from the colonies, and genotype analysis grouped the microorganisms into 58 clusters, revealing a wide diversity. Out of the 82 isolates, 75 belonged to the Bacillaceae family. The other isolates were distributed within the Dietziaceae, Paenibacillaceae and Carnobacteriaceae families. The dominant species was Bacillus simplex, which was detected in all samples, regardless of the drying method used. Lysinibacillus macroides was dominant in the sun-dried saffron. No pathogens were isolated, but an isolate belonging to Dietzia maris, a potential human pathogenic species, was detected. The biodiversity indexes were linked to the drying method and generally decreased as the intensity of the treatment increased. The results of this preliminary work show that the different drying methods strongly influenced the microbiota and affect the saffron volatile profile. Further analysis will be needed to determine possible effects of selected microbiota on saffron volatiles. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of quantitative relationships between saffron yield and nutrition (on farm trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohamad ali behdani

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to relate production of saffron and utilization of nutrients, a study was conducted in 2001 and 2002. Four selected locations for this study were Birjand, Gonabad, Qaen and Torbat-Haydariah, which are the main saffron production centers in Iran. This study was performed in 160 saffron farms, aged between 1 and 5 years. Manure, nitrogen and phosphorous fertilizers showed a positive linear relation with yield and length of flowering, while nitrogen and phosphorous showed a negative linear relation with start of flowering period. Yield of saffron showed a significant and positive correlation with the amount of applied manure and the saffron farms with age 4-5 year had highest yield. Our results showed that manure was the most effective factor in production of saffron. The beneficial effects of manure could be due to slow release of nutrients and enhancing soil physical properties. Stepwise regression analysis of yield and fertilizer application showed that 67 percent of yield variations was attributed to manure and phosphorous application.

  16. Controlling Aphelenchoides subtenuis nematodes with a hot water treatment in Crocus and Allium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van P.J.; Trompert, J.P.T.

    2011-01-01

    Several bulbous crops like Crocus, Allium and some species of Tulipa and Narcissus can be infected with the nematode Aphelenchoides subtenuis. The nematodes cause retarded growth, poor or no flowering and eventually death of the bulbs and corms. A hot water treatment after lifting the bulbs has

  17. Determining Suitable Places for Saffron Planting Using Fuzzy Hierarchical Analysis Process in the City of Torbat Heydarieh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Rashid Sorkhabadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The city of Torbat Heydarieh located in the central Khorasan is the largest producer of saffron in the world. According to the influence of various environmental factors on the growth and yield of saffron, the process of assessing land ratio for its cultivation requires the use of various detailed spatial and descriptive pieces of information. In this study, first the conditions of cultivating saffron have been studied in detail and suitable regions for planting saffron have been identified using maps of elevation, slope, soil characteristics, water and some climatic factors influencing the cultivation of saffron including effective threshold temperature, rainfall and sunshine hours. For this purpose, Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process (FAHP method was applied and modeling and spatial analysis were carried out using Arc GIS software environment based on the lands of the city of Torbat Heydarieh which were evaluated for their suitability for cultivation of saffron. It is worth noting that the final map showed that 43 percent of the central parts of Torbat Heydarieh have the highest potential for saffron cultivation. To evaluate the results and ensure the accuracy of the final map data, plant functions and crop qualities were compared with obtained data from final maps and the accuracy of the results was confirmed that shows the effectiveness of Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process (FAHP method  in assessing the potential of lands for saffron cultivation.

  18. (cucumis sativus l.) in spent engine oil contaminated soil amended

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    compost treatment recorded the highest number of leaves while the number of leaves for 0% ... KEYWORDS: Growth, Cucumis sativus, Urena lobata, spent engine oil, contamination, .... sawdust, peat, waste cotton and organic manures are.

  19. Using ß-cyclodextrin and Arabic Gum as Wall Materials for Encapsulation of Saffron Essential Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atefi, Mohsen; Nayebzadeh, Kooshan; Mohammadi, Abdorreza; Mortazavian, Amir Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Saffron essential oil has a pleasant aroma and medicinal activities. However, it is sensible into the environmental condition. Therefore, it should be protected against unwanted changes during storage or processing. Encapsulation is introduced as a process by which liable materials are protected from unwanted changes. In the present study, different ratios (0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25, and 100:0) of ß-cyclodextrin (ß-CD) and arabic gum (GA) were used as wall martial for encapsulation saffron essential oil. In order to calculate of loading capacity (LC) and encapsulation efficiency (EE), and release (RE), safranal was determined as indicator of saffron essential oil using GC. According to the results, the highest LC and EE were related to the mixture of ß-CD/GA at a 75:25 ratio. In contrast, the lowest encapsulate hygroscopicity (EH) and RE were observed when only ß-CD was applied as wall material (P≤0.05). Comparing the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermograms of the control and encapsulate of ß-CD/GA (75:25) confirmed encapsulation of saffron essential oil. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images with high magnifications showed the rhombic structure that partially coated by GA. The mixture of ß-CD/GA at a 75:25 ratio can be recommended for saffron essential oil encapsulation.

  20. Ranking factors affecting the packing of saffron from the perspective of consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Dorandish

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Packaging is a tool for recognition and differentiation of product and it plays a crucial role in consumers' purchasing decisions, and it can be used to create competitive advantages. Saffron is one of the most important agricultural crops in Iran and its packaging in accordance with consumer demand increases sales and satisfaction of the consumers. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to rank the factors affecting the packaging from the perspective of consumers of saffron in Mashhad. Data was collected in the form of 99 questionnaires that have been answered by the consumers of saffron in Mashhad in 2015. Analytic hierarchy process (AHP was used to rank these factors. The results showed that labeling information about internal and international standards and saffron nutrients on the package have the greatest impact on consumer preferences. Also, the results of the ranking alternatives indicated that attention to the brand labelled on the packing is the most important issue from the perspective of the consumers. Hence, labelling information elements on the package can be a good way for brand differentiation and increasing its value. According to the results, it is recommended that producers and suppliers of saffron pay more attention to features and information elements in package design.

  1. Effect of saffron petal extract on retention quality of fresh-cut watermelon cubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hamed kaveh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Saffron is considered as a valuable produce by producers and traders. Unfortunately, the use of its floral by products like petal which have proven to be antioxidant, antimicrobial and nutritional value is limited. In order to investigate the application of saffron petal extracts as an ameliorative on postharvest and processing quality of fresh-cut ‘Crimson Sweet’ watermelon, a completely randomized designed investigation was done on watermelon cubes with 1cm diameter (1±0.5 gram mean weight. Prepared watermelon cubes were divided into four groups and treated with saffron petal extract (10 % V/V for 10 minutes, UV irradiation (maximum wavelength 253.4 nm and 15W for 5 minutes, 10 minutes of saffron petal extract then UV irradiation for 5 minutes and control. After the application of treatments, fresh-cut watermelon cubes were stored at 5±0.5 ºC for 14 days. Sampling and observation of the studied characteristics (physiological loss in weight, soluble solid content, lycopene, microbial load and color quality (Chroma Hue was done every two days to find the trend of changes during the retention period. The results of experiment showed that petal extract of saffron could not decrease weight loss but it was significantly effective in lowering microbial load and increasing color quality, and prevention of lycopene degradation (P≤5%. Although treatment of UV+SPE had better efficiency to suppress microbial load significantly (P≤5%.

  2. Causing mutagenesis through the gamma rays upon the Saffron immature corm buds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastegari, J.; Vedadi, S.; Ghafari, M.

    2007-01-01

    In this research five levels of Saffron Corm weights (6-8-10-12 and 14 grams) and five dose of gamma radiation (0-2.5-5-7.5 and 10 Gy) were used. There were 25 treatments with 4 replication. The statistical analysis were conducted on petiole and stigma length on both the irradiated and the controlled. There were no significant difference at 5% level and weight of Saffron Corms and the irradiation does on the petiole and stigma length. The chromosomal studies on the root tip showed the chromosome abnormality in corm weight of 8 and 10 grams and the doses of 7.5 and 10 Gy. It can be concluded that irradiation of more than 10 Gy will cause abnormality and stops the emergence of Saffron. The best does of irradiation was found to be 5-10 Gy

  3. Extraction and Determination of Crocin in Saffron Samples by Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction

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    Somayeh Heydari

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The main component responsible for color in saffron is crocin with the chemical formula of C44H64O24. Crocin is one of several carotenoids in nature that is soluble in water. This solubility is one of the reasons for its widespread usage as a colorant in food and medicine compared to other carotenoids. The coloring strength of saffron is one of the major factors that determine the quality of the saffron stigma. It will be evaluated with measuring of crocin. Microextraction is the newest and easiest method that can be successfully applied for the preconcentration and separation of crocin in saffron samples. The advantages of this method are faster, cheaper and easier analysis by UV-Vis spectrophotometry in measurement of crocin compared to the chromatographic analysis methods. The studies showed that the type and volume of disperser and extractant solvent have a significant effect on the efficiency of crocin extraction. In this work, acetone as the disperser solvent and dichlorometane as the extractant solvent were found to be suitable combinations. Under the optimal conditions, the calibration curve was linear in the range of 0.15-0.00001 μg mL-1 and the limit of detection (LOD was calculated based on 3 Sb/m (where, Sb and m are the standard deviation of the blank and slop ratio of the calibration curve respectively was 0.000008 μg mL-1. The procedure was applied to saffron samples and the good recovery percent for the saffron samples was obtained.

  4. Investigation of weed species diversity and community structure in saffron fields of Khorasan

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    Surur Khorramdel

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Weedy flora of agroecosystems is composed of many species that have evolved in response to cropping system practices by occupying the niches left available in agroecosystems. In order to study weed species diversity and community structure in the saffron fields of Khorasan province, a survey trial was carried out in seven counties (including Mashhad, Neyshabur, Birjandn, Ghaen, Gonabad, Torbat-e Jam and Torbat-e Heydari during 2014 and 2015 from vegetative growth, dormant to flowering stages of saffron randomly dropped 1×1 m2 quadrates in 50 fields based on a systematic method as W pattern. The counties were clustered by the hierarchical complete linkage method based on Euclidean. Biodiversity indices such as stability coefficient, Simpson, Shannon–Wiener, Margalef and Menhinick were computed. The results indicated that the dominant weeds in saffron fields belong to 19 families and 50 species. Poaceae, Brassicaceae, Asteraceae and Fabaceae were dominant families with 11, 9, 8 and 6 species, respectively. The majority of weed species were dicotyledonous, C3, noxious and annual plants. The highest stability coefficients in the stages of growth of saffron were calculated in Alhagi camelorum, Avena fatua and Achillea millefolium to be 30.81, 24.11 and 12.14, respectively. All weed species except for Alhagi camelorum (sustainable species and Avena fatua (temporary species were recognized as causal species. The maximum diversity indices for weed species were recorded at the vegetative phase of saffron. Correlation coefficient between weed density and yield loss of saffron was computed as R2=0.98. Based on diversity indices for weed species, different counties were clustered in three groups at 75% similarity level.

  5. A Comparative Analysis of Saffron and Methylprednisolone on Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis in Rats

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    Mehrzad Bahtouee

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of saffron and methylprednisolone on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats. Methods: This study was conducted in Bushehr, southern Iran in 2017.The animals were divided into four groups of five rats each. Three groups were injected with a single intratracheal dose of bleomycin (5 mg/kg. The fourth group was administered with normal saline at the same volume (200 µl. Saffron extract dissolved in water was given to one group (100 mg /body weight orally while intraperitoneal injection of methylprednisolone (2.5 mg/kg injected to another one for 16 days. The rats were sacrificed 28 days following surgery and their right and left lungs were removed and washed for measuring lung indices, myeloperoxidase activities and finally histopathological examination. Results: Injection of bleomycin caused decrement of body weight aggravated by intraperitoneal methylprednisolone treatment. Lung indices were increased in the bleomycin-treated group compared with the control, while methylprednisolone, unlike saffron, had no preventive effects on it. Both saffron and methylprednisolone treatment prevented the increase in lung myeloperoxidase as a destructive enzyme. In addition, excessive collagen deposition and thickening of alveolar septa were significantly prevented with saffron treatment as compared to methylprednisolone injection following hematoxylin and eosin staining. Conclusion: Saffron with established antioxidant properties could prevent some detrimental effects in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis even more than methylprednisolone injection known as a standard therapy in this murine model. More investigations must be carried out to examine the beneficial or harmful effects of this remedy.

  6. The detailed snowpack scheme Crocus and its implementation in SURFEX v7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vionnet, V.; Brun, E.; Morin, S.; Boone, A.; Faroux, S.; Le Moigne, P.; Martin, E.; Willemet, J.-M.

    2011-09-01

    Detailed studies of snow cover processes require models that offer a fine description of the snow cover properties. The detailed snowpack model Crocus is such a scheme, and has been run operationally for avalanche forecasting over the French mountains for 20 years. It is also used for climate or hydrological studies. To extend its potential applications, Crocus has been recently integrated within the framework of the externalized surface module SURFEX. SURFEX computes the exchanges of energy and mass between different types of surface, and the atmosphere and includes in particular the land surface scheme ISBA (Interactions between Soil, Biosphere, and Atmosphere). It allows Crocus to be run either in stand-alone mode, using a time series of forcing meteorological data or in fully coupled mode (explicit or fully implicit numerics) with atmospheric models ranging from meso-scale models to general circulation models. This approach also insures a full coupling between the snow cover and the soil beneath. Several applications of this new simulation platform are presented. They range from a 1D stand-alone simulation (Col de Porte, France) to fully-distributed simulations in complex terrain, either in forced mode over a whole mountain range (Massif des Grandes Rousses, France), or in coupled mode such as a snow transport simulation (Col du Lac Blanc, France), or a surface energy balance and boundary layer simulation over a polar ice cap (Dome C, Antarctica).

  7. The detailed snowpack scheme Crocus and its implementation in SURFEX v7.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vionnet, V.; Brun, E.; Morin, S.; Boone, A.; Faroux, S.; Le Moigne, P.; Martin, E.; Willemet, J.-M.

    2012-05-01

    Detailed studies of snow cover processes require models that offer a fine description of the snow cover properties. The detailed snowpack model Crocus is such a scheme, and has been run operationally for avalanche forecasting over the French mountains for 20 yr. It is also used for climate or hydrological studies. To extend its potential applications, Crocus has been recently integrated within the framework of the externalized surface module SURFEX. SURFEX computes the exchanges of energy and mass between different types of surface and the atmosphere. It includes in particular the land surface scheme ISBA (Interactions between Soil, Biosphere, and Atmosphere). It allows Crocus to be run either in stand-alone mode, using a time series of forcing meteorological data or in fully coupled mode (explicit or fully implicit numerics) with atmospheric models ranging from meso-scale models to general circulation models. This approach also ensures a full coupling between the snow cover and the soil beneath. Several applications of this new simulation platform are presented. They range from a 1-D stand-alone simulation (Col de Porte, France) to fully-distributed simulations in complex terrain over a whole mountain range (Massif des Grandes Rousses, France), or in coupled mode such as a surface energy balance and boundary layer simulation over the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (Dome C).

  8. Effects of gamma irradiation and silver nano particles on microbiological characteristics of saffron, using hurdle technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid Sales, E; Motamedi Sedeh, F; Rajabifar, S

    2012-03-01

    Saffron, a plant from the Iridaceae family, is the world's most expensive spice. Gamma irradiation and silver nano particles whose uses are gradually increasing worldwide, have positive effects on preventing decay by sterilizing the microorganisms and by improving the safety without compromising the nutritional properties and sensory quality of the foods. In the present study combination effects of gamma irradiation and silver nano particles packaging on the microbial contamination of saffron were considered during storage. A combination of hurdles can ensure stability and microbial safety of foods. For this purpose, saffron samples were packaged by Poly Ethylene films that posses up to 300 ppm nano silver particles as antimicrobial agents and then irradiated in cobalt-60 irradiator (gamma cell PX30, dose rate 0.55 Gry/Sec) to 0, 1, 2,3 and 4 kGy at room temperature. The antimicrobial activities against Total Aerobic Mesophilic Bacteria, Entrobacteriace, Escherichia Coli and Clostridium Perfringines were higher in the irradiated samples, demonstrating the inhibition zone for their growth. Irradiation of the saffron samples packaged by Poly Ethylene films with nano silver particles showed the best results for decreasing microbial contamination at 2 kGy and for Poly Ethylene films without silver nano particles; it was 4 kGy.

  9. Effect of Saffron on Metabolic Profile and Retina in Apolipoprotein E-Knockout Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumouchtsis, Evangelos K; Tzani, Aspasia; Doulamis, Ilias P; Konstantopoulos, Panagiotis; Laskarina-Maria, Korou; Agrogiannis, Georgios; Agapitos, Emmanouil; Moschos, Marilita M; Kostakis, Alkiviadis; Perrea, Despina N

    2017-09-22

    Saffron is a spice that has been traditionally used as a regimen for a variety of diseases due to its potent antioxidant attributes. It is well documented that impaired systemic oxidative status is firmly associated with diverse adverse effects including retinal damage. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of saffron administration against the retinal damage in apoE -/- mice fed a high-fat diet, since they constitute a designated experimental model susceptible to oxidative stress. Twenty-one mice were allocated into three groups: Group A (control, n = 7 c57bl/6 mice) received standard chow diet; Group B (high-fat, n = 7 apoE -/- mice) received a high-fat diet; and Group C (high-fat and saffron, n = 7 apoE -/- mice) received a high-fat diet and saffron (25 mg/kg/d) through their drinking water. The duration of the study was 20 weeks. Lipidemic profile, glucose, C-reactive protein (CRP), and total oxidative capacity (PerOX) were measured in blood serum. Histological analysis of retina was also conducted. Administration of saffron resulted in enhanced glycemic control and preservation of retinal thickness when compared with apoE -/- mice fed a high-fat diet. The outcomes of the study suggest the potential protective role of saffron against retinal damage induced by oxidative stress. Nevertheless, verification of these results in humans is required before any definite conclusions can be drawn.

  10. Effect of climatic factors affecting saffron using analytic hierarchy process(AHP; (Case Study Roshtkhar Region, Iran

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    Saeid Kamyabi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aimed to determine the criteria for understanding climate and ranking factors influencing saffron and assess its impact on Roshtkhoar city of Khorasan Razavi province. The city of Roshtkhar has potential for increasing saffron cultivation; therefore, the main hypothesis during the research was, which climatic factors had the most influence on the cultivation of saffron in the city Roshtkhar. The research methodology was based on a period of ten years cross-sectional data collected from meteorological stations in the studied area. In this study, with taking into account of climatic factors affecting the cultivation of saffron, Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP method was used to prioritize rural and regional municipalities Roshtkhar cultivated land. Research process included data collection, analysis, statistical analysis, data entry software Expert choice, clustering and selection criteria, and integrating information. The results showed that, among environmental factors, precipitation index (0.281 and temperature coefficient (0.137 had the greatest impact in saffron cultivation. Water resources and evaporation of water had the lowest score in the survey accounted. In the municipalities of the city, Hossein-Abad districts had favorable conditions for growing saffron.

  11. How many loci does it take to DNA barcode a crocus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seberg, Ole; Petersen, Gitte

    2009-01-01

    DNA barcoding promises to revolutionize the way taxonomists work, facilitating species identification by using small, standardized portions of the genome as substitutes for morphology. The concept has gained considerable momentum in many animal groups, but the higher plant world has been largely recalcitrant to the effort. In plants, efforts are concentrated on various regions of the plastid genome, but no agreement exists as to what kinds of regions are ideal, though most researchers agree that more than one region is necessary. One reason for this discrepancy is differences in the tests that are used to evaluate the performance of the proposed regions. Most tests have been made in a floristic setting, where the genetic distance and therefore the level of variation of the regions between taxa is large, or in a limited set of congeneric species. Here we present the first in-depth coverage of a large taxonomic group, all 86 known species (except two doubtful ones) of crocus. Even six average-sized barcode regions do not identify all crocus species. This is currently an unrealistic burden in a barcode context. Whereas most proposed regions work well in a floristic context, the majority will--as is the case in crocus--undoubtedly be less efficient in a taxonomic setting. However, a reasonable but less than perfect level of identification may be reached--even in a taxonomic context. The time is ripe for selecting barcode regions in plants, and for prudent examination of their utility. Thus, there is no reason for the plant community to hold back the barcoding effort by continued search for the Holy Grail. We must acknowledge that an emerging system will be far from perfect, fraught with problems and work best in a floristic setting.

  12. Analysis of the role of strategic products in sustainable rural livelihoods (Case study: saffron production in the Roshtkhar rural district

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    Sadegh Asghari Lafmejani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Saffron is the most expensive agricultural and pharmaceutical product in the world. It is significant for several reasons such as having high water productivity compared to other crops. It is providing rural employment and preventing their migration, having high medicinal and spice values, ease of maintenance and transportation. Most importantly, it is producing a high revenue compared to other agricultural products. On this basis, due to the suitability of some parts of Iran to saffron production and the role of this product in the livelihood of rural households, assessment of the sustenance impacts of saffron production in the active villages seems absolutely necessary. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to assess the status of saffron production and its role in the livelihood of rural households of the Roshtkhar Rural District. This research was done based on a descriptive-analytic approach. In this regard, the role of saffron cultivation in 355 households living in 13 villages with over 100 households in the study rural district was investigated. To this goal, after conducting documentary studies and initial field visits, a wide range of measures proportional to the circumstances of the study villages were adopted. Then, data collection was performed based on the selected indices and questionnaires were distributed to be filled by villagers and households... To analyze the data, the relevant statistical and spatial analyses were done through the application of Expert choice, SPSS, and ArcGIS software packages. The research findings indicated that the annual revenues derived from saffron production in 43.9% of the households under study were more than they obtained from other sources of income. Through the analysis of the study data, it can be concluded that saffron production has a significant effect on the improvement of the residents’ livelihood in the Roshtkhar Rural District and this fact has reinforced the households

  13. Climatic zonation and land suitability determination for saffron in Khorasan-Razavi province using data mining algorithms

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    mehdi Bashiri

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Yield prediction for agricultural crops plays an important role in export-import planning, purchase guarantees, pricing, secure profits and increasing in agricultural productivity. Crop yield is affected by several parameters especially climate. In this study, the saffron yield in the Khorasan-Razavi province was evaluated by different classification algorithms including artificial neural networks, regression models, local linear trees, decision trees, discriminant analysis, random forest, support vector machine and nearest neighbor analysis. These algorithms analyzed data for 20 years (1989-2009 including 11 climatological parameters. The results showed that a few numbers of climatological parameters affect the saffron yield. The minimum, mean and maximum of temperature, had the highest positive correlations and the relative humidity of 6.5h, sunny hours, relative humidity of 18.5h, evaporation, relative humidity of 12.5h and absolute humidity had the highest negative correlations with saffron cultivation areas, respectively. In addition, in classification of saffron cultivation areas, the discriminant analysis and support vector machine had higher accuracies. The correlation between saffron cultivation area and saffron yield values was relatively high (r=0.38. The nearest neighbor analysis had the best prediction accuracy for classification of cultivation areas. For this algorithm the coefficients of determination were 1 and 0.944 for training and testing stages, respectively. However, the algorithms accuracy for prediction of crop yield from climatological parameters was low (the average coefficients of determination equal to 0.48 and 0.05 for training and testing stages. The best algorithm i.e. nearest neighbor analysis had coefficients of determination equal to 1 and 0.177 for saffron yield prediction. Results showed that, using climatological parameters and data mining algorithms can classify cultivation areas. By this way it is possible

  14. Extension of the GeN-Foam neutronic solver to SP3 analysis and application to the CROCUS experimental reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorina, Carlo; Hursin, Mathieu; Pautz, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Development and verification of an SP 3 solver based on OpenFOAM. • Integration into the GeN-Foam multi-physics platform. • Application of the new GeN-Foam SP 3 solver to the CROCUS reactor. - Abstract: The Laboratory for Reactor Physics and Systems Behaviour at the PSI and at the EPFL has been developing since 2013 a multi-physics platform for coupled reactor analysis named GeN-Foam. The developed tool includes a solver for the eigenvalue and transient solution of multi-group neutron diffusion equations. Although frequently used in reactor analysis, the diffusion theory shows some limitations for core configurations involving strong anisotropies, which is the case for the CROCUS research reactor at the EPFL. The use of an SP 3 approximation to neutron transport can often lead to visible improvements in a code predictive capabilities, especially for one-directional anisotropies, with acceptable added computational cost vs diffusion. Following some modelling issues for the CROCUS reactor, and in order to improve the GeN-Foam modelling capabilities, the GeN-Foam diffusion solver has been extended to allow for SP 3 analyses. The present paper describes such extension and a preliminary verification using a mini-core PWR benchmark. The newly developed solver is then applied to the analysis of the CROCUS experimental reactor and results are compared to Monte Carlo calculations, as well as to the results of the diffusion solver.

  15. Methods and Models for the Coupled Neutronics and Thermal-Hydraulics Analysis of the CROCUS Reactor at EFPL

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    A. Rais

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze the steady state and transient behavior of the CROCUS reactor, several methods and models need to be developed in the areas of reactor physics, thermal-hydraulics, and multiphysics coupling. The long-term objectives of this project are to work towards the development of a modern method for the safety analysis of research reactors and to update the Final Safety Analysis Report of the CROCUS reactor. A first part of the paper deals with generation of a core simulator nuclear data library for the CROCUS reactor using the Serpent 2 Monte Carlo code and also with reactor core modeling using the PARCS code. PARCS eigenvalue, radial power distribution, and control rod reactivity worth results were benchmarked against Serpent 2 full-core model results. Using the Serpent 2 model as reference, PARCS eigenvalue predictions were within 240 pcm, radial power was within 3% in the central region of the core, and control rod reactivity worth was within 2%. A second part reviews the current methodology used for the safety analysis of the CROCUS reactor and presents the envisioned approach for the multiphysics modeling of the reactor.

  16. The Effects of Saffron Economic Stability of Rural Residents in the Darbeghazi District City of Nishabur

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    Seyed Amir Mohamad Alavizade

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural sustainability is undoubtedly one of the most important parts of sustainable development. The main source of income for the residents of villages of the Khorasan Razavi province is based on agricultural and horticultural products especially sale of saffron. In this regard the turquoise shades of the flowers of this plant encompass all of the fields in Nishabur and they have been much welcomed by farmers in this city. In this study, the cultivation of saffron in creating economic stability of the rural district Derbghazi in the central part of the city of Nishabur city will be examined. The research method in this paper is based on library, documentary, field and analytical – descriptive studies. In this context and in order to determine the economic stability of rural areas, the Morris Davis model has been used. This model contains three matrices that separately calculate and analyze the economic indicators. The statistical population under study consists of more than one hundred households from the rural villages in the Derbghazi rural district and the sample population studied consists of 308 households based on the Cochran formula. The results of the Morris Davis model indicate that among ten villages that were studied, Behroudi, Jilo, Khojan and Norouazabad have low economic stability, and Rouhabad, Haghiye, Shadmiyane, Karizak plus the villages of Jafarabad garden and Karizak Sabbah have average economic stability. In the end and based on the results of the research study some recommendations are presented in order to maintain employment in the region and support the farmers who are cultivating saffron to encourage the till of saffron and help the economic stability of the residents of the villages that were studied.

  17. Enhanced Bioaccessibility of Crocetin Sugar Esters from Saffron in Infusions Rich in Natural Phenolic Antioxidants

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    Stella A. Ordoudi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to examine whether and to what extent the bioaccessibility of the major saffron apocarotenoids, namely crocetin sugar esters (CRTSEs, is affected by the presence of strong water-soluble antioxidants, ingredients of the herbs found in commercial tea blends with saffron. An in vitro digestion model was applied to infusions from these products to investigate the possible changes. All of the studied infusions were rich in total phenols (9.9–22.5 mg caffeic acid equivalents/100 mg dry infusion and presented strong DPPH radical scavenging activity regardless of the composition of the corresponding herbal blends. RP-HPLC-DAD and LC-MS analysis enabled the grouping of the infusions into hydroxycinnamic acid-rich and in flavan-3-ol-rich ones. CRTSEs in herbal tea infusions were found to be significantly more bioaccessible (66.3%–88.6% than those in the reference saffron infusion (60.9%. The positive role of strong phenolic antioxidants (caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid on the stability of CRTSEs was also evidenced in model binary mixtures. On the contrary, cinnamic acid, exerting no antioxidant activity, did not have such an effect. Our findings suggest that strong radical scavengers may protect the crocetin sugar esters from oxidation during digestion when present in excess.

  18. Enhanced Bioaccessibility of Crocetin Sugar Esters from Saffron in Infusions Rich in Natural Phenolic Antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordoudi, Stella A; Kyriakoudi, Anastasia; Tsimidou, Maria Z

    2015-09-25

    The present study aims to examine whether and to what extent the bioaccessibility of the major saffron apocarotenoids, namely crocetin sugar esters (CRTSEs), is affected by the presence of strong water-soluble antioxidants, ingredients of the herbs found in commercial tea blends with saffron. An in vitro digestion model was applied to infusions from these products to investigate the possible changes. All of the studied infusions were rich in total phenols (9.9-22.5 mg caffeic acid equivalents/100 mg dry infusion) and presented strong DPPH radical scavenging activity regardless of the composition of the corresponding herbal blends. RP-HPLC-DAD and LC-MS analysis enabled the grouping of the infusions into hydroxycinnamic acid-rich and in flavan-3-ol-rich ones. CRTSEs in herbal tea infusions were found to be significantly more bioaccessible (66.3%-88.6%) than those in the reference saffron infusion (60.9%). The positive role of strong phenolic antioxidants (caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid) on the stability of CRTSEs was also evidenced in model binary mixtures. On the contrary, cinnamic acid, exerting no antioxidant activity, did not have such an effect. Our findings suggest that strong radical scavengers may protect the crocetin sugar esters from oxidation during digestion when present in excess.

  19. Improvement of Xylanase Production by Cochliobolus sativus in Submerged Culture

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    Yasser Bakri

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The xylanase production by a new Cochliobolus sativus Cs5 strain was improved under submerged fermentation. The xylanase was induced by xylan and repressed by glucose, sucrose, maltose, xylose, starch and cellulose. Highest enzyme production (98.25 IU/mL was recorded when wheat straw (4 % by mass per volume was used as a carbon source after 120 h of incubation. NaNO3 increased xylanase production 5.4-fold as compared to the control. Optimum initial pH was found to be 4.5 to 5. The C. sativus Cs5 strain grown under submerged culture in a simple medium proved to be a promising microorganism for xylanase production.

  20. Identification and Prioritization of Marketing Mix Elements Affecting the Export of Saffron from the Perspective of Experts

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    Mohammad Ghodoosi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of saffron in the growth of non-oil exports makes it necessary to explain proper marketing systems based on expert priorities. The aim of this study is to identify and prioritize marketing mix elements influencing the increase in export of this product. In this regard, based on McCarthy's 4P model, different criteria for export marketing of this product were determined and prioritized using Analytical Hierarchy Process and interviews with 63 experts in the export of saffron. Based on the findings, product criteria with important sub criteria such as brands, the standard sign and packaging weighting 0.485, have the highest priority in saffron marketing. Promotion criteria (weight 0.281 are the next important in determining the marketing mix. Among the indicators of this criterion, advertisements (0.408, overseas sales (0.23 and specialized exhibitions (0.138 were the determining factors in maintaining Iran`s share of this market.  Finally, the criteria of price (weight 0.183 and distribution (0.068 have third and fourth priority in saffron marketing mix. Accordingly, identifying distribution channels in target markets, funding the establishment of an international distribution network for Iranian brands, supporting mechanized production process of saffron, and encouraging and requiring manufacturers to food-grade and health license are required and recommended.

  1. Identification and Cloning of Differentially Expressed SOUL and ELIP Genes in Saffron Stigmas Using a Subtractive Hybridization Approach.

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    Oussama Ahrazem

    Full Text Available Using a subtractive hybridization approach, differentially expressed genes involved in the light response in saffron stigmas were identified. Twenty-two differentially expressed transcript-derived fragments were cloned and sequenced. Two of them were highly induced by light and had sequence similarity to early inducible proteins (ELIP and SOUL heme-binding proteins. Using these sequences, we searched for other family members expressed in saffron stigma. ELIP and SOUL are represented by small gene families in saffron, with four and five members, respectively. The expression of these genes was analyzed during the development of the stigma and in light and dark conditions. ELIP transcripts were detected in all the developmental stages showing much higher expression levels in the developed stigmas of saffron and all were up-regulated by light but at different levels. By contrast, only one SOUL gene was up-regulated by light and was highly expressed in the stigma at anthesis. Both the ELIP and SOUL genes induced by light in saffron stigmas might be associated with the structural changes affecting the chromoplast of the stigma, as a result of light exposure, which promotes the development and increases the number of plastoglobules, specialized in the recruitment of specific proteins, which enables them to act in metabolite synthesis and disposal under changing environmental conditions and developmental stages.

  2. On the Traceability of Commercial Saffron Samples Using 1H-NMR and FT-IR Metabolomics

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    Roberto Consonni

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In previous works on authentic samples of saffron of known history (harvest and processing year, storage conditions, and length of time some biomarkers were proposed using both FT-IR and NMR metabolomics regarding the shelf life of the product. This work addresses the difficulties to trace back the “age” of commercial saffron samples of unknown history, sets a limit value above which these products can be considered substandard, and offers a useful tool to combat saffron mislabeling and fraud with low-quality saffron material. Investigations of authentic and commercial saffron samples of different origin and harvest year, which had been stored under controlled conditions for different lengths of time, allowed a clear-cut clustering of samples in two groups according to the storage period irrespectively of the provenience. In this respect, the four-year cut off point proposed in our previous work assisted to trace back the “age” of unknown samples and to check for possible mislabeling practices.

  3. Examination of integration and central market hypothesis for saffron market in khorasan razavi, northern khorasan and southern khorasan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Karbasi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Saffron is one of the important agricultural product and North Khorasan, Razavi and South is considered as the major producers in Iran. In this study Central Market Hypothesis or price leadership has been examined. For this purpose Johanson Co-integration test for monthly price data since 2006 to 2011 for these provinces has been used. Main results indicated that South Khorasan is a price leader between these provinces. In addition, saffron market is unit in South Khorasan and Khorasan Razavi and the law of one price is indefeasible. Moreover, North Khorasan has a separate market and in long run saffron market in this province is not an impressible market. The adoption of a policy on each of the three provinces, affects the other two the product market provinces.

  4. Movement of foliar uptake radionuclides in radish. [Raphanus sativus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagisawa, K.; Kamada, H.

    1986-05-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the translocation of /sup 60/Co, /sup 54/Mn, and two representative fission products of /sup 85/Sr and /sup 137/Cs in radish (Raphanus sativus) and to provide a translocation rate for a given nuclide. The effect of air humidity on the foliar uptake-translocation was also investigated. Retention of the radionuclides was usually higher in plants grown under conditions of 100% humidity at night as opposed to conditions of a constant humidity of 70%. Results indicate that Co and Cs translocate much more than Mn and Sr in the plant.

  5. Unraveling Massive Crocins Transport and Accumulation through Proteome and Microscopy Tools during the Development of Saffron Stigma

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    Lourdes Gómez-Gómez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Crocins, the glucosides of crocetin, are present at high concentrations in saffron stigmas and accumulate in the vacuole. However, the biogenesis of the saffron chromoplast, the changes during the development of the stigma and the transport of crocins to the vacuole, are processes that remain poorly understood. We studied the process of chromoplast differentiation in saffron throughout stigma development by means of transmission electron microscopy. Our results provided an overview of a massive transport of crocins to the vacuole in the later developmental stages, when electron dense drops of a much greater size than plastoglobules (here defined “crocinoplast” were observed in the chromoplast, connected to the vacuole with a subsequent transfer of these large globules inside the vacuole. A proteome analysis of chromoplasts from saffron stigma allowed the identification of several well-known plastid proteins and new candidates involved in crocetin metabolism. Furthermore, expressions throughout five developmental stages of candidate genes responsible for carotenoid and apocarotenoid biogenesis, crocins transport to the vacuole and starch metabolism were analyzed. Correlation matrices and networks were exploited to identify a series of transcripts highly associated to crocetin (such as 1-Deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase (DXS, 1-Deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR, carotenoid isomerase (CRTISO, Crocetin glucosyltransferase 2 (UGT2, etc. and crocin (e.g., ζ-carotene desaturase (ZDS and plastid-lipid-associated proteins (PLAP2 accumulation; in addition, candidate aldehyde dehydrogenase (ADH genes were highlighted.

  6. Unraveling Massive Crocins Transport and Accumulation through Proteome and Microscopy Tools during the Development of Saffron Stigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Gómez, Lourdes; Parra-Vega, Verónica; Rivas-Sendra, Alba; Seguí-Simarro, Jose M.; Molina, Rosa Victoria; Pallotti, Claudia; Rubio-Moraga, Ángela; Diretto, Gianfranco; Prieto, Alicia; Ahrazem, Oussama

    2017-01-01

    Crocins, the glucosides of crocetin, are present at high concentrations in saffron stigmas and accumulate in the vacuole. However, the biogenesis of the saffron chromoplast, the changes during the development of the stigma and the transport of crocins to the vacuole, are processes that remain poorly understood. We studied the process of chromoplast differentiation in saffron throughout stigma development by means of transmission electron microscopy. Our results provided an overview of a massive transport of crocins to the vacuole in the later developmental stages, when electron dense drops of a much greater size than plastoglobules (here defined “crocinoplast”) were observed in the chromoplast, connected to the vacuole with a subsequent transfer of these large globules inside the vacuole. A proteome analysis of chromoplasts from saffron stigma allowed the identification of several well-known plastid proteins and new candidates involved in crocetin metabolism. Furthermore, expressions throughout five developmental stages of candidate genes responsible for carotenoid and apocarotenoid biogenesis, crocins transport to the vacuole and starch metabolism were analyzed. Correlation matrices and networks were exploited to identify a series of transcripts highly associated to crocetin (such as 1-Deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase (DXS), 1-Deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR), carotenoid isomerase (CRTISO), Crocetin glucosyltransferase 2 (UGT2), etc.) and crocin (e.g., ζ-carotene desaturase (ZDS) and plastid-lipid-associated proteins (PLAP2)) accumulation; in addition, candidate aldehyde dehydrogenase (ADH) genes were highlighted. PMID:28045431

  7. Competition Between Fusarium pseudograminearum and Cochliobolus sativus Observed in Field and Greenhouse Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troth, Erin E Gunnink; Johnston, Jeffrey A; Dyer, Alan T

    2018-02-01

    Among root pathogens, one of the most documented antagonisms is the suppression of Cochliobolus sativus by Fusarium (roseum) species. Unfortunately, previous studies involved single isolates of each pathogen and thus, provided no indication of the spectrum of responses that occur across the respective species. To investigate the variability in interactions between Cochliobolus sativus and Fusarium pseudograminearum, field and greenhouse trials were conducted that included monitoring of spring wheat plant health and monitoring of pathogen populations via quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The interactions between two isolates of C. sativus and four isolates of F. pseudograminearum were explored in three geographically distinct wheat fields. To complement field trials and to limit potentially confounding environmental variables that are often associated with field studies, greenhouse trials were performed that investigated the interactions among and between three isolates of C. sativus and four isolates of F. pseudograminearum. Across field locations, C. sativus isolate Cs2344 consistently and significantly reduced Fusarium populations by an average of 20.1%. Similarly, F. pseudograminearum isolate Fp2228 consistently and significantly reduced C. sativus field populations by an average of 30.9%. No interaction was detected in the field between pathogen species with regards to disease or crop losses. Greenhouse results confirmed a powerful (>99%), broadly effective suppression of Fusarium populations by isolate Cs2344. Among greenhouse trials, additional isolate-isolate interactions were observed affecting Fusarium populations. Due to lower C. sativus population sizes in greenhouse trials, significant Fusarium suppression of C. sativus was only detected in one isolate-isolate interaction. This study is the first to demonstrate suppression of Fusarium spp. by C. sativus in field and greenhouse settings. These findings also reveal a complex competitive

  8. Inner Alienation: Diasporic Consciousness in Kamila Shamsie’s Salt and Saffron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humaira Riaz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the ‘diasporic consciousness ‘of the fictional characters, incorporated in selected work of Pakistani expatriate writer Kamila Shamsie through the portrayal of cross-cultural differences. This study attempts to unravel the inner-alienation that sustains through specific discourses and events occurring in the lives of the expatriate fictional characters represented in Salt and Saffron (2000. The composite term used for this study is ‘diasporic consciousness’ that refers to a specific kind of awareness dominant among the contemporary transnational communities. It is also said to possess a dual nature. More specifically, it is defined in relationship to the memories of the homeland. It emphasizes on describing a myriad of experiences showing a particular state of mind and most prominently a sense of identity. Shamsie’s Salt and Saffron portrays the cross-cultural differences between Karachi and New York, and explores an irrational fear of place in which the characters initially find themselves trapped in. Keywords: Diaspora, Consciousness, Inner-Alienation, Culture

  9. Organic saffron position in the future household consumption basket and effective structures (Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadreza Shahpouri

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Considering the importance of planning at the production level, it is necessary to identify the consumer's future behavior towards organic products. Thus, using seemingly unrelated regression and data of 2012 for 200 households in mashhad, in the present study we have tried to determine the future share of these products in the household's basket and also survey the effective factors on this share in organic saffron. The results showed that households in mashhad tend to allocate an average of 34 percent of their future consumption basket for organic saffron. The regression results illustrated that while children below 10 years old in the households, willingness to pay the price differential compared with non-organic products and organic labeling positively affected the willingness to pay for organic products, environmental concerns variables created by non-organic products had a negative effect on their willingness. Considering the research results, helping to raise people's awareness about food through different educational and advertising approaches, providing a mechanism to label organic products and assessing the strengths and weaknesses of producing and distributing the organic products are provided as suggestions.

  10. A survey on technical efficiency, marketing and market structure of saffron crop, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Shaban

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The current study attempted to determine technical efficiency as well as study the marketing and market structure of Saffarn crop in Iran. To access the research goals 140 farms, 25 retailers and 14 wholesalers randomly selected. The necessary data collected through interview and filling questionarie. Apart from this, some agricultural Expert from selected cities of Razavi province have been chosen to interview. To determine the market time-series data for the period of 1995-12 was used. To determine technical efficiency DEA method, to calculate marketing margins Digbi method and to find market structure concentration ratio and Herfindal index were used. The results indicated that, the average technical efficiency was 63.49 and minimum and maximum technical efficiency respectively 19.04 and 100, retailer margin mean of Saffron was more than wholesale margin mean and average marketing cost coefficient of Saffron was about 14.78. It means that, marketing factors share in final price is 14.78. Address to the results the Saffaran’s market structure is oligopoly.

  11. The estimation of phenological thresholds of Saffron cultivation in Isfahan province based on the daily temperature statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamabbas Fallahghalhary

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the statistics of daily temperature of meteorology stations for estimating the probable occurrence of the first and last frost temperature, the phonological thresholds of saffron and its flowering and irrigation dates were explored. Furthermore, by applying different methods, the probabilities of the attained dates in different probability levels were fit in Smada software. The estimated probability level of 95 percent, as the optimum date, was donated for the entire Isfahan province in ArcGIS9/3 software environment using the interpolation method of Cokriging. The time of occurrence of minimum temperatures is under the influence of the geographical and height condition of each region and the first fall season frost occurs in high regions of the eastern half of Isfahan province at the beginning of November and in the low-lying eastern regions in the late December. The occurrence of daily temperature is changeable from the first half of October and the second half of November. From the west to the east of Isfahan, the time of occurrence of this threshold has a delay of about one month. The optimum flowering date of saffron, based on climatic conditions, is from the first half of October to the late of November. By considering the flowering date and daily temperature requirement of saffron, the irrigation date prior to flowering continues from the second half of September in the western parts and the beginning of November in the eastern regions. From the perspective of thermal condition, the western, central, northern and eastern parts of Isfahan province are more suited to the cultivation and development of saffron product. The amount of water requirement in the study area based on evapotranspiration and crop coefficients of saffron occurred in the mid-season, late season and Initial.

  12. Current Mode Neutron Noise Measurements in the Zero Power Reactor CROCUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakari, O.; Lamirand, V.; Perret, G.; Braun, L.; Frajtag, P.; Pautz, A.

    2018-01-01

    The present article is an overview of developments and results regarding neutron noise measurements in current mode at the CROCUS zero power facility. Neutron noise measurements offer a non-invasive method to determine kinetic reactor parameters such as the prompt decay constant at criticality α = βeff / λ, the effective delayed neutron fraction βeff, and the mean generation time λ for code validation efforts. At higher detection rates, i.e. above 2×104 cps in the used configuration at 0.1 W, the previously employed pulse charge amplification electronics with BF3 detectors yielded erroneous results due to dead time effects. Future experimental needs call for higher sensitivity in detectors, higher detection rates or higher reactor powers, and thus a generally more versatile measurement system. We, therefore, explored detectors operated with current mode acquisition electronics to accommodate the need. We approached the matter in two ways: 1) By using the two compensated 10B-coated ionization chambers available in CROCUS as operational monitors. The compensated current signal of these chambers was extracted from coremonitoring output channels. 2) By developing a new current mode amplification station to be used with other available detectors in core. Characteristics and first noise measurements of the new current system are presented. We implemented post-processing of the current signals from 1)and 2) with the APSD/CPSD method to determine α. At two critical states (0.5 and 1.5 W), using the 10B ionization chambers and their CPSD estimate, the prompt decay constant was measured after 1.5 hours to be α=(156.9 ± 4.3) s-1 (1σ). This result is within 1σ of statistical uncertainties of previous experiments and MCNPv5-1.6 predictions using the ENDF/B-7.1 library. The newsystem connected to a CFUL01 fission chamber using the APSDestimate at 100 mW after 33 min yielded α = (160.8 ± 6.3) s-1, also within 1σ agreement. The improvements to previous neutron noise

  13. Ameliorative Effect of Saffron Aqueous Extract on Hyperglycemia, Hyperlipidemia, and Oxidative Stress on Diabetic Encephalopathy in Streptozotocin Induced Experimental Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Samarghandian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic encephalopathy is one of the severe complications in patients with diabetes mellitus. Findings indicate that saffron extract has antioxidant properties but its underlying beneficial effects on diabetic encephalopathy were unclear. In the present study, the protective activities of saffron were evaluated in diabetic encephalopathy. Saffron at 40 and 80 mg/kg significantly increased body weight and serum TNF-α and decreased blood glucose levels, glycosylated serum proteins, and serum advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs levels. Furthermore, significant increase in HDL and decrease (P<0.05 in cholesterol, triglyceride, and LDL were observed after 28 days of treatment. At the end of experiments, the hippocampus tissue was used for determination of glutathione content (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT activities. Furthermore, saffron significantly increased GSH, SOD, and CAT but remarkably decreased cognitive deficit, serum TNF-α, and induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS activity in hippocampus tissue. Our findings indicated that saffron extract may reduce hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia risk and also reduce the oxidative stress in diabetic encephalopathy rats. This study suggested that saffron extract might be a promising candidate for the improvement of chemically induced diabetes and its complications.

  14. The Impact of Saffron on Symptoms of Withdrawal Syndrome in Patients Undergoing Maintenance Treatment for Opioid Addiction in Sabzevar Parish in 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nemat Shahi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective. Drug dependence is one of the serious problems around the world. Saffron is one of those beneficial medicinal plants which is embedded with a similar mechanism to methadone (e.g., inhibition of serotonin reuptake. Thus, it can be helpful in reducing the withdrawal symptoms. The aim of this study was to reduce the daily dose of methadone usage and reduce its side effects using saffron in the form of medicinal supplements. Methodology. This study was categorized as a clinical trial. Accordingly, 44 clients of addiction treatment centers in Sabzevar parish were randomly selected to participate in this study in 2016–2017. While the experimental group was treated with methadone syrup and self-made saffron capsules, the control group received methadone syrup and placebo capsules. Results. The results showed that the use of saffron and methadone alleviated the symptoms of withdrawal syndrome (p<0.001. Conclusion. Having reviewed the research participants, it was indicated that the introduction of saffron alleviated the symptoms of withdrawal syndrome in patients undergoing maintenance treatment for opioid addiction. Thus, it seems rational to make use of saffron in combination with methadone in order to alleviate the symptoms of withdrawal syndrome.

  15. Effects of fluorine pollution and the resulting elementary analysis in the radis Raphanus sativus L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charlot, C.; Kisman, S.

    1983-01-01

    After mineral elementary analysis of plant tissue, it was observed that supply of NaF to radish Raphanus sativus L. reduced SiO/sub 2/, probably partly explaining the variation in resistance of plants to fluorine pollution.

  16. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and kabocha squash (Cucurbita moschata Duch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanasato, Yoshihiko; Tabei, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    We established improved methods for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and kabocha squash (Cucurbita moschata Duch). Vacuum infiltration of cotyledonary explants with Agrobacterium suspension enhanced the Agrobacterium infection efficiency in the proximal regions of explants. Wounding treatment was also essential for kabocha squash. Cocultivation on filter paper wicks suppressed necrosis of explants, keeping regeneration efficacy. Putative transgenic plants were screened by kanamycin resistance and green fluorescent protein (GFP) fluorescence. These putative transgenic plants grew normally and T1 seeds were obtained, and stable integration and transmission of the transgene in T1 generations were confirmed by Southern hybridization and PCR. The average transgenic efficiency for cucumber and kabocha squash was 11.9 ± 3.5 and 9.2 ± 2.9 %, respectively.

  17. Comparison of de novo assembly statistics of Cucumis sativus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcieszek, Michał; Kuśmirek, Wiktor; Pawełkowicz, Magdalena; PlÄ der, Wojciech; Nowak, Robert M.

    2017-08-01

    Genome sequencing is the core of genomic research. With the development of NGS and lowering the cost of procedure there is another tight gap - genome assembly. Developing the proper tool for this task is essential as quality of genome has important impact on further research. Here we present comparison of several de Bruijn assemblers tested on C. sativus genomic reads. The assessment shows that newly developed software - dnaasm provides better results in terms of quantity and quality. The number of generated sequences is lower by 5 - 33% with even two fold higher N50. Quality check showed reliable results were generated by dnaasm. This provides us with very strong base for future genomic analysis.

  18. The use of cultivars of Raphanus sativus for cytokinin bioassay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Kubowicz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Six cultivars of radish (Raphanus sativus were tested for their usefulness in radish cytokinin bioassay by the method of Letham (1971. The best cultivar was found to be 'Sopel Lodu' which responds well to both zeatin and 2iP over a wide range of concentrations. The fresh weight of cotyledons increased at most by 71.5% (if treated with zeatin or 101.0% (if treated with 2iP compared to untreated cotyledons. This cultivar is also sensitive to the partially purified cytokinin-like fraction isolated from the pine (Pinus silvestris cambial region. The cultivar 'Sopel Lodu' is therefore proposed to be a suitable plant for cytokinin bioassays.

  19. Implementation of a physically based water percolation routine in the Crocus/SURFEX (V7.3 snowpack model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. L. D'Amboise

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a new water percolation routine added to the one-dimensional snowpack model Crocus as an alternative to the empirical bucket routine. This routine solves the Richards equation, which describes flow of water through unsaturated porous snow governed by capillary suction, gravity and hydraulic conductivity of the snow layers. We tested the Richards routine on two data sets, one recorded from an automatic weather station over the winter of 2013–2014 at Filefjell, Norway, and the other an idealized synthetic data set. Model results using the Richards routine generally lead to higher water contents in the snow layers. Snow layers often reached a point at which the ice crystals' surface area is completely covered by a thin film of water (the transition between pendular and funicular regimes, at which feedback from the snow metamorphism and compaction routines are expected to be nonlinear. With the synthetic simulation 18 % of snow layers obtained a saturation of  >  10 % and 0.57 % of layers reached saturation of  >  15 %. The Richards routine had a maximum liquid water content of 173.6 kg m−3 whereas the bucket routine had a maximum of 42.1 kg m−3. We found that wet-snow processes, such as wet-snow metamorphism and wet-snow compaction rates, are not accurately represented at higher water contents. These routines feed back on the Richards routines, which rely heavily on grain size and snow density. The parameter sets for the water retention curve and hydraulic conductivity of snow layers, which are used in the Richards routine, do not represent all the snow types that can be found in a natural snowpack. We show that the new routine has been implemented in the Crocus model, but due to feedback amplification and parameter uncertainties, meaningful applicability is limited. Updating or adapting other routines in Crocus, specifically the snow compaction routine and the grain metamorphism routine, is needed

  20. Neutron generation time of the reactor 'crocus' by an interval distribution method for counts collected by two detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haldy, P.-A.; Chikouche, M.

    1975-01-01

    The distribution is considered of time intervals between a count in one neutron detector and the consequent event registered in a second one. A 'four interval' probability generating function was derived by means of which the expression for the distribution of the time intervals, lasting from triggering detection in the first detector to subsequent count in the second, one could be obtained. The experimental work was conducted in the zero thermal power reactor Crocus, using a neutron source provided by spontaneous fission, a BF 3 counter for the first detector and an He 3 detector for the second instrument. (U.K.)

  1. Full Core modeling techniques for research reactors with irregular geometries using Serpent and PARCS applied to the CROCUS reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siefman, Daniel J.; Girardin, Gaëtan; Rais, Adolfo; Pautz, Andreas; Hursin, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Modeling of research reactors. • Serpent and PARCS coupling. • Lattice physics codes modeling techniques. - Abstract: This paper summarizes the results of modeling methodologies developed for the zero-power (100 W) teaching and research reactor CROCUS located in the Laboratory for Reactor Physics and Systems Behavior (LRS) at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL). The study gives evidence that the Monte Carlo code Serpent can be used effectively as a lattice physics tool for small reactors. CROCUS’ core has an irregular geometry with two fuel zones of different lattice pitches. This and the reactor’s small size necessitate the use of nonstandard cross-section homogenization techniques when modeling the full core with a 3D nodal diffusion code (e.g. PARCS). The primary goal of this work is the development of these techniques for steady-state neutronics and future transient neutronics analyses of not only CROCUS, but research reactors in general. In addition, the modeling methods can provide useful insight for analyzing small modular reactor concepts based on light water technology. Static computational models of CROCUS with the codes Serpent and MCNP5 are presented and methodologies are analyzed for using Serpent and SerpentXS to prepare macroscopic homogenized group cross-sections for a pin-by-pin model of CROCUS with PARCS. The most accurate homogenization scheme lead to a difference in terms of k eff of 385 pcm between the Serpent and PARCS model, while the MCNP5 and Serpent models differed in terms of k eff by 13 pcm (within the statistical error of each simulation). Comparisons of the axial power profiles between the Serpent model as a reference and a set of PARCS models using different homogenization techniques showed a consistent root-mean-square deviation of ∼8%, indicating that the differences are not due to the homogenization technique but rather arise from the definition of the diffusion coefficients

  2. Effect of Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana as a Substitute for Sugar on Physicochemical, Rheological and Sensory Properties of Dietary Saffron Syrup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Hashemi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years production and usage of functional food and drinks is one of the public and scientist’s interest. Since carbohydrates have been recognizedas the major calorie source in many food baskets, most attention has been focused on substitution of sucrose with non-caloric sweeteners. Although both natural and synthetic sweeteners have been used in the formulation of food stuffs, deep concern is raised regarding safety aspects of synthetic ones. Stevia is a natural suitable sweetener that is currently being used as a substitute for sugar in many dietary and functional foods and drinks. In the present study the effect of using stevia sugar as a replacement for sucrose in the preparation of saffron beverages was investigated. Accordingly, saffron syrup was prepared with 5 treatments in which100%, 75%, 50%, 25% and 0% of stevia sugar replaced sucrose. Then, the physicochemical, rheological and sensory properties of saffron functional syrup were investigated. The results indicated that by increasing stevia brix level, density and viscosity increased but the syrups’ pH decreases. The best treatment was the sample containing 25% steviaand 75% sucrose that compared to other samples regarding sensory characteristics had a higher acceptance by consumer and regarding physicochemical and rheological characteristics more similar to the control sample.

  3. In vitro shoot regeneration and microcorm development in crocus vernus (l.) hill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivanesan, I.

    2014-01-01

    An efficient method has been developed for In vitro regeneration of shoot and microcorm from corm explants of Crocus vernus. Corms were cut into 0.5-1.0 cm long segments and cultured on the SH medium supplemented with 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, or 4.0 mg L-1 2-isopentyl adenine (2-iP), N6-benzyladenine (BA), and N6-furfuryladenine (kinetin, Kin) alone or combination with 0.5 or 1.0 mg L-1 alpha-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) for shoot regeneration. Of the three cytokinins tested, BA was found to be the most effective cytokinin for shoot formation. The number of shoots induced per explant was more when BA was combined with 0.5 mg L-1 NAA than with 1.0 mg L-1 NAA. The greatest percentage of shoot induction (97.2) with the mean number of 11.8 shoots per explant was obtained when the SH medium was supplemented with 2.0 mg L-1 BA and 0.5 mg L-1 NAA. The frequency of microcorm induction was significantly affected by the concentrations of sucrose.The greatest number of 6.1 microcorms per explant was obtained when the SH medium was supplemented with 2.0 mg L-1 BA, 0.5 mg L-1 NAA and 6.0% sucrose. The microcorms formed In vitro developed daughter corms when they were cultured on this medium. Microcorms were separated from the culture and planted out in acclimatization boxes containing a commercial medium. About 85% of corms developed shoot and root after 30 days. This protocol could be utilized for genetic transformation and mass clonal propagation of C. (author)

  4. Arsenic speciation in xylem sap of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihucz, Victor G. [Joint Research Group of Environmental Chemistry of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and L. Eoetvoes University, Budapest (Hungary); Hungarian Satellite Centre of Trace Elements Institute to UNESCO, Budapest (Hungary); Tatar, Eniko [Hungarian Satellite Centre of Trace Elements Institute to UNESCO, Budapest (Hungary); L. Eoetvoes University, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Budapest (Hungary); Virag, Istvan [L. Eoetvoes University, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Budapest (Hungary); Cseh, Edit; Fodor, Ferenc [L. Eoetvoes University, Department of Plant Physiology, Budapest (Hungary); Zaray, Gyula [Joint Research Group of Environmental Chemistry of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and L. Eoetvoes University, Budapest (Hungary); Hungarian Satellite Centre of Trace Elements Institute to UNESCO, Budapest (Hungary); L. Eoetvoes University, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Budapest (Hungary)

    2005-10-01

    Flow injection analysis (FIA) and high-performance liquid chromatography double-focusing sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-DF-ICP-MS) were used for total arsenic determination and arsenic speciation of xylem sap of cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L.) grown in hydroponics containing 2 {mu}mol dm{sup -3} arsenate or arsenite, respectively. Arsenite [As(III)], arsenate [As(V)] and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) were identified in the sap of the plants. Arsenite was the predominant arsenic species in the xylem saps regardless of the type of arsenic treatment, and the following concentration order was determined: As(III) > As(V) > DMA. The amount of total As, calculated taking into consideration the mass of xylem sap collected, was almost equal for both treatments. Arsenite was taken up more easily by cucumber than arsenate. Partial oxidation of arsenite to arsenate (<10% in 48 h) was observed in the case of arsenite-containing nutrient solutions, which may explain the detection of arsenate in the saps of plants treated with arsenite. (orig.)

  5. Monitoring of the Liquid Water Content During Snowmelt Using C-Band SAR Data and the Snow Model CROCUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondeau-Genesse, G.; Trudel, M.; Leconte, R.

    2014-12-01

    Coupling C-Band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data to a multilayer snow model is a step in better understanding the temporal evolution of the radar backscattering coefficient during snowmelt. The watershed used for this study is the Nechako River Basin, located in the Rocky Mountains of British-Columbia (Canada). This basin has a snowpack of several meters in depth and part of its water is diverted to the Kemano hydropower system, managed by Rio-Tinto Alcan. Eighteen RADARSAT-2 ScanSAR Wide archive images were acquired in VV/VH polarization for the winter of 2011-2012, under different snow conditions. They are interpreted along with CROCUS, a multilayer physically-based snow model developed by Météo-France. This model discretizes the snowpack into 50 layers, which makes it possible to monitor various characteristics, such as liquid water content (LWC), throughout the season. CROCUS is used to model three specific locations of the Nechako River Basin. Results vary from one site to another, but in general there is a good agreement between the modeled LWC of the first layer of the snowpack and the backscattering coefficient of the RADARSAT-2 images, with a coefficient of determination (R²) of 0.80 and more. The radar images themselves were processed using an updated version of Nagler's methodology, which consists of subtracting an image in wet snow conditions to one in dry snow conditions, as wet snow can then be identified using a soft threshold centered around -3 dB. A second filter was used in order to differentiate dry snow and bare soil. That filter combines a VH/VV ratio threshold and an altitude criterion. The ensuing maps show a good agreement with the MODIS snow-covered area, which is already obtained daily over the Nechako River Basin, but with additional information on the location of wet snow and without sensibility to cloud cover. As a next step, the outputs of CROCUS will be used in Mätzler's Microwave Emission Model of Layered Snowpacks (MEMLS) to

  6. Natural Compounds from Saffron and Bear Bile Prevent Vision Loss and Retinal Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Fernández-Sánchez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available All retinal disorders, regardless of their aetiology, involve the activation of oxidative stress and apoptosis pathways. The administration of neuroprotective factors is crucial in all phases of the pathology, even when vision has been completely lost. The retina is one of the most susceptible tissues to reactive oxygen species damage. On the other hand, proper development and functioning of the retina requires a precise balance between the processes of proliferation, differentiation and programmed cell death. The life-or-death decision seems to be the result of a complex balance between pro- and anti-apoptotic signals. It has been recently shown the efficacy of natural products to slow retinal degenerative process through different pathways. In this review, we assess the neuroprotective effect of two compounds used in the ancient pharmacopoeia. On one hand, it has been demonstrated that administration of the saffron constituent safranal to P23H rats, an animal model of retinitis pigmentosa, preserves photoreceptor morphology and number, the capillary network and the visual response. On the other hand, it has been shown that systemic administration of tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA, the major component of bear bile, to P23H rats preserves cone and rod structure and function, together with their contact with postsynaptic neurons. The neuroprotective effects of safranal and TUDCA make these compounds potentially useful for therapeutic applications in retinal degenerative diseases.

  7. Scarab/Saffron Development Project Case study: Material Selection Criteria for the Monoethylene Glycol Recovery Package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moussa, A.M.; Habib, S.; Shinaishin, A.

    2004-01-01

    MEG Recovery Unit for Scarab/Saffron development project is the first application in gas production. The Mono Ethylene Glycol Recovery Unit (MEG) recovers MEG from Water/MEG stream and removes salts and other contaminants. MEG Recovery Unit Equipment Design Criteria were designed for two parallel trains A and B, each train is capable to treat 500 bbl MEG, 1500 bbl water and 9 ton salt. The MEG unit is a combination of two unit operations; MEG Recovery unit is normally applicable in the oil and gas industries that is applying distillation technique, while the new technology is salt treatment and handling. The MEG Unit material selection is made to be suitable for the entire design life which is 25 years, the materials for MEG Recovery Unit have been selected among the available corrosion resistance alloys, where requested by the service and ambient conditions. Therefore all. the parts of the MEG unit that are in saline service are in either (2205 duplex, AISI 316L) and in Inconel alloy 625 related to operating temperature. This case study focused at Inconel alloy 625, which is selected for salt service and their operation problem occurred during the construction and operating conditions

  8. Safety Evaluation of Crocin (a constituent of saffron Tablets in Healthy Volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Houshang Mohamadpour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Crocin is the chemical ingredient primarily responsible for the color of saffron. It has different pharmacological effects such as antioxidant, anticancer and memory improving activities. Crocin tablets were evaluated for short-term safety and tolerability in healthy adult volunteers. Materials and Methods: The study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design consisting of one month treatment of crocin tablets. Volunteers who fulfilled inclusion and exclusion criteria were randomized into 2 groups of 22 each (males and females and received 20 mg crocin tablets or placebo. General measures of health were recorded during the study such as hematological, biochemical, hormonal and urinary parameters in pre and post-treatment periods. Results: No major adverse events were reported during the trial. Crocin tablets did not change the above parameters except that it decreased amylase, mixed white blood cells and PTT in healthy volunteers after one month. Conclusion: This clinical safety evaluation showed a relatively safe and normal profile for crocin in healthy volunteers at the given doses within the trial period.

  9. Natural Compounds from Saffron and Bear Bile Prevent Vision Loss and Retinal Degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Sánchez, Laura; Lax, Pedro; Noailles, Agustina; Angulo, Antonia; Maneu, Victoria; Cuenca, Nicolás

    2015-07-31

    All retinal disorders, regardless of their aetiology, involve the activation of oxidative stress and apoptosis pathways. The administration of neuroprotective factors is crucial in all phases of the pathology, even when vision has been completely lost. The retina is one of the most susceptible tissues to reactive oxygen species damage. On the other hand, proper development and functioning of the retina requires a precise balance between the processes of proliferation, differentiation and programmed cell death. The life-or-death decision seems to be the result of a complex balance between pro- and anti-apoptotic signals. It has been recently shown the efficacy of natural products to slow retinal degenerative process through different pathways. In this review, we assess the neuroprotective effect of two compounds used in the ancient pharmacopoeia. On one hand, it has been demonstrated that administration of the saffron constituent safranal to P23H rats, an animal model of retinitis pigmentosa, preserves photoreceptor morphology and number, the capillary network and the visual response. On the other hand, it has been shown that systemic administration of tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), the major component of bear bile, to P23H rats preserves cone and rod structure and function, together with their contact with postsynaptic neurons. The neuroprotective effects of safranal and TUDCA make these compounds potentially useful for therapeutic applications in retinal degenerative diseases.

  10. Application of data envelopment analysis to evaluate the efficiency of saffron growers (Case study: Qaen county

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadis Kavand

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural sector to meet the requests such as a higher yield, less pollution and fulfill consumer demands due to increasing scarcity of resources is under pressure. According to the importance of efficiency in productivity growth, this index can play an important rule, especially in developing countries, for the development of agricultural systems in order to meet these requests. The aim of this study was to evaluate the technical, economic and allocative efficiency of producers of saffron for Qaen region using data envelopment analysis. Information and data is collected through completion 50 questionnaires in year 2011-2012. Results show that average technical efficiency, allocative and economic in condition of constant return to scale are 0.86, 0.92, and 0.88 and in condition of variable return scale are 0.89, 0.92, and 0.80, respectively. Also, according to the results obtained, educating and advising farmers to the proper use of available resources, and promotion, and the use of appropriate technologies such as improved efficiency is recommended.

  11. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seed performance as influenced by ovary and ovule position

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jing, H.C.; Jalink, H.; Bergervoet, J.W.; Klooster, M.; Du, S.L.; Bino, R.J.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.; Groot, S.P.C.

    2000-01-01

    The performance of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seeds in relation to ovary and ovule position was monitored during seed production. Seeds from three (first, seventh and tenth nodes) fruit positions and three (stylar, intermediate and peduncular) ovule positions were harvested serially during

  12. Oilseed Radish (Raphanus Sativus) Effects on Soil Structure and Soil Water Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus spp. oleifera) reduces nematode populations. Fall-incorporated radish biomass may also improve soil physical and hydraulic properties to increase the yield and quality of subsequently grown sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.). This field study determined radish effects on...

  13. Infraspecific variation of C-banded karyotype and chiasma frequency in Cucumis sativus (Cucurbitaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramachandran, C.; Brandenburg, W.A.; Nijs, de S.A.P.M.

    1985-01-01

    Infraspecific cytogenetical variation was studied in a diverse collection of five non-cultivated and cultivatedCucumis sativus accessions. The individual chromosomes of different accessions could be identified by the C-banding pattern and chromosome measurements. About 40–50% of the genomic area are

  14. Multispectral fluorescence imaging technique for discrimination of cucumber (Cucumis Sativus) seed viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we developed a nondestructive method for discriminating viable cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seeds based on hyperspectral fluorescence imaging. The fluorescence spectra of cucumber seeds in the 420–700 nm range were extracted from hyperspectral fluorescence images obtained using 365 nm u...

  15. Decolorization of direct dyes using peroxidase from raphanus sativus (F04 SL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatti, H.N.; Kalsoom, U.; Habib, A.

    2012-01-01

    An acidic peroxidase was isolated and partially purified from Raphanus sativus. The purified enzyme was characterized in terms of kinetics and thermodynamic aspects. Finally the enzyme was assessed to see its potential for decolorization of direct dyes. The specific activity of Raphanus sativus peroxidase increased from 44.77 to 65.20 U/mg of protein using 80 % ammonium sulphate precipitation. The optimum pH and temperature of the enzyme was 4 and 55 deg. C respectively. The activation energy of Raphanus sativus peroxidase was 25.44 kJ/mol and average value of Km was 0.25 mM. The activation energy of thermal denaturation of Raphanus sativus peroxidase was 17.79 kJ/mol. It was observed that with an increase in temperature, there was decrease in a half life and enthalpy, which showed that the enzyme was unstable at higher temperature. A maximum decolorization of 97 and 77 % was observed for Solar Blue A and Solar Flavine 5G at pH 4 and temperature 50 deg. C respectively. It was observed that % decolorization of both the dyes increased with an increase in enzyme units and incubation time. H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ dose of 0.8 mM for Solar Blue A and 0.7 mM for Solar Flavine 5G was sufficient for the maximum dye degradation. (author)

  16. Nitrogen release from differently aged Raphanus sativus L. nitrate catch crops during mineralization at autumn temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag; Elsgaard, Lars; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind

    2016-01-01

    radish (Raphanus sativus, L.) has emerged as a promising nitrate catch crop in cereal cropping, although the course of remineralization of residue N following termination of this frost-sensitive crucifer remains obscured. We incubated radish residues of different age (different planting and harvest dates...

  17. Effect of salinity on growth, water use and nutrient use in radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcelis, L.F.M.; Hooijdonk, van J.

    1999-01-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) plants were grown at five soil salinity levels (1, 2, 4, 9 and 13 dS m-1) to analyse the effects on growth, dry matter partitioning, leaf expansion and water and nutrient use. Salinity was varied by proportionally changing the concentration of all macro nutrients. When

  18. Role of cucurbitacin C in resistance to spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) in cucumber (Cucumber sativus L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balkema-Boomstra, A.G.; Zijlstra, S.; Verstappen, F.W.A.; Inggamer, H.; Mercke, P.

    2003-01-01

    Cucurbitacins are bitter triterpenoid compounds that are toxic to most organisms and occur widely in wild and cultivated Cucurbitaceae. The only cucurbitacin identified in Cucumis sativus is cucurbitacin C. The bitter taste of cucumber has been correlated with resistance to the spider mite

  19. The effect of acetylcholine, LatA and FAA on phloem assimilates translocation of Raphanus sativus L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Chongjun; Zhang Ping

    2005-01-01

    The petiole phloem of Raphanus sativus L. is treated with the medicaments of acetylcholine (Ach, the expansionist material of protoplasm), latrunculin A (LatA, the dissolubility of microfilament) and FAA (the regularization of phloem). The effects of treatments are measured by the accumulated content of dissoluble sugar and starch in the leaves, and 14 C-labelled assimilates. The regulating role of three medicaments on the translocation of assimilates in the phloem of Raphanus sativus L are investigated. The results indicate that low Ach improves assimilates translocation while LatA and FAA inhibit it in petiole phloem of Raphanus sativus L.. (authors)

  20. Efficiency of Saffron Farmers in Shahyk Region of Ghaen City, Iran (Application of Data Envelopment Analysis Using the Efficient and Inefficient Frontiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Naderi Mahdei

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Addressing the special conditions of saffron growing areas, and planning the optimum use of its production factors need specific attention and determination of the efficiency of saffron farms seems to be necessary. Thus, the current study attempts to measure the efficiency of saffron fields by using bounded data envelopment analysis to give an overall assessment of the performance of the farms. The necessary data was collected by interviewing and filling 36 questionnaires by the saffron farmers of the city of Ghaen, Iran and the data were analyzed by GAMS software. The results showed that average optimistic output and input oriented efficiency is 1.259 and 0.849, respectively. Also, 13.8% of the farms are located on the inefficiency frontiers. 47 percent of the farms are surrounded by efficient and inefficient frontier that reflects the overuse of inputs and potential to produce more and reduce the use of inputs. According to the results, it may be suggested that the efficient farms should be considered as a pattern and we should present training of need assessment in inefficient farms in order to enhance farmers’ efficiency with appropriate and scientific planning.

  1. A Longitudinal Follow-Up Study of Saffron Supplementation in Early Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Sustained Benefits to Central Retinal Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Piccardi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. In a previous randomized clinical trial (Falsini et al. (2010, it was shown that short-term Saffron supplementation improves retinal flicker sensitivity in early age-related macular degeneration (AMD. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the observed functional benefits from Saffron supplementation may extend over a longer follow-up duration. Design. Longitudinal, interventional open-label study. Setting. Outpatient ophthalmology setting. Participants. Twenty-nine early AMD patients (age range: 55–85 years with a baseline visual acuity >0.3. Intervention. Saffron oral supplementation (20 mg/day over an average period of treatment of 14 (±2 months. Measurements. Clinical examination and focal-electroretinogram-(fERG- derived macular (18° flicker sensitivity estimate (Falsini et al. (2010 every three months over a followup of 14 (±2 months. Retinal sensitivity, the reciprocal value of the estimated fERG amplitude threshold, was the main outcome measure. Results. After three months of supplementation, mean fERG sensitivity improved by 0.3 log units compared to baseline values (P<0.01, and mean visual acuity improved by two Snellen lines compared to baseline values (0.75 to 0.9, P<0.01. These changes remained stable over the follow-up period. Conclusion. These results indicate that in early AMD Saffron supplementation induces macular function improvements from baseline that are extended over a long-term followup.

  2. Effects of crocin and safranal, saffron constituents, on the formalin-induced orofacial pain in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Erfanparast

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Crocin and safranal are the main components of saffron, and have many biological functions such as anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. In the present study, we investigated the effects of crocin, safranal, morphine, diclofenac and naloxone in combined and separately on formalin-induced orofacial pain in rats. Materials and Methods: Subcutaneous injection of a diluted formalin solution (50 µl, 1.5% into the upper lip region produced a biphasic pattern of pain response (a neurogenic phase: 0-3 min and an inflammatory phase: 15-33 min. The time each animal spent face rubbing with ipsilateral forepaw was recorded and considered as an index of nociception Results: Intraperitoneal injections of crocin (12.5 and 25 mg/kg, safranal (0.25 and 0.5 mg/kg, diclofenac (5 and 10 mg/kg and morphine (1 and 2 mg/kg suppressed the second phase of pain. The second phase of pain was also reduced when low (ineffective doses of crocin (6.25 mg/kg and safranal (0.125 mg/kg were co-administered with low doses of diclofenac (2.5 mg/kg and morphine (0.5 mg/kg. The more antinociceptive effects were observed when the medium doses of the above-mentioned chemicals used together. Naloxone prevented morphine-induced antinociception, but did not inhibit the suppressive effects of crocin and safranal. Safranal at a high dose (0.5 mg/kg suppressed locomotor activity. Conclusion: The present results showed antinociceptive effects for crocin and safranal in inflammatory pain. Opioid receptors may not be involved in the antinociceptive effect of crocin and safranal. Crocin and safranal increased diclofenac-induced antinociception.

  3. Spices for Prevention and Treatment of Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jie; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-08-12

    Spices have been widely used as food flavorings and folk medicines for thousands of years. Numerous studies have documented the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of spices, which might be related to prevention and treatment of several cancers, including lung, liver, breast, stomach, colorectum, cervix, and prostate cancers. Several spices are potential sources for prevention and treatment of cancers, such as Curcuma longa (tumeric), Nigella sativa (black cumin), Zingiber officinale (ginger), Allium sativum (garlic), Crocus sativus (saffron), Piper nigrum (black pepper) and Capsicum annum (chili pepper), which contained several important bioactive compounds, such as curcumin, thymoquinone, piperine and capsaicin. The main mechanisms of action include inducing apoptosis, inhibiting proliferation, migration and invasion of tumors, and sensitizing tumors to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. This review summarized recent studies on some spices for prevention and treatment of cancers, and special attention was paid to bioactive components and mechanisms of action.

  4. Spices for Prevention and Treatment of Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jie; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Spices have been widely used as food flavorings and folk medicines for thousands of years. Numerous studies have documented the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of spices, which might be related to prevention and treatment of several cancers, including lung, liver, breast, stomach, colorectum, cervix, and prostate cancers. Several spices are potential sources for prevention and treatment of cancers, such as Curcuma longa (tumeric), Nigella sativa (black cumin), Zingiber officinale (ginger), Allium sativum (garlic), Crocus sativus (saffron), Piper nigrum (black pepper) and Capsicum annum (chili pepper), which contained several important bioactive compounds, such as curcumin, thymoquinone, piperine and capsaicin. The main mechanisms of action include inducing apoptosis, inhibiting proliferation, migration and invasion of tumors, and sensitizing tumors to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. This review summarized recent studies on some spices for prevention and treatment of cancers, and special attention was paid to bioactive components and mechanisms of action. PMID:27529277

  5. Apparent expression of flower colours and internal variation of enzyme activities in some typical phenotypes of dyer's saffron cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koshi Saito

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical screening of four Carthamus pigments in phenotypically different cultivars of dyer's saffron was carried out by means of chromatographic techniques. The pigment composition in the floral part correlated well with the flower colour, supporting these components as idoneous chemotaxonomic markers. Among seven cultivars examined, three were orange-yellow and contained carthamin (red and precarthamin, safflor yellow A and safflor yellow B (orange-yellow (type 0. There were bright-yellow and also had the above four pigments (type Y. The seventh cultivar was ivory-white and produced no quinoidal chalcones in the florets (type W. Relative activities of three different enzymes were examined in soluble protein extracts from etiolated seedlings of the garden varieties. Monophenol monooxygenase (EC 1.14.18.1 and peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7. were distributed over all cultivars tested. The relative level of the enzyme activities could be ordered as follows: type 0, type W and type Y. The activity of a carthamin-synthesizing enzyme was found in the protein extracts from all garden forms examined. Its activity was most prominent in type O. The activity level in type W was inferior to that of type O. The catalytic intensity in type Y was found to even lower. The results were discussed as to the composition of the phenotypic markers and the distribution of the enzyme activities in three different garden forms of dyer's saffron cultivars.

  6. Assessing the uptake of arsenic and antimony from contaminated soil by radish (Raphanus sativus) using DGT and selective extractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngo, Lien K.; Pinch, Benjamin M.; Bennett, William W.

    2016-01-01

    gradients in thin films technique (DGT) (as CDGT), soil solution analysis, and sequential extraction procedure (SEP). Lability was compared to the bioaccumulation of As and Sb by various compartments of radish (Raphanus sativus) grown in these soils in a pot experiment. Irrespective of the method, all...... of the labile fractions showed that both As and Sb were firmly bound to the solid phases, and that Sb was less mobile than As, although total soil Sb concentrations were higher than total soil As. The bioassay demonstrated low bioaccumulation of As and Sb into R. sativus due to their low lability of As and Sb...... in soils and that there are likely to be differences in their mechanisms of uptake. As accumulated in R. sativus roots was much higher (2.5-21 times) than that of Sb, while the Sb translocated from roots to shoots was approximately 2.5 times higher than that of As. As and Sb in R. sativus tissues were...

  7. Foliar-applied ethephon enhances the content of anthocyanin of black carrot roots (Daucus carota ssp. sativus var. atrorubens Alef.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barba Espin, Gregorio; Glied, Stephan; Crocoll, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Black carrots (Daucus carota ssp. sativus var. atrorubens Alef.) constitute a valuable source of anthocyanins, which are used as natural red, blue and purple food colourants. Anthocyanins and phenolic compounds are specialised metabolites, accumulation of which often requires elicitors...

  8. Implementation of a physically-based scheme representing light-absorbing impurities deposition, evolution and radiative impacts in the SURFEX/Crocus model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuzet, F.; Dumont, M.; Lafaysse, M.; Hagenmuller, P.; Arnaud, L.; Picard, G.; Morin, S.

    2017-12-01

    Light-absorbing impurities decrease snow albedo, increasing the amount of solar energy absorbed by the snowpack. Its most intuitive impact is to accelerate snow melt. However the presence of a layer highly concentrated in light-absorbing impurities in the snowpack also modify its temperature profile affecting snow metamorphism. New capabilities have been implemented in the detailed snowpack model SURFEX/ISBA-Crocus (referred to as Crocus) to account for impurities deposition and evolution within the snowpack (Tuzet et al., 2017, TCD). Once deposited, the model computes impurities mass evolution until snow melts out. Taking benefits of the recent inclusion of the spectral radiative transfer model TARTES in Crocus, the model explicitly represents the radiative impacts of light-absorbing impurities in snow. In the Pyrenees mountain range, strong sporadic Saharan dust deposition (referred to as dust outbreaks) can occur during the snow season leading some snow layers in the snowpack to contain high concentrations of mineral dust. One of the major events of the past years occurred on February 2014, affecting the whole southern Europe. During the weeks following this dust outbreak a strong avalanche activity was reported in the Aran valley (Pyrenees, Spain). For now, the link between the dust outbreak and the avalanche activity is not demonstrated.We investigate the impact of this dust outbreak on the snowpack stability in the Aran valley using the Crocus model, trying to determine whether the snowpack instability observed after the dust outbreak can be related to the presence of dust. SAFRAN-reanalysis meteorological data are used to drive the model on several altitudes, slopes and aspects. For each slope configuration two different simulations are run; one without dust and one simulating the dust outbreak of February 2014.The two corresponding simulations are then compared to assess the role of impurities on snow metamorphism and stability.On this example, we

  9. Saffron extracts effect on processes in brain structures under exposure to x-ray irradiation of medium dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rzaeva, A.

    2012-01-01

    Full text : Process of ionizing radiation on live organism is accompanied by interaction of free radicals (FR) with molecules of proteins, nucleic acids and lipids. In its turn, FR occurs subsequently by excitation and ionization of molecules. Besides all, ionizing radiation becomes the reason of accumulation in body tissues of toxic products (radio toxic) that strengthen beam effect. Endogenous antioxidatic system (EAS) of an organism plays a significant role in detoxication of redundant quantity of FR formed in cells. Ionizing radiation influences negatively to high-grade functioning of basic EAS enzymes. Besides, during radiation injuries, the level of FR increases. In case of its exhaustion and lack insertion of natural antioxidants (bioantioxidants) to organism plays a therapeutic role. Thus, in our work we used saffron extract in experiments with the purpose of studying its effect on the activity of antioxidant enzymes at radiation influence. Determination of proteins has been carried out with Lowry method. In the result of carried-out researches, it has been detected fixed dynamics of activity change of antioxidant enzymes in various brain structures of white rats within x-ray irradiation at medium dose, and joint impact of x-ray radiation of saffron extract. Under exposure to X-ray irradiation of medium dose in some brain structures decreasing of catalase activity was revealed. Tendency towards decreasing is more developed on the 3th day of irradiation. As opposed to catalase activity GPO activity was increased. Insertion of saffron extract to experimental animals (for 21 days before irradiation) conducive to prevention the decreasing of catalase activity stabilizes GPO activity and exerts an effective influence. Thereby, bioantioxidants have significant role in the regulation of processes occurred in tissues and cells under the influence of extreme factors. Antioxidant protection system of organism carries out continuous protection of organism from toxic

  10. Effects of selenium accumulation on phytotoxicity, herbivory, and pollination ecology in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladun, Kristen R; Parker, David R; Tran, Khoa D; Trumble, John T

    2013-01-01

    Selenium (Se) has contaminated areas in the western USA where pollination is critical to the functioning of both agricultural and natural ecosystems, yet we know little about how Se can impact pollinators. In a two-year semi-field study, the weedy plant Raphanus sativus (radish) was exposed to three selenate treatments and two pollination treatments to evaluate the effects on pollinator-plant interactions. Honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) pollinators were observed to readily forage on R. sativus for both pollen and nectar despite high floral Se concentrations. Se treatment increased both seed abortion (14%) and decreased plant biomass (8-9%). Herbivory by birds and aphids was reduced on Se-treated plants, indicating a potential reproductive advantage for the plant. Our study sheds light on how pollutants such as Se can impact the pollination ecology of a plant that accumulates even moderate amounts of Se. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The influence of nickel sulphate on some physiological aspects of two cultivars of Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latif Helmy H.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study two cultivars of radish Raphanus sativus cv. longipinnatus (white radish and Raphanus sativus cv. Cherry Belle (red radish were treated with different concentrations of nickel sulphate (0.0-50-100-150-200 ppm. The fresh and dry weight of shoots and roots, photosynthetic pigments, some antioxidant enzymes, total carbohydrates, total proteins and the SDS-PAGE protein profile of both cultivars were determined after 32 days. The results showed that increasing nickel sulphate concentrations decreased the fresh and dry weights of the shoots and roots, photosynthetic pigments, total carbohydrates and total protein in both cultivars. Higher concentrations of nickel sulphate increased the activity of catalase, peroxidase and polypenol oxidase. Electrophoresis banding profiles of proteins revealed qualitative and quantitative changes, and also the appearance or disappearance of some bands of the two cultivars. .

  12. Analysis of the effects of change in cropping pattern due to drought on saffron production in rural areas of the Zebarkhan district villages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdollah Sojasi Qidari

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Selection of a given cropping pattern can have serious results on the farmers’ life and rural society because of the multi dimensionality of agriculture. However, in many cases, farmers are inclined to change the cropping pattern because of changes in natural situations, changes in demand and consumption, etc. One of the most important and effective factors of change cropping pattern amongst Iranian farmers in recent years is the drought problem. One of the more current cultural method changes in the Khorasan region is inclination to saffron cultivation that can have various economic, social and environmental effects. Thus, this research paid attention to the investigation of changes from cultivation method from drought to the economic, social and environmental dimensions of saffron production amongst the villagers of the Zebarkhan district of the Khorasan Razavi province. Analytical-description methodology was used for this purpose. Data collection was done using the library- field methodology with researcher’s questionnaire whose narrative is 0.78 according to Cronbach's alpha method. Therefore, by using the Cochran formula with the intended level of 0.05, 142 farmers have been selected by available sampling method that have changed their cropping pattern to saffron production because of water shortages and drought. Then, their ideas were analyzed considering cases of economic, social and environmental effects of cropping pattern change to saffron production. The results showed meaningful changes in all research indices except for increase of cultivation surface area. Moreover, the most important changes of cropping pattern and switching over to saffron production have been identified using the Shannon entropy weighing method. In addition, the shown the revealed with continuation of differences of the changes in cropping pattern of saffron between the various villages were analyzed by using the multi-index TOPSIS. Finally, it was shown

  13. Lathyrus sativus transcriptome resistance response to Ascochyta lathyri investigated by deepSuperSAGE analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Nuno F.; Krezdorn, Nicolas; Rotter, Björn; Winter, Peter; Rubiales, Diego; Vaz Patto, Maria C.

    2015-01-01

    Lathyrus sativus (grass pea) is a temperate grain legume crop with a great potential for expansion in dry areas or zones that are becoming more drought-prone. It is also recognized as a potential source of resistance to several important diseases in legumes, such as ascochyta blight. Nevertheless, the lack of detailed genomic and/or transcriptomic information hampers further exploitation of grass pea resistance-related genes in precision breeding. To elucidate the pathways differentially regulated during ascochyta-grass pea interaction and to identify resistance candidate genes, we compared the early response of the leaf gene expression profile of a resistant L. sativus genotype to Ascochyta lathyri infection with a non-inoculated control sample from the same genotype employing deepSuperSAGE. This analysis generated 14.387 UniTags of which 95.7% mapped to a reference grass pea/rust interaction transcriptome. From the total mapped UniTags, 738 were significantly differentially expressed between control and inoculated leaves. The results indicate that several gene classes acting in different phases of the plant/pathogen interaction are involved in the L. sativus response to A. lathyri infection. Most notably a clear up-regulation of defense-related genes involved in and/or regulated by the ethylene pathway was observed. There was also evidence of alterations in cell wall metabolism indicated by overexpression of cellulose synthase and lignin biosynthesis genes. This first genome-wide overview of the gene expression profile of the L. sativus response to ascochyta infection delivered a valuable set of candidate resistance genes for future use in precision breeding. PMID:25852725

  14. Lathyrus sativus transcriptome resistance response to Ascochyta lathyri as reviewed by deepSuperSAGE analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Felipe Almeida

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Lathyrus sativus (grass pea is a temperate grain legume crop with a great potential for expansion in dry areas or zones that are becoming more drought-prone. It is also recognized as a potential source of resistance to several important diseases in legumes, such as ascochyta blight. Nevertheless, the lack of detailed genomic and/or transcriptomic information hampers further exploitation of grass pea resistance-related genes in precision breeding. To elucidate the pathways differentially regulated during ascochyta-grass pea interaction and to identify resistance candidate genes, we compared the early response of the leaf gene expression profile of a resistant L. sativus genotype to Ascochyta lathyri infection with a non-inoculated control sample from the same genotype employing deepSuperSAGE. This analysis generated 14.387 UniTags of which 95.7% mapped to a reference grass pea/rust interaction transcriptome. From the total mapped UniTags, 738 were significantly differentially expressed between control and inoculated leaves. The results indicate that several gene classes acting in different phases of the plant/pathogen interaction are involved in the L. sativus response to A. lathyri infection. Most notably a clear up-regulation of defense-related genes involved in and/or regulated by the ethylene pathway was observed. There was also evidence of alterations in cell wall metabolism indicated by overexpression of cellulose synthase and lignin biosynthesis genes. This first genome-wide overview of the gene expression profile of the L. sativus response to ascochyta infection delivered a valuable set of candidate resistance genes for future use in precision breeding.

  15. A benchmark on the calculation of kinetic parameters based on reactivity effect experiments in the CROCUS reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paratte, J.M.; Frueh, R.; Kasemeyer, U.; Kalugin, M.A.; Timm, W.; Chawla, R.

    2006-01-01

    Measurements in the CROCUS reactor at EPFL, Lausanne, are reported for the critical water level and the inverse reactor period for several different sets of delayed supercritical conditions. The experimental configurations were also calculated by four different calculation methods. For each of the supercritical configurations, the absolute reactivity value has been determined in two different ways, viz.: (i) through direct comparison of the multiplication factor obtained employing a given calculation method with the corresponding value for the critical case (calculated reactivity: ρ calc ); (ii) by application of the inhour equation using the kinetic parameters obtained for the critical configuration and the measured inverse reactor period (measured reactivity: ρ meas ). The calculated multiplication factors for the reference critical configuration, as well as ρ calc for the supercritical cases, are found to be in good agreement. However, the values of ρ meas produced by two of the applied calculation methods differ appreciably from the corresponding ρ calc values, clearly indicating deficiencies in the kinetic parameters obtained from these methods

  16. Antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of the flavonoid extract from Raphanus sativus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoc, Pham Thi Kim; Nguyet, Nguyen Thi Minh; Dao, Dong Thi Anh

    2017-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of flavonoid extract from white radish roots (Raphanus sativus L.). Antimicrobial activity was determined by agar diffusion method against 4 strains: Bacillus cereus, Staphylococus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi. Antioxidant activity was determined by ABTS* radical scavenging activity and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). The constituent elements of flavonoid extract were identified by LC-MS. Results showed that the flavonoid extract from Raphanus sativus L. had antibacterial activity against to all four tested bacteria strains with antibacterial ring diameters in the range 8 - 20 mm in the test concentrations from 100 to 1600 mg/ml. Minimum concentration to inhibit (MIC) in the range 20 - 40 mg/ml. In addition, the extract also has the ability to eliminate ABTS* free radical with IC50 = 7.074 µg/ml. The total antioxidant capacity of extract at concentration of 100 µg/ml was 3.424 ± 0.043 mg ascorbic acid/mg. In the extract, there are three flavonoids were found: rutin, quercetin and narigenin. This is the first time narigenin was found in Raphanus sativus L. extract.

  17. Identification of Apo- Carotenoids' Crocin and Crocetin Isomers in Saffron Crude Extracts by HPLC Coupled to Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization and High Resolution Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noraddin Hosseinpour azad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main metabolites in saffron are the Apo- carotenoids’ Crocin and Crocetin. Color intensity and quality of saffron mostly depend on the presence of Crocins that are glycosylated steric form of Crocetin by glycosyltransferase enzyme. The aim of this study is the characterization of these metabolites in methanolic and chloroformic extracts of saffron stigmas during anthesis stage by LC-APCI-MS. Identification of cis and trans isomers of Crocin and Crocetin was done by three parameters such as mass spectra registered in the negative ion mode, retention time and absorption ratio related to each metabolites. The variability of these parameters made it possible to detect the Crocins isomer with regard to the attached position and the number of UDP- glucose and Gentiobiosyl molecules to Crocetin structure. Crocins was the mainly detected components as there are polar components that are classified in the carotenoeids groups and the strified form of Crocetin Glucose (β-D-Glucopyranosyl and Gentiobiose (β-D-Glucopyranosyl-D-Glucose. Also doubly charged ions were found for trans-isomers of Crocin-4, due to the high symmetry of their molecules. Based on the data gathered, the applied chromatograph Machin in this project is accurate and it is most sensitive tools to investigate about plants’ natural components like saffron, also the used APCI-MS in negative ions mode is the most efficient method to distinguish different steric forms of Crocin based on the ion’s fragments related to united reduction of glycosyl and gentiobiosyl as well as molecular fractions.

  18. Effects of Cinnamon, Cardamom, Saffron, and Ginger Consumption on Markers of Glycemic Control, Lipid Profile, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammation in Type 2 Diabetes Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimi, Paria; Ghiasvand, Reza; Feizi, Awat; Hariri, Mitra; Abbasi, Behnoud

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) may be caused by elevated oxidative stress, inflammation, and hyperglycemia. The phytochemicals in several herbal medicines are reported to effectively improve diabetes and to ameliorate diabetic complications. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of cinnamon, cardamom, saffron, and ginger as supplementary remedies in T2D. This randomized controlled, clinical trial included 204 T2D patients. The participants were randomly assigned to four intervention groups receiving 3 glasses of black tea and either 3 g cardamom, or cinnamon, or ginger, or 1 g saffron and one control group which consumed only 3 tea glasses without any herbal medicine for 8 weeks. Markers of inflammation, oxidative stress, fasting blood sugar, lipid profile, and anthropometric measures were evaluated at baseline and after 8 weeks of intervention. After 8 weeks of intervention, cinnamon, cardamom, ginger, and saffron consumption had significant effects on total cholesterol, LDL, and HDL levels (p < 0.05) compared with controls. However, the herbal products did not have significant effects on measures of glycemic control, anthropometry, inflammation, and oxidative stress. In within-group comparisons only, cinnamon intake significantly decreased fasting blood sugar (FBS). The herbal remedies examined had significantly beneficial effects on cholesterol, but not on measures of glycemic control, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Based on the contradictory results reported in the literature, the effects of herbal medicine in diabetic patients should undergo further detailed investigation.

  19. Indirect Electrochemical Analysis of Crocin in Phytochemical Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riyaz Ahmad Dar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new electroanalytical method has been developed for the quantitative determination of crocin in a sample of stigmas of saffron (Crocus sativus L.. Crocin is polarographically inactive. However, cysteine in 0.02 M NaCl, pH=5.2±0.01 produces a well defined wave/peak with E1/2/Ep= –0.47/–0.45 V vs. Ag/AgCl. On recording polarograms of a set of solution containing a fixed concentration of cysteine and varying concentrations of crocin under aforesaid experimental conditions a gradual decrease in peak height/diffusion current and a negative shift in peak potential was observed. Thus, indicating cysteine-crocin interaction. Amperometric titration indicated crocin to cysteine ratio of 1:2. The above amperometric titration procedure has been used to determine the concentration of crocin in a sample of saffron. Crystallization process was carried out for the extraction of crocin from dried powder of saffron stigmas. The crystallized crocin was identified by UV-Visible spectrophotometry(at 255 nm and 442 nm and the quantitative analysis by the developed amperometric method. The concentration of crocin in saffron was found to be 2.13% and purity of isolated crocin 96.81%. The percent recovery varied from 98.56–100.31% and RSD (n=5 of 2.17%.The validation of the proposed procedure for the quantitative assay of crocin was examined via an evaluation of the repeatability, recovery, selectivity and relative standard deviation.

  20. Action of sulfurous acid on pollen. [Hepatica triloba; Helleborus orientalis; Vinca minor; Viola tricolor; Primula officinalis; Lilium candidum; Petunia; Pisum; Helleborus viridus; Galanthus nivealis; Vinca major; Convallaria maialis; Narcissus poeticus; Caltha palustris; Cystisus laburnum; Orchis maculata; Bilbergia; Eranthus; Crocus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabachnikoff, V

    1912-01-23

    The following ornamental plants: Hepatica triloba, Helleborus orientalis, Vinca minor, Viola tricolor, Primula officinalis, Lilium candidum, Petunia, Pisum, Helleborus viridus, Galanthus nivealis, Vinca major, Convallaria maialis, Narcissus poeticus, Caltha palustris, Cystisus laburnum, Orchis maculata, Bilbergia, Eranthus, and Crocus were tested for seed production. Exposure to sulfuric acid ranged from three to forty-eight hours. Responses were noted for varying concentrations.

  1. The genome sequence of the North-European cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) unravels evolutionary adaptation mechanisms in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wóycicki, Rafał; Witkowicz, Justyna; Gawroński, Piotr; Dąbrowska, Joanna; Lomsadze, Alexandre; Pawełkowicz, Magdalena; Siedlecka, Ewa; Yagi, Kohei; Pląder, Wojciech; Seroczyńska, Anna; Śmiech, Mieczysław; Gutman, Wojciech; Niemirowicz-Szczytt, Katarzyna; Bartoszewski, Grzegorz; Tagashira, Norikazu; Hoshi, Yoshikazu; Borodovsky, Mark; Karpiński, Stanisław; Malepszy, Stefan; Przybecki, Zbigniew

    2011-01-01

    Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), a widely cultivated crop, has originated from Eastern Himalayas and secondary domestication regions includes highly divergent climate conditions e.g. temperate and subtropical. We wanted to uncover adaptive genome differences between the cucumber cultivars and what sort of evolutionary molecular mechanisms regulate genetic adaptation of plants to different ecosystems and organism biodiversity. Here we present the draft genome sequence of the Cucumis sativus genome of the North-European Borszczagowski cultivar (line B10) and comparative genomics studies with the known genomes of: C. sativus (Chinese cultivar--Chinese Long (line 9930)), Arabidopsis thaliana, Populus trichocarpa and Oryza sativa. Cucumber genomes show extensive chromosomal rearrangements, distinct differences in quantity of the particular genes (e.g. involved in photosynthesis, respiration, sugar metabolism, chlorophyll degradation, regulation of gene expression, photooxidative stress tolerance, higher non-optimal temperatures tolerance and ammonium ion assimilation) as well as in distributions of abscisic acid-, dehydration- and ethylene-responsive cis-regulatory elements (CREs) in promoters of orthologous group of genes, which lead to the specific adaptation features. Abscisic acid treatment of non-acclimated Arabidopsis and C. sativus seedlings induced moderate freezing tolerance in Arabidopsis but not in C. sativus. This experiment together with analysis of abscisic acid-specific CRE distributions give a clue why C. sativus is much more susceptible to moderate freezing stresses than A. thaliana. Comparative analysis of all the five genomes showed that, each species and/or cultivars has a specific profile of CRE content in promoters of orthologous genes. Our results constitute the substantial and original resource for the basic and applied research on environmental adaptations of plants, which could facilitate creation of new crops with improved growth and yield in

  2. Allelopathic effect of Raphanus sativus on Urochloa decumbens and Lactuca sativa = Efeito alelopático de Raphanus sativus em Urochloa decumbens e Lactuca sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Navas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the allelopathic potential of an extract from the leaves and roots of Raphanus sativus, on the species Urochloa decumbens and Lactuca sativa L. To obtain the extract, the leaves and roots of R. sativus were used separately, crushed at a proportion of 200 g of leaves to 1 L of water to give a crude aqueous extract (100%. Dilutions of 60%, 40% and 20%, and the control were produced from this extract. Seeds of U. decumbens and L. sativa were evenly distributed over two sheets of germitest paper, with four replications of 40 seeds each. Germination was evaluated at 7 and 14 days after sowing, together with the germination speed index (GSI, length of the shoots and roots, and dry weight. The design was completely randomised, and the values submitted to analysis of variance by F-test and regression analysis. The leaf extract gave a reduction in the germination of L. sativa at all tested doses. With application of the root extract, an increase was seen in germination, in the GSI and length of the radicle in U. decumbens at doses of from 40%. Moreover, with application of the leaf extract, the length of the shoot and radicle were also greater, irrespective of the dose applied. There was no effect from the treatments on the dry mass of the species. = Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o potencial alelopático de extrato de folhas e raízes de Raphanus sativus, nas espécies Urochloa decumbens e Lactuca sativa L. Para obtenção do extrato, foram utilizadas separadamente folhas e raízes de R. sativus, trituradas na proporção de 200 g de folhas para 1 L de água, resultando no extrato aquoso bruto (100%. A partir desse extrato, foram realizadas as diluições de 60%, 40% e 20% e testemunha. Sementes de U. decumbens e L. sativa foram distribuídas uniformemente sobre duas folhas de papel germitest, com quatro repetições, com 40 sementes cada. As avaliações de germinação foram realizadas aos 7 e aos 14 dias

  3. Cytoprotection mediated antiulcer effect of aqueous fruit pulp extract of Cucumis sativus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil Sharma

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study was aimed to evaluate the gastroprotective potential of Cucumis Sativus fruit pulp aqueous extract (CSE in gastric ulcerated rats. Methods: Cytoprotective potential was evaluated via oral administration of CSE at the doses of 250, 500 &1000 mg/kg three times in a day, for 5 days before the induction of ulcers in indomethacin and pyloric ligation induced ulcer model. Further, its effects were studied on various parameters volume of gastric juice, pH, free and total acidity, protein concentration, acid output in gastric juice, lipid peroxide (LPO, and activities of enzymic antioxidants-super oxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT in gastric mucosa. The levels of hexose, hexosamine, sialic acid, fucose in gastric mucosa and gastric juice were also examined. The extent of healing was also determined with post administration of CSE at the same doses & dosage schedule in acetic acid induced model. Results: In indomethacin and pyloric ligation model, the pretreatment with CSE and ranitidine significantly reduced the lesion index, in comparison with control treated group (P< 0.05. The percentages of protection of ulcers were 25.8, 65.7, 80.6 & 93.8 for the treated groups of CSE and ranitidine whereas in pyloric ligation it was 31.26, 55.18, 93.26 & 95.51 respectively. In pyloric ligation model, CSE resulted in significant increase in pH, enzymic antioxidants i.e. SOD & CAT, with a significant decrease in volume of gastric juice, free and total acidity, protein & carbohydrate concentration and LPO levels. In acetic acid inducer model, treatment with Cucumis sativus (CSE caused significant reduction in lesion index in when compared to control treated group, providing evidence for ulcer healing capacity of it. The presence of the flavonoids and polyphenols may be responsible for the gastroprotective effect of CSE. Conclusions: The aqueous fruit pulp extract of Cucumis sativus (CSE has a gastroprotective property.

  4. Effect of UV-C irradiation on growth, sporulation and pathogenicity of cochliobolus sativus isolates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jawhar, M.; Arabi, M.I.E.

    1999-12-01

    More than 30 isolates of Cochliobolus sativus, the causal agent of common root rot disease; were collected from different regions of Syria. Seven of them were exposed to UV-C light for 40 or 60 h . at a dose rate of 2.52x10 -3 W/cm 2 . A significant increases in the mycelium growth and sporulation were detected (p<0.001). Within the studied range of UV wave length, these two parameters were increased upon increasing the period of exposure to UV-C light. The pathogenicity of four isolates was evaluated after 60 h. of UV irradiation. The response to UV irradiation varied among these isolates, and resulted in an increase in their virulence level (as assessed by evaluating disease severity on sub-crown internodes). Five barley genotypes possessing different levels of resistance to C. sativus were studied. Arabi Abiad was the most susceptible cultivar whereas, Taka 76 line was moderately susceptible. It is concluded that it is possible to implement the positive effect of low doses of UV-C in stimulating the sporulation of fungi, which are difficult to sporulate on artificial media. (author)

  5. Oxidative Stress Induction by Lead in Leaves of Radish (Raphanus sativus Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadjet BITEUR

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress was induced by lead acetate (Pb in Raphanus sativus seedlings grown in a hydroponic system using sand as substrate. Thirty day old acclimated seeds were treated for 7 days with five Pb levels (0 as control, 100, 200, 500 and 1000 mg l-1. Parameters such as growth, oxidative damage markers (lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and hydrogen peroxide contents and enzymatic activities of catalase (CAT and peroxidase (POD were investigated. Lead concentration in plant tissues increased with increasing of Pb levels. Shoot fresh weight, chlorophyll and carotenoid concentration were significantly decreased at 100 mg l-1 Pb. Lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and H2O2 levels were increased at 500 and 1000 mg l-1 Pb compared to control treatment, in shoots. Peroxidase activity showed a straight correlation with H2O2 concentration, whereas CAT activity decreased only in shoots. These changes in enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants showed that the Pb exposition had a significant disturbance on Raphanus sativus plantlets and affect the biochemical and physiological processes.

  6. Effects of selenium accumulation on phytotoxicity, herbivory, and pollination ecology in radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hladun, Kristen R.; Parker, David R.; Tran, Khoa D.; Trumble, John T.

    2013-01-01

    Selenium (Se) has contaminated areas in the western USA where pollination is critical to the functioning of both agricultural and natural ecosystems, yet we know little about how Se can impact pollinators. In a two-year semi-field study, the weedy plant Raphanus sativus (radish) was exposed to three selenate treatments and two pollination treatments to evaluate the effects on pollinator–plant interactions. Honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) pollinators were observed to readily forage on R. sativus for both pollen and nectar despite high floral Se concentrations. Se treatment increased both seed abortion (14%) and decreased plant biomass (8–9%). Herbivory by birds and aphids was reduced on Se-treated plants, indicating a potential reproductive advantage for the plant. Our study sheds light on how pollutants such as Se can impact the pollination ecology of a plant that accumulates even moderate amounts of Se. - Highlights: ► Radish were exposed to selenate and pollination treatments to examine pollination ecology. ► Honey bees foraged on radish for both pollen and nectar despite high floral Se concentrations. ► Se treatment increased seed abortion and decreased plant biomass. ► Herbivory by birds and aphids was reduced in Se-treated plants. ► Pollutants such as Se can impact the pollination of a plant that accumulates even moderate amounts. - Radish accumulated the pollutant selenium in floral tissues, but this did not deter the pollinator (Apis mellifera) from foraging.

  7. Purification and MIC analysis of antimicrobial proteins from Cucumis sativus L. seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Akeel, Raid; Mateen, Ayesha; Alharbi, Khalid K; Alyousef, Abdullah A; Al-Mandeel, Hazem M; Syed, Rabbani

    2018-04-03

    Cucumis sativus L. (cucumber), from the family Cucurbitaceae, is a therapeutic plant with various pharmacological benefits, broadly utilized as a part of complementary medicine (e.g., Unani, Ayurveda, Siddha, and Traditional Chinese). In light of past research discoveries, this plant had been chosen to consider its potential antibacterial action. Extracts were purified by dialysis and ion exchange chromatography strategy and then assayed for antibacterial activity against four standard pathogenic bacterial strains known to cause foodborne infections and spoilage of food and herbal drugs. Antimicrobial peptides were extracted from seeds using a sodium phosphate citrate (pH 7.2) - CTAB cradle (pH 6.0). The highest protein concentration was seen with elute fractions 1 and 3 (370 mg/mL) compared with elute fractions 2 and 4 (340 mg/mL). Among the bacteria utilized, E. coli was clearly the most sensitive out of selected four strains. Our results suggest that Cucumis sativus L seeds extracts have significant potentials as new antimicrobial agents.

  8. Isolasi dan Identifikasi Senyawa Metabolit Sekunder Ekstrak n-Heksan dari Umbi Lobak (Raphanus Sativus Lamk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ummi Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Isolation and identification of secondary metabolite compound in extract of n-Hexane in Umbi Lobak (Raphanus sativus Lamk have been carried out. The purpose of this research is to know secondary metabolite compound which is contained in Umbi Lobak (Raphanus sativus Lamk which obtained from Gowa. The compound was obtained by isolation process that consists of several steps including extraction, fractination, purification, and identification. Extraction was carried out using maceration with n- hexane. The identification has done by phytochemistry test, melting point, solubility, TLC, and IR spectroscopy. The result of research found out that the obtained compound was the steroid compound, with melt point 133-133,5 oC and had positive  reaction toward Lieberman Burchad reagents, where the Lieberman Burchad reagent resulting is green which perfectly solved in n-hexane, bit solved in methanol, and could not be solved in aceton. TLC analysis showed a stain in three scales different solvent and the result of elucidation structure in IR spectrophotometer showed that compound which get is β sitosterol.

  9. New approach to explain results of the low dose radiation on the Raphanus sativus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurisu, Y.; Yoshioka, K.; Yoshida, S.; Murata, I.; Takahashi, A. [Osaka University, Graduate School of Engineering, Department of Nuclear Engineering, Suita, Osaka (Japan)

    2002-01-01

    Recently, the researches on radiation hormesis toward the animals and plants are made abundantly. The radiation hormesis effect is that subharmful doses of radiation may evoke a stimulatory response in any organism. We did irradiation experiments of fusion (DD and DT) neutron, thermal and fast neutron, and 60-cobalt gamma-ray to the dry seeds of Raphanus stivus, and examined whether radiation hormesis effects appeared by measuring germination rate, the length of a hypocotyl and a root and the total weight on the 7th day from starring cultivation. The evaluation of radiation hormesis effects was done by using relative effectiveness which is the ratio of the mean of the measurement objects of the irradiation group to that of non-irradiation group. In the Raphanus stivus the radiation hormesis effects of the measured objects were only turned up in seed groups irradiated by the fusion (D-T) neutron. We have confirmed that absorbed dose range where the effects are revealed is from 1 cGy to 10 Gy and there the relative effectiveness is from 1.05 to 1.25. In this research the model about radiation hormesis effect on Raphanus sativus confirmed in irradiation of D-T neutrons is proposed. And it is apparent that radiation from radio activated seeds influences hormesis effect on Raphanus sativus. (author)

  10. Use of molecular markers aids in the development of diverse inbred backcross lines in Beit Alpha cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beit Alpha cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is a Mediterranean fresh-market type with a relatively narrow genetic base. To broaden its base for plant improvement, 42 diverse accessions were compared employing a previously defined standard marker array to choose wide-based parental lines for use in bac...

  11. Investigation of the Use of "Cucumis Sativus" for Remediation of Chromium from Contaminated Environmental Matrices: An Interdisciplinary Instrumental Analysis Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Lynsey R.; Edwards, Michael R.; Farmer, Russell; Greenly, Kathryn J.; Hensler, Sherri; Jenkins, Scott E.; Joyce, J. Michael; Mann, Jason A.; Prentice, Boone M.; Puckette, Andrew E.; Shuford, Christopher M.; Porter, Sarah E. G.; Rhoten, Melissa C.

    2009-01-01

    An interdisciplinary, semester-long project is presented in which students grow Cucumis sativus (cucumber) plants from seeds and study the ability of the plants to remediate a heavy metal from contaminated soil or water or both. Phytoremediation strategies for environmental cleanup are presented as possible alternatives to chemical based clean-up…

  12. Metabolomic variation of brassica rapa var. rapa (var. raapstelen) and raphanus sativus l. at different developmental stages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jahangir, M.; Abdel-Farid, I.B.; Vos, de C.H.R.; Jonker, H.H.; Choi, Y.H.; Verpoorte, R.

    2014-01-01

    Brassica rapa (var. raapstelen) and Raphanus sativus (red radish) are being used as food and fodder while also known as model in recent plant research due to the diversity of metabolites as well as genetic resemblance to Arabidopsis. This study explains the change in metabolites (amino acids,

  13. Release of carbon and nitrogen from fodder radish (Raphanus sativus) shoots and roots incubated in soils with different management history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Teng; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind; Christensen, Bent Tolstrup

    2018-01-01

    and roots from fodder radish (Raphanus sativus oleiformis L.), a widely used cover crop, on the release of their C and N after addition to soil. Shoots and roots were incubated for 180 d at 20°C using four soils with different management histories (organic versus mineral fertiliser, with and without use...

  14. Sulforaphene in Raphanus sativus L. var. caudatus Alef increased in late-bolting stage as well as anticancer activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piman Pocasap

    2017-11-01

    Conclusions: The reproductive parts (flower, pod, and dry seed of Raphanus sativus have the greatest isothiocyanate concentration, evidenced by a sulforaphene concentration higher than the sulforaphane. This result should inform the selection of the most appropriate harvesting stage and plant part for use as a potential chemopreventive agent.

  15. Chemical processing of raw florets of dyer's saffron and successful extraction of a resulting product (carthamin: an approach to improve conventional methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koshi Saito

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficacy of KMnO4 on processing red florets of dyer's saffron was examined in the presence of micromolar concentrations of the metal salts. Apparent value for KMnO4 determined by double-reciprocal plots was 126 µM, whose value corresponds to a 1/154-fold of dried florets. Successful extraction of red carthamin was performed by using the processed matters with various solvent systems. HCl/NaOH, acetic acid/ammonia water and pyridine/methanol were found to be effective. For purification of carthamin, the cellulose adsorption technique was very promising. The data are assessed to standarize the new technique.

  16. Implementation and evaluation of prognostic representations of the optical diameter of snow in the SURFEX/ISBA-Crocus detailed snowpack model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmagnola, C. M.; Morin, S.; Lafaysse, M.; Domine, F.; Lesaffre, B.; Lejeune, Y.; Picard, G.; Arnaud, L.

    2014-03-01

    In the SURFEX/ISBA-Crocus multi-layer snowpack model, the snow microstructure has up to now been characterised by the grain size and by semi-empirical shape variables which cannot be measured easily in the field or linked to other relevant snow properties. In this work we introduce a new formulation of snow metamorphism directly based on equations describing the rate of change of the optical diameter (dopt). This variable is considered here to be equal to the equivalent sphere optical diameter, which is inversely proportional to the specific surface area (SSA). dopt thus represents quantitatively some of the geometric characteristics of a porous medium. Different prognostic rate equations of dopt, including a re-formulation of the original Crocus scheme and the parameterisations from Taillandier et al. (2007) and Flanner and Zender (2006), were evaluated by comparing their predictions to field measurements carried out at Summit Camp (Greenland) in May and June 2011 and at Col de Porte (French Alps) during the 2009/10 and 2011/12 winter seasons. We focused especially on results in terms of SSA. In addition, we tested the impact of the different formulations on the simulated density profile, the total snow height, the snow water equivalent (SWE) and the surface albedo. Results indicate that all formulations perform well, with median values of the RMSD between measured and simulated SSA lower than 10 m2 kg-1. Incorporating the optical diameter as a fully fledged prognostic variable is an important step forward in the quantitative description of the snow microstructure within snowpack models, because it opens the way to data assimilation of various electromagnetic observations.

  17. Implementation and evaluation of prognostic representations of the optical diameter of snow in the detailed snowpack model SURFEX/ISBA-Crocus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmagnola, C. M.; Morin, S.; Lafaysse, M.; Domine, F.; Lesaffre, B.; Lejeune, Y.; Picard, G.; Arnaud, L.

    2013-09-01

    In the SURFEX/ISBA-Crocus multi-layer snowpack model, the snow microstructure was up to now characterized by the grain size and by semi-empirical shape variables which cannot be measured easily in the field or linked to other relevant snow properties. In this work we introduce a new formulation of snow metamorphism directly based on equations describing the rate of change of the optical diameter (dopt). This variable is considered here to be equal to the equivalent sphere optical diameter, which is inversely proportional to the specific surface area (SSA). dopt thus represents quantitatively some of the geometric characteristics of a porous medium. Different prognostic rate equations of dopt, including a re-formulation of the original Crocus scheme and the parametrizations from Taillandier et al. (2007) and Flanner and Zender (2006), were evaluated by comparing their predictions to field measurements carried out at Summit Camp (Greenland) in May and June 2011 and at Col de Porte (French Alps) during the 2009/10 and 2011/12 winter seasons. We focused especially on results in terms of SSA. In addition, we tested the impact of the different formulations on the simulated density profile, the total snow height, the snow water equivalent (SWE) and the surface albedo. Results indicate that all formulations perform well, with median values of the RMSD between measured and simulated SSA lower than 10 m2 kg-1. Incorporating the optical diameter as a fully-fledged prognostic variable is an important step forward in the quantitative description of the snow microstructure within snowpack models, because it opens the way to data assimilation of various electromagnetic observations.

  18. Comparative studies of the phytochemistry, proximate analysis, mineral and vitamin compositions of the methanol leaf extracts of Cucumis sativus L. and Daucus carota L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essien Augustine Dick

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available     Cucumis sativus  and Daucus carota are medicinal plants used in folkloric medicine to treat and prevent various diseases but the basis for this has not been highlighted. Quantitative phytochemicial analysis revealed the presence of anthocyanins, flavonoids, carotenoids and pyrrolidine in D. carota leaf methanol extract but in C. sativus only flavonoids and carotenoids was found present although in a lower amounts. Proximate analysis revealed  that both plants methanol leaf extracts contain moisture, protein, carbohydrate, fat, fiber and ash. The moisture content of C. sativus (95 ± 0.02% was more than that of D. Carota (82.20 ± 0.01% but the protein, carbohydrate, fat, ash and fiber contents of D. Carota was more than that of C. sativus. The mineral compositions also revealed the presence of Ca, P, Mg, Fe,Zn,Na, and K in both C.sativus and D. carota although in various proportions. The P, Ca, Mg, Fe and Na contents in D. carota were more than that of C. Sativus, but C. sativus has a higher Zn and K contents than D. carota. The vitamin analysis also revealed the presence of important vitamins including A, B1, B2,  B6 ,  C,E, niacin and folate. The vitamin A content of  D. carota were very high (2,901 ± 0.02µg compared to that of  C. Sativus (23 ± 0.01µg. These important macroelements, minerals and vitamins embedded in these important plants may be the reasons behind its use in forklore medicine for its various dietary and therapeutic applications.

  19. EFECTO DE INOCULACIÓN DE MICROORGANISMOS EN CRECIMIENTO DE RÁBANO (Raphanus sativus EFEITO DA INOCULAÇÃO MICRORGANISMOS NO CRESCIMENTO DE RABANETE (Raphanus sativus EFFECT OF INOCULATION OF MICROORGANISMS ON RADISH GROWTH (Raphanus sativus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUZ INDIRA SOTELO D

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El efecto de la inoculación de microorganismos que pueden estimular el crecimiento en plantas, ha sido de gran interés para la producción de bioinsumos en los últimos años. Se inocularon cepas de Azotobacter sp, Bacillus pumilus y Bacillus licheniformis en un cultivo de rábano (Raphanus sativus, aisladas e identificadas de un proceso de compostaje de la empresa (GEO ®. Se realizó un diseño experimental de cinco tratamientos y un control, con 15 repeticiones para cada uno. Previo a la aplicación de los tratamientos cada cepa se sometió individualmente a crecimiento en caldo de cultivo. La aplicación de cada tratamiento se efectuó dos veces por aspersión, con un intervalo de 15 días durante el tiempo de cultivo. Las variables de respuesta que se evaluaron en el cultivo de rábano fueron: longitud de las plantas, número de hojas y peso seco del sistema radicular. Los resultados mostraron menor efectividad en la producción de biomasa radicular en el tratamiento T5 (mezcla de los tres microorganismos; además se encontró un mayor rendimiento en todas las variables de respuesta, con la utilización de la fertllización química. Sin embargo los tres microorganismos aplicados individualmente presentan resultados promisorios para la aplicación en cultivos agrícolas de ciclo corto.O efeito da inoculação de microrganismos que podem estimular o crescimento em plantas tem sido de grande interesse para a produção de bio-produtos nos últimos anos. Isolados foram inoculados Azotobacter sp, Bacillus pumilus e Bacillus licheniformis em uma cultura de rabanete (Raphanus sativus isolados e identificados em um processo de compostagem da empresa (GEO ®. Foi realizado um delineamento experimental de cinco tratamentos e controle, com 15 repetições para cada um. Antes da aplicação dos tratamentos, cada cepa foi submetida ao crescimento individual em caldo. A aplicação de cada tratamento foi realizada por aspersão duas vezes com um

  20. Effect of low doses of gamma radiation on barley's (Hordeum Vulgare L.) susceptibility to cochliobolus sativus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jawher, M.; Arabi, I. E.

    1998-03-01

    Two barley genotypes (Tadmor, W12291), and one promising line selected in AECS (76) were exposed to 60 cobalt gamma radiation. The doses used were: 0, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40 and 50 Gy. Susceptibility assessments were scored using a rating scale extending from 1 (highly resistant) to 5 (very susceptible) according to the percentage of infected area at subcrown interodes. In general, doses of 10, 15, 20 and 30 Gy increased the resistance to the pathogen Cochliobolus sativus by 56.29%, 58.29%, 54.57% and 49.71% respectively. The genotypes did not response similarly to the irradiation. The best response was obtained with c.v Tadmor. (author)

  1. Assessment of Salicylic Acid Impacts on Seedling Characteristic of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. under Water Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein MARDANI

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Impacts of various concentrations of salicylic acid (SA on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. seedling characteristic were evaluated under different water stress levels by using a factorial arrangement based on completely randomized design with three replications at experimental greenhouse of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. The studied factors included three water deficit levels (100% FC, 80% FC, and 60% FC considered as first factor and five levels of SA concentrations (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1 mM as second factor. Results showed that foliar application of SA at the highest concentration enhanced leaf area, leaf and dry weight while decreased stomatal conductance under high level of water deficit stress. Though, severe water deficit stress sharply raised the SPAD reading values. In general, exogenous SA application could develop cucumber seedling characteristic and improve water stress tolerance.

  2. Phytoextraction of heavy metals by canola (Brassica napus) and radish (Raphanus sativus) grown on multicontaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiol, L; Assolari, S; Sacco, P; Zerbi, G

    2004-11-01

    Phytoextraction can provide an effective in situ technique for removing heavy metals from polluted soils. The experiment reported in this paper was undertaken to study the basic potential of phytoextraction of Brassica napus (canola) and Raphanus sativus (radish) grown on a multi-metal contaminated soil in the framework of a pot-experiment. Chlorophyll contents and gas exchanges were measured during the experiment; the heavy metal phytoextraction efficiency of canola and radish were also determined and the phytoextraction coefficient for each metal calculated. Data indicated that both species are moderately tolerant to heavy metals and that radish is more so than canola. These species showed relatively low phytoremediation potential of multicontaminated soils. They could possibly be used with success in marginally polluted soils where their growth would not be impaired and the extraction of heavy metals could be maintained at satisfying levels.

  3. Phytoextraction of heavy metals by canola (Brassica napus) and radish (Raphanus sativus) grown on multicontaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchiol, L.; Assolari, S.; Sacco, P.; Zerbi, G.

    2004-01-01

    Phytoextraction can provide an effective in situ technique for removing heavy metals from polluted soils. The experiment reported in this paper was undertaken to study the basic potential of phytoextraction of Brassica napus (canola) and Raphanus sativus (radish) grown on a multi-metal contaminated soil in the framework of a pot-experiment. Chlorophyll contents and gas exchanges were measured during the experiment; the heavy metal phytoextraction efficiency of canola and radish were also determined and the phytoextraction coefficient for each metal calculated. Data indicated that both species are moderately tolerant to heavy metals and that radish is more so than canola. These species showed relatively low phytoremediation potential of multicontaminated soils. They could possibly be used with success in marginally polluted soils where their growth would not be impaired and the extraction of heavy metals could be maintained at satisfying levels

  4. Profiling micro rnas and their targets in radish (raphanus sativus l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barozai, M.Y.; Din, M.

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are tiny, non-protein coding and negative regulatory RNAs approximately 21 nucleotides in length. The comparative genomic methodology due to their conserved nature is a reasonable approach for the novel miRNAs discovery. In this research, total 25 novel miRNAs from 18 families (ras-miR-156, 160, 162, 163, 164, 167, 168, 319, 399, 408, 413, 414, 841, 1310, 2936, 5030 and 5661) are identified in an important vegetable radish (Raphanus sativus L.). The 25 miRNA precursor sequences showed secondary structures with the mature miRNAs in the stem region. Total 42 putative targets are also identified for the novel 25 radish miRNAs. These findings suggest that more thorough understanding of the function of such miRNAs will help to unravel the mysteries role in plant biology. (author)

  5. Phytoextraction of heavy metals by canola (Brassica napus) and radish (Raphanus sativus) grown on multicontaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchiol, L.; Assolari, S.; Sacco, P.; Zerbi, G

    2004-11-01

    Phytoextraction can provide an effective in situ technique for removing heavy metals from polluted soils. The experiment reported in this paper was undertaken to study the basic potential of phytoextraction of Brassica napus (canola) and Raphanus sativus (radish) grown on a multi-metal contaminated soil in the framework of a pot-experiment. Chlorophyll contents and gas exchanges were measured during the experiment; the heavy metal phytoextraction efficiency of canola and radish were also determined and the phytoextraction coefficient for each metal calculated. Data indicated that both species are moderately tolerant to heavy metals and that radish is more so than canola. These species showed relatively low phytoremediation potential of multicontaminated soils. They could possibly be used with success in marginally polluted soils where their growth would not be impaired and the extraction of heavy metals could be maintained at satisfying levels.

  6. Biosynthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles using an endophytic fungal supernatant of Raphanus sativus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tej Singh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs from supernatant of endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. isolated from the healthy leaves of Raphanus sativus is studied. The synthesized AgNPs are characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. The structural analysis is done by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD method. The stability of AgNPs is studied by dynamic light scattering (DLS method. The size and shape of AgNPs are observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM and found to be spherical with an average particles size of 4–30 nm. Further, these AgNPs have been found to be highly toxic against human pathogenic bacteria, suggesting the possibility of using AgNPs as efficient antibacterial agents.

  7. Biotechnological production of inducible defense-related proteins in edible radish (raphanus sativus) found in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, Praval; Karmacharya, Anil; Sharma, Shishir; Nepal, Ashwini K; Shrestha, Kanti

    2014-01-01

    Fungal infection in plant leads to use of many hazardous antifungal chemicals. Alternative to these chemicals, defense related antifungal proteins can be used in case of fungal diseases. An experiment was done in two varieties of edible radish (Raphanus sativus var. Pyuthane Raato and Raphanus sativus var. all season) with aims to produce defense protein within the plant, to identify and perform molecular characterization of those antifungal proteins. The next aim was to compare the antifungal property of those proteins with commercially available synthetic pesticides. Both varieties of radish were infected with fungi (Alternaria alternata and Fusarium oxysporum). Protein samples were isolated from leaves following the standard protocol as described for β-glucuronidase (GUS) assay and were run along with the standard protein marker of 10-250kDa in sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) to identify and molecularly characterize them. An additional band in the range of 37-50kDa was observed in the fungal infected samples, which was not seen on uninfected samples. The antifungal assay was carried out for every sample in 96 wells microtitre plate. The extracted protein samples from fungal inoculated plants showed the significant inhibition of fungal growth compared to other samples. On the basis of molecular weight and their antifungal properties, the protein samples from the fungal infected plant were found to be PR2 (Glucanase) and PR3 (Chitinase). Defense related proteins were successfully produced in two varieties of radish found in Nepal. The use of such biologically produced proteins may reduce the use of biologically harmful synthetic pesticides.

  8. Boron excess affects photosynthesis and antioxidant apparatus of greenhouse Cucurbita pepo and Cucumis sativus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Marco; Remorini, Damiano; Pardossi, Alberto; Guidi, Lucia

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the behavior of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) under boron (B) excess. Plants were grown under greenhouse conditions in a sandy soil-peat mixture using a nutrient solution containing 0.2 (control), 10 and 20 mg L(-1) B. Visible symptoms were quantified and leaf B accumulation, gas exchanges, chlorophyll (Chl) a fluorescence, malondialdehyde by-products and antioxidants were investigated 20 days after the beginning of the treatments. Boron toxicity induced oxidative load and leaf necrotic burns coupled with the reduction of leaf growth and biomass accumulation in both species. Boron excess resulted in a decrease of Chl a/b ratio, potential (Fv/Fm) and actual (ΦPSII) PSII quantum efficiency, photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (gs), and transpiration (E) as well. A general stimulation of the antioxidant enzymes ascorbate peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase was observed, and a significant increase in the oxidized form of ascorbate and glutathione was evidenced for treated plants of both species. A difference between the two species was observed: C. pepo appeared to be more sensitive to B stress being damaged at all B concentration. C. sativus grown at 10 mg L(-1) B in nutrient solution showed some down-regulated mechanisms, i.e. increase in Chl b content and a good photochemical PSII efficiency as well as a higher amount of constitutive antioxidant molecules, that, however, are not sufficient to contrast the negative effects of B.

  9. Prevention of CCl4 induced hypogonadism with Raphanus sativus seeds in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Farhana; Khan, Muhammad Rashid

    2017-03-01

    Raphanus sativus seeds are used as condiment and to treat hypogonadism, various ailments of liver and kidneys. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential protective effects of methanol extract of R. sativus seeds (RSME) against hypogonadism induced with carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) in Sprague-Dawley male rats. Thirty six rats were divided in to six groups with six animals in each. Animals of Group I were control and treated with saline, Group II, III and IV were given orally CCl 4 (1 ml/kg bw; 10% in corn oil). Rats of Group III and IV were also simultaneously given RSME at 100 mg/kg bw and 200 mg/kg bw respectively. However, Group V and VI received RSME (100; 200 mg/kg bw, respectively) alone. All treatments were given at alternate days for 15 days. Treatment of CCl4 to rats decreased (P < 0.001) the level of CAT, POD, SOD, GST, GSH-Px and GSR antioxidant enzymes in testes of rat. Concentration of lipid peroxides (TBARS) was increased (P < 0.001) whereas concentration of GSH was decreased (P < 0.001) in testes of CCl4 treated animals. Concentration of testosterone, FSH and LH in serum was decreased (P < 0.001) while the level of estradiol and prolactin was increased (P < 0.001) in CCl4 treated rats. Injuries in seminiferous tubules were determined in histopathology of testes. Administration of RSME, dose dependently, markedly ameliorated the oxidative stress of CCl4 thereby restoring the level of antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxides, reduced glutathione, male hormones and alterations in histopathology.

  10. Occidental diffusion of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) 500–1300 CE: two routes to Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Harry S.; Daunay, Marie-Christine; Janick, Jules

    2012-01-01

    Background The cucumber, Cucumis sativus, is one of the most widely consumed fruit vegetables the world over. The history of its dispersal to the Occident from its centre of origin, the Indian subcontinent, has been incorrectly understood for some time, due to the confusion of cucumbers with vegetable melons. Iconographic and literary evidence has shown that cucumber was absent in Roman times, up to 500 CE, but present in Europe by late medieval times, 1300. The objective of the present investigation was to determine more accurately when the cucumber arrived in Europe and by what route. Findings and Conclusions The evidence for the movement of C. sativus westward is entirely lexicographical until the 10th century. Syriac, Persian and Byzantine Greek sources suggest the presence of cucumbers, to the east and north-east of the Mediterranean Sea (modern Iran, Iraq and Turkey), by the 6th or 7th century. Arabic medical writings suggest the presence of cucumbers in Spain as early as the mid-9th century and in Tunisia by the early 10th century. Descriptive evidence in Arabic establishes the presence of cucumbers in Andalusia by the second half of the 10th century. Latin translations from Arabic sources indicate the presence of cucumbers in southern Italy by the second half of the 11th century. These writings, together with lexicographical discrepancies in names of cucurbits in late medieval Latin writings, suggest that cucumber was introduced to Europe by two independent diffusions. One diffusion appears to have been overland from Persia into eastern and northern Europe and preceded the Islamic conquests. The other, subsequent diffusion into western and southern Europe, was probably by a mostly maritime route from Persia or the Indian subcontinent into Andalusia. PMID:22104164

  11. Lathyrus sativus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Since 2003–2004, investigations were carried out to trace the linked association ... F1 hybrid in each cross was raised. F1 plant in each .... This car- ries special significance in case of colchicine-induced dwf1 as colchicine is .... habit. A bsent. A bsent. A bsent. P resent. P resent. S eed yield. /plant. (gm). 2 .2. ±. 0 .69. 12 .3. ±.

  12. Metabolomic variation of brassica rapa var. rapa (var. raapstelen) and raphanus sativus l. at different developmental stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahangir, M.; Farid, I.B.A.

    2014-01-01

    Brassica rapa (var. raapstelen) and Raphanus sativus (red radish) are being used as food and fodder while also known as model in recent plant research due to the diversity of metabolites as well as genetic resemblance to Arabidopsis. This study explains the change in metabolites (amino acids, organic acids, chlorophyll, carotenoids, tocopherols, ascorbic acid, sucrose, phenylpropanoids and glucosinolates) during plant development. In present study the metabolomic variation in relation to plant growth has been evaluated, for Brassica rapa (var. raapstelen) and red radish (Raphanus sativus) at three different developmental stages. A non-targeted and targeted metabolomic approach by NMR and HPLC in combination with Principal component analysis (PCA) of the data was used to identify phytochemicals being influenced by plant growth. The results lead to the better understanding of metabolic changes during plant development and show the importance of plant age with respect to the metabolomic profile of vegetables. (author)

  13. Protective role of radish oil (raphson sativus) against gamma radiation on lipids and carbohydrate in male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omran, M.F.; Soliman, N.K.I.

    2005-01-01

    The present work was carried out to investigate the effects of ionizing radiation on some biochemical parameters in rats. The rats were exposed to sublethal whole body gamma irradiation dose (1Gy x 4). The protective role of radish oil (Raphanus sativus) was evaluated by oral administration to rats before gamma radiation exposure and the lipid profile, serum glucose and liver glycogen were investigated. Exposed rats to gamma radiation showed significant alterations in the assayed parameters indicating disturbances in lipid and carbohydrate metabolisms. Oral administration of radish oil (Raphanus sativus) before gamma irradiation exerted marked ameliorations in the disorders induced by gamma radiation in most of the tested parameters such as lipid profile, serum glucose and liver glycogen

  14. Effects of x-rays on growth of plants and mitotic chromosomal aberrations of Lathyrus sativus Linn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhuri, D.; Das, A.

    1985-01-01

    It has been found that the abnormalities of chromosome at different stages of mitosis show a linear dose relationship. From the detailed study of normal, abnormal phases of prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase, it is observed that the abnormality (per cent) in all stages of mitosis has increased with increase in dose. Under different doses, the observed characters of abnormality in chromosomes of Lathyrus sativus may exhibit the occurence of direct hit process. (M.N.)

  15. DNA fragmentation and apoptosis induced by safranal in human prostate cancer cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Samarghandian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Apoptosis, an important mechanism that contributes to cell growth reduction, is reported to be induced by Crocus sativus (Saffron in different cancer types. However, limited effort has been made to correlate these effects to the active ingredients of saffron. The present study was designed to elucidate cytotoxic and apoptosis induction by safranal, the major coloring compound in saffron, in a human prostate cancer cell line (PC-3. Materials and Methods: PC-3 and human fetal lung fibroblast (MRC-5 cells were cultured and exposed to safranal (5, 10, 15, and 20 μg/ml. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay was performed to assess cytotoxicity. DNA fragmentation was assessed by gel electrophoresis. Cells were incubated with different concentrations of safranal, and cell morphologic changes and apoptosis were determined by the normal inverted microscope, Annexin V, and propidium iodide, followed by flow cytometric analysis, respectively. Results: MTT assay revealed a remarkable and concentration-dependent cytotoxic effect of safranal on PC-3 cells in comparison with non-malignant cell line. The morphologic alterations of the cells confirmed the MTT results. The IC 50 values against PC-3 cells were found to be 13.0 ΁ 0.07 and 6.4 ΁ 0.09 μg/ml at 48 and 72 h, respectively. Safranal induced an early and late apoptosis in the flow cytometry histogram of treated cells, indicating apoptosis is involved in this toxicity. DNA analysis revealed typical ladders as early as 48 and 72 h after treatment, indicative of apoptosis. Conclusions: Our preclinical study demonstrated a prostate cancer cell line to be highly sensitive to safranal-mediated growth inhibition and apoptotic cell death. Although the molecular mechanisms of safranal action are not clearly understood, it appears to have potential as a therapeutic agent.

  16. Optimization of the ethanolysis of Raphanus sativus (L. Var.) crude oil applying the response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingos, Anderson Kurunczi; Saad, Emir Bolzani; Wilhelm, Helena Maria; Ramos, Luiz Pereira

    2008-04-01

    Raphanus sativus (L. Var) is a perennial plant of the Brassicaceae (or Cruciferae) family whose oil has not been investigated in detail for biodiesel production, particularly when ethanol is used as the alcoholysis agent. In this work, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to determine the optimum condition for the ethanolysis of R. sativus crude oil. Three process variables were evaluated at two levels (2(3) experimental design): the ethanol:oil molar ratio (6:1 and 12:1), the catalyst concentration in relation to oil mass (0.4 and 0.8 wt% NaOH) and the alcoholysis temperature (45 and 65 degrees C). When the experimental results were tentatively adjusted by linear regression, only 58.15% of its total variance was explained. Therefore, a quadratic model was investigated to improve the poor predictability of the linear model. To apply the quadratic model, the 2(3) experimental design had to be expanded to a circumscribed central composite design. This allowed the development of a response surface that was able to predict 97.75% of the total variance of the system. Validation was obtained by performing one ethanolysis experiment at the conditions predicted by the model (38 degrees C, ethanol:oil molar ratio of 11.7:1 and 0.6 wt% NaOH). The resulting ester yield (104.10 wt% or 99.10% of the theoretical yield of 105.04 wt%) was shown to be the highest among all conditions tested in this study. The second ethanolysis stage of the best RSM product required 50% less ethanol and 90% less catalyst consumption. The amount of ethyl esters obtained after this procedure reached 94.5% of the theoretical yield. The resulting ethyl esters were shown to comply with most of the Brazilian biodiesel specification parameters except for oxidation stability. Addition of 500 ppm of BHT to the esters, however, complied with the specification target of 6h. The application of 2 wt% Magnesol after the second ethanolysis stage eliminated the need for water washing and helped generate a

  17. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF VIR COLLECTIONS OF THE RAPHANUS SATIVUS L. (SMALL RADISH AND RADISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Kurina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study on the diversity of root plants in the species of Raphanus sativus L., which are available in the collection of VIR, enables to comprehensively evaluate the collection of small radish and radish, making descriptions of new forms and cultivar-types, and revealing the biological features of the formation of photosynthetic apparatus, yielding abilities, resistance to biotic and abiotic stressors. This article is the first part of a series of articles devoted to the study of the gene pool of root plants of the species R. sativus L. from the VIR collection. The experimental part of the article includes the results of a study of previously unexplored accessions from the radish collection, the following articles will be devoted to the radish gene pool. As a result of the research conducted in 2016-2017. 110 samples of radish of different eco-geographical origin and representing variety of cultivar type were studied. The studied radish samples were combined into several groups according to the duration of the growing season (early ripening, mid-ripening and late ripening. A longer vegetation period in radish in winter-time-growing was observed in case of insufficient illumination, but some accesions of the red oval-rounded cultivar type (k-2133, k-2343, k-1742, k-2404 have not shown any change in vegetation period. There was a strong change in the shape of the root crop when growing in winter under insufficient illumination. Samples that are capable to form a consumed organ in such conditions without changing the shape of the root crop and vegetation period were k-2404, Netherlands, k-2133, Tanzania, k-2185, Poland, k-2343, Iceland, k-1666, Russia. Among the accessions of the red-oval-round cultivar type, varieties from the Netherlands, the Czech Republic and Poland emerged, formed a short-rooted, compact rosette with an elevated leaf arrangement in all growing conditions. The formation of high productivity in the open field types was revealed

  18. Biofumigation with Brassica juncea, Raphanus sativus and Eruca sativa for the management of field populations of the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngala, Bruno M; Haydock, Patrick P J; Woods, Simon; Back, Matthew A

    2015-05-01

    The viability of potato cyst nematode (PCN) populations (Globodera pallida) was evaluated in three field experiments using Brassica juncea, Raphanus sativus and Eruca sativa amendments. These species were summer cultivated and autumn incorporated in experiment 1; in experiment 2, overwintered brassicaceous cover crops were spring incorporated. Experiment 3 involved determination of effects of metconazole application on biomass/glucosinolate production by B. juncea and R. sativus and on PCN pre- and post-incorporation. Glucosinolate contents were determined before incorporation. Following cover crop incorporation, field plots were planted with susceptible potatoes to evaluate the biofumigation effects on PCN reproduction. In experiment 1, PCN population post-potato harvest was reduced (P = 0.03) in B. juncea-treated plots, while R. sativus prevented further multiplication, but in experiment 2 there were no significant effects on PCN reproduction. In experiment 3, B. juncea or R. sativus either untreated or treated with metconazole reduced PCN populations. Glucosinolate concentrations varied significantly between different plant regions and cultivation seasons. Metconazole application increased the sinigrin concentration in B. juncea tissues. Glucosinolate concentrations correlated positively with PCN mortality for summer-cultivated brassicaceous plants. The results demonstrated that B. juncea and R. sativus green manures can play an important role in PCN management, particularly if included in an integrated pest management scheme. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Lactic acid bacteria population dynamics during spontaneous fermentation of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) roots in brine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardali, Eleni; Paramithiotis, Spiros; Papadelli, Marina; Mataragas, Marios; Drosinos, Eleftherios H

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the microecosystem development and the dynamics of the lactic acid bacteria population during spontaneous fermentation of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) roots in brine at 20 and 30 °C. In both temperatures, lactic acid bacteria prevailed the fermentation; as a result, the pH value was reduced to ca. 3.6 and total titrable acidity increased to ca. 0.4% lactic acid. Enterococci population increased and formed a secondary microbiota while pseudomonads, Enterobacteriaceae and yeasts/molds populations were below enumeration limit already before the middle of fermentation. Pediococcus pentosaceus dominated during the first days, followed by Lactobacillus plantarum that prevailed the fermentation until the end. Lactobacillus brevis was also detected during the final days of fermentation. A succession at sub-species level was revealed by the combination of RAPD-PCR and rep-PCR analyses. Glucose and fructose were the main carbohydrates detected in brine and were metabolized into lactic acid, acetic acid and ethanol.

  20. Raman Imaging of Plant Cell Walls in Sections of Cucumis sativus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeise, Ingrid; Heiner, Zsuzsanna; Holz, Sabine; Joester, Maike; Büttner, Carmen; Kneipp, Janina

    2018-01-25

    Raman microspectra combine information on chemical composition of plant tissues with spatial information. The contributions from the building blocks of the cell walls in the Raman spectra of plant tissues can vary in the microscopic sub-structures of the tissue. Here, we discuss the analysis of 55 Raman maps of root, stem, and leaf tissues of Cucumis sativus , using different spectral contributions from cellulose and lignin in both univariate and multivariate imaging methods. Imaging based on hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) indicates different substructures in the xylem cell walls of the different tissues. Using specific signals from the cell wall spectra, analysis of the whole set of different tissue sections based on the Raman images reveals differences in xylem tissue morphology. Due to the specifics of excitation of the Raman spectra in the visible wavelength range (532 nm), which is, e.g., in resonance with carotenoid species, effects of photobleaching and the possibility of exploiting depletion difference spectra for molecular characterization in Raman imaging of plants are discussed. The reported results provide both, specific information on the molecular composition of cucumber tissue Raman spectra, and general directions for future imaging studies in plant tissues.

  1. Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from cell suspension cultures of Cucumis sativus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, P P; Tricoli, D M

    1988-06-01

    A procedure for the regeneration of whole cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Poinsett 76) by embryogenesis from cell suspension cultures is described. Embryogenic callus was initiated from the primary leaves of 14-17 day old plants. Suspension cultures of embryogenic cells were grown in liquid Murashige and Skoog basal medium containing 5 uM 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 4 uM 6-benzylaminopurine. Suspension cultures were composed of a population of cells that were densely cytoplasmic and potentially embryogenic. Differentiation of embryos was enhanced by washing the suspension culture cells with MS basal medium containing 0.5% activated charcoal and twice with MS basal medium followed by liquid shake cultures in MS basal medium. Sixty to 70 percent of the embryos prewashed with activated charcoal germinated into plantlets with normal morphology. Embryos obtained from suspension cultured cells without prewashing with activated charcoal organized into plantlets with abnormal primary leaves. Morphologically normal plantlets were obtained by excising the shoot tips and transferring them to fresh medium.

  2. Acetylcholine promotes the emergence and elongation of lateral roots of Raphanus sativus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Kou-ichi; Tezuka, Takafumi

    2011-10-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) was grown on four layers of paper towel moistened with distilled water with and without acetylcholine (ACh) for five days in the dark after sowing. ACh at 1 nM promoted the growth (emergence and elongation) of lateral roots of radish plants, but had no effect on the stems and main roots. Moreover, ACh enhanced the dry weight of roots [main (primary) + lateral roots]. Neostigmine, an inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) also promoted the emergence and elongation of lateral roots, and atropine, a competitive inhibitor of ACh receptor, suppressed the emergence and elongation. ACh suppressed the activity of AChE and increased the amount of proteins and pyridine nucleotides (NAD and NADH) in the roots of the seedlings. It also increased the activities of NAD-forming enzymes [NAD synthetase and ATP-nicotinamide mononucleotide (ATP-NMN) adenyltransferase], and enhanced the amount of DNA in the roots of the seedlings. The relationship between ACh and the emergence and growth of lateral roots was discussed from a biochemical viewpoint.

  3. Attraction of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) to four varieties of Lathyrus sativus L. seed volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikary, P; Mukherjee, A; Barik, A

    2015-04-01

    Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) is an important stored grain pest of Lathyrus sativus L. (Leguminosae), commonly known as khesari, in India, Bangladesh and Ethiopia. Volatiles were collected from four varieties, i.e., Bio L 212 Ratan, Nirmal B-1, WBK-14-7 and WBK-13-1 of uninfested khesari seeds, and subsequently identified and quantified by gas chromatography mass spectrometry and gas chromatography flame ionization detector analyses, respectively. A total of 23 volatiles were identified in the four varieties of khesari seeds. In Bio L 212 Ratan and WBK-13-1 seeds, nonanal was the most abundant followed by farnesyl acetone; whereas farnesyl acetone was predominant followed by nonanal in Nirmal B-1 and WBK-14-7 khesari seeds. The olfactory responses of female C. maculatus toward volatile blends from four varieties of khesari seeds, and individual synthetic compounds and their combinations were examined through Y-shaped glass tube olfactometer bioassays. Callosobruchus maculatus showed significant preference for the whole volatile blends from Bio L 212 Ratan seeds compared to whole volatile blends from other three varieties. The insect exhibited attraction to five individual synthetic compounds, 3-octanone, 3-octanol, linalool oxide, 1-octanol and nonanal. A synthetic blend of 448, 390, 1182, 659 and 8114 ng/20 μl methylene chloride of 3-octanone, 3-octanol, linalool oxide, 1-octanol and nonanal, respectively, was most attractive to C. maculatus, and this combination might be used for insect pest management program such as baited traps.

  4. Energetic balance from biodiesel production of oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, Rubens [Parana Agronomical Institute (IAPAR), Londrina, PR (Brazil)], E-mail: siqueira@iapar.br; Gamero, Carlos Antonio [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas; Boller, Walter [University of Passo Fundo (UPF), RS (Brazil). Agronomical and Veterinary College

    2008-07-01

    It was evaluated the energetic balance and the energetic efficiency of the oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus L.) crop under the no-tillage system. The energy input totalized 6,718 MJ ha{sup -1} where the industrial processing, the fertilizer and the herbicide had participation of 30.7; 23.0 and 20.2 %, respectively. The energy production was 56,650.94 MJ ha{sup -1} and the produced grains have represented 33.2 % of the total. The energetic demand for the production of one kg of biomass of the aerial part, one kg of oil and one kg of biodiesel were respectively 1,829; 19,000 and 27,422 kJ. There was a return of 8.44 for each energy unit used in the process. The net gain of energy was 49,932 MJ ha{sup -1} which is equivalent in energy to 1,295 L diesel oil. (author)

  5. INFLUENCIA DE LA DENSIDAD DE SIEMBRA Y LA PODA EN EL CULTIVO DEL PEPINO (Cucumis sativus

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    Paublo Javier Bravo Bravo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la investigación fue determinar la influencia de la densidad de siembra y el número de poda de ejes en el cultivo de pepino (Cucumis sativus. Se estudiaron tres distancias de siembra 1.0x0.2, 1.0x0.4 y 1.0x 0.6 m y la poda de ejes productivos dejando 1, 2 y 3 ejes por planta. La poda se realizó a los 30 días después del trasplante. Se evaluaron las características del fruto de diámetro (cm, longitud (cm, peso (g, fruto por planta y rendimiento por hectárea. Los tratamientos se distribuyeron en un diseño de bloques al azar y los datos se analizaron mediante análisis de varianza. Se obtuvo diferencias para la variable rendimiento/hectárea con respecto al resto de las variables evaluadas.

  6. Identification of a New Antibacterial Sulfur Compound from Raphanus sativus Seeds

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    Jeries Jadoun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Raphanus sativus L. (radish, a member of Brassicaceae, is widely used in traditional medicine in various cultures for treatment of several diseases and disorders associated with microbial infections. The antibacterial activity of the different plant parts has been mainly attributed to several isothiocyanate (ITC compounds. However, the low correlation between the ITC content and antibacterial activity suggests the involvement of other unknown compounds. The objective of this study was to investigate the antibacterial potential of red radish seeds and identify the active compounds. A crude ethanol seed extract was prepared and its antibacterial activity was tested against five medically important bacteria. The ethanol extract significantly inhibited the growth of all tested strains. However, the inhibitory effect was more pronounced against Streptococcus pyogenes and Escherichia coli. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the ethanol extract followed by HPLC, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, 15N-NMR, and HMBC analysis revealed that the active fraction consisted of a single new compound identified as [5-methylsulfinyl-1-(4-methylsulfinyl-but-3-enyl-pent-4-enylidene]-sulfamic acid, which consisted of two identical sulfur side chains similar to those found in ITCs. The minimal inhibitory concentration values of the isolated compound were in the range of 0.5–1 mg/mL. These results further highlight the role of radish as a rich source of antibacterial compounds.

  7. Potency of Lobak Leaves (Raphanus sativus L. var. hortensis Back as Anticancer and Antimicrobial Candidates

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    ESTU RETNANINGTYAS

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available One of vegetables can preventive cancer and have been used traditionally to cure infection, such as lobak (Raphanus sativus L.. Ineffectiveness antibiotics to against microbial infections was still problem until now. Types of antibiotics and anticancer agents from natural resources should be explored and developed. This study was aimed to know toxicity effect and antimicrobial activity of active fractions from lobak leaves. Toxicity study was conducted using Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BST. Samples were prepared at the concentration of 100, 500, and 1000μg/mL. Antibacterial study against Staphylococcus aureus was conducted using agar-well diffusion method at concentration 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 100%. Ethyl acetate fraction from methanol extract is the most active that had larger clear zone in S. aureus culture (10,64 mm and insoluble ethyl acetate fraction from methanol extract is the most active against A. salina (84% death A. salina at 100 µg/mL. Bioactive compounds at active fraction were identified to contain polar compounds.

  8. Adaptation of radish Raphanus sativus L. in response to continuous exposure to ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walmsley, L.; Ashmore, M.R.; Bell, J.N.B.

    1980-01-01

    A comparison was made between the development of radish Raphanus sativus L. cv. Cherry Belle in clean air and under continuous exposure to 0 x 17 ppm (340 ..mu..g m/sup -3/) of ozone. The area and dry weight of the individual leaves, and the dry weight of other plant organs, were determined at frequent, regular intervals throughout the experiment. Although the commercial yield of the ozone-treated plants, expressed as hypocotyl dry weight, was significantly reduced, changes in the pattern of development of these plants were observed which were of adaptive value. The pattern of assimilate distribution was altered so that new leaves were produced more rapidly in the ozone-treated plants. These later leaves were more resistant to ozone, showing a slower rate of senescence than the cotyledons or first leaves. Measurements of stomatal resistance suggested that this was an acquired, rather than an inherent, characteristic of the later leaves. By the end of the experiment, the relative growth rates in the two treatments did not differ significantly.

  9. Resistance Evaluation of Radish (Raphanus sativus L. Inbred Lines against Turnip mosaic virus

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    Ju-Yeon Yoon

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Leaves of twenties radish (Raphanus sativus L. inbred lines were mechanically inoculated with Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV strain HY to evaluate TuMV resistance of the radish inbred lines. The inoculated radish plants were incubated at 22°C±3°C and resistance assessment was examined using symptom development for 4 weeks. Based on the reactions of differential radish inbred lines, 16 radish lines were produced mild mosaic, mottling, mosaic and severe mosaic symptoms by TuMV infection. These results were confirmed by RT-PCR analysis of TuMV coat protein gene, suggesting that TuMV is responsible for the disease symptoms. Four resistant radish lines did not induce systemic mosaic symptoms on upper leaves and chlorosis in stem tissues for 4 weeks, showing they were symptomless by 8 weeks. Further examination of TuMV infection in the 4 radish lines showed no TuMV infection in all systemic leaves. These results suggest that the 4 radish lines are highly resistant to TuMV.

  10. Effect of Aqueous Extracts from Weed Species on Germination and Initial Growth in Raphanus sativus L.

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    Anisoara STRATU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The current paper presents the results of a study on the effects of aqueous extracts from five weed species (Amaranthus retroflexus, Cirsium arvense, Convolvulus arvensis, Echinochloa crus-galii, Setaria verticillata on germination and initial growth in Raphanus sativus L. The following indicators have been analyzed: indices of germination (the germination percentage; the speed of germination; the speed of accumulated germination and the coefficient of germination rate, the length of the root and hypocotyls, the pH of aqueous extracts, the UV-Vis absorption spectra of aqueous extracts. The results of the investigations showed the following aspects: the aqueous extracts reduced the values of calculated germination indices and root growth in the first ontogenetic stages of the test species; the pH of the extracts was slightly acid to neutral. Qualitative spectrophotometric analysis indicated the possible presence of phenolic and organic compounds in the extracts. C. arvense, S. verticillata and E. crus-galii presented the most pronounced effect on germination and growth processes.

  11. Peroxidase activity in Raphanus sativus and its relationship with soil heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alipour, H.; Zare Myvan, H.; Sharifi, M.

    2009-01-01

    Today heavy metals are important environmental pollutants which generated from human activities and are one of the most important environmental stresses that cause molecular damages to plants through reactive oxygen species formation such as H2O2. Heavy metals are absorbed and accumulated by plants thus are absorbed by human bodies through the food chain. Raphanus sativus is a herbaceous plant within the Brassicaceae family that has different varieties and is used as a food plant in different parts of Iran. Peroxidase is one of the most important enzyme in oxidoreductase super family that can metabolize H2O2. In this research we studied some growth parameters, peroxidase activity and their relationships with heavy metal content and other soil factors in three different populations of radish collected from Sari, Semnan and south of Tehran. After harvesting the plants shoots and roots Peroxidase activity was assayed spectrophotometrically at 470 nm. Our results showed total heavy metal content of shomal 3 station soil and radish plants was higher than other stations, so plants collected from this station had lowest root and shoot lengths, fresh weights, dry weights, protein content and leaf collrophyll content. The peroxidase activity in both leaves and roots of these plants was higher than plants of other stations Therefore our results showed that with increasing heavy metal concentrations in soils peroxidase activity increased.

  12. A comparative analysis of phloem exudate proteins from Cucumis melo, Cucumis sativus and Cucurbita maxima by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabnis, D D; Hart, J W

    1976-01-01

    Proteins in sieve tube exudate from Cucumis melo L., Cucumis sativus L. and Cucurbita maxima Duch. were analysed by gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing. Estimated molecular weights and isoelectric points for the major and minor proteins from each plant species are presented. Electrophoresis revealed striking differences between the protein complements of exudatc from the two genera investigated. Similarly, although a few exudate proteins from the two species of Cucumis possessed identical molecular weights, several major proteins were peculiar to each species. Isoelectric focusing of proteins in exudate samples from the three plants confirmed the marked differences in their protein complements. Furthermore, focusing also revealed differences between cultivars of Cucumis sativus. Both Cucumis sativus and Cucurbita maxima possessed relatively large amounts of basic proteins; these were absent in exudate from Cucumis melo. The implications of these results are discussed in relation to present concepts regarding the interrelationships and possible functional roles of P-proteins.

  13. Screening of Phytoconstituents, Investigation of Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activity of Methanolic and Aqueous Extracts of Cucumis sativus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahar, A.; Naqvi, S.A.; Khan, Z.A.; Ahmad, M.; Hussain, Z.; Sahar, T.; Nosheen, S.

    2013-01-01

    The phytoconstituents, antioxidant potential and antibacterial activity of Cucumis sativus (C. sativus) cultivated in Pakistan were studied. In addition, the effect of extraction techniques (mercerization and refluxing) on the total phenolics, antioxidant activity and antibacterial potential of C. sativus fruit pulp were also studied. Methanol extract was screened for its phytoconstituents. The antioxidant activity was assessed by determination of total phenolic contents (TPC), total flavonoid contents (TFC) and performing different in vitro antioxidant models such as 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging, reducing power, percent inhibition of peroxidation in linoleic acid and nitric oxide free radical scavenging assays. Phytochemicals screening results revealed the presence of flavonoids, glycosides, tannic acid and saponins while absence of alkaloids, steroids and anthraquinones. The TPC was found in appreciable concentration (41.03 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g) in extract obtained by 4h methanolic mercerization. Long refluxing technique (4h refluxing) was found unfavorable to some extent as it resulted only 33.69 mg GAE/g TPC in methanolic extract. Anyhow the extraction with water using mercerization and refluxing techniques found least effective e.g. 4h mercerization and refluxing showed 14.14 and 18.16 mg GAE/g respectively. Antibacterial assay showed extract obtained by 4h and 2h methanolic mercerization have good potential to inhibit the growth (09.6+-0.7 to 18.5+-0.8 mm) of infection causing bacteria. The results of antioxidants and antibacterial in vitro assays advocated that 4h methanolic mercerization is an effective extraction technique. Therefore, it could be concluded that methanolic mercerization is a technique of maximum extraction of phenolics and bioactive constituents. (author)

  14. Phylogenetics of Cucumis (Cucurbitaceae: Cucumber (C. sativus belongs in an Asian/Australian clade far from melon (C. melo

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    Schaefer Hanno

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Melon, Cucumis melo, and cucumber, C. sativus, are among the most widely cultivated crops worldwide. Cucumis, as traditionally conceived, is geographically centered in Africa, with C. sativus and C. hystrix thought to be the only Cucumis species in Asia. This taxonomy forms the basis for all ongoing Cucumis breeding and genomics efforts. We tested relationships among Cucumis and related genera based on DNA sequences from chloroplast gene, intron, and spacer regions (rbcL, matK, rpl20-rps12, trnL, and trnL-F, adding nuclear internal transcribed spacer sequences to resolve relationships within Cucumis. Results Analyses of combined chloroplast sequences (4,375 aligned nucleotides for 123 of the 130 genera of Cucurbitaceae indicate that the genera Cucumella, Dicaelospermum, Mukia, Myrmecosicyos, and Oreosyce are embedded within Cucumis. Phylogenetic trees from nuclear sequences for these taxa are congruent, and the combined data yield a well-supported phylogeny. The nesting of the five genera in Cucumis greatly changes the natural geographic range of the genus, extending it throughout the Malesian region and into Australia. The closest relative of Cucumis is Muellerargia, with one species in Australia and Indonesia, the other in Madagascar. Cucumber and its sister species, C. hystrix, are nested among Australian, Malaysian, and Western Indian species placed in Mukia or Dicaelospermum and in one case not yet formally described. Cucumis melo is sister to this Australian/Asian clade, rather than being close to African species as previously thought. Molecular clocks indicate that the deepest divergences in Cucumis, including the split between C. melo and its Australian/Asian sister clade, go back to the mid-Eocene. Conclusion Based on congruent nuclear and chloroplast phylogenies we conclude that Cucumis comprises an old Australian/Asian component that was heretofore unsuspected. Cucumis sativus evolved within this Australian

  15. Raphanus sativus extract protects against Zearalenone induced reproductive toxicity, oxidative stress and mutagenic alterations in male Balb/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Salah-Abbès, Jalila; Abbès, Samir; Abdel-Wahhab, Mosaad A; Oueslati, Ridha

    2009-04-01

    Zearalenone (ZEN) is a non-steroidal estrogenic mycotoxin produced by several species of Fusarium in cereals and agricultural products. It has been implicated in several mycotoxicosis in farm animals and in humans. There is unequivocal evidence of reproductive toxicity of ZEN in male mice although the mechanism of action is unknown. Several reports suggest that exposure to ZEN resulted in oxidative stress, genotoxicity and perturbation of reproductive parameters. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to evaluate the protective effects of aqueous extract of Raphanus sativus growing in Tunisia against ZEN-induced reproductive toxicity and oxidative stress. Fifty male Balb/c mice were divided into five groups and treated for 28 days as follows: the control group, olive oil-treated groups, another treated with ZEN (40 mg/kg b.w), the last one treated with R. sativus extract alone (15 mg/kg b.w) and the other with ZEN + R. sativus extract. Testis samples were collected for the epididymal sperm count, testosterone concentration, and MDA level, GPx, CAT and SOD activities. Blood samples were collected for different biochemical analyses. Also, RAPD-PCR method was performed to assess the antigenotoxic effect of the extract in germ cells. The results indicated that ZEN-induced toxicological effects in accordance to those reported in the literature: decreasing in the sperm number, testosterone level and antioxidant enzyme status. The RAPD-PCR analysis revealed an alteration in the DNA bands patterns between control and ZEN-treated mice. The extract alone, rich in many antioxidant compounds, was safe and succeeded in counteracting the oxidative stress and protect against the toxicity resulting from ZEN.

  16. Amendment in phosphorus levels moderate the chromium toxicity in Raphanus sativus L. as assayed by antioxidant enzymes activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayantan, D; Shardendu

    2013-09-01

    Chromium (Z=24), a d-block element, is a potent carcinogen, whereas phosphorus is an essential and limiting nutrient for the plant growth and development. This study undertakes the role of phosphorus in moderating the chromium toxicity in Raphanus sativus L., as both of them compete with each other during the uptake process. Two-factor complete randomized experiment (5 chromium × 5 phosphorus concentrations) was conducted for twenty eight days in green house. The individuals of R. sativus were grown in pots supplied with all essential nutrients. The toxic effects of chromium and the moderation of toxicity due to phosphorus amendment were determined as accumulation of chromium, nitrogen, phosphorus in root tissues and their effects were also examined in the changes in biomass, chlorophyll and antioxidant enzyme levels. Cr and N accumulation were almost doubled at the highest concentration of Cr supply, without any P amendment, whereas at the highest P concentration (125 mM), the accumulation was reduced to almost half. A significant reduction in toxic effects of Cr was determined as there was three-fold increase in total chlorophyll and biomass at the highest P amendment. Antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase and lipid peroxidation were analyzed at various levels of Cr each amended with five levels of P. It was observed that at highest level of P amendment, the reduction percentage in toxicity was 33, 44, 39 and 44, correspondingly. Conclusively, the phosphorus amendment moderates the toxicity caused by the supplied chromium in R. sativus. This finding can be utilized to develop a novel technology for the amelioration of chromium stressed fields. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Ozone effects on radish (Raphanus sativus L. cv. Cherry Belle): foliar sensitivity as related to metabolite levels and cell architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athanassious, R.

    1980-01-01

    The development of the first four leaves of radish (Raphanus sativus L. cv. Cherry Belle) was followed to determine the relationship between foliar sensitivity to ozone as related to selected soluble metabolites and leaf-cell arrangement. Although relatively high metabolite (protein, sugars, phenols) levels and compact cell arrangement may be advanced as factors contributing to the resistance of young leaves (L/sub 3,4/ of 21-day old plants) these same parameters do not explain the resistance of old leaves (L/sub 1,2/ of 30-day old plants). 16 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  18. Ozone effects on growth of radish plants as influenced by nitrogen and phosphorus nutrition and by temperature. [Raphanus sativus L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ormrod, D.P.; Adedipe, N.O.; Hofstra, G.

    1973-10-01

    Raphanus sativus L. (radish) plants were grown in sand culture at two temperatures and fed with nutrient solutions containing relatively low or high levels of either N or P. At the 4-leaf stage, the plants were exposed to ozone at a concentration of 25 pphm for 4 h. Ozone treatments resulted in decreased dry weight of low- and high-N plants at both temperatures and of low and high P plants only at the lower temperature. The study showed that air pollutant growth reduction is not necessarily accentuated by luxuriant growth resulting from high nutritional status. Responses to the nutrition of specific mineral nutrients depend on the modifying affect of temperature.

  19. Ecotoxicity of halloysite nanotube-supported palladium nanoparticles in Raphanus sativus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellani, Lorenza; Giorgetti, Lucia; Riela, Serena; Lazzara, Giuseppe; Scialabba, Anna; Massaro, Marina

    2016-10-01

    Halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) are natural nanomaterials that are biocompatible and available in large amounts at low prices. They are emerging nanomaterials with appealing properties for applications like support for metal nanoparticles (NPs). The potential environmental impacts of NPs can be understood in terms of phytotoxicity. Current research has been focusing on HNT applications in cell or animal models, while their use in plants is limited so their ecotoxicological impact is poorly documented. To date there are no studies on the phytotoxic effects of functionalized halloysites (functionalized-HNTs). To develop a quantitative risk assessment model for predicting the potential impact of HNT-supported palladium nanoparticles (HNT-PdNPs) on plant life, an investigation was undertaken to explore their effects on seed germination, seedling development, and mitotic division in root tip cells of 2 lots of Raphanus sativus L. with different vigor. The results showed that exposure to 1500 mg/L of HNTs, functionalized-HNTs, and HNT-PdNPs had no significant influence on germination, seedling development, xylem differentiation, or mitotic index in both lots. Cytogenetic analyses revealed that treatments with functionalized-HNT significantly increased the number of aberrations in low-vigor seeds. These results suggest that low-vigor seeds represent a model for a stress test that would be useful to monitor the effects of NPs. Moreover the present study offers scientific evidence for the use of halloysite for environmental purposes, supporting the biological safety of HNT-PdNPs. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2503-2510. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  20. Metabolomic approach: postharvest storage stability of red radish (raphanus sativus l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahangir, M.; Farid, J.B.A.

    2014-01-01

    Post harvest storage of vegetables at different temperature for consumption is commonly practiced that need standardization. Among vegetables, red radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is a well known and commonly consumed vegetable all over the world. Its bioactive or nutritional constituents include a wide range of metabolites including, glucosinolates, phenolics, amino acids, organic acids, and sugars. However, many of these metabolites are not stable and can easily be degraded or modified during storage. In order to investigate the metabolomic changes during post harvest storage, radish samples (intact roots and aerial parts) were subjected to four different storage temperatures above and below 0 degree C (20 degree C, 4 degree C, -20 degree C, and -80 degree C), for a maximum of 28 days. 1H-NMR and two-dimensional NMR spectra data resulting from the analysis of the different samples were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA) to investigate any possible metabolomic changes. A profound chemical alteration was observed in primary and secondary metabolites. Glucosinolates, phenylpropanoids, organic acids, amino acids, and sugars were found to be the discriminating metabolites for the storage effect. Initially, an increase in secondary metabolites (phenolics and glucosinolates) was observed, but levels of these compounds decreased in later stages, probably due to the breakdown of these products. Whereas late storage samples contained high amounts of amino acids (alanine, valine, threonine, (gama-amino-butyric acid / GABA)) and some glucosinolates (glucobrassicin, neoglucobrassicin). This phenomenon was pronounced at room temperature as compared to other storage temperatures. Interestingly even at lower and freezing temperatures metabolomic changes in these biological samples were observed. The least metabolomic changes were observed at samples stored at -80 degree C. While studying temperature dependent metabolomic changes, high levels of glucose, adenine, alanine

  1. MENTIMUN(Cucumis Sativus L DI DESA TIRTA MULYA KECAMATAN MAKARTI JAYA KABUPATEN BANYUASIN II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irham Falahudin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L. that includes or creeping vines and is one type of vegetable-fruit of the gourd family labuan (Cucurbitaceae that has been popular throughout the world and favored from Asia. Cucumber cultivation in Indonesia, found almost in every region, ranging from lowland to highland hot climate (tropical and moderate. One animal that has an abundant amount in cucumber plants are insects. This study aims to know the different types of species that exist on the Order Coleoptera cucumber farm in the village of Tirta Mulya District of makarti Jaya Banyuasin II and determine the role of the Order Coleoptera insects on cucumber plantations in the village of Tirta Mulya District of makarti Jaya Banyuasin II. This is a qualitative study conducted in October-November 2014 held in Cucumber Plants in the village of Tirta Mulya District of makarti Jaya Banyuasin II. Catching insects done using transect method and pitfall traps such as sweeping the net, pit fall traps and light traps, results in identification in the laboratory penelitanya UIN Raden Fatah Palembang. The results of this study indicate that insects are caught in a cucumber plantation obtained as many as 113 individual 3 families and 7 species. Insects which dominates in the village of Tirta Mulya District of makarti Jaya Banyuasin II is Cocinella repanda, Curinus coeruleus, Coelophora inaequalis, and Aulacophora similis, and insects that have the fewest number is Micraspis discolor, Micraspis vincta and Oryctes rhinoceros. The role of the Order Coleoptera Insects in general predators of the family Coccinellidae to eradicate mites while the family Chrysomelidae Scarabacidae and are pests that attack on cucumber plants that can cause death.

  2. Cucumis sativus Aqueous Fraction Inhibits Angiotensin II-Induced Inflammation and Oxidative Stress In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celeste Trejo-Moreno

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation and oxidative stress play major roles in endothelial dysfunction, and are key factors in the progression of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro the effect of three subfractions (SFs from the Cucumis sativus aqueous fraction to reduce inflammatory factors and oxidative stress induced by angiotensin II (Ang II in human microvascular endothelial cells-1 (HMEC-1 cells. The cells were cultured with different concentrations of Ang II and 0.08 or 10 μg/mL of SF1, SF2, or SF3, or 10 μmol of losartan as a control. IL-6 (Interleukin 6 concentration was quantified. To identify the most effective SF combinations, HMEC-1 cells were cultured as described above in the presence of four combinations of SF1 and SF3. Then, the effects of the most effective combination on the expression of adhesion molecules, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS, and the bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO were evaluated. Finally, a mass spectrometry analysis was performed. Both SF1 and SF3 subfractions decreased the induction of IL-6 by Ang II, and C4 (SF1 and SF3, 10 μg/mL each was the most effective combination to inhibit the production of IL-6. Additionally, C4 prevented the expression of adhesion molecules, reduced the production of ROS, and increased the bioavailability of NO. Glycine, arginine, asparagine, lysine, and aspartic acid were the main components of both subfractions. These results demonstrate that C4 has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects.

  3. Boron toxicity is alleviated by hydrogen sulfide in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bao-Lan; Shi, Lei; Li, Yin-Xing; Zhang, Wen-Hao

    2010-05-01

    Boron (B) is an essential micronutrient for plants, which when occurs in excess in the growth medium, becomes toxic to plants. Rapid inhibition of root elongation is one of the most distinct symptoms of B toxicity. Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is emerging as a potential messenger molecule involved in modulation of physiological processes in plants. In the present study, we investigated the role of H(2)S in B toxicity in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedlings. Root elongation was significantly inhibited by exposure of cucumber seedlings to solutions containing 5 mM B. The inhibitory effect of B on root elongation was substantially alleviated by treatment with H(2)S donor sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS). There was an increase in the activity of pectin methylesterase (PME) and up-regulated expression of genes encoding PME (CsPME) and expansin (CsExp) on exposure to high B concentration. The increase in PME activity and up-regulation of expression of CsPME and CsExp induced by high B concentration were markedly reduced in the presence of H(2)S donor. There was a rapid increase in soluble B concentrations in roots on exposure to high concentration B solutions. Treatment with H(2)S donor led to a transient reduction in soluble B concentration in roots such that no differences in soluble B concentrations in roots in the absence and presence of NaHS were found after 8 h exposure to the high concentration B solutions. These findings suggest that increases in activities of PME and expansin may underlie the inhibition of root elongation by toxic B, and that H(2)S plays an ameliorative role in protection of plants from B toxicity by counteracting B-induced up-regulation of cell wall-associated proteins of PME and expansins.

  4. Bioavailability of cerium oxide nanoparticles to Raphanus sativus L. in two soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weilan; Musante, Craig; White, Jason C; Schwab, Paul; Wang, Qiang; Ebbs, Stephen D; Ma, Xingmao

    2017-01-01

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO 2 NP) are a common component of many commercial products. Due to the general concerns over the potential toxicity of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs), the phytotoxicity and in planta accumulation of CeO 2 NPs have been broadly investigated. However, most previous studies were conducted in hydroponic systems and with grain crops. For a few studies performed with soil grown plants, the impact of soil properties on the fate and transport of CeO 2 NPs was generally ignored even though numerous previous studies indicate that soil properties play a critical role in the fate and transport of environmental pollutants. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the soil fractionation and bioavailability of CeO 2 NPs to Raphanus sativus L (radish) in two soil types. Our results showed that the silty loam contained slightly higher exchangeable fraction (F1) of cerium element than did loamy sand soil, but significantly lower reducible (F2) and oxidizable (F3) fractions as CeO 2 NPs concentration increased. CeO 2 NPs associated with silicate minerals or the residue fraction (F4) dominated in both soils. The cerium concentration in radish storage root showed linear correlation with the sum of the first three fractions (r 2  = 0.98 and 0.78 for loamy sand and silty loam respectively). However, the cerium content in radish shoots only exhibited strong correlations with F1 (r 2  = 0.97 and 0.89 for loamy sand and silty loam respectively). Overall, the results demonstrated that soil properties are important factors governing the distribution of CeO 2 NPs in soil and subsequent bioavailability to plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Silicon improves salt tolerance by increasing root water uptake in Cucumis sativus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yong-Xing; Xu, Xuan-Bin; Hu, Yan-Hong; Han, Wei-Hua; Yin, Jun-Liang; Li, Huan-Li; Gong, Hai-Jun

    2015-09-01

    Silicon enhances root water uptake in salt-stressed cucumber plants through up-regulating aquaporin gene expression. Osmotic adjustment is a genotype-dependent mechanism for silicon-enhanced water uptake in plants. Silicon can alleviate salt stress in plants. However, the mechanism is still not fully understood, and the possible role of silicon in alleviating salt-induced osmotic stress and the underlying mechanism still remain to be investigated. In this study, the effects of silicon (0.3 mM) on Na accumulation, water uptake, and transport were investigated in two cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) cultivars ('JinYou 1' and 'JinChun 5') under salt stress (75 mM NaCl). Salt stress inhibited the plant growth and photosynthesis and decreased leaf transpiration and water content, while added silicon ameliorated these negative effects. Silicon addition only slightly decreased the shoot Na levels per dry weight in 'JinYou 1' but not in 'JinChun 5' after 10 days of stress. Silicon addition reduced stress-induced decreases in root hydraulic conductivity and/or leaf-specific conductivity. Expressions of main plasma membrane aquaporin genes in roots were increased by added silicon, and the involvement of aquaporins in water uptake was supported by application of aquaporin inhibitor and restorative. Besides, silicon application decreased the root xylem osmotic potential and increased root soluble sugar levels in 'JinYou 1.' Our results suggest that silicon can improve salt tolerance of cucumber plants through enhancing root water uptake, and silicon-mediated up-regulation of aquaporin gene expression may in part contribute to the increase in water uptake. In addition, osmotic adjustment may be a genotype-dependent mechanism for silicon-enhanced water uptake in plants.

  6. Uptake and/or utilization of two simple phenolic acids by Cucumis sativus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shann, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    The uptake of ferulic acid (FA) and p-hydroxybenzoic acid (p-HBA) from solutions (0.1 to 1.00 mM, pH 4.0 to 7.0), was determined for intact and excised roots of Cucumis sativus. Uptake methods based on high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis of phenolic acid depletion from solution were compared to those radioisotopic methods employing [U-ring- 14 C]FA or p-HBA. Although radiotracer methods more accurately reflected actual uptake of the compounds by cucumber seedlings, HPLC solution depletion methods may be useful in the elucidation of trends over very limited periods of time. The uptake of FA was unaffected by the presence of p-HBA. The uptake of p-HBA was reduced by 30% in the presence of FA when compared to the uptake from solutions containing p-HBA alone. Ferulic acid acts both as an allelopathic agent and precursor in the endogenous process of lignification. To evaluate the involvement of exogenous FA in lignin biosynthesis, roots of hydroponically grown cucumber seedlings were exposed to concentrations of FA labeled with [U-ring- 14 C]FA. Radiotracer was distributed throughout the seedling. A quantitative change in lignification occurred in treated seedlings. In roots and stems, the level of lignin increased with the number of exposures and as the concentrations of exogenous FA increased. Radiotracer was found in the residues of lignin isolated from seedling tissue treated with [U-ring- 14 C]FA. This suggested the utilization of the exogenously applied FA in the endogenous process of lignification

  7. Effect of soil cadmium on growth, photosynthesis and quality of Raphanus sativus and Lactuca sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Navjyot; Jhanji, Shalini

    2016-09-01

    Cadmium (Cd) raises serious concerns as its accumulation in the plant not only affect the growth and quality of plant but also threaten the health of consumers. In this research, two vegetables, i.e., radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L), were planted in pots having soil treated with Cd as Cd (NO3)2 at different doses (25, 50, 100 and 200 mg Cd kg-1 soil ) to investigate the influence of cadmium on their growth, photosynthetic attributes and quality. Cadmium retarded plant growth as dry weight of radish roots decline by 87% and leaves by 83% following 200 mg Cd kg-1 soil application and the corresponding values for lettuce were 64 and 69% respectively. Significant reductions in various photosynthetic parameters viz., leaf area per plant, total chlorophyll, Chl a and Chl b content were also recorded with Cd applications. The Cd treatments resulted in loss of membrane integrity as revealed by significant increase in electrolyte leakage in leaves of both vegetables. There was significant increase in Cd accumulation in radish and lettuce with all applications but no visual symptoms of Cd toxicity were noticed with 25 and 50 mg Cd kg-1 soil application except for yield differences, illustrating that Cd accumulate in this crop without visual evidence of its presence. However, toxicity symptoms in the form of interveinal chlorosis of the leaf lamina, followed by necrosis and leaf rolling, were clearly evident with 100 and 200 mg Cd kg-1 soil application. Apparently, Cd causes harm due to its phytotoxic effects and high accumulation in edible parts of radish and lettuce without any visible symptoms that constitutes a substantial hazard to human health.

  8. Kaiware Daikon (Raphanus sativus L.) extract: a naturally multipotent chemopreventive agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barillari, Jessica; Iori, Renato; Papi, Alessio; Orlandi, Marina; Bartolini, Giovanna; Gabbanini, Simone; Pedulli, Gian Franco; Valgimigli, Luca

    2008-09-10

    Brassica vegetables are attracting major attention as healthy foods because of their content of glucosinolates (GLs) that release the corresponding isothiocyanates (ITCs) upon myrosinase hydrolysis. A number of studies have so far documented the chemopreventive properties of some ITCs. On the other hand, single nutrients detached from the food itself risk being somewhat "reductive", since plants contain several classes of compounds endowed with a polyhedral mechanism of action. Our recent finding that 4-methylthio-3-butenyl isothiocyanate (GRH-ITC) and 4-methylsulfinyl-3-butenyl isothiocyanate (GRE-ITC), released by the GLs purified from Japanese (Kaiware) Daikon (Raphanus sativus L.) seeds and sprouts, had selective cytotoxic/apoptotic activity on three human colon carcinoma cell lines prompted further research on the potential chemopreventive role of a standardized Kaiware Daikon extract (KDE), containing 10.5% w/w GRH and 3.8% w/w GRE, compared to its isolated components. KDE administered in combination with myrosinase at doses corresponding to 50 microM GRH-ITC plus 15 microM GRE-ITC (50 microM KDE-ITC) to three human cancer cell lines (LoVo, HCT-116 and HT-29) significantly reduced cell growth by 94-96% of control in six days (p oxygen consumption rate), as monitored by Clark-type microelectrode oxygen-uptake kinetics, and induced very fast quenching of DPPH. radical in methanol with t(1/2) (s) = (1.47 +/- 0.25) x 10(-2)/[KDE; (g/L)], measured by stopped-flow UV-vis kinetics at 298 K. The potential chemopreventive role of KDE is discussed.

  9. EVALUATION OF ESTERASE POLYMORPHISMS IN MATURE SEEDS OF RADISH (RAPHANUS SATIVUS L. ACCESSIONS OF VIR COLLECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Rudakova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A biochemical evaluation of 25 radish accessions (Raphanus sativus L. on esterase isozymes of mature seeds has been carried out. The results of the experiments showed a wide range of diversity among the genotypes based on electrophoretic zones of esterase isoenzymes. The revealed isoenzyme complex of esterases was represented by eight isoforms with molecular weights from 37.7 kD to 57.6 kD. All accessions were divided into 13 electrophoretic zymotypes, differing from each other by the presence or absence of definite zones. The most often observed electrophoretic zymo-type is Gr. 1, which includes 24% of the total number of accessions evaluated. There are 8 zymotypes (Gr. 6 Gr. 13 with a frequency of occurrence 4%. Three groups (Gr. 2 – Gr. 4 had the same frequency of occurrence – 12%. Zimotype of Gr. 5 containes the maximum number of zones – 8. 2 zimotypes – Gr. 3 and Gr. 12 had the smallest number of 4 zones. Two zones of esterases – zones 7 and 8 (Мr 39.7кD and Мr 37.7 kD, respectively were monomorphic. The remaining six zones were polymorphic, i.e. could be absent in some zimotypes. The frequency of occurrence of each zone in different zymotypes has varied from 6.58% to 17.11%. As results of this research the accessions that were selected can become the most promising parent forms for future genetic and selection studies of this culture.

  10. Carrot (Daucus carota L . ssp. sativus (Hoffm. Arcang. as source of antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judita BYSTRICKÁ

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Carrot (Daucus carota L. s sp. sativus (Hoffm. Arcang. is a significant source of vitamins (A, B, C and beta carotene. Further it contains vitamins B, C, E, H, folic acid and pantothenic acid. Carrot is an important source of trace elements (K, Na, Ca, Mg, P, S, Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn. Consumption of carrot improves eyesight, lowers cholesterol and improves digestion. In this work we evaluated and compared content of total polyphenols, ß-caroteneand antioxidant activity in five varieties of carrot (’Jitka’, Kardila’, Katlen , Rubína’ and Koloseum Samples of carrot were collected at full maturity stages from area of Bardejov. Samples of fresh carrot were homogenized (25 g in 50 ml 80 % ethanol and analysed after sixteen hours. The content of the total polyphenols was determined by using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent (FCR. The content of ß-carotene was determined spectrophotometricaly at 450 nm. Antioxidant activity was measured using a compound DPPH (2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl at 515.6 nm using spectrophotometer. Total polyphenols content in samples ranged from 81.25 ± 13.11 mg/kg to 113.69 ± 11.57 mg/kg and content of ß-carotenes ranged from 24.58 ± 2.38 mg/kg to 124.28 ± 3.54 mg/kg. We also evaluated and compared the antioxidant activity in selected varieties of ca rrot, which varied from 6.88 ± 0.92 % to 9.83 ± 0.62 %. Statistically si gnificant the highest value of total polyphenols was recorded in variety of Koloseum (113.69 ± 11.57 mg/kg. This variety is also character ized by the highest content of ß- carotene (124.28 ± 3.54 mg/kg as well as the highest value of antioxidant activity (9.83 ± 0.62 %.

  11. Essential-oil composition of Daucus carota ssp. major (Pastinocello Carrot) and nine different commercial varieties of Daucus carota ssp. sativus fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamini, Guido; Cosimi, Elena; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Molfetta, Ilaria; Braca, Alessandra

    2014-07-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the pastinocello carrot, Daucus carota ssp. major (Vis.) Arcang. (flowers and achenes), and from nine different commercial varieties of D. carota L. ssp. sativus (achenes) was investigated by GC/MS analyses. Selective breeding over centuries of a naturally occurring subspecies of the wild carrot, D. carota L. ssp. sativus, has produced the common garden vegetable with reduced bitterness, increased sweetness, and minimized woody core. On the other hand, the cultivation of the pastinocello carrot has been abandoned, even if, recently, there has been renewed interest in the development of this species, which risks genetic erosion. The cultivated carrot (D. carota ssp. sativus) and the pastinocello carrot (D. carota ssp. major) were classified as different subspecies of the same species. This close relationship between the two subspecies urged us to compare the chemical composition of their essential oils, to evaluate the differences. The main essential-oil constituents isolated from the pastinocello fruits were geranyl acetate (34.2%), α-pinene (12.9%), geraniol (6.9%), myrcene (4.7%), epi-α-bisabolol (4.5%), sabinene (3.3%), and limonene (3.0%). The fruit essential oils of the nine commercial varieties of D. carota ssp. sativus were very different from that of pastinocello, as also confirmed by multivariate statistical analyses. Copyright © 2014 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  12. Variation in herbivory-induced volatiles among cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) varieties has consequences for the attraction of carnivorous natural enemies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappers, I.F.; Hoogerbrugge, H.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Dicke, M.

    2011-01-01

    In response to herbivory by arthropods, plants emit herbivory-induced volatiles that attract carnivorous enemies of the inducing herbivores. Here, we compared the attractiveness of eight cucumber varieties (Cucumis sativus L.) to Phytoseiulus persimilis predatory mites after infestation of the

  13. Molecular mapping and candidate gene analysis for resistance to powdery mildew in Cucumis sativus stem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, P N; Miao, H; Lu, H W; Cui, J Y; Tian, G L; Wehner, T C; Gu, X F; Zhang, S P

    2017-08-31

    Powdery mildew (PM) of cucumber (Cucumis sativus), caused by Podosphaera xanthii, is a major foliar disease worldwide and resistance is one of the main objectives in cucumber breeding programs. The resistance to PM in cucumber stem is important to the resistance for the whole plant. In this study, genetic analysis and gene mapping were implemented with cucumber inbred lines NCG-122 (with resistance to PM in the stem) and NCG-121 (with susceptibility in the stem). Genetic analysis showed that resistance to PM in the stem of NCG-122 was qualitative and controlled by a single-recessive nuclear gene (pm-s). Susceptibility was dominant to resistance. In the initial genetic mapping of the pm-s gene, 10 SSR markers were discovered to be linked to pm-s, which was mapped to chromosome 5 (Chr.5) of cucumber. The pm-s gene's closest flanking markers were SSR20486 and SSR06184/SSR13237 with genetic distances of 0.9 and 1.8 cM, respectively. One hundred and fifty-seven pairs of new SSR primers were exploited by the sequence information in the initial mapping region of pm-s. The analysis on the F 2 mapping population using the new molecular markers showed that 17 SSR markers were confirmed to be linked to the pm-s gene. The two closest flanking markers, pmSSR27and pmSSR17, were 0.1 and 0.7 cM from pm-s, respectively, confirming the location of this gene on Chr.5. The physical length of the genomic region containing pm-s was 135.7 kb harboring 21 predicted genes. Among these genes, the gene Csa5G623470 annotated as encoding Mlo-related protein was defined as the most probable candidate gene for the pm-s. The results of this study will provide a basis for marker-assisted selection, and make the benefit for the cloning of the resistance gene.

  14. Comparative study of the sol-gel based solid phase microextraction fibers in extraction of naphthalene, fluorene, anthracene and phenanthrene from saffron samples extractants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarafraz-Yazdi, A.; Ghaemi, F.; Amiri, A.

    2012-01-01

    We are introducing a method for the determination of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aqueous saffron sample by direct immersion solid phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography. A sol-gel technique is used for the preparation of the SPME fibers. Three kinds of sol-gel coatings on the fibers were tested and compared. They are composed of poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS), poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), and a poly(ethylene glycol) modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (PEG/CNTs). The effects of fiber coating, desorption time, desorption temperature, extraction time, stirring speed and salting effect were optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the detection limits (at S/N = 3) are 7-50, 5-50, and 1-10 pg mL -1 , respectively, for SPME fibers made from PDMS, PEG and PEG/CNTs. The relative standard deviations for one type of fiber are from 2.1% to 9.6% for all fibers (at n = 5), and in the range from 1.9% to 9.8% from batch to batch (for n = 3). (author)

  15. The role of the seed coat in the light sensivity in Raphanus sativus L. cv. redondo gigante seeds O papel do tegumento na sensibilidade à luz em sementes de Raphanus sativus L. cv. redondo gigante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura Lúcia Costa Gonçalves

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available The role of the seed coat in the light sensitivity of seeds of Raphanus sativus L. cv. redondo gigante was analysed by germination tests of intact and naked seeds. Far-red light caused high inhibition of seed germination, while under white and red lights low inhibition was found. Naked seeds presented no light sensitivity with high percentage germination under light and darkness. However, incubation of naked seeds in -0.6MPa polyethylene glycol solution resulted in light inhibition as observed in intact seeds. The analysis of the seed coat transmitted light indicated that the filtered light presented the same photoequilibrium of phytochrome when compared to the white light, with a decrease of only 33% in the light irradiance which reaches the embryo.O papel do tegumento sobre a sensibilidade à luz em sementes de Raphanus sativus L. cv. redondo gigante foi analisado por testes de germinação de sementes intactas e nuas. A luz vermelho-extremo inibiu fortemente a germinação, enquanto as luzes branca e vermelha apresentaram baixa inibição. Por outro lado, sementes nuas não apresentaram sensibilidade à luz, com alta porcentagem de germinação tanto na luz como no escuro. Entretanto, a incubação das sementes nuas em condições de estresse em solução de polietilenoglicol a -0,6MPa, resultou em inibição na luz, como observadas em sementes intactas. A análise da luz transmitida pelo tegumento das sementes indicou que a luz filtrada apresenta o mesmo fotoequilíbrio teórico do fitocromo obtido na luz branca, com um decréscimo em apenas 33% da irradiância que atinge o embrião.

  16. Assimilation of MODIS Ice Surface Temperature and Albedo into the Snow and Ice Model CROCUS Over the Greenland Ice Sheet Along the K-transect Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navari, M.; Margulis, S. A.; Bateni, S. M.; Alexander, P. M.; Tedesco, M.

    2016-12-01

    Estimating the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) surface mass balance (SMB) is an important component of current and future projections of sea level rise. In situ measurement provides direct estimates of the SMB, but are inherently limited by their spatial extent and representativeness. Given this limitation, physically based regional climate models (RCMs) are critical for understanding GrIS physical processes and estimating of the GrIS SMB. However, the uncertainty in estimates of SMB from RCMs is still high. Surface remote sensing (RS) has been used as a complimentary tool to characterize various aspects related to the SMB. The difficulty of using these data streams is that the links between them and the SMB terms are most often indirect and implicit. Given the lack of in situ information, imperfect models, and under-utilized RS data it is critical to merge the available data in a systematic way to better characterize the spatial and temporal variation of the GrIS SMB. This work proposes a data assimilation (DA) framework that yields temporally-continuous and physically consistent SMB estimates that benefit from state-of-the-art models and relevant remote sensing data streams. Ice surface temperature (IST) is the most important factor that regulates partitioning of the net radiation into the subsurface snow/ice, sensible and latent heat fluxes and plays a key role in runoff generation. Therefore it can be expected that a better estimate of surface temperature from a data assimilation system would contribute to a better estimate of surface mass fluxes. Albedo plays an important role in the surface energy balance of the GrIS. However, even advanced albedo modules are not adequate to simulate albedo over the GrIS. Therefore, merging remotely sensed albedo product into a physically based model has a potential to improve the estimates of the GrIS SMB. In this work a MODIS-derived IST and a 16-day albedo product are independently assimilated into the snow and ice model CROCUS

  17. Changes in the physiological regulation of transpiration caused by the effects of industrial air pollution. [Cucumis sativus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozinka, V; Klasova, A; Niznansky, A

    1963-01-01

    Through Hygen's method of quantitative analysis of transpiration curves, the authors studied the intensity of stomatal and cuticular transpiration of germinating leaves of Cucumis sativus which were experimentally exposed to solid impurities containing F. The difference between the control and experimental plants shows that the impurities not only blocked the regulating system of breathing but also caused increased cuticular transpiration. Numerous lesions were observed; cuticle damage also spread to the inner tissues. A direct relationship between microscopic and macroscopic symptoms was not proven. The creation of conditions adverse to the normal development of the water balance was intensified when the impurities were dropped onto the surface of the leaves. The possible protective function of trichomes is mentioned, but applies only when the impurities settle on a dry surface.

  18. Suppression of the neurotoxic amino acid in seed storage protein of Lathyrus sativus L. via mutation techniques and gene transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barik, D P; Chand, P K; Mohapatra, U [Post-Graduate Department of Botany, Utkal University, Orissa (India)

    2004-11-01

    Plant regeneration was achieved in grasspea (Lathyrus sativus L.) by in vitro shoot proliferation in cotyledonary nodes from axenically grown seedlings, de novo shoot organogenesis in callus cultures or adventitious shoot formation directly from explants. Factors influencing Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation were optimized using a binary vector with T-DNA cassette carrying the selectable marker nptII and the reporter gene gus-intron. The detection of GUS activity in glasshousegrown primary transformants substantiated a stable integration and expression of the gus-intron gene. Mutagenesis was induced using {gamma}-irradiation as well as two chemical mutagens viz. ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS) and N-methyl-N-nitro-nitrosoguanidine (NG). The implications of these investigations are discussed in the context of producing somaclonal variants, genetic transformants or mutants with a reduced level of the neurotoxin ODAP. (author)

  19. Ozone-induced growth suppression in radish plants in relation to pre- and post-fumigation temperatures. [Raphanus sativus L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adedipe, N.O.; Ormrod, D.P.

    1974-01-01

    Two cultivars of Raphanus sativus L. (radish) were fumigated with ozone at a concentration of 25 parts per hundred million (pphm) for 3 h, before or after subjecting the plants to two growth temperature regimes. In the cultivar ''Cavalier'' ozone decreased leaf weight at the lower pre-fumigation day/night growth temperature regime of 20/15/sup 0/, but had no significant effect when the plants were either pre- or post-fumigation conditioned at the high temperatures of 30/25/sup 0/. In the cultivar ''Cherry Belle'', ozone decreased the leaf weight of only low temperature post-fumigation conditioned plants. Ozone had no significant effect on the total soluble carbohydrate concentration of ''Cherry Belle'', while it increased that of pre-fumigation conditioned ''Cavalier'' plants.

  20. Control of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. tolerance to chilling stress – evaluating the role of ascorbic acid and glutathione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander S. Lukatkin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chilling temperatures (1-10 ºC are known to disturb cellular physiology, cause oxidative stress via creating imbalance between generation and metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ROS leading finally to cell and/or plant death. Owing to known significance of low molecular antioxidants - ascorbic acid (AsA and glutathione (GSH in plant stress-tolerance, this work analyzes the role of exogenously applied AsA and GSH in the alleviation of chilling stress (3°C-impact in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Vjaznikowskij 37 plants. Results revealed AsA and GSH concentration dependent metabolism of ROS such as superoxide (O2•‾ and the mitigation of ROS-effects such as lipid peroxidation (LPO as well as membrane permeability (measured as electrolyte leakage in C. sativus leaf discs. AsA concentration (750 µM and GSH (100 µM exhibited maximum reduction in O2•‾ generation, LPO intensity as well as electrolyte leakage, all of these were increased in cold water (3°C and 25°C-treated leaf discs. However, AsA, in particular, had a pronounced antioxidative effect, more expressed in case of leaf discs during chilling (3°C; whereas, at temperature 25°C, some AsA concentrations (such as 50 and 100 mM AsA exhibited a prooxidative effect that requires molecular-genetic studies. Overall, it is inferred that AsA and GSH have high potential for sustainably increasing chilling-resistance in plants.

  1. EPR investigation of some traditional oriental irradiated spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duliu, Octavian G.; Georgescu, Rodica; Ali, Shaban Ibrahim

    2007-01-01

    The 9.50 GHz electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of unirradiated and 60 Co γ-ray irradiated cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum L. Maton, Zingiberaceae), ginger ((Zingiber officinale Rosc., Zingiberaceae), and saffron (Crocus sativus L., Iridaceae) have been investigated at room temperature. All unirradiated spices presented a weak resonance line with g-factors around free-electron ones. After γ-ray irradiation at an absorbed dose of up to 11.3 kGy, the presence of EPR spectra whose amplitude increase monotonously with the absorbed dose has been noticed with all spices. A 100 o C isothermal annealing of 11.3 kGy irradiated samples has shown a differential reduction of amplitude of various components that compose initial spectra, but even after 3.6 h of thermal treatment, the remaining amplitude represents no less then 30% of the initial ones. The same peculiarities have been noticed after 83 days storage at room temperature but after 340 days storage at ambient conditions only irradiated ginger displays a weak signal that differs from those of unirradiated sample. All these factors could be taken into account in establishing at which extent the EPR is suitable to evidence any irradiation treatment applied to these spices

  2. EPR investigation of some traditional oriental irradiated spices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duliu, Octavian G. [University of Bucharest, Department of Atomic and Nuclear Physics, Magurele, C.P. MG-11, RO-077125 Bucharest (Romania)]. E-mail: duliu@pcnet.ro; Georgescu, Rodica [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering -Horia Hulubei, C.P. MG-6, RO-077125 Bucharest (Romania); Ali, Shaban Ibrahim [University of Bucharest, Department of Atomic and Nuclear Physics, Magurele, C.P. MG-11, RO-077125 Bucharest (Romania)

    2007-06-15

    The 9.50 GHz electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of unirradiated and {sup 60}Co {gamma}-ray irradiated cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum L. Maton, Zingiberaceae), ginger ((Zingiber officinale Rosc., Zingiberaceae), and saffron (Crocus sativus L., Iridaceae) have been investigated at room temperature. All unirradiated spices presented a weak resonance line with g-factors around free-electron ones. After {gamma}-ray irradiation at an absorbed dose of up to 11.3 kGy, the presence of EPR spectra whose amplitude increase monotonously with the absorbed dose has been noticed with all spices. A 100 {sup o}C isothermal annealing of 11.3 kGy irradiated samples has shown a differential reduction of amplitude of various components that compose initial spectra, but even after 3.6 h of thermal treatment, the remaining amplitude represents no less then 30% of the initial ones. The same peculiarities have been noticed after 83 days storage at room temperature but after 340 days storage at ambient conditions only irradiated ginger displays a weak signal that differs from those of unirradiated sample. All these factors could be taken into account in establishing at which extent the EPR is suitable to evidence any irradiation treatment applied to these spices.

  3. EPR investigation of some irradiated traditional oriental spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duliu, Octavian G.; Ali, Ibrahim Shaban; Georgescu, Rodica

    2005-01-01

    The X-band EPR spectra of unirradiated and 60 Co gamma ray irradiated cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum L. Maton, Zingiberaceae), ginger ((Zingiber officinale Rosc., Zingiberaceae), saffron (Crocus sativus L., Iridaceae), and curry have been investigated at room temperature. All unirradiated spices presented a weak resonance line with g-factors around free-electron ones, most probably due to the presence of semiquinones, previously reported to have paramagnetic properties. After gamma ray irradiation at absorbed dose up to 11.3 kGy we have noticed in all spices the presence of complex EPR spectra consisting of a superposition of at last two different paramagnetic species whose amplitude increase monotonously with the absorbed dose. A 100 deg. C isothermal annealing of 11.3 kGy irradiated samples has shown a differential reduction of amplitude of various components that form the initial spectra, but even after 5 h of thermal treatment, the remaining amplitude represents no less than 40% from the initial ones, testifying for a good thermal stability. The presences of initial EPR spectra as well as the remaining amplitude after isothermal annealing are very useful in identifying any irradiation treatment applied to this category of species. (authors)

  4. EPR investigation of some traditional oriental irradiated spices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duliu, Octavian G.; Georgescu, Rodica; Ali, Shaban Ibrahim

    2007-06-01

    The 9.50 GHz electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of unirradiated and 60Co γ-ray irradiated cardamom ( Elettaria cardamomum L. Maton, Zingiberaceae), ginger (( Zingiber officinale Rosc., Zingiberaceae), and saffron ( Crocus sativus L., Iridaceae) have been investigated at room temperature. All unirradiated spices presented a weak resonance line with g-factors around free-electron ones. After γ-ray irradiation at an absorbed dose of up to 11.3 kGy, the presence of EPR spectra whose amplitude increase monotonously with the absorbed dose has been noticed with all spices. A 100 °C isothermal annealing of 11.3 kGy irradiated samples has shown a differential reduction of amplitude of various components that compose initial spectra, but even after 3.6 h of thermal treatment, the remaining amplitude represents no less then 30% of the initial ones. The same peculiarities have been noticed after 83 days storage at room temperature but after 340 days storage at ambient conditions only irradiated ginger displays a weak signal that differs from those of unirradiated sample. All these factors could be taken into account in establishing at which extent the EPR is suitable to evidence any irradiation treatment applied to these spices.

  5. Herbal medicines in the treatment of psychiatric disorders: 10-year updated review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarris, Jerome

    2018-03-25

    This paper provides a 10-year update of the 2007 systematic review of herbal medicines studied in a broad range of psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive, seasonal affective, bipolar, psychotic, phobic, somatoform, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorders. Ovid Medline, PubMed, and the Cochrane Library were searched for herbal medicines with both pharmacological and clinical evidence of psychotropic activity. This updated review now covers clinical trial evidence for 24 herbal medicines in 11 psychiatric disorders. High-quality evidence was found to exist for the use of Piper methysticum (Kava), Passiflora spp. (passionflower) and Galphimia glauca (galphimia) for anxiety disorders; and Hypericum perforatum (St John's wort) and Crocus sativus (saffron) for major depressive disorder. Other encouraging herbal medicines with preliminary evidence include Curcuma longa (turmeric) in depression, Withania somnifera (ashwagandha) in affective disorders, and Ginkgo biloba (ginkgo) as an adjunctive treatment in Schizophrenia. Although depression and anxiety are commonly researched, many other mental disorders still require further prospective investigation. Although the previous review suggested increasing the adjunctive study of select herbal medicines with pharmaceuticals, this was still only found to sparingly occur in research designs. Aside from this, future focus should involve the incorporation of more biomarker analysis, in particular pharmacogenomics, to determine genetic factors moderating response to herbal medicines. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Evaluation of the antidepressant-like effects of acute and sub-acute administration of crocin and crocetin in mice

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    Bahareh Amin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study was designed to investigate the putative antidepressant effects of crocin and crocetin, two major active ingredients of Crocus sativus L. (saffron using mice in two different regimens of acute and sub-acute administration. Material and Methods: In acute treatment, antidepressant-like activities of crocin and crocetin (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg, i.p. were evaluated using forced swim test (FST. In sub-acute study (21 times with 24-h intervals, antidepressant-like effects of oral administration of drugs were examined using FST and tail suspension test (TST. Locomotor activity and motor coordination were studied using open field and rotarod tests, respectively. Results: Acute treatment with crocin (40 mg/kg and crocetin (20 and 40 mg/kg produced antidepressant-like effect in FST without affecting the baseline locomotion in mice. Sub-acute oral administration of crocin significantly decreased immobility time only at the highest dose (100 mg/kg. Crocetin (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg was able to decrease immobility time in FST and TST. Locomotor activity and coordination of mice were not affected by crocin or crocetin. Conclusion: Since higher doses of crocin was required to show antidepressant effects, more efficacy of crocetin may be concluded. This observation provides further support for metabolism of crocin to crocetin following oral administration.

  7. The therapeutic effect of crocin on ketamine-induced retrograde amnesia in rats

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    Namdar Yousefvand

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The glutamatergic system plays an important role in learning and memory. Administration of crocus sativus (Saffron or its constituent, crocin, facilitates the formation of memory. This research investigated the effect of crocin on antagonizing retrograde amnesia induced by ketamine, a glutamatergic receptor antagonist, in rats by shuttle box. Methods: Male Wistar rats were tested to measure their learning behavior in the passive avoidance task. All animals were trained by a 1 mA shock. The drugs were injected immediately after the training was successfully performed. The animals were tested 24h after training to measure Step Through Latency (STL. Results: On the test day, administration of ketamine (12 mg/kg, ip impaired the memory after training. Different doses of crocin (2, 5 or 10 mg/kg, ip were injected 30 min after ketamine, but only 2 mg/kg crocin could improve retrograde amnesia and 5 and 10 mg/kg doses did not have any significant effect on retrograde amnesia. Moreover, administration of crocin (2, 5 or 10 mg/kg, ip after training had no significant impact on passive avoidance memory by itself. Conclusion: Considering the therapeutic effect of post-training administration of crocin on ketamine-induced retrograde amnesia, it can be argued that crocin has an interaction with glutamatergic system in formation of passive avoidance memory in rats.

  8. Análisis cuantitativo de la aplicación de cuatro bioestimulantes en el cultivo del rábano (Raphanus sativus L.

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    Londoño I. Jorge

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Durante el segundo semestre de 1984 se realizó el ensayo con el fin de determinar el efecto de la aplicación de Agrostemín, Ergostím, Agrovitae y vitamina C en el cultivo del rábano Raphanus sativus L. Las variables estudiadas fueron porcentaje de germinación, velocidad de germinación, energía germinativa, altura de planta, materia verde, materia seca e índice de cosecha.The effect of four bioestimulants (Agrostemin, Ergostim, Agrovitae and vitamina C on radish Raphanus sativus L. was determined in a trial carried out in Palmira (Valle during the second semester of 1984. The variables studied were: germination percentage, germination speed, germination energy, plant height, green matter, dry matter and harvest index.

  9. Overexpression of wheat lipid transfer protein gene TaLTP5 increases resistances to Cochliobolus sativus and Fusarium graminearum in transgenic wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiuliang; Li, Zhao; Xu, Huijun; Zhou, Miaoping; Du, Lipu; Zhang, Zengyan

    2012-08-01

    The fungus Cochliobolus sativus is the main pathogen of common root rot, a serious soil-borne disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The fungus Fusarium graminearum is the primary pathogen of Fusarium head blight, a devastating disease of wheat worldwide. In this study, the wheat lipid transfer protein gene, TaLTP5, was cloned and evaluated for its ability to suppress disease development in transgenic wheat. TaLTP5 expression was induced after C. sativus infection. The TaLTP5 expression vector, pA25-TaLTP5, was constructed and bombarded into Chinese wheat variety Yangmai 18. Six TaLTP5 transgenic wheat lines were established and characterized. PCR and Southern blot analyses indicated that the introduced TaLTP5 gene was integrated into the genomes of six transgenic wheat lines by distinct patterns, and heritable. RT-PCR and real-time quantitative RT-PCR revealed that the TaLTP5 gene was over-expressed in the transgenic wheat lines compared to segregants lacking the transgene and wild-type wheat plants. Following challenge with C. sativus or F. graminearum, all six transgenic lines overexpressing TaLTP5 exhibited significantly enhanced resistance to both common root rot and Fusarium head blight compared to the untransformed wheat Yangmai 18.

  10. Pepino japonês (Cucumis sativus L. submetido ao tratamento com fécula de mandioca Japonese cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. submitted of the treatment with cassava starch film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelen Cristina dos Reis

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o presente trabalho objetivou-se avaliar a qualidade e a vida útil do pepino (Cucumis sativus L., utilizando recobrimento com película de fécula de mandioca. Após seleção, amostras de pepino japonês foram mergulhadas em suspensões de fécula de mandioca a 0, 2, 3 e 4%, secos ao ar e armazenados em câmara fria a 5ºC e 95% de UR por 8 dias. As análises realizadas foram perda de massa, pH, sólidos solúveis (SS , acidez titulável (AT, Cor L*a*b e firmeza. O delineamento utilizado foi o DIC com 3 repetições, com os tratamentos dispostos em esquema fatorial 4 x 5. O valor encontrado para firmeza nas amostras tratadas com película a 4% foram menores em comparação aos outros tratamentos, isto, provavelmente se deve à plasticidade do tecido que estas amostras apresentaram. A película reduziu significativamente a perda de massa das amostras mantidas sob refrigeração. A aplicação de película de fécula de mandioca na concentração mais elevada (4%, proporcionou ao pepino um aspecto melhor de conservação, tornando o produto mais atraente.This work was made to evaluate the properties and postharvest life of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. coated with cassava starch film. After the selection the fruits were dipped in suspensions 0, 2, 3 and 4% starch, dried naturally and stored in chamber cold (5ºC ± 1ºC and 90% ± 5% HR during 8 days and the analyses were done in the time zero and in intervals of 2 days. The analyses done were loss mass, titratable acidity (TA, pH, soluble solids (SS, color L*a*b and firmness. The test was conducted in completely randomized design, with three repetitions, with the treatments disposed in factory layout 4x5. The value found for firmness in the samples treated with biofilm at 4% was smaller in comparison to the other treatments, this, is probably due to the plasticity of the tissue that these samples presented. The film reduced the loss of mass of the samples maintained under refrigeration

  11. Antilithiasic and Hypolipidaemic Effects of Raphanus sativus L. var. niger on Mice Fed with a Lithogenic Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Torres, Ibrahim Guillermo; Naranjo-Rodríguez, Elia Brosla; Domínguez-Ortíz, Miguel Ángel; Gallegos-Estudillo, Janeth; Saavedra-Vélez, Margarita Virginia

    2012-01-01

    In Mexico, Raphanus sativus L. var. niger (black radish) has uses for the treatment of gallstones and for decreasing lipids serum levels. We evaluate the effect of juice squeezed from black radish root in cholesterol gallstones and serum lipids of mice. The toxicity of juice was analyzed according to the OECD guidelines. We used female C57BL/6 mice fed with a lithogenic diet. We performed histopathological studies of gallbladder and liver, and measured concentrations of cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and triglycerides. The juice can be considered bioactive and non-toxic; the lithogenic diet significantly induced cholesterol gallstones; increased cholesterol and triglycerides levels, and decreased HDL levels; gallbladder wall thickness increased markedly, showing epithelial hyperplasia and increased liver weight. After treatment with juice for 6 days, cholesterol gallstones were eradicated significantly in the gallbladder of mice; cholesterol and triglycerides levels decreased too, and there was also an increase in levels of HDL (P < 0.05). Gallbladder tissue continued to show epithelial hyperplasia and granulocyte infiltration; liver tissue showed vacuolar degeneration. The juice of black radish root has properties for treatment of cholesterol gallstones and for decreasing serum lipids levels; therefore, we confirm in a preclinical study the utility that people give it in traditional medicine. PMID:23093836

  12. Comparative removal of congo red dye from water by adsorption on grewia asiatica leaves, raphanus sativus peels and activated charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, R.; Abbas, A.; Murtaza, S.; Mahmud, T.; Waheed-uz-Zaman; Salman, M.; Shafiq, U.

    2012-01-01

    Water treatment by adsorption methodology is being evolved in recent years. Various researchers are searching new adsorbents for water treatment which can replace activated charcoal. In the following study, the efficiency of removing Congo Red dye from water using two novel adsorbents, i.e. Raphanus sativus (Radish) peels and Grewia asiatica (Phalsa) leaves was evaluated and compared with activated charcoal. The adsorption process is carried out batch wise by using different concentrations of the aqueous dye solution with different adsorbent doses, agitation rate, varying contact time intervals, at a range of initial pH values and at different temperatures. Various chemicals were used for enhancing the adsorption capacity of adsorbents. The suitability of the adsorbent for using it is tested by fitting the adsorption data on Langmuir isotherm. The results showed that the Phalsa leaves powder is more effective adsorbent than Reddish peels for removing Congo Red dye from water. It can be used for removing Congo Red dye from waste water. (author)

  13. Uptake and accumulation of bulk and nanosized cerium oxide particles and ionic cerium by radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weilan; Ebbs, Stephen D; Musante, Craig; White, Jason C; Gao, Cunmei; Ma, Xingmao

    2015-01-21

    The potential toxicity and accumulation of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in agricultural crops has become an area of great concern and intense investigation. Interestingly, although below-ground vegetables are most likely to accumulate the highest concentrations of ENMs, little work has been done investigating the potential uptake and accumulation of ENMs for this plant group. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate how different forms of cerium (bulk cerium oxide, cerium oxide nanoparticles, and the cerium ion) affected the growth of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and accumulation of cerium in radish tissues. Ionic cerium (Ce(3+)) had a negative effect on radish growth at 10 mg CeCl3/L, whereas bulk cerium oxide (CeO2) enhanced plant biomass at the same concentration. Treatment with 10 mg/L cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) had no significant effect on radish growth. Exposure to all forms of cerium resulted in the accumulation of this element in radish tissues, including the edible storage root. However, the accumulation patterns and their effect on plant growth and physiological processes varied with the characteristics of cerium. This study provides a critical frame of reference on the effects of CeO2 NPs versus their bulk and ionic counterparts on radish growth.

  14. Insights into salicylic acid responses in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) cotyledons based on a comparative proteomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, J H; Dong, C J; Zhang, Z G; Wang, X L; Shang, Q M

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the response of cucumber seedlings to exogenous salicylic acid (SA) and gain a better understanding of SA action mechanism, we generated a proteomic profile of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) cotyledons treated with exogenous SA. Analysis of 1500 protein spots from each gel revealed 63 differentially expressed proteins, 59 of which were identified successfully. Of the identified proteins, 97% matched cucumber proteins using a whole cucumber protein database based on the newly completed genome established by our laboratory. The identified proteins were involved in various cellular responses and metabolic processes, including antioxidative reactions, cell defense, photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, respiration and energy homeostasis, protein folding and biosynthesis. The two largest functional categories included proteins involved in antioxidative reactions (23.7%) and photosynthesis (18.6%). Furthermore, the SA-responsive protein interaction network revealed 13 key proteins, suggesting that the expression changes of these proteins could be critical for SA-induced resistance. An analysis of these changes suggested that SA-induced resistance and seedling growth might be regulated in part through pathways involving antioxidative reactions and photosynthesis. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Exocarp Properties and Transcriptomic Analysis of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Fruit Expressing Age-Related Resistance to Phytophthora capsici.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Kaori; Carr, Kevin M; Colle, Marivi; Mansfeld, Ben N; Grumet, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Very young cucumber (Cucumis sativus) fruit are highly susceptible to infection by the oomycete pathogen, Phytophthora capsici. As the fruit complete exponential growth, at approximately 10-12 days post pollination (dpp), they transition to resistance. The development of age-related resistance (ARR) is increasingly recognized as an important defense against pathogens, however, underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Peel sections from cucumber fruit harvested at 8 dpp (susceptible) and 16 dpp (resistant) showed equivalent responses to inoculation as did whole fruit, indicating that the fruit surface plays an important role in defense against P. capsici. Exocarp from 16 dpp fruit had thicker cuticles, and methanolic extracts of peel tissue inhibited growth of P. capsici in vitro, suggesting physical or chemical components to the ARR. Transcripts specifically expressed in the peel vs. pericarp showed functional differentiation. Transcripts predominantly expressed in the peel were consistent with fruit surface associated functions including photosynthesis, cuticle production, response to the environment, and defense. Peel-specific transcripts that exhibited increased expression in 16 dpp fruit relative to 8 dpp fruit, were highly enriched (Pfunctions. Specific transcripts included genes associated with potential physical barriers (i.e., cuticle), chemical defenses (flavonoid biosynthesis), oxidative stress, penetration defense, and molecular pattern (MAMP)-triggered or effector-triggered (R-gene mediated) pathways. The developmentally regulated changes in gene expression between peels from susceptible- and resistant- age fruits suggest programming for increased defense as the organ reaches full size.

  16. Phloem unloading follows an extensive apoplasmic pathway in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) fruit from anthesis to marketable maturing stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liping; Sun, Huihui; Li, Ruifu; Zhang, Lingyun; Wang, Shaohui; Sui, Xiaolei; Zhang, Zhenxian

    2011-11-01

    The phloem unloading pathway remains unclear in fruits of Cucurbitaceae, a classical stachyose-transporting species with bicollateral phloem. Using a combination of electron microscopy, transport of phloem-mobile symplasmic tracer carboxyfluorescein, assays of acid invertase and sucrose transporter, and [(14)C]sugar uptake, the phloem unloading pathway was studied in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) fruit from anthesis to the marketable maturing stage. Structural investigations showed that the sieve element-companion cell (SE-CC) complex of the vascular bundles feeding fruit flesh is apparently symplasmically restricted. Imaging of carboxyfluorescein unloading showed that the dye remained confined to the phloem strands of the vascular bundles in the whole fruit throughout the stages examined. A 37 kDa acid invertase was located predominantly in the cell walls of SE-CC complexes and parenchyma cells. Studies of [(14)C]sugar uptake suggested that energy-driven transporters may be functional in sugar trans-membrane transport within symplasmically restricted SE-CC complex, which was further confirmed by the existence of a functional plasma membrane sucrose transporter (CsSUT4) in cucumber fruit. These data provide a clear evidence for an apoplasmic phloem unloading pathway in cucumber fruit. A presumption that putative raffinose or stachyose transporters may be involved in soluble sugars unloading was discussed. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Radish (Raphanus sativus L) - a model for studying plant responses to air pollutants and other environmental stresses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostkarick, R.; Manning, W.J. (Technischer Ueberwachungs-Verein Sudwest, Filderstadt (Germany). Fachgruppe fuer Oekologie)

    1993-01-01

    The use of [ital Raphanus sativus L.] as a model crop for studies on plant response to environmental stresses is reviewed with emphasis on the effects of different atmospheric pollutants (O[sub 3], SO[sub 2], NO[sub 2], acidic precipitation) and their combinations. Responses to temperature, light supply, water stress, and atmospheric CO[sub 2] are also studied and discussed. In addition, the references reviewed are evaluated in terms of their experimental protocols on growth conditions and recommendations for optimal ranges of environmental and cultural variables, i.e. light, temperature, nutrient supply are given. Its distinct pattern of biomass partitioning, the small dimensions along with short and easy culture make radish an excellent experimental plant. The fleshy below-ground storage organ, formed by the hypocotyl and upper radicle, acts as the major sink during vegetative development. Abundant assimilate supply due to elevated levels of CO[sub 2] along with high irradiation frequently promote hypocotyl growth more than shoot growth, whereas under conditions of stress shoot growth is maintained at the expense of the hypocotyl. This makes the hypocotyl:shoot ratio of radish a very sensitive and suitable indicator for various environmental stresses. Potential weaknesses and short-comings of radish in its role as a model crop, particularly the high variability of injury and growth responses, are discussed along with possible solutions. Future research needs are derived from the summarized results presented and from some disparities among findings within the literature reviewed.

  18. Structure of syncytia induced by Heterodera schachtii Schmidt in roots of susceptible and resistant radish (Raphanus sativus L., var. oleiformis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Grymaszewska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure of syncytia induced by Heterodera schachtii Schmidt in roots of susceptible Raphanus sativus L. cv. "Siletina" and resistant radish cv. "Pegletta" was investigated. In the radish cultivar "Siletina" the syncytia most often appeared in the elongation zone of lateral roots. They were initiated in the procambium and pericycle but also included the parenchyma cells of vascular cylinder. In the susceptible cultivar "Siletina" the cells forming the female's syncytia were subject to hypertrophy. Their cytoplasmic density increased. The cytoplasm contained numerous organella. The proliferation of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum took place. Branched cell wall ingrowths were formed next to the vessels. In the male's syncytia the cells were only slightly increased. Their protoplasts contained few organelles. The cell wall ingrowths were poorly developed. In the syncytia of the resistant cultivar "Pegletta" there was only a slight increase of the cell volume. A well developed system of rough endoplasmic reticulum was observed in the protoplast. Distended ER cisterns contained fine fibrillar material. Material of similar structure also appeared in numerous small vacuoles. In resistant plants only some, not numerous, syncytia spreading in procambium fully developed and functioned long enough for the parasite females to mature. At an advanced stage of infection a well developed system of a rough ER was observed also in those syncytia and numerous vacuoles appeared.

  19. Pelletization of seeds of Raphanus sativus L. cv. Redondo Gigante with graphite for germination under water stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobel Penteado Freitas

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of water stress on germination of radish seeds is dependent on the presence of light. The effect of pelletization of radish seeds with powdered graphite on the tolerance to water stress under light was analysed. White light and far-red lights were filtered by graphite increasing slightly the tolerance of pelleted seeds to water stress of -0.77MPa. Although red light also inhibited seed germination the graphite had no effect. We propose the pelletization of seeds of Raphanus sativus, at least in cv redondo gigante with graphite as a pratice before planting to increase the tolerance to water stress.O efeito do estresse hídrico é dependente da presença de luz em sementes de rabanete. O efeito da peletização com grafite em pó foi analisado. Luz branca e vermelho-extremo são filtradas pelo grafite aumentando parcialmente a tolerância ao estresse hídrico de -0,77MPa em sementes peletizadas. Embora a luz vermelha também iniba a germinação em condições de estresse a peletização não teve efeito. Nós propomos a peletização de sementes de Raphanus saivus L. cv. redondo gigante como uma prática antes do plantio para aumentar a tolerância ao estresse hídrico.

  20. Studies on different concentration of lead (Pb and sewage water on Pb uptake and growth of Radish (Raphanus sativus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qudratullah Khan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the accumulation of lead (Pb by radish (Raphanus sativus cultivars a study was carried out at Department of Soil and Environmental Sciences, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan (Pakistan, during 2012. Two radish varieties i.e., exotic and local, were used. The treatments included sewage water and different concentrations of Pb @ 25, 100, 200 and 400 mg L-1. The results showed that the total biomass of both the radish varieties were nonsignificantly influenced by the applied Pb concentrations and sewage water, except for root diameter which were significantly greater in the local cultivar (3.261 cm.Pb treatments significantly reduced the growth and yield of both the cultivars. While the Pb uptake by the root and leaf of radish plants was increased by the increasing the applied Pb levels, with the highest value for root (19.008 mg kg-1 and leaf (16.134 mg kg-1 in the treatment receiving the highest applied Pb concentrations. The total biomass, fresh weight of root and root diameter was found significantly higher except for Pb @ 400 mg L-1, in the plants receiving sewage water as compared to the control and different levels of Pb. The interaction amongst the varieties and treatments were found significantly different for various parameters. Thus, it can be concluded, that the use of sewage water and Pb contaminated wastewater results in higher metal concentration in the radish root and may lead to different types of health problems to consumers.

  1. Effect of Aqueous Extracts from Weed Species on Germination and Initial Growth in Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisoara STRATU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The current paper presents the results of a study on the effects of aqueous extracts from five weed species (Amaranthus retroflexus, Cirsium arvense, Convolvulus arvensis, Echinochloa crus-galii, Setaria verticillata on germination and initial growth in Raphanus sativus L. The following indicators have been analyzed: indices of germination (the germination percentage; the speed of germination; the speed of accumulated germination and the coefficient of germination rate, the length of the root and hypocotyls, the pH of aqueous extracts, the UV-Vis absorption spectra of aqueous extracts. The results of the investigations showed the following aspects: the aqueous extracts reduced the values of calculated germination indices and root growth in the first ontogenetic stages of the test species; the pH of the extracts was slightly acid to neutral. Qualitative spectrophotometric analysis indicated the possible presence of phenolic and organic compounds in the extracts. C. arvense, S. verticillata and E. crus-galii presented the most pronounced effect on germination and growth processes.

  2. rDNA genetic imbalance and nucleolar chromatin restructuring is induced by distant hybridization between Raphanus sativus and Brassica alboglabra.

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    Hong Long

    Full Text Available The expression of rDNA in hybrids inherited from only one progenitor refers to nucleolar dominance. The molecular basis for choosing which genes to silence remains unclear. We report genetic imbalance induced by distant hybridization correlates with formation of rDNA genes (NORs in the hybrids between Raphanus sativus L. and Brassica alboglabra Bailey. Moreover, increased CCGG methylation of rDNA in F1 hybrids is concomitant with Raphanus-derived rDNA gene silencing and rDNA transcriptional inactivity revealed by nucleolar configuration restriction. Newly formed rDNA gene locus occurred through chromosomal in F1 hybrids via chromosomal imbalance. NORs are gained de novo, lost, and/or transposed in the new genome. Inhibition of methyltransferases leads to changes in nucleolar architecture, implicating a key role of methylation in control of nucleolar dominance and vital nucleolar configuration transition. Our findings suggest that gene imbalance and methylation-related chromatin restructuring is important for rDNA gene silencing that may be crucial for synthesis of specific proteins.

  3. Polyphenolic profile and biological activities of black carrot crude extract (Daucus carota L. ssp. sativus var. atrorubens Alef.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeriglio, A; Denaro, M; Barreca, D; D'Angelo, V; Germanò, M P; Trombetta, D

    2018-01-01

    Black carrot (Daucus carota L. ssp. sativus var. atrorubens Alef.) is a valuable source of carbohydrates, minerals and vitamins and contains also high amounts of anthocyanins giving the characteristic deep-purple color. These latter compounds are known as natural dyes used in the food and pharmaceutical industry that have recently attracted much attention for their healthful properties. The aim of this work was to investigate for the first time the polyphenolic profile and biological properties of a black carrot crude extract (BCCE) through an in-depth analysis of the main polyphenolic classes evaluating its antioxidant, cytoprotective and anti-angiogenic properties. Twenty five polyphenols were quantified by LC-DAD-FLD-MS/MS analysis (anthocyanins 78.06%, phenolic acids 17.89% and other flavonoids 4.06%) with polyglycosylated cyanidins as major components. In addition, BCCE showed a strong antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity particularly in the hydrogen transfer-based assays (ORAC and β-carotene bleaching) and a significant increase in the cell viability. Furthermore, BCCE exhibited a strong anti-angiogenic activity at the highest concentration assayed on the chick chorioallantoic membrane (50μg/egg). In conclusion, the obtained results demonstrated the antioxidant, cytoprotective and anti-angiogenic properties of BCCE, which highlight that the higher biological activity of BCCE is probably due to the synergic effects exerted by various polyphenolic classes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. An RNA Sequencing Transcriptome Analysis of Grasspea (Lathyrus sativus L.) and Development of SSR and KASP Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xiaopeng; Yang, Tao; Liu, Rong; Hu, Jinguo; Yao, Yang; Burlyaeva, Marina; Wang, Yan; Ren, Guixing; Zhang, Hongyan; Wang, Dong; Chang, Jianwu; Zong, Xuxiao

    2017-01-01

    Grasspea ( Lathyrus sativus L., 2n = 14) has great agronomic potential because of its ability to survive under extreme conditions, such as drought and flood. However, this legume is less investigated because of its sparse genomic resources and very slow breeding process. In this study, 570 million quality-filtered and trimmed cDNA sequence reads with total length of over 82 billion bp were obtained using the Illumina NextSeq TM 500 platform. Approximately two million contigs and 142,053 transcripts were assembled from our RNA-Seq data, which resulted in 27,431 unigenes with an average length of 1,250 bp and maximum length of 48,515 bp. The unigenes were of high-quality. For example, the stay-green (SGR) gene of grasspea was aligned with the SGR gene of pea with high similarity. Among these unigenes, 3,204 EST-SSR primers were designed, 284 of which were randomly chosen for validation. Of these validated unigenes, 87 (30.6%) EST-SSR primers produced polymorphic amplicons among 43 grasspea accessions selected from different geographical locations. Meanwhile, 146,406 SNPs were screened and 50 SNP loci were randomly chosen for the kompetitive allele-specific PCR (KASP) validation. Over 80% (42) SNP loci were successfully transformed to KASP markers. Comparison of the dendrograms according to the SSR and KASP markers showed that the different marker systems are partially consistent with the dendrogram constructed in our study.

  5. Efeitos da cultura da cevada e de períodos de controle sobre o crescimento e produção de sementes de Raphanus sativus L. Effects of the culture of the Barley and of periods of control on the seed production and growth of Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Pinto de Souza

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento teve por objetivo avaliar os efeitos da cultura da cevada e de períodos de controle das plantas daninhas sobre o crescimento e produção de sementes de Raphanus sativus. Foram considerados dois tratamentos testemunha sem controle das plantas daninhas, com e sem a cultura. Nos oito demais tratamentos, a cultura esteve sempre presente, controlando-se as plantas daninhas até 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 80 e 100 dias após a emergência da cevada. A comunidade infestante da área era composta quase exclusivamente por R. .sativus. Avaliou-se o número de plantas, acúmulos de matéria seca, número médio de frutos e sementes de nabiça por planta e por unidade de área ; foram ainda avaliados o número médio de sementes por fruto, peso médio de 1.000 sementes e a contribuição das sementes na composição da matéria se catota. A análise dos resultados evidenciou que a espécie Raphanus sativus apresenta elevado potencial reprodutivo, sendo possível concluir pela ineficiência de programas de controle de curta duração, em termos de redução do banco de sementes. A presença da cultura da cevada reduziu tanto o crescimento quanto o número de sementes produzidas pela nabiça (R. sativus. Na ausência da cultura e de práticas de controle foram produzidas 5.074 sementes/m, a partir de 125 plantas/m ainda presentes na colheita da cultura.The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of barley and weed control periods on the seed production and growth of Raphanus sativus, the major weed in the experimental area. The experiment was carried out in Botucatu, SP, Brazil. Two checks, with and without the crop, were kept weedy from seeding to harvest. In other eight treatments the crop was kept weed free up to 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 80 and 100 days after emergence. It were evaluated the number of plants, the dry matter accumulation and the number of fruits and seeds per plant and per m2, the weight of 1.000 seeds and the

  6. The allelopathic effect of the black nut leaves (Juglans nigra L. over the species of moon – raddish (Raphanus sativus L. and white mustard (Sinapis alba L.

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    Sorina CORBU

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment is a research on the effect of the allelopathic substances in the leaves of the black nut (Juglans nigra L. over the species of white mustard (Sinapis alba L. and the moon – raddish (Raphanus sativus L.. We have prepared a watery extract of a concentration of 5, 15, 25, 50, 75 and 100% from the leaves in different seasons (spring, autumn and winter. The watery extract presents an inhibitory effect over the germination and growth of the plants subdued to experiments, especialy over the leaves collected in spring.

  7. Effect of cinnamon, cardamom, saffron and ginger consumption on blood pressure and a marker of endothelial function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimi, Paria; Ghiasvand, Reza; Feizi, Awat; Hosseinzadeh, Javad; Bahreynian, Maryam; Hariri, Mitra; Khosravi-Boroujeni, Hossein

    2016-06-01

    Herbal medicines with high amounts of phytochemicals have been shown to have beneficial effects on blood pressure (BP), endothelial function and anthropometric measures. This study aimed to determine the effect of herbal treatment on BP, endothelial function and anthropometric measures in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This clinical trial included 204 T2DM patients randomly assigned to four intervention groups receiving 3 g cinnamon, 3 g cardamom, 1 g saffron or 3 g ginger with three glasses of black tea, and one control group consuming only three glasses of tea without any herbals, for 8 weeks. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), systolic and diastolic BP and anthropometric measures were collected at baseline and after 8 weeks. No significant difference was found between various medicinal plants in terms of influencing BP, serum soluble (s)ICAM-1 concentrations and anthropometric measures. However, in within-group comparison saffron and ginger intakes significantly reduced sICAM-1 concentrations (340.9 ± 14.4 vs 339.69 ± 14.4 ng/ml, p = 0.01, and 391.78 ± 16.0 vs 390.97 ± 15.8 ng/ml, p = 0.009, respectively) and ginger intake affected systolic BP (143.06 ± 0.2 vs 142.07 ± 0.2 mmHg, p = 0.02). Although administration of these herbal medicines as supplementary remedies could affect BP and sICAM-1 concentrations, there was no significant difference between the plants in terms of influencing anthropometric measures, BP and endothelial function.

  8. The breeding biology, nest success, habitat and behavior of the endangered Saffron-cowled Blackbird, Xanthopsar flavus (Aves: Icteridae, at an Important Bird Area (IBA in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Luciane R. da Silva Mohr

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Saffron-cowled Blackbird, Xanthopsar flavus (Gmelin, 1788, is a globally vulnerable icterid endemic to grasslands and open areas, and a priority species for research and conservation programs. This contribution provides information on the population size, habitat, behavior, breeding biology and nest success of X. flavus in two conservation units (CUs in Viamão, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil: the Environmental Protection Area Banhado Grande, and the Wildlife Refuge Banhado dos Pachecos, classified as an “Important Bird Area”. Searches for X. flavus were carried out mainly in open areas, the type of habitat favored by the species. Outside the breeding season individual behavior was recorded by the ad libitum method; during the breeding season, selected X. flavus pairs were observed following the sequence sampling method. The research areas were visited once a month, totaling approximately 530 hours of observations (September 2014 to June 2016 over 84 days, which included two breeding seasons. The species was observed across all months (not necessarily within the same year and several X. flavus flocks were encountered, some with more than one hundred individuals (range = 2-137. Additionally, the behavior and feeding aspects, habitat use and breeding information on X. flavus were recorded. Two breeding colonies were found, and eleven nests were monitored. The estimated nesting success was 10% in Colony 1, but zero in Colony 2, where all eggs and nestlings were predated. Saffron-cowled Blackbirds were recorded in mixed flocks, mostly with Pseudoleistes guirahuro (Vieillot, 1819, P. virescens (Vieillot, 1819 and Xolmis dominicanus (Vieillot, 1823, the last also a globally endangered species. The collected information highlights the importance of CUs for the maintenance of X. flavus populations in the region. Maintenance of proper areas for feeding and breeding is necessary and urgent. Information from current research is being

  9. Raphanus sativus cv. Sango Sprout Juice Decreases Diet-Induced Obesity in Sprague Dawley Rats and Ameliorates Related Disorders.

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    Fabio Vivarelli

    Full Text Available Obesity is recognized as a leading global health problem, correlated with an increased risk for several chronic diseases. One strategy for weight control management includes the use of vegetables rich in bioactive compounds to counteract weight gain, improve the antioxidant status and stimulate lipid catabolism.The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Raphanus sativus Sango sprout juice (SSJ, a Brassica extraordinarily rich in anthocyanins (AC and isothiocyanates (ITCs, in a non-genetic model of obesity (high fat diet-HFD induced.Control groups were fed with HFD or regular diet (RD. After a 10-week period, animals were assigned to experimental units and treated by gavage for 28 days as follows: HFD and RD control groups (rats fed HFD or RD and treated with vehicle only and HFD-treated groups (rats fed HFD and treated with 15, 75 or 150 mg/kg b.w. of SSJ. Body weight and food consumption were recorded and serum lipid profile was measured (total cholesterol, triglycerides, and non-esterified fatty acids. Hepatic phase-I, phase-II as well as antioxidant enzymatic activities were assessed.SSJ lowered total cholesterol level, food intake and liver weight compared with HFD rodents. SSJ at medium dose proved effective in reducing body-weight (~19 g reduction. SSJ was effective in up-regulating the antioxidant enzymes catalase,quinone reductase, oxidised glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase, which reached or exceeded RD levels, as well as the phase II metabolic enzyme UDP-glucuronosyl transferase (up to about 43%. HFD up-regulated almost every cytochrome P450 isoform tested, and a mild down-regulation to baseline was observed after SSJ intervention.This work reveals, for the first time, the antioxidant, hypolipidemic and antiobesity potential of SSJ, suggesting its use as an efficient new functional food/nutraceutical product.

  10. Raphanus sativus cv. Sango Sprout Juice Decreases Diet-Induced Obesity in Sprague Dawley Rats and Ameliorates Related Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivarelli, Fabio; Canistro, Donatella; Sapone, Andrea; De Nicola, Gina Rosalinda; Babot Marquillas, Clara; Iori, Renato; Antonazzo, Ippazio Cosimo; Gentilini, Fabio; Paolini, Moreno

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is recognized as a leading global health problem, correlated with an increased risk for several chronic diseases. One strategy for weight control management includes the use of vegetables rich in bioactive compounds to counteract weight gain, improve the antioxidant status and stimulate lipid catabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Raphanus sativus Sango sprout juice (SSJ), a Brassica extraordinarily rich in anthocyanins (AC) and isothiocyanates (ITCs), in a non-genetic model of obesity (high fat diet-HFD induced). Control groups were fed with HFD or regular diet (RD). After a 10-week period, animals were assigned to experimental units and treated by gavage for 28 days as follows: HFD and RD control groups (rats fed HFD or RD and treated with vehicle only) and HFD-treated groups (rats fed HFD and treated with 15, 75 or 150 mg/kg b.w. of SSJ). Body weight and food consumption were recorded and serum lipid profile was measured (total cholesterol, triglycerides, and non-esterified fatty acids). Hepatic phase-I, phase-II as well as antioxidant enzymatic activities were assessed. SSJ lowered total cholesterol level, food intake and liver weight compared with HFD rodents. SSJ at medium dose proved effective in reducing body-weight (~19 g reduction). SSJ was effective in up-regulating the antioxidant enzymes catalase, quinone reductase, oxidised glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase, which reached or exceeded RD levels, as well as the phase II metabolic enzyme UDP-glucuronosyl transferase (up to about 43%). HFD up-regulated almost every cytochrome P450 isoform tested, and a mild down-regulation to baseline was observed after SSJ intervention. This work reveals, for the first time, the antioxidant, hypolipidemic and antiobesity potential of SSJ, suggesting its use as an efficient new functional food/nutraceutical product.

  11. Nickel toxicity on seed germination and growth in radish (Raphanus sativus) and its recovery using copper and boron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Shiv Shankar; Shukla, Rajni; Sharma, Y K

    2009-05-01

    Effect of various concentrations of nickel (100, 200, 500 and 1000 microM) and recovery treatments of boron (50 and 100 microM) and copper (15 and 75 microM) each with 200 microM and 500 microM of nickel on germination, growth, biomass, chlorophyll, carotenoids, pheophytin, amylase, protein, sugar as well as activity of catalase and peroxidase were studied in radish (Raphanus sativus cv. Early menu) seedlings. Nickel treatments caused a considerable reduction in germination percentage, growth and biomass. The different pigments were also decreased with nickel treatments. However boron addition with nickel recovered the negative effect on pigment contents. Among biochemical estimations, amylase activity and total proteins were found to be reduced in nickel treatments. Peroxidase and catalase activity were induced other than higher total sugar with nickel treatments. The combination of nickel with boron resulted into increased protein contents. This combination also reduced the catalase and peroxidase activity. The influence of nickel with copper failed to produce significant recovery except 200 microM nickel in combination with 15 microM copper with regard to catalase and peroxidase activity. The effect of nickel on hydrolyzing enzyme amylase was observed to be inhibitory resulting into poor germination followed by poor seedlings growth. The stress protecting enzymes peroxidase and catalase seem to be induced under the influence of nickel, and providing protection to the seedlings. The application of boron with nickel showed improved germination and growth. The level of catalase and peroxidase were found to be significantly reduced showing normal growth and biomass of seedlings.

  12. SELDI-TOF MS-based discovery of a biomarker in Cucumis sativus seeds exposed to CuO nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Young-Sun; Park, Eun-Sil; Kim, Tae-Oh; Lee, Hoi-Seon; Lee, Sung-Eun

    2014-11-01

    Metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) can inhibit plant seed germination and root elongation via the release of metal ions. In the present study, two acute phytotoxicity tests, seed germination and root elongation tests, were conducted on cucumber seeds (Cucumis sativus) treated with bulk copper oxide (CuO) and CuO NPs. Two concentrations of bulk CuO and CuO NPs, 200 and 600ppm, were used to test the inhibition rate of root germination; both concentrations of bulk CuO weakly inhibited seed germination, whereas CuO NPs significantly inhibited germination, showing a low germination rate of 23.3% at 600ppm. Root elongation tests demonstrated that CuO NPs were much stronger inhibitors than bulk CuO. SELDI-TOF MS analysis showed that 34 proteins were differentially expressed in cucumber seeds after exposure to CuO NPs, with the expression patterns of at least 9 proteins highly differing from those in seeds treated with bulk CuO and in control plants. Therefore, these 9 proteins were used to identify CuO NP-specific biomarkers in cucumber plants exposed to CuO NPs. A 5977-m/z protein was the most distinguishable biomarker for determining phytotoxicity by CuO NPs. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the SELDI-TOF MS results showed variability in the modes of inhibitory action on cucumber seeds and roots. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that the phytotoxic effect of metal oxide NPs on plants is not caused by the same mode of action as other toxins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Benefits from Bio and organic fertilization by cucumber (Cucumis Sativus) with application of 15N stable isotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galal, Y. G. M.; Soliman, S. M.; Ahmed, F. A.; El-Sherbiny, A. E. A.; Dahdouh, S. M.

    2012-12-01

    Benefits from bio and organic fertilizer were evaluated under cucumber (Cucumis Sativus) crop grown on sandy soil at a field scale. The experiment was conducted under drip irrigation system. Fertilization treatment indicated that the combination of 50% mineral fertilizer (MF) + 50% organic compost (OC) was superior over all other fertilization treatment when the fresh weight of cucumber biomass or fruits was considered. It means that half of the recommended dose of of mineral fertilizer is enough to meet the requirement of cucumber crop when supplemented with organic compost. Nitrogen derived from mineral fertilizer (Ndff) by cucumber at different plant growth stages was significantly affected by the rate of addition and enhanced with microbial inoculation. Arbuscular mycorrhizea (AMF) was superior over Azospirillum and Rhizobium inoculations. The enhancement of Ndff uptake by plants was more pronounced at the fruit stage than at vegetative, flowering and hay growth stages. The highest values of Ndfa were induced by Rhizobium at hay stage followed by fruit. Similar trend, but to different extents was noticed with AMF and Azospirillum inoculum s. Most of nitrogen derived from compost (Ndfc) was occurred by addition of 50% MF + 50% Oc. Rhizobium and AMF were more effective than Azospirilum. High quantities of Ndfc were recognized at hay stage compared to other growth stages.The efficient use of mineral fertilizer-N (%NUE) was increased by addition of half:half mineral and organic fertilizer. Similarly, it seems that microbial inoculation in general has a synergistic effect on enhancement of %NUE. Higher NUE occurred at hay growth stage than others. (Author)

  14. Effects of simulated acidic rain on yields of Raphanus sativus, Lactuca sativa, Triticum aestivum and Medicago sativa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, L.S.; Gmur, N.F.; Mancini, D.

    1982-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine effects to simulated acidic rain on radishes (Raphanus sativus), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), wheat (Triticum aestivum) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) grown under greenhouse conditions. Experimental designs allowed the detection of statistically significant differences among means that differed by less than 10%. Simulated rainfalls of 2.5, 25, 63, 398, 100 and 2512 ..mu..eq H/sup +/ 1/sup -1/ (pH 5.6, 4.6, 4.2, 3.4, 3.0 and 2.6, respectively) decreased root yields (fresh mass) of radishes 26, 42, 37, 41, 66 and 73% compared with plants not exposed to rainfalls, Similar reductions were present in radish shoot fresh mass, leaf area, and root diameter. Fresh mass yields of lettuce plants exposed to 100, 794 and 1995 ..mu..eq H/sup +/ 1/sup -1/ (pH 4.0, 3.1 and 2.7, respectively) were 11, 10 and 14%, respectively, below heads of plants not exposed to rainfalls. Yields of plants exposed to simulated rainfalls of 2.0 ..mu..eq H/sup +/ 1/sup -1/ (pH 5.7) were similar to plants not exposed to rainfalls. Although visible foliar injury occurred to lettuce, this injury was present only on wrapper leaves and would not affect marketable quality. Yields of wheat which were applied during anthesis and caryopsis development were not influenced by exposure to 46 simulated rainfalls even as high as 1996 ..mu..eq H/sup +/ 1/sup -1/ (pH 2.7). Alfalfa plants exhibited no overall differences in fresh mass of forage among treatments even after 57 simulated rainfalls of 1996 ..mu..eq H/sup +/ 1/sup -1/ (pH 2.7) over 105 days. 22 references, 2 figures, 7 tables.

  15. [Effects of temperature regime on low-light tolerance of Cucumis sativus seedling leaves in their photosynthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Sui, Xiao-lei; Zhang, Zhen-xian

    2008-12-01

    In a phytotron, the effects of three temperature regimes (day/night 25 degrees C/18 degrees C, optimal temperature; 15 degrees C/9 degrees C, suboptimal temperature; and 9 degrees C/7 degrees C, low temperature) on the low-light (75-85 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1)) tolerance of two Cucumis sativus cultivars (shade-susceptible Jinyan 2 and shade-tolerant Deltastar) seedling leaves in their photosynthesis were studied. The results showed that under low light, the SPAD, net photosynthesis rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), transpiration rate (Tr), water use efficiency (WUE), actual photochemical efficiency of PS II in the light (phi(PS II)), and photochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence (q(p)) of cucumber leaves decreased, with the decrement getting more with decreasing temperature, while the superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) activities were in adverse. During the recovery process after low-light stress relieved, the parameters of gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence of the leaves recovered gradually, and the recovery of some gas exchange parameters lagged to that of chlorophyll fluorescence parameters. Under low light, the lower the temperature, the more damage the photosynthesis apparatus suffered, and the lesser tolerance to low light the cucumber leaves had in their photosynthesis. During the low temperature and low light treatment period, the decrease of Pn, phi(PS II), and q(p) was more obvious for Jinyan 2 than for Deltastar; and during the relief period, the recovery of these parameters was slower for Jinyan 2 than for Deltastar. It was indicated that Jinyan 2 had weaker tolerance to low temperature and/or low light in its photosynthesis than Deltastar.

  16. VALORACIÓN DE ATRIBUTOS DE CALIDAD EN PEPINO (Cucumis sativus L. FORTIFICADO CON VITAMINA E VALORAÇÃO DE ATRIBUTOS DE QUALIDADE EM PEPINO (Cucumis sativus L. FORTIFICADO COM VITAMINA E VALUATION OF QUALITY ATTRIBUTES IN CUCUMBER (Cucumis sativus L. FORTIFIED WITH VITAMIN E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MISAEL CORTÉS

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue desarrollar un producto mínimamente procesado fortificado con vitamina E, a partir de pepino (Cucumis sativus L, utilizando la ingeniería de matrices. Rodajas impregnadas al vacío (IV con DL-α-tocoferol acetato emulsificado en una fase acuosa isotónica al pepino (NaCl al 1%, son evaluadas en cuanto a propiedades fisicoquímicas, color, textura, estabilidad de la vitamina E y sensorialmente, por influencia del proceso, tiempo de almacenamiento y envasado (con y sin vacío. La vitamina E se cuantifica por HPLC (% del valor diario recomendado (VDR/100 g de pepino fresco, según la norma Colombiana. La respuesta IV alcanza niveles de 6.05±1.49%, correspondiente a 33.3±5.8 mg vitamina E y 110.5±19.1% VDR en 100 g de pepino fresco. Durante el almacenamiento en 9 días se presenta una pérdida aproximadamente del 50%, debido a la poca retención de la emulsión en el interior de la matriz. Los parámetros fisicoquímicos, el color y la textura son afectados por la IV, el tiempo y el envasado, siendo durante el almacenamiento más oscuras y más resistentes que el producto fresco. La ingeniería de matrices representa una metodología efectiva para fortificar el pepino con vitamina E.O objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver um produto mínimamente processado fortificado com vitamina E, a partir de pepino (Cucumis sativus L, utilizando a engenharia de matrizes. Fatias de pepino foram impregnadas a vácuo (IV com DL-α- acetato de tocoferol emulsificado numa fase aquosa isotónica (NaCl a 1%, e foram avaliadas quanto às propiedades fisico-químicas, cor, textura, estabilidade da vitamina E e sensorialmente, tendo em consideração os factores: processo, tempo de armazenamento e envasado (com e sem vácuo. A vitamina E quantificou-se por HPLC (% do Valor Diario Recomendado (VDR/100 g de pepino fresco, de acordo com a norma Colombiana. A resposta à IV alcanzou niveis de 6.05±1.49%, correspondente a 33.3±5.8 mg

  17. Use of low doses of cobalt 60 gamma radiation on beet (Beta vulgaris L.), carrot (Daucus carota L.) and radish (Raphanus sativus L.) seed to stimulate increase yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovi, Jose Eduardo

    2000-01-01

    The research had the aim of evaluating the effects of low doses of Cobalt-60 gamma radiation on seeds of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) cultiva Champion, cultivars Nantes Forto (european origin) and Brasilia (Rio Grande do Sul origin) carrot (Daucus carota L. var. sativus (Hoffm.) Thell), and red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) cultivar Tall Top Early Wonder before sowing, its effects on plant growth, on the yield and roots storage of two tillages: with sowing in the same day of radiation and six days after radiation seeds. The data showed that the seeds radiation did not interfered negatively on plants growth, and the species presented differences as roots production and doses on both plantation: radish with 5,0 Gy and 2,5 Gy doses respectively to the first and the second sowings, Brasilia carrot with 2,5 Gy dose to both sowings. Nantes carrot with 2,5 Gy and 5,0 Gy respectively to the first and the second sowings, and beet with 7,5 Gy and 5,0 Gy respectively to the first and the second plantations. There is not statistics difference by Tukey test (5% and 1%) and none relation between seeds radiation and loss weight on roots storage. (author)

  18. Compensation effect of bacterium containing biofertilizer on the growth of Cucumis sativus L. under Al-stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Brigitta; Lévai, L; Kovács, B; Varga, Mária Borbélyné; Veres, Szilvia

    2013-03-01

    Biofertilizers are used to improve soil fertility and plant production in sustainable agriculture. However, their applicability depends on several environmental parameters. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of free-living bacteria containing fertilizer on the growth of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cvs. Delicates) under aluminium (Al) stress. Different responses to Al stress of cucumber growth parameters were examined in terms of root elongation and physiological traits, such as Spad index (relative chlorophyll value), biomass accumulation of root and shoot, Al uptake and selected element contents (Fe, Mn, Zn, Mg) of leaves and root. The applied bacteria containing biofertilizer contains Azotobacter chroococcum and Bacillus megaterium. The dry weights of cucumber shoots and roots decreased in line with the increasing Al concentration. Due to different Al treatments (10-3 M, 10-4 M) higher Al concentration was observed in the leaves, while the amounts of other elements (Fe, Mn, Zn, Mg) decreased. This high Al content of the leaves decreased below the control value when biofertilizer was applied. In the case of the roots the additional biofertilizer treatments compensated the effect of Al. The relative chlorophyll content was reduced during Al-stress in older plants and the biofertilizer moderated this effect. The root/shoot ratio was decreased in all the Al-treatments in comparison to the control. The living bacteria containing fertilizer also had a modifying effect. The root/shoot ratio increased at the 10-4 M Al2(SO4)2 + biofertilizer and 10-4 M Al(NO3)3 + biofertilizer treatments compared to the control and Al-treatments. According to our results the biofertilizer is an alternative nutrient supply for replacing chemical fertilizers because it enhances dry matter production. Biofertilizer usage is also offered under Al polluted environmental conditions. Although, the nutrient solution is a clean system where we can examine the main processes without

  19. Allelopathic influence of aqueous extracts from the leaves of Morus alba L. on seed germination and seedling growth of Cucumis sativus L. and Sinapsis alba L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Możdżeń

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to elucidate impact of the aqueous extracts from leaves of Morus alba L. on germination, growth and photosynthetic activity of Cucumis sativus L. and Sinapis alba L. Plants were grown for 21 days at the temperature 25°C (day and 18°C (night, within 12/12 hours photoperiod, light intensity 150 μmol·m-2·s-1 and relative humidity 60-70% (day/night. Our experiments proved that allelopathic compounds in aqueous extracts of the leaves M. alba at high concentrations, reduce power and energy of germination. Biometric analysis of seedlings and adult plants grown showed that allelopathic substances have stimulating or inhibiting function depending on the stage of treatment. Moreover, they cause changes in chlorophyll contents and activity of photosystem II (PS II.

  20. Co-exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles does not affect cadmium toxicity in radish seeds (Raphanus sativus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manesh, R Roshan; Grassi, G; Bergami, E; Marques-Santos, L F; Faleri, C; Liberatori, G; Corsi, I

    2018-02-01

    Recent developments on environmental fate models indicate that as nano waste, engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) could reach terrestrial ecosystems thus potentially affecting environmental and human health. Plants can be therefore exposed to ENMs but controversial data in terms of fate and toxicity are currently available. Furthermore, there is a current lack of information on complex interactions/transformations to which ENMs undergo in the natural environment as for instance interacting with existing toxic compounds. The aim of the present study was to assess the behavior and biological effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (n-TiO 2 ) (Aeroxide P25, Degussa Evonik) and its interaction with cadmium (CdCl 2 ) in plants using radish seeds (Raphanus sativus L. Parvus) as model species. Radish seeds were exposed to n-TiO 2 (1-1000mg/L) and CdCl 2 (1-250mg/L) alone and in combination using a seed germination and seedling growth toxicity test OECD 208. Percentage of seed germination, germination index (GI) and root elongation were calculated. Cell morphology and oxidative stress parameters as glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and catalase activities (CAT) were measured in radish seeds after 5 days of exposure. Z-Average, PdI and Z-potential of n-TiO 2 in Milli-Q water as exposure medium were also determined. DLS analysis showed small aggregates of n-TiO 2 , negative Z-potential and stable PdI in seed's exposure media. Germination percentage, GI and root length resulted affected by n-TiO 2 exposure compared to controls. In particular, n-TiO 2 at 1mg/L and 100mg/L did not affect radish seeds germination (100%) while at concentration of 10mg/L, 200mg/L, 500mg/L, and 1000mg/L a slight but not significant decrease of germination % was observed. Similarly root length and GI resulted significantly higher in seeds exposed to 10mg/L and 200mg/L compared to 1mg/L, 100mg/L, 500mg/L, 1000mg/L and control (p germination % and GI compared to control seeds and a concentration dependent

  1. Use of low doses of cobalt 60 gamma radiation on beet (Beta vulgaris L.), carrot (Daucus carota L.) and radish (Raphanus sativus L.) seed to stimulate increase yield; Emprego da radiacao gama do cobalto 60 em sementes de beterraba (Beta vulgaris L.), cenoura (Daucus carota L.) e rabanete (Raphanus sativus L.) para estimular o aumento da producao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bovi, Jose Eduardo

    2000-07-01

    The research had the aim of evaluating the effects of low doses of Cobalt-60 gamma radiation on seeds of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) cultiva Champion, cultivars Nantes Forto (european origin) and Brasilia (Rio Grande do Sul origin) carrot (Daucus carota L. var. sativus (Hoffm.) Thell), and red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) cultivar Tall Top Early Wonder before sowing, its effects on plant growth, on the yield and roots storage of two tillages: with sowing in the same day of radiation and six days after radiation seeds. The data showed that the seeds radiation did not interfered negatively on plants growth, and the species presented differences as roots production and doses on both plantation: radish with 5,0 Gy and 2,5 Gy doses respectively to the first and the second sowings, Brasilia carrot with 2,5 Gy dose to both sowings. Nantes carrot with 2,5 Gy and 5,0 Gy respectively to the first and the second sowings, and beet with 7,5 Gy and 5,0 Gy respectively to the first and the second plantations. There is not statistics difference by Tukey test (5% and 1%) and none relation between seeds radiation and loss weight on roots storage. (author)

  2. Review of Scientific Evidence of Medicinal Convoy Plants in Traditional Persian Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadati, Seyede Nargess; Ardekani, Mohammad Reza Shams; Ebadi, Nastaran; Yakhchali, Maryam; Dana, Azadeh Raees; Masoomi, Fatemeh; Khanavi, Mahnaz; Ramezany, Farid

    2016-01-01

    One concept used in traditional Persian medicine (TPM) for multidrug therapy is that of the convoy drug (Mobadregh). According to TPM texts, convoy drugs are substances (or drugs), which facilitate the access of drugs or foods to the whole body or to specific organs. This study reviewed some convoy drugs presented in TPM, their biological effects, and their probable interactions with main drugs, considering the increased absorption through inhibition of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux function, bioavailability-enhancing effects, and decreased metabolism of the main drug using electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar in November and December, 2013. Recent studies have proven the beneficial effects of Crocus sativus L. (saffron) and camphor on the heart and brain, the cerebral therapeutic effects of Asarum europaeum (hazelwort), the hepatoprotective effects of Cichorium intybus (chicory), and Apium graveolens (celery) seeds, and the diuretic effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon), and Cucumis melo (melon) seeds. The effects of vinegar in targeting the liver and brain have also been demonstrated. An evaluation of the results demonstrated that the suggested convoy drugs, including Piper nigrum (black pepper), Piper longum (long pepper), red wine, Camellia sinensis (tea), hazelwort, Mentha longifolia (pennyroyal), Anethum graveolens (dill), Foeniculum vulgare (fennel), cinnamon, and Sassafras albidum (sassafras) can increase the bioavailability of coadministered drugs by inhibition of P-gp or cytochrome P450s (CYP450s) or both of them. This evidence could be a good basis for the use of these agents as convoys in TPM. PMID:27041871

  3. Consumers' acceptance of medicinal herbs: An application of the technology acceptance model (TAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokar, Nargesh Khatun; Noorhosseini, Seyyed Ali; Allahyari, Mohammad Sadegh; Damalas, Christos A

    2017-07-31

    The shift in consumers' preferences from synthetic to 'natural' products has led to a resurgence of interest in medicinal plants, particularly in developing countries. However, research data about consumers' preferences for particular products is hard to find. The main objective of this study was to contribute to the general understanding of consumers' intention for selecting medicinal herbs for consumption. Factors underpinning consumers' acceptance of medicinal herbs were studied with the technology acceptance model (TAM) in Rasht City of Iran using a structured questionnaire. Most respondents had low to moderate familiarity with consumption of medicinal herbs. However, about half of the respondents (47.5%) showed a high level of acceptance of medicinal herbs. Herbs like spearmint (Mentha spicata L.), spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.), basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), Damask rose (Rosa × damascena Herrm.), saffron (Crocus sativus L.), cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum J.Presl), flixweed [Descurainia sophia (L.) Webb ex Prantl], red feathers (Echium amoenum Fisch. & C.A.Mey.), and green tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze] had the highest consumption rate among the majority (over 75%) of citizens of Rasht. The highest rate of perceived usefulness of medicinal herbs was related to their perceived role in healing diseases. The variable of importance of use of medicinal herbs had the strongest direct effect and the variables of perceived usefulness and attitude towards use had the second and third strongest direct effect on the acceptance of medicinal herbs' use at p acceptance of medicinal herbs and may serve as a benchmark for future research and evaluation concerning the use of medicinal herbs over time. For plant producers, more effective and targeted crop development should be encouraged, whereas for retailers better marketing and delivery strategies should be sought. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Crocin prevents retinal ischaemia/reperfusion injury-induced apoptosis in retinal ganglion cells through the PI3K/AKT signalling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yun; Chen, Li; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Wen-Bo; Chen, Xiao-Yan; Yang, Xin-Guang

    2013-02-01

    Crocin is a pharmacologically active component of Crocus sativus L. (saffron) and has been reported to be useful in the treatment of neuronal damage. In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective effect of crocin on retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) after retinal ischaemia/reperfusion (IR) injury, and our results show that crocin acts through the PI3K/AKT signalling pathway. Retinal IR injury was induced by raising the intraocular pressure of Sprague-Dawley rats to 110 mmHg for 60 min. The neuroprotective effect of crocin was determined by quantifying the surviving RGCs and apoptotic RGCs following IR injury by means of retrograde labelling and TUNEL staining, respectively. The phosphorylated AKT protein level was determined by western blot and immunohistochemical analysis. To determine the extent to which the PI3K/AKT pathway contributes to the neuroprotective effect of crocin, experiments were also performed using the PI3K inhibitor LY294002. Compared with the IR + vehicle group, crocin (50 mg/kg) treatment enhanced RGC survival by approximately 36% and decreased RGC apoptosis by 44% after retinal IR injury. Western blot and immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that the PI3K/AKT pathway was activated by crocin in the ganglion cell layer after retinal IR injury. Intravitreal injection of LY294002 blocked the neuroprotective effect of crocin on IR-induced RGC death. In conclusion, crocin prevents retinal IR-induced apoptosis of RGCs by activating the PI3K/AKT signalling pathway. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessment of General and Specific Combining Ability and Heterosis of Some Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. Lines for Vegetative Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Moradipour

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. is one of the most widely cultivated vegetables. Plant length is a quantitative trait is controlled by many genes. These traits are difficult to study due to the complex nature of their inheritance. The combining ability estimation is useful in determining the breeding value of cucumber lines by suggesting the appropriate use in a breeding program. In studying combining ability, the most commonly utilized experimental approach is the diallel design. General combining ability is a measure of additive genetic action; and specific combining ability (SCA is deviation from additivity. General combining ability is a main effect and SCA is an interaction. The aim is to determine the breeding value of the cross. Heterosis has been utilized to exploit dominance variance through production of hybrids. There are reports on positive and negative heterosis in cucumber however, there are differences between reports. This research was conducted to estimate general and specific combining ability and heterosis in cucumber inbred lines and hybrids to produce hybrids with high yield and quality. Material and Methods: In the spring of 2014, the seven parental lines and their 21 F1 hybrid were planted at the University of Guilan, in loamy sand field. Three replications were arranged in a randomized complete block design. The sandy loam soil was prepared by plowing and disking and formed into raised beds by plowed and harrow prior to plant establishment. Rows were on 1 m centers and plants were about 25 cm apart in the row. Prior to planting 150 kg·ha-1 of nitrogen from urea and 100 kg·ha-1 of phosphorous from triple superphosphate and 80 kg·ha-1 of potassium sulfate was applied. Side dressing with the same amount of nitrogen and phosphorus occurred at 50% flowering stage. Irrigation with 250 m3·ha-1, three times weekly, was begun at plant first flowering. In each replication, 12 individuals of each line or hybrid were

  6. The Effect of Different Cucurbit Rootstocks on Some Morphological and Physiological Traits of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus cv. Super Dominus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    reihane Mesgari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cucumber is one of the most important vegetable crops for the local consumption and exportation. The use of grafted vegetable seedlings has been popular in many countries during recent years. Growing fruit-bearing vegetables, chiefly tomato, cucumber and watermelon through grafted seedlings become a widespread practice worldwide. Grafting is a valuable technique to avoid soil-borne diseases, provide biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, enhance nutrient uptake, optimize water use, and increase fruit yield and quality. Vegetable grafting is a new topic in Iran and there are a limited number of studies on grafted vegetable production. However, attention to grafting by researchers has recently increased. Suitable rootstocks should be identified and characterized for the effective utilization of grafting. The rootstock's vigorous root system increases the efficiency of water and nutrient absorption, and may also serve as a source of endogenous plant hormones, thus leading to increased growth and yield in addition to disease control. In the present study, we investigated the response of two Cucurbita sp. and an Iranian melon as rootstocks for cucumber. Materials and methods: In order to study the effect of cucurbit rootstocks and grafting method on growth, yield and fruit quality of cucumber (Cucumis sativus cv. Super Dominus, an experiment was conducted as a factorial design in the base of RCBD with three replications in the greenhouse and research farm, University of Zanjan. Treatments were included three rootstocks (Cucurbita moschata L., Lagenaria siceraria and Cucumis melo L. and ungrafted plants (control and two grafting method (hole insertion and splice grafting. Seeds were sown simultaneously in plastic pots. For obtaining the same stem diameter of scion and rootstocks, cucumber seeds were planted four days earlier than rootstocks seeds. The seedlings were grown in an environment-controlled greenhouse with 25/20 day

  7. PORSUK NEHRİ SUYUNUN CUCUMIS SATIVUS (L. TOHUMLARININ FİDE GELİŞİMİ ÜZERİNE ETKİLERİNİN BELİRLENMESİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet ÇALISEKİ

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Porsuk Çayı 448 km uzunluğu ile Sakarya Irmağı’nın en uzun koludur ve Bayatçık Deresi ile Kızıltaş Suyu’nun birleşmesi ile oluşur. Kütahya Ovası’ndan geçip Eskişehir’in güneybatısında yer alan Porsuk-I ve Porsuk-II barajlarında toplandıktan sonra Eskişehir Ovası’ndan ve Eskişehir ilinden geçer ve Sakarya Irmağı’na ulaşır. Porsuk Çayı, Eskişehir’de tarım arazilerinin sulama suyu olarak kullanılmaktadır. Tüm İç Anadolu’da olduğu gibi Eskişehir’de de tarımı yapılan en yaygın bahçe bitkileri arasında Cucumis sativus (L. yer almaktadır. İnsan beslenmesinde ilk bakışta önemli gibi görünmese de Cucumis sativus; vitaminler, enzimler, mineral maddeler bakımından zengin bir bitkidir. Fakat protein, karbonhidrat ve yağ bakımından fakirdir. Bu çalışmada, tohumların çimlendirilmesinde şehir şebeke suyu ve farklı oranlarda seyreltilmiş, şehir içinde ve şehir dışında belirlenen istasyonlardan alınan Porsuk nehrine ait su örnekleri kullanılmıştır. Fidelerin kök-gövde uzunlukları, kök ve gövdeye ait yaş ve kuru ağırlıklar ölçülerek şebeke suyu ve Porsuk nehrine ait suyun fide gelişimi üzerine etkileri araştırılmıştır. Elde edilen verilere göre, kök uzunluğunun nehir suyunun seyreltme oranı ile doğru orantıda arttığı ve su içeriğinin seyreltme oranı arttıkça azaldığı tespit edilmiştir

  8. Host ranges of North American isolates of Penicillium causing blue mold of bulb crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Single isolates of four Penicillium species belonging to series Corymbifera (Penicillium allii, P. hirsutum, P. tulipae, P. venetum) plus an isolate of P. polonicum, all from North American sources, were inoculated individually into Crocus sativus, Allium sativum (garlic), A. cepa (onion), Iris holl...

  9. Effects of Crocin on The Pituitary-Gonadal Axis and Hypothalamic Kiss-1 Gene Expression in Female Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Zohrabi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Saffron (Crocus sativus L. has been traditionally used as a spice for coloring and flavoring in some countries cuisine. One of the main components of saffron is Crocin. Recent research have shown that crocin has various pharmacological effects. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of crocin on the Pituitary-Gonadal axis and Kiss-1 gene expression in hypothalamus and ovarian tissue organization in female Wistar rats. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, 18 adult female Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups. Control group received normal saline and experimental groups received two different doses of crocin (100 and 200 mg/kg every two days for 30 days. After the treatment period, blood samples were obtained from the heart and centrifuged. Next, the serum levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH, estrogen and progesterone hormones were measured by ELISA assay. The ovarian tissues were removed and fixed for histological investigation. The hypothalamic Kiss-1 gene expression was measured using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR. All data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA. Results A significant reduction (P=0.038 in the number of atretic graafian follicles (0.5 ± 0.31 was observed in rats treated with 200 mg/kg crocin. In addition, estrogen concentration in experimental groups (35.04 ± 0.85 and 36.18 ± 0.69 in crocin 100 and 200 mg/kg groups, respectively compared to control group (38.35 ± 0.64 and progesterone concentration in rats treated with crocin 200 mg/kg (2.06 ± 0.07 compared to control group (2.16 ± 0.04, significantly decreased. Interestingly, relative expressions of Kiss-1 mRNA significantly decreased in experimental groups (0.00053 ± 0.00051 and 0.0011 ± 0.00066 in crocin 100 and 200 mg/kg groups, respectively (P=0.000 compared to control group (1 ± 0. Conclusion Crocin, at hypothalamic level, reduces Kiss-1 gene expression and it can prevent

  10. Transcriptomic analysis of short-fruit 1 (sf1) reveals new insights into the variation of fruit-related traits in Cucumis sativus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lina; Cao, Chenxing; Zheng, Shuangshuang; Zhang, Haiyang; Liu, Panjing; Ge, Qian; Li, Jinrui; Ren, Zhonghai

    2017-06-07

    Fruit size is an important quality trait in different market classes of Cucumis sativus L., an economically important vegetable cultivated worldwide, but the genetic and molecular mechanisms that control fruit size are largely unknown. In this study, we isolated a natural cucumber mutant, short fruit 1 (sf1), caused by a single recessive Mendelian factor, from the North China-type inbred line CNS2. In addition to significantly decreased fruit length, other fruit-related phenotypic variations were also observed in sf1 compared to the wild-type (WT) phenotype, indicating that sf1 might have pleiotropic effects. Microscopic imaging showed that fruit cell size in sf1 was much larger than that in WT, suggesting that the short fruit phenotype in sf1 is caused by decreased cell number. Fine mapping revealed that sf1 was localized to a 174.3 kb region on chromosome 6. Similarly, SNP association analysis of bulked segregant RNA-Seq data showed increased SNP frequency in the same region of chromosome 6. In addition, transcriptomic analysis revealed that sf1 might control fruit length through the fine-tuning of cytokinin and auxin signalling, gibberellin biosynthesis and signal transduction in cucumber fruits. Overall, our results provide important information for further study of fruit length and other fruit-related features in cucumber.

  11. The Two Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein Genes, CsTCTP1 and CsTCTP2, Are Negative Modulators in the Cucumis sativus Defense Response to Sphaerotheca fuliginea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangnan Meng

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Pathogen stress often significantly decreases cucumber production. However, knowledge regarding the molecular mechanism and signals of cucumber disease resistance is far from complete. Here, we report two translationally controlled tumor protein genes, CsTCTP1 and CsTCTP2, that are both negative modulators in the Cucumis sativus defense response to Sphaerotheca fuliginea. Subcellular localization analysis showed that CsTCTP1 and CsTCTP2 were both localized in the cytoplasm. Expression analysis indicated that the transcript levels of CsTCTP1 and CsTCTP2 were linked to the degree of cucumber resistance to S. fuliginea. Transient overexpression of either CsTCTP1 or CsTCTP2 in cucumber cotyledons impaired resistance to S. fuliginea, whereas silencing of either CsTCTP1 or CsTCTP2 enhanced cucumber resistance to S. fuliginea. The relationship of several defense-related genes and ABA and target of rapamycin (TOR signaling pathway-related genes to the overexpressing and silencing of CsTCTP1/CsTCTP2 in non-infested cucumber plants was investigated. The results indicated that CsTCTP1 participates in the defense response to S. fuliginea by regulating the expression of certain defense-associated genes and/or ABA signaling pathway-associated genes, and CsTCTP2 participates through regulating the expression of TOR signaling pathway-associated genes. Our findings will guide enhancing the resistance of cucumber to powdery mildew.

  12. Effects of exogenous application of CPPU, NAA and GA4+7 on parthenocarpy and fruit quality in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Chunlu; Ren, Nannan; Wang, Jingye; Xu, Qiang; Chen, Xuehao; Qi, Xiaohua

    2018-03-15

    In protected vegetable fields, plant growth regulators are often used to improve cucumber fruit growth. However, the effects of plant growth regulators on the appearance and nutritional quality of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) remain largely unknown. In the present study, 100 mg/L N-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-N'-phenylurea (CPPU), naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) or gibberellin A4+A7 (GA 4+7 ) was applied to the female cucumber flowers 1 day before anthesis and at anthesis. The CPPU, NAA and GA 4+7 treatments resulted in parthenocarpic fruits with similar weights, sizes and shapes as the pollinated fruits. NAA treatment did not affect the appearance and nutritional characteristics of cucumber at harvest and after storage. CPPU treatment increased the flesh firmness at harvest but decreased phenolic acid and vitamin C contents after storage. GA 4+7 treatment decreased the flesh firmness but increased total flavonoids and protein content after storage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Study of the effect of uranium and thorium on the growing of pepper (Capsicum annuum var. longum) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uenak, T.; Yildirim, Y.; Tokucu, G.; Uenak, G.; Oecal, J.; Konyali, D.; Kilic, S.

    2007-01-01

    The transportation rate of uranium and thorium to different plants grown in soils having high level of these elements varies closely with the plant characteristics. In this study, the pepper (Capsicum annuum var. longum) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plants were chosen as vegetables which are commonly consumed over different regions by different populations. The results obtained can be summarized as follows: (1) High uranium concentration in the soil prevents the growing of the plants. Only the plants in the pot having the uranium concentration of about 263 ppm grew significantly. The plants in other pots having a higher concentration turned pale and died in a few weeks. (2) In the pot having thorium level of about 263 ppm, the plants were well grown and fruited in comparison to the control plants, but the increase of thorium concentration inversely influenced their growing. (3) The gross activities measured in different parts of the plants were not particularly high, however, in both cases the maximum activities were measured in the stems rather than in the fruits and leaves. (4) The plants grown in soils having thorium content lived longer than the control plants and at the greenhouse conditions indicated above, all plants lived more than one whole year flowering and fruiting. (author)

  14. Upregulation of PDZK1 by Calculus Bovis Sativus May Play an Important Role in Restoring Biliary Transport Function in Intrahepatic Cholestasis

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    Dong Xiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrahepatic cholestasis is a main cause of hepatic accumulation of bile acids leading to liver injury, fibrosis, and liver failure. Our previous studies proved that Calculus Bovis Sativus (CBS can restore biliary transport function through upregulating the multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2 and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP in 17α-ethynylestradiol- (EE- induced intrahepatic cholestasis rats. The regulation mechanism of CBS on these transporters, however, remains unclear. This study was designed to evaluate the possible relationship between the effect of CBS on transport activities and the regulation of CBS on the expression of PDZK1, a mainly scaffold protein which can regulate MRP2 and BCRP. Intrahepatic cholestasis model was induced in rats with injection of EE for five consecutive days and then the biliary excretion rates and cumulative biliary excretions were measured. The mRNA and protein expression levels of PDZK1 were detected by reverse transcription-quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, western blot, and immunohistochemical analysis. When treated with CBS, cumulative biliary excretions and mRNA and protein expressions of PDZK1 were significantly increased in intrahepatic cholestasis rats. This study demonstrated that CBS exerted a beneficial effect on EE-induced intrahepatic cholestasis rats by restoring biliary transport function, which may result from the upregulation of PDZK1 expression.

  15. Green Synthesized Zinc Oxide (ZnO Nanoparticles Induce Oxidative Stress and DNA Damage in Lathyrus sativus L. Root Bioassay System

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    Kamal K. Panda

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONP-GS were synthesised from the precursor zinc acetate (Zn(CH3COO2 through the green route using the milky latex from milk weed (Calotropis gigantea L. R. Br by alkaline precipitation. Formation of the ZnONP-GS was monitored by UV-visible spectroscopy followed by characterization and confirmation by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and X-ray diffraction (XRD. Both the ZnONP-GS and the commercially available ZnONP-S (Sigma-Aldrich and cationic Zn2+ from Zn(CH3COO2 were tested in a dose range of 0–100 mg·L−1 for their potency (i to induce oxidative stress as measured by the generation reactive oxygen species (ROS: O2•−, H2O2 and •OH, cell death, and lipid peroxidation; (ii to modulate the activities of antioxidant enzymes: catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, guaiacol peroxidase (GPX, and ascorbate peroxidase (APX; and (iii to cause DNA damage as determined by Comet assay in Lathyrus sativus L. root bioassay system. Antioxidants such as Tiron and dimethylthiourea significantly attenuated the ZnONP-induced oxidative and DNA damage, suggesting the involvement of ROS therein. Our study demonstrated that both ZnONP-GS and ZnONP-S induced oxidative stress and DNA damage to a similar extent but were significantly less potent than Zn2+ alone.

  16. Characterization and application of a diamine oxidase from Lathyrus sativus as component of an electrochemical biosensor for the determination of biogenic amines in wine and beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fusco, Massimo; Federico, Rodolfo; Boffi, Alberto; Macone, Alberto; Favero, Gabriele; Mazzei, Franco

    2011-08-01

    In this work, we have characterized a diamine oxidase (DAO) from Lathyrus sativus and evaluated its use, for the first time, as biocatalytic component of an electrochemical biosensor for the determination of biogenic amines index in wine and beer samples. Firstly, DAO was electrokinetically characterized free in solution by means of a platinum electrode and then immobilized by using polyazetidine prepolimer on the surface of screen-printed electrodes constituted of two gold working electrodes. The amperometric measurements were carried out by using a flow system at a fixed potential of +600 mV vs the internal silver pseudo reference in phosphate buffer solution (0.1 mol l(-1), pH = 7.4). The analysis of wine and beer samples were performed in flow injection system using the dual channel transducer providing simultaneous detection of sample and blank signal, and the resulting signal (after subtraction of the blank signal) was referred to that of putrescine. The results were compared with those obtained using a modified reference method based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis on the same samples. The results obtained in the analysis of Italian wines shows the better suitability of DAO-based biosensor in the determination of the biogenic amines (BAs) index expressed as putrescine equivalent in both red and white wines, being less efficient in beer samples where it underestimates by about 50% the BAs content.

  17. Diamine Oxidase from White Pea (Lathyrus sativus) Combined with Catalase Protects the Human Intestinal Caco-2 Cell Line from Histamine Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumarie, Catherine; Séïde, Marilyne; Marcocci, Lucia; Pietrangeli, Paola; Mateescu, Mircea Alexandru

    2017-07-01

    Diamine oxidase (DAO) administration has been proposed to treat certain gastrointestinal dysfunctions induced by histamine, an immunomodulator, signaling, and pro-inflammatory factor. However, H 2 O 2 resulting from the oxidative deamination of histamine by DAO may be toxic. The purpose of this study was to investigate to which extent DAO from white pea (Lathyrus sativus), alone or in combination with catalase, may modulate histamine toxicity in the human intestinal Caco-2 cell line. The results show that histamine at concentrations higher than 1 mM is toxic to the Caco-2 cells, independently of the cell differentiation status, with a LC 50 of ≅ 10 mM following a 24-h exposure. Depending on its concentration, DAO increased histamine toxicity to a greater extent in differentiated cells compared to undifferentiated cultures. In the presence of catalase, the DAO-induced increase in histamine toxicity was completely abolished in the undifferentiated cells and only partially decreased in differentiated cells, showing differences in the sensitivity of Caco-2 cells to the products resulting from histamine degradation by DAO (H 2 O 2 , NH 3 , or imidazole aldehyde). It appears that treatment of food histaminosis using a combination of vegetal DAO and catalase would protect against histamine toxicity and prevent H 2 O 2 -induced damage that may occur during histamine oxidative deamination.

  18. Production of intergeneric allotetraploid between autotetraploid non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis Makino and autotetraploid radish (Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Cheng-Zhen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Intergeneric hybrids between non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis Makino; 2n = 4x = 40 and radish (Raphanus sativus L.; 2n = 4x = 36 were obtained through ovary culture and embryo rescue. Some hybrid embryos (0.11 per ovary were produced, but only 4 of them germinated. As most hybrid embryos failed to develop into plantlets directly, plants were regenerated by inducing shoots on the cultured cotyledon and inducing roots on the root induction medium. All hybrid plants were morphologically uniform. They resembled the non-heading Chinese cabbage in the long-lived habit, the plant status, the vernalization requirement and the petiole color, while the petiole shape, leaf venation pattern and flowers were more similar to those of radish. Upon examination of the flowers, these were found to have normal pistil, but rudimentary anthers with non-functional pollen grains. The somatic chromosome number of F1 plants was 38. Analysis of SSR banding patterns provided additional confirmation of hybridity.

  19. Effect of ambient-level gas-phase peroxides on foliar injury, growth, and net photosynthesis in Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Xuan, E-mail: xuan66chen@yahoo.co.j [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Science, No.8, Dayangfang, Anwai, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China); Aoki, Masatoshi [Faculty of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Saiwaicho 3-5-8, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Takami, Akinori [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Onogawa 16-2, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Chai Fahe [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Science, No.8, Dayangfang, Anwai, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China); Hatakeyama, Shiro [Faculty of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Saiwaicho 3-5-8, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan)

    2010-05-15

    To investigate the effects of ambient-level gas-phase peroxides concurrent with O{sub 3} on foliar injury, photosynthesis, and biomass in herbaceous plants, we exposed Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus) to clean air, 50 ppb O{sub 3}, 100 ppb O{sub 3}, and 2-3 ppb peroxides + 50 ppb O{sub 3} in outdoor chambers. Compared with exposure to 100 ppb O{sub 3}, exposure to 2-3 ppb peroxides + 50 ppb O{sub 3} induced greater damage in foliar injury, net photosynthetic rates and biomass; the pattern of foliar injury and the cause of net photosynthetic rate reduction also differed from those occurring with O{sub 3} exposure alone. These results indicate for the first time that sub-ppb peroxides + 50 ppb O{sub 3} can cause more severe damage to plants than 100 ppb O{sub 3}, and that not only O{sub 3}, but also peroxides, could be contributing to the herbaceous plant damage and forest decline observed in Japan's air-polluted urban and remote mountains areas. - Ambient-level gas-phase peroxides coexisted with 50 ppb O{sub 3} may contribute to the herbaceous plants damage and forest decline observed in Japan.

  20. Growth response in radish to sequential and simultaneous exposures of NO/sub 2/ and SO/sub 2/. [Raphanus sativus L. cv. Cherry Belle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogsett, W.E.; Holman, S.R.; Gumpertz, M.L.; Tingey, D.T.

    1984-01-01

    Sequential and simultaneous exposures of radish Raphanus sativus L. cv. Cherry Belle to 0.8 ..mu..l liter/sup -1/ nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/) and 0.8 ..mu..l liter/sup -1/ sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) were conducted under both day- and night-time conditions to examine the effects on growth and development. Plants were exposed for 2 h per week over the four-week growing period. Frequent harvests at regular intervals were utilized for determination of the growth analysis functions. Sequential exposure to the two pollutants had no effect on growth compared with the charcoal-filtered air controls. Simultaneous exposure to the gases significantly reduced plant growth. The relative growth rate was reduced throughout the growing period apparently influenced by a reduced net assimilation rate. The partitioning of the available assimilate was altered to favor leaf growth at the expense of hypocotyl development. Night-time simultaneous exposures also altered growth progress but to a lesser degree than exposures during the day.

  1. Phenotypic plasticity of Myzus persicae (Hemíptera: Aphididae raised on Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala (kale and Raphanus sativus L. (radish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peppe Fernanda Borja

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of variability generated by phenotypic plasticity is crucial for predicting evolutionary patterns in insect-plant systems. Given sufficient variation for plasticity, host race formation can be favored and maintained, even simpatrically. The plasticity of size and performance (assessed by the lifetime fitness index r m of six clones of Myzus persicae was tested, with replicates allowed to develop on two hosts, kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala and radish (Raphanus sativus. The clones showed significant variability in their plasticity. Reaction norms varied through generations and negative genetic correlation, although not significant, tend to increase with the duration of host use. The lack of plasticity in lifetime fitness among generalist clones occurred as an after-effect of the highly plastic determinants. Significant morphological plasticity in host used was observed, but no variation in the plastic responses (GxE interaction was detected. Strong selection for a larger size occurred among individuals reared on radish, the most unfavorable host. Morphological plasticity in general body size (in a multivariate sense was not linear related to fitness plasticity. These observations suggest that a high potential for the evolution of host divergence favors host race formation.

  2. Green Synthesized Zinc Oxide (ZnO) Nanoparticles Induce Oxidative Stress and DNA Damage in Lathyrus sativus L. Root Bioassay System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Kamal K; Golari, Dambaru; Venugopal, A; Achary, V Mohan M; Phaomei, Ganngam; Parinandi, Narasimham L; Sahu, Hrushi K; Panda, Brahma B

    2017-05-18

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONP-GS) were synthesised from the precursor zinc acetate (Zn(CH₃COO)₂) through the green route using the milky latex from milk weed ( Calotropis gigantea L. R. Br) by alkaline precipitation. Formation of the ZnONP-GS was monitored by UV-visible spectroscopy followed by characterization and confirmation by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Both the ZnONP-GS and the commercially available ZnONP-S (Sigma-Aldrich) and cationic Zn 2+ from Zn(CH₃COO)₂ were tested in a dose range of 0-100 mg·L -1 for their potency (i) to induce oxidative stress as measured by the generation reactive oxygen species (ROS: O₂ •- , H₂O₂ and • OH), cell death, and lipid peroxidation; (ii) to modulate the activities of antioxidant enzymes: catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX); and (iii) to cause DNA damage as determined by Comet assay in Lathyrus sativus L. root bioassay system. Antioxidants such as Tiron and dimethylthiourea significantly attenuated the ZnONP-induced oxidative and DNA damage, suggesting the involvement of ROS therein. Our study demonstrated that both ZnONP-GS and ZnONP-S induced oxidative stress and DNA damage to a similar extent but were significantly less potent than Zn 2+ alone.

  3. Strong resistance of Arabidopsis thaliana and Raphanus sativus seeds for ionizing radiation as studied by ESR, ENDOR, ESE spectroscopy and germination measurement: Effect of long-lived and super-long-lived radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumagai, Jun E-mail: kumagai@apchem.nagoya-u.ac.jp; Katoh, Hiromi; Kumada, Takayuki; Tanaka, Atsushi; Tano, Shigemitsu; Miyazaki, Tetsuo

    2000-01-01

    Resistance of seeds for ionizing radiation effects on Arabidopsis thaliana and Raphanus sativus seeds were investigated by ESR, ENDOR, ESE spectroscopy and germination measurement. Two types of free radicals, such as long-lived (LL) and super-long-lived (SL) radicals, were produced by the {gamma}-irradiation in the seeds. More than 90% of the 1 kGy-irradiated-seeds can germinate probably by decreasing the LL radicals by absorbing water. 10 kGy-irradiated-seeds cannot germinate at all probably due to the existence of significant amounts of the SL radicals even after absorbing water. (author)

  4. Phytotoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles and the released Zn(II) ion to corn (Zea mays L.) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) during germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruichang; Zhang, Haibo; Tu, Chen; Hu, Xuefeng; Li, Lianzhen; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter

    2015-07-01

    Toxicity of engineered nanoparticles on organisms is of concern worldwide due to their extensive use and unique properties. The impacts of ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) on seed germination and root elongation of corn (Zea mays L.) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) were investigated in this study. The role of seed coats of corn in the mitigation toxicity of nanoparticles was also evaluated. ZnO NPs (1,000 mg L(-1)) reduced root length of corn and cucumber by 17 % (p < 0.05) and 51 % (p < 0.05), respectively, but exhibited no effects on germination. In comparison with Zn(2+), toxicity of ZnO NPs on the root elongation of corn could be attributed to the nanoparticulate ZnO, while released Zn ion from ZnO could solely contribute to the inhibition of root elongation of cucumber. Zn uptake in corn exposed to ZnO NPs during germination was much higher than that in corn exposed to Zn(2+), whereas Zn uptake in cucumber was significantly correlated with soluble Zn in suspension. It could be inferred that Zn was taken up by corn and cucumber mainly in the form of ZnO NPs and soluble Zn, respectively. Transmission electron microscope confirmed the uptake of ZnO NPs into root of corn. Although isolation of the seed coats might not be the principal factor that achieved avoidance from toxicity on germination, seed coats of corn were found to mitigate the toxicity of ZnO NPs on root elongation and prevent approximately half of the Zn from entering into root and endosperm.

  5. Genome-wide characterization of the MADS-box gene family in radish (Raphanus sativus L. and assessment of its roles in flowering and floral organogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The MADS-box gene family is an important transcription factor (TF family that is involved in various aspects of plant growth and development, especially flowering time and floral organogenesis. Although it has been reported in many plant species, the systematic identification and characterization of MADS-box TF family is still limited in radish (Raphanus sativus L.. In the present study, a comprehensive analysis of MADS-box genes was performed, and a total of 144 MADS-box family members were identified from the whole radish genome. Meanwhile, a detailed list of MADS-box genes from other 28 plant species was also investigated. Through the phylogenetic analysis between radish and Arabidopsis thaliana, all the RsMADS genes were classified into two groups including 68 type I (31 Mα, 12 Mβ and 25Mγ and 76 type II (70 MIKCC and 6 MIKC*. Among them, 41 (28.47% RsMADS genes were located in nine linkage groups of radish from R1 to R9. Moreover, the homologous MADS-box gene pairs were identified among radish, A. thaliana, Chinese cabbage and rice. Additionally, the expression profiles of RsMADS genes were systematically investigated in different tissues and growth stages. Furthermore, quantitative real-time PCR analysis was employed to validate expression patterns of some crucial RsMADS genes. These results could provide a valuable resource to explore the potential functions of RsMADS genes in radish, and facilitate dissecting MADS-box gene-mediated molecular mechanisms underlying flowering and floral organogenesis in root vegetable crops.

  6. Biocontrol Potential of Streptomyces hydrogenans strain DH16 Towards Alternaria brassicicola to Control Damping Off and Black Leaf Spot of Raphanus sativus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumari Manhas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Biocontrol agents and their bioactive metabolites provide one of the best alternatives to decrease the use of chemical pesticides. In light of this, the present investigation reports the biocontrol potential of Streptomyces hydrogenans DH16 and its metabolites towards Alternaria brassicicola, causal agent of black leaf spot and damping off of seedlings of crucifers. In vitro antibiosis of strain against pathogen revealed complete suppression of mycelial growth of pathogen, grown in potato dextrose broth supplemented with culture supernatant (20% v/v of Streptomyces hydrogenans DH16. Microscopic examination of the fungal growth showed severe morphological abnormalities in the mycelium caused by antifungal metabolites. In vivo studies showed the efficacy of streptomycete cells and culture supernatant as seed dressings to control damping off of Raphanus sativus seedlings. Treatment of pathogen infested seeds with culture supernatant (10% and streptomycete cells significantly improved seed germination (75-80% and vigour index (1167-1538. Furthermore, potential of cells and culture supernatant as foliar treatment to control black leaf spot was also evaluated. Clearly visible symptoms of disease were observed in the control plants with 66.81% disease incidence and retarded growth of root system. However, disease incidence reduced to 6.78 and 1.47% in plants treated with antagonist and its metabolites, respectively. Additionally, treatment of seeds and plants with streptomycete stimulated various growth traits of plants over uninoculated control plants in the absence of pathogen challenge. These results indicate that S. hydrogenans and its culture metabolites can be developed as biofungicides as seed dressings to control seed borne pathogens, and as sprays to control black leaf spot of crucifers.

  7. Genome-wide characterization of the WRKY gene family in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) reveals its critical functions under different abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanja, Bernard Kinuthia; Fan, Lianxue; Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Zhu, Xianwen; Tang, Mingjia; Wang, Ronghua; Zhang, Fei; Muleke, Everlyne M'mbone; Liu, Liwang

    2017-11-01

    The radish WRKY gene family was genome-widely identified and played critical roles in response to multiple abiotic stresses. The WRKY is among the largest transcription factors (TFs) associated with multiple biological activities for plant survival, including control response mechanisms against abiotic stresses such as heat, salinity, and heavy metals. Radish is an important root vegetable crop and therefore characterization and expression pattern investigation of WRKY transcription factors in radish is imperative. In the present study, 126 putative WRKY genes were retrieved from radish genome database. Protein sequence and annotation scrutiny confirmed that RsWRKY proteins possessed highly conserved domains and zinc finger motif. Based on phylogenetic analysis results, RsWRKYs candidate genes were divided into three groups (Group I, II and III) with the number 31, 74, and 20, respectively. Additionally, gene structure analysis revealed that intron-exon patterns of the WRKY genes are highly conserved in radish. Linkage map analysis indicated that RsWRKY genes were distributed with varying densities over nine linkage groups. Further, RT-qPCR analysis illustrated the significant variation of 36 RsWRKY genes under one or more abiotic stress treatments, implicating that they might be stress-responsive genes. In total, 126 WRKY TFs were identified from the R. sativus genome wherein, 35 of them showed abiotic stress-induced expression patterns. These results provide a genome-wide characterization of RsWRKY TFs and baseline for further functional dissection and molecular evolution investigation, specifically for improving abiotic stress resistances with an ultimate goal of increasing yield and quality of radish.

  8. Evaluation of the potential for biosolids obtained from wastewater treatment for agricultural use and their effect on cultivation of red radish (Raphanus sativus L)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez Pisco, Ramiro; Perez Arenas, Martha Ines

    2006-01-01

    This study was conducted in waste water treatment plant The Salitre, in Bogota, to evaluate the potential of the waste water treatment subproduct biosolids for application in agriculture by means of quantifying growth, development and production of cultivation of red radish, and to establish a possible alternative to the problem of final disposition of 3900 tons of this material generated monthly in the waste water treatment plant. The experimental design employed was a random blocks design, with five treatments and three replications, arranged in 2 m x 2 m plots. the treatments corresponded to mixtures of biosolids with soil in the following proportions: 100 % biosolid (equivalent to 294 ton ha-1), 75 % biosolid (220 ton ha-1), 50 % biosolid (147 ton ha-1), 25 % biosolid (73 ton ha-1) and. 100 % soil. Red radish raphanus sativus l. was planted. the variables evaluated were: germination percentage, dry weight of leaves and. roots, plant length, foliar area and production. Also, the accumulation of trace was measured in the harvested radishes, to determine risks of consumption. The results showed that the 50 % biosolid and 25 % biosolid, treatments were those that most favored growth, development and. production of cultivation radish, while the 75 % biosolid and 100 % biosolid treatments, showed lower development growth and production of the cultivar. The 100 % biosolid treatment resulted in low germination and also did not show root accumulation, that is the harvested product. The levels of accumulation of heavy metals surpassed the maximum levels with the 75 % biosolid and 100 % biosolid treatment. It was shown that the use of the biosolids in agriculture can produce a great risk, because despite having high nutrient (C,N, P, Ca, Na, Fe y Zn) and organic matter content, it also may slow growth and production of radish plants

  9. Orthology Analysis and In Vivo Complementation Studies to Elucidate the Role of DIR1 during Systemic Acquired Resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana and Cucumis sativus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Isaacs

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available AtDIR1 (Defective in Induced Resistance1 is an acidic lipid transfer protein essential for systemic acquired resistance (SAR in Arabidopsis thaliana. Upon SAR induction, DIR1 moves from locally infected to distant uninfected leaves to activate defense priming; however, a molecular function for DIR1 has not been elucidated. Bioinformatic analysis and in silico homology modeling identified putative AtDIR1 orthologs in crop species, revealing conserved protein motifs within and outside of DIR1’s central hydrophobic cavity. In vitro assays to compare the capacity of recombinant AtDIR1 and targeted AtDIR1-variant proteins to bind the lipophilic probe TNS (6,P-toluidinylnaphthalene-2-sulfonate provided evidence that conserved leucine 43 and aspartic acid 39 contribute to the size of the DIR1 hydrophobic cavity and possibly hydrophobic ligand binding. An Arabidopsis–cucumber SAR model was developed to investigate the conservation of DIR1 function in cucumber (Cucumis sativus, and we demonstrated that phloem exudates from SAR-induced cucumber rescued the SAR defect in the Arabidopsis dir1-1 mutant. Additionally, an AtDIR1 antibody detected a protein of the same size as AtDIR1 in SAR-induced cucumber phloem exudates, providing evidence that DIR1 function during SAR is conserved in Arabidopsis and cucumber. In vitro TNS displacement assays demonstrated that recombinant AtDIR1 did not bind the SAR signals azelaic acid (AzA, glycerol-3-phosphate or pipecolic acid. However, recombinant CsDIR1 and CsDIR2 interacted weakly with AzA and pipecolic acid. Bioinformatic and functional analyses using the Arabidopsis–cucumber SAR model provide evidence that DIR1 orthologs exist in tobacco, tomato, cucumber, and soybean, and that DIR1-mediated SAR signaling is conserved in Arabidopsis and cucumber.

  10. Brassinosteroids-Induced Systemic Stress Tolerance was Associated with Increased Transcripts of Several Defence-Related Genes in the Phloem in Cucumis sativus.

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    Pingfang Li

    Full Text Available Brassinosteroids (BRs, a group of naturally occurring plant steroidal compounds, are essential for plant growth, development and stress tolerance. Recent studies showed that BRs could induce systemic tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses; however, the molecular mechanisms by which BRs signals lead to responses in the whole plant are largely unknown. In this study, 24-epibrassinosteroid (EBR-induced systemic tolerance in Cucumis sativus L. cv. Jinyan No. 4 was analyzed through the assessment of symptoms of photooxidative stress by chlorophyll fluorescence imaging pulse amplitude modulation. Expression of defense/stress related genes were induced in both treated local leaves and untreated systemic leaves by local EBR application. With the suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH library using cDNA from the phloem sap of EBR-treated plants as the tester and distilled water (DW-treated plants as the driver, 14 transcripts out of 260 clones were identified. Quantitative Real Time-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-qPCR validated the specific up-regulation of these transcripts. Of the differentially expressed transcripts with known functions, transcripts for the selected four cDNAs, which encode an auxin-responsive protein (IAA14, a putative ankyrin-repeat protein, an F-box protein (PP2, and a major latex, pathogenesis-related (MLP-like protein, were induced in local leaves, systemic leaves and roots after foliar application of EBR onto mature leaves. Our results demonstrated that EBR-induced systemic tolerance is accompanied with increased transcript of genes in the defense response in other organs. The potential role of phloem mRNAs as signaling components in mediating BR-regulated systemic resistance is discussed.

  11. Citric acid modifies surface properties of commercial CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles reducing their toxicity and cerium uptake in radish (Raphanus sativus) seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trujillo-Reyes, J. [Chemistry Department, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Av., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Vilchis-Nestor, A.R. [Centro Conjunto de Investigación en Química Sustentable UAEM—UNAM, Carretera Toluca—Atlacomulco km 14.5, San Cayetano, CP 50200 Toluca, Estado de México (Mexico); Majumdar, S. [Chemistry Department, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Av., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); University of California Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (UC CEIN), The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Av., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Peralta-Videa, J.R. [Chemistry Department, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Av., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Environmental Science and Engineering PhD program, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Ave., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); University of California Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (UC CEIN), The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Av., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Gardea-Torresdey, J.L., E-mail: jgardea@utep.edu [Chemistry Department, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Av., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Environmental Science and Engineering PhD program, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Ave., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); University of California Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (UC CEIN), The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Av., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • The citric acid capping significantly reduced the ζ potential values. • As the amount of CA increased, thicker the layer surrounding the CeO{sub 2} NPs. • CeO{sub 2}/CA NPs had better distribution and small particle size than bare CeO{sub 2} NPs. • CeO{sub 2}/CA NPs decrease the Ce uptake by radish seedlings. -- Abstract: Little is known about the mobility, reactivity, and toxicity to plants of coated engineered nanoparticles (ENPs). Surface modification may change the interaction of ENPs with living organisms. This report describes surface changes in commercial CeO{sub 2} NPs coated with citric acid (CA) at molar ratios of 1:2, 1:3, 1:7, and 1:10 CeO{sub 2}:CA, and their effects on radish (Raphanus sativus) seed germination, cerium and nutrients uptake. All CeO{sub 2} NPs and their absorption by radish plants were characterized by TEM, DLS, and ICP-OES. Radish seeds were germinated in pristine and CA coated CeO{sub 2} NPs suspensions at 50 mg/L, 100 mg/L, and 200 mg/L. Deionized water and CA at 100 mg/L were used as controls. Results showed ζ potential values of 21.6 mV and −56 mV for the pristine and CA coated CeO{sub 2} NPs, respectively. TEM images showed denser layers surrounding the CeO{sub 2} NPs at higher CA concentrations, as well as better distribution and smaller particle sizes. None of the treatments affected seed germination. However, at 200 mg/L the CA coated NPs at 1:7 ratio produced significantly (p ≤ 0.05) more root biomass, increased water content and reduced by 94% the Ce uptake, compared to bare NPs. This suggests that CA coating decrease CeO{sub 2} NPs toxicity to plants.

  12. Instability of chromosome number and DNA methylation variation induced by hybridization and amphidiploid formation between Raphanus sativus L. and Brassica alboglabra Bailey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yanjie

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Distant hybridization can result genome duplication and allopolyploid formation which may play a significant role in the origin and evolution of many plant species. It is unclear how the two or more divergent genomes coordinate in one nucleus with a single parental cytoplasm within allopolyploids. We used cytological and molecular methods to investigate the genetic and epigenetic instabilities associated with the process of distant hybridization and allopolyploid formation, measuring changes in chromosome number and DNA methylation across multiple generations. Results F1 plants from intergeneric hybridization between Raphanus sativus L. (2n = 18, RR and Brassica alboglabra Bailey (2n = 18, CC were obtained by hand crosses and subsequent embryo rescue. Random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers were used to identify the F1 hybrid plants. The RAPD data indicated that the hybrids produced specific bands similar to those of parents and new bands that were not present in either parent. Chromosome number variation of somatic cells from allotetraploids in the F4 to F10 generations showed that intensive genetic changes occurred in the early generations of distant hybridization, leading to the formation of mixopolyploids with different chromosome numbers. DNA methylation variation was revealed using MSAP (methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism, which showed that cytosine methylation patterns changed markedly in the process of hybridization and amphidiploid formation. Differences in cytosine methylation levels demonstrated an epigenetic instability of the allopolyploid of Raphanobrassica between the genetically stable and unstable generations. Conclusions Our results showed that chromosome instability occurred in the early generations of allopolyploidy and then the plants were reverted to largely euploidy in later generations. During this process, DNA methylation changed markedly. These results suggest that

  13. Transfer of Nickel from Polluted Soil to Pisum sativum L. and Raphanus sativus L. under Composted Green Amendment and Native Soil Microbes

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    Nafady Nivien Allam

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of compost, inoculation with native soil microbes and their residual effects on bioavailability of nickel by peas (Pisum sativum L. and radish (Raphanus sativus L. grown on polluted soil were investigated in pot experiments. Plants were amendment with different compost levels (0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6% of soil dry weight and inoculated with different native soil microbes (4 fungal species, one bacterial species, 4 species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi isolated from the polluted soil under study. Significant increases in the biomass of pea and radish plants were observed as a result of amendment application and their residual effects. The mycorrhizal dependency (MD of pea plants was lower than of radish plants. The highest reductions of Ni levels in both plants were observed by the simultaneous applications of compost with microbes or mycorrhizal fungi to polluted soils. Soil pH increased significantly (p < 0.05 as a result of applying native microbes especially with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF alone or combined with compost. The DTPA extractability of soil Ni was significantly decreased with increasing soil pH (p < 0.05. The minimum transfer factor of Ni from polluted soil were 0.067 and 0.089 for pea and radish plants, respectively which were attained as a result of applying compost (0.6% of soil weight inoculated with mycorrhizal fungi. From the results, we can conclude that the use of compost and native soil microbes as a soil remediate could be an effective strategy for soil remediation.

  14. A fragment substitution in the promoter of CsHDZIV11/CsGL3 is responsible for fruit spine density in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiyang; Wang, Lina; Zheng, Shuangshuang; Liu, Zezhou; Wu, Xiaoqin; Gao, Zhihui; Cao, Chenxing; Li, Qiang; Ren, Zhonghai

    2016-07-01

    The indel in the promoter of CsHDZIV11 co-segregates with fruit spine density and could be used for molecular breeding in cucumber. Fruit spine density is an important quality trait for marketing in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). However, the molecular basis of fruit spine density in cucumber remains unclear. In this study, we isolated a mutant, few spines 1 (fs1), from CNS2 (wild type, WT), a North China-type cucumber with a high density of fruit spines. Genetic analysis showed that fs1 was controlled by a single recessive Mendelian factor. Bulked segregant analysis combined with genome resequencing were used for mapping fs1 in the F2 population derived from a cross between the fs1 mutant and WT, and it was located on chromosome 6 through association analysis. To develop more polymorphic markers to locate fs1, another F2 population was constructed from the cross between fs1 and 'Chinese long' 9930. Then, fs1 was narrowed down to a 110.4-kb genomic region containing 25 annotated genes. A fragment substitution was identified in the promoter region of Csa6M514870 between fs1 and WT. This fragment in fs1 was also present in wild cucumber. Csa6M514870 encodes a PDF2-related protein, a homeodomain-leucine zipper IV transcription factor (CsHDZIV11/CsGL3) sharing high identity and similarity with proteins related to trichome formation or epidermal cell differentiation. Quantitative reverse-transcription PCR revealed a higher expression level of CsHDZIV11 in young fruits from fs1 compared to WT. A molecular marker based on this indel co-segregated with the spine density. This work provides a solid foundation not only for understanding the molecular mechanism of fruit spine density, but also for molecular breeding in cucumber.

  15. Manipulation of the hypocotyl sink activity by reciprocal grafting of two Raphanus sativus varieties: its effects on morphological and physiological traits of source leaves and whole-plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Daisuke; Betsuyaku, Eriko; Terashima, Ichiro

    2015-12-01

    To reveal whether hypocotyl sink activities are regulated by the aboveground parts, and whether physiology and morphology of source leaves are affected by the hypocotyl sink activities, we conducted grafting experiments using two Raphanus sativus varieties with different hypocotyl sink activities. Comet (C) and Leafy (L) varieties with high and low hypocotyl sink activities were reciprocally grafted and resultant plants were called by their scion and stock such as CC, LC, CL and LL. Growth, leaf mass per area (LMA), total non-structural carbohydrates (TNCs) and photosynthetic characteristics were compared among them. Comet hypocotyls in CC and LC grew well regardless of the scions, whereas Leafy hypocotyls in CL and LL did not. Relative growth rate was highest in LL and lowest in CC. Photosynthetic capacity was correlated with Rubisco (ribulose 1·5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase) content but unaffected by TNC. High C/N ratio and accumulation of TNC led to high LMA and structural LMA. These results showed that the hypocotyl sink activity was autonomously regulated by hypocotyl and that the down-regulation of photosynthesis was not induced by TNC. We conclude that the change in the sink activity alters whole-plant growth through the changes in both biomass allocation and leaf morphological characteristics in R. sativus. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The Infection of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. Roots by Meloidogyne incognita Alters the Expression of Actin-Depolymerizing Factor (ADF Genes, Particularly in Association with Giant Cell Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. is threatened by substantial yield losses due to the south root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita. However, understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the process of nematode infection is still limited. In this study, we found that M. incognita infection affected the structure of cells in cucumber roots and treatment of the cytoskeleton inhibitor (cytochalasin D reduced root-knot nematode (RKN parasitism. It is known that Actin-Depolymerizing Factor (ADF affects cell structure, as well as the organization of the cytoskeleton. To address the hypothesis that nematode-induced abnormal cell structures and cytoskeletal rearrangements might be mediated by the ADF genes, we identified and characterized eight cucumber ADF (CsADF genes. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the cucumber ADF gene family is grouped into four ancient subclasses. Expression analysis revealed that CsADF1, CsADF2-1, CsADF2-2, CsADF2-3 (Subclass I and CsADF6 (Subclass III have higher transcript levels than CsADF7-1, CsADF7-2 (Subclass II genes and CsADF5 (Subclass IV in roots. Members of subclass I genes (CsADF1, CsADF2-1, CsADF2-2 and CsADF2-3, with the exception of CsADF2-1, exhibited a induction of expression in roots 14 days after their inoculation (DAI with nematodes. However, the expression of subclass II genes (CsADF7-1 and CsADF7-2 showed no significant change after inoculation. The transcript levels of CsADF6 (Subclass III showed a specific induction at 21 DAI, while CsADF5 (Subclass IV was weakly expressed in roots, but was strongly up-regulated as early as 7 DAI. In addition, treatment of roots with cytochalasin D caused an approximately two-fold down-regulation of the CsADF genes in the treated plants. These results suggest that CsADF gene mediated actin dynamics are associated with structural changes in roots as a consequence of M. incognita infection.

  17. Hepatoprotective effect of calculus bovis sativus on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in mice by inhibiting oxidative stress and apoptosis of hepatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He WX

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Wenxi He,1 Yanjiao Xu,1 Chengliang Zhang,1 Jingli Lu,2 Juan Li,1 Dong Xiang,1 Jinyu Yang,1 Mujun Chang,3 Dong Liu1 1Department of Pharmacy, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China; 2Department of Pharmacy, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan, China; 3Center for Translational Medicine, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China Abstract: Calculus bovis (CB, niu-huang is a high-class therapeutic drug that is often used in traditional Chinese medicine. CB helps to eliminate heat and toxic components, and prevents the accumulation of phlegm and blood stasis in the liver. In Asian countries, CB Sativus (CBS, an ideal substitute for natural CB, is presently extensively used for long-term treatment of chronic liver diseases. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects and potential mechanism(s of action of CBS on mice with fructose-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. The NAFLD model was established in C57BL/6 mice by exclusively feeding fluids containing 30% fructose for 8 consecutive weeks. After these 8 weeks, mice were given CBS (50 mg/kg/day or 100 mg/kg/day for 2 consecutive weeks. Treatment with CBS reversed the fructose-induced impaired glucose tolerance. Compared with the model group, in which mice received 8 weeks of high-fructose diet and 2 weeks of 0.5% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, CBS treatment significantly decreased the levels of fasting serum glucose, fasting insulin, triglyceride, and total cholesterol, and increased levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. CBS treatment also significantly decreased the levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, and free fatty acid in the liver. The activity of superoxide dismutase in the liver was increased after treatment with CBS, however, levels of malondialdehyde and reactive oxygen species decreased

  18. The effects of different sewage sludge amendment rates on the heavy metal bioaccumulation, growth and biomass of cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Ebrahem M; Alrumman, Sulaiman A; El-Bebany, Ahmed F; Hesham, Abd El-Latif; Taher, Mostafa A; Fawy, Khaled F

    2017-07-01

    When sewage sludge is incorrectly applied, it may adversely impact agro-system productivity. Thus, this study addresses the reaction of Cucumis sativus L. (cucumber) to different amendment rates (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 g kg -1 ) of sewage sludge in a greenhouse pot experiment, in which the plant growth, heavy metal uptake and biomass were evaluated. A randomized complete block design with six treatments and six replications was used as the experimental design. The soil electrical conductivity, organic matter and Cr, Fe, Zn and Ni concentrations increased, but the soil pH decreased in response to the sewage sludge applications. As approved by the Council of European Communities, all of the heavy metal concentrations in the sewage sludge were less than the permitted limit for applying sewage sludge to land. Generally, applications of sewage sludge of up to 40 g kg -1 resulted in a considerable increase in all of the morphometric parameters and biomass of cucumbers in contrast to plants grown on the control soil. Nevertheless, the cucumber shoot height; root length; number of leaves, internodes and fruits; leaf area; absolute growth rate and biomass decreased in response to 50 g kg -1 of sewage sludge. All of the heavy metal concentrations (except the Cu, Zn and Ni in the roots, Mn in the fruits and Pb in the stems) in different cucumber tissues increased with increasing sewage sludge application rates. However, all of the heavy metal concentrations (except the Cr and Fe in the roots, Fe in the leaves and Cu in the fruits) were within the normal range and did not reach phytotoxic levels. A characteristic of these cucumbers was that all of the heavy metals had a bioaccumulation factor sewage sludge used in this study could be considered for use as a fertilizer in cucumber production systems in Saudi Arabia and can also serve as a substitute method of sewage sludge disposal. Graphical Abstract The effects of different sewage sludge amendment rates on the heavy

  19. The uptake of Cs and Sr from soil to radish (Raphanus sativus L.)- potential for phytoextraction and remediation of contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Dan; Wen, Fangping; Xu, Changhe; Tang, Yunlai; Luo, Xuegang

    2012-01-01

    The 133 Cs and 88 Sr uptake by plant Raphanus sativus L. was studied during cultivation in outdoor potted-soil. The distribution, accumulation of 133 Cs, 88 Sr and the antioxidant responses in plants were measured after 30 and 60 days of cultivation. The results showed that the uptake capacity of radish for 88 Sr was far higher than that for 133 Cs when the concentration of 88 Sr was as the same as that of 133 Cs in the soil (The concentration of 88 Sr or 133 Cs in the soil was from 2.5 mg kg −1 to 40 mg kg −1 ). The highest 88 Sr accumulation was 239.18 μg g −1 dw, otherwise, the highest 133 Cs accumulation was 151.74 μg g −1 dw (The concentration of 88 Sr in the soil was 40 mg kg −1 ), and the lowest 88 Sr accumulation was 131.03 μg g −1 dw, otherwise, the lowest 133 Cs accumulation was 12.85 μg g −1 dw (The concentration of 88 Sr in the soil is 5 mg kg −1 ). The 88 Sr and 133 Cs TF values were 1.16–1.72 and 0.24–0.60, respectively. There was little influence of high concentration of 88 Sr on the total biomass of plants, so the radish is one of the ideal phytoremediation plant for Sr polluted soils. The important physiological reasons that radish had good tolerance to 88 Sr stress were that the MDA content was higher under the 88 Sr stress than that under the 133 Cs stress, and the activities of POD and CAT were lower under the 88 Sr stress than that under 133 Cs stress. - Highlights: ► Radish is a kind of native plant with high biomass and fast growth. Its uptake capacity of radish for 88 Sr was far higher than that for 133 Cs when the concentration of 88 Sr was the same as that of 133 Cs in the soil. ► The TF values of radish for 88 Sr were 1.16–1.72. ► Radish is one of the ideal phytoremediation plant for Sr polluted soils. ► The important physiological reasons that radish had good tolerance toward 88 Sr stress were that the MDA content was higher under the 88 Sr stress than under the 133 Cs stress, and the activities of POD

  20. Viabilidade do uso de água residuária tratada na irrigação da cultura do rabanete (Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iasmine Louise de Almeida Dantas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de água residuária tratada para irrigação pode se tornar uma alternativa para regiões que enfrentam escassez de água. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos do reuso de efluente doméstico na cultura do rabanete (Raphanus sativus L.. O experimento foi realizado em casa de vegetação do Departamento de Engenharia Agronômica (DEA, localizada na Universidade Federal de Sergipe/Campus de São Cristóvão no período de agosto a setembro de 2011. O efluente foi coletado na Estação de Tratamento de Esgotos (ETE Rosa Elze, localizada no Município de São Cristóvão/SE. As irrigações foram feitas utilizando-se cinco diluições diferentes. A lâmina de irrigação foi obtida pelo método do Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO 56. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado (IC, com cinco repetições e duas plantas por parcela útil. Foram avaliados altura, massa seca e fresca da parte aérea; comprimento e massa fresca da raiz; diâmetro do fruto e número de folhas. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variância e as médias comparadas pelo teste de Tukey ao nível de 5% de probabilidade, não havendo diferença significativa. Em relação à qualidade microbiológica do bulbo, realizou-se a enumeração de coliformes termotolerantes, de bactérias aeróbias mesófilas e a pesquisa de Salmonella, os resultados demonstram que o rabanete encontra-se dentro dos padrões estabelecidos pela legislação.

  1. Phytotoxicity of three plant-based biodiesels, unmodified castor oil, and Diesel fuel to alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), radish (Raphanus sativus), and wheatgrass (Triticum aestivum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamgbose, Ifeoluwa; Anderson, Todd A

    2015-12-01

    The wide use of plant-based oils and their derivatives, in particular biodiesel, have increased extensively over the past decade to help alleviate demand for petroleum products and improve the greenhouse gas emissions profile of the transportation sector. Biodiesel is regarded as a clean burning alternative fuel produced from livestock feeds and various vegetable oils. Although in theory these animal and/or plant derived fuels should have less environmental impact in soil based on their simplified composition relative to Diesel, they pose an environmental risk like Diesel at high concentrations when disposed. The aim of the present study was to ascertain the phytotoxicity of three different plant-derived biodiesels relative to conventional Diesel. For phytotoxicological analysis, we used seeds of four crop plants, Medicago sativa, Lactuca sativa, Raphanus sativus, and Triticum aestivum to analyze the germination of seeds in contaminated soil samples. The toxicological experiment was conducted with two different soil textures: sandy loam soil and silt loam soil. The studied plant-based biodiesels were safflower methyl-ester, castor methyl ester, and castor ethyl-ester. Biodiesel toxicity was more evident at high concentrations, affecting the germination and survival of small-seeded plants to a greater extent. Tolerance of plants to the biodiesels varied between plant species and soil textures. With the exception of R. sativus, all plant species were affected and exhibited some sensitivity to the fuels, such as delayed seedling emergence and slow germination (average=10 days) at high soil concentrations (0.85% for Diesel and 1.76% for the biodiesels). Tolerance of plants to soil contamination had a species-specific nature, and on average, decreased in the following order: Raphanus sativus (0-20%)>Triticum aestivum (10-40%) ≥ Medicago sativa> Lactuca sativa (80-100%). Thus, we conclude that there is some phytotoxicity associated with plant-based biodiesels. Further

  2. EFEITO DE DIFERENTES NÍVEIS DE IRRIGAÇÃO BASEADAS EM FRAÇÕES DO TANQUE CLASSE SOBRE A PRODUÇÃO DE RABANETE (Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Angélica Alves MARQUES

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The radish (Raphanus sativus L. is a herbaceous plant which roots present high nutritious value. One of the more used methods of the cultures evapotranspiration estimative (Eto is the pan evaporation. This method integrated the effects of solar radiation, wind, temperature and relative humidity based on the water evaporation of a free surface. This work studied the effect of different irrigation levels, based on pan evaporation (ECA - 80% ECA; 100% ECA; 120% ECA and hydric stress (0% ECA, about the 'Crinson Giant' radish production cultivated in pots. The fractions of pan evaporation tested didn't cause a reduction in the radish production in relation to the total irrigation (100% ECA. However the plants submitted to the hydric stress (0% ECA had presented a reduction in dry matter of 42% and 64% in aerial part and roots, respectively, when compared to the control (100% ECA.

  3. Effect of Lathyrus sativus and vitamin C on the status of aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase and dipeptidyl-aminopeptidase-IV in the central and peripheral tissues and serum of guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M.K.; Sarker, M.A.H.

    1992-05-01

    Studies on the effect of Lathyrus Sativus seeds (LLS) on aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) and on dipeptidyl-aminopeptidase-IV (DAP-IV) were carried out in the central and peripheral tissues and serum of LSS-treated and LSS plus vitamin C-treated guinea pigs. The feeding of LSS for 35 days decreased the AADC activity significantly in the brain and peripheral tissues, but the activity was recovered to normal level in the most tissues when vitamin C was added with the LSS. DAP-IV activity decreased in the peripheral tissues when treated with LSS, but the vitamin C administration with LSS did not recover the enzyme activity. The DAP-IV activity did not decrease significantly in any of the brain tissues of the LSS-treated group. (author). 18 refs, 2 tabs

  4. 不同颜色肉质萝卜核型分析研究%Karyotype Analysis of Radish(Raphanus sativus L.)with Different Freshy Colors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许江; 许冬梅; 姚启伦; 陈发波

    2011-01-01

    Thirty two radish(Raphanus sativus L. ) accessions with different flesh colors were used to analyze the karyotypes and the red pigment content for the first time. It showed that the red accessions with red flesh had a high red pigment content as high as 16. 21% on the average (ranging from 3. 4%o~28. 8%o) , and there existed significant differences in the red pigment content between accessions. With the same number of chromosomes (2n = 2x=18) the karyotype formulae of the red radish with red flesh,green radish with red flesh,white radish with red flesh, and white radish were 14m + 4sm, 16 tn + 2 sm,as well as 18m,and belonged to 2A,Lb,La,and 1 A, respectively. As all the accessions without satellites presented almost exclusively m and sm chromosomes,some changes in chromosome size and structure occurred but no great changes in chromosome morphology were obseved. Ranking of radish accessions based on the chromosomal a-symmetry index was in turn: the red radish with red flesh,green radish with red flesh,red radish with white flesh,and white radish. With respect to the karyotype evolution,the white flesh radish could be considered more ancestral than the red flesh accessions. In additon,it was deduced that the latter might be a variant of the former.%以红皮红心、绿皮红心、红皮白心和白皮白心4种不同肉质颜色的32份萝卜品种为材料,室内检测红色肉质萝卜的色素含量及镜检观测不同颜色肉质萝卜的核型.结果表明,供试红色肉质萝卜色素含量变幅为3.4‰~28.8%,基因型间存在显著差异.不同颜色肉质萝卜品种的染色体数目均为2n=2x=18,且未见随体,红皮红心萝卜核型公式为2n=2x=14m+4 sm,属于2A型,核不对称系数为59.28%;绿皮红心萝卜核型公式为2n=2 x=16m+2 sm,属于1B型;红皮白心萝卜核型公式为2 n=2 x=18 m,属于1A型;白皮白心萝卜核型公式为2 n=2x=16m+2sm,属于1A型.从核型进化看,红色肉质萝卜比白色肉质萝卜进化

  5. Teelthandleiding groenbemesters : bladrammenas (Raphanus sativus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, R.D.; Korthals, G.W.; Molendijk, L.P.G.

    2011-01-01

    Bladrammenas is een weinig knolvormende vorm van rammenas en is geschikt voor alle grondsoorten. Het gewas heeft een snelle beginontwikkeling en vormt in korte tijd een massaal gewas dat gemakkelijk onkruid onderdrukt. De begingroei is wel iets minder vlot dan van gele mosterd. Bladrammenas is,

  6. Acumulación de Grados-Día en un Cultivo de Pepino (Cucumis sativus L. en un Modelo de Producción Aeropónico Growing Degree Days Accumulation in a Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. Crop Grown in an Aeroponic Production Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubián Hoyos García

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. La temperatura tiene gran influencia sobre los cultivos y es clave en la determinación de la fecha de siembra, cosecha y las variables de producción. Los grados-día (GDD o unidades térmicas (HU son uno de los índices más comúnmente utilizados para estimar el desarrollo de las plantas y para predecir la fecha de cosecha. En el cultivo de pepino (Cucumis sativus L., el número de días desde la siembra hasta la cosecha depende del genotipo y su interacción con la temperatura ambiental. En este trabajo se estudiaron variables fenométricas que inciden sobre la eficiencia y producción de cultivos bajo un sistema aeropónico. Se determinó que se requirieron 726 y 660 grados-día, correspondientes a 73 y 64 días para los materiales comerciales Dasher II y Poinsset 76, respectivamente. Se analizó el efecto de dos periodos de riego 30 y 60 s, con un intervalo de aplicación de cuatro min durante el día, sobre las variables área foliar y peso seco de tallos y hojas en el híbrido Dasher II. No se encontraron diferencias significativas para los parámetros evaluados lo que indicó que el tiempo de 30 s representó una ventaja económica por el ahorro de energía. Se usaron tres soluciones nutritivas: Hoagland y Arnon, Aeropónicos 100% y Aeropónicos 50%, para determinar el efecto sobre el peso seco y el área foliar. Se encontró una reducción de las variables área foliar, materia seca acumulada en el tallo y las hojas, peso promedio de frutos (hasta 44,3% y número promedio de frutos, con la solución Aeropónicos al 50% de la concentración comercial. Los resultados permiten implementar variables de eficiencia en el cultivo aeropónico de pepino, las cuales inciden en el rendimiento, viabilidad económica y ambiental de la tecnología.Abstract. Plant growth and development is determined largely by weather which is composed by several factors. Temperature is one of such key factors which is very important for deciding sowing and

  7. EVALUACION DEL POTENCIAL DE LOS BIOSÓLIDOS PROCEDENTES DEL TRATAMIENTO DE AGUAS RESIDUALES PARA USO AGRÍCOLA Y SU EFECTO SOBRE EL CULTIVO DE RABANO ROJO (Raphanus sativus L.. EVALUATION OF THE POTENTIAL FOR BIOSOLIDS OBTAINED FROM WASTEWATER TREATMENT FOR AGRICULTURAL USE AND THEIR EFFECT ON CULTIVATION OF RED RADISH (Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiro Ramírez Pisco

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo se adelantó en predios de la planta de tratamiento de aguas residuales “El Salitre”, en la ciudad de Bogotá, con el propósito de evaluar el potencial del subproducto del tratamiento de aguas residuales “biosólido”, para su aplicación en la agricultura por medio de la valoración del crecimiento, desarrollo y producción del cultivo de rábano rojo, y establecer una posible alternativa al problema de disposición final de 3900 toneladas de este material generado mensualmente en las planta de tratamiento de aguas. El diseño experimental empleado correspondió a bloques completos al azar, con cinco tratamientos y tres repeticiones, dispuesto en parcelas de 2 m x 2 m. Los tratamientos correspondieron a mezclas de biosólidos con suelo en las siguientes proporciones: 100 % biosólido (equivalente a 294 ton ha-1, 75 % biosólido (220 ton Ha-1, 50 % biosólido (147 ton ha-1, 25 % biosólido (73 ton ha-1 y 100 % suelo como control. Se sembró rábano rojo Raphanus sativus L. Las variables evaluadas fueron: porcentaje de germinación, peso seco de hojas y raíz, longitud de la planta, área foliar y producción. Además, se midió la acumulación de elementos traza en los rábanos cosechados, para determinar su riesgo para el consumo. Los resultados evidenciaron que los tratamientos 50 % biosólido y 25 % biosólido, son los que favorecen el crecimiento, desarrollo y producción del cultivo de rábano, mientras que los tratamientos 75 % biosólido y 100% suelo presentaron un menor desarrollo, crecimiento y producción del cultivo. El tratamiento 100% biosólido provoco una baja germinación, además no presentó acumulación en la raíz, que es el producto cosechable. Los niveles de acumulación de metales pesados sobrepasaron los máximos permitidos con el tratamiento 75 % biosólido. Se evidenció como, la utilización del biosólido en la agricultura puede acarrear un gran riesgo, ya que a pesar de presentar una gran cantidad

  8. Study on Ca2+ antagonistic effect and mechanism of Chinese herbal drugs using 45Ca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yuanyou; Liu Ning; Mo Shangwu; Qiu Mingfeng; Jin Jiannan; Liao Jiali

    2002-01-01

    The Ca 2+ antagonistic effect and mechanism of Chinese herbal drugs are studied by using 45 Ca. The results indicate that potential-dependent Ca 2+ channel (PDC) and receptor-operated Ca 2+ channel (ROC) in cell membranes of smooth muscle can be blocked by several Chinese herbal drugs, including as Crocus sativus L., Carthamus L., Di-ao-xin-xue-kang (DAXXG) and Ginkgo biloba L. leaves. Among them Crocus sativus L. has the strongest antagonistic effect on Ca 2+ channel, while Ginkgo biloba L. leaves has no obvious effect. The whole prescription and the other functional drugs have significant effect on ROC and PDC. The compositions extracted by hexane have the strongest antagonistic. The wrinkled giant hyssop have five active compositions and Pei-lan have two active compositions

  9. Formulation and characterization of novel functional beverages with antioxidant and anti-acetylcholinesterase activities

    OpenAIRE

    Suree Nanasombat; Jidapa Thonglong; Jutharat Jitlakha

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nowadays, there is increased consumer demand for high-antioxidant foods. Drinking high-antioxidant beverages may help to protect against aging, Alzheimer’s disease, and other chronic diseases. Grapes and some plants including Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia chebula, Kaempferia parviflora, Centella asiatica, Nelumbo nucifera, Rauvolfia serpentina, Ginkgo biloba, Crocus sativus, Clitoria ternatea and others are well-known to possess antioxidant, neuroprotective and other hea...

  10. Effects of Crocin Supplementation during In Vitro Maturation of Mouse Oocytes on Glutathione Synthesis and Cytoplasmic Maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Mokhber Maleki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Crocin is an active ingredient of saffron (Crocus sativus L. and its antioxidant properties have been previously investigated. This carotenoid scavenges free radicals and stimulates glutathione (GSH synthesis; consequently, it may protect cells against oxidative stress. The aim of this research is to protect oocytes from oxidative stress by the addition of a natural source antioxidant. Materials and Methods: In the present in vitro experimental study, we collected cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs from mouse ovaries of euthanized, 6-8 week-old female Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI mice. Oocytes were subjected to in vitro maturation (IVM in the presence of either crocin (5 or 10 μg/ml, 5 mM buthionine-[S-R]- sulfoximine (BSO, or the combination of crocin plus BSO. Oocytes that matured in vitro in a medium without crocin or BSO supplements were considered as controls. Following 16-18 hours of IVM, matured oocytes (n=631 were fertilized by capacitated sperm from NMRI male mice, and cultured in vitro for up to 96 hours to assess preimplantation embryonic development. The levels of GSH in metaphase II (MII oocytes after IVM (n=240 were also assessed by the 5, 5-dithio-bis (2-nitrobenzoic acid (DTNB-GSH reductase recycling assay. Results: Supplementation of IVM media with 10 μg/ml crocin significantly (P<0.05 increased nuclear maturation, preimplantation development and GSH concentrations compared with the control group. Maturation of oocytes in IVM medium supplemented with BSO alone or the combination of 5 μg/ml crocin and BSO drastically decreased GSH concentrations and subsequently resulted in low rates of maturation, fertilization and blastocyst development. However, the combination of 10 μg/ml crocin with 5 mM BSO increased the level of nuclear maturation which was comparable to the control group. Conclusion: Supplementation of IVM media with crocin can improve nuclear maturation rates and subsequent developmental potential

  11. Effect of freezing and canning on the content of selected vitamins and pigments in seeds of two grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) cultivars at the not fully mature stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korus, Anna; Lisiewska, Zofia; Kmiecik, Waldemar

    2002-08-01

    Seeds of the grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) cultivars Derek and Krab, with a dry matter content of about 33%, were used for freezing and for canning. The content of vitamins C, B1, and B2 and of carotenoids, beta-carotene, and chlorophylls was determined in raw and blanched material, in frozen products after 6-month storage before and after cooking to consumption consistency, and in canned products after 6-month storage. In comparison with the cultivar Krab, raw seeds of Derek contained 45% more vitamin C, 14% more total chlorophylls, 13% less thiamine (vitamin B1), and 7% less riboflavin (vitamin B2). The level of carotenoids was similar. Blanching of seeds led to a statistically significant decrease only in the content of vitamin C. Freezing and frozen storage significantly lowered the level of vitamin C and chlorophylls. The cooking of frozen seeds and the production of canned products and their storage resulted in a statistically verified reduction in the content of components analysed in all the samples. Greater losses were found in products prepared from seeds of the cv. Krab. After cooking, frozen seeds contained more of all the analysed components than the canned products.

  12. Cucumis sativus L-type lectin receptor kinase (CsLecRK) gene family response to Phytophthora melonis, Phytophthora capsici and water immersion in disease resistant and susceptible cucumber cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tingquan; Wang, Rui; Xu, Xiaomei; He, Xiaoming; Sun, Baojuan; Zhong, Yujuan; Liang, Zhaojuan; Luo, Shaobo; Lin, Yu'e

    2014-10-10

    L-type lectin receptor kinase (LecRK) proteins are an important family involved in diverse biological processes such as pollen development, senescence, wounding, salinity and especially in innate immunity in model plants such as Arabidopsis and tobacco. Till date, LecRK proteins or genes of cucumber have not been reported. In this study, a total of 25 LecRK genes were identified in the cucumber genome, unequally distributed across its seven chromosomes. According to similarity comparison of their encoded proteins, the Cucumis sativus LecRK (CsLecRK) genes were classified into six major clades (from Clade I to CladeVI). Expression of CsLecRK genes were tested using QRT-PCR method and the results showed that 25 CsLecRK genes exhibited different responses to abiotic (water immersion) and biotic (Phytophthora melonis and Phytophthora capsici inoculation) stresses, as well as that between disease resistant cultivar (JSH) and disease susceptible cultivar (B80). Among the 25 CsLecRK genes, we found CsLecRK6.1 was especially induced by P. melonis and P. capsici in JSH plants. All these results suggested that CsLecRK genes may play important roles in biotic and abiotic stresses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Transfer of Ni, Cr, Zn, Cu and 99mTc to plant biomass of Raphanus sativus L. Role of 125I-fulvic acid and the influence of different treatments on urban soil in Havana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santana Romero, Jorge Luis; Diaz Velazquez, Alberto; Garcia Cespedes, Damaris; Lima Cazorla, Lazaro; Saborit Sanchez, Israel; Olivares Rieumont, Susana; Rivas, Edgar; Manduca, Michel

    2011-01-01

    The importance of studying the transfer of heavy metals from soil to plant biomass is a current scientific topic. The global economic changes have caused accelerated environmental degradation processes in urban soils, in which important amount of agricultural production is obtained. The application of 'ecological' techniques on these soils, including the use of vermicompost, is be-coming more and more extensive and common. The question is: Is always safe and pertinent to apply vermicompost to urban soils?. Hence the importance of studying the heavy metal mobility and bioavailability to plant biomass in these conditions. In the present work, using different analytical techniques, a sample of Havana urban soil is characterized by determination of ph, electrical conductivity, organic material content and the total and EDTA extractable Ni, Cr, Zn and Cu levels. Fulvic acid was extracted from vermicompost and chemically characterized as well as its ability to chelate metals. The conditional stability constant, K of the fulvic acid-copper complex at different ph values was determined (log K cond = 7.39) using size-exclusion chromatography method. The Ni, Cr, Zn and Cu transfer study was conducted using biomass of Raphanus sativus L. The result shows significative statistical agreement with proposed experimental design 2 4-1 and allowed us to recognize the significant positive influence of factors such as the addition of Cu as possible pollutant in soil, ph, addition of fulvic acid and the time of addition of fulvic acid (vermicompost) at different physiological stages of plant development in increasing the bioavailability of Cu into plant biomass studied. The application of radiochemical methods with the use of fulvic acid labeled with 99mTc and 125I respectively allowed to ratify the influence of the factors studied on the transfer of heavy metals into biomass in terms of urban soil. It was possible to determine that the fulvic acid acts as a heavy metals transporter in

  14. Dual Targeting of Amyloid-beta Clearance and Neuroinflammation as a Novel Therapeutic Approach against Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batarseh, Yazan S.

    transporter (GLUT1) expressions in astrocytes. Results from this study support the protective effect of the EVOO-derived phenolic secoiridoid oleocanthal against AD pathology. Next, we evaluated the role of EVOO in enhancing donepezil's effect on increasing Abeta clearance and reducing neuroinflammation in AD transgenic model, namely 5XFAD mice. The long-term consumption of EVOO in combination with donepezil is expected to enhance and expand donepezil protective mechanisms against Abeta pathology. EVOO consumption in combination with donepezil treatment significantly reduced Abeta load and related pathology; EVOO consumption with donepezil up-regulated synaptic proteins, enhanced BBB tightness and reduced neuroinflammation associated with Abeta pathology. Long-term consumption of EVOO significantly reduced Abeta pathological manifestations in addition to enhancing and expanding donepezil protective mechanisms against Abeta pathology when given concomitantly. Therefore, EVOO consumption as a medical food combined with donepezil offers an effective therapeutic approach by enhancing the non-cholinergic mechanisms of donepezil and by providing additional mechanisms to attenuate Abeta related pathology in AD patients. In the third project, the effect of Crocus sativus extract on Abeta clearance across the BBB and related pathology were evaluated in vitro and in vivo in wild-type and AD transgenic models. Available studies reported Crocus sativus exerts a positive effect against AD, however, the mechanism(s) for such effect is unknown. Therefore, here, we investigated its effect on enhancing Abeta clearance and reducing neuroinflammation. Findings from in vitro studies demonstrated that Crocus sativus extract increased the tightness and enhanced Abeta transport in our cell-based BBB model. Followed in vivo studies confirmed the effect of Crocus sativus extract on the BBB integrity and function that was associated with reduced Abeta load and related pathology in 5XFAD mice

  15. Análise da condição corpórea, biometria externa e das vísceras do trato gastrointestinal de canários-da-terra, Sicalis flaveola braziliensis Analysis of body condition and external and gastrointestinal biometry of saffron finch, Sicalis flaveola braziliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul A.S. Siqueira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Analisaram-se em canários-da-terra, Sicalis flaveola brasiliensis, apreendidos pelo Cetas-IBAMA/PB e que morreram logo após sua chegada, as medidas biométricas externas, condições corpóreas e de plumagem, medidas biométricas das vísceras do trato gastrointestinal (TGI, assim como a topografia visceral, a fim de fornecer dados morfológicos e caracterizar as condições em esses pássaros chegaram a esse centro de triagem. A topografia visceral estava em consonância com a de periquitos e avestruz, a exceção que essa última espécie apresenta um ceco. Verificou-se que há relação entre as condições corpóreas desfavoráveis e a perda de plumagem. Conclui-se, que S. flaveola braziliensis possui medidas biométricas em consonância á de outros Passeriformes, contudo possui divergências para aves do mesmo gênero e poucas diferenças biométricas entre machos e fêmeas. Através do estudo, verifica-se que as condições corpóreas de animais traficados devem ser consideradas nos centros de triagem, a fim de se fazer um melhor manejo nutricional e/ou clínico, diminuindo a mortalidade.Forty-one saffron finch, Sicalis flaveola brasiliensis, were studied regarding the external biometry, corporeal and plumage conditions, gastrointestinal tract (GIT biometry, and the visceral topography, in order to provide morphological data and to characterize the condition in which these birds came to the wild animal screening Center. The visceral topography was similar to the found in parakeets and ostriches; however the last have a cecum. There was also relationship between the unfavorable body conditions and the loss of feathers. It was concluded that S. flaveola braziliensis has biometric measurements similar to other Passeriformes, however with differences to birds of the same gender, and few biometric differences among males and females. The results demonstrate that the corporal conditions of trafficked animals should be considered in wild

  16. Mutation induction in grasspea (Lathyrus sativus L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.S.; Shaikh, M.A.Q.; Islam, M.S.; Saha, C.S.

    1989-01-01

    Full text: Grasspea is a widely grown food legume in Bangladesh, suited particularly for marginal conditions. Its yields are low, its main drawback, however, is that the seeds contain a neurotoxin BOAA, which requires heat degradation before consumption. The genetic base of local varieties is rather narrow. Introduced varieties are even lower yielding than the local ones or fail to flower and produce seeds. Thus, mutation induction of local cultivars should be regarded as a means for creating useful genetic variation. Seeds of the grasspea cultivar 'BINA Acc. No.1' collected from Jessore were treated with 2-5 mM solutions of sodium azide. A wide range of genetic variation was obtained regarding plant height, number of pods per plant, days to maturity. (author)

  17. Mutation induction in Lathyrus sativus L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, M.; Chaturvedi, S.N.

    1989-01-01

    Full text: Seeds of the grass pea varieties 'LSD 6' and 'S 220' were treated with 10-25 kR gamma rays, 0.1-0.4% EMS or 0.01-0.04% NMH. DMSO in 1% solution applied together with 10 kR gamma rays, 0.1% EMS or 0.01% NMH increased the effects of the mutagens. M 2 progenies were checked for morphological and leaf color mutations. From data obtained the following treatments appear appropriate: 15kR gamma rays; 10 kR gamma rays + DMSO; 0.1% EMS; 0.01% NMH. (author)

  18. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER FOR CUCUMBER (Cucumis sativus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dell

    2011-11-07

    Nov 7, 2011 ... affordable and sustainable Protected Intensive Produc- tion System (PIPS) to ... for the production and marketing of cucumber crop. MATERIALS AND ..... production, distribution, and consumption in Asia. {Mubarik A (ed.)}.

  19. Inner Alienation: Diasporic Consciousness in Kamila Shamsie's "Salt and Saffron"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Humaira; Babaee, Ruzbeh

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the "diasporic consciousness" of the fictional characters, incorporated in selected work of Pakistani expatriate writer Kamila Shamsie through the portrayal of cross-cultural differences. This study attempts to unravel the inner-alienation that sustains through specific discourses and events…

  20. In vitro assay for the anti-Brucella activity of medicinal plants against tetracycline-resistant Brucella melitensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motamedi, Hossein; Darabpour, Esmaeil; Gholipour, Mahnaz; Seyyed Nejad, Seyyed Mansour

    2010-07-01

    Brucellosis, a zoonosis caused by four species of brucella, has a high morbidity. Brucella melitensis is the main causative agent of brucellosis in both human and small ruminants. As an alternative to conventional antibiotics, medicinal plants are valuable resources for new agents against antibiotic-resistant strains. The aim of this study was to investigate the usage of native plants for brucellosis treatment. For this purpose, the anti-brucella activities of ethanolic and methanolic extracts of Salvia sclarea, Oliveria decumbens, Ferulago angulata, Vitex pseudo-negundo, Teucrium polium, Plantago ovata, Cordia myxa, and Crocus sativus were assessed. The activity against a resistant Br. melitensis strain was determined by disc diffusion method at various concentrations from 50-400 mg/ml. Antibiotic discs were also used as a control. Among the evaluated herbs, six plant (Salvia sclarea, Oliveria decumbens, Ferulago angulata, Vitex pseudo-negundo, Teucrium polium, and Crocus sativus) showed anti-brucella activity. Oliveria decumbens was chosen as the most effective plant for further studies. A tested isolate exhibited resistance to tetracycline, nafcillin, oxacillin, methicillin, and colistin. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) values for Oliveria decumbens against resistant Br. melitensis were the same (5 mg/ml), and for gentamicin they were both 2 mg/ml. Time-kill kinetics for a methanolic extract of Oliveria decumbens was 7 h whereas for an ethanolic extract it was 28 h. Also, Oliveria decumbens extracts showed a synergistic effect in combination with doxycycline and tetracycline. In general, the similar values of MIC and MBC for Oliveria decumbens suggest that these extracts could act as bactericidal agents against Br. melitensis. In addition to Oliveria decumbens, Crocus sativus and Salvia sclarea also had good anti-brucella activity and these should be considered for further study.

  1. In vitro assay for the anti-brucella activity of medicinal plants against tetracycline-resistant Brucella melitensis *

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motamedi, Hossein; Darabpour, Esmaeil; Gholipour, Mahnaz; Seyyed Nejad, Seyyed Mansour

    2010-01-01

    Brucellosis, a zoonosis caused by four species of brucella, has a high morbidity. Brucella melitensis is the main causative agent of brucellosis in both human and small ruminants. As an alternative to conventional antibiotics, medicinal plants are valuable resources for new agents against antibiotic-resistant strains. The aim of this study was to investigate the usage of native plants for brucellosis treatment. For this purpose, the anti-brucella activities of ethanolic and methanolic extracts of Salvia sclarea, Oliveria decumbens, Ferulago angulata, Vitex pseudo-negundo, Teucrium polium, Plantago ovata, Cordia myxa, and Crocus sativus were assessed. The activity against a resistant Br. melitensis strain was determined by disc diffusion method at various concentrations from 50–400 mg/ml. Antibiotic discs were also used as a control. Among the evaluated herbs, six plant (Salvia sclarea, Oliveria decumbens, Ferulago angulata, Vitex pseudo-negundo, Teucrium polium, and Crocus sativus) showed anti-brucella activity. Oliveria decumbens was chosen as the most effective plant for further studies. A tested isolate exhibited resistance to tetracycline, nafcillin, oxacillin, methicillin, and colistin. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) values for Oliveria decumbens against resistant Br. melitensis were the same (5 mg/ml), and for gentamicin they were both 2 mg/ml. Time-kill kinetics for a methanolic extract of Oliveria decumbens was 7 h whereas for an ethanolic extract it was 28 h. Also, Oliveria decumbens extracts showed a synergistic effect in combination with doxycycline and tetracycline. In general, the similar values of MIC and MBC for Oliveria decumbens suggest that these extracts could act as bactericidal agents against Br. melitensis. In addition to Oliveria decumbens, Crocus sativus and Salvia sclarea also had good anti-brucella activity and these should be considered for further study. PMID:20593515

  2. PREDIÇÃO DOS TEORES DE COMPOSTOS FENÓLICOS E FLAVONOIDES NA PARTE AÉREA DAS ESPÉCIES Secale cereale L., Avena strigosa L. E Raphanus sativus L. POR MEIO DE ESPECTROSCOPIA NO INFRAVERMELHO PRÓXIMO (NIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Souza

    Full Text Available Spectroscopy associated with chemometrics is a non-destructive method of the samples for the prediction of phenolic compounds. The objective of the work was to apply the near infrared spectroscopy (NIR technique for the prediction of phenolic compounds and flavonoids in aerial part samples of cover crops plants Raphanus sativus L., Secale cereale L. and Avena strigosa L. Samples were collected at 60, 80 and 100 days after sowing (DAS of the plants and, after lodging (DAA, at 15 and 30 days, in an experiment implanted in the field, in the city of Ituporanga, Santa Catarina. The samples were homogenized, identified, transported on dry ice, lyophilized, crushed, sieved and stored at -20 °C for analysis. For the calibration, 84 samples were used and for the validation 10 samples. The combination of NIR spectroscopy and multivariate analysis by partial least squares regression allowed the development of prediction models of phenolics and flavonoids with associated errors averaging 10%. NIR spectroscopy is recommended for the development of calibration models because it allows to non-destructive infer phenolic and total flavonoid contents, with high analytical frequency, without the use of reagents and other inputs required by the reference method, with results very close to those obtained in the laboratory.

  3. Calcium antagonistic effects of Chinese crude drugs: Preliminary investigation and evaluation by 45Ca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Ning; Yang Yuanyou; Mo Shangwu; Liao Jiali; Jin Jiannan

    2005-01-01

    Coronary and other diseases in cardiac or brain blood vessels are considered to be due to the excessive influx of Ca 2+ into cytoplasm. If Ca 2+ channels in cell membrane are blocked by medicines or other substances with considerable calcium antagonistic effects, these diseases might be cured or controlled. The influence of some Chinese crude drugs, including Crocus sativus, Carthamus tinctorius, Ginkgo biloba and Bulbus allii macrostemi on Ca 2+ influx in isolated rat aortas was investigated by using 45 Ca as a radioactive tracer, and their calcium antagonistic effects were evaluated. It can be noted that Ca 2+ uptake in isolated rat aorta rings in normal physiological status was not markedly altered by these drugs, whereas the Ca 2+ influxes induced by norepinephrine of 1.2 μmol/L and KCl of 100 mmol/L were significantly inhibited by Crocus, Carthamus and Bulbus in a concentration-dependent manner, but not by Ginkgo. The results show that extracellular Ca 2+ influx through receptor-operated Ca 2+ channels and potential-dependent Ca 2+ channels can be blocked by Crocus, Carthamus and Bulbus. This implies that these Chinese crude drugs have obvious calcium antagonistic effects

  4. Expression and epigenetic profile of protoplast cultures (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cápal, Petr; Ondřej, V.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 6 (2014), s. 789-794 ISSN 1054-5476 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS * DNA METHYLATION * CHROMATIN Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.981, year: 2014

  5. (Lathyrus sativus L.): origin, morphology, inheritance and linkage ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dibyendu Talukdar

    2018-04-06

    Apr 6, 2018 ... prima facie there was a duplicate publication without due reference. The case was handed over to the Associate Editors of the journal with expertise in the field. After critical examination it was found that the same figure had been placed in this paper without due acknowledgement. The author was contacted ...

  6. Diploidization of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. haploids by colchicine treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesselina Nikolova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Haploid cucumber plants are totally infertile and do not undergo spontaneous diploidization. The use of haploids depends on the possibility of doubling the chromosome number and the obtaining of stable doubled haploids (DH. Four haploids of different genotypes propagated vegetatively were treated with colchicine in order to obtain DH. The following procedures were used: 1 apical shoot meristem treatment, 2 soaking of shoot explants, 3 placing of shoot explants on medium with colchicine. Plants of the C1 generation were evaluated in respect to morphological and cytological characters and fertility. The best result of 20.9% DH was obtained after repeated treatment of the meristem with colchicine. A large group of chimeras (28.5% was also distinguished as were haploids and tetraploids. DH plants were fertile and gave uniform progeny. Chimeras had a decreased fertility and showed disturbances in meiotic divisions.

  7. Resistance in Cucumis sativus L. to Tetranychus urticae Koch

    OpenAIRE

    Ponti, de, O.M.B.

    1980-01-01


    Chapter 1
    The role of plant breeding and particularly of host plant resistance in integrated control is discussed. Host plant resistance to insects and mites, especially to Tetranychus urticae is reviewed. A standard terminology for disease and pest resistance is recommended.

    Chapter 2
    The relationship between the twospotted spider mite and cucumber has been studied on plants and on leaf disks of a number of varieties with different...

  8. Resistance in Cucumis sativus L. to Tetranychus urticae Koch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponti, de O.M.B.

    1980-01-01


    Chapter 1
    The role of plant breeding and particularly of host plant resistance in integrated control is discussed. Host plant resistance to insects and mites, especially to Tetranychus urticae is reviewed. A standard terminology for disease and pest

  9. TRANSFER OF METALS FROM SOIL TO Cucumis sativus FRUIT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    iudousoro

    and cadmium from shoot to leaf; and nickel and chromium from shoot to fruit. Generally ... The main human exposure route of all toxic metals in Eket was ..... The existential potential for nickel and lead contamination and toxicity raises the issue.

  10. Protective Effect of Humic acid and Chitosan on Radish (Raphanus sativus, L. var. sativus Plants Subjected to Cadmium Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. EL-Gahmery

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundHumic acid or chitosan has been shown to increase plant growth, yield and improving physiological processes in plant, but its roles on alleviating the harmful effect of cadmium on plant growth and some physiological processes in plants is very rare. Pot experiments were conducted to study the role of 100 and 200 mg/kg dry soil from either humic acid or chitosan on counteracted the harmful effects of cadmium levels (100 and 150 mg/kg dry soil on radish plant growth and some physiological charactersResultsCadmium at 100 and 150 mg kg-1 soil decreased significantly length, fresh and dry weights of shoot and root systems as well as leaf number per plant in both seasons. Chlorophyll, total sugars, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, relative water content, water deficit percentage and soluble proteins as well as total amino acids contents were also decreased. Meanwhile, cadmium concentration in plants was increased. On the other hand, application of chitosan or humic acid as soil addition at the concentration of 100 or 200 mg kg-1 increased all the above mentioned parameters and decreased cadmium concentrations in plant tissues. Chitosan at 200 mg kg-1 was the most effective than humic acid at both concentrations in counteracting the harmful effect of cadmium stress on radish plant growth.ConclusionIn conclusion, both natural chelators, in particular, chitosan at 200 mg/kg dry soil can increase the capacity of radish plant to survive under cadmium stress due to chelating the Cd in the soil, and then reduced Cd bio-availability.

  11. Analytical method for Buddleja colorants in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, H; Kuze, N; Ichi, T; Koda, T

    2001-04-01

    Buddleja yellow colorant derived from Buddleja officinalis Maxim. has recently been approved for use as a new kind of natural colorant for food additives in China. In order to distinguish Buddleja yellow colorant from other yellow colorants, two known phenylpropanoid glycosides, acteoside (= verbascoside) and poliumoside, were isolated from the colorant as marker substances for Buddleja yellow colorant. Poliumoside has not been detected in B. officinalis Maxim. previously. These phenylpropanoid glycosides were not detected in the fruits of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis or in the stamens of the flowers of Crocus sativus L., which also contain crocetin derivatives as coloring components, using a photodiode array and mass chromatograms. Thus, an analytical HPLC method was developed to distinguish foods that have been colored with yellow colorants containing crocetin derivatives, using phenylpropanoid glycosides as markers.

  12. The Colour of Saffron: The Road Taken by the Hindu Nationalism towards Illiberalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu Petre

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Placed in the middle of controversies, Narendra Modi’s rise to prominence sparked numerous reaction both inside India as well as on the international scene. His opponents, frequently reproach his authoritarianism and his links with an extreme brand of Hindu nationalism. On the other side, the plea of his supporters emphasize the new Prime minister’s managerial abilities brandished during his twelve years of governance in the state of Gujarat. This article tries to explain the electoral success of the incumbent chief of executive in India along with his party of allegiance- BJP. Here I argue that Modi’s triumph is largely explainable through a set of demographic, social, economic and cultural factors persistent throughout the world which also tell us the emergence of other illiberal strongman regimes in countries like: Hungary, Russia or Turkey. The conclusion draws a warning against the proliferation of aggressive ultranationalism and the reservoirs of intolerance it seems to harbor.

  13. Effect of saffron oral capsule on anxiety and quality of sleep of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    important mental disorders in diabetic patients. More than 80 and ... Sleep also reduces anxiety and stress. ... Demographic questionnaire covers age, gender, duration of .... supplementation on the cardio-respiratory endurance in the healthy ...

  14. The effect of feeding rosemary, oregano, saffron and α-tocopheryl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results showed no significant differences in egg production, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, egg weight and shape, yolk shape, Haugh units and shell thickness among treatments. However, yolk colour was significantly improved in the SAF group compared to all other groups. The extent of lipid oxidation in shell eggs ...

  15. The antioxidant EDU and Raphanus sativus L. - a new approach to biological indication of ozone?; Das Antioxidant EDU und Raphanus sativus L. - neue Moeglichkeiten der Bioindikation von Ozon?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostka-Rick, R; Manning, W J

    1993-12-31

    Studies on the effects of ozone on plants repeatedly suggested to use anti-oxidant agent-like ethylene diurea (EDU) as control treatment for exposure systems like open-top chambers. Radish (`Cherry Belle`) was exposed to ozone (135-225 {mu}g m{sup -3}, 7.5 h d{sup -1}, 7 d) in a controlled way in green-house tests run during three different developmental stages. Some plants received pretreatment with EDU (150 mg l{sup -1}). Up to 26% of the leaf surface was injured by ozone exposure in untreated plants; EDU-treated plants and control plants grown in filtered ais showed a maximum of 2% of leaf injury. The growth of the storage organ (hypocotyl) was significantly depressed by ozone exposure (without EDU) but compensatory processes largely redressed this loss after the exposure period. EDU caused some minor leaf injury and a nonsignificant stimulation of shoot growth. (orig.) [Deutsch] In O{sub 3}-Wirkungsuntersuchungen mit Pflanzen wurde wiederholt der Einsatz antioxidanter Wirkstoffe wie Ethylendiurea (EDU) als Kontrollbehandlung alternativ zu Expositionssystemen wie z.B. Open-Top-Kammern vorgeschlagen. Waehrend drei verschiedener Entwicklungsstadien wurden Radies (Sorte `Cherry Belle`) in einem Gewaechshausversuch kontrolliert mit O{sub 3} belastet (135-225 {mu}g m{sup -3}, 7.5 h d{sup -1}, 7 d), nachdem ein Teil der Pflanzen mit EDU behandelt worden war (150 mg l{sup -1}). Bei unbehandelten Pflanzen wurden bis zu 26% der Blattflaeche durch die O{sub 3}-Exposition geschaedigt; EDU-behandelte Pflanzen und Kontrollpflanzen in gefilterter Luft zeigten maximal 2% Blattschaedigung. Das Wachstum des Speicherorgans (Hypokotyl) war durch die O{sub 3}-Belastung (ohne EDU) signifikant vermindert, kompensatorische Prozesse glichen diesen Verlust nach der Belastungsphase jedoch weitgehend aus. EDU selbst loeste leichte Blattschaedigungen aus und bewirkte eine nicht-signifikante Stimulation des Sprosswachstums. (orig.)

  16. The antioxidant EDU and Raphanus sativus L. - a new approach to biological indication of ozone?; Das Antioxidant EDU und Raphanus sativus L. - neue Moeglichkeiten der Bioindikation von Ozon?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostka-Rick, R.; Manning, W.J.

    1992-12-31

    Studies on the effects of ozone on plants repeatedly suggested to use anti-oxidant agent-like ethylene diurea (EDU) as control treatment for exposure systems like open-top chambers. Radish (`Cherry Belle`) was exposed to ozone (135-225 {mu}g m{sup -3}, 7.5 h d{sup -1}, 7 d) in a controlled way in green-house tests run during three different developmental stages. Some plants received pretreatment with EDU (150 mg l{sup -1}). Up to 26% of the leaf surface was injured by ozone exposure in untreated plants; EDU-treated plants and control plants grown in filtered ais showed a maximum of 2% of leaf injury. The growth of the storage organ (hypocotyl) was significantly depressed by ozone exposure (without EDU) but compensatory processes largely redressed this loss after the exposure period. EDU caused some minor leaf injury and a nonsignificant stimulation of shoot growth. (orig.) [Deutsch] In O{sub 3}-Wirkungsuntersuchungen mit Pflanzen wurde wiederholt der Einsatz antioxidanter Wirkstoffe wie Ethylendiurea (EDU) als Kontrollbehandlung alternativ zu Expositionssystemen wie z.B. Open-Top-Kammern vorgeschlagen. Waehrend drei verschiedener Entwicklungsstadien wurden Radies (Sorte `Cherry Belle`) in einem Gewaechshausversuch kontrolliert mit O{sub 3} belastet (135-225 {mu}g m{sup -3}, 7.5 h d{sup -1}, 7 d), nachdem ein Teil der Pflanzen mit EDU behandelt worden war (150 mg l{sup -1}). Bei unbehandelten Pflanzen wurden bis zu 26% der Blattflaeche durch die O{sub 3}-Exposition geschaedigt; EDU-behandelte Pflanzen und Kontrollpflanzen in gefilterter Luft zeigten maximal 2% Blattschaedigung. Das Wachstum des Speicherorgans (Hypokotyl) war durch die O{sub 3}-Belastung (ohne EDU) signifikant vermindert, kompensatorische Prozesse glichen diesen Verlust nach der Belastungsphase jedoch weitgehend aus. EDU selbst loeste leichte Blattschaedigungen aus und bewirkte eine nicht-signifikante Stimulation des Sprosswachstums. (orig.)

  17. Cinética de secagem do nabo forrageiro (Raphanus sativus L. The drying kinetics of forage turnips (Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Aparecida de Sousa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições foi realizado um trabalho com o objetivo de determinar o modelo matemático que melhor descreve a secagem de sementes de nabo forrageiro, bem como o coeficiente de difusão e a energia de ativação em diferentes condições de ar. Sementes colhidas com teor de água de 0,36 (decimal b.s. foram secas até 0,09 (decimal b.s. em secador experimental com as temperaturas controladas de 30; 40; 50; 60 e 70 °C e umidades relativas de 47,3; 26,2; 12,0; 10,1 e 5,1%, respectivamente. Os dados de coeficiente de difusão foram analisados por meio de análise de variância pelo teste F e regressão, adotando-se o nível de 5% de probabilidade. Conclui-se que dentre os modelos analisados, o que apresentou melhor ajuste para descrever as curvas de secagem do nabo forrageiro foi o de Midilli. O coeficiente de difusão efetivo aumenta com a elevação da temperatura, apresentando valores entre 3,23 x 10-11 e 10,42 x 10-11 m² s-1, para faixa de temperatura de 30 a 70 °C. A relação entre o coeficiente de difusão e a temperatura de secagem pode ser descrita pela equação de Arrhenius, que apresenta uma energia de ativação para a difusão líquida no processo de secagem do nabo forrageiro de 24,78 kJ mol-1.A study aimed at determining the best mathematical model to describe the drying of forage-turnip seeds, along with the diffusion coefficient and activation energy under different air-conditions, was carried out in a randomized design with four replications. Seeds were harvested, having a moisture content of 0.36 (decimal bs and then dried to 0.09 (decimal bs in an experimental dryer at controlled temperatures of 30; 40; 50; 60 and 70 °C and relative humidities of 47.3; 26.2; 12.0; 10.1 and 5.1%, respectively. The effective coefficient of diffusion was calculated by F-test variance analysis and regression, adopting a 5% level of probability. The conclusion was reached that among the models analyzed, that of Midilli best fit the drying curves of forage-turnip seeds. The effective diffusion coefficient increases with temperature, with values of between 3.23 x 10-11 and 10.42 x 10-11 m² s-1 for a temperature range of from 30 to 70 °C. The relationship between the coefficient of diffusion and drying temperature can be described by the Arrhenius equation which gives an activation energy of 24.78 kJ mol-1 for liquid diffusion in the drying process of forage-turnip seeds.

  18. Development and Validation of HPLC Method for Determination of Crocetin, a constituent of Saffron, in Human Serum Samples

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    Amir Hooshang Mohammadpour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:The present study reports the development and validation of a sensitive and rapid extraction method beside high performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of crocetin in human serum. Materials and Methods:The HPLC method was carried out by using a C18 reversed-phase column and a mobile phase composed of methanol/water/acetic acid (85:14.5:0.5 v/v/v at the flow rate of 0.8 ml/min. The UV detector was set at 423 nm and 13-cis retinoic acid was used as the internal standard. Serum samples were pretreated with solid-phase extraction using Bond Elut C18 (200mg cartridges or with direct precipitation using acetonitrile. Results:The calibration curves were linear over the range of 0.05-1.25 µg/ml for direct precipitation method and 0.5-5 µg/ml for solid-phase extraction. The mean recoveries of crocetin over a concentration range of 0.05-5 µg/ml serum for direct precipitation method and 0.5-5 µg/ml for solid-phase extraction were above 70 % and 60 %, respectively. The intraday coefficients of variation were 0.37- 2.6% for direct precipitation method and 0.64 - 5.43% for solid-phase extraction. The inter day coefficients of variation were 1.69 – 6.03% for direct precipitation method and 5.13-12.74% for solid-phase extraction, respectively. The lower limit of quantification for crocetin was 0.05 µg/ml for direct precipitation method and 0.5 µg/ml for solid-phase extraction. Conclusion: The validated direct precipitation method for HPLC satisfied all of the criteria that were necessary for a bioanalytical method and could reliably quantitate crocetin in human serum for future clinical pharmacokinetic study

  19. Metabolic Profiling and Antioxidant Assay of Metabolites from Three Radish Cultivars (Raphanus sativus

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    Chang Ha Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 13 anthocyanins and 33 metabolites; including organic acids, phenolic acids, amino acids, organic compounds, sugar acids, sugar alcohols, and sugars, were profiled in three radish cultivars by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS-based metabolite profiling. Total phenolics and flavonoids and their in vitro antioxidant activities were assessed. Pelargonidins were found to be the major anthocyanin in the cultivars studied. The cultivar Man Tang Hong showed the highest level of anthocyanins (1.89 ± 0.07 mg/g, phenolics (0.0664 ± 0.0033 mg/g and flavonoids (0.0096 ± 0.0004 mg/g. Here; the variation of secondary metabolites in the radishes is described, as well as their association with primary metabolites. The low-molecular-weight hydrophilic metabolite profiles were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA, hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA, Pearson’s correlation analysis. PCA fully distinguished the three radish cultivars tested. The polar metabolites were strongly correlated between metabolites that participate in the TCA cycle. The chemometrics results revealed that TCA cycle intermediates and free phenolic acids as well as anthocyanins were higher in the cultivar Man Tang Hong than in the others. Furthermore; superoxide radical scavenging activities and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging were investigated to elucidate the antioxidant activity of secondary metabolites in the cultivars. Man Tang Hong showed the highest superoxide radical scavenging activity (68.87% at 1000 μg/mL, and DPPH activity (20.78%, followed by Seo Ho and then Hong Feng No. 1. The results demonstrate that GC-TOFMS-based metabolite profiling, integrated with chemometrics, is an applicable method for distinguishing phenotypic variation and determining biochemical reactions connecting primary and secondary metabolism. Therefore; this study might provide information on the relationship between primary and secondary metabolites and a synergistic antioxidant ability derived from the secondary metabolites in the radish cultivars.

  20. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) embryo development in situ after pollination with irradiated pollen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faris, N.M.; Niemirowicz-Szczytt, K.

    1999-01-01

    Embryological studies were undertaken to compare the normal development of cucumber endosperm and embryo with that observed after pollination with gamma-irradiated pollen (0.1 and 0.3 kGy). Delayed penetration of the pollen tube occurred at both irradiation doses. Endosperm and embryo development was also delayed, but was initiated within 6 days after pollination in 100% of embryo sacs at 0.1 kGy and in 70-80% at 0.3 kGy. Various abnormalities in endosperm and embryo cell structure confirmed progressive degeneration, which occurred earlier with the higher dose of irradiation. Degeneration increased dramatically; only 30-40% of the embryos reached the globular stage 15 days after pollination. (author)

  1. Genome-wide analysis of WRKY gene family in Cucumis sativus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Jian; Jiang, Weijie; Zhang, Ying; Yu, Hongjun; Mao, Zhenchuan; Gu, Xingfang; Huang, Sanwen; Xie, Bingyan

    2011-09-28

    WRKY proteins are a large family of transcriptional regulators in higher plant. They are involved in many biological processes, such as plant development, metabolism, and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Prior to the present study, only one full-length cucumber WRKY protein had been reported. The recent publication of the draft genome sequence of cucumber allowed us to conduct a genome-wide search for cucumber WRKY proteins, and to compare these positively identified proteins with their homologs in model plants, such as Arabidopsis. We identified a total of 55 WRKY genes in the cucumber genome. According to structural features of their encoded proteins, the cucumber WRKY (CsWRKY) genes were classified into three groups (group 1-3). Analysis of expression profiles of CsWRKY genes indicated that 48 WRKY genes display differential expression either in their transcript abundance or in their expression patterns under normal growth conditions, and 23 WRKY genes were differentially expressed in response to at least one abiotic stresses (cold, drought or salinity). The expression profile of stress-inducible CsWRKY genes were correlated with those of their putative Arabidopsis WRKY (AtWRKY) orthologs, except for the group 3 WRKY genes. Interestingly, duplicated group 3 AtWRKY genes appear to have been under positive selection pressure during evolution. In contrast, there was no evidence of recent gene duplication or positive selection pressure among CsWRKY group 3 genes, which may have led to the expressional divergence of group 3 orthologs. Fifty-five WRKY genes were identified in cucumber and the structure of their encoded proteins, their expression, and their evolution were examined. Considering that there has been extensive expansion of group 3 WRKY genes in angiosperms, the occurrence of different evolutionary events could explain the functional divergence of these genes.

  2. Effect of adding wood vinegar on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L) seed germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ming; Liu, Bingjie; Wang, Xiao

    2018-03-01

    Wood vinegar, a liquid by-product that was obtained from the condensed vapor generated during the biomass pyrolysis, had been reported as plant growth promotor, but the impact on the plant seeds was still not clear. Thus, we investigated the effects of wood vinegar on the germination and seedling growth of cucumber seeds through the germination experiments. The results showed that the different diluted wood vinegar addition showed no significant difference in the germination rates of cucumber seeds compared to those of the CK treatment (P > 0.05). However, the added wood vinegar at the 10000-time dilution significantly increased the root length and dry biomass of cucumber by 20.9 % and 5.92 %, respectively (P < 0.05). Therefore, the wood vinegar at an optimal time of dilution could be used a promising soaking agent for the seeds germination, and further enhance crop yields.

  3. Selection Of Suitable Particle Size And Particle Ratio For Japanese Cucumber Cucumis Sativus L. Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galahitigama GAH

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to select the best particle size of coco peat for cucumber nurseries as well as best particle ratio for optimum plant growth and development of cucumber. The experiment was carried out in International Foodstuff Company and Faculty of Agriculture University of Ruhuna Sri Lanka during 2015 to 2016. Under experiment one three types of different particle sizes were used namely fine amp88040.5mm T2 medium 3mm-0.5mm T3 and coarse 4mm T4 with normal coco peat T1 as treatments. Complete Randomized Design CRD used as experimental design with five replicates. Germination percentage number of leaves per seedling seedling height in frequent day intervals was taken as growth parameters. Analysis of variance procedure was applied to analyze the data at 5 probability level. The results revealed that medium size particle media sieve size 0.5mm -3mm of coco peat was the best particle size for cucumber nursery practice when considered the physical and chemical properties of medium particles of coco peat. In the experiment of selecting of suitable particle ratio for cucumber plants the compressed mixture of coco peat particles that contain 70 ww unsieved coco peat 20 ww coarse particles and 10 ww coconut husk chips 5 12mm has given best results for growth performances compared to other treatments and cucumber grown in this mixture has shown maximum growth and yield performances.

  4. Genotype × Environment Interaction in Grass Pea (Lathyrus sativus L. Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. B. Polignano

    2009-01-01

    performance of lines in each year. The analyses used arranged the lines into groups that were differentiable in terms of performances and stability. Our results provide useful information to aid the choice of grass pea lines in the Mediterranean marginal areas.

  5. Alleviation of cadmium toxicity in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedlings by the application of selenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, H.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Wei, T.; Wang, G.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the role of selenium in cadmium toxicity was investigated in cucumber seedlings by hydroponic experiments. The application of Se for cucumber exposed to Cd significantly reduced Cd accumulation in all tissues, elevated Cd-depressed chlorophyll content, and improved photosynthetic performance. External Se significantly reduced ·OH, H2O2 and malondialdehyde content. Exogenous Se balanced Cd-depressed elements (e.g., Se enhanced Cd-induced decreases in root Zn, leaf/stem/root Mn concentrations) and carbohydrate contents. External Se also significantly decreased the Cd-induced increases in Na+K+-, Ca2+Mg2+- and total ATPase activities, which recovered almost to control level. Results indicate that application of Se can alleviate Cd toxicity in cucumber seedlings by reducing Cd uptake and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, moreover protecting photosynthetic machinery from damaging, balancing elements and carbohydrate contents, and improving ATPase activities in cucumber.

  6. Response to chilling in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. plants treated with triacontanol and Asahi SL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Borowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In pot experiments on cucumber cv. Śremski F1, the effect of short-term chilling on plants earlier treated with triacontanol (TRIA and Asahi SL was investigated. These plants were grown in a phytotron at an air temperature of 27/22°C (day/night, using fluorescent light with far flux density of 220 µmol × m-2 × s-1, with a photoperiod 16/8. At the 4th true leaf stage, the respective experimental series were sprayed with: 1 H2O - control, 2 TRIA 0.01, 3 TRIA 0.1, 4 TRIA 1.0 mg × dm-3, 5 Asahi SL 0.2, 6 Asahi SL 0.3%. After 24 hours one half of the plants from each experimental series was treated for a period of 3 days at a temperature of 12/6°C, with all the other growth conditions unchanged. The obtained results have shown that short-term chilling stress caused a significant increase in electrolyte leakage, free proline content and in the activity of guaiacol peroxidase in leaves, but a decrease in chlorophyll a+b content, stomatal conductance, transpiration, photosynthesis, leaf area and in the activity of catalase in leaves. The application of TRIA or ASAHI SL on leaves in the pre-stress period reduced the values of the traits which had been increased as a result of chilling and increased those which had reduced. Generally, TRIA was most effective at a concentration of 0.1 mg × dm-3, and Asahi SL at a concentration of 0.3%.

  7. Impact of Methyl Jasmonate on Enhancing Chilling Tolerance of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. Seedlings

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    F. Saydpour

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cucumber is a warm season crop that suffers from chilling injury at temperatures below 10°C. In recent years, jasmonates have been used for reduction of chilling injuries in plants. An experiment was, therefore, conducted to test whether methyl jasmonate (MeJA application at various concentrations (0, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.15 mM through seed soaking or foliar spray would protect cucumber seedlings, subjected to chilling stress. Results showed that MeJA application decreased chilling index, ion leakage, malondialdehyde content and hydrogen peroxide free radical and increased growth parameters, proline contents, chlorophylls contents and antioxidant activity. Although, seed soaking method provided better protection compared to foliar spray method, the highest cold tolerance was obtained with 0.15mM MeJA application in both application methods that caused low level of chilling index (1.67, malondialdehyde content (0.11 nm g-1 FW, hydrogen peroxide free radical (0.22 nm g-1 FW and ion leakage (32.87%. In general, it may be concluded that MeJA could be used effectively to protect cucumber seedling from damaging effects of chilling stress at the early stages of growth.

  8. The effect of exogenous spermidine on cucumber plant (Cucumis sativus L. growth in drought stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbyszek K. Blamowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of exogenous spermidine (0; 1 and 2 mmol·dm-3 on cucumber plant subjected lo seven day drought (30% f.w.c. were studied. Growth rate of plants, gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, water saturation deficit in tissue (WSD. leakage electrolytes (El as well as the content of free proline were determined. The results showed that drought inhibited growth and gas exchange, decreased the potential efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm but increased the value of WSD, EL and the level of free proline in tissue. The spermidine treatment of plants immediately before drought influenced the decrease concentration of free proline, water deficit and leakage of electrolytes but the increase of stomatal conductance (gs, intensity of photosynthesis (Pn and transpiration (E. Greater change on the course of primary photosynthetic reactions in PSII (Fv/Fm., ΦPSII, qP, qN were not detected. The autors concluded, that in drought. conditions exogenous speimidine together with proline induced by stress, contribute to increase of water content in tissue and maintenance of the enzymatic activity of cells as well as they guaIantee the integrity of cell membranes. Profitable effect of spermidine on the condition of cucumber in drought period shorted the time necessary for plants to come back to level of control treatment.

  9. Influence of smoke and ethylene on the fruiting of the pineapple (Ananas sativus Shult

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, A G

    1932-01-01

    The use of smoke to force pineapple plants into fruit production is a practical development. No controlled experimental work has been reported of this practice. For this reason it seemed desirable to determine the influence of smoke under controlled conditions. In considering the cause of flowering of the pineapple plant following the treatment of smoke, the primary hypothesis raised was that smoke forces the pineapple plant out of a dormant condition. However it was recognized that some constituents of smoke probably ethylene might effect metabolic changes even though the plants were not in a dormant condition, which changes might conduce to floral development. Both slips and suckers are completely developed plants. The roots at the time of planting are very short. The fact that new leaf development is retarded four to six weeks after planting suggests that slips and suckers are in a state of dormancy. It seemed probable that the use of ethylene on these might bring about an immediate resumption on growth with a consequent shortening of the time for flower production. There also remained the possibility as was realized, of a more pronounced effect of ethylene on fruit production. Accordingly an experiment was devised in which both slips and suckers were exposed to ethylene previous to planting. Such a method, if it proved successful, would obviously be a cheaper and more practical method than the use of smoke under field conditions.

  10. Alleviation of cadmium toxicity in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedlings by the application of selenium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, H.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Wei, T.; Wang, G.

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, the role of selenium in cadmium toxicity was investigated in cucumber seedlings by hydroponic experiments. The application of Se for cucumber exposed to Cd significantly reduced Cd accumulation in all tissues, elevated Cd-depressed chlorophyll content, and improved photosynthetic performance. External Se significantly reduced ·OH, H2O2 and malondialdehyde content. Exogenous Se balanced Cd-depressed elements (e.g., Se enhanced Cd-induced decreases in root Zn, leaf/stem/root Mn concentrations) and carbohydrate contents. External Se also significantly decreased the Cd-induced increases in Na+K+-, Ca2+Mg2+- and total ATPase activities, which recovered almost to control level. Results indicate that application of Se can alleviate Cd toxicity in cucumber seedlings by reducing Cd uptake and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, moreover protecting photosynthetic machinery from damaging, balancing elements and carbohydrate contents, and improving ATPase activities in cucumber.

  11. Gamma irradiation effect on seeds of various Cucumis sativus L. genotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagorcheva, L.; Aleksandrova, M.

    1987-01-01

    Air dry seeds of the three cucumber cultivar types: with long fruits (Velina F 1 , Gergana and Starozagorski Langi), with moderately long fruits (Bistrenski) and with short fruit (Addis, K-2, line 22a, G-3 and Pobeda F 1 ), as well as the reciprocal crosses of Bistrenski and Gergana were 60C o gamma irradiated (200, 300, 400 and 500 Gy; 6 Gy/min). In order to study whether the great differences in radiosensitivity were genetically determined, the reciprocal hybrids between the radiosensitive cv. Bistrenski and the radioresistant parent cv. Gergana were investigated. The seeds were sown in flats, filled with moist perlite. The plants were grown in nutrient solution under controlled conditions for 8 h and 12 h. Radiosensitivity, expressed as depression coefficient, was determined by the criteria germination, survival and pollen sterility (for various cultivars) and plant and root weight (for reciprocal crosses). It was found that the reaction of different cultivars and cultivar types to radiation treatment was strictly specific. Short-fruited cultivars were with higher radioresistance. The day length modified radiosensitivity. The reaction of short-fruited cultivars to environmental changes was more pronounced. A positive correlation existed between radiosensitivity and chromosome aberration frequency in cucumbers. The presence of a lipid layer beneath the seed cover conditioned the greater radioresistance of cucumbers. The hybrids Bistrenski/Gergana were more radioresistant in F 1 and F 2 than the parent with higher radioresistance. The differences between the hybrids and the radioresistant parent were statistically significant and this fact proved the presence of genetic control. All radiosensitivity criteria in F 1 were influenced by heterosis. The inheritance of radiosensitivity was overdominant. 1 fig.; 5 tabs.; 16 refs

  12. Cucumber plants (cucumis sativus l.) growth and crop yield of chicken manure fertilized with plant spacing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratiwi Aritonang, Sri; Panjaitan, Ernitha; Parsaulian Tondang, Fetrus

    2018-03-01

    The research was conducted in Tanjung Sari, Kecamatan Medan Selayang Kotamadya Medan ± 32 meters above sea level. It started since July 2016 to September 2016. It was designed with randomization block design with two factorial experiments which are chicken manure and plant spacing. First factor was 4 doses of chicken manure, symbolized by K; K0 = 1.5 kg/plot, K1 = 2 kg/plot, K2 = 2.5 kg/plot and K3 = 3 kg/plot. Second was 4 different plant spacing, symbolized by J; J0 = 30 cm x 60 cm, J1 =: 35 cm x 60 cm, J2 = 40 cm x 60 cm and J3 = 45 cm x 60 cm. The result shows that giving 3kg/plot of chicken manure increases plant height to 162.15 cm with 22.44 number of leaves. Fresh fruits per sample was weight 1121.88 g and per plot is 4.52 kg with 9.17 and 36.67 units of fruits per sample and plot respectively. With 45 cm x 60 cm (J3) for plant spacing gives a plant with the height of 160.51 cm and 22.85 number of leaves. Fresh fruits obtained is 1216.67 g and 9.33 units per sample while per plot gives 4.90 kg and 7.33 units of fresh fruits. This plant spacing leads to a better output for the yield compared to narrower spacing. There are no interaction between chicken manure dosage and plant spacing towards plant height, number of leaves, fresh fruits weight and units per sample and plot.

  13. Fraksi Kloroform Ekstrak Buah Mentimun (Cucumis sativus L.) Sebagai Anti Bakteri terhadap Staphylococcus epidermidis

    OpenAIRE

    Pratika Viogenta; Samsuar Samsuar; Ahmad Ferry Yeriza Utama

    2017-01-01

    The use of antibiotics in the community massively trigger resistance to bacteria, to that need for research on other alternatives, especially herbal medicine as an antibacterial. One of the medicinal plants are cucumbers that are widely available in Indonesia. The purpose of this study was to scientifically prove the antibacterial activity of chloroform fraction cucumber extract against Staphylococcus epidermidis. Extraction cucumber done by maceration, then extract fractionated with chlorofo...

  14. Fraksi Kloroform Ekstrak Buah Mentimun (Cucumis sativus L. Sebagai Anti Bakteri terhadap Staphylococcus epidermidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratika Viogenta

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of antibiotics in the community massively trigger resistance to bacteria, to that need for research on other alternatives, especially herbal medicine as an antibacterial. One of the medicinal plants are cucumbers that are widely available in Indonesia. The purpose of this study was to scientifically prove the antibacterial activity of chloroform fraction cucumber extract against Staphylococcus epidermidis. Extraction cucumber done by maceration, then extract fractionated with chloroform. The fraction was used the concentration of 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25%. Then tested the antibacterial power and determination of the MIC. Results of test antibacterial of the extract chloroform of cucumber against S. epidermidis showed a zone of inhibition at concentrations of 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% diameter respectively 5.86 mm, 6.5 mm, 7.05 mm, 7.43 mm, and 9.92 mm, in addition to it tested the determination of minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum inhibitory concentrations of chloroform fraction extract cucumber fruit against S. epidermidis is at a concentration of 3%. The results obtained from the culture media growth on NA which means the fraction of the chloroform extract of cucumber in 3% is bacteriostatic.

  15. Effect of Organic Manure Mixture on growth and yield of Radish (RaphanusSativus L

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    M. Etesami

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Today, production of organic farming and gardening is rising. The use of organic fertilizers such as animal manure has a long history. In recent years, the use of fertilizers and manure for providing the nutritional needs of plants, improve soil physical and chemical structure and reduce the environmental issues have been observed. Animal manures can increase soil organic matter and nutrients, improve soil structure and water-holding capacity which in turn increase the quality and quantity of the product to follow. Manure is a valuable source of biological, ecological and environmental benefits is positive and its main use is for agricultural use. Radish is an important root vegetable that belongs to the cruciferous (Brassicaceae. Value radish on high levels of dietary is related to soluble fiber and antioxidants. Radish is a native plant to Asia, China and Europe. The oral part of the botanical garden radish is important and that kind of traditional varieties have long hypocotyls include root and hypocotyls made.The purpose of this test is to evaluate the different mixture amount of animal fertilizers on the growth and yield of radish plants and compare them to each other. Materials and Methods: In order to study of different manure effect on radish growth and yield, an experiment carried out in 2012-2013 in the greenhouse of Gonbad- Kavos University with geographical characteristics 37.16 degrees north, 55.12 ° east and with a height of 45 meters above sea level in a completely randomized design with four replications. Soil and fertilizers used to this experiment were made of the soil and livestock of Gonbad- Kavos University. Soil texture was Clay loam and pH was 7.7 obtained from soil analysis. To obtain the required levels of fertilizer treatments (25, 50, 75, 100, a measure was considered as the basis of each treatment on the basis of the ratio were calculated. The treatments included control (soil, 25 percent cow manure+ 75 percent soil, 50 percent cow manure + 50 percent soil, 75 percent cow manure + 25 percent soil, 100 percent cow manure, 25 percent sheep manure+ 75 percent soil, 50 percent sheep manure + 50 percent soil, 75 percent sheep manure + 25 percent soil, 100 percent sheep manure, 25 percent poultry manure+ 75 percent soil, 50 percent poultry manure + 50 percent soil, 75 percent poultry manure + 25 percent soil, 100 percent poultry manure. Plant height, leaf length, tuber length, tuber diagonal, tuber weight, leaf weight, leaves dry weight and hollow bulb grade were studied. The experiment was conducted under weed control, lack of water restriction and control pests and diseases. To achieve maximum plant growth, we harvested on 2th April 2013 and plant height, leaf length, bulb length, diameter of the bulb, wet bulb, wet leaves and leaf dry weight was measured. After traits recorded, leaves isolated and dried in in oven at 72 degrees for 24 hours and dry matter content was determined. Statistical analysis and data analysis was performed with SAS and Excel computer programs were used to mean comparing with the LSD test at the level of 5 percent. Results and Discussion: Variance analysis results showed that measured traits affect by manure using significantly (P

  16. Effect of Organic Manure Mixture on growth and yield of Radish (RaphanusSativus L)

    OpenAIRE

    M. Etesami; F. Tajpour; M. Khosravi; A. Biabani

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Today, production of organic farming and gardening is rising. The use of organic fertilizers such as animal manure has a long history. In recent years, the use of fertilizers and manure for providing the nutritional needs of plants, improve soil physical and chemical structure and reduce the environmental issues have been observed. Animal manures can increase soil organic matter and nutrients, improve soil structure and water-holding capacity which in turn increase the quality a...

  17. Genetic and environmental effects on production of spontaneous tetraploids in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The appearance of spontaneous tetraploid (4x) plants is a serious problem for cucumber growers and the seed industry. These plants produce unacceptable fruits with poor quality that do not meet market standards, and result in substantial losses. A higher frequency of spontaneous 4x plants has been a...

  18. Transport, ultrastructural localization, and distribution of chemical forms of lead in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Shen, Hong; Xu, Liang; Zhu, Xianwen; Li, Chao; Zhang, Wei; Xie, Yang; Gong, Yiqin; Liu, Liwang

    2015-01-01

    Lead (Pb), a ubiquitous but highly toxic heavy metal (HM), is harmful to human health through various pathways including by ingestion of contaminated vegetables. Radish is a worldwide root vegetable crop with significant health and nutritional benefits. However, little is known about Pb translocation and distribution within radish plants after its uptake by the roots. In this study, Pb stress was induced using Pb(NO3)2 in hydroponic culture, aiming to characterize the transport, ultrastructural localization, and distribution of chemical forms of Pb in different tissues of radish. The results showed that the majority of Pb (85.76-98.72%) was retained in underground organs including lateral roots, root heads and taproot skins, while a small proportion of Pb was absorbed by root flesh (0.44-1.56%) or transported to the shoot (1.28-14.24%). A large proportion of Pb (74.11-99.30%) was integrated with undissolved Pb oxalate, protein and pectates forming Pb-phosphate complexes. Moreover, a low-Pb-accumulating line of radish showed a higher proportion of Pb in water-soluble form compared with a high-Pb-accumulating line. Subcellular distribution analysis showed that a large proportion of Pb was bound to cell wall fraction in lateral roots (71.08-80.40%) and taproot skin (46.22-77.94%), while the leaves and roots had 28.36-39.37% and 27.35-46.51% of Pb stored in the soluble fraction, respectively. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed Pb precipitates in intercellular space, cell wall, plasma lemma and vacuoles. Fractionation results also showed the accumulation of Pb on the cell wall, intercellular space and vacuole, and low uptake of undissolved Pb oxalate, protein, pectates and Pb-phosphate complexes, which might be due to low transport efficiency and Pb tolerance of radish. These findings would provide insight into molecular mechanism of Pb uptake and translocation in radish and facilitate development of low-Pb-content cultivars in root vegetable crops.

  19. Transport, ultrastructural localization and distribution of chemical forms of lead in radish (Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan eWang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Lead (Pb, a ubiquitous but highly toxic heavy metal, is harmful to human health through various pathways including by ingestion of contaminated vegetables. Radish is a worldwide root vegetable crop with significant health and nutritional benefits. However, little is known about Pb translocation and distribution within radish plants after its uptake by the roots. In this study, Pb stress was induced using Pb(NO32 in hydroponic culture, aiming to characterize the transport, ultrastructural localization and distribution of chemical forms of Pb in different tissues of radish. The results showed that the majority of Pb (85.76–98.72% was retained in underground organs including lateral roots, root heads and taproot skins, while a small proportion of Pb was absorbed by root flesh (0.44–1.56% or transported to the shoot (1.28-14.24%. A large proportion of Pb (74.11–99.30% was integrated with undissolved Pb oxalate, protein and pectates forming Pb-phosphate complexes. Moreover, a low-Pb-accumulating line of radish showed a higher proportion of Pb in water-soluble form compared with a high-Pb-accumulating line. Subcellular distribution analysis showed that a large proportion of Pb was bound to cell wall fraction in lateral roots (71.08–80.40% and taproot skin (46.22–77.94%, while the leaves and roots had 28.36–39.37% and 27.35–46.51% of Pb stored in the soluble fraction, respectively. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy (TEM revealed Pb precipitates in intercellular space, cell wall, plasma lemma and vacuoles. Fractionation results also showed the accumulation of Pb on the cell wall, intercellular space and vacuole, and low uptake of undissolved Pb oxalate, protein, pectates and Pb–phosphate complexes, which might be due to low transport efficiency and Pb tolerance of radish. These findings would provide insight into molecular mechanism of Pb uptake and translocation in radish and facilitate development of low-Pb-content cultivars in root vegetable crops.

  20. Effects of wood biochar addition on growth of cherry radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. radculus pers)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Huadan; Zhang, Qian; Liu, Guocheng

    2018-03-01

    Extensive cultivation and unreasonable management of the farmland result in severe soil degradation such as compaction, acidification, and salinization. Our results showed that the biochar amendment increased the cherry radish germination rate, while barely influenced the fresh biomass of shoot and root. Moreover, both 1.5% and 3% biochar addition showed no significant difference in the fruit shape index of cherry radish compared to the control treatment. These results suggested that the biochar application alone could not improve the cherry radish growth in this tested soil. Thus, application of biochar combined with fertilizer or composted with organic wastes should be taken into account for this soil.

  1. Role of endogenous growth regulators in vernalization of seeds of radish (Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Michniewicz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In embryos and cotyledons of seeds of the radish cv. `Tetra Iłówiecka' (which needs 20 days of vernalization and cv. 'Saxa' (which flowers without vernalization germinating at a vernalizing temperature of 5°C, the levels of auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins and the aibscisic acid-like inhibitor were determined, The analyses were performed after 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 days of chilling. The levels of growth regulators were also determined in embryos and cotyledons of seeds germinated at 260C when in the same growth stage as the material taken from chilled seeds. Cold treatment significantly affected the level of all endogenous growth regulators in embryos and cotyledons of both varieties. However, changes in the levels of these substances were not directly connected with the vernalization process. It was found that the vernalization of seeds of 'the radish cv. `Tetra Iłówiecka' increased the level of GAs in leaves, this did not, however, coincide with flower initiation. It is concluded that the role of GAs in flowering of the studied plants is connected rather with photoinduction than with vernalization.

  2. Effects of ageing on peroxidase activity and localization in radish (Raphanus sativus L. seeds

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    A. Scialabba

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Peroxidase activity was assayed in crude extracts of integument, cotyledons and embryo axis of radish seeds, deteriorated under accelerated ageing conditions. Over five days of ageing, in which germination decreased from 100 to 52%, the enzyme activity in integument was higher than that in other seed parts, increasing in the first days of ageing and then decreasing sharply in extremely aged seeds. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis showed four peroxidase isoenzymes with MM of 98, 52.5, 32.8 and 29.5 kDa in the embryo axis of unaged seeds, and only the 32.8 and 29.5 kDa MM isoforms in the integument and cotyledons. In these parts of the seed, only the 29.5 kDa MM isoenzyme increased in activity in early days of ageing and decreased thereafter. In the embryo axis, the 29.5 kDa MM isoenzyme activity increased slowly in the first day of ageing, while the 98 and 52.5 kDa MM isoenzyme activities disappeared. A cytochemical localization of peroxidase activity in the various tissues showed that main differences between unaged and extremely aged seeds occurred in the embryo axis.

  3. [Effects of exogenous spermidine on Cucumis sativus L. seedlings photosynthesis under root zone hypoxia stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tian; Wang, Suping; Guo, Shirong; Sun, Yanjun

    2006-09-01

    With water culture, this paper studied the effects of exogenous spermidine (Spd) on the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), intercellular CO2 concentrations (Ci), stomatal conductance (Gs), transpiration rate (Tr), apparent quantum yield (phi c), and carboxylation efficiency (CE) of cucumber seedlings tinder hypoxia stress. The results showed that the Pn decreased gradually under hypoxia stress, and reached the minimum 10 days after by 63. 33% of the control. Compared with that of hypoxia-stressed plants, the Pn after 10 days application of exogenous Spd increased 1.25 times. A negative correlation (R2 = 0.4730 - 0.7118) was found between Pn and Ci. Gs and Tr changed in wider ranges, which decreased under hypoxia-stress, but increased under hypoxia-stress plus exogenous Spd application. There was a significant positive correlation between Gs and Tr (R2 = 0.7821 - 0.9458), but these two parameters had no significant correlation with Pn; Hypoxia stress induced a decrease of phi c and CE by 63.01% and 72.33%, respectively, while hypoxia stress plus exogenous Spd application made phi c and CE increase by 23% and 14%, respectively. The photo-inhibition of cucumber seedlings under hypoxia stress was mainly caused by non-stomatal limitation, while exogenous Spd alleviated the hypoxia stress by repairing photosynthesis system.

  4. Ozone effects on radish (Raphanus sativus L. cv. Cherry Belle): morphological and cellular damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athanassious, R.; Klyne, M.A.; Phan, C.T.

    1978-01-01

    Morphological symptoms of ozone damage were related to cellular alterations. The different degrees of damage reflected by the severity of plasmolysis, membrane destruction and coagulation were shown at different levels of microscopy.

  5. De teelt van witte rammenas (rettich) onder glas (Raphanus sativus L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, G.A.J.

    1979-01-01

    Informatie over teelt van witte rammenas (rettich), waarbij aandacht voor de rassen, de teelt onder glas, bemesting, zaadkwaliteit en opkweek, oogsten, sorteren en verpakken, ziekten en ziektebestrijding en recepten.

  6. Ozone effects on radish (Raphanus sativus L. cv. Cherry Belle): gradient of ultrastructural changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athanassious, R.

    1980-01-01

    Ultrastructural changes produced by low ( less than or equal to 0.5 ppm) levels of ozone may be attributed to water deficit resulting from injury to the sensitive paravenial cells. The drastic alterations, resulting from high ( greater than or equal to 0.5 ppm) ozone concentrations, were apparently due to more direct effects. Although differential fixation images of membranes in control and ozone treated leaves were not obtained the significance of ozone attacking the olefinic groups of fatty acids in the membrane bilayer should not be completely ignored. 19 references, 12 figures.

  7. EFFECT OF GROWTH REGULATOR MICEFIT ON YIELD OF GARDEN RADISH (RAPHANUS SATIVUS L.

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    T. M. Seredin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Micefit is a product developed based on mycorrhizal fungi extracted from roots of swamp ledum. For ecological purposes the Micefit is used for final stage of cleaning of contaminated and polluted land at seed sowing and seedling plating. The effect of growth regulator Micefit on seeds of garden radish depending on different concentrations and exposures. The dependence of garden radish yield on time of treatment and concentration is shown.

  8. Continuous far red irradiation controls molecular properties of delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase in Raphanus Sativus seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balange, A.P. (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 76-Mont Saint Aignan (France). Lab. de Photobiologie); Lambert, C. (U.E.R. Scientifique de Luminy, Dept. de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, Marseilles (France))

    1983-12-01

    8-Aminolevulinate dehydratase (EC 4.2.1.24) (ALAD) is a phytochrome-dependent enzyme. Under continuous far red light (FR), the intracellular location of ALAD is modified: in young irradiated seedling cotyledons (48 h from sowing) it is localised in the cytoplasm, as for seedlings kept in continuous darkness or irradiated but treated with erythromycin (ERT). In seedlings kept 120 h under continuous FR light, ALAD is detected in cytoplasm too, but also in etioplasts. Studies from DEAE-cellulose chromatography show that, when ALAD is localised in the cytoplasm it has a stable charge, but an unstable molecular weight. If plastids are allowed to grow normally under continuous FR light, the enzyme can be purified from stroma of etioplasts from 72 h from sowing. The molecule is unstable, both in charge and in molecular weight. ALAD from etioplasts is further transformed into a species stable both in charge and in molecular weight. The relationship between the molecular modifications and physiological results observed previously are discussed. 12 refs.

  9. Uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides from soil and air into radishes (Raphanus sativus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikes, Ondrej; Cupr, Pavel [RECETOX, Research Centre for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Masaryk University, Kamenice 126/3, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Trapp, Stefan [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljoevej 113, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Klanova, Jana [RECETOX, Research Centre for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Masaryk University, Kamenice 126/3, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic)], E-mail: klanova@recetox.muni.cz

    2009-02-15

    Uptake of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls from soil and air into radishes was measured at a heavily contaminated field site. The highest contaminant concentrations were found for DDT and its metabolites, and for {beta}-hexachlorocyclohexane. Bioconcentration factor (BCF, defined as a ratio between the contaminant concentration in the plant tissue and concentration in soil) was determined for roots, edible bulbs and shoots. Root BCF values were constant and not correlated to log K{sub OW}. A negative correlation between BCF and log K{sub OW} was found for edible bulbs. Shoot BCF values were rather constant and varied between 0.01 and 0.22. Resuspended soil particles may facilitate the transport of chemicals from soil to shoots. Elevated POP concentrations found in shoots of radishes grown in the control plot support the hypothesis that the uptake from air was more significant for shoots than the one from soil. The uptake of POPs from air was within the range of theoretical values predicted from log K{sub OA}. - Uptake from air represented for majority of persistent organochlorines a dominant pathway into shoots while uptake from soil was dominant for roots.

  10. Uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides from soil and air into radishes (Raphanus sativus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikes, Ondrej; Cupr, P.; Trapp, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Uptake of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls from soil and air into radishes was measured at a heavily contaminated field site. The highest contaminant concentrations were found for DDT and its metabolites, and for beta-hexachlorocyclohexane. Bioconcentration factor (BCF, def...

  11. Ultrastructural examination of lead localisation in germinating seeds of Raphanus sativus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, S.D.; Martin, E.S.

    1982-07-01

    Transmission electron microscopy of lead-contaminated germinating seeds has revealed that major sites of lead deposition exist within the cell wall and in association with spherosome-like vesicles common in all cells. There was also evidence of contamination of the plasmalemma, vacuole and subsequently the nucleus. In general radicle and hypocotyl tissue showed more extensive contamination than the cotyledons. The observations are discussed in relation to cell structure and development.

  12. Relative susceptibilities of five fodder radish varieties (Raphanus sativus var. Oleiformis) to Meloidogyne chitwoodi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teklu, M.G.; Schomaker, C.H.; Been, T.H.

    2014-01-01

    The fodder radish varieties Anaconda, Contra, Defender, Doublet and Terranova, known to have some partial resistance, were compared to the standard variety, Radical, to estimate their relative susceptibility (RS) for both population dynamic parameters of Meloidogyne chitwoodi and to evaluate Pi

  13. Distinct Phylogeographic Structures of Wild Radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. raphanistroides Makino in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingxiang Han

    Full Text Available Coastal plants with simple linear distribution ranges along coastlines provide a suitable system for improving our understanding of patterns of intra-specific distributional history and genetic variation. Due to the combination of high seed longevity and high dispersibility of seeds via seawater, we hypothesized that wild radish would poorly represent phylogeographic structure at the local scale. On the other hand, we also hypothesized that wild radish populations might be geographically differentiated, as has been exhibited by their considerable phenotypic variations along the islands of Japan. We conducted nuclear DNA microsatellite loci and chloroplast DNA haplotype analyses for 486 samples and 144 samples, respectively, from 18 populations to investigate the phylogeographic structure of wild radish in Japan. Cluster analysis supported the existence of differential genetic structures between the Ryukyu Islands and mainland Japan populations. A significant strong pattern of isolation by distance and significant evidence of a recent bottleneck were detected. The chloroplast marker analysis resulted in the generation of eight haplotypes, of which two haplotypes (A and B were broadly distributed in most wild radish populations. High levels of variation in microsatellite loci were identified, whereas cpDNA displayed low levels of genetic diversity within populations. Our results indicate that the Kuroshio Current would have contributed to the sculpting of the phylogeographic structure by shaping genetic gaps between isolated populations. In addition, the Tokara Strait would have created a geographic barrier between the Ryukyu Islands and mainland Japan. Finally, extant habitat disturbances (coastal erosion, migration patterns (linear expansion, and geographic characteristics (small islands and sea currents have influenced the expansion and historical population dynamics of wild radish. Our study is the first to record the robust phylogeographic structure in wild radish between the Ryukyu Islands and mainland Japan, and might provide new insight into the genetic differentiation of coastal plants across islands.

  14. Laūq: A Sustained-Release Dosage Form for Respiratory Disorders in Traditional Persian Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karegar-Borzi, Hossein; Salehi, Mehdi; Rahimi, Roja

    2016-01-01

    Laūq is a pharmaceutical dosage form that had been mainly used for the treatment of various respiratory disorders in traditional Persian medicine. It is important from 2 aspects: a dosage form with efficient and optimum delivery of drugs to the respiratory tract and biological effects of its ingredients. Natural medicine in laūq has been demonstrated to act in respiratory disorders by their antitussive, antiallergic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, spasmolytic, and antibacterial activities. Some of these natural remedies act by most of the mentioned mechanisms such as Cydonia oblonga, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Crocus sativus, Hyssopus officinalis, Foeniculum vulgare, and honey. However, the evidence is limited including Cassia fistula, Papaver somniferum, and Drimia maritima. According to positive pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic aspects of laūqs, they may be considered as efficient dosage forms for delivery of drugs to the respiratory tract. For better compatibility of patients, it could be substituted laūqs with newer drug delivery systems like lozenges. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Anti-Aging Potential of Phytoextract Loaded-Pharmaceutical Creams for Human Skin Cell Longetivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saima Jadoon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The exposure to ultraviolet radiations (UVR is the key source of skin sunburn; it may produce harmful entities, reactive oxygen species (ROS, leading to aging. The skin can be treated and protected from the injurious effects of ROS by using various pharmaceutical formulations, such as cream. Cream can be loaded with antioxidants to quench ROS leading to photo-protective effects. Moreover, modern medicines depend on ethnobotanicals for protection or treatment of human diseases. This review article summarizes various in vivo antioxidant studies on herbal creams loaded with phyto-extracts. These formulations may serve as cosmeceuticals to protect skin against injurious effects of UVR. The botanicals studied for dermatologic use in cream form include Acacia nilotica, Benincasa hispida, Calendula officinalis, Camellia sinensis, Camellia sinensis, Nelumbo nucifera, Capparis decidua, Castanea sativa, Coffea arabica, Crocus sativus, Emblica officinalis Gaertn, Foeniculum vulgare, Hippophae rhamnoides, Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Malus domestica, Matricaria chamomilla L., Moringa oleifera, Morus alba, Ocimum basilicum, Oryza sativa, Polygonum minus, Punica granatum, Silybum marianum, Tagetes erecta Linn., Terminalia chebula, Trigonella foenum-graecum, and Vitis vinifera. The observed anti-aging effects of cream formulations could be an outcome of a coordinating action of multiple constituents. Of numerous botanicals, the phenolic acids and flavonoids appear effective against UVR-induced damage; however the evidence-based studies for their anti-aging effects are still needed.

  16. An evidence-based approach to medicinal plants for the treatment of sperm abnormalities in traditional Persian medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahvilzadeh, M; Hajimahmoodi, M; Toliyat, T; Karimi, M; Rahimi, R

    2016-10-01

    Infertility is defined as inability of a sexually active couple to conceive after 1 year of regular intercourse without contraception. Male factors account for 20%-50% of cases of infertility. The aim of this study was to review medicinal plants that proposed to improve sperm abnormalities in traditional Persian medicine. For this purpose, PubMed, Scopus, GoogleScholar and Cochrane library were explored for medicinal plants used in traditional Persian medicine for sperm abnormalities to obtain studies giving any evidence for their efficacy and pharmacological mechanisms related to male infertility. Data were collected for the years 1966 to March 2015. For some of them, including Chlorophytum borivilianum, Crocus sativus, Nigella sativa, Sesamum indicum, Tribulus terrestris, Mucuna pruriens and Withania somnifera, more reliable evidence was found. The mechanisms involved in the beneficial effects of medicinal plants in sperm abnormalities are antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-oedematous and venotonic activity as well as containing precursors for sperm production and increasing blood testosterone level. Various phytochemical categories including saponins, phytosterols, carotenoids, oxygenated volatile compounds, phenolic compounds and alkaloids seem to be responsible for these beneficial effects. Further studies are recommended for obtaining more conclusive results about the efficacy and safety of the mentioned medicinal plants. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Historical parallels of biological space experiments from Soyuz, Salyut and Mir to Shenzhou flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechitailo, Galina S.; Kondyurin, Alexey

    2016-07-01

    Human exploitation of space is a great achievement of our civilization. After the first space flights a development of artificial biological environment in space systems is a second big step. First successful biological experiments on a board of space station were performed on Salyut and Mir stations in 70-90th of last century such as - first long time cultivation of plants in space (wheat, linen, lettuce, crepis); - first flowers in space (Arabidopsis); - first harvesting of seeds in space (Arabidopsis); - first harvesting of roots (radish); - first full life cycle from seeds to seeds in space (wheat), Guinness recorded; - first tissue culture experiments (Panax ginseng L, Crocus sativus L, Stevia rebaundiana B; - first tree growing in space for 2 years (Limonia acidissima), Guinness recorded. As a new wave, the modern experiments on a board of Shenzhou Chinese space ships are performed with plants and tissue culture. The space flight experiments are now focused on applications of the space biology results to Earth technologies. In particular, the tomato seeds exposed 6 years in space are used in pharmacy industry in more then 10 pharmaceutical products. Tissue culture experiments are performed on the board of Shenzhou spaceship for creation of new bioproducts including Space Panax ginseng, Space Spirulina, Space Stetatin, Space Tomato and others products with unique properties. Space investments come back.

  18. Herbal treatments for alleviating premenstrual symptoms: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dante, Giulia; Facchinetti, Fabio

    2011-03-01

    Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a condition of cyclical and recurrent physical and psychological discomfort occurring 1 to 2 weeks before menstrual period. More severe psychological symptoms have been described for the premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). No single treatment is universally recognised as effective and many patients often turn to therapeutic approaches outside of conventional medicine. This systematic review is aimed at analysing the effects of herb remedies in the above conditions. Systematic literature searches were performed in electronic databases, covering the period January 1980 to September 2010. Randomised controlled clinical trials (RCTs) were included. Papers quality was evaluated with the Jadad' scale. A further evaluation of PMS/PMDD diagnostic criteria was also done. Of 102 articles identified, 17 RCTs were eligible and 10 of them were included. The heterogeneity of population included, study design and outcome presentation refrained from a meta-analysis. Vitex agnus castus was the more investigated remedy (four trials, about 500 women), and it was reported to consistently ameliorate PMS better than placebo. Single trials also support the use of either Gingko biloba or Crocus sativus. On the contrary, neither evening primrose oil nor St. John's Wort show an effect different than placebo. None of the herbs was associated with major health risks, although the reduced number of tested patients does not allow definitive conclusions on safety. Some herb remedies seem useful for the treatment of PMS. However, more RCTs are required to account for the heterogeneity of the syndrome.

  19. Medicinal Herbs in Iranian Traditional Medicine for Learning and Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaii, Asie; Ghods, Roshanak; Fard, Mehri Abdollahi

    2016-05-01

    A few factors such as age, stress, and emotions may lead to impaired learning, memory loss, amnesia, and dementia or threats like schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Iranian traditional medicine (ITM) recommends some herbs and herbal preparations for the treatment or prevention of CNS problems. In this study, scientific evidence related to the effectiveness of ITM herbal medicine on memory, learning and AD is reviewed. The scientific evidence of plant efficacy was searched in electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, SID, Science Direct, and Google Scholar by keywords such as memory, Alzheimer, amnesia, learning and scientific plant names from 1969 to 2014. The findings of this study confirmed the effectiveness of certain ITM medicinal plants on enhancing memory and learning or in the treatment/prevention of amnesia and AD. Some ITM plants like Melissa officinalis, Crocus sativus and Nigella sativa showed improving effects on memory and the treatment of AD in clinical trials. In some cases, active principles responsible for the efficacy of these plants on memory were also determined. Most of the studies on ITM plants were designed in animal models and a few herbs were evaluated in clinical trials on AD. Furthermore, there are insufficient or no investigations on certain herbal medicines used in ITM to confirm their effectiveness on memory and learning. Therefore, further experimental and clinical studies are necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of these plants on memory and AD as well as determining their active components.

  20. Botanicals as Modulators of Neuroplasticity: Focus on BDNF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Sangiovanni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The involvement of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in different central nervous system (CNS diseases suggests that this neurotrophin may represent an interesting and reliable therapeutic target. Accordingly, the search for new compounds, also from natural sources, able to modulate BDNF has been increasingly explored. The present review considers the literature on the effects of botanicals on BDNF. Botanicals considered were Bacopa monnieri (L. Pennell, Coffea arabica L., Crocus sativus L., Eleutherococcus senticosus Maxim., Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze (green tea, Ginkgo biloba L., Hypericum perforatum L., Olea europaea L. (olive oil, Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, Rhodiola rosea L., Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, Vitis vinifera L., Withania somnifera (L. Dunal, and Perilla frutescens (L. Britton. The effect of the active principles responsible for the efficacy of the extracts is reviewed and discussed as well. The high number of articles published (more than one hundred manuscripts for 14 botanicals supports the growing interest in the use of natural products as BDNF modulators. The studies reported strengthen the hypothesis that botanicals may be considered useful modulators of BDNF in CNS diseases, without high side effects. Further clinical studies are mandatory to confirm botanicals as preventive agents or as useful adjuvant to the pharmacological treatment.

  1. Evolutionarily distinct carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases are responsible for crocetin production in Buddleja davidii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrazem, Oussama; Diretto, Gianfranco; Argandoña, Javier; Rubio-Moraga, Ángela; Julve, José Manuel; Orzáez, Diego; Granell, Antonio; Gómez-Gómez, Lourdes

    2017-07-20

    Crocetin, one of the few colored apocarotenoids known in nature, is present in flowers and fruits and has long been used medicinally and as a colorant. Saffron is the main source of crocetin, although a few other plants produce lower amounts of this apocarotenoid. Notably, Buddleja davidii accumulates crocetin in its flowers. Recently, a carotenoid dioxygenase cleavage enzyme, CCD2, has been characterized as responsible for crocetin production in Crocus species. We searched for CCD2 homologues in B. davidii and identified several CCD enzymes from the CCD1 and CCD4 subfamilies. Unexpectedly, two out of the three CCD4 enzymes, namely BdCCD4.1 and BdCCD4.3, showed 7,8;7',8' activity in vitro and in vivo over zeaxanthin. In silico analyses of these enzymes and CCD2 allowed the determination of key residues for this activity. Both BdCCD4 genes are highly expressed during flower development and transcripts levels parallel the accumulation of crocins in the petals. Phylogenetic analysis showed that BdCCD4.2 grouped with almost all the characterized CCD4 enzymes, while BdCCD4.1 and BdCCD4.3 form a new sub-cluster together with CCD4 enzymes from certain Lamiales species. The present study indicates that convergent evolution led to the acquisition of 7,8;7',8' apocarotenoid cleavage activity in two separate CCD enzyme families. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Carryover of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) from soil to plant and distribution to the different plant compartments studied in cultures of carrots (Daucus carota ssp. Sativus), potatoes (Solanum tuberosum), and cucumbers (Cucumis Sativus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, Mareike; Knapp, Holger

    2011-10-26

    A vegetation study was carried out to investigate the carryover of Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) from soil mixed with contaminated sewage sludge to potato, carrot, and cucumber plants. Analysis was done by liquid-extraction using acetonitrile with dispersive SPE cleanup and subsequent HPLC-MS/MS. In order to assess the transfer potential from soil, transfer factors (TF) were calculated for the different plant compartments: TF = [PFC](plant (wet substance))/[PFC](soil (dry weight)). The highest TF were found for the vegetative plant compartments with average values for PFOS below those for PFOA: cucumber, 0.17 (PFOS), 0.88 (PFOA); potato, 0.36 (PFOS), 0.40 (PFOA); carrot, 0.38 (PFOS), 0.53 (PFOA). Transfer of PFOA and PFOS into potato peelings (average values of TF: PFOA 0.03, PFOS 0.04) exceeded the carryover to the peeled tubers (PFOA 0.01, PFOS potatoes (TF < 0.01). For PFOA, it was higher (TF: 0.03).

  3. Performance and egg quality of laying hens fed diet containing radish cake (Raphanus sativusDesempenho e qualidade dos ovos de poedeiras comerciais leves submetidas a dietas contendo torta de nabo forrageiro (Raphanus sativus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Oba

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted with the aim to evaluate the effects of different levels of radish cake (0, 5, 10 and 20% in laying hens rations on performance parameters and qualitative and sensorial characteristics of egg. A total of 240 light laying hens, with 52 to 60 weeks of age, standartized according the weight and laying performance distributed a completely randomized design, with six repetitions with eight birds per unit, were used. The experiment was conducted during eight weeks, subdivided within four periods of two weeks. There was effect of radish cake (P O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos da inclusão da torta de nabo forrageiro, TNBF, (0, 5, 10, 15 e 20% na ração sobre os parâmetros produtivos e qualidade dos ovos de galinhas poedeiras. Foram utilizadas 240 poedeiras comerciais leves, entre 52 e 60 semanas de idade, uniformizadas por peso e postura, dispostas em um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com seis repetições de oito aves por tratamento. O experimento teve duração de oito semanas, dividido em quatro períodos de duas semanas cada. Houve efeito da TNBF (P < 0,05 sobre o consumo de ração, porcentagem de postura, massa dos ovos, índices de cor e avaliação sensorial. Não houve efeito dos tratamentos para conversão alimentar e peso dos ovos. O uso da torta de nabo forrageiro na ração de galinhas poedeiras afeta negativamente os parâmetros produtivos e a qualidade sensorial dos ovos.

  4. Modeling the Factors Affecting the Promotion of the Share of R&T Units in Iran Export Agriculture Product's Added Value: Case Study of Saffron and Barberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ghorbani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigate the importance of agricultural sector research and technology organizations (RTO in the national economic system. The main objective of the paper is to identify and rank the factors affecting the promotion of these RTOs share in saffron’s added value. Through the literature review we extracted all the relevant factors that have been mentioned by different researchers. Then, we classified these factors into six components: applied research, technology acquisition, commercialization, market development, industry’s internal factors and national macro factors. We used a Likert scale questionnaire to gather the data about the importance of each factor based on research and technology experts’ points of view. To analyze the data we utilized confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling (SEM methods using SPSS and smart PLS software packages. The results show that the most important factor affecting the share of agricultural RTOs in a products added value  is the promotion of industrial firms to invest in the field of agricultural research and development. Finally, according to the obtained results, some suggestions for improving research and technology have been provided.

  5. Cucurbita spp. and Cucumis sativus enhance the dissipation of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners by stimulating soil microbial community development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Hua; Brookes, Philip C; Xu, Jianming

    2014-01-01

    A number of Cucurbita species have the potential to extract polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from soil, but their impact on the soil microbial communities responsible for PCB degradation remains unclear. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of three Cucurbita and one Cucumis species on PCB dissipation and soil microbial community structure. Compared to the unplanted control, enhanced losses of PCBs (19.5%-42.7%) were observed in all planted soils. Cucurbita pepo and Cucurbita moschata treatments were more efficient in PCB dissipation, and have similar patterns of soil phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) and PCB congener profiles. Cucurbita treatments tend to have higher soil microbial biomass than Cucumis. Gram-negative (G(-)) bacteria were significantly correlated with PCB degradation rates (R(2) = 0.719, p Cucurbita related soil microorganisms could play an important role in remediation of PCB contaminated soils. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Diffusive gradient in thin films technique for assessment of cadmium and copper bioaccessibility to radish (Raphanus sativus)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dočekalová, H.; Škarpa, P.; Dočekal, Bohumil

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 134, March (2015), s. 153-157 ISSN 0039-9140 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP503/10/2002 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : radish * cadmium * copper * DGT technique * bioaccesibility Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.035, year: 2015

  7. Differential proteomic analysis reveals sequential heat stress-responsive regulatory network in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) taproot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ronghua; Mei, Yi; Xu, Liang; Zhu, Xianwen; Wang, Yan; Guo, Jun; Liu, Liwang

    2018-05-01

    Differential abundance protein species (DAPS) involved in reducing damage and enhancing thermotolerance in radish were firstly identified. Proteomic analysis and omics association analysis revealed a HS-responsive regulatory network in radish. Heat stress (HS) is a major destructive factor influencing radish production and supply in summer, for radish is a cool season vegetable crop being susceptible to high temperature. In this study, the proteome changes of radish taproots under 40 °C treatment at 0 h (Control), 12 h (Heat12) and 24 h (Heat24) were analyzed using iTRAQ (Isobaric Tag for Relative and Absolute Quantification) approach. In total, 2258 DAPS representing 1542 differentially accumulated uniprotein species which respond to HS were identified. A total of 604, 910 and 744 DAPS was detected in comparison of Control vs. Heat12, Control vs. Heat24, and Heat12 vs. Heat24, respectively. Gene ontology and pathway analysis showed that annexin, ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, ATP synthase, heat shock protein (HSP) and other stress-related proteins were predominately enriched in signal transduction, stress and defense pathways, photosynthesis and energy metabolic pathways, working cooperatively to reduce stress-induced damage in radish. Based on iTRAQ combined with the transcriptomics analysis, a schematic model of a sequential HS-responsive regulatory network was proposed. The initial sensing of HS occurred at the plasma membrane, and then key components of stress signal transduction triggered heat-responsive genes in the plant protective metabolism to re-establish homeostasis and enhance thermotolerance. These results provide new insights into characteristics of HS-responsive DAPS and facilitate dissecting the molecular mechanisms underlying heat tolerance in radish and other root crops.

  8. Ameliorating effects of Raphanus sativus leaves on sodium arsenite-induced perturbation of blood indices in Swiss albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayada Dilruba

    2017-10-01

    Conclusions: Results of this study suggest the protective or ameliorating effects of RSL on Sa-induced perturbation of blood indices are related to the hepatic, cardiovascular and kidney dysfunction. Therefore, RSL may be useful to reduce arsenic toxicity in human in the future.

  9. Arsenate impact on the metabolite profile, production and arsenic loading of xylem sap in cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalle eUroic

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic uptake and translocation studies on xylem sap focus generally on the concentration and speciation of arsenic in the xylem. Arsenic impact on the xylem sap metabolite profile and its production during short term exposure has not been reported in detail. To investigate this, cucumbers were grown hydroponically and arsenate (AsV and DMA were used for plant treatment for 24 h. Total arsenic and arsenic speciation in xylem sap was analysed including a metabolite profiling under arsenate stress. Produced xylem sap was quantified and absolute arsenic transported was determined. AsV exposure has a significant impact on the metabolite profile of xylem sap. Four m/z values corresponding to four compounds were up regulated, one compound down regulated by arsenate exposure. The compound down regulated was identified to be isoleucine. Furthermore, arsenate has a significant influence on sap production, leading to a reduction of up to 96 % sap production when plants are exposed to 1000 μg kg-1 arsenate. No difference to control plants was observed when plants were exposed to 1000 μg kg-1 DMA. Absolute arsenic amount in xylem sap was the lowest at high arsenate exposure. These results show that AsV has a significant impact on the production and metabolite profile of xylem sap. The physiological importance of isoleucine needs further attention.

  10. Evaluation of some engineering properties of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. seeds and kernels based on image processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Mirzabe

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a method based on digital image processing was employed to investigate effect of the moisture content on gravimetrical and frictional properties of the cucumber seeds and kernels. This research indicated that the application of visual machines and the image processing could be a rapid method that enables accurate measurement of the dimensional parameters of two varieties of this product meticulously. The length, width, and thickness of the seeds of Rashid variety ranged from 6.40 to 9.07, 2.91 to 4.21 and 0.65 to1.50 mm, respectively; the corresponding value of Negin variety ranged from 6.89 to 9.07, 2.49 to 4.21, and 0.69 to 1.68 mm, respectively. Kernel and shell ratios of the Rashid variety were found to be 69.811 and 30.189%, respectively; the corresponding values of the Negin variety were found to be 72.727 and 27.273%, respectively. Despite the bulk densities of the two varieties of cucumber seeds and kernels that decreased with the moisture content, true density and porosity of the two varieties of cucumber seeds and kernels increased. As the moisture content increased from 5.04 to 21.12% (d.b, the angle of the static friction of the seeds of Negin variety increased from 30.39° to 37.18°, 28.83° to 34.99°, 24.37° to 30.04°, and 15.77° to 19.57° for wood, rubber, iron, and galvanized, respectively,; the corresponding value of the Negin variety increased from 21.12° to 27.16°, 24.43° to 31.41°, 19.90° to 25.59° and 14.09° to 18.12° as the moisture content increased from 5.02 to 21.02% (d.b. Keywords: Image processing, Physical and mechanical properties, Cucumber

  11. Effect of silver nanoparticles on concentration of silver heavy element and growth indexes in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. negeen)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shams, Gholamabbas; Ranjbar, Morteza; Amiri, Aliasghar

    2013-01-01

    The tremendous progress on nanoparticle research area has been made significant effects on the economy, society, and the environment. Silver nanoparticle is one of the most important particles in these categories. Silver nanoparticles can be converted to the heavy silver metal in water by oxidation. Moreover, in the high amounts of silver concentration, they will be accumulated in different parts of the plant. However, by changing the morphology of the plant, the production will be harmful for human consumptions. In this study, nano-powders with average 50 nm silver particles are mixed with deionized distilled water in a completely randomized design. Seven treatments with various concentrations of suspension silver nanoparticles were prepared and repeated in four different parts of the plant in a regular program of spraying. Samples were analyzed to study the growth indexes and concentration of silver in different parts of the plant. It was observed that with increasing concentration of silver nanoparticles on cucumber, the growth indexes (except pH fruit), and the concentration of silver heavy metal are increased significantly. The incremental concentration had the linear relationship with correlation coefficient 0.95 and an average of 0.617 PPM by increasing of each unit in one thousand concentration of nanosilver. Although, by increasing concentration of silver nanoparticles as spraying form, the plant morphological characteristics were improved, the concentration of silver heavy metal in various plant organs was increased. These results open a new pathway to consider the effect of nanoparticles on plant’s productions for human consumptions.

  12. Cucurbita spp. and Cucumis sativus enhance the dissipation of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners by stimulating soil microbial community development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Hua; Brookes, Philip C.; Xu, Jianming

    2014-01-01

    A number of Cucurbita species have the potential to extract polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from soil, but their impact on the soil microbial communities responsible for PCB degradation remains unclear. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of three Cucurbita and one Cucumis species on PCB dissipation and soil microbial community structure. Compared to the unplanted control, enhanced losses of PCBs (19.5%–42.7%) were observed in all planted soils. Cucurbita pepo and Cucurbita moschata treatments were more efficient in PCB dissipation, and have similar patterns of soil phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) and PCB congener profiles. Cucurbita treatments tend to have higher soil microbial biomass than Cucumis. Gram-negative (G − ) bacteria were significantly correlated with PCB degradation rates (R 2 = 0.719, p − bacteria were correlated with dissipation of the penta homologue group (R 2 = 0.590, p − bacteria contributed significantly to soil PCB dissipation. • Fungi have a great potential in the dissipation of high chlorinated biphenyls. -- Cucurbita associated fungi and G − bacteria have important influence on soil PCB dissipation rate and congener profile

  13. Arsenate Impact on the Metabolite Profile, Production, and Arsenic Loading of Xylem Sap in Cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uroic, M. Kalle; Salaün, Pascal; Raab, Andrea; Feldmann, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic uptake and translocation studies on xylem sap focus generally on the concentration and speciation of arsenic in the xylem. Arsenic impact on the xylem sap metabolite profile and its production during short term exposure has not been reported in detail. To investigate this, cucumbers were grown hydroponically and arsenate (AsV) and DMA were used for plant treatment for 24 h. Total arsenic and arsenic speciation in xylem sap was analyzed including a metabolite profiling under AsV stress. Produced xylem sap was quantified and absolute arsenic transported was determined. AsV exposure had a significant impact on the metabolite profile of xylem sap. Four m/z values corresponding to four compounds were up-regulated, one compound down-regulated by AsV exposure. The compound down-regulated was identified to be isoleucine. Furthermore, AsV exposure had a significant influence on sap production, leading to a reduction of up to 96% sap production when plants were exposed to 1000 μg kg−1 AsV. No difference to control plants was observed when plants were exposed to 1000 μg kg−1 DMA. Absolute arsenic amount in xylem sap was the lowest at high AsV exposure. These results show that AsV has a significant impact on the production and metabolite profile of xylem sap. The physiological importance of isoleucine needs further attention. PMID:22536187

  14. Effect of silver nanoparticles on concentration of silver heavy element and growth indexes in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. negeen)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shams, Gholamabbas, E-mail: ghs@iaushiraz.net; Ranjbar, Morteza [Shiraz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Department of Physics (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Amiri, Aliasghar [Shiraz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Department of Chemistry (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The tremendous progress on nanoparticle research area has been made significant effects on the economy, society, and the environment. Silver nanoparticle is one of the most important particles in these categories. Silver nanoparticles can be converted to the heavy silver metal in water by oxidation. Moreover, in the high amounts of silver concentration, they will be accumulated in different parts of the plant. However, by changing the morphology of the plant, the production will be harmful for human consumptions. In this study, nano-powders with average 50 nm silver particles are mixed with deionized distilled water in a completely randomized design. Seven treatments with various concentrations of suspension silver nanoparticles were prepared and repeated in four different parts of the plant in a regular program of spraying. Samples were analyzed to study the growth indexes and concentration of silver in different parts of the plant. It was observed that with increasing concentration of silver nanoparticles on cucumber, the growth indexes (except pH fruit), and the concentration of silver heavy metal are increased significantly. The incremental concentration had the linear relationship with correlation coefficient 0.95 and an average of 0.617 PPM by increasing of each unit in one thousand concentration of nanosilver. Although, by increasing concentration of silver nanoparticles as spraying form, the plant morphological characteristics were improved, the concentration of silver heavy metal in various plant organs was increased. These results open a new pathway to consider the effect of nanoparticles on plant's productions for human consumptions.

  15. Proteomic Analysis of Differentially Accumulated Proteins in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Fruit Peel in Response to Pre-storage Cold Acclimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Shen, Fei; Zhu, Shijiang

    2017-01-01

    Harvested fruits are still living organs and respond to environmental stimuli. Low temperature storage is effective in extending life of harvested fruit, but it may also cause chilling injury. Cold acclimation has been shown to induce chilling tolerance in plants, but what proteomic changes caused by cold acclimation are related to defense against chilling stress remains largely unclear. Here, 3 d of pre-storage cold acclimation (PsCA) at 10°C reduced chilling injury and secondary disease severity in cucumber stored at 5°C by 51 and 94%, respectively, compared with the control which was directly stored at 5°C. Proteomic analysis of cucumber peel identified 21 significant differentially-accumulated proteins (SDAPs) right after PsCA treatment and 23 after the following cold storage (PsCA+CS). These proteins are mainly related to stress response and defense (SRD), energy metabolism, protein metabolism, signal transduction, primary metabolism, and transcription. The SRD proteins, which made up 37% of the 21 and 47% of the 23, respectively, represented the largest class of SDAPs, and all but one protein were up-regulated, suggesting accumulation of proteins involved in defense response is central feature of proteomic profile changes brought about by PsCA. In fruit just after PsCA treatment, the identified SDAPs are related to responses to various stresses, including chilling, salt stress, dehydration, fungi, bacteria, insects, and DNA damage. However, after prolonged cold storage, the targeted proteins in acclimated fruit were narrowed down in scope to those involved in defense against chilling and pathogens. The change patterns at the transcription level of the majority of the up-regulated differentially-accumulated proteins were highly consistent with those at protein level. Taken all, the results suggest that the short-time cold acclimation initiated comprehensive defense responses in cucumber fruit at first, while the long term storage thereafter altered the responses more specifically to chilling. These findings add to the understanding of plants' molecular responses to cold acclimation.

  16. Co-Expression analysis of miRNAs and target NBS-LRR genes in Cucumis sativus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plants react against their biological enemies by activating the innate immune system. Their defense system comprises of various R-protein, which usually contain NBS-LRR domain. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important molecules of 2nd layer of plant defense and play pivotal role behind the scene. To support...

  17. Proteomic Analysis of Differentially Accumulated Proteins in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus Fruit Peel in Response to Pre-storage Cold Acclimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Harvested fruits are still living organs and respond to environmental stimuli. Low temperature storage is effective in extending life of harvested fruit, but it may also cause chilling injury. Cold acclimation has been shown to induce chilling tolerance in plants, but what proteomic changes caused by cold acclimation are related to defense against chilling stress remains largely unclear. Here, 3 d of pre-storage cold acclimation (PsCA at 10°C reduced chilling injury and secondary disease severity in cucumber stored at 5°C by 51 and 94%, respectively, compared with the control which was directly stored at 5°C. Proteomic analysis of cucumber peel identified 21 significant differentially-accumulated proteins (SDAPs right after PsCA treatment and 23 after the following cold storage (PsCA+CS. These proteins are mainly related to stress response and defense (SRD, energy metabolism, protein metabolism, signal transduction, primary metabolism, and transcription. The SRD proteins, which made up 37% of the 21 and 47% of the 23, respectively, represented the largest class of SDAPs, and all but one protein were up-regulated, suggesting accumulation of proteins involved in defense response is central feature of proteomic profile changes brought about by PsCA. In fruit just after PsCA treatment, the identified SDAPs are related to responses to various stresses, including chilling, salt stress, dehydration, fungi, bacteria, insects, and DNA damage. However, after prolonged cold storage, the targeted proteins in acclimated fruit were narrowed down in scope to those involved in defense against chilling and pathogens. The change patterns at the transcription level of the majority of the up-regulated differentially-accumulated proteins were highly consistent with those at protein level. Taken all, the results suggest that the short-time cold acclimation initiated comprehensive defense responses in cucumber fruit at first, while the long term storage thereafter altered the responses more specifically to chilling. These findings add to the understanding of plants' molecular responses to cold acclimation.

  18. P depletion and activity of phosphatases in the rhizosphere of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal cucumber (Cucumis Sativus L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joner, E.J.; Magid, J.; Gahoonia, T.S.

    1995-01-01

    An experiment was set up to test the ability of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) roots and hyphae to produce extracellular phosphatases and to study the relationship between phosphatase activity and soil organic P (P-o). Non-mycorrhizal cucumber and cucumber in symbiosis with either of two mycorrhizal...... fungi were grown in a sandy loam-sand mixture in three-compartment pots. Plant roots were separated from two consecutively adjoining compartments, first by a 37 m mesh excluding roots and subsequently by a 0.45 m membrane excluding mycorrhizal hyphae. Soil from the two root-free compartments...... was sectioned in a freezing microtome and analyzed for extracellular acid (pH 5.2) and alkaline (pH 8.5) phosphatase activity as well as depletion of NaHCO-3-extractable inorganic P (P-i) and P-o. Roots and mycorrhizal hyphae depleted the soil of P-i but did not influence the concentration of P-o in spite...

  19. Identification of differentially expressed genes in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) root under waterlogging stress by digital gene expression profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xiao-Hua; Xu, Xue-Wen; Lin, Xiao-Jian; Zhang, Wen-Jie; Chen, Xue-Hao

    2012-03-01

    High-throughput tag-sequencing (Tag-seq) analysis based on the Solexa Genome Analyzer platform was applied to analyze the gene expression profiling of cucumber plant at 5 time points over a 24h period of waterlogging treatment. Approximately 5.8 million total clean sequence tags per library were obtained with 143013 distinct clean tag sequences. Approximately 23.69%-29.61% of the distinct clean tags were mapped unambiguously to the unigene database, and 53.78%-60.66% of the distinct clean tags were mapped to the cucumber genome database. Analysis of the differentially expressed genes revealed that most of the genes were down-regulated in the waterlogging stages, and the differentially expressed genes mainly linked to carbon metabolism, photosynthesis, reactive oxygen species generation/scavenging, and hormone synthesis/signaling. Finally, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction using nine genes independently verified the tag-mapped results. This present study reveals the comprehensive mechanisms of waterlogging-responsive transcription in cucumber. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Some physiological and biochemical responses to copper of detached cucumber (cucumis sativus l.) cotyledons pre-floated in salicylic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulengul, S.C.; Yildiz, T.; Deveci, D.

    2017-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a growth regulator that promotes growth of plants under stress and non-stress conditions. In the present investigation we studied the role of salicylic acid in copper induced physiological and biochemical changes and the possible induction of oxidative stress in detached cucumber cotyledons. Detached cotyledons of young cucumber seedlings were floated in 150 ppm SA. Then, the responses of these cotyledons to different concentrations (0, 10, 20 ve 50 mM) of copper (CuCl2. H2O) were investigated. In detached cucumber cotyledons exposed to increasing Cu concentrations, the fresh weight accumulation and the photosynthetic pigment content were decreased. Furthermore, the levels of some important parameters regarding oxidative stress in the cotyledons, namely lipid peroxidation (MDA), glutathione (GSH) and proline were increased. In the detached cucumber cotyledons pre-floation process with SA alleviated the negative effect of Cu ( 20 mM and 50 mM Cu) on growth parameters. (author)

  1. Reduction of bacterial growth by a vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus in the rhizosphere of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, H.; Jakobsen, I.

    1993-01-01

    Cucumber was grown in a partially sterilized sand-soil mixture with the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungus Glomus fasciculatum or left uninoculated. Fresh soil extract was places in polyvinyl chloride tubes without propagules of mycorrhizal fungi. Root tips and root segments...... and top of tubes, and of cocci with a diameter of 0.55-0.78 mum in the bulk soil in the center of tubes, were significantly reduced by VAM fungi. The extremely high bacterial biomass (1-7 mg C g-1 dry weight soil) was significant reduced by mycorrhizal colonization on root segments and in bulk soil...... biomass, and changed the spatial pattern of bacterial growth compared to non-mycorrhizal cucumbers. The [H-3]-thymidine incorporation was significantly higher on root tips in the top of tubes, and on root segments and bulk soil in the center of tubes on non-mycorrhizal plants compared to mycorrhizal...

  2. Long-term in vitro system for maintenance and amplification of root-knot nematodes in Cucumis sativus roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando E. eDíaz-Manzano

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Root-knot nematodes (RKN are polyphagous plant-parasitic roundworms that produce large crop losses, representing a relevant agricultural pest worldwide. After infection, they induce swollen root structures called galls containing giant cells (GCs indispensable for nematode development. Among efficient control methods are biotechnology-based strategies that require a deep knowledge of underlying molecular processes during the plant-nematode interaction. Methods of achieving this knowledge include the application of molecular biology techniques such as transcriptomics (massive sequencing or microarray hybridization, proteomics or metabolomics. These require aseptic experimental conditions, as undetected contamination with other microorganisms could compromise the interpretation of the results. Herein, we present a simple, efficient and long-term method for nematode amplification on cucumber