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Sample records for safety factor profile

  1. Safety factor profile control in a tokamak

    CERN Document Server

    Bribiesca Argomedo, Federico; Prieur, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Control of the Safety Factor Profile in a Tokamak uses Lyapunov techniques to address a challenging problem for which even the simplest physically relevant models are represented by nonlinear, time-dependent, partial differential equations (PDEs). This is because of the  spatiotemporal dynamics of transport phenomena (magnetic flux, heat, densities, etc.) in the anisotropic plasma medium. Robustness considerations are ubiquitous in the analysis and control design since direct measurements on the magnetic flux are impossible (its estimation relies on virtual sensors) and large uncertainties remain in the coupling between the plasma particles and the radio-frequency waves (distributed inputs). The Brief begins with a presentation of the reference dynamical model and continues by developing a Lyapunov function for the discretized system (in a polytopic linear-parameter-varying formulation). The limitations of this finite-dimensional approach motivate new developments in the infinite-dimensional framework. The t...

  2. Method of calculating the safety factor profile on the HT-7 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xianmei; Lu Yuancheng; Wan Baonian

    2001-01-01

    A method of calculating the safety factor profile on the HT-7 tokamak has been described. It is derived from Maxwell's equations, among which the authors mainly use two of them: one is the magnetic field diffusion equation, and the other is Ampere's Law. This method can be also used to evaluate the safety factor on other devices with a circular cross sections. It is helpful to the study of the plasma MHD behavior on the HT-7 tokamak

  3. Lyapunov-based distributed control of the safety-factor profile in a tokamak plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bribiesca Argomedo, Federico; Witrant, Emmanuel; Prieur, Christophe; Brémond, Sylvain; Nouailletas, Rémy; Artaud, Jean-François

    2013-01-01

    A real-time model-based controller is developed for the tracking of the distributed safety-factor profile in a tokamak plasma. Using relevant physical models and simplifying assumptions, theoretical stability and robustness guarantees were obtained using a Lyapunov function. This approach considers the couplings between the poloidal flux diffusion equation, the time-varying temperature profiles and an independent total plasma current control. The actuator chosen for the safety-factor profile tracking is the lower hybrid current drive, although the results presented can be easily extended to any non-inductive current source. The performance and robustness of the proposed control law is evaluated with a physics-oriented simulation code on Tore Supra experimental test cases. (paper)

  4. Safety factor profile dependence of turbulent structure formation in relevant to internal transport barrier relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, S.; Yagi, M.; Itoh, S.-I.; Itoh, K.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: It is widely understood that the improved confinement mode with transport barrier is necessary to achieve the self-ignition condition in ITER. The negative magnetic shear, mean ExB flow shear, and zonal flow are considered to play important roles for ITB formation. In our previous study, it is found that the non-linear interaction between the meso-scale modes produces non-local energy transfer to the off-resonant mode in the vicinity of q min surface and brings global relaxation of the temperature profile involving ITB collapse. Experimental studies indicate that a relationship exists between the ITB formation and safety factor q-profile, with a reversed magnetic shear (RS) configuration. Transitional ITB events occur on the low-order rational resonant surface. The ITB shape and location depend on the q-profile and q min position. These observations indicate that the q-profile might play an essential role in determining the turbulent structure. In this study, the effect of safety factor profile on the ion temperature gradient driven drift wave (ITG) turbulence is investigated using a global non-linear simulation code based on the gyro-fluid model. A heat source and toroidal momentum source are introduced. Dependence of safety factor profiles on ITB formation and its stability is examined to clarify the influence of the radial distribution of the rational surfaces and the q min value. It is found that the nonlinearly excited meso-scale mode in the vicinity of q min depends on the value of q min . A detailed analysis of the structure selection rule is in progress. (author)

  5. Laquinimod Safety Profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Per Soelberg; Comi, Giancarlo; Vollmer, Timothy L

    2017-01-01

    the safety profile of laquinimod versus placebo. Adverse events (AEs), laboratory value changes, and potential risks identified in preclinical studies were evaluated in participants in ALLEGRO and BRAVO treated with at least one dose of laquinimod or matching placebo (1:1 random assignment). RESULTS...... laquinimod studies demonstrate a safety profile comprising benign or manageable AEs and asymptomatic laboratory findings with a clear temporal pattern. Potential risks noted in preclinical studies were not observed....

  6. Control of the tokamak safety factor profile with time-varying constraints using MPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maljaars, E.; Felici, F.; De Baar, M.R.; Geelen, P.J.M.; Steinbuch, M.; Van Dongen, J.; Hogeweij, G.M.D.

    2015-01-01

    A controller is designed for the tokamak safety factor profile that takes real-time-varying operational and physics limits into account. This so-called model predictive controller (MPC) employs a prediction model in order to compute optimal control inputs that satisfy the given limits. The use of linearized models around a reference trajectory results in a quadratic programming problem that can easily be solved online. The performance of the controller is analysed in a set of ITER L-mode scenarios simulated with the non-linear plasma transport code RAPTOR. It is shown that the controller can reduce the tracking error due to an overestimation or underestimation of the modelled transport, while making a trade-off between residual error and amount of controller action. It is also shown that the controller can account for a sudden decrease in the available actuator power, while providing warnings ahead of time about expected violations of operational and physics limits. This controller can be extended and implemented in existing tokamaks in the near future. (paper)

  7. [Safety profile of dolutegravir].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero, Antonio; Domingo, Pere

    2015-03-01

    Integrase inhibitors are the latest drug family to be added to the therapeutic arsenal against human immunodeficiency virus infection. Drugs in this family that do not require pharmacological boosting are characterized by a very good safety profile. The latest integrase inhibitor to be approved for use is dolutegravir. In clinical trials, dolutegravir has shown an excellent tolerability profile, both in antiretroviral-naïve and previously treated patients. Discontinuation rates due to adverse effects were 2% and 3%, respectively. The most frequent adverse effects were nausea, headache, diarrhea and sleep disturbance. A severe hypersensitivity reaction has been reported in only one patient. In patients coinfected with hepatropic viruses, the safety profile is similar to that in patients without coinfection. The lipid profile of dolutegravir is similar to that of raltegravir and superior to those of Atripla® and darunavir/ritonavir. Dolutegravir induces an early, predictable and non-progressive increase in serum creatinine of around 10% of baseline values in treatment-naïve patients and of 14% in treatment-experienced patients. This increase is due to inhibition of tubular creatinine secretion through the OCT2 receptor and does not lead to a real decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate with algorithms that include serum creatinine. The effect of the combination of dolutegravir plus Kivexa(®) on biomarkers of bone remodeling is lower than that of Atripla(®). Dolutegravir has an excellent tolerability profile with no current evidence of long-term adverse effects. Its use is accompanied by an early and non-progressive increase in serum creatinine due to OCT2 receptor inhibition. In combination with abacavir/lamivudine, dolutegravir has a lower impact than enofovir/emtricitabine/efavirenz on bone remodelling markers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Direct measurements of safety factor profiles with motional Stark effect for KSTAR tokamak discharges with internal transport barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, J.; Chung, J.

    2017-06-01

    The safety factor profile evolutions have been measured from the plasma discharges with the external current drive mechanism such as the multi-ion-source neutral beam injection for the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) for the first time. This measurement has been possible by the newly installed motional Stark effect (MSE) diagnostic system that utilizes the polarized Balmer-alpha emission from the energetic neutral deuterium atoms induced by the Stark effect under the Lorentz electric field. The 25-channel KSTAR MSE diagnostic is based on the conventional photoelastic modulator approach with the spatial and temporal resolutions less than 2 cm (for the most of the channels except 2 to 3 channels inside the magnetic axis) and about 10 ms, respectively. The strong Faraday rotation imposed on the optical elements in the diagnostic system is calibrated out from a separate and well-designed polarization measurement procedure using an in-vessel reference polarizer during the toroidal-field ramp-up phase before the plasma experiment starts. The combination of the non-inductive current drive during the ramp-up and shape control enables the formation of the internal transport barrier where the pitch angle profiles indicate flat or slightly hollow profiles in the safety factor.

  9. Recent RF Experiments and Application of RF Waves to Real-Time Control of Safety Factor Profile in JT-60U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, T.; Isayama, A.; Ide, S.; Fujita, T.; Oikawa, T.; Sakata, S.; Sueoka, M.; Hosoyama, H.; Seki, M.

    2005-01-01

    Two topics of applications of RF waves to current profile control in JT-60U are presented; application of lower-hybrid (LH) waves to safety factor profile control and electron cyclotron (EC) waves to neo-classical tearing mode (NTM) control. A real-time control system of safety factor (q) profile was developed. This system, for the first time, enables 1) real time evaluation of q profile using local magnetic pitch angle measurement by motional Stark effect (MSE) diagnostic and 2) control of current drive (CD) location (ρCD) by controlling the parallel refractive index N parallel of LH waves through control of phase difference (Δφ) of LH waves between multi-junction launcher modules. The method for real-time q profile evaluation was newly developed, without time-consuming reconstruction of equilibrium, so that the method requires less computational time. Safety factor profile by the real-time calculation agrees well with that by equilibrium reconstruction with MSE. The control system controls ρCD through Δφ in such a way to decrease the largest residual between the real-time evaluated q profile q(r) and its reference profile qref(r). The real-time control system was applied to a positive shear plasma (q(0)∼1). The reference q profile was set to monotonic positive shear profile having qref(0)=1.3. The real-time q profile approached to the qref(r) during application of real-time control, and was sustained for 3s, which was limited by the duration of the injected LH power. Temporal evolution of current profile was consistent with relaxation of inductive electric field induced by theoretical LH driven current. An m/n=3/2 NTM that appeared at βN∼3 was completely stabilized by ECCD applied to a fully-developed NTM. Precise ECCD at NTM island was essential for the stabilization. ECCD that was applied to resonant rational surface (q=3/2) before an NTM onset suppressed appearance of NTM. In order to keep NTM intensity below a level, ECCD before the mode onset was

  10. Influenza vaccines: Evaluation of the safety profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombetta, Claudia Maria; Gianchecchi, Elena; Montomoli, Emanuele

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT The safety of vaccines is a critical factor in maintaining public trust in national vaccination programs. Vaccines are recommended for children, adults and elderly subjects and have to meet higher safety standards, since they are administered to healthy subjects, mainly healthy children. Although vaccines are strictly monitored before authorization, the possibility of adverse events and/or rare adverse events cannot be totally eliminated. Two main types of influenza vaccines are currently available: parenteral inactivated influenza vaccines and intranasal live attenuated vaccines. Both display a good safety profile in adults and children. However, they can cause adverse events and/or rare adverse events, some of which are more prevalent in children, while others with a higher prevalence in adults. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of influenza vaccine safety according to target groups, vaccine types and production methods. PMID:29297746

  11. Laser safety at high profile laser facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barat, K.

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Laser safety has been an active concern of laser users since the invention of the laser. Formal standards were developed in the early 1970's and still continue to be developed and refined. The goal of these standards is to give users guidance on the use of laser and consistent safety guidance and requirements for laser manufacturers. Laser safety in the typical research setting (government laboratory or university) is the greatest challenge to the laser user and laser safety officer. This is due to two factors. First, the very nature of research can put the user at risk; consider active manipulation of laser optics and beam paths, and user work with energized systems. Second, a laser safety culture that seems to accept laser injuries as part of the graduate student educational process. The fact is, laser safety at research settings, laboratories and universities still has long way to go. Major laser facilities have taken a more rigid and serious view of laser safety, its controls and procedures. Part of the rationale for this is that these facilities draw users from all around the world presenting the facility with a work force of users coming from a wide mix of laser safety cultures. Another factor is funding sources do not like bad publicity which can come from laser accidents and a poor safety record. The fact is that injuries, equipment damage and lost staff time slow down progress. Hence high profile/large laser projects need to adapt a higher safety regimen both from an engineering and administrative point of view. This presentation will discuss all these points and present examples. Acknowledgement. This work has been supported by the University of California, Director, Office of Science.

  12. Faraday rotation measurements on JET, and the change in the safety factor profile during a sawtooth collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Rourke, J.; Lazzaro, E.

    1990-01-01

    Abel-inversion of Faraday rotation measurements on JET has shown that in the current flat-top of sawtoothing discharges the axial safety factor, q o , remains significantly below unity (0.75±0.15) throughout the sawtooth period. In this paper we address two limitations of the Abel-inversion technique, namely the dependence of the results on the assumed flux surface geometry (especially the elongation of the flux surfaces near the magnetic axis, κ o ) and their lack of sensitivity to small changes in the poloidal magnetic field. Assumptions about the flux surface geometry have been verified by comparing Faraday rotation measurements along nearly orthogonal chords, and by a self-consistent identification of the plasma equilibirum. The sensitivity to small changes in the poloidal field, such as those which occur during sawtooth instabilities, has been increased by Abel-inverting the changes in the Faraday rotation signals rather than the signals themselves. (author) 2 refs., 3 figs

  13. Safety-factor profile tailoring by improved electron cyclotron system for sawtooth control and reverse shear scenarios in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucca, C.; Sauter, O.; Fable, E.; Henderson, M. A.; Polevoi, A.; Farina, D.; Ramponi, G.; Saibene, G.; Zohm, H.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of the predicted local electron cyclotron current driven by the optimized electron cyclotron system on ITER is discussed. A design variant was recently proposed to enlarge the physics program covered by the upper and equatorial launchers. By extending the functionality range of the upper launcher, significant control capabilities of the sawtooth period can be obtained. The upper launcher improvement still allows enough margin to exceed the requirements for neoclassical tearing mode stabilization, for which it was originally designed. The analysis of the sawtooth control is carried on with the ASTRA transport code, coupled with the threshold model by Por-celli, to study the control capabilities of the improved upper launcher on the sawtooth instability. The simulations take into account the significant stabilizing effect of the fusion alpha particles. The sawtooth period can be increased by a factor of 1.5 with co-ECCD outside the q = 1 surface, and decreased by at least 30% with co-ECCD inside q = 1. The present ITER base-line design has the electron cyclotron launchers providing only co-ECCD. The variant for the equatorial launcher proposes the possibility to drive counter-ECCD with 1 of the 3 rows of mirrors: the counter-ECCD can then be balanced with co-ECCD and provide pure ECH with no net driven current. The difference between full co-ECCD off-axis using all 20MW from the equatorial launcher and 20MW co-ECCD driven by 2/3 from the equatorial launcher and 1/3 from the upper launcher is shown to be negligible. Cnt-ECCD also offers greater control of the plasma current density, therefore this analysis addresses the performance of the equatorial launcher to control the central q profile. The equatorial launcher is shown to control very efficiently the value of q 0.2 -q min in advanced scenarios, if one row provides counter-ECCD.

  14. Functional Safety Specification of Communication Profile PROFIsafe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Rofar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper maps the trends in area of safety-related communication within PROFIBUS and PROFINET industry networks. There are analyses safety measures and Fail-safe parameters of PROFIsafe profile in version V2 and their localisation in Safety Communication Layer SCL, which guarantees Safety Integrity Level SIL according to standard IEC 61508. The last chapter analyses the reaction in the event of fault during transmission of messages.

  15. A Profile for Safety Critical Java

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeberl, Martin; Søndergaard, Hans; Thomsen, Bent

    2007-01-01

    We propose a new, minimal specification for real-time Java for safety critical applications. The intention is to provide a profile that supports programming of applications that can be validated against safety critical standards such as DO-178B [15]. The proposed profile is in line with the Java...... specification request JSR-302: Safety Critical Java Technology, which is still under discussion. In contrast to the current direction of the expert group for the JSR-302 we do not subset the rather complex Real-Time Specification for Java (RTSJ). Nevertheless, our profile can be implemented on top of an RTSJ...

  16. Laser safety at high profile projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barat, K.

    2011-03-01

    Laser Safety at high profile laser facilities tends to be more controlled than in the standard laser lab found at a research institution. The reason for this is the potential consequences for such facilities from incidents. This ranges from construction accidents, to equipment damage to personnel injuries. No laser user wants to sustain a laser eye injury. Unfortunately, many laser users, most commonly experienced researchers and inexperienced graduate students, do receive laser eye injuries during their careers. . More unforgiveable is the general acceptance of this scenario, as part of the research & development experience. How do senior researchers, safety personnel and management stop this trend? The answer lies in a cultural change that involves institutional training, user mentoring, hazard awareness by users and administrative controls. None of these would inhibit research activities. As a matter of fact, proper implementation of these controls would increase research productivity. This presentation will review and explain the steps needed to steer an institution, research division, group or individual lab towards a culture that should nearly eliminate laser accidents. As well as how high profile facilities try to avoid laser injuries. Using the definition of high profile facility as one who's funding in the million to billions of dollars or Euros and derives form government funding.

  17. Organizational factors in nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilpert, Bernhard

    2000-01-01

    The overall picture of factors which contributed to the event presents a panorama of a NPP where organizational and managerial characteristics were intricately intertwined and emerged as crucial for a general deterioration of the plant's capabilities to continually correct its deficiencies and optimize its operations. In the following author shall attempt to first cover various important efforts to modeling organizational factors relevant to safety. The second part of my presentation will offer an attempt towards an integrative model. The third part concludes with an agenda for research and practice. Most of the twelve different approaches above attempt to consider safety relevant organizational factors by way of pragmatic classifications. Together with their sub-categories we can count close to 160 different factors on various levels of abstraction. This is tantamount to say that most approaches lack systematic theoretical underpinnings. Thus then arises the question whether we need to develop a generic model, which promises to encompass these three major approaches altogether. Practical issues emerge particularly in the domain of organizational development, i.e. the goal oriented efforts to change the structures and the functioning of nuclear operations in such a way that the desired outputs in terms safety and reliability result in a sustained fashion. Again, these practical concerns are intimately related to developments and advances in theory and methodology. Only a close cooperation among scientists from various disciplines and of practitioners holds the promise of adequately understanding and use of organizational factors in future improving the safety record of nuclear industry worldwide. (S.Y.)

  18. Safety and Feasibility of Lin- Cells Administration to ALS Patients: A Novel View on Humoral Factors and miRNA Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sobuś

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic options for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS are still limited. Great hopes, however, are placed in growth factors that show neuroprotective abilities (e.g., nerve growth factor (NGF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and in the immune modulating features, in particular, the anti-inflammatory effects. In our study we aimed to investigate whether a bone marrow-derived lineage-negative (Lin- cells population, after autologous application into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, is able to produce noticeable concentrations of trophic factors and inflammatory-related proteins and thus influence the clinical course of ALS. To our knowledge, the evaluation of Lin- cells transplantation for ALS treatment has not been previously reported. Early hematopoietic Lin- cells were isolated from twelve ALS patients’ bone marrow, and later, the suspension of cells was administered into the subarachnoid space by lumbar puncture. Concentrations of selected proteins in the CSF and plasma were quantified by multiplex fluorescent bead-based immunoassays at different timepoints post-transplantation. We also chose microRNAs (miRNAs related to muscle biology (miRNA-1, miRNA-133a, and miRNA-206 and angiogenesis and inflammation (miRNA-155 and miRNA-378 and tested, for the first time, their expression profiles in the CSF and plasma of ALS patients after Lin- cells transplantation. The injection of bone marrow cells resulted in decreased concentration of selected inflammatory proteins (C3 after Lin- cells injection, particularly in patients who had a better clinical outcome. Moreover, several analyzed miRNAs have changed expression levels in the CSF and plasma of ALS patients subsequent to Lin- cells administration. Interestingly, the expression of miR-206 increased in ALS patients, while miR-378 decreased both in the CSF and plasma one month after the cells’ injection. We propose that autologous lineage

  19. Safety and Feasibility of Lin- Cells Administration to ALS Patients: A Novel View on Humoral Factors and miRNA Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobuś, Anna; Baumert, Bartłomiej; Litwińska, Zofia; Gołąb-Janowska, Monika; Stępniewski, Jacek; Kotowski, Maciej; Pius-Sadowska, Ewa; Kawa, Miłosz P; Gródecka-Szwajkiewicz, Dorota; Peregud-Pogorzelski, Jarosław; Dulak, Józef; Nowacki, Przemysław; Machaliński, Bogusław

    2018-04-27

    Therapeutic options for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are still limited. Great hopes, however, are placed in growth factors that show neuroprotective abilities (e.g., nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)) and in the immune modulating features, in particular, the anti-inflammatory effects. In our study we aimed to investigate whether a bone marrow-derived lineage-negative (Lin-) cells population, after autologous application into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), is able to produce noticeable concentrations of trophic factors and inflammatory-related proteins and thus influence the clinical course of ALS. To our knowledge, the evaluation of Lin- cells transplantation for ALS treatment has not been previously reported. Early hematopoietic Lin- cells were isolated from twelve ALS patients’ bone marrow, and later, the suspension of cells was administered into the subarachnoid space by lumbar puncture. Concentrations of selected proteins in the CSF and plasma were quantified by multiplex fluorescent bead-based immunoassays at different timepoints post-transplantation. We also chose microRNAs (miRNAs) related to muscle biology (miRNA-1, miRNA-133a, and miRNA-206) and angiogenesis and inflammation (miRNA-155 and miRNA-378) and tested, for the first time, their expression profiles in the CSF and plasma of ALS patients after Lin- cells transplantation. The injection of bone marrow cells resulted in decreased concentration of selected inflammatory proteins (C3) after Lin- cells injection, particularly in patients who had a better clinical outcome. Moreover, several analyzed miRNAs have changed expression levels in the CSF and plasma of ALS patients subsequent to Lin- cells administration. Interestingly, the expression of miR-206 increased in ALS patients, while miR-378 decreased both in the CSF and plasma one month after the cells’ injection. We propose that autologous lineage-negative early

  20. Safety and security profiles of industry networks used in safety- critical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária FRANEKOVÁ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The author describes the mechanisms of safety and security profiles of industry and communication networks used within safety – related applications in technological and information levels of process control recommended according to standards IEC 61784-3,4. Nowadays the number of vendors of the safety – related communication technologies who guarantees besides the standard communication, the communication amongst the safety – related equipment according to IEC 61508 is increasing. Also the number of safety – related products is increasing, e. g. safety Fieldbus, safety PLC, safety curtains, safety laser scanners, safety buttons, safety relays and other. According to world survey the safety Fieldbus denoted the highest growth from all manufactured safety products.The main part of this paper is the description of the safety-related Fieldbus communication system, which has to guaranty Safety Integrity Level.

  1. Human Factors and Safety Culture in Maritime Safety (revised

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz Peter Berg

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available As in every industry at risk, the human and organizational factors constitute the main stakes for maritime safety. Furthermore, several events at sea have been used to develop appropriate risk models. The investigation on maritime accidents is, nowadays, a very important tool to identify the problems related to human factor and can support accident prevention and the improvement of maritime safety. Part of this investigation should in future also be near misses. Operation of ships is full of regulations, instructions and guidelines also addressing human factors and safety culture to enhance safety. However, even though the roots of a safety culture have been established, there are still serious barriers to the breakthrough of the safety management. One of the most common deficiencies in the case of maritime transport is the respective monitoring and documentation usually lacking of adequacy and excellence. Nonetheless, the maritime area can be exemplified from other industries where activities are ongoing to foster and enhance safety culture.

  2. Motivation factors of surgical profile nurses work

    OpenAIRE

    Namajuškaitė, Vaida

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study – investigate the motivation factors of surgical profile nurses work. The objectives of the study: 1. To investigate of satisfaction with work, to identify the motivation positive factors, emotional exhaustion of nurses, which are working in the surgical profile departments and operating-theaters. 2. To investigate negative factors (emotional exhaustion, salary, nursing load). 3. To give the offers for the main problems solutions. Hypothesis – the nurses m...

  3. Partial Safety Factors for Rubble Mound Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Burcharth, H. F.; Christiani, E.

    1995-01-01

    On the basis of the failure modes formulated in the various subtasks calibration of partial safety factors are described in this paper. The partial safety factors can be used to design breakwaters under quite different design conditions, namely probabilities of failure from 0.01 to 0.4, design...... lifetimes from 20 to 100 years and different qualities of wave data. A code of practice where safety is taken into account using partial safety factors is called a level I code. The partial safety factors are calibrated using First Order Reliability Methods (FORM, see Madsen et al. [1]) where...... in section 3. First Order Reliability Methods are described in section 4, and in section 5 it is shown how partial safety factors can be introduced and calibrated. The format of a code for design and analysis of rubble mound breakwaters is discussed in section 6. The mathematical formulation of the limit...

  4. The PIANC Safety Factor System for Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents a summary of the recommendations for implementation of safety in breakwater designs given by the PIANC PTC IT Working Group No 12 on Analysis of Rubble Mound Breakwaters with Vertical and Inclined Concrete Walls. The working groups developed for the most important failure modes...... a system of partial safety factors which facilitate design to any target safety level....

  5. Safety factors for neutron fluences in NPP safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demekhin, V.L.; Bukanov, V.N.; Il'kovich, V.V.; Pugach, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    In accordance with global practice and a number of existing regulations, the use of conservative approach is required for the calculations related to nuclear safety assessment of NPP. It implies the need to consider the determination of neutron fluence errors that is rather complicated. It is proposed to carry out the consideration by the way of multiplying the neutron fluences obtained with transport calculations by safety factors. The safety factor values are calculated by the developed technique based on the theory of errors, features of the neutron transport calculation code and the results obtained with the code. It is shown that the safety factor value is equal 1.18 with the confidence level of not less than 0.95 for the majority of VVER-1000 reactor places where neutron fluences are determined by MCPV code, and its maximum value is 1.25

  6. Biological and haematological safety profile of oral amodiaquine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biological and haematological safety profile of oral amodiaquine and chloroquine in healthy volunteers with or without Plasmodium falciparum infection in northeast Tanzania. JJ Massaga, JP Lusingu, R Makunde, HM Malebo, MM Chile, JA Akida, MM Lemnge, AM Rønn, TG Theander, IC Bygbjerg, AY Kitua ...

  7. Safety and Tolerability Profile of Artemisinin-Based Antimalarial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The WHO in 2001 advocated artemisinin- based antimalarial combination therapy (ACT), which was adopted by Nigeria in 2005. The objective of this study was to characterize the safety and tolerability profile of the ACTs in adult patients with uncomplicated malaria. A descriptive longitudinal study was conducted in the ...

  8. SafetyNet. Human factors safety training on the Internet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauland, G.; Pedrali, M.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes user requirements to an Internet based distance learning system of human factors training, i.e. the SafetyNet prototype, within the aviation (pilots and air traffic control), maritime and medical domains. User requirements totraining have been elicited through 19 semi...

  9. Organizational factors influencing improvements in safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcus, A.; Nichols, M.L.; Olson, J.; Osborn, R.; Thurber, J.

    1992-01-01

    Research reported here seeks to identify the key organizational factors that influence safety-related performance indicators in nuclear power plants over time. It builds upon organizational factors identified in NUREG/CR-5437, and begins to develop a theory of safety-related performance and performance improvement based on economic and behavioral theories of the firm. Central to the theory are concepts of past performance, problem recognition, resource availability, resource allocation, and business strategies that focus attention. Variables which reflect those concepts are combined in statistical models and tested for their ability to explain scrams, safety system actuations, significant events, safety system failures, radiation exposure, and critical hours. Results show the performance indicators differ with respect to the sets of variables which serve as the best predictors of future performance, and past performance is the most consistent predictor of future performance

  10. Improving Safety through Human Factors Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siewert, Bettina; Hochman, Mary G

    2015-10-01

    Human factors engineering (HFE) focuses on the design and analysis of interactive systems that involve people, technical equipment, and work environment. HFE is informed by knowledge of human characteristics. It complements existing patient safety efforts by specifically taking into consideration that, as humans, frontline staff will inevitably make mistakes. Therefore, the systems with which they interact should be designed for the anticipation and mitigation of human errors. The goal of HFE is to optimize the interaction of humans with their work environment and technical equipment to maximize safety and efficiency. Special safeguards include usability testing, standardization of processes, and use of checklists and forcing functions. However, the effectiveness of the safety program and resiliency of the organization depend on timely reporting of all safety events independent of patient harm, including perceived potential risks, bad outcomes that occur even when proper protocols have been followed, and episodes of "improvisation" when formal guidelines are found not to exist. Therefore, an institution must adopt a robust culture of safety, where the focus is shifted from blaming individuals for errors to preventing future errors, and where barriers to speaking up-including barriers introduced by steep authority gradients-are minimized. This requires creation of formal guidelines to address safety concerns, establishment of unified teams with open communication and shared responsibility for patient safety, and education of managers and senior physicians to perceive the reporting of safety concerns as a benefit rather than a threat. © RSNA, 2015.

  11. Human factors and safety in emergency medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, H. G.; Helmreich, R. L.; Scheidegger, D.

    1994-01-01

    A model based on an input process and outcome conceptualisation is suggested to address safety-relevant factors in emergency medicine. As shown in other dynamic and demanding environments, human factors play a decisive role in attaining high quality service. Attitudes held by health-care providers, organisational shells and work-cultural parameters determine communication, conflict resolution and workload distribution within and between teams. These factors should be taken into account to improve outcomes such as operational integrity, job satisfaction and morale.

  12. Safety Profile of Cough and Cold Medication Use in Pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jody L; Wang, George Sam; Reynolds, Kate M; Banner, William; Bond, G Randall; Kauffman, Ralph E; Palmer, Robert B; Paul, Ian M; Dart, Richard C

    2017-06-01

    The safety of cough and cold medication (CCM) use in children has been questioned. We describe the safety profile of CCMs in children pediatric (75.5%), and single-ingredient (77.5%) formulations were most commonly involved. AEs occurring in >20% of all cases included tachycardia, somnolence, hallucinations, ataxia, mydriasis, and agitation. Twenty cases (0.6%) resulted in death; most were in children pediatric liquid formulations were the most commonly reported products. These characteristics present an opportunity for targeted prevention efforts. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  13. Human factors in safety and business management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Joachim; Leonhardt, Jorg; Koper, Birgit; Pennig, Stefan

    2010-02-01

    Human factors in safety is concerned with all those factors that influence people and their behaviour in safety-critical situations. In aviation these are, for example, environmental factors in the cockpit, organisational factors such as shift work, human characteristics such as ability and motivation of staff. Careful consideration of human factors is necessary to improve health and safety at work by optimising the interaction of humans with their technical and social (team, supervisor) work environment. This provides considerable benefits for business by increasing efficiency and by preventing incidents/accidents. The aim of this paper is to suggest management tools for this purpose. Management tools such as balanced scorecards (BSC) are widespread instruments and also well known in aviation organisations. Only a few aviation organisations utilise management tools for human factors although they are the most important conditions in the safety management systems of aviation organisations. One reason for this is that human factors are difficult to measure and therefore also difficult to manage. Studies in other domains, such as workplace health promotion, indicate that BSC-based tools are useful for human factor management. Their mission is to develop a set of indicators that are sensitive to organisational performance and help identify driving forces as well as bottlenecks. Another tool presented in this paper is the Human Resources Performance Model (HPM). HPM facilitates the integrative assessment of human factors programmes on the basis of a systematic performance analysis of the whole system. Cause-effect relationships between system elements are defined in process models in a first step and validated empirically in a second step. Thus, a specific representation of the performance processes is developed, which ranges from individual behaviour to system performance. HPM is more analytic than BSC-based tools because HPM also asks why a certain factor is

  14. Human factors in nuclear safety oversight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, K.

    1989-01-01

    The mission of the nuclear safety oversight function at the Savannah River Plant is to enhance the process and nuclear safety of site facilities. One of the major goals surrounding this mission is the reduction of human error. It is for this reason that several human factors engineers are assigned to the Operations assessment Group of the Facility Safety Evaluation Section (FSES). The initial task of the human factors contingent was the design and implementation of a site wide root cause analysis program. The intent of this system is to determine the most prevalent sources of human error in facility operations and to assist in determining where the limited human factors resources should be focused. In this paper the strategy used to educate the organization about the field of human factors is described. Creating an awareness of the importance of human factors engineering in all facets of design, operation, and maintenance is considered to be an important step in reducing the rate of human error

  15. Bicycling to school improves the cardiometabolic risk factor profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, Lars; Børrestad, Line A B; Tarp, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    To investigate whether bicycling to school improves cardiometabolic risk factor profile and cardiorespiratory fitness among children.......To investigate whether bicycling to school improves cardiometabolic risk factor profile and cardiorespiratory fitness among children....

  16. Human factors in safety assessment. Safety culture assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Li; Deng Zhiliang; Wang Yiqun; Huang Weigang

    1996-01-01

    This paper analyses the present conditions and problems in enterprises safety assessment, and introduces the characteristics and effects of safety culture. The authors think that safety culture must be used as a 'soul' to form the pattern of modern safety management. Furthermore, they propose that the human safety and synthetic safety management assessment in a system should be changed into safety culture assessment. Finally, the assessment indicators are discussed

  17. Time trends in osteoporosis risk factor profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jakob Præst; Hyldstrup, Lars; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article was to identify prevalent osteoporosis risk factors, medications and comorbidities associated with bone mineral density (BMD). Furthermore to evaluate changes in risk factor profiles over 12 years. 6285 women consecutively referred to an osteoporosis specialist clinic were...... was established in a real-life setting. The prevalence of osteoporosis and proportion of patient's having comorbidity's associated with osteoporosis were increasing during the inclusion period (start 23.8 %, end 29.7 %). Increasing age (OR = 1.05), current smoking (OR = 1.18), estrogen deficiency (OR = 1.......7), hyperthyroidism (OR = 1.5), previous major osteoporotic fracture (OR = 1.7), former osteoporosis treatment (OR = 3.5), higher BMI (OR = 0.87), use of calcium supplementation (OR = 1.2), high exercise level (OR = 0.7), and use of thiazide diuretics (OR = 0.7) were identified as predictors of osteoporosis by DXA...

  18. mathematical models for prediction of safety factors for a simply

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    Keywords: reliability, code calibration, load factor, safety factor, design, steel beam. 1. INTRODUCTION ... safety factors for the design of a simply supported steel beam using regression .... 5 design criteria for a solid timber portal frame.

  19. 14 CFR 29.303 - Factor of safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Factor of safety. 29.303 Section 29.303... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements General § 29.303 Factor of safety. Unless otherwise provided, a factor of safety of 1.5 must be used. This factor applies to external and inertia...

  20. 14 CFR 27.303 - Factor of safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Factor of safety. 27.303 Section 27.303... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements General § 27.303 Factor of safety. Unless otherwise provided, a factor of safety of 1.5 must be used. This factor applies to external and inertia...

  1. A hierarchical factor analysis of a safety culture survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Christopher B; Ludwig, Timothy D; Whitaker, Brian; Roberts, D Steve

    2013-06-01

    Recent reviews of safety culture measures have revealed a host of potential factors that could make up a safety culture (Flin, Mearns, O'Connor, & Bryden, 2000; Guldenmund, 2000). However, there is still little consensus regarding what the core factors of safety culture are. The purpose of the current research was to determine the core factors, as well as the structure of those factors that make up a safety culture, and establish which factors add meaningful value by factor analyzing a widely used safety culture survey. A 92-item survey was constructed by subject matter experts and was administered to 25,574 workers across five multi-national organizations in five different industries. Exploratory and hierarchical confirmatory factor analyses were conducted revealing four second-order factors of a Safety Culture consisting of Management Concern, Personal Responsibility for Safety, Peer Support for Safety, and Safety Management Systems. Additionally, a total of 12 first-order factors were found: three on Management Concern, three on Personal Responsibility, two on Peer Support, and four on Safety Management Systems. The resulting safety culture model addresses gaps in the literature by indentifying the core constructs which make up a safety culture. This clarification of the major factors emerging in the measurement of safety cultures should impact the industry through a more accurate description, measurement, and tracking of safety cultures to reduce loss due to injury. Copyright © 2013 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Organizational factors influencing improvements in safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcus, A.; Nichols, M.L.; Olson, J.; Osborn, R.; Thurber, J.

    1991-01-01

    Results of conceptual and empirical research conducted by this research team, and published in NUREG-CR 5437, suggested that processes of organizational problem solving and learning provide a promising area for understanding improvement in safety-related performance in nuclear power plants. In this paper the authors describe the way in which they have built upon that work and gone much further in empirically examining a range of potentially important organizational factors related to safety. The paper describes (1) overall trends in plant performance over time on the Nuclear Regulatory Commission performance indicators, (2) the major elements in the conceptual framework guiding the current work, which seeks among other things to explain those trends, (3) the specific variables used as measures of the central concepts, (4) the results to date of the quantitative empirical work and qualitative work in progress, and (5) conclusions from the research

  3. Organizational factors and nuclear power plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haber, S.B.

    1995-01-01

    There are many organizations in our society that depend on human performance to avoid incidents involving significant adverse consequences. As our culture and technology have become more sophisticated, the management of risk on a broad basis has become more and more critical. The safe operation of military facilities, chemical plants, airlines, and mass transit, to name a few, are substantially dependent on the performance of the organizations that operate those facilities. The nuclear power industry has, within the past 15 years, increased the attention given to the influence of human performance in the safe operation of nuclear power plants (NPP). While NPPs have been designed through engineering disciplines to intercept and mitigate events that could cause adverse consequences, it has been clear from various safety-related incidents that human performance also plays a dominant role in preventing accidents. Initial efforts following the 1979 Three Mile Island incident focused primarily on ergonomic factors (e.g., the best design of control rooms for maximum performance). Greater attention was subsequently directed towards cognitive processes involved in the use of NPP decision support systems and decision making in general, personnel functions such as selection systems, and the influence of work scheduling and planning on employees' performance. Although each of these approaches has contributed to increasing the safety of NPPS, during the last few years, there has been a growing awareness that particular attention must be paid to how organizational processes affect NPP personnel performance, and thus, plant safety. The direct importance of organizational factors on safety performance in the NPP has been well-documented in the reports on the Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents as well as numerous other events, especially as evaluated by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)

  4. Human and organizational factors in nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, A.; Barrientos, M.; Gil, B.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear installations are socio technical systems where human and organizational factors, in both utilities and regulators, have a significant impact on safety. Three Mile Island (TMI) accident, original of several initiatives in the human factors field, nevertheless became a lost opportunity to timely acquire lessons related to the upper tiers of the system. Nowadays, Spanish nuclear installations have integrated in their processes specialists and activities in human and organizational factors, promoted by the licensees After many years of hard work, Spanish installations have achieved a better position to face new challenges, such as those posed by Fukushima. With this experience, only technology-centered action plan would not be acceptable, turning this accident in yet another lost opportunity. (Author)

  5. Organizational safety factors research lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, T.G.

    1995-01-01

    This Paper reports lessons learned and state of knowledge gained from an organizational factors research activity involving commercial nuclear power plants in the United States, through the end of 1991, as seen by the scientists immediately involved in the research. Lessons learned information was gathered from the research teams and individuals using a question and answer format. The following five questions were submitted to each team and individual: (1) What organizational factors appear to influence safety performance in some systematic way, (2) Should organizational factors research focus at the plant level, or should it extend beyond the plant level to the parent company, rate setting commissions, regulatory agencies, (3) How important is having direct access to plants for doing organizational factors research, (4) What lessons have been learned to date as the result of doing organizational factors research in a nuclear regulatory setting, and (5) What organizational research topics and issues should be pursued in the future? Conclusions based on the responses provided for this report are that organizational factors research can be conducted in a regulatory setting and produce useful results. Technologies pioneered in other academic, commercial, and military settings can be adopted for use in a nuclear regulatory setting. The future success of such research depends upon the cooperation of regulators, contractors, and the nuclear industry

  6. Influence of organizational factors on safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haber, S.B.; Metlay, D.S.; Crouch, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    There is a need for a better understanding of exactly how organizational management factors at a nuclear power plant (NPP) affect plant safety performance, either directly or indirectly, and how these factors might be observed, measured, and evaluated. The purpose of this research project is to respond to that need by developing a general methodology for characterizing these organizational and management factors, systematically collecting information on their status and integrating that information into various types of evaluative activities. Research to date has included the development of the Nuclear Organization and Management Analysis Concept (NOMAC) of a NPP, the identification of key organizational and management factors, and the identification of the methods for systematically measuring and analyzing the influence of these factors on performance. Most recently, two field studies, one at a fossil fuel plant and the other at a NPP, were conducted using the developed methodology. Results are presented from both studies highlighting the acceptability, practicality, and usefulness of the methods used to assess the influence of various organizational and management factors including culture, communication, decision-making, standardization, and oversight. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  7. 14 CFR 31.25 - Factor of safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Factor of safety. 31.25 Section 31.25... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Strength Requirements § 31.25 Factor of safety. (a) Except as specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, the factor of safety is 1.5. (b) A factor of safety of at least five...

  8. 14 CFR 25.303 - Factor of safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Factor of safety. 25.303 Section 25.303... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure General § 25.303 Factor of safety. Unless otherwise specified, a factor of safety of 1.5 must be applied to the prescribed limit load which are considered...

  9. 14 CFR 23.303 - Factor of safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Factor of safety. 23.303 Section 23.303... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure General § 23.303 Factor of safety. Unless otherwise provided, a factor of safety of 1.5 must be used. ...

  10. Relative safety profiles of high dose statin regimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Escobar

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Carlos Escobar, Rocio Echarri, Vivencio BarriosDepartment of Cardiology, Hospital Ramón y Cajal, Madrid, SpainAbstract: Recent clinical trials recommend achieving a low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level of <100 mg/dl in high-risk and <70 mg/dl in very high risk patients. To attain these goals, however, many patients will need statins at high doses. The most frequent side effects related to the use of statins, myopathy, rhabdomyolysis, and increased levels of transaminases, are unusual. Although low and moderate doses show a favourable profile, there is concern about the tolerability of higher doses. During recent years, numerous trials to analyze the efficacy and tolerability of high doses of statins have been published. This paper updates the published data on the safety of statins at high doses.Keywords: statins, high doses, tolerability, liver, muscle

  11. Safety profile of the 9-valent HPV vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreira, Edson D; Block, Stan L; Ferris, Daron G

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The overall safety profile of the 9-valent human papillomavirus (9vHPV) vaccine was evaluated across 7 Phase III studies, conducted in males and females (nonpregnant at entry), 9 to 26 years of age. METHODS: Vaccination was administered as a 3-dose regimen at day 1, and months 2 and 6....... More than 15 000 subjects received ≥1 dose of 9vHPV vaccine. In 2 of the studies, >7000 control subjects received ≥1 dose of quadrivalent HPV (qHPV) vaccine. Serious and nonserious adverse events (AEs) and new medical conditions were recorded throughout the study. Subjects testing positive...... for pregnancy at day 1 were not vaccinated; those who became pregnant after day 1 were discontinued from further vaccination until resolution of the pregnancy. Pregnancies detected after study start (n = 2950) were followed to outcome. RESULTS: The most common AEs (≥5%) experienced by 9vHPV vaccine recipients...

  12. Impact of axial burnup profile on criticality safety of ANPP spent fuel cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bznuni, S.

    2006-01-01

    Criticality safety assessment for WWER-440 NUHOMS cask with spent nuclear fuel from Armenian NPP has been performed. The cask was designed in such way that the neutron multiplication factor k eff must be below 0,95 for all operational modes and accident conditions. Usually for criticality analysis, fresh fuel approach with the highest enrichment is taken as conservative assumption as it was done for ANPP. NRSC ANRA in order to improve future fuel storage efficiency initiated research with taking into account burn up credit in the criticality safety assessment. Axial burn up profile (end effect) has essential impact on criticality safety justification analysis. However this phenomenon was not taken into account in the Safety Analysis Report of NUHOMS spent fuel storage constructed on the site of ANPP. Although ANRA does not yet accept burn up credit approach for ANPP spent fuel storage, assessment of impact of axial burnup profile on criticality of spent fuel assemblies has important value for future activities of ANRA. This paper presents results of criticality calculations of spent fuel assemblies with axial burn up profile. Horizontal burn up profile isn't taken account since influence of the horizontal variation of the burn up is much less than the axial variation. The actinides and actinides + fission products approach are discussed. The calculations were carried out with STARBUCS module of SCALE 5.0 code package developed at Oak Ridge National laboratory. SCALE5.0 sequence CSAS26 (KENO-VI) was used for evaluation the k eff for 3-D problems. Obtained results showed that criticality of ANPP spent fuel cask is very sensitive to the end effect

  13. Organizational factors affecting safety implementation in food companies in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinda, Thanwadee

    2014-01-01

    Thai food industry employs a massive number of skilled and unskilled workers. This may result in an industry with high incidences and accident rates. To improve safety and reduce the accident figures, this paper investigates factors influencing safety implementation in small, medium, and large food companies in Thailand. Five factors, i.e., management commitment, stakeholders' role, safety information and communication, supportive environment, and risk, are found important in helping to improve safety implementation. The statistical analyses also reveal that small, medium, and large food companies hold similar opinions on the risk factor, but bear different perceptions on the other 4 factors. It is also found that to improve safety implementation, the perceptions of safety goals, communication, feedback, safety resources, and supervision should be aligned in small, medium, and large companies.

  14. Design of Vertical Wall Caisson Breakwaters using Partial Safety Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents a new system for implementation of target reliability in caisson breakwater designs by means of partial safety factors. The development of the system is explained, and tables of partial safety factors are presented for important overall stability failure modes related to caisson...

  15. Nuclear safety regulation on nuclear safety equipment activities in relation to human and organizational factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Tianshu

    2013-01-01

    Based on years of knowledge in nuclear safety supervision and experience of investigating and dealing with violation events in repair welding of DFHM, this paper analyzes major faults in manufacturing and maintaining activities of nuclear safety equipment in relation to human and organizational factors. It could be deducted that human and organizational factors has definitely become key features in the development of nuclear energy and technology. Some feasible measures to reinforce supervision on nuclear safety equipment activities have also been proposed. (author)

  16. Hepatocyte growth factor profile with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda A EL-Attar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The multifunctional hepatocyte growth factor (HGF is the ligand of c-Met receptor; it plays important role in mammary differentiation. HGF-Met signaling is a critical downstream function of c-Src-Stat3 pathway in mammalian tumorigenesis. Aim: Evaluation of tissue c-Met receptor hepatocyte growth factor receptor (HGFR and serum level of HGF in female breast ductal carcinoma. Materials and Methods: Sixty-eight premenopausal females were divided as 30 control females subdivided into: [Group 1] 15 healthy volunteer females and [Group 2] five with fibrocystic disease and 10 having fibroadenoma of the breast and patients group [Group 3] consisted of 38 female patients with breast ductal carcinoma. Thorough clinical examination, preoperative fine needle aspiration cytology, estimation of fasting serum glucose, urea, creatinine, and uric acid levels, alanine aminotransferase activities, C-reactive protein, HGF level, before surgery and histopathological examination of the breast masses, and immunohistochemical detection of HGFR were done. Results and Conclusions: Significant increase in serum HGF levels were found in patients with breast cancer as compared with controls. Significant increase was also seen in patients with breast cancer with and without lymph node metastasis when each subgroup was compared with controls. Serum level of HGF is an independent prognostic indicator of breast cancer. Fibrocystic disease of the breast showed weak HGFR expression, while in normal tissue, HGFR was scanty; meanwhile, breast invasive ductal carcinoma showed homogenous strong reaction to HGFR. HGF is only one of a number of key factors involved in breast cancer and preoperative high serum HGF levels and malignancy occur usually together.

  17. Risk factor profile in retinal detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azad Raj

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available 150 cases of retinal detachment comprising 50 patients each of bilateral retinal detachment, unilateral retinal detachment without any retinal lesions in the fellow eve and unilateral retinal detachment with retinal lesions in the fellow eye were studied and the various associated risk factors were statistically analysed. The findings are discussed in relation to their aetiological and prognostic significance in the different types of retinal detachment. Based on these observations certain guidelines are offered which may be of value in decision making, in prophylactic detachment surgery. Tractional breaks in the superior temporal quadrant especially when symptomatic. mandate prophylactic treatment. Urgency is enhanced it′ the patient is aphakic. Associated myopia adds to the urgency. The higher incidence of initial right e′ e involvement in all groups suggests a vascular original possibly ischaemic.

