WorldWideScience

Sample records for safety testing moving

  1. FOOD SAFETY TESTING LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory develops screening assays, tests and modifies biosensor equipment, and optimizes food safety testing protocols for the military and civilian sector...

  2. Tests to Help Plan Opportunity Moves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Rover engineers check how a test rover moves in material chosen to simulate some difficult Mars driving conditions. The scene is inside the In-Situ Instrument Laboratory at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. These tests in early May 2005 were designed to help plan the best way for the rover Opportunity to drive off of a soft-sand dune that the rover dug itself into the previous week. The mixture of sandy and powdery material brought in for these specific tests matched the way the soil underneath Opportunity caked onto wheels, filling the spaces between the cleats on the wheels.

  3. Guide On Safety Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1987-05-15

    This book tells US important things to do safety tests, which includes basic caution for experiment treatment of used materials such as ignition substance inflammables, explosive substance and toxic substance, handling of used equipment like inflammable device, machine, high pressure device, high pressure gas, and high energy device, first aid such as addiction by drug, flame, radiation exposure, and heart massage treatment of waste in laboratory like cautions on general treatment, handling of inorganic waste, organic waste and waste treatment with disposal facilities.

  4. Guide On Safety Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-05-01

    This book tells US important things to do safety tests, which includes basic caution for experiment treatment of used materials such as ignition substance inflammables, explosive substance and toxic substance, handling of used equipment like inflammable device, machine, high pressure device, high pressure gas, and high energy device, first aid such as addiction by drug, flame, radiation exposure, and heart massage treatment of waste in laboratory like cautions on general treatment, handling of inorganic waste, organic waste and waste treatment with disposal facilities.

  5. Reliability on the move: safety and reliability in transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guy, G.B.

    1989-01-01

    The development of transportation has been a significant factor in the development of civilisation as a whole. Our technical ability to move people and goods now seems virtually limitless when one considers for example the achievements of the various space programmes. Yet our current achievements rely heavily on high standards of safety and reliability from equipment and the human component of transportation systems. Recent failures have highlighted our dependence on equipment and human reliability. This book represents the proceedings of the 1989 Safety and Reliability Society symposium held at Bath on 11-12 October 1989. The structure of the book follows the structure of the symposium itself and the papers selected represent current thinking the the wide field of transportation, and the areas of rail (6 papers, three on railway signalling), air including space (two papers), road (one paper), road and rail (two papers) and sea (three papers) are covered. There are four papers concerned with general transport issues. Three papers concerned with the transport of radioactive materials are indexed separately. (author)

  6. Safety tests file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The design and operation of nuclear power plants is governed by strict and clearly defined regulations designed to ensure their safety in all circumstances. Since the first nuclear reactors were commissioned, the basic safety principles and the corresponding practical requirements have constantly evolved and been enhanced, benefiting from operating experience feedback from reactors around the world (about 500 production reactors currently in service). Reactor safety has from the outset been built around the 'defense in depth' concept, which aims to prevent melting of the core and radioactive releases into the environment. It can be summarized as follows: over and above all the measures taken to prevent accidents, the principle that accidents do occur has to be accepted. We then assess their consequences and take steps to contain them at the level of severity at which they occur. (authors)

  7. Safety of pulmonary function testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, Cara; Ward, Simon; Walsted, Emil

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pulmonary function testing (PFT) is a key investigation in the evaluation of individuals with respiratory symptoms; however, the safety of routine and specialised PFT testing has not been reported in a large data set. Using patient safety incident (PSI) records, we aimed to assess risk...... was rated using the NHS National Patient Safety Agency and any hospital admission reported. RESULTS: There were 119 PSIs reported from 186 000 PFT; that is, 0.6 PSIs per 1000 tests. Cardiopulmonary PSIs were 3.3 times more likely to occur than non-cardiopulmonary (95% CI 2.17 to 5.12). Syncope was the most...

  8. 78 FR 4331 - Safety Zone; Sellwood Bridge Move; Willamette River, Portland, OR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... Sellwood Bridge as it is being moved. This safety zone will also allow full maneuverability for... 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Sellwood Bridge Move; Willamette River, Portland, OR AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... the Sellwood Bridge, located on the Willamette River in Portland, Oregon, while it is being relocated...

  9. Cadmium safety rod thermal tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.K.; Iyer, N.C.; Peacock, H.B.

    1992-01-01

    Thermal testing of cadmium safety rods was conducted as part of a program to define the response of Savannah River Site (SRS) production reactor core components to a hypothetical LOCA leading to a drained reactor tank. The safety rods are present in the reactor core only during shutdown and are not used as a control mechanism during operation; thus, their response to the conditions predicted for the LOCA is only of interest to the extent that it could impact the progression of the accident. This document provides a description of this testing

  10. Safety in acoustic emission testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollock, A.A.

    2004-01-01

    The human cost of accidents - the loss of family members and friends, and the impairment of life through injuries - makes prevention a very high priority in our society. Especially in the more industrialized countries, where high levels of personal comfort and security are the norm, resources are available to develop safety-enhancing technologies, cultures and management techniques. Thus, safety programs have become a well-established part of the industrial workplace. (author)

  11. Model-based testing for software safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gurbuz, Havva Gulay; Tekinerdogan, Bedir

    2017-01-01

    Testing safety-critical systems is crucial since a failure or malfunction may result in death or serious injuries to people, equipment, or environment. An important challenge in testing is the derivation of test cases that can identify the potential faults. Model-based testing adopts models of a

  12. A sequential-move game for enhancing safety and security cooperation within chemical clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlova, Yulia; Reniers, Genserik

    2011-01-01

    The present paper provides a game theoretic analysis of strategic cooperation on safety and security among chemical companies within a chemical industrial cluster. We suggest a two-stage sequential move game between adjacent chemical plants and the so-called Multi-Plant Council (MPC). The MPC is considered in the game as a leader player who makes the first move, and the individual chemical companies are the followers. The MPC's objective is to achieve full cooperation among players through establishing a subsidy system at minimum expense. The rest of the players rationally react to the subsidies proposed by the MPC and play Nash equilibrium. We show that such a case of conflict between safety and security, and social cooperation, belongs to the 'coordination with assurance' class of games, and we explore the role of cluster governance (fulfilled by the MPC) in achieving a full cooperative outcome in domino effects prevention negotiations. The paper proposes an algorithm that can be used by the MPC to develop the subsidy system. Furthermore, a stepwise plan to improve cross-company safety and security management in a chemical industrial cluster is suggested and an illustrative example is provided.

  13. A sequential-move game for enhancing safety and security cooperation within chemical clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Yulia; Reniers, Genserik

    2011-02-15

    The present paper provides a game theoretic analysis of strategic cooperation on safety and security among chemical companies within a chemical industrial cluster. We suggest a two-stage sequential move game between adjacent chemical plants and the so-called Multi-Plant Council (MPC). The MPC is considered in the game as a leader player who makes the first move, and the individual chemical companies are the followers. The MPC's objective is to achieve full cooperation among players through establishing a subsidy system at minimum expense. The rest of the players rationally react to the subsidies proposed by the MPC and play Nash equilibrium. We show that such a case of conflict between safety and security, and social cooperation, belongs to the 'coordination with assurance' class of games, and we explore the role of cluster governance (fulfilled by the MPC) in achieving a full cooperative outcome in domino effects prevention negotiations. The paper proposes an algorithm that can be used by the MPC to develop the subsidy system. Furthermore, a stepwise plan to improve cross-company safety and security management in a chemical industrial cluster is suggested and an illustrative example is provided. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Safety Test Report for the SNF Dry Storage System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, K. S.; Seo, K. S.; Lee, J. H.; Lee, J. C.; Choi, W. S

    2008-11-15

    This is technical report conducted by KAERI under the contract with NETEC for safety test for the PWR S/F dry storage system. Leak Test was performed after drop test and turn-over test, the measured leakage rate was lower than allowable leakage rate. It is revealed that the containment integrity of the dry storage system is maintained. In the seismic test, the moving of the model was measured at SRTH seismic response of 0.4 g and 0.8 g. Therefore the seismic test results can be used fully to the test data for verification of the seismic analysis. In the thermal test, the direction of the inlet and outlet of the air has no effect on the heat transfer performance. The passive heat removal system of the horizontal storage module was designed well.

  15. Moving beyond the Failure of Test-Based Accountability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koretz, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    In "The Testing Charade: Pretending to Make Schools Better", the author's new book from which this article is drawn, the failures of test-based accountability are documented and some of the most egregious misuses and outright abuses of testing are described, along with some of the most serious negative effects. Neither good intentions…

  16. Validation testing of safety-critical software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hang Bae; Han, Jae Bok

    1995-01-01

    A software engineering process has been developed for the design of safety critical software for Wolsung 2/3/4 project to satisfy the requirements of the regulatory body. Among the process, this paper described the detail process of validation testing performed to ensure that the software with its hardware, developed by the design group, satisfies the requirements of the functional specification prepared by the independent functional group. To perform the tests, test facility and test software were developed and actual safety system computer was connected. Three kinds of test cases, i.e., functional test, performance test and self-check test, were programmed and run to verify each functional specifications. Test failures were feedback to the design group to revise the software and test results were analyzed and documented in the report to submit to the regulatory body. The test methodology and procedure were very efficient and satisfactory to perform the systematic and automatic test. The test results were also acceptable and successful to verify the software acts as specified in the program functional specification. This methodology can be applied to the validation of other safety-critical software. 2 figs., 2 tabs., 14 refs. (Author)

  17. Valve testing for UK PWR safety applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, P.T.; Bryant, S.

    1989-01-01

    Extensive testing and development has been done by the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) to support the design, construction and operation of Sizewell B, the UK's first PWR. A Blowdown Rig for the Assessment of Valve Operability - (BRAVO) has been constructed at the CEGB Marchwood Engineering Laboratory to reproduce PWR Pressurizer fluid conditions for the full scale testing of Pressurizer Relief System (PRS) valves. A full size tandem pair of Pilot Operated Safety Relief Valves (POSRVs) is being tested under the full range of pressurizer fluid conditions. Tests to date have produced important data on the performance of the valve in its Cold Overpressure protection mode of operation and on methods for the in-service testing of the valve. Also, a full size pressurizer safety valve has been tested under full PRS fluid conditions to develop a methodology for the pre-service testing of the Sizewell valves. Further work will be carried out to develop procedures for the in-service testing of the valve. In the Main Steam Safety Valve test program carried out at the Siemens-KWU Test Facilities, a single MSSV from three potential suppliers was tested under full secondary system conditions. The test results have been analyzed and are reflected in the CEGB's arrangements for the pre-service and in-service testing of the Sizewell MSSVs. Valves required to interrupt pipebreak flow must be qualified for this duty by testing or a combination of testing and analysis. To obtain guidance on the performance of such tests gate and globe valves have been subjected to simulated pipebreaks under PWR primary circuit conditions. In the light of problems encountered with gate valve closure under these conditions, further tests are currently being carried out on the BRAVO facility on a gate valve, in preparation for the full scale flow interruption qualification testing of the Sizewell main steam isolation valve

  18. An overview of FFTF [Fast Flux Test Facility] contributions to Liquid Metal Reactor Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waltar, A.E.; Padilla, A. Jr.

    1990-11-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility has provided a very useful framework for testing the advances in Liquid Metal Reactor Safety Technology. During the licensing phase, the switch from a nonmechanistic bounding technique to the mechanistic approach was developed and implemented. During the operational phase, the consideration of new tests and core configurations led to use of the anticipated-transients-without-scram approach for beyond design basis events and the move towards passive safety. The future role of the Fast Flux Test Facility may involve additional passive safety and waste transmutation tests. 26 refs

  19. Forklift Safety Fundamentals, #20299, Test 20300

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grogin, Phillip W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2017-02-09

    A powered industrial truck (PIT) is defined as a mobile, powerdriven vehicle used to carry, push, pull, lift, or stack material (not including vehicles intended primarily for earth moving). There are many types of and names for PITs, including forklifts, trucks, fork trucks, platform lift trucks, motorized hand trucks, and tractors. Although not every PIT is a forklift, because PITs are commonly called “forklifts,” this course manual generally uses the term “forklift,” although at times the terms “truck” and “PIT” are also used. In some areas of this course, you will see green boxes that refer to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulation for PITs, which is 29 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 1910.178, Powered Industrial Trucks. The letter in the parentheses refers to the specific section of the regulation.

  20. Your move: The effect of chess on mathematics test scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosholm, Michael; Mikkelsen, Mai Bjørnskov; Gumede, Kamilla

    2017-01-01

    We analyse the effect of substituting a weekly mathematics lesson in primary school grades 1-3 with a lesson in mathematics based on chess instruction. We use data from the City of Aarhus in Denmark, combining test score data with a comprehensive data set obtained from administrative registers. We use two different methodological approaches to identify and estimate treatment effects and we tend to find positive effects, indicating that knowledge acquired through chess play can be transferred to the domain of mathematics. We also find larger impacts for unhappy children and children who are bored in school, perhaps because chess instruction facilitates learning by providing an alternative approach to mathematics for these children. The results are encouraging and suggest that chess may be an important and effective tool for improving mathematical capacity in young students.

  1. Your move: The effect of chess on mathematics test scores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosholm, Michael; Mikkelsen, Mai Bjørnskov; Gumede, Kamilla Trille

    2017-01-01

    We analyse the effect of substituting a weekly mathematics lesson in primary school grades 1–3 with a lesson in mathematics based on chess instruction. We use data from the City of Aarhus in Denmark, combining test score data with a comprehensive data set obtained from administrative registers. We...... use two different methodological approaches to identify and estimate treatment effects and we tend to find positive effects, indicating that knowledge acquired through chess play can be transferred to the domain of mathematics. We also find larger impacts for unhappy children and children who...... are bored in school, perhaps because chess instruction facilitates learning by providing an alternative approach to mathematics for these children. The results are encouraging and suggest that chess may be an important and effective tool for improving mathematical capacity in young students....

  2. Your move: The effect of chess on mathematics test scores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Rosholm

    Full Text Available We analyse the effect of substituting a weekly mathematics lesson in primary school grades 1-3 with a lesson in mathematics based on chess instruction. We use data from the City of Aarhus in Denmark, combining test score data with a comprehensive data set obtained from administrative registers. We use two different methodological approaches to identify and estimate treatment effects and we tend to find positive effects, indicating that knowledge acquired through chess play can be transferred to the domain of mathematics. We also find larger impacts for unhappy children and children who are bored in school, perhaps because chess instruction facilitates learning by providing an alternative approach to mathematics for these children. The results are encouraging and suggest that chess may be an important and effective tool for improving mathematical capacity in young students.

  3. 9 CFR 113.39 - Cat safety tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cat safety tests. 113.39 Section 113... Procedures § 113.39 Cat safety tests. The safety tests provided in this section shall be conducted when... recommended for use in cats. (a) The cat safety test provided in this paragraph shall be used when the Master...

  4. Recent metal fuel safety tests in TREAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, A.E.; Bauer, T.H.; Lo, R.K.; Robinson, W.R.; Palm, R.G.

    1986-01-01

    In-reactor safety tests have been performed on metal-alloy reactor fuel to study its response to transient-overpower conditions, in particular, the margin to cladding breach and the axial self-extrusion of fuel within intact cladding. Uranium-fissium EBR-II driver fuel elements of several burnups were tested, some to cladding breach and others to incipient breach. Transient fuel motions were monitored, and time and location of breach were measured. The test results and computations of fuel extrusion and cladding failure in metal-alloy fuel are described

  5. Safety testing for LHC access system

    CERN Document Server

    Valentini, F; Ninin, P; Scibile, S

    2008-01-01

    In the domain of Safety Real-Time Systems the problem of testing represents always a big effort in terms of time, costs and efficiency to guarantee an adequate coverage degree. Exhaustive tests may, in fact, not be practicable for large and distributed systems. This paper describes the testing process followed during the validation of the CERN's LHC Access System [1], responsible for monitoring and preventing physical risks for the personnel accessing the underground areas. In the paper we also present a novel strategy for the testing problem, intended to drastically reduce the time for the test patterns generation and execution. In particular, we propose a methodology for blackbox testing that relies on the application of Model Checking techniques. Model Checking is a formal method from computer science, commonly adopted to prove correctness of system’s models through an automatic system’s state space exploration against some property formulas.

  6. Combustion Safety Simplified Test Protocol Field Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, L [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Cautley, D. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Bohac, D. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Francisco, P. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Shen, L. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Gloss, S. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2015-11-05

    "9Combustions safety is an important step in the process of upgrading homes for energy efficiency. There are several approaches used by field practitioners, but researchers have indicated that the test procedures in use are complex to implement and provide too many false positives. Field failures often mean that the house is not upgraded until after remediation or not at all, if not include in the program. In this report the PARR and NorthernSTAR DOE Building America Teams provide a simplified test procedure that is easier to implement and should produce fewer false positives. A survey of state weatherization agencies on combustion safety issues, details of a field data collection instrumentation package, summary of data collected over seven months, data analysis and results are included. The project provides several key results. State weatherization agencies do not generally track combustion safety failures, the data from those that do suggest that there is little actual evidence that combustion safety failures due to spillage from non-dryer exhaust are common and that only a very small number of homes are subject to the failures. The project team collected field data on 11 houses in 2015. Of these homes, two houses that demonstrated prolonged and excessive spillage were also the only two with venting systems out of compliance with the National Fuel Gas Code. The remaining homes experienced spillage that only occasionally extended beyond the first minute of operation. Combustion zone depressurization, outdoor temperature, and operation of individual fans all provide statistically significant predictors of spillage.

  7. Large-Scale Spacecraft Fire Safety Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, David; Ruff, Gary A.; Ferkul, Paul V.; Olson, Sandra; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos; T'ien, James S.; Torero, Jose L.; Cowlard, Adam J.; Rouvreau, Sebastien; Minster, Olivier; hide

    2014-01-01

    An international collaborative program is underway to address open issues in spacecraft fire safety. Because of limited access to long-term low-gravity conditions and the small volume generally allotted for these experiments, there have been relatively few experiments that directly study spacecraft fire safety under low-gravity conditions. Furthermore, none of these experiments have studied sample sizes and environment conditions typical of those expected in a spacecraft fire. The major constraint has been the size of the sample, with prior experiments limited to samples of the order of 10 cm in length and width or smaller. This lack of experimental data forces spacecraft designers to base their designs and safety precautions on 1-g understanding of flame spread, fire detection, and suppression. However, low-gravity combustion research has demonstrated substantial differences in flame behavior in low-gravity. This, combined with the differences caused by the confined spacecraft environment, necessitates practical scale spacecraft fire safety research to mitigate risks for future space missions. To address this issue, a large-scale spacecraft fire experiment is under development by NASA and an international team of investigators. This poster presents the objectives, status, and concept of this collaborative international project (Saffire). The project plan is to conduct fire safety experiments on three sequential flights of an unmanned ISS re-supply spacecraft (the Orbital Cygnus vehicle) after they have completed their delivery of cargo to the ISS and have begun their return journeys to earth. On two flights (Saffire-1 and Saffire-3), the experiment will consist of a flame spread test involving a meter-scale sample ignited in the pressurized volume of the spacecraft and allowed to burn to completion while measurements are made. On one of the flights (Saffire-2), 9 smaller (5 x 30 cm) samples will be tested to evaluate NASAs material flammability screening tests

  8. The Safety Feature Test of QNX RTOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jang Yeol; Lee, Young Jun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    Benchmarking is a point of reference by which something can be measured. The QNX is a kind of Real Time Operating System(RTOS) developed by QSSL(QNX Software Systems Ltd.) in Canada. The ELMSYS is the brand name of commercially available PC to be applied such as Cabinet Operator Module(COM) of Digital Plant Protection System(DPPS) and COM of Digital Engineered Safety Features Actuation System(DESFAS-AC). The ELMSYS PC Hardware will be qualified by KTL(Korea Testing Lab.) in order to use as a Cabinet Operator Module(COM). QNX RTOS is dedicating by KAERI now. This paper describes the outline and some safety features among benchmarking test for QNX RTOS under the ELMSYS PC platform

  9. The Safety Feature Test of QNX RTOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jang Yeol; Lee, Young Jun

    2010-01-01

    Benchmarking is a point of reference by which something can be measured. The QNX is a kind of Real Time Operating System(RTOS) developed by QSSL(QNX Software Systems Ltd.) in Canada. The ELMSYS is the brand name of commercially available PC to be applied such as Cabinet Operator Module(COM) of Digital Plant Protection System(DPPS) and COM of Digital Engineered Safety Features Actuation System(DESFAS-AC). The ELMSYS PC Hardware will be qualified by KTL(Korea Testing Lab.) in order to use as a Cabinet Operator Module(COM). QNX RTOS is dedicating by KAERI now. This paper describes the outline and some safety features among benchmarking test for QNX RTOS under the ELMSYS PC platform

  10. Combustion Safety Simplified Test Protocol Field Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, L. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Cautley, D. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Bohac, D. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Francisco, P. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Shen, L. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Gloss, S. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Combustions safety is an important step in the process of upgrading homes for energy efficiency. There are several approaches used by field practitioners, but researchers have indicated that the test procedures in use are complex to implement and provide too many false positives. Field failures often mean that the house is not upgraded until after remediation or not at all, if not include in the program. In this report the PARR and NorthernSTAR DOE Building America Teams provide a simplified test procedure that is easier to implement and should produce fewer false positives. A survey of state weatherization agencies on combustion safety issues, details of a field data collection instrumentation package, summary of data collected over seven months, data analysis and results are included. The project team collected field data on 11 houses in 2015.

  11. Safety Testing of Ammonium Nitrate Based Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jason; Lappo, Karmen; Phelan, James; Peterson, Nathan; Gilbert, Don

    2013-06-01

    Ammonium nitrate (AN)/ammonium nitrate based explosives have a lengthy documented history of use by adversaries in acts of terror. While historical research has been conducted on AN-based explosive mixtures, it has primarily focused on detonation performance while varying the oxygen balance between the oxidizer and fuel components. Similarly, historical safety data on these materials is often lacking in pertinent details such as specific fuel type, particle size parameters, oxidizer form, etc. A variety of AN-based fuel-oxidizer mixtures were tested for small-scale sensitivity in preparation for large-scale testing. Current efforts focus on maintaining a zero oxygen-balance (a stoichiometric ratio for active chemical participants) while varying factors such as charge geometry, oxidizer form, particle size, and inert diluent ratios. Small-scale safety testing was conducted on various mixtures and fuels. It was found that ESD sensitivity is significantly affected by particle size, while this is less so for impact and friction. Thermal testing is in progress to evaluate hazards that may be experienced during large-scale testing.

  12. The "moving valgus stress test" for medial collateral ligament tears of the elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Driscoll, Shawn W M; Lawton, Richard L; Smith, Adam M

    2005-02-01

    The diagnosis of a painful partial tear of the medial collateral ligament in overhead-throwing athletes is challenging, even for experienced elbow surgeons and despite the use of sophisticated imaging techniques. The "moving valgus stress test" is an accurate physical examination technique for diagnosis of medial collateral ligament attenuation in the elbow. Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2. Twenty-one patients underwent surgical intervention for medial elbow pain due to medial collateral ligament insufficiency or other abnormality of chronic valgus overload, and they were assessed preoperatively with an examination called the moving valgus stress test. To perform the moving valgus stress test, the examiner applies and maintains a constant moderate valgus torque to the fully flexed elbow and then quickly extends the elbow. The test is positive if the medial elbow pain is reproduced at the medial collateral ligament and is at maximum between 120 degrees and 70 degrees. The moving valgus stress test was highly sensitive (100%, 17 of 17 patients) and specific (75%, 3 of 4 patients) when compared to assessment of the medial collateral ligament by surgical exploration or arthroscopic valgus stress testing. The mean shear range (ie, the arc within which pain was produced with the moving valgus stress test) was 120 degrees to 70 degrees. The mean angle at which pain was at a maximum was 90 degrees of elbow flexion. The moving valgus stress test is an accurate physical examination technique that, when performed and interpreted correctly, is highly sensitive for medial elbow pain arising from the medial collateral ligament.

  13. 9 CFR 113.40 - Dog safety tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dog safety tests. 113.40 Section 113... Procedures § 113.40 Dog safety tests. The safety tests provided in this section shall be conducted when... recommended for use in dogs. Serials which are not found to be satisfactory when tested pursuant to the...

  14. 46 CFR 61.40-6 - Periodic safety tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Periodic safety tests. 61.40-6 Section 61.40-6 Shipping... INSPECTIONS Design Verification and Periodic Testing of Vital System Automation § 61.40-6 Periodic safety tests. (a) Periodic Safety tests must demonstrate the proper operation of the primary and alternate...

  15. Passive safety testing at the Fast Flux Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucoff, D.M.

    1989-01-01

    During 1986, the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) conducted several tests designed to improve the understanding of the passive safety characteristics of an oxide-fueled liquid-metal reactor (LMR). Static and dynamic tests were performed over a broad range of power, flow, and temperature conditions that extended beyond those for normal operation. Key results of these tests are presented. Stable operation at low power with natural circulation cooling was demonstrated. A passive safety enhancement feature, the gas expansion module (GEM) was developed specifically to offset the large amount of cooldown reactivity that needs to be controlled in an oxide-fueled LMR undergoing an unprotected loss-of-flow accident. Nine GEMs were built and successfully tested in FFTF. With the reactor at 50% power (200 MW (thermal)), the main coolant pumps were turned off and the normal control rod scram response was inhibited. The GEMs and inherent core reactivity feedback mechanisms took the core subcritical with a modest peak coolant temperature transient that reached 85 degrees C above the pretransient value and always maintained a >400 degrees C margin to the sodium boiling point (910 degrees C)

  16. 9 CFR 113.38 - Guinea pig safety test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Guinea pig safety test. 113.38 Section... Standard Procedures § 113.38 Guinea pig safety test. The guinea pig safety test provided in this section... be injected either intramuscularly or subcutaneously into each of two guinea pigs and the animals...

  17. 9 CFR 113.33 - Mouse safety tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mouse safety tests. 113.33 Section 113.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Procedures § 113.33 Mouse safety tests. One of the mouse safety tests provided in this section shall be...

  18. Slowly moving test charge in two-electron component non-Maxwellian plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.; Eliasson, B.

    2015-01-01

    Potential distributions around a slowly moving test charge are calculated by taking into account the electron-acoustic waves in an unmagnetized plasma. Considering a neutralizing background of static positive ions, the supra-thermal hot and cold electrons are described by the Vlasov equations to account for the Kappa (power-law in velocity space) and Maxwell equilibrium distributions. Fourier analysis further leads to the derivation of electrostatic potential showing the impact of supra-thermal hot electrons. The test charge moves slowly in comparison with the hot and cold electron thermal speeds and is therefore shielded by the electrons. This gives rise to a short-range Debye-Hückel potential decaying exponentially with distance and to a far field potential decaying as inverse third power of the distance from the test charge. The results are relevant for both laboratory and space plasmas, where supra-thermal hot electrons with power-law distributions have been observed

  19. Human-animal interactions and safety during dairy cattle handling--Comparing moving cows to milking and hoof trimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, C; Pinzke, S; Herlin, A; Keeling, L J

    2016-03-01

    Cattle handling is a dangerous activity on dairy farms, and cows are a major cause of injuries to livestock handlers. Even if dairy cows are generally tranquil and docile, when situations occur that they perceive or remember as aversive, they may become agitated and hazardous to handle. This study aimed to compare human-animal interactions, cow behavior, and handler safety when moving cows to daily milking and moving cows to more rarely occurring and possibly aversive hoof trimming. These processes were observed on 12 Swedish commercial dairy farms. The study included behavioral observations of handler and cows and cow heart rate recordings, as well as recording frequencies of situations and incidents related to an increased injury risk to the handler. At milking, cows were quite easily moved using few interactions. As expected, the cows showed no behavioral signs of stress, fear, or resistance and their heart rate only rose slightly from the baseline (i.e., the average heart rate during an undisturbed period before handling). Moving cows to hoof trimming involved more forceful and gentle interactions compared with moving cows to milking. Furthermore, the cows showed much higher frequencies of behaviors indicative of aversion and fear (e.g., freezing, balking, and resistance), as well as a higher increase in heart rate. The risk of injury to which handlers were exposed also increased when moving cows to hoof trimming rather than to routine milking. Some interactions (such as forceful tactile interactions with an object and pulling a neck strap or halter) appeared to be related to potentially dangerous incidents where the handler was being kicked, head-butted, or run over by a cow. In conclusion, moving cows to hoof trimming resulted in higher frequencies of behaviors indicating fear, more forceful interactions, and increased injury risks to the handler than moving cows to milking. Improving potentially stressful handling procedures (e.g., by better animal handling

  20. French safety and criticality testing programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbry, F.; Leclerc, J.; Manaranche, J.C.; Maubert, L.

    1982-01-01

    This article underlines the need to include experimental safety-criticality programmes in the French nuclear effort. The means and methods used at the Section of Experimental Nuclear Safety and Criticality Research, attached to the CEA Valduc Centre, are described. Three experimental programmes are presented: safety-criticality of the PWR fuel cycle, neutron poisoning of plutonium solutions by gadolinium and safety-criticality of slightly enriched and slightly moderated uranium oxide. Criticality accidents studies in solution are then described [fr

  1. Laboratory test requesting appropriateness and patient safety

    CERN Document Server

    Blasco, Álvaro; Carratalá, Arturo; Lopez-Garrígos, Maite; Rodriguez-Borja, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Patient Safety emphasizes the reporting, analysis and prevention of medical errors that very often leads to adverse healthcare situations.1 in 10 patients are impacted by medical errors.The WHO calls the patient safety issue an endemic concern. A number of well-known experts of all areas in the medical field have collectedvery valuable information for a better patient treatment and higher safety culture in all medical disciplines.

  2. Radiation safety in welding and testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, B.E.; Malaxos, M.; Hartley, B.M.

    1985-01-01

    There are a number of ways of achieving radiation safety in the workplace. The first is by engineering radiation safety into the equipment, providing shielded rooms and safety interlocks. The second is by following safe working procedures. The National Health and Medical Research Council's Code of practice for the control and safe handling of sealed radioactive sources used in industrial radiography (1968) sets out the standards which must be met by equipment to be used in industrial radiography

  3. Thermal Hydraulic Tests for Reactor Core Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, S. K.; Baek, W. P.; Chun, S. Y. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    The main objectives of the present project are to resolve the current issues of reactor core thermal hydraulics, to develop an advanced measurement and analytical techniques, and to perform reactor core safety verification tests. 6x6 reflood experiments, various heat transfer experiments using Freon, and experiments on the spacer grids effects on the post-dryout are carried out using spacer grids developed in Korea in order to resolve the current issues of the reactor core thermal hydraulics. In order to develop a reflood heat transfer model, the detailed reflood phenomena are visualized and measured using round tube and 2x2 rod bundle. A detailed turbulent mixing phenomenon for subchannels is measured using advanced measurement techniques such as LDV and PIV. MARS and MATRA codes developed in Korea are assessed, verified and improved using the obtained experimental data. Finally, a systematic quality assurance program and experimental data generation system has been constructed in order to increase the reliability of the experimental data.

  4. Safety Significance of the Halden IFA-650 LOCA Test Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuketa, Toyoshi; Nagase, Fumihisa; Grandjean, Claude; Petit, Marc; Hozer, Zoltan; Kelppe, Seppo; Khvostov, Grigori; Hafidi, Biya; Therache, Benjamin; Heins, Lothar; Valach, Mojmir; Voglewede, John; Wiesenack, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    The safety criteria for loss-of-coolant accidents were defined to ensure that the core would remain coolable. Since the time of the first LOCA experiments, which were largely conducted with fresh fuel, changes in fuel design, the introduction of new cladding materials and in particular the move to high burnup have generated a need to re-examine these criteria and to verify their continued validity. As part of international efforts to this end, the OECD Halden Reactor Project program implemented a LOCA test series. Based on recommendations of a group of experts from the US NRC, EPRI, EDF, IRSN, FRAMATOME-ANP and GNF, the primary objective of the experiments were defined as 1. Measure the extent of fuel (fragment) relocation into the ballooned region and evaluate its possible effect on cladding temperature and oxidation. 2. Investigate the extent (if any) of 'secondary transient hydriding' on the inner side of the cladding above and below the burst region. The fourth test of the series, IFA-650.4 conducted in April 2006, caused particular attention in the international nuclear community. The fuel used in the experiment had a high burnup, 92 MWd/kgU, and a low pre-test hydrogen content of about 50 ppm. The test aimed at and achieved a peak cladding temperature of 850 deg. C. The rod burst occurred at 790 deg. C. The burst caused a marked temperature increase at the lower end and a decrease at the upper end of the system, indicating that fuel relocation had occurred. Subsequent gamma scanning showed that approximately 19 cm of the fuel stack were missing from the upper part of the rod and that fuel had fallen to the bottom of the capsule. PIE at the IFE-Kjeller hot cells corroborated this evidence of substantial fuel relocation. The fact that fuel dispersal could occur upon ballooning and burst, i.e. at cladding temperatures as low as 800 deg. C and thus far lower than the temperature entailed by the current 1200 deg. C / 17% ECR limit, caused concern. The

  5. Performance Testing Methodology for Safety-Critical Programmable Logic Controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chang Ho; Oh, Do Young; Kim, Ji Hyeon; Kim, Sung Ho; Sohn, Se Do

    2009-01-01

    The Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) for use in Nuclear Power Plant safety-related applications is being developed and tested first time in Korea. This safety-related PLC is being developed with requirements of regulatory guideline and industry standards for safety system. To test that the quality of the developed PLC is sufficient to be used in safety critical system, document review and various product testings were performed over the development documents for S/W, H/W, and V/V. This paper provides the performance testing methodology and its effectiveness for PLC platform conducted by KOPEC

  6. Allowed outage time for test and maintenance - Optimization of safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cepin, M.; Mavko, B.

    1997-01-01

    The main objective of the project is the development and application of methodologies for improvement and optimization of test and maintenance activities for safety related equipment in NPPs on basis of their enhanced safety. The probabilistic safety assessment serves as a base, which does not mean the replacement of the deterministic analyses but the consideration of probabilistic safety assessment results as complement to deterministic results. 15 refs, 2 figs

  7. Moving Toward Improved Teamwork in Cancer Care: The Role of Psychological Safety in Team Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Anshu K; Fennell, Mary L; Chagpar, Anees B; Connolly, Hannah K; Nembhard, Ingrid M

    2016-11-01

    Effective communication is a requirement in the teamwork necessary for improved coordination to deliver patient-centered, value-based cancer care. Communication is particularly important when care providers are geographically distributed or work across organizations. We review organizational and teams research on communication to highlight psychological safety as a key determinant of high-quality communication within teams. We first present the concept of psychological safety, findings about its communication effects for teamwork, and factors that affect it. We focus on five factors applicable to cancer care delivery: familiarity, clinical hierarchy-related status differences, geographic dispersion, boundary spanning, and leader behavior. To illustrate how these factors facilitate or hinder psychologically safe communication and teamwork in cancer care, we review the case of a patient as she experiences the treatment-planning process for early-stage breast cancer in a community setting. Our analysis is summarized in a key principle: Teamwork in cancer care requires high-quality communication, which depends on psychological safety for all team members, clinicians and patients alike. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of psychological safety in clinical care and suggestions for future research.

  8. Moving a step forward to promote patient safety and quality of care in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Iglesia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Improving safety and quality of care has always been at the heart of national, European and international policies. The premises of such concern have their roots in the times of the Greek physician Hippocrates of Cos, about the 4th century BC, with the directive primum non nocere (“first do no harm”. [...

  9. Routine testing on protective and safety systems and components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rysy, W.

    1977-01-01

    1) In-process inspection, tests during commissioning. 2) Tests during reactor operation. 2.1) Reactor protection system, for example: continuous auto-testing by a dynamic system, check of the output signals; 2.2) safety features: selected examples: functional tests on the ECCS, trial operation of the emergency diesels. 3) Tests during refuelling phase. 3.1) Containment: Leakage rate tests, leak testing; 3.2) coolant system: selected examples: inservice inspections of the pressure vessel, eddy current testing of the steam generator, functional tests of safety valves. (orig./HP) [de

  10. Review of design criteria and safety analysis of safety class electric building for fuel test loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. Y.

    1998-02-01

    Steady state fuel test loop will be equipped in HANARO to obtain the development and betterment of advanced fuel and materials through the irradiation tests. HANARO fuel test loop was designed for CANDU and PWR fuel testing. Safety related system of Fuel Test Loop such as emergency cooling water system, component cooling water system, safety ventilation system, high energy line break mitigation system and remote control room was required 1E class electric supply to meet the safety operation in accordance with related code. Therefore, FTL electric building was designed to construction and install the related equipment based on seismic category I. The objective of this study is to review the design criteria and analysis the safety function of safety class electric building for fuel test loop, and this results will become guidance for the irradiation testing in future. (author). 10 refs., 6 tabs., 30 figs.

  11. 77 FR 2606 - Pipeline Safety: Random Drug Testing Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket ID PHMSA-2012-0004] Pipeline Safety: Random Drug Testing Rate AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials... pipelines and operators of liquefied natural gas facilities must select and test a percentage of covered...

  12. 75 FR 9018 - Pipeline Safety: Random Drug Testing Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket ID PHMSA-2010-0034] Pipeline Safety: Random Drug Testing Rate AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials... pipelines and operators of liquefied natural gas facilities must select and test a percentage of covered...

  13. Relevance of microbial finished product testing in food safety management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwietering, M.H.; Jacxsens, L.; Membre, J.M.; Nauta, M.; Peterz, M.

    2016-01-01

    Management of microbiological food safety is largely based on good design of processes, products and procedures. Finished product testing may be considered as a control measure at the end of the production process. However, testing gives only very limited information on the safety status of a food.

  14. Safety Assurance for Irradiating Experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. A. Tomberlin; S. B. Grover

    2004-11-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), located at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), was specifically designed to provide a high neutron flux test environment for conducting a variety of experiments. This paper addresses the safety assurance process for two general types of experiments conducted in the ATR facility and how the safety analyses for experiments are related to the ATR safety basis. One type of experiment is more routine and generally represents greater risks; therefore, this type of experiment is addressed in more detail in the ATR safety basis. This allows the individual safety analysis for this type of experiment to be more standardized. The second type of experiment is defined in more general terms in the ATR safety basis and is permitted under more general controls. Therefore, the individual safety analysis for the second type of experiment tends to be more unique and is tailored to each experiment.

  15. Safety Assurance for Irradiating Experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T. A. Tomberlin; S. B. Grover

    2004-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), located at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), was specifically designed to provide a high neutron flux test environment for conducting a variety of experiments. This paper addresses the safety assurance process for two general types of experiments conducted in the ATR facility and how the safety analyses for experiments are related to the ATR safety basis. One type of experiment is more routine and generally represents greater risks; therefore, this type of experiment is addressed in more detail in the ATR safety basis. This allows the individual safety analysis for this type of experiment to be more standardized. The second type of experiment is defined in more general terms in the ATR safety basis and is permitted under more general controls. Therefore, the individual safety analysis for the second type of experiment tends to be more unique and is tailored to each experiment

  16. Promoting public health messages: Should we move beyond fear-evoking appeals in road safety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ioni M; Watson, Barry; White, Katherine M; Tay, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Road traffic injury is one of the most significant global public health issues of the 21st century. The extent to which negative, fear-evoking messages represent effective persuasive strategies remains a contentious public and empirical issue. Nevertheless, negative, fear-based appeals represent a frequently used approach in Australasian road safety advertising. The authors conducted a series of focus groups with 16 licensed drivers to explore the potential utility of appeals to emotions other than fear. More specifically, they sought to explore the utility of positive emotional appeals, such as those incorporating humor. The themes emerging from the qualitative analysis suggested that both emotion and the provision of strategies are key components contributing to the overall persuasiveness of a road safety advertisement. Overall, it appears there is support for researchers and health advertising practitioners to provide further attention to the role that positive emotional appeals might play in future campaigns.

  17. Relevance of microbial finished product testing in food safety management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zwietering, Marcel H.; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Membré, Jeanne Marie

    2016-01-01

    Management of microbiological food safety is largely based on good design of processes, products and procedures. Finished product testing may be considered as a control measure at the end of the production process. However, testing gives only very limited information on the safety status of a food......-active way by implementing an effective food safety management system. For verification activities in a food safety management system, finished product testing may however be useful. For three cases studies; canned food, chocolate and cooked ham, the relevance of testing both of finished products....... If a hazardous organism is found it means something, but absence in a limited number of samples is no guarantee of safety of a whole production batch. Finished product testing is often too little and too late. Therefore most attention should be focussed on management and control of the hazards in a more pro...

  18. Selenide isotope generator for the Galileo Mission: safety test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The intent of this safety test plan is to outline particular kinds of safety tests designed to produce information which would be useful in the safety analysis process. The program deals primarily with the response of the RTG to accident environments; accordingly two criteria were established: (1) safety tests should be performed for environments which are the most critical in terms of risk contribution; and (2) tests should be formulated to determine failure conditions for critical heat source components rather than observe heat source response in reference accident environments. To satisfy criterion 1. results of a recent safety study were used to rank various accidents in terms of expected source terms. Six kinds of tests were then proposed which would provide information meeting the second criterion

  19. Behavior of a test gyroscope moving towards a rotating traversable wormhole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Chandrachur [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai, 400005 India (India); Pradhan, Parthapratim, E-mail: chandrachur.chakraborty@tifr.res.in, E-mail: pppradhan77@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Vivekananda Satabarshiki Mahavidyalaya, Manikpara, West Midnapur, 721513 India (India)

    2017-03-01

    The geodesic structure of the Teo wormhole is briefly discussed and some observables are derived that promise to be of use in detecting a rotating traversable wormhole indirectly, if it does exist. We also deduce the exact Lense-Thirring (LT) precession frequency of a test gyroscope moving toward a rotating traversable Teo wormhole. The precession frequency diverges on the ergoregion, a behavior intimately related to and governed by the geometry of the ergoregion, analogous to the situation in a Kerr spacetime. Interestingly, it turns out that here the LT precession is inversely proportional to the angular momentum ( a ) of the wormhole along the pole and around it in the strong gravity regime, a behavior contrasting with its direct variation with a in the case of other compact objects. In fact, divergence of LT precession inside the ergoregion can also be avoided if the gyro moves with a non-zero angular velocity in a certain range. As a result, the spin precession frequency of the gyro can be made finite throughout its whole path, even very close to the throat, during its travel to the wormhole. Furthermore, it is evident from our formulation that this spin precession not only arises due to curvature or rotation of the spacetime but also due to the non-zero angular velocity of the spin when it does not move along a geodesic in the strong gravity regime. If in the future, interstellar travel indeed becomes possible through a wormhole or at least in its vicinity, our results would prove useful in determining the behavior of a test gyroscope which is known to serve as a fundamental navigation device.

  20. Business of Nuclear Safety Analysis Office, Nuclear Technology Test Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Masahiko

    1981-01-01

    The Nuclear Technology Test Center established the Nuclear Safety Analysis Office to execute newly the works concerning nuclear safety analysis in addition to the works related to the proving tests of nuclear machinery and equipments. The regulations for the Nuclear Safety Analysis Office concerning its organization, business and others were specially decided, and it started the business formally in August, 1980. It is a most important subject to secure the safety of nuclear facilities in nuclear fuel cycle as the premise of developing atomic energy. In Japan, the strict regulation of safety is executed by the government at each stage of the installation, construction, operation and maintenance of nuclear facilities, based on the responsibility for the security of installers themselves. The Nuclear Safety Analysis Office was established as the special organ to help the safety examination related to the installation of nuclear power stations and others by the government. It improves and puts in order the safety analysis codes required for the cross checking in the safety examination, and carries out safety analysis calculation. It is operated by the cooperation of the Science and Technology Agency and the Agency of Natural Resources and Energy. The purpose of establishment, the operation and the business of the Nuclear Safety Analysis Office, the plan of improving and putting in order of analysis codes, and the state of the similar organs in foreign countries are described. (Kako, I.)

  1. Alternative approaches for identifying acute systemic toxicity: Moving from research to regulatory testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Jon; Sullivan, Kristie; Clippinger, Amy J; Strickland, Judy; Bell, Shannon; Bhhatarai, Barun; Blaauboer, Bas; Casey, Warren; Dorman, David; Forsby, Anna; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Gehen, Sean; Graepel, Rabea; Hotchkiss, Jon; Lowit, Anna; Matheson, Joanna; Reaves, Elissa; Scarano, Louis; Sprankle, Catherine; Tunkel, Jay; Wilson, Dan; Xia, Menghang; Zhu, Hao; Allen, David

    2017-06-01

    Acute systemic toxicity testing provides the basis for hazard labeling and risk management of chemicals. A number of international efforts have been directed at identifying non-animal alternatives for in vivo acute systemic toxicity tests. A September 2015 workshop, Alternative Approaches for Identifying Acute Systemic Toxicity: Moving from Research to Regulatory Testing, reviewed the state-of-the-science of non-animal alternatives for this testing and explored ways to facilitate implementation of alternatives. Workshop attendees included representatives from international regulatory agencies, academia, nongovernmental organizations, and industry. Resources identified as necessary for meaningful progress in implementing alternatives included compiling and making available high-quality reference data, training on use and interpretation of in vitro and in silico approaches, and global harmonization of testing requirements. Attendees particularly noted the need to characterize variability in reference data to evaluate new approaches. They also noted the importance of understanding the mechanisms of acute toxicity, which could be facilitated by the development of adverse outcome pathways. Workshop breakout groups explored different approaches to reducing or replacing animal use for acute toxicity testing, with each group crafting a roadmap and strategy to accomplish near-term progress. The workshop steering committee has organized efforts to implement the recommendations of the workshop participants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Test for radioactive material transport package safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guoqiang; Zhao Bing; Zhang Jiangang; Wang Xuexin; Ma Anping

    2012-01-01

    Regulations on radioactive material transport in China were introduced. Test facilities and data acquiring instruments for radioactive material package in China Institute for Radiation Protection were also introduced in this paper, which were used in drop test and thermal test. Test facilities were constructed according to the requirements of IAEA's 'Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material' (TS-R-l) and Chinese 'Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material' (GB 11806-2004). Drop test facilities were used in free drop test, penetration test, mechanical test (free drop test Ⅰ, free drop test Ⅱ and free drop test Ⅲ) of type A and type B packages weighing less than thirteen tons. Thermal test of type B packages can be carried out in the thermal test facilities. Certification tests of type FCo70-YQ package, type 30A-HB-01 package, type SY-I package and type XAYT-I package according to regulations were done using these facilities. (authors)

  3. Test process for the safety-critical embedded software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Ahyoung; Choi, Byoungju; Lee, Jangsoo

    2004-01-01

    Digitalization of nuclear Instrumentation and Control (I and C) system requires high reliability of not only hardware but also software. Verification and Validation (V and V) process is recommended for software reliability. But a more quantitative method is necessary such as software testing. Most of software in the nuclear I and C system is safety-critical embedded software. Safety-critical embedded software is specified, verified and developed according to V and V process. Hence two types of software testing techniques are necessary for the developed code. First, code-based software testing is required to examine the developed code. Second, after code-based software testing, software testing affected by hardware is required to reveal the interaction fault that may cause unexpected results. We call the testing of hardware's influence on software, an interaction testing. In case of safety-critical embedded software, it is also important to consider the interaction between hardware and software. Even if no faults are detected when testing either hardware or software alone, combining these components may lead to unexpected results due to the interaction. In this paper, we propose a software test process that embraces test levels, test techniques, required test tasks and documents for safety-critical embedded software. We apply the proposed test process to safety-critical embedded software as a case study, and show the effectiveness of it. (author)

  4. Stress Tests Worldwide - IAEA Nuclear Safety Action Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, J.E.

    2012-01-01

    The IAEA nuclear safety action plan relies on 11 important issues. 1) Safety assessments in light of the Fukushima accident: the IAEA secretariat will develop a methodology for stress tests against specific extreme natural hazards and will provide assistance for their implementation; 2) Strengthen existing IAEA peer reviews; 3) Emergency preparedness and response; 4) National Regulatory bodies in terms of independence and adequacy of human and financial resources; 5) The development of safety culture and scientific and technical capacity in Operating Organizations; 6) The upgrading of IAEA safety standards in a more efficient way; 7) A better implementation of relevant conventions concerning nuclear safety and nuclear accidents; 8) To provide a broad assistance on safety standard for countries embarking on a nuclear power program; 9) To facilitate the use of available information, expertise and techniques concerning radiation protection; 10) To enhance the transparency of nuclear industry; and 11) To promote the cooperation between member states in nuclear safety. (A.C.)

  5. ASSESSMENT OF EMISSIONS FROM MOVING VEHICLES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY OF TOWNSPEOPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovrigin Artur Arnol'dovich

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We consider that in the majority of cities the percentage of emissions from mobile sources has increased and has now reached 80...90 %; in 2011 the total emission of pollutants from motor vehicles amounted to more than 1 million tons (more than 90 % of total emissions, so the negative impact from a moving vehicle is large. Hydrocarbons (CnHn are emitted into urban air, including benzo(αpyrene, carbon monoxide (CO, nitrogen oxides (NOx, particulate matter, soot, Pb, etc. Studies by various authors have shown that the impact of such air pollution results in the decrease of the weight of children at birth, the amount of development defects increase, preterm children are born more often, etc. The influence of motor transport contaminate urban soils and water, causing great damage to the biota. It was found out that the improvement of the environmental situation requires optimization of the planning structure of a city, proper organization of freight traffic due to construction of relief roads for and appropriate road junctions at intersections of streets and highways, and other measures.

  6. Safety Test Report for the PWR S/F Dry Storage System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, K. S.; Lee, J. H.; Koo, K. H.; Lee, J. C.; Choi, W. S.; Bang, K. S.; Park, H. Y.; Jang, S. Y

    2008-10-15

    This is contract report conducted by KAERI under the contract with NETEC for safety test for the PWR S/F dry storage system. Leak Test was performed after drop test and turn-over test, the measured leakage rate was lower than allowable leakage rate. It is revealed that the containment integrity of the dry storage system is maintained. In the seismic test, the moving of the model was measured at SRTH seismic response of 0.4 g and 0.8 g. Therefore the seismic test results can be used fully to the test data for verification of the seismic analysis. In the thermal test, the direction of the inlet and outlet of the air has no effect on the heat transfer performance. The passive heat removal system of the horizontal storage module was designed well.

  7. Safety evaluation report. Fast Flux Test Facility. Project No. 448

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-08-01

    Information on the safety of the FFTF Reactor is presented under the following chapter headings: site characteristics; design of structures, components, equipment, and systems; reactor; reactor coolant system and connected systems; engineered safety features; electric power; auxiliary systems; radioactive waste management systems; radiation protection; conduct of operations; initial test programs; accident analysis; and quality assurance.

  8. Safety evaluation report. Fast Flux Test Facility. Project No. 448

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Information on the safety of the FFTF Reactor is presented under the following chapter headings: site characteristics; design of structures, components, equipment, and systems; reactor; reactor coolant system and connected systems; engineered safety features; electric power; auxiliary systems; radioactive waste management systems; radiation protection; conduct of operations; initial test programs; accident analysis; and quality assurance

  9. Safety review on unit testing of safety system software of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Le; Zhang Qi

    2013-01-01

    Software unit testing has an important place in the testing of safety system software of nuclear power plants, and in the wider scope of the verification and validation. It is a comprehensive, systematic process, and its documentation shall meet the related requirements. When reviewing software unit testing, attention should be paid to the coverage of software safety requirements, the coverage of software internal structure, and the independence of the work. (authors)

  10. Research on the improvement of nuclear safety -Thermal hydraulic tests for reactor safety system-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Moon Kee; Park, Choon Kyung; Yang, Sun Kyoo; Chun, Se Yung; Song, Chul Hwa; Jun, Hyung Kil; Jung, Heung Joon; Won, Soon Yun; Cho, Yung Roh; Min, Kyung Hoh; Jung, Jang Hwan; Jang, Suk Kyoo; Kim, Bok Deuk; Kim, Wooi Kyung; Huh, Jin; Kim, Sook Kwan; Moon, Sang Kee; Lee, Sang Il [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-06-01

    The present research aims at the development of the thermal hydraulic verification test technology for the safety system of the conventional and advanced nuclear power plant and the development of the advanced thermal hydraulic measuring techniques. In this research, test facilities simulating the primary coolant system and safety system are being constructed for the design verification tests of the existing and advanced nuclear power plant. 97 figs, 14 tabs, 65 refs. (Author).

  11. Field Test of the World Health Organization Multi-Professional Patient Safety Curriculum Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Donna; Zheng, Hao; Rousi, Eirini; Leotsakos, Agnès

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although the importance of training in patient safety has been acknowledged for over a decade, it remains under-utilized and under-valued in most countries. WHO developed the Multi-professional Patient Safety Curriculum Guide to provide schools with the requirements and tools for incorporating patient safety in education. It was field tested with 12 participating schools across the six WHO regions, to assess its effectiveness for teaching patient safety to undergraduate and graduate students in a global variety of settings. Methods The evaluation used a combined prospective/retrospective design to generate formative information on the experiences of working with the Guide and summative information on the impacts of the Guide. Using stakeholder interviews and student surveys, data were gathered from each participating school at three times: the start of the field test (baseline), soon after each school started teaching, and soon after each school finished teaching. Results Stakeholders interviewed were strongly positive about the Guide, noting that it emphasized universally important patient safety topics, was culturally appropriate for their countries, and gave credibility and created a focus on patient safety at their schools. Student perceptions and attitudes regarding patient safety improved substantially during the field test, and their knowledge of the topics they were taught doubled, from 10.7% to 20.8% of correct answers on the student survey. Discussion This evaluation documented the effectiveness of the Curriculum Guide, for both ease of use by schools and its impacts on improving the patient safety knowledge of healthcare students. WHO should be well positioned to refine the contents of the Guide and move forward in encouraging broader use of the Guide globally for teaching patient safety. PMID:26406893

  12. Field Test of the World Health Organization Multi-Professional Patient Safety Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Donna; Zheng, Hao; Rousi, Eirini; Leotsakos, Agnès

    2015-01-01

    Although the importance of training in patient safety has been acknowledged for over a decade, it remains under-utilized and under-valued in most countries. WHO developed the Multi-professional Patient Safety Curriculum Guide to provide schools with the requirements and tools for incorporating patient safety in education. It was field tested with 12 participating schools across the six WHO regions, to assess its effectiveness for teaching patient safety to undergraduate and graduate students in a global variety of settings. The evaluation used a combined prospective/retrospective design to generate formative information on the experiences of working with the Guide and summative information on the impacts of the Guide. Using stakeholder interviews and student surveys, data were gathered from each participating school at three times: the start of the field test (baseline), soon after each school started teaching, and soon after each school finished teaching. Stakeholders interviewed were strongly positive about the Guide, noting that it emphasized universally important patient safety topics, was culturally appropriate for their countries, and gave credibility and created a focus on patient safety at their schools. Student perceptions and attitudes regarding patient safety improved substantially during the field test, and their knowledge of the topics they were taught doubled, from 10.7% to 20.8% of correct answers on the student survey. This evaluation documented the effectiveness of the Curriculum Guide, for both ease of use by schools and its impacts on improving the patient safety knowledge of healthcare students. WHO should be well positioned to refine the contents of the Guide and move forward in encouraging broader use of the Guide globally for teaching patient safety.

  13. Technique for unit testing of safety software verification and validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Duo; Zhang Liangju; Feng Junting

    2008-01-01

    The key issue arising from digitalization of the reactor protection system for nuclear power plant is how to carry out verification and validation (V and V), to demonstrate and confirm the software that performs reactor safety functions is safe and reliable. One of the most important processes for software V and V is unit testing, which verifies and validates the software coding based on concept design for consistency, correctness and completeness during software development. The paper shows a preliminary study on the technique for unit testing of safety software V and V, focusing on such aspects as how to confirm test completeness, how to establish test platform, how to develop test cases and how to carry out unit testing. The technique discussed here was successfully used in the work of unit testing on safety software of a digital reactor protection system. (authors)

  14. Safety prediction for basic components of safety critical software based on static testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, H.S.; Seong, P.H.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop a safety prediction method, with which we can predict the risk of software components based on static testing results at the early development stage. The predictive model combines the major factor with the quality factor for the components, both of which are calculated based on the measures proposed in this work. The application to a safety-critical software system demonstrates the feasibility of the safety prediction method. (authors)

  15. Safety prediction for basic components of safety-critical software based on static testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, H.S.; Seong, P.H.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop a safety prediction method, with which we can predict the risk of software components based on static testing results at the early development stage. The predictive model combines the major factor with the quality factor for the components, which are calculated based on the measures proposed in this work. The application to a safety-critical software system demonstrates the feasibility of the safety prediction method. (authors)

  16. Minnesota urban partnership agreement national evaluation : safety data test plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-17

    This report provides the safety data test plan for the Minnesota Urban Partnership Agreement (UPA) under the United States Department of Transportation (U.S. DOT) UPA Program. The Minnesota UPA projects focus on reducing congestion by employing strat...

  17. Nuclear Safety in A Post-Fukushima ERDA: Moving Forward with smart Mobile Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, J. H.; Suh, K. Y.

    2012-01-01

    workers can support remote learners. One can obtain the various LOCAity information with the GNPs technology. One can glimpse the electric cable or piping behind the wall through handy cameras and gain mechanical specification or manual for them. High performance mobile devices can show high resolution, three-dimensional (3D) virtual reality (VR) contents. The NPP operators can train themselves with full 3D VR emergency program installed in their smart mobile device. The NPP smart device system makes it possible for operators to gate information about the real time distribution of the radioactivity so that they can manage the source term by accessing to the main control system. Also, complex calculational simulation such as severe accident and thermohydraulic analyses can be made on the smart mobile devices. As such, the smart mobile technology possesses unlimited potential to improve nuclear power industry combining various functional ideas. This technology should inexorably speed up the development of nuclear power industry and enhance market competitiveness. All these innovative wonders should, however, be supported by the security policy for information network. This technology is based on the strong network technology. These has recently been a NPP hacking accident in the U. S. The same kind of accident is deemed possible in Korea by North Korean hackers. The Republic of Korea ought first to be equipped with powerful technology and policies for network security so as to safely move forward with the smart mobile technology with immeasurable potential

  18. Nuclear Safety in A Post-Fukushima ERDA: Moving Forward with smart Mobile Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, J. H. [PHILOSOPHIA, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Suh, K. Y. [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    . Experienced workers can support remote learners. One can obtain the various LOCAity information with the GNPs technology. One can glimpse the electric cable or piping behind the wall through handy cameras and gain mechanical specification or manual for them. High performance mobile devices can show high resolution, three-dimensional (3D) virtual reality (VR) contents. The NPP operators can train themselves with full 3D VR emergency program installed in their smart mobile device. The NPP smart device system makes it possible for operators to gate information about the real time distribution of the radioactivity so that they can manage the source term by accessing to the main control system. Also, complex calculational simulation such as severe accident and thermohydraulic analyses can be made on the smart mobile devices. As such, the smart mobile technology possesses unlimited potential to improve nuclear power industry combining various functional ideas. This technology should inexorably speed up the development of nuclear power industry and enhance market competitiveness. All these innovative wonders should, however, be supported by the security policy for information network. This technology is based on the strong network technology. These has recently been a NPP hacking accident in the U. S. The same kind of accident is deemed possible in Korea by North Korean hackers. The Republic of Korea ought first to be equipped with powerful technology and policies for network security so as to safely move forward with the smart mobile technology with immeasurable potential.

  19. Preservation of FFTF Data Related to Passive Safety Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wootan, David W.; Butner, R. Scott; Omberg, Ronald P.; Makenas, Bruce J.; Nielsen, Deborah L.

    2010-01-01

    One of the goals of the Fuel Cycle Research and Development Program (FCRD) is to preserve the knowledge that has been gained in the United States on Liquid Metal Reactors (LMR). A key area deserving special attention for preservation is the data relating to passive safety testing that was conducted in FFTF and EBR-II during the 1980's. Accidents at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl Station and Unit 2 at Three Mile Island changed the safety paradigm of the nuclear power industry. New emphasis was placed on assured safety based on intrinsic plant characteristics that protect not only the public, but the significant investment in the plant as well. Plants designated to perform in this manner are considered to be passively safe since no active sensor/alarm system or human intervention is required to bring the reactor to a safe shutdown condition. The liquid metal reactor (LMR) has several key characteristics needed for a passively safe reactor: reactor coolant with superior heat transfer capability and very high boiling point, low (atmospheric) system pressures, and reliable negative reactivity feedback. The credibility of the design for a passively safe LMR rests on two issues: the validity of analytic methods used to predict passive safety performance and the availability of relevant test data to calibrate design tools. Safety analysis methods used to analyze LMRs under the old safety paradigm were focused on calculating the source term for the Core Disruptive Accident. Passive safety design requires refined analysis methods for transient events because treatment of the detailed reactivity feedbacks is important in predicting the response of the reactor. Similarly, analytic tools should be calibrated against actual test experience in existing LMR facilities. The principal objectives of the combined FFTF natural circulation and Passive Safety Testing program were: (1) to verify natural circulation as a reliable means to safely remove decay heat, (2) to extend passive safety

  20. Reliability and fall experience discrimination of Cross Step Moving on Four Spots Test in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaji, Shunsuke; Demura, Shinichi

    2013-07-01

    To examine the reliability and fall experience discrimination of the Cross Step Moving on Four Spots Test (CSFT) and the relationship between CSFT and fall-related physical function. The reliability of the CSFT was examined in a test-retest format with the same tester. Fall history, fall risk, fear of falling, activities of daily living (ADL), and various physical parameters were measured for all participants. A community center and university medical school. Elderly community-dwelling subjects (N=533; 62 men, 471 women) aged 65 to 94 years living independently. Not applicable. Time to complete all the CSFT steps required, fall risk score, ADL score, and fall-related physical function (isometric muscle strength: toe grip, plantar flexion, knee extension, hip flexion, hand grip; balance: 1-leg standing time with eyes open, functional reach test using an elastic stick; and gait: 10-m maximal walking speed). The trial-to-trial reliability test indicated good reliability of the CSFT in both sexes (intraclass correlation coefficient =.833 in men, .825 in women). However, trial-to-trial errors increased with an increase in the CSFT values in both sexes. Significant correlations were observed between the CSFT values and scores for most fall-related physical function tests in both sexes. However, the correlation coefficient for all significant correlations was fall experience) revealed that the fall experience is a significant factor affecting CSFT values; values in fallers were significantly lower than those in nonfallers. The odds ratios in logistic regression analysis were significant in both sexes (men, 1.35; women, 1.48). As determined by the Youden index, the optimal cutoff value for identifying fall experience was 7.32 seconds, with an area under the curve of .676. The CSFT can detect fall experience and is useful in the evaluation of different fall-related physical functions including muscle strength, balance, and mobility. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of

  1. Thermal hydraulic tests for reactor safety system -Research on the improvement of nuclear safety-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Moon Ki; Park, Chun Kyeong; Yang, Seon Kyu; Chung, Chang Hwan; Chun, Shee Yeong; Song, Cheol Hwa; Chun, Hyeong Gil; Chang, Seok Kyu; Chung, Heung Joon; Won, Soon Yeon; Cho, Yeong Ro; Kim, Bok Deuk; Min, Kyeong Ho

    1994-07-01

    The present research aims at the development of the thermal hydraulic verification test technology for the reactor safety system of the conventional and advanced nuclear power plant and the development of the advanced thermal hydraulic measuring techniques. (Author)

  2. Safety test facilities - status, needs, future directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heusener, G.; Cogne, F.

    1979-08-01

    A survey is given of the in-pile programs which are presently or in the near future being performed in the DeBeNe-area and in France. Only those in-pile programs are considered which are dealing with severe accidents that might lead to disruption of major parts of the core. By comparing the needs with the goals of the present programs points are identified which are not sufficiently well covered up till now. The future procedure is described: the existing facilities will be used to the largest possible extent. Whenever it is necessary, upgrading and improvement will be foreseen. Studies of a Test Facility allowing the transient testing of large pin bundles should be continued. The construction of such a facility in Europe in the near future however seems premature

  3. Safety assessment for the rf Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, A.; Beane, F.

    1984-08-01

    The Radio Frequency Test Facility (RFTF) is a part of the Magnetic Fusion Program's rf Heating Experiments. The goal of the Magnetic Fusion Program (MFP) is to develop and demonstrate the practical application of fusion. RFTF is an experimental device which will provide an essential link in the research effort aiming at the realization of fusion power. This report was compiled as a summary of the analysis done to ensure the safe operation of RFTF

  4. Imaging indicator for ESD safety testing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whinnery, LeRoy L.,; Nissen, April; Keifer, Patrick N.; Tyson, Alexander

    2013-05-01

    This report describes the development of a new detection method for electrostatic discharge (ESD) testing of explosives, using a single-lens reflex (SLR) digital camera and a 200-mm macro lens. This method has demonstrated several distinct advantages to other current ESD detection methods, including the creation of a permanent record, an enlarged image for real-time viewing as well as extended periods of review, and ability to combine with most other Go/No-Go sensors. This report includes details of the method, including camera settings and position, and results with wellcharacterized explosives PETN and RDX, and two ESD-sensitive aluminum powders.

  5. Gas reactor in-pile safety test project (GRIST-2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelley, A.P. Jr.; Arbtin, E.; St Pierre, R.

    1979-01-01

    Although out-of-pile tests may be expected to confirm individual phenomena models in core disruptive accident analysis codes, only in-pile tests are capable of verifying the extremely complex integrated model effects within the appropriate time phase for these accidents. For this reason, the GRIST-2 project, the purpose of which is to design and construct an in-pile helium loop capable of transient safety testing in the TREAT facility in Idaho, forms a cornerstone of the US GCFR safety program. The project organization, experiment program, facility, helium system design, and schedule which have been selected to meet the objectives are described

  6. Safety tests carried out at Cadarache. Sodium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruchard, M.

    1976-01-01

    Safety test on sodium fires developed at the Cadarache Nuclear Centre by the Department of Nuclear Safety, section of safety experiments on radioactivity transfer are conducted in two main directions: analysis of the behavior and thermodynamic consequences of accidental fires, working on the basis of typical experimental results; research and development of methods and equipment to control and if possible extinguish these fires. The most important part of this programme is concerned with the sodium pool fires which would result from the failure of a secondary coolant circuit pipe [fr

  7. Toward toxicity testing of nanomaterials in the 21st century: a paradigm for moving forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, David Y

    2012-01-01

    A challenge-facing hazard identification and safety evaluation of engineered nanomaterials being introduced to market is the diversity and complexity of the types of materials with varying physicochemical properties, many of which can affect their toxicity by different mechanisms. In general, in vitro test systems have limited usefulness for hazard identification of nanoparticles due to various issues. Meanwhile, conducting chronic toxicity/carcinogenicity studies in rodents for every new nanomaterial introduced into the commerce is impractical if not impossible. New toxicity testing systems which rely on predictive, high-throughput technologies may be the ultimate goal of evaluating the potential hazard of nanomaterials. However, at present, this approach alone is unlikely to succeed in evaluating the toxicity of the wide array of nanomaterials and requires validation from in vivo studies. This article proposes a paradigm for toxicity testing and elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of reference materials for specific nanomaterial classes/subclasses using short-term in vivo animal studies in conjunction with high-throughput screenings and mechanism-based short-term in vitro assays. The hazard potential of a particular nanomaterial can be evaluated by conducting only in vitro high-throughput assays and mechanistic studies and comparing the data with those of the reference materials in the specific class/subclass-an approach in line with the vision for 'Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century' of chemicals. With well-designed experiments, testing nanomaterials of varying/selected physicochemical parameters may be able to identify the physicochemical parameters contributing to toxicity. The data so derived could be used for the development of computer model systems to predict the hazard potential of specific nanoparticles based on property-activity relationships. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  8. A Test Suite for Safety-Critical Java using JML

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Anders Peter; Søndergaard, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Development techniques are presented for a test suite for the draft specification of the Java profile for Safety-Critical Systems. Distinguishing features are: specification of conformance constraints in the Java Modeling Language, encoding of infrastructure concepts without implementation bias......, and corresponding specifications of implicitly stated behavioral and real-time properties. The test programs are auto-generated from the specification, while concrete values for test parameters are selected manually. The suite is open source and publicly accessible....

  9. Quantification of Safety-Critical Software Test Uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalaquzzaman, M.; Cho, Jaehyun; Lee, Seung Jun; Jung, Wondea

    2015-01-01

    The method, conservatively assumes that the failure probability of a software for the untested inputs is 1, and the failure probability turns in 0 for successful testing of all test cases. However, in reality the chance of failure exists due to the test uncertainty. Some studies have been carried out to identify the test attributes that affect the test quality. Cao discussed the testing effort, testing coverage, and testing environment. Management of the test uncertainties was discussed in. In this study, the test uncertainty has been considered to estimate the software failure probability because the software testing process is considered to be inherently uncertain. A reliability estimation of software is very important for a probabilistic safety analysis of a digital safety critical system of NPPs. This study focused on the estimation of the probability of a software failure that considers the uncertainty in software testing. In our study, BBN has been employed as an example model for software test uncertainty quantification. Although it can be argued that the direct expert elicitation of test uncertainty is much simpler than BBN estimation, however the BBN approach provides more insights and a basis for uncertainty estimation

  10. Status of the EU test blanket systems safety studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panayotov, Dobromir; Poitevin, Yves; Ricapito, Italo; Zmitko, Milan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • TBS safety demonstration files. • Safety functions and related design features – detailed TBS components classifications. • Nuclear analyses, radiation shielding and protection. • TBS radiological waste management strategy and categorization. • Selection and definition of reference accidents scenarios and accidents analyses. - Abstract: The European joint undertaking for ITER and the development of fusion energy (‘Fusion for Energy’ – F4E) provides the European contributions to the ITER international fusion energy research project. Among others it includes also the development, design, technological demonstration and implementation of the European test blanket systems (TBS) in ITER. Currently two EU TBS designs are in the phase of conceptual design – helium-cooled lithium-lead (HCLL) and helium-cooled pebble-bed (HCPB). Safety demonstration is an important part of the work devoted to the achievement of the next key project milestone the conceptual design review. The paper reveals the details of the work on EU TBS safety performed in the last couple of years: update of the TBS safety demonstration files; safety functions and related design features; detailed TBS components classifications; nuclear analyses, radiation shielding and protection; TBS radiological waste management strategy and categorization; selection and definition of reference accidents scenarios, and accidents analyses. Finally the authors share the information on on-going and planned future EU TBS safety activities.

  11. Status of the EU test blanket systems safety studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panayotov, Dobromir, E-mail: dobromir.panayotov@f4e.europa.eu; Poitevin, Yves; Ricapito, Italo; Zmitko, Milan

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • TBS safety demonstration files. • Safety functions and related design features – detailed TBS components classifications. • Nuclear analyses, radiation shielding and protection. • TBS radiological waste management strategy and categorization. • Selection and definition of reference accidents scenarios and accidents analyses. - Abstract: The European joint undertaking for ITER and the development of fusion energy (‘Fusion for Energy’ – F4E) provides the European contributions to the ITER international fusion energy research project. Among others it includes also the development, design, technological demonstration and implementation of the European test blanket systems (TBS) in ITER. Currently two EU TBS designs are in the phase of conceptual design – helium-cooled lithium-lead (HCLL) and helium-cooled pebble-bed (HCPB). Safety demonstration is an important part of the work devoted to the achievement of the next key project milestone the conceptual design review. The paper reveals the details of the work on EU TBS safety performed in the last couple of years: update of the TBS safety demonstration files; safety functions and related design features; detailed TBS components classifications; nuclear analyses, radiation shielding and protection; TBS radiological waste management strategy and categorization; selection and definition of reference accidents scenarios, and accidents analyses. Finally the authors share the information on on-going and planned future EU TBS safety activities.

  12. Remediation of the Faultless Underground Nuclear Test: Moving Forward in the Face of Model Uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, J. B.; Pohlmann, K.; Pohll, G.; Hassan, A.; Sanders, P.; Sanchez, M.; Jaunarajs, S.

    2002-01-01

    The Faultless underground nuclear test, conducted in central Nevada, is the site of an ongoing environmental remediation effort that has successfully progressed through numerous technical challenges due to close cooperation between the U.S. Department of Energy, (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration and the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP). The challenges faced at this site are similar to those of many other sites of groundwater contamination: substantial uncertainties due to the relative lack of data from a highly heterogeneous subsurface environment. Knowing when, where, and how to devote the often enormous resources needed to collect new data is a common problem, and one that can cause remediators and regulators to disagree and stall progress toward closing sites. For Faultless, a variety of numerical modeling techniques and statistical tools are used to provide the information needed for DOE and NDEP to confidently move forward along the remediation path to site closure. A general framework for remediation was established in an agreement and consent order between DOE and the State of Nevada that recognized that no cost-effective technology currently exists to remove the source of contaminants in nuclear cavities. Rather, the emphasis of the corrective action is on identifying the impacted groundwater resource and ensuring protection of human health and the environment from the contamination through monitoring. As a result, groundwater flow and transport modeling is the linchpin in the remediation effort. An early issue was whether or not new site data should be collected via drilling and testing prior to modeling. After several iterations of the Corrective Action Investigation Plan, all parties agreed that sufficient data existed to support a flow and transport model for the site. Though several aspects of uncertainty were included in the subsequent modeling work, concerns remained regarding uncertainty in individual

  13. Safety Test Program Summary SNAP 19 Pioneer Heat Source Safety Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1971-07-01

    Sixteen heat source assemblies have been tested in support of the SNAP 19 Pioneer Safety Test Program. Seven were subjected to simulated reentry heating in various plasma arc facilities followed by impact on earth or granite. Six assemblies were tested under abort accident conditions of overpressure, shrapnel impact, and solid and liquid propellant fires. Three capsules were hot impacted under Transit capsule impact conditions to verify comparability of test results between the two similar capsule designs, thus utilizing both Pioneer and Transit Safety Test results to support the Safety Analysis Report for Pioneer. The tests have shown the fuel is contained under all nominal accident environments with the exception of minor capsule cracks under severe impact and solid fire environments. No catastrophic capsule failures occurred in this test which would release large quantities of fuel. In no test was fuel visible to the eye following impact or fire. Breached capsules were defined as those which exhibit thoria contamination on its surface following a test, or one which exhibited visible cracks in the post test metallographic analyses.

  14. Module Testing Techniques for Nuclear Safety Critical Software Using LDRA Testing Tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Kwon-Ki; Kim, Do-Yeon; Chang, Hoon-Seon; Chang, Young-Woo; Yun, Jae-Hee; Park, Jee-Duck; Kim, Jae-Hack

    2006-01-01

    The safety critical software in the I and C systems of nuclear power plants requires high functional integrity and reliability. To achieve those requirement goals, the safety critical software should be verified and tested according to related codes and standards through verification and validation (V and V) activities. The safety critical software testing is performed at various stages during the development of the software, and is generally classified as three major activities: module testing, system integration testing, and system validation testing. Module testing involves the evaluation of module level functions of hardware and software. System integration testing investigates the characteristics of a collection of modules and aims at establishing their correct interactions. System validation testing demonstrates that the complete system satisfies its functional requirements. In order to generate reliable software and reduce high maintenance cost, it is important that software testing is carried out at module level. Module testing for the nuclear safety critical software has rarely been performed by formal and proven testing tools because of its various constraints. LDRA testing tool is a widely used and proven tool set that provides powerful source code testing and analysis facilities for the V and V of general purpose software and safety critical software. Use of the tool set is indispensable where software is required to be reliable and as error-free as possible, and its use brings in substantial time and cost savings, and efficiency

  15. Safety and Function Test Report for the SWIFT Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza, I.; Hur, J.

    2013-01-01

    This test was conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Independent Testing project. This project was established to help reduce the barriers of wind energy expansion by providing independent testing results for small turbines. Three turbines where selected for testing at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) as a part of round two of the Small Wind Turbine Independent Testing project. Safety and Function testing is one of up to 5 tests that may be performed on the turbines. Other tests include power performance, duration, noise, and power quality. The results of the testing will provide the manufacturers with reports that may be used for small wind turbine certification.

  16. Safety significance of ATR [Advanced Test Reactor] passive safety response attributes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, S.A.

    1989-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory was designed with some passive safety response attributes which contribute to the safety posture of the facility. The three passive safety attributes being evaluated in the paper are: (1) In-core and in-vessel natural convection cooling, (2) a passive heat sink capability of the ATR primary coolant system (PCS) for the transfer of decay power from the uninsulated piping to the confinement, and (3) gravity feed of emergency coolant makeup. The safety significance of the ATR passive safety response attributes is that the reactor can passively respond for most transients, given a reactor scram, to provide adequate decay power removal and a significant time for operator action should the normal active heat removal systems and their backup systems both fail. The ATR Interim Level 1 Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) model ands results were used to evaluate the significance to ATR fuel damage frequency (or probability) of the above three passive response attributes. The results of the evaluation indicate that the first attribute is a major safety characteristic of the ATR. The second attribute has a noticeable but only minor safety significance. The third attribute has no significant influence on the ATR Level 1 PRA because of the diversity and redundancy of the ATR firewater injection system (emergency coolant system). 8 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  17. Safety demonstration test on solvent fire in fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishio, Gunji; Hashimoto, Kazuichiro

    1989-03-01

    This report summarizes a fundamental of results obtained in the Reprocessing Plant Safety Demonstration Test Program which was performed under the contract between the Science and Technology Agency of Japan and the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. In this test program, a solvent fire was hypothesized, and such data were obtained as fire behavior, smoke behavior and integrity of exhaust filters in the ventilation system. Through the test results, it was confirmed that under the fire condition in hypothetical accident, the integrity of the cell and the cell ventilation system were maintained, and the safety function of the exhaust filters was maintained against the smoke loading. Analytical results by EVENT code agreed well with the present test data on the thermofluid flow in a cell ventilation system. (author)

  18. [Non-animal toxicology in the safety testing of chemicals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, Tuula; Tähti, Hanna

    2013-01-01

    There is an urgent need to develop predictive test methods better than animal experiments for assessing the safety of chemical substances to man. According to today's vision this is achieved by using human cell based tissue and organ models. In the new testing strategy the toxic effects are assessed by the changes in the critical parameters of the cellular biochemical routes (AOP, adverse toxic outcome pathway-principle) in the target tissues. In vitro-tests are rapid and effective, and with them automation can be applied. The change in the testing paradigm is supported by all stakeholders: scientists, regulators and people concerned on animal welfare.

  19. Test of a Novel Moving Magnet Actuated Seat Valve for Digital Displacement Fluid Power Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Christian; Madsen, Esben Lundø; Christensen, Jeppe Haals

    2018-01-01

    The emerging digital displacement fluid power technology requires a new class of high-performance valves that can operate in harsh high-pressure conditions. To overcome the switching performance limitations of solenoids and to avoid the mechanical complexity of moving coil actuators, a novel elec......, and a simple mechanical design....

  20. Validation test case generation based on safety analysis ontology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Chin-Feng; Wang, Wen-Shing

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Current practice in validation test case generation for nuclear system is mainly ad hoc. ► This study designs a systematic approach to generate validation test cases from a Safety Analysis Report. ► It is based on a domain-specific ontology. ► Test coverage criteria have been defined and satisfied. ► A computerized toolset has been implemented to assist the proposed approach. - Abstract: Validation tests in the current nuclear industry practice are typically performed in an ad hoc fashion. This study presents a systematic and objective method of generating validation test cases from a Safety Analysis Report (SAR). A domain-specific ontology was designed and used to mark up a SAR; relevant information was then extracted from the marked-up document for use in automatically generating validation test cases that satisfy the proposed test coverage criteria; namely, single parameter coverage, use case coverage, abnormal condition coverage, and scenario coverage. The novelty of this technique is its systematic rather than ad hoc test case generation from a SAR to achieve high test coverage.

  1. Utilizing the Fast Flux Test Facility for international passive safety testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, P.K.; Padilla, A.; Lucoff, D.M.; Waltar, A.E.

    1991-01-01

    A two-phased approach has been undertaken in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) to conduct passive safety testing. Phase I (1986 to 1987) was structured to obtain an initial understanding of the reactivity feedback components. The planned Phase II (1992 to 1993) international program will extend the testing to include static and dynamic feedback measurements, transient and demonstration tests, and gas expansion module (GEM) reactivity tests. The primary objective is to meet the needs for safety analysis code validation, with particular emphasis on reducing the uncertainties associated with structure reactivity feedback. Program scope and predicted FFTF responses are discussed and illustrated. (author)

  2. Recommendations for safety testing with the in vivo comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Marie Z

    2012-08-30

    While the in vivo comet assay increases its role in regulatory safety testing, deliberations about the interpretation of comet data continue. Concerns can arise regarding comet assay publications with limited data from non-blind testing of positive control compounds and using protocols (e.g. dose concentrations, sample times, and tissues) known to give an expected effect. There may be a tendency towards bias when the validation or interpretation of comet assay data is based on results generated by widely accepted but non-validated assays. The greatest advantages of the comet assay are its sensitivity and its ability to detect genotoxicity in tissues and at sample times that could not previously be evaluated. Guidelines for its use and interpretation in safety testing should take these factors into account. Guidelines should be derived from objective review of data generated by blind testing of unknown compounds dosed at non-toxic concentrations and evaluated in a true safety-testing environment, where the experimental design and conclusions must be defensible. However, positive in vivo comet findings with such compounds are rarely submitted to regulatory agencies and this data is typically unavailable for publication due to its proprietary nature. To enhance the development of guidelines for safety testing with the comet assay, and with the permission of several sponsors, this paper presents and discusses relevant data from multiple GLP comet studies conducted blind, with unknown pharmaceuticals and consumer products. Based on these data and the lessons we have learned through the course of conducting these studies, I suggest significant adjustments to the current conventions, and I provide recommendations for interpreting in vivo comet assay results in situations where risk must be evaluated in the absence of carcinogenicity or clinical data. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Demonstration tests for low level radioactive waste packaging safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagano, I.; Shimura, S.; Miki, T.; Tamamura, T.; Kunitomi, K.

    1993-01-01

    The transport packaging for low level radioactive waste (so-called the LLW packaging) has been developed to be utilized for transportation of LLW in 200 liter-drums from Japanese nuclear power stations to the LLW Disposal Center at Rokkashomura in Aomori Prefecture. Transportation is expected to start from December in 1992. We will explain the brief history of the development, technical features and specifications as well as two kinds of safety demonstration tests, namely one is '1.2 meter free drop test' and the other is 'ISO container standard test'. (J.P.N.)

  4. New methods for the safety testing of transgenic food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Ib; Poulsen, Morten; Kledal, S. T.

    2004-01-01

    for guiding the precise design of the animal study. The genetically modified food plants to be used for this test development will be 3 transgenic rice varieties (2 types of lectins and the Bt toxin). Objectives The overall objective of this project is to develop and validate the scientific methodology which......Background This project proposal deals with the development of a sensitive and specific animal test which is necessary for safety analysis of genetically modified plants according to the Opinion of the Scientific Committee for Food on the assessment of novels foods. The test will be based...

  5. Posttest analysis of the FFTF inherent safety tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padilla, A. Jr.; Claybrook, S.W.

    1987-01-01

    Inherent safety tests were performed during 1986 in the 400-MW (thermal) Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) reactor to demonstrate the effectiveness of an inherent shutdown device called the gas expansion module (GEM). The GEM device provided a strong negative reactivity feedback during loss-of-flow conditions by increasing the neutron leakage as a result of an expanding gas bubble. The best-estimate pretest calculations for these tests were performed using the IANUS plant analysis code (Westinghouse Electric Corporation proprietary code) and the MELT/SIEX3 core analysis code. These two codes were also used to perform the required operational safety analyses for the FFTF reactor and plant. Although it was intended to also use the SASSYS systems (core and plant) analysis code, the calibration of the SASSYS code for FFTF core and plant analysis was not completed in time to perform pretest analyses. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of the posttest analysis of the 1986 FFTF inherent safety tests using the SASSYS code

  6. Fast reactor safety testing in Transient Reactor Test (TREAT) in the 1980s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, A.E.; Dutt, D.S.; Harrison, L.J.

    1990-01-01

    Several series of fast reactor safety tests were performed in TREAT during the 1980s. These focused on the transient behavior of full-length oxide fuels (US reference, UK reference, and US advanced design) and on modern metallic fuels. Most of the tests addressed fuel behavior under transient overpower or loss-of-flow conditions. The test series were the PFR/TREAT tests; the RFT, TS, CDT, and RX series on oxide fuels; and the M series on metallic fuels. These are described in terms of their principal results and relevance to analyses and safety evaluation. 4 refs., 3 tabs

  7. Safety test facilities. Needs and concepts. A French evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tretiakoff, O.; Bailly, J.

    1976-01-01

    The fuel behaviour of LMFBRs in the event of an accident has been tested in-pile in the SCARABEE program (local blockage, sudden flow reduction and pump coast-down at constant power). These tests will be carried on in the framework of an international cooperation on irradiated fuels: this is the purpose of the CABRI and SCARABEE N programs. All those studies should enable to assess safety margins between accident conditions and the technical specifications of the reactor. The paper explains how a logical set of simple observations has led to the present state of the Cadarache in-pile experimental safety program and how it may help to find the way in a dense forest of both technical and psychological difficulties

  8. Safety test facilities. Needs and concepts. A French evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tretiakoff, O.; Bailly, J.

    1976-01-01

    The fuel behavior of LMFBRs in the event of an accident has been tested in-pile in the SCARABEE program. These tests will be carried on in the framework of an international cooperation on irradiated fuels: this is the purpose of the CABRI and SCARABEE N programs. All those studies should enable to assess safety margins between accident conditions and the technical specifications of the reactor. The purpose of this paper is to explain how a logical set of simple observations has led us to the present state of the Cadarache in-pile experimental safety program and how it may help us to find our way in a dense forest of both technical and psychological difficulties

  9. Testing laboratories, its function in ensuring industrial safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Fernandez, M.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses and justifies the development of industrial laboratories (testing and calibration) in Spain, since its embryo, its creation and development, to the present day. Likewise, presents its interrelation with other agents, as well as the legislative and technical framework is application along to the years. Within this development of the sector, highlights the period of the conformity assessment, and consequently its relationship with Industrial safety. Finally, describes the organizational situation of the sector both nationally and internationally. (Author)

  10. The electron test accelerator safety in design and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKeown, J.

    1980-06-01

    The Electron Test Accelerator is being designed as an experiment in accelerator physics and technology. With an electron beam power of up to 200 kW the operation of the accelerator presents a severe radiation hazard as well as rf and electrical hazards. The design of the safety system provides fail-safe protection while permitting flexibility in the mode of operation and minimizing administrative controls. (auth)

  11. Safety re-assessment of AECL test and research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winfield, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited currently has four operating engineering test/research reactors of various sizes and ages; a new isotope-production reactor Maple-X10, under construction at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL), and a heating demonstration reactor, SDR, undergoing high-power commissioning at Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment (WNRE). The company is also performing design studies of small reactors for hot water and electricity production. The older reactors are ZED-2, PTR, NRX, and NRU; these range in age from 42 years (NRX) to 29 years (ZED-2). Since 1984, limited-scope safety re-assessments have been underway on three of these reactors (ZED-2, NRX AND NRU). ZED-2 and PTR are operated by the Reactor Physics Branch; all other reactors are operated by the respective site Reactor Operations Branches. For the older reactors the original safety reports produced were entirely deterministic in nature and based on the design-basis accident concept. The limited scope safety re-assessments for these older reactors, carried out over the past 5 years, have comprised both quantitative probabilistic safety-assessment techniques, such as event tree and fault analysis, and/or qualitative techniques, such as failure mode and effect analysis. The technique used for an individual assessment was dependent upon the specific scope required. This paper discusses the types of analyses carried out, specific insights/recommendations resulting from the analysis, and the plan for future analysis. In addition, during the last four years safety assessments have been carried out on the new isotope-, heat-, and electricity-producing reactors, as part of the safety design review, commissioning and licensing activities

  12. Evaluation of seven in vitro alternatives for ocular safety testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, L H; Kain, D J; Roberts, D A; Parker, R D

    1991-07-01

    Seven in vitro assays were evaluated to determine if any were useful as screening procedures in ocular safety assessment. Seventeen test materials (chemicals, household cleaners, hand soaps, dishwashing liquids, shampoos, and liquid laundry detergents) were tested in each assay. In vivo ocular irritation scores for the materials were obtained from existing rabbit low volume eye test (LVET) data. The seven assays evaluated included the silicon microphysiometer (SM), luminescent bacteria toxicity test (LBT), neutral red assay (NR), total protein assay (TP), Tetrahymena thermophila motility assay (TTMA), bovine eye/chorioallantoic membrane assay (BE/CAM), and the EYTEX system (ETS). For the seventeen materials used in this study there was a significant correlation between the in vivo irritant potential and in vitro data for all the tests except the EYTEX System (SM, r = -0.87; LBT, r = -0.91; NR, r = -0.85; TTMA, r = 0.78; TP, r = -0.86; ETS, r = 0.29). The irritation classifications provided by the BE/CAM also did not correspond with the actual in vivo irritancy potential of the test materials. The result of this study suggested it may be possible to classify materials into broad irritancy categories with some of the assays. This would allow their use as screens prior to limited in vivo confirmation in the ocular safety assessment process.

  13. Using partial safety factors in wind turbine design and testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musial, W.D. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes the relationship between wind turbine design and testing in terms of the certification process. An overview of the current status of international certification is given along with a description of limit-state design basics. Wind turbine rotor blades are used to illustrate the principles discussed. These concepts are related to both International Electrotechnical Commission and Germanischer Lloyd design standards, and are covered using schematic representations of statistical load and material strength distributions. Wherever possible, interpretations of the partial safety factors are given with descriptions of their intended meaning. Under some circumstances, the authors` interpretations may be subjective. Next, the test-load factors are described in concept and then related to the design factors. Using technical arguments, it is shown that some of the design factors for both load and materials must be used in the test loading, but some should not be used. In addition, some test factors not used in the design may be necessary for an accurate test of the design. The results show that if the design assumptions do not clearly state the effects and uncertainties that are covered by the design`s partial safety factors, outside parties such as test labs or certification agencies could impose their own meaning on these factors.

  14. Results of the 1986 FFTF inherent safety tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, T.M.; Campbell, L.R.; Franz, G.R.; Knecht, W.L.

    1987-01-01

    A series of tests was recently completed at the 400-MW (thermal) Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) to further demonstrate the passive safety characteristics of liquid-metal-cooled fast reactors. Earlier FFTF testing of decay heat removal by sodium natural circulation was reported in 1981. The main purpose of the 1986 test series was to demonstrate passive reactor shutdown during a loss-of-flow event when several inherent shutdown devices called gas expansion modules (GEMs) were installed in the reactor. However, these tests also provide further data on the natural circulation performance of the primary system, in particular the reactor core, and thus add to the data base available for checking the validity of available analytical tools

  15. Technology Solutions Case Study: Combustion Safety Simplified Test Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Brand, D. Cautley, D. Bohac, P. Francisco, L. Shen, and S. Gloss

    2015-12-01

    Combustions safety is an important step in the process of upgrading homes for energy efficiency. There are several approaches used by field practitioners, but researchers have indicated that the test procedures in use are complex to implement and provide too many false positives. Field failures often mean that the house is not upgraded until after remediation or not at all, if not include in the program. In this report the PARR and NorthernSTAR DOE Building America Teams provide a simplified test procedure that is easier to implement and should produce fewer false positives.

  16. 46 CFR 61.30-20 - Automatic control and safety tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Automatic control and safety tests. 61.30-20 Section 61... TESTS AND INSPECTIONS Tests and Inspections of Fired Thermal Fluid Heaters § 61.30-20 Automatic control and safety tests. Operational tests and checks of all safety and limit controls, combustion controls...

  17. Cyber Security Test Strategy for Non-safety Display System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Han Seong; Kim, Hee Eun

    2016-01-01

    Cyber security has been a big issue since the instrumentation and control (I and C) system of nuclear power plant (NPP) is digitalized. A cyber-attack on NPP should be dealt with seriously because it might cause not only economic loss but also the radioactive material release. Researches on the consequences of cyber-attack onto NPP from a safety point of view have been conducted. A previous study shows the risk effect brought by initiation of event and deterioration of mitigation function by cyber terror. Although this study made conservative assumptions and simplifications, it gives an insight on the effect of cyber-attack. Another study shows that the error on a non-safety display system could cause wrong actions of operators. According to this previous study, the failure of the operator action caused by a cyber-attack on a display system might threaten the safety of the NPP by limiting appropriate mitigation actions. This study suggests a test strategy focusing on the cyber-attack on the information and display system, which might cause the failure of operator. The test strategy can be suggested to evaluate and complement security measures. Identifying whether a cyber-attack on the information and display system can affect the mitigation actions of operator, the strategy to obtain test scenarios is suggested. The failure of mitigation scenario is identified first. Then, for the test target in the scenario, software failure modes are applied to identify realistic failure scenarios. Testing should be performed for those scenarios to confirm the integrity of data and to assure effectiveness of security measures

  18. Cyber Security Test Strategy for Non-safety Display System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Han Seong [Joongbu University, Geumsan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hee Eun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Cyber security has been a big issue since the instrumentation and control (I and C) system of nuclear power plant (NPP) is digitalized. A cyber-attack on NPP should be dealt with seriously because it might cause not only economic loss but also the radioactive material release. Researches on the consequences of cyber-attack onto NPP from a safety point of view have been conducted. A previous study shows the risk effect brought by initiation of event and deterioration of mitigation function by cyber terror. Although this study made conservative assumptions and simplifications, it gives an insight on the effect of cyber-attack. Another study shows that the error on a non-safety display system could cause wrong actions of operators. According to this previous study, the failure of the operator action caused by a cyber-attack on a display system might threaten the safety of the NPP by limiting appropriate mitigation actions. This study suggests a test strategy focusing on the cyber-attack on the information and display system, which might cause the failure of operator. The test strategy can be suggested to evaluate and complement security measures. Identifying whether a cyber-attack on the information and display system can affect the mitigation actions of operator, the strategy to obtain test scenarios is suggested. The failure of mitigation scenario is identified first. Then, for the test target in the scenario, software failure modes are applied to identify realistic failure scenarios. Testing should be performed for those scenarios to confirm the integrity of data and to assure effectiveness of security measures.

  19. PANDA: A Multipurpose Integral Test Facility for LWR Safety Investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paladino, D.; Dreier, J.

    2012-01-01

    The PANDA facility is a large scale, multicompartmental thermal hydraulic facility suited for investigations related to the safety of current and advanced LWRs. The facility is multipurpose, and the applications cover integral containment response tests, component tests, primary system tests, and separate effect tests. Experimental investigations carried on in the PANDA facility have been embedded in international projects, most of which under the auspices of the EU and OECD and with the support of a large number of organizations (regulatory bodies, technical dupport organizations, national laboratories, electric utilities, industries) worldwide. The paper provides an overview of the research programs performed in the PANDA facility in relation to BWR containment systems and those planned for PWR containment systems.

  20. Safety system function trend indicator: Theory and test application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azarm, M.A.; Carbonaro, J.F.; Boccio, J.L.; Vesely, W.E.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to summarize research conducted on the development and validation of quantitative indicators of safety performance. This work, performed under the Risk-Based Performance Indicator (RBPI) Project, FIN A-3295, for the Office of Research (RES), is considered part of NRC's Performance Indicator Program which is being coordinated through the Office for the Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD). The program originally focused on risk-based indicators at high levels of safety indices (e.g., core-damage frequency, functional unavailabilities, and sequence monitoring). The program was then redirected towards a more amenable goal, safety system unavailability indicators, mainly due to the lack of PRA models and plant data. In that regard, BNL published a technical report that introduced the concept of cycle-based indicators and also described various alternatives of monitoring safety system unavailabilities. Further simplification of these indicators was requested by NRC to facilitate their applications to all plants in a timely manner. This resulted in the development of Safety System Function Trend (SSFT) indicators which minimize the need for detailed system model as well as component history. The theoretical bases for these indicators were developed through various simulation studies to determine the ease of detecting a trend and/or unacceptable performance. These indicators, along with several other indicators, were then generated and compared using plant data as a part of a test application. The SSFT indicators, specifically, were constructed for a total of eight plants, consisting of two systems per plant. Emphasis was placed on examining relative changes, as well as the indicator's actual level. Both the trend and actual indicator level were found to be important in identifying plants with potential problems

  1. Tests for validation of fast neutron reactors safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, T.; Yamashita, H.

    2001-01-01

    Japanese scientific research and design enterprises in cooperation with industrial and power generating corporations implement a project on creating a fast neutron reactor of the ultimate safety. One of the basic expected results from such a development is creation of a reactor core structure that is able to eliminate recriticality occurrence in the course of reactor accident involving fuel melting. One of the possible ways to solve this problem is to include pipes (meant for specifying directed (controlled) molten fuel relocation) into fuel assembly structure. In the course of conduction and subsequent implementation of such a design the basic issue is to experimentally confirm the operating capacity of FA having such a structure and that is called FAIDUS. Within EAGLE Project on experimental basis of IAE NNC RK an activity has been started on preparation and conduction of out-of-pile and in-pile tests. During tests a sodium coolant will be used. Studies are conducted by NNC RK in cooperation with the Japanese corporations JAPC and JNC. Basic objective of out-of-pile tests was to obtain preliminary information on fuel relocation behavior under conditions simulating accident involving melting of core consisting of FAIDUS FA, which will help to clarify simulation criteria and to develop the most optimum structure of the experimental channel for reactor experiments conduction. The basic objective of in-pile tests was the experimental confirmation of operating capacity of FAIDUS FA model under reactor conditions. According to the program two tests are planned to be performed at IGR reactor: tests for validation of fast neutron reactor safety, and out-of-pile tests at EAGLE experimental facility without sodium coolant

  2. Certification test for safety of new fuel transportation package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aritomi, Masanori; Sugawa, Osami; Suga, Masao.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this certification test is to prove the safety of new fuel transportation package against a fire of actual size caused by traffic accidents. After the fire test, the fuel assemblies were covered with coal-tar like material vaporized from anti-shock material used in the container. Surface color of BWR-type fuel assembly was dark grey that is supposed to be the color of oxide of Zircaloy. As for PWR-type fuel assembly, the condition encountered during fire test caused no change to the outlook of the rod element. Both the BWR and PWR type fuel rod elements showed no deformation and were completely sound. Therefore it may be concluded that the container protected the mimic fuel assemblies against fire of 30 minutes duration and caused no damage. This report is the result of the above experiments and examinations, and we appreciate the cooperation of those who are concerned. (J.P.N.)

  3. Thermal-hydraulic tests for reactor safety system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Se Young; Chung, Moon Ki; Baek, Won Pil

    2002-05-01

    Tests for the safety depressurization system, Sparger adopted for the Korean next generation reactor, APR1400 are carried out for several geometries with the B and C (Blowdown and Condensation) facility in the condition of high temperature and pressure and with a small test facility in the condition of atmospheric temperature and pressure. Tests for the critical heat flux are performed with the RCS(Reactor Coolant System) facility as well as with the Freon CHF Loop in the condition of high temperature and pressure. The atmospheric temperature and pressure facility is utilized for development of the high standard thermal hydraulic measurement technology. The optical method is developed to measure the local thermal-hydraulic behavior for the single and two-phase boiling phenomena

  4. Supplementary safety system 1/4 scale testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, R.L.; Paik, I.K.

    1993-09-01

    During the course of updating the K-Reactor Safety Analysis Report Chapter 15 in 1990, it was identified that the current Supplementary Safety System (SSS) may not be adequate in protecting the reactor during the process water pump coastdown initiated by a loss of AC power when the safety rods are assumed to fail. A SSS modification project was initiated to add an additional ink injection pathway near the pump suction. In addition, the Department of Energy raised a question on the thermal buoyancy effects on moderator flow pattern and ink dispersion in the moderator space. The development and documentation of a two-dimensional code called MODFLOW was undertaken to describe the problem. This report discusses the results of the moderator flow and ink (Gadolinium Poison Solution - GPS) dispersion tests designed to provide qualified data for validation and benchmarking of the MODFLOW computer code with the secondary objectives being the development of concentration profiles and video footage of simulated GPS dispersion under steady-state and transient flow conditions.

  5. Reliability assessment for safety critical systems by statistical random testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, S.E.

    1995-11-01

    In this report we present an overview of reliability assessment for software and focus on some basic aspects of assessing reliability for safety critical systems by statistical random testing. We also discuss possible deviations from some essential assumptions on which the general methodology is based. These deviations appear quite likely in practical applications. We present and discuss possible remedies and adjustments and then undertake applying this methodology to a portion of the SDS1 software. We also indicate shortcomings of the methodology and possible avenues to address to follow to address these problems. (author). 128 refs., 11 tabs., 31 figs

  6. Reliability assessment for safety critical systems by statistical random testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, S E [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada). Statistical Consulting Centre

    1995-11-01

    In this report we present an overview of reliability assessment for software and focus on some basic aspects of assessing reliability for safety critical systems by statistical random testing. We also discuss possible deviations from some essential assumptions on which the general methodology is based. These deviations appear quite likely in practical applications. We present and discuss possible remedies and adjustments and then undertake applying this methodology to a portion of the SDS1 software. We also indicate shortcomings of the methodology and possible avenues to address to follow to address these problems. (author). 128 refs., 11 tabs., 31 figs.

  7. The role of natural circulation in the FFTF [Fast Flux Test Facility] passive safety tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stover, R.L.; Padilla, A.; Burke, T.M.; Knecht, W.L.

    1987-03-01

    A series of tests were completed at the Fast Flux Test Facility to demonstrate the passive safety characteristics of liquid metal reactors with natural circulation flow. The first test consisted of transition from forced to natural circulation flow at an initial decay power of 0.3%. The second test represented an unprotected loss-of-flow transient to natural circulation from 50% power with the control rods prevented from scramming into the core. The third test was a steady-state, natural circulation condition with core fission powers up ato about 2.3%. Core sodium data and results of single and multi-channel computer models confirmed the reliability and effectiveness of natural circulation flow for liquid metal reactor safety

  8. Resonant tunneling of UCN through the moving interference filter and experimental test of the UCN dispersion law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, A.I.; Bondarenko, I.V.; Balashov, S.N.; Geltenbort, P.; Hoghoj, P.; Kozlov, A.V.; Masalovich, S.V.; Toperverg, B.P.

    2004-01-01

    With the aim to test experimentally the dispersion law validity for very slow neutrons a spectrum of ultracold neutrons (UCN) under the condition of resonance tunneling through the moving Neutron Interference Filter was investigated. The neutron spectrum in this case has a narrow width resonance, whose parameters depend on the filter characteristics and dispersion law of neutron waves in matter. For a number of samples a noticeable shift of the resonance position when the filter moved parallel to its surface was detected. This shift is in strong contradiction with the commonly accepted dispersion law. Further investigations have shown that the spectrum of tunneling neutrons is not exactly defined by the solution of one-dimensional quantum problem, but substantially affected by neutron scattering from filter imperfections. The cross section of this scattering depends on the neutron wave number and increases dramatically in resonance conditions. Experimental results as well as comprehensive theoretical analysis have led us to the unambiguous conclusion that observed phenomena of the resonance shift in a moving sample are caused by scattering of neutron tunneling states rather than by a deviation from the commonly accepted dispersion law. (author)

  9. LOFT integral test system final safety analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-03-01

    Safety analyses are presented for the following LOFT Reactor systems: engineering safety features; support buildings and facilities; instrumentation and controls; electrical systems; and auxiliary systems. (JWR)

  10. Test tools of physics radiography children as a support for safety radiation and safety patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Masrochah; Yeti Kartikasari; Ardi Soesilo Wibowo

    2013-01-01

    Radiographic examination of the thorax children aged 1-3 years have a high sufficiently failure. This failure is caused by the movement and difficulty positioning the patient, resulting in the risk of repeat radiographs to patient safety particularly unnecessary radiation risks. It is therefore necessary to develop research on children design fixation devices. This research aims to create a design tool fixation on radiographs children to support radiation safety and patient safety. This research is a descriptive exploratory approach to tool design. The independent variables were the design tools, variable tool function test results, and radiographic variables controlled thorax. The procedure is done by designing data collection tools, further trials with 20 samples. Processing and analysis of data is done by calculating the performance assessment tool scores with range 1-3. The results showed that the design tool of fixation in the form of standard radiographic cassette equipped with chairs and some form of seat belt fixation. The procedure uses a tool fixation is routine radiographic follow thorax child in an upright position. Function test results aids fixation is to have an average score of 2.66, which means good. While the test results for each component, the majority of respondents stated that the reliability of the device is quite good with a score of 2.45 (60 %), convenience tool with a score of 2.60 (70 %), quality of the radiographs did not incontinence of the thorax radiograph with a score 2.55 (85 %), the child protection (security) with a score of 2.70 (70 %), good design aesthetic design with a score of 2.80 (80 %), addition of radiation from the others on the use of these tools do not need with a score of 2.80 (80 %), and there is no additional radiation due to repetitions with a score of 2.85 (90 %). (author)

  11. The safety of food products requires X-ray testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lardiere, C.

    2017-01-01

    Food safety through standards and regulations imposes food products to be tested for the presence of alien elements. So far metal detectors have been used to detect metal parts, now they have been progressively replaced with X-ray scanners that allow the detection of a lot more contaminants. The improvement of algorithms for image processing combined with the availability of ever more powerful PC have led to the routine use of X-ray testing on industrial processes. Technological progress has made X-ray testing more efficient: while previously a power of 500 W was necessary to cross a 10 cm thickness of water, now only 100 W is necessary. The main advantage of X-ray testing is to be able to test food even packed in metal containers and to detect if the container is deformed. Another advantages is to be able to detect a lot of elements like pieces of glass, small stones or bits of bones. The minimal size to be detected is 0.5 mm for stainless steels and 2 mm for glass or bones. Usually metal detectors are set at the end of the production line just before packaging but in some cases they can be included in the line in order to protect the next machine that intervenes to process the food. (A.C.)

  12. Safety of a rapid diagnostic protocol with accelerated stress testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soremekun, Olan A; Hamedani, Azita; Shofer, Frances S; O'Conor, Katie J; Svenson, James; Hollander, Judd E

    2014-02-01

    Most patients at low to intermediate risk for an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) receive a 12- to 24-hour "rule out." Recently, trials have found that a coronary computed tomographic angiography-based strategy is more efficient. If stress testing were performed within the same time frame as coronary computed tomographic angiography, the 2 strategies would be more similar. We tested the hypothesis that stress testing can safely be performed within several hours of presentation. We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients presenting to a university hospital from January 1, 2009, to December 31, 2011, with potential ACS. Patients placed in a clinical pathway that performed stress testing after 2 negative troponin values 2 hours apart were included. We excluded patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction or with an elevated initial troponin. The main outcome was safety of immediate stress testing defined as the absence of death or acute myocardial infarction (defined as elevated troponin within 24 hours after the test). A total of 856 patients who presented with potential ACS were enrolled in the clinical pathway and included in this study. Patients had a median age of 55.0 (interquartile range, 48-62) years. Chest pain was the chief concern in 86%, and pain was present on arrival in 73% of the patients. There were no complications observed during the stress test. There were 0 deaths (95% confidence interval, 0%-0.46%) and 4 acute myocardial infarctions within 24 hours (0.5%; 95% confidence interval, 0.14%-1.27%). The peak troponins were small (0.06, 0.07, 0.07, and 0.19 ng/mL). Patients who present to the ED with potential ACS can safely undergo a rapid diagnostic protocol with stress testing. © 2013.

  13. Safety analysis calculations for research and test reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, S Y; MacDonald, R; MacFarlane, D [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)

    1983-08-01

    The goal of the RERTR (Reduced Enrichment in Research and Test Reactor) Program at ANL is to provide technical means for conversion of research and test reactors from HEU (High-Enrichment Uranium) to LEU (Low-Enrichment Uranium) fuels. In exploring the feasibility of conversion, safety considerations are a prime concern; therefore, safety analyses must be performed for reactors undergoing the conversion. This requires thorough knowledge of the important safety parameters for different types of reactors for both HEU and LEU fuel. Appropriate computer codes are needed to predict transient reactor behavior under postulated accident conditions. In this discussion, safety issues for the two general types of reactors i.e., the plate-type (MTR-type) reactor and the rod-type (TRIGA-type) reactor, resulting from the changes associated with LEU vs. HEU fuels, are explored. The plate-type fuels are typically uranium aluminide (UAl{sub x}) compounds dispersed in aluminum and clad with aluminum. Moderation is provided by the water coolant. Self shut-down reactivity coefficients with EU fuel are entirely a result of coolant heating, whereas with LEU fuel there is an additional shut down contribution provided by the direct heating of the fuel due to the Doppler coefficient. In contrast, the rod-type (TRIGA) fuels are mixtures of zirconium hydride, uranium, and erbium. This fuel mixture is formed into rods ( {approx} 1 cm diameter) and clad with stainless steel or Incoloy. In the TRIGA fuel the self-shutdown reactivity is more complex, depending on heating of the fuel rather than the coolant. The two most important mechanisms in providing this feedback are: spectral hardening due to neutron interaction with the ZrH moderator as it is heated and Doppler broadening of resonances in erbium and U-238. Since these phenomena result directly from heating of the fuel, and do not depend on heat transfer to the moderator/coolant, the coefficients are prompt acting. Results of transient

  14. Moving beyond Test-Prep Pedagogy: Dialoguing with Multicultural Preservice Teachers for a Quality Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Louie F.

    2013-01-01

    In a "post-NCLB era," the schooling experiences of mostly low-income students of color continue to be consumed by a test-prep pedagogy--narrowed curriculum, low expectations, and ignored relationships. In this article the author describes a pedagogical approach using educational dialogues to engage preservice teachers to critically…

  15. Hypothesis tests for the detection of constant speed radiation moving sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumazert, Jonathan; Coulon, Romain; Kondrasovs, Vladimir; Boudergui, Karim; Sannie, Guillaume; Gameiro, Jordan; Normand, Stephane [CEA, LIST, Laboratoire Capteurs Architectures Electroniques, 99 Gif-sur-Yvette, (France); Mechin, Laurence [CNRS, UCBN, Groupe de Recherche en Informatique, Image, Automatique et Instrumentation de Caen, 4050 Caen, (France)

    2015-07-01

    Radiation Portal Monitors are deployed in linear network to detect radiological material in motion. As a complement to single and multichannel detection algorithms, inefficient under too low signal to noise ratios, temporal correlation algorithms have been introduced. Test hypothesis methods based on empirically estimated mean and variance of the signals delivered by the different channels have shown significant gain in terms of a tradeoff between detection sensitivity and false alarm probability. This paper discloses the concept of a new hypothesis test for temporal correlation detection methods, taking advantage of the Poisson nature of the registered counting signals, and establishes a benchmark between this test and its empirical counterpart. The simulation study validates that in the four relevant configurations of a pedestrian source carrier under respectively high and low count rate radioactive background, and a vehicle source carrier under the same respectively high and low count rate radioactive background, the newly introduced hypothesis test ensures a significantly improved compromise between sensitivity and false alarm, while guaranteeing the stability of its optimization parameter regardless of signal to noise ratio variations between 2 to 0.8. (authors)

  16. An effective means for damage detection of bridges using the contact-point response of a moving test vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Qian, Yao; Wu, Yuntian; Yang, Y. B.

    2018-04-01

    To further the technique of indirect measurement, the contact-point response of a moving test vehicle is adopted for the damage detection of bridges. First, the contact-point response of the vehicle moving over the bridge is derived both analytically and in central difference form (for field use). Then, the instantaneous amplitude squared (IAS) of the driving component of the contact-point response is calculated by the Hilbert transform, making use of its narrow-band feature. The IAS peaks serve as the key parameter for damage detection. In the numerical simulation, a damage (crack) is modeled by a hinge-spring unit. The feasibility of the proposed method to detect the location and severity of a damage or multi damages of the bridge is verified. Also, the effects of surface roughness, vehicle speed, measurement noise and random traffic are studied. In the presence of ongoing traffic, the damages of the bridge are identified from the repeated or invariant IAS peaks generated for different traffic flows by the same test vehicle over the bridge.

  17. Development of Onsite Transportation Safety Documents for Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank Hand; Willard Thomas; Frank Sciacca; Manny Negrete; Susan Kelley

    2008-01-01

    Department of Energy (DOE) Orders require each DOE site to develop onsite transportation safety documents (OTSDs). The Nevada Test Site approach divided all onsite transfers into two groups with each group covered by a standalone OTSD identified as Non-Nuclear and Nuclear. The Non-Nuclear transfers involve all radioactive hazardous material in less than Hazard Category (HC)-3 quantities and all chemically hazardous materials. The Nuclear transfers involve all radioactive material equal to or greater than HC-3 quantities and radioactive material mated with high explosives regardless of quantity. Both OTSDs comply with DOE O 460.1B requirements. The Nuclear OTSD also complies with DOE O 461.1A requirements and includes a DOE-STD-3009 approach to hazard analysis (HA) and accident analysis as needed. All Nuclear OTSD proposed transfers were determined to be non-equivalent and a methodology was developed to determine if 'equivalent safety' to a fully compliant Department of Transportation (DOT) transfer was achieved. For each HA scenario, three hypothetical transfers were evaluated: a DOT-compliant, uncontrolled, and controlled transfer. Equivalent safety is demonstrated when the risk level for each controlled transfer is equal to or less than the corresponding DOT-compliant transfer risk level. In this comparison the typical DOE-STD-3009 risk matrix was modified to reflect transportation requirements. Design basis conditions (DBCs) were developed for each non-equivalent transfer. Initial DBCs were based solely upon the amount of material present. Route-, transfer-, and site-specific conditions were evaluated and the initial DBCs revised as needed. Final DBCs were evaluated for each transfer's packaging and its contents

  18. The patients' perspective of international normalized ratio self-testing, remote communication of test results and confidence to move to self-management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogan, Anne; Coughlan, Michael; Prizeman, Geraldine; O'Connell, Niamh; O'Mahony, Nora; Quinn, Katherine; McKee, Gabrielle

    2017-12-01

    To elicit the perceptions of patients, who self-tested their international normalized ratio and communicated their results via a text or phone messaging system, to determine their satisfaction with the education and support that they received and to establish their confidence to move to self-management. Self-testing of international normalized ratio has been shown to be reliable and is fast becoming common practice. As innovations are introduced to point of care testing, more research is needed to elicit patients' perceptions of the self-testing process. This three site study used a cross-sectional prospective descriptive survey. Three hundred and thirty patients who were prescribed warfarin and using international normalized ratio self-testing were invited to take part in the study. The anonymous survey examined patient profile, patients' usage, issues, perceptions, confidence and satisfaction with using the self-testing system and their preparedness for self-management of warfarin dosage. The response rate was 57% (n = 178). Patients' confidence in self-testing was high (90%). Patients expressed a high level of satisfaction with the support received, but expressed the need for more information on support groups, side effects of warfarin, dietary information and how to dispose of needles. When asked if they felt confident to adjust their own warfarin levels 73% agreed. Chi-squared tests for independence revealed that none of the patient profile factors examined influenced this confidence. The patients cited the greatest advantages of the service were reduced burden, more autonomy, convenience and ease of use. The main disadvantages cited were cost and communication issues. Patients were satisfied with self-testing. The majority felt they were ready to move to self-management. The introduction of innovations to remote point of care testing, such as warfarin self-testing, needs to have support at least equal to that provided in a hospital setting. © 2017 John

  19. Opinion versus evidence for the need to move away from animal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Science is based on facts and their discourse. Willingly or unwillingly, facts are mixed with opinion, i.e., views or judgments formed, not necessarily based on fact or knowledge. This is often necessary, where we have controversial facts or no definitive evidence yet, because we need to take decisions or have to prioritize. Evidence-based approaches aim at identifying the facts and their quality objectively and transparently; they are now increasingly embraced in toxicology, especially by employing systematic reviews, meta-analyses, quality scoring, risk-of-bias tools, etc. These are core to Evidence-based Toxicology. Such approaches aim at minimizing opinion, the "eminence-based" part of science. Animal experiments are the basis of a lot of our textbook knowledge in the life sciences, have helped to develop desperately needed therapies, and have made this world a safer place. However, they represent only one of the many possible approaches to accomplish all these things. Like all approaches, they come with shortcomings, and their true contribution is often overrated. This article aims to summarize their limitations and challenges beside the ethical and economical concerns (i.e., costs and duration as well as costs following wrong decisions in product development): they include reproducibility, inadequate reporting, statistical under-powering, lack of inter-species predictivity, lack of reflection of human diversity and of real-life exposure. Each and every one of these increasingly discussed aspects of animal experiments can be amended, but this would require enormous additional resources. Together, they prompt a need to engineer a new paradigm to ensure the safety of patients and consumers, new products and therapies.

  20. Moving beyond command-and-control: reflexivity in the regulation of occupational safety and health and the environment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalders, M.V.C.; Wilthagen, T.

    1997-01-01

    Direct or "command-and-control" regulation has had limited success in dealing with occupational health and safety and with environmental regulation. This lack of success has led policymakers to experiment with self-regulation as an alternative means of achieving the goals of social regulation. The

  1. Environmental testing of an experimental digital safety channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korsah, K.; Tanaka, T.J.; Wilson, T.L. Jr.; Wood, R.T.

    1996-09-01

    This document presents the results of environmental stress tests performed on an experimental digital safety channel (EDSC) assembled at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of the NRC-sponsored Qualification of Advanced Instrumentation and Controls (W) System program. The objective of this study is to investigate failure modes and vulnerabilities of microprocessor-based technologies when subjected to environmental stressors. The study contributes to the technical basis for environmental qualification of safety-related digital I ampersand C systems. The EDSC employs technologies and digital subsystems representative of those proposed for use in advanced light-water reactors (ALWRs) or for retrofits in existing plants. Subsystems include computers, electrical and optical serial communication links, fiber-optic network links, analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converters, and multiplexers. The EDSC was subjected to selected stressors that are a potential risk to digital equipment in a mild environment. The selected stressors were electromagnetic and radio-frequency interference (EMYRFI), temperature, humidity, and smoke exposure. The stressors were applied over ranges that were considerably higher than what the channel is likely to experience in a normal nuclear power plant environment. Ranges of stress were selected at a sufficiently high level to induce errors so that failure modes that are characteristic of the technologies employed could be identified

  2. Safety demonstration test (SR-1/S1C-1) plan of HTTR (Contract research)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, Shigeaki; Sakaba, Nariaki; Takada, Eiji; Tachibana, Yukio; Saito, Kenji; Furusawa, Takayuki; Sawa, Kazuhiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment

    2003-03-01

    Safety demonstration tests in the HTTR (High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor) will be carried out in order to verify inherent safety features of the HTGR (High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor). The first phase of the safety demonstration tests includes the reactivity insertion test by the control rod withdrawal and the coolant flow reduction test by the circulator trip. In the second phase, accident simulation tests will be conducted. By comparison of their experimental and analytical results, the prediction capability of the safety evaluation codes such as the core and the plant dynamics codes will be improved and verified, which will contribute to establish the safety design and the safety evaluation technologies of the HTGRs. The results obtained through its safety demonstration tests will be also utilised for the establishment of the safety design guideline, the safety evaluation guideline, etc. This paper describes the test program of the overall safety demonstration tests and the test method, the test conditions and the results of the pre-test analysis of the reactivity insertion test and the partial gas circulator trip test planned in March 2003. (author)

  3. Safety test No. S-6, launch pad abort sequential test Phase II: solid propellant fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snow, E.C.

    1975-08-01

    In preparation for the Lincoln Laboratory's LES 8/9 space mission, a series of tests was performed to evaluate the nuclear safety capability of the Multi-Hundred Watt (MHW) Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) to be used to supply power for the satellite. One such safety test is Test No. S-6, Launch Pad Abort Sequential Test. The objective of this test was to subject the RTG and its components to the sequential environments characteristic of a catastrophic launch pad accident to evaluate their capability to contain the 238 PuO 2 fuel. This sequence of environments was to have consisted of the blast overpressure and fragments, followed by the fireball, low velocity impact on the launch pad, and solid propellant fire. The blast overpressure and fragments were subsequently eliminated from this sequence. The procedures and results of Phase II of Test S-6, Solid Propellant Fire are presented. In this phase of the test, a simulant Fuel Sphere Assembly (FSA) and a mockup of a damaged Heat Source Assembly (HSA) were subjected to single proximity solid propellant fires of approximately 10-min duration. Steel was introduced into both tests to simulate the effects of launch pad debris and the solid rocket motor (SRM) casing that might be present in the fire zone. (TFD)

  4. The Fast Flux Test Facility built on safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    No other high-tech industry has grown as fast as the nuclear industry. The information available to the general public has not kept pace with the rapid growth of nuclear data---its growth has outpaced its media image and the safety of nuclear facilities has become a highly debated issue. This book is an attempt to bridge the gap between the high-tech information of the nuclear industry and its understanding by the general public. It explains the three levels of defense at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) and why these levels provide an acceptable margin to protect the general public and on-site personnel, while achieving FFTF's mission to provide research and development for the US Department of Energy

  5. Very high temperature measurements: Applications to nuclear reactor safety tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parga, Clemente-Jose

    2013-01-01

    This PhD dissertation focuses on the improvement of very high temperature thermometry (1100 deg. C to 2480 deg. C), with special emphasis on the application to the field of nuclear reactor safety and severe accident research. Two main projects were undertaken to achieve this objective: - The development, testing and transposition of high-temperature fixed point (HTFP) metal-carbon eutectic cells, from metrology laboratory precision (±0.001 deg. C) to applied research with a reasonable degradation of uncertainties (±3-5 deg. C). - The corrosion study and metallurgical characterization of Type-C thermocouple (service temp. 2300 deg. C) prospective sheath material was undertaken to extend the survivability of TCs used for molten metallic/oxide corium thermometry (below 2000 deg. C)

  6. Safety analysis of the 700-horsepower combustion test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkey, B.D.

    1981-05-01

    The objective of the program reported herein was to provide a Safety Analysis of the 700 h.p. Combustion Test Facility located in Building 93 at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. Extensive safety related measures have been incorporated into the design, construction, and operation of the Combustion Test Facility. These include: nitrogen addition to the coal storage bin, slurry hopper, roller mill and pulverizer baghouse, use of low oxygen content combustion gas for coal conveying, an oxygen analyzer for the combustion gas, insulation on hot surfaces, proper classification of electrical equipment, process monitoring instrumentation and a planned remote television monitoring system. Analysis of the system considering these factors has resulted in the determination of overall probabilities of occurrence of hazards as shown in Table I. Implementation of the recommendations in this report will reduce these probabilities as indicated. The identified hazards include coal dust ignition by hot ductwork and equipment, loss of inerting within the coal conveying system leading to a coal dust fire, and ignition of hydrocarbon vapors or spilled oil, or slurry. The possibility of self-heating of coal was investigated. Implementation of the recommendations in this report will reduce the ignition probability to no more than 1 x 10/sup -6/ per event. In addition to fire and explosion hazards, there are potential exposures to materials which have been identified as hazardous to personal health, such as carbon monoxide, coal dust, hydrocarbon vapors, and oxygen deficient atmosphere, but past monitoring experience has not revealed any problem areas. The major environmental hazard is an oil spill. The facility has a comprehensive spill control plan.

  7. Strengthening air traffic safety management by moving from outcome-based towards risk-based evaluation of runway incursions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroeve, Sybert H.; Som, Pradip; Doorn, Bas A. van; Bakker, G.J.

    2016-01-01

    Current safety management of aerodrome operations uses judgements of severity categories to evaluate runway incursions. Incident data show a small minority of severe incursions and a large majority of less severe incursions. We show that these severity judgements are mainly based upon the outcomes of runway incursions, in particular on the closest distances attained. As such, the severity-based evaluation leads to coincidental safety management feedback, wherein causes and risk implications of runway incursions are not well considered. In this paper we present a new framework for the evaluation of runway incursions, which effectively uses all runway incursions, which judges same types of causes similarly, and which structures causes and risk implications. The framework is based on risks of scenarios associated with the initiation of runway incursions. As a basis an inventory of scenarios is provided, which can represent almost all runway incursions involving a conflict with an aircraft. A main step in the framework is the assessment of the conditional probability of a collision given a runway incursion scenario. This can be effectively achieved for large sets of scenarios by agent-based dynamic risk modelling. The results provide detailed feedback on risks of runway incursion scenarios, thus enabling effective safety management. - Highlights: • Current evaluation of runway incursions is primarily based on their outcomes. • A new framework assesses collision risk given initiation of runway incursions. • Agent-based dynamic risk modelling can evaluate the risks of many scenarios. • A developed scenario inventory can represent almost all runway incursions. • The framework provides detailed feedback to safety management.

  8. Moving forward in plant food safety and security through NanoBioSensors: Adopt or adapt biomedical technologies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Tarun K; Ramanathan, Rajesh; Rakwal, Randeep; Agrawal, Ganesh K; Bansal, Vipul

    2015-05-01

    Plant-based foods are integral part of our day-to-day diet. Increasing world population has put forth an ever increasing demand for plant-based foods, and food security remains a major concern. Similarly, biological, chemical, and physical threats to our food and increasing regulatory demands to control the presence of foreign species in food products have made food safety a growing issue. Nanotechnology has already established its roots in diverse disciplines. However, the food industry is yet to harness the full potential of the unique capabilities offered by this next-generation technology. While there might be safety concerns in regards to integration of nanoproducts with our food products, an aspect of nanotechnology that can make remarkable contribution to different elements of the food chain is the use of nanobiosensors and diagnostic platforms for monitoring food traceability, quality, safety, and nutritional value. This brings us to an important question that whether existing diagnostic platforms that have already been well developed for biomedical and clinical application are suitable for food industry or whether the demands of the food industry are altogether different that may not allow adoption/adaptation of the existing technology. This review is an effort to raise this important "uncomfortable" yet "timely" question. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. The adverse outcome pathway for skin sensitisation: Moving closer to replacing animal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Terry W; Dimitrova, Gergana; Dimitrov, Sabcho; Mekenyan, Ovanes G

    2016-10-01

    This article outlines the work of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) that led to being jointly awarded the 2015 Lush Black Box Prize. The award-winning work centred on the development of 'The Adverse Outcome Pathway for Skin Sensitisation Initiated by Covalent Binding to Proteins'. This Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) has provided the mechanistic basis for the integration of skin sensitisation-related information. Recent developments in integrated approaches to testing and assessment, based on the AOP, are summarised. The impact of the AOP on regulatory policy and on the Three Rs are discussed. An overview of the next generation of the skin sensitisation AOP module in the OECD QSAR Toolbox, based on more-recent work at the Laboratory of Mathematical Chemistry, is also presented. 2016 FRAME.

  10. 76 FR 34145 - Safety Zone, Barrier Testing Operations, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Romeoville, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-13

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone, Barrier Testing Operations, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Romeoville, IL AGENCY.... Construction on Barrier IIB has been completed. Operational and safety testing was conducted in February 2011... dispersal barrier IIA and IIB. This safety zone will be enforced daily from 7 a.m. to 11 a.m. and from 1 p.m...

  11. Finite test sets development method for test execution of safety critical software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Sung Min; Kim, Hee Eun; Kang, Hyun Gook; Lee, Sung Jiun

    2014-01-01

    The V and V method has been utilized for this safety critical software, while SRGM has difficulties because of lack of failure occurrence data on developing phase. For the safety critical software, however, failure data cannot be gathered after installation in real plant when we consider the severe consequence. Therefore, to complement the V and V method, the test-based method need to be developed. Some studies on test-based reliability quantification method for safety critical software have been conducted in nuclear field. These studies provide useful guidance on generating test sets. An important concept of the guidance is that the test sets represent 'trajectories' (a series of successive values for the input variables of a program that occur during the operation of the software over time) in the space of inputs to the software.. Actually, the inputs to the software depends on the state of plant at that time, and these inputs form a new internal state of the software by changing values of some variables. In other words, internal state of the software at specific timing depends on the history of past inputs. Here the internal state of the software which can be changed by past inputs is named as Context of Software (CoS). In a certain CoS, a software failure occurs when a fault is triggered by some inputs. To cover the failure occurrence mechanism of a software, preceding researches insist that the inputs should be a trajectory form. However, in this approach, there are two critical problems. One is the length of the trajectory input. Input trajectory should long enough to cover failure mechanism, but the enough length is not clear. What is worse, to cover some accident scenario, one set of input should represent dozen hours of successive values. The other problem is number of tests needed. To satisfy a target reliability with reasonable confidence level, very large number of test sets are required. Development of this number of test sets is a herculean

  12. Thermal-Hydraulic Tests for Reactor Core Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Se Young; Chung, Moon Ki; Baek, Won Pil and others

    2005-04-01

    The reflood experiments for single rod annulus geometry have been performed to investigate the effect of spacer grid on thermal-hydraulics under reflood conditions. The reflood experimental loop for 6x6 rod bundle with a spacer grid developed in Korea has been provided. About 8000 data points for Post-CHF heat transfer have been obtained from the experiments About 1400 CHF data points for 3x3 Water and 5x5 Freon rod bundles have been obtained. The existing evaluation methodology for core safety under return-to-power conditions has been investigated using KAERI low flow CHF database. The hydraulic tests for turbulence mixing characteristics in subchannel of 5x5 rod bundle have been carried out using advanced measurement technique, LVD and the database for various spacer grids have been provided. In order to measure the turbulence mixing characteristics in details, the hydraulic loop with a magnified 5x5 rod bundle has been prepared. The database which was constructed through a systematic thermal hydraulic tests for the reflood phenomenon, CHF, Post-CHF is surely to be useful to the industry field, the regulation body and the development of thermal-hydraulic analysis code

  13. Job Surfing: Move On to Move Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Justin

    1997-01-01

    Looks at the process of switching jobs and changing careers. Discusses when to consider options and make the move as well as the need to be flexible and open minded. Provides a test for determining the chances of promotion and when to move on. (JOW)

  14. Formal testing and utilization of streaming media to improve flight crew safety knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellazzini, Marc A; Rankin, Peter M; Quisling, Jason; Gangnon, Ronald; Kohrs, Mike

    2008-01-01

    Increased concerns over the safety of air medical transport have prompted development of novel ways to increase safety. The objective of our study was to determine if an Internet streaming media safety video increased crew safety knowledge. 23 out of 40 crew members took an online safety pre-test, watched a safety video specific to our program and completed immediate and long-term post-testing 6 months later. Mean pre-test, post-test and 6 month follow up test scores were 84.9%, 92.3% and 88.4% respectively. There was a statistically significant difference in all scores (p Streaming media proved to be an accessible and effective supplement to safety training in our study.

  15. Prediction of safety critical software operational reliability from test reliability using testing environment factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hoan Sung; Seong, Poong Hyun

    1999-01-01

    It has been a critical issue to predict the safety critical software reliability in nuclear engineering area. For many years, many researches have focused on the quantification of software reliability and there have been many models developed to quantify software reliability. Most software reliability models estimate the reliability with the failure data collected during the test assuming that the test environments well represent the operation profile. User's interest is however on the operational reliability rather than on the test reliability. The experiences show that the operational reliability is higher than the test reliability. With the assumption that the difference in reliability results from the change of environment, from testing to operation, testing environment factors comprising the aging factor and the coverage factor are developed in this paper and used to predict the ultimate operational reliability with the failure data in testing phase. It is by incorporating test environments applied beyond the operational profile into testing environment factors. The application results show that the proposed method can estimate the operational reliability accurately. (Author). 14 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  16. The approaches of safety design and safety evaluation at HTTR (High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iigaki, Kazuhiko; Saikusa, Akio; Sawahata, Hiroaki; Shinozaki, Masayuki; Tochio, Daisuke; Honma, Fumitaka; Tachibana, Yukio; Iyoku, Tatsuo; Kawasaki, Kozo; Baba, Osamu

    2006-06-01

    Gas Cooled Reactor has long history of nuclear development, and High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR) has been expected that it can be supply high temperature energy to chemical industry and to power generation from the points of view of the safety, the efficiency, the environment and the economy. The HTGR design is tried to installed passive safety equipment. The current licensing review guideline was made for a Low Water Reactor (LWR) on safety evaluation therefore if it would be directly utilized in the HTGR it needs the special consideration for the HTGR. This paper describes that investigation result of the safety design and the safety evaluation traditions for the HTGR, comparison the safety design and safety evaluation feature for the HTGT with it's the LWR, and reflection for next HTGR based on HTTR operational experiment. (author)

  17. Fast Flux Test Facility final safety analysis report. Amendment 72

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gantt, D. A.

    1992-08-01

    This document provides the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) Amendment 72 for incorporation into the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) FSAR set. This amendment change incorporates Engineering Change Notices issued subsequent to Amendment 71 and approved for incorporation before June 24, 1992. These include changes in: Chapter 2, Site Characteristics; Chapter 3, Design Criteria Structures, Equipment, and Systems; Chapter 5B, Reactor Coolant System; Chapter 7, Instrumentation and Control Systems; Chapter 8, Electrical Systems - The description of the Class 1E, 125 Vdc systems is updated for the higher capacity of the newly installed, replacement batteries; Chapter 9, Auxiliary Systems - The description of the inert cell NASA systems is corrected to list the correct number of spare sample points; Chapter 11, Reactor Refueling System; Chapter 12, Radiation Protection and Waste Management; Chapter 13, Conduct of Operations; Chapter 16, Quality Assurance; Chapter 17, Technical Specifications; Chapter 19, FFTF Fire Specifications for Fire Detection, Alarm, and Protection Systems; Chapter 20, FFTF Criticality Specifications; and Appendix B, Primary Piping Integrity Evaluation.

  18. Safety testing of GM-rice expressing PHA-E lectin using a new animal test design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Morten; Schrøder, Malene; Wilcks, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    The 90-day animal study is the core study for the safety assessment of genetically modified foods in the SAFOTEST project. The model compound tested in the 90-day study was a rice variety expressing the kidney bean Phaseolus vulgaris lectin agglutinin E-form (PHA-E lectin). Female Wistar rats were...... safety testing of genetically modified foods....

  19. Testing the metacognitive model against the benchmark CBT model of social anxiety disorder: Is it time to move beyond cognition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Nordahl

    Full Text Available The recommended treatment for Social Phobia is individual Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy (CBT. CBT-treatments emphasize social self-beliefs (schemas as the core underlying factor for maladaptive self-processing and social anxiety symptoms. However, the need for such beliefs in models of psychopathology has recently been questioned. Specifically, the metacognitive model of psychological disorders asserts that particular beliefs about thinking (metacognitive beliefs are involved in most disorders, including social anxiety, and are a more important factor underlying pathology. Comparing the relative importance of these disparate underlying belief systems has the potential to advance conceptualization and treatment for SAD. In the cognitive model, unhelpful self-regulatory processes (self-attention and safety behaviours arise from (e.g. correlate with cognitive beliefs (schemas whilst the metacognitive model proposes that such processes arise from metacognitive beliefs. In the present study we therefore set out to evaluate the absolute and relative fit of the cognitive and metacognitive models in a longitudinal data-set, using structural equation modelling. Five-hundred and five (505 participants completed a battery of self-report questionnaires at two time points approximately 8 weeks apart. We found that both models fitted the data, but that the metacognitive model was a better fit to the data than the cognitive model. Further, a specified metacognitive model, emphasising negative metacognitive beliefs about the uncontrollability and danger of thoughts and cognitive confidence improved the model fit further and was significantly better than the cognitive model. It would seem that advances in understanding and treating social anxiety could benefit from moving to a full metacognitive theory that includes negative metacognitive beliefs about the uncontrollability and danger of thoughts, and judgements of cognitive confidence. These findings challenge

  20. Testing the metacognitive model against the benchmark CBT model of social anxiety disorder: Is it time to move beyond cognition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordahl, Henrik; Wells, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    The recommended treatment for Social Phobia is individual Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy (CBT). CBT-treatments emphasize social self-beliefs (schemas) as the core underlying factor for maladaptive self-processing and social anxiety symptoms. However, the need for such beliefs in models of psychopathology has recently been questioned. Specifically, the metacognitive model of psychological disorders asserts that particular beliefs about thinking (metacognitive beliefs) are involved in most disorders, including social anxiety, and are a more important factor underlying pathology. Comparing the relative importance of these disparate underlying belief systems has the potential to advance conceptualization and treatment for SAD. In the cognitive model, unhelpful self-regulatory processes (self-attention and safety behaviours) arise from (e.g. correlate with) cognitive beliefs (schemas) whilst the metacognitive model proposes that such processes arise from metacognitive beliefs. In the present study we therefore set out to evaluate the absolute and relative fit of the cognitive and metacognitive models in a longitudinal data-set, using structural equation modelling. Five-hundred and five (505) participants completed a battery of self-report questionnaires at two time points approximately 8 weeks apart. We found that both models fitted the data, but that the metacognitive model was a better fit to the data than the cognitive model. Further, a specified metacognitive model, emphasising negative metacognitive beliefs about the uncontrollability and danger of thoughts and cognitive confidence improved the model fit further and was significantly better than the cognitive model. It would seem that advances in understanding and treating social anxiety could benefit from moving to a full metacognitive theory that includes negative metacognitive beliefs about the uncontrollability and danger of thoughts, and judgements of cognitive confidence. These findings challenge a core

  1. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Schaefer and N. Dupont

    2013-01-01

      “Safety is the highest priority”: this statement from CERN is endorsed by the CMS management. An interpretation of this statement may bring you to the conclusion that you should stop working in order to avoid risks. If the safety is the priority, work is not! This would be a misunderstanding and misinterpretation. One should understand that “working safely” or “operating safely” is the priority at CERN. CERN personnel are exposed to different hazards on many levels on a daily basis. However, risk analyses and assessments are done in order to limit the number and the gravity of accidents. For example, this process takes place each time you cross the road. The hazard is the moving vehicle, the stake is you and the risk might be the risk of collision between both. The same principle has to be applied during our daily work. In particular, keeping in mind the general principles of prevention defined in the late 1980s. These principles wer...

  2. DHS small-scale safety and thermal testing of improvised explosives-comparison of testing performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, J G; Hsu, P C; Sandstrom, M M; Brown, G W; Warner, K F; Phillips, J J; Shelley, T J; Reyes, J A

    2014-01-01

    One of the first steps in establishing safe handling procedures for explosives is small-scale safety and thermal (SSST) testing. To better understand the response of improvised materials or homemade explosives (HMEs) to SSST testing, 16 HME materials were compared to three standard military explosives in a proficiency-type round robin study among five laboratories-two DoD and three DOE-sponsored by DHS. The testing matrix has been designed to address problems encountered with improvised materials-powder mixtures, liquid suspensions, partially wetted solids, immiscible liquids, and reactive materials. More than 30 issues have been identified that indicate standard test methods may require modification when applied to HMEs to derive accurate sensitivity assessments needed for developing safe handling and storage practices. This paper presents a generalized comparison of the results among the testing participants, comparison of friction results from BAM (German Bundesanstalt für Materi-alprüfung) and ABL (Allegany Ballistics Laboratory) designed testing equipment, and an overview of the statistical results from the RDX (1,3,5-Trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine) standard tested throughout the proficiency test.

  3. 78 FR 54510 - New Entrant Safety Assurance Program Operational Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ... safety management controls; (2) consider their effects on small businesses; and (3) consider establishing alternate locations where such reviews may be conducted for the convenience of small businesses. In response... safety review within 18 months of starting interstate operations. [49 U.S.C. 31144(g)]. In issuing these...

  4. Evaluation of safety test needs for the gas cooled breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emon, D.E.; Buttemer, D.R.; Sevy, R.H.

    1976-01-01

    This paper deals with the process used in determining the safety test needs for the Gas Cooled Fast Breeder Reactor (GCFR), reports existing tentative conclusions, and indicates the direction that the process is taking at this time. The process is based upon two ideas: (1) that the safety information needs will be identified through risk analysis directly dependent on the various design features of the GCFR and (2) that the safety program will be determined by a safety review committee. The paper limits itself to presenting thoughts on the safety test needs directly associated with the GCFR core during severe beyond design basis accident situations involving the loss of coolable core geometry. Representative event sequence diagrams are reported for the three generic classes of accidents considered. The following categories of information are identified: safety information needs, safety tests required to fulfill these information needs, and the facilities required to perform the tests

  5. An efficient, maintenance free and approved method for spectroscopic control and monitoring of blend uniformity: The moving F-test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besseling, Rut; Damen, Michiel; Tran, Thanh; Nguyen, Thanh; van den Dries, Kaspar; Oostra, Wim; Gerich, Ad

    2015-10-10

    Dry powder mixing is a wide spread Unit Operation in the Pharmaceutical industry. With the advent of in-line Near Infrared (NIR) Spectroscopy and Quality by Design principles, application of Process Analytical Technology to monitor Blend Uniformity (BU) is taking a more prominent role. Yet routine use of NIR for monitoring, let alone control of blending processes is not common in the industry, despite the improved process understanding and (cost) efficiency that it may offer. Method maintenance, robustness and translation to regulatory requirements have been important barriers to implement the method. This paper presents a qualitative NIR-BU method offering a convenient and compliant approach to apply BU control for routine operation and process understanding, without extensive calibration and method maintenance requirements. The method employs a moving F-test to detect the steady state of measured spectral variances and the endpoint of mixing. The fundamentals and performance characteristics of the method are first presented, followed by a description of the link to regulatory BU criteria, the method sensitivity and practical considerations. Applications in upscaling, tech transfer and commercial production are described, along with evaluation of the method performance by comparison with results from quantitative calibration models. A full application, in which end-point detection via the F-test controls the blending process of a low dose product, was successfully filed in Europe and Australia, implemented in commercial production and routinely used for about five years and more than 100 batches. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Safety report content and development for test loop facility on MARIA reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konechko, A.; Shumskij, A.M.; Mikul'ahin, V.E.

    1982-01-01

    A 600 kW test loop facility for investigatin.o safety problems is realized on MARIA reactor in Poland together with USSR organizations. Safety reports have been developed in two steps at the designstage. The 1st report being essentially a preliminary safety analysis was developed within the scope of the feasibility study. At the engineering design stage the preliminary test loop facility safety report had been prepared considering measures excluding the possibility of the MARIA reactor damage. The test loop facility safety report is fulfilled for normal, transient and emergency operation regimes. Separate safety basing for each group of experiments will be prepared. The report presents the test loop facility safety criteria coordinated by the nuclear safety comission. They contains the preliminary reports on the test loop facility safety. At the final stage of construction and at thecommitioning stage the start-up safety report will be developed which after required correction and adding up the putting into operation data will turn into operation safety report [ru

  7. 30 CFR 7.103 - Safety system control test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Areas of Underground Coal Mines Where Permissible Electric Equipment is Required § 7.103 Safety system... operate immediately when activated and stop the engine within 15 seconds. (6) The total intake air inlet...

  8. Fast reactor test facilities in the US safety program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avery, R.; Dickerman, C.E.; Lennox, D.H.; Rose, D.

    1979-01-01

    The needs for safety information derivable from in-pile programs are reviewed, and the correlation made with existing and planned capability. In view of the current status of the U.S. breeder program, emphasis is given in the review to the impact of different fast breeder options on the required program and facilities. It is concluded that facility needs are somewhat independent of specific fast breeder concept, even though the relative emphasis on the various safety issues will differ. 8 refs

  9. Comparison of freely-moving telemetry Chinese Miniature Experiment Pigs (CMEPs) to beagle dogs in cardiovascular safety pharmacology studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Haitao; Zhao, Jing; Guo, Jiabin; Wu, Ruiqin; He, Li; Cui, Yaxiong; Feng, Min; Zhang, Tingfen; Hou, Mingyue; Guo, Qian; Zhang, Lijun; Jia, Li; Huang, Chang; Ye, Lin; Peng, Shuangqing

    2014-01-01

    Telemetry beagle dogs are the most frequently used species in cardiovascular telemetry assessments. However, beagle dogs may not be always suitable for all of the tests. Recently minipigs have received increased attention for these studies. Differences between the two species regarding the response of their cardiovascular systems to environmental stimuli are unclear. This study investigates how the telemetry minipig compares to beagle dog as a test subject and also refines the experimental protocols necessary to obtain accurate data. Beagle dogs and Chinese Miniature Experiment Pigs (CMEPs) were implanted with telemetry transmitters and the influences of gavage, feeding and the circadian cycle on various cardiovascular parameters were investigated. ECG signal quality from CMEPs was superior to that of the beagle dogs. Poor ECG signal quality, elevated HR, BP and locomotor activity associated with gavage and feeding were observed in both species. ECG signal quality, BP and locomotor activity recovered more quickly in the CMEPs than in the beagle dogs. Residual elevation of HR found in CMEPs lasted approximately 4h post-feeding, which has a profound influence on the circadian cycle. A diurnal rhythm in CMEP with a significant increase of body temperature during the dark period and a clear circadian rhythm of locomotor activity in both species were observed. The present data demonstrated that gavage, feeding and circadian cycle were having an enormous influence on BP, HR and locomotor activity in both species. If drug-induced effects are expected rapidly after oral administration and feeding, CMEP seems to be a favorable choice. Also, due to the effects of feeding on HR, CMEPs should fast at least 5h before the start of recording or should not be fed during the study where the Tmax of a given compound might occur very late. It also should be taken into consideration when the test article has a potential effect on body temperature by using CMEPs. In summary, the

  10. Generic test platform for representative tests of safety I/C systems - 15546

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourestie, B.; Kuck, H.; Richter, J.; Rieche, S.; Waitz, M.

    2015-01-01

    In compliance with the IEC 61513 safety Instrumentation and Control (I/C) systems must be successfully validated in their final configuration prior to installation on site and commissioning. However the contingent need for modifications during system validation activities or subsequently during the commissioning phase may entail long and costly re-engineering of the I/C systems. With the view to ease these possible modifications, a Generic Test Platform has been developed by AREVA which allows combining a real I/C system subpart with an emulation server. This platform provides a faithful representation of the I/C System allowing crediting the validation test results carried out on this platform. (authors)

  11. Impact of proof test interval and coverage on probability of failure of safety instrumented function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Jianghong; Pang, Lei; Hu, Bin; Wang, Xiaodong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Introduction of proof test coverage makes the calculation of the probability of failure for SIF more accurate. • The probability of failure undetected by proof test is independently defined as P TIF and calculated. • P TIF is quantified using reliability block diagram and simple formula of PFD avg . • Improving proof test coverage and adopting reasonable test period can reduce the probability of failure for SIF. - Abstract: Imperfection of proof test can result in the safety function failure of safety instrumented system (SIS) at any time in its life period. IEC61508 and other references ignored or only elementarily analyzed the imperfection of proof test. In order to further study the impact of the imperfection of proof test on the probability of failure for safety instrumented function (SIF), the necessity of proof test and influence of its imperfection on system performance was first analyzed theoretically. The probability of failure for safety instrumented function resulted from the imperfection of proof test was defined as probability of test independent failures (P TIF ), and P TIF was separately calculated by introducing proof test coverage and adopting reliability block diagram, with reference to the simplified calculation formula of average probability of failure on demand (PFD avg ). Research results show that: the shorter proof test period and the higher proof test coverage indicate the smaller probability of failure for safety instrumented function. The probability of failure for safety instrumented function which is calculated by introducing proof test coverage will be more accurate.

  12. 78 FR 25488 - Qualification Tests for Safety-Related Actuators in Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft regulatory guide; request for... regulatory guide (DG), DG-1235, ``Qualification Tests for Safety-Related Actuators in Nuclear Power Plants... entitled ``Qualification Tests for Safety-Related Actuators in Nuclear Power Plants'' is temporarily...

  13. Sled Tests Using the Hybrid III Rail Safety ATD and Workstation Tables for Passenger Trains

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The Hybrid III Rail Safety (H3-RS) anthropomorphic test device (ATD) is a crash test dummy developed in the United Kingdom to evaluate abdomen and lower thorax injuries that occur when passengers impact workstation tables during train accidents. The ...

  14. Application of Geostatistical Methods and Wavelets to the Analysis of Hyperspectral Imagery and the Testing of a Moving Variogram

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    This is a first report of the project. It incorporates the report on an analysis completed in the previous project on moving averages, variances and variograms for NIR from a SPOT image of part of Fort A. P. Hill...

  15. Environmental testing of a prototypic digital safety channel, Phase I: System design and test methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korsah, K.; Turner, G.W.; Mullens, J.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-04-01

    A microprocessor-based reactor trip channel has been assembled for environmental testing under an Instrumentation and Control (I&C) Qualification Program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The goal of this program is to establish the technical basis and acceptance criteria for the qualification of advanced I&C systems. The trip channel implemented for this study employs technologies and digital subsystems representative of those proposed for use in some advanced light-water reactors (ALWRs) such as the Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR). It is expected that these tests will reveal any potential system vulnerabilities for technologies representative of those proposed for use in ALWRs. The experimental channel will be purposely stressed considerably beyond what it is likely to experience in a normal nuclear power plant environment, so that the tests can uncover the worst-case failure modes (i.e., failures that are likely to prevent an entire trip system from performing its safety function when required to do so). Based on information obtained from this study, it may be possible to recommend tests that are likely to indicate the presence of such failure mechanisms. Such recommendations would be helpful in augmenting current qualification guidelines.

  16. Environmental testing of a prototypic digital safety channel, phase I: System design and test methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korsah, K.; Turner, G.W.; Mullens, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    A microprocessor-based reactor trip channel has been assembled for environmental testing under an Instrumentation and Control (I ampersand C) Qualification Program sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The goal of this program is to establish the technical basis for the qualification of advanced I ampersand C systems. The trip channel implemented for this study employs technologies and digital subsystems representative of those proposed for use in some advanced light-water reactors (ALNWS) such as the Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBNW) and AP600. It is expected that these tests will reveal any potential system vulnerabilities for technologies representative of those proposed for use in ALNWS. The experimental channel will be purposely stressed considerably beyond what it is likely to experience in a normal nuclear power plant environment, so that the tests can uncover the worst-case failure modes (i.e., failures that are likely to prevent an entire trip system from performing its safety function when required to do so). Based on information obtained from this study, it may be possible to recommend tests that are likely to indicate the presence of such failure mechanisms. Such recommendations would be helpful in augmenting current qualification guidelines

  17. Study of fast reactor safety test facilities. Preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, G.I.; Boudreau, J.E.; McLaughlin, T.; Palmer, R.G.; Starkovich, V.; Stein, W.E.; Stevenson, M.G.; Yarnell, Y.L.

    1975-05-01

    Included are sections dealing with the following topics: (1) perspective and philosophy of fast reactor safety analysis; (2) status of accident analysis and experimental needs; (3) experiment and facility definitions; (4) existing in-pile facilities; (5) new facility options; and (6) data acquisition methods

  18. Fast flux test facility final safety analysis report amendment 79

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dautel, W.A.

    1999-01-01

    This document is provided to replace, remove, or add applicable pages to the chapters on: Heat Transport System; Containment and Structures; Auxiliary Systems; Reactor Refueling System; Conduct of Operations; Safety Analysis; Quality Assurance; FFTF Criticality Specifications; and Appendix H's TRIGA Fuel Storage System

  19. Safety assessment for the 118-B-1 Burial Ground excavation treatability tests. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmer, J.J.; Frain, J.M.

    1994-12-01

    This revision of the Safety Assessment provides an auditable safety analysis of the hazards for the proposed treatability test activities per DOE-EM-STD-5502-94, DOE Limited Standard, Hazard Baseline Documentation (DOE 1994). The proposed activities are classified as radiological activities and as such, no longer require Operational Safety Limits (OSLs). The OSLS, Prudent Actions, and Institutional and Organization Controls have been removed from this revision and replaced with ''Administrative Actions Important to Safety,'' as determined by the hazards analysis. Those Administrative Actions Important to Safety are summarized in Section 1.1, ''Assessment Summary.''

  20. Occupational safety and health textbook for radiological personnel employed in structural material testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraham, J.

    1981-01-01

    The comprehensive textbook for X-ray and radiological testing personnel includes requirements and rules of occupational safety and health on the basis of Hungarian and international (mainly German) literature. In the chapter Fundamentals, X-ray and radioactive radiations, their measurements and biological effects, doses etc are described. In the chapter Occupational safety and health, the jobs representing radiation hazards are listed and safety regulations for them are reported. Finally, information for prevention and first aid is presented. Control questions are added to each part. The Appendix contains safety standards and regulations, information on legal aspects of safety and radiation protection as well as recommendations. (Sz.J.)

  1. Development of a test rig and its application for validation and reliability testing of safety-critical software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thai, N D; McDonald, A M [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes a versatile test rig developed by AECL for functional testing of safety-critical software used in the process trip computers of the Wolsong CANDU stations. The description covers the hardware and software aspects of the test rig, the test language and its interpreter, and other major testing software utilities such as the test oracle, sampler and profiler. The paper also discusses the application of the rig in the final stages of testing of the process trip computer software, namely validation and reliability tests. It shows how random test cases are generated, test scripts prepared and automatically run on the test rig. The versatility of the rig is further demonstrated in other types of testing such as sub-system tests, verification of the test oracle, testing of newly-developed test script, self-test and calibration. (author). 5 tabs., 10 figs.

  2. Development of a test rig and its application for validation and reliability testing of safety-critical software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thai, N.D.; McDonald, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a versatile test rig developed by AECL for functional testing of safety-critical software used in the process trip computers of the Wolsong CANDU stations. The description covers the hardware and software aspects of the test rig, the test language and its interpreter, and other major testing software utilities such as the test oracle, sampler and profiler. The paper also discusses the application of the rig in the final stages of testing of the process trip computer software, namely validation and reliability tests. It shows how random test cases are generated, test scripts prepared and automatically run on the test rig. The versatility of the rig is further demonstrated in other types of testing such as sub-system tests, verification of the test oracle, testing of newly-developed test script, self-test and calibration. (author). 5 tabs., 10 figs

  3. Advanced Test Reactor Safety Basis Upgrade Lessons Learned Relative to Design Basis Verification and Safety Basis Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G. L. Sharp; R. T. McCracken

    2004-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is a pressurized light-water reactor with a design thermal power of 250 MW. The principal function of the ATR is to provide a high neutron flux for testing reactor fuels and other materials. The reactor also provides other irradiation services such as radioisotope production. The ATR and its support facilities are located at the Test Reactor Area of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). An audit conducted by the Department of Energy's Office of Independent Oversight and Performance Assurance (DOE OA) raised concerns that design conditions at the ATR were not adequately analyzed in the safety analysis and that legacy design basis management practices had the potential to further impact safe operation of the facility.1 The concerns identified by the audit team, and issues raised during additional reviews performed by ATR safety analysts, were evaluated through the unreviewed safety question process resulting in shutdown of the ATR for more than three months while these concerns were resolved. Past management of the ATR safety basis, relative to facility design basis management and change control, led to concerns that discrepancies in the safety basis may have developed. Although not required by DOE orders or regulations, not performing design basis verification in conjunction with development of the 10 CFR 830 Subpart B upgraded safety basis allowed these potential weaknesses to be carried forward. Configuration management and a clear definition of the existing facility design basis have a direct relation to developing and maintaining a high quality safety basis which properly identifies and mitigates all hazards and postulated accident conditions. These relations and the impact of past safety basis management practices have been reviewed in order to identify lessons learned from the safety basis upgrade process and appropriate actions to resolve possible concerns with respect to the current ATR safety

  4. General-Purpose Heat Source development: Safety Verification Test Program. Bullet/fragment test series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, T.G.; Tate, R.E.; Axler, K.M.

    1985-05-01

    The radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) that will provide power for space missions contains 18 General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. Each module contains four /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/-fueled clads and generates 250 W/sub (t)/. Because a launch-pad or post-launch explosion is always possible, we need to determine the ability of GPHS fueled clads within a module to survive fragment impact. The bullet/fragment test series, part of the Safety Verification Test Plan, was designed to provide information on clad response to impact by a compact, high-energy, aluminum-alloy fragment and to establish a threshold value of fragment energy required to breach the iridium cladding. Test results show that a velocity of 555 m/s (1820 ft/s) with an 18-g bullet is at or near the threshold value of fragment velocity that will cause a clad breach. Results also show that an exothermic Ir/Al reaction occurs if aluminum and hot iridium are in contact, a contact that is possible and most damaging to the clad within a narrow velocity range. The observed reactions between the iridium and the aluminum were studied in the laboratory and are reported in the Appendix.

  5. General-Purpose Heat Source Safety Verification Test program: Edge-on flyer plate tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, T.G.

    1987-03-01

    The radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) that will supply power for the Galileo and Ulysses space missions contains 18 General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. The GPHS modules provide power by transmitting the heat of 238 Pu α-decay to an array of thermoelectric elements. Each module contains four 238 PuO 2 -fueled clads and generates 250 W(t). Because the possibility of a launch vehicle explosion always exists, and because such an explosion could generate a field of high-energy fragments, the fueled clads within each GPHS module must survive fragment impact. The edge-on flyer plate tests were included in the Safety Verification Test series to provide information on the module/clad response to the impact of high-energy plate fragments. The test results indicate that the edge-on impact of a 3.2-mm-thick, aluminum-alloy (2219-T87) plate traveling at 915 m/s causes the complete release of fuel from capsules contained within a bare GPHS module, and that the threshold velocity sufficient to cause the breach of a bare, simulant-fueled clad impacted by a 3.5-mm-thick, aluminum-alloy (5052-T0) plate is approximately 140 m/s

  6. Explosion overpressure test series: General-Purpose Heat Source development: Safety Verification Test program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cull, T.A.; George, T.G.; Pavone, D.

    1986-09-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) is a modular, radioisotope heat source that will be used in radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) to supply electric power for space missions. The first two uses will be the NASA Galileo and the ESA Ulysses missions. The RTG for these missions will contain 18 GPHS modules, each of which contains four 238 PuO 2 -fueled clads and generates 250 W/sub (t)/. A series of Safety Verification Tests (SVTs) was conducted to assess the ability of the GPHS modules to contain the plutonia in accident environments. Because a launch pad or postlaunch explosion of the Space Transportation System vehicle (space shuttle) is a conceivable accident, the SVT plan included a series of tests that simulated the overpressure exposure the RTG and GPHS modules could experience in such an event. Results of these tests, in which we used depleted UO 2 as a fuel simulant, suggest that exposure to overpressures as high as 15.2 MPa (2200 psi), without subsequent impact, does not result in a release of fuel

  7. Tensile and burst tests in support of the cadmium safety rod failure evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.K.

    1992-02-01

    The reactor safety rods may be subjected to high temperatures due to gamma heating after the core coolant level has dropped during the ECS phase of hypothetical LOCA event. Accordingly, an experimental safety rod testing subtask was established as part of a task to address the response of reactor core components to this accident. This report discusses confirmatory separate effects tests conducted to support the evaluation of failures observed in the safety rod thermal tests. As part of the failure evaluation, the potential for liquid metal embrittlement (LME) of the safety rod cladding by cadmium (Cd) -- aluminum (Al) solutions was examined. Based on the test conditions, literature data, and U-Bend tests, its was concluded that the SS304 safety rod cladding would not be subject to LME by liquid Cd-Al solutions under conditions relevant to the safety rod thermal tests or gamma heating accident. To confirm this conclusion, tensile tests on SS304 specimens were performed in both air and liquid Cd-Al solutions with the range of strain rates, temperatures, and loading conditions spanning the range relevant to the safety rod thermal tests and gamma heating accident

  8. Evaluation of neutronic characteristics of in-pile test reactor for fast reactor safety research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uto, N.; Ohno, S.; Kawata, N. [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1996-09-01

    An extensive research program has been carried out at the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation for the safety of future liquid-metal fast breeder reactors to be commercialized. A major part of this program is investigation and planning of advanced safety experiments conducted with a new in-pile safety test facility, which is larger and more advanced than any of the currently existing test reactors. Such a transient safety test reactor generally has unique neutronic characteristics that require various studies from the reactor physics point of view. In this paper, the outcome of the neutronics study is highlighted with presenting a reference core design concept and its performance in regard to the safety test objectives. (author)

  9. Fluid dispersal from safety cannulas: an in vitro comparative test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Victor D; Hughes, Gavin

    2015-03-01

    We report a comparative laboratory study between 2 peripheral intravenous catheters equipped with a passive fully automatic safety mechanism to assess generation of blood droplets during withdrawal. One presented no fluid droplets, whereas the other presented droplets in 48% and 60% for the best and worst case, with analysis of variance showing positive effects on the number of droplets generated (P blood splatter. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Area Safety Program for the tokamak fusion test reactor (TFTR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rappe, G.M.

    1984-10-01

    Overall the Area Safety Program has proved to be a very successful operation. There is no doubt that a safety program organized through line management is the best way to involve all personnel. Naturally, when the program was first started, there was some criticism and a certain resistance on the part of a few individuals to fully participate. However, once the program was underway and it could be seen that it was working to everyone's advantage, this reluctance disappeared and a spirit of full cooperation is now enjoyed. It is very important that for this success to continue there must be a two way flow of information, both from the Area Safety Coordinators up through line management, and from senior management, with decisions and answers, back down through the management chain with the utmost dispatch. As with all programs, there is still room for improvement. This program has started a review cycle with a view to streamlining certain areas and possibly increasing its scope in others

  11. Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    A brief account of activities carried out by the Nuclear power plants Jaslovske Bohunice in 1997 is presented. These activities are reported under the headings: (1) Nuclear safety; (2) Industrial and health safety; (3) Radiation safety; and Fire protection

  12. Making work safer: testing a model of social exchange and safety management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJoy, David M; Della, Lindsay J; Vandenberg, Robert J; Wilson, Mark G

    2010-04-01

    This study tests a conceptual model that focuses on social exchange in the context of safety management. The model hypothesizes that supportive safety policies and programs should impact both safety climate and organizational commitment. Further, perceived organizational support is predicted to partially mediate both of these relationships. Study outcomes included traditional outcomes for both organizational commitment (e.g., withdrawal behaviors) as well as safety climate (e.g., self-reported work accidents). Questionnaire responses were obtained from 1,723 employees of a large national retailer. Using structural equation modeling (SEM) techniques, all of the model's hypothesized relationships were statistically significant and in the expected directions. The results are discussed in terms of social exchange in organizations and research on safety climate. Maximizing safety is a social-technical enterprise. Expectations related to social exchange and reciprocity figure prominently in creating a positive climate for safety within the organization. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Standards for radiation protection instrumentation: design of safety standards and testing procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meissner, Frank

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes by means of examples the role of safety standards for radiation protection and the testing and qualification procedures. The development and qualification of radiation protection instrumentation is a significant part of the work of TUV NORD SysTec, an independent expert organisation in Germany. The German Nuclear Safety Standards Commission (KTA) establishes regulations in the field of nuclear safety. The examples presented may be of importance for governments and nuclear safety authorities, for nuclear operators and for manufacturers worldwide. They demonstrate the advantage of standards in the design of radiation protection instrumentation for new power plants, in the upgrade of existing instrumentation to nuclear safety standards or in the application of safety standards to newly developed equipment. Furthermore, they show how authorities may proceed when safety standards for radiation protection instrumentation are not yet established or require actualization. (author)

  14. Final safety and hazards analysis for the Battelle LOCA simulation tests in the NRU reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axford, D.J.; Martin, I.C.; McAuley, S.J.

    1981-04-01

    This is the final safety and hazards report for the proposed Battelle LOCA simulation tests in NRU. A brief description of equipment test design and operating procedure precedes a safety analysis and hazards review of the project. The hazards review addresses potential equipment failures as well as potential for a metal/water reaction and evaluates the consequences. The operation of the tests as proposed does not present an unacceptable risk to the NRU Reactor, CRNL personnel or members of the public. (author)

  15. Testing - Smart strategy for safety and mission quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney, George A.

    The paper is concerned with the need for a comprehensive test plan for the Space Station Freedom (SST) that would fully verify specification compliance and be based on an error budget. In particular, attention is given to some lessons learned from other NASA programs and the principal challenges for SSF testing, including phase C/D/E agreements, testing parameters, phase testing, and the human element. The importance of close teamwork between the NASA/Contractor systems engineers and assurance engineers is emphasized.

  16. Manufacturing and testing experience for FFTF major safety related components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peckinpaugh, C.L.

    1976-01-01

    Experience with FFTF Heat Transport System components during design, manufacturing, and prototype testing is dscussed. Specifically the special design features and the results of the testing performed to assure that the designs provide for safe operation are outlined. Particular emphasis is placed on the full size prototype testing programs and the valuable experience gained

  17. Safety Assessment for transient event occurred during the ASTS test of Hanbit Unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Changkeun; Kim, Yohan; Ha, Sangjun

    2014-01-01

    Safety Injection has been actuated during the ASTS (Automatic Seismic Trip System) test of Hanbit Unit 2 on Feb. 28, 2014. It could be bad effect on system integrity. KHNP has been performed safety assessment of system for effect of Safety Injection (SI) actuation occurred during the ASTS test of hanbit Unit 2. Stable state of nuclear power plant system has been confirmed according to Safety Injection and reactor trip event occurred during the ASTS test of hanbit Unit 2. In the result of system safety assessment, major variables of nuclear power plant are located in optimal range and not exceed safety limit. It remains nuclear fuel and the integrity of the power plant is in a safe condition were conformed. After ASTS action, thermal elimination has been processed throughout the turbine until turbine signal occurrence because ASTS is connected to M-G set in the present hanbit Unit 2. Therefore, Safety Injection signal has been actuated by rapid reduction of Steam Generator pressure. In this paper, it is concluded that consideration of equipment and setpoint is needed for that Safety Injection has been not occurred under the unnecessary situation. Stable state of nuclear power plant system has been confirmed for Safety Injection and reactor trip event occurred during the ASTS test of hanbit Unit 2. In the result of system safety assessment, major variables of nuclear power plant are located in optimal range and not exceed safety limit. It remains nuclear fuel and the integrity of the plant is in a safe condition were conformed. It is concluded that consideration of equipment and setpoint is needed for that Safety Injection has been not occurred under the unnecessary situation

  18. Finite test sets development method for test execution of safety critical software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Bordany Ayman; Yun, Won Young

    2014-01-01

    It reads inputs, computes new states, and updates output for each scan cycle. Korea Nuclear Instrumentation and Control System (KNICS) has recently developed a fully digitalized Reactor Protection System (RPS) based on PLD. As a digital system, this RPS is equipped with a dedicated software. The Reliability of this software is crucial to NPPs safety where its malfunction may cause irreversible consequences and affect the whole system as a Common Cause Failure (CCF). To guarantee the reliability of the whole system, the reliability of this software needs to be quantified. There are three representative methods for software reliability quantification, namely the Verification and Validation (V and V) quality-based method, the Software Reliability Growth Model (SRGM), and the test-based method. An important concept of the guidance is that the test sets represent 'trajectories' (a series of successive values for the input variables of a program that occur during the operation of the software over time) in the space of inputs to the software.. Actually, the inputs to the software depends on the state of plant at that time, and these inputs form a new internal state of the software by changing values of some variables. In other words, internal state of the software at specific timing depends on the history of past inputs. Here the internal state of the software which can be changed by past inputs is named as Context of Software (CoS). In a certain CoS, a software failure occurs when a fault is triggered by some inputs. To cover the failure occurrence mechanism of a software, preceding researches insist that the inputs should be a trajectory form. However, in this approach, there are two critical problems. One is the length of the trajectory input. Input trajectory should long enough to cover failure mechanism, but the enough length is not clear. What is worse, to cover some accident scenario, one set of input should represent dozen hours of successive values

  19. Safety assessment document for the dynamic test complex (Building 836)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odell, B.N.; Pfeifer, H.E.

    1981-01-01

    A safety assessment was performed to determine if potential accidents at the 836 Complex at Site 300 could present undue hazards to the general public, personnel at Site 300, or have an adverse effect on the environment. The credible accidents that might have an effect on these facilities or have off-site consequences were considered. These were earthquake, extreme wind (including missiles), lightning, flood, criticality, high explosive (H) detonation that disperses uranium and beryllium, spontaneous oxidation of plutonium, explosions due to finely divided particles, and a fire

  20. Safety assessment document for the dynamic test complex (Building 836)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odell, B.N.; Pfeifer, H.E.

    1981-11-24

    A safety assessment was performed to determine if potential accidents at the 836 Complex at Site 300 could present undue hazards to the general public, personnel at Site 300, or have an adverse effect on the environment. The credible accidents that might have an effect on these facilities or have off-site consequences were considered. These were earthquake, extreme wind (including missiles), lightning, flood, criticality, high explosive (H) detonation that disperses uranium and beryllium, spontaneous oxidation of plutonium, explosions due to finely divided particles, and a fire.

  1. Physics design of fast reactor safety test facilities for in-pile experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travelli, A.; Matos, J.E.; Snelgrove, J.L.; Shaftman, D.H.; Tzanos, C.P.; Lam, S.K.; Pennington, E.M.; Woodruff, W.L.

    1976-01-01

    A determined effort to identify and resolve current Fast Breeder Reactor safety testing needs has recently resulted in a number of conceptual designs for FBR safety test facilities which are very complex and diverse both in their features and in their purpose. The paper discusses the physics foundations common to most fast reactor safety test facilities and the constraints which they impose on the design. The logical evolution, features, and capabilities of several major conceptual designs are discussed on the basis of this common background

  2. Development of Safety Grade PLC (POSAFE-Q) and Performance Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang Hwoi; Park, Won Man; Choi, Jong Gyun; Lee, Dong Young [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); No, Young Hun; Song, Seung Hwan [POSCON, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    The safety grade PLC (POSAFE-Q) is being developed in the Korea Nuclear Instrumentation and Control System (KNICS) R and D project. The PLC satisfies Safety Class 1E, Quality Class 1, and Seismic Category I. The software such as the RTOS and firmware are being developed according to the safety critical software life cycle. Especially, the formal method is applied to design the SRS (Software Requirement Spec.) and the SDS (Software Design Specification.) to be error-free. The POSAFE-Q has several modules such as processor module, input and output modules, communication modules, redundant processor module, redundant power modules, etc,. To verify the function and performance, several tests such as CT, IT and ST were performed. And also, the equipment qualification test for environment, EMI and EMC, and seismic ware performed. All tests are satisfied with the requirements and specification for safety grade PLC, and the criteria for safety system in nuclear power plants.

  3. Development of Safety Grade PLC (POSAFE-Q) and Performance Test Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chang Hwoi; Park, Won Man; Choi, Jong Gyun; Lee, Dong Young; No, Young Hun; Song, Seung Hwan

    2006-01-01

    The safety grade PLC (POSAFE-Q) is being developed in the Korea Nuclear Instrumentation and Control System (KNICS) R and D project. The PLC satisfies Safety Class 1E, Quality Class 1, and Seismic Category I. The software such as the RTOS and firmware are being developed according to the safety critical software life cycle. Especially, the formal method is applied to design the SRS (Software Requirement Spec.) and the SDS (Software Design Specification.) to be error-free. The POSAFE-Q has several modules such as processor module, input and output modules, communication modules, redundant processor module, redundant power modules, etc,. To verify the function and performance, several tests such as CT, IT and ST were performed. And also, the equipment qualification test for environment, EMI and EMC, and seismic ware performed. All tests are satisfied with the requirements and specification for safety grade PLC, and the criteria for safety system in nuclear power plants

  4. Neurovirulence safety testing of mumps vaccines--historical perspective and current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, S A; Afzal, M A

    2011-04-05

    Many live, attenuated viral vaccines are derived from wild type viruses with known neurovirulent properties. To assure the absence of residual neurotoxicity, pre-clinical neurovirulence safety testing of candidate vaccines is performed. For mumps virus, a highly neurotropic virus, neurovirulence safety testing is performed in monkeys. However, laboratory studies suggest an inability of this test to correctly discern among virus strains of varying neurovirulence potential in man, and, further, some vaccines found to be neuroattenuated in monkeys were later found to be neurovirulent in humans when administered in large numbers. Over the past decade, concerted efforts have been made to replace monkey-based neurovirulence safety testing with more informative, alternative methods. This review summarizes the current status of mumps vaccine neurovirulence safety testing and insights into models currently approved and those under development. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Determination of the number of software tests using probabilistic safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, H. K.; Seong, T. Y.; Lee, K. Y.

    2000-01-01

    The broader usage of digital equipment in nuclear power plants gives rise to the safety problems of software. The field test should be performed before the software is used in critical applications because it is well known that software shows non-linear response when it is applied to different target systems in different environment. In the case of safety-critical applications, the result of tests contains usually zero failure case and the satisfiable number of tests is hard to be determined. In this paper, we suggests the method to determine the number of software tests without failure using the probabilistic safety assessment. From the result of the probabilistic safety assessment on total system, the desirable unavailability of software is calculated and the number of tests is determined

  6. Animal models for microbicide safety and efficacy testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veazey, Ronald S

    2013-07-01

    Early studies have cast doubt on the utility of animal models for predicting success or failure of HIV-prevention strategies, but results of multiple human phase 3 microbicide trials, and interrogations into the discrepancies between human and animal model trials, indicate that animal models were, and are, predictive of safety and efficacy of microbicide candidates. Recent studies have shown that topically applied vaginal gels, and oral prophylaxis using single or combination antiretrovirals are indeed effective in preventing sexual HIV transmission in humans, and all of these successes were predicted in animal models. Further, prior discrepancies between animal and human results are finally being deciphered as inadequacies in study design in the model, or quite often, noncompliance in human trials, the latter being increasingly recognized as a major problem in human microbicide trials. Successful microbicide studies in humans have validated results in animal models, and several ongoing studies are further investigating questions of tissue distribution, duration of efficacy, and continued safety with repeated application of these, and other promising microbicide candidates in both murine and nonhuman primate models. Now that we finally have positive correlations with prevention strategies and protection from HIV transmission, we can retrospectively validate animal models for their ability to predict these results, and more importantly, prospectively use these models to select and advance even safer, more effective, and importantly, more durable microbicide candidates into human trials.

  7. Verification of Overall Safety Factors In Deterministic Design Of Model Tested Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.

    2001-01-01

    The paper deals with concepts of safety implementation in design. An overall safety factor concept is evaluated on the basis of a reliability analysis of a model tested rubble mound breakwater with monolithic super structure. Also discussed are design load identification and failure mode limit...

  8. Safety enhancement of composites via periodic proof testing

    OpenAIRE

    Woodward, Joseph H.

    1993-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The development of new composite materials, which lack the historical field data base, has led to the need for an accelerated life testing method applicable to composites. Accelerated life testing by increasing the sustained stress levels requires the modeling and validation of a strength-life relation. Proof testing of composite fibers by over-loading is one step in the understanding of the relationship. It is also important in the r...

  9. Acceptance test report, plutonium finishing plant life safety upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodge, S.G.

    1994-01-01

    This acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) has been prepared to demonstrate that modifications to the Fir Protection systems function as required by project criteria. The ATP will test the Fire Alarm Control Panels, Flow Alarm Pressure Switch, Heat Detectors, Smoke Detectors, Flow Switches, Manual Pull Stations, and Gong/Door By Pass Switches

  10. Move up,Move out

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2007-01-01

    @@ China has already become the world's largest manufacturer of cement,copper and steel.Chinese producers have moved onto the world stage and dominated the global consumer market from textiles to electronics with amazing speed and efficiency.

  11. Evolution of strategies to improve preclinical cardiac safety testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gintant, Gary; Sager, Philip T; Stockbridge, Norman

    2016-07-01

    The early and efficient assessment of cardiac safety liabilities is essential to confidently advance novel drug candidates. This article discusses evolving mechanistically based preclinical strategies for detecting drug-induced electrophysiological and structural cardiotoxicity using in vitro human ion channel assays, human-based in silico reconstructions and human stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes. These strategies represent a paradigm shift from current approaches, which rely on simplistic in vitro assays that measure blockade of the Kv11.1 current (also known as the hERG current or IKr) and on the use of non-human cells or tissues. These new strategies have the potential to improve sensitivity and specificity in the early detection of genuine cardiotoxicity risks, thereby reducing the likelihood of mistakenly discarding viable drug candidates and speeding the progression of worthy drugs into clinical trials.

  12. Safety assessment document for the Dynamic Test Complex B854

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odell, B.N.; Pfeifer, H.E.

    1981-01-01

    A safety assessment was performed to determine if potential accidents at the 854 Complex at Site 300 could present undue hazards to the general public, personnel at Site 300, or have an adverse effect on the environment. The credible accidents that might have an effect on these facilities or have off-site consequences were considered. These were earthquake, extreme wind (including missiles), lightning, flood, criticality, high explosive (HE) detonation that disperses uranium and beryllium, spontaneous oxidation of plutonium, explosions due to finely divided particles, and a fire. Seismic and extreme wind (including missiles) analyses indicate that the buildings are basically sound. The lightning protection system is in the process of being upgraded to meet AMCR 385-100. These buildings are located high above the dry creek bed so that a flood is improbable. The probability of high explosive detonation involving plutonium is very remote since the radioactive materials are encased and plutonium and HE are not permitted concurrently in the same area at Site 300. (The exception to this policy is that explosive actuating devices are sometimes located in assemblies containing fissile materials. However, an accidental actuation will not affect the safe containment of the plutonium within the assembly.) There is a remote possibility of an HE explosion involving uranium and beryllium since these are permitted in the same area.The possibility of a criticality accident is very remote since the fissile materials are doubly encased in stout metal containers. All operations involving these materials are independently reviewed and inspected by the Criticality Safety Office. It was determined that a fire was unlikely due to the low fire loading and the absence of ignition sources. It was also determined that the consequences of any accidents were reduced by the remote location of these facilities, their design, and by administrative controls

  13. Integrated vehicle-based safety systems light-vehicle field operational test key findings report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    "This document presents key findings from the light-vehicle field operational test conducted as part of the Integrated Vehicle-Based Safety Systems program. These findings are the result of analyses performed by the University of Michigan Transportat...

  14. Integrated vehicle-based safety systems light-vehicle field operational test, methodology and results report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    "This document presents the methodology and results from the light-vehicle field operational test conducted as part of the Integrated Vehicle-Based Safety Systems program. These findings are the result of analyses performed by the University of Michi...

  15. Integrated vehicle-based safety systems (IVBSS) : light vehicle platform field operational test data analysis plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-22

    This document presents the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institutes plan to : perform analysis of data collected from the light vehicle platform field operational test of the : Integrated Vehicle-Based Safety Systems (IVBSS) progr...

  16. Integrated vehicle-based safety systems (IVBSS) : heavy truck platform field operational test data analysis plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-23

    This document presents the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institutes plan to perform : analysis of data collected from the heavy truck platform field operational test of the Integrated Vehicle- : Based Safety Systems (IVBSS) progra...

  17. Extended occupant safety through virtual testing: objectives of the European project VITES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoof, J.F.A.M. van; Happee, R.; Baldauf, H.; Puppini, R.; Oakley, C.

    2001-01-01

    Increasingly stringent international passenger safety norms and the need to reduce vehicle body weight for environmental and protection requirements demand efficient and innovative design methods. Computer simulation, or virtual testing, allows an integrated evaluation of these aspects in the early

  18. Safety of railroad passenger vehicle dynamics : OMNISIM simulation and test correlations for passenger rail cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-07-01

    The purpose of the work is to validate the safety assessment methodology previously developed for passenger rail vehicle dynamics, which requires the application of simulation tools as well as testing of vehicles under different track scenarios. This...

  19. Global optimization of maintenance and surveillance testing based on reliability and probabilistic safety assessment. Research project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martorell, S.; Serradell, V.; Munoz, A.; Sanchez, A.

    1997-01-01

    Background, objective, scope, detailed working plan and follow-up and final product of the project ''Global optimization of maintenance and surveillance testing based on reliability and probabilistic safety assessment'' are described

  20. Relevance of passive safety testing at the fast flux test facility to advanced liquid metal reactors - 5127

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wootan, D.W.; Omberg, R.P.

    2015-01-01

    Significant cost and safety improvements can be realized in advanced liquid metal reactor (LMR) designs by emphasizing inherent or passive safety through crediting the beneficial reactivity feedbacks associated with core and structural movement. This passive safety approach was adopted for the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), and an experimental program was conducted to characterize the structural reactivity feedback. Testing at the Rapsodie and EBR-II reactors had demonstrated the beneficial effect of reactivity feedback caused by changes in fuel temperature and core geometry mechanisms in a liquid metal fast reactor in a holistic sense. The FFTF passive safety testing program was developed to examine how specific design elements influenced dynamic reactivity feedback in response to a reactivity input and to demonstrate the scalability of reactivity feedback results from smaller cores like Rapsodie and EBR-II to reactor cores that were more prototypic in scale to reactors of current interest. The U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy Advanced Reactor Technology program is in the process of preserving, protecting, securing, and placing in electronic format information and data from the FFTF, including the core configurations and data collected during the passive safety tests. Evaluation of these actual test data could provide insight to improve analytical methods which may be used to support future licensing applications for LMRs. (authors)

  1. Safety Analysis of the US Dual Coolant Liquid Lead-Lithium ITER Test Blanket Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merrill, Brad; Reyes, Susana; Sawan, Mohamed; Wong, Clement

    2006-07-01

    The US is proposing a prototype of a dual coolant liquid lead-lithium (DCLL) DEMO blanket concept for testing in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) as an ITER Test Blanket Module (TBM). Because safety considerations are an integral part of the design process to ensure that this TBM does not adversely impact the safety of ITER, a safety assessment has been conducted for this TBM and its ancillary systems as requested by the ITER project. Four events were selected by the ITER International Team (IT) to address specific reactor safety concerns, such as VV pressurization, confinement building pressure build-up, TBM decay heat removal capability, tritium and activation products release from the TBM system, and hydrogen and heat production from chemical reactions. This paper summarizes the results of this safety assessment conducted with the MELCOR computer code.

  2. 77 FR 10666 - Pipeline Safety: Post Accident Drug and Alcohol Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ... 199 [Docket No. PHMSA-2011-0335] Pipeline Safety: Post Accident Drug and Alcohol Testing AGENCY... operators of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) facilities to conduct post- accident drug and alcohol tests of..., operators must drug and alcohol test each covered employee whose performance either contributed to the...

  3. Test of safety injection supply by diesel generator under reactor vessel closed condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hao; Bi Fengchuan; Che Junxia; Zhang Jianwen; Yang Bo

    2014-01-01

    The paper studied that the test of diesel generator full load take-up under the condition of actual safety injection and reactor vessel closed in Ningde nuclear project unit l. It is proved that test result accorded with design criteria, meanwhile, the test was removed from the key path of project schedule, which cut a huge cost. (authors)

  4. Examination of cadmium safety rod thermal test specimens and failure mechanism evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.K.; Peacock, H.B.; Iyer, N.C.

    1992-01-01

    The reactor safety rods may be subjected to high temperatures due to gamma heating after the core coolant level has dropped during the ECS phase of a hypothetical LOCA event. Accordingly, an experimental cadmium safety rod testing subtask was established as part of a task to address the response of reactor core components to this accident. Companion reports describe the experiments and a structural evaluation (finite element analysis) of the safety rod. This report deals primarily with the examination of the test specimens, evaluation of possible failure mechanisms, and confirmatory separate effects experiments. It is concluded that the failures observed in the cadmium safety rod thermal tests which occurred at low temperature (T 800 degrees C) with fast thermal ramp rates are concluded to be mechanical in nature without significant environmental degradation. Based on these tests, tasks were initiated to design and manufacture B 4 C safety rods to replace the cadmium safety rods. The B 4 C safety rods have been manufactured at this time and it is currently planned to charge them to the reactor in the near future. 60 refs

  5. Safety panel and new procedures evaluation by simulator tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meslin, T.

    1986-01-01

    With more than thirty weeks of simulator testing (for the last three years only) and approximately three hundred scenarios, EDF's experience in this field is extensive. This practice is well known within Fossil and Nuclear Generation and is well accepted by the operating teams which participate in it. Simulator testing appears to be an essential decision-making tool in the process of developing new operating aids in PWR plants. Accelerated development and the elimination of long and expensive modifications after commissioning is an economic advantage. The saving in time is obvious, since modifications are carried out continuously throughout the development phase. Finally, operators participate in the development of systems and receive fixed, well-defined applications. This practice has become systematic, and all new applications concerning the operation of PWR plants are simulator-tested, particularly 1300-MW unit computers and operating procedures, the new generation of 900-MW unit computers, and the new 1500-MW fully computerized control rooms. Finally, this simulator testing allows us to considerably increase our knowledge concerning the behavior of operators in accident situations, and special tests are performed for this purpose

  6. Environmental tests of a digital safety channel: An investigation of stress-related vulnerabilities of computer-based safety system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korsah, K.; Wilson, T.L.; Wood, R.; Tanaka, T.

    1997-01-01

    This article presents the results of environmental stress tests performed on an experimental digital safety channel (EDSC) assembled at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory as part of the Qualification of Advanced Instrumentation and Controls Systems Research program, which was sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The program is expected to provide recommendations for environmental qualification of digital safety systems. The purpose of the study was to investigate potential vulnerabilities of distributed computer systems used in safety applications when subjected to environmental stressors. The EDSC assembled for the tests employs technologies and digital subsystems representative of those proposed for use in advanced light-water reactors or as retrofits in existing plants. Subsystems include computers, electrical and optical serial communication links, fiber-optic network links, analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converters, and multiplexers. The EDSC was subjected to selected stressors that are a potential risk to digital equipment in a mild environment. The selected stressors were electromagnetic and radiofrequency interferences (EMI-RFI), temperature, humidity, and smoke exposure. The stressors were applied at levels of intensity considerably higher than the safety channel is likely to experience in a normal nuclear power plant environment. Ranges of stress were selected at a sufficiently high level to induce errors so that failure modes that are characteristic of the technologies employed could be identified. On the basis of the incidence of functional errors observed during testing, EMI-RFI, smoke exposure, and high temperature coupled with high relative humidity, in that order, were found to have the greatest impact of the stressors investigated. The most prevalent stressor-induced upsets, as well as the most severe, were found to occur during the EMI-RFI tests

  7. Two important safety-related verification tests in the design of Qinshan NPP 600 MWe reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Pengzhou; Li Tianyong; Yu Danping; Sun Lei

    2005-01-01

    This paper summarizes two most important verification tests performed in the design of reactor of Qinshan NPP Phase II: seismic qualification test of control rod drive line (CRDL), flow-induced vibration test of reactor internals both in 1:5 scaled model and on-site measurement during heat function testing (HFT). Both qualification tests proved that the structural design of the reactor has large safety margin. (authors)

  8. Safety analysis calculations for research and test reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.Y.; MacDonald, R.; MacFarlane, D.

    1983-01-01

    Safety issues for the two general types of reactors, i.e., the plate-type (MTR-type) reactor and the rod-type (TRIGA-type) reactor, resulting from the changes associated with LEU vs HEU fuels, are explored. The plate-type fuels are typically uranium aluminide (UAl/sub x/) compounds dispersed in aluminum and clad with aluminum. Moderation is provided by the water coolant. Self shut-down reactivity coefficients with HEU fuel are entirely a result of coolant heating, whereas with LEU fuel there is an additional shut down contribution provided by the direct heating of the fuel due to the Doppler coefficient. In contrast, the rod-type (TRIGA) fuels are mixtures of zirconium hydride, uranium, and erbium. This fuel mixture is formed into rods (approx. 1 cm diameter) and clad with stainless steel or Incoloy. In the TRIGA fuel the self-shutdown reactivity is more complex, depending on heating of the fuel rather than the coolant. Results of transient calculations performed with existing computer codes, most suited for each type of reactor, are presented

  9. A Study on Performance and Safety Tests of Electrosurgical Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli Golpaygani, A; Movahedi, M M; Reza, M

    2016-09-01

    Modern medicine employs a wide variety of instruments with different physiological effects and measurements. Periodic verifications are routinely used in legal metrology for industrial measuring instruments. The correct operation of electrosurgical generators is essential to ensure patient's safety and management of the risks associated with the use of high and low frequency electrical currents on human body. The metrological reliability of 20 electrosurgical equipment in six hospitals (3 private and 3 public) was evaluated in one of the provinces of Iran according to international and national standards. The achieved results show that HF leakage current of ground-referenced generators are more than isolated generators and the power analysis of only eight units delivered acceptable output values and the precision in the output power measurements was low. Results indicate a need for new and severe regulations on periodic performance verifications and medical equipment quality control program especially in high risk instruments. It is also necessary to provide training courses for operating staff in the field of meterology in medicine to be acquianted with critical parameters to get accuracy results with operation room equipment.

  10. A Study on Performance and Safety Tests of Electrosurgical Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavakoli Golpaygani A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Modern medicine employs a wide variety of instruments with different physiological effects and measurements. Periodic verifications are routinely used in legal metrology for industrial measuring instruments. The correct operation of electrosurgical generators is essential to ensure patient’s safety and management of the risks associated with the use of high and low frequency electrical currents on human body. Material and Methods: The metrological reliability of 20 electrosurgical equipment in six hospitals (3 private and 3 public was evaluated in one of the provinces of Iran according to international and national standards. Results: The achieved results show that HF leakage current of ground-referenced generators are more than isolated generators and the power analysis of only eight units delivered acceptable output values and the precision in the output power measurements was low. Conclusion: Results indicate a need for new and severe regulations on periodic performance verifications and medical equipment quality control program especially in high risk instruments. It is also necessary to provide training courses for operating staff in the field of meterology in medicine to be acquianted with critical parameters to get accuracy results with operation room equipment.

  11. Taking a Concept to Commercialization: Designing Relevant Tests to Address Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Lisa A

    2016-04-01

    Taking a product from concept to commercialization requires careful navigation of the regulatory pathway through a series of steps: (A) moving the idea through proof of concept and beyond; (B) evaluating new technologies that may provide added value to the idea; (C) designing appropriate test strategies and protocols; and (D) evaluating and mitigating risks. Moving an idea from the napkin stage of development to the final product requires a team effort. When finished, the product rarely resembles the original design, but careful steps throughout the product life cycle ensure that the product meets the vision.

  12. Environmental safety evaluation in test sea disposal of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The study results on the environmental safety in the test sea disposal of low-level wastes by Subcommittee on Radioactive Waste Safety Technology in Nuclear Safety Commission are given in connection with the test disposal of radioactive wastes into sea reported by the Nuclear Safety Bureau. The Subcommittee concludes that the effect of the test disposal of radioactive wastes into sea on the environment is extremely small. The contents are as follows. The full text of the report; attached data, (1) prediction of the concentrations of radioactive nuclides in sea, (2) calculation of the concentrations of radioactive nuclides in marine life with biological paths, and (3) estimation of exposure dose in general people; references (1) radiation exposure of the personnel engaged in sea disposal, (2) the effect of a sea disaster during ocean transport. (J.P.N.)

  13. A Study on Performance and Safety Tests of Defibrillator Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavakoli Golpaygani A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nowadays, more than 10,000 different types of medical devices can be found in hospitals. This way, medical electrical equipment is being employed in a wide variety of fields in medical sciences with different physiological effects and measurements. Hospitals and medical centers must ensure that their critical medical devices are safe, accurate, reliable and operational at the required level of performance. Defibrillators are critical resuscitation devices. The use of reliable defibirillators has led to more effective treatments and improved patient safety through better control and management of complications during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR. Materials and Methods: The metrological reliability of twenty frequent use, manual defibrillators in use ten hospitals (4 private and 6 public in one of the provinces of Iran according to international and national standards was evaluated. Results: Quantitative analysis of control and instrument accuracy showed the amount of the obtained results in many units are critical which had less value over the standard limitations especially in devices with poor battery. For the accuracy of delivered energy analysis, only twelve units delivered acceptable output values and the precision in the output energy measurements especialy in weak battry condition, after activation of discharge alarm, were low. Conclusion: Obtained results indicate a need for new and severe regulations on periodic performance verifications and medical equipment quality control program especially for high risk instruments. It is also necessary to provide training courses on the fundumentals of operation and performane parameters for medical staff in the field of meterology in medicine and how one can get good accuracy results especially in high risk medical devices.

  14. A Study on Performance and Safety Tests of Defibrillator Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli Golpaygani, A; Movahedi, M M; Reza, M

    2017-12-01

    Nowadays, more than 10,000 different types of medical devices can be found in hospitals. This way, medical electrical equipment is being employed in a wide variety of fields in medical sciences with different physiological effects and measurements. Hospitals and medical centers must ensure that their critical medical devices are safe, accurate, reliable and operational at the required level of performance. Defibrillators are critical resuscitation devices. The use of reliable defibirillators has led to more effective treatments and improved patient safety through better control and management of complications during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR). The metrological reliability of twenty frequent use, manual defibrillators in use ten hospitals (4 private and 6 public) in one of the provinces of Iran according to international and national standards was evaluated. Quantitative analysis of control and instrument accuracy showed the amount of the obtained results in many units are critical which had less value over the standard limitations especially in devices with poor battery. For the accuracy of delivered energy analysis, only twelve units delivered acceptable output values and the precision in the output energy measurements especialy in weak battry condition, after activation of discharge alarm, were low. Obtained results indicate a need for new and severe regulations on periodic performance verifications and medical equipment quality control program especially for high risk instruments. It is also necessary to provide training courses on the fundumentals of operation and performane parameters for medical staff in the field of meterology in medicine and how one can get good accuracy results especially in high risk medical devices.

  15. Some Findings from Thermal-Hydraulic Validation Tests for SMART Passive Safety System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyun Sik; Bae, Hwang; Ryu, Sung-Uk; Ryu, Hyobong; Shin, Yong-Cheol; Min, Kyoung-Ho; Yi, Sung-Jae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    To satisfy the domestic and international needs for nuclear safety improvement after the Fukushima accident, an effort to improve its safety has been studied, and a Passive Safety System (PSS) for SMART has been designed. In addition, an Integral Test Loop for the SMART design (SMART-ITL, or FESTA) has been constructed and it finished its commissioning tests in 2012. Consequently, a set of Design Base Accident (DBA) scenarios have been simulated using SMARTITL. Recently, a test program to validate the performance of the SMART PSS was launched and its scaled-down test facility was additionally installed at the existing SMART-ITL facility. In this paper, some findings from the validation tests for the SMART PSS will be summarized. The acquired data will be used to validate the safety analysis code and its related models, to evaluate the performance of SMART PSS, and to provide base data during the application phase of SDA revision and construction licensing. A test program to validate the performance of SMARS PSS was launched with an additional scaleddown test facility of SMART PSS, which will be installed at the existing SMART-ITL facility. In this paper, some findings from the validation tests of the SMART passive safety system during 2013-2014 were summarized. They include a couple of SMART PSS tests using active pumps and several 1-train SMART PSS tests. From the test results it was estimated that the SMART PSS has sufficient cooling capability to deal with the SBLOCA scenario of SMART. During the SBLOCA scenario, in the CMT the water layer inventory was well stratified thermally and the safety injection water was injected efficiently into the RPV from the initial period and cools down the RCS properly.

  16. Developing and Testing the Health Care Safety Hotline: A Prototype Consumer Reporting System for Patient Safety Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Eric C; Ridgely, M Susan; Quigley, Denise D; Hunter, Lauren E; Leuschner, Kristin J; Weingart, Saul N; Weissman, Joel S; Zimmer, Karen P; Giannini, Robert C

    2017-06-01

    This article describes the design, development, and testing of the Health Care Safety Hotline, a prototype consumer reporting system for patient safety events. The prototype was designed and developed with ongoing review by a technical expert panel and feedback obtained during a public comment period. Two health care delivery organizations in one metropolitan area collaborated with the researchers to demonstrate and evaluate the system. The prototype was deployed and elicited information from patients, family members, and caregivers through a website or an 800 phone number. The reports were considered useful and had little overlap with information received by the health care organizations through their usual risk management, customer service, and patient safety monitoring systems. However, the frequency of reporting was lower than anticipated, suggesting that further refinements, including efforts to raise awareness by actively soliciting reports from subjects, might be necessary to substantially increase the volume of useful reports. It is possible that a single technology platform could be built to meet a variety of different patient safety objectives, but it may not be possible to achieve several objectives simultaneously through a single consumer reporting system while also establishing trust with patients, caregivers, and providers.

  17. Proof-testing strategies induced by dangerous detected failures of safety-instrumented systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yiliu; Rausand, Marvin

    2016-01-01

    Some dangerous failures of safety-instrumented systems (SISs) are detected almost immediately by diagnostic self-testing as dangerous detected (DD) failures, whereas other dangerous failures can only be detected by proof-testing, and are therefore called dangerous undetected (DU) failures. Some items may have a DU- and a DD-failure at the same time. After the repair of a DD-failure is completed, the maintenance team has two options: to perform an insert proof test for DU-failure or not. If an insert proof test is performed, it is necessary to decide whether the next scheduled proof test should be postponed or performed at the scheduled time. This paper analyzes the effects of different testing strategies on the safety performance of a single channel of a SIS. The safety performance is analyzed by Petri nets and by approximation formulas and the results obtained by the two approaches are compared. It is shown that insert testing improves the safety performance of the channel, but the feasibility and cost of the strategy may be a hindrance to recommend insert testing. - Highlights: • Identify the tests induced by detected failures. • Model the testing strategies following DD-failures. • Propose analytical formulas for effects of strategies. • Simulate and verify the proposed models.

  18. Spent LWR fuel leach tests: Waste Isolation Safety Assessment program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, Y.B.

    1979-04-01

    Spent light-water-reactor (LWR) fuels with burnups of 54.5, 28 and 9 MWd/kgU were leach-tested in deionized water at 25 0 C. Fuel burnup has no apparent effect on the calculated leach rates based upon the behavior of 137 Cs and 239+240 Pu. A leach test of 54.5 MWd/kgU spent fuel in synthetic sea brine showed that the cesium-based leach rate is lower in sea brine than in deionized water. A rise in the leach rate was observed after approximately 600 d of cumulative leaching. During the rise, the leach rate for all the measured radionuclides become nearly equal. Evidence suggests that exposure of new surfaces to the leachant may cause the increase. As a result, experimental work to study leaching mechanisms of spent fuel has been initiated. 22 figures

  19. Safety measures for integrity test apparatus for IS process. Sulfuric acid decomposition section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguchi, Hiroki; Kubo, Shinji; Iwatsuki, Jin; Onuki, Kaoru

    2013-07-01

    Hazardous substances such as sulfuric acid, sulfur dioxide and hydrogen iodide acid are employed in thermochemical Iodine-Sulfur (IS) process. It is necessary to take safety measure against workers and external environments to study experimentally on IS process. Presently we have been conducting to verify the soundness of main components made of engineering material in actual corrosive condition. An integrity test apparatus for the components of sulfuric acid decomposition was set up. We will use the hazardous substances such as sulfuric acid and sulfur dioxide and perform the experiment in pressurized condition in this integrity test. Safety measures for the test apparatus, operation and abnormal situation were considered prior to starting the test. This report summarized the consideration results for the safety measures on the integrity test apparatus for the components of sulfuric acid decomposition. (author)

  20. Unreliable alcohol testing in a shipping safety programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helander, Anders; Hagelberg, Charlotte Asker; Beck, Olof; Petrini, Björn

    2009-08-10

    Within a maritime alcohol and drug testing programme, a case showing an unphysiological urine ethanol concentration (235 mmol/L, 10.8 g/L) was found. The sample contained low levels of the ethanol metabolites ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulphate (EtS) which confirmed prior drinking, but also tested positive for the fermenting yeast Candida albicans which suggested post-sampling ethanol formation. This and other questionable cases prompted investigation of the suitability of urine alcohol testing for the intended application. Besides the routine measurements of ethanol, illicit drugs and creatinine, randomly selected ethanol-positive and ethanol-negative urines collected within the maritime programme were checked for the presence of EtG and EtS and for fungal and bacterial growth. Data on sample handling and storage was also gathered. Ten of 15 (67%) ethanol-positive and 4 of 9 (44%) ethanol-negative urines contained yeast and/or bacteria. Among the ethanol-positive cases, 4 (27%) were obviously false positives because EtG and EtS were not detected. Microbial action as the reason for false-high ethanol concentrations was indicated in other cases. When 17 bacteria-infected but fungi-negative urines were supplemented with glucose and stored for 1 week at 21 degrees C, ethanol was formed in 2 specimens containing Escherichia coli and E. coli plus P. aeruginosa. In these samples, EtG was also formed on storage while EtS was not. The routines employed for urine collection and handling within this substance abuse programme caused many false-positive identifications of alcohol use with unintended medico-legal consequences. Unpreserved urines stored without cooling should not be used for alcohol testing, given the high risk for microbial interference.

  1. Project Miracle Play, Humid Water Test, Onsite Radiological Safety, Industrial Hygiene, Safety and Medical Services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberry, C.E.; Salazar, A. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The Tatum Dome Test Site, located approximately 34 kilometers southwest of Hattiesburg, Mississippi, was the site for the second Humid Water Test in a series of detonable gas explosions of Operation Miracle Play that took place in the cavity created by the Salmon Test, a 5 KT nuclear detonation. In addition, another nuclear detonation, the Sterling Test (0.38 KT), and the Diode Tube Test (Operation Miracle Play), a gas explosion with an assumed yield of 100 tons, were detonated in the same cavity. The Humid Water Test was inadvertently detonated on April 19, 1970. The scheduled readiness date was April 21, 1970. The burial depth was approximately 2,700 feet in the center of the 55-foot radius cavity. The design yield was equivalent to 315 tons of TNT. The explosive mixture consisted of natural gas (99 percent methane) and oxygen, with a mixture of 1.6 to 1 oxygen and methane, respectively. (Some nitrogen was also pumped into the cavity during the purging of the filling lines.) The purpose of the event was to investigate the simulation of blast effect of underground nuclear explosions involving detonable gas mixtures, and to measure the reduction in seismic motion due to decoupling of explosions in an overdriven cavity. Radiation monitoring activities are described

  2. Performance Test Results of Safety I and C Systems of SMART MMIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Yong Suk; Keum, Jong Yong; Jeong, Kwang Il; Lee, Joon Ku; Lee, Sang Seok; Kim, Kwan Woong

    2011-01-01

    KAERI has developed SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor), a 330MWt integral pressurized light water reactor that integrates four reactor coolant pumps, one pressurizer, eight steam generators, and one reactor core into a reactor vessel, since 1997 and submitted a SSAR (Standard design Safety Analysis Report) to Korea institute of nuclear safety (KINS) at the end of 2010 for the purpose of achieving the standard design approval (SDA) by the end of 2011. SMART MMIS has been designed with fully digitalized systems. Non-safety instrumentation and control (I and C) systems are designed based on the commercial distributed control systems. The safety I and C systems are designed using a new platform that was developed and validated by KAERI. Safety I and C systems are modularized using the platform. In the protection systems (PSs), datalinks are used to transmit data in a one-way direction in order to meet the independency requirement. In the engineered safety features-component control system (ESF-CCS), network switch devices (NSDs) are used to connect the group and loop controllers. The NSD was also newly developed and validated by KAERI. After validating the platform and NSD, a test facility was developed using the platform and NSDs to validate the performance of safety I and C systems. This paper presents the development and test results from the test facility

  3. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    Niels Dupont

    2013-01-01

    CERN Safety rules and Radiation Protection at CMS The CERN Safety rules are defined by the Occupational Health & Safety and Environmental Protection Unit (HSE Unit), CERN’s institutional authority and central Safety organ attached to the Director General. In particular the Radiation Protection group (DGS-RP1) ensures that personnel on the CERN sites and the public are protected from potentially harmful effects of ionising radiation linked to CERN activities. The RP Group fulfils its mandate in collaboration with the CERN departments owning or operating sources of ionising radiation and having the responsibility for Radiation Safety of these sources. The specific responsibilities concerning "Radiation Safety" and "Radiation Protection" are delegated as follows: Radiation Safety is the responsibility of every CERN Department owning radiation sources or using radiation sources put at its disposition. These Departments are in charge of implementing the requi...

  4. Operational safety assessment of underground test facilities for mined geologic waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elder, H.K.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the operational safety assessment for the underground facilities for the exploratory studies facility (ESF) at the Yucca Mountain Project. The systematic identification and evaluation of hazards related to the ESF is an integral part of the systems engineering process; whereby safety is considered during planning, design, testing, and construction. A largely qualitative approach based on the analysis of potential accidents was used since radiological safety analysis was not required. The risk assessment summarized credible accident scenarios and the design provides mitigation of the risks to a level that the facility can be constructed and operated with an adequate level of safety. The risk assessment also provides reasonable assurance that all identifiable major accident scenarios have been reviewed and design mitigation features provided to ensure an adequate level of safety

  5. Preliminary safety evaluation (PSE) for Sodium Storage Facility at the Fast Flux Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, B.R.

    1994-01-01

    This evaluation was performed for the Sodium Storage Facility (SSF) which will be constructed at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) in the area adjacent to the South and West Dump Heat Exchanger (DHX) pits. The purpose of the facility is to allow unloading the sodium from the FFTF plant tanks and piping. The significant conclusion of this Preliminary Safety Evaluation (PSE) is that the only Safety Class 2 components are the four sodium storage tanks and their foundations. The building, because of its imminent risk to the tanks under an earthquake or high winds, will be Safety Class 3/2, which means the building has a Safety Class 3 function with the Safety Class 2 loads of seismic and wind factored into the design

  6. Analysis using formal method and testing technique for the processor module for safety-critical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, J. Y.; Choi, B. J.; Song, H. J.; Hwang, D. Y.; Song, G. H.; Lee, H. [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-06-15

    This research is on help develop nuclear power plant control system, through the requirement specification and verification method development. As the result of applying the test method, a test standard was obtain through test documentation writing support and a test document reflecting the standard test activities based on the test standard. The specification and verification of the pCOS system and the unified testing documentation and execution helps the entire project to progress and enable us to achieve necessary documents and technology to develop a safety critical system.

  7. Guidelines for confirmatory inplant tests of safety-relief valve discharges for BWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, T.M.

    1981-05-01

    Inplant tests of safety/relief valve (SRV) discharges may be required to confirm generically established specifications for SRV loads and the maximum suppression pool temperature, and to evaluate possible effects of plant-unique parameters. These tests are required in those plants which have features that differ substantially from those previously tested. Guidelines for formulating appropriate test matrices, establishing test procedures, selecting necessary instrumentation, and reporting the test results are provided in this report. Guidelines to determine if inplant tests are required on the basis of the plant unique parameters are also included in the report

  8. Analysis using formal method and testing technique for the processor module for safety-critical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, J. Y.; Choi, B. J.; Song, H. J.; Hwang, D. Y.; Song, G. H.; Lee, H.

    2008-06-01

    This research is on help develop nuclear power plant control system, through the requirement specification and verification method development. As the result of applying the test method, a test standard was obtain through test documentation writing support and a test document reflecting the standard test activities based on the test standard. The specification and verification of the pCOS system and the unified testing documentation and execution helps the entire project to progress and enable us to achieve necessary documents and technology to develop a safety critical system

  9. Test interval optimization of safety systems of nuclear power plant using fuzzy-genetic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durga Rao, K.; Gopika, V.; Kushwaha, H.S.; Verma, A.K.; Srividya, A.

    2007-01-01

    Probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) is the most effective and efficient tool for safety and risk management in nuclear power plants (NPP). PSA studies not only evaluate risk/safety of systems but also their results are very useful in safe, economical and effective design and operation of NPPs. The latter application is popularly known as 'Risk-Informed Decision Making'. Evaluation of technical specifications is one such important application of Risk-Informed decision making. Deciding test interval (TI), one of the important technical specifications, with the given resources and risk effectiveness is an optimization problem. Uncertainty is inherently present in the availability parameters such as failure rate and repair time due to the limitation in assessing these parameters precisely. This paper presents a solution to test interval optimization problem with uncertain parameters in the model with fuzzy-genetic approach along with a case of application from a safety system of Indian pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR)

  10. Thermohydraulic tests in the area of reactor safety done in CDTN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladeira, L.C.D.

    1990-01-01

    The main experimental works performed in the last five years at the Thermohydraulics Laboratory of the Nuclear Technology Development Center, in the field of reactor safety are briefly described. This paper cover the performing and analysis of pressure drop, heat transfer and mixing tests in 3X3 rod bundle and rewetting tests in single tube section. (autor) [pt

  11. Wind Turbine Generator System Safety and Function Test Report for the Entegrity EW50 Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.; Huskey, A.; Jager, D.; Hur, J.

    2012-11-01

    This report summarizes the results of a safety and function test that NREL conducted on the Entegrity EW50 wind turbine. This test was conducted in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commissions' (IEC) standard, Wind Turbine Generator System Part 2: Design requirements for small wind turbines, IEC 61400-2 Ed.2.0, 2006-03.

  12. Energetic Materials Center Report--Small-Scale Safety and Thermal Testing Evaluation of Butyl Nitrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Peter C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Energetic Materials Center; Reynolds, John G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Energetic Materials Center

    2013-04-26

    Butyl Nitrate (BN) was examined by Small-Scale Safety and Thermal (SSST) Testing techniques to determine its sensitivity to impact, friction, spark and thermal exposure simulating handling and storage conditions. Under the conditions tested, the BN exhibits thermal sensitivity above 150 °C, and does not exhibit sensitive to impact, friction or spark.

  13. In-pile experiments and test facilities proposed for fast reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grolmes, M.A.; Avery, R.; Goldman, A.J.; Fauske, H.K.; Marchaterre, J.F.; Rose, D.; Wright, A.E.

    1976-01-01

    The role of in-pile experiments in support of the resolution of fast breeder reactor safety and licensing issues has been re-examined, with emphasis on key safety issues. Experiment needs have been related to the specific characteristics of these safety issues and to realistic requirements for additional test facility capabilities which can be achieved and utilized within the next ten years. It is found that those safety issues related to the energetics of core disruptive accidents have the largest impact on new facility requirements. However, utilization of existing facilities with modifications can provide for a continuing increase in experiment capability and experiment results on a timely bases. Emphasis has been placed upon maximum utilization of existing facilities and minimum requirements for new facilities. This evaluation has concluded that a new Safety Test Facility, STF, along with major modifications to the EBR II facility, improvement in TREAT capabilities, the existing Sodium Loop Safety Facility and corresponding Support Facilities provide the essential elements of the Safety Research Experiment Facilities (SAREF) required for resolution of key issues

  14. Assuring safety without animal testing concept (ASAT). Integration of human disease data with in vitro data to improve toxicology testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stierum, Rob; Aarts, Jac; Boorsma, Andre; Bosgra, Sieto; Caiment, Florian; Ezendam, Janine; Greupink, Rick; Hendriksen, Peter; Soeteman-Hernandez, Lya G.; Jennen, Danyel; Kleinjans, Jos; Kroese, Dinant; Kuper, Frieke; van Loveren, Henk; Monshouwer, Mario; Russel, Frans; van Someren, Eugene; Tsamou, Maria; Groothuis, Geny

    2014-01-01

    According to the Assuring Safety Without Animal Testing (ASAT) principle, risk assessment may ultimately become possible without the use of animals (Fentem et al., (2004). Altern. Lab. Anim. 32, 617-623). The ASAT concept takes human disease mechanisms as starting point and tries to define if

  15. Safety Design Strategy for the Advanced Test Reactor Diesel Bus (E-3) and Switchgear Replacement Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duckwitz, Noel

    2011-01-01

    In accordance with the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 413.3B, 'Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets,' safety must be integrated into the design process for new or major modifications to DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, and 3 nuclear facilities. The intended purpose of this requirement involves the handling of hazardous materials, both radiological and chemical, in a way that provides adequate protection to the public, workers, and the environment. Requirements provided in DOE Order 413.3B and DOE Order 420.1B, 'Facility Safety,' and the expectations of DOE-STD-1189-2008, 'Integration of Safety into the Design Process,' provide for identification of hazards early in the project and use of an integrated team approach to design safety into the facility. This safety design strategy provides the basic safety-in-design principles and concepts that will be used for the Advanced Test Reactor Reliability Sustainment Project. While this project does not introduce new hazards to the ATR, it has the potential for significant impacts to safety-related systems, structures, and components that are credited in the ATR safety basis and are being replaced. Thus the project has been determined to meet the definition of a major modification and is being managed accordingly.

  16. Safety Design Strategy for the Advanced Test Reactor Emergency Firewater Injection System Replacement Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duckwitz, Noel

    2011-01-01

    In accordance with the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 413.3B, 'Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets,' safety must be integrated into the design process for new or major modifications to DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, and 3 nuclear facilities. The intended purpose of this requirement involves the handling of hazardous materials, both radiological and chemical, in a way that provides adequate protection to the public, workers, and the environment. Requirements provided in DOE Order 413.3B and DOE Order 420.1B, 'Facility Safety,' and the expectations of DOE-STD-1189-2008, 'Integration of Safety into the Design Process,' provide for identification of hazards early in the project and use of an integrated team approach to design safety into the facility. This safety design strategy provides the basic safety-in-design principles and concepts that will be used for the Advanced Test Reactor Reliability Sustainment Project. While this project does not introduce new hazards to the ATR, it has the potential for significant impacts to safety-related systems, structures, and components that are credited in the ATR safety basis and are being replaced. Thus the project has been determined to meet the definition of a major modification and is being managed accordingly.

  17. French safety authority projects in the field of research and test reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint Raymond, P.; Duthe, M.; Abou Yehia, H.

    2001-01-01

    This paper gives an outline of some actions initiated by the French safety authority in the field of research and test reactors. An important action concerns the definition of the authorisation criteria for the implementation of experiments in these reactors. In particular, it is necessary to define clearly in which conditions an experiment may be authorised internally by the operating organisation or needs a formal approval by the safety authority. The practice related to the systematic safety reassessment of old facilities and the regulatory provisions associated with the decommissioning are presented after a discussion on the ageing issues. (author)

  18. Technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning reference nuclear research and test reactors. Main report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konzek, G.J.; Ludwick, J.D.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Smith, R.I.

    1982-03-01

    Safety and Cost Information is developed for the conceptual decommissioning of two representative licensed nuclear research and test reactors. Three decommissioning alternatives are studied to obtain comparisons between costs (in 1981 dollars), occupational radiation doses, potential radiation dose to the public, and other safety impacts. The alternatives considered are: DECON (immediate decontamination), SAFSTOR (safe storage followed by deferred decontamination), and ENTOMB (entombment). The study results are presented in two volumes. Volume 1 (Main Report) contains the results in summary form

  19. Handbook of safety assessment of nanomaterials from toxicological testing to personalized medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Fadeel, Bengt

    2014-01-01

    "The Handbook of Safety Assessment of Nanomaterials: From Toxicological Testing to Personalized Medicine provides a comprehensive overview of the state of the art of nanotoxicology and is a unique resource that fills up many knowledge gaps in the toxicity issue of nanomaterials in medical applications. The book is distinguished by up-to-date insights into creating a science-based framework for safety assessment of nanomedicines." -Prof. Yuliang Zhao, National Center for Nanosciences and Technology, China.

  20. Iterative Cellular Screening System for Nanoparticle Safety Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Sambale

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles have the potential to exhibit risks to human beings and to the environment; due to the wide applications of nanoproducts, extensive risk management must not be neglected. Therefore, we have constructed a cell-based, iterative screening system to examine a variety of nanoproducts concerning their toxicity during development. The sensitivity and application of various cell-based methods were discussed and proven by applying the screening to two different nanoparticles: zinc oxide and titanium dioxide nanoparticles. They were used as benchmarks to set up our methods and to examine their effects on mammalian cell lines. Different biological processes such as cell viability, gene expression of interleukin-8 and heat shock protein 70, as well as morphology changes were investigated. Within our screening system, both nanoparticle suspensions and coatings can be tested. Electric cell impedance measurements revealed to be a good method for online monitoring of cellular behavior. The implementation of three-dimensional cell culture is essential to better mimic in vivo conditions. In conclusion, our screening system is highly efficient, cost minimizing, and reduces the need for animal studies.

  1. Radiation legacy of nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk test site in the light of requirements ensuring radiation safety performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logachev, V.A.; Logacheva, L.A.

    2005-01-01

    Peculiarities of nuclear tests radiation legacy at the Semipalatinsk test site (STS) are shown in the light of performance of requirements ensuring radiation safety, decrease radiation contamination levels in environment and minimize exposure of radiation for population residing contaminated areas by radioactive fallout. The paper provides data on characterization of peculiarities of the STS operation legacy based on review of archival data of the former 3-d General Administration under USSR Ministry of Health. (author)

  2. Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This annual report of the Senior Inspector for the Nuclear Safety, analyses the nuclear safety at EDF for the year 1999 and proposes twelve subjects of consideration to progress. Five technical documents are also provided and discussed concerning the nuclear power plants maintenance and safety (thermal fatigue, vibration fatigue, assisted control and instrumentation of the N4 bearing, 1300 MW reactors containment and time of life of power plants). (A.L.B.)

  3. Results and implications of the EBR-II inherent safety demonstration tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planchon, H.P.; Golden, G.H.; Sackett, J.I.; Mohr, D.; Chang, L.K.; Feldman, E.E.; Betten, P.R.

    1987-01-01

    On April 3, 1986 two milestone tests were conducted in Experimental Breeder Reactor-2 (EBR-II). The first test was a loss of flow without scram and the second was a loss of heat sink without scram. Both tests were initiated from 100% power and in both tests the reactor was shut down by natural processes, principally thermal expansion, without automatic scram, operator intervention or the help of special in-core devices. The temperature transients during the tests were mild, as predicted, and there was no damage to the core or reactor plant structures. In a general sense, therefore, the tests plus supporting analysis demonstrated the feasibility of inherent passive shutdown for undercooling accidents in metal-fueled LMRs. The results provide a technical basis for future experiments in EBR-II to demonstrate inherent safety for overpower accidents and provide data for validation of computer codes used for design and safety analysis of inherently safe reactor plants

  4. Integrated, digital experiment transient control and safety protection of an in-pile test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.W.; Whitacre, R.F.; Klingler, W.B.

    1982-01-01

    The Sodium Loop Safety Facility experimental program has demonstrated that in-pile loop fuel failure transient tests can be digitally controlled and protected with reliability and precision. This was done in four nuclear experiments conducted in the Engineering Test Reactor operated by EG and G Idaho, Inc., at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Loop sodium flow and reactor power transients can be programmed to sponsor requirements and verified prior to the test. Each controller has redundancy, which reduces the effect of single failures occurring during test transients. Feedback and reject criteria are included in the reactor power control. Timed sequencing integrates the initiation of the controllers, programmed safety set-points, and other experiment actions (e.g., planned scram). Off-line and on-line testing is included. Loss-of-flow, loss-of-piping-integrity, boiling-window, transient-overpower, and local fault tests have been successfully run using this system

  5. Cyber Security Penetration Test for Digital Safety I and C Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C. K.; Kim, D. H.; Kwon, K. C.; Joo, H. K.; Song, J. S.

    2010-01-01

    In the Korea Nuclear I and C Systems Development project the platforms for plant protection systems are developed, which function as a reactor shutdown, actuation of engineered safety features and a control of the related equipment. Those are fully digitalized through the use of safety-grade programmable logic controllers (PLCs) and few types of communication network. However the Regulatory Guide 1.152 (Rev. 02) was published by the U.S. NRC in 2006 and it recommended the application of a cyber security to the safety systems in the Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). Therefore to incorporate the new licensing requirement, a cyber security risk assessment is performed for the platforms. Then the vulnerabilities identified by the risk assessment are validated by penetration test. This paper summarizes test scenario, test results and their incorporation into system design

  6. NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) Enhanced Melamine (ML) Foam Acoustic Test (NEMFAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNelis, Anne M.; Hughes, William O.; McNelis, Mark E.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) funded a proposal to achieve initial basic acoustic characterization of ML (melamine) foam, which could serve as a starting point for a future, more comprehensive acoustic test program for ML foam. A project plan was developed and implemented to obtain acoustic test data for both normal and enhanced ML foam. This project became known as the NESC Enhanced Melamine Foam Acoustic Test (NEMFAT). This document contains the outcome of the NEMFAT project.

  7. Performance and Safety Tests on Samsung 18650 Li-ion Cells: Two Cell Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yi; Jeevarajan, Judith; Rehm, Raymond; Bragg, Bobby; Zhang, Wenlin

    2002-01-01

    In order to meet the applications for space shuttle in future, two types of Samsung cells, with capacity 1800 mAh and 2000 mAh, have been investigated. The studies focused on: (1) Performance tests: completed 250 cycles at various combinations of charge/discharge C rates and discharge capacity measurements at various temperatures; and (2) Safety tests: overcharge and overdischarge, heat abuse, short circuit, internal and external short, and vibration, vacuum, and drop tests

  8. Fire Safety Tests for Spherical Resorcinol Formaldehyde Resin: Data Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong-Sang; Peterson, Reid A.; Schweiger, Michael J.

    2012-07-30

    A draft safety evaluation of the scenario for spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (SRF) resin fire inside the ion exchange column was performed by the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Fire Safety organization. The result of this draft evaluation suggested a potential change of the fire safety classification for the Cesium Ion Exchange Process System (CXP) emergency elution vessels, equipment, and piping, which may be overly bounding based on the fire performance data from the manufacturer of the ion exchange resin selected for use at the WTP. To resolve this question, the fire properties of the SRF resin were measured by Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), following the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard procedures, through a subcontract managed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). For some tests, the ASTM standard procedures were not entirely appropriate or practical for the SRF resin material, so the procedures were modified and deviations from the ASTM standard procedures were noted. This report summarizes the results of fire safety tests performed and reported by SwRI. The efforts by PNNL were limited to summarizing the test results provided by SwRI into one consolidated data report. All as-received SwRI reports are attached to this report in the Appendix. Where applicable, the precision and bias of each test method, as given by each ASTM standard procedure, are included and compared with the SwRI test results of the SRF resin.

  9. Testing digital safety system software with a testability measure based on a software fault tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Se Do; Hyun Seong, Poong

    2006-01-01

    Using predeveloped software, a digital safety system is designed that meets the quality standards of a safety system. To demonstrate the quality, the design process and operating history of the product are reviewed along with configuration management practices. The application software of the safety system is developed in accordance with the planned life cycle. Testing, which is a major phase that takes a significant time in the overall life cycle, can be optimized if the testability of the software can be evaluated. The proposed testability measure of the software is based on the entropy of the importance of basic statements and the failure probability from a software fault tree. To calculate testability, a fault tree is used in the analysis of a source code. With a quantitative measure of testability, testing can be optimized. The proposed testability can also be used to demonstrate whether the test cases based on uniform partitions, such as branch coverage criteria, result in homogeneous partitions that is known to be more effective than random testing. In this paper, the testability measure is calculated for the modules of a nuclear power plant's safety software. The module testing with branch coverage criteria required fewer test cases if the module has higher testability. The result shows that the testability measure can be used to evaluate whether partitions have homogeneous characteristics

  10. NRC confirmatory safety system testing in support of AP600 design review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhee, G.S.; Bessette, D.E.; Shotkin, L.M.

    1994-01-01

    Westinghouse Electric Corporation has submitted the Advanced Passive 600 MWe (AP600) nuclear power plant design to the NRC for design certification. The Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research is proceeding to conduct confirmatory testing to help the NRC staff evaluate the AP600 safety system design. For confirmatory testing, it was determined that the cost-effective route was to modify an existing full-height, full-pressure test facility rather than build a new one. Thus, all the existing integral effects test facilities, both in the US and abroad, were screened to select the best candidate. As a result, the ROSA-V (Rig of Safety Assessment-V) test facility located in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) was chosen. However, because of some differences in design between the existing ROSA-V facility and the AP600, the ROSA-V is being modified to conform to the AP600 safety system design. The modification work will be completed by the end of this year. A series of facility characterization tests will then be performed in January 1994 for the modified part of the facility before the main test series is initiated in February 1994. A total of 12 tests will be performed in 1994 under Phase I of this cooperative program with JAERI. Phase II testing is being considered to be conducted in 1995 mainly for beyond-design-basis accident evaluation

  11. Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Facility 10CFR830 Safety Basis Related to Facility Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomberlin, T.A.

    2002-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), a DOE Category A reactor, was designed to provide an irradiation test environment for conducting a variety of experiments. The ATR Safety Analysis Report, determined by DOE to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 830, Subpart B, provides versatility in types of experiments that may be conducted. This paper addresses two general types of experiments in the ATR facility and how safety analyses for experiments are related to the ATR safety basis. One type of experiment is more routine and generally represents greater risks; therefore this type of experiment is addressed with more detail in the safety basis. This allows individual safety analyses for these experiments to be more routine and repetitive. The second type of experiment is less defined and is permitted under more general controls. Therefore, individual safety analyses for the second type of experiment tend to be more unique from experiment to experiment. Experiments are also discussed relative to ''major modifications'' and DOE-STD-1027-92. Application of the USQ process to ATR experiments is also discussed

  12. Inquiry relating to safety due to modification of usage of nuclear fuel material (establishment of waste safety testing facility) in Tokai Laboratory, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Application was made to the director of the Science and Technology Agency (STA) for the license relating to the modification of usage of nuclear fuel material (the establishment of waste safety testing facility) from the director of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute on November 30, 1978. After passing through the safety evaluation in the Nuclear Safety Bureau of STA, inquiry was conducted to the head of the Atomic Energy Safety Commission (AESC) on June 6, 1979, from the director of the STA. The head of AESC directed to conduct the safety examination to the head of the Nuclear Fuel Safety Examination Specialist Committee on June 7, 1979. The content of the modification of usage of nuclear fuel material is the establishment of waste safety testing facility to study and test the safety relating to the treatment and disposal of high level radioactive liquid wastes due to the reprocessing of spent fuel. As for the results of the safety examination, the siting of the waste safety testing facility which is located in the Tokai Laboratory, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), and the test plan of the glass solidification of high level radioactive liquid are presented as the outline of the study plan. The building, main equipments including six cells, the isolation room and the glove box, the storage, and the disposal facilities for gas, liquid and solid wastes are explained as the outline of the facilities. Concerning the items from the viewpoint of safety, aseismatic design, slightly vacuum operation, shielding, decay heat removal, fire protection, explosion protection, criticality management, radiation management and environmental effect were evaluated, and the safety was confirmed. (Nakai, Y.)

  13. Test and assessment method of Automotive Safety Systems (SSB) particularly to monitor traffic incidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijanowski, B.; Łukjanow, S.; Burliński, R.

    2016-09-01

    The rapid development of telematics, particularly mobile telephony (GSM), wireless data transmission (GPRS) and satellite positioning (GPS) noticeable in the last decade, resulted in an almost unlimited growth of the possibilities for monitoring of mobile objects. These solutions are already widely used in the so-called “Intelligent Transport Systems” - ITS and affect a significant increase for road safety. The article describes a method of testing and evaluation of Car Safety Systems (Polish abbreviation - SSB) especially for monitoring traffic incidents, such as collisions and accidents. The algorithm of SSB testing process is also presented. Tests are performed on the dynamic test bench, part of which is movable platform with car security system mounted on it. Crash tests with a rigid obstacle are carried out instead of destructive attempts to crash test of the entire vehicle which is expensive. The tested system, depending on the simulated traffic conditions, is mounted in such a position and with the use of components, indicated by the manufacturer for the automotive safety system installation in a vehicle, for which it is intended. Then, the tests and assessments are carried out.

  14. The US Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor and the Fast Flux Test Facility Phase IIA passive safety tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, P.K.; Harris, R.A.; Campbell, L.R.; Dautel, W.A.; Dubberley, A.E.; Gluekler, E.L.

    1992-07-01

    This report discusses the safety approach of the Advanced Liquid Metal reactor program, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, which relies upon passive reactor responses to off-normal condition to limit power and temperature excursions to levels that allow safety margins. Gas expansion modules (GEM) have included in the design to provide negative reactivity to enhance these margins in the extremely unlikely event that pumping power is lost and the highly reliable scram system fails to operate. The feasibility and beneficial features of these devices were first demonstrated in the core of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) in 1986. Preapplication safety evaluations by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission have identified areas that must be addressed if these devices are to be relied on. One of these areas is the response of the reactor when it is critical and the pumps are turned on, resulting in positive reactivity being added to the core. Tests to examine such transients have been performed as part of the continuing FFTF program to confirm the passive safety characteristics of liquid metal reactors (LMR). The primary tests consisted of starting the main coolant pumps, which forced sodium coolant into the GEMS, decreasing neutron leakage and adding positive reactivity. The resulting transients were shown to be benign and easily mitigated by the reactivity feedbacks inherent in the FFTF and all LMRs. Steady-state auxiliary tests of the GEM and feedback reactivity worths accurately predicted the transient results. The auxiliary GEM worth tests also demonstrated that the worth can be determined at a subcritical state, which allows for a verification of the GEM's availability prior to ascending to power

  15. Study on personnel qualification for non-destructive tests in the field of reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trusch, K.; Wuestenberg, H.

    1977-01-01

    The training system for non-destructive testing is described, and the available and necessary personnel is analyzed; the personnel required for reactor safety problems is treated separately. On this basis, the subjects discussed in the study - available personnel, personnel requirements, training, training requirements, and suggestions for realisation - are treated in a general manner to begin with and afterwards with a view to specific problems of reactor safety. The methods employed are adapted to this situation. To obtain the necessary empirical data, questionnaires were set up and distributed, and experts in selected business companies and institutions were interviewed who work in the field of reactor safety or do same training in non-destructive testing. (orig.) [de

  16. Safety and Function Test Report for the Viryd CS8 Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roadman, J.; Murphy, M.; van Dam, J.

    2013-10-01

    This test was conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Independent Testing project. This project was established to help reduce the barriers of wind energy expansion by providing independent testing results for small turbines. Several turbines were selected for testing at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) as a part of the Small Wind Turbine Independent Testing project. Safety and function testing is one of up to five tests that may be performed on the turbines. Other tests include duration, power performance, acoustic noise, and power quality. Viryd Technologies, Inc. of Austin, Texas, was the recipient of the DOE grant and provided the turbine for testing.

  17. A Study on the Improvement of Safety Testing Standards and Methods for Mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Seon Hyeong; Jung, Ah Young; Yong, Hwan Seok; Kim, Do Wan; Jang, Gi Won; Cha, Sang Hoon; Jo, Sang Won; Park, Ji Koon

    2012-01-01

    To establish the improved national safety testing standards and methods for mammography. We investigated and compared the current status of mammographic equipment installation with the national and international safety and quality control programs and methods. We established and verified the draft for safety testing standards and methods. We propose that the investigations of the conductor system, hardware leakage radiation profile, illumination intensity test, comparison between X-ray and light photon exposure, X-ray dose exposure on the chest wall, compression equipment size, timing equipment, and the average effective radiation dose, should all be maintained as they are in the present state without any changes. However, the exposure radiation dose reproducibility, kVp and mAs, and the half value layer tests should be reconsidered and revised. Moreover, compression pressure and autonomic exposure control system (AEC) tests should be included as new criteria. Other parameter controls included in the phantom image analysis which overlap with total quality assurance should be excluded. We recommend that AEC and compression pressure tests should be included as new criteria and the methods for the exposure radiation dose reproducibility, kVp, and mAs, and half value layer tests should be reconsidered and revised.

  18. Testing Challenges of Maritime Safety and Security Systems-of-Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez, A.; Piel, E.; Gross, H.G.

    2008-01-01

    Preprint of paper published in: TAIC PART 2008: Testing: Academic & Industrial Conference, Practice and Research Techniques, 29-31 August 2008; doi:10.1109/TAIC-PART.2008.14 Maritime Safety and Security systems represent a novel kind of large-scale distributed component-based systems in which the

  19. Regulatory and extra-regulatory testing to demonstrate radioactive material packaging safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammerman, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    Packages for the transportation of radioactive material must meet performance criteria to assure safety and environmental protection. The stringency of the performance criteria is based on the degree of hazard of the material being transported. Type B packages are used for transporting large quantities of radioisotopes (in terms of A 2 quantities). These packages have the most stringent performance criteria. Material with less than an A 2 quantity are transported in Type A packages. These packages have less stringent performance criteria. Transportation of LSA and SCO materials must be in open-quotes strong-tightclose quotes packages. The performance requirements for the latter packages are even less stringent. All of these package types provide a high level of safety for the material being transported. In this paper, regulatory tests that are used to demonstrate this safety will be described. The responses of various packages to these tests will be shown. In addition, the response of packages to extra-regulatory tests will be discussed. The results of these tests will be used to demonstrate the high level of safety provided to workers, the public, and the environment by packages used for the transportation of radioactive material

  20. 78 FR 71036 - Pipeline Safety: Random Drug Testing Rate; Contractor Management Information System Reporting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    ... PHMSA-2013-0248] Pipeline Safety: Random Drug Testing Rate; Contractor Management Information System Reporting; and Obtaining Drug and Alcohol Management Information System Sign-In Information AGENCY: Pipeline... Management Information System (MIS) Data; and New Method for Operators to Obtain User Name and Password for...

  1. Advancing the Science of Developmental Neurotoxicity (DNT) Testing for Better Safety Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bal-Price, Anna; Coecke, Sandra; Costa, Lucio

    2012-01-01

    Bal-Price AK, Coecke S, Costa L, Crofton KM, Fritsche E, Goldberg A, Grandjean P, Lein PJ, Li A, Lucchini R, Mundy WR, Padilla S, Persico A, Seiler AEM, Kreysa J. Conference Report: Advancing the Science of Developmental Neurotoxicity (DNT) Testing for Better Safety Evaluation. Altex 2012: 29: 202-15....

  2. Performance and Safety Tests on Samsung 18650 Li-ion Cells with Two Capacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yi; Jeevarajan, Judith; Rehm, Raymond; Bragg, Bobby; Zhang, Wenlin

    2001-01-01

    In order to meet the applications for Space Shuttle in the future, Samsung 18650 cylindrical Li-ion cells with two different capacities have been evaluated. The capacities are 1800 mAh, and 2000 mAh. The studies focused on the performance and safety tests of the cells.

  3. Regulatory risk control through mandatory occupational safety and health (OSH) certification and testing regimes (CTRs)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.; Hale, A.; Zwanikken, S.

    2011-01-01

    Governments make increasing use of private certification and testing infrastructures as an alternative for traditional regulatory arrangements in several areas including occupational safety and health (OSH).This research, commissioned by the Dutch Inspectorate for Work and Income (IWI), concerns an

  4. Methods of Certification tests PLC-Networks in Compliance Safety Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Balaev

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was description of the methodology of the audit plc-network to meet the requirements of information security. The technique is based on the provisions of the guidance documents and model FSTEC Russia test object methods of information on safety information.

  5. 78 FR 67206 - Qualification Tests for Safety-Related Actuators in Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Revision to regulatory guide; issuance..., ``Qualification Tests for Safety-Related Actuators in Nuclear Power Plants.'' This RG is being revised to provide... Operators Installed Inside the Containment of Nuclear Power Plants,'' dated January 1974. ADDRESSES: Please...

  6. Expressing best practices in (risk) analysis and testing of safety-critical systems using patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herzner, Wolfgang; Sieverding, Sven; Kacimi, Omar

    2014-01-01

    The continuing pervasion of our society with safety-critical cyber-physical systems not only demands for adequate (risk) analysis, testing and verification techniques, it also generates growing experience on their use, which can be considered as important as the tools themselves for their efficient...

  7. 75 FR 34064 - Manufactured Home Construction and Safety Standards, Test Procedures for Roof Trusses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... failure. Failure is rupture, fracture, or excessive yielding. (v) Final recovery phase. Remove 2.0 times... members of the public. Commenters should follow the instructions provided on that site to submit comments... nondestructive testing procedure for roof trusses that permits a lower overall factor of safety to be used in...

  8. Safety Performance Evaluations for the Vehicle Based Movable Barriers Using Full Scale Crash Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Minsoo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to develop a prototype of large-size movable barriers to protect roadside workers from incoming vehicles to the road work area with the following functions: maximization of work space in the right and left directions, convenient mobility, and minimization of impact without modification of the inside of movable barriers into traffic lanes and perform safety performance assessment on passengers through full scale crash tests. The large movable barrier was divided into folder type and telescope type and the development stage was now at the prototype phase. A full scale crash test was conducted prior to certification test at a level of 90%. The full scale crash test result showed that both types of folder type movable barrier and telescope type movable barrier satisfied the standard of the passenger safety performance evaluation at a level of 90%.

  9. Potential safety enhancements to nuclear plant control: proof testing at EBR-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsay, R.W.; Chisholm, G.H.

    1984-01-01

    Future changes in nuclear plant control and protective systems will reflect an evolutionary improvement through increased use of computers coupled with a better integration of man and machine. Before improvements can be accepted into the licensed commercial plant environment, significant testing must be accomplished to answer safety questions and to prove the worth of new ideas. The Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) is being used as a test-bed for both in-house development and testing for others in a DOE sponsored Man-Machine Integration program. The ultimate result of the development and testing would be a control system for which safety credit could be taken in the licensing process

  10. Radiation Testing Electronics with Heavy Ions-The Best Way to Hit a Target Moving Ever Exponentially Faster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladbury, Ray

    2018-01-01

    In 1972, when engineers at Hughes Aircraft Corporation discovered that errors in their satellite avionics were being caused by cosmic rays (so-called single-event effects, or SEE), Moore's Law was only 7 years old. Now, more than 45 years on, the scaling that drove Moore's Law for its first 35 years has reached its limits. However, electronics technology continues to evolve exponentially and SEE remain a formidable issue for use of electronics in space. SEE occur when a single ionizing particle passes through a sensitive volume in an active semiconductor device and generates sufficient charge to cause anomalous behavior or failure in the device. Because SEE can occur at any time during the mission, the emphasis of SEE risk management methodologies is ensuring that all SEE modes in a device under test are detected by the test. Because a particle's probability of causing an SEE generally increases as the particle becomes more ionizing, heavy-ion beams have been and remain the preferred tools for elucidating SEE vulnerabilities. In this talk we briefly discuss space radiation environments and SEE mechanisms, describe SEE test methodologies and discuss current and future challenges for use of heavy-ion beams for SEE testing in an era when the continued validity of Moore's law depends on innovation rather than CMOS scaling.

  11. Tool for assistance in testing the safety logic section of nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulc'h, J.; Meur, M. le; Collart, J.M.; Segalard, J.; Uberschlag, J.

    1986-01-01

    The analysis of the protection system logic section (SPIN) of the PALUEL plant performed manually have led to the study of a logical tool for testing the safety logic section having or having not failures. It is a dynamic analyser which from a terminal in a sharing time system will be able to generate testing sequences, to simulate a processor and its environment and to analyse the logic sections with their workable code

  12. Test Results of a Platform for Safety I and C Systems of SMART MMIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Yong Suk; Keum, Jong Yong; Jeong, Kwang Il; Lee, Joon Ku; Lee, Sang Seok; Kim, Kwan Woong

    2011-01-01

    SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor), a 330MWt integral pressurized light water reactor that integrates four reactor coolant pumps, one pressurizer, eight steam generators, and one reactor core into a reactor vessel, has been under development at KAERI since 1997. A standard design safety analysis report of the SMART prepared by KAERI was submitted to Korea institute of nuclear safety (KINS) at the end of 2010. KAERI aims to achieve standard design approval (SDA) from KINS by the end of 2011. SMART MMIS has been designed using digital systems. It has digital-based compact control rooms. Its instrumentation and control (I and C) systems are designed using modular equipment connected through datalinks. Non-safety I and C systems are designed based on the commercial distributed control systems. Safety I and C systems are based on a new platform developed by KAERI. The platform is a high-speed digital signal processor (DSP)-based control unit. It plays the role of a module that provides control functions of the safety I and C systems. The test facilities have been developed at KAERI since 2009. This paper presents the development and test results of the platform

  13. Safety modelling and testing of lithium-ion batteries in electrified vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jie; Bae, Chulheung; Marcicki, James; Masias, Alvaro; Miller, Theodore

    2018-04-01

    To optimize the safety of batteries, it is important to understand their behaviours when subjected to abuse conditions. Most early efforts in battery safety modelling focused on either one battery cell or a single field of interest such as mechanical or thermal failure. These efforts may not completely reflect the failure of batteries in automotive applications, where various physical processes can take place in a large number of cells simultaneously. In this Perspective, we review modelling and testing approaches for battery safety under abuse conditions. We then propose a general framework for large-scale multi-physics modelling and experimental work to address safety issues of automotive batteries in real-world applications. In particular, we consider modelling coupled mechanical, electrical, electrochemical and thermal behaviours of batteries, and explore strategies to extend simulations to the battery module and pack level. Moreover, we evaluate safety test approaches for an entire range of automotive hardware sets from cell to pack. We also discuss challenges in building this framework and directions for its future development.

  14. Preliminary design of safety and interlock system for indian test facility of diagnostic neutral beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyagi, Himanshu; Soni, Jignesh; Yadav, Ratnakar; Bandyopadhyay, Mainak; Rotti, Chandramouli; Gahlaut, Agrajit; Joshi, Jaydeep; Parmar, Deepak; Bansal, Gourab; Pandya, Kaushal; Chakraborty, Arun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Indian Test Facility being built to characterize DNB for ITER delivery. • Interlock system required to safeguard the investment incurred in building the facility and protecting ITER deliverable components. • Interlock levels upto 3IL-3 identified. • Safety instrumented system for occupational safety being designed. Safety I&C functions of SIL-2 identified. • The systems are based on ITER PIS and PSS design guidelines. - Abstract: Indian Test Facility (INTF) is being built in Institute For Plasma Research to characterize Diagnostic Neutral Beam in co-operation with ITER Organization. INTF is a complex system which consists of several plant systems like beam source, gas feed, vacuum, cryogenics, high voltage power supplies, high power RF generators, mechanical systems and diagnostics systems. Out of these, several INTF components are ITER deliverable, that is, beam source, beam line components and power supplies. To ensure successful operation of INTF involving integrated operation of all the constituent plant systems a matured Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS) is required. The INTF DACS is based on CODAC platform following on PCDH (Plant Control Design Handbook) guidelines. The experimental phases involve application of HV power supplies (100 KV) and High RF power (∼800 KW) which will produce energetic beam of maximum power 6MW within the facility for longer durations. Hence the entire facility will be exposed tohigh heat fluxes and RF radiations. To ensure investment protection and to provide occupational safety for working personnel a matured Safety and Interlock system is required for INTF. The Safety and Interlock systems are high-reliability I&C systems devoted completely to the specific functions. These systems will be separate from the conventional DACS of INTF which will handle the conventional control and acquisition functions. Both, the Safety and Interlock systems are based on IEC 61511 and IEC 61508 standards as

  15. US Department of Energy DOE Nevada Operations Office, Nevada Test Site: Underground safety and health standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The Nevada Test Site Underground Safety and Health Standards Working Group was formed at the direction of John D. Stewart, Director, Nevada Test Site Office in April, 1990. The objective of the Working Group was to compile a safety and health standard from the California Tunnel Safety Orders and OSHA for the underground operations at the NTS, (excluding Yucca Mountain). These standards are called the NTS U/G Safety and Health Standards. The Working Group submits these standards as a RECOMMENDATION to the Director, NTSO. Although the Working Group considers these standards to be the most integrated and comprehensive standards that could be developed for NTS Underground Operations, the intent is not to supersede or replace any relevant DOE orders. Rather the intent is to collate the multiple safety and health references contained in DOE Order 5480.4 that have applicability to NTS Underground Operations into a single safety and heath standard to be used in the underground operations at the NTS. Each portion of the standard was included only after careful consideration by the Working Group and is judged to be both effective and appropriate. The specific methods and rationale used by the Working Group are outlined as follows: The letter from DOE/HQ, dated September 28, 1990 cited OSHA and the CTSO as the safety and health codes applicable to underground operations at the NTS. These mandated codes were each originally developed to be comprehensive, i.e., all underground operations of a particular type (e.g., tunnels in the case of the CTSO) were intended to be adequately regulated by the appropriate code. However, this is not true; the Working Group found extensive and confusing overlap in the codes in numerous areas. Other subjects and activities were addressed by the various codes in cursory fashion or not at all

  16. Preliminary design of safety and interlock system for indian test facility of diagnostic neutral beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyagi, Himanshu, E-mail: htyagi@iter-india.org [ITER-India, Institute For Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India); Soni, Jignesh [Institute For Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India); Yadav, Ratnakar; Bandyopadhyay, Mainak; Rotti, Chandramouli [ITER-India, Institute For Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India); Gahlaut, Agrajit [Institute For Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India); Joshi, Jaydeep; Parmar, Deepak [ITER-India, Institute For Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India); Bansal, Gourab; Pandya, Kaushal; Chakraborty, Arun [Institute For Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Indian Test Facility being built to characterize DNB for ITER delivery. • Interlock system required to safeguard the investment incurred in building the facility and protecting ITER deliverable components. • Interlock levels upto 3IL-3 identified. • Safety instrumented system for occupational safety being designed. Safety I&C functions of SIL-2 identified. • The systems are based on ITER PIS and PSS design guidelines. - Abstract: Indian Test Facility (INTF) is being built in Institute For Plasma Research to characterize Diagnostic Neutral Beam in co-operation with ITER Organization. INTF is a complex system which consists of several plant systems like beam source, gas feed, vacuum, cryogenics, high voltage power supplies, high power RF generators, mechanical systems and diagnostics systems. Out of these, several INTF components are ITER deliverable, that is, beam source, beam line components and power supplies. To ensure successful operation of INTF involving integrated operation of all the constituent plant systems a matured Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS) is required. The INTF DACS is based on CODAC platform following on PCDH (Plant Control Design Handbook) guidelines. The experimental phases involve application of HV power supplies (100 KV) and High RF power (∼800 KW) which will produce energetic beam of maximum power 6MW within the facility for longer durations. Hence the entire facility will be exposed tohigh heat fluxes and RF radiations. To ensure investment protection and to provide occupational safety for working personnel a matured Safety and Interlock system is required for INTF. The Safety and Interlock systems are high-reliability I&C systems devoted completely to the specific functions. These systems will be separate from the conventional DACS of INTF which will handle the conventional control and acquisition functions. Both, the Safety and Interlock systems are based on IEC 61511 and IEC 61508 standards as

  17. US Department of Energy DOE Nevada Operations Office, Nevada Test Site: Underground safety and health standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    The Nevada Test Site Underground Safety and Health Standards Working Group was formed at the direction of John D. Stewart, Director, Nevada Test Site Office in April, 1990. The objective of the Working Group was to compile a safety and health standard from the California Tunnel Safety Orders and OSHA for the underground operations at the NTS, (excluding Yucca Mountain). These standards are called the NTS U/G Safety and Health Standards. The Working Group submits these standards as a RECOMMENDATION to the Director, NTSO. Although the Working Group considers these standards to be the most integrated and comprehensive standards that could be developed for NTS Underground Operations, the intent is not to supersede or replace any relevant DOE orders. Rather the intent is to collate the multiple safety and health references contained in DOE Order 5480.4 that have applicability to NTS Underground Operations into a single safety and heath standard to be used in the underground operations at the NTS. Each portion of the standard was included only after careful consideration by the Working Group and is judged to be both effective and appropriate. The specific methods and rationale used by the Working Group are outlined as follows: The letter from DOE/HQ, dated September 28, 1990 cited OSHA and the CTSO as the safety and health codes applicable to underground operations at the NTS. These mandated codes were each originally developed to be comprehensive, i.e., all underground operations of a particular type (e.g., tunnels in the case of the CTSO) were intended to be adequately regulated by the appropriate code. However, this is not true; the Working Group found extensive and confusing overlap in the codes in numerous areas. Other subjects and activities were addressed by the various codes in cursory fashion or not at all.

  18. Validation of programmable industrial automation systems for safety critical applications in NPP's dynamic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haapanen, P.; Korhonen, J.

    1995-01-01

    The safety assessment of programmable automation systems can not totally be based on conventional probabilistic methods because of the difficulties in quantification of the reliability of the software as well as the hardware. Additional means shall therefore be used to gain more confidence on the system dependability. One central confidence building measure is the independent dynamic testing of the completed system. An automated test harness is needed to run the required large amount of test cases in a restricted time span. The prototype dynamic testing harness for programmable digital systems developed at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) is described in the presentation. (12 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.)

  19. Validation of programmable industrial automation systems for safety critical applications in NPP's; dynamic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haapanen, P.; Korhonen, J.

    1995-01-01

    The safety assessment of programmable automation systems cannot be totally be based on conventional probabilistic methods because of the difficulties in quantification of the reliability of the software as well as the hardware. Additional means shall therefore be used to gain more confidence on the system dependability. One central confidence building measure is the independent dynamic testing of the completed system. An automated test harness is needed to run the required large amount of test cases in a restricted time span. This paper describes a prototype dynamic testing harness for programmable digital systems developed at VTT. (author). 12 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  20. Full-Length High-Temperature Severe Fuel Damage Test No. 5: Final safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanning, D.D.; Lombardo, N.J.; Panisko, F.E.

    1993-09-01

    This report presents the final safety analysis for the preparation, conduct, and post-test discharge operation for the Full-Length High Temperature Experiment-5 (FLHT-5) to be conducted in the L-24 position of the National Research Universal (NRU) Reactor at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL), Ontario, Canada. The test is sponsored by an international group organized by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The test is designed and conducted by staff from Pacific Northwest Laboratory with CRNL staff support. The test will study the consequences of loss-of-coolant and the progression of severe fuel damage

  1. Efficacy and safety testing of mycotoxin-detoxifying agents in broilers following the European Food Safety Authority guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osselaere, A; Devreese, M; Watteyn, A; Vandenbroucke, V; Goossens, J; Hautekiet, V; Eeckhout, M; De Saeger, S; De Baere, S; De Backer, P; Croubels, S

    2012-08-01

    Contamination of feeds with mycotoxins is a worldwide problem and mycotoxin-detoxifying agents are used to decrease their negative effect. The European Food Safety Authority recently stated guidelines and end-points for the efficacy testing of detoxifiers. Our study revealed that plasma concentrations of deoxynivalenol and deepoxy-deoxynivalenol were too low to assess efficacy of 2 commercially available mycotoxin-detoxifying agents against deoxynivalenol after 3 wk of continuous feeding of this mycotoxin at concentrations of 2.44±0.70 mg/kg of feed and 7.54±2.20 mg/kg of feed in broilers. This correlates with the poor absorption of deoxynivalenol in poultry. A safety study with 2 commercially available detoxifying agents and veterinary drugs showed innovative results with regard to the pharmacokinetics of 2 antibiotics after oral dosing in the drinking water. The plasma and kidney tissue concentrations of oxytetracycline were significantly higher in broilers receiving a biotransforming agent in the feed compared with control birds. For amoxicillin, the plasma concentrations were significantly higher for broilers receiving an adsorbing agent in comparison to birds receiving the biotransforming agent, but not to the control group. Mycotoxin-detoxifying agents can thus interact with the oral bioavailability of antibiotics depending on the antibiotic and detoxifying agent, with possible adverse effects on the health of animals and humans.

  2. Testing existing software for safety-related applications. Revision 7.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, J.A.; Lawrence, J.D.

    1995-12-01

    The increasing use of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) software products in digital safety-critical applications is raising concerns about the safety, reliability, and quality of these products. One of the factors involved in addressing these concerns is product testing. A tester's knowledge of the software product will vary, depending on the information available from the product vendor. In some cases, complete source listings, program structures, and other information from the software development may be available. In other cases, only the complete hardware/software package may exist, with the tester having no knowledge of the internal structure of the software. The type of testing that can be used will depend on the information available to the tester. This report describes six different types of testing, which differ in the information used to create the tests, the results that may be obtained, and the limitations of the test types. An Annex contains background information on types of faults encountered in testing, and a Glossary of pertinent terms is also included. This study is pertinent for safety-related software at reactors

  3. Evaluation of Four Bedside Test Systems for Card Performance, Handling and Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giebel, Felix; Picker, Susanne M; Gathof, Birgit S

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY: OBJECTIVE: Pretransfusion ABO compatibility testing is a simple and required precaution against ABO-incompatible transfusion, which is one of the greatest threats in transfusion medicine. While distinct agglutination is most important for correct test interpretation, protection against infectious diseases and ease of handling are crucial for accurate test performance. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate differences in test card design, handling, and user safety. DESIGN: Four different bedside test cards with pre-applied antibodies were evaluated by 100 medical students using packed red blood cells of different ABO blood groups. Criteria of evaluation were: agglutination, labelling, handling, and safety regarding possible user injuries. Criteria were rated subjectively according to German school notes ranging from 1 = very good to 6 = very bad/insufficient. RESULTS: Overall, all cards received very good/good marks. The ABO blood group was identified correctly in all cases. Three cards (no. 1, no. 3, no. 4) received statistically significant (p labelling (1.5 vs. 2.2-2.4), handling (1.9-2.0 vs. 2.5), and user safety (2.5 vs. 3.4). Analysis of card self-explanation revealed no remarkable differences. CONCLUSION: Despite good performance of all card systems tested, the best results when including all criteria evaluated were obtained with card no. 4 (particularly concerning clear agglutination), followed by cards no. 2, no. 1, and no. 3.

  4. Skin sensitisation--moving forward with non-animal testing strategies for regulatory purposes in the EU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basketter, David; Alépée, Nathalie; Casati, Silvia; Crozier, Jonathan; Eigler, Dorothea; Griem, Peter; Hubesch, Bruno; de Knecht, Joop; Landsiedel, Robert; Louekari, Kimmo; Manou, Irene; Maxwell, Gavin; Mehling, Annette; Netzeva, Tatiana; Petry, Thomas; Rossi, Laura H

    2013-12-01

    In a previous EPAA-Cefic LRI workshop in 2011, issues surrounding the use and interpretation of results from the local lymph node assay were addressed. At the beginning of 2013 a second joint workshop focused greater attention on the opportunities to make use of non-animal test data, not least since a number of in vitro assays have progressed to an advanced position in terms of their formal validation. It is already recognised that information produced from non-animal assays can be used in regulatory decision-making, notably in terms of classifying a substance as a skin sensitiser. The evolution into a full replacement for hazard identification, where the decision is not to classify, requires the generation of confidence in the in vitro alternative, e.g. via formal validation, the existence of peer reviewed publications and the knowledge that the assay(s) are founded on key elements of the Adverse Outcome Pathway for skin sensitisation. It is foreseen that the validated in vitro assays and relevant QSAR models can be organised into formal testing strategies to be applied for regulatory purposes by the industry. To facilitate progress, the European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to animal testing (EPAA) provided the platform for cross-industry and regulatory dialogue, enabling an essential and open debate on the acceptability of an in vitro based integrated strategy. Based on these considerations, a follow up activity was agreed upon to explore an example of an Integrated Testing Strategy for skin sensitisation hazard identification purposes in the context of REACH submissions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Locomotive fuel tank structural safety testing program : passenger locomotive fuel tank jackknife derailment load test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    This report presents the results of a passenger locomotive fuel tank load test simulating jackknife derailment (JD) load. The test is based on FRA requirements for locomotive fuel tanks in the Title 49, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 238, Ap...

  6. Comparison of EPRI safety valve test data with analytically determined hydraulic results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L.C.; Howe, K.S.

    1983-01-01

    NUREG-0737 (November 1980) and all subsequent U.S. NRC generic follow-up letters require that all operating plant licensees and applicants verify the acceptability of plant specific pressurizer safety valve piping systems for valve operation transients by testing. To aid in this verification process, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) conducted an extensive testing program at the Combustion Engineering Test Facility. Pertinent tests simulating dynamic opening of the safety valves for representative upstream environments were carried out. Different models and sizes of safety valves were tested at the simulated operating conditions. Transducers placed at key points in the system monitored a variety of thermal, hydraulic and structural parameters. From this data, a more complete description of the transient can be made. The EPRI test configuration was analytically modeled using a one-dimensional thermal hydraulic computer program that uses the method of characteristics approach to generate key fluid parameters as a function of space and time. The conservative equations are solved by applying both the implicit and explicit characteristic methods. Unbalanced or wave forces were determined for each straight run of pipe bounded on each side by a turn or elbow. Blowdown forces were included, where appropriate. Several parameters were varied to determine the effects on the pressure, hydraulic forces and timings of events. By comparing these quantities with the experimentally obtained data, an approximate picture of the flow dynamics is arrived at. Two cases in particular are presented. These are the hot and cold loop seal discharge tests made with the Crosby 6M6 spring-loaded safety valve. Included in the paper is a description of the hydraulic code, modeling techniques and assumptions, a comparison of the numerical results with experimental data and a qualitative description of the factors which govern pipe support loading. (orig.)

  7. Quench and safety tests on a toroidal field coil of Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciazynski, D.; Cure, C.; Duchateau, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    As a part of the safety analysis of the magnet, three quenches have been initiated in one of the TF coils in the Saclay test facility. While transporting a given current, the coil is insulated from the refrigerator: the temperatures of the helium and of the coil increase slowly on account of thermal losses. At the current sharing temperature a quench rapidly propagates and the protection system makes the coil discharge in the dump resistor. At three levels of current, electrical, thermal and hydraulic measurements have been performed. All these results are taken into account for the safety design of TORE SUPRA

  8. Technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning reference nuclear research and test reactors. Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konzek, G.J.; Ludwick, J.D.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Smith, R.I.

    1982-03-01

    Safety and Cost Information is developed for the conceptual decommissioning of two representative licensed nuclear research and test reactors. Three decommissioning alternatives are studied to obtain comparisons between costs (in 1981 dollars), occupational radiation doses, potential radiation dose to the public, and other safety impacts. The alternatives considered are: DECON (immediate decontamination), SAFSTOR (safe storage followed by deferred decontamination), and EMTOMB (entombment). The study results are presented in two volumes. Volume 2 (Appendices) contains the detailed data that support the results given in Volume 1, including unit-component data

  9. Technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning reference nuclear research and test reactors. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konzek, G.J.; Ludwick, J.D.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Smith, R.I.

    1982-03-01

    Safety and Cost Information is developed for the conceptual decommissioning of two representative licensed nuclear research and test reactors. Three decommissioning alternatives are studied to obtain comparisons between costs (in 1981 dollars), occupational radiation doses, potential radiation dose to the public, and other safety impacts. The alternatives considered are: DECON (immediate decontamination), SAFSTOR (safe storage followed by deferred decontamination), and EMTOMB (entombment). The study results are presented in two volumes. Volume 2 (Appendices) contains the detailed data that support the results given in Volume 1, including unit-component data.

  10. Has Toxicity Testing Moved into the 21st Century? A Survey and Analysis of Perceptions in the Field of Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaunbrecher, Virginia; Beryt, Elizabeth; Parodi, Daniela; Telesca, Donatello; Doherty, Joseph; Malloy, Timothy; Allard, Patrick

    2017-08-30

    Ten years ago, leaders in the field of toxicology called for a transformation of the discipline and a shift from primarily relying on traditional animal testing to incorporating advances in biotechnology and predictive methodologies into alternative testing strategies (ATS). Governmental agencies and academic and industry partners initiated programs to support such a transformation, but a decade later, the outcomes of these efforts are not well understood. We aimed to assess the use of ATS and the perceived barriers and drivers to their adoption by toxicologists and by others working in, or closely linked with, the field of toxicology. We surveyed 1,381 toxicologists and experts in associated fields regarding the viability and use of ATS and the perceived barriers and drivers of ATS for a range of applications. We performed ranking, hierarchical clustering, and correlation analyses of the survey data. Many respondents indicated that they were already using ATS, or believed that ATS were already viable approaches, for toxicological assessment of one or more end points in their primary area of interest or concern (26-86%, depending on the specific ATS/application pair). However, the proportions of respondents reporting use of ATS in the previous 12 mo were smaller (4.5-41%). Concern about regulatory acceptance was the most commonly cited factor inhibiting the adoption of ATS, and a variety of technical concerns were also cited as significant barriers to ATS viability. The factors most often cited as playing a significant role (currently or in the future) in driving the adoption of ATS were the need for expedited toxicology information, the need for reduced toxicity testing costs, demand by regulatory agencies, and ethical or moral concerns. Our findings indicate that the transformation of the field of toxicology is partly implemented, but significant barriers to acceptance and adoption remain. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1435.

  11. Reactor safety impact of functional test intervals: an application of Bayesian decision theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buoni, F.B.

    1978-01-01

    Functional test intervals for important nuclear reactor systems can be obtained by viewing safety assessment as a decision process and functional testing as a Bayesian learning or information process. A preposterior analysis is used as the analytical model to find the preposterior expected reliability of a system as a function of test intervals. Persistent and transitory failure models are shown to yield different results. Functional tests of systems subject to persistent failure are effective in maintaining system reliability goals. Functional testing is not effective for systems subject to transitory failure; preventive maintenance must be used. A Bayesian posterior analysis of testing data can discriminate between persistent and transitory failure. The role of functional testing is seen to be an aid in assessing the future performance of reactor systems

  12. Operational-safety advantages of LMFBR's: the EBR-II experience and testing program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sackett, J.I.; Lindsay, R.W.; Golden, G.H.

    1982-01-01

    LMFBR's contain many inherent characteristics that simplify control and improve operating safety and reliability. The EBR-II design is such that good advantage was taken of these characteristics, resulting in a vary favorable operating history and allowing for a program of off-normal testing to further demonstrate the safe response of LMFBR's to upsets. The experience already gained, and that expected from the future testing program, will contribute to further development of design and safety criteria for LMFBR's. Inherently safe characteristics are emphasized and include natural convective flow for decay heat removal, minimal need for emergency power and a large negative reactivity feedback coefficient. These characteristics at EBR-II allow for ready application of computer diagnosis and control to demonstrate their effectiveness in response to simulated plant accidents. This latter testing objective is an important part in improvements in the man-machine interface

  13. Use of animals for toxicology testing is necessary to ensure patient safety in pharmaceutical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangipudy, Raja; Burkhardt, John; Kadambi, Vivek J

    2014-11-01

    There is an active debate in toxicology literature about the utility of animal testing vis-a-vis alternative in vitro paradigms. To provide a balanced perspective and add to this discourse it is important to review the current paradigms, explore pros and cons of alternatives, and provide a vision for the future. The fundamental goal of toxicity testing is to ensure safety in humans. In this article, IQ Consortium DruSafe, while submitting the view that nonclinical testing in animals is an important and critical component of the risk assessment paradigm in developing new drugs, also discusses its views on alternative approaches including a roadmap for what would be required to enhance the utilization of alternative approaches in the safety assessment process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. LIMBO computer code for analyzing coolant-voiding dynamics in LMFBR safety tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordner, G.L.

    1979-10-01

    The LIMBO (liquid metal boiling) code for the analysis of two-phase flow phenomena in an LMFBR reactor coolant channel is presented. The code uses a nonequilibrium, annular, two-phase flow model, which allows for slip between the phases. Furthermore, the model is intended to be valid for both quasi-steady boiling and rapid coolant voiding of the channel. The code was developed primarily for the prediction of, and the posttest analysis of, coolant-voiding behavior in the SLSF P-series in-pile safety test experiments. The program was conceived to be simple, efficient, and easy to use. It is particularly suited for parametric studies requiring many computer runs and for the evaluation of the effects of model or correlation changes that require modification of the computer program. The LIMBO code, of course, lacks the sophistication and model detail of the reactor safety codes, such as SAS, and is therefore intended to compliment these safety codes

  15. General-Purpose Heat Source Development: Safety Test Program. Postimpact evaluation, Design Iteration Test 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schonfeld, F.W.; George, T.G.

    1984-07-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source(GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of 238 PuO 2 decay to thermoelectric elements. Because of the inevitable return of certain aborted missions, the heat source must be designed and constructed to survive both re-entry and Earth impact. The Design Iteration Test (DIT) series is part of an ongoing test program. In the third test (DIT-3), a full GPHS module was impacted at 58 m/s and 930 0 C. The module impacted the target at an angle of 30 0 to the pole of the large faces. The four capsules used in DIT-3 survived impact with minimal deformation; no internal cracks other than in the regions indicated by Savannah River Plant (SRP) preimpact nondestructive testing were observed in any of the capsules. The 30 0 impact orientation used in DIT-3 was considerably less severe than the flat-on impact utilized in DIT-1 and DIT-2. The four capsules used in DIT-1 survived, while two of the capsules used in DIT-2 breached; a small quantity (approx. = 50 μg) of 238 PuO 2 was released from the capsules breached in the DIT-2 impact. All of the capsules used in DIT-1 and DIT-2 were severely deformed and contained large internal cracks. Postimpact analyses of the DIT-3 test components are described, with emphasis on weld structure and the behavior of defects identified by SRP nondestructive testing

  16. Irradiation Test Plan and Safety Analysis of the Fatigue Capsule(05S-05K)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Man Soon; Kim, B. G.; Kang, Y. H.; Choo, K. N.; Sohn, J. M.; Park, S. J.; Shin, Y. T.; Seo, C. K

    2007-01-15

    In this report, the design, fabrication, the out-pile test and the irradiation test plan of the fatigue capsule 05S-05K were described and the safety aspect during the design, fabrication and irradiation test was reviewed. A cyclic load device necessary for the fatigue test was newly designed and manufactured. By using the cyclic load device the performance test and the preliminary fatigue test were performed with STS316L specimen of {phi}1.8 mm x 12.5 mm gage length under the same condition(550 .deg. C) as the temperature of the specimen during the irradiation test. As a result of the test, the fracture of the specimen occurs at a total of 70,120 cycles, at which the displacement was 2.02 mm. The reactivity effect was reviewed and an analysis for the structural and thermal integrity was performed to review the safety of the capsule, which will be irradiated at a temperature higher than 550 .deg. C And the thermal analysis shows that the temperatures of the parts are less than the melting temperatures of the corresponding materials. The structural analysis considering this temperature shows that the combined stress on the outer tube is less than the allowable stress limits and so the structural integrity is maintained.

  17. The ConCom Safety Management Scale: developing and testing a measurement instrument for control-based and commitment-based safety management approaches in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alingh, Carien W; Strating, Mathilde M H; van Wijngaarden, Jeroen D H; Paauwe, Jaap; Huijsman, Robbert

    2018-03-06

    Nursing management is considered important for patient safety. Prior research has predominantly focused on charismatic leadership styles, although it is questionable whether these best characterise the role of nurse managers. Managerial control is also relevant. Therefore, we aimed to develop and test a measurement instrument for control-based and commitment-based safety management of nurse managers in clinical hospital departments. A cross-sectional survey design was used to test the newly developed questionnaire in a sample of 2378 nurses working in clinical departments. The nurses were asked about their perceptions of the leadership behaviour and management practices of their direct supervisors. Psychometric properties were evaluated using confirmatory factor analysis and reliability estimates. The final 33-item questionnaire showed acceptable goodness-of-fit indices and internal consistency (Cronbach's α of the subscales range: 0.59-0.90). The factor structure revealed three subdimensions for control-based safety management: (1) stressing the importance of safety rules and regulations; (2) monitoring compliance; and (3) providing employees with feedback. Commitment-based management consisted of four subdimensions: (1) showing role modelling behaviour; (2) creating safety awareness; (3) showing safety commitment; and (4) encouraging participation. Construct validity of the scale was supported by high factor loadings and provided preliminary evidence that control-based and commitment-based safety management are two distinct yet related constructs. The findings were reconfirmed in a cross-validation procedure. The results provide initial support for the construct validity and reliability of our ConCom Safety Management Scale. Both management approaches were found to be relevant for managing patient safety in clinical hospital departments. The scale can be used to deepen our understanding of the influence of patient safety management on healthcare professionals

  18. Safety and Environment- Masterplan 2020 of DLR's Rocket Test Center Lampoldhausen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberzettl, Andreas; Dommers, Michael

    2013-09-01

    The German Aerospace Center DLR is the German research institute with approximately 7000 employees in 16 domestic locations. Among the research priorities of the German Aerospace Center DLR includes aerospace, energy and transport. DLR is institutionally supported by federal and state governments.Next funding sources arise in the context of third-party funds business (contract research and public contracts and subsidiaries). Main activities of the test center Lampoldshausen are testing of ARIANE's main and upper stage engines in the frame of ESA contracts.In the last years the test center of the DLR in Lampoldshausen has grown strongly, so that the number of employees is actually of about 230. The testing department is mainly responsible for rocket combustion testing according to customer requirements.Two kinds of test facilities are operated, sea level test benches and the altitude simulation test facilities.In addition to the DLR's growth also the activities of the industrial partner ASTRIUM has been elevated so that actually nearly 600 employees are present on site Lampoldshausen.The management of the site in relation to safety and security requires special measures with special respect to the presence of more people inside the testing area in order to guarantee trouble-free and safe experimental operation onsite the DLR's test plants. In order to meet with the future needs of continuing growth, the security and safety requirements have to be adopted.This report gives comprehensive outlook information about future possible scenarios of our coming tasks.Main driving force for future requests is the evolution of the rocket ARIANE. The testing of the new upper stage test facility for ARIANE 5 midlife evolution has been started. A new test position P5.2 is foreseen to perform the qualification of the new upper stage with the VINCI engine. This project will be very complex, in parallel running operation processes will require special procedures related to the overall

  19. Building America Case Study: Combustion Safety Simplified Test Protocol, Chicago Illinois, and Minneapolis, Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-12-01

    "9Combustion safety is an important step in the process of upgrading homes for energy efficiency. There are several approaches used by field practitioners, but researchers have indicated that the test procedures in use are complex to implement and provide too many false positives. Field failures often mean that the house is not upgraded until after remediation or not at all, if not include in the program. In this report the PARR and NorthernSTAR DOE Building America Teams provide a simplified test procedure that is easier to implement and should produce fewer false positives. A survey of state weatherization agencies on combustion safety issues, details of a field data collection instrumentation package, summary of data collected over seven months, data analysis and results are included. The project provides several key results. State weatherization agencies do not generally track combustion safety failures, the data from those that do suggest that there is little actual evidence that combustion safety failures due to spillage from non-dryer exhaust are common and that only a very small number of homes are subject to the failures. The project team collected field data on 11 houses in 2015. Of these homes, two houses that demonstrated prolonged and excessive spillage were also the only two with venting systems out of compliance with the National Fuel Gas Code. The remaining homes experienced spillage that only occasionally extended beyond the first minute of operation. Combustion zone depressurization, outdoor temperature, and operation of individual fans all provide statistically significant predictors of spillage.

  20. Assuring consumer safety without animal testing: a feasibility case study for skin sensitisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Gavin; Aleksic, Maja; Aptula, Aynur; Carmichael, Paul; Fentem, Julia; Gilmour, Nicola; Mackay, Cameron; Pease, Camilla; Pendlington, Ruth; Reynolds, Fiona; Scott, Daniel; Warner, Guy; Westmoreland, Carl

    2008-11-01

    Allergic Contact Dermatitis (ACD; chemical-induced skin sensitisation) represents a key consumer safety endpoint for the cosmetics industry. At present, animal tests (predominantly the mouse Local Lymph Node Assay) are used to generate skin sensitisation hazard data for use in consumer safety risk assessments. An animal testing ban on chemicals to be used in cosmetics will come into effect in the European Union (EU) from March 2009. This animal testing ban is also linked to an EU marketing ban on products containing any ingredients that have been subsequently tested in animals, from March 2009 or March 2013, depending on the toxicological endpoint of concern. Consequently, the testing of cosmetic ingredients in animals for their potential to induce skin sensitisation will be subject to an EU marketing ban, from March 2013 onwards. Our conceptual framework and strategy to deliver a non-animal approach to consumer safety risk assessment can be summarised as an evaluation of new technologies (e.g. 'omics', informatics), leading to the development of new non-animal (in silico and in vitro) predictive models for the generation and interpretation of new forms of hazard characterisation data, followed by the development of new risk assessment approaches to integrate these new forms of data and information in the context of human exposure. Following the principles of the conceptual framework, we have been investigating existing and developing new technologies, models and approaches, in order to explore the feasibility of delivering consumer safety risk assessment decisions in the absence of new animal data. We present here our progress in implementing this conceptual framework, with the skin sensitisation endpoint used as a case study. 2008 FRAME.

  1. An update to inplace testing of safety/relief valves utilizing lift assist technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heorman, K.R.

    1992-01-01

    Inplace testing of safety and relief valves with lift-assist devices has received mixed reviews from nuclear power plant testing personnel. While many plants use the technology, most limit its use to testing main steam safety valves (even though both OM-1-1981 and PTC 25.3-1976 allow its use for several different service applications). Test coordinator concerns regarding the technology range from lift set point accuracy and repeatability to the quality of the test result output. In addition, OM-1-1981 and PTC 25.3-1976 differ in their approach to the technology. The reasons for the differences between PTC 25.3-1976 and OM-1-1981 are discussed along with additional considerations applicable to the use of the technology in testing liquid service valves. This paper shows that lift assist technology is capable of determining lift set points within the accuracy requirements of OM-1 and PTC 25.3. It also demonstrates that the technology should not be limited to compressible service systems. Also, improvements in test repeatability and output quality are discussed as a function of the assist device design used and valve characteristics. Lift assist testing is often preferred over inplace testing that uses direct system pressure. It is often more cost efficient than bench testing because it does not require removal of critical systems from service and transportation of components. Also, duplicating system temperatures and other environmental factors is not an issue during inplace testing. Valve testing that once required an outage and maintenance period can now be conducted prior to such periods. This approach minimizes the possibility of failures becoming critical path limiting items

  2. A Method to Select Test Input Cases for Safety-critical Software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Heeeun; Kang, Hyungook; Son, Hanseong

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a new testing methodology for effective and realistic quantification of RPS software failure probability. Software failure probability quantification is important factor in digital system safety assessment. In this study, the method for software test case generation is briefly described. The test cases generated by this method reflect the characteristics of safety-critical software and past inputs. Furthermore, the number of test cases can be reduced, but it is possible to perform exhaustive test. Aspect of software also can be reflected as failure data, so the final failure data can include the failure of software itself and external influences. Software reliability is generally accepted as the key factor in software quality since it quantifies software failures which can make a powerful system inoperative. In the KNITS (Korea Nuclear Instrumentation and Control Systems) project, the software for the fully digitalized reactor protection system (RPS) was developed under a strict procedure including unit testing and coverage measurement. Black box testing is one type of Verification and validation (V and V), in which given input values are entered and the resulting output values are compared against the expected output values. Programmable logic controllers (PLCs) were used in implementing critical systems and function block diagram (FBD) is a commonly used implementation language for PLC

  3. Wind Turbine Generator System Safety and Function Test Report for the Southwest Windpower H40 Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Dam, J.; Link, H.; Meadors, M.; Bianchi, J.

    2002-06-01

    The objective of this test was to evaluate the safety and function characteristics of the Whisper H40 wind turbine. The general requirements of wind turbine safety and function tests are defined in the IEC standard WT01. The testing was conducted in accordance with the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) Quality Assurance System, including the NWTC Certification Team Certification Quality Manual and the NWTC Certification Team General Quality Manual for the Testing of Wind Turbines, as well as subordinate documents. This safety and function test was performed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Field Verification Program for small wind turbines.

  4. 10 CFR 32.101 - Schedule B-prototype tests for luminous safety devices for use in aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....101 Schedule B—prototype tests for luminous safety devices for use in aircraft. An applicant for a... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Schedule B-prototype tests for luminous safety devices for use in aircraft. 32.101 Section 32.101 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION SPECIFIC DOMESTIC LICENSES...

  5. Safety analyses for an in-pile SCWR fuel qualification test loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulenberg, T.; Raque, M. [Karlsruhe Inst. of Tech., Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    As a nuclear facility cooled with supercritical water has never been built nor operated in the past, the planned SCWR fuel qualification test will give the first experience with supercritical water-cooled nuclear systems in general. With a fuel inventory of almost 1 kg of UO{sub 2} with almost 20% enrichment, the supercritical pressure test section inside a low pressure, pool type research reactor needs to be cooled properly even in case of a number of postulated design basis accidents. Depressurization systems and emergency cooling systems will need to be designed with similar reliability as for a prototype reactor to ensure the integrity of barriers retaining the radioactive material. The paper reports about the safety concept and summarizes the safety analyses which have been performed in this context. (author)

  6. Relocation work of temporary thermocouples for measuring the vessel cooling system in the safety demonstration test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimazaki, Yosuke; Shinohara, Masanori; Ono, Masato; Yanagi, Shunki; Tochio, Daisuke; Iigaki, Kazuhiko

    2012-05-01

    It is necessary to confirm that the temperature of water cooling panel of the vessel cooling system (VCS) is controlled under the allowable working temperature during the safety demonstration test because the water cooling panel temperature rises due to stop of cooling water circulation pumps. Therefore, several temporary thermocouples are relocated to the water cooling panel near the stabilizers of RPV and the side cooling panel outlet ring header of VCS in order to observe the temperature change of VCS. The relocated thermocouples can measure the temperature change with starting of the cooling water circulation pumps of VCS. So it is confirmed that the relocated thermocouples can observe the VCS temperature change in the safety demonstration test. (author)

  7. Safety assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations used as ingredients in food supplements: testing an European Food Safety Authority-tiered approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speijers, Gerrit; Bottex, Bernard; Dusemund, Birgit; Lugasi, Andrea; Tóth, Jaroslav; Amberg-Müller, Judith; Galli, Corrado L; Silano, Vittorio; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2010-02-01

    This article describes results obtained by testing the European Food Safety Authority-tiered guidance approach for safety assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations intended for use in food supplements. Main conclusions emerging are as follows. (i) Botanical ingredients must be identified by their scientific (binomial) name, in most cases down to the subspecies level or lower. (ii) Adequate characterization and description of the botanical parts and preparation methodology used is needed. Safety of a botanical ingredient cannot be assumed only relying on the long-term safe use of other preparations of the same botanical. (iii) Because of possible adulterations, misclassifications, replacements or falsifications, and restorations, establishment of adequate quality control is necessary. (iv) The strength of the evidence underlying concerns over a botanical ingredient should be included in the safety assessment. (v) The matrix effect should be taken into account in the safety assessment on a case-by-case basis. (vi) Adequate data and methods for appropriate exposure assessment are often missing. (vii) Safety regulations concerning toxic contaminants have to be complied with. The application of the guidance approach can result in the conclusion that safety can be presumed, that the botanical ingredient is of safety concern, or that further data are needed to assess safety.

  8. Review of domestic and international experience on optimization of tests planning for safety related systems at NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skalozubov, V.I.; Komarov, Yu.A.; Kolykanov, V.N.; Kochneva, V.Yu.; Gablaya, T.V.

    2009-01-01

    There are represented the basic requirements of normative and operating documents on test periodicity of safety related systems at NPPs, sets out the theoretical methods of test optimization of the technical systems, and analyses foreign engineering methods for changing test periodicity of the NPP systems. Based on this review analyses further tasks are formulated for improvement of the methodical base of optimization of tests planning for safety related systems

  9. FFTF [Fast Flux Test Facility] performance measurements for safety, productivity and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newland, D.J.; Praetorius, P.R.; Tomaszewski, T.A.

    1987-05-01

    A useful set of performance measurements for Safety, Productivity and Control has evolved at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). In response to declining budgets and the resulting need to safely manage a manpower rampdown, an ''Early Warning System'' was developed in 1984. Its purpose was to monitor the effects of the staffing rampdown such that appropriate remedial action could be taken to correct adverse trends before a significant problem occurred. 1 tab

  10. SIMBOL test facility. Safety aspects. Amended version; SIMBOL experimenteerfaciliteit. Veiligheidsaspecten. Geamendeerde versie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoonewelle, H.

    1995-12-01

    A detailed description is given of the bubble chamber SIMBOL at the HOR reactor in Delft, Netherlands, including drawings, applied materials and dimensions. Attention is paid to the nuclear and radiological aspects of the installation and an overview is given of the procedures for the realization, the testing and the operational safety of the chamber. Also the results of a failure and accident analysis are presented. Finally, the dismantlement aspects are dealt with. 5 appendices, 12 refs.

  11. Safety Testing of AGR-2 UCO Compacts 6-4-2 and 2-3-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunn, John D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Morris, Robert N. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Baldwin, Charles A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Burns, Zachary M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Montgomery, Fred C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Skitt, Darren J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Post-irradiation examination (PIE) and elevated-temperature safety testing are being performed on tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) coated-particle fuel compacts from the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program second irradiation experiment (AGR-2). Details on this irradiation experiment have been previously reported [Collin 2014]. The AGR-2 PIE effort builds upon the understanding acquired throughout the AGR-1 PIE campaign [Demkowicz et al. 2015] and is establishing a database for the different AGR-2 fuel designs.

  12. Safety test results of lithium-thionyl chloride wound-type cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallin, D.; Broussely, M. (British Columbia Univ., Vancouver (Canada))

    1989-05-01

    Increase in the use of spirally-wound, lithium-thionyl chloride cells is currently limited because of unsafe incidents which have been reported during the early stage of development of this product. Today, it is believed that these cells are safe over a wide range of operating conditions if properly designed. The paper describes the external and internal SAFT design of Li-SOCl2LSH series cells, as well as the results of safety tests. 6 refs.

  13. Safety test results of lithium-thionyl chloride wound-type cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallin, D.; Broussely, M.

    1989-05-01

    Increase in the use of spirally-wound, lithium-thionyl chloride cells is currently limited because of unsafe incidents which have been reported during the early stage of development of this product. Today, it is believed that these cells are safe over a wide range of operating conditions if properly designed. The paper describes the external and internal SAFT design of Li-SOCl2LSH series cells, as well as the results of safety tests.

  14. JRR-3 cold neutron source facility H2-O2 explosion safety proof testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hibi, T.; Fuse, H.; Takahashi, H.; Akutsu, C.; Kumai, T.; Kawabata, Y.

    1990-01-01

    A cold Neutron Source (CNS) will be installed in Japan Research Reactor-3 (JRR-3) in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) during its remodeling project. This CNS holds liquid hydrogen at a temperature of about 20 K as a cold neutron source moderator in the heavy water area of the reactor to moderate thermal neutrons from the reactor to cold neutrons of about 5 meV energy. In the hydrogen circuit of the CNS safety measures are taken to prevent oxygen/hydrogen reaction (H 2 -O 2 explosion). It is also designed in such manner that, should an H 2 -O 2 explosion take place, the soundness of all the components can be maintained so as not to harm the reactor safety. A test hydrogen circuit identical to that of the CNS (real components designed by TECHNICATOME of France) was manufactured to conduct the H 2 -O 2 explosion test. In this test, the detonation that is the severest phenomenon of the oxygen/hydrogen reaction took place in the test hydrogen circuit to measure the exerted pressure on the components and their strain, deformation, leakage, cracking, etc. Based on the results of this measurement, the structural strength of the test hydrogen circuit was analyzed. The results of this test show that the hydrogen circuit components have sufficient structural strength to withstand an oxygen/hydrogen reaction

  15. In-pile irradiation test program and safety analysis report of the KAERI fuel for HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Wan; Ryu, Woo Suck; Byun, Taek Sang; Park, Jong Man; Lee, Byung Chul; Kim, Hack No; Park, Hee Tae; Kim, Chang Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-05-01

    Localization of HANARO fuel has been carried out successfully, and design and fabrication technologies of the fuel are recently arrived the final stage of development. The performance of the fuel which has been fabricated in KAERI is confirmed through out-of-pile characterization, and the quality assurance procedure and assessment criteria are described. In order to verify the KAERI fuel, thus, in-pile irradiation test program of the KAERI fuel is scheduled in HANARO. This report summarizes the in-pile testing schedule, design documents of test rods and assemblies, fabrication history and out-of-pile characteristics of test rods, irradiation test condition and power history, post-irradiation examination scheme, linear power generation distribution, and safety analysis results. The design code for HANARO fuel is used to analyze the centerline temperature and swelling of the KAERI fuels. The results show that at 120 kW/m of linear power the maximum centerline temperature is 267 deg C which is much lower than the limitation temperature of 350 deg C, and that the swelling is 9.3 % at 95 at% lower than criterion of 20 %. Therefore, the KAERI fuels of this in-pile irradiation test is assessed to show good performance of integrity and safety in HANARO. 10 tabs., 7 figs., 3 refs. (Author).

  16. The need to optimize inservice testing and inspection to enhance safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    Welcome to the Fourth U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and American Society of Mechanical Engineers (USNRC/ASME) Symposium on Valve and Pump Testing in Nuclear Power Plants. This symposium provides a forum to exchange information on technical and regulatory issues associated with the testing of valves and pumps used in nuclear power plants. Progress made since the last symposium will be discussed along with various methods for in service testing of valves and pumps. Active participation by industry representatives, regulators and consultants will entail discussion of a broad array of ideas and points of view regarding how to improve the in service testing of valves and pumps at nuclear power plants. One of the challenges faced is the need to optimize the in service testing and inspection to enhance safety, operability and reliability. The author addresses this challenge from an ASME Nuclear Codes and Standards point of view

  17. The need to optimize inservice testing and inspection to enhance safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, J.A.

    1996-12-01

    Welcome to the Fourth U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and American Society of Mechanical Engineers (USNRC/ASME) Symposium on Valve and Pump Testing in Nuclear Power Plants. This symposium provides a forum to exchange information on technical and regulatory issues associated with the testing of valves and pumps used in nuclear power plants. Progress made since the last symposium will be discussed along with various methods for in service testing of valves and pumps. Active participation by industry representatives, regulators and consultants will entail discussion of a broad array of ideas and points of view regarding how to improve the in service testing of valves and pumps at nuclear power plants. One of the challenges faced is the need to optimize the in service testing and inspection to enhance safety, operability and reliability. The author addresses this challenge from an ASME Nuclear Codes and Standards point of view.

  18. Digital System Reliability Test for the Evaluation of safety Critical Software of Digital Reactor Protection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Kook Shin

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A new Digital Reactor Protection System (DRPS based on VME bus Single Board Computer has been developed by KOPEC to prevent software Common Mode Failure(CMF inside digital system. The new DRPS has been proved to be an effective digital safety system to prevent CMF by Defense-in-Depth and Diversity (DID&D analysis. However, for practical use in Nuclear Power Plants, the performance test and the reliability test are essential for the digital system qualification. In this study, a single channel of DRPS prototype has been manufactured for the evaluation of DRPS capabilities. The integrated functional tests are performed and the system reliability is analyzed and tested. The results of reliability test show that the application software of DRPS has a very high reliability compared with the analog reactor protection systems.

  19. Instrumentation of fuel safety test rods of the PWR system in the Phebus reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schley, Robert; Leveque, J.P.; Aujollet, J.M.; Dutraive, Pierre; Colome, Jean; Bouly, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    The tests were performed in an experimental cell centred in the core of the PHEBUS water reactor of 50 MW. The CEA make two types of apparatus for testing the safety of PWR fuel. One is for testing a single fuel stick and the other a bunch of 25 sticks. The instrumentation described enables the main parameters of the test to be known: temperatures of the fuel - central temperature of the UO 2 - cladding surface temperatures; temperature of the cooling circuits - thermal balance - temperatures of the structures, etc.; coolant pressure; internal pressure of the fuel sticks; direction and flow rate of the fluid. This instrumentation and the technological problems to be overcome are described and the results of the first tests carried out are given [fr

  20. Addressing conflicts of interest in nanotechnology oversight: lessons learned from drug and pesticide safety testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Kevin C., E-mail: ke@sc.edu [University of South Carolina, Department of Philosophy, USC NanoCenter (United States); Volz, David C. [University of South Carolina, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Arnold School of Public Health (United States)

    2012-01-15

    Financial conflicts of interest raise significant challenges for those working to develop an effective, transparent, and trustworthy oversight system for assessing and managing the potential human health and ecological hazards of nanotechnology. A recent paper in this journal by Ramachandran et al., J Nanopart Res, 13:1345-1371 (2011) proposed a two-pronged approach for addressing conflicts of interest: (1) developing standardized protocols and procedures to guide safety testing; and (2) vetting safety data under a coordinating agency. Based on past experiences with standardized test guidelines developed by the international Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and implemented by national regulatory agencies such as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Food and Drug Administration (FDA), we argue that this approach still runs the risk of allowing conflicts of interest to influence toxicity tests, and it has the potential to commit regulatory agencies to outdated procedures. We suggest an alternative approach that further distances the design and interpretation of safety studies from those funding the research. In case the two-pronged approach is regarded as a more politically feasible solution, we also suggest three lessons for implementing this strategy in a more dynamic and effective manner.

  1. Addressing conflicts of interest in nanotechnology oversight: lessons learned from drug and pesticide safety testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, Kevin C.; Volz, David C.

    2012-01-01

    Financial conflicts of interest raise significant challenges for those working to develop an effective, transparent, and trustworthy oversight system for assessing and managing the potential human health and ecological hazards of nanotechnology. A recent paper in this journal by Ramachandran et al., J Nanopart Res, 13:1345–1371 (2011) proposed a two-pronged approach for addressing conflicts of interest: (1) developing standardized protocols and procedures to guide safety testing; and (2) vetting safety data under a coordinating agency. Based on past experiences with standardized test guidelines developed by the international Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and implemented by national regulatory agencies such as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Food and Drug Administration (FDA), we argue that this approach still runs the risk of allowing conflicts of interest to influence toxicity tests, and it has the potential to commit regulatory agencies to outdated procedures. We suggest an alternative approach that further distances the design and interpretation of safety studies from those funding the research. In case the two-pronged approach is regarded as a more politically feasible solution, we also suggest three lessons for implementing this strategy in a more dynamic and effective manner.

  2. Addressing conflicts of interest in nanotechnology oversight: lessons learned from drug and pesticide safety testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Kevin C.; Volz, David C.

    2012-01-01

    Financial conflicts of interest raise significant challenges for those working to develop an effective, transparent, and trustworthy oversight system for assessing and managing the potential human health and ecological hazards of nanotechnology. A recent paper in this journal by Ramachandran et al., J Nanopart Res, 13:1345-1371 (2011) proposed a two-pronged approach for addressing conflicts of interest: (1) developing standardized protocols and procedures to guide safety testing; and (2) vetting safety data under a coordinating agency. Based on past experiences with standardized test guidelines developed by the international Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and implemented by national regulatory agencies such as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Food and Drug Administration (FDA), we argue that this approach still runs the risk of allowing conflicts of interest to influence toxicity tests, and it has the potential to commit regulatory agencies to outdated procedures. We suggest an alternative approach that further distances the design and interpretation of safety studies from those funding the research. In case the two-pronged approach is regarded as a more politically feasible solution, we also suggest three lessons for implementing this strategy in a more dynamic and effective manner.

  3. Safety evaluation of the loss of fluid test facility project No. 394

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-05-01

    Assessment of the safety of the LOFT facility and subsequent recommendations have been based on a comparison of the LOFT facility to requirements for commercial power reactors. In this comparison, the many unique features of the LOFT facility were considered including the low power level, the limited operational use as a test reactor, and the remoteness of the site. Based on this assessment, it is concluded, that while the likelihood of an accidental release of fission products may be greater than for a commercial power reactor, the consequences of such a release are reduced by the lower fission product inventory, the remoteness of the site and the capability of evacuating the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and adjacent areas. There is reasonable assurance that the public health and safety will not be endangered due to operation of this facility, specifically: The INEL site is acceptable with respect to location, land use, population distribution, controlled access, hydrology, meteorology, geology and seismology. Sufficient engineered safety features have been included to assure that the potential offsite doses are well within 10 CFR Part 100 guidelines. The LOFT facility has been designed in general accordance with standards, guides and codes which are comparable to those applied to commercial power reactors and any exceptions to these have been based on the unique features of the LOFT facility. Certain matters including the final safety analyses based on detailed component designs, Technical Specifications, LOCE controls and detailed program plan have not been reviewed but we assume will properly be resolved by ERDA, which has the ultimate responsibility for the safety of this facility. Changes to the facility design or program plan such as removal of the fueled Mobile Test Assembly or blowdowns to the containment vessel also will require additional analyses and review. (U.S.)

  4. A study on the safety of TBP(150A) with forming analysis and strength test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sung Ho; Kim, Hei Song

    2008-01-01

    For this study, the forming analyses and body strength tests of TBP were performed on the main pipe size 150A(KS D3507, KS D 3576 10S). The branched pipe sizes utilized were 25A, 32A, 40A, 50A, 65A, 80A, 100A and 125A. A general FEM program, ABAQUS, was used as the forming analyses method of TBP. Using the results, the strength of TBP was then tested in order to determine the safety of TBP when the working pressure was applied. The results indicate that TBP may be safely used in water-based fire protection pipe systems in terms of the strength

  5. Final safety analysis report for the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA), Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-10-01

    This document is the second volume of a 3 volume safety analysis report on the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA). The GTA program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is the major element of the national Neutral Particle Beam (NPB) program, which is supported by the Strategic Defense Initiative Office (SDIO). A principal goal of the national NPB program is to assess the feasibility of using hydrogen and deuterium neutral particle beams outside the Earth`s atmosphere. The main effort of the NPB program at Los Alamos concentrates on developing the GTA. The GTA is classified as a low-hazard facility, except for the cryogenic-cooling system, which is classified as a moderate-hazard facility. This volume consists of failure modes and effects analysis; accident analysis; operational safety requirements; quality assurance program; ES&H management program; environmental, safety, and health systems critical to safety; summary of waste-management program; environmental monitoring program; facility expansion, decontamination, and decommissioning; summary of emergency response plan; summary plan for employee training; summary plan for operating procedures; glossary; and appendices A and B.

  6. Testing the performance of microbiological safety cabinets used in microbiology laboratories in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, S H; Yi, T W; Cho, K H; Lee, I M; Yoon, C S

    2011-09-01

    To test a performance of the microbiological safety cabinets (MSCs) according to the type of MSCs in microbial laboratories. Tests were carried out to assess the performance of 31 MSCs in 14 different facilities, including six different biological test laboratories in six hospitals and eight different laboratories in three universities. The following tests were performed on the MSCs: the downflow test, intake velocity test, high-efficiency particulate air filter leak test and the airflow smoke pattern test. These performance tests were carried out in accordance with the standard procedures. Only 23% of Class II A1 (8), A2 (19) and unknown MSCs (4) passed these performance tests. The main reasons for the failure of MSCs were inappropriate intake velocity (65%), leakage in the HEPA filter sealing (50%), unbalanced airflow smoke pattern in the cabinets (39%) and inappropriate downflow (27%). This study showed that routine checks of MSCs are important to detect and strengthen the weak spots that frequently develop, as observed during the evaluation of the MSCs of various institutions. Routine evaluation and maintenance of MSCs are critical for optimizing performance. © 2011 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Safety Evaluation Test on Human for Radiation Pre vulcanised Natural Rubber Latex (RVNRL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pairu Ibrahim; Wan Manshol Wan Zain; Chai, Chee Keong; Sofian Ibrahim; Saadiah Sulaiman; Sharifah Ismail

    2010-01-01

    This paper discussed about clinical test conducted to determine safety evaluations on human for latex examination gloves and latex films made from Radiation Vulcanized Natural Rubber Latex (RVNRL). Two types of test were being adopted which are i) Modified Draize-95 test and ii) Patch Test on Sensitized Individuals. Modified Draize-95 test was conducted on 200 non-sensitized human subjects and Patch Test on Sensitized Individuals was conducted on 25 individuals who are allergic to the defined major chemical sensitizer presents in natural rubber product. It was found that Modified Draize-95 test has prove that there is no clinical evidence on the presence of residual chemical additives at the level that may induce Type IV allergy in the un sensitized general user population in the RVNRL gloves. Meanwhile Patch Test on Sensitized Individuals has proved that the patch test conducted using the test article on 25 individuals who are allergic to the defined major chemical sensitizers present in natural rubber products, thiuram, carbamates or thiazoles produced a negative response, meeting the pre requirement for the claim of reduced reaction-inducing potential. (author)

  8. Technology Development for Integrated Safety Test of Spent Nuclear Fuel Transportation and Storage System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Kiseog; Seo, J. S.; Lee, J. C.

    2012-05-01

    A dedicated review on the U. S. NRC Regulation 10 CFR Part 72 and regulatory guide NUREG/1536 has been performed. The safety requirements for spent nuclear fuel dry storage cask are analyzed and summarized in structural, thermal, shielding, criticality, materials, tests and maintenance aspects. Also a guideline for preparing the safety analysis report is provided. The heat flow analysis was performed by varying the dimensions of the heat flow test facility. From the heat flow analysis for the test facility, as the test facility became test facility. From the heat flow analysis for the test facility, as the test facility became bigger; the thermal effect became smaller. Therefore, the dimensions of the heat flow test facility was designed with 5m Χ 5m Χ 6m(H). Analyses of heat transfer characteristics and mechanism for spent PWR fuel assemblies, option study for production of the effective thermal conductivity and option study for effective thermal conductivity test have been performed to obtain the basic data for production of the effective thermal conductivity. It became clear that the diffusion coefficient of chloride ion of concrete remarkably increases along with the temperature rise, and that there is a linear relation between the logarithm values of the diffusion coefficients and the reciprocal of the temperature. It is understood to be able to express the temperature dependency of the diffusion coefficient roughly by an Arrhenius equation as the velocity coefficient is provided as the diffusion coefficient. The specifications and characteristics of storage facilities under operation including dual purpose casks were investigated. Components subject to material degradation were examined. Based on literature survey, investigating a drop analysis incorporating with material degradation, the basic data to develop an analysis methodology was obtained

  9. HIGH-TEMPERATURE SAFETY TESTING OF IRRADIATED AGR-1 TRISO FUEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stempien, John D.; Demkowicz, Paul A.; Reber, Edward L.; Chrisensen, Cad L.

    2016-11-01

    High-Temperature Safety Testing of Irradiated AGR-1 TRISO Fuel John D. Stempien, Paul A. Demkowicz, Edward L. Reber, and Cad L. Christensen Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625 Idaho Falls, ID 83415, USA Corresponding Author: john.stempien@inl.gov, +1-208-526-8410 Two new safety tests of irradiated tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coated particle fuel have been completed in the Fuel Accident Condition Simulator (FACS) furnace at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). In the first test, three fuel compacts from the first Advanced Gas Reactor irradiation experiment (AGR-1) were simultaneously heated in the FACS furnace. Prior to safety testing, each compact was irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor to a burnup of approximately 15 % fissions per initial metal atom (FIMA), a fast fluence of 3×1025 n/m2 (E > 0.18 MeV), and a time-average volume-average (TAVA) irradiation temperature of about 1020 °C. In order to simulate a core-conduction cool-down event, a temperature-versus-time profile having a peak temperature of 1700 °C was programmed into the FACS furnace controllers. Gaseous fission products (i.e., Kr-85) were carried to the Fission Gas Monitoring System (FGMS) by a helium sweep gas and captured in cold traps featuring online gamma counting. By the end of the test, a total of 3.9% of an average particle’s inventory of Kr-85 was detected in the FGMS traps. Such a low Kr-85 activity indicates that no TRISO failures (failure of all three TRISO layers) occurred during the test. If released from the compacts, condensable fission products (e.g., Ag-110m, Cs-134, Cs-137, Eu-154, Eu-155, and Sr-90) were collected on condensation plates fitted to the end of the cold finger in the FACS furnace. These condensation plates were then analyzed for fission products. In the second test, five loose UCO fuel kernels, obtained from deconsolidated particles from an irradiated AGR-1 compact, were heated in the FACS furnace to a peak temperature of 1600 °C. This test had two

  10. Environmental assessment of general-purpose heat source safety verification testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-02-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) was prepared to identify and evaluate potential environmental, safety, and health impacts associated with the Proposed Action to test General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) assemblies at the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) 10,000-Foot Sled Track Facility, Albuquerque, New Mexico. RTGs are used to provide a reliable source of electrical power on board some spacecraft when solar power is inadequate during long duration space missions. These units are designed to convert heat from the natural decay of radioisotope fuel into electrical power. Impact test data are required to support DOE's mission to provide radioisotope power systems to NASA and other user agencies. The proposed tests will expand the available safety database regarding RTG performance under postulated accident conditions. Direct observations and measurements of GPHS/RTG performance upon impact with hard, unyielding surfaces are required to verify model predictions and to ensure the continual evolution of the RTG designs that perform safely under varied accident environments. The Proposed Action is to conduct impact testing of RTG sections containing GPHS modules with simulated fuel. End-On and Side-On impact test series are planned

  11. PC based manual and safety logic card test setup for 235 MWe PHWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandgadkar, G.M.; Kohli, A.K.; Agarwal, R.G.; Chandra, Rajesh

    1992-01-01

    Fuel handling controls for 235 MWe PHWR make use of Manual and Logic cards (MLCs) for providing safety interlocks. These cards consist of various type of logic blocks. By connecting these logic blocks all the safety interlocks required for fuel handling controls have been provided. Previously trouble shooting of these cards was done by means of logic probe. Since the method was manual, it was laborious and time consuming. PC based test setup has overcome this drawback and detects the fault at the component level within few seconds. It also gives printout of status of faulty MLC cards. Here motherboard has been designed having slots for insertion of MLC cards. The input/output connection of these cards are coming to two 50 pin FRC connectors. PC communicates through 144 line digital input/output card with MLC card under test. Software is user friendly and outputs suitable input patterns to the card under test and checks for output pattern. It compares this output pattern with compare pattern and detects the fault and displays the symptoms. This system is currently in use at test facility for fuelling machine for 235 MWe PHWR reactor at Refuelling Technology Division, Hall-7. This test setup has been proposed for use at NAPP and future reactors. (author). 4 figs., 1 annexure

  12. Test study on safety features of station blackout accident for nuclear main pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiajie; Wang Dezhong; Zhang Jige; Liu Junsheng; Yang Zhe

    2009-01-01

    The theoretical and experimental studies of reactor coolant pump accidents encountered nation-wide and world-wide were described. To investigate the transient hydrodynamic performance of reactor coolant pump (RCP) during the period of rotational inertia in the station blackout accident, some theoretical and experimental studies were carried out, and the analysis of the test results was presented. The experiment parameters, conditions and test methods were introduced. The flow-rate, rotate speed and vibrations were analyzed emphatically. The quadruplicate polynomial curve equation was used to simulate the flow-rate,rotate speed along with time. The test results indicate that the flow-rate and rotator speed decrease rapidly at the very beginning of cut power and the test results accord with the regulation of safety standard. The vibrant displacement of bearing seat is intensified at the moment of lose power, but after a certain period rotor shaft libration changes. The test and analysis results help to understand the hydrodynamic performance of nuclear primary pump under lost of power accident, and provide the basic reference for safety evaluation. (authors)

  13. PIE on Safety-Tested Loose Particles from Irradiated Compact 4-4-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunn, John D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gerczak, Tyler J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Morris, Robert Noel [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Baldwin, Charles A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Montgomery, Fred C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Post-irradiation examination (PIE) is being performed in support of tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coated particle fuel development and qualification for High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGRs). This work is sponsored by the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) through the Advanced Reactor Technologies (ART) Office under the Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification (AGR) Program. The AGR-1 experiment was the first in a series of TRISO fuel irradiation tests initiated in 2006. The AGR-1 TRISO particles and fuel compacts were fabricated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in 2006 using laboratory-scale equipment and irradiated for 3 years in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to demonstrate and evaluate fuel performance under HTGR irradiation conditions. Post-irradiation examination was performed at INL and ORNL to study how the fuel behaved during irradiation, and to test fuel performance during exposure to elevated temperatures at or above temperatures that could occur during a depressurized conduction cooldown event. This report summarizes safety testing and post-safety testing PIE conducted at ORNL on loose particles extracted from irradiated AGR-1 Compact 4-4-2.

  14. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Plagge, C. Schaefer and N. Dupont

    2013-01-01

    Fire Safety – Essential for a particle detector The CMS detector is a marvel of high technology, one of the most precise particle measurement devices we have built until now. Of course it has to be protected from external and internal incidents like the ones that can occur from fires. Due to the fire load, the permanent availability of oxygen and the presence of various ignition sources mostly based on electricity this has to be addressed. Starting from the beam pipe towards the magnet coil, the detector is protected by flooding it with pure gaseous nitrogen during operation. The outer shell of CMS, namely the yoke and the muon chambers are then covered by an emergency inertion system also based on nitrogen. To ensure maximum fire safety, all materials used comply with the CERN regulations IS 23 and IS 41 with only a few exceptions. Every piece of the 30-tonne polyethylene shielding is high-density material, borated, boxed within steel and coated with intumescent (a paint that creates a thick co...

  15. Food Safety Practices Assessment Tool: An Innovative Way to Test Food Safety Skills among Individuals with Special Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Elena T.; Scarpati, Stanley E.; Pivarnik, Lori F.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes an innovative assessment tool designed to evaluate the effectiveness of a food safety skills curriculum for learners receiving special education services. As schools respond to the increased demand for training students with special needs about food safety, the need for effective curricula and tools is also increasing. A…

  16. Disgruntled employees challenge GPU on TMI-2 polar crane safety, say load test needed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smock, R.

    1983-01-01

    Workers at the Three Mile Island No. 2 unit have gone public with their complaint that General Public Utilities (GPU) Corp. is ignoring safety at the cleanup site. With the exception of a specific concern over an overhead crane inside the containment building, however, the charges are vague. The polar crane will be used to lift the 170 to 180-ton reactor vessel head later this year, but a plant engineer faults the planned test procedure because it calls for lifting 40-ton missile shields from above the reactor before the crane is tested for strength. If the crane fails when lifting the missile shields, the engineer contends, there could be another loss of coolant. GPU rejected a 50-ton test of the crane because it is not required and because the risk is virtually zero. The utility also argues that additional testing will only increase exposure for the workers. 1 figure

  17. Supporting documents for LLL area 27 (410 area) safety analysis reports, Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odell, B. N. [comp.

    1977-02-01

    The following appendices are common to the LLL Safety Analysis Reports Nevada Test Site and are included here as supporting documents to those reports: Environmental Monitoring Report for the Nevada Test Site and Other Test Areas Used for Underground Nuclear Detonations, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Las Vegas, Rept. EMSL-LV-539-4 (1976); Selected Census Information Around the Nevada Test Site, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Las Vegas, Rept. NERC-LV-539-8 (1973); W. J. Hannon and H. L. McKague, An Examination of the Geology and Seismology Associated with Area 410 at the Nevada Test Site, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Rept. UCRL-51830 (1975); K. R. Peterson, Diffusion Climatology for Hypothetical Accidents in Area 410 of the Nevada Test Site, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Rept. UCRL-52074 (1976); J. R. McDonald, J. E. Minor, and K. C. Mehta, Development of a Design Basis Tornado and Structural Design Criteria for the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Rept. UCRL-13668 (1975); A. E. Stevenson, Impact Tests of Wind-Borne Wooden Missiles, Sandia Laboratories, Tonopah, Rept. SAND 76-0407 (1976); and Hydrology of the 410 Area (Area 27) at the Nevada Test Site.

  18. Test results of Run-1 and Run-2 in steam generator safety test facility (SWAT-3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, A.; Yatabe, Toshio; Tanabe, Hiromi; Hiroi, Hiroshi

    2003-07-01

    Large leak sodium-water reaction tests were carried out using SWAT-1 rig and SWAT-3 facility in Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) O-arai Engineering Center to obtain the data on the design of the prototype LMFBR Monju steam generator against a large leak accident. This report provides the results of SWAT-3 Runs 1 and 2. In Runs 1 and 2, the heat transfer tube bundle of the evaporator, fabricated by TOSHIBA/IHI, were used, and the pressure relief line was located at the top of evaporator. The water injection rates in the evaporator were 6.7 kg/s and 14.2 (initial)-9.7 kg/s in Runs 1 and 2 respectively, which corresponded to 3.3 tubes and 7.1 (initial)-4.8 tubes failure in actual size system according to iso-velocity modeling. Approximately two hundreds of measurement points were provided to collect data such as pressure, temperature, strain, sodium level, void, thrust load, acceleration, displacement, flow rate, and so on in each run. Initial spike pressures were 1.13 MPa and 2.62 MPa nearest to injection point in Runs 1 and 2 respectively, and the maximum quasi-steady pressures in evaporator were 0.49 MPa and 0.67 MPa in Runs 1 and 2. No secondary tube failure was observed. The rupture disc of evaporator (RD601) burst at 1.1s in Run-1 and at 0.7s in Run-2 after water injected, and the pressure relief system was well-functioned though a few items for improvement were found. (author)

  19. Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.M.S.

    1987-01-01

    Aspects of fission reactors are considered - control, heat removal and containment. Brief descriptions of the reactor accidents at the SL-1 reactor (1961), Windscale (1957), Browns Ferry (1975), Three Mile Island (1979) and Chernobyl (1986) are given. The idea of inherently safe reactor designs is discussed. Safety assessment is considered under the headings of preliminary hazard analysis, failure mode analysis, event trees, fault trees, common mode failure and probabalistic risk assessments. These latter can result in a series of risk distributions linked to specific groups of fault sequences and specific consequences. A frequency-consequence diagram is shown. Fatal accident incidence rates in different countries including the United Kingdom for various industries are quoted. The incidence of fatal cancers from occupational exposure to chemicals is tabulated. Human factors and the acceptability of risk are considered. (U.K.)

  20. 30 CFR 56.14107 - Moving machine parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Moving machine parts. 56.14107 Section 56.14107... Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14107 Moving machine parts. (a) Moving machine parts... takeup pulleys, flywheels, couplings, shafts, fan blades, and similar moving parts that can cause injury...

  1. Human rights vs. Public safety -- When can you test your workers for drugs?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kossowan, B. L.

    2002-06-01

    Legislative and regulatory aspects of drug testing of employees vs. public safety are discussed. While in Canada federal and provincial laws concerning human rights take precedence over public safety issues, laws and regulations vary from province to province, therefore there is good reason for concern about uncertainty. To compound the uncertainty, certain relevant laws of the United States are different (generally more stringent than corresponding Canadian laws), consequently there is the possibility that certain American companies might feel justified in refusing to do business with Canadian firms that do not follow their rigid standards. The conclusion is that while the situation may be clear enough in a legal situation, it does not always work equally well in practice. Unfortunately, at the present time there is not a whole lot of guidance available for companies to manage the workplace in a practical sense.

  2. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) plutonium recycle test reactor graphite cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, T.

    1997-01-01

    This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) provides the evaluation necessary to demonstrate that the Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) Graphite Cask meets the requirements of WHC-CM-2-14, Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping, for transfer of Type B, fissile, non-highway route controlled quantities of radioactive material within the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. The scope of this SEP includes risk, shieldling, criticality, and.tiedown analyses to demonstrate that onsite transportation safety requirements are satisfied. This SEP also establishes operational and maintenance guidelines to ensure that transport of the PRTR Graphite Cask is performed safely in accordance with WHC-CM-2-14. This SEP is valid until October 1, 1999. After this date, an update or upgrade to this document is required

  3. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) plutonium recycle test reactor graphite cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, T.

    1997-09-29

    This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) provides the evaluation necessary to demonstrate that the Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) Graphite Cask meets the requirements of WHC-CM-2-14, Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping, for transfer of Type B, fissile, non-highway route controlled quantities of radioactive material within the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. The scope of this SEP includes risk, shieldling, criticality, and.tiedown analyses to demonstrate that onsite transportation safety requirements are satisfied. This SEP also establishes operational and maintenance guidelines to ensure that transport of the PRTR Graphite Cask is performed safely in accordance with WHC-CM-2-14. This SEP is valid until October 1, 1999. After this date, an update or upgrade to this document is required.

  4. US Department of Energy Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Progress Assessment of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada. The assessment, which was conducted from July 20 through August 4, 1992, included a selective review of the ES&H management systems and progress of the responsible DOE Headquarters Program Offices; the DOE Nevada Field Office (NV); and the site contractors. The ES&H Progress Assessments are part of the Secretary of Energy`s continuing effort to institutionalize line management accountability and the self-assessment process throughout DOE and its contractor organizations. This report presents a summary of issues and progress in the areas of environment, safety and health, and management.

  5. US Department of Energy Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environment, Safety, and Health (ES ampersand H) Progress Assessment of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada. The assessment, which was conducted from July 20 through August 4, 1992, included a selective review of the ES ampersand H management systems and progress of the responsible DOE Headquarters Program Offices; the DOE Nevada Field Office (NV); and the site contractors. The ES ampersand H Progress Assessments are part of the Secretary of Energy's continuing effort to institutionalize line management accountability and the self-assessment process throughout DOE and its contractor organizations. This report presents a summary of issues and progress in the areas of environment, safety and health, and management

  6. Radiation safety aspects during nondestructive testing of reactor shielding components by gamma radiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viswanathan, S.; Jose, M.T.; Venkatraman, B.

    2016-01-01

    In nuclear facilities, effective shielding of radioactive components and structures are essential to ensure radiation protection to operating personnel. The shield structures are made of lead, steel and concrete with varying thickness of up to 1200 mm. It needs to be verified for shielding integrity, presence of voids, blowholes and defects to avoid exposure to workers and to public at large. Radiometry using gamma source serves as excellent tool for non-destructive examination of such structures and components. Gamma sources of high activity up to 50 Curies (gamma camera type) depending on the thickness of component have to be used. During the testing exposure to the operating personnel needs to be minimized, this requires certain safety procedures to be followed. This paper focuses the methodology to be adapted by means of selection of source, effective training of personnel, compliance with safety requirements and maintenance of source devices

  7. Lithium-ion batteries for hearing aid applications. II. Pulse discharge and safety tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passerini, S.; Coustier, F.; Owens, B. B.

    Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries were designed to meet the power requirements of hearing aid devices (HADs). The batteries were designed in a 312-button cell size, compatible with existing hearing aids. The batteries were tested to evaluate the design and the electrochemical performance, as they relate to a typical hearing aid application. The present report covers the pulse capabilities, cycle life and preliminary safety tests. The results are compared with other battery chemistries: secondary lithium-alloy and nickel-metal hydride batteries and primary Zn-air batteries. The cell AC impedance was stable over the frequency range between 1 and 50 kHz, ranging between 5 Ω at the higher frequency and 12 Ω at the lower extreme. Pulse tests were consistent with these values, as the cells were capable of providing a series of 100 mA pulses of 10-s duration. The safety tests suggest that the design is intrinsically safe with respect to the most common types of abuse conditions.

  8. PIE on Safety-Tested AGR-1 Compact 5-1-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunn, John D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Morris, Robert Noel [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Baldwin, Charles A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Montgomery, Fred C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gerczak, Tyler J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Post-irradiation examination (PIE) is being performed in support of tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coated particle fuel development and qualification for High-Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGRs). AGR-1 was the first in a series of TRISO fuel irradiation experiments initiated in 2006 under the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program; this work continues to be funded by the Department of Energy's Office of Nuclear Energy as part of the Advanced Reactor Technologies (ART) initiative. AGR-1 fuel compacts were fabricated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in 2006 and irradiated for three years in the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to demonstrate and evaluate fuel performance under HTGR irradiation conditions. PIE is being performed at INL and ORNL to study how the fuel behaved during irradiation, and to examine fuel performance during exposure to elevated temperatures at or above temperatures that could occur during a depressurized conduction cooldown event. This report summarizes safety testing of irradiated AGR-1 Compact 5-1-1 in the ORNL Core Conduction Cooldown Test Facility (CCCTF) and post-safety testing PIE.

  9. Test Bed for Safety Assessment of New e-Navigation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Hahn

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available New e-navigation strains require new technologies, new infrastructures and new organizational structures on bridge, on shore as well as in the cloud. Suitable engineering and safety/risk assessment methods facilitate these efforts. Understanding maritime transportation as a sociotechnical system allows the application of system-engineering methods. Formal, simulation based and in situ verification and validation of e-navigation technologies are important methods to obtain system safety and reliability. The modelling and simulation toolset HAGGIS provides methods for system specification and formal risk analysis. It provides a modelling framework for processes, fault trees and generic hazard specification and a physical world and maritime traffic simulation system. HAGGIS is accompanied by the physical test bed LABSKAUS which implements a physical test bed. The test bed provides reference ports and waterways in combination with an experimental Vessel Traffic Services (VTS system and a mobile integrated bridge: This enables in situ experiments for technological evaluation, testing, ground research and demonstration. This paper describes an integrated seamless approach for developing new e-navigation technologies starting with simulation based assessment and ending in physical real world demonstrations

  10. Integral test facilities for validation of the performance of passive safety systems and natural circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, J. H.

    2010-10-01

    Passive safety systems are becoming an important component in advanced reactor designs. This has led to an international interest in examining natural circulation phenomena as this may play an important role in the operation of these passive safety systems. Understanding reactor system behaviour is a challenging process due to the complex interactions between components and associated phenomena. Properly scaled integral test facilities can be used to explore these complex interactions. In addition, system analysis computer codes can be used as predictive tools in understanding the complex reactor system behaviour. However, before the application of system analysis computer codes for reactor design, it is capability in making predictions needs to be validated against the experimental data from a properly scaled integral test facility. The IAEA has organized a coordinated research project (CRP) on natural circulation phenomena, modeling and reliability of passive systems that utilize natural circulation. This paper is a part of research results from this CRP and describes representative international integral test facilities that can be used for data collection for reactor types in which natural circulation may play an important role. Example experiments were described along with the analyses of these example cases in order to examine the ability of system codes to model the phenomena that are occurring in the test facilities. (Author)

  11. A probabilistic safety assessment of in-pile test loop in HWRR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Xuewu; Li Zhaohuan

    1991-07-01

    The PSA methodology has been applied to the in-pile test loop which is installed in the Heavy Water Research Reactor (HWRR). This loop is designed and operated for fuel assembly testing of the Qinshan PWR plant. This analysis is to assess the safety and to evaluate the design of this operating loop. The procedure and models are similar to a PSA on nuclear power plant. The major contents in the analysis consist of the familiarization of the object, the investigation and selection of accident initiators, setting events and fault trees, data collections, quantitative calculations, qualitative and result analyses and final conclusion. This analysis is only limited to the initiators of in-pile loop itself and possible errors made by operators during normal operation. The accident occurence is less than 10 -4 a -1 which may be recommended as an acceptance risk for safety operation of an in-pile test loop. Finally, suggestions have been raised to improve the design of test loop, especially in reducing operation errors by local operators

  12. Design and safety consideration in the High-Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Shinzo; Tanaka, Toshiuki; Sudo, Yukio; Baba, Osamu; Shiozawa, Shusaku; Okubo, Minoru

    1990-01-01

    The budget for construction of the High-Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) was recently committed by the Government in Japan. The HTTR is a test reactor with thermal output of 30 MW and reactor outlet coolant temperature of 950 deg. C at high temperature test operation. The HTTR plant uses a pin-in-block design core and will be used as an experience leading to high temperature applications. Several major important safety considerations are adopted in the design of the HTTR. These are as follows: 1) A coated particle fuel must not be failed during a normal reactor operation and an anticipated operational occurrence; 2) Two independent and diverse reactor shut-down systems are provided in order to shut down the reactor safely and reliably in any condition; 3) Back-up reactor cooling systems which are safety ones are provided in order to remove residual heat of reactor in any condition; 4) Multiple barriers and countermeasures are provided to contain fission products such as a containment, pressure gradient between the primary and secondary cooling circuit and so on, though coated particle fuels contain fission products with high reliability; 5) The functions of materials used in the primary cooling circuit are separated to be pressure-resisting and heat-resisting in order to resolve material problems and maintain high reliability. The detailed design of the HTTR was completed with extensive accumulation of material data and component tests. (author)

  13. Criticality safety evaluation for the Advanced Test Reactor enhanced low enriched uranium fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montierth, Leland M.

    2016-01-01

    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) convert program is developing a high uranium density fuel based on a low enriched uranium (LEU) uranium-molybdenum alloy. Testing of prototypic GTRI fuel elements is necessary to demonstrate integrated fuel performance behavior and scale-up of fabrication techniques. GTRI Enhanced LEU Fuel (ELF) elements based on the ATR-Standard Size elements (all plates fueled) are to be fabricated for testing in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). While a specific ELF element design will eventually be provided for detailed analyses and in-core testing, this criticality safety evaluation (CSE) is intended to evaluate a hypothetical ELF element design for criticality safety purposes. Existing criticality analyses have analyzed Standard (HEU) ATR elements from which controls have been derived. This CSE documents analysis that determines the reactivity of the hypothetical ELF fuel elements relative to HEU ATR elements and whether the existing HEU ATR element controls bound the ELF element. The initial calculations presented in this CSE analyzed the original ELF design, now referred to as Mod 0.1. In addition, as part of a fuel meat thickness optimization effort for reactor performance, other designs have been evaluated. As of early 2014 the most current conceptual designs are Mk1A and Mk1B, that were previously referred to as conceptual designs Mod 0.10 and Mod 0.11, respectively. Revision 1 evaluates the reactivity of the ATR HEU Mark IV elements for a comparison with the Mark VII elements.

  14. Criticality safety evaluation for the Advanced Test Reactor enhanced low enriched uranium fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montierth, Leland M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-07-19

    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) convert program is developing a high uranium density fuel based on a low enriched uranium (LEU) uranium-molybdenum alloy. Testing of prototypic GTRI fuel elements is necessary to demonstrate integrated fuel performance behavior and scale-up of fabrication techniques. GTRI Enhanced LEU Fuel (ELF) elements based on the ATR-Standard Size elements (all plates fueled) are to be fabricated for testing in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). While a specific ELF element design will eventually be provided for detailed analyses and in-core testing, this criticality safety evaluation (CSE) is intended to evaluate a hypothetical ELF element design for criticality safety purposes. Existing criticality analyses have analyzed Standard (HEU) ATR elements from which controls have been derived. This CSE documents analysis that determines the reactivity of the hypothetical ELF fuel elements relative to HEU ATR elements and whether the existing HEU ATR element controls bound the ELF element. The initial calculations presented in this CSE analyzed the original ELF design, now referred to as Mod 0.1. In addition, as part of a fuel meat thickness optimization effort for reactor performance, other designs have been evaluated. As of early 2014 the most current conceptual designs are Mk1A and Mk1B, that were previously referred to as conceptual designs Mod 0.10 and Mod 0.11, respectively. Revision 1 evaluates the reactivity of the ATR HEU Mark IV elements for a comparison with the Mark VII elements.

  15. Safety analysis report of the irradiation test of Type-B bundle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Choong Sung; Lim, I. C.; Lee, B. C.; Ryu, J. S.; Kim, H. R

    2000-06-01

    The HANARO fuel, U{sub 3}Si-A1, has been developed by AECL and tested in NRU reactor. In the course of the fuel qualification tests, only one case was performed under the higher power condition than maximum linear power which was expected in the design stage. The Korea regulatory body, KINS imposed that HANARO shall be operated at the power level less than 24MW which is 80% of the design full power until HANARO shows the repetitive performance of the fuel at the power condition abov e 112.8KW/m. To resolve this imposition, KAERI designed two types of special test bundles: two non-instrumented(Type-A) and one instrumented(Type-B) test bundles. Two Type-A bundles were irradiated in HANARO: one of them has finished PIE and the other is under PIE. Type-B bundle was loaded in the core during 1.32 day at 1996, but outstanding FIV(flow induced vibration) was observed at the pool top because of long guide tube attached to the top of the bundle. The successful installation of the chimney fastener to fix the guide tube resulted in conducting the irradiation test of Type-B bundle again. The test will start at mid- July, 2000. In order to safely do the Type-B irradiation test, the safety analysis for the nuclear, mechanical and thermal-hydraulic aspects was performed. The reactivity worth and the maximum 1 near power predicted by VENTURE are 6.3mk/k and 121.6kW/m, respectively. Thermal margins for normal and transient conditions using MATRA-h, are assessed to satisfy the safety criteria.

  16. Safety and efficacy of Regadenoson in myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) stress tests: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ambereen

    2018-02-01

    Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) tests are often used to help diagnose coronary heart disease (CAD). The tests usually involve applying stress, such as hard physical exercise together with administration of vasodilators, to the patients. To date, many of these tests use non-selective A2A adenosine receptor agonists which, however, can be associated with highly undesirable and life-threatening side effects such as chest pain, dyspnea, severe bronchoconstriction and atrioventricular conduction anomalies. Regadenoson is a relatively new, highly selective A2A adenosine receptor agonist, suitable for use in MPI tests which exhibits far fewer adverse side effects and, unlike others testing agents, can be used without the necessity of excessive concomitant exercise. Also, the dose of regadenoson required is not dependent upon patient weight or renal impairment, and it can be rapidly administered by i.v. Injection. Regadenoson use in MPI testing thus has the potential as a simplified, relatively safe, time-saving and cost-effective method for helping diagnose CAD. The present study was designed to review several articles on the safety, efficacy, and suitability of regadenoson in MPI testing for CAD. Overall, the combined studies demonstrated that use of regadenoson in conjunction with low-level exercise in MPI is a highly efficient and relatively safe test for CAD, especially for more severe health-compromised patients.

  17. Systematic evaluation of non-animal test methods for skin sensitisation safety assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisinger, Kerstin; Hoffmann, Sebastian; Alépée, Nathalie; Ashikaga, Takao; Barroso, Joao; Elcombe, Cliff; Gellatly, Nicola; Galbiati, Valentina; Gibbs, Susan; Groux, Hervé; Hibatallah, Jalila; Keller, Donald; Kern, Petra; Klaric, Martina; Kolle, Susanne; Kuehnl, Jochen; Lambrechts, Nathalie; Lindstedt, Malin; Millet, Marion; Martinozzi-Teissier, Silvia; Natsch, Andreas; Petersohn, Dirk; Pike, Ian; Sakaguchi, Hitoshi; Schepky, Andreas; Tailhardat, Magalie; Templier, Marie; van Vliet, Erwin; Maxwell, Gavin

    2015-02-01

    The need for non-animal data to assess skin sensitisation properties of substances, especially cosmetics ingredients, has spawned the development of many in vitro methods. As it is widely believed that no single method can provide a solution, the Cosmetics Europe Skin Tolerance Task Force has defined a three-phase framework for the development of a non-animal testing strategy for skin sensitization potency prediction. The results of the first phase – systematic evaluation of 16 test methods – are presented here. This evaluation involved generation of data on a common set of ten substances in all methods and systematic collation of information including the level of standardisation, existing test data,potential for throughput, transferability and accessibility in cooperation with the test method developers.A workshop was held with the test method developers to review the outcome of this evaluation and to discuss the results. The evaluation informed the prioritisation of test methods for the next phase of the non-animal testing strategy development framework. Ultimately, the testing strategy – combined with bioavailability and skin metabolism data and exposure consideration – is envisaged to allow establishment of a data integration approach for skin sensitisation safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients.

  18. Incorporating New Technologies Into Toxicity Testing and Risk Assessment: Moving From 21st Century Vision to a Data-Driven Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Russell S.

    2013-01-01

    Based on existing data and previous work, a series of studies is proposed as a basis toward a pragmatic early step in transforming toxicity testing. These studies were assembled into a data-driven framework that invokes successive tiers of testing with margin of exposure (MOE) as the primary metric. The first tier of the framework integrates data from high-throughput in vitro assays, in vitro-to-in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) pharmacokinetic modeling, and exposure modeling. The in vitro assays are used to separate chemicals based on their relative selectivity in interacting with biological targets and identify the concentration at which these interactions occur. The IVIVE modeling converts in vitro concentrations into external dose for calculation of the point of departure (POD) and comparisons to human exposure estimates to yield a MOE. The second tier involves short-term in vivo studies, expanded pharmacokinetic evaluations, and refined human exposure estimates. The results from the second tier studies provide more accurate estimates of the POD and the MOE. The third tier contains the traditional animal studies currently used to assess chemical safety. In each tier, the POD for selective chemicals is based primarily on endpoints associated with a proposed mode of action, whereas the POD for nonselective chemicals is based on potential biological perturbation. Based on the MOE, a significant percentage of chemicals evaluated in the first 2 tiers could be eliminated from further testing. The framework provides a risk-based and animal-sparing approach to evaluate chemical safety, drawing broadly from previous experience but incorporating technological advances to increase efficiency. PMID:23958734

  19. Incorporating new technologies into toxicity testing and risk assessment: moving from 21st century vision to a data-driven framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Russell S; Philbert, Martin A; Auerbach, Scott S; Wetmore, Barbara A; Devito, Michael J; Cote, Ila; Rowlands, J Craig; Whelan, Maurice P; Hays, Sean M; Andersen, Melvin E; Meek, M E Bette; Reiter, Lawrence W; Lambert, Jason C; Clewell, Harvey J; Stephens, Martin L; Zhao, Q Jay; Wesselkamper, Scott C; Flowers, Lynn; Carney, Edward W; Pastoor, Timothy P; Petersen, Dan D; Yauk, Carole L; Nong, Andy

    2013-11-01

    Based on existing data and previous work, a series of studies is proposed as a basis toward a pragmatic early step in transforming toxicity testing. These studies were assembled into a data-driven framework that invokes successive tiers of testing with margin of exposure (MOE) as the primary metric. The first tier of the framework integrates data from high-throughput in vitro assays, in vitro-to-in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) pharmacokinetic modeling, and exposure modeling. The in vitro assays are used to separate chemicals based on their relative selectivity in interacting with biological targets and identify the concentration at which these interactions occur. The IVIVE modeling converts in vitro concentrations into external dose for calculation of the point of departure (POD) and comparisons to human exposure estimates to yield a MOE. The second tier involves short-term in vivo studies, expanded pharmacokinetic evaluations, and refined human exposure estimates. The results from the second tier studies provide more accurate estimates of the POD and the MOE. The third tier contains the traditional animal studies currently used to assess chemical safety. In each tier, the POD for selective chemicals is based primarily on endpoints associated with a proposed mode of action, whereas the POD for nonselective chemicals is based on potential biological perturbation. Based on the MOE, a significant percentage of chemicals evaluated in the first 2 tiers could be eliminated from further testing. The framework provides a risk-based and animal-sparing approach to evaluate chemical safety, drawing broadly from previous experience but incorporating technological advances to increase efficiency.

  20. Major results from safety-related integral effect tests with VISTA-ITL for the SMART design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, H. S.; Min, B. Y.; Shin, Y. C.; Yi, S. J.

    2012-01-01

    A series of integral effect tests (IETs) was performed by the Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst. (KAERI) using the VISTA integral test loop (VISTA-ITL) as a small-scale IET program. Among them this paper presents major results acquired from the safety-related IETs with the VISTA-ITL facility for the SMART design. Three small-break loss-of-coolant accident (SBLOCA) tests of safety injection system (SIS) line break, shutdown cooling system (SCS) line break and pressurizer safety valve (PSV) line break were successfully performed and the transient characteristics of a complete loss of flowrate (CLOF) was simulated properly with the VISTA-ITL facility. (authors)

  1. Full scale impact testing for environmental and safety control of energy material shipping container systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seagren, R.D.

    1978-01-01

    Heavily-shielded energy material shipping systems, similar in size and weight to those presently employed to transport irradiated reactor fuel elements, are being destructively tested under dynamic conditions. In these tests, the outer and inner steel shells interact in a complex manner with the massive biological shielding in the system. Results obtained from these tests provide needed information for new design concepts. Containment failure (and the resulting release of radioactive material to the environment which might occur in an extremely severe accident) is most likely through the seals and other ancillary features of the shipping systems. Analyses and experiments provide engineering data on the behavior of these shipping systems under severe accident conditions and information for predicting potential survivability and environmental control with a rational margin of safety

  2. Safety tests of bobbin-type lithium-thionyl chloride D-cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamura, Yasuyuki; Mizutani, Minoru

    1987-12-25

    Safety test was made focusing on the possibilities of explosion and leakage of bobbin-type lithium-thionyl chloride D-cells. The result indicates that there is no abnormality including explosion even at the vigorous testing including the large current charging test. Meanwhile, since the instability of battery at large current became clear, it was reconfirmed that a protective element against charging would be required. A lost of irritating, toxic, corrosive electrolyte leaking from crushed and drilled batteries is apt to injure the human respiratory organs in a closed space. It is necessary to surely implement the protective measure against abnormal temperature increase by using the battery with care taken not to throw it into flame, keep it away from a heat source as well as charge it. In addition, the protective element against charging such as charging protection diode and the protection against the destruction by external force are required. (12 figs, 2 tabs, 3 refs)

  3. Safety requirements, facility user needs, and reactor concepts for a new Broad Application Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryskamp, J.M.; Liebenthal, J.L.; Denison, A.B.; Fletcher, C.D.

    1992-07-01

    This report describes the EG ampersand G Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program (LDRD) Broad Application Test Reactor (BATR) Project that was conducted in fiscal year 1991. The scope of this project was divided into three phases: a project process definition phase, a requirements development phase, and a preconceptual reactor design and evaluation phase. Multidisciplinary teams of experts conducted each phase. This report presents the need for a new test reactor, the project process definition, a set of current and projected regulatory compliance and safety requirements, a set of facility user needs for a broad range of projected testing missions, and descriptions of reactor concepts capable of meeting these requirements. This information can be applied to strategic planning to provide the Department of Energy with management options

  4. Development and Testing of a Nutrition, Food Safety, and Physical Activity Checklist for EFNEP and FSNE Adult Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Traliece; Serrano, Elena L.; Cox, Ruby H.; Lambur, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To develop and assess reliability and validity of the Nutrition, Food Safety, and Physical Activity Checklist to measure nutrition, food safety, and physical activity practices among adult Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) and Food Stamp Nutrition Education program (FSNE) participants. Methods: Test-retest…

  5. Safety assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations used as ingredients in food supplements: Testing an EFS tired approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speijers, G.; Bottex, B.; Dusemund, B.; Lugasi, A.; Toth, J.; Amberg-Muller, J.; Galli, C.; Silano, V.; Rietjens, I.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes results obtained by testing the European Food Safety Authority-tiered guidance approach for safety assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations intended for use in food supplements. Main conclusions emerging are as follows. (i) Botanical ingredients must be identified

  6. Testing and qualification of Control and Safety Rod and its drive mechanism of Fast Breeder Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajan Babu, V.; Veerasamy, R.; Patri, Sudheer; Ignatius Sundar Raj, S.; Kumar Krovvidi, S.C.S.P.; Dash, S.K.; Meikandamurthy, C.; Rajan, K.K.; Puthiyavinayagam, P.; Chellapandi, P.; Vaidyanathan, G.; Chetal, S.C.

    2010-01-01

    Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) has two independent fast acting diverse shutdown systems. The absorber rod of the first system is called Control and Safety Rod (CSR). CSR and its Drive Mechanism (CSRDM) are used for reactor control and for safe shutdown of the reactor by scram action. In view of the safety role, the qualification of CSRDM is one of the important requirements. CSR and CSRDM were qualified in two stages by extensive testing. In the first stage, the critical subassemblies of the mechanism, such as scram release electromagnet, hydraulic dashpot and dynamic seals and CSR subassembly, were tested and qualified individually simulating the operating conditions of the reactor. Experiments were also carried out on sodium vapour deposition in the annular gaps between the stationary and mobile parts of the mechanism. In the second stage, full-scale CSRDM and CSR were subjected to all the integrated functional tests in air, hot argon and subsequently in sodium simulating the operating conditions of the reactor and finally subjected to endurance tests. Since the damage occurring in CSRDM and CSR is mainly due to fatigue cycles during scram actions, the number of test cycles was decided based on the guidelines given in ASME, Section III, Div. 1. The results show that the performance of CSRDM and CSR is satisfactory. Subsequent to the testing in sodium, the assemblies having contact with liquid sodium/sodium vapour were cleaned using CO 2 process and the total cleaning process has been established, so that the mechanism can be reused in sodium. The various stages of qualification programmes have raised the confidence level on the performance of the system as a whole for the intended and reliable operation in the reactor.

  7. Verification and testing of the RTOS for safety-critical embedded systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Na Young [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Hyun; Choi, Jin Young [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Ah Young; Choi, Byung Ju [Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jang Soo [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    Development in Instrumentation and Control (I and C) technology provides more convenience and better performance, thus, adopted in many fields. To adopt newly developed technology, nuclear industry requires rigorous V and V procedure and tests to assure reliable operation. Adoption of digital system requires verification and testing of the OS for licensing. Commercial real-time operating system (RTOS) is targeted to apply to various, unpredictable needs, which makes it difficult to verify. For this reason, simple, application-oriented realtime OS is developed for the nuclear application. In this work, we show how to verify the developed RTOS at each development lifecycle. Commercial formal tool is used in specification and verification of the system. Based on the developed model, software in C language is automatically generated. Tests are performed for two purposes; one is to identify consistency between the verified model and the generated code, the other is to find errors in the generated code. The former assumes that the verified model is correct, and the latter incorrect. Test data are generated separately to satisfy each purpose. After we test the RTOS software, we implement the test board embedded with the developed RTOS and the application software, which simulates the safety critical plant protection function. Testing to identify whether the reliability criteria is satisfied or not is also designed in this work. It results in that the developed RTOS software works well when it is embedded in the system.

  8. Verification and testing of the RTOS for safety-critical embedded systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Na Young; Kim, Jin Hyun; Choi, Jin Young; Sung, Ah Young; Choi, Byung Ju; Lee, Jang Soo

    2003-01-01

    Development in Instrumentation and Control (I and C) technology provides more convenience and better performance, thus, adopted in many fields. To adopt newly developed technology, nuclear industry requires rigorous V and V procedure and tests to assure reliable operation. Adoption of digital system requires verification and testing of the OS for licensing. Commercial real-time operating system (RTOS) is targeted to apply to various, unpredictable needs, which makes it difficult to verify. For this reason, simple, application-oriented realtime OS is developed for the nuclear application. In this work, we show how to verify the developed RTOS at each development lifecycle. Commercial formal tool is used in specification and verification of the system. Based on the developed model, software in C language is automatically generated. Tests are performed for two purposes; one is to identify consistency between the verified model and the generated code, the other is to find errors in the generated code. The former assumes that the verified model is correct, and the latter incorrect. Test data are generated separately to satisfy each purpose. After we test the RTOS software, we implement the test board embedded with the developed RTOS and the application software, which simulates the safety critical plant protection function. Testing to identify whether the reliability criteria is satisfied or not is also designed in this work. It results in that the developed RTOS software works well when it is embedded in the system

  9. Testing of the multi-application small light water reactor (MASLWR) passive safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, Jose N.; Groome, John; Woods, Brian G.; Young, Eric; Abel, Kent; Yao, You; Yoo, Yeon Jong

    2007-01-01

    Experimental thermal hydraulic research has been conducted at Oregon State University for the purpose of assessing the performance of a new reactor design concept, the multi-application small light water reactor (MASLWR). The MASLWR is a pressurized light water reactor design with a net output of 35 MWe that uses natural circulation in both normal and transient operation. Due to its small size, portability and modularity, the MASLWR design is well suited to help fill the potential need for grid appropriate reactor designs for smaller electricity grids as may be found in developing or remote regions. The purpose of the OSU MASLWR test facility is to assess the operation of the MASLWR under normal full operating pressure and full temperature conditions and to assess the passive safety systems under transient conditions. The data generated by the testing program will be used to assess computer code calculations and to provide a better understanding of the thermal-hydraulic phenomena in the design of the MASLWR NSSS. During this testing program, four tests were conducted at the OSU MASLWR test facility. These tests included one design basis accident and one beyond design basis accident. During the performance of these tests, plant operations to include start up, normal operation and shut down evolutions were demonstrated successfully

  10. Time dependent unavailability analysis of nuclear safety systems considering periodically tested components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goes, Alexandre Gromann de Araujo

    1988-01-01

    It is of utmost importance to have a computer code in order to analyze how different parameters (like test duration time) affect the unavailability of safety systems of nuclear. In this context, a study was performed in order to evaluate the model employed by the FRANTIC computer code, which performs detailed calculations on the contribution to the system unavailability originated by hardware failures, component tests and repairs, aiming at considering the influence of different test schemes on the system unavailability. It was shown, by means of the results attained that the numerical model used by the FRANTIC code and the analytical model proposed by APOSTOLAKIS and CHU (4) give unavailability values much similar when the component tests are supposed to be perfect. When a test is supposed to be imperfect (that is, when it may induce a test is supposed to be imperfect (that is, when it may induce a failure on the component being tested), the analytical model presents more conservative results. (author)

  11. [Use of complementary tests in emergencies and their relation with patient safety incidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaraz-Martínez, J; Aranaz-Andrés, J M; Cantero-Sandoval, A; Piñera-Salmerón, P; Mas-Luzón, J; Serrano-Martínez, J A; González Garro, E

    2018-03-10

    To analyse the use of complementary tests and their relationship with safety incidents in hospital emergency departments. An analysis was performed on 935 patients seen in the 9 hospital emergency departments. The source of data used for the detection of incidents were: emergency department clinical record and reports, together with face-to-face observation in the department, plus a telephone survey of the patient or family member at one week after the care. Statistical tests used: The Student t test for quantitative variables, Chi squared test for qualitative variables, and the ANOVA test. A peripheral venous catheter was used in 397 patients (42.4% (95% CI; 39.3-45.5%)), with a variability with significant differences between hospitals (P<.01), with a range of use from 37% to 81.8%. It was also observed that in 23.4% (95% CI; 19.2-27.6%) of the cases, the catheter was not used after the first blood draw. Radiological tests were requested for 351 patients, 37.7% (95% CI; 34.6-40.8%), also with significant differences between hospitals (P<.01), ranging from 24.6 to 65, 1%. Incidents were detected in 95 (10.2%) patients (95% CI; 8.3-12.1%) in the all the study centres. A higher proportion of safety incidents have been observed in patients where peripheral venous catheter has been used (12.8%) than in those in whom they had not been used (8.5%) (P=.03), as well as in patients on whom an x-ray was requested (12.8%) compared to those who did not (8.64%) (P=.04). A longer stay was also observed in cases with an incident (mean 248.9minutes) than in those where there were none (mean 164.1minutes) (P<.001). No statistically significant differences were found in the other parameters studied. A relationship was observed between the use of a peripheral venous catheter (many of them without use) and radiological tests and the occurrence of safety incidents in the Emergency Departments. Copyright © 2018 SECA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Integrated assessment of pedestrian head impact protection in testing secondary safety and autonomous emergency braking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searson, D J; Anderson, R W G; Hutchinson, T P

    2014-02-01

    Pedestrian impact testing is used to provide information to the public about the relative level of protection provided by different vehicles to a struck pedestrian. Autonomous Emergency Braking (AEB) is a relatively new technology that aims to reduce the impact speed of such crashes. It is expected that vehicles with AEB will pose less harm to pedestrians, and that the benefit will come about through reductions in the number of collisions and a change in the severity of impacts that will still occur. In this paper, an integration of the assessment of AEB performance and impact performance is proposed based on average injury risk. Average injury risk is calculated using the result of an impact test and a previously published distribution of real world crash speeds. A second published speed distribution is used that accounts for the effects of AEB, and reduced average risks are implied. This principle allows the effects of AEB systems and secondary safety performance to be integrated into a single measure of safety. The results are used to examine the effect of AEB on Euro NCAP and ANCAP assessments using previously published results on the likely effect of AEB. The results show that, given certain assumptions about AEB performance, the addition of AEB is approximately the equivalent of increasing Euro NCAP test performance by one band, which corresponds to an increase in the score of 25% of the maximum. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Testing of LWR fuel rods to support criticality safety analysis of transport accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purcell, P.C. [BNFL International Transport, Spent Fuel Services (United Kingdom); Dallongeville, M. [COGEMA Logistics (AREVA Group) (France)

    2004-07-01

    For the transport of low enriched materials, criticality safety may be demonstrated by applying pessimistic modelling assumptions that bound any realistic case. Where Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuel is being transported, enrichment levels are usually too high to permit this approach and more realistic data is needed. This requires a method by which the response of LWR fuel under impact accident conditions can be approximated or bounded. In 2000, BNFL and COGEMA LOGISTICS jointly commenced the Fuel Integrity Project (FIP) whose objective was to develop such methods. COGEMA LOGISTICS were well advanced with a method for determining the impact response of unirradiated fuel, but required further test data before acceptance by the Transport Regulators. The joint project team extensively discussed the required inputs to the FIP, from which it was agreed that BNFL would organise new tests on both unirradiated and irradiated fuel samples and COGEMA LOGISTICS would take major responsibility for evaluating the test results. Tests on unirradiated fuel rod samples involved both dynamic and quasi-static loading on fuel samples. PWR fuel rods loaded with uranium pellets were dropped vertically from 9m onto a rigid target and this was repeated on BWR fuel rods, similar tests on empty fuel rods were also conducted. Quasi-static tests were conducted on 530 mm long PWR and BWR fuel specimens under axial loading. Tests on irradiated fuel samples were conducted on high burn-up fuel rods of both PWR and BWR types. These were believed original to the FIP project and involved applying bending loads to simply supported pressurised rod specimens. In one test the fuel rod was heated to nearly 500oC during loading, all specimens were subject to axial impact before testing. Considerable experience of fuel rod testing and new data was gained from this test programme.

  14. Testing of LWR fuel rods to support criticality safety analysis of transport accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purcell, P.C.; Dallongeville, M.

    2004-01-01

    For the transport of low enriched materials, criticality safety may be demonstrated by applying pessimistic modelling assumptions that bound any realistic case. Where Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuel is being transported, enrichment levels are usually too high to permit this approach and more realistic data is needed. This requires a method by which the response of LWR fuel under impact accident conditions can be approximated or bounded. In 2000, BNFL and COGEMA LOGISTICS jointly commenced the Fuel Integrity Project (FIP) whose objective was to develop such methods. COGEMA LOGISTICS were well advanced with a method for determining the impact response of unirradiated fuel, but required further test data before acceptance by the Transport Regulators. The joint project team extensively discussed the required inputs to the FIP, from which it was agreed that BNFL would organise new tests on both unirradiated and irradiated fuel samples and COGEMA LOGISTICS would take major responsibility for evaluating the test results. Tests on unirradiated fuel rod samples involved both dynamic and quasi-static loading on fuel samples. PWR fuel rods loaded with uranium pellets were dropped vertically from 9m onto a rigid target and this was repeated on BWR fuel rods, similar tests on empty fuel rods were also conducted. Quasi-static tests were conducted on 530 mm long PWR and BWR fuel specimens under axial loading. Tests on irradiated fuel samples were conducted on high burn-up fuel rods of both PWR and BWR types. These were believed original to the FIP project and involved applying bending loads to simply supported pressurised rod specimens. In one test the fuel rod was heated to nearly 500oC during loading, all specimens were subject to axial impact before testing. Considerable experience of fuel rod testing and new data was gained from this test programme

  15. Test and evaluation on safety relating to biotechnology; Biotechnology ni kansuru anzensei no shiken to hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, M. [Bio-Oriented Technology Research Advancement Inst., Saitama (Japan)

    1996-09-05

    This paper describes the current status and how works are being carried out on safety tests and evaluation of gene recombinants in plants and microorganisms. In the field of plants, Flavr Savr tomato which has been improved in fully ripe fruit distribution and keeping quality was commercialized as the world`s first recombinant food in May 1994 by Calgene, Inc. of America. Other vegetables, such as soybean, corn, potato, and pumpkin have been completed of all items of safety evaluation, and are approaching the commercialization phase. The safety evaluation system for living organisms created by using recombinant DNA technologies has been established internationally with regard to its general framework and contents based on accumulated knowledeges and experiences as a result of utilization of over twenty years. Industrial utilization guidelines for recombinants in Japan have been established in correspondence with the OECD recommendation in 1986. Experiments to verify recombinants to be safe in environment, and cultivation of the recombinants for utilization are performed based on the experimental guidelines and utilization guidelines. 15 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  16. Safety tests of spiral-type lithium-thionyl chloride D-cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uno, Kyoji; Mizutani, Minoru (Japan Storage Battery Co., Ltd., Kyoto)

    1989-12-25

    The spiral-type Lithium-Thionyl Chloride D-cell 3360H has no problem at all on safety under normal conditions of its use, however in special severe conditions, a large current flows instantaneously due to its high performance, and danger of an explosion with abrupt heat release is produced. Safety tests have been carried out to confirm the limit of safety performance. Results show abnormal circumstances such as high-rate discharge over 7A, high-rate charging of full discharged cells, nail-penetration, compression with a wedge and heating with a heat tape over 200{degree}C result in hazardous behaviors such as venting, firing and explosion. Therefore, this cell is equipped with proper protecting devices such as overcurrent and thermal protecting fuses to avoid hazardous behaviors. However, the severe conditions of handlings such as dumping into fire and approach to heat source, deformation and rupture by adding an external forces, and applications of too much vibration and impact, should be avoided. 5 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Development of a Test Equipment for Performance Evaluation of Safety Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. J.; Kwon, S. M.; Lee, J. M.; Kim, C. K.; Cho, C. H.; Chun, J. H.; Park, M. K.

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a test equipment for performance evaluation of safety systems in nuclear power plants. First, we develop an input-output simulator for reactor protection systems, ESF component control systems, and a data acquisition system for these I/O simulators as a hardware for this equipment. Then, we develop a software for human-machine interface system, which is easy-to-use and easy-to-modify. In addition, a simulation tool for a reactor trip switch gear is developed

  18. Physics constraints on the design of fast reactor safety test facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travelli, A.; Meneghetti, D.; Matos, J.; Snelgrove, J.; Shaftman, D.H.; Tzanos, C.; Lam, S.K.; Pennington, E.M.; Woodruff, W.L.

    1976-01-01

    This paper discusses the physics foundations common to all fast reactor safety test facilities and the constraints which they impose on the design. While detailed design discussions are confined to the experience with six ANL designs, available data from other designs are used to confirm the validity of the considerations and to broaden the scope of the discussion. This helps to view the various designs as a unified effort, to define their potential capabilities, and to assess how they could best complement each other

  19. Recent progress in safety assessments of Japanese water cooled solid breeder test blanket module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuru, Daigo; Enoeda, Mikio; Akiba, Masato

    2007-01-01

    Water Cooled Solid Breeder Test Blanket Module (WCSB TBM) is being designed by JAEA for the primary candidate TBM of Japan, and the safety evaluation of WCSB TBM has been performed. This reports presents summary of safety evaluation activities of the Japanese WCSB TBM, including nuclear analysis, source of RI, waste evaluation, occupational radiolysis exposure (ORE), failure mode effect analysis (FMEA) and postulated initiating event (PIE). For the purpose of basic evaluation of source terms on nuclear heating and radioactivity generation, two-dimensional nuclear analysis has been carried out. By the nuclear analysis, distributions of neutron flux, tritium breeding ratio (TBR), nuclear heat, decay heat and induced activity are calculated. Tritium production is calculated by the nuclear analysis by integrating distributions of TBR values, as about 0.2 g-T/FPD. With respect to the radioactive waste, the induced activity of the irradiated TBM is estimated. For the purpose of occupational radiolysis exposure (ORE), RI inventory is estimated. Tritium inventory in pebble bed of TBM is about 3 x 10 12 Bq, and tritium in purge gas is about 3 x 10 11 Bq. FMEA has been carried out to identify the PIEs that need safety evaluation. PIEs are summarized into three groups, i.e., heating, pressurization and release of RI. PIEs of local heating are converged without any special cares. With respect to heating of whole module, two PIEs are selected as the most severe events, i.e., loss of cooling of TBM during plasma operation and ingress of coolant into TBM during plasma operation. With respect to PIEs about pressurization, the PIEs of pressurization of the compartment nearby the pipes of cooling system are evaluated, because rupture of the pipes result pressurization of such compartments, i.e., box structure of TBM, purge gas loop, TRS, VV, port cell and TCWS vault. Box structure of TBM is designed to withstand the maximum pressure of the cooling system. At other compartments

  20. 78 FR 33891 - Safety Advisory: Compressed Gas Cylinders That Have Not Been Tested Properly

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No... Properly AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Safety... otherwise safely discharged. Cylinders that are filled with a material other than an atmospheric gas should...

  1. TRADE LIBERALIZATION AND CONSUMER VULNERABILITY: A LEGAL FRAMEWORK ON LEGISLATIONS AND TESTING MECHANISM FOR ASEAN PRODUCT SAFETY DIRECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Sagoff Alsagoff

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Since its inception in 1967 ASEAN has advanced in great leaps in the economic sector luring new member states into its pact. From a mere five member states (Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, Singapore and the Philippines ASEAN has today managed to entice five other neighbouring states (Brunei 1984, Vietnam 1995, Laos & Myanmar 1997, Cambodia 1999 into its pact transforming itself into union of ten member states with a consumer population expected to exceed 600 million people. In order to ensure sustainability amid global challenges, member states have engrossed ASEAN Charter in 2007 with a view of creating an ASEAN Economic Community by 2015 that is robust, competitive and sustainable. At this juncture, ASEAN has to realize that like any trade liberalization initiatives, goods moved readily and freely throughout the free-trade area that is facilitated by a lucrative non-barrier tariffs incentives. This vision of a single market which creates a frontier without borders can prove to be advantageous to member states only if they have the required vehicle that is able to overcome the drawback of its progression through harmonization and synchronization efforts that is effective and successful. Like everything else, every advantage has some disadvantages attached to it. This article will address important determining factors that are crucial in the development and scope of proposed ASEAN Product Safety Directive including reviewing relevant determining factors such as regional stability, consumer protection legislations and standard and testing agencies of which one without the other will be incomplete. The proposals suggested in this article will strengthen and unite ASEAN in overcoming unsafe product issues at ASEAN level.

  2. Safety Evaluation of Radioactive Material Transport Package under Stacking Test Condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ju Chan; Seo, Ki Seog; Yoo, Seong Yeon

    2012-01-01

    Radioactive waste transport package was developed to transport eight drums of low and intermediate level waste(LILW) in accordance with the IAEA and domestic related regulations. The package is classified with industrial package IP-2. IP-2 package is required to undergo a free drop test and a stacking test. After free drop and stacking tests, it should prevent the loss or dispersal of radioactive contents, and loss of shielding integrity which would result in more than 20 % increase in the radiation level at any external surface of the package. The objective of this study is to establish the safety test method and procedure for stacking test and to prove the structural integrities of the IP-2 package. Stacking test and analysis were performed with a compressive load equal to five times the weight of the package for a period of 24 hours using a full scale model. Strains and displacements were measured at the corner fitting of the package during the stacking test. The measured strains and displacements were compared with the analysis results, and there were good agreements. It is very difficult to measure the deflection at the container base, so the maximum deflection of the container base was calculated by the analysis method. The maximum displacement at the corner fitting and deflection at the container base were less than their allowable values. Dimensions of the test model, thickness of shielding material and bolt torque were measured before and after the stacking test. Throughout the stacking test, it was found that there were no loss or dispersal of radioactive contents and no loss of shielding integrity. Thus, the package was shown to comply with the requirements to maintain structural integrity under the stacking condition.

  3. Laboratory testing in management of patients with suspected Ebolavirus disease: infection control and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, G L

    2015-08-01

    If routine laboratory safety precautions are followed, the risk of laboratory-acquired infection from handling specimens from patients with Ebolavirus disease (EVD) is very low, especially in the early 'dry' stage of disease. In Australia, border screening to identify travellers returning from EVD-affected west African countries during the 2014-2015 outbreak has made it unlikely that specimens from patients with unrecognised EVD would be sent to a routine diagnostic laboratory. Australian public health and diagnostic laboratories associated with hospitals designated for the care of patients with EVD have developed stringent safety precautions for EVD diagnostic and other tests likely to be required for supportive care of the sickest (and most infectious) patients with EVD, including as wide a range of point-of-care tests as possible. However, it is important that the stringent requirements for packaging, transport and testing of specimens that might contain Ebolavirus--which is a tier 1 security sensitive biology agent--do not delay the diagnosis and appropriate management of other potentially serious but treatable infectious diseases, which are far more likely causes of a febrile illness in people returning from west Africa. If necessary, urgent haematology, biochemistry and microbiological tests can be performed safely, whilst awaiting the results of EVD tests, in a PC-2 laboratory with appropriate precautions including: use of recommended personal protective equipment (PPE) for laboratory staff; handling any unsealed specimens in a class 1 or II biosafety cabinet; using only centrifuges with sealed rotors; and safe disposal or decontamination of all used equipment and laboratory waste.

  4. Tiered guidance for risk-informed environmental health and safety testing of nanotechnologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collier, Zachary A.; Kennedy, Alan J.; Poda, Aimee R.; Cuddy, Michael F.; Moser, Robert D.; MacCuspie, Robert I.; Harmon, Ashley; Plourde, Kenton; Haines, Christopher D.; Steevens, Jeffery A.

    2015-01-01

    Provided the rapid emergence of novel technologies containing engineered nanomaterials, there is a need to better understand the potential environmental, health, and safety effects of nanotechnologies before wide-scale deployment. However, the unique properties of nanomaterials and uncertainty regarding applicable test methods have led to a lack of consensus regarding the collection and evaluation of data related to hazard and exposure potentials. Often, overly conservative approaches to characterization and data collection result in prolonged, unfocused, or irrelevant testing, which increases costs and delays deployment. In this paper, we provide a novel testing guidance framework for determining whether a nanotechnology has the potential to release material with nano-specific parameters that pose a risk to humans or the environment. The framework considers methods to categorize nanotechnologies by their structure and within their relevant-use scenarios to inform testing in a time- and resource-limited reality. Based on the precedent of dredged sediment testing, a five-tiered approach is proposed in which opportunities are presented to conclude testing once sufficient risk-related information has been collected, or that the technology in question does not require nano-specific scrutiny. A series of screening stages are suggested, covering relevant aspects including size, surface area, distribution, unique behaviors, and release potential. The tiered, adaptive guidance approach allows users to concentrate on collecting the most relevant data, thus accelerating technology deployment while minimizing risk

  5. Transition towards replacing animal tests in safety assessment of cosmetics and chemicals: a combined TIS-MLP framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, M.; Meer, P. van de; Moors, E.H.M.; Schellekens, H.; Hekkert, M.P.

    2012-01-01

    The urgency of the transition to replace animal tests in safety assessment of chemicals and cosmetics was triggered by societal resistance to animal testing (Rowan, 2007) and the scientific dispute concerning the value of animal testing (Olson et al., 2000). Since the 1980s the European Union (EU)

  6. Major Results from 1-Train Passive Safety System Tests for the SMART Design with the SMART-ITL Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyun-Sik; Bae, Hwang; Ryu, Sung-Uk; Jeon, Byong-Guk; Ruy, Hyobong; Kim, Woo-Shik; Byun, Sun-Joon; Shin, Yong-Cheol; Min, Kyoung-Ho; Yi, Sung-Jae [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    To satisfy the domestic and international needs for nuclear safety improvement after the Fukushima accident, an effort to improve its safety has been studied, and a Passive Safety System (PSS) for SMART has been designed. In addition, an Integral Test Loop for the SMART design (SMART-ITL, or FESTA) has been constructed and it finished its commissioning tests in 2012. Consequently, a set of Design Base Accident (DBA) scenarios have been simulated using SMARTITL. Recently, a test program to validate the performance of the SMART PSS was launched and its scaled-down test facility was additionally installed at the existing SMART-ITL facility. In this paper, the major results from the 1-train passive safety system validation tests with the SMARTITL facility will be summarized. The acquired data will be used to validate the safety analysis code and its related models, to evaluate the performance of SMART PSS, and to provide base data during the application phase of the SDA revision and construction licensing. In this paper, the major results from the validation tests of the SMART passive safety system using a 1-train test facility were summarized. They include a dozen of SMART PSS tests using 1-train SMART PSS tests. From the test results, it was estimated that the SMART PSS has sufficient cooling capability to deal with the SBLOCA scenario of SMART. During the SBLOCA scenario, in the CMT, the water layer inventory was well stratified thermally and the safety injection water was injected efficiently into the RPV from the initial period, and cools down the RCS properly.

  7. Complicating factors in safety testing of drug metabolites: Kinetic differences between generated and preformed metabolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prueksaritanont, Thomayant; Lin, Jiunn H.; Baillie, Thomas A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper aims to provide a scientifically based perspective on issues surrounding the proposed toxicology testing of synthetic drug metabolites as a means of ensuring adequate nonclinical safety evaluation of drug candidates that generate metabolites considered either to be unique to humans or are present at much higher levels in humans than in preclinical species. We put forward a number of theoretical considerations and present several specific examples where the kinetic behavior of a preformed metabolite given to animals or humans differs from that of the corresponding metabolite generated endogenously from its parent. The potential ramifications of this phenomenon are that the results of toxicity testing of the preformed metabolite may be misleading and fail to characterize the true toxicological contribution of the metabolite when formed from the parent. It is anticipated that such complications would be evident in situations where (a) differences exist in the accumulation of the preformed versus generated metabolites in specific tissues, and (b) the metabolite undergoes sequential metabolism to a downstream product that is toxic, leading to differences in tissue-specific toxicity. Owing to the complex nature of this subject, there is a need to treat drug metabolite issues in safety assessment on a case-by-case basis, in which a knowledge of metabolite kinetics is employed to validate experimental paradigms that entail administration of preformed metabolites to animal models

  8. Measures ensuring safety of the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    JAERI has conducted research and development of an HTGR type reactor since 1969 under the project of the multi-purpose high-temperate gas-cooled experimental reactor, whose design was changed to the HTTR in 1985. The reactor license was granted by the Government in 1990 and the construction started next year. Various functions and performances have been tested since 1996 and the initial criticality achieved in 1998. This document consists of six chapters, describing safety matters examined in several development phases. The first chapter deals with succession of the multi-purpose experimental reactor technology and its exchange between JAERI and domestic industries. Chapter 2 reviews new technical findings after the licensing which were reflected to the current safety assessment. These technical items are given in the table form of extensive pages. Chapter 3 and 4 describe the performance tests and the criticality access, respectively. Chapter 5 and 6 deal with the detection of fuel failures and helium gas leaks, respectively. (H.Y.)

  9. Safety test of an improved multihundred watt FSA: launch abort, solid propellant fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seabourn, C.M.

    1978-07-01

    This safety test consisted of exposing a simulant-fueled Improved Multihundred Watt Fuel Sphere Assembly, containing a Pt-3008 sphere holding the fuel simulant, to a single proximity fire of UTP-3001 solid rocket propellant for 10.5 min. The graphite outside shell sustained only minor abrasion damage. It was covered on one side with a heavy deposit of alumina from the fire mixed with silica from the test bed. The Pt-3008 shell had small amounts of carbon, alumina, and silica deposited on its surface but sustained no other damage. The PT-3008 sphere was not breached, and therefore the fuel sphere assembly would not release fuel in a solid-propellant fire of a launch abort. 12 figures

  10. Operation Aqueduct: Onsite radiological safety report for announced nuclear tests, October 1989--September 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, G.M.; Jacklin, A.K.

    1992-01-01

    Aqueduct was the name assigned to the series of underground nuclear weapons tests conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) from October 1, 1989, through September 30, 1990. This report includes those experiments publicly announced. Remote radiation measurements were taken during and after each nuclear event by a telemetry system. Reynolds Electrical ampersand Engineering Co., Inc. (REECO) Health Protection Department (HPD) Radiation Protection Technicians (RPTS) with portable radiation detection instruments surveyed reentry routes into ground zeros (GZ) before other planned entries were made. Continuous surveillance was provided while personnel were in radiation areas and appropriate precautions were taken to protect persons from unnecessary exposure to radiation and toxic gases. Protective clothing and equipment were issued as needed. Complete radiological safety and industrial hygiene (IH) coverage was provided during drilling and mineback operations. Telemetered and portable radiation detector measurements are listed. Detection instrumentation used is described and specific operational procedures are defined

  11. Operation fusileer onsite radiological safety report for announced nuclear tests, October 1983-September 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullen, O.W.; Eubank, B.F.

    1985-08-01

    Fusileer was the name assigned to the series of underground nuclear experiments conducted at the Nevada Test Site from October 1, 1983 through September 30, 1984. This report is limited to announced nuclear tests. Remote radiation measurements were taken during and after each nuclear experiment by a telemetry system. Monitors with portable radiation detection instruments surveyed reentry routes into ground zeros before other planned entries were made. Continuous surveillance was provided while personnel were in radiation areas and appropriate precautions were taken to protect persons from unnecessary exposure to radiation and toxic gases. Protective clothing and equipment were issued as needed. Complete radiological safety and industrial hygiene coverage was provided during drilling and mineback operations. Telemetered and portable radiation detector measurements are listed. Detection instrumentation used is described and specific operational procedures are defined

  12. Reliability Quantification Method for Safety Critical Software Based on a Finite Test Set

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Sung Min; Kim, Hee Eun; Kang, Hyun Gook; Lee, Seung Jun

    2014-01-01

    Software inside of digitalized system have very important role because it may cause irreversible consequence and affect the whole system as common cause failure. However, test-based reliability quantification method for some safety critical software has limitations caused by difficulties in developing input sets as a form of trajectory which is series of successive values of variables. To address these limitations, this study proposed another method which conduct the test using combination of single values of variables. To substitute the trajectory form of input using combination of variables, the possible range of each variable should be identified. For this purpose, assigned range of each variable, logical relations between variables, plant dynamics under certain situation, and characteristics of obtaining information of digital device are considered. A feasibility of the proposed method was confirmed through an application to the Reactor Protection System (RPS) software trip logic

  13. Performance of multihundred-watt fueled-sphere assemblies in the safety verification test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, E.M.

    1975-09-01

    Seven fueled-sphere assemblies equivalent to those proposed for use in multihundred-watt thermoelectric generators were subjected to conditions that simulated the sequential environments produced by an orbital abort and earth impact. The procedures were similar to those in the Safety Sequential Test, and the assemblies differed only in minor dimensional and power level changes. All assemblies met the specifications for flight quality units. Visual examination indicated that all the iridium shells had lost their containment capability; however, rupturing of two shells was not confirmed. Five were obviously ruptured, and the fuel in three was exposed. All iridium fractures were essentially intergranular. A large grain size may have promoted this type of failure. Half of the vent assemblies failed to pass helium at ambient temperature after the test. Failure was because of nonmetallic materials in the vent frits. Release of plutonia per unit area of cracks in a containment shell ruptured by simulated earth impact was determined

  14. Comparison of in-plant performance test data with analytic prediction of reactor safety system injection transient (U)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, B.N.; Neill, C.H. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    This paper compares the performance test data from injection transients for both of the subsystems of the Supplementary Safety System of the Savannah River Site production reactor with analytical predictions from an in-house thermal hydraulic computer code. The code was initially developed for design validation of the new Supplementary Safety System subsystem, but is shown to be equally capable of predicting the performance of the Supplementary Safety System existing subsystem even though the two subsystem transient injections have marked differences. The code itself was discussed and its validation using prototypic tests with simulated fluids was reported in an earlier paper (Roy and Nomm 1991)

  15. Safety considerations for continuous hydrogen production test apparatus with capacity of 50 N-litter hydrogen per hour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onuki, Kaoru; Akino, Norio; Shimizu, Saburo; Nakajima, Hayato; Higashi, Shunichi; Kubo, Shinji

    2001-03-01

    Since the thermochemical hydrogen production Iodine-Sulfur process decomposes water into hydrogen and oxygen using toxic chemicals such as sulfuric acid, iodine and hydriodic acid, safety considerations are very important in its research and development. Therefore, before construction of continuous hydrogen production test apparatus with capacity of 50 N-litter hydrogen per hour, comprehensive safety considerations were carried out to examine the design and construction works of the test apparatus, and the experimental plans using the apparatus. Emphasis was given on the safety considerations on prevention of breakage of glasswares and presumable abnormalities, accidents and their countermeasures. This report summarizes the results of the considerations. (author)

  16. Testing of the Safety and the Effectiveness of Using Samjeong Pharmacopuncture Solution as Eye drops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seo Hyung-Sik

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This experimental study was designed to investigate the safety and the effectiveness of Samjeong pharmacopuncture solution (SPS manufactured by using a the lowtemperature extract on process. Methods: To identify the safety and the effectiveness of using SPS as eye drops, we performed applied eye irritation tests on rabbits and antibacterial tests for Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, and Candida albicans. The eye irritation test was performed according to the toxicity testing regulation of the Korea Food & Drug Administration (2009. 8. 24, KFDA 2009-116. After SPS had been applied on the left eye of the rabbits, eye irritation in the cornea, iris and conjunctiva was observed on the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th & 7th day. After SPS had been dropped on bacterial species that cause keratitis, the minimum inhibition concentration and the size of the inhibition zone were measured. The anti-bacterial potency was also measured by taking the size of inhibition zone. Results: After SPS had been administered on the left eye of the rabbits, none of nine rabbits were found to show abnormal signs or weight changes. After SPS had been administered on the left eye of the rabbits, no eye irritation in the cornea, iris and conjunctiva was observed on the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th & 7th day. No specific response was detected in MIC for bacterial species Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, and Candida albicans after SPS had been applied. Conclusions: This study suggests that SPS is a non-toxic and non-irritant medicine that does not cause any of eye irritation in rabbits, but it has no antibacterial effects on bacterial species that are well known to cause keratitis. These results suggest that more research is required on extracts from herbal medicines for treating keratitis.

  17. Modeling safety instrumented systems with MooN voting architectures addressing system reconfiguration for testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres-Echeverria, A.C.; Martorell, S.; Thompson, H.A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the modeling of probability of dangerous failure on demand and spurious trip rate of safety instrumented systems that include MooN voting redundancies in their architecture. MooN systems are a special case of k-out-of-n systems. The first part of the article is devoted to the development of a time-dependent probability of dangerous failure on demand model with capability of handling MooN systems. The model is able to model explicitly common cause failure and diagnostic coverage, as well as different test frequencies and strategies. It includes quantification of both detected and undetected failures, and puts emphasis on the quantification of common cause failure to the system probability of dangerous failure on demand as an additional component. In order to be able to accommodate changes in testing strategies, special treatment is devoted to the analysis of system reconfiguration (including common cause failure) during test of one of its components, what is then included in the model. Another model for spurious trip rate is also analyzed and extended under the same methodology in order to empower it with similar capabilities. These two models are powerful enough, but at the same time simple, to be suitable for handling of dependability measures in multi-objective optimization of both system design and test strategies for safety instrumented systems. The level of modeling detail considered permits compliance with the requirements of the standard IEC 61508. The two models are applied to brief case studies to demonstrate their effectiveness. The results obtained demonstrated that the first model is adequate to quantify time-dependent PFD of MooN systems during different system states (i.e. full operation, test and repair) and different MooN configurations, which values are averaged to obtain the PFD avg . Also, it was demonstrated that the second model is adequate to quantify STR including spurious trips induced by internal component failure and

  18. Predicting fatigue and psychophysiological test performance from speech for safety critical environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Richard Baykaner

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Automatic systems for estimating operator fatigue have application in safety-critical environments. A system which could estimate level of fatigue from speech would have application in domains where operators engage in regular verbal communication as part of their duties. Previous studies on the prediction of fatigue from speech have been limited because of their reliance on subjective ratings and because they lack comparison to other methods for assessing fatigue. In this paper we present an analysis of voice recordings and psychophysiological test scores collected from seven aerospace personnel during a training task in which they remained awake for 60 hours. We show that voice features and test scores are affected by both the total time spent awake and the time position within each subject’s circadian cycle. However, we show that time spent awake and time of day information are poor predictors of the test results; while voice features can give good predictions of the psychophysiological test scores and sleep latency. Mean absolute errors of prediction are possible within about 17.5% for sleep latency and 5-12% for test scores. We discuss the implications for the use of voice as a means to monitor the effects of fatigue on cognitive performance in practical applications.

  19. Hypothesis Testing of Inclusion of the Tolerance Interval for the Assessment of Food Safety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hungyen Chen

    Full Text Available In the testing of food quality and safety, we contrast the contents of the newly proposed food (genetically modified food against those of conventional foods. Because the contents vary largely between crop varieties and production environments, we propose a two-sample test of substantial equivalence that examines the inclusion of the tolerance intervals of the two populations, the population of the contents of the proposed food, which we call the target population, and the population of the contents of the conventional food, which we call the reference population. Rejection of the test hypothesis guarantees that the contents of the proposed foods essentially do not include outliers in the population of the contents of the conventional food. The existing tolerance interval (TI0 is constructed to have at least a pre-specified level of the coverage probability. Here, we newly introduce the complementary tolerance interval (TI1 that is guaranteed to have at most a pre-specified level of the coverage probability. By applying TI0 and TI1 to the samples from the target population and the reference population respectively, we construct a test statistic for testing inclusion of the two tolerance intervals. To examine the performance of the testing procedure, we conducted a simulation that reflects the effects of gene and environment, and residual from a crop experiment. As a case study, we applied the hypothesis testing to test if the distribution of the protein content of rice in Kyushu area is included in the distribution of the protein content in the other areas in Japan.

  20. Zero-inflated Poisson model based likelihood ratio test for drug safety signal detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lan; Zheng, Dan; Zalkikar, Jyoti; Tiwari, Ram

    2017-02-01

    In recent decades, numerous methods have been developed for data mining of large drug safety databases, such as Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Adverse Event Reporting System, where data matrices are formed by drugs such as columns and adverse events as rows. Often, a large number of cells in these data matrices have zero cell counts and some of them are "true zeros" indicating that the drug-adverse event pairs cannot occur, and these zero counts are distinguished from the other zero counts that are modeled zero counts and simply indicate that the drug-adverse event pairs have not occurred yet or have not been reported yet. In this paper, a zero-inflated Poisson model based likelihood ratio test method is proposed to identify drug-adverse event pairs that have disproportionately high reporting rates, which are also called signals. The maximum likelihood estimates of the model parameters of zero-inflated Poisson model based likelihood ratio test are obtained using the expectation and maximization algorithm. The zero-inflated Poisson model based likelihood ratio test is also modified to handle the stratified analyses for binary and categorical covariates (e.g. gender and age) in the data. The proposed zero-inflated Poisson model based likelihood ratio test method is shown to asymptotically control the type I error and false discovery rate, and its finite sample performance for signal detection is evaluated through a simulation study. The simulation results show that the zero-inflated Poisson model based likelihood ratio test method performs similar to Poisson model based likelihood ratio test method when the estimated percentage of true zeros in the database is small. Both the zero-inflated Poisson model based likelihood ratio test and likelihood ratio test methods are applied to six selected drugs, from the 2006 to 2011 Adverse Event Reporting System database, with varying percentages of observed zero-count cells.

  1. Seismic test for safety evaluation of low level radioactive wastes containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohoka, Makoto; Horikiri, Morito

    1998-08-01

    Seismic safety of three-piled container system used in Tokai reprocessing center was confirmed by seismic test and computational analysis. Two types of container were evaluated, for low level noninflammable radioactive solid wastes, and for used filters wrapped by large plastic bags. Seismic integrity of three-piled containers was confirmed by evaluating response characteristics such as acceleration and displacement under the design earthquake condition S1, which is the maximum earthquake expected at the stored site during the storage time. Computational dynamic analysis was also performed, and several conclusions described below were made. (1) Response characteristics of the bottom board and the side board were different. The number of pile did not affect the response characteristics of the bottom board of each container. They behaved as a rigid body. (2) The response of the side board was larger than that of the bottom board. (3) The response depended on the direction in each board, either side or bottom. The response acceleration became larger to the seismic wave perpendicular to the plane which has the entrance for fork lift and the radioactive warning mark. (4) The maximum horizontal response displacement under the S1 seismic wave was approximately 10 mm. It is so small that it does not affect the seismic safety. (5) The stoppers to prevent fall down had no influence to the response acceleration. (6) There was no fall down to the S1 seismic wave and 2 times of S1 seismic wave, which was the maximum input condition of the test. (7) The response of the bottom board of the containers, which are main elements of fall down, had good agreements both in the test and in the computational analysis. (author)

  2. Comparison of Domestic Safety Review and European Union(EU) Stress Test After Nuclear Accident in Fukushima Daiichi NPPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hwa Sung; Kim, Jin Weon [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The European Union(EU) nuclear regulators group established stress test criteria and procedures, and utilities performed a self-review in accordance with those criteria and procedures. For Wolsung nuclear unit-1,the stress test was additionally conducted for deciding the continued operation of NPP, even though the safety review had been conducted after Fukushima NPP accident. Thus, this study is to compares the process, criteria, and results of the safety review performed in domestic NPPs and EU stress test performed in Cernavoda NPP. From the comparisons, the effectiveness and necessity of the stress test to decide the continued operation of NPPs is discussed. and the improvement items for safety enhancement are derived. The comparison showed that the process and review criteria of EU stress test was more systematic and specific than those used in domestic NPPs. But it was indicated that the improvement items resulted from the safety review performed in domestic NPPs are more comprehensive and powerful than EU stress tests (Cernavoda NPP) results. EU stress test for Cernavoda NPP evaluated in 3 fieldsand derived 13 design change items. The 50 improvement items derived from domestic safety review were including the contents of these 13 items.

  3. PANDA: a Large Scale Multi-Purpose Test Facility for LWR Safety Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreier, Joerg; Paladino, Domenico; Huggenberger, Max; Andreani, Michele [Laboratory for Thermal-Hydraulics, Nuclear Energy and Safety Research Department, Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Yadigaroglu, George [ETH Zuerich, Technoparkstrasse 1, Einstein 22- CH-8005 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2008-07-01

    PANDA is a large-scale multi-purpose thermal-hydraulics test facility, built and operated by PSI. Due to its modular structure, PANDA provides flexibility for a variety of applications, ranging from integral containment system investigations, primary system tests, component experiments to large-scale separate-effects tests. For many applications, the experimental results are directly used for example for concept demonstrations or for the characterisation of phenomena or components, but all the experimental data generated in the various test campaigns is unique and was or/and will still be widely used for the validation and improvement of a variety of computer codes, including codes with 3D capabilities, for reactor safety analysis. The paper provides an overview of the already completed and on-going research programs performed in the PANDA facility in the different area of applications, including the main results and conclusions of the investigations. In particular the advanced passive containment cooling system concept investigations of the SBWR, ESBWR as well as of the SWR1000 in relation to various aspects are presented and the main findings are summarised. Finally the goals, planned investigations and expected results of the on-going OECD project SETH-2 are presented. (authors)

  4. Automated nucleic acid amplification testing in blood banks: An additional layer of blood safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragati Chigurupati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: A total of 30 million blood components are transfused each year in India. Blood safety thus becomes a top priority, especially with a population of around 1.23 billion and a high prevalence rate of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV in general population. Nucleic acid amplification testing (NAT in blood donor screening has been implemented in many developed countries to reduce the risk of transfusion-transmitted viral infections (TTIs. NAT takes care of the dynamics of window period of viruses and offers the safest blood pack for donation. Aims: The aim of this study is to show the value of NAT in blood screening. Settings and Design: Dhanavantari Blood Bank, Rajahmundry, Andhra Pradesh, India. Subjects and Methods: Over a period of 1 year from January 2012 to December 2012, a total number of 15,000 blood donor samples were subjected to tests for HIV, HBV, and HCV by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA method and 8000 ELISA nonreactive samples were subjected for NAT using multiplex polymerase chain reaction technology. Results: Of the 15,000 donors tested, 525 were seroreactive. In 8000 ELISA negative blood samples subjected to NAT, 4 donor samples were reactive for HBV. The NAT yield was 1 in 2000. Conclusions: NAT could detect HIV, HBV, and HCV cases in blood donor samples those were undetected by serological tests. NAT could interdict 2500 infectious donations among our approximate 5 million annual blood donations.

  5. PANDA: a Large Scale Multi-Purpose Test Facility for LWR Safety Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreier, Joerg; Paladino, Domenico; Huggenberger, Max; Andreani, Michele; Yadigaroglu, George

    2008-01-01

    PANDA is a large-scale multi-purpose thermal-hydraulics test facility, built and operated by PSI. Due to its modular structure, PANDA provides flexibility for a variety of applications, ranging from integral containment system investigations, primary system tests, component experiments to large-scale separate-effects tests. For many applications, the experimental results are directly used for example for concept demonstrations or for the characterisation of phenomena or components, but all the experimental data generated in the various test campaigns is unique and was or/and will still be widely used for the validation and improvement of a variety of computer codes, including codes with 3D capabilities, for reactor safety analysis. The paper provides an overview of the already completed and on-going research programs performed in the PANDA facility in the different area of applications, including the main results and conclusions of the investigations. In particular the advanced passive containment cooling system concept investigations of the SBWR, ESBWR as well as of the SWR1000 in relation to various aspects are presented and the main findings are summarised. Finally the goals, planned investigations and expected results of the on-going OECD project SETH-2 are presented. (authors)

  6. Safety assessment of the SMART design during SBLOCA tests using the high pressure safety injection pump of the SMART-ITL facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Hwang; Ryu, Sung Uk; Jeon, Byong-Guk; Yang, Jin-Hwa; Yoon, Eun-Koo; Shin, Yong-Cheol; Min, Kyoung-Ho; Park, Jong-Kuk; Choi, Nam-Hyun; Bang, Yun-Gon; Seo, Chan-Jong; Yi, Sung-Jae; Park, Hyun-Sik

    2016-01-01

    SMART is a small-sized integral pressurized light water reactor designed by the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) from 1997 and received standard design approval (SDA) by the Korean regulatory body in July 2012. Single reactor pressure vessel contains all of the main components including a pressurizer (PZR), steam generators (SG) and reactor coolant pumps (RCP) without any large-size pipes. Several tests to verify a safety and performance of SMART design were carried out. This paper introduces a comparison with three SBLOCA tests. Overall thermal-hydraulic phenomena were observed and showed a traditional trend to decrease a system pressure and temperature. A collapsed water level of the hot side indicated that the safety injection system was successfully operated to recover the reactor coolant system (RCS) and protect the core uncover. An SBLOCA test simulating a guillotine break on the SIS, SCS, and PSV was performed. It was enough to keep a steady-state condition before the SBLOCA test begins. An actuation signal as the boundary condition was properly simulated during the transient test. The scenarios of the SBLOCA in the SMART design were reproduced well using the SMART-ITL facility. The safety injection is effective to protect the core uncover as well as to cool down the RCS. All of the measured parameters show reasonable behaviors

  7. Safety assessment of the SMART design during SBLOCA tests using the high pressure safety injection pump of the SMART-ITL facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Hwang; Ryu, Sung Uk; Jeon, Byong-Guk; Yang, Jin-Hwa; Yoon, Eun-Koo; Shin, Yong-Cheol; Min, Kyoung-Ho; Park, Jong-Kuk; Choi, Nam-Hyun; Bang, Yun-Gon; Seo, Chan-Jong; Yi, Sung-Jae; Park, Hyun-Sik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    SMART is a small-sized integral pressurized light water reactor designed by the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) from 1997 and received standard design approval (SDA) by the Korean regulatory body in July 2012. Single reactor pressure vessel contains all of the main components including a pressurizer (PZR), steam generators (SG) and reactor coolant pumps (RCP) without any large-size pipes. Several tests to verify a safety and performance of SMART design were carried out. This paper introduces a comparison with three SBLOCA tests. Overall thermal-hydraulic phenomena were observed and showed a traditional trend to decrease a system pressure and temperature. A collapsed water level of the hot side indicated that the safety injection system was successfully operated to recover the reactor coolant system (RCS) and protect the core uncover. An SBLOCA test simulating a guillotine break on the SIS, SCS, and PSV was performed. It was enough to keep a steady-state condition before the SBLOCA test begins. An actuation signal as the boundary condition was properly simulated during the transient test. The scenarios of the SBLOCA in the SMART design were reproduced well using the SMART-ITL facility. The safety injection is effective to protect the core uncover as well as to cool down the RCS. All of the measured parameters show reasonable behaviors.

  8. Response to 'Audiences, rationales and quantitative measure for demonstrations of nuclear safety and licensing by tests'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, J J [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1990-07-01

    There are key overriding issues which are independent of the specific nature of the nuclear system itself which require concentrated attention to assure public safety and reliable, economic operation: - the need to keep the risk of external events to an acceptable level for all reactor systems; - the need to assure highly reliable operation of all elements of the system, many of which are the same regardless of what the nuclear system is composed of; - the importance of human proficiency in operating this total complex in a highly reliable manner. Nuclear system-specific demonstrations of public safety, although valuable, will not accomplish this and will not convince the public that there is zero risk. The very claim that a nuclear system or for that matter any big industrial complex, poses zero public risk raises a credibility gap with the public and is, therefore, counterproductive. So, we must take the dull, detailed technical steps to address the challenge: - define the minimal risk and accept that there is no zero risk; - demonstrate the achievement of that risk by detailed testing, conformance to standards and regulation, and trouble-free operation.

  9. Response to 'Audiences, rationales and quantitative measure for demonstrations of nuclear safety and licensing by tests'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.J.

    1990-01-01

    There are key overriding issues which are independent of the specific nature of the nuclear system itself which require concentrated attention to assure public safety and reliable, economic operation: - the need to keep the risk of external events to an acceptable level for all reactor systems; - the need to assure highly reliable operation of all elements of the system, many of which are the same regardless of what the nuclear system is composed of; - the importance of human proficiency in operating this total complex in a highly reliable manner. Nuclear system-specific demonstrations of public safety, although valuable, will not accomplish this and will not convince the public that there is zero risk. The very claim that a nuclear system or for that matter any big industrial complex, poses zero public risk raises a credibility gap with the public and is, therefore, counterproductive. So, we must take the dull, detailed technical steps to address the challenge: - define the minimal risk and accept that there is no zero risk; - demonstrate the achievement of that risk by detailed testing, conformance to standards and regulation, and trouble-free operation

  10. Assuring safety without animal testing: Unilever's ongoing research programme to deliver novel ways to assure consumer safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westmoreland, Carl; Carmichael, Paul; Dent, Matt; Fentem, Julia; MacKay, Cameron; Maxwell, Gavin; Pease, Camilla; Reynolds, Fiona

    2010-01-01

    Assuring consumer safety without the generation of new animal data is currently a considerable challenge. However, through the application of new technologies and the further development of risk-based approaches for safety assessment, we remain confident it is ultimately achievable. For many complex, multi-organ consumer safety endpoints, the development, evaluation and application of new, non-animal approaches is hampered by a lack of biological understanding of the underlying mechanistic processes involved. The enormity of this scientific challenge should not be underestimated. To tackle this challenge a substantial research programme was initiated by Unilever in 2004 to critically evaluate the feasibility of a new conceptual approach based upon the following key components: 1.Developing new, exposure-driven risk assessment approaches. 2.Developing new biological (in vitro) and computer-based (in silico) predictive models. 3.Evaluating the applicability of new technologies for generating data (e.g. "omics", informatics) and for integrating new types of data (e.g. systems approaches) for risk-based safety assessment. Our research efforts are focussed in the priority areas of skin allergy, cancer and general toxicity (including inhaled toxicity). In all of these areas, a long-term investment is essential to increase the scientific understanding of the underlying biology and molecular mechanisms that we believe will ultimately form a sound basis for novel risk assessment approaches. Our research programme in these priority areas consists of in-house research as well as Unilever-sponsored academic research, involvement in EU-funded projects (e.g. Sens-it-iv, Carcinogenomics), participation in cross-industry collaborative research (e.g. Colipa, EPAA) and ongoing involvement with other scientific initiatives on non-animal approaches to risk assessment (e.g. UK NC3Rs, US "Human Toxicology Project" consortium).

  11. Processing techniques for data from the Kuosheng Unit 1 shakedown safety-relief-valve tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCauley, E.W.; Rompel, S.L.; Weaver, H.J.; Altenbach, T.J.

    1982-08-01

    This report describes techniques developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laobratory, Livermore, CA for processing original data from the Taiwan Power Company's Kuosheng MKIII Unit 1 Safety Relief Valve Shakedown Tests conducted in April/May 1981. The computer codes used, TPSORT, TPPLOT, and TPPSD, form a special evaluation system for treating the data from its original packed binary form to ordered, calibrated ASCII transducer files and then to production of time-history plots, numerical output files, and spectral analyses. Using the data processing techniques described, a convenient means of independently examining and analyzing a unique data base for steam condensation phenomena in the MARKIII wetwell is described. The techniques developed for handling these data are applicable to the treatment of similar, but perhaps differently structured, experiment data sets

  12. Structural safety of HDR reactor building during large scale vibration tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stangenberg, F.; Zinn, R.

    1985-01-01

    In the second phase of the HDR investigations, a high shaker excitation of the building is planned using a large shaker which will be located on the operating floor and will be brought up to speed in a balanced condition and then unbalanced and decoupled from the drive system. With decreasing speed the shaker comes in resonance with the building frequencies and its energy is transferred to the building. In this paper the structural safety of the reactor building during the projected shaker tests is analysed. Dynamic response calculations with coupling between building and shaker by simultaneously integrating the equilibrium equations of both building and shaker are presented. The resulting building stresses, soil pressures etc. are compared with allowable values. (orig.)

  13. Final safety analysis report for the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA), Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-10-01

    This document is the first volume of a 3 volume safety analysis report on the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA). The GTA program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is the major element of the national Neutral Particle Beam (NPB) program, which is supported by the Strategic Defense Initiative Office (SDIO). A principal goal of the national NPB program is to assess the feasibility of using hydrogen and deuterium neutral particle beams outside the Earth`s atmosphere. The main effort of the NPB program at Los Alamos concentrates on developing the GTA. The GTA is classified as a low-hazard facility, except for the cryogenic-cooling system, which is classified as a moderate-hazard facility. This volume consists of an introduction, summary/conclusion, site description and assessment, description of facility, and description of operation.

  14. Preliminary analysis of the safety and environmental impact of the Tritium Systems Test Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.V.; Jalbert, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    The Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) is a facility dedicated to the development of technologies associated with the D-T fuel cycle of future fusion reactors while demonstrating that TSTA can be operated safely with no significant losses to the environment. During the initial design stage of TSTA, a safety analysis was performed which investigated the effects of major subsystem component failure, the meteorology and seismicity of the site and their possible effect on the facility, and accident scenarios which result in tritium releases. Major releases of tritium to the environment are considered highly improbable since they require a compound failure of primary and secondary containment, along with either a breach of the building or a failure of the Emergency Tritium Cleanup system. Accidental releases caused by natural phenomena (earthquake, tornado, etc.) are considered highly improbable

  15. A new method for testing and evaluating grassy airfields and its effects upon flying safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław PYTKA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains a review of methods and technologies developed during a research project entitled “Methods of testing and evaluation of grassy airfields”, conducted at the Lublin University of Technology between 2011 and 2014. Based on the terramechanical studies of wheel-soil interactions, the authors have developed a method for the determination of wheel-grass friction and rolling resistance coefficients, which are of critical importance for the ground performance of an airplane. Moreover, a mobile application has been created for use by pilots, controllers or airfield administration crew. The application connects online with a weather service to gather atmospheric data as inputs for a mathematical model that produces a real-time cone index (CI value for a given airfield. The paper also discusses the applicability of the method within the air transportation system, as well as possible effects of the described technology upon the safety of flight operations on grassy airfields.

  16. Safety Evaluation for Packaging for onsite Transfer of plutonium recycle test reactor ion exchange columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this Safety Evaluation for Packaging (SEP) is to authorize the use of three U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) 7A, Type A metal boxes (Capital Industries Part No. S 0600-0600-1080- 0104) to package 12 Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) ion exchange columns as low-level waste (LLW). The packages will be transferred from the 309 Building in the 300 Area to low level waste burial in the 200 West Area. Revision 1 of WHC-SD-TP-SEP-035 (per ECN No. 621467) documents that the boxes containing ion exchange columns and grout will maintain the payload under normal conditions of transport if transferred without the box lids

  17. Operation Grenadier. Onsite radiological safety report for announced nuclear tests, October 1984-September 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullen, O.W.; Eubank, B.F.

    1986-09-01

    Grenadier was the name assigned to the series of underground nuclear experiments conducted at the Nevada Test Site from October 1, 1984 through September 30, 1985. This report includes those experiments publicly announced. Remote radiation measurements were taken during and after each nuclear experiment by a telemetry system. Monitors with portable radiation detection instruments surveyed reentry routes into ground zeros before other planned entries were made. Continuous surveillance was provided while personnel were in radiation areas and appropriate precautions were taken to protect persons from unnecessary exposure to radiation and toxic gases. Protective clothing and equipment were issued as needed. Complete radiological safety and industrial hygiene coverage was provided during drilling and mineback operations. Telemetered and portable radiation detector measurements are listed. Detection instrumentation used is described and specific operational procedures are defined

  18. General-purpose heat source safety verification test series: SVT-11 through SVT-13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, T.G.; Pavone, D.

    1986-05-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) is a modular component of the radioisotope thermoelectric generator that will provide power for the Galileo and Ulysses (formerly ISPM) space missions. The GPHS provides power by transmitting the heat of 238 Pu α-decay to an array of thermoelectric elements. Because the possibility of an orbital abort always exists, the heat source was designed and constructed to minimize plutonia release in any accident environment. The Safety Verification Test (SVT) series was formulated to evaluate the effectiveness of GPHS plutonia containment after atmospheric reentry and Earth impact. The first two reports (covering SVT-1 through SVT-10) described the results of flat, side-on, and angular module impacts against steel targets at 54 m/s. This report describes flat-on module impacts against concrete and granite targets, at velocities equivalent to or higher than previous SVTs

  19. Environmental safety analysis tests on the Light Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit (LWRHU)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tate, R.E.; Land, C.C.

    1985-05-01

    A series of safety tests has been performed on the Light Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit (LWRHU), a 238 PuO 2 -fueled device designed to provide thermal energy at selected locations in a spacecraft. The tests simulate the thermal and mechanical environments postulated for spacecraft accidents on the launch pad and on reentry abort. The tests demonstrate almost complete containment of the fuel, or fuel simulant (depleted UO 2 ), in (1) an overpressure environment of 12.76 MPa (1850 psi), (2) on impact by an 18-g aluminum fuel-tank fragment at velocities greater than 750 m/s (2460 ft/s) but less than 900 m/s (2950 ft/s), (3) during a 10.5-min burn of a 0.9 x 0.9 x 0.9 m (3 x 3 x 3 ft) block of solid rocket motor propellant, (4) after impact at 49 m/s (161 ft/s) in four different orientations on a hard surface, and (5) during immersion in seawater for 1.75 years at both sea level pressure and at a pressure equivalent to 6000 m (19,700 ft) of ocean depth

  20. Assuring safety without animal testing: the case for the human testis in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, Robert E; Boekelheide, Kim; Cortvrindt, Rita; van Duursen, Majorie B M; Gant, Tim; Jegou, Bernard; Marczylo, Emma; van Pelt, Ans M M; Post, Janine N; Roelofs, Maarke J E; Schlatt, Stefan; Teerds, Katja J; Toppari, Jorma; Piersma, Aldert H

    2013-08-01

    From 15 to 17 June 2011, a dedicated workshop was held on the subject of in vitro models for mammalian spermatogenesis and their applications in toxicological hazard and risk assessment. The workshop was sponsored by the Dutch ASAT initiative (Assuring Safety without Animal Testing), which aims at promoting innovative approaches toward toxicological hazard and risk assessment on the basis of human and in vitro data, and replacement of animal studies. Participants addressed the state of the art regarding human and animal evidence for compound mediated testicular toxicity, reviewed existing alternative assay models, and brainstormed about future approaches, specifically considering tissue engineering. The workshop recognized the specific complexity of testicular function exemplified by dedicated cell types with distinct functionalities, as well as different cell compartments in terms of microenvironment and extracellular matrix components. This complexity hampers quick results in the realm of alternative models. Nevertheless, progress has been achieved in recent years, and innovative approaches in tissue engineering may open new avenues for mimicking testicular function in vitro. Although feasible, significant investment is deemed essential to be able to bring new ideas into practice in the laboratory. For the advancement of in vitro testicular toxicity testing, one of the most sensitive end points in regulatory reproductive toxicity testing, such an investment is highly desirable. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. CSER 96-014: criticality safety of project W-151, 241-AZ-101 retrieval system process test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vail, T.S., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-06

    This Criticality Safety Evaluation Report (CSER) documents a review of the criticality safety implications of a process test to be performed in tank 241-AZ-101 (101-AZ). The process test will determine the effectiveness of the retrieval system for mobilization of solids and the practicality of the system for future use in the underground storage tanks at Hanford. The scope of the CSER extends only to the testing and operation of the mixer pumps and does not include the transfer of waste from the tank. Justification is provided that a nuclear criticality is extremely unlikely, if not impossible, in this tank.

  2. 78 FR 47011 - Software Unit Testing for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2012-0195] Software Unit Testing for Digital Computer Software... revised regulatory guide (RG), revision 1 of RG 1.171, ``Software Unit Testing for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants.'' This RG endorses American National Standards...

  3. 77 FR 50722 - Software Unit Testing for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2012-0195] Software Unit Testing for Digital Computer Software...) is issuing for public comment draft regulatory guide (DG), DG-1208, ``Software Unit Testing for Digital Computer Software used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants.'' The DG-1208 is proposed...

  4. Audiences, rationales and quantitative measure for demonstrations of nuclear safety and licensing by tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidsky, L.M.

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear power is one of several potential prime movers under consideration for central station production of electricity. As with any technology, the extent of its utilization depends on a complex set of interactions determined by its particular physical embodiments and the structure and temper of the society in which its use is considered. This paper focuses on the situation in the United States; its conclusions cannot easily be extrapolated to other nations. The interplay of indigenous resource base, political structure, and history is complex and must be analyzed case-by-case. I believe that the development of nuclear power plants with the ability to survive a definitive worst-case, 'absolute', test is a minimum requirement if nuclear power is to play a significant role in the future. The test protocols are somewhat dependent upon plant design, but include, at a minimum, simultaneous loss of coolant, control rod withdrawal, and the presence of a malicious operator. The test requirements are not determined by cost-benefit analysis nor by the imposition of mandated safety goals. They are substantially more stringent than would be required to meet even the most conservative commercial standards. Nonetheless, imposition of an absolute test is essential if the social and political prerequisites for the utilization of nuclear power are to be put in place. There are, of course, many other essential conditions, low cost being prime among them. The de facto imposition of an absolute test requirement would have several notable beneficial side effects: It would, for example, change the role of the NRC to one that has far greater public acceptance and it would lead to 'market force' standardization with attendant commercial ramifications

  5. 75 FR 2926 - Pipeline Safety: Reporting Drug and Alcohol Test Results for Contractors and Multiple Operator...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No... Operator Identification Numbers AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT... liquid, and carbon dioxide pipelines and liquefied natural gas facilities that the Pipeline and Hazardous...

  6. The effect of safety training involving non-destructive testing among students at specialized vocational high schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim Young Khi; Han, Eun Ok; Choi, Yoon Seok

    2017-01-01

    By examining the safety issues involved in on-site training sessions conducted at specialized vocational high schools, and by analyzing the effects of non-destructive testing (NDT) safety training, this study aims to contribute to ensuring the general safety of high school students. Students who expressed an interest in participation were surveyed regarding current NDT training practices, as well as NDT safety training. A total of 361 students from 4 schools participated in this study; 37.7% (136 students) were from the Seoul metropolitan area and 62.3% (225 students) were from other areas. Of the respondents, 2.2% (8 students) reported having engaged in NDT. As a result of safety training, statistically significant improvements were observed in most areas, except for individuals with previous NDT experience. The areas of improvement included safety awareness, acquisition of knowledge, subjective knowledge levels, objective knowledge levels, and adjustments to existing personal attitudes. Even at absolutely necessary observation-only training sessions, it is crucial that sufficient safety training and additional safety measures be adequately provided

  7. The effect of safety training involving non-destructive testing among students at specialized vocational high schools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim Young Khi [Dept. of Radiological Science, Gachon University, Inchon (Korea, Republic of); Han, Eun Ok; Choi, Yoon Seok [Dept. of Education amd Research, Korea Academy of Nuclear Safety, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    By examining the safety issues involved in on-site training sessions conducted at specialized vocational high schools, and by analyzing the effects of non-destructive testing (NDT) safety training, this study aims to contribute to ensuring the general safety of high school students. Students who expressed an interest in participation were surveyed regarding current NDT training practices, as well as NDT safety training. A total of 361 students from 4 schools participated in this study; 37.7% (136 students) were from the Seoul metropolitan area and 62.3% (225 students) were from other areas. Of the respondents, 2.2% (8 students) reported having engaged in NDT. As a result of safety training, statistically significant improvements were observed in most areas, except for individuals with previous NDT experience. The areas of improvement included safety awareness, acquisition of knowledge, subjective knowledge levels, objective knowledge levels, and adjustments to existing personal attitudes. Even at absolutely necessary observation-only training sessions, it is crucial that sufficient safety training and additional safety measures be adequately provided.

  8. Testing the effects of safety climate and disruptive children behavior on school bus drivers performance: A multilevel model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohar, Dov; Lee, Jin

    2016-10-01

    The study was designed to test a multilevel path model whose variables exert opposing effects on school bus drivers' performance. Whereas departmental safety climate was expected to improve driving safety, the opposite was true for in-vehicle disruptive children behavior. The driving safety path in this model consists of increasing risk-taking practices starting with safety shortcuts leading to rule violations and to near-miss events. The study used a sample of 474 school bus drivers in rural areas, driving children to school and school-related activities. Newly developed scales for measuring predictor, mediator and outcome variables were validated with video data taken from inner and outer cameras, which were installed in 29 buses. Results partially supported the model by indicating that group-level safety climate and individual-level children distraction exerted opposite effects on the driving safety path. Furthermore, as hypothesized, children disruption moderated the strength of the safety rule violation-near miss relationship, resulting in greater strength under high disruptiveness. At the same time, the hypothesized interaction between the two predictor variables was not supported. Theoretical and practical implications for studying safety climate in general and distracted driving in particular for professional drivers are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Safety review and stress test of the uranium enrichment facility Gronau; Compact. Sicherheitsueberpruefung und Stresstest der Urananreicherungsanlage Gronau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleiboemer, Burkhard [URENCO Deutschland GmbH, Gronau (Germany). Ueberwachung

    2013-07-01

    As a consequence of the earthquake and tsunami in Japan in 2011 and the subsequent catastrophic destruction of the nuclear power plant in Fukushima URENCO has agreed to perform the safety check of the uranium enrichment facility Gronau (UAG) two years earlier than planned. The review was started in May 2011. The contribution deals with the requirements for the safety analysis and the questionnaire for the stress test, the methodology for realization of the safety check and the results of the investigations performed by URENCO and experts of ESK.

  10. Safety Assessment Document for the Spent Reactor Fuel Geologic Storage Test in the Climax Granite Stock at the Nevada Test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The objective of the Spent Fuel Geologic Storage Test in the Climax Granite Stock is to evaluate the response of a granitic rock mass to the underground storage of encapsulated spent reactor fuel in a geometry that simulates a module of a large-scale geologic repository. This document reports an assessment of the safety of conducting this test. Descriptions are provided of the geography, meteorology, hydrology, geology, and seismology of the Climax Site; the effects of postulated natural phenomena and other activities at the nevada Test Site on the safety of the test; and the design and operation of the test facility and associated equipment. Evaluations are made of both the radiological and nonradiological impacts of normal operations, abnormal operations, and postulated accidents. It is concluded that conduct of the spent fuel test at the Climax Site will not result in any undue risk to the public, property, environment, or site employees

  11. An Overview of Trials´Accreditation and Recognition of Brazilian Tests Used for the Safety Evaluation of Cosmetic Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana dos Santos Almeida

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available For some time, Brazil has been appointed as one of the greatest consumers of cosmetic products in the world. Although cosmetics may seem harmless, destined exclusively to enhance personal appearance or to clean and protect the skin, hair and nails, new studies and events are highlighting the need to evaluate the safety of such products. The present work interrelated the lifecycle of a cosmetic product with the safety trials and tests applicable to some cycle phases. From this information, a survey was made of accredited Conformity Assessment Bodies (CAB and test facilities recognized by the General Coordination for Accreditation (CGCRE which are competent respectively to carry out safety trials and tests of cosmetics. Twenty five competent laboratories were identified to carry out chemical and/or biological trials of cosmetics, according to the legislation ABNT ISO IEC 17025:2005, and 10 test facilities recognized by the Compliance Monitoring Program that can carry out tests of the development of a product for register purposes, aiming at human health and safety. It is interesting to notice that Brazil has accredited laboratories to carry out trials that are critical for the health of the population, such as the levels of heavy metals and the presence of pathogens. On the other hand, CGCRE does not have a program to recognize safety clinical trials. The importance of this kind of study is understood, considering the world history of adverse reactions and the great consumption of cosmetics in the country.

  12. Role of field testing and shaking table test on full scale structure for NPP seismic-safety, and its relation to computational mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Heki

    1988-01-01

    Field testing on the dynamic behavior of actual structures is significant for the seismic safety of nuclear power plants. For their mechanical components and piping systems, the full scale testings are also important as well as the in-situ test of buildings. In general, it is often observed that they don't behave as that of analytical model for the design. This article tries to discuss how such discrepancy is occurring, and how to overcome it. (author)

  13. Role of field testing and shaking table test on full scale structure for NPP seismic-safety, and its relation to computational mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, Heki [Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo (Japan)

    1988-07-01

    Field testing on the dynamic behavior of actual structures is significant for the seismic safety of nuclear power plants. For their mechanical components and piping systems, the full scale testings are also important as well as the in-situ test of buildings. In general, it is often observed that they don't behave as that of analytical model for the design. This article tries to discuss how such discrepancy is occurring, and how to overcome it. (author)

  14. Extended Preclinical Safety, Efficacy and Stability Testing of a Live-attenuated Chikungunya Vaccine Candidate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth S Plante

    Full Text Available We recently described a new, live-attenuated vaccine candidate for chikungunya (CHIK fever, CHIKV/IRES. This vaccine was shown to be well attenuated, immunogenic and efficacious in protecting against CHIK virus (CHIKV challenge of mice and nonhuman primates. To further evaluate its preclinical safety, we compared CHIKV/IRES distribution and viral loads in interferon-α/β receptor-incompetent A129 mice to another CHIK vaccine candidate, 181/clone25, which proved highly immunogenic but mildly reactive in human Phase I/II clinical trials. Compared to wild-type CHIK virus, (wt-CHIKV, both vaccines generated lower viral loads in a wide variety of tissues and organs, including the brain and leg muscle, but CHIKV/IRES exhibited marked restrictions in dissemination and viral loads compared to 181/clone25, and was never found outside the blood, spleen and muscle. Unlike wt-CHIKV, which caused disrupted splenic architecture and hepatic lesions, histopathological lesions were not observed in animals infected with either vaccine strain. To examine the stability of attenuation, both vaccines were passaged 5 times intracranially in infant A129 mice, then assessed for changes in virulence by comparing parental and passaged viruses for footpad swelling, weight stability and survival after subcutaneous infection. Whereas strain 181/clone25 p5 underwent a significant increase in virulence as measured by weight loss (from 30% and mortality (from 0 to 100%, CHIKV/IRES underwent no detectible change in any measure of virulence (no significant weight loss and no mortality. These data indicate greater nonclinical safety of the CHIKV/IRES vaccine candidate compared to 181/clone25, further supporting its eligibility for human testing.

  15. Safety of type and screen method compared to conventional antiglobulin crossmatch procedures for compatibility testing in Indian setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhary Rajendra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over the past 30 years, pretransfusion tests have undergone considerable modification. In 1984, AABB recommended that the full cross match could be replaced by an abbreviated cross match in patients with negative antibody screen. However, before implementation of such a policy, issue regarding safety of T & S needs to be evaluated. Objectives: The aim of pretransfusion testing (PTT is to ensure that enough red blood cells (RBCs in the selected red cell components will survive when transfused. Results and Conclusion: We have, therefore in this study; evaluated safety of T & S procedure for PTT in comparison with conventional test tube cross match. The T & S procedure gave a safety of 91.6%. Also, the usefulness of the T & S was shown through the detection of unexpected antibodies in 0.75% (15 out of 2026 of cases.

  16. ATLAS starts moving in

    CERN Multimedia

    Della Mussia, S

    2004-01-01

    The first large active detector component was lowered into the ATLAS cavern on 1st March. It consisted of the 8 modules forming the lower part of the central barrel of the tile hadronic calorimeter. The work of assembling the barrel, which comprises 64 modules, started the following day. Two road trailers each with 64 wheels, positioned side by side. This was the solution chosen to transport the lower part of the central barrel of ATLAS' tile hadronic calorimeter from Building 185 to the PX16 shaft at Point 1 (see Figure 1). The transportation, and then the installation of the component in the experimental cavern, which took place over three days were, to say the least, rather spectacular. On 25 February, the component, consisting of eight 6-metre modules, was loaded on to the trailers. The segment of the barrel was transported on a steel support so that it wouldn't move an inch during the journey. On 26 February, once all the necessary safety checks had been carried out, the convoy was able to leave Buildi...

  17. 30 CFR 57.14107 - Moving machine parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Moving machine parts. 57.14107 Section 57.14107... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14107 Moving machine parts. (a) Moving machine parts shall be guarded to protect persons from contacting gears, sprockets, chains, drive, head, tail...

  18. Verification of FPGA-Signal using the test board which is applied to Safety-related controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Youn-Hu; Yoo, Kwanwoo; Lee, Myeongkyun; Yun, Donghwa [SOOSAN ENS, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    This article aims to provide the verification method for BGA-type FPGA of Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) developed as Safety Class. The logic of FPGA in the control device with Safety Class is the circuit to control overall logic of PLC. Saftety-related PLC must meet the international standard specifications. With this reason, we use V and V according to an international standard in order to secure high reliability and safety. By using this, we are supposed to proceed to a variety of verification courses for extra reliability and safety analysis. In order to have efficient verification of test results, we propose the test using the newly changed BGA socket which can resolve the problems of the conventional socket on this paper. The Verification of processes is divided into verification of Hardware and firmware. That processes are carried out in the unit testing and integration testing. The proposed test method is simple, the effect of cost reductions by batch process. In addition, it is advantageous to measure the signal from the Hi-speed-IC due to its short length of the pins and it was plated with the copper around it. Further, it also to prevent abrasion on the IC ball because it has no direct contact with the PCB. Therefore, it can be actually applied is to the BGA package test and we can easily verify logic as well as easily checking the operation of the designed data.

  19. Safety testing of monoclonal antibodies in non-human primates: Case studies highlighting their impact on human risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Frank R; Cavagnaro, Joy; McKeever, Kathleen; Ryan, Patricia C; Schutten, Melissa M; Vahle, John; Weinbauer, Gerhard F; Marrer-Berger, Estelle; Black, Lauren E

    2018-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are improving the quality of life for patients suffering from serious diseases due to their high specificity for their target and low potential for off-target toxicity. The toxicity of mAbs is primarily driven by their pharmacological activity, and therefore safety testing of these drugs prior to clinical testing is performed in species in which the mAb binds and engages the target to a similar extent to that anticipated in humans. For highly human-specific mAbs, this testing often requires the use of non-human primates (NHPs) as relevant species. It has been argued that the value of these NHP studies is limited because most of the adverse events can be predicted from the knowledge of the target, data from transgenic rodents or target-deficient humans, and other sources. However, many of the mAbs currently in development target novel pathways and may comprise novel scaffolds with multi-functional domains; hence, the pharmacological effects and potential safety risks are less predictable. Here, we present a total of 18 case studies, including some of these novel mAbs, with the aim of interrogating the value of NHP safety studies in human risk assessment. These studies have identified mAb candidate molecules and pharmacological pathways with severe safety risks, leading to candidate or target program termination, as well as highlighting that some pathways with theoretical safety concerns are amenable to safe modulation by mAbs. NHP studies have also informed the rational design of safer drug candidates suitable for human testing and informed human clinical trial design (route, dose and regimen, patient inclusion and exclusion criteria and safety monitoring), further protecting the safety of clinical trial participants.

  20. Patient-led training on patient safety: a pilot study to test the feasibility and acceptability of an educational intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, V; Winterbottom, A; Symons, J; Thompson, Z; Quinton, N; Corrado, O J; Melville, C; Watt, I; Torgerson, D; Wright, J

    2013-09-01

    Training in patient safety is an important element of medical education. Most educational interventions on patient safety training adopt a 'health-professional lens' with limited consideration on the impact of safety lapses on the patient and their families and little or no involvement of patients in the design or delivery of the training. This paper describes a pilot study to test the feasibility and acceptability of implementing a patient-led educational intervention to facilitate safety training amongst newly qualified doctors. Patients and/or carers who had experienced harm during their care shared narratives of their stories with trainees; this was followed by a focused discussion on patient safety issues exploring the causes and consequences of safety incidents and lessons to be learned from these. The intervention, which will be further tested in an NIHR-funded randomised controlled trial (RCT), was successfully implemented into an existing training programme and found acceptance amongst the patients and trainees. The pilot study proved to be a useful step in refining the intervention for the RCT including identifying appropriate outcome measures and highlighting organisational issues.

  1. Additional safety assessments, follow-up of stress tests of the French nuclear power stations. Action plan of the nuclear safety authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This document presents the French national action plan defined by the Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) in compliance with the recommendations made by the ENSREG (European nuclear safety regulators group). It refers to decisions taken at the national level after the Fukushima accident, recommendations after European stress tests, and recommendations after the extraordinary meeting of contracting parties at the Convention on Nuclear Safety of August 2012. For different topics, this document recalls the recommendations made by the peer review, indicates the ASN's opinion and progress or ASN's requirements for different power stations. The first part addresses the recommendations made by peers and based on the European review. Topics concern natural hazards (effects, detection, inspections and controls related to earthquakes, margin assessment with respect to flooding and natural hazards), the loss of safety systems (cooling systems, electricity supplies, actions, instruments, training, and so on), the management of a severe accident (reference levels, measures, guides, exercises, training, management of contaminated water, radiation protection, premises). The second part deals with topics addressed within the frame of the Convention: national organisations, organisations in an emergency and post-accidental situation, international cooperation. A third part addresses the follow-up of additional measures issued by the ASN

  2. The Analysis of Loop Seal Purge Time for the KHNP Pressurizer Safety Valve Test Facility Using the GOTHIC Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Ae; Kim, Chang Hyun; Kweon, Gab Joo; Park, Jong Woon [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-10-15

    The pressurizer safety valves (PSV) in Pressurized Water Reactors are required to provide the overpressure protection for the Reactor Coolant System (RCS) during the overpressure transients. Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Company (KHNP) plans to build the PSV test facility for the purpose of providing the PSV pop-up characteristics and the loop seal dynamics for the new safety analysis. When the pressurizer safety valve is mounted in a loop seal configuration, the valve must initially pass the loop seal water prior to popping open on steam. The loop seal in the upstream of PSV prevents leakage of hydrogen gas or steam through the safety valve seat. This paper studies on the loop seal clearing dynamics using GOTHIC-7.2a code to verify the effects of loop seal purge time on the reactor coolant system overpressure.

  3. Move! Eat better: news

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Are you curious to know whether you’re doing enough daily exercise…? Test yourself with a pedometer!   Through the Move! Eat better campaign, launched in May 2012, the CERN medical service is aiming to improve the health of members of the personnel by encouraging them to prioritise physical activity in conjunction with a balanced diet. Various successful activities have already taken place: relay race/Nordic walk, Bike2work, Zumba and fitness workshops, two conferences (“Physical activity for health” and “Good nutrition every day”), events in the restaurants, as well as posters and a website. Although everyone has got the message from our various communications that physical activity is good for your health, there is still a relevant question being asked: “What is the minimum amount of exercise recommended?” 10,000 steps per day is the ideal figure, which has been demonstrated as beneficial by scientific studies ...

  4. Improvement of auditing technology of safety analysis through thermal-hydraulic separate effect tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    No, Hee Cheon; Moon, Young Min; Lee, Dong Won; Lee, Sang Ik; Kim, Eung Soo; Yeom, Keum Soo [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    The objective of the present research is to perform the separate effect tests and to assess the RELAP5/MOD3.2 code for the analysis of thermal-hydraulic behavior in the reactor coolant system and the improvement of the auditing technology of safety analysis. Three Separate Effect Tests (SETs) are the reflux condensation in the U-tube, the direct contact condensation in the hot-leg and the mixture level buildup in the pressurizer. The experimental data and the empirical correlations are obtained through SETs. On the ases of the three SET works, models in RELAP5 are modified and improved, which are compared with the data. The Korea Standard Nuclear Power Plant (KSNP) are assessed using the modified RELAP5. In the reflux condensation test, the data of heat transfer coefficients and flooding are obtained and the condensation models are modified using the non-iterative model, as results, modified code better predicts the data. In the direct contact condensation test, the data of heat transfer coefficients are obtained for the cocurrent and countercurrent flow between the mixture gas and the water in condition of horizontal stratified flow. Several condensation and friction models are modified, which well predict the present data. In the mixture level test, the data for the mixture level and the onset of water draining into the surge line are obtained. The standard RELAP5 over-predicts the mixture level and the void fraction in the pressurizer. Simple modification of model related to the pool void fraction is suggested. The KSNP is assessed using the standard and the modified RELAP5 resulting from the experimental and code works for the SETs. In case of the pressurizer manway opening with available secondary side of the steam generators, the modified code predicts that the collapsed level in the pressurizer is little accumulated. The presence and location of the opening and the secondary condition of the steam generators have an effect on the coolant inventory. The

  5. Computer-simulated safety test of a fink-type roof truss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afolaxan, J.O.

    2003-01-01

    The safety of a Fink-type truss system following the BS5950/sup 1/ design requirements is examined. The design point approach of reliability analysis is developed to determine the safety indices for the individual members and the joints which are assumed filet-welded. Consequently, for assumed loading options, the entire system safety indices are reported indicating a need for the re-appraisal of the adopted criteria. (author)

  6. Safety of power transformers, power supplies, reactors and similar products - Part 1: General requirements and tests

    CERN Document Server

    International Electrotechnical Commission. Geneva

    1998-01-01

    This International Standard deals with safety aspects of power transformers, power supplies, reactors and similar products such as electrical, thermal and mechanical safety. This standard covers the following types of dry-type transformers, power supplies, including switch mode power supplies, and reactors, the windings of which may be encapsulated or non-encapsulated. It has the status of a group safety publication in accordance with IEC Guide 104.

  7. Screening test for rapid food safety evaluation by menadione-catalysed chemiluminescent assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashoji, Shiro; Yoshikawa, Naoko; Kirihara, Masayuki; Tsuneyoshi, Toshihiro

    2013-06-15

    The chemiluminescent assay of menadione-catalysed H2O2 production by living mammalian cells was proposed to be useful for rapid food safety evaluation. The tested foods were extracted with water, ethanol and dimethylsulfoxide, and each extract was incubated with NIH3T3, Neuro-2a and HepG2 cells for 4h. Menadione-catalysed H2O2 production by living mammalian cells exposed to each extract was determined by the chemiluminescent assay requiring only 10 min, and the viability of the cells was estimated as percentage based on H2O2 production by intact cells. In this study the cytotoxicity of food was rated in order of inhibitory effect on H2O2 production by intact cells. The well known natural toxins such as Fusarium mycotoxin, tomato toxin tomatine, potato toxin solanine and marine toxins terodotoxin and brevetoxin could be detected by the above chemiluminescent assay. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Improvement of auditing technology of safety analysis through thermal-hydraulic separate effect tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    No, Hee Cheon; Park, Hyun Sik; Kim, Hyougn Tae; Moon, Young Min; Choi, Sung Won; Heo, Sun [Korea Advanced Institute Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-04-15

    The loss-of-RHR accident during midloop operation has been important as results of the probabilistic safety analysis. The condensation models In RELAP5/MOD3 are not proper to analyze the midloop operation. To audit and improve the model in RELAP5/MOD3.2, several items of separate effect tests have been performed. The 29 sets of reflux condensation data is obtained and the correlation is developed with these heat transfer coefficient's data. In the experiment of the direct contact condensation in hot leg, the apparatus setting is finished and a few experimental data is obtained. Non-iterative model is used to predict the model in RELAP5/MOD3.2 with the results of reflux condensation and evaluates better than the present model. The results of the direct contact condensation in a hot leg represent to be similar with the present model. The study of the CCF and liquid entrainment in a surge line and pressurizer is selected as the third separate experiment and is on performance.

  9. Respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function tests in security and safety products plant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbay, Ege Gulec; Toru, Umran; Arbak, Peri; Balbay, Oner; Suner, Kezban Ozmen; Annakkaya, Ali Nihat

    2014-01-01

    Lock and key factory workers are under the risk of metal pneumoconiosis and occupational asthma. In this cross-sectional study, it's aimed to evaluate the relationship between metal dust exposure and respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function tests of workers in different section of lock and key factory. 54 male workers (mean age, 32.8 ± 5.4) in a security and safety products plant were evaluated for respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function tests and smoking habits. Results have been interpreted by comparison of the painting (28/54) and grinding group workers (26/54). There was no significant difference between painting (32.1 ± 4.8) and grinding (33.6 ± 6.1) groups regarding mean age (P > 0.05). Smokers were in significantly higher in grinding group (18/26). Cough and sputum were reported 14.3% (4/28) in painting and 3.8% (1/26) in grinding workers (P > 0.05). Chest tightness was seen in 7.1% and 7.7% of painting and grinding workers, respectively (P > 0.05). But no chest tightness was reported in both groups when they were away work. Breathlessness was seen in 10.7% and 7.7% of painting and grinding workers, respectively (P > 0.05). Breathlessness was similar in both groups (7.1% vs. 3.8%) when they were away work. When comparing painting and grinding workers respiratory functions no significant difference observed. Chest radiography in painting and grinding workers showed hyperlucency (3.6% vs.11.4%), respectively. Painting groups in lock and key factory workers had more but statistically insignificantrespiratory complaints. Interestingly, chest tightness was only observed when both groups were at work. It was thought that ventilation and using personal protective equipment in factory could provide significant benefits.

  10. Impact of closed Brayton cycle test results on gas cooled reactor operation and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, St.A.; Pickard, P.S.

    2007-01-01

    This report summarizes the measurements and model predictions for a series of tests supported by the U.S. Department of Energy that were performed using the recently constructed Sandia Brayton Loop (SBL-30). From the test results we have developed steady-state power operating curves, controls methodologies, and transient data for normal and off-normal behavior, such as loss of load events, and for decay heat removal conditions after shutdown. These tests and models show that because the turbomachinery operates off of the temperature difference (between the heat source and the heat sink), that the turbomachinery can continue to operate (off of sensible heat) for long periods of time without auxiliary power. For our test hardware, operations up to one hour have been observed. This effect can provide significant operations and safety benefits for nuclear reactors that are coupled to a Brayton cycles because the operating turbomachinery continues to provide cooling to the reactor. These capabilities mean that the decay-heat removal can be accommodated by properly managing the electrical power produced by the generator/alternator. In some conditions, it may even be possible to produce sufficient power to continue operating auxiliary systems including the waste heat circulatory system. In addition, the Brayton plant impacts the consequences of off-normal and accident events including loss of load and loss of on-site power. We have observed that for a loss of load or a loss of on-site power event, with a reactor scram, the transient consists initially of a turbomachinery speed increase to a new stable operating point. Because the turbomachinery is still spinning, the reactor is still being cooled provided the ultimate heat sink remains available. These highly desirable operational characteristics were observed in the Sandia Brayton loop. This type of behavior is also predicted by our models. Ultimately, these results provide the designers the opportunity to design gas

  11. A tiered approach to the use of alternatives to animal testing for the safety assessment of cosmetics: skin irritation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, Martin; Jones, Penny; Goebel, Carsten; Dufour, Eric; Rowland, Joanna; Araki, Daisuke; Costabel-Farkas, Margit; Hewitt, Nicola J; Hibatallah, Jalila; Kirst, Annette; McNamee, Pauline; Schellauf, Florian; Scheel, Julia

    2009-07-01

    Evaluation of the skin irritancy and corrosivity potential of an ingredient is a necessity in the safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients. To date, there are two formally validated alternatives to the rabbit Draize test for skin corrosivity in place, namely the rat skin transcutaneous electrical resistance (TER) assay and the Human Skin Model Test using EpiSkin, EpiDerm and SkinEthic reconstructed human epidermal equivalents. For skin irritation, EpiSkin, EpiDerm and SkinEthic are validated as stand-alone test replacements for the rabbit Draize test. Data from these tests are rarely considered in isolation and are evaluated in combination with other factors to establish the overall irritating or corrosive potential of an ingredient. In light of the deadlines established in the Cosmetics Directive for cessation of animal testing for cosmetic ingredients, a COLIPA scientific meeting was held in Brussels on 30th January, 2008 to review the use of alternative approaches and to set up a decision tree approach for their integration into tiered testing strategies for hazard and safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients and their use in products. In conclusion, the safety assessments for skin irritation/corrosion of new chemicals for use in cosmetics can be confidently accomplished using exclusively alternative methods.

  12. Nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarride, Bruno

    2015-10-01

    The author proposes an overview of methods and concepts used in the nuclear industry, at the design level as well as at the exploitation level, to ensure an acceptable safety level, notably in the case of nuclear reactors. He first addresses the general objectives of nuclear safety and the notion of acceptable risk: definition and organisation of nuclear safety (relationships between safety authorities and operators), notion of acceptable risk, deterministic safety approach and main safety principles (safety functions and confinement barriers, concept of defence in depth). Then, the author addresses the safety approach at the design level: studies of operational situations, studies of internal and external aggressions, safety report, design principles for important-for-safety systems (failure criterion, redundancy, failure prevention, safety classification). The next part addresses safety during exploitation and general exploitation rules: definition of the operation domain and of its limits, periodic controls and tests, management in case of incidents, accidents or aggressions

  13. Discussion map and cooking classes: testing the effectiveness of teaching food safety to immigrants and refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Abby; Yu, Nan; Buro, Brandy; Garden-Robinson, Julie

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a food safety map as an educational method with English language learners. English language learner community members (n = 73) were assigned randomly to participate in 1 of 3 experimental conditions: food safety map, cooking class, and control. Participants in the food safety map and cooking class conditions completed a pre-education demographic and cooking history questionnaire, a post-education knowledge and intention questionnaire, and a 2-week post-cooking and food safety habits assessment. Participants in the control group received no educational training but completed the pre- and 2-week post-education assessments. The cooking class and the map class were both effective in increasing food safety knowledge. Specifically, by comparing with the control group, they significantly increased participants' knowledge of safely cooking large meat (χ² [df = 2, n = 66] = 40.87; P effects on boosting food safety behavioral intention (measured right after the class). The data collected 2 weeks after the classes suggested that individuals who took the classes followed the suggested food behaviors more closely than those in the control group (P < .01). The food safety map is simple to use and prepare, beneficial for oral and visual learners, and inexpensive. Compared with a food safety cooking class, the map produces similar learning and behavioral outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Automated and connected vehicle (AV/CV) test bed to improve transit, bicycle, and pedestrian safety : concept of operations plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This document presents the Concept of Operations (ConOps) Plan for the Automated and Connected Vehicle (AV/CV) Test Bed to Improve Transit, Bicycle, and Pedestrian Safety. As illustrated in Figure 1, the plan presents the overarching vision and goals...

  15. The roles of EBR-II and TREAT [Transient Reactor Test] in establishing liquid metal reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sackett, J.I.; Lehto, W.K.; Solbrig, C.W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the role of the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) and Transient Reactor Test (TREAT) facilities in contributing to the understanding and resolution of key safety issues in liquid metal reactor safety during the decade of the 80's. Fuels and materials testing has been carried out to address questions on fuels behavior during steady-state and upset conditions. In addition, EBR-II has conducted plant tests to demonstrate passive response to ATWS events and to develop control and diagnostic strategies for safe operation of advanced LMRs. TREAT and EBR-II complement each other and between them provide a transient testing capability that covers the whole range of concerns during overpower conditions. EBR-II, with use of the special Automatic Control Rod Drive System, can generate power change rates that overlap the lower end of the TREAT capability. 21 refs

  16. Chinese Road Safety and Driver Behavior Research

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Junhua

    2015-01-01

    The seminar will begin with a brief overview of the Chinese road safety situation, including current safety problems, and then move on to discuss safety research including driver behavior, freeway operational safety, and infrastructure development.

  17. The bases for optimisation of scheduled repairs and tests of safety systems to improve the NPP productive efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilej, D.V.; Vasil'chenko, S.V.; Vlasenko, N.I.; Vasil'chenko, V.N.; Skalozubov, V.I.

    2004-01-01

    In the frames of risk-informed approaches the paper proposed the theoretical bases for methods of optimisation of scheduled repairs and tests of safety systems at nuclear power plants. The optimisation criterion is the objective risk function minimising. This function depends on the scheduled repairs/tests periodicity and the allowed time to bring the system channel to a state of non-operability. The main optimisation direct is to reduce the repair time with the purpose of enhancement of productive efficiency

  18. Revision of nuclear power plants safety systems' routine testing assigned periodicity during the design extension period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skalozubov, V.I.; Kozlov, Yi.L.; Chulkyin, O.O.

    2017-01-01

    When nuclear power plants safety systems thermal equipment operation extending, a necessary requirement shall rely on revising the scheduled equipment tests frequency to optimize those tests schedule taking into account the equipment remained lifespan. On the one hand, there exists a need for tests frequency increase to detect ''hidden'' failures, and on the another, frequent tests cause a premature wear of the equipment. Proposed is an original method for optimizing the frequency of NPPs safety systems thermal engineering equipment testing. Essential in the proposed method is the optimization criterion chosen: index of security system failure probability non-exceedance during the beyond-design operating period as referred to the failure probability expected considering the equipment residual resource during the design operating period. The developed method implementation when applied to NPPs safety systems operated beyond the design service life at nuclear power plants with WWER-1000 series reactors, allowed to establish that the optimal tests frequency makes half the designed one when the equipment service life is extended by five years and three times less that the designed frequency when subject lifespan extended by 10 years.

  19. Moving and Being Moved: Implications for Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretchmar, R. Scott

    2000-01-01

    Uses philosophical writings, a novel about baseball, and a nonfiction work on rowing to analyze levels of meaning in physical activity, showing why three popular methods for enhancing meaning have not succeeded and may have moved some students away from deeper levels of meaning. The paper suggests that using hints taken from the three books could…

  20. Coincident steam generator tube rupture and stuck-open safety relief valve carryover tests: MB-2 steam generator transient response test program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbett, K.; Mendler, O.J.; Gardner, G.C.; Garnsey, R.; Young, M.Y.

    1987-03-01

    In PWR steam generator tube rupture (SGTR) faults, a direct pathway for the release of radioactive fission products can exist if there is a coincident stuck-open safety relief valve (SORV) or if the safety relief valve is cycled. In addition to the release of fission products from the bulk steam generator water by moisture carryover, there exists the possibility that some primary coolant may be released without having first mixed with the bulk water - a process called primary coolant bypassing. The MB-2 Phase II test program was designed specifically to identify the processes for droplet carryover during SGTR faults and to provide data of sufficient accuracy for use in developing physical models and computer codes to describe activity release. The test program consisted of sixteen separate tests designed to cover a range of steady-state and transient fault conditions. These included a full SGTR/SORV transient simulation, two SGTR overfill tests, ten steady-state SGTR tests at water levels ranging from very low levels in the bundle up to those when the dryer was flooded, and three moisture carryover tests without SGTR. In these tests the influence of break location and the effect of bypassing the dryer were also studied. In a final test the behavior with respect to aerosol particles in a dry steam generator, appropriate to a severe accident fault, was investigated

  1. Probabilistic methods of optimization of scheduled tests for heat equipment of safety systems of reactor at full power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilej, D.V.; Fridman, N.A.; Kolykhanov, V.N.; Skalozubov, V.I.

    2004-01-01

    This article generalises the basic results of a long-term teamwork with respect to a scientific and technical substantiation of perfection of the regulations of safe operation power units with VVER. This perfection is concerning a periodicity and volumes of tests of safety systems when a reactor works at full power. The article shows that the application of the probabilistic approaches connected to minimisation of a risk criterion function is an effective methodical base for the optimisation. For certain safety systems of serial power units with VVER 1000 the results of calculated substantiations are presented

  2. Testing the new stochastic neutronic code ANET in simulating safety important parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xenofontos, T.; Delipei, G.-K.; Savva, P.; Varvayanni, M.; Maillard, J.; Silva, J.; Catsaros, N.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • ANET is a new neutronics stochastic code. • Criticality calculations in both subcritical and critical nuclear systems of conventional design were conducted. • Simulations of thermal, lower epithermal and fast neutron fluence rates were performed. • Axial fission rate distributions in standard and MOX fuel pins were computed. - Abstract: ANET (Advanced Neutronics with Evolution and Thermal hydraulic feedback) is an under development Monte Carlo code for simulating both GEN II/III reactors as well as innovative nuclear reactor designs, based on the high energy physics code GEANT3.21 of CERN. ANET is built through continuous GEANT3.21 applicability amplifications, comprising the simulation of particles’ transport and interaction in low energy along with the accessibility of user-provided libraries and tracking algorithms for energies below 20 MeV, as well as the simulation of elastic and inelastic collision, capture and fission. Successive testing applications performed throughout the ANET development have been utilized to verify the new code capabilities. In this context the ANET reliability in simulating certain reactor parameters important to safety is here examined. More specifically the reactor criticality as well as the neutron fluence and fission rates are benchmarked and validated. The Portuguese Research Reactor (RPI) after its conversion to low enrichment in U-235 and the OECD/NEA VENUS-2 MOX international benchmark were considered appropriate for the present study, the former providing criticality and neutron flux data and the latter reaction rates. Concerning criticality benchmarking, the subcritical, Training Nuclear Reactor of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (TNR-AUTh) was also analyzed. The obtained results are compared with experimental data from the critical infrastructures and with computations performed by two different, well established stochastic neutronics codes, i.e. TRIPOLI-4.8 and MCNP5. Satisfactory agreement

  3. IEEE Std 600: IEEE trial-use standard requirements for organizations that conduct qualification testing of safety systems equipment for use in nuclear power generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this standard is to provide requirements for establishing a program for conducting qualification tests of safety systems equipment used in nuclear power generating stations. Compliance with the requirements of this standard does not assure the adequacy of the qualification tests performed. This standard applies to organizations that conduct qualification tests on equipment that has a definable safety function and is an identifiable part of a safety system for use in nuclear power generating stations. It requires a technical program, a quality assurance program, and a demonstrated ability to meet specified technical requirements. It does not apply to materials tests, production tests, normal performance testing, qualification by analysis, qualification by operating experience, or reliability tests such as diesel-generator multiple start tests. The intent of this standard is to achieve greater consistency, reliability, and reproducibility of test results and to provide adequate control of qualification testing of safety systems equipment

  4. A Proposal for a Methodology to Develop a Cyber-Attack Penetration Test Scenario Including NPPs Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, In Hyo [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Son, Han Seong [Joongbu Univ., Geumsan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Si Won [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hyun Gook [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Penetration test is a method to evaluate the cyber security of NPPs; so, this approach was performed in some studies. Because they focused on vulnerability finding or test bed construction, scenario based approach was not performed. However, to test the cyber security of NPPs, a proper test scenario should be needed. Ahn et al. developed cyber-attack scenarios but those scenarios couldn't be applied in penetration test because they developed the scenarios based on past incidents of NPPs induced by cyber-attack. That is, those scenarios only covered scenarios which were happened before; so, they couldn't cover other various scenarios and couldn't reflect them into a penetration test. In this study, a method to develop a cyber-attack penetration test scenario of NPPs especially focused on safety point of view is suggested. To evaluate the cyber security of NPPs, penetration test can be a possible way. In this study, a method to develop a penetration test scenario was explained. Especially, the goal of hacker was focused on nuclear fuel integrity deterioration. So, in the methodology, Level 1 PSA results were utilized to reflect plant safety into the security. From the PSA results, basic event was post processed and possible cyber-attacks were reviewed with vulnerabilities of digital control system.

  5. A Proposal for a Methodology to Develop a Cyber-Attack Penetration Test Scenario Including NPPs Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, In Hyo; Son, Han Seong; Kim, Si Won; Kang, Hyun Gook

    2016-01-01

    Penetration test is a method to evaluate the cyber security of NPPs; so, this approach was performed in some studies. Because they focused on vulnerability finding or test bed construction, scenario based approach was not performed. However, to test the cyber security of NPPs, a proper test scenario should be needed. Ahn et al. developed cyber-attack scenarios but those scenarios couldn't be applied in penetration test because they developed the scenarios based on past incidents of NPPs induced by cyber-attack. That is, those scenarios only covered scenarios which were happened before; so, they couldn't cover other various scenarios and couldn't reflect them into a penetration test. In this study, a method to develop a cyber-attack penetration test scenario of NPPs especially focused on safety point of view is suggested. To evaluate the cyber security of NPPs, penetration test can be a possible way. In this study, a method to develop a penetration test scenario was explained. Especially, the goal of hacker was focused on nuclear fuel integrity deterioration. So, in the methodology, Level 1 PSA results were utilized to reflect plant safety into the security. From the PSA results, basic event was post processed and possible cyber-attacks were reviewed with vulnerabilities of digital control system

  6. Report to the Attorney General on Body Armor Safety Initiative Testing and Activities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2005-01-01

    On November 17, 2003, Attorney General John Ashcroft announced the U.S. Department of Justice's Body Armor Safety Initiative in response to concerns from the law enforcement community regarding the effectiveness of body armor in use...

  7. LHI (low head safety injection) emergency cooling pump test for the EPR trademark in operation with solid matter loaded water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganzmann, I.; Schulte, C.

    2010-01-01

    Emergency cooling pumps are essential and indispensable components of the NPP safety philosophy. In case of a loss-of coolant accident solid matter (debris: fibrous insulation material, concrete dust, pigment particles) might be released into the coolant, LHSI (low head safety injection) pumps have to ensure their performance capacity for a certain amount of debris without damage or loss of power. The authors describe the development of a test facility. The LHSI was tested in continuous operation over a time period of 14 days with a debris content of 1500 ppm (90% mineral wool fibers, 3% concrete dust, 3% pigment particles, 4% microporous insulation material). The pump did not show any damage or loss of hydraulic power. Further tests including thermoshock conditions (temperature changes of 160 C) are planned.

  8. Safety of the two-step tuberculin skin test in Indian health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Devasahayam J; Shankar, Deepa; Datey, Ashima; Zwerling, Alice; Pai, Madhukar

    2014-12-01

    Health care workers (HCW) in low and middle income countries are at high risk of nosocomial tuberculosis infection. Periodic screening of health workers for both TB disease and infection can play a critical role in TB infection control. Occupational health programs that implement serial tuberculin skin testing (TST) are advised to use a two-step baseline TST. This helps to ensure that boosting of waned immune response is not mistaken as new TB infection (i.e. conversion). However, there are no data on safety of the two-step TST in the Indian context where HCWs are repeatedly exposed. Nursing students were recruited from 2007 to 2009 at the Christian Medical College and Hospital, Vellore, India. Consenting nursing students were screened with a baseline two-step TST at the time of recruitment. From 2007 to 2008 adverse events were recorded when reported during the TST reading (Cohort A). Nurses recruited in the final study year (2009) answered an investigator administered questionnaire assessing all likely side-effects Cohort B). This information was extracted from the case report forms and analysed. Between 2007 and 09, 800 trainees consented to participate in the annual TB screening study and 779 did not have a past history of TB or recall a positive TST and were selected to administer TST. Of these, 755 returned for reading the result and had complete data and were included for the final analysis - 623 subjects in (cohort A) and 132 in (cohort B). These were included for the final analysis. In cohort A only 1.3% reported adverse events. In cohort B, as per the investigator administered questionnaire; 25% reported minor side effects. Itching and local pain were the most common side effects encountered. There were no major adverse events reported. In particular, the adverse events were similar in the second step of the test and not more severe. Screening of HCWs with two-step TST for LTBI is simple and safe, and hence suitable for wide scale implementation in high

  9. Safety evaluation report related to operation of Fast Flux Test Facility. Supplement No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-05-01

    This supplement provides (1) the staff's evaluation of additional information received since issuance of the Safety Evaluation Report regarding previously identified uncompleted review items, (2) a discussion of comments made by the ACRS in its report of November 8, 1978, and (3) the staff's evaluation of additional or revised information related to new or old issues that have arisen since the issuance of the Safety Evaluation Report

  10. The Self-Calibration Test of flowmeter installed in STELLA(Sodium Integral Effect Test Loop for Safety Simulation and Assessment) facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Minhwan; Jeong, Ji-Young [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The objective of this study is to describe the procedure of the self-calibration test for the flowmeters and to analyze the result of the test. In this work, the test procedure of the self-calibration of two flowmeters (FT-101, FT-102) installed in STELLA facility was described and the test result was analyzed. In regard to the long-term SFR development plan, a large-scale sodium thermal-hydraulic test project is being progressed by KAERI. This project is called STELLA (Sodium Integral Effect Test Loop for Safety Simulation and Assessment), and it is proceeding by adopting the QA (Quality Assurance) program. Due to the specificity of an experiment using sodium(Na) categorized as Class 3(pyrophoric material and water-prohibiting substance) by the Safety Control of Dangerous Substances Act, it is necessary to apply QA in consideration of the sodium experiment environment in certain parts. The one of them is about calibration of measuring instrument such as a flowmeter, thermocouple and pressure gauge. It is described in the QAP (Quality Assurance Procedures) of KAERI that calibration work should be conducted in accordance with self-calibration procedures in a special case where conventional calibration is not practicable. The calibration of two flowmeters (FT-101, FT-102) installed in STELLA facility is the typical example. As a result of test, it was confirmed that the flowmeters meet the pass criterion. Therefore, it was concluded that the flowmeters maintain instrument capacity a year ago.

  11. Moving Field Guides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassie Meador; Mark Twery; Meagan. Leatherbury

    2011-01-01

    The Moving Field Guides (MFG) project is a creative take on site interpretation. Moving Field Guides provide an example of how scientific and artistic endeavors work in parallel. Both begin with keen observations that produce information that must be analyzed, understood, and interpreted. That interpretation then needs to be communicated to others to complete the...

  12. People on the Move

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Audrey

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this 2-3 day lesson is to introduce students in Grades 2-4 to the idea that people move around the world for a variety of reasons. In this activity, students explore why people move through class discussion, a guided reading, and interviews. The teacher elicits student ideas using the compelling question (Dimension 1 of the C3…

  13. Embodied affectivity: On moving and being moved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eFuchs

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing body of research indicating that bodily sensation and behaviour strongly influences one’s emotional reaction towards certain situations or objects. On this background, a framework model of embodied affectivity is suggested: we regard emotions as resulting from the circular interaction between affective qualities or affordances in the environment and the subject’s bodily resonance, be it in the form of sensations, postures, expressive movements or movement tendencies. Motion and emotion are thus intrinsically connected: one is moved by movement (perception; impression; affection and moved to move (action; expression; e-motion. Through its resonance, the body functions as a medium of emotional perception: it colours or charges self-experience and the environment with affective valences while it remains itself in the background of one’s own awareness. This model is then applied to emotional social understanding or interaffectivity which is regarded as an intertwinement of two cycles of embodied affectivity, thus continuously modifying each partner’s affective affordances and bodily resonance. We conclude with considerations of how embodied affectivity is altered in psychopathology and can be addressed in psychotherapy of the embodied self.

  14. The Development of Computer Code for Safety Injection Tank (SIT) with Fluidic Device(FD) Blowdown Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Joo Hee; Kim, Tae Han; Choi, Hae Yun; Lee, Kwang Won; Chung, Chang Kyu

    2007-01-01

    Safety Injection Tanks (SITs) with the Fluidic Device (FD) of APR1400 provides a means of rapid reflooding of the core following a large break Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA), and keeping it covered until flow from the Safety Injection Pump (SIP) becomes available. A passive FD can provide two operation stages of a safety water injection into the RCS and allow more effective use of borated water in case of LOCA. Once a large break LOCA occurs, the system will deliver a high flow rate of cooling water for a certain period of time, and thereafter, the flow rate is reduced to a lower flow rate. The conventional computer code 'TURTLE' used to simulate the blowdown of OPR1000 SIT can not be directly applied to simulate a blowdown process of the SIT with FD. A new computer code is needed to be developed for the blowdown test evaluation of the APR1400 SIT with FD. Korea Power Engineering Company (KOPEC) has developed a new computer code to analyze the characteristics of the SIT with FD and validated the code through the comparison of the calculation results with the test results obtained by Ulchin 5 and 6 units pre-operational test and VAlve Performance Evaluation Rig (VAPER) tests performed by The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI)

  15. An international network (PlaNet) to evaluate a human placental testing platform for chemicals safety testing in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brownbill, Paul; Chernyavsky, Igor; Bottalico, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    The human placenta is a critical life-support system that nourishes and protects a rapidly growing fetus; a unique organ, species specific in structure and function. We consider the pressing challenge of providing additional advice on the safety of prescription medicines and environmental exposures...... placental function in pregnancy-related pathologies and influx/efflux transporter polymorphisms are a few caveats that could be addressed by HPTSs, not the specific focus of current mammalian reproductive toxicology systems. An international consortium, “PlaNet”, will bridge academia, industry...

  16. Tensit - a novel probabilistic simulation tool for safety assessments. Tests and verifications using biosphere models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Jakob; Vahlund, Fredrik; Kautsky, Ulrik

    2004-06-01

    This report documents the verification of a new simulation tool for dose assessment put together in a package under the name Tensit (Technical Nuclide Simulation Tool). The tool is developed to solve differential equation systems describing transport and decay of radionuclides. It is capable of handling both deterministic and probabilistic simulations. The verifications undertaken shows good results. Exceptions exist only where the reference results are unclear. Tensit utilise and connects two separate commercial softwares. The equation solving capability is derived from the Matlab/Simulink software environment to which Tensit adds a library of interconnectable building blocks. Probabilistic simulations are provided through a statistical software named at{sub R}isk that communicates with Matlab/Simulink. More information about these softwares can be found at www.palisade.com and www.mathworks.com. The underlying intention of developing this new tool has been to make available a cost efficient and easy to use means for advanced dose assessment simulations. The mentioned benefits are gained both through the graphical user interface provided by Simulink and at{sub R}isk, and the use of numerical equation solving routines in Matlab. To verify Tensit's numerical correctness, an implementation was done of the biosphere modules for dose assessments used in the earlier safety assessment project SR 97. Acquired probabilistic results for deterministic as well as probabilistic simulations have been compared with documented values. Additional verification has been made both with another simulation tool named AMBER and also against the international test case from PSACOIN named Level 1B. This report documents the models used for verification with equations and parameter values so that the results can be recreated. For a background and a more detailed description of the underlying processes in the models, the reader is referred to the original references. Finally, in the

  17. Treatment guided by rapid diagnostic tests for malaria in Tanzanian children: safety and alternative bacterial diagnoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sykes Alma

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background WHO guidelines for the treatment of young children with suspected malaria have recently changed from presumptive treatment to anti-malarial treatment guided by a blood slide or malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT. However, there is limited evidence of the safety of this policy in routine outpatient settings in Africa. Methods Children 3-59 months of age with a non-severe febrile illness and no obvious cause were enrolled over a period of one year in a malaria endemic area of Tanzania. Treatment was determined by the results of a clinical examination and RDT result, and blood culture and serum lactate were also collected. RDT-negative children were followed up over 14 days. Results Over the course of one year, 965 children were enrolled; 158 (16.4% were RDT-positive and treated with artemether-lumefantrine and 807 (83.4% were RDT-negative and treated with non-anti-malarial medicines. Compared with RDT-positives, RDT-negative children were on average younger with a lower axillary temperature and more likely to have a history of cough or difficulty in breathing. Six (0.6% children became RDT-positive after enrolment, all of whom were PCR-negative for Plasmodium falciparum DNA at enrolment. In addition, 12 (1.2% children were admitted to hospital, one with possible malaria, none of whom died. A bacterial pathogen was identified in 9/965 (0.9% children, eight of whom were RDT-negative and one was RDT-positive, but slide-negative. Excluding three children with Salmonella typhi, all of the children with bacteraemia were ≤12 months of age. Compared to double-read research slide results RDTs had a sensitivity of 97.8% (95%CI 96.9-98.7 and specificity of 96.3% (95%CI 96.3-98.4. Conclusions Use of RDTs to direct the use of anti-malarial drugs in young children did not result in any missed diagnoses of malaria although new infections soon after a consultation with a negative RDT result may undermine confidence in results. Invasive

  18. Tensit - a novel probabilistic simulation tool for safety assessments. Tests and verifications using biosphere models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Jakob; Vahlund, Fredrik; Kautsky, Ulrik

    2004-06-01

    This report documents the verification of a new simulation tool for dose assessment put together in a package under the name Tensit (Technical Nuclide Simulation Tool). The tool is developed to solve differential equation systems describing transport and decay of radionuclides. It is capable of handling both deterministic and probabilistic simulations. The verifications undertaken shows good results. Exceptions exist only where the reference results are unclear. Tensit utilise and connects two separate commercial softwares. The equation solving capability is derived from the Matlab/Simulink software environment to which Tensit adds a library of interconnectable building blocks. Probabilistic simulations are provided through a statistical software named at R isk that communicates with Matlab/Simulink. More information about these softwares can be found at www.palisade.com and www.mathworks.com. The underlying intention of developing this new tool has been to make available a cost efficient and easy to use means for advanced dose assessment simulations. The mentioned benefits are gained both through the graphical user interface provided by Simulink and at R isk, and the use of numerical equation solving routines in Matlab. To verify Tensit's numerical correctness, an implementation was done of the biosphere modules for dose assessments used in the earlier safety assessment project SR 97. Acquired probabilistic results for deterministic as well as probabilistic simulations have been compared with documented values. Additional verification has been made both with another simulation tool named AMBER and also against the international test case from PSACOIN named Level 1B. This report documents the models used for verification with equations and parameter values so that the results can be recreated. For a background and a more detailed description of the underlying processes in the models, the reader is referred to the original references. Finally, in the perspective of

  19. Tests on instrumentation and control systems important to safety in nuclear power stations. Systempruefung der leittechnischen Einrichtungen des Sicherheitssystems in Kernkraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    The rule applies to the reactor protection system, to the protection and state boundaries, to control devices important to safety, and to danger alarms of the classes S and I. The system inspection of the control devices of the safety system comprises in-service testing and recurrent testing.

  20. Occupational risk perception, safety training, and injury prevention: testing a model in the Italian printing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiter, Michael P; Zanaletti, William; Argentero, Piergiorgio

    2009-01-01

    This study examined occupational risk perception in relation to safety training and injuries. In a printing industry, 350 workers from 6 departments completed a survey. Data analysis showed significant differences in risk perceptions among departments. Differences in risk perception reflected the type of work and the injury incidents in the departments. A structural equation analysis confirmed a model of risk perception on the basis of employees' evaluation of the prevalence and lethalness of hazards as well as the control over hazards they gain from training. The number of injuries sustained was positively related to the perception of risk exposure and negatively related to evaluations about the safety training. The results highlight the importance of training interventions in increasing workers' adoption of safety procedures and prevention of injuries.