  18. Safety update on the use of recombinant activated factor VII in approved indications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, Ellis J; Négrier, Claude; Arkhammar, Per; Benchikh el Fegoun, Soraya; Simonsen, Mette Duelund; Rosholm, Anders; Seremetis, Stephanie

    2015-06-01

    This updated safety review summarises the large body of safety data available on the use of recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) in approved indications: haemophilia with inhibitors, congenital factor VII (FVII) deficiency, acquired haemophilia and Glanzmann's thrombasthenia. Accumulated data up to 31 December 2013 from clinical trials as well as post-marketing data (registries, literature reports and spontaneous reports) were included. Overall, rFVIIa has shown a consistently favourable safety profile, with no unexpected safety concerns, in all approved indications. No confirmed cases of neutralising antibodies against rFVIIa have been reported in patients with congenital haemophilia, acquired haemophilia or Glanzmann's thrombasthenia. The favourable safety profile of rFVIIa can be attributed to the recombinant nature of rFVIIa and its localised mechanism of action at the site of vascular injury. Recombinant FVIIa activates factor X directly on the surface of activated platelets, which are present only at the site of injury, meaning that systemic activation of coagulation is avoided and the risk of thrombotic events (TEs) thus reduced. Nonetheless, close monitoring for signs and symptoms of TE is warranted in all patients treated with any pro-haemostatic agent, including rFVIIa, especially the elderly and any other patients with concomitant conditions and/or predisposing risk factors to thrombosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Importance of human factors on nuclear installations safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caruso, G.J.

    1990-01-01

    Actually, installations safety and, in particular the nuclear installations infer a strong incidence in human factors related to the design and operation of such installations. In general, the experience aims to that the most important accidents have happened as result of the components' failures combination and human failures in the operation of safety systems. Human factors in the nuclear installations may be divided into two areas: economy and human reliability. Human factors treatments for the safety evaluation of the nuclear installations allow to diagnose the weak points of man-machine interaction. (Author) [es

  20. Human factors of safety: a few landmarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosneron Dupin, F.

    1992-06-01

    This paper discusses factors to be taken into account, and methods to be used. It concludes that more realistic and positive conceptions of Human Factors should be developed, and that Human Factors should be addressed at the very beginning of any technical project

  1. Assessment of the factors with significant influence on safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farcasiu, M.; Nitoi, M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a qualitative and a quantitative evaluation of the factors with significant impact on safety culture were performed. These techniques were established and applied in accordance with IAEA standards. In order to show the applicability and opportunity of the methodology a specific case study was prepared: safety culture evaluation for INR Pitesti. The qualitative evaluation was performed using specific developed questionnaires. Through analysis of the completed questionnaires was established the development stage of safety culture at INR. The quantitative evaluation was performed using a guide to rate the influence factors. For each factor was identified the influence (negative or positive) and ranking score was estimated using scoring criteria. The results have emphasized safety culture stages. The paper demonstrates the fact that using both quantitative and qualitative assessment techniques, a practical value of the safety culture concept is given. (authors)

  2. Human factor as nuclear safety element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valeca, S.C.; Preda, M.; Valeca, M.; Ana, E. M.; Popescu, D.

    2008-01-01

    National nuclear power system is based on western technology, it covers almost 20% from national need and could be briefly described by: - Safety and economic performances of Cernavoda NPP Unit 1; - Reduced influence on environment, population and workers; - Excellent ranking (place 4) among CANDU units from all over the world. Also, the national nuclear power system plays a major role in Romanian power policy accomplishment: - Energy safety and independence assurance; - Decrease of production of greenhouse effect gases; - Preserve the stability and adequacy of energy cost. 'Nuclear Safety' concept covers all the activities resulting from nuclear fuel cycle. By taking into account the international experience, the related activities are estimated to last around 70 years in Romania: - 10 years for site description and selection, design, manufacturing and commissioning activities; - 40 years for Nuclear Power Plant operation, maintenance and modernization activities; - 20 years for preservation and decommissioning activities. The above mentioned activities requires human resources, qualified and specialized in the following areas: - research and development; - equipment design, manufacturing and operation; - components construction and assembly, operation and maintenance. (authors)

  3. Mathematical models for prediction of safety factors for a simply ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From the results obtained, mathematical prediction models were developed using a least square regression analysis for bending, shear and deflection modes of failure considered in the study. The results showed that the safety factors for material, dead and live load are not unique, but they are influenced by safety index ...

  4. Factors impacting on the microbiological quality and safety of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Problems with the safety and shelf life of export hake have been raised by the Namibian fishing industry. This prompted an investigation into the factors that may have an impact on the microbiological quality and safety of processed hake. Samples were collected along the processing line; the general microbiological quality ...

  5. Human factor in the problem of Russian nuclear industry safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramova, V.

    2002-01-01

    The approach to human factor definition, considered in the paper, consists of recognition of as many as possible factors for developing a complete list of factors, which have influence on mistakes or successful work of NPP personnel. Safety culture is considered as the main factor. The enhancement in nuclear power industry includes an optimization of organizational structures and development of personnel safety attitudes. The organizational factors, as possible root causes for human errors, need to be identified, assessed and improved. The organizational activities taken in Russia are presented

  6. NAS Human Factors Safety Research Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory conducts an integrated program of research on the relationship of factors concerning individuals, work groups, and organizations as employees perform...

  7. Patient safety - the role of human factors and systems engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carayon, Pascale; Wood, Kenneth E

    2010-01-01

    Patient safety is a global challenge that requires knowledge and skills in multiple areas, including human factors and systems engineering. In this chapter, numerous conceptual approaches and methods for analyzing, preventing and mitigating medical errors are described. Given the complexity of healthcare work systems and processes, we emphasize the need for increasing partnerships between the health sciences and human factors and systems engineering to improve patient safety. Those partnerships will be able to develop and implement the system redesigns that are necessary to improve healthcare work systems and processes for patient safety.

  8. Patient Safety: The Role of Human Factors and Systems Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carayon, Pascale; Wood, Kenneth E.

    2011-01-01

    Patient safety is a global challenge that requires knowledge and skills in multiple areas, including human factors and systems engineering. In this chapter, numerous conceptual approaches and methods for analyzing, preventing and mitigating medical errors are described. Given the complexity of healthcare work systems and processes, we emphasize the need for increasing partnerships between the health sciences and human factors and systems engineering to improve patient safety. Those partnerships will be able to develop and implement the system redesigns that are necessary to improve healthcare work systems and processes for patient safety. PMID:20543237

  9. Patient safety climate profiles across time: Strength and level of safety climate associated with a quality improvement program in Switzerland—A cross-sectional survey study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascherek, Anna C.

    2017-01-01

    Safety Climate has been acknowledged as an unspecific factor influencing patient safety. However, studies rarely provide in-depth analysis of climate data. As a helpful approach, the concept of “climate strength” has been proposed. In the present study we tested the hypotheses that even if safety climate remains stable on mean-level across time, differences might be evident in strength or shape. The data of two hospitals participating in a large national quality improvement program were analysed for differences in climate profiles at two measurement occasions. We analysed differences on mean-level, differences in percent problematic response, agreement within groups, and frequency histograms in two large hospitals in Switzerland at two measurement occasions (2013 and 2015) applying the Safety Climate Survey. In total, survey responses of 1193 individuals were included in the analyses. Overall, small but significant differences on mean-level of safety climate emerged for some subgroups. Also, although agreement was strong at both time-points within groups, tendencies of divergence or consensus were present in both hospitals. Depending on subgroup and analyses chosen, differences were more or less pronounced. The present study illustrated that taking several measures into account and describing safety climate from different perspectives is necessary in order to fully understand differences and trends within groups and to develop interventions addressing the needs of different groups more precisely. PMID:28753633

  10. Failure and factors of safety in piping system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antaki, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    An important body of test and performance data on the behavior of piping systems has led to an ongoing reassessment of the code stress allowables and their safety margin. The codes stress allowables, and their factors of safety, are developed from limits on the incipient yield (for ductile materials), or incipient rupture (for brittle materials), of a test specimen loaded in simple tension. In this paper, we examine the failure theories introduced in the B31 and ASME III codes for piping and their inherent approximations compared to textbook failure theories. We summarize the evolution of factors of safety in ASME and B31 and point out that, for piping systems, it is appropriate to reconsider the concept and definition of factors of safety

  11. The role of psychological factors in workplace safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotzé, Martina; Steyn, Leon

    2013-01-01

    Workplace safety researchers and practitioners generally agree that it is necessary to understand the psychological factors that influence people's workplace safety behaviour. Yet, the search for reliable individual differences regarding psychological factors associated with workplace safety has lead to sparse results and inconclusive findings. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there are differences between the psychological factors, cognitive ability, personality and work-wellness of employees involved in workplace incidents and accidents and/or driver vehicle accidents and those who are not. The study population (N = 279) consisted of employees employed at an electricity supply organisation in South Africa. Mann-Whitney U-test and one-way ANOVA were conducted to determine the differences in the respective psychological factors between the groups. These results showed that cognitive ability did not seem to play a role in workplace incident/accident involvement, including driver vehicle accidents, while the wellness factors burnout and sense of coherence, as well as certain personality traits, namely conscientiousness, pragmatic and gregariousness play a statistically significant role in individuals' involvement in workplace incidents/accidents/driver vehicle accidents. Safety practitioners, managers and human resource specialists should take cognisance of the role of specifically work-wellness in workplace safety behaviour, as management can influence these negative states that are often caused by continuously stressful situations, and subsequently enhance work place safety.

  12. Risk Factors and Bacterial Profile of Suspected Neonatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Neonatal septicaemia is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries and a major health concern. The aim of this study is to evaluate the bacterial profile, antibiotics susceptibility pattern and associated risk factors of suspected septicaemia in neonates in this locality. Five hundred and forty seven ...

  13. Post-marketing surveillance of the safety profile of iodixanol in the outpatient CT setting. A prospective, multicenter, observational study of patient risk factors, adverse reactions and preventive measures in 9953 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Frank Hugo Heinz

    2014-01-01

    Non-interventional study in outpatient, contrast-enhanced CT: 1. to determine the extent of preventive measures for risk reduction of adverse drug reactions after contrast-enhanced CT examinations. 2. to prospectively determine the incidence and severity of adverse drug reactions occurring after administration of the iso-osmolar contrast medium iodixanol. 3. to determine a possible influence of preventive measures on the incidence/severity of adverse drug reactions. Evaluable documentation was provided for 9953 patients from 66 radiology centers across Germany. Patient characteristics, aspects of iodixanol administration, and adverse events with an at least 'possible' relationship were documented on a standardized case report form (CRF) and were evaluated up to seven days after contrast medium administration. About 55.5% of patients showed one or more risk factors (e.g. impaired renal function 4.4%, diabetes mellitus 8.5%, hypertension 20.6%). One third of the sites did not implement any preventive measures. Patients with a known risk for an allergy-like reaction were more likely to receive pharmacologic preventive treatment (0.5-50.5%). Oral hydration was the main preventive measure in patients with renal risk factors (<8%) followed by intravenous hydration (1%). Adverse drug reactions, mainly hypersensitivity reactions, occurred in 77 patients (0.74%), but were classified as serious in only 3 patients (0.03%). No statistically significant correlation between risk factors, preventive measures, and adverse reactions could be found. The use of preventive measures for CT examinations in this outpatient setting was generally low with risk patients being pre-medicated more often, depending on their history. In the routine outpatient setting, iso-osmolar iodixanol was very well tolerated in almost 10 000 patients undergoing diagnostic CT. The rate of acute and delayed adverse reactions was low. No correlation could be found between risk factors, preventive measures and

  14. Post-marketing surveillance of the safety profile of iodixanol in the outpatient CT setting. A prospective, multicenter, observational study of patient risk factors, adverse reactions and preventive measures in 9953 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Frank Hugo Heinz [Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Center, Ludwigshafen (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    Non-interventional study in outpatient, contrast-enhanced CT: 1. to determine the extent of preventive measures for risk reduction of adverse drug reactions after contrast-enhanced CT examinations. 2. to prospectively determine the incidence and severity of adverse drug reactions occurring after administration of the iso-osmolar contrast medium iodixanol. 3. to determine a possible influence of preventive measures on the incidence/severity of adverse drug reactions. Evaluable documentation was provided for 9953 patients from 66 radiology centers across Germany. Patient characteristics, aspects of iodixanol administration, and adverse events with an at least 'possible' relationship were documented on a standardized case report form (CRF) and were evaluated up to seven days after contrast medium administration. About 55.5% of patients showed one or more risk factors (e.g. impaired renal function 4.4%, diabetes mellitus 8.5%, hypertension 20.6%). One third of the sites did not implement any preventive measures. Patients with a known risk for an allergy-like reaction were more likely to receive pharmacologic preventive treatment (0.5-50.5%). Oral hydration was the main preventive measure in patients with renal risk factors (<8%) followed by intravenous hydration (1%). Adverse drug reactions, mainly hypersensitivity reactions, occurred in 77 patients (0.74%), but were classified as serious in only 3 patients (0.03%). No statistically significant correlation between risk factors, preventive measures, and adverse reactions could be found. The use of preventive measures for CT examinations in this outpatient setting was generally low with risk patients being pre-medicated more often, depending on their history. In the routine outpatient setting, iso-osmolar iodixanol was very well tolerated in almost 10 000 patients undergoing diagnostic CT. The rate of acute and delayed adverse reactions was low. No correlation could be found between risk factors, preventive

  15. Classification analysis of organization factors related to system safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Huizhen; Zhang Li; Zhang Yuling; Guan Shihua

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the different types of organization factors which influence the system safety. The organization factor can be divided into the interior organization factor and exterior organization factor. The latter includes the factors of political, economical, technical, law, social culture and geographical, and the relationships among different interest groups. The former includes organization culture, communication, decision, training, process, supervision and management and organization structure. This paper focuses on the description of the organization factors. The classification analysis of the organization factors is the early work of quantitative analysis. (authors)

  16. New engineering safety factors for Loviisa NPP core calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuopanportti, Jaakko; Saarinen, Simo; Lahtinen, Tuukka; Ekstroem, Karoliina [Fortum Power and Heat Ltd., Fortum (Finland)

    2017-09-15

    In Loviisa NPP, there are two limiting thermal margins called the enthalpy rise margin and the linear heat rate margin that are monitored during normal operation. Engineering safety factors are applied in determination of both of these factors. The factors take into account the effect of various manufacturing tolerances, impact of the irradiation and simulation uncertainties on the local heat rate and on the enthalpy of the coolant. The engineering factors were re-evaluated during 2015 and the factors were approved by the Finnish radiation and nuclear safety authority in 2016. The re-evaluation was performed by considering all of the identified phenomena that affect the local heat rate or the enthalpy of the coolant. This paper summarizes the work that was performed during the re-evaluation of the engineering safety factors and presents the results for each uncertainty component. The new engineering safety factors are 1.115 for the linear heat rate and 1.100 for the enthalpy rise margin when the old factors were 1.12 and 1.16, respectively. The new factors improve the fuel economy by about 1%.

  17. [Safety profile of zolpidem: two studies of 3805 patients by Swiss practitioners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganzoni, E; Gugger, M

    1999-06-24

    Evaluation and treatment of insomnia are frequent procedures in the physician's everyday practice, since many patients seek medical treatment for this condition. Knowledge of pharmacological therapeutical alternatives is therefore decisive, in order to identify the most efficaceous and safe therapy for the patient among the available hypnotics. The short-acting hypnotic zolpidem has been investigated in Switzerland in two multicenter safety studies in ambulatory practice. In the first study 8.9% (n = 125 of 1,972 treated patients), and in the second 7.2% of the patients (n = 175 of 1,833 treated patients) reported an adverse event. The most frequent events were related to the central nervous system (CNS) (somnolence, headache, confusion, vertigo); gastrointestinal and cutaneous symptoms were the most frequent non CNS-dependent effects. New, unknown or serious adverse events were not found and no specific risk factor or population at risk was identified. The safety profile of zolpidem is consistent with its known pharmacological properties, the results of previous clinical trials and the international experience obtained in large patients groups.

  18. Human factors considerations for reliability and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnino, A.

    1985-01-01

    Human factors in many industries have become an important issue, since the last few years. They should be considered during the whole life time of a plant: design, fabrication and construction, licensing, operation. Improvements have been performed in the field of man-machine interface such as procedures, control room lay-out, operator aids, training. In order to meet the needs of reliability and probabilistic risk studies, quantification of human errors has been developed but needs still improvements in the field of cognitive behaviour, diagnosis and representation errors. Data banks to support these quantifications are still in a development stage. This applies to nuclear power plants and several examples are given to illustrate the above ideas. In conclusion, human factors field is in a very quickly evolving process but the tendency is still to adapt the man to the machines whilst the reverse would be desirable

  19. Factors that influence an elemental depth concentration profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHugh, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    The use of secondary ion mass spectrometry in concentration profiling is discussed. Two classes of factors that influence an elemental concentration profile are instrumental effects and ion-matrix effects. Instrumental factors that must be considered are: (1) uniformity of the primary ion current density, (2) constancy of the primary ion current, (3) redeposition, (4) memory, (5) primary ion beam tailing and the nonfocused component, (6) chemical purity of the primary ion beam, and (7) residual gas impurities. Factors which can be classified as ion matrix effects are: (1) the mean escape depth of secondary ions, (2) recoil implantation, (3) molecular ion interferences, (4) primary ion beam induced diffusion of matrix species, (5) nonuniform sputter removal of matrix layers, and (6) implanted primary ion chemical and lattice damage effects

  20. Human and organization factors: engineering operating safety into offshore structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bea, Robert G.

    1998-01-01

    History indicates clearly that the safety of offshore structures is determined primarily by the humans and organizations responsible for these structures during their design, construction, operation, maintenance, and decommissioning. If the safety of offshore structures is to be preserved and improved, then attention of engineers should focus on to how to improve the reliability of the offshore structure 'system,' including the people that come into contact with the structure during its life-cycle. This article reviews and discusss concepts and engineering approaches that can be used in such efforts. Two specific human factor issues are addressed: (1) real-time management of safety during operations, and (2) development of a Safety Management Assessment System to help improve the safety of offshore structures

  1. Click Chemistry-based Discovery of [3-Hydroxy-5-(1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)picolinoyl]glycines as Orally Active Hypoxia Inducing Factor Prolyl Hydroxylase Inhibitors with Favorable Safety Profiles for the Treatment of Anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yue; Jiang, Zhensheng; Li, Zhihong; Gu, Jing; You, Qi-Dong; Zhang, Xiaojin

    2018-06-01

    As a gene associated with anemia, the erythropoiesis gene is physiologically expressed under hypoxia regulated by hypoxia-inducing factor-α (HIF-α). Thus, stabilizing HIF-α is a potent strategy to stimulate the expression and secretion of erythropoiesis. In this study we applied click chemistry to the discovery of HIF prolyl hydroxylase 2 (HIF-PHD2) inhibitors for the first time and a series of triazole compounds showed preferable inhibitory activity in fluorescence polarization assay. Of particular note was the orally active HIF-PHD inhibitor 15i (IC50 = 62.23 nM), which was almost ten times more active than the phase III drug FG-4592 (IC50 = 591.4 nM). Furthermore, it can upregulate the hemoglobin of cisplatin induced anemia mice (120 g/L) to normal levels (160 g/L) with no apparent toxicity observed in vivo. These results confirm that triazole compound 15i is a promising candidate for the treatment of renal anemia.

  2. Role of human factors in system safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, D. M.; Robert, C.; Graham, T.

    2008-01-01

    What happens when technology goes wrong? Three Mile Island, Chernobyl, space shuttles Challenger and Columbia, numerous airplane crashes, and other notable and newsworthy as well as many more incidents that are not reported on the news, have all been attributed to human error. Millions of dollars in fines are levied against industry under the General Duty clause for ergonomic violations, all avoidable. These incidents and situations indicate a lack of consideration for the humans in the system during the design phase. As a consequence, all of these organizations had to retrofit, had to redesign and had to pay countless dollars for medical costs, Worker's Compensation, OSHA fines and in some instances had irrecoverable damage to their public image. Human Factors, otherwise known as Engineering Psychology or Ergonomics, found its origins in loss, loss of life, loss of confidence, loss of technology, loss of property. Without loss, there would be no need for human factors. No one really 'attends' to discomfort...nor are errors attended to that have little consequence. Often it is ultimately the compilation and cumulative effects of these smaller and often ignored occurrences that lead to the bigger and more tragic incidents that make the evening news. When an incident or accident occurs, they are frequently attributed to accomplished, credible, experienced people. In reality however, the crisis was inevitable when a series of events happen such that a human is caught in the whirlwind of accident sequence. The world as known is becoming smaller and more complex. Highly technical societies have been hard at work for several centuries rebuilding the world out of cold steel that is very far removed from ancient instincts and traditions and is becoming more remote to human users. The growth of technology is more than exponential, and is virtually beyond comprehension for many people. Humans, feeling comfortable with the familiar, fulfill their propensity to implement new

  3. Nuclear safety and human factors: the French factory of expertise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolina, G.

    2009-01-01

    The French regulation of the nuclear safety is based on the maintaining of a deep technical dialogue between the nuclear safety authority, the I.R.S.N. (Institute of radiation protection and nuclear safety) and the nuclear operators. This type of risk management is called 'french coking' by the Anglo-Saxons, followers of stricter regulatory approach, more readable by the civil society. This technical dialogue is not without quality, especially in the field of human and organizational factors where it allows to improve the know how situation that stays incomplete. (N.C.)

  4. Safer electronic health records safety assurance factors for EHR resilience

    CERN Document Server

    Sittig, Dean F

    2015-01-01

    This important volume provide a one-stop resource on the SAFER Guides along with the guides themselves and information on their use, development, and evaluation. The Safety Assurance Factors for EHR Resilience (SAFER) guides, developed by the editors of this book, identify recommended practices to optimize the safety and safe use of electronic health records (EHRs). These guides are designed to help organizations self-assess the safety and effectiveness of their EHR implementations, identify specific areas of vulnerability, and change their cultures and practices to mitigate risks.This book pr

  5. Prediction of Clinically Relevant Safety Signals of Nephrotoxicity through Plasma Metabolite Profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. B. Mattes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Addressing safety concerns such as drug-induced kidney injury (DIKI early in the drug pharmaceutical development process ensures both patient safety and efficient clinical development. We describe a unique adjunct to standard safety assessment wherein the metabolite profile of treated animals is compared with the MetaMap Tox metabolomics database in order to predict the potential for a wide variety of adverse events, including DIKI. To examine this approach, a study of five compounds (phenytoin, cyclosporin A, doxorubicin, captopril, and lisinopril was initiated by the Technology Evaluation Consortium under the auspices of the Drug Safety Executive Council (DSEC. The metabolite profiles for rats treated with these compounds matched established reference patterns in the MetaMap Tox metabolomics database indicative of each compound’s well-described clinical toxicities. For example, the DIKI associated with cyclosporine A and doxorubicin was correctly predicted by metabolite profiling, while no evidence for DIKI was found for phenytoin, consistent with its clinical picture. In some cases the clinical toxicity (hepatotoxicity, not generally seen in animal studies, was detected with MetaMap Tox. Thus metabolite profiling coupled with the MetaMap Tox metabolomics database offers a unique and powerful approach for augmenting safety assessment and avoiding clinical adverse events such as DIKI.

  6. Raising the profile of worker safety: highlights of the 2013 North American Agricultural Safety Summit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, William J; Heiberger, Scott; Lee, Barbara C

    2014-01-01

    The 2013 North American Agricultural Safety Summit, an unprecedented gathering of industry leaders and safety experts, was held September 25-27 in Minneapolis, MN. Hosted by the industry-led Agricultural Safety and Health Council of America (ASHCA), there were 250 attendees, 82 speakers, 76 abstracts with poster presentations, along with "best practices" videos, genius bars sessions, learning stations, exhibits, breakfast roundtable topics, and receptions. The event was a mix of knowledge, inspiration and networking to enable participants to influence the adoption of safety practices in their home/work settings. Given the agriculture industry's commitment to feed nine billion people, the projected world population by 2050, it is imperative that producers and agribusiness strive to do it safely, humanely and sustainably. Evaluation feedback was very positive, indicating ASHCA's original objectives for the Summit were achieved.

  7. Profile and Risk Factor Analysis of Unintentional Injuries in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhamkar, Rahul; Seth, Bageshree; Setia, Maninder Singh

    2016-10-01

    To study the profile and various risk factors associated with unintentional injuries in children. The study is a cross sectional analysis of data collected from 351 children presenting with unintentional injury to a tertiary care hospital in Navi Mumbai, India. Data were collected about variables based on Haddon Phase Factor Matrix - host, environment and agent factors. Proportions for categorical variables across various groups were compared using Chi square test or Fisher's exact test. Logistic regression model was used to evaluate the factors. Falls (36 %) were the most common injuries followed by bites (23 %). Majority of children were school going children (38 %) followed by preschool children (29 %). Forty-seven percent were from lower socioeconomic class. Commonest place of injury was home (48 %) and the commonest time was evening (49 %). Though there was male predominance in injuries, the difference across gender did not vary significantly (p = 0.15). Poisonings were significantly more common in infants and toddlers and in rural population (p risk of bites compared to urban (p Profile of injuries varies widely as per the variations in agent, host and environmental factors. Socio-environmental, economic conditions and infancy-toddler age groups are predisposing risk factors for bites and poisoning. Although rural areas and lower socioeconomic class population are more vulnerable to serious types of injuries, they still lack essential basic medical care.

  8. Safety against formation of through cracks of profiled fibre-reinforced cement sheets for roofing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klavs Feilberg; Stang, Birgitte Friis Dela

    2009-01-01

      Loads due to wind, snow or traffic on a roof determine the requirements to the strength and stiffness properties of profiled sheets for roofing. Apart from these loads, locked-in stresses can occur due to differences in temperature and moisture strains in the profiled sheets and the wooden laths...... supporting the sheets. These tensile and compressive stresses are induced in the sheets if they are firmly fastened to the laths with fastening screws. The purpose of this investigation was to analyse the safety of the profiled sheets in transmitting these loads without the formation of through cracks...

  9. Effects of the safety factor on ion temperature gradient modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, A.K.; Dong, J.Q.; Sanuki, H.; Itoh, K.

    2003-01-01

    A model for the ion temperature gradient (ITG) driven instability is derived from Braginskii magnetohydrodynamic equations of ions. The safety factor q in a toroidal plasma is introduced into the model through the current density J parallel . The effects of q or J parallel on both the ITG instability in k perpendicular and k parallel spectra and the critical stability thresholds are studied. It is shown that the current density // J or the safety factor q plays an important role in stabilizing the ITG instability. (author)

  10. Enhanced Phosphoproteomic Profiling Workflow For Growth Factor Signaling Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sylvester, Marc; Burbridge, Mike; Leclerc, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    Background Our understanding of complex signaling networks is still fragmentary. Isolated processes have been studied extensively but cross-talk is omnipresent and precludes intuitive predictions of signaling outcomes. The need for quantitative data on dynamic systems is apparent especially for our...... understanding of pathological processes. In our study we create and integrate data on phosphorylations that are initiated by several growth factor receptors. We present an approach for quantitative, time-resolved phosphoproteomic profiling that integrates the important contributions by phosphotyrosines. Methods...

  11. Modelling of safety barriers including human and organisational factors to improve process safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markert, Frank; Duijm, Nijs Jan; Thommesen, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    It is believed that traditional safety management needs to be improved on the aspect of preparedness for coping with expected and unexpected deviations, avoiding an overly optimistic reliance on safety systems. Remembering recent major accidents, such as the Deep Water Horizon, the Texas City....... A valuable approach is the inclusion of human and organisational factors into the simulation of the reliability of the technical system using event trees and fault trees and the concept of safety barriers. This has been demonstrated e.g. in the former European research project ARAMIS (Accidental Risk...

  12. Statistical Hot Channel Factors and Safety Limit CHFR/OFIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byeonghee; Park, Suki [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The fuel integrity of research reactors are usually judged by comparing the critical heat flux ratio (CHFR) and the maximum fuel temperature (MFT) with the safety limits. Onset of flow instability ratio (OFIR) can also be used for the examination with CHFR. Hot channel factors (HCFs) are incorporated when calculating the CHFR/OFIR and MFT, to consider the uncertainties of fuel properties and thermo-hydraulic variables affecting them. The HCFs and safety limit CHFR is sometimes estimated to include too much conservatism, deteriorating the design flexibilities and operating margins. In this paper, a statistical estimation of HCFs and the safety limit CHFR/OFIR is presented by a random sampling of uncertainty parameters. A 15MW pool type research reactor is selected as the sample reactor for the estimation. The HCFs and the safety limit CHFR/OFIR of a 15MW pool type research reactor are evaluated statistically. The parameters affecting the HCF and the safety limit CHFR/OFIR are listed and their uncertainties are estimated. The relevant parameter uncertainties are sampled randomly and the HCFs and the safety limits are evaluated from them. The HCFs and the safety limit CHFR/OFIR with 95% probability are smaller than those estimated deterministically because the statistical evaluation convolute the correlation uncertainties and the other uncertainties in probabilistic way, whereas the deterministic evaluation simply multiply them.

  13. Assessment of oral safety profile of aqueous extract blend of three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... did not reveal any pathological changes attributable to treatment with the spice blend extract. Conclusions: These findings indicate that oral consumption of a spice blend of garlic, ginger and cayenne pepper in humans may be safe. Keywords: Spice blend, Toxicity, Histology, Marker enzymes, Medicinal, Safety profile ...

  14. Survey of factors associated with nurses' perception of patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun A; Lee, Sui Jin; Choi, Go Un

    2011-01-01

    To describe the nurses' perception of hospital organization related to cultural issues on the safety of the patient and reporting medical errors. In addition, to identify factors associated with the safety of the patient and the nurse. A survey conducted during December 2008-Jannuary 2009, with 126 nurses using the Korean version of the AHRQ patient safety survey, a self-report 5-point Likert scale. Stata 10.0 was used for descriptive analysis, ANOVA (Analysis of variance) and logistic regression. National Cancer Center in Korea. The means for a working environment related to patient safety was 3.4 (±0.62). The associated factors of duration were at a present hospital, a special area, and direct contact with patients. Among organizational culture factors related to patient safety, the means were 3.81(±0.54) for the boss/manager's perception of patient safety and 3.37(±0.49) for the cooperation/collaboration between units. The frequent number of errors reported by nurses were 1~2(22.2%) times over the past 12 months. For incidence reporting, the items that the 'nurses perceived for communication among clinicians as fair' had a means of 3.23(±0.40) and the 'overall evaluation of patient safety was a good' 3.34(±0.73). The nurses' perception of cooperation and collaboration between units were associated with the direct contact between the patient and the nurse. The frequency of incidence reporting was associated with the duration of working hours at the present hospital and also their work experience. The nurses' perception of hospital environment, organizational culture, and incidence reporting was above average and mostly associated with organizational culture.

  15. Factors affecting the utilization of safety devices by commercial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Motorcycle crashes are common causes of morbidity and mortality for both riders and passengers. To prevent and reduce the severity of injuries sustained through road traffic accidents (RTA) many countries enforce the use of safety devices while riding. Certain factors including non-enforcement of the existing ...

  16. Measurement of Safety Factor Using Hall Probes on CASTOR Tokamak

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovařík, Karel; Ďuran, Ivan; Bolshakova, I.; Holyaka, R.; Erashok, V.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 56, suppl.B (2006), s. 104-110 ISSN 0011-4626. [Symposium on Plasma Physics and Technology/22nd./. Praha, 26.6.2006-29.6.2006] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB100430504 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Plasma * tokamak * safety factor * hall probe Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.568, year: 2006

  17. A report on human factors in nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-03-01

    Following the Three Mile Island incident of 1979, studies were undertaken by the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB), in-house and through outside consultants, to address the role of human factors in the regulatory process. This report by the Advisory Committee on Nuclear Safety (ACNS) comments briefly on these studies and offers suggestions which would promote a more formal treatment of human factors by the AECB

  18. Five-Factor Model personality profiles of drug users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crum Rosa M

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Personality traits are considered risk factors for drug use, and, in turn, the psychoactive substances impact individuals' traits. Furthermore, there is increasing interest in developing treatment approaches that match an individual's personality profile. To advance our knowledge of the role of individual differences in drug use, the present study compares the personality profile of tobacco, marijuana, cocaine, and heroin users and non-users using the wide spectrum Five-Factor Model (FFM of personality in a diverse community sample. Method Participants (N = 1,102; mean age = 57 were part of the Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA program in Baltimore, MD, USA. The sample was drawn from a community with a wide range of socio-economic conditions. Personality traits were assessed with the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R, and psychoactive substance use was assessed with systematic interview. Results Compared to never smokers, current cigarette smokers score lower on Conscientiousness and higher on Neuroticism. Similar, but more extreme, is the profile of cocaine/heroin users, which score very high on Neuroticism, especially Vulnerability, and very low on Conscientiousness, particularly Competence, Achievement-Striving, and Deliberation. By contrast, marijuana users score high on Openness to Experience, average on Neuroticism, but low on Agreeableness and Conscientiousness. Conclusion In addition to confirming high levels of negative affect and impulsive traits, this study highlights the links between drug use and low Conscientiousness. These links provide insight into the etiology of drug use and have implications for public health interventions.

  19. Wellness Centers in Slovenia: Tourists’ Profiles and Motivational Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milica Rančić

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Wellness and spa tourism has increasingly become an important economic and marketing strategy for hoteliers, resorts and tourist destinations to attract tourist visitations. Deep understanding of consumer profiles and their key motivations within this context is vital in order to sustain the growth of wellness and spa tourism business. This paper presents an exploratory study that seeks to understand the spa and wellness tourists’ motivation during their visits to spa and wellness service centers in Slovenia. The purpose of this research is to examine the characteristics of a healthy-living market segment and its motivational behavior to wellness facilities in Slovenia. The paper provides the broad understanding of wellness and spa tourists’ profiles in Slovenia and the key motivation factors

  20. Determination of engineering safety factor -routine in Hungary (a methodology for the normal operation local power engineering safety factors)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szecsenyi, Z.; Korpas, L.; Bona, G.; Kereszturi, A.

    2010-01-01

    From the late nineties Paks Nuclear Power Plant-in collaboration with KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute (KFKI AEKI)- is developing a system for determining the normal operation local power engineering safety factors. The system is based on a Monte Carlo sampling of the uncertain model input parameters. Additionally, the comparison of the calculation to the in-core measurements plays essential role for determining some important input parameters. By using new fuel types and the corresponding more recent detailed technological data, the applied method is being improved from time to time. Presently, the actually used and authorized engineering safety factors at Paks NPP are determined by using this method. In the paper, the system.s main properties are described (not going beyond the possible extent). The main points are as follows:-Mathematical definition of the engineering safety factor;-Sources of the uncertainties;-Input error propagation method constituting the basis of the system;-Flow-chart of the subsequent steps of the determination Finally, in the paper the engineering safety factors values of some selected parameters are presented as examples for demonstration of the capability of the method. (Authors)

  1. Safety of Factor XIII Concentrate: Analysis of More than 20 Years of Pharmacovigilance Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Cristina; Korte, Wolfgang; Fries, Dietmar; Pendrak, Inna; Joch, Christine; Gröner, Albrecht; Birschmann, Ingvild

    2016-01-01

    Background Plasma-derived factor XIII (FXIII) concentrate is an effective treatment for FXIII deficiency. We describe adverse drug reactions (ADRs) reported during pharmacovigilance monitoring of Fibrogammin®/Corifact® and review published safety data. Methods Postmarketing safety reports recorded by CSL Behring from June 1993 to September 2013 were analyzed. Clinical studies published during the same period were also reviewed. Results Commercial data indicated that 1,653,450,333 IU FXIII concentrate were distributed over the review period, equivalent to 1,181,036 doses for a 70 kg patient. 75 cases were reported (one/15,700 standard doses or 22,046,000 IU). Reports of special interest included 12 cases of possible hypersensitivity reactions (one/98,400 doses or 137,787,500 IU), 7 with possible thromboembolic events (one/168,700 doses or 236,207,200 IU), 5 of possible inhibitor development (one/236,200 doses or 330,690,100 IU), and 20 of possible pathogen transmission (one/59,100 doses or 82,672,500 IU). 19 pathogen transmission cases involved viral infection; 4 could not be analyzed due to insufficient data, but for all others a causal relationship to the product was assessed as unlikely. A review of published literature revealed a similar safety profile. Conclusion Assessment of ADRs demonstrated that FXIII concentrate carries a low risk of ADRs across various clinical situations, suggesting a favorable safety profile. PMID:27781024

  2. Implication of human factors in terms of safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, Kazuo

    2001-01-01

    A critical accident of JCO occurred on September 30, 1999 gave a large impact not only to common society but also to nuclear energy field. This accident occurred by direct reason perfectly out of forecasting of the participants of nuclear energy, where a company made up a guideline violating from business allowance and safety rule and workmen also operated under a procedure out of the guideline. After the accident, a number of countermeasures on equipments, rules, and regulations were carried out, but discussion on software such as their operating methods, concrete regulation on business and authority of operators, and training of specialists seems to be much late. Safety is a problem on a complex system, containing not only hardware but also software such as human, organization, society, and so on. Then, here was discussed on a problem directly faced by conventional safety, engineering centering at hardware through thinking of a problem on human factors. (G.K.)

  3. Using partial safety factors in wind turbine design and testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musial, W.D. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes the relationship between wind turbine design and testing in terms of the certification process. An overview of the current status of international certification is given along with a description of limit-state design basics. Wind turbine rotor blades are used to illustrate the principles discussed. These concepts are related to both International Electrotechnical Commission and Germanischer Lloyd design standards, and are covered using schematic representations of statistical load and material strength distributions. Wherever possible, interpretations of the partial safety factors are given with descriptions of their intended meaning. Under some circumstances, the authors` interpretations may be subjective. Next, the test-load factors are described in concept and then related to the design factors. Using technical arguments, it is shown that some of the design factors for both load and materials must be used in the test loading, but some should not be used. In addition, some test factors not used in the design may be necessary for an accurate test of the design. The results show that if the design assumptions do not clearly state the effects and uncertainties that are covered by the design`s partial safety factors, outside parties such as test labs or certification agencies could impose their own meaning on these factors.

  4. The human factors and the safety of experimentation reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffroy, F.; Delaporte-Normier, M.L.

    2007-01-01

    Inside IRSN (Institute for Radiological protection and Nuclear Safety), the mission of the Human Factors Group is to assess the way operators of nuclear installations take into account the risks related to human activities. In the last few years, IRSN has been involved in the safety analysis of different installations where Cea develops research programs, in particular experimental reactors. The first part of this article presents the methodology used by IRSN to evaluate how operators take into account risks related to human activities. This methodology is made up of 4 steps: 1) the identification of the human activities that convey a risk for the installation nuclear safety (safety-sensitive activities), for instance in the case of the Masurca reactor, it has been shown that errors made during the manufacturing of fuel tubes can lead to a criticality accident; 2) listing all the dispositions or arrangements taken to make human safety-sensitive activities more reliable; 3) checking the efficiency of such dispositions or arrangements; and 4) assessing the ability of the operators to generate the adequate dispositions or arrangements. The second part highlights the necessity to develop inside these research installations an organisation that facilitates cooperation between experimenters and operators

  5. Partial Safety Factors for Fatigue Design of Wind Turbine Blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2010-01-01

    In the present paper calibration of partial safety factors for fatigue design of wind turbine blades is considered. The stochastic models for the physical uncertainties on the material properties are based on constant amplitude fatigue tests and the uncertainty on Miners rule for linear damage...... accumulation is determined from variable amplitude fatigue tests with the Wisper and Wisperx spectra. The statistical uncertainty for the assessment of the fatigue loads is also investigated. The partial safety factors are calibrated for design load case 1.2 in IEC 61400-1. The fatigue loads are determined...... from rainflow-counting of simulated time series for a 5MW reference wind turbine [1]. A possible influence of a complex stress state in the blade is not taken into account and only longitudinal stresses are considered....

  6. Modifying locally the safety profile to improve the confinement of magnetic field lines in tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantinescu, D.; Firpo, M.-C.

    2012-01-01

    Using Hamiltonian models for the magnetic field lines, we propose a methodology to improve their confinement through the creation of transport barriers. A local modification of the safety profile creating a low-shear zone is shown to be sufficient to locally enhance drastically the regularity of the magnetic field lines without requesting a reversed shear. The optimal benefits of low-shear are obtained when the value q 0 of the safety profile in the low-shear zone is sufficiently far from the main resonance values m/n with low m and n, in the case of large enough values of those (m, n) mode amplitudes. A practical implementation in tokamak plasmas should involve electron cyclotron current drive to locally modify the magnetic shear. (paper)

  7. Systematic review: cardiovascular safety profile of 5-HT4 agonists developed for gastrointestinal disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Tack, J; Camilleri, M; Chang, L; Chey, W D; Galligan, J J; Lacy, B E; Müller-Lissner, S; Quigley, E M M; Schuurkes, J; Maeyer, J H; Stanghellini, V

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background The nonselective 5-HT4 receptor agonists, cisapride and tegaserod have been associated with cardiovascular adverse events (AEs). Aim To perform a systematic review of the safety profile, particularly cardiovascular, of 5-HT4 agonists developed for gastrointestinal disorders, and a nonsystematic summary of their pharmacology and clinical efficacy. Methods Articles reporting data on cisapride, clebopride, prucalopride, mosapride, renzapride, tegaserod, TD-5108 (velusetrag) an...

  8. Evaluation of design safety factors for time-dependent buckling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, C.M.; Nickell, R.E.

    1977-02-01

    The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code rules concerning time-dependent (creep) buckling for Class 1 nuclear components have recently been changed. Previous requirements for a factor of ten on service life have been replaced with a factor of safety of 1.5 on loading for load-controlled buckling. This report examines the supposed equivalence of the two rules from the standpoint of materials behavior--specifically, the secondary creep strain rate exponent. The comparison is made using results obtained numerically for an axially-loaded, cylindrical shell with varying secondary creep exponents. A computationally efficient scheme for analyzing creep buckling problems is also presented

  9. Development of the safety evaluation system in the respects of organizational factors and workers' consciousness. Pt. 1. Study of validities of functions for necessary evaluation and results obtained

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Kenichi; Tsuge, Tadafumi; Hasegawa, Naoko; Hirose, Ayako; Sasou, Kunihide

    2002-01-01

    CRIEPI decided to develop the safety evaluation system to investigate the safety level of the industrial sites due to questionnaires of organizational climate, safety managements, and workers' safety consciousness to workers. This report describes the questionnaire survey to apply to the domestic nuclear power plant for using obtained results as a fundamental data in order to construct the safety evaluation system. This system will be used for promoting safety culture in organizations of nuclear power plants. The questionnaire survey was conducted to 14 nuclear power stations for understanding the present status relating to safety issues. This questionnaire involves 122 items classified into following three categories: (1) safety awareness and behavior of plant personnel; (2) safety management; (3) organizational climate, based on the model considering contributing factor groups to safety culture. Obtained results were analyzed by statistical method to prepare functions of evaluation. Additionally, by applying a multivariate analysis, it was possible to extract several crucial factors influencing safety performance and to find a comprehensive safety indicator representing total organizational safety level. Significant relations were identified between accident rates (both labor accidents and facility failures) and above comprehensive safety indicator. Next, 122 questionnaire items were classified into 20 major safety factors to grasp the safety profiles of each site. This profile is considered as indicating the features of each site and also indicating the direction of progress for improvement of safety situation in the site. These findings can be reflected in developing the safety evaluation system, by confirming the validity of the evaluation method and giving specific functions. (author)

  10. Changes in risk factor profile after ischemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornnes, Nete

    up 1 year after stroke. We constructed a baseline risk factor profile (RFP) of 6 variables: smoking, excessive drinking, physical inactivity, untreated hypertension, no cholesterol-lowering, and no antithrombotic treatment/warfarin at discharge from hospital. Each item was rated 0 or 1 giving...... a maximum score of 6 points. Mean baseline RFP-score was 1.6 Results. After 1 year we found a reduction in current smoking (p=0.008) and in excessive drinking (p=0.0001). There was no change in physical activity and in untreated hypertension. There was an increase in the proportion of patients on lipid......-lowering (p=0.011) and antithrombotic (p=0.0003) treatment yielding a reduction in RFP to 1.4 (phypertensive, and most patients with untreated hypertension and hypercholesterolemia remained untreated. By 1-year follow up 30 patients (9.4%) had had a non...

  11. Safety profiles of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F (TwHF is a widely used and effective treatment for inflammatory diseases. There have been concerns about its toxicity but no adequate synthesis of the evidence for adverse events (AEs. We aimed to undertake a clinically informative, systematic safety profile of TwHF.Methods: We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of experimental studies and observational studies. We searched electronic databases and conference abstracts. Safety outcomes were rates of common AEs. Results: We screened 4,137 abstracts for eligibility and included 594 studies in the analysis. The overall incidence of AEs was 26.7% (95% CI 24.8%, 28.8% in 23,256 TwHF users. The estimates did vary markedly when stratified by specific study types. The incidence of gastrointestinal symptoms, adverse reproductive outcomes, adverse skin reactions, hematologic events and cardiovascular events were 13.3% (95%CI 11.9%, 14.9%, 11.7% (95% CI 10.3%, 13.3%, 7.8% (95%CI 6.3%-9.5%, 6.5% (95%CI 5.7%-7.4% and 4.9% (95%CI 1.6%, 14.3%, respectively. The prevalence of irregular menstruation (IM was increased in patients taking TwHF compared with those given control (odds ratio [OR] 4.65, 95% CI 3.08 to 7.03. TwHF use has lower risk of weight gain (OR 0.12 [95%CI 0.04 to 0.39] and hair loss (OR 0.37 [95% CI 0.18 to 0.78]. Furthermore, long-term aspirin use (> 6 months has a higher AEs incidence (31.0% [95% CI 24.5%-38.5%].Conclusion: Our findings suggest that more than one in four patients who were taking TwHF had experienced AEs. A clear need exists for improved understanding of contributing risk factors, as well as of prevention and management strategies to improve patients' tolerance for TwHF.

  12. Human Factors in Fire Safety Management and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Othuman Mydin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Fire protection is the study and practice of mitigating the unwanted effects of potentially destructive fires. It involves the study of the behavior, compartmentalization, and investigation of fire and its related emergencies, as well as the research and development, production, testing and application of mitigating systems. Problems still occurred despite of the adequate fire safety systems installed. For most people in high-risk buildings, not all accidents were caused by them. They were more likely to be the victims of a fire that occurred. Besides damaging their properties and belongings, some people were burned to death for not knowing what to do if fire happens in their place. This paper will present the human factors in fire safety management and prevention system.

  13. Human factors and fuzzy set theory for safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiwaki, Y.

    1987-01-01

    Human reliability and performance is affected by many factors: medical, physiological and psychological, etc. The uncertainty involved in human factors may not necessarily be probabilistic, but fuzzy. Therefore, it is important to develop a theory by which both the non-probabilistic uncertainties, or fuzziness, of human factors and the probabilistic properties of machines can be treated consistently. In reality, randomness and fuzziness are sometimes mixed. From the mathematical point of view, probabilistic measures may be considered a special case of fuzzy measures. Therefore, fuzzy set theory seems to be an effective tool for analysing man-machine systems. The concept 'failure possibility' based on fuzzy sets is suggested as an approach to safety analysis and fault diagnosis of a large complex system. Fuzzy measures and fuzzy integrals are introduced and their possible applications are also discussed. (author)

  14. Risk factors for fishermen's health and safety in Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frantzeskou, Elpida; Kastania, Anastasia N; Riza, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Background: This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first occupational health study in Greek fishing. Aim: The aim of the study is to determine the risks for health and safety in Greek fisheries workers by exploring their health status and the health risk factors present in their occupational...... injury, of which half caused more than one day absence, while 14% had a near drowning experience. The health risks factors studied include excessive weight, cardiovascular incidents and dermatological, musculoskeletal, respiratory, hearing, stress, and anxiety problems. The occupational health risk...... factors include alcohol, fatty food consumption, smoking, and lack of physical exercise. Conclusions: The health effects observed are causally related to diet, smoking, and exercise, which in turn relate to the specific working conditions and culture in small-scale fishing that need to be taken...

  15. Safety and Efficacy Profile of Commercial Veterinary Vaccines against Rift Valley Fever: A Review Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moataz Alhaj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rift Valley Fever (RVF is an infectious illness with serious clinical manifestations and health consequences in humans as well as a wide range of domestic ruminants. This review provides significant information about the prevention options of RVF along with the safety-efficacy profile of commercial vaccines and some of RVF vaccination strategies. Information presented in this paper was obtained through a systematic investigation of published data about RVF vaccines. Like other viral diseases, the prevention of RVF relies heavily on immunization of susceptible herds with safe and cost-effective vaccine that is able to confer long-term protective immunity. Several strains of RVF vaccines have been developed and are available in commercial production including Formalin-Inactivated vaccine, live attenuated Smithburn vaccine, and the most recent Clone13. Although Formalin-Inactivated vaccine and live attenuated Smithburn vaccine are immunogenic and widely used in prevention programs, they proved to be accompanied by significant concerns. Despite Clone13 vaccine being suggested as safe in pregnant ewes and as highly immunogenic along with its potential for differentiating infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA, a recent study raised concerns about the safety of the vaccine during the first trimester of gestation. Accordingly, RVF vaccines that are currently available in the market to a significant extent do not fulfill the requirements of safety, potency, and DIVA. These adverse effects stressed the need for developing new vaccines with an excellent safety profile to bridge the gap in safety and immunity. Bringing RVF vaccine candidates to local markets besides the absence of validated serological test for DIVA remain the major challenges of RVF control.

  16. Systematic review: cardiovascular safety profile of 5-HT(4) agonists developed for gastrointestinal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tack, J; Camilleri, M; Chang, L; Chey, W D; Galligan, J J; Lacy, B E; Müller-Lissner, S; Quigley, E M M; Schuurkes, J; De Maeyer, J H; Stanghellini, V

    2012-04-01

    The nonselective 5-HT(4) receptor agonists, cisapride and tegaserod have been associated with cardiovascular adverse events (AEs). To perform a systematic review of the safety profile, particularly cardiovascular, of 5-HT(4) agonists developed for gastrointestinal disorders, and a nonsystematic summary of their pharmacology and clinical efficacy. Articles reporting data on cisapride, clebopride, prucalopride, mosapride, renzapride, tegaserod, TD-5108 (velusetrag) and ATI-7505 (naronapride) were identified through a systematic search of the Cochrane Library, Medline, Embase and Toxfile. Abstracts from UEGW 2006-2008 and DDW 2008-2010 were searched for these drug names, and pharmaceutical companies approached to provide unpublished data. Retrieved articles on pharmacokinetics, human pharmacodynamics and clinical data with these 5-HT(4) agonists, are reviewed and summarised nonsystematically. Articles relating to cardiac safety and tolerability of these agents, including any relevant case reports, are reported systematically. Two nonselective 5-HT(4) agonists had reports of cardiovascular AEs: cisapride (QT prolongation) and tegaserod (ischaemia). Interactions with, respectively, the hERG cardiac potassium channel and 5-HT(1) receptor subtypes have been suggested to account for these effects. No cardiovascular safety concerns were reported for the newer, selective 5-HT(4) agonists prucalopride, velusetrag, naronapride, or for nonselective 5-HT(4) agonists with no hERG or 5-HT(1) affinity (renzapride, clebopride, mosapride). 5-HT(4) agonists for GI disorders differ in chemical structure and selectivity for 5-HT(4) receptors. Selectivity for 5-HT(4) over non-5-HT(4) receptors may influence the agent's safety and overall risk-benefit profile. Based on available evidence, highly selective 5-HT(4) agonists may offer improved safety to treat patients with impaired GI motility. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Systematic review: cardiovascular safety profile of 5-HT4 agonists developed for gastrointestinal disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tack, J; Camilleri, M; Chang, L; Chey, W D; Galligan, J J; Lacy, B E; Müller-Lissner, S; Quigley, E M M; Schuurkes, J; Maeyer, J H; Stanghellini, V

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background The nonselective 5-HT4 receptor agonists, cisapride and tegaserod have been associated with cardiovascular adverse events (AEs). Aim To perform a systematic review of the safety profile, particularly cardiovascular, of 5-HT4 agonists developed for gastrointestinal disorders, and a nonsystematic summary of their pharmacology and clinical efficacy. Methods Articles reporting data on cisapride, clebopride, prucalopride, mosapride, renzapride, tegaserod, TD-5108 (velusetrag) and ATI-7505 (naronapride) were identified through a systematic search of the Cochrane Library, Medline, Embase and Toxfile. Abstracts from UEGW 2006–2008 and DDW 2008–2010 were searched for these drug names, and pharmaceutical companies approached to provide unpublished data. Results Retrieved articles on pharmacokinetics, human pharmacodynamics and clinical data with these 5-HT4 agonists, are reviewed and summarised nonsystematically. Articles relating to cardiac safety and tolerability of these agents, including any relevant case reports, are reported systematically. Two nonselective 5-HT4 agonists had reports of cardiovascular AEs: cisapride (QT prolongation) and tegaserod (ischaemia). Interactions with, respectively, the hERG cardiac potassium channel and 5-HT1 receptor subtypes have been suggested to account for these effects. No cardiovascular safety concerns were reported for the newer, selective 5-HT4 agonists prucalopride, velusetrag, naronapride, or for nonselective 5-HT4 agonists with no hERG or 5-HT1 affinity (renzapride, clebopride, mosapride). Conclusions 5-HT4 agonists for GI disorders differ in chemical structure and selectivity for 5-HT4 receptors. Selectivity for 5-HT4 over non-5-HT4 receptors may influence the agent's safety and overall risk–benefit profile. Based on available evidence, highly selective 5-HT4 agonists may offer improved safety to treat patients with impaired GI motility. PMID:22356640

  18. Evaluating the impact of grade crossing safety factors through signal detection theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    The purpose of this effort was to apply signal detection theory to descriptively model the impact : of five grade crossing safety factors to understand their effect on driver decision making. The : safety factors consisted of: improving commercial mo...

  19. [Human factors and crisis resource management: improving patient safety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rall, M; Oberfrank, S

    2013-10-01

    A continuing high number of patients suffer harm from medical treatment. In 60-70% of the cases the sources of harm can be attributed to the field of human factors (HFs) and teamwork; nevertheless, those topics are still neither part of medical education nor of basic and advanced training even though it has been known for many years and it has meanwhile also been demonstrated for surgical specialties that training in human factors and teamwork considerably reduces surgical mortality.Besides the medical field, the concept of crisis resource management (CRM) has already proven its worth in many other industries by improving teamwork and reducing errors in the domain of human factors. One of the best ways to learn about CRM and HFs is realistic simulation team training with well-trained instructors in CRM and HF. The educational concept of the HOTT (hand over team training) courses for trauma room training offered by the DGU integrates these elements based on the current state of science. It is time to establish such training for all medical teams in emergency medicine and operative care. Accompanying safety measures, such as the development of a positive culture of safety in every department and the use of effective critical incident reporting systems (CIRs) should be pursued.

  20. Personality factors and profiles in variants of irritable bowel syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To study the association between irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) variants (constipation, diarrhea, or both)and personality traits in non-psychiatric patients.METHODS: IBS was diagnosed using the Rome Ⅱ diagnostic criteria after exclusion of organic bowel pathology. The entry of each patient was confirmed following a psychiatric interview. Personality traits and the score of each factor were evaluated using the NEO Five Factor Inventory.RESULTS: One hundred and fifty patients were studied.The mean age (±SD) was 33.4 (±11.0) year (62% female). Subjects scored higher in neuroticism (26.25±7.80 vs 22.92±9.54, P < 0.0005), openness (26.25±5.22 vs 27.94±4.87, P < 0.0005) and conscientiousness (32.90 ±7.80 vs 31.62±5.64, P < 0.01) compared to our general population derived from universities of Iran. Our studied population consisted of 71 patients with Diarrhea dominant-IBS, 33 with Constipation dominant-IBS and 46 with Altering type-IBS. Scores of conscientiousness and neuroticism were significantly higher in C-IBS compared to D-IBS and A-IBS (35.79±5.65 vs 31.95±6.80,P = 0.035 and 31.97±9.87, P = 0.043, respectively).Conscientiousness was the highest dimension of personality in each of the variants. Patients with C-IBS had almost similar personality profiles, composed of higher scores for neuroticism and conscientiousness, with low levels of agreeableness, openness and extraversion that were close to those of the general population.CONCLUSION: Differences were observed between IBS patients and the general population, as well as between IBS subtypes, in terms of personality factors.Patients with constipation-predominant IBS showed similar personality profiles. Patients with each subtype of IBS may benefit from psychological interventions, which can be focused considering the characteristics of each subtype.

  1. A pedestal temperature model with self-consistent calculation of safety factor and magnetic shear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onjun, T; Siriburanon, T; Onjun, O

    2008-01-01

    A pedestal model based on theory-motivated models for the pedestal width and the pedestal pressure gradient is developed for the temperature at the top of the H-mode pedestal. The pedestal width model based on magnetic shear and flow shear stabilization is used in this study, where the pedestal pressure gradient is assumed to be limited by first stability of infinite n ballooning mode instability. This pedestal model is implemented in the 1.5D BALDUR integrated predictive modeling code, where the safety factor and magnetic shear are solved self-consistently in both core and pedestal regions. With the self-consistently approach for calculating safety factor and magnetic shear, the effect of bootstrap current can be correctly included in the pedestal model. The pedestal model is used to provide the boundary conditions in the simulations and the Multi-mode core transport model is used to describe the core transport. This new integrated modeling procedure of the BALDUR code is used to predict the temperature and density profiles of 26 H-mode discharges. Simulations are carried out for 13 discharges in the Joint European Torus and 13 discharges in the DIII-D tokamak. The average root-mean-square deviation between experimental data and the predicted profiles of the temperature and the density, normalized by their central values, is found to be about 14%

  2. Partial Safety Factors and Target Reliability Level in Danish Structural Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Hansen, J. O.; Nielsen, T. A.

    2001-01-01

    The partial safety factors in the newly revised Danish structural codes have been derived using a reliability-based calibration. The calibrated partial safety factors result in the same average reliability level as in the previous codes, but a much more uniform reliability level has been obtained....... The paper describes the code format, the stochastic models and the resulting optimised partial safety factors....

  3. Transcriptome Profiling of Pediatric Core Binding Factor AML.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hao Hsu

    Full Text Available The t(8;21 and Inv(16 translocations disrupt the normal function of core binding factors alpha (CBFA and beta (CBFB, respectively. These translocations represent two of the most common genomic abnormalities in acute myeloid leukemia (AML patients, occurring in approximately 25% pediatric and 15% of adult with this malignancy. Both translocations are associated with favorable clinical outcomes after intensive chemotherapy, and given the perceived mechanistic similarities, patients with these translocations are frequently referred to as having CBF-AML. It remains uncertain as to whether, collectively, these translocations are mechanistically the same or impact different pathways in subtle ways that have both biological and clinical significance. Therefore, we used transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq to investigate the similarities and differences in genes and pathways between these subtypes of pediatric AMLs. Diagnostic RNA from patients with t(8;21 (N = 17, Inv(16 (N = 14, and normal karyotype (NK, N = 33 were subjected to RNA-seq. Analyses compared the transcriptomes across these three cytogenetic subtypes, using the NK cohort as the control. A total of 1291 genes in t(8;21 and 474 genes in Inv(16 were differentially expressed relative to the NK controls, with 198 genes differentially expressed in both subtypes. The majority of these genes (175/198; binomial test p-value < 10(-30 are consistent in expression changes among the two subtypes suggesting the expression profiles are more similar between the CBF cohorts than in the NK cohort. Our analysis also revealed alternative splicing events (ASEs differentially expressed across subtypes, with 337 t(8;21-specific and 407 Inv(16-specific ASEs detected, the majority of which were acetylated proteins (p = 1.5 x 10(-51 and p = 1.8 x 10(-54 for the two subsets. In addition to known fusions, we identified and verified 16 de novo fusions in 43 patients, including three fusions involving NUP98 in six

  4. New geometric design consistency model based on operating speed profiles for road safety evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Torregrosa, Francisco J; Pérez-Zuriaga, Ana M; Campoy-Ungría, J Manuel; García-García, Alfredo

    2013-12-01

    To assist in the on-going effort to reduce road fatalities as much as possible, this paper presents a new methodology to evaluate road safety in both the design and redesign stages of two-lane rural highways. This methodology is based on the analysis of road geometric design consistency, a value which will be a surrogate measure of the safety level of the two-lane rural road segment. The consistency model presented in this paper is based on the consideration of continuous operating speed profiles. The models used for their construction were obtained by using an innovative GPS-data collection method that is based on continuous operating speed profiles recorded from individual drivers. This new methodology allowed the researchers to observe the actual behavior of drivers and to develop more accurate operating speed models than was previously possible with spot-speed data collection, thereby enabling a more accurate approximation to the real phenomenon and thus a better consistency measurement. Operating speed profiles were built for 33 Spanish two-lane rural road segments, and several consistency measurements based on the global and local operating speed were checked. The final consistency model takes into account not only the global dispersion of the operating speed, but also some indexes that consider both local speed decelerations and speeds over posted speeds as well. For the development of the consistency model, the crash frequency for each study site was considered, which allowed estimating the number of crashes on a road segment by means of the calculation of its geometric design consistency. Consequently, the presented consistency evaluation method is a promising innovative tool that can be used as a surrogate measure to estimate the safety of a road segment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Infrastructural and Human Factors Affecting Safety Outcomes of Cyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Useche

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of registered road crashes involving cyclists during the last decade and the high proportion of road crashes resulting in severe injuries and fatalities among cyclists constitutes a global issue for community health, urban development and sustainability. Nowadays, the incidence of many risk factors for road crashes of cyclists remains largely unexplained. Given the importance of this issue, the present study has been conducted with the aim of determining relationships between infrastructural, human factors and safety outcomes of cyclists. Objectives: This study aimed, first, to examine the relationship between key infrastructural and human factors present in cycling, bicycle-user characteristics and their self-reported experience with road crashes. And second, to determine whether a set of key infrastructural and human factors may predict their self-reported road crashes. Methods: For this cross-sectional study, a total of 1064 cyclists (38.8% women, 61.2% men; M = 32.8 years of age from 20 different countries across Europe, South America and North America, participated in an online survey composed of four sections: demographic data and cycling-related factors, human factors, perceptions on infrastructural factors and road crashes suffered. Results: The results of this study showed significant associations between human factors, infrastructural conditions and self-reported road crashes. Also, a logistic regression model found that self-reported road crashes of cyclists could be predicted through variables such as age, riding intensity, risky behaviours and problematic user/infrastructure interactions. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that self-reported road crashes of cyclists are influenced by features related to the user and their interaction with infrastructural characteristics of the road.

  6. Toxicity and Safety Profiles of Methanolic Extract of Pistacia integerrima J. L. Stewart ex Brandis (PI for Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gotmi Sharwan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The goals of this research were to evaluate acute (single-dose and sub-acute (repeated-dose toxicity profiles of methanolic extract of Pistacia integerrima J. L. Stewart ex Brandis (PI for Wistar rats and to assess the safety profile of PI by observing physiological changes, mortality, changes in body weight

  7. National plan to enhance aviation safety through human factors improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foushee, Clay

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this section of the plan is to establish a development and implementation strategy plan for improving safety and efficiency in the Air Traffic Control (ATC) system. These improvements will be achieved through the proper applications of human factors considerations to the present and future systems. The program will have four basic goals: (1) prepare for the future system through proper hiring and training; (2) develop a controller work station team concept (managing human errors); (3) understand and address the human factors implications of negative system results; and (4) define the proper division of responsibilities and interactions between the human and the machine in ATC systems. This plan addresses six program elements which together address the overall purpose. The six program elements are: (1) determine principles of human-centered automation that will enhance aviation safety and the efficiency of the air traffic controller; (2) provide new and/or enhanced methods and techniques to measure, assess, and improve human performance in the ATC environment; (3) determine system needs and methods for information transfer between and within controller teams and between controller teams and the cockpit; (4) determine how new controller work station technology can optimally be applied and integrated to enhance safety and efficiency; (5) assess training needs and develop improved techniques and strategies for selection, training, and evaluation of controllers; and (6) develop standards, methods, and procedures for the certification and validation of human engineering in the design, testing, and implementation of any hardware or software system element which affects information flow to or from the human.

  8. Factors Contribute to Safety Culture in the Manufacturing Industry in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Ong Choon Hee

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explain the role of safety culture in the manufacturing industry in Malaysia and identify factors contribute to safety culture. It is suggested in this study that leadership support, management commitment and safety management system are important factors that contribute to safety culture. This study also provides theoretical implications to guide future research and offers practical implications to the managers in the development of safety culture. Given that ...

  9. A dispersion safety factor for LNG vapor clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vílchez, Juan A. [TIPs – Trámites, Informes y Proyectos, SL, Llenguadoc 10, 08030 Barcelona (Spain); Villafañe, Diana [Centre d’Estudis del Risc Tecnològic (CERTEC), Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Casal, Joaquim, E-mail: joaquim.casal@upc.edu [Centre d’Estudis del Risc Tecnològic (CERTEC), Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: ► We proposed a new parameter: the dispersion safety factor (DSF). ► DSF is the ratio between the distance reached by the LFL and that reached by the visible cloud. ► The results for the DSF agree well with the evidence from large scale experiments. ► Two expressions have been proposed to calculate DSF as a function of H{sub R}. ► The DSF may help in indicating the danger of ignition of a LNG vapor cloud. -- Abstract: The growing importance of liquefied natural gas (LNG) to global energy demand has increased interest in the possible hazards associated with its storage and transportation. Concerning the event of an LNG spill, a study was performed on the relationship between the distance at which the lower flammability limit (LFL) concentration occurs and that corresponding to the visible contour of LNG vapor clouds. A parameter called the dispersion safety factor (DSF) has been defined as the ratio between these two lengths, and two expressions are proposed to estimate it. During an emergency, the DSF can be a helpful parameter to indicate the danger of cloud ignition and flash fire.

  10. A dispersion safety factor for LNG vapor clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vílchez, Juan A.; Villafañe, Diana; Casal, Joaquim

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We proposed a new parameter: the dispersion safety factor (DSF). ► DSF is the ratio between the distance reached by the LFL and that reached by the visible cloud. ► The results for the DSF agree well with the evidence from large scale experiments. ► Two expressions have been proposed to calculate DSF as a function of H R . ► The DSF may help in indicating the danger of ignition of a LNG vapor cloud. -- Abstract: The growing importance of liquefied natural gas (LNG) to global energy demand has increased interest in the possible hazards associated with its storage and transportation. Concerning the event of an LNG spill, a study was performed on the relationship between the distance at which the lower flammability limit (LFL) concentration occurs and that corresponding to the visible contour of LNG vapor clouds. A parameter called the dispersion safety factor (DSF) has been defined as the ratio between these two lengths, and two expressions are proposed to estimate it. During an emergency, the DSF can be a helpful parameter to indicate the danger of cloud ignition and flash fire

  11. Prediction of safety critical software operational reliability from test reliability using testing environment factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hoan Sung; Seong, Poong Hyun

    1999-01-01

    It has been a critical issue to predict the safety critical software reliability in nuclear engineering area. For many years, many researches have focused on the quantification of software reliability and there have been many models developed to quantify software reliability. Most software reliability models estimate the reliability with the failure data collected during the test assuming that the test environments well represent the operation profile. User's interest is however on the operational reliability rather than on the test reliability. The experiences show that the operational reliability is higher than the test reliability. With the assumption that the difference in reliability results from the change of environment, from testing to operation, testing environment factors comprising the aging factor and the coverage factor are developed in this paper and used to predict the ultimate operational reliability with the failure data in testing phase. It is by incorporating test environments applied beyond the operational profile into testing environment factors. The application results show that the proposed method can estimate the operational reliability accurately. (Author). 14 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  12. Experimental validation of a Lyapunov-based controller for the plasma safety factor and plasma pressure in the TCV tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavkov, B.; Witrant, E.; Prieur, C.; Maljaars, E.; Felici, F.; Sauter, O.; the TCV-Team

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, model-based closed-loop algorithms are derived for distributed control of the inverse of the safety factor profile and the plasma pressure parameter β of the TCV tokamak. The simultaneous control of the two plasma quantities is performed by combining two different control methods. The control design of the plasma safety factor is based on an infinite-dimensional setting using Lyapunov analysis for partial differential equations, while the control of the plasma pressure parameter is designed using control techniques for single-input and single-output systems. The performance and robustness of the proposed controller is analyzed in simulations using the fast plasma transport simulator RAPTOR. The control is then implemented and tested in experiments in TCV L-mode discharges using the RAPTOR model predicted estimates for the q-profile. The distributed control in TCV is performed using one co-current and one counter-current electron cyclotron heating actuation.

  13. The Success Factor Profile for clinical computer innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzi, Nancy M; Smith, Janis B; Conner, Susan R; Campion, Thomas R

    2004-01-01

    Fifty to seventy percent of information system projects fail. Most of the failures are not the victims of flawed technology, but rather organizational and people related issues. When Vanderbilt University Medical Center began an intensive electronic health record (EHR) effort, a process was carefully designed to select the clinical areas where new tools could be developed and pilot tested. The Success Factor Profile was created to guide the selection of sites most likely to have innovation success. This paper describes both the tools and the processes used to select clinical sites for new computer tools development and pilot implementation. Early results demonstrated that the tools provided structure for the decision making process, permitting side-by-side comparison of "apples and oranges." Selecting the site most likely to succeed with computer application innovation and early implementation has broad applicability in healthcare informatics. Failure to succeed with early system users is not only costly, but also discourages users and developers alike, and may damage the reputation of the tools and systems across the institution.

  14. The geriatric polytrauma: Risk profile and prognostic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupprecht, Holger; Heppner, Hans Jürgen; Wohlfart, Kristina; Türkoglu, Alp

    2017-03-01

    In the German population, the percentage of elderly patients is increasing, and consequently there are more elderly patients among trauma cases, and particularly cases of polytrauma. The aim of this study was to present clinical results and a risk profile for geriatric polytrauma patients. Review of 140 geriatric (over 65 years of age) polytrauma patients who received prehospital treatment was performed. Severity of trauma was retrospectively assessed with Hannover Polytrauma Score (HPTS). Age, hemoglobin (Hb) level, systolic blood pressure (BP), Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, timing of and necessity for intubation were analyzed in relation to mortality and in comparison with younger patients. Geriatric polytrauma patients (n=140) had overall mortality rate of 65%, whereas younger patients (n=1468) had mortality rate of 15.9%. Despite equivalent severity of injury (HPTS less age points) in geriatric and non-geriatric groups, mortality rate was 4 times higher in geriatric group. Major blood loss with Hb polytrauma patients. Additional risk factors include very low GCS score and systolic BP <80 mm Hg, for instance, as potential clinical indicators of massive bleeding and traumatic brain injury. Such parameters demand early and rapid treatment at prehospital stage and on admission.

  15. Prescribing safety, negotiating expertise. Building of nuclear safety human factors expertise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolina, Gregory

    2008-01-01

    This Ph.D thesis is dedicated to a specific type of expertise, the safety of nuclear installations in the field of human and organisational factors. Empirical work is at the foundation of this thesis: the monitoring of experts 'in action', allowed a detailed reconstruction of three cases they were examining. The analysis, at the core of which lies the definition of what an efficient expertise can be, emphasizes the incompleteness of the knowledge that links together the nuclear facilities' organisational characteristics and their safety. This leads us to identify the expert's three ranges of actions (rhetorical, cognitive, operative). Defined from objectives and constraints likely to influence the expert's behaviour, those three ranges each require specific skills. A conception of expertise based on these ranges seems adaptable to other sectors and allows an enrichment of models of expertise cited in literature. Historical elements from French institutions of nuclear safety are also called upon to take into consideration some of the determinants of the expertise; its efficiency relies on the upholding of a continuous dialogue between the regulators (the experts and the control authority) and the regulated (the operators). This type of historically inherited regulation makes up a specificity of the French system of external control of nuclear risks. (author) [fr

  16. FATIGUE AS A HAZARDOUS FACTOR FOR FLIGHT SAFETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lushkin Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main priority of any air company activity and the main condition for its development is the achievement of the highest flight safety level. Significant positive results in this area have been recently achieved, hence, the relative stagna- tion of indexes, reflecting the flight safety as a condition of air transport system, has been revealed. It has become evident that the present accident prevention philosophy seems to be exhausted, and at the current stage of development it doesn’t allow to make a breakthrough in the solution of all the problems, which air companies face in this respect. In the perspec- tive to find new ways to solve the existing tasks, in 2011, International Civil Aviation Organization Council adopted fatigue risk management international standards as an alternative for the traditional approach to managing crewmember fatigue by prescribing limits on maximum daily, monthly and yearly flight and duty hours. It’s a well-known fact that state of fatigue has a special place among the functional states, which are professionally significant for airmen work and which are the key link in “man-aircraft-environment” system.In this article, fatigue is considered to be a risk factor that contributes to the formation and development of crew violations and errors in the process of piloting the aircraft. We have analyzed the characteristics and reasons leading to in- flight fatigue and estimated its influence on crew performance, considering the interrelation between them. The article specifies the methods and techniques to measure pilots fatigue; besides it has been substantiated the necessity of fatigue risk management system development in airlines to effectively ensure the flight safety.

  17. Safety analysis factors for environmental restoration and decontamination and decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellingson, D.R.

    1993-04-01

    Environmental restoration (ER) and facility decontamination/decommissioning (D ampersand D) operations can be grouped into two general categories. ''Nonstationary cleanup'' or simply ''cleanup'' activities are where the operation must relocate to the site of new contaminated material at the completion of each task (i.e., the operation moves to the contaminated material). ''Stationary production'' or simply ''production'' activities are where the contaminated material is moved to a centralized location (i.e., the contaminated material is moved to the operation) for analysis, sorting, treatment, storage, and disposal. This paper addresses the issue of nonstationary cleanup design. The following are the specific assigned action items: Collect and compile a list of special safety-related ER/D ampersand D design factors, especially ones that don't follow DOE Order 6430.1A requirements. Develop proposal of what makes sense to recommend to designers; especially consider recommendations for short-term projects. Present proposal at the January meeting. To achieve the action items, applicable US Department of Energy (DOE) design requirements, and cleanup operations and differences from production activities are reviewed and summarized; basic safety requirements influencing design are summarized; and finally, approaches, considerations, and methods for safe, cost-effective design of cleanup activities are discussed

  18. Safety culture management: The importance of organizational factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haber, S.B.; Shurberg, D.A.; Jacobs, R.; Hofmann, D.

    1995-01-01

    The concept of safety culture has been used extensively to explain the underlying causes of performance based events, both positive and negative, across the nuclear industry. The work described in this paper represents several years of effort to identify, define and assess the organizational factors important to safe performance in nuclear power plants (NPPs). The research discussed in this paper is primarily conducted in support of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) efforts in understanding the impact of organizational performance on safety. As a result of a series of research activities undertaken by numerous NRC contractors, a collection of organizational dimensions has been identified and defined. These dimensions represent what is believed to be a comprehensive taxonomy of organizational elements that relate to the safe operation of nuclear power plants. Techniques were also developed by which to measure these organizational dimensions, and include structured interview protocols, behavioral checklists, and behavioral anchored rating scales (BARS). Recent efforts have focused on devising a methodology for the extraction of information related to the identified organizational dimensions from existing NRC documentation. This type of effort would assess the applicability of the organizational dimensions to existing NRC inspection and evaluation reports, refine the organizational dimensions previously developed so they are more relevant to the task of retrospective analysis, and attempt to rate plants based on the review of existing NRC documentation using the techniques previously developed for the assessment of organizational dimensions

  19. [Role of some psycho-physiological factors on driving safety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergomi, M; Vivoli, G; Rovesti, S; Bussetti, P; Ferrari, A; Vivoli, R

    2010-01-01

    Within a research project on the role played by human factors on road accidents, the aim of the present study is to evaluate, in young adults, the relationships between driver behaviour and personality factors as well as to assess the neuroendocrine correlates of psychological and behavioural factors investigated. Another aim is to estimate in what measure the performance levels are affected by demographic, psychological and chronobiological variables. It has been found a positive relation between highway code violations, extroversion trait of personality and Sensation Seeking scores, so confirming that this component of personality can affect risky behaviour. Furthermore the subjects more oriented to morningness chronotype were found to be prone to adopt safe driving behaviour. Regarding the relations of the neuroendocrine parameters and driving behaviour a positive correlation was observed between dopamine levels and frequency of driving violations while a negative relationship was found between adrenaline levels and frequency of driving errors. In conclusion the identification of psycho-physiological variables related to driving risky behaviour might be a useful instrument to design traffic safety programs tailored to high risk subjects.

  20. Long-term safety profile of belimumab plus standard therapy in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Joan T; Ginzler, Ellen M; Wallace, Daniel J; McKay, James D; Lisse, Jeffrey R; Aranow, Cynthia; Wellborne, Frank R; Burnette, Michael; Condemi, John; Zhong, Z John; Pineda, Lilia; Klein, Jerry; Freimuth, William W

    2012-10-01

    To evaluate the safety profile of long-term belimumab therapy combined with standard therapy for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in patients with active disease. Patients who were randomized to receive intravenous placebo or belimumab 1, 4, or 10 mg/kg, plus standard therapy, and completed the initial 52-week double-blind treatment period were then allowed to enter a 24-week open-label extension phase. During the extension period, patients in the belimumab group either received the same dose or were switched to 10 mg/kg and patients in the placebo group were switched to belimumab 10 mg/kg. Patients who achieved a satisfactory response during the 24-week extension period were allowed to participate in the long-term continuation study of monthly belimumab 10 mg/kg. Adverse events (AEs) and abnormal laboratory results were analyzed per 100 patient-years in 1-year intervals. Of the 364 patients who completed the 52-week double-blind treatment period, 345 entered the 24-week extension, and 296 continued treatment with belimumab in the long-term continuation study. Safety data through 4 years of belimumab exposure (1,165 cumulative patient-years) are reported. Incidence rates of AEs, severe/serious AEs, infusion reactions, infections, malignancies, grades 3/4 laboratory abnormalities, and discontinuations due to AEs were stable or declined during 4-year belimumab exposure. The most common AEs included arthralgia, upper respiratory tract infection, headache, fatigue, and nausea. Serious infusion reactions were rare: only 1 occurred during the 4-year followup period. Rates of serious infection decreased from 5.9/100 patient-years to 3.4/100 patient-years, and no specific type of infection predominated. Belimumab added to standard therapy was generally well-tolerated over the 4-year treatment period in patients with SLE, which suggests that belimumab can be administered long term with an acceptable safety profile. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  1. Demonstration of Risk Profiling for promoting safety in SME´s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kirsten; Duijm, Nijs Jan; Troen, Hanne

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to identify and assess the risks and potential risks that may lead to accidents. It aims to look at how to improve risk assessment within SMEs for the benefit of all staff. Design/methodology/approach – The research included results from a Dutch project which...... identifies accident risks and safety barriers that are presented in a huge database and risk calculator. The method was first to develop a simple way of accessing this enormous amount of data, second, to develop a tool to observe risks and safety barriers in SMEs and to investigate the usefulness...... of the developed tools in real life, third, to collect data on risks and safety barriers in SMEs for two occupations by following 20 people for three days each and to create a risk profile for each occupations. Findings – The result is a simple way to go through all types of risks for accidents – a tool for risk...

  2. Modeling pedestrian crossing speed profiles considering speed change behavior for the safety assessment of signalized intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iryo-Asano, Miho; Alhajyaseen, Wael K M

    2017-11-01

    Pedestrian safety is one of the most challenging issues in road networks. Understanding how pedestrians maneuver across an intersection is the key to applying countermeasures against traffic crashes. It is known that the behaviors of pedestrians at signalized crosswalks are significantly different from those in ordinary walking spaces, and they are highly influenced by signal indication, potential conflicts with vehicles, and intersection geometries. One of the most important characteristics of pedestrian behavior at crosswalks is the possible sudden speed change while crossing. Such sudden behavioral change may not be expected by conflicting vehicles, which may lead to hazardous situations. This study aims to quantitatively model the sudden speed changes of pedestrians as they cross signalized crosswalks under uncongested conditions. Pedestrian speed profiles are collected from empirical data and speed change events are extracted assuming that the speed profiles are stepwise functions. The occurrence of speed change events is described by a discrete choice model as a function of the necessary walking speed to complete crossing before the red interval ends, current speed, and the presence of turning vehicles in the conflict area. The amount of speed change before and after the event is modeled using regression analysis. A Monte Carlo simulation is applied for the entire speed profile of the pedestrians. The results show that the model can represent the pedestrian travel time distribution more accurately than the constant speed model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Input-profile-based software failure probability quantification for safety signal generation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hyun Gook; Lim, Ho Gon; Lee, Ho Jung; Kim, Man Cheol; Jang, Seung Cheol

    2009-01-01

    The approaches for software failure probability estimation are mainly based on the results of testing. Test cases represent the inputs, which are encountered in an actual use. The test inputs for the safety-critical application such as a reactor protection system (RPS) of a nuclear power plant are the inputs which cause the activation of protective action such as a reactor trip. A digital system treats inputs from instrumentation sensors as discrete digital values by using an analog-to-digital converter. Input profile must be determined in consideration of these characteristics for effective software failure probability quantification. Another important characteristic of software testing is that we do not have to repeat the test for the same input value since the software response is deterministic for each specific digital input. With these considerations, we propose an effective software testing method for quantifying the failure probability. As an example application, the input profile of the digital RPS is developed based on the typical plant data. The proposed method in this study is expected to provide a simple but realistic mean to quantify the software failure probability based on input profile and system dynamics.

  4. The balance between safety and productivity and its relationship with human factors and safety awareness and communication in aircraft manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karanikas, N.; Melis, Damien Jose; Kourousis, Kyriakos

    2017-01-01

    Background: This paper presents the findings of a pilot research survey which assessed the degree of balance between safety and productivity, and its relationship with awareness and communication of human factors and safety rules in the aircraft manufacturing environment. Methods: The study was

  5. To the problem of the statistical basis of evaluation of the mechanical safety factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsyganov, S.V.

    2009-01-01

    The methodology applied for the safety factor assessment of the WWER fuel cycles uses methods and terms of statistics. Value of the factor is calculated on the basis of estimation of probability to meet predefined limits. Such approach demands the special attention to the statistical properties of parameters of interest. Considering the mechanical constituents of the engineering factor it is assumed uncertainty factors of safety parameters are stochastic values. It characterized by probabilistic distributions that can be unknown. Traditionally in the safety factor assessment process the unknown parameters are estimated from the conservative points of view. This paper analyses how the refinement of the factors distribution parameters is important for the assessment of the mechanical safety factor. For the analysis the statistical approach is applied for modelling of different type of factor probabilistic distributions. It is shown the significant influence of the shape and parameters of distributions for some factors on the value of mechanical safety factor. (Authors)

  6. To the problem of the statistical basis of evaluation of the mechanical safety factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsyganov, S.

    2009-01-01

    The methodology applied for the safety factor assessment of the VVER fuel cycles uses methods and terms of statistics. Value of the factor is calculated on the basis of estimation of probability to meet predefined limits. Such approach demands the special attention to the statistical properties of parameters of interest. Considering the mechanical constituents of the engineering factor it is assumed uncertainty factors of safety parameters are stochastic values. It characterized by probabilistic distributions that can be unknown. Traditionally in the safety factor assessment process the unknown parameters are estimated from the conservative points of view. This paper analyses how the refinement of the factors distribution parameters is important for the assessment of the mechanical safety factor. For the analysis the statistical approach is applied for modelling of different type of factor probabilistic distributions. It is shown the significant influence of the shape and parameters of distributions for some factors on the value of mechanical safety factor. (author)

  7. 75 FR 5536 - Pipeline Safety: Control Room Management/Human Factors, Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts...: Control Room Management/Human Factors, Correction AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... following correcting amendments: PART 192--TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM...

  8. Factors influencing the microbial safety of fresh produce: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaimat, Amin N; Holley, Richard A

    2012-10-01

    Increased consumption, larger scale production and more efficient distribution of fresh produce over the past two decades have contributed to an increase in the number of illness outbreaks caused by this commodity. Pathogen contamination of fresh produce may originate before or after harvest, but once contaminated produce is difficult to sanitize. The prospect that some pathogens invade the vascular system of plants and establish "sub-clinical" infection needs to be better understood to enable estimation of its influence upon risk of human illness. Conventional surface sanitation methods can reduce the microbial load, but cannot eliminate pathogens if present. Chlorine dioxide, electrolyzed water, UV light, cold atmospheric plasma, hydrogen peroxide, organic acids and acidified sodium chlorite show promise, but irradiation at 1 kGy in high oxygen atmospheres may prove to be the most effective means to assure elimination of both surface and internal contamination of produce by pathogens. Pathogens of greatest current concern are Salmonella (tomatoes, seed sprouts and spices) and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on leafy greens (spinach and lettuce). This review considers new information on illness outbreaks caused by produce, identifies factors which influence their frequency and size and examines intervention effectiveness. Research needed to increase our understanding of the factors influencing microbial safety of fresh produce is addressed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Consensus achievement of leadership, organisational and individual factors that influence safety climate: Implications for nursing management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Shelly A; Jones, Jacqueline; Verran, Joyce A

    2018-01-01

    To validate a framework of factors that influence the relationship of transformational leadership and safety climate, and to enable testing of safety chain factors by generating hypotheses regarding their mediating and moderating effects. Understanding the patient safety chain and mechanisms by which leaders affect a strong climate of safety is essential to transformational leadership practice, education, and research. A systematic review of leadership and safety literature was used to develop an organising framework of factors proposed to influence the climate of safety. A panel of 25 international experts in leadership and safety engaged a three-round modified Delphi study with Likert-scored surveys. Eighty per cent of participating experts from six countries were retained to the final survey round. Consensus (>66% agreement) was achieved on 40 factors believed to influence safety climate in the acute care setting. Consensus regarding specific factors that play important roles in an organisation's climate of safety can be reached. Generally, the demonstration of leadership commitment to safety is key to cultivating a culture of patient safety. Transformational nurse leaders should consider and employ all three categories of factors in daily leadership activities and decision-making to drive a strong climate of patient safety. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Finite element analysis in defining the optimal shape and safety factor of retentive clasp arms of removable partial denture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šćepanović Miodrag

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. Retentive force of removable partial denture (RPD directly depends on elastic force of stretched retentive clasp arms (RCAs. During deflection RCA must have even stress distribution. Safety factor is the concept which can be applied in estimating durability and functionality of RCAs. This study was based on analyzing properties of clasps designed by conventional clasp wax profiles and defining the optimal shapes of RCAs for stress distribution and safety factor aspects. Methods. Computer-aided-design (CAD models of RCAs with simulated properties of materials used for fabrication of RPD cobalt-chromium-molybdenum (CoCrMo alloy, commercially pure titanium (CPTi and polyacetale were analyzed. Results. The research showed that geometrics of Rapidflex profiles from the BIOS concept are defined for designing and modeling RCAs from CoCrMo alloys. I-Bar and Bonihard clasps made from CPTi might have the same design as Co- CrMo clasp only by safety factor aspect, but it is obvious that CPTi are much more flexible, so their shape must be more massive. Polyacetale clasps should not be fabricated by BIOS concept for CoCrMo alloy. A proof for that is the low value of safety factor. Conclusion. The BIOS concept should be used only for RCAs made of CoCrMo alloy and different wax profiles should be used for fabricating clasps of other investigated materials. The contribution of this study may be the improvement of present systems for defining the clasps shapes made from CoCrMo alloys. The more significant application is possibility of creating new concepts in defining shapes of RCA made from CPTi and polyacetale.

  11. Safety of Abiraterone Acetate in Castration-resistant Prostate Cancer Patients With Concomitant Cardiovascular Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procopio, Giuseppe; Grassi, Paolo; Testa, Isabella; Verzoni, Elena; Torri, Valter; Salvioni, Roberto; Valdagni, Riccardo; de Braud, Filippo

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety profile of abiraterone acetate (AA) in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) men with cardiovascular comorbidity, as little conclusive safety data are available in this patient subset. A retrospective analysis of mCRPC patients with controlled cardiovascular comorbidities, receiving AA 1000 mg administered orally once daily and prednisone 5 mg twice daily, between April 2011 and July 2012, was performed. All clinical and instrumental variables and toxicity data were analyzed by descriptive statistics: mean, standard deviation, minimum and maximum values for continuous variables, and absolute and relative frequencies for categorical variables. A total of 51 mCRPC patients were evaluated. Metastatic sites included the bone (74%), lungs, and liver (26%). All patients were previously treated with at least 2 lines of hormone and 1 docetaxel-based chemotherapy. Preexisting cardiac risk factors included hypertension (41%), cardiac ischemia (12%), arrhythmias (6%), dislipidemia (18%), and hyperglycemia (30%). No grade 3-4 adverse events were observed. Grade 1-2 adverse events included fluid retention (18%), asthenia (15%), and hypertension (16%). Median progression-free survival was 5.1 months (95% confidence interval, 0.5-12). Prostate specific antigen assessment revealed a good overall disease control rate (64%). AA appears to be safe and well tolerated even in patients with cardiovascular comorbidities or with increased risk factors for cardiovascular diseases.

  12. Safety profile of the intravenous administration of brain-targeted stable nucleic acid lipid particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Conceição

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In a clinical setting, where multiple administrations of the therapeutic agent are usually required to improve the therapeutic outcome, it is crucial to assess the immunogenicity of the administered nanoparticles. In this data work, we investigated the safety profile of the repeated intravenous administration of brain-targeted stable nucleic acid lipid particles (RVG-9r-targeted SNALPs. To evaluate local activation of the immune system, we performed analysis of mouse tissue homogenates and sections from cerebellum. To investigate peripheral activation of the immune system, we used serum of mice that were intravenously injected with RVG-9r-targeted SNALPs. These data are related and were discussed in the accompanying research article entitled “Intravenous administration of brain-targeted stable nucleic acid lipid particles alleviates Machado–Joseph disease neurological phenotype” (Conceição et al., in press [1].

  13. Evaluation of intestinal phosphate binding to improve the safety profile of oral sodium phosphate bowel cleansing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stef Robijn

    Full Text Available Prior to colonoscopy, bowel cleansing is performed for which frequently oral sodium phosphate (OSP is used. OSP results in significant hyperphosphatemia and cases of acute kidney injury (AKI referred to as acute phosphate nephropathy (APN; characterized by nephrocalcinosis are reported after OSP use, which led to a US-FDA warning. To improve the safety profile of OSP, it was evaluated whether the side-effects of OSP could be prevented with intestinal phosphate binders. Hereto a Wistar rat model of APN was developed. OSP administration (2 times 1.2 g phosphate by gavage with a 12h time interval induced bowel cleansing (severe diarrhea and significant hyperphosphatemia (21.79 ± 5.07 mg/dl 6h after the second OSP dose versus 8.44 ± 0.97 mg/dl at baseline. Concomitantly, serum PTH levels increased fivefold and FGF-23 levels showed a threefold increase, while serum calcium levels significantly decreased from 11.29 ± 0.53 mg/dl at baseline to 8.68 ± 0.79 mg/dl after OSP. OSP administration induced weaker NaPi-2a staining along the apical proximal tubular membrane. APN was induced: serum creatinine increased (1.5 times baseline and nephrocalcinosis developed (increased renal calcium and phosphate content and calcium phosphate deposits on Von Kossa stained kidney sections. Intestinal phosphate binding (lanthanum carbonate or aluminum hydroxide was not able to attenuate the OSP induced side-effects. In conclusion, a clinically relevant rat model of APN was developed. Animals showed increased serum phosphate levels similar to those reported in humans and developed APN. No evidence was found for an improved safety profile of OSP by using intestinal phosphate binders.

  14. 76 FR 35130 - Pipeline Safety: Control Room Management/Human Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ...: Control Room Management/Human Factors AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration... the Control Room Management/Human Factors regulations in order to realize the safety benefits sooner... FR 5536). By this amendment to the Control Room Management/Human Factors (CRM) rule, an operator must...

  15. Safety Profile of the Newest Antiepileptic Drugs: A Curated Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palleria, Caterina; Cozza, Giuseppe; Khengar, Rajeshree; Libri, Vincenzo; De Sarro, Giovambattista

    2017-01-01

    Despite the introduction of new antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), the quality of life and therapeutic response for patients with epilepsy remain unsatisfactory. In addition, whilst several antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have been approved and consequently marketed in recent years, little is known about their long-term safety and tolerability. Availability of the newest AEDs, characterized by improved pharmacokinetic profiles, has positively impacted the treatment approach for patients with partial seizures in clinical practice. However, the main cause of treatment failure is still poor patient compliance due to the occurrence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) that lead to treatment withdrawal in about 25% of cases before achieving maximal efficacy, and is associated with increasing health care costs. In this Review, we conducted an online database search using Medline, PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Online Library to review the available studies highlighting the clinical relevance of side effects, pharmacological interactions, safety and tolerability of the newest AEDs: Brivaracetam (BRV), Cannabidiol (CBD), Eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL), Lacosamide (LCM), and Perampanel (PER). The principal benefit of the newest AEDs, in addition to reduced frequency and seizure severity, is the low number and severity of ADRs reported compared to more historic drugs. Early detection of ADRs could lead to an improvement in patients' quality of life, therefore it is important to monitor ADRs and to adequately perform post marketing surveillance in the clinical practice setting. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  16. Safety profile of drugs used in the treatment of osteoporosis: a systematical review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Varenna

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The range of osteoporosis treatments is increasingly large and, like any disease, the pharmacological management of patients should involve a risk/benefit evaluation to attain the greatest reduction in risk of fracture with the lowest incidence of adverse events. The aim of this review is to critically appraise the literature about the safety issues of the main pharmacological treatments of osteoporosis. This document is the result of a consensus of experts based on a systematic review of regulatory documents, randomized controlled trials, metaanalyses, pharmacovigilance surveys and case series related to possible adverse drug reactions to osteoporosis treatment with calcium and vitamin D supplements, bisphosphonates, strontium ranelate, selective estrogen receptor modulators, denosumab, and teriparatide. As expected, randomized controlled trials showed only the most common adverse events due to the samples size and the short observation time. Case series and observational studies are able to provide data about uncommon side effects, but in some cases a sure cause-effect relationship needs still to be confirmed. Consistently with methodological limitations, the newer drugs have a tolerance profile that has not been fully explored yet. Osteoporosis treatments showed an overall good tolerance profile with rare serious adverse events that, however, must be well known by the clinician who prescribes these drugs. The concern about possible adverse events should be weighed against the reduction of morbidity and mortality associated with a significant fracture risk reduction.

  17. Efficacy and Safety Profile of Tricyclo-DNA Antisense Oligonucleotides in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karima Relizani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Antisense oligonucleotides (AONs hold promise for therapeutic splice-switching correction in many genetic diseases. However, despite advances in AON chemistry and design, systemic use of AONs is limited due to poor tissue uptake and sufficient therapeutic efficacy is still difficult to achieve. A novel class of AONs made of tricyclo-DNA (tcDNA is considered very promising for the treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD, a neuromuscular disease typically caused by frameshifting deletions or nonsense mutations in the gene-encoding dystrophin and characterized by progressive muscle weakness, cardiomyopathy, and respiratory failure in addition to cognitive impairment. Herein, we report the efficacy and toxicology profile of a 13-mer tcDNA in mdx mice. We show that systemic delivery of 13-mer tcDNA allows restoration of dystrophin in skeletal muscles and to a lower extent in the brain, leading to muscle function improvement and correction of behavioral features linked to the emotional/cognitive deficiency. More importantly, tcDNA treatment was generally limited to minimal glomerular changes and few cell necroses in proximal tubules, with only slight variation in serum and urinary kidney toxicity biomarker levels. These results demonstrate an encouraging safety profile for tcDNA, albeit typical of phosphorothiate AONs, and confirm its therapeutic potential for the systemic treatment of DMD patients. Keywords: antisense oligonucleotides, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, preclinical, splice switching, tcDNA-AONs

  18. Anxiety and Mood Clinical Profile following Sport-related Concussion: From Risk Factors to Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandel, Natalie; Reynolds, Erin; Cohen, Paul E; Gillie, Brandon L; Kontos, Anthony P

    2017-08-01

    Conceptual models for assessing and treating sport-related concussion (SRC) have evolved from a homogenous approach to include different clinical profiles that reflect the heterogeneous nature of this injury and its effects. There are six identified clinical profiles, or subtypes from SRC, and one such clinical profile is the anxiety/mood profile. Athletes with this profile experience predominant emotional disturbance and anxiety following SRC. The purpose of this targeted review was to present an overview of the empirical evidence to support factors contributing to the anxiety/mood profile, along with methods of evaluation and treatment of this clinical profile following SRC. We discuss the potential underlying mechanisms and risk factors for this clinical profile, describe comprehensive assessments to evaluate concussed athletes with an anxiety/mood clinical profile, and explore behavioral and other interventions for treating these athletes. Although there is limited, but growing empirical evidence for the anxiety/mood clinical profile following SRC, understanding this clinical profile is germane for clinicians who are treating athletes with emotional sequelae after SRC.

  19. Reliability Analysis and Calibration of Partial Safety Factors for Redundant Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    1998-01-01

    Redundancy is important to include in the design and analysis of structural systems. In most codes of practice redundancy is not directly taken into account. In the paper various definitions of a deterministic and reliability based redundancy measure are reviewed. It is described how reundancy can...... be included in the safety system and how partial safety factors can be calibrated. An example is presented illustrating how redundancy is taken into account in the safety system in e.g. the Danish codes. The example shows how partial safety factors can be calibrated to comply with the safety level...

  20. Functionality of road safety devices – identification and analysis of factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeliński Łukasz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Road safety devices are designed to protect road users from the risk of injury or death. The principal type of restraint is the safety barrier. Deployed on sites with the highest risk of run-off-road accidents, safety barriers are mostly found on bridges, flyovers, central reservations, and on road edges which have fixed obstacles next to them. If properly designed and installed, safety barriers just as other road safety devices, should meet a number of functional features. This report analyses factors which may deteriorate functionality, ways to prevent this from happening and the thresholds for loss of road safety device functionality.

  1. Development of safety factors to be used for evaluation of cracked nuclear components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brickstad, B.; Bergman, M.

    1996-10-01

    A modified concept for safety evaluation is introduced which separately accounts for the failure mechanisms fracture and plastic collapse. For application on nuclear components a set of safety factors are also proposed that retain the safety margins expressed in ASME, section III and XI. By performing comparative studies of the acceptance levels for surface cracks in pipes and a pressure vessel, it is shown that some of the anomalies connected with the old safety procedures are removed. It is the authors belief that the outlined safety evaluation procedure has the capability of treating cracks in a consistent way and that the procedure together with the proposed safety factors fulfill the basic safety requirements for nuclear components. Hopefully, it is possible in the near future to develop a probabilistic safety assessment procedure in Sweden, which enables a systematic treatment of uncertainties in the involved data. 14 refs

  2. Road safety performance indicators : country profiles. SafetyNet, Building the European Road Safety Observatory, Workpackage 3, Deliverable 3.7b.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riguelle, F. Eksler, V. Holló, P. Morsink, P. Gent, A. van Gitelman, V. Assum, T. & Rackliff, L.

    2009-01-01

    The EC 6th Framework Integrated Project SafetyNet aims to accelerate the availability and use of harmonised road safety data in Europe. Having such data available throughout Europe would be tremendously beneficial for road safety, since it would enable the evaluation of road safety measures, the

  3. Ocular Safety of Intravitreal Connective Tissue Growth Factor Neutralizing Antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motevasseli, Tahmineh; Daftarian, Narsis; Kanavi, Mozhgan Rezaei; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Bagheri, Abouzar; Hosseini, Seyed Bagher; Ansari, Shabnam; Soheili, Zahra-Soheila

    2017-08-01

    To detect the safety of intravitreal injection of anti-connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) (IVAC) in rat eyes in order to apply this neutralizing antibody for experimental animal studies. Forty-five Lister Hooded male pigmented rats were divided into five groups that received IVAC (2 μl) corresponding to the doses of 10 (B), 20 (C), 50 (D), and 100 μg/ml (E), equal to 1.25, 2.5, 6.25, and 12.5 µg/ml of antibody concentration in rat vitreous, respectively. The sham group (A) received 2 μl of normal saline. Full field electroretinography (ERG) was performed at baseline and on days 7 and 28 after IVAC. The animals were euthanized and the corresponding eyes were subjected to routine histopathology, immunohistochemistry for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and terminal transferase dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay. Scotopic rod b-wave amplitude and maximal combined b-wave amplitude were 111.89 ± 71.2 and 178.57 ± 55.58 μV, respectively, at baseline which significantly reduced to 79.31 ± 52.59 and 128.73 ± 41.61 μV, respectively, after 28 days in group E (p < 0.05). There was no significant reduction of amplitudes in other groups with lower doses of anti-CTGF antibody. Retinal ganglion cells were significantly decreased in group E as compared to other groups. GFAP immune reactivity was not significant in any of the groups. TUNEL test showed inner retinal neural cell apoptosis only in group E. ERG, histopathologic, and apoptotic assays revealed no toxic effects of 10-50 μg/ml of IVAC in rat eyes. Using 100 μg/ml IVAC led to a significant toxic effect in terms of functional, histopathologic, and TUNEL findings.

  4. The Relationship Between Antecedent and Consequence Factors with Safety Behaviour in PT.X

    OpenAIRE

    Fitriani, Apris; Nawawiwetu, Erwin Dyah

    2017-01-01

    Background : Safety behaviour is an act worker to minimize the possibility of accidents in workplace. Based on the Antecedents-Behaviour-Consequence (ABC) theory, safety behaviour of worker related with the antecedent and consequence factors. Purpose : The purpose of this research was to study the association between antecedent and consequence factors with safety behaviour of workers in Ring Frame Unit Spinning II PT. X. Methods : This was an observational descriptive research with cross sect...

  5. The role of engineering judgement, safety culture, and organizational factors in risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muzumdar, Ajit; Professor, Visiting

    1996-01-01

    This paper reviews the role of engineering judgement, safety culture, and organizational factors in risk assessment by examining the reasons for human-based error. The need for more emphasis on producing engineers with good engineering judgement is described. The progress in quantifying the role of safety culture and organizational factors in risk assessment studies is summarized

  6. Patient safety risk factors in minimally invasive surgery : A validation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, S.P.; Ter Kuile, M.; Dankelman, J.; Jansen, F.W.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to adapt and validate a patient safety (PS) framework for minimally invasive surgery (MIS) as a first step in understanding the clinical relevance of various PS risk factors in MIS. Eight patient safety risk factor domains were identified using frameworks from a systems

  7. Safety and injury profile of conducted electrical weapons used by law enforcement officers against criminal suspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, William P; Hauda, William E; Heck, Joseph J; Graham, Derrel D; Martin, Brian P; Winslow, James E

    2009-04-01

    Conducted electrical weapons such as the Taser are commonly used by law enforcement agencies. The safety of these weapons has been the subject of scrutiny and controversy; previous controlled studies in animals and healthy humans may not accurately reflect the risks of conducted electrical weapons used in actual conditions. We seek to determine the safety and injury profile of conducted electrical weapons used against criminal suspects in a field setting. This prospective, multicenter, observational trial tracked a consecutive case series of all conducted electrical weapon uses against criminal suspects at 6 US law enforcement agencies. Mandatory review of each conducted electrical weapon use incorporated physician review of police and medical records. Injuries were classified as mild, moderate, or severe according to a priori definitions. The primary outcome was a composite of moderate and severe injuries, termed significant injuries. Conducted electrical weapons were used against 1,201 subjects during 36 months. One thousand one hundred twenty-five subjects (94%) were men; the median age was 30 years (range 13 to 80 years). Mild or no injuries were observed after conducted electrical weapon use in 1,198 subjects (99.75%; 95% confidence interval 99.3% to 99.9%). Of mild injuries, 83% were superficial puncture wounds from conducted electrical weapon probes. Significant injuries occurred in 3 subjects (0.25%; 95% confidence interval 0.07% to 0.7%), including 2 intracranial injuries from falls and 1 case of rhabdomyolysis. Two subjects died in police custody; medical examiners did not find conducted electrical weapon use to be causal or contributory in either case. To our knowledge, these findings represent the first large, independent, multicenter study of conducted electrical weapon injury epidemiology and suggest that more than 99% of subjects do not experience significant injuries after conducted electrical weapon use.

  8. Curcuma longa L. as a therapeutic agent in intestinal motility disorders. 2: Safety profile in mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micucci, Matteo; Aldini, Rita; Cevenini, Monica; Colliva, Carolina; Spinozzi, Silvia; Roda, Giulia; Montagnani, Marco; Camborata, Cecilia; Camarda, Luca; Chiarini, Alberto; Mazzella, Giuseppe; Budriesi, Roberta

    2013-01-01

    Curcuma extract exerts a myorelaxant effect on the mouse intestine. In view of a possible use of curcuma extract in motor functional disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, a safety profile study has been carried out in the mouse. Thirty mice were used to study the in vitro effect of curcuma on gallbladder, bladder, aorta and trachea smooth muscular layers and hearth inotropic and chronotropic activity. The myorelaxant effect on the intestine was also thoroughly investigated. Moreover, curcuma extract (200 mg/Kg/day) was orally administered to twenty mice over 28 days and serum liver and lipids parameters were evaluated. Serum, bile and liver bile acids qualitative and quantitative composition was were also studied. In the intestine, curcuma extract appeared as a not competitive inhibitor through cholinergic, histaminergic and serotoninergic receptors and showed spasmolytic effect on K(+) induced contraction at the level of L type calcium channels. No side effect was observed on bladder, aorta, trachea and heart when we used a dose that is effective on the intestine. An increase in gallbladder tone and contraction was observed. Serum liver and lipids parameters were normal, while a slight increase in serum and liver bile acids concentration and a decrease in bile were observed. Although these data are consistent with the safety of curcuma extract as far as its effect on the smooth muscular layers of different organs and on the heart, the mild cholestatic effect observed in absence of alteration of liver function tests must be further evaluated and the effective dose with minimal side effects considered.

  9. Analysis of factors influencing safety management for metro construction in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Q Z; Ding, L Y; Zhou, C; Luo, H B

    2014-07-01

    With the rapid development of urbanization in China, the number and size of metro construction projects are increasing quickly. At the same time, and increasing number of accidents in metro construction make it a disturbing focus of social attention. In order to improve safety management in metro construction, an investigation of the participants' perspectives on safety factors in China metro construction has been conducted to identify the key safety factors, and their ranking consistency among the main participants, including clients, consultants, designers, contractors and supervisors. The result of factor analysis indicates that there are five key factors which influence the safety of metro construction including safety attitude, construction site safety, government supervision, market restrictions and task unpredictability. In addition, ANOVA and Spearman rank correlation coefficients were performed to test the consistency of the means rating and the ranking of safety factors. The results indicated that the main participants have significant disagreement about the importance of safety factors on more than half of the items. Suggestions and recommendations on practical countermeasures to improve metro construction safety management in China are proposed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Power profiling of Cholesky and QR factorizations on distributed memory systems

    KAUST Repository

    Bosilca, George; Ltaief, Hatem; Dongarra, Jack

    2012-01-01

    with a dynamic distributed scheduler (DAGuE) to leverage distributed memory systems. We present performance results (Gflop/s) as well as the power profile (Watts) of two common dense factorizations needed to solve linear systems of equations, namely

  11. Optical escape factors for Doppler profiles in spherical, cylindrical and plane parallel geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Masamoto.

    1977-12-01

    Optical escape factors for Doppler profiles in spherical, cylindrical and plane parallel geometries are tabulated over the range of optical depths from 10 -3 to 10 5 . Relations with the known formulae are discussed also. (auth.)

  12. A cross-cultural study of organizational factors on safety: Japanese vs. Taiwanese oil refinery plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Shang Hwa; Lee, Chun-Chia; Wu, Muh-Cherng; Takano, Kenichi

    2008-01-01

    This study attempts to identify idiosyncrasies of organizational factors on safety and their influence mechanisms in Taiwan and Japan. Data were collected from employees of Taiwanese and Japanese oil refinery plants. Results show that organizational factors on safety differ in the two countries. Organizational characteristics in Taiwanese plants are highlighted as: higher level of management commitment to safety, harmonious interpersonal relationship, more emphasis on safety activities, higher devotion to supervision, and higher safety self-efficacy, as well as high quality of safety performance. Organizational characteristics in Japanese plants are highlighted as: higher level of employee empowerment and attitude towards continuous improvement, more emphasis on systematic safety management approach, efficient reporting system and teamwork, and high quality of safety performance. The casual relationships between organizational factors and workers' safety performance were investigated using structural equation modeling (SEM). Results indicate that the influence mechanisms of organizational factors in Taiwan and Japan are different. These findings provide insights into areas of safety improvement in emerging countries and developed countries respectively.

  13. Functional Profiling of Transcription Factor Genes in Neurospora crassa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J. Carrillo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Regulation of gene expression by DNA-binding transcription factors is essential for proper control of growth and development in all organisms. In this study, we annotate and characterize growth and developmental phenotypes for transcription factor genes in the model filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa. We identified 312 transcription factor genes, corresponding to 3.2% of the protein coding genes in the genome. The largest class was the fungal-specific Zn2Cys6 (C6 binuclear cluster, with 135 members, followed by the highly conserved C2H2 zinc finger group, with 61 genes. Viable knockout mutants were produced for 273 genes, and complete growth and developmental phenotypic data are available for 242 strains, with 64% possessing at least one defect. The most prominent defect observed was in growth of basal hyphae (43% of mutants analyzed, followed by asexual sporulation (38%, and the various stages of sexual development (19%. Two growth or developmental defects were observed for 21% of the mutants, while 8% were defective in all three major phenotypes tested. Analysis of available mRNA expression data for a time course of sexual development revealed mutants with sexual phenotypes that correlate with transcription factor transcript abundance in wild type. Inspection of this data also implicated cryptic roles in sexual development for several cotranscribed transcription factor genes that do not produce a phenotype when mutated.

  14. Requirements to amend the main influence factors on the safety culture after fukushima accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farcasiu, M.; Nitoi, M.

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a general model that provides a framework for the safety culture assessment, creating the possibility to identify factors that can significantly influence the safety culture. The main safety culture influence factors (SCIF) used by model are the following: regulatory environment, organizational environment, worker characteristics, socio-political environment, national culture, organization history, business and technological characteristics. After the analysis of the deficiencies and weaknesses of SCIFc in evolution of the Fukushima accident, some issues that may become necessities and requirements to change and improve both the safety culture and safety of the nuclear installations were highlighted. For each influence factor were identified some requirements to amend. The results will emphasize the necesity of the human - technology - organization system assessment. Hence it was demonstrated that the safety culture results from the interaction of individuals with technology and with the organization. (authors)

  15. Factor Analysis and Framework Development for Incorporating Public Trust on Nuclear Safety issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Seongkyung; Lee, Gyebong [The Myongji Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Gihyung; Lee, Gyehwi; Jeong, Jina [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS), a regulatory expert organization in charge of nuclear safety in Korea, realized that a more fundamental and systematic analysis of activities is needed to actively meet the greater variety of concerns people have and increase the reliability of the results of regulation. Nuclear safety, a highly specialized field, has previously been discussed primarily from the viewpoint of the engineers who deal with the technology, but now 'public trust in nuclear safety' has to be viewed from the standpoint of the general public and from the socio-cultural perspective. Specific measures must be taken to examine which factors affect public trust and how we can secure and reproduce those factors to gain it. Also, an efficient system for incorporating public trust in nuclear safety must be established. In this study, various case studies were examined to identify the factors that affect public trust in nuclear safety. First, nuclear safety laws and information disclosure systems of major countries were examined by investigating data and conducting in-depth interviews. To explore a public framework concerning nuclear safety, big data of social media were analyzed. Also, Q methodology was used to analyze the risk schemata of the opinion leaders living in areas near nuclear power plants. Several surveys were conducted to analyze the amount of trust the public had in nuclear safety as well as their awareness of nuclear safety issues. Based on these analyses, factors affecting public trust in nuclear safety were extracted, and measures to build systems incorporating public trust in nuclear safety were proposed. This study addresses the public trust in nuclear safety on condition that the safety is ensured technically and mechanically.

  16. Factor Analysis and Framework Development for Incorporating Public Trust on Nuclear Safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Seongkyung; Lee, Gyebong; Lee, Gihyung; Lee, Gyehwi; Jeong, Jina

    2014-01-01

    The Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS), a regulatory expert organization in charge of nuclear safety in Korea, realized that a more fundamental and systematic analysis of activities is needed to actively meet the greater variety of concerns people have and increase the reliability of the results of regulation. Nuclear safety, a highly specialized field, has previously been discussed primarily from the viewpoint of the engineers who deal with the technology, but now 'public trust in nuclear safety' has to be viewed from the standpoint of the general public and from the socio-cultural perspective. Specific measures must be taken to examine which factors affect public trust and how we can secure and reproduce those factors to gain it. Also, an efficient system for incorporating public trust in nuclear safety must be established. In this study, various case studies were examined to identify the factors that affect public trust in nuclear safety. First, nuclear safety laws and information disclosure systems of major countries were examined by investigating data and conducting in-depth interviews. To explore a public framework concerning nuclear safety, big data of social media were analyzed. Also, Q methodology was used to analyze the risk schemata of the opinion leaders living in areas near nuclear power plants. Several surveys were conducted to analyze the amount of trust the public had in nuclear safety as well as their awareness of nuclear safety issues. Based on these analyses, factors affecting public trust in nuclear safety were extracted, and measures to build systems incorporating public trust in nuclear safety were proposed. This study addresses the public trust in nuclear safety on condition that the safety is ensured technically and mechanically

  17. Safety profile of multielectrode-phased radiofrequency pulmonary vein ablation catheter and irrigated radiofrequency catheter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasmer, K; Foraita, P; Leitz, P; Güner, F; Pott, C; Lange, P S; Eckardt, L; Mönnig, G

    2016-01-01

    Silent cerebral lesions with the multielectrode-phased radiofrequency (RF) pulmonary vein ablation catheter (PVAC(®)) have recently been investigated. However, comparative data on safety in relation to irrigated RF ablation are missing. One hundred and fifty consecutive patients (58 ± 12 years, 56 female) underwent first pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) for atrial fibrillation (61% paroxysmal) using PVAC(®) (PVAC). Procedure data as well as in-hospital complications were compared with 300 matched patients who underwent PVI using irrigated RF (iRF). Procedure duration (148 ± 63 vs. 208 ± 70 min; P drainage n = 0 vs. n = 6] occurred more frequently using iRF. Two patients in each group developed a TIA (1.3% vs. 0.6%). Of note, four of five thromboembolic events in the PVAC group (two TIAs and three transient ST elevations during ablation) occurred when all 10 electrodes were used for ablation. Pulmonary vein isolation using PVAC as a 'one-shot-system' has a comparable complication rate but a different risk profile. Pericardial effusion and tamponade occurred more frequently using iRF, whereas thromboembolic events were more prevalent using PVAC. Occurrence of clinically relevant thromboembolic events might be reduced by avoidance of electrode 1 and 10 interaction and uninterrupted anticoagulation, whereas contact force sensing for iRF might minimize pericardial effusion. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Yield and Safety Profile of Ultrasound Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) of Lymph Nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattar, A.; Wahab, S.; Javed, A.; Shamim, S. H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the re-biopsy rate, positive yield and safety profile of ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in cervical lymph nodes in terms of its complications and repeat procedures. Study Design: An analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Dow University Hospital, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, from June to December 2013. Methodology: Eighty neck swellings, which were found to be lymph nodes on ultrasound, underwent ultrasound guided FNAC, from outpatients. Lymph nodes which were included in the study were those that were not easily palpable, located near major blood vessels, where patient refused of direct palpation and wanted image guided FNAC, those directly sent by physician for image guided FNAC and where blind biopsy remained inconclusive. Patients who refused on explanation or did not give consent were excluded. Complications and repeat biopsy were noted. Result: This study consisted of 80 cases, of which 51 cases (63.75 percentage) were female and 29 cases (36.25 percentage) were male. Repeat biopsy was required in 1 case (1.6 percentage). There were no procedure-related complications. A total of 44 cases (55 percentage) revealed evidence suggesting or confirming the existence of tuberculosis. Rest of the others showed other benign lesions, reactive lymphadenopathy and malignancy. Conclusion: Ultrasound guided FNAC is a safe procedure with low re-biopsy rate that aids diagnosis. The predominant cause of cervical lymphadenopathy in this study was tuberculous lymphadenitis. (author)

  19. Studying the Relationship between Individual and Organizational Factors and Nurses' Perception of Patient Safety Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahnaz Abdolahzadeh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Safety culture is considered as an important factor in improving patient safety. Therefore, identifying individual and organizational factors affecting safety culture is crucial. This study was carried out to determine individual and organizational factors associated with nurses' perception of patient safety culture. Methods: The present descriptive study included 940 nurses working in four training hospitals affiliated with Urmia University of Medical Sciences (Iran. Data was collected through the self-report questionnaire of patient safety culture. Descriptive (number, percent, mean, and standard deviation and inferential (t-test and analysis of variance statistics were used to analyze the data in SPSS. Results: Nurses' perception of patient safety culture was significantly correlated with marital status, workplace, and overtime hours. Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that some individual and organizational factors can impact on nurses' perception of patient safety culture. Nursing authorities should thus pay more attention to factors which promote patient safety culture and ultimately the safety of provided services.

  20. Risk Factor Profile of Motorcycle Crash Victims in Rural Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Road traffic injuries involving motorcycles are increasing especially in rural Kenya resulting in both human and economic loss. This study was done to identify the risk factors and the host characteristics associated with motorcycle injury victims in rural setting so as to institute appropriate interventions for ...

  1. Risk Factor Profile of Motorcycle Crash Victims in Rural Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    protective gear, alcohol use and overloading of passengers were the main risk factors observed. Our observations call for more stringent regulations and .... poor ventilation and noisiness have been cited by previous authors as reasons why people are reluctant to use helmets (15). In a study conducted in the highly ...

  2. Safety review for human factors engineering and control rooms of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Mengzhuo

    1998-01-01

    Safety review for human factors engineering and control rooms of nuclear power plants (NPP) is in a forward position of science and technology, which began at American TMI severe accident and had been implemented in China. The importance and the significance of the safety review are expounded, the requirements of its scope and profundity are explained in detail. In addition, the situation of the technical document system for nuclear safety regulation on human factors engineering and control rooms of NPP in China is introduced briefly, on which the safety review is based

  3. Cultural factors influencing safety need to be addressed in design and operation of technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkati, N

    1996-10-01

    Cultural factors which influence aviation safety in aircraft design, air traffic control, and human factors training are examined. Analysis of the Avianca Flight 052 crash in New York in January, 1990, demonstrates the catastrosphic effects cultural factors can play. Cultural factors include attitude toward work and technology, organizational hierarchy, religion, and population stereotyping.

  4. Gadobutrol for contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in elderly patients: review of the safety profile from clinical trial, post-marketing surveillance, and pharmacovigilance data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endrikat, J.; Schwenke, C.; Prince, M.R.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To assess the safety of gadobutrol administration in elderly patients (≥65 years) by comparing the incidence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) following gadobutrol-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) procedures in elderly patients with that in adults aged 18–64 years. Materials and methods: Safety data on gadobutrol administration from clinical trials, post-marketing surveillance (PMS) studies, and pharmacovigilance reports were collected in three databases. In each dataset, absolute and relative frequencies of ADRs between age groups were analysed, along with odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Logistic regression was used to identify significant influencing factors on ADRs in the PMS and pharmacovigilance data. Results: Rates of reported ADRs were lower in elderly patients versus adults aged <65 years due to a reduced incidence of non-serious ADRs; this was statistically significant for the clinical trials and pharmacovigilance populations, with a trend in the PMS database. Serious ADRs occurred infrequently in the clinical trials and PMS populations (too low for statistical comparison), and pharmacovigilance data demonstrated a low incidence (<0.005%) in both age groups. Conclusions: This evaluation involving three large databases demonstrated no greater incidence of ADRs following gadobutrol-enhanced MRI in elderly patients (≥65 years) compared with younger adults, with gadobutrol having a favourable safety profile in both age groups. -- Highlights: •First dedicated safety study of an extracellular contrast agent in the elderly. •Elderly patients experience fewer non-serious ADRs than younger adults. •Gadobutrol has a favourable safety profile in both age groups

  5. Confounding factors and genetic polymorphism in the evaluation of individual steroid profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuuranne, Tiia; Saugy, Martial; Baume, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    In the fight against doping, steroid profiling is a powerful tool to detect drug misuse with endogenous anabolic androgenic steroids. To establish sensitive and reliable models, the factors influencing profiling should be recognised. We performed an extensive literature review of the multiple factors that could influence the quantitative levels and ratios of endogenous steroids in urine matrix. For a comprehensive and scientific evaluation of the urinary steroid profile, it is necessary to define the target analytes as well as testosterone metabolism. The two main confounding factors, that is, endogenous and exogenous factors, are detailed to show the complex process of quantifying the steroid profile within WADA-accredited laboratories. Technical aspects are also discussed as they could have a significant impact on the steroid profile, and thus the steroid module of the athlete biological passport (ABP). The different factors impacting the major components of the steroid profile must be understood to ensure scientifically sound interpretation through the Bayesian model of the ABP. Not only should the statistical data be considered but also the experts in the field must be consulted for successful implementation of the steroidal module. PMID:24764553

  6. Factors impacting on the microbiological quality and safety of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-12-06

    Dec 6, 2010 ... microbiological quality and safety of processed hake. Samples were collected along the processing line; the general microbiological quality (mesophylic and psychrotrophic aerobic plate counts), total. Vibrio species and common fish spoilage bacterial counts were performed. The results constantly showed ...

  7. Relationships between road safety, safety measures and external factors : a scan of the literature in view of model development and topics for further research.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Churchill, T. & Norden, Y. van

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this literature scan is to examine where literature on the effect of external factors and road safety measures on road safety exists and where it is lacking. This scan will help us to decide which factors to include in a comprehensive road safety model as SWOV is working on, and at

  8. The 2002 Drigg post-closure safety case: implementation of a multiple factor safety case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lean, C.B.; Grimwood, P.D.; Watts, L.; Fowler, L.; Thomson, G.; Kelly, E.; Hodgkinson, D.

    2004-01-01

    British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) owns and operates the Drigg disposal site, which is the UK's principal facility for the disposal of low level radioactive waste (LLW). Disposals are carried out under the terms of an authorization granted by the UK Environment Agency (the Agency). The Agency periodically reviews the authorization to take account of new information and any revisions to regulatory requirements. In September 2002 new Operational Environmental and Post-Closure Safety Cases (OESC and PCSC respectively) were submitted to the Agency to support the next authorization review. The OESC assesses radiological safety aspects up until closure of the site, including a post-operational management phase, whilst the PCSC considers the longer-term radiological safety. The Drigg disposal facility has been operational since 1959. For the first 3 decades of operations, disposals were solely by tumble tipping wastes into excavated trenches. This was phased out in favour of vault disposal and disposals to the trenches were completed in 1995. The first vault (Vault 8) commenced operations in 1988 and construction of future vaults is planned up to the estimated end of disposal operations in about 50 years time. This paper describes the main components of the 2002 Drigg PCSC and how they relate to each other. Central to the safety case is a systematic comprehensive post-closure radiological safety assessment (PCRSA). However, the importance of the more qualitative aspects of the safety case, including a demonstration of optimisation, is also highlighted. In addition, other confidence-building activities which are key to developing and presenting the safety case are discussed. (author)

  9. Psychosocial and clinical risk factor profiles in managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentner, M; Ciré, L; Scholl, J

    2000-06-01

    Over the past 10 years the IAS Foundation has performed more than 15,000 PREVENT check-ups on managers. In addition to a comprehensive clinical program of preventive examinations, the main emphasis is placed on extensive counseling. This counseling centres not only on personal behaviour patterns affecting the individual's health, but also on the psychomental capabilities of the patient within the context of the psychosocial stresses in managerial positions. Three cross-sectional studies examined: (1) the major cardiovascular risk factors (n = 974), (2) the psychosocial structure (n = 2,800) and (3) the relationships between clinical risk factors and psychological structural features (n = 200). According to expectations, managers showed somewhat lower cardiovascular risk levels than did other professional groups. However, nearly 70% of them reported various unspecific, psychovegetative complaints. Managers were subdivided into four psychological types, each representing roughly one quarter of the series: Type 1: anxiety, tension (20.5%); Type 2: repression, lack of self-control (22.2%); Type 3: challenge, ambition, self-control (27.6%); Type 4: healthy living, with self-control (29.7%). Type 3 resembles most closely classic type A behaviour and is seen in a good quarter of the overall cohort. This may indicate that not only people showing type A behaviour are predestined to occupy managerial positions, but that people with a type B structure also take up managerial positions. It is, however, in particular the type B behavioural patterns that are also associated with increased psychovegetative complaints. The relationships between psychosocial structural variables and clinical risk factors such as hypercholesteremia and high blood pressure are not very strong. Occupational health measures in organisations should also be established for managers, as they present an important employee group within the enterprise. In addition to examining them for cardiovascular risks

  10. Safety of recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB in Augment® Bone Graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A Solchaga

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses nonclinical and clinical data regarding the safety of recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB as a component of the Augment® Bone Graft (Augment. Augment is a bone graft substitute intended to be used as an alternative to autologous bone graft in the fusion of hindfoot and ankle joints. Nonclinical studies included assessment of the pharmacokinetic profile of intravenously administered recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB in rat and dog, effects of intravenous administration of recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB in a reproductive and development toxicity study in rats, and chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity of Augment in a 12-month implantation model. These studies showed that systemic exposure was brief and clearance was rapid. No signs of toxicity, carcinogenicity, or tumor promotion were observed even with doses far exceeding the maximum clinical dose. Results of clinical trials (605 participants and commercial use of recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB containing products indicate that these products are not associated with increased incidence of adverse events or cancer. The safety data presented provide evidence that recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB is a safe therapeutic when used in combination products as a single administration during surgical procedures for bone repair and fusion. There is no evidence associating use of recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB in Augment with chronic toxicity, carcinogenicity, or tumor promotion.

  11. Circadian expression profiles of chromatin remodeling factor genes in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hong Gil; Lee, Kyounghee; Jang, Kiyoung; Seo, Pil Joon

    2015-01-01

    The circadian clock is a biological time keeper mechanism that regulates biological rhythms to a period of approximately 24 h. The circadian clock enables organisms to anticipate environmental cycles and coordinates internal cellular physiology with external environmental cues. In plants, correct matching of the clock with the environment confers fitness advantages to plant survival and reproduction. Therefore, circadian clock components are regulated at multiple layers to fine-tune the circadian oscillation. Epigenetic regulation provides an additional layer of circadian control. However, little is known about which chromatin remodeling factors are responsible for circadian control. In this work, we analyzed circadian expression of 109 chromatin remodeling factor genes and identified 17 genes that display circadian oscillation. In addition, we also found that a candidate interacts with a core clock component, supporting that clock activity is regulated in part by chromatin modification. As an initial attempt to elucidate the relationship between chromatin modification and circadian oscillation, we identified novel regulatory candidates that provide a platform for future investigations of chromatin regulation of the circadian clock.

  12. Defining the patient safety attitudes and influencing factors of health professionals working at maternity hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunçer Ünver, Gamze; Harmanci Seren, Arzu Kader

    2018-02-27

    To determine patient safety attitudes of midwives, nurses and physicians and to examine the difference or correlation in patient safety attitudes of midwives, nurses and physicians working in maternity hospitals. It has been suggested that it is necessary to define the factors affecting patient safety attitudes of health professionals working in maternity hospitals. A descriptive and correlational design was employed.The sample comprised 58 midwives, 134 nurses and 63 physicians (255) in two maternity hospitals in Istanbul, Turkey. The data were collected using an 'information form' and a 'Patient Safety Attitude Questionnaire'. The safety attitudes of participants were generally found to be negative. However, midwives had more positive patient safety attitudes and the age, unit, adequacy of patient safety training and the importance of patient safety were the most effective variables. As health professionals working in maternity hospitals generally have negative patient safety attitudes and because patient safety training provided better attitudes among the participants, these training programmes should be developed and implemented considering the differences among age groups and units. Health professionals have different views on the patient safety culture; therefore, training needs to involve everyone to create a shared vision for patient safety. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Patient and carer identified factors which contribute to safety incidents in primary care: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernan, Andrea L; Giles, Sally J; Fuller, Jeffrey; Johnson, Julie K; Walker, Christine; Dunbar, James A

    2015-09-01

    Patients can have an important role in reducing harm in primary-care settings. Learning from patient experience and feedback could improve patient safety. Evidence that captures patients' views of the various contributory factors to creating safe primary care is largely absent. The aim of this study was to address this evidence gap. Four focus groups and eight semistructured interviews were conducted with 34 patients and carers from south-east Australia. Participants were asked to describe their experiences of primary care. Audio recordings were transcribed verbatim and specific factors that contribute to safety incidents were identified in the analysis using the Yorkshire Contributory Factors Framework (YCFF). Other factors emerging from the data were also ascertained and added to the analytical framework. Thirteen factors that contribute to safety incidents in primary care were ascertained. Five unique factors for the primary-care setting were discovered in conjunction with eight factors present in the YCFF from hospital settings. The five unique primary care contributing factors to safety incidents represented a range of levels within the primary-care system from local working conditions to the upstream organisational level and the external policy context. The 13 factors included communication, access, patient factors, external policy context, dignity and respect, primary-secondary interface, continuity of care, task performance, task characteristics, time in the consultation, safety culture, team factors and the physical environment. Patient and carer feedback of this type could help primary-care professionals better understand and identify potential safety concerns and make appropriate service improvements. The comprehensive range of factors identified provides the groundwork for developing tools that systematically capture the multiple contributory factors to patient safety. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not

  14. CLINICAL PROFILE, EPIDEMIOLOGY AND PROGNOSTIC FACTORS IN SCRUB TYPHUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyadarshini B

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Scrub typhus is an underdiagnosed disease, but potentially treatable, if diagnosis is made with high index of suspicion. Deaths are attributable to late presentation, delayed diagnosis and drug resistance. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was an observational study of prospective design conducted in the Department of General Medicine, Government Medical College, Kozhikode, over a period of one year. History, physical examination and relevant lab investigations were done in 70 patients in the study. RESULTS Majority of patients were in working class. Most common physical finding was lymphadenopathy. Eschar was present in 46% of patients. Majority responded to doxycycline. Case fatality was 14.3%. CONCLUSION 1. Most cases occurred during cooler months of the year (Oct-Feb. 2. Fever and headache were the most common symptoms. 3. Lymphadenopathy was the most common sign followed by splenomegaly. 4. Eschar was present in 46% cases. 5. Leucocytosis was associated with poor prognosis and increased complication like meningoencephalitis. 6. Hypoalbuminaemia was associated with increased incidence of complications like myocarditis and encephalitis. 7. More than 2 times, elevation of transaminases was a poor prognostic marker. 8. Most common and important complication was Acute Kidney Injury (AKI. 9. Microangiopathic haemolysis could possibly be a contributory factor for high incidence of AKI associated with scrub typhus. 10. Rampant NSAID use is another contributory factor for high incidence of AKI associated with scrub typhus. 11. Resistance to doxycycline is emerging in our community and we should consider this possibility in cases with strong suspicion with no response to doxycycline.

  15. Comprehensive mutational profiling of core binding factor acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duployez, Nicolas; Marceau-Renaut, Alice; Boissel, Nicolas; Petit, Arnaud; Bucci, Maxime; Geffroy, Sandrine; Lapillonne, Hélène; Renneville, Aline; Ragu, Christine; Figeac, Martin; Celli-Lebras, Karine; Lacombe, Catherine; Micol, Jean-Baptiste; Abdel-Wahab, Omar; Cornillet, Pascale; Ifrah, Norbert; Dombret, Hervé; Leverger, Guy; Jourdan, Eric; Preudhomme, Claude

    2016-05-19

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with t(8;21) or inv(16) have been recognized as unique entities within AML and are usually reported together as core binding factor AML (CBF-AML). However, there is considerable clinical and biological heterogeneity within this group of diseases, and relapse incidence reaches up to 40%. Moreover, translocations involving CBFs are not sufficient to induce AML on its own and the full spectrum of mutations coexisting with CBF translocations has not been elucidated. To address these issues, we performed extensive mutational analysis by high-throughput sequencing in 215 patients with CBF-AML enrolled in the Phase 3 Trial of Systematic Versus Response-adapted Timed-Sequential Induction in Patients With Core Binding Factor Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Treating Patients with Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia with Interleukin-2 trials (age, 1-60 years). Mutations in genes activating tyrosine kinase signaling (including KIT, N/KRAS, and FLT3) were frequent in both subtypes of CBF-AML. In contrast, mutations in genes that regulate chromatin conformation or encode members of the cohesin complex were observed with high frequencies in t(8;21) AML (42% and 18%, respectively), whereas they were nearly absent in inv(16) AML. High KIT mutant allele ratios defined a group of t(8;21) AML patients with poor prognosis, whereas high N/KRAS mutant allele ratios were associated with the lack of KIT or FLT3 mutations and a favorable outcome. In addition, mutations in epigenetic modifying or cohesin genes were associated with a poor prognosis in patients with tyrosine kinase pathway mutations, suggesting synergic cooperation between these events. These data suggest that diverse cooperating mutations may influence CBF-AML pathophysiology as well as clinical behavior and point to potential unique pathogenesis of t(8;21) vs inv(16) AML. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  16. Profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Profiles is a synthetic overview of more than 100 national energy markets in the world, providing insightful facts and key energy statistics. A Profile is structured around 6 main items and completed by key statistics: Ministries, public agencies, energy policy are concerned; main companies in the oil, gas, electricity and coal sectors, status, shareholders; reserve, production, imports and exports, electricity and refining capacities; deregulation of prices, subsidies, taxes; consumption trends by sector, energy market shares; main energy projects, production and consumption prospects. Statistical Profiles are present in about 3 pages the main data and indicators on oil, gas, coal and electricity. (A.L.B.)

  17. Measurement of Food Safety Culture using Survey and Maturity Profiling Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Jespersen, Lone; Griffiths, Mansel; Maclaurin, Tanya; Chapman, Ben; Wallace, Carol A.

    2016-01-01

    Organizational culture is defined by dimensions and characteristics that can be used to measure food safety culture in food manufacturing through a food safety maturity model. Maturity models from quality, health care, and information technology have been used since early 1970 and this work presents a novel food safety culture maturity model with five capability areas and food safety pinpointed behaviours specific to functions and levels in a food manufacturing company. A survey tool linked t...

  18. Diclofenac: an update on its mechanism of action and safety profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Tong J

    2010-07-01

    Diclofenac is a proven, commonly prescribed nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that has analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties, and has been shown to be effective in treating a variety of acute and chronic pain and inflammatory conditions. As with all NSAIDs, diclofenac exerts its action via inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis by inhibiting cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) with relative equipotency. However, extensive research shows the pharmacologic activity of diclofenac goes beyond COX inhibition, and includes multimodal and, in some instances, novel mechanisms of action (MOA). Literature retrieval was performed through PubMed/MEDLINE (through May 2009) using combinations of the terms diclofenac, NSAID, mechanism of action, COX-1, COX-2, and pharmacology. Reference citations resulting from publications identified in the literature search were reviewed when appropriate. This article reviews the established, putative, and emerging MOAs of diclofenac; compares the drug's pharmacologic and pharmacodynamic properties with other NSAIDs to delineate its potentially unique qualities; hypothesizes why it has been chosen for further recent formulation enhancement; and evaluates the potential effect of its MOA characteristics on safety. Research suggests diclofenac can inhibit the thromboxane-prostanoid receptor, affect arachidonic acid release and uptake, inhibit lipoxygenase enzymes, and activate the nitric oxide-cGMP antinociceptive pathway. Other novel MOAs may include the inhibition of substrate P, inhibition of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), blockage of acid-sensing ion channels, alteration of interleukin-6 production, and inhibition of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor hyperalgesia. The review was not designed to compare MOAs of diclofenac with other NSAIDs. Additionally, as the highlighted putative and emerging MOAs do not have clinical data to demonstrate that these models are

  19. Safety Profile of Meswak Root Extract on Liver, Kidney, Sexual Hormones and Hematological Parameters of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer Y. IBRAHIM

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the safety profile of Salvadora persica (Salvadoraceae aqueous alcoholic root extract by carrying out acute and sub-chronic toxicity assessment in order to find out any side effect of the traditionally using of these root sticks. Regarding to acute toxicity test, mice were administered the extract up to 5 g kg-1, intraperitoneally. Animals were then observed for behavioural changes; signs of toxicity, and mortality within 24 h. Surviving mice were monitored for 7 days for signs of delayed toxicity. In the sub-chronic toxicity test, rats were daily treated with the extract at a dose of 400 mg kg-1 intraperitoneally, for 30 days. At the end of the test period, hematological and biochemical parameters were determined in blood and serum samples with determination of vital organs weights. In the acute toxicity test, the extract was practically non-toxic showing no mortality and visible signs of delayed toxicity. The LD50, given intraperitoneally, was estimated to be 4 g kg-1. Administration of extract (at a dose of 400 mg Kg-1 b.wt. to male and female rats for 30 days did not produce any significant (P < 0.05 effect on hematological and most biochemical parameters also vital organs weights. The root extract showed adverse effects on sexual hormones, by increasing estrogen secretion and reducing testosterone level in male rats. At the same time, the extract reduces progesterone level in female satellite group. Overall, Meswak aqueous extract is safe concerning liver and kidney functions and hematological assessments; however, it induces reversal effect on sexual hormones levels determined in sera.

  20. Study on safety educations against individual causal factors of unsafe acts and specification of target trainees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Ayako; Takeda, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    Many accidents and incidents are caused by unsafe acts. It is important to reduce these unsafe acts for preventing the accidents. The countermeasures for each causal factor behind unsafe acts are needed, however, comparing with improvement of facilities, workers-oriented measures such as safety educations are not sufficient. Then the purposes of this study are as follows: 1) to investigate the individual factors which have great impact of unsafe acts and the existing safety educations which aim to mitigate the impact of these factors, 2) to specify the target trainees to perform these safety educations. To identify common factors that affect unsafe act significantly, a web survey was conducted to 500 workers who have regularly carried out accident prediction training (i.e. Kiken-Yochi training). They were asked the situation which they were apt to act unsafely by free description. As the result, the following three main factors were extracted: impatience, overconfidence, and bothersome. Also, it was found that there were few existing safety educations which aim to mitigate the impact of these factors except for overconfidence. To specify the target trainees to perform safety educations which aim to mitigate the impact of these three factors, another web survey was conducted to 200 personnel in charge of safety at the workplace. They were asked the features of workers who tended to act unsafely by age group. The relationship between the factor that need to mitigate and the trainee who need to receive the education were clarified from the survey. (author)

  1. Workers’ Age and the Impact of Psychological Factors on the Perception of Safety at Construction Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Dawood Idrees

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The safety of construction workers is always a major concern at construction sites as the construction industry is inherently dangerous with many factors influencing worker safety. Several studies concluded that psychological factors such as workload, organizational relationships, mental stress, job security, and job satisfaction have significant effects on workers’ safety. However, research on psychological factors that are characteristic of different age groups have been limited. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of psychological factors on the perception of worker safety for two different age groups. After an extensive literature review, different psychological factors were identified, and a hypothetical research model was developed based on psychological factors that could affect workers’ perception of safety. A survey instrument was developed, and data were collected from seven different construction sites in Pakistan. Structural equation modeling (SEM was employed to test the hypothetical model for both age groups. The results revealed that workload and job satisfaction are significantly dominant factors on workers’ perception of safety in older workers, whereas organizational relationships, mental stress, and job security are dominant factors for younger workers at construction sites.

  2. Profile of coronary heart disease risk factors in first-year university ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is substantial evidence that coronary heart disease risk factors are present in people of all ages. The extent to which the problem exists in university students in South Africa has not been confirmed in the literature and needs further investigation. The aim of the study was to profile the coronary heart disease risk factors ...

  3. Impact of demographic factors on employees perceptions on health and safety management in the Greek Ministries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlopoulou Georgia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate the impact of selected demographic factors on perceptions of office workers regarding the management of health and safety in the office work place. For the data collection it was used a scale validated with a sample of 155 office employees. The final sample of the study was 301 subjects from three large Ministries in the Athens region of Greece, selected randomly. Exploratory factor analysis revealed four factors. A further comparison of the health and safety scale factors toward gender, marital status, working hours, monitoring or not seminars related to workplace safety and involvement or not in accidents in the office revealed that: (a The male employees had more positive perceptions than their female counterparts (t = 2.62, p <0.010. (b Positive perceptions showed and those who had attended seminars on safety and those who were not involved in office accidents (t = 2.16, p <0.032 and t = -2.19, p <0.033, respectively. (c It was also founded that men had more positive perceptions than women in the factor workplace environmental conditions (t = 2.40, p <0.018, while employees who had attended seminars on safety had a higher score on the factor health and safety issues in the office in comparison with their colleagues who did not, (t = 2.17, p <0.031. (d Employees who were involved in office accidents rated higher the questions of the factor health and safety issues in the office (t = -2.52, p <0. 015 and lower the factor workplace environmental conditions (t = -2.07, p = .043. It is concluded that despite the differences in the rating health and safety scale, in relation to selected variables, perceptions of employees regarding the management health and safety in the office work are positive.

  4. Impact of Geotechnical Factors on the Safety of Low Embankment Dams From the Perspective of Technical and Safety Supervision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasana Andrej

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Our research deals with a broad spectrum of problems concerning the variability of geotechnical factors and their influence on the safety of the biggest group of dam constructions in Slovakia, i.e., low earthfill dams. Its specific aim is the observation of their risk factors by using our experience and knowledge gained while working in the sector of technical and safety supervision. To achieve the aims of a research thesis, we analyzed 39 low earthfill dams. We performed observations and documented their conditions with the aim of clarifying the risk factors. After an analysis of the information materials that characterize dams and after a statistical analysis of the measurement results in situ, including measurements from technical and safety supervision databases, we performed an analysis by using mathematical modeling to evaluate the safety of the dam constructions. Out of the total number of 39 dam constructions, an analysis of the stability of the dam slopes was performed on 37 dams, and deformation problems were analyzed on 28 of the dams. Filtration problems were analyzed at 26 dams, and a complete evaluation of the intensity of filtration movements was performed on 19 of the constructions.

  5. Safety climate in university and college laboratories: impact of organizational and individual factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tsung-Chih; Liu, Chi-Wei; Lu, Mu-Chen

    2007-01-01

    Universities and colleges serve to be institutions of education excellence; however, problems in the areas of occupational safety may undermine such goals. Occupational safety must be the concern of every employee in the organization, regardless of job position. Safety climate surveys have been suggested as important tools for measuring the effectiveness and improvement direction of safety programs. Thus, this study aims to investigate the influence of organizational and individual factors on safety climate in university and college laboratories. Employees at 100 universities and colleges in Taiwan were mailed a self-administered questionnaire survey; the response rate was 78%. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed that organizational category of ownership, the presence of a safety manager and safety committee, gender, age, title, accident experience, and safety training significantly affected the climate. Among them, accident experience and safety training affected the climate with practical significance. The authors recommend that managers should address important factors affecting safety issues and then create a positive climate by enforcing continuous improvements.

  6. Inroads into Equestrian Safety: Rider-Reported Factors Contributing to Horse-Related Accidents and Near Misses on Australian Roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kirrilly; Matthews, Chelsea

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Riding horses on roads can be dangerous, but little is known about accidents and near misses. To explore road safety issues amongst Australian equestrians, we conducted an online survey. More than half of all riders (52%) reported having experienced at least one accident or near miss in the 12 months prior to the survey, mostly attributed to speed. Whilst our findings confirmed factors identified overseas, we also identified issues around road rules, hand signals and road rage. This paper suggests strategies for improving the safety of horses, riders and other road users. Abstract Horse riding and horse-related interactions are inherently dangerous. When they occur on public roads, the risk profile of equestrian activities is complicated by interactions with other road users. Research has identified speed, proximity, visibility, conspicuity and mutual misunderstanding as factors contributing to accidents and near misses. However, little is known about their significance or incidence in Australia. To explore road safety issues amongst Australian equestrians, we conducted an online survey. More than half of all riders (52%) reported having experienced at least one accident or near miss in the 12 months prior to the survey. Whilst our findings confirm the factors identified overseas, we also identified issues around rider misunderstanding of road rules and driver misunderstanding of rider hand signals. Of particular concern, we also found reports of potentially dangerous rider-directed road rage. We identify several areas for potential safety intervention including (1) identifying equestrians as vulnerable road users and horses as sentient decision-making vehicles; (2) harmonising laws regarding passing horses; (3) mandating personal protective equipment; (4) improving road signage; (5) comprehensive data collection; (6) developing mutual understanding amongst road-users; (7) safer road design and alternative riding spaces; and (8) increasing investment

  7. Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    A brief account of activities carried out by the Nuclear power plants Jaslovske Bohunice in 1997 is presented. These activities are reported under the headings: (1) Nuclear safety; (2) Industrial and health safety; (3) Radiation safety; and Fire protection

  8. The importance of Pharmacovigilance for the drug safety: Focus on cardiovascular profile of incretin-based therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sportiello, Liberata; Rafaniello, Concetta; Scavone, Cristina; Vitale, Cristiana; Rossi, Francesco; Capuano, Annalisa

    2016-01-01

    With the recent introduction of the new European Pharmacovigilance legislation, all new drugs must be carefully monitored after admission on the European market, in order to assess the long safety profile. Currently, special attention is given to several hypoglycemic agents with recent market approval (agonists of glucagon-like peptide-1 [GLP-1] receptor and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors [DPP-4i]), which act through the potentiation of incretin hormone signaling. Their inclusion in European additional monitoring is also due to safety problems, which seem to characterize their pharmacological class. In fact, these drugs initially showed a good tolerability profile with mainly gastrointestinal adverse events, low risk of hypoglycemia and minor effects on body weight. But, new concerns such as infections, pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer and above all cardiovascular events (especially risk of heart failure requiring hospitalization) are now arising. In this review, we highlighted aspects of the new Pharmacovigilance European dispositions, and then we investigated the tolerability profile of incretin-based therapies, in particular DPP-4 inhibitors. Notably, we focused our attention on new safety concerns, which are emerging mostly in the post-marketing period, as the cardiovascular risk profile. Evidence in literature and opinions of regulatory agencies (e.g., European Medicines Agency and Food and Drug Administration) about risks of incretin-based therapies are yet controversial, and there are many open questions in particular on cancer and cardiovascular effects. Thus, it is important to continue to monitor closely the use of these drugs in clinical practice to improve the knowledge on their long-term safety and their place in diabetes therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Verification of Overall Safety Factors In Deterministic Design Of Model Tested Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.

    2001-01-01

    The paper deals with concepts of safety implementation in design. An overall safety factor concept is evaluated on the basis of a reliability analysis of a model tested rubble mound breakwater with monolithic super structure. Also discussed are design load identification and failure mode limit...

  10. An Analysis of Trainers' Perspectives within an Ecological Framework: Factors that Influence Mine Safety Training Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily J. Haas

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: This study offers a new technique to identify limitations in safety training systems and processes. The analysis suggests that training should be developed and disseminated with consideration of various levels—individual, interpersonal, organizational, and community—to promote skills. If factors identified within and between levels are addressed, it may be easier to sustain mineworker competencies that are established during safety training.

  11. Modeling the factors affecting unsafe behavior in the construction industry from safety supervisors' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, Yahya; Asilian-Mahabadi, Hassan; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim; Hassanzadeh-Rangi, Narmin; Bastani, Hamid; Khavanin, Ali; Mortazavi, Seyed Bagher

    2014-01-01

    There can be little doubt that the construction is the most hazardous industry in the worldwide. This study was designed to modeling the factors affecting unsafe behavior from the perspective of safety supervisors. The qualitative research was conducted to extract a conceptual model. A structural model was then developed based on a questionnaire survey (n=266) by two stage Structural Equation Model (SEM) approach. An excellent confirmed 12-factors structure explained about 62% of variances unsafe behavior in the construction industry. A good fit structural model indicated that safety climate factors were positively correlated with safety individual factors (Pconstruction workers' engagement in safe or unsafe behavior. In order to improve construction safety performance, more focus on the workplace condition is required.

  12. Safety profile of solid lipid nanoparticles loaded with rosmarinic acid for oral use: in vitro and animal approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madureira, Ana Raquel; Nunes, Sara; Campos, Débora A; Fernandes, João C; Marques, Cláudia; Zuzarte, Monica; Gullón, Beatriz; Rodríguez-Alcalá, Luís M; Calhau, Conceição; Sarmento, Bruno; Gomes, Ana Maria; Pintado, Maria Manuela; Reis, Flávio

    2016-01-01

    Rosmarinic acid (RA) possesses several protective bioactivities that have attracted increasing interest by nutraceutical/pharmaceutical industries. Considering the reduced bioavailability after oral use, effective (and safe) delivery systems are crucial to protect RA from gastrointestinal degradation. This study aims to characterize the safety profile of solid lipid nanoparticles produced with Witepsol and Carnauba waxes and loaded with RA, using in vitro and in vivo approaches, focused on genotoxicity and cytotoxicity assays, redox status markers, hematological and biochemical profile, liver and kidney function, gut bacterial microbiota, and fecal fatty acids composition. Free RA and sage extract, empty nanoparticles, or nanoparticles loaded with RA or sage extract (0.15 and 1.5 mg/mL) were evaluated for cell (lymphocytes) viability, necrosis and apoptosis, and antioxidant/prooxidant effects upon DNA. Wistar rats were orally treated for 14 days with vehicle (control) and with Witepsol or Carnauba nanoparticles loaded with RA at 1 and 10 mg/kg body weight/d. Blood, urine, feces, and several tissues were collected for analysis. Free and loaded RA, at 0.15 mg/mL, presented a safe profile, while genotoxic potential was found for the higher dose (1.5 mg/mL), mainly by necrosis. Our data suggest that both types of nanoparticles are safe when loaded with moderate concentrations of RA, without in vitro genotoxicity and cytotoxicity and with an in vivo safety profile in rats orally treated, thus opening new avenues for use in nutraceutical applications.

  13. The Effects of Occupational Health and Safety Risk Factors on Job Satisfaction in Hotel Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Gonca Kilic; Murat Selim Selvi

    2009-01-01

    Occupational health and safety risk factors can have direct or indirect effects on levels of organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and the job productivity of workers in service companies as well as other types of industries. In this paper, the effects of physical, biological, chemical and socio-psychological risk factors, related to occupational safety and health, encountered in hotel enterprises on job satisfaction were investigated. Questionnaire survey was conducted as a data colle...

  14. Patient safety in the operating room: an intervention study on latent risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Beuzekom Martie

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient safety is one of the greatest challenges in healthcare. In the operating room errors are frequent and often consequential. This article describes an approach to a successful implementation of a patient safety program in the operating room, focussing on latent risk factors that influence patient safety. We performed an intervention to improve these latent risk factors (LRFs and increase awareness of patient safety issues amongst OR staff. Methods Latent risk factors were studied using a validated questionnaire applied to the OR staff before and after an intervention. A pre-test/post-test control group design with repeated measures was used to evaluate the effects of the interventions. The staff from one operating room of an university hospital acted as the intervention group. Controls consisted of the staff of the operating room in another university hospital. The outcomes were the changes in LRF scores, perceived incident rate, and changes in incident reports between pre- and post-intervention. Results Based on pre-test scores and participants’ key concerns about organizational factors affecting patient safety in their department the intervention focused on the following LRFs: Material Resources, Training and Staffing Recourses. After the intervention, the intervention operating room - compared to the control operating room - reported significantly fewer problems on Material Resources and Staffing Resources and a significantly lower score on perceived incident rate. The contribution of technical factors to incident causation decreased significantly in the intervention group after the intervention. Conclusion The change of state of latent risk factors can be measured using a patient safety questionnaire aimed at these factors. The change of the relevant risk factors (Material and Staffing resources concurred with a decrease in perceived and reported incident rates in the relevant categories. We conclude that

  15. Key Factors Affecting Construction Safety Performance in Developing Countries: Evidence from Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Durdyev

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Although proper safety management in construction is of utmost importance; anecdotal evidence suggests that safety is not adequately considered in many developing countries. This paper considers the key variables affecting construction safety performance in Cambodia. Using an empirical questionnaire survey targeting local construction professionals, respondents were invited to rate the level of importance of 30 variables identified from the seminal literature. The data set was subjected to factor analysis. Correlations between the variables show that five key factors underlie the challenges facing the local industry; management and organisation, resources, site management, cosmetic and workforce. It is found that the forefront construction professionals (top management and government authorities should take more responsibilities for further improvements in safety performance on project sites. Findings and recommendations of this study may be useful to construction professional who are seeking ways to improve safety records in developing countries.

  16. Factors associated with the enactment of safety belt and motorcycle helmet laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Teik Hua; Noland, Robert B; Evans, Andrew W

    2013-07-01

    It has been shown that road safety laws, such as motorcycle helmet and safety belt laws, have a significant effect in reducing road fatalities. Although an expanding body of literature has documented the effects of these laws on road safety, it remains unclear which factors influence the likelihood that these laws are enacted. This study attempts to identify the factors that influence the decision to enact safety belt and motorcycle helmet laws. Using panel data from 31 countries between 1963 and 2002, our results reveal that increased democracy, education level, per capita income, political stability, and more equitable income distribution within a country are associated with the enactment of road safety laws. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  17. Integrated approach to knowledge acquisition and safety management of complex plants with emphasis on human factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosmowski, K.T.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper an integrated approach to the knowledge acquisition and safety management of complex industrial plants is proposed and outlined. The plant is considered within a man-technology-environment (MTE) system. The knowledge acquisition is aimed at the consequent reliability evaluation of human factor and probabilistic modeling of the plant. Properly structured initial knowledge is updated in life-time of the plant. The data and knowledge concerning the topology of safety related systems and their functions are created in a graphical CAD system and are object oriented. Safety oriented monitoring of the plant includes abnormal situations due to external and internal disturbances, failures of hard/software components and failures of human factor. The operation and safety related evidence is accumulated in special data bases. Data/knowledge bases are designed in such a way to support effectively the reliability and safety management of the plant. (author)

  18. JAK Inhibitors: Treatment Efficacy and Safety Profile in Patients with Psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leeyen Hsu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Janus kinase (JAK pathways are key mediators in the immunopathogenesis of psoriasis. Psoriasis treatment has evolved with the advent of targeted therapies, which inhibit specific components of the psoriasis proinflammatory cascade. JAK inhibitors have been studied in early phase trials for psoriasis patients, and the data are promising for these agents as potential treatment options. Tofacitinib, an oral or topically administered JAK1 and JAK3 inhibitor, and ruxolitinib, a topical JAK1 and JAK2 inhibitor, have been most extensively studied in psoriasis, and both improved clinical symptoms of psoriasis. Additional JAK1 or JAK3 inhibitors are being studied in clinical trials. In phase III trials for rheumatoid arthritis, tofacitinib was efficacious in patients with inadequate responses to tumor necrosis factor inhibitors, methotrexate monotherapy, or disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs. The results of phase III trials are pending for these therapies in psoriasis, and these agents may represent important alternatives for patients with inadequate responses to currently available agents. Further investigations with long-term clinical trials are necessary to verify their utility in psoriasis treatment and assess their safety in this patient population.

  19. Development of a draft of human factors safety review procedures for the Korean next generation reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Moon, B. S.; Park, J. C.; Lee, Y. H.; Oh, I. S.; Lee, H. C. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-02-01

    In this study, a draft of human factors engineering (HFE) safety review procedures (SRP) was developed for the safety review of KNGR based on HFE Safety and Regulatory Requirements and Guidelines (SRRG). This draft includes acceptance criteria, review procedure, and evaluation findings for the areas of review including HFE Program Management, Human Factors Analyses, Human Factors Design, and HFE Verification and Validation, based on Section 15.1 'Human Factors Engineering Design Process' and 15.2 'Control Room Human Factors Engineering' of KNGR Specific Safety Requirements and Chapter 15 'Human Factors Engineering' of KNGR Safety Regulatory Guides. For the effective review, human factors concerns or issues related to advanced HSI design that have been reported so far should be extensively examined. In this study, a total of 384 human factors issues related to the advanced HSI design were collected through our review of a total of 145 documents. A summary of each issue was described and the issues were identified by specific features of HSI design. These results were implemented into a database system. 8 refs., 2 figs. (Author)

  20. Development of a draft of human factors safety review procedures for the Korean Next Generation Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Moon, B. S.; Park, J. C.; Lee, Y. H.; Oh, I. S.; Lee, H. C.

    2000-02-01

    In this study, a draft of Human Factors Engineering (HFE) Safety Review Procedures (SRP) was developed for the safety review of KNGR based on HFE Safety and Regulatory Requirements and Guidelines (SRRG). This draft includes acceptance criteria, review procedure, and evaluation findings for the areas of review including HFE program management, human factors analyses, human factors design, and HFE verification and validation, based on section 15.1 'human factors engineering design process' and 15.2 'control room human factors engineering' of KNGR specific safety requirements and chapter 15 'human factors engineering' of KNGR safety regulatory guides. For the effective review, human factors concerns or issues related to advanced HSI design that have been reported so far should be extensively examined. In this study, a total of 384 human factors issues related to the advanced HSI design were collected through our review of a total of 145 documents. A summary of each issue was described and the issues were identified by specific features of HSI design. These results were implemented into a database system

  1. Human factors and systems engineering approach to patient safety for radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, A Joy; Karsh, Ben-Tzion

    2008-01-01

    The traditional approach to solving patient safety problems in healthcare is to blame the last person to touch the patient. But since the publication of To Err is Human, the call has been instead to use human factors and systems engineering methods and principles to solve patient safety problems. However, an understanding of the human factors and systems engineering is lacking, and confusion remains about what it means to apply their principles. This paper provides a primer on them and their applications to patient safety.

  2. Human Factors and Systems Engineering Approach to Patient Safety for Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, A. Joy; Karsh, Ben-Tzion

    2008-01-01

    The traditional approach to solving patient safety problems in healthcare is to blame the last person to touch the patient. But since the publication of To Err is Human, the call has been instead to use human factors and systems engineering methods and principles to solve patient safety problems. However, an understanding of the human factors and systems engineering is lacking, and confusion remains about what it means to apply their principles. This paper provides a primer on them and their applications to patient safety

  3. Investigating risk and protective factors to mainstream safety and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    studies investigate manifest risk and protective factors within South African universities. ... More importantly, many of these students and staff personally .... more than half of the students could not operate the fire equipment, rendering the fire ...

  4. Application of factor analysis in psychological diagnostics (sample: study of students’ social safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Aleksandrovich Kislyakov

    2015-10-01

    Our recommendations for the use of factor analysis, with necessary restrictions and clear reasons of a possible ambiguity of solutions, will be useful to everyone interested in mastering an adequate mathematical tool for solving problems pertaining to the humanities, in particular, those of practical psychology. As a practical example is presented the research of the psychological factors which provide students’ social safety. With the help of the factor analysis relevant personal and professional qualities of a teacher were revealed which are the subjective factors of students’ social safety, namely: social anticipation, socio-psychological stress resistance, social tolerance, professional orientation, responsibility, communication skills.

  5. Modelling of Safety Factors in the Design of GRP Composite Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babu, B.J.C.; Prabhakaran, R.T. Durai; Lystrup, Aage

    2010-01-01

    as independent, while in real applications these factors may interact/influence each other. Following the concept developed by the authors, a simple graph theoretic model has been used to determine overall factor of safety. This is described with the help of an example and it has been demonstrated......An attempt has been made in this paper to arrive at the safety factor design of glass fibre reinforced polymer (GRP) composite products using graph theoretic model. In the conventional design and recommendations of the standards, these design factors affecting properties have been considered...

  6. Inroads into Equestrian Safety: Rider-Reported Factors Contributing to Horse-Related Accidents and Near Misses on Australian Roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirrilly Thompson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Horse riding and horse-related interactions are inherently dangerous. When they occur on public roads, the risk profile of equestrian activities is complicated by interactions with other road users. Research has identified speed, proximity, visibility, conspicuity and mutual misunderstanding as factors contributing to accidents and near misses. However, little is known about their significance or incidence in Australia. To explore road safety issues amongst Australian equestrians, we conducted an online survey. More than half of all riders (52% reported having experienced at least one accident or near miss in the 12 months prior to the survey. Whilst our findings confirm the factors identified overseas, we also identified issues around rider misunderstanding of road rules and driver misunderstanding of rider hand signals. Of particular concern, we also found reports of potentially dangerous rider-directed road rage. We identify several areas for potential safety intervention including (1 identifying equestrians as vulnerable road users and horses as sentient decision-making vehicles (2 harmonising laws regarding passing horses, (3 mandating personal protective equipment, (4 improving road signage, (5 comprehensive data collection, (6 developing mutual understanding amongst road-users, (7 safer road design and alternative riding spaces; and (8 increasing investment in horse-related safety initiatives.

  7. Inroads into Equestrian Safety: Rider-Reported Factors Contributing to Horse-Related Accidents and Near Misses on Australian Roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kirrilly; Matthews, Chelsea

    2015-07-22

    Horse riding and horse-related interactions are inherently dangerous. When they occur on public roads, the risk profile of equestrian activities is complicated by interactions with other road users. Research has identified speed, proximity, visibility, conspicuity and mutual misunderstanding as factors contributing to accidents and near misses. However, little is known about their significance or incidence in Australia. To explore road safety issues amongst Australian equestrians, we conducted an online survey. More than half of all riders (52%) reported having experienced at least one accident or near miss in the 12 months prior to the survey. Whilst our findings confirm the factors identified overseas, we also identified issues around rider misunderstanding of road rules and driver misunderstanding of rider hand signals. Of particular concern, we also found reports of potentially dangerous rider-directed road rage. We identify several areas for potential safety intervention including (1) identifying equestrians as vulnerable road users and horses as sentient decision-making vehicles (2) harmonising laws regarding passing horses, (3) mandating personal protective equipment, (4) improving road signage, (5) comprehensive data collection, (6) developing mutual understanding amongst road-users, (7) safer road design and alternative riding spaces; and (8) increasing investment in horse-related safety initiatives.

  8. Safety profile and long-term engraftment of human CD31+ blood progenitors in bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zigdon-Giladi, Hadar; Elimelech, Rina; Michaeli-Geller, Gal; Rudich, Utai; Machtei, Eli E

    2017-07-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) participate in angiogenesis and induce favorable micro-environments for tissue regeneration. The efficacy of EPCs in regenerative medicine is extensively studied; however, their safety profile remains unknown. Therefore, our aims were to evaluate the safety profile of human peripheral blood-derived EPCs (hEPCs) and to assess the long-term efficacy of hEPCs in bone tissue engineering. hEPCs were isolated from peripheral blood, cultured and characterized. β tricalcium phosphate scaffold (βTCP, control) or 10 6 hEPCs loaded onto βTCP were transplanted in a nude rat calvaria model. New bone formation and blood vessel density were analyzed using histomorphometry and micro-computed tomography (CT). Safety of hEPCs using karyotype analysis, tumorigenecity and biodistribution to target organs was evaluated. On the cellular level, hEPCs retained their karyotype during cell expansion (seven passages). Five months following local hEPC transplantation, on the tissue and organ level, no inflammatory reaction or dysplastic change was evident at the transplanted site or in distant organs. Direct engraftment was evident as CD31 human antigens were detected lining vessel walls in the transplanted site. In distant organs human antigens were absent, negating biodistribution. Bone area fraction and bone height were doubled by hEPC transplantation without affecting mineral density and bone architecture. Additionally, local transplantation of hEPCs increased blood vessel density by nine-fold. Local transplantation of hEPCs showed a positive safety profile. Furthermore, enhanced angiogenesis and osteogenesis without mineral density change was found. These results bring us one step closer to first-in-human trials using hEPCs for bone regeneration. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.M.S.

    1987-01-01

    Aspects of fission reactors are considered - control, heat removal and containment. Brief descriptions of the reactor accidents at the SL-1 reactor (1961), Windscale (1957), Browns Ferry (1975), Three Mile Island (1979) and Chernobyl (1986) are given. The idea of inherently safe reactor designs is discussed. Safety assessment is considered under the headings of preliminary hazard analysis, failure mode analysis, event trees, fault trees, common mode failure and probabalistic risk assessments. These latter can result in a series of risk distributions linked to specific groups of fault sequences and specific consequences. A frequency-consequence diagram is shown. Fatal accident incidence rates in different countries including the United Kingdom for various industries are quoted. The incidence of fatal cancers from occupational exposure to chemicals is tabulated. Human factors and the acceptability of risk are considered. (U.K.)

  10. Food safety knowledge and practices of abattoir and butchery shops and the microbial profile of meat in Mekelle City, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haileselassie, Mekonnen; Taddele, Habtamu; Adhana, Kelali; Kalayou, Shewit

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the food safety knowledge and practices in meat handling, and to determine microbial load and pathogenic organisms in meat at Mekelle city. Methods A descriptive survey design was used to answer questions concerning the current status of food hygiene and sanitation practiced in the abattoir and butcher shops. Workers from the abattoir and butcher shops were interviewed through a structured questionnaire to assess their food safety knowledge. Bacterial load was assessed by serial dilution method and the major bacterial pathogens were isolated by using standard procedures. Results 15.4% of the abattoir workers had no health certificate and there was no hot water, sterilizer and cooling facility in the abattoir. 11.3% of the butchers didn't use protective clothes. There was a food safety knowledge gap within the abattoir and butcher shop workers. The mean values of bacterial load of abattoir meat, butcher shops and street meat sale was found to be 1.1×105, 5.6×105 and 4.3×106 cfu/g, respectively. The major bacterial pathogens isolated were Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. Conclusions The study revealed that there is a reasonable gap on food safety knowledge by abattoir and butcher shop workers. The microbial profile was also higher compared to standards set by World Health Organization. Due attention should be given by the government to improve the food safety knowledge and the quality standard of meat sold in the city. PMID:23646306

  11. Identifying the Critical Factors Affecting Safety Program Performance for Construction Projects within Pakistan Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubair Ahmed Memon

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have shown that the construction industry one of the most hazardous industries with its high rates of fatalities and injuries and high financial losses incurred through work related accident. To reduce or overcome the safety issues on construction sites, different safety programs are introduced by construction firms. A questionnaire survey study was conducted to highlight the influence of the Construction Safety Factors on safety program implementation. The input from the questionnaire survey was analyzed by using AIM (Average Index Method and rank correlation test was conducted between different groups of respondents to measure the association between different groups of respondent. The finding of this study highlighted that management support is the critical factor for implementing the safety program on projects. From statistical test, it is concluded that all respondent groups were strongly in the favor of management support factor as CSF (Critical Success Factor. The findings of this study were validated on selected case studies. Results of the case studies will help to know the effect of the factors on implementing safety programs during the execution stage.

  12. Safety and accessibility in use: risk factors and their determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Laurìa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Accidents that occur in built spaces represent the result of the interaction of several factors. Some of these factors are attributable to the characteristics of the environment, others depend on the user and the ways in which the environment is used. The multifactorial nature of accidents explains why sectorial approaches represent a significant obstacle to the implementation of effective policies and intervention strategies for creating safer and more usable environments. The subject of this essay, that pays special attention to residential scenarios, is the description and classification of risk factors, that is, those environmental circumstances as well as individual and behavioural conditions that increase the frequency and / or magnitude of an accident. The article highlights the need for a comprehensive view of accidents as a cultural condition for an inclusive and safe design (technical prevention and effective information campaigns aimed at users (prevention in use.

  13. Appreciating Complexity in Adolescent Self-Harm Risk Factors: Psychological Profiling in a Longitudinal Community Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Sarah; Jones, Michael P; Hudson, Jennifer L

    2018-05-01

    Past research identifies a number of risk factors for adolescent self-harm, but often fails to account for overlap between these factors. This study investigated the underlying, broader concepts by identifying different psychological profiles among adolescents. We then compared new self-harm rates over a six-month period across different psychological profiles. Australian high school students (n = 326, 68.1% female) completed a questionnaire including a broad range of psychological and socioenvironmental risk and protective factors. Non-hierarchical cluster analysis produced six groups with different psychological profiles at baseline and rate of new self-harm at follow-up. The lowest rate was 1.4% in a group that appeared psychologically healthy; the highest rate was 37.5% in a group that displayed numerous psychological difficulties. Four groups with average self-harm had varied psychological profiles including low impulsivity, anxiety, impulsivity, and poor use of positive coping strategies. Identifying multiple profiles with distinct psychological characteristics can improve detection, guide prevention, and tailor treatment.

  14. Correction of X-ray diffraction profiles in linear-type PSPC by position factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Toshio

    1992-01-01

    PSPC (Position Sensitive Proportional Counter) makes it possible to obtain one-dimentional diffraction profiles without mechanical scanning. In a linear-type PSPC, the obtained profiles need correcting, because the position factor influences the intensity of the diffracted X-ray beam and the counting rate at each position on PSPC. The distances from the specimen are not the same at the center and at the edge of the detector, and the intensity decreases at the edge because of radiation and absorption. The counting rate varies with the incident angle of the diffracted beam at each position on PSPC. The position factor f i at channel i of the multichannel-analyser is given by f i = cos 4 α i ·exp{-μR(1/cosα i -1)} where R is the distance between the specimen and the center of PSPC, μ is the linear absorption coefficient and α i is the incident angle of the diffracted beam at channel i. The background profiles of silica gel powder were measured with CrKα and CuKα. The parameters of the model function were fitted to the profiles by the non-linear least squares method. The agreement between these parameters and the calculated values shows that the position factor can correct the measured profiles properly. (author)

  15. On applying safety archetypes to the Fukushima accident to identify nonlinear influencing factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, A.L., E-mail: alsousa@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ribeiro, A.C.O., E-mail: antonio.ribeiro@bayer.com [Bayer Crop Science Brasil S.A., Belford Roxo, RJ (Brazil); Duarte, J.P., E-mail: julianapduarte@poli.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Frutuoso e Melo, P.F., E-mail: frutuoso@nuclear.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COOPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2013-07-01

    Nuclear power plants are typically characterized as high reliable organizations. In other words, they are organizations defined as relatively error free over a long period of time. Another relevant characteristic of the nuclear industry is that safety efforts are credited to design. However, major accidents, like the Fukushima accident, have shown that new tools are needed to identify latent deficiencies and help improve their safety level. Safety archetypes proposed elsewhere (e. g., safety issues stalled in the face of technological advances and eroding safety) consonant with International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) efforts are used to examine different aspects of accidents in a systemic perspective of the interaction between individuals, technology and organizational factors. Safety archetypes can help consider nonlinear interactions. Effects are rarely proportional to causes and what happens locally in a system (near the current operating point) often does not apply to distant regions (other system states), so that one has to consider the so-called nonlinear interactions. This is the case, for instance, with human probability failure estimates and safety level identification. In this paper, we discuss the Fukushima accident in order to show how archetypes can highlight nonlinear interactions of factors that influenced it and how to maintain safety levels in order to prevent other accidents. The initial evaluation of the set of archetypes suggested in the literature showed that at least four of them are applicable to the Fukushima accident, as is inferred from official reports on the accident. These are: complacency (that is, the effects of complacency on safety), decreased safety awareness, fixing on symptoms and not the real causes and eroding safety. (author)

  16. On applying safety archetypes to the Fukushima accident to identify nonlinear influencing factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, A.L.; Ribeiro, A.C.O.; Duarte, J.P.; Frutuoso e Melo, P.F.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear power plants are typically characterized as high reliable organizations. In other words, they are organizations defined as relatively error free over a long period of time. Another relevant characteristic of the nuclear industry is that safety efforts are credited to design. However, major accidents, like the Fukushima accident, have shown that new tools are needed to identify latent deficiencies and help improve their safety level. Safety archetypes proposed elsewhere (e. g., safety issues stalled in the face of technological advances and eroding safety) consonant with International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) efforts are used to examine different aspects of accidents in a systemic perspective of the interaction between individuals, technology and organizational factors. Safety archetypes can help consider nonlinear interactions. Effects are rarely proportional to causes and what happens locally in a system (near the current operating point) often does not apply to distant regions (other system states), so that one has to consider the so-called nonlinear interactions. This is the case, for instance, with human probability failure estimates and safety level identification. In this paper, we discuss the Fukushima accident in order to show how archetypes can highlight nonlinear interactions of factors that influenced it and how to maintain safety levels in order to prevent other accidents. The initial evaluation of the set of archetypes suggested in the literature showed that at least four of them are applicable to the Fukushima accident, as is inferred from official reports on the accident. These are: complacency (that is, the effects of complacency on safety), decreased safety awareness, fixing on symptoms and not the real causes and eroding safety. (author)

  17. Relationship between organizational factors, safety culture and PSA in nuclear power plant operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joksimovich, V.; Orvis, D.D.

    1997-01-01

    There are four nuclear safety imperatives or ''4Ms'': machine (hardware, design, QA/QC), milieux (operating conditions, environment, natural phenomena), man (human reliability) and management (organizational and management influences). Nuclear safety evaluations as well as evolution of its most powerful tool, Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA), followed chronologically the 4M constituents. The nuclear industry worldwide, and the nuclear safety regulators in particular, have been preoccupied with the first M almost to the point of obsession with belated and only intuitive interest in the third and fourth M (human dimension). Human factors or economics in the nuclear industry was an afterthought. Human reliability was essentially born in the aftermath of the Three Mile Island (TMI) accident. Impact of organizational factors on nuclear safety is only in the early stages of R and D. This paper describes some of the concepts being pursued by APG to link organizational factors and safety culture to Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) and to integrate such into probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), e.g. [APG, 1993]. (author). 11 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  18. Safety assessment of genetically modified rice expressing human serum albumin from urine metabonomics and fecal bacterial profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xiaozhe; Chen, Siyuan; Sheng, Yao; Guo, Mingzhang; Liu, Yifei; He, Xiaoyun; Huang, Kunlun; Xu, Wentao

    2015-02-01

    The genetically modified (GM) rice expressing human serum albumin (HSA) is used for non-food purposes; however, its food safety assessment should be conducted due to the probability of accidental mixture with conventional food. In this research, Sprague Dawley rats were fed diets containing 50% (wt/wt) GM rice expressing HSA or non-GM rice for 90 days. Urine metabolites were detected by (1)H NMR to examine the changes of the metabolites in the dynamic process of metabolism. Fecal bacterial profiles were detected by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis to reflect intestinal health. Additionally, short chain fatty acids and fecal enzymes were investigated. The results showed that compared with rats fed the non-GM rice, some significant differences were observed in rats fed with the GM rice; however, these changes were not significantly different from the control diet group. Additionally, the gut microbiota was associated with blood indexes and urine metabolites. In conclusion, the GM rice diet is as safe as the traditional daily diet. Furthermore, urine metabonomics and fecal bacterial profiles provide a non-invasive food safety assessment rat model for genetically modified crops that are used for non-food/feed purposes. Fecal bacterial profiles have the potential for predicting the change of blood indexes in future. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Preadipocyte factor-1 is associated with metabolic profile in severe obesity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connell, J

    2011-04-01

    Dysfunctional adipose tissue has been proposed as a key pathological process linking obesity and metabolic disease. Preadipocyte factor-1 (Pref-1) has been shown to inhibit differentiation in adipocyte precursor cells and could thereby play a role in determining adipocyte size, adipose tissue functioning, and metabolic profile in obese individuals.

  20. Emissions from laboratory combustion of wildland fuels: Emission factors and source profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    L.-W. Anthony Chen; Hans Moosmuller; W. Patrick Arnott; Judith C. Chow; John G. Watson; Ronald A. Susott; Ronald E. Babbitt; Cyle E. Wold; Emily N. Lincoln; Wei Min Hao

    2007-01-01

    Combustion of wildland fuels represents a major source of particulate matter (PM) and light-absorbing elemental carbon (EC) on a national and global scale, but the emission factors and source profiles have not been well characterized with respect to different fuels and combustion phases. These uncertainties limit the accuracy of current emission inventories, smoke...

  1. Risk Factors Profile of Shoulder Dystocia in Oman: A Case Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Maha M. Al-Khaduri; Rania Mohammed Abudraz; Sayed G. Rizvi; Yahya M. Al-Farsi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to assess the risk factor profile of shoulder dystocia and associated neonatal complications in Oman, a developing Arab country. Methods: A retrospective case-control study was conducted among 111 cases with dystocia and 111 controls, identified during 1994-2006 period in a tertiary care hospital in Oman. Controls were randomly selected among women who did not have dystocia, and were matched to cases on the day of delivery. Data related to potential risk factor...

  2. Partial safety factors for berthing velocity and loads on marine structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roubos, A.A.; Peters, D.J.; Groenewegen, Leon; Steenbergen, R.

    2018-01-01

    Design methods for marine structures have evolved into load and resistance factor design, however existing partial safety factors related to berthing velocity and loads have not been verified and validated by measurement campaigns. In this study, field observations of modern seagoing vessels

  3. Gadobutrol for contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in elderly patients: review of the safety profile from clinical trial, post-marketing surveillance, and pharmacovigilance data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endrikat, J; Schwenke, C; Prince, M R

    2015-07-01

    To assess the safety of gadobutrol administration in elderly patients (≥65 years) by comparing the incidence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) following gadobutrol-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) procedures in elderly patients with that in adults aged 18-64 years. Safety data on gadobutrol administration from clinical trials, post-marketing surveillance (PMS) studies, and pharmacovigilance reports were collected in three databases. In each dataset, absolute and relative frequencies of ADRs between age groups were analysed, along with odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Logistic regression was used to identify significant influencing factors on ADRs in the PMS and pharmacovigilance data. Rates of reported ADRs were lower in elderly patients versus adults aged statistically significant for the clinical trials and pharmacovigilance populations, with a trend in the PMS database. Serious ADRs occurred infrequently in the clinical trials and PMS populations (too low for statistical comparison), and pharmacovigilance data demonstrated a low incidence (<0.005%) in both age groups. This evaluation involving three large databases demonstrated no greater incidence of ADRs following gadobutrol-enhanced MRI in elderly patients (≥65 years) compared with younger adults, with gadobutrol having a favourable safety profile in both age groups. Copyright © 2015 The Royal College of Radiologists. All rights reserved.

  4. ASSESSMENT OF RELATED ANAMNESTIC AND CLINICAL FACTORS ON EFFICACY AND SAFETY OF ANTI-HELICOBACTER PYLORI THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Andreev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of a prospective clinical study in which 100 patients with H. pylori-associated peptic ulcer disease of stomach/duodenum were examined. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of concomitant anamnestic and clinical factors on the efficacy and safety of eradication therapy (ET. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a factor that significantly reduces the efficiency of ET with OR 0.21 (95% CI 0,06-0,69, p = 0,0102. Using a macrolide antibiotics prior to ET during the previous 12 months is associated with a reduction in the effectiveness of H. pylori eradication with OR 0.27 (95% CI 0,08-0,90, p = 0,0342. Despite the lack of statistical significance observed negative effect on the efficiency of ET factors such as smoking and increased BMI. Smoking, female gender, age over 50 years and the presence of type 2 diabetes mellitus had no significant impact on the safety profile of ET. 

  5. Factors Affecting the Behavior of Engineering Students toward Safety Practices in the Machine Shop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie Kristian M. Neria

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the factors that affect the behavior of engineering student toward safety practices in the machine shop. Descriptive type of research was utilized in the study. Results showed that most of the engineering students clearly understand the signage shown in the machine shop. Students are aware that they should not leave the machines unattended. Most of the engineering students handle and use the machine properly. The respondents have an average extent of safety practices in the machine shop which means that they are applying safety practices in their every activity in machine shop. There is strong relationship between the safety practices and the factors affecting behavior in terms of signage, reminder of teacher and rules and regulation.

  6. Probabilistic safety assessment model in consideration of human factors based on object-oriented bayesian networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Zhongbao; Zhou Jinglun; Sun Quan

    2007-01-01

    Effect of Human factors on system safety is increasingly serious, which is often ignored in traditional probabilistic safety assessment methods however. A new probabilistic safety assessment model based on object-oriented Bayesian networks is proposed in this paper. Human factors are integrated into the existed event sequence diagrams. Then the classes of the object-oriented Bayesian networks are constructed which are converted to latent Bayesian networks for inference. Finally, the inference results are integrated into event sequence diagrams for probabilistic safety assessment. The new method is applied to the accident of loss of coolant in a nuclear power plant. the results show that the model is not only applicable to real-time situation assessment, but also applicable to situation assessment based certain amount of information. The modeling complexity is kept down and the new method is appropriate to large complex systems due to the thoughts of object-oriented. (authors)

  7. JASPAR 2010: the greatly expanded open-access database of transcription factor binding profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portales-Casamar, Elodie; Thongjuea, Supat; Kwon, Andrew T.; Arenillas, David; Zhao, Xiaobei; Valen, Eivind; Yusuf, Dimas; Lenhard, Boris; Wasserman, Wyeth W.; Sandelin, Albin

    2010-01-01

    JASPAR (http://jaspar.genereg.net) is the leading open-access database of matrix profiles describing the DNA-binding patterns of transcription factors (TFs) and other proteins interacting with DNA in a sequence-specific manner. Its fourth major release is the largest expansion of the core database to date: the database now holds 457 non-redundant, curated profiles. The new entries include the first batch of profiles derived from ChIP-seq and ChIP-chip whole-genome binding experiments, and 177 yeast TF binding profiles. The introduction of a yeast division brings the convenience of JASPAR to an active research community. As binding models are refined by newer data, the JASPAR database now uses versioning of matrices: in this release, 12% of the older models were updated to improved versions. Classification of TF families has been improved by adopting a new DNA-binding domain nomenclature. A curated catalog of mammalian TFs is provided, extending the use of the JASPAR profiles to additional TFs belonging to the same structural family. The changes in the database set the system ready for more rapid acquisition of new high-throughput data sources. Additionally, three new special collections provide matrix profile data produced by recent alternative high-throughput approaches. PMID:19906716

  8. Innovations as a Factor for Ensuring Economic Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim SANDU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In modern conditions of development of the competitive environment, one of the main ways to solve economic, social and environmental problems is to use the latest achievements of science and technology. Each enterprise seeks to ensure that economic growth is intense, i.e. to be a consequence of the application of more sophisticated factors of production and technology. The prerequisite for intensive growth is the use of innovative strategy in the practical activities of enterprises. The end result of innovations is the materialization and industrial development of innovation, the idea of which can be the scientific and technical activity, and marketing research to identify unmet needs. The innovations are an effective defensive reaction of the firm to the emerging threats of losing market place, constant pressure from competitors, the challenge of new technologies, shortening the life of products, legislative restrictions and changing the market situation. In the offensive version, the innovation is a mean of exploiting new opportunities to preserve or gain a competitive advantage. In the long term aspect, the company has no choice but to pursue an innovation policy, which is the only source of lasting success. The main objective of researching the innovation activity of any organization is to ensure competitiveness in market conditions in order to identify risk factors and ways to overcome them.

  9. Identification of road user related risk factors, Deliverable 5.1 of the H2020 project SafetyCube (Safety CaUsation, Benefits and Efficiency).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filtness, A. & Papadimitriou, E. (Eds.) Leskovšek, B. Focant, N. Martensen, H. Sgarra, V. Usami, D.S. Soteropoulos, A. Stadlbauer, S. Theofilatos, A. Yannis, G. Ziakopoulos, A. Diamandouros, K. Durso, C. Goldenbeld, C. Loenis, B. Schermers, G. Petegem, J.-H. van Elvik, R. Hesjevoll, I.S. Quigley, C. & Papazikou, E.

    2017-01-01

    The present Deliverable (D5.1) describes the identification and evaluation of infrastructure related risk factors. It outlines the results of Task 5.1 of WP5 of SafetyCube, which aimed to identify and evaluate infrastructure related risk factors and related road safety problems by (i) presenting a

  10. Human factors experts beginning to focus on organizational factors in safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westrum, R

    1996-10-01

    The role of organizational culture in aviation safety is explored. Information flow is used to demonstrate three ranges of climate within an organization. Organizations may be pathological in which information is hidden, bureaucratic in which information is ignored, or generative in which information is actively sought. The effects of organizational change on personnel are explored with emphasis on mergers between air carriers. The relationship between safety measures and economic pressures is discussed.

  11. Risk Factor Profile in Parkinson's Disease Subtype with REM Sleep Behavior Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Marie L; Dauvilliers, Yves; St Louis, Erik K; McCarter, Stuart J; Romenets, Silvia Rios; Pelletier, Amélie; Cherif, Mahmoud; Gagnon, Jean-François; Postuma, Ronald B

    2016-01-01

    Numerous large-scale studies have found diverse risk factors for Parkinson's disease (PD), including caffeine non-use, non-smoking, head injury, pesticide exposure, and family history. These studies assessed risk factors for PD overall; however, PD is a heterogeneous condition. One of the strongest identifiers of prognosis and disease subtype is the co-occurrence of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD).In previous studies, idiopathic RBD was associated with a different risk factor profile from PD and dementia with Lewy bodies, suggesting that the PD-RBD subtype may also have a different risk factor profile. To define risk factors for PD in patients with or without associated RBD. In a questionnaire, we assessed risk factors for PD, including demographic, medical, environmental, and lifestyle variables of 189 PD patients with or without associated polysomnography-confirmed RBD. The risk profile of patients with vs. without RBD was assessed with logistic regression, adjusting for age, sex, and disease duration. PD-RBD patients were more likely to have been a welder (OR = 3.11 (1.05-9.223), and to have been regular smokers (OR = 1.96 (1.04-3.68)). There were no differences in use of caffeine or alcohol, other occupations, pesticide exposure, rural living, or well water use. Patients with RBD had a higher prevalence of the combined family history of both dementia and parkinsonism (13.3% vs. 5.5% , OR = 3.28 (1.07-10.0). The RBD-specific subtype of PD may also have a different risk factor profile.

  12. Human factors evaluation of man-machine interface for periodic safety review of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Hee; Lee, Jung Woon; Park, Jae Chang; Hwang, In Koo; Lee, Hyun Cheol; Jang, Tong Il; Ku, Jin Young; Kim, Soo Jin

    2004-12-01

    This report describes the research results of human factors assessment on the MMI(Man Machine Interface) equipment as part of Periodic Safety Review(PSR) of Nuclear Power Plants(NPPs). As MMI is a key factor among human factors to be reviewed in PSR, we reviewed the MMI components of nuclear power plants in aspect of human factors engineering. The availability, suitability, and effectiveness of the MMI devices were chosen to be reviewed. The MMI devices were investigated through the review of design documents related to the MMI, survey of control panels, evaluation of experts, and experimental assessment. Checklists were used to perform this assessment and record the review results. The items mentioned by the expert comments to review in detail in relation with task procedures were tested by experiments with operators' participation. For some questionable issues arisen during this MMI review, operator workload and possibility of errors in operator actions were analysed. The reviewed MMI devices contain MCR(Main Control Room), SPDS(Safety Parameter Display System), RSP(Remote Shutdown Panel), and the selected LCBs(Local Control Boards) importantly related to safety. As results of the assessments, any significant problem challenging the safety was not found on human factors in the MMI devices. However, several small items to be changed and improved in suitability of MMI devices were discovered. An action plan is recommended to accommodate the suggestions and review comments. It will enhance the plant safety on MMI area

  13. A research framework of organizational factors on safety in the Republic of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwang Seok Lee

    1997-01-01

    Korean nuclear society is yet unfamiliar with the topic, 'organizational factors on safety', while having shown lots of accomplishments in the area of physical and human factors on safety. However, recent large-scale accidents in other technological areas illustrate the importance of managing organization factors on safety. Recently Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) started paying attention to this topic and is trying to establish a future research framework of organizational factors on safety. This paper tries to explain overall direction of the framework. Our framework, as managing organizational factors on safety, considers two kinds of areas: design of management systems, which implies a feed-forward system including organizational models; and operation of those systems, which implies a feedback system including management information and implementation systems. Our framework also considers the evolution stage of a management system. Management systems evolve from visibility stage to optimization stage. To optimize a management system, we should be able to control the system. To control the system, we should be able to see how the system is going. In addition, this paper tries to share some experience of KAERI on how organizational structure and culture affects organizational performance in R and D perspective. (author). 2 refs, 1 fig

  14. The human factor in the organisation and regulation of nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordes, F.; Savagner, J.-M.; Snanoudj, G.

    1981-10-01

    The TMI accident has brought to light the importance of the human factor in the safe operation of complex installations such as nuclear power plants. On this basis, the paper outlines the institutional framework for nuclear safety in France and reports on EDF practices in human resources management as well as in the improvement of working premises (control rooms) to optimize human behaviour in accident conditions. Finally, the interaction of labour laws on nuclear law in connection with safety is described. (NEA) [fr

  15. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    Niels Dupont

    2013-01-01

    CERN Safety rules and Radiation Protection at CMS The CERN Safety rules are defined by the Occupational Health & Safety and Environmental Protection Unit (HSE Unit), CERN’s institutional authority and central Safety organ attached to the Director General. In particular the Radiation Protection group (DGS-RP1) ensures that personnel on the CERN sites and the public are protected from potentially harmful effects of ionising radiation linked to CERN activities. The RP Group fulfils its mandate in collaboration with the CERN departments owning or operating sources of ionising radiation and having the responsibility for Radiation Safety of these sources. The specific responsibilities concerning "Radiation Safety" and "Radiation Protection" are delegated as follows: Radiation Safety is the responsibility of every CERN Department owning radiation sources or using radiation sources put at its disposition. These Departments are in charge of implementing the requi...

  16. Assessment of NPP safety taking into account seismic and engineering-geological factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakovlev, E.A.

    1990-01-01

    Consideration is given to the problem of probabilistic analysis of NPP safety with account of risk of destructive effect of earthquakes and the danger of accidental geological processes (diapirism, karst etc.) under NPP operation. It is shown that account of seismic and engineering-geological (engineering-seismological) risk factors in probabilistic analysis of safety enables to perform anticipatory analysis of behaviour of principle plant objects and to improve safety of their operation by revealing the most unstable elements of geotechnical system forming the main contribution to the total NPP risk

  17. A Study on the Allowable Safety Factor of Cut-Slopes for Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Myung Soo; Yee, Eric [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this study, the issues of allowable safety factor design criteria for cut-slopes in nuclear facilities is derived through case analysis, a proposed construction work slope design criteria that provides relatively detailed conditions can be applied in case of the dry season and some unclear parts of slope design criteria be modified in case of the rainy season. This safety factor can be further subdivided into two; normal and earthquake factors, a factor of 1.5 is applied for normal conditions and a factor of 1.2 is applied for seismic conditions. This safety factor takes into consideration the effect of ground water and rainfall conditions. However, no criteria for the case of cut-slope in nuclear facilities and its response to seismic conditions is clearly defined, this can cause uncertainty in design. Therefore, this paper investigates the allowable safety factor for cut-slopes in nuclear facilities, reviews conditions of both local and international cut-slope models and finally suggests an alternative method of analysis. It is expected that the new design criteria adequately ensures the stability of the cut-slope to reflect clear conditions for both the supervising and design engineers.

  18. Reporting and understanding the safety and adverse effect profile of mobile apps for psychosocial interventions: An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeem, Farooq; Gire, Nadeem; Xiang, Shuo; Yang, Megan; Syed, Yumeen; Shokraneh, Farhad; Adams, Clive; Farooq, Saeed

    2016-06-22

    Recent years have seen a rapidly increasing trend towards the delivery of health technology through mobile devices. Smartphones and tablet devices are thus becoming increasingly popular for accessing information and a wide range of services, including health care services. Modern mobile apps can be used for a variety of reasons, ranging from education for the patients and assistance to clinicians to delivery of interventions. Mobile phone apps have also been established to benefit patients in a scope of interventions across numerous medical specialties and treatment modalities. Medical apps have their advantages and disadvantages. It is important that clinicians have access to knowledge to make decisions regarding the use of medical apps on the basis of risk-benefit ratio. Mobile apps that deliver psycho social interventions offer unique challenges and opportunities. A number of reviews have highlighted the potential use of such apps. There is a need to describe, report and study their side effects too. The adverse effects associated with these apps can broadly be divided into: (1) those resulting from the security and safety concerns; (2) those arising from the use of a particular psycho social intervention; and (3) those due to the interaction with digital technology. There is a need to refine and reconsider the safety and adverse effects in this area. The safety profile of a mobile PSI app should describe its safety profile in: (1) privacy and security; (2) adverse effects of psychotherapy; and (3) adverse effects unique to the use of apps and the internet. This is, however, a very new area and further research and reporting is required to inform clinical decision making.

  19. Abdominoplasty: Risk Factors, Complication Rates, and Safety of Combined Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winocour, Julian; Gupta, Varun; Ramirez, J Roberto; Shack, R Bruce; Grotting, James C; Higdon, K Kye

    2015-11-01

    Among aesthetic surgery procedures, abdominoplasty is associated with a higher complication rate, but previous studies are limited by small sample sizes or single-institution experience. A cohort of patients who underwent abdominoplasty between 2008 and 2013 was identified from the CosmetAssure database. Major complications were recorded. Univariate and multivariate analysis was performed evaluating risk factors, including age, smoking, body mass index, sex, diabetes, type of surgical facility, and combined procedures. The authors identified 25,478 abdominoplasties from 183,914 procedures in the database. Of these, 8,975 patients had abdominoplasty alone and 16,503 underwent additional procedures. The number of complications recorded was 1,012 (4.0 percent overall rate versus 1.4 percent in other aesthetic surgery procedures). Of these, 31.5 percent were hematomas, 27.2 percent were infections and 20.2 percent were suspected or confirmed venous thromboembolism. On multivariate analysis, significant risk factors (p procedures (1.5), and procedure performance in a hospital or surgical center versus office-based surgical suite (1.6). Combined procedures increased the risk of complication (abdominoplasty alone, 3.1 percent; with liposuction, 3.8 percent; breast procedure, 4.3 percent; liposuction and breast procedure, 4.6 percent; body-contouring procedure, 6.8 percent; liposuction and body-contouring procedure, 10.4 percent). Abdominoplasty is associated with a higher complication rate compared with other aesthetic procedures. Combined procedures can significantly increase complication rates and should be considered carefully in higher risk patients. Risk, II.

  20. IRSN-ANCCLI partnership. Organizational and human factors in nuclear safety - April 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffroy, Francois; Garron, Joel; Mercel, Philippe; Compagnat, Gilles; Gaucher, Eric; Gaillard, Pierre; Fanchini, Henri; Jacquemont, Vincent

    2013-06-01

    The contributions (Power Point presentations) of this seminar first address the history of the taking into account of organizational and human factors until the Fukushima accident (history of their taking into account in nuclear safety expertise in France, history of the development of policy of organizational and human factors by an operator). The next contributions discuss the main issues regarding these factors after Fukushima: report by a work-group, work performed by the the Comite d'Orientation sur les Facteurs Sociaux, Organisationnels et Humains (Committee of orientation on social, organizational and human factors). The third session addresses the implication of stakeholders in expertise on these factors: analysis of organizational and human factors by a local information commission or by a CHSCT (committee of hygiene, safety and working conditions)

  1. Safety, reliability, risk management and human factors: an integrated engineering approach applied to nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcelos, Vanderley de; Silva, Eliane Magalhaes Pereira da; Costa, Antonio Carlos Lopes da; Reis, Sergio Carneiro dos [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: vasconv@cdtn.br, e-mail: silvaem@cdtn.br, e-mail: aclc@cdtn.br, e-mail: reissc@cdtn.br

    2009-07-01

    Nuclear energy has an important engineering legacy to share with the conventional industry. Much of the development of the tools related to safety, reliability, risk management, and human factors are associated with nuclear plant processes, mainly because the public concern about nuclear power generation. Despite the close association between these subjects, there are some important different approaches. The reliability engineering approach uses several techniques to minimize the component failures that cause the failure of the complex systems. These techniques include, for instance, redundancy, diversity, standby sparing, safety factors, and reliability centered maintenance. On the other hand system safety is primarily concerned with hazard management, that is, the identification, evaluation and control of hazards. Rather than just look at failure rates or engineering strengths, system safety would examine the interactions among system components. The events that cause accidents may be complex combinations of component failures, faulty maintenance, design errors, human actions, or actuation of instrumentation and control. Then, system safety deals with a broader spectrum of risk management, including: ergonomics, legal requirements, quality control, public acceptance, political considerations, and many other non-technical influences. Taking care of these subjects individually can compromise the completeness of the analysis and the measures associated with both risk reduction, and safety and reliability increasing. Analyzing together the engineering systems and controls of a nuclear facility, their management systems and operational procedures, and the human factors engineering, many benefits can be realized. This paper proposes an integration of these issues based on the application of systems theory. (author)

  2. Safety, reliability, risk management and human factors: an integrated engineering approach applied to nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, Vanderley de; Silva, Eliane Magalhaes Pereira da; Costa, Antonio Carlos Lopes da; Reis, Sergio Carneiro dos

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear energy has an important engineering legacy to share with the conventional industry. Much of the development of the tools related to safety, reliability, risk management, and human factors are associated with nuclear plant processes, mainly because the public concern about nuclear power generation. Despite the close association between these subjects, there are some important different approaches. The reliability engineering approach uses several techniques to minimize the component failures that cause the failure of the complex systems. These techniques include, for instance, redundancy, diversity, standby sparing, safety factors, and reliability centered maintenance. On the other hand system safety is primarily concerned with hazard management, that is, the identification, evaluation and control of hazards. Rather than just look at failure rates or engineering strengths, system safety would examine the interactions among system components. The events that cause accidents may be complex combinations of component failures, faulty maintenance, design errors, human actions, or actuation of instrumentation and control. Then, system safety deals with a broader spectrum of risk management, including: ergonomics, legal requirements, quality control, public acceptance, political considerations, and many other non-technical influences. Taking care of these subjects individually can compromise the completeness of the analysis and the measures associated with both risk reduction, and safety and reliability increasing. Analyzing together the engineering systems and controls of a nuclear facility, their management systems and operational procedures, and the human factors engineering, many benefits can be realized. This paper proposes an integration of these issues based on the application of systems theory. (author)

  3. Factors influencing safety in a sample of marked pedestrian crossings selected for safety inspections in the city of Oslo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvik, Rune; Sørensen, Michael W J; Nævestad, Tor-Olav

    2013-10-01

    This paper reports an analysis of factors influencing safety in a sample of marked pedestrian crossings in the city of Oslo, Norway. The sample consists of 159 marked pedestrian crossings where a total of 316 accidents were recorded during a period of five years. The crossings were selected for inspection because of they were, for various reasons, regarded as sub-standard. The sample of crossings is therefore not representative of all pedestrian crossings in Oslo. Factors influencing the number of accidents were studied by means of negative binomial regression. Factors that were studied included the volume of pedestrians and vehicles, the number of traffic lanes at the crossing, the location of the crossing (midblock or junction), the type of traffic control, the share of pedestrians using the crossing and the speed of approaching vehicles. The analysis confirmed the presence of a "safety-in-numbers" effect, meaning that an increase in the number of pedestrians is associated with a lower risk of accident for each pedestrian. Crossings located in four-leg junctions or roundabouts had more accidents than crossings located in three-leg junctions or on sections between junctions. A high share of pedestrians crossing the road outside the marked crossing was associated with a high number of accidents. Increased speed was associated with an increased number of accidents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Structural fabrication quality as a factor of industrial facilities safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tishkov, E. V.; Kardaev, E. M.; Stolbova, S. Yu; Shishova, O. S.

    2018-04-01

    In the conditions of industrial facilities high wear degree, it is very important to ensure the possibility of their safe operation in order to avoid various kinds of accidents and catastrophes. As practice shows, industrial plant collapses can occur suddenly under normal operating conditions. Usually, such accidents can take place at different stages of structures life cycle. One of the reasons for this is the initially low quality of reinforced concrete structures fabrication. The article considers the factors contributing to the collapse of reinforced concrete structures of water purification tanks located on the territory of the Omsk Region. The main surveys results on tank structures after collapse with the use of ultrasonic and physical methods of investigation are presented. On the basis of the obtained data analysis, it was found that the main cause of the accidents was the insufficient load-bearing capacity of typical reinforced concrete structures, caused by defects in their fabrication in the factory conditions because of exceeding the standard displacement from the design position of the working reinforcement. Recommendations are given on the identification of defective structures and the prevention of similar accidents when operating similar tanks at manufacturing plants constructed from standard designs.

  5. Profile of atrial fibrillation inpatients: Cardiovascular risk factors and cardiac rehabilitation programme delivery and referral patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Robyn; Zhang, Ling; Roach, Kellie; Sadler, Leonie; Belshaw, Julie; Kirkness, Ann; Proctor, Ross; Neubeck, Lis

    2015-12-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is increasingly common; however, the cardiovascular risk factor profile and the patterns of delivery and referral to cardiac rehabilitation (CR) in this population are poorly described. We conducted an audit of medical records (n = 145) of patients admitted with AF in one local health district in Sydney, Australia. Patients were aged a mean 72 years, and 51% were male. Lack of risk factor documentation was common. Despite this, 65% had two or more modifiable cardiovascular risk factors, including hypertension (63%) and hypercholesterolaemia (52%). Referral to Phase II CR occurred for 25% and was decreased with permanent AF diagnosis and increased with more risk factors. AF patients admitted to hospital have multiple cardiovascular risk factors but limited risk factor screening and/or referral to outpatient CR programmes. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. Factors influencing workers to follow food safety management systems in meat plants in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Brita; Wilcock, Anne; Aung, May

    2009-06-01

    Small and medium sized food businesses have been slow to adopt food safety management systems (FSMSs) such as good manufacturing practices and Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP). This study identifies factors influencing workers in their implementation of food safety practices in small and medium meat processing establishments in Ontario, Canada. A qualitative approach was used to explore in-plant factors that influence the implementation of FSMSs. Thirteen in-depth interviews in five meat plants and two focus group interviews were conducted. These generated 219 pages of verbatim transcripts which were analysed using NVivo 7 software. Main themes identified in the data related to production systems, organisational characteristics and employee characteristics. A socio-psychological model based on the theory of planned behaviour is proposed to describe how these themes and underlying sub-themes relate to FSMS implementation. Addressing the various factors that influence production workers is expected to enhance FSMS implementation and increase food safety.

  7. Electronic prescription as contributing factor for hospitalized patients' safety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gimenes FRE

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The following study was performed to identify factors related to medication errors in the computerized physician order entry and their advantages and disadvantages according to doctors, nursing team and administrative officers. It is a survey descriptive study carried out at three units of a Brazilian academic hospital in the southeast area. The study was divided in two phases. In the first phase, we analyzed a total of 1,349 prescriptions from general medical unit, surgical and orthopaedic wards during 30 days consecutively. A semi-structured instrument, elaborated by a group of researchers for the study proposals, was used. In the second phase, a semi-structured questionnaire was applied to the health professionals containing closed and open items approaching their opinion about the composition of electronic prescription, the advantages and disadvantages of them, and their suggestions for its improvement. Out of 1,349 prescriptions observed, 17.5% presented deletions, 25.0% medicines written manually and 17.0% of them were incomplete. Some of the advantages pointed by health professionals were its legibility (37.5%, little time spent when elaborating and emitting them (20.5% and the way they are a practical and organized (8%. The disadvantages pointed were repetition of previous prescriptions (34%, typing mistakes (17%, dependence on computers (11% and alterations made manually (7%. We conclude, this way, that the computerized prescription order entry represents a great progress among the strategies used to minimize medication errors caused by prescriptions badly formulated. However, it doesn't eradicate the possibility of medication error occurrences, needing some system modifications.

  8. Application of the AHP method to analyze the significance of the factors affecting road traffic safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna SORDYL

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past twenty years, the number of vehicles registered in Poland has grown rapidly. At the same time, a relatively small increase in the length of the road network has been observed. As a result of the limited capacity of available infrastructure, it leads to significant congestion and to increase of the probability of road accidents. The overall level of road safety depends on many factors - the behavior of road users, infrastructure solutions and the development of automotive technology. Thus the detailed assessment of the importance of individual elements determining road safety is difficult. The starting point is to organize the factors by grouping them into categories which are components of the DVE system (driver - vehicle - environment. In this work, to analyze the importance of individual factors affecting road safety, the use of analytic hierarchy process method (AHP was proposed. It is one of the multi-criteria methods which allows us to perform hierarchical analysis of the decision process, by means of experts’ opinions. Usage of AHP method enabled us to evaluate and rank the factors affecting road safety. This work attempts to link the statistical data and surveys in significance analysis of the elements determining road safety.

  9. A quantitative assessment of organizational factors affecting safety using a system dynamics model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, J. K. [Systemix Company, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, T. S. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a system dynamics model for the assessment of organizational and human factors in the nuclear power plant safety. Previous studies are classified into two major approaches. One is the engineering approach such as ergonomics and Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA). The other is socio-psychology one. Both have contributed to find organizational and human factors and increased nuclear safety However, since these approaches assume that the relationship among factors is independent they do not explain the interactions between factors or variables in NPP's. To overcome these restrictions, a system dynamics model, which can show causal relations between factors and quantify organizational and human factors, has been developed. Operating variables such as degree of leadership, adjustment of number of employee, and workload in each department, users can simulate various situations in nuclear power plants in the organization side. Through simulation, user can get an insight to improve safety in plants and to find managerial tools in the organization and human side.

  10. A quantitative assessment of organizational factors affecting safety using a system dynamics model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, J. K.; Yoon, T. S.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a system dynamics model for the assessment of organizational and human factors in the nuclear power plant safety. Previous studies are classified into two major approaches. One is the engineering approach such as ergonomics and Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA). The other is socio-psychology one. Both have contributed to find organizational and human factors and increased nuclear safety However, since these approaches assume that the relationship among factors is independent they do not explain the interactions between factors or variables in NPP's. To overcome these restrictions, a system dynamics model, which can show causal relations between factors and quantify organizational and human factors, has been developed. Operating variables such as degree of leadership, adjustment of number of employee, and workload in each department, users can simulate various situations in nuclear power plants in the organization side. Through simulation, user can get an insight to improve safety in plants and to find managerial tools in the organization and human side

  11. Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This annual report of the Senior Inspector for the Nuclear Safety, analyses the nuclear safety at EDF for the year 1999 and proposes twelve subjects of consideration to progress. Five technical documents are also provided and discussed concerning the nuclear power plants maintenance and safety (thermal fatigue, vibration fatigue, assisted control and instrumentation of the N4 bearing, 1300 MW reactors containment and time of life of power plants). (A.L.B.)

  12. Postauthorization safety surveillance of ADVATE [antihaemophilic factor (recombinant), plasma/albumin-free method] demonstrates efficacy, safety and low-risk for immunogenicity in routine clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenburg, J; Goudemand, J; Valentino, L; Richards, M; Luu, H; Kriukov, A; Gajek, H; Spotts, G; Ewenstein, B

    2010-11-01

      Postauthorization safety surveillance of factor VIII (FVIII) concentrates is essential for assessing rare adverse event incidence. We determined safety and efficacy of ADVATE [antihaemophilic factor (recombinant), plasma/albumin-free method, (rAHF-PFM)] during routine clinical practice. Subjects with differing haemophilia A severities and medical histories were monitored during 12 months of prophylactic and/or on-demand therapy. Among 408 evaluable subjects, 386 (95%) received excellent/good efficacy ratings for all on-demand assessments; the corresponding number for subjects with previous FVIII inhibitors was 36/41 (88%). Among 276 evaluable subjects receiving prophylaxis continuously in the study, 255 (92%) had excellent/good ratings for all prophylactic assessments; the corresponding number for subjects with previous FVIII inhibitors was 41/46 (89%). Efficacy of surgical prophylaxis was excellent/good in 16/16 evaluable procedures. Among previously treated patients (PTPs) with >50 exposure days (EDs) and FVIII≤2%, three (0.75%) developed low-titre inhibitors. Two of these subjects had a positive inhibitor history; thus, the incidence of de novo inhibitor formation in PTPs with FVIII≤2% and no inhibitor history was 1/348 (0.29%; 95% CI, 0.01-1.59%). A PTP with moderate haemophilia developed a low-titre inhibitor. High-titre inhibitors were reported in a PTP with mild disease (following surgery), a previously untreated patient (PUP) with moderate disease (following surgery) and a PUP with severe disease. The favourable benefit/risk profile of rAHF-PFM previously documented in prospective clinical trials has been extended to include a broader range of haemophilia patients, many of whom would have been ineligible for registration studies. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Proposal of criteria for evaluation of engineering safety factors of VVER core parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shishkov, L.; Tsyganov, S.; Dementiev, V.

    2009-01-01

    The paper states that the regulatory documentation, as a rule, do not give explicit recommendations on formation techniques of engineering safety factors for design limited parameters of normal operation (K eng ). The AER countries use different approaches to K eng evaluation (sometimes even one country in relation of various power units). The paper suggests the development of uniform rules to be used in calculation of engineering safety factor for all VVER reactors. The paper presents principal problems that must be solved in the course of the discussion, and in the form of an exercise suggests the way of their solution. (authors)

  14. Proposal of criteria for evaluation of engineering safety factors of WWER core parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shishkov, L.; Tsyganov, S.; Dementiev, V.

    2009-01-01

    The paper states that the regulatory documentation, as a rule, do not give explicit recommendations on formation techniques of engineering safety factors for design limited parameters of normal operation. The AER countries use different approaches to evaluation (sometimes even one country in relation of various power units). The paper suggests the development of uniform rules to be used in calculation of engineering safety factor for all WWER reactors. The paper presents principal problems that must be solved in the course of the discussion, and in the form of an exercise suggests the way of their solution. (Authors)

  15. Human Factors engineering criteria and design for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant preliminary safety analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, J.A.; Schur, A.; Stitzel, J.C.L.

    1993-09-01

    This report provides a rationale and systematic methodology for bringing Human Factors into the safety design and operations of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP). Human Factors focuses on how people perform work with tools and machine systems in designed settings. When the design of machine systems and settings take into account the capabilities and limitations of the individuals who use them, human performance can be enhanced while protecting against susceptibility to human error. The inclusion of Human Factors in the safety design of the HWVP is an essential ingredient to safe operation of the facility. The HWVP is a new construction, nonreactor nuclear facility designed to process radioactive wastes held in underground storage tanks into glass logs for permanent disposal. Its design and mission offer new opposites for implementing Human Factors while requiring some means for ensuring that the Human Factors assessments are sound, comprehensive, and appropriately directed

  16. Towards an Enhancement of Organizational Information Security through Threat Factor Profiling (TFP) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidi, Fatimah; Daud, Maslina; Ahmad, Sabariah; Zainuddin, Naqliyah; Anneisa Abdullah, Syafiqa; Jabar, Marzanah A.; Suriani Affendey, Lilly; Ishak, Iskandar; Sharef, Nurfadhlina Mohd; Zolkepli, Maslina; Nur Majdina Nordin, Fatin; Amat Sejani, Hashimah; Ramadzan Hairani, Saiful

    2017-09-01

    Information security has been identified by organizations as part of internal operations that need to be well implemented and protected. This is because each day the organizations face a high probability of increase of threats to their networks and services that will lead to information security issues. Thus, effective information security management is required in order to protect their information assets. Threat profiling is a method that can be used by an organization to address the security challenges. Threat profiling allows analysts to understand and organize intelligent information related to threat groups. This paper presents a comparative analysis that was conducted to study the existing threat profiling models. It was found that existing threat models were constructed based on specific objectives, thus each model is limited to only certain components or factors such as assets, threat sources, countermeasures, threat agents, threat outcomes and threat actors. It is suggested that threat profiling can be improved by the combination of components found in each existing threat profiling model/framework. The proposed model can be used by an organization in executing a proactive approach to incident management.

  17. JASPAR 2014: an extensively expanded and updated open-access database of transcription factor binding profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathelier, Anthony; Zhao, Xiaobei; Zhang, Allen W; Parcy, François; Worsley-Hunt, Rebecca; Arenillas, David J; Buchman, Sorana; Chen, Chih-yu; Chou, Alice; Ienasescu, Hans; Lim, Jonathan; Shyr, Casper; Tan, Ge; Zhou, Michelle; Lenhard, Boris; Sandelin, Albin; Wasserman, Wyeth W

    2014-01-01

    JASPAR (http://jaspar.genereg.net) is the largest open-access database of matrix-based nucleotide profiles describing the binding preference of transcription factors from multiple species. The fifth major release greatly expands the heart of JASPAR-the JASPAR CORE subcollection, which contains curated, non-redundant profiles-with 135 new curated profiles (74 in vertebrates, 8 in Drosophila melanogaster, 10 in Caenorhabditis elegans and 43 in Arabidopsis thaliana; a 30% increase in total) and 43 older updated profiles (36 in vertebrates, 3 in D. melanogaster and 4 in A. thaliana; a 9% update in total). The new and updated profiles are mainly derived from published chromatin immunoprecipitation-seq experimental datasets. In addition, the web interface has been enhanced with advanced capabilities in browsing, searching and subsetting. Finally, the new JASPAR release is accompanied by a new BioPython package, a new R tool package and a new R/Bioconductor data package to facilitate access for both manual and automated methods.

  18. An Analysis of Trainers' Perspectives within an Ecological Framework: Factors that Influence Mine Safety Training Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Emily J; Hoebbel, Cassandra L; Rost, Kristen A

    2014-09-01

    Satisfactory completion of mine safety training is a prerequisite for being hired and for continued employment in the coal industry. Although training includes content to develop skills in a variety of mineworker competencies, research and recommendations continue to specify that specific limitations in the self-escape portion of training still exist and that mineworkers need to be better prepared to respond to emergencies that could occur in their mine. Ecological models are often used to inform the development of health promotion programs but have not been widely applied to occupational health and safety training programs. Nine mine safety trainers participated in in-depth semi-structured interviews. A theoretical analysis of the interviews was completed via an ecological lens. Each level of the social ecological model was used to examine factors that could be addressed both during and after mine safety training. The analysis suggests that problems surrounding communication and collaboration, leadership development, and responsibility and accountability at different levels within the mining industry contribute to deficiencies in mineworkers' mastery and maintenance of skills. This study offers a new technique to identify limitations in safety training systems and processes. The analysis suggests that training should be developed and disseminated with consideration of various levels-individual, interpersonal, organizational, and community-to promote skills. If factors identified within and between levels are addressed, it may be easier to sustain mineworker competencies that are established during safety training.

  19. The likelihood of achieving quantified road safety targets: a binary logistic regression model for possible factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, N N; Wong, S C; Lee, C Y

    2014-12-01

    In past several decades, many countries have set quantified road safety targets to motivate transport authorities to develop systematic road safety strategies and measures and facilitate the achievement of continuous road safety improvement. Studies have been conducted to evaluate the association between the setting of quantified road safety targets and road fatality reduction, in both the short and long run, by comparing road fatalities before and after the implementation of a quantified road safety target. However, not much work has been done to evaluate whether the quantified road safety targets are actually achieved. In this study, we used a binary logistic regression model to examine the factors - including vehicle ownership, fatality rate, and national income, in addition to level of ambition and duration of target - that contribute to a target's success. We analyzed 55 quantified road safety targets set by 29 countries from 1981 to 2009, and the results indicate that targets that are in progress and with lower level of ambitions had a higher likelihood of eventually being achieved. Moreover, possible interaction effects on the association between level of ambition and the likelihood of success are also revealed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Survival-related profile, pathways, and transcription factors in ovarian cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne P G Crijns

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer has a poor prognosis due to advanced stage at presentation and either intrinsic or acquired resistance to classic cytotoxic drugs such as platinum and taxoids. Recent large clinical trials with different combinations and sequences of classic cytotoxic drugs indicate that further significant improvement in prognosis by this type of drugs is not to be expected. Currently a large number of drugs, targeting dysregulated molecular pathways in cancer cells have been developed and are introduced in the clinic. A major challenge is to identify those patients who will benefit from drugs targeting these specific dysregulated pathways.The aims of our study were (1 to develop a gene expression profile associated with overall survival in advanced stage serous ovarian cancer, (2 to assess the association of pathways and transcription factors with overall survival, and (3 to validate our identified profile and pathways/transcription factors in an independent set of ovarian cancers. METHODS AND FINDINGS: According to a randomized design, profiling of 157 advanced stage serous ovarian cancers was performed in duplicate using approximately 35,000 70-mer oligonucleotide microarrays. A continuous predictor of overall survival was built taking into account well-known issues in microarray analysis, such as multiple testing and overfitting. A functional class scoring analysis was utilized to assess pathways/transcription factors for their association with overall survival. The prognostic value of genes that constitute our overall survival profile was validated on a fully independent, publicly available dataset of 118 well-defined primary serous ovarian cancers. Furthermore, functional class scoring analysis was also performed on this independent dataset to assess the similarities with results from our own dataset. An 86-gene overall survival profile discriminated between patients with unfavorable and favorable prognosis (median survival, 19

  1. Integration profile and safety of an adenovirus hybrid-vector utilizing hyperactive sleeping beauty transposase for somatic integration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenli Zhang

    Full Text Available We recently developed adenovirus/transposase hybrid-vectors utilizing the previously described hyperactive Sleeping Beauty (SB transposase HSB5 for somatic integration and we could show stabilized transgene expression in mice and a canine model for hemophilia B. However, the safety profile of these hybrid-vectors with respect to vector dose and genotoxicity remains to be investigated. Herein, we evaluated this hybrid-vector system in C57Bl/6 mice with escalating vector dose settings. We found that in all mice which received the hyperactive SB transposase, transgene expression levels were stabilized in a dose-dependent manner and that the highest vector dose was accompanied by fatalities in mice. To analyze potential genotoxic side-effects due to somatic integration into host chromosomes, we performed a genome-wide integration site analysis using linker-mediated PCR (LM-PCR and linear amplification-mediated PCR (LAM-PCR. Analysis of genomic DNA samples obtained from HSB5 treated female and male mice revealed a total of 1327 unique transposition events. Overall the chromosomal distribution pattern was close-to-random and we observed a random integration profile with respect to integration into gene and non-gene areas. Notably, when using the LM-PCR protocol, 27 extra-chromosomal integration events were identified, most likely caused by transposon excision and subsequent transposition into the delivered adenoviral vector genome. In total, this study provides a careful evaluation of the safety profile of adenovirus/Sleeping Beauty transposase hybrid-vectors. The obtained information will be useful when designing future preclinical studies utilizing hybrid-vectors in small and large animal models.

  2. Discussion on the Safety Factors of Slopes Recommended for Small Dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Vrubel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The design and assessment of the slope stability of small embankment dams is usually not carried out using slope stability calculations but rather by the comparison of proposed or existing dam slopes with those recommended by technical standards or guidelines. Practical experience shows that in many cases the slopes of small dams are steeper than those recommended. However, most of such steeper slopes at existing dams do not exhibit any visible signs of instability, defects or sliding. For the dam owner and also for dam stability engineers, the safety of the slope, expressed e.g. via a factor of safety, is crucial. The aim of this study is to evaluate the safety margin provided by recommended slopes. The factor of safety was evaluated for several dam shape and layout variants via the shear strength reduction method using PLAXIS software. The study covers various dam geometries, dam core and shoulder positions and parameter values of utilised soils. Three load cases were considered: one with a steady state seepage condition and two with different reservoir water level drawdown velocities – standard and critical. As numerous older small dams lack a drainage system, variants with and without a toe drain were assessed. Calculated factors of safety were compared with required values specified by national standards and guidelines.

  3. Research on Safety Factor of Dam Slope of High Embankment Dam under Seismic Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Bin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the constant development of construction technology of embankment dam, the constructed embankment dam becomes higher and higher, and the embankment dam with its height over 200m will always adopt the current design criteria of embankment dam only suitable for the construction of embankment dam lower than 200m in height. So the design criteria of high embankment dam shall be improved. We shall calculate the stability and safety factors of dam slope of high embankment dam under different dam height, slope ratio and different seismic intensity based on ratio of safety margin, and clarify the change rules of stability and safety factors of dam slope of high embankment dam with its height over 200m. We calculate the ratio of safety margin of traditional and reliable method by taking the stable, allowable and reliability index 4.2 of dam slope of high embankment dam with its height over 200m as the standard value, and conduct linear regression for both. As a result, the conditions, where 1.3 is considered as the stability and safety factors of dam slope of high embankment dam with its height over 200m under seismic condition and 4.2 as the allowable and reliability index, are under the same risk control level.

  4. A Study on the Holding Capacity Safety Factors for Torpedo Anchors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís V. S. Sagrilo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of powerful numerical tools based on the finite-element method has been improving the prediction of the holding capacity of fixed anchors employed by the offshore oil industry. One of the main achievements of these tools is the reduction of the uncertainty related to the holding capacity calculation of these anchors. Therefore, it is also possible to reduce the values of the associated design safety factors, which have been calibrated relying on models with higher uncertainty, without impairing the original level of structural safety. This paper presents a study on the calibration of reliability-based safety factors for the design of torpedo anchors considering the statistical model uncertainty evaluated using results from experimental tests and their correspondent finite-element-based numerical predictions. Both working stress design (WSD and load and resistance factors design (LRFD design methodologies are investigated. Considering the WSD design methodology, the single safety is considerably lower than the value typically employed in the design of torpedo anchors. Moreover, a LRFD design code format for torpedo anchors is more appropriate since it leads to designs having less-scattered safety levels around the target value.

  5. Genomic and Metabolomic Profile Associated to Clustering of Cardio-Metabolic Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrachelli, Vannina G; Rentero, Pilar; Mansego, María L; Morales, Jose Manuel; Galan, Inma; Pardo-Tendero, Mercedes; Martinez, Fernando; Martin-Escudero, Juan Carlos; Briongos, Laisa; Chaves, Felipe Javier; Redon, Josep; Monleon, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    To identify metabolomic and genomic markers associated with the presence of clustering of cardiometabolic risk factors (CMRFs) from a general population. One thousand five hundred and two subjects, Caucasian, > 18 years, representative of the general population, were included. Blood pressure measurement, anthropometric parameters and metabolic markers were measured. Subjects were grouped according the number of CMRFs (Group 1: profile was assessed by 1H NMR spectra using a Brucker Advance DRX 600 spectrometer. From the total population, 1217 (mean age 54±19, 50.6% men) with high genotyping call rate were analysed. A differential metabolomic profile, which included products from mitochondrial metabolism, extra mitochondrial metabolism, branched amino acids and fatty acid signals were observed among the three groups. The comparison of metabolomic patterns between subjects of Groups 1 to 3 for each of the genotypes associated to those subjects with three or more CMRFs revealed two SNPs, the rs174577_AA of FADS2 gene and the rs3803_TT of GATA2 transcription factor gene, with minimal or no statistically significant differences. Subjects with and without three or more CMRFs who shared the same genotype and metabolomic profile differed in the pattern of CMRFS cluster. Subjects of Group 3 and the AA genotype of the rs174577 had a lower prevalence of hypertension compared to the CC and CT genotype. In contrast, subjects of Group 3 and the TT genotype of the rs3803 polymorphism had a lower prevalence of T2DM, although they were predominantly males and had higher values of plasma creatinine. The results of the present study add information to the metabolomics profile and to the potential impact of genetic factors on the variants of clustering of cardiometabolic risk factors.

  6. A quantitative assessment of organizational factors affecting safety using system dynamics model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Jae Kook; Ahn, Nam Sung [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Jae, Moo Sung [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a system dynamics model for the assessment of the organizational and human factors in a nuclear power plant which contribute to nuclear safety. Previous studies can be classified into two major approaches. One is the engineering approach using tools such as ergonomics and Probability Safety Assessment (PSA). The other is the socio-psychology approach. Both have contributed to find organizational and human factors and to present guidelines to lessen human error in plants. However, since these approaches assume that the relationship among factors is independent they do not explain the interactions among the factors or variables in nuclear power plants. To overcome these restrictions, a system dynamics model, which can show cause and effect relationships among factors and quantify the organizational and human factors, has been developed. Handling variables such as the degree of leadership, the number of employees, and workload in each department, users can simulate various situations in nuclear power plant organization. Through simulation, users can get insights to improve safety in plants and to find managerial tools in both organizational and human factors.

  7. A quantitative assessment of organizational factors affecting safety using system dynamics model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Jae Kook; Ahn, Nam Sung; Jae, Moo Sung

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a system dynamics model for the assessment of the organizational and human factors in a nuclear power plant which contribute to nuclear safety. Previous studies can be classified into two major approaches. One is the engineering approach using tools such as ergonomics and Probability Safety Assessment (PSA). The other is the socio-psychology approach. Both have contributed to find organizational and human factors and to present guidelines to lessen human error in plants. However, since these approaches assume that the relationship among factors is independent they do not explain the interactions among the factors or variables in nuclear power plants. To overcome these restrictions, a system dynamics model, which can show cause and effect relationships among factors and quantify the organizational and human factors, has been developed. Handling variables such as the degree of leadership, the number of employees, and workload in each department, users can simulate various situations in nuclear power plant organization. Through simulation, users can get insights to improve safety in plants and to find managerial tools in both organizational and human factors

  8. Safety of PEGylated recombinant human full-length coagulation factor VIII (BAX 855) in the overall context of PEG and PEG conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stidl, R; Fuchs, S; Bossard, M; Siekmann, J; Turecek, P L; Putz, M

    2016-01-01

    BAX 855 is a PEGylated human full-length recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII) based on licensed rFVIII (ADVATE). The applied PEGylation technology has been optimized to retain functionality of the FVIII molecule, improve its pharmacokinetic properties and allow less frequent injections while maintaining efficacy. The aim of this study was to confirm that the excellent safety profile of ADVATE remains unchanged after PEGylation. Non-clinical safety studies with BAX 855 and its respective unbound polyethylene glycol (PEG) were conducted in several species. The distribution of a single dose of radiolabelled BAX 855 was further investigated in rats. Publically available safety data on PEG alone and PEGylated biomolecules were summarized and reviewed for specific safety findings attributable to PEG or PEGylated biopharmaceuticals. Safety pharmacology studies in rabbits and macaques and repeated dose toxicity studies in rats and macaques identified no safety issues. Results of a distribution study in rats administered radiolabelled BAX 855 showed that radioactivity was completely excreted; urine was the major elimination route. A 28-day study in rats dosed with the unbound PEG constituent (PEG2ru20KCOOH) of BAX 855 showed no adverse or non-adverse effects. Safety data for PEG and PEG-protein conjugates indicate no safety concerns associated with PEG at clinically relevant dose levels. Although vacuolation of certain cell types has been reported in mammals, no such vacuolation was observed with BAX 855 or with the unbound PEG constituent. Non-clinical safety evaluation of PEG and BAX 855 identified no safety signals; the compound is now in clinical development for the treatment of patients with haemophilia A. © 2015 Baxalta Innovations GmbH. Haemophilia Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Preparation of the requirements for the safety regulation related to human and organizational factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    The outline of the project in the current fiscal year is to investigate and analyze issues associated with Human and Organizational Factors involved in incidents of nuclear facilities, and to study and develop evaluation methods of these countermeasures. The guideline to evaluate licensee's safety culture and root cause analysis (RCA) had been developed for further improving safety on nuclear power plants at 2007. These guidelines have been used at regulatory inspection since that time. Based on experience of using these existing guidelines, some activities for improving guidelines are now under investigation; these are selecting candidate quantitative indicators for safety culture evaluation and researching good practices for RCA issues. JNES implemented human factor analysis about 18 domestic events including the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident. (author)

  10. Risk analysis-based food safety policy: scientific factors versus socio-cultural factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosa, P.; Knapen, van F.; Brom, F.W.A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to illustrate the importance of socio-cultural factors in risk management and the need to incorporate these factors in a standard, internationally recognized (wto) framework. This was achieved by analysing the relevance of these factors in 3 cases
    The purpose of

  11. Gene expression profiling for food safety assessment: examples in potato and maize

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Dijk, JP

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Northumberlan Brummeria GMO Food safety Food specifi can of samplin input system, but also different cultivars of the same crop species, including genetically modified ones. A n tool e in th larger blotting at a particular position is a measure... of transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics for the detection of undesirable side effects of genetically modifying plants (Cellini et al., 2004); http://www.entransfood.nl/RTDprojects/GMO- CARE/GMOCARE.html; http...

  12. Rationalization of safety factors for breakwater design in hurricane-prone areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsimopoulou, V.; Kanning, W.; Verhagen, H.J.; Vrijling, J.K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a semi-probabilistic method for armour layer design of rubble mound breakwaters, which is based on the use of safety factors. The objective is to introduce an approach that is both attractive to designers and sufficiently reliable when a high degree of

  13. Refresher training as an important factor affecting safety of atomic energy utilization facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapralov, E.

    2005-01-01

    Refresher training appears to be one of the most important factors, affecting safety of atomic energy utilization facilities. To provide up-to-date refresher training programs and courses TC NRS implements best training practice based on the actual and perspective Russian national and international norms, regulations, standards and recommendations. (author)

  14. Evolution of human factors research and studies of health information technologies: the role of patient safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beuscart-Zéphir, M. C.; Borycki, E.; Carayon, P.; Jaspers, M. W. M.; Pelayo, S.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this survey paper is to present and explain the impact of recent regulations and patient safety initiatives (EU, US and Canada) on Human Factors (HF)/Usability studies and research focusing on Health Information Technology (HIT). The authors have selected the most prominent of these

  15. Human factors science and safety engineering : can the STAMP model serve in establishing a common language?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karanikas, Nektarios; Schwarz, M; Harfmann, J

    2017-01-01

    A symbiotic relationship between human factors and safety scientists is needed to ensure the provision of holistic solutions for problems emerging in modern socio-technical systems. System Theoretic Accident Model and Processes (STAMP) tackles both interactions and individual failures of human and

  16. Safety and Efficacy of BAY 94-9027, a Prolonged-Half-Life Factor VIII

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reding, M T; Ng, H J; Poulsen, Lone Hvitfeldt

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: BAY 94-9027 is a B-domain-deleted prolonged-half-life recombinant factor VIII (FVIII) conjugates in a site-specific manner with polyethylene glycol. OBJECTIVE: Assess efficacy and safety of BAY 94-9027 for prophylaxis and treatment of bleeds in patients with severe hemophilia A PATIEN...

  17. Operation, Safety and Human: Critical Factors for the Success of Railway Transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajabali Nejad, Mohammadreza; Martinetti, Alberto; van Dongen, Leonardus Adriana Maria

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on three categories of performance indicators for railway transportation: the excellence of operation, system safety and human factors. These are among the most critical indicators for delivering high quality services. This paper discusses the main issues, challenges and future

  18. 75 FR 69912 - Pipeline Safety: Control Room Management/Human Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... 192 and 195 [Docket ID PHMSA-2007-27954] RIN 2137-AE64 Pipeline Safety: Control Room Management/Human... Control Room Management/Human Factors rule at 49 CFR 192.631 and 195.446. The NPRM proposes to expedite... rule and to engage in open discussions with the agency at PHMSA's Control Room Management...

  19. Analysis on Pollution Factors in Asparagus Production and Research on Safety Production Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Liping; Hao, Bianqing; Qiao, Xiongwu

    2013-01-01

    Based on the analysis on the infection degree, infection law and influencing factors of the main diseases on asparagus and the analysis on the pollution factors in asparagus production such as blind pesticide use, atmospheric pollution and acid rain, the pollution of soil and fertilizer, this article proposes asparagus safety production technologies which include the selection of disease-resistant variety and suitable planting field, scientific and reasonable disease control, balanced fertili...

  20. Patient Safety Culture Survey in Pediatric Complex Care Settings: A Factor Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessels, Amanda J; Murray, Meghan; Cohen, Bevin; Larson, Elaine L

    2017-04-19

    Children with complex medical needs are increasing in number and demanding the services of pediatric long-term care facilities (pLTC), which require a focus on patient safety culture (PSC). However, no tool to measure PSC has been tested in this unique hybrid acute care-residential setting. The objective of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Nursing Home Survey on Patient Safety Culture tool slightly modified for use in the pLTC setting. Factor analyses were performed on data collected from 239 staff at 3 pLTC in 2012. Items were screened by principal axis factoring, and the original structure was tested using confirmatory factor analysis. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted to identify the best model fit for the pLTC data, and factor reliability was assessed by Cronbach alpha. The extracted, rotated factor solution suggested items in 4 (staffing, nonpunitive response to mistakes, communication openness, and organizational learning) of the original 12 dimensions may not be a good fit for this population. Nevertheless, in the pLTC setting, both the original and the modified factor solutions demonstrated similar reliabilities to the published consistencies of the survey when tested in adult nursing homes and the items factored nearly identically as theorized. This study demonstrates that the Nursing Home Survey on Patient Safety Culture with minimal modification may be an appropriate instrument to measure PSC in pLTC settings. Additional psychometric testing is recommended to further validate the use of this instrument in this setting, including examining the relationship to safety outcomes. Increased use will yield data for benchmarking purposes across these specialized settings to inform frontline workers and organizational leaders of areas of strength and opportunity for improvement.

  1. Coagulation Profile as a Risk Factor for 30-day Morbidity Following Cervical Laminectomy and Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronheim, Rachel S; Oermann, Eric K; Cho, Samuel K; Caridi, John M

    2018-02-15

    Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data. The aim of this study was to determine the ability of abnormal coagulation profile to predict adverse events following posterior cervical laminectomy and fusion (PCLF). PCLF is an increasingly common procedure used to treat a variety of traumatic and degenerative spinal conditions. Abnormal coagulation profile is associated with postoperative adverse events, including blood transfusion. There is a paucity of literature that specifically addresses the relationship between coagulation profile and complications following PCLF. ACS-NSQIP was utilized to identify patients undergoing PCLF between 2006 and 2013. A total of 3546 patients met inclusion criteria. Multivariate analysis was utilized to identify associations between abnormal coagulation profile and postoperative complications. Membership in the low-platelet cohort was an independent risk factor for myocardial infarction (Odds Ratio (OR) = 5.4 [1.0, 29.1], P = 0.049) and bleeding transfusion (OR = 2.0 [1.2, 3.4], P = 0.011). Membership in the high international normalized ratio group was an independent risk factor for pneumonia (OR = 6.3 [2.5, 16.1], P 48 hours (OR = 6.5 [2.3, 18.4], P 48 hours (OR = 4.8 [1.9, 12.4], P = 0.001), cerebrovascular accident/stroke with neurological deficit (OR = 24.8 [2.9, 210.6], P = 0.003), bleeding transfusion (OR = 2.1 [1.1, 4.1], P = 0.032), reoperation (OR = 3.6 [1.4, 9.3], P = 0.008), and sepsis (OR = 3.4 [1.1, 10.4], P = 0.031). This is the first large study to document abnormal coagulation profile as an independent predictor of outcomes following PCLF. Abnormal coagulation profile represents a predictor of complications that can be medically mitigated, and is therefore a valuable parameter to assess preoperatively. Coagulation profile should continue to play a role in targeting patients for risk stratification, preoperative optimization, and

  2. Efficacy and Safety Profile of Diclofenac/Cyclodextrin and Progesterone/Cyclodextrin Formulations: A Review of the Literature Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scavone, Cristina; Bonagura, Angela Colomba; Fiorentino, Sonia; Cimmaruta, Daniela; Cenami, Rosina; Torella, Marco; Fossati, Tiziano; Rossi, Francesco

    2016-06-01

    According to health technology assessment, patients deserve the best medicine. The development of drugs associated with solubility enhancers, such as cyclodextrins, represents a measure taken in order to improve the management of patients. Different drugs, such as estradiol, testosterone, dexamethasone, opioids, non-steroidal anti-inflammatories (NSAIDs; i.e. diclofenac), and progesterone are associated with cyclodextrins. Products containing the association of diclofenac/cyclodextrins are available for subcutaneous, intramuscular, and intravenous administration in doses that range from 25 to 75 mg. Medicinal products containing the association of progesterone/cyclodextrins are indicated for intramuscular and subcutaneous injection at a dose equal to 25 mg. The effects of cyclodextrins have been discussed in the solubility profile and permeability through biological membranes of drug molecules. A literature search was performed in order to give an overview of the pharmacokinetic characteristics, and efficacy and safety profiles of diclofenac/hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) and progesterone/HPβCD associations. The results of more than 20 clinical studies were reviewed. It was suggested that the new diclofenac/HPβCD formulation gives a rapid and effective response to acute pain and, furthermore, has pharmacokinetic and efficacy/safety profiles comparable to other medicinal products not containing cyclodextrins. One of the principal aspects of these new diclofenac formulations is that in lowering the dose (lower than 50 mg) the drugs could be more tolerable, especially in patients with comorbid conditions. Moreover, results of studies investigating the characteristics of progesterone and cyclodextrins showed that the new formulation (progesterone/HPβCD 25 mg solution) has the same bioavailability as other products containing progesterone. It is more rapidly absorbed and allows the achievement of peak plasma concentrations in a shorter time. Finally, the

  3. Investigation of chronic efficacy and safety profile of two potential anti-inflammatory bipyrazole-based compounds in experimental animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domiati S

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Souraya Domiati,1 Mohammed Mehanna,2,3 Hanan Ragab,4 Hania Nakkash Chmaisse,1 Ahmed El Mallah5 1Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Beirut Arab University, Beirut, Lebanon; 2Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Beirut Arab University, Beirut, Lebanon; 3Department of Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt; 4Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt; 5Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt Purpose: Although nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are widely used to treat a variety of disorders, their administration is associated with gastrointestinal side effects, acute kidney injury and liver enzymes’ elevation. Accordingly, researchers are encouraged to create novel agents with better safety profile. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the chronic efficacy and safety profile of two compounds previously proven to have acceptable acute anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities.Materials and methods: Doses were determined through formalin-induced mice paw edema-based dose–response curves. Granuloma weight was used to assess the chronic effect of the investigated compounds as compared to the vehicle and diclofenac representing the positive and the negative controls, respectively. Mice kidneys, livers and stomachs were histologically examined. Moreover, troponin I, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels were measured. Results: The results highlight that the granulomas and exudates developed in mice after 7 days of treatment, with compound I and compound II were significantly lower than that of the negative control group. Moreover, compound I showed significantly better anti-inflammatory effect than diclofenac. Troponin level was undetected in all groups. Histopathological

  4. Effects of a Workplace Intervention Targeting Psychosocial Risk Factors on Safety and Health Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie B. Hammer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to test the effectiveness of a workplace intervention targeting work-life stress and safety-related psychosocial risk factors on health and safety outcomes. Data were collected over time using a randomized control trial design with 264 construction workers employed in an urban municipal department. The intervention involved family- and safety-supportive supervisor behavior training (computer-based, followed by two weeks of behavior tracking and a four-hour, facilitated team effectiveness session including supervisors and employees. A significant positive intervention effect was found for an objective measure of blood pressure at the 12-month follow-up. However, no significant intervention results were found for self-reported general health, safety participation, or safety compliance. These findings suggest that an intervention focused on supervisor support training and a team effectiveness process for planning and problem solving should be further refined and utilized in order to improve employee health with additional research on the beneficial effects on worker safety.

  5. School climate factors contributing to student and faculty perceptions of safety in select Arizona schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosworth, Kris; Ford, Lysbeth; Hernandaz, Diley

    2011-04-01

    To ensure that schools are safe places where students can learn, researchers and educators must understand student and faculty safety concerns. This study examines student and teacher perceptions of school safety. Twenty-two focus groups with students and faculty were conducted in 11 secondary schools. Schools were selected from a stratified sample to vary in location, proximity to Indian reservations, size, and type. The data analysis was based on grounded theory. In 9 of 11 schools, neither faculty nor students voiced overwhelming concerns about safety. When asked what makes school safe, students tended to report physical security features. School climate and staff actions also increased feelings of safety. Faculty reported that relationships and climate are key factors in making schools safe. High student performance on standardized tests does not buffer students from unsafe behavior, nor does living in a dangerous neighborhood necessarily lead to more drug use or violence within school walls. School climate seemed to explain the difference between schools in which students and faculty reported higher versus lower levels of violence and alcohol and other drug use. The findings raise provocative questions about school safety and provide insight into elements that lead to perceptions of safety. Some schools have transcended issues of location and neighborhood to provide an environment perceived as safe. Further study of those schools could provide insights for policy makers, program planners, and educational leaders. © 2011, American School Health Association.

  6. Effects of a Workplace Intervention Targeting Psychosocial Risk Factors on Safety and Health Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Leslie B.; Truxillo, Donald M.; Bodner, Todd; Rineer, Jennifer; Pytlovany, Amy C.; Richman, Amy

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to test the effectiveness of a workplace intervention targeting work-life stress and safety-related psychosocial risk factors on health and safety outcomes. Data were collected over time using a randomized control trial design with 264 construction workers employed in an urban municipal department. The intervention involved family- and safety-supportive supervisor behavior training (computer-based), followed by two weeks of behavior tracking and a four-hour, facilitated team effectiveness session including supervisors and employees. A significant positive intervention effect was found for an objective measure of blood pressure at the 12-month follow-up. However, no significant intervention results were found for self-reported general health, safety participation, or safety compliance. These findings suggest that an intervention focused on supervisor support training and a team effectiveness process for planning and problem solving should be further refined and utilized in order to improve employee health with additional research on the beneficial effects on worker safety. PMID:26557703

  7. Factors Influencing the Safety Behavior of German Equestrians: Attitudes towards Protective Equipment and Peer Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina-Maria Ikinger

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Human interactions with horses entail certain risks. Although the acceptance and use of protective gear is increasing, a high number of incidents and very low or inconsistent voluntary use of safety equipment are reported. While past studies have examined factors influencing the use of safety gear, they have explored neither their influence on the overall safety behavior, nor their relative influence in relation to each other. The aim of the present study is to fill this gap. We conducted an online survey with 2572 participants. By means of a subsequent multiple regression analysis, we explored 23 different variables in view of their influence on the protective behavior of equestrians. In total, we found 17 variables that exerted a significant influence. The results show that both having positive or negative attitudes towards safety products as well as the protective behavior of other horse owners or riding pupils from the stable have the strongest influence on the safety behavior of German equestrians. We consider such knowledge to be important for both scientists and practitioners, such as producers of protective gear or horse sport associations who might alter safety behavior in such a way that the number of horse-related injuries decreases in the long term.

  8. The PSA of safety-critical digital I and C system: the determination of important factors and sensitivity analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, H. G.; Sung, T. Y.; Eom, H. S.; Jeong, H. S.; Park, J. K.; Lee, K. Y.; Park, J. K.

    2002-01-01

    This report is prepared to suggest a practical Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) methodology of safety-critical digital instrumentation and control (I and C) systems. Even though conventional probabilistic safety assessment methods are immature for applying to microprocessor-based digital systems, practical needs force to apply it because the result of probabilistic safety assessment plays very important role in proving the safety of a designed system. Microprocessors and software technologies make the digital system very complex and hard to analyze the safety of their applications. The aim of this is: (1) To summarize the factors which should be represented by the model for probabilistic safety assessment and to propose a standpoint of evaluation for digital systems. (2) To quantitatively presents the results of a mathematical case study which examines the analysis framework of the safety of digital systems in the context of the PSA. (3) To show the results of a sensitivity study for some critical factors

  9. Barriers to Safety Event Reporting in an Academic Radiology Department: Authority Gradients and Other Human Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siewert, Bettina; Swedeen, Suzanne; Brook, Olga R; Eisenberg, Ronald L; Hochman, Mary

    2018-05-15

    Purpose To investigate barriers to reporting safety concerns in an academic radiology department and to evaluate the role of human factors, including authority gradients, as potential barriers to safety concern reporting. Materials and Methods In this institutional review board-approved, HIPAA-compliant retrospective study, an online questionnaire link was emailed four times to all radiology department staff members (n = 648) at a tertiary care institution. Survey questions included frequency of speaking up about safety concerns, perceived barriers to speaking up, and the annual number of safety concerns that respondents were unsuccessful in reporting. Respondents' sex, role in the department, and length of employment were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed with the Fisher exact test. Results The survey was completed by 363 of the 648 employees (56%). Of those 363 employees, 182 (50%) reported always speaking up about safety concerns, 134 (37%) reported speaking up most of the time, 36 (10%) reported speaking up sometimes, seven (2%) reported rarely speaking up, and four (1%) reported never speaking up. Thus, 50% of employees spoke up about safety concerns less than 100% of the time. The most frequently reported barriers to speaking up included high reporting threshold (69%), reluctance to challenge someone in authority (67%), fear of disrespect (53%), and lack of listening (52%). Conclusion Of employees in a large academic radiology department, 50% do not attain 100% reporting of safety events. The most common human barriers to speaking up are high reporting threshold, reluctance to challenge authority, fear of disrespect, and lack of listening, which suggests that existing authority gradients interfere with full reporting of safety concerns. © RSNA, 2018.

  10. Beam-scanning system for determination of beam profiles and form factors in merged-beam experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keyser, C.J.; Froelich, H.R.; Mitchell, J.B.A.; McGowan, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    A beam-scanning system for a merged electron-ion beam experiment is described. This system is used to determine the horizontal and vertical beam profiles and the form factors at three different locations along the axis of the beams. Design details of the wedge-shaped scanners and the electronic circuit for obtaining beam profiles and form factors are described. The form factor derivation for merged beams is given and an expression in terms of measured quantities is derived. (author)

  11. Coagulation Profile as a Risk Factor for 30-Day Morbidity and Mortality Following Posterior Lumbar Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronheim, Rachel S; Oermann, Eric K; Cho, Samuel K; Caridi, John M

    2017-06-15

    A retrospective cohort study. The aim of this study was to identify associations between abnormal coagulation profile and postoperative morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing posterior lumbar fusion (PLF). The literature suggests that abnormal coagulation profile is associated with postoperative complications, notably the need for blood transfusion. However, there is little research that directly addresses the influence of coagulation profile on postoperative complications following PLF. The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database (ACS-NSQIP) was utilized to identify patients undergoing PLF between 2006 and 2013. Nine thousand two hundred ninety-five patients met inclusion criteria. Multivariate analysis was utilized to identify associations between abnormal coagulation profile and postoperative complications. Low platelet count was an independent risk factor for organ space surgical site infections (SSIs) [odds ratio (OR) = 6.0, P 48 hours (OR = 4.5, P = 0.002), Acute renal failure (OR = 5.8, P = 0.007), transfusion (OR = 1.6, P risk factor for ventilation >48 hours (OR = 5.6, P = 0.002), cerebrovascular accident (CVA)/stroke with neurological deficit (OR = 5.1, P = 0.011), cardiac arrest (OR = 5.4, P = 0.030), transfusion (OR = 1.5, P = 0.020), and death (OR = 4.5, P = 0.050). High International Normalized Ration (INR) was an independent risk factor for pneumonia (OR = 8.7, P = 0.001), pulmonary embolism (OR = 5.6, P = 0.021), deep venous thrombosis/Thrombophlebitis (OR = 4.8, P = 0.011), septic shock (OR = 8.4, P = 0.048), and death (OR = 9.8, P = 0.034). Bleeding disorder was an independent risk factor for organ space SSI (OR = 5.4, P = 0.01), pneumonia (OR = 3.0, P = 0.023), and sepsis (OR = 4.4, P profile was an independent predictor of morbidity and mortality in patients

  12. Analysis of Traffic Safety Factors at Level Rail-Road Crossings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Mlinarić

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the main factors of traffic safety andreliabilityat level crossings. The number and causes of accidentsare stated, that result from ignorance, insufficient training ofthe traffic participants, their ilnsponsibility and insufficient orincomplete legislation, as well as from insufficiently professionaland scientifically not serious enough approach to solvingthis cardinal problem in road and railway traffic. Based on theanalysis the causes are determined and solutions proposed, aswell as more efficient methods to improve safety and reduce thenumber of traffic accidents at level crossings.

  13. Simplified probabilistic approach to determine safety factors in deterministic flaw acceptance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthelet, B.; Ardillon, E.

    1997-01-01

    The flaw acceptance rules in nuclear components rely on deterministic criteria supposed to ensure the safe operating of plants. The interest of having a reliable method of evaluating the safety margins and the integrity of components led Electricite de France to launch a study to link safety factors with requested reliability. A simplified analytical probabilistic approach is developed to analyse the failure risk in Fracture Mechanics. Assuming lognormal distributions of the main random variables, it is possible considering a simple Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics model, to determine the failure probability as a function of mean values and logarithmic standard deviations. The 'design' failure point can be analytically calculated. Partial safety factors on the main variables (stress, crack size, material toughness) are obtained in relation with reliability target values. The approach is generalized to elastic plastic Fracture Mechanics (piping) by fitting J as a power law function of stress, crack size and yield strength. The simplified approach is validated by detailed probabilistic computations with PROBAN computer program. Assuming reasonable coefficients of variations (logarithmic standard deviations), the method helps to calibrate safety factors for different components taking into account reliability target values in normal, emergency and faulted conditions. Statistical data for the mechanical properties of the main basic materials complement the study. The work involves laboratory results and manufacture data. The results of this study are discussed within a working group of the French in service inspection code RSE-M. (authors)

  14. Profile of vildagliptin in type 2 diabetes: efficacy, safety, and patient acceptability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan CY

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available CY Pan,1 XL Wang21Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, People's Republic of China; 2Medical Affairs Department, Beijing Novartis Pharma Co, Ltd, Beijing, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: Vildagliptin is a selective and potent dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor that improves glycemic control by inhibiting the degradation of both endogenous glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide. This article is a comprehensive review of the safety and efficacy of vildagliptin in patients with type 2 diabetes. Clinical evidence has proven that it effectively decreases hemoglobin A1c with a low risk of hypoglycemia and is weight neutral. The addition of vildagliptin to metformin improves glucose control and significantly reduces gastrointestinal adverse events, particularly in patients inadequately controlled with metformin monotherapy. Its long-term advantages include preservation of β-cell function, reduction in total cholesterol, decrease in fasting lipolysis in adipose tissue, and triglyceride storage in non-fat tissues. Vildagliptin is well tolerated with a low incidence of AEs, and it does not increase the risk of cardiovascular/cerebrovascular (CCV events. It can be taken before or after meals, and has little drug interaction, thus it will be well accepted.Keywords: dipeptidyl peptidase-4, incretin hormones, vildagliptin, efficacy, safety, patient acceptability

  15. The Impact of Organizational Factors on Safety. The Perspective of Experts from the Spanish Nuclear Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    German, S.; Silla, I.; Navajas, J.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research supports the importance of organizational factors on safety in high reliability organizations. This study aims to determine the impact of those factors in the Spanish nuclear sector. Particularly, this study focuses on examining the role of performance indicators, organizational culture, organizational factors, and organizational context. With that purpose, an electronic survey addressed to experts from the Spanish nuclear sector was carried out. Results showed that performance indicators are well-known among industry experts and are perceived as useful for improving performance. Behavioural norms that influence safety and some relevant factors that promote problem identification were identified. Additionally, findings suggested that organizational context must be taken into account to better understand the role of organizational culture. Moreover, industry experts pointed out organizational factors to be improved: organizational communication processes within the organization, positive reinforcement, and field supervisors practices. Finally, findings supported the influence of organizational context on safety. It is noteworthy the role of the social impact of international events (e.g., Chernobyl...), the relationship with the regulator and the legislative and governmental framework. (Author)

  16. Hazard Management Dealt by Safety Professionals in Colleges: The Impact of Individual Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Chih Wu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Identifying, evaluating, and controlling workplace hazards are important functions of safety professionals (SPs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the content and frequency of hazard management dealt by safety professionals in colleges. The authors also explored the effects of organizational factors/individual factors on SPs’ perception of frequency of hazard management. The researchers conducted survey research to achieve the objective of this study. The researchers mailed questionnaires to 200 SPs in colleges after simple random sampling, then received a total of 144 valid responses (response rate = 72%. Exploratory factor analysis indicated that the hazard management scale (HMS extracted five factors, including physical hazards, biological hazards, social and psychological hazards, ergonomic hazards, and chemical hazards. Moreover, the top 10 hazards that the survey results identified that safety professionals were most likely to deal with (in order of most to least frequent were: organic solvents, illumination, other chemicals, machinery and equipment, fire and explosion, electricity, noise, specific chemicals, human error, and lifting/carrying. Finally, the results of one-way multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA indicated there were four individual factors that impacted the perceived frequency of hazard management which were of statistical and practical significance: job tenure in the college of employment, type of certification, gender, and overall job tenure. SPs within colleges and industries can now discuss plans revolving around these five areas instead of having to deal with all of the separate hazards.

  17. Analysis of contributing factors associated to related patients safety incidents in Intensive Care Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Delgado, M C; Merino de Cos, P; Sirgo Rodríguez, G; Álvarez Rodríguez, J; Gutiérrez Cía, I; Obón Azuara, B; Alonso Ovies, Á

    2015-01-01

    To explore contributing factors (CF) associated to related critical patients safety incidents. SYREC study pos hoc analysis. A total of 79 Intensive Care Departments were involved. The study sample consisted of 1.017 patients; 591 were affected by one or more incidents. The CF were categorized according to a proposed model by the National Patient Safety Agency from United Kingdom that was modified. Type, class and severity of the incidents was analyzed. A total 2,965 CF were reported (1,729 were associated to near miss and 1,236 to adverse events). The CF group more frequently reported were related patients factors. Individual factors were reported more frequently in near miss and task related CF in adverse events. CF were reported in all classes of incidents. The majority of CF were reported in the incidents classified such as less serious, even thought CF patients factors were associated to serious incidents. Individual factors were considered like avoidable and patients factors as unavoidable. The CF group more frequently reported were patient factors and was associated to more severe and unavoidable incidents. By contrast, individual factors were associated to less severe and avoidable incidents. In general, CF most frequently reported were associated to near miss. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  18. Safety assessment of human and organizational factors in French fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menuet, Lise; Beauquier, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    According to the French law, each nuclear facility has to provide a safety demonstration every ten years. The assessment of this demonstration supports the decision of the French Safety Authority regarding the authorisation of operating for the ten years to come. In addition, transversal topics, which are linked with safety performance, such as safety management, management of competencies, maintenance's policy are periodically evaluated. One aspect of these assessments relates to Human and Organizational Factors (HOF) and their contribution to safety. Our communication will describe the assessment of the HOF-related part, performed by the Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety Institute (IRSN) the Technical Support Organisation of the French Safety Authority). It will focus on the methodological framework, the tools which are developed and used for assessing the integration of HOF in safety demonstration, and the main difficulties of this kind of assessment. Each situation will be illustrated by concrete examples coming from safety assessments concerning fuel cycle's plants: Areva's plants dedicated to uranium conversion, uranium enrichment, fuel manufacturing, spent fuel reprocessing, treatment facilities and CEA's laboratories dedicated to research and development and to interim spent fuel storage. The methodological framework for assessing HOF currently implements three main steps which will be precisely described: - checking that the nuclear plant has made an exhaustive analysis of the risks linked with HOF. Regarding to HOF, the Licensee safety demonstration is based on the description of the main human activities which are considered as hazardous regarding safety. These activities are accomplished with a human contribution and they require a safe realisation. - assessing the human, organisational and technical barriers that the nuclear plant have planed in order to make the operations safe, to avoid, prevent or detect an

  19. Identifying at-risk profiles and protective factors for problem gambling: A longitudinal study across adolescence and early adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allami, Youssef; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Carbonneau, René; Tremblay, Richard E

    2018-05-01

    Past studies have identified various risk and protective factors for problem gambling (PG). However, no study has examined the interplay between these factors using a combination of person-centered and variable-centered approaches embedded within a longitudinal design. The present study aimed to (a) identify distinct profiles in early adolescence based on a set of risk factors commonly associated with PG (impulsivity, depression, anxiety, drug-alcohol use, aggressiveness, and antisociality), (b) explore the difference in reported gambling problems between these profiles during midadolescence and early adulthood, and (c) identify family- and peer-related variables that could operate as protective or compensatory factors in this context. Two samples were used: (a) a population sample (N = 1,033) living in low socioeconomic-status neighborhoods and (b) a population sample (N = 3,017) representative of students attending Quebec schools. Latent profile analyses were conducted to identify at-risk profiles based on individual risk factors measured at age 12 years. Negative binomial regression models were estimated to compare profiles in terms of their reported gambling problems at ages 16 and 23. Finally, family- and peer-related variables measured at age 14 were included to test their protective or compensatory role with respect to the link between at-risk profiles and gambling problems. Four profiles were identified: well-adjusted, internalizing, externalizing, and comorbid. Compared to the well-adjusted profile, the externalizing and comorbid profiles reported more gambling problems at ages 16 and 23, but the internalizing profile did not differ significantly. Various protective and compensatory factors emerged for each profile at both time points. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Power profiling of Cholesky and QR factorizations on distributed memory systems

    KAUST Repository

    Bosilca, George

    2012-08-30

    This paper presents the power profile of two high performance dense linear algebra libraries on distributed memory systems, ScaLAPACK and DPLASMA. From the algorithmic perspective, their methodologies are opposite. The former is based on block algorithms and relies on multithreaded BLAS and a two-dimensional block cyclic data distribution to achieve high parallel performance. The latter is based on tile algorithms running on top of a tile data layout and uses fine-grained task parallelism combined with a dynamic distributed scheduler (DAGuE) to leverage distributed memory systems. We present performance results (Gflop/s) as well as the power profile (Watts) of two common dense factorizations needed to solve linear systems of equations, namely Cholesky and QR. The reported numbers show that DPLASMA surpasses ScaLAPACK not only in terms of performance (up to 2X speedup) but also in terms of energy efficiency (up to 62 %). © 2012 Springer-Verlag (outside the USA).

  1. Safety profile of solid lipid nanoparticles loaded with rosmarinic acid for oral use: in vitro and animal approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madureira AR

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ana Raquel Madureira,1 Sara Nunes,2 Débora A Campos,1 João C Fernandes,2 Cláudia Marques,3 Monica Zuzarte,2 Beatriz Gullón,1 Luís M Rodríguez-Alcalá,1 Conceição Calhau,3,4 Bruno Sarmento,5–7 Ana Maria Gomes,1 Maria Manuela Pintado,1 Flávio Reis2 1Catholic University of Portugal, CBQF – Center for Biotechnology and Fine Chemistry – Associate Laboratory, Faculty of Biotechnology, Porto, Portugal; 2Laboratory of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Institute for Biomedical Imaging and Life Sciences (IBILI, Faculty of Medicine, and CNC.IBILI Consortium, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal; 3Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal; 4Center for Health Technology and Services Research (CINTESIS, Porto, Portugal; 5Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Institute of Health Sciences-North, CESPU, Gandra, Portugal; 6“I3S” Instituto de Investigação e Inovação em Saúde, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal; 7INEB, Institute of Biomedical Engineering, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal Abstract: Rosmarinic acid (RA possesses several protective bioactivities that have attracted increasing interest by nutraceutical/pharmaceutical industries. Considering the reduced bioavailability after oral use, effective (and safe delivery systems are crucial to protect RA from gastrointestinal degradation. This study aims to characterize the safety profile of solid lipid nanoparticles produced with Witepsol and Carnauba waxes and loaded with RA, using in vitro and in vivo approaches, focused on genotoxicity and cytotoxicity assays, redox status markers, hematological and biochemical profile, liver and kidney function, gut bacterial microbiota, and fecal fatty acids composition. Free RA and sage extract, empty nanoparticles, or nanoparticles loaded with RA or sage extract (0.15 and 1.5 mg/mL were evaluated for cell (lymphocytes viability, necrosis and apoptosis, and antioxidant

  2. Nonclinical Safety Assessment of Anti-Factor D: Key Strategies and Challenges for the Nonclinical Development of Intravitreal Biologics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bantseev, Vladimir; Erickson, Rebecca; Leipold, Douglas; Amaya, Caroline; Miller, Paul E; Booler, Helen; Thackaberry, Evan A

    The nonclinical toxicology program described here was designed to characterize the safety profile of anti-factor D (AFD; FCFD4514S, lampalizumab) to support intravitreal (ITV) administration in patients with geographic atrophy (GA). The toxicity of AFD was assessed in a single-dose and 6-month repeat-dose study in monkeys at doses up to 10 mg/eye. Toxicity was assessed by clinical ophthalmic examinations, intraocular pressure measurements, ocular photography, electroretinography, fluorescein angiography, optical coherence tomography, and anatomic pathology. Systemic exposure to AFD generally increased with the increase in dose level. The increases in mean maximal concentration and area under the curve values were roughly dose proportional. No accumulation of AFD was observed following 10 doses, and drug exposures were not affected by anti-drug antibodies. AFD was locally and systemically well tolerated in monkeys following ITV doses of up to 10 mg/eye. Ocular effects associated with AFD were limited to transient, reversible, dose-related, aqueous cell responses and injection-related, mild, vitreal cell responses. In the 6-month repeat-dose study, 2 monkeys had a nonspecific immune response to AFD that resulted in severe ocular inflammation, attributed to administration of a heterologous (humanized) protein. The comprehensive toxicology program in monkeys described here was designed to evaluate the safety profile of AFD and to support multiple ITV injections in the clinic. Administration of a heterologous (humanized) protein presents a challenge, and immunogenicity in nonclinical species is not predictive of immunogenicity in humans. Taken together, the results of the nonclinical program described here support the use of AFD in patients with GA.

  3. Research on review technology for three key safety factors of periodic safety review (PSR) and its application to Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Shoulv; Yao Weida; Dou Yikang; Lin Shaoxuan; Cao Yenan; Zhou Quanfu; Zheng Jiong; Zhang Ming

    2009-04-01

    In 2001, after 10 years' operation, Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant (Q1) started to carry out periodic safety review (PSR) based on a nuclear safety guideline, Periodic Safety Review for Operational Nuclear Power Plants (HAF0312), issued by National Nuclear Safety Administration of China (NNSA). Entrusted by the owner of Q1, Shanghai Nuclear Engineering Research and Design Institute (SNERDI) implemented reviews of three key safety factors including safety analysis, equipment qualification and ageing. PSR was a challenging work in China at that time and through three years' research and practice, SNERDI summarized a systematic achievement for the review including review methodology, scoping, review contents and implementation steps, etc.. During the process of review for the three safety factors, totally 148 review reports and 341 recommendations for corrections were submitted to Q1. These reports and recommendations have provided guidance for correction actions as follow-up of PSR. This paper focuses on technical aspects to carry out PSR for the above-mentioned three safety factors, including review scoping, contents, methodology and main steps. The review technology and relevant experience can be taken for reference for other NPPs to carry out PSR. (authors)

  4. Improving health profile of blood donors as a consequence of transfusion safety efforts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgren, Gustaf; Tran, Trung Nam; Hjalgrim, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Transfusion safety rests heavily on the health of blood donors. Although they are perceived as being healthier than average, little is known about their long-term disease patterns and to which extent the blood banks' continuous efforts to optimize donor selection has resulted...... in improvements. Mortality and cancer incidence among blood donors in Sweden and Denmark was investigated. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: All computerized blood bank databases were compiled into one database, which was linked to national population and health data registers. With a retrospective cohort study design, 1......,110,329 blood donors were followed for up to 35 years from first computer-registered blood donation to death, emigration, or December 31, 2002. Standardized mortality and incidence ratios expressed relative risk of death and cancer comparing blood donors to the general population. RESULTS: Blood donors had...

  5. Practice-based evidence: profiling the safety of cilostazol by text-mining of clinical notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeper, Nicholas J; Bauer-Mehren, Anna; Iyer, Srinivasan V; Lependu, Paea; Olson, Cliff; Shah, Nigam H

    2013-01-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a growing problem with few available therapies. Cilostazol is the only FDA-approved medication with a class I indication for intermittent claudication, but carries a black box warning due to concerns for increased cardiovascular mortality. To assess the validity of this black box warning, we employed a novel text-analytics pipeline to quantify the adverse events associated with Cilostazol use in a clinical setting, including patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). We analyzed the electronic medical records of 1.8 million subjects from the Stanford clinical data warehouse spanning 18 years using a novel text-mining/statistical analytics pipeline. We identified 232 PAD patients taking Cilostazol and created a control group of 1,160 PAD patients not taking this drug using 1:5 propensity-score matching. Over a mean follow up of 4.2 years, we observed no association between Cilostazol use and any major adverse cardiovascular event including stroke (OR = 1.13, CI [0.82, 1.55]), myocardial infarction (OR = 1.00, CI [0.71, 1.39]), or death (OR = 0.86, CI [0.63, 1.18]). Cilostazol was not associated with an increase in any arrhythmic complication. We also identified a subset of CHF patients who were prescribed Cilostazol despite its black box warning, and found that it did not increase mortality in this high-risk group of patients. This proof of principle study shows the potential of text-analytics to mine clinical data warehouses to uncover 'natural experiments' such as the use of Cilostazol in CHF patients. We envision this method will have broad applications for examining difficult to test clinical hypotheses and to aid in post-marketing drug safety surveillance. Moreover, our observations argue for a prospective study to examine the validity of a drug safety warning that may be unnecessarily limiting the use of an efficacious therapy.

  6. Practice-based evidence: profiling the safety of cilostazol by text-mining of clinical notes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J Leeper

    Full Text Available Peripheral arterial disease (PAD is a growing problem with few available therapies. Cilostazol is the only FDA-approved medication with a class I indication for intermittent claudication, but carries a black box warning due to concerns for increased cardiovascular mortality. To assess the validity of this black box warning, we employed a novel text-analytics pipeline to quantify the adverse events associated with Cilostazol use in a clinical setting, including patients with congestive heart failure (CHF.We analyzed the electronic medical records of 1.8 million subjects from the Stanford clinical data warehouse spanning 18 years using a novel text-mining/statistical analytics pipeline. We identified 232 PAD patients taking Cilostazol and created a control group of 1,160 PAD patients not taking this drug using 1:5 propensity-score matching. Over a mean follow up of 4.2 years, we observed no association between Cilostazol use and any major adverse cardiovascular event including stroke (OR = 1.13, CI [0.82, 1.55], myocardial infarction (OR = 1.00, CI [0.71, 1.39], or death (OR = 0.86, CI [0.63, 1.18]. Cilostazol was not associated with an increase in any arrhythmic complication. We also identified a subset of CHF patients who were prescribed Cilostazol despite its black box warning, and found that it did not increase mortality in this high-risk group of patients.This proof of principle study shows the potential of text-analytics to mine clinical data warehouses to uncover 'natural experiments' such as the use of Cilostazol in CHF patients. We envision this method will have broad applications for examining difficult to test clinical hypotheses and to aid in post-marketing drug safety surveillance. Moreover, our observations argue for a prospective study to examine the validity of a drug safety warning that may be unnecessarily limiting the use of an efficacious therapy.

  7. [Efficacy and safety profile of cranberry in infants and children with recurrent urinary tract infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Puentes, V; Uberos, J; Rodríguez-Belmonte, R; Nogueras-Ocaña, M; Blanca-Jover, E; Narbona-López, E

    2015-06-01

    Cranberry prophylaxis of recurrent urinary tract infection in infants has proven effective in the experimental model of the adult. There are few data on its efficacy, safety and recommended dose in the pediatric population. A controlled, double-blind Phase III clinical trial was conducted on children older than 1 month of age to evaluate the efficacy and safety of cranberry in recurrent urinary tract infection. The assumption was of the non-inferiority of cranberry versus trimethoprim. Statistical analysis was performed using Kaplan Meier analysis. A total of 85 patients under 1 year of age and 107 over 1 year were recruited. Trimethoprim was prescribed to 75 patients and 117 received cranberry. The cumulative rate of urinary infection associated with cranberry prophylaxis in children under 1 year was 46% (95% CI; 23-70) in children and 17% (95% CI; 0-38) in girls, effectively at doses inferior to trimethoprim. In children over 1 year-old cranberry was not inferior to trimethoprim, with a cumulative rate of urine infection of 26% (95% CI; 12-41). The cranberry was well tolerated and with no new adverse effects. Our study confirms that cranberry is safe and effective in the prophylaxis of recurrent urinary tract infection in infants and children. With the doses used, their efficiency is not less than that observed for trimethoprim among those over 1 year-old. (Clinical Trials Registry ISRCTN16968287). Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Research study about the establishment of safety culture. Effects of organizational factors in construction industry's safety indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Mitsuhiro; Hirose, Humiko; Takano, Kenichi; Hasegawa, Naoko

    1999-01-01

    To find the relationships between safety related activities (such as safety patrol' or '4s/5s activities') and accidents rate in the workplace, questionnaires were sent to 965 construction companies and 120 answers were returned. In this questionnaire, safety activities, safety regulations and safety policies of the companies were asked and organizational climates, company policies, philosophies and the number of accidents in workplace were also asked. There seems some relationships between accidents rate and safety activities, safety regulations and safety policies in the companies, but the deviations between estimate values and observed values are so great that it seems impossible to estimate the accidents rate in the working place from the safety activities, safety regulations and safety policies of the companies. On the other hand, some characteristics of safety activities and organizational climates in the construction industry were identified using multi variants analysis. More detailed researches using sophisticated questionnaire will be conducted in the construction industry and petrochemical industry and relationships between the accidents rate and the safety activities will be compared between different industries. (author)

  9. Phosphate binders for the treatment of hyperphosphatemia in chronic kidney disease patients on dialysis: a comparison of safety profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatelli, Francesco; Del Vecchio, Lucia; Violo, Leano; Pontoriero, Giuseppe

    2014-05-01

    Hyperphosphatemia is common in the late stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is associated with elevated parathormone levels, abnormal bone mineralization, extraosseous calcification and increased risk of cardiovascular events and death. Several classes of oral phosphate binders are available to help control phosphorus levels. Although effective at lowering serum phosphorus, they all have safety issues that need to be considered when selecting which one to use. This paper reviews the use of phosphate binders in patients with CKD on dialysis, with a focus on safety and tolerability. In addition to the more established agents, a new resin-based phosphate binder, colestilan, is discussed. Optimal phosphate control is still an unmet need in CKD. Nonetheless, we now have an extending range of phosphate binders available. Aluminium has potentially serious toxic risks. Calcium-based binders are still very useful but can lead to hypercalcemia and/or positive calcium balance and cardiovascular calcification. No long-term data are available for the new calcium acetate/magnesium combination product. Lanthanum is an effective phosphate binder, but there is insufficient evidence about possible long-term effects of tissue deposition. The resin-based binders, colestilan and sevelamer, appear to have profiles that would lead to less vascular calcification, and the main adverse events seen with these agents are gastrointestinal effects.

  10. Organisational factors. Their definition and influence on nuclear safety. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumont, G.; Wahlstroem, B.; Sola, R.; Williams, J.; Frischknecht, A.; Wilpert, B.; Rollenhagen, C.

    2000-12-01

    The importance of organisational factors in the operational safety and efficiency of nuclear power plants (NPP) has been recognised by many organisations around the world. Despite this recognition, however, there are as yet very few methods by which organisational factors can be systematically assessed and improved. The majority of research efforts applied so far have tended to be modest and scattered. The ORFA project was created as a remedy to these problems. The objective of the project is to create a better understanding of how organisation and management factors influence nuclear safety. A key scientific objective of the project is to identify components of a theoretical framework, which would help in understanding the relationships between organisational factors and nuclear safety. Three work packages were planned. First, a review of literature listed out the identified factors and methods for assessing them. Then, a draft version of the present report was prepared to clarify the environment context and the main issues of the topics. This draft was discussed at the ORFA seminar in Madrid 21-22 October 1999. During the seminar views and comments were collected on preliminary results of the project. Finally, this information has been integrated in the present and other reports and will be used to give further guidance to the European Commission in the development of forthcoming research programmes in the field. The project has addressed nuclear safety taking a broad perspective, which reflected and took into account the views of senior NPP management and regulators. The questions discussed during the project have been: how can organisational factors be included in safety assessments, how can good and bad operational practices be identified, which methods can be used for detecting weak signals of deteriorating performance, how should incidents be analysed with respect to organisational factors to give the largest learning benefit, how can data on organisational

  11. Safety and Pharmacokinetic Profiles of Repeated-Dose Micafungin in Children and Adolescents Treated for Invasive Candidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Daniel K.; Deville, Jaime G.; Azie, Nkechi; Kovanda, Laura; Roy, Mike; Wu, Chunzhang; Arrieta, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Background Micafungin is an echinocandin with proven efficacy against a broad range of fungal infections, including those caused by Candida species. Objective To evaluate the safety and pharmacokinetics of once-daily 3 mg/kg and 4.5 mg/kg micafungin in children with proven, probable, or suspected invasive candidiasis. Methods Micafungin safety and pharmacokinetics were assessed in two Phase I, open-label, repeat-dose trials. In Study 2101, children aged 2–16 years were grouped by weight to receive 3 mg/kg (≥25 kg) or 4.5 mg/kg (<25 kg) intravenous micafungin for 10–14 days. In Study 2102, children aged 4 months to <2 years received 4.5 mg/kg micafungin. Study protocols were otherwise identical. Results Safety was analyzed in seventy-eight and nine children in Studies 2101 and 2102, respectively. Although adverse events were experienced by most children (2101: n = 62; 2102: n = 9), micafungin-related adverse events were less common (2101: n = 28; 2102: n = 1), and the number of patients discontinuing due to adverse events was low (2101: n = 4; 2102: n = 1). The most common micafungin-related adverse events were infusion-associated symptoms, pyrexia, and hypomagnesemia (Study 2101), and liver function abnormalities (Study 2102). The micafungin pharmacokinetic profile was similar to that seen in other studies conducted in children, but different than that observed in adults. Conclusions In this small cohort of children, once-daily doses of 3 mg/kg and 4.5 mg/kg micafungin were well tolerated. Pharmacokinetic data will be combined in a population pharmacokinetic analysis to support U.S. dosing recommendations in children. PMID:23958810

  12. Migration Factors in West African Immigrant Parents' Perceptions of Their Children's Neighborhood Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Andrew; Cissé, Aïcha; Han, Ying; Roubeni, Sonia

    2018-02-12

    Immigrants make up large proportions of many low-income neighborhoods, but have been largely ignored in the neighborhood safety literature. We examined perceived safety's association with migration using a six-item, child-specific measure of parents' perceptions of school-aged (5-12 years of age) children's safety in a sample of 93 West African immigrant parents in New York City. Aims of the study were (a) to identify pre-migration correlates (e.g., trauma in home countries), (b) to identify migration-related correlates (e.g., immigration status, time spent separated from children during migration), and (c) to identify pre-migration and migration correlates that accounted for variance after controlling for non-migration-related correlates (e.g., neighborhood crime, parents' psychological distress). In a linear regression model, children's safety was associated with borough of residence, greater English ability, less emotional distress, less parenting difficulty, and a history of child separation. Parents' and children's gender, parents' immigration status, and the number of contacts in the U.S. pre-migration and pre-migration trauma were not associated with children's safety. That child separation was positively associated with safety perceptions suggests that the processes that facilitate parent-child separation might be reconceptualized as strengths for transnational families. Integrating migration-related factors into the discussion of neighborhood safety for immigrant populations allows for more nuanced views of immigrant families' well-being in host countries. © Society for Community Research and Action 2018.

  13. Factors influencing safety among a group of commercial fishermen along the Texas Gulf Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Jeffrey L; Gilmore, Karen; Shepherd, Sara; Wickman, Amanda; Carruth, Ann; Nalbone, J Torey; Gallardo, Gilbert; Nonnenmann, Matthew W

    2010-10-01

    The commercial fishing trades are among the most dangerous jobs in the world. Little published information exists regarding some populations of commercial fishermen such as along the United States Gulf Coast. Studying these unique and often vulnerable groups is important to characterize potential influences on or barriers to safety in anticipation of designing interventions that can change safety behaviors. Working closely with the United States Coast Guard (USCG), a cross-sectional convenience sample of Gulf Coast shrimp fishermen in and near the Port of Galveston, Texas, was surveyed. The survey included demographic factors and broadly covered areas such as type of work and fishing activities, general or global perceptions and beliefs related to safety and accidents, self-report of ability to use safety equipment or apply procedures aboard vessel, and training considerations. Surveys were obtained following informed consent (n = 133). Of the participants, 96.7% were male with 60.9% ≥40 years old. A majority were of Asian descent (57.1% of all fishermen, 82.1% of shrimp fishermen). Over half claimed to speak little or no English and nearly 60% considered the job to be very safe to neutral. A third to half of respondents expressed doubt about their knowledge of using essential safety equipment in the event of emergency. A large portion of the participants preferred hands-on safety training (40.6%). Important findings about this group of commercial fishermen will help with future development of effective prevention practices through the delivery of culturally appropriate safety awareness training. One element that must be addressed in training programs is to increase the awareness among fishermen about the severe occupational risks inherent in this type of work. Community trust and collaborative partnerships are essential to the success of such initiatives.

  14. Fusion integral experiments and analysis and the determination of design safety factors - I: Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youssef, M.Z.; Kumar, A.; Abdou, M.A.; Oyama, Y.; Maekawa, H.

    1995-01-01

    The role of the neutronics experimentation and analysis in fusion neutronics research and development programs is discussed. A new methodology was developed to arrive at estimates to design safety factors based on the experimental and analytical results from design-oriented integral experiments. In this methodology, and for a particular nuclear response, R, a normalized density function (NDF) is constructed from the prediction uncertainties, and their associated standard deviations, as found in the various integral experiments where that response, R, is measured. Important statistical parameters are derived from the NDF, such as the global mean prediction uncertainty, and the possible spread around it. The method of deriving safety factors from many possible NDFs based on various calculational and measuring methods (among other variants) is also described. Associated with each safety factor is a confidence level, designers may choose to have, that the calculated response, R, will not exceed (or will not fall below) the actual measured value. An illustrative example is given on how to construct the NDFs. The methodology is applied in two areas, namely the line-integrated tritium production rate and bulk shielding integral experiments. Conditions under which these factors could be derived and the validity of the method are discussed. 72 refs., 17 figs., 4 tabs

  15. Decommissioning: Regulatory activities and identification of key organizational and human factors safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durbin, N.E.; Melber, B.D.; Lekberg, A.

    2001-12-01

    In the late 1990's the Swedish government decided to shut down Unit 1 of the Barsebaeck nuclear power plant. This report documents some of the efforts made by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) to address human factors and organizational issues in nuclear safety during decommissioning of a nuclear facility. This report gives a brief review of the background to the decommissioning of Barsebaeck 1 and points out key safety issues that can arise during decommissioning. The main regulatory activities that were undertaken were requirements that the plant provide special safety reports on decommissioning focusing on first, the operation of both units until closure of Unit 1 and second, the operation of Unit 2 when Unit 1 was closed. In addition, SKI identified areas that might be affected by decommissioning and called these areas out for special attention. With regard to these areas of special attention, SKI required that the plant provide monthly reports on changing and emerging issues as well as self-assessments of the areas to be addressed in the special safety reports. Ten key safety issues were identified and evaluated with regard to different stages of decommissioning and with regard to the actions taken by Barsebaeck. Some key conclusions from SKI's experience in regulating a decommissioning nuclear power plant conclude the report

  16. Profile of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Patients with Coronary Heart Disease, Normal and Impaired Carbohydrate Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І.V. Cherniavska

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of research was to conduct the comparative analysis of the profile of cardiovascular risk factors in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD and normal either impaired carbohydrate metabolism. Materials and methods. One hundred and forty two patients were observed. In order to estimate the rate of different forms of CHD depending on the state of carbohydrate metabolism such groups were formed: the first group consisted of 83 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM, the second group involved 34 patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, the third group consisted of 25 patients with normal carbohydrate metabolism. The ischemic changes of myocardium were detected by ambulatory ECG monitoring with the obligatory achievement of submaximal heart rate during the research. Results. Silent myocardial ischemia was educed in 19 (22.9 % patients with type 2 DM, in 3 (8.8 % persons with IGT and in 2 (8.0 % patients with normal carbohydrate metabolism. Smoking, burdened heredity, violation in the haemostatic system more often occurred in the group of patients with type 2 DM and silent myocardial ischemia in comparison with the patients with type 2 DM without CHD. The profile of general population cardiovascular risk factors in patients with CHD and type 2 DM belongs to the most unfavorable. At the same time for patients with early violations of carbohydrate metabolism and normal carbohydrate metabolism such profile statistically does not differentiate meaningfully. Conclusions. Patients with type 2 DM and silent myocardial ischemia as compared to patients with type 2 DM without CHD have more expressed violations of indexes of general population cardiovascular risk factors for certain.

  17. Factors impacting perceived safety among staff working on mental health wards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Alina; Brown, Andrew; McCabe, Rhiannah; Rogerson, Michelle; Whittington, Richard

    2017-09-01

    Safety at work is a core issue for mental health staff working on in-patient units. At present, there is a limited theoretical base regarding which factors may affect staff perceptions of safety. This study attempted to identify which factors affect perceived staff safety working on in-patient mental health wards. A cross-sectional design was employed across 101 forensic and non-forensic mental health wards, over seven National Health Service trusts nationally. Measures included an online staff survey, Ward Features Checklist and recorded incident data. Data were analysed using categorical principal components analysis and ordinal regression. Perceptions of staff safety were increased by ward brightness, higher number of patient beds, lower staff to patient ratios, less dayroom space and more urban views. The findings from this study do not represent common-sense assumptions. Results are discussed in the context of the literature and may have implications for current initiatives aimed at managing in-patient violence and aggression. None. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license.

  18. Human resource factors associated with workplace safety and health education of small manufacturing businesses in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyoung-Ok

    2018-01-25

    Human resources (HR) are essential indicators of safety and health (SH) status, and HR can be key sources of workplace safety management such as safety and health education at work (SHEW). This study analyzed significant HR factors associated with SHEW of small manufacturing businesses in Korea. The secondary data of the 2012 Korea Occupational Safety and Health Trend Survey were used to achieve this research purpose. A total of 2,089 supervisors or managers employed in the small manufacturing businesses completed the interview survey. Survey businesses were selected by multiple stratified sampling method based on industry code, business size, and region in Korea. The survey included workplace characteristics of HR and SHEW. SHEW was significantly related to business size, occupational injury incidence in the previous year, foreign and elderly worker employment, presence of site supervisors, and presence of SH committees (p <.05). SHEW for office workers, non-office workers, and newcomers was associated with business size, presence of site supervisors, and presence of SH committees in logistic regression analysis (p <.001). Businesses with 30-49 workers conducted SHEW 3.64 times more than did businesses with 5 to fewer than 10 workers. The companies that had occupational injuries in the previous year conducted SHEW 1.68 times more than the others. The businesses that had site supervisors and committees conducted SHEW 2.30 and 2.18 times more, respectively, than others. Site supervisors and SH committees were significant HR factors that improved SHEW in small manufacturing businesses.

  19. JASPAR 2010: the greatly expanded open-access database of transcription factor binding profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Portales-Casamar, Elodie; Thongjuea, Supat; Kwon, Andrew T

    2009-01-01

    JASPAR (http://jaspar.genereg.net) is the leading open-access database of matrix profiles describing the DNA-binding patterns of transcription factors (TFs) and other proteins interacting with DNA in a sequence-specific manner. Its fourth major release is the largest expansion of the core database...... to an active research community. As binding models are refined by newer data, the JASPAR database now uses versioning of matrices: in this release, 12% of the older models were updated to improved versions. Classification of TF families has been improved by adopting a new DNA-binding domain nomenclature...

  20. Studying wedge factors and beam profiles for physical and enhanced dynamic wedges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Misbah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate variation in Varian′s Physical and Enhanced Dynamic Wedge Factors (WF as a function of depth and field size. The profiles for physical wedges (PWs and enhanced dynamic wedges (EDWs were also measured using LDA-99 array and compared for confirmation of EDW angles at different depths and field sizes. WF measurements were performed in water phantom using cylindrical 0.66 cc ionization chamber. WF was measured by taking the ratio of wedge and open field ionization data. A normalized wedge factor (NWF was introduced to circumvent large differences between wedge factors for different wedge angles. A strong linear dependence of PW Factor (PWF with depth was observed. Maximum variation of 8.9% and 4.1% was observed for 60° PW with depth at 6 and 15 MV beams respectively. The variation in EDW Factor (EDWF with depth was almost negligible and less than two per cent. The highest variation in PWF as a function of field size was 4.1% and 3.4% for thicker wedge (60° at 6 and 15 MV beams respectively and decreases with decreasing wedge angle. EDWF shows strong field size dependence and significant variation was observed for all wedges at both photon energies. Differences in profiles between PW and EDW were observed on toe and heel sides. These differences were dominant for larger fields, shallow depths, thicker wedges and low energy beam. The study indicated that ignoring depth and field size dependence of WF may result in under/over dose to the patient especially doing manual point dose calculation.

  1. Safety profile of parental ketamine and lignocaine infiltration in pediatric operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osifo, David O; Emeagui, Kennedy N [Dept. of Surgery, Pediatric Surgery Unit, Univ. of Benin (Nigeria); Aghahowa, Sylvester E [Pharmacy Dept., Univ. of Benin, Benin City (Nigeria)

    2008-07-01

    Objective was to study the safety and benefits of parenteral ketamine and lignocaine infiltration among pediatric surgical patients with co-morbidities that would preclude the use of general anesthesia requiring endotracheal intubation/ face mask in a developing country. This prospective study was undertaken at the Leadeks Medical Centre, Benin City Edo State, Nigeria between January 2002 and December 2006. Patients requiring surgery were safely operated even in the presence of co-morbidity. A total of 416 children were recruited and they were aged 6 days to16 years (mean 12-/+ 2.04 years) with a male/ female ratio of 1:1.1. Appendectomy (33.2%), herniotomy (20.2%) and suturing of laceration (15.9%) were the most common indications for surgery. Anemia, upper respiratory tract infections, malnutrition, malaria fever, typhoid fever and retroviral infections were co-morbidities. Ambulatory surgery was carried out in 48.6% patients. Overall, only 23.3% experienced postoperative pain which was statistically significant in those that had laparotomy and appendectomy (p<0.0001) and analgesics such as paracetamol were enough to relieve the pain. Complications recorded such as postoperative vomiting, emergence reaction, wound infection, post operative fever and apnea occurring after ketamine injections were tolerated and no mortality was recorded. The satisfactory anesthesia and analgesia recorded with this combination and the low complications observed in the presence of co-morbidity showed that these agents have much to offer in a developing country. (author)

  2. Safety profile of parental ketamine and lignocaine infiltration in pediatric operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osifo, David O.; Emeagui, Kennedy N.; Aghahowa, Sylvester E.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to study the safety and benefits of parenteral ketamine and lignocaine infiltration among pediatric surgical patients with co-morbidities that would preclude the use of general anesthesia requiring endotracheal intubation/ face mask in a developing country. This prospective study was undertaken at the Leadeks Medical Centre, Benin City Edo State, Nigeria between January 2002 and December 2006. Patients requiring surgery were safely operated even in the presence of co-morbidity. A total of 416 children were recruited and they were aged 6 days to16 years (mean 12-/+ 2.04 years) with a male/ female ratio of 1:1.1. Appendectomy (33.2%), herniotomy (20.2%) and suturing of laceration (15.9%) were the most common indications for surgery. Anemia, upper respiratory tract infections, malnutrition, malaria fever, typhoid fever and retroviral infections were co-morbidities. Ambulatory surgery was carried out in 48.6% patients. Overall, only 23.3% experienced postoperative pain which was statistically significant in those that had laparotomy and appendectomy (p<0.0001) and analgesics such as paracetamol were enough to relieve the pain. Complications recorded such as postoperative vomiting, emergence reaction, wound infection, post operative fever and apnea occurring after ketamine injections were tolerated and no mortality was recorded. The satisfactory anesthesia and analgesia recorded with this combination and the low complications observed in the presence of co-morbidity showed that these agents have much to offer in a developing country. (author)

  3. Quality factors in the life cycle of software oriented to safety systems in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez McLeod, J.E.; Rivera, S.S.

    1997-01-01

    The inclusion of software in safety related systems for nuclear power plants, makes it necessary to include the software quality assurance concept. The software quality can be defined as the adjustment degree between the software and the specified requirements and user expectations. To guarantee a certain software quality level it is necessary to make a systematic and planned set of tasks, that constitute a software quality guaranty plan. The application of such a plan involves activities that should be performed all along the software life cycle, and that can be evaluated through the so called quality factors, due to the fact that the quality itself cannot be directly measured, but indirectly as some of it manifestations. In this work, a software life cycle model is proposed, for nuclear power plant safety related systems. A set os software quality factors is also proposed , with its corresponding classification according to the proposed model. (author) [es

  4. Factors that impact on the safety of patient handovers: An interview study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siemsen, Inger Margrete; Madsen, Marlene Dyrløv; Pedersen, Lene Funck

    2012-01-01

    Aims: Improvement of clinical handover is fundamental to meet the challenges of patient safety. The primary aim of this interview study is to explore healthcare professionals’ attitudes and experiences with critical episodes in patient handover in order to elucidate factors that impact on handover...... from ambulance to hospitals and within and between hospitals. The secondary aim is to identify possible solutions to optimise handovers, defined as “situations where the professional responsibility for some or all aspects of a patient’s diagnosis, treatment or care is transferred to another person...... on patient safety in handover situations: communication, information, organisation, infrastructure, professionalism, responsibility, team awareness, and culture. Conclusions: The eight factors identified indicate that handovers are complex situations. The organisation did not see patient handover...

  5. Human factors engineering design review acceptance criteria for the safety parameter display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGevna, V.; Peterson, L.R.

    1981-01-01

    This report contains human factors engineering design review acceptance criteria developed by the Human Factors Engineering Branch (HFEB) of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to use in evaluating designs of the Safety Parameter Display System (SPDS). These criteria were developed in response to the functional design criteria for the SPDS defined in NUREG-0696, Functional Criteria for Emergency Response Facilities. The purpose of this report is to identify design review acceptance criteria for the SPDS installed in the control room of a nuclear power plant. Use of computer driven cathode ray tube (CRT) displays is anticipated. General acceptance criteria for displays of plant safety status information by the SPDS are developed. In addition, specific SPDS review criteria corresponding to the SPDS functional criteria specified in NUREG-0696 are established

  6. Partial safety factor calibration from stochastic finite element computation of welded joint with random geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoefs, Franck; Chevreuil, Mathilde; Pasqualini, Olivier; Cazuguel, Mikaël

    2016-01-01

    Welded joints are used in various structures and infrastructures like bridges, ships and offshore structures, and are submitted to cyclic stresses. Their fatigue behaviour is an industrial key issue to deal with and still offers original research subjects. One of the available methods relies on the computing of the stress concentration factor. Even if some studies were previously driven to evaluate this factor onto some cases of welded structures, the shape of the weld joint is generally idealized through a deterministic parametric geometry. Previous experimental works however have shown that this shape plays a key role in the lifetime assessment. We propose in this paper a methodology for computing the stress concentration factor in presence of random geometries of welded joints. In view to make the results available by engineers, this method merges stochastic computation and semi-probabilistic analysis by computing partial safety factors with a dedicated method. - Highlights: • Numerical computation of stress concentration factor with random geometry of weld. • Real data are used for probabilistic modelling. • Identification of partial safety factor from SFEM computation in case of random geometries.

  7. Brief Talk about Lithium-ion Batteries’ Safety and Influencing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Cheng

    2017-12-01

    A brief introduction of the development background, the concept, characteristic and advantages of lithium-ion battery was given. The typical fire accidents about lithium-ion battery in production process, the vehicle with new energy, portable electronic products were summarized. Some important factors for lithium-ion batteries’ safety were emphatically analyzed. Several constructive suggestions on improvement direction were given, meanwhile, we have a nice exception on the future of lithium-ion battery industry.

  8. Tokamak βaB/I limit and its dependence on the safety factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, J.J.

    1990-01-01

    It is shown that, for a given tokamak cross-sectional shape and arbitrary values of the magnetic axis safety factor q 0 , the first stability condition against pressure-driven magnetohydrodynamic modes has the form 40πβaB 0 /I≤C R (q 0 )/q 0 . Moreover, in the limit of large q 0 , C R (q 0 ) becomes independent of q 0 and independent of the toroidal mode number

  9. On dependence of thermal transport on the safety factor q in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, A.; Singh, A.; Livingstone, S.; Liu, D.

    2005-01-01

    Mixing length estimates of the anomalous ion and electron thermal diffusivities caused by the ITG and ETG mode, respectively, have revealed that both diffusivities are proportional to the safety factor q. In the case of ITG mode, the maximum χ i occurs at long wavelengths where coupling to the ion acoustic mode is dominant while ETG driven χ e peaks at wavelengths comparable to the electron skin depth. (author)

  10. Associations of quality of sleep with lifestyle factors and profile of studies among Lithuanian students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preišegolavičiūtė, Evelina; Leskauskas, Darius; Adomaitienė, Virginija

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the study was to analyze associations among quality of sleep, profile of the studies, and lifestyle factors among the students of three different study profiles (medicine, economics, and law). A total of 405 randomly selected students from the first and fourth years of studies from 4 different universities in Lithuania answered the standardized questionnaires consisting of two parts: 1) the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) for subjective evaluation of sleep quality; 2) the questionnaire about sleep and lifestyle habits and impact of poor sleep on the quality of life developed by the researchers. More than half (59.4%) of the students scored higher than 5 on the PSQI, which allowed suspecting sleep disorders. A significant difference in the frequency of poor sleepers was found regarding the profile of studies (Pstudents. There was a significant correlation between quality of sleep and subjective evaluation of quality of life (Pstudents experienced the highest impact of poor sleep on the quality of life (P=0.008). Students studying before going to sleep, spending more time studying, and having less leisure time had worse quality of sleep (Pstudents of medicine. The incidence of sleep problems is high among students in Lithuania, reaching 59.4%. Medical students have worse quality of sleep and worse impact of poor sleep on the quality of life compared to students of law and economics. A significant difference was found between medical students and their peers in other profiles of studies regarding their attitudes and habits related to studies: medical students spent more time for studying, were more anxious about studies and less satisfied with the results, studied more often before going to sleep.

  11. Edge gradient and safety factor effects on electrostatic turbulent transport in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Ing Hwie.

    1992-05-01

    Electrostatic turbulence and transport measurements are performed on the Tokapole-II tokamak at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, as the safety-factor and the edge equilibrium gradients and varied substantially. Tokapole-II is a poloidal divertor tokamak capable of operating at a wide range of safety factors due to its unique magnetic limiter configuration. It also has retractable material limiters in a large scrape-off region, which permits the study of edge boundary conditions like density and temperature gradients. The turbulence is independent of safety factor, but strongly sensitive to the local density gradient, which itself depends upon the limiter configuration. When a material limiter is inserted in a high discharge, the density gradient is increased locally together with a local increase of the turbulence. On the other hand, limiter insertion in low discharges did not increase the density gradient as much and the turbulence properties are unchanged with respect to the magnetic limiter case. It is conducted then, that electrostatic turbulence is caused by the density gradient. Although the electrostatic fluctuation driven transport is enhanced in the large density gradient case, it is in all cases to small to explain the observed energy confinement times. To explore instabilities with small wavelengths, a 0.5 mm diameter shperical Langmuir probe was constructed, and its power compared with the power measured by larger cylindrical probes

  12. The effects of the non-contingent presentation of safety signals on the elimination of safety behaviors: An experimental comparison between individuals with low and high obsessive-compulsive profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelakis, Ioannis; Austin, Jennifer L

    2018-06-01

    Safety behaviors, defined as engagement in avoidance within safe environments, are a key symptom of obsessive-compulsive and related disorders. They may interfere with daily functioning and as such their emission should be reduced. The purpose of the current study is to investigate the effects of the non-contingent presentation of safety signals (cues produced by safety behaviors) on reducing safety behaviors in participants self-reporting low and high OCD profiles. In total, 32 participants were asked to play a game to gain points and avoid their loss. After having developed avoidance behavior, evidenced by maintaining all of their earned points, they were exposed to safe environments where no point loss was programmed. In Test 1, safety cues (blue bar) were produced contingent on performing safety behaviors. In Test 2, safety cues were presented continuously without any response requirement. Findings demonstrated that high OCD group displayed higher rates of safety behaviors than low OCD group. However, exposure to the non-contingent presentation of safety signals eliminated their emission in both groups. Future studies need to evaluate the effects of different non-contingent schedules on the suppression of safety behaviors. These findings contribute to the literature by demonstrating that non-contingent introduction of safety signals eliminated safety behaviors completely, even in high OCD participants, who performed safety behavior at higher rates. Such a treatment protocol may ameliorate exposure therapy in which response prevention constitutes a key element and is generally associated with increased drop-out rates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. ObStruct: a method to objectively analyse factors driving population structure using Bayesian ancestry profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velimir Gayevskiy

    Full Text Available Bayesian inference methods are extensively used to detect the presence of population structure given genetic data. The primary output of software implementing these methods are ancestry profiles of sampled individuals. While these profiles robustly partition the data into subgroups, currently there is no objective method to determine whether the fixed factor of interest (e.g. geographic origin correlates with inferred subgroups or not, and if so, which populations are driving this correlation. We present ObStruct, a novel tool to objectively analyse the nature of structure revealed in Bayesian ancestry profiles using established statistical methods. ObStruct evaluates the extent of structural similarity between sampled and inferred populations, tests the significance of population differentiation, provides information on the contribution of sampled and inferred populations to the observed structure and crucially determines whether the predetermined factor of interest correlates with inferred population structure. Analyses of simulated and experimental data highlight ObStruct's ability to objectively assess the nature of structure in populations. We show the method is capable of capturing an increase in the level of structure with increasing time since divergence between simulated populations. Further, we applied the method to a highly structured dataset of 1,484 humans from seven continents and a less structured dataset of 179 Saccharomyces cerevisiae from three regions in New Zealand. Our results show that ObStruct provides an objective metric to classify the degree, drivers and significance of inferred structure, as well as providing novel insights into the relationships between sampled populations, and adds a final step to the pipeline for population structure analyses.

  14. Quality factors quantification/assurance for software related to safety in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez McLeod, J.E.; Rivera, S.S.

    1997-01-01

    Quality assurance plan is needed to guarantee the software quality. The use of such a plan involves activities that should take place all along the life cycle, and which can be evaluated using the so called quality factors. This is due to the fact that the quality itself cannot be measured, but some of its manifestations can be used for this purpose. In the present work, a methodology to quantify a set of quality factors is proposed, for software based systems to be used in safety related areas in nuclear power plants. (author) [es

  15. Investigation of occupational health and safety application using the internal and external factor assessment matrix: SWOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-09-01

    Material and Method: IIn this study, the threats, opportunities, weaknesses and strengths were evaluated by one of the tools named SWOT, in one of the assembly industries company in Iran, in order to controlling the operations in this company considering to safety and health standard (OHSAS18001. A comparison of the company’s performance in implementing the safety and health standards was done between years 1387 and 1388 contain in the Company considered, and weighted scoring weaknesses, strengths, threats and opportunities using the matrix of internal factors (strengths and weaknesses and external factors (treats and opportunities then, the importance of each factor were determined in the company’s implementation and enforcement of those standards. . Result: Focusing on the strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats, some strategies to improve the implementation were presented. Any points were weighted based on the most important weaknesses identified as the lack of monitoring contractors, lack of management commitment for implementation of OHSAS18001, no attempt to identify the risks of change, lack of training needs assessment, main strengths identified in the context of adequate budget health and safety, environmental efforts, identify risk for abnormal conditions, the most important threats for immediate delivery customer orders and the opportunity to support the safety and health plans, were determined. . Conclusion: Sum of the weighted scores in year 87 were obtained for the external factors (opportunities and threats, 2.16 and internal factors (strengths and weaknesses 1.66. Both of these scores were less than 2.5 (minimum amount of the acceptable rate so, the company has been poor performance in the implementation of this standard for the year 87 and a weak reaction in the use of opportunities and the minimize threats has. In case of internal factors, it was worse than external one and the situation was more bold of the weaknesses companies to

  16. Assessment of Factors Associated with the Safety Depth of GV15 Yamen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Soo-Jung

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Yamen is the fifteenth acupoint of the Governor Vessel Meridian (GV15. It is anatomically close to the medulla oblongata, so finding the safety depth of the acupoint is very important. However, few studies on the safety depth of GV15 have been done. Methods: This study tried to measure the safety depth of GV15 by using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scans and to analyze the factors affecting the safety depth through multiple regression analyses. This study was carried out for patients who had a brain MRI scan while visiting Jeonju Wonkwang Hospital, Korea. The shortest distance between the glabella and the occipital protuberance (DGO, the horizontal distance between the glabella and the back of the head (DGB and the dangerous depth (DD were measured from the sagittal views of the MRI images. The DD is the horizontal distance from the skin’s surface at GV15 to the spinal dura mater. Results: The model suggested that the safety depth (SD was significantly associated with gender (β = 0.474, P < 0.0001, DGO (β = 0.272, P = 0.027, and BMI (β = 0.249, P = 0.005 and the combination of three variables can explain the SD, with R2 = 0.571 (Table 3 A longer SD was associated with males and with greater BMI and DGO. Conclusion: This study suggests that gender, BMI and DGO may be important factors when the SD of GV15 is considered clinically through a multiple regression analysis of GV15.

  17. Efficacy, safety and pharmacokinetics of a new high-purity factor X concentrate in women and girls with hereditary factor X deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, R; James, A H; Norton, M; Shapiro, A

    2018-05-01

    Essentials Plasma-derived factor X concentrate (pdFX) is used to treat hereditary factor X deficiency. pdFX pharmacokinetics, safety and efficacy were assessed in factor X-deficient women/girls. Treatment success rate was 98%; only 6 adverse events in 2 subjects were possibly pdFX related. On-demand pdFX 25 IU kg -1 was effective and safe in women/girls with factor X deficiency. Background A high-purity, plasma-derived factor X concentrate (pdFX) has been approved for the treatment of hereditary FX deficiency, an autosomal recessive disorder. Objective To perform post hoc assessments of pdFX pharmacokinetics, safety and efficacy in women and girls with hereditary FX deficiency. Patients/Methods Subjects aged ≥ 12 years with moderate/severe FX deficiency (plasma FX activity of girls (aged 14-58 years [median, 25.5 years]) received 267 pdFX infusions. Mean monthly infusions per subject were higher among women and girls (2.48) than among men and boys (1.62). In women and girls, 132 assessable bleeding episodes (61 heavy menstrual bleeds, 47 joint bleeds, 15 muscle bleeds, and nine other bleeds) were treated with pdFX, with a 98% treatment success rate versus 100% in men and boys. Mean pdFX incremental recovery was similar in the two groups (2.05 IU dL -1 versus 1.91 IU dL -1 per IU kg -1 ), as was the mean half-life (29.3 h versus 29.5 h). Of 142 adverse events in women and girls, headache was the most common (12 events in six subjects). Six events (two infusion-site erythema, two fatigue, one back pain, one infusion-site pain) in two subjects were considered to be possibly pdFX-related. Following the trial, pdFX was used to successfully maintain hemostasis in two subjects undergoing obstetric delivery. Conclusions pdFX was well tolerated and effective in women and girls with FX deficiency. Although women and girls had different bleeding symptoms and sites than men and boys, their pdFX pharmacokinetic profile was comparable. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of

  18. Improvements of the Regulatory Framework for Nuclear Installations in the Areas of Human and Organizational Factors and Safety Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tronea, M.; Ciurea, C.

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents the development of regulatory requirements in the area of human and organizational factors taking account of the lessons learned from major accidents in the nuclear industry and in particular of the factors that contributed to the Fukushima Daiichi accident and the improvement of the regulatory oversight of nuclear safety culture. New requirements have been elaborated by the National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control (CNCAN) on the nuclear safety policy of licencees for nuclear installations, on independent nuclear safety oversight, on safety conscious work environment and on the assessment of nuclear safety culture. The regulatory process for the oversight of nuclear safety culture within licencees’ organizations operating nuclear installations and the associated procedure and guidelines, based on the IAEA Safety Standards, have been developed in 2010-2011. CNCAN has used the 37 IAEA attributes for a strong safety culture, grouped into five areas corresponding to safety culture characteristics, as the basis for its regulatory guidelines providing support to the reviewers and inspectors, in their routine activities, for recognising and gathering information relevant to safety culture. The safety culture oversight process, procedure and guidelines are in process of being reviewed and revised to improve their effectiveness and to align with the current international practices, using lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi accident. Starting with July 2014, Romania has a National Strategy for Nuclear Safety and Security, which includes strategic objectives, associated directions for action and concrete actions for promoting nuclear safety culture in all the organizations in the nuclear sector. The progress with the implementation of this strategy with regard to nuclear safety culture is described in the paper. CNCAN started to define its own organizational culture model and identifying the elements that promote and support safety

  19. Safety profiles of topical vitamin D3 in psoriasis patients: a retrospective large-scale study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamamoto A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ai Yamamoto,1 Takuya Furuhashi,1 Kazuhiko Matsumoto,2 Akimichi Morita11Department of Geriatric and Environmental Dermatology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, Japan; 2Biosafety Research Center, Foods, Drugs and Pesticides, Shizuoka, JapanAbstract: Topical vitamin D3 ointments are widely used to treat psoriasis, sometimes in combination with cyclosporine, phototherapy, and biologic agents. However, the risk factors for hypercalcemia resulting from these ointments, and interactions with underlying disorders and age are unclear. We performed a retrospective study of psoriasis patients at Nagoya City University Hospital between January 1, 2004, and December 31, 2009, treated with a vitamin D3-containing topical drug, either calcipotriol, maxacalcitol, or tacalcitol. Data from blood samples and clinical scores collected during routine visits throughout the study period were analyzed. We assessed changes in the serum calcium levels over time in association with age, liver dysfunction, renal dysfunction, concomitant medication, and concomitant therapy. Serum calcium levels were significantly lower in the calcipotriol group than in the maxacalcitol group (P < 0.05, regardless of other factors, at the observation period. Calcipotriol was associated with lower serum calcium levels than maxacalcitol in patients ≥ 65 years (P < 0.05, those with renal disease (P = 0.0362, and those with liver disease (P = 0.0255. Only three patients using calcipotriol developed hypercalcemia that did not seem to be related to the treatment. Hypercalcemia was observed in 10 patients using maxacalcitol, although serum calcium levels rapidly recovered when use was discontinued. Only one patient using tacalcitol developed hypercalcemia. Hypercalcemia tended to occur in patients with conditions in which the skin is more vulnerable, even at standard doses; patients taking oral etretinate; patients requiring concomitant systemic therapy, even if

  20. ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE AS ONE OF THE MAIN FACTORS FOR THE SUCCESSFUL SAFETY MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snežana Živković

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research is to establish the influence of organizational culture on the system of safety and health at work. The research sample included 556 respondents of various activities in Russia. Based on the results, it can be concluded that there is a statistically significant connection of the Attitude towards occupational safety with 5 out of 7 aspects of organizational culture, as well as with the general factor of Usefulness of the manner of management. In addition, there is a statistically significant connection to age, total years of service and qualifications. Through a comparative analysis of results acquired in the Republic of Serbia and Russia, differences in attitudes towards safety and health activities at work were acquired i.e. there is a difference between the average answers of respondents from Serbia and Russia in the Attitude towards occupational safety which is on average slightly more prominent in respondents from Serbia. In relation to organizational culture aspects, there are differences in Vision, Credibility, Feedback and recognition as well as Responsibility. Respondents from Serbia have higher average values on all these measures, but all the differences are small (all effect sizes are below 0.2.

  1. Identification and comparative analysis of factors influencing road safety in US regions and in Polish voivodeships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna WACHNICKA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of road safety at national level have been run for many years and large number of publications concerning them appeared so far. How interdisciplinary the issue is, has been shown by literature studies done by the author of the paper. It appears that economists, mathematicians, doctors as well as engineers have studied the issue. It is not an easy one, as results of many analyses lead to conflicting conclusions and often fail to provide straightforward answers to questions asked. The administrative actions taken to improve road safety, uniform for the whole country, frequently fail to give expected results, including Poland’s case. Therefore there is a need to analyse what makes some provinces, and not the others, report improvement in road safety. This paper presents part of the work on author’s doctoral thesis, which analyses how regional characteristics may impact road safety in respective regions. However, during collection of data for the purpose of the doctoral thesis it turned out that many variables mentioned in literature as significant had not been collected on regional level in Europe, including Poland. There are, though, available data on respective American states, so the search for the best describing independent variables started from the analyses of US data. The analyses showed the impact of factors such as annual income per capita, transport activity, density of population, seatbelt rates, road and vehicle density, rate of doctors.

  2. Studies of safety and critical work situations in nuclear power plants: A human factors perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsson Kecklund, L.

    1998-05-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to develop and apply different approaches for analyzing safety in critical work situations in real work settings in nuclear power plants, and also to identify safety enhancing measures by using the framework of interaction between human, organizational and technical subsystems. A Cognitive Psychology as well as a Stress Psychology framework was used. All studies were related to the annual outage operational state where the need for coping with many infrequent tasks, often carried out under high time pressure, puts great strain on the staff and organisation of the plant. In three studies the natural variations in the plant state, normal operation and annual outage operation, were used to explore human performance, work-related factors as well as coping and the operators' own resources and the relationship between them. In the annual outage condition high work demands, decreased sleepiness at night shift, more errors and less satisfaction with work performance quality was reported by maintenance as well as by control room operators. A relationship between high work demands and more organizational problems and reports of more frequent human errors and lower satisfactions with work performance quality was also identified in the annual outage condition. Moreover, a relationship between increased sleepiness during night shift, more frequent use of coping strategies and a higher frequency of human errors was reported. In two studies the Event and Barrier Function Model was applied to analyze the safety of barrier function systems inserted into work process sequences to protect the systems from the negative consequences of failures and errors. The model was also used to assess safety in relation to a technical and organizational change. The last study addressed changes in work performance and work-related factors in relation to a technical and organizational change of a safety significant work process involving increased automation and new

  3. Transarterial Chemoembolization for Hepatocellular Carcinoma with a New Generation of Beads: Clinical–Radiological Outcomes and Safety Profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spreafico, Carlo, E-mail: carlo.spreafico@istitutotumori.mi.it; Cascella, Tommaso, E-mail: tommaso.cascella@istitutotumori.mi.it [Fondazione Istituto Tumori, Department of Radiology (Italy); Facciorusso, Antonio, E-mail: antonio.facciorusso@istitutotumori.mi.it; Sposito, Carlo, E-mail: carlo.sposito@istitutotumori.mi.it [Fondazione Istituto Tumori, Department of Liver Surgery and Transplant (Italy); Rodolfo, Lanocita, E-mail: rodolfo.lanocita@istitutotumori.mi.it; Morosi, Carlo, E-mail: carlo.morosi@istitutotumori.mi.it; Civelli, Enrico M., E-mail: enrico.civelli@istitutotumori.mi.it; Vaiani, Marta, E-mail: marta.vaiani@istitutotumori.mi.it [Fondazione Istituto Tumori, Department of Radiology (Italy); Bhoori, Sherrie, E-mail: sherrie.bhoori@istitutotumori.mi.it [Fondazione Istituto Tumori, Department of Liver Surgery and Transplant (Italy); Pellegrinelli, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.pellegrinelli@istitutotumori.mi.it [Fondazione Istituto Tumori, Department of Pathology (Italy); Marchianò, Alfonso, E-mail: alfonso.marchiano@istitutotumori.mi.it [Fondazione Istituto Tumori, Department of Radiology (Italy); Mazzaferro, Vincenzo, E-mail: vincenzo.mazzaferro@istitutotumori.mi.it [Fondazione Istituto Tumori, Department of Liver Surgery and Transplant (Italy)

    2015-02-15

    PurposeTo evaluate the short-term safety and efficacy of the new generation of 70–150 µm drug-eluting beads (M1 DEB) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma undergoing transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) as a primary therapy or as a bridge to liver transplantation (LT).MethodsForty-five consecutive patients underwent TACE with M1 DEB loaded with doxorubicin (DEBDOX/M1). Clinical data were recorded at 12, 24, and 48 h, 7 and 30 days after treatment. Response was assessed by computed tomographic scan according to the modified response evaluation criteria in solid tumors criteria, and a second DEBDOX/M1 TACE was scheduled within 6 weeks in case of a noncomplete response.ResultsAll patients had well-compensated cirrhosis (97.7 % Child A, 44.4 % hepatitis C virus, median age 61 years). Twenty patients (44.4 %) had Barcelona Clinic for Liver Cancer class B disease; the median number of nodules and their sum of diameters were 2 (range 1–6) and 43 mm (range 10–190), respectively. The mean number of TACE procedures per patient was 1.4. Objective response rate (complete + partial response) was 77.7 % with a median time to best response of 3 months (95 % confidence interval 2–4). In 13 patients, DEBDOX/M1 TACE served as a bridge/downstaging to LT/surgery. Pathology showed that more than 90 % necrosis was achieved in 10 of 28 nodules. DEBDOX/M1 TACE was well tolerated, and the grade 3/4 adverse event rate was low (1 of 65 procedures).ConclusionDEBDOX/M1 TACE is an effective procedure with a favorable safety profile and promising results in terms of objective response rate, tumor downstaging, and necrosis.

  4. Disordered eating behaviors among transgender youth: Probability profiles from risk and protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Ryan J; Veale, Jaimie F; Saewyc, Elizabeth M

    2017-05-01

    Research has documented high rates of disordered eating for lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth, but prevalence and patterns of disordered eating among transgender youth remain unexplored. This is despite unique challenges faced by this group, including gender-related body image and the use of hormones. We explore the relationship between disordered eating and risk and protective factors for transgender youth. An online survey of 923 transgender youth (aged 14-25) across Canada was conducted, primarily using measures from existing youth health surveys. Analyses were stratified by gender identity and included logistic regressions with probability profiles to illustrate combinations of risk and protective factors for eating disordered behaviors. Enacted stigma (the higher rates of harassment and discrimination sexual minority youth experience) was linked to higher odds of reported past year binge eating and fasting or vomiting to lose weight, while protective factors, including family connectedness, school connectedness, caring friends, and social support, were linked to lower odds of past year disordered eating. Youth with the highest levels of enacted stigma and no protective factors had high probabilities of past year eating disordered behaviors. Our study found high prevalence of disorders. Risk for these behaviors was linked to stigma and violence exposure, but offset by social supports. Health professionals should assess transgender youth for disordered eating behaviors and supportive resources. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.(Int J Eat Disord 2017; 50:515-522). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Transcription profile of Escherichia coli: genomic SELEX search for regulatory targets of transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihama, Akira; Shimada, Tomohiro; Yamazaki, Yukiko

    2016-03-18

    Bacterial genomes are transcribed by DNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RNAP), which achieves gene selectivity through interaction with sigma factors that recognize promoters, and transcription factors (TFs) that control the activity and specificity of RNAP holoenzyme. To understand the molecular mechanisms of transcriptional regulation, the identification of regulatory targets is needed for all these factors. We then performed genomic SELEX screenings of targets under the control of each sigma factor and each TF. Here we describe the assembly of 156 SELEX patterns of a total of 116 TFs performed in the presence and absence of effector ligands. The results reveal several novel concepts: (i) each TF regulates more targets than hitherto recognized; (ii) each promoter is regulated by more TFs than hitherto recognized; and (iii) the binding sites of some TFs are located within operons and even inside open reading frames. The binding sites of a set of global regulators, including cAMP receptor protein, LeuO and Lrp, overlap with those of the silencer H-NS, suggesting that certain global regulators play an anti-silencing role. To facilitate sharing of these accumulated SELEX datasets with the research community, we compiled a database, 'Transcription Profile of Escherichia coli' (www.shigen.nig.ac.jp/ecoli/tec/). © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  6. Human Factors Evaluation of Procedures for Periodic Safety Review of Yonggwang Unit no. 1, 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Hee; Lee, Jung Woon; Park, Jae Chang (and others)

    2006-01-15

    This report describes the results of human factors assessment on the plant operating procedures as part of Periodic Safety Review(PSR) of Yonggwang Nuclear Power Plant Unit no. 1, 2. The suitability of item and appropriateness of format and structure in the key operating procedures of nuclear power plants were investigated by the review of plant operating experiences and procedure documents, field survey, and experimental assessment on some part of procedures. A checklist was used to perform this assessment and record the review results. The reviewed procedures include EOP(Emergency Operating Procedures), GOP(General Operating Procedures), AOP(Abnormal Operating Procedures), and management procedures of some technical departments. As results of the assessments, any significant problem challenging the safety was not found on the human factors in the operating procedures. However, several small items to be changed and improved were discovered. An action plan is recommended to accommodate the suggestions and review comments. It will enhance the plant safety on the operating procedure.

  7. Internationalisation in Road Transport of Goods in Norway: Safety Outcomes, Risk Factors and Policy Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tor-Olav Nævestad

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The European Union (EU promotes a gradual lifting of restrictions on foreign hauliers involved in domestic road transport of goods (cabotage, and liberalization of the current road cabotage rules may further increase the proportion of foreign heavy goods vehicles (HGVs on Norwegian roads. The aims of the present study are to: (1 Examine the safety outcomes of increasing internationalisation in (Norwegian road transport of goods; and (2 Discuss the importance of potential risk factors related to increasing proportions of foreign HGVs on Norwegian roads. We use four data sources to shed light on the aims. Results show that foreign HGVs account for 6% of the average domestic transport in Norway, and 11% of the HGVs involved in personal injury accidents. Additionally, foreign HGVs have a three times higher risk of single vehicle accidents, and twice the risk of head-on collisions. Foreign HGV drivers also seem more likely to trigger fatal accidents. We conclude that two risk factors seem to be important: (1 experience with/competence on Norwegian roads and (2 winter driving. Thus, the safety challenge is not that the drivers are foreign, but that they to some extent lack experience with, and competence on, the Norwegian road networks and the challenges that these roads may pose (e.g., narrow roads with high gradients, many curves, snow and ice. Previous research from other countries has also found that lacking experience with national road networks is an important risk factor. Given our results on risk factors, we may hypothesize that if foreign HGV drivers get more experience and education on Norwegian driving conditions, then increased internationalization could perhaps be of less concern in road safety. When discussing the higher accident risk and lower experience of foreign HGV drivers in Norway, it is important to note that the reason for foreign HGV drivers, working for foreign hauliers, to drive in Norway is that there are customers of the

  8. The influence of organisational and management factors on safety performance in NNPPS. Rand D project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cal, C. de la; Gil, B.; Sola, R.; Vaquero, C.; Garces, M. I.

    2002-01-01

    The direct influence of organisational and managerial factors on safety performance in nuclear power plants has been widely proved by two findings, the analysis of their operating experience and the differences in safety levels reached by similar installations. Specially, the study of majors accidents such as TMI-2 and Chernobyl have demonstrated that the technical deficiencies are not the only root causes, but there are a whole set of human, organisational, managerial and social factors which are the origin from most of these deficiencies. In recent years, this fact is emphasised with the nuclear industry involved a process of change. The deregulation of the electricity market, which has increased the economic pressures to the companies and has driven in many cases to restructures in ownership (mergers, acquisitions), downsizing processes and outsourcing parts of the work, jointly with the development of information technologies and computer networks and with a change in the regulatory and social climates are some of the nre factors affecting the performance of nuclear power plants that have addressed, even more, to the need of re-viewing and assessing the impact of organisational aspects on their safe performance. There have been international efforts to analyse the influence of organisational factors in the safety of nuclear power plants following different approaches. Research institutions, utilities and regulatory bodies. individually or in co-operation, have tried to develop practical tools for taking into account the organisation. According to these international efforts the Association of Spanish Utilities, UNESA, and the Spanish Nuclear Regulatory Body, CSN, have included in 1998, for the first time in their Co-ordinated Plan for Research, an innovative five years R and D project entitled Development of methods to evaluate and model the impact of organisation on nuclear poer plants safety whose main objectives are to analyse the impact of organisation and

  9. The use of human factors methods to identify and mitigate safety issues in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Alvita J.; Islam, Mohammad K.; Rosewall, Tara; Jaffray, David A.; Easty, Anthony C.; Cafazzo, Joseph A.

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: New radiation therapy technologies can enhance the quality of treatment and reduce error. However, the treatment process has become more complex, and radiation dose is not always delivered as intended. Using human factors methods, a radiotherapy treatment delivery process was evaluated, and a redesign was undertaken to determine the effect on system safety. Material and methods: An ethnographic field study and workflow analysis was conducted to identify human factors issues of the treatment delivery process. To address specific issues, components of the user interface were redesigned through a user-centered approach. Sixteen radiation therapy students were then used to experimentally evaluate the redesigned system through a usability test to determine the effectiveness in mitigating use errors. Results: According to findings from the usability test, the redesigned system successfully reduced the error rates of two common errors (p < .04 and p < .01). It also improved the mean task completion time by 5.5% (p < .02) and achieved a higher level of user satisfaction. Conclusions: These findings demonstrated the importance and benefits of applying human factors methods in the design of radiation therapy systems. Many other opportunities still exist to improve patient safety in this area using human factors methods.

  10. Analysis of human factors effects on the safety of transporting radioactive waste materials: Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abkowitz, M.D.; Abkowitz, S.B.; Lepofsky, M.

    1989-04-01

    This report examines the extent of human factors effects on the safety of transporting radioactive waste materials. It is seen principally as a scoping effort, to establish whether there is a need for DOE to undertake a more formal approach to studying human factors in radioactive waste transport, and if so, logical directions for that program to follow. Human factors effects are evaluated on driving and loading/transfer operations only. Particular emphasis is placed on the driving function, examining the relationship between human error and safety as it relates to the impairment of driver performance. Although multi-modal in focus, the widespread availability of data and previous literature on truck operations resulted in a primary study focus on the trucking mode from the standpoint of policy development. In addition to the analysis of human factors accident statistics, the report provides relevant background material on several policies that have been instituted or are under consideration, directed at improving human reliability in the transport sector. On the basis of reported findings, preliminary policy areas are identified. 71 refs., 26 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Application of classification algorithms for analysis of road safety risk factor dependencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Oh Hoon; Rhee, Wonjong; Yoon, Yoonjin

    2015-02-01

    Transportation continues to be an integral part of modern life, and the importance of road traffic safety cannot be overstated. Consequently, recent road traffic safety studies have focused on analysis of risk factors that impact fatality and injury level (severity) of traffic accidents. While some of the risk factors, such as drug use and drinking, are widely known to affect severity, an accurate modeling of their influences is still an open research topic. Furthermore, there are innumerable risk factors that are waiting to be discovered or analyzed. A promising approach is to investigate historical traffic accident data that have been collected in the past decades. This study inspects traffic accident reports that have been accumulated by the California Highway Patrol (CHP) since 1973 for which each accident report contains around 100 data fields. Among them, we investigate 25 fields between 2004 and 2010 that are most relevant to car accidents. Using two classification methods, the Naive Bayes classifier and the decision tree classifier, the relative importance of the data fields, i.e., risk factors, is revealed with respect to the resulting severity level. Performances of the classifiers are compared to each other and a binary logistic regression model is used as the basis for the comparisons. Some of the high-ranking risk factors are found to be strongly dependent on each other, and their incremental gains on estimating or modeling severity level are evaluated quantitatively. The analysis shows that only a handful of the risk factors in the data dominate the severity level and that dependency among the top risk factors is an imperative trait to consider for an accurate analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Plagge, C. Schaefer and N. Dupont

    2013-01-01

    Fire Safety – Essential for a particle detector The CMS detector is a marvel of high technology, one of the most precise particle measurement devices we have built until now. Of course it has to be protected from external and internal incidents like the ones that can occur from fires. Due to the fire load, the permanent availability of oxygen and the presence of various ignition sources mostly based on electricity this has to be addressed. Starting from the beam pipe towards the magnet coil, the detector is protected by flooding it with pure gaseous nitrogen during operation. The outer shell of CMS, namely the yoke and the muon chambers are then covered by an emergency inertion system also based on nitrogen. To ensure maximum fire safety, all materials used comply with the CERN regulations IS 23 and IS 41 with only a few exceptions. Every piece of the 30-tonne polyethylene shielding is high-density material, borated, boxed within steel and coated with intumescent (a paint that creates a thick co...

  13. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Schaefer and N. Dupont

    2013-01-01

      “Safety is the highest priority”: this statement from CERN is endorsed by the CMS management. An interpretation of this statement may bring you to the conclusion that you should stop working in order to avoid risks. If the safety is the priority, work is not! This would be a misunderstanding and misinterpretation. One should understand that “working safely” or “operating safely” is the priority at CERN. CERN personnel are exposed to different hazards on many levels on a daily basis. However, risk analyses and assessments are done in order to limit the number and the gravity of accidents. For example, this process takes place each time you cross the road. The hazard is the moving vehicle, the stake is you and the risk might be the risk of collision between both. The same principle has to be applied during our daily work. In particular, keeping in mind the general principles of prevention defined in the late 1980s. These principles wer...

  14. Safety and pharmacokinetic profile of fixed-dose ivermectin with an innovative 18mg tablet in healthy adult volunteers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Muñoz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ivermectin is a pivotal drug for the control of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis, which is increasingly identified as a useful drug for the control of other Neglected Tropical Diseases. Its role in the treatment of soil transmitted helminthiasis through improved efficacy against Trichuris trichiura in combination with other anthelmintics might accelerate the progress towards breaking transmission. Ivermectin is a derivative of Avermectin B1, and consists of an 80:20 mixture of the equipotent homologous 22,23 dehydro B1a and B1b. Pharmacokinetic characteristics and safety profile of ivermectin allow to explore innovative uses to further expand its utilization through mass drug administration campaigns to improve coverage rates. We conducted a phase I clinical trial with 54 healthy adult volunteers who sequentially received 2 experimental treatments using a new 18 mg ivermectin tablet in a fixed-dose strategy of 18 and 36 mg single dose regimens, compared to the standard, weight based 150–200 μg/kg, regimen. Volunteers were recruited in 3 groups based on body weight. Plasma concentrations of ivermectin were measured through HPLC up to 168 hours post treatment. Safety data showed no significant differences between groups and no serious adverse events: headache was the most frequent adverse event in all treatment groups, none of them severe. Pharmacokinetic parameters showed a half-life between 81 and 91 h in the different treatment groups. When comparing the systemic bioavailability (AUC0t and Cmax of the reference product (WA-ref with the other two study groups using fixed doses, we observed an overall increase in AUC0t and Cmax for the two experimental treatments of 18 mg and 36 mg. Body mass index (BMI and weight were associated with t1/2 and V/F, probably reflecting the high liposolubility of IVM with longer retention times proportional to the presence of more adipose tissue. Systemic exposure to ivermectin (AUC0t or Cmax was not

  15. Safety profile of dalfampridine extended release in multiple sclerosis: 5-year postmarketing experience in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jara M

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Michele Jara, Thomas Aquilina, Peter Aupperle, Adrian L Rabinowicz Acorda Therapeutics, Inc., Ardsley, NY, USA Background: Dalfampridine extended release tablets (dalfampridine-ER; prolonged-, modified, or sustained-release fampridine outside the US, 10 mg twice daily, was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA in January 2010 to improve walking in people with multiple sclerosis, as determined by an increase in walking speed. Objective: To provide a descriptive analysis of reported adverse events (AEs for commercially available dalfampridine-ER from March 2010 through March 31, 2015. Methods: Five-year postmarketing data for dalfampridine-ER were available from the exposure of approximately 107,000 patients in the US (103,700 patient-years. Commonly reported AEs (≥2% of all reported AEs and serious AEs were determined. The incidence of reported seizures was determined and the events were further investigated. Results: Among the 107,000 patients exposed to dalfampridine-ER (70% female; mean age 52.1, the most common AEs were dizziness (3.7%, insomnia (3.2%, balance disorder (3%, fall (2.4%, headache (2.4%, nausea (2.1%, and urinary tract infection (2%. Other common AEs were drug ineffectiveness (5.8%, gait disturbance (4.6%, and inappropriate dosing (3.1%. Serious AEs included rare anaphylactic reactions (five cases and drug hypersensitivity reactions (eight cases. A total of 657 seizure cases were reported (6.3/1,000 patient-years; of these, 324 were medically confirmed (3.1/1,000 patient-years. Incidence of reported seizures was stable over time. Duration of treatment prior to a seizure ranged from a single dose to >4 years; 12% of the seizures occurred within a week of starting treatment. Conclusion: The 5-year US postmarketing safety data of dalfampridine-ER is consistent with the safety profile observed in clinical trials. Incidence of reported seizures remained stable over time. Since commercial availability in March 2010, a

  16. Investigation and identification of factors affecting migrating peasant workers' usage of safety footwear in the Chinese construction industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suo, Qinghui; Zhang, Daming

    2017-09-01

    A sample of 300 migrating peasant workers from 15 Chinese building construction sites completed a demographic questionnaire to investigate the usage of safety footwear. The survey form was constructed based on the theory of planned behaviour, and a total of 12 questions focusing on the workers' past experience, attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control were included in the survey. It was found that 92% of the participants did not wear safety footwear while working on construction sites, although more than 91% of them believed that safety footwear would protect the foot from injury; none of the participants had been provided free safety footwear by their employer. Regression analysis shows that employers' attitude is the most important factor affecting their usage of safety footwear, 'providing free safety footwear' and 'comfortability of the safety footwear' ranking second and third respectively.

  17. The effects of Ankaferd® Blood Stopper on transcription factors in HUVEC and the erythrocyte protein profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan Yılmaz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Ankaferd® Blood Stopper (ABS is an herbal extract that has historically been used as a hemostatic agent in traditional Turkish medicine. ABS is comprised of a standardized herbal mixture of T. vulgaris, G. glabra, V. vinifera, A. officinarum, and U. dioica. ABS’s basic mechanism of action is the formation of an encapsulated protein web, which represents the focal point for vital erythrocyte masses. The hemostatic effects of ABS have been observed in vitro and in vivo. ABS was registered as a hemostatic agent for external hemorrhages and dental bleeding following phase I randomized, double-blind crossover placebo-controlled clinical research, and safety and efficacy reports. In terms of the potential use of ABS, transcription factors may be novel factors that play a role in the hemostatic and other pleiotropic effects of ABS. Materials and Methods: Hence, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of ABS on endothelium, and possible transcription factor changes in HUVEC (human umbilical vein endothelial cells and the erythrocyte membrane profile. ABS (5 μL and 50 μL was administered to HUVEC (in 75 cm2; ~75% fullness for 5 min and 15 min. Results: ABS caused significant increases in the level of activation of the following transcription factors; AP2, AR, CRE/ATF1, CREB, E2F1-5, E2F6, EGR, GATA, HNF-1, ISRE, Myc-Max, NF-1, NFkB, p53, PPAR, SMAD 2/3, SP1, TRE/AP1, and YY1. Following erythrocyte membrane isolation, protein complexes were undissolved, but denatured. The protein complex formed was resistant to heat and detergent. Trypsin and sonication were used in order to break this complex; the complex dissolved and erythrocyte membrane proteins were released in SDS-PAGE.Conclusion: ABS established a very fast and solid protein web, and increased the level of transcription factor activation. Therefore the cellular effects of ABS could be related to different intracellular biological pathways.

  18. Influence of the ozone profile above Madrid (Spain) on Brewer estimation of ozone air mass factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anton, M. [Univ. de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain). Dept. de Fisica; Evora Univ. (PT). Goephysics Centre of Evora (CGE); Lopez, M.; Banon, M. [Agenica Estatal de Meteorologia (AEMET), Madrid (Spain); Costa, M.J.; Silva, A.M. [Evora Univ. (PT). Goephysics Centre of Evora (CGE); Evora Univ. (Portugal). Dept. of Physics; Serrano, A. [Univ. de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain). Dept. de Fisica; Bortoli, D. [Evora Univ. (PT). Goephysics Centre of Evora (CGE); Vilaplana, J.M. [Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aeroespacial (INTA), Huelva (Spain). Estacion de Sondeos Atmosferico ' ' El Arenosillo' '

    2009-07-01

    The methodology used by Brewer spectroradiometers to estimate the ozone column is based on differential absorption spectroscopy. This methodology employs the ozone air mass factor (AMF) to derive the total ozone column from the slant path ozone amount. For the calculating the ozone AMF, the Brewer algorithm assumes that the ozone layer is located at a fixed height of 22 km. However, for a real specific site the ozone presents a certain profile, which varies spatially and temporally depending on the latitude, altitude and dynamical conditions of the atmosphere above the site of measurements. In this sense, this work address the reliability of the mentioned assumption and analyses the influence of the ozone profiles measured above Madrid (Spain) in the ozone AMF calculations. The approximated ozone AMF used by the Brewer algorithm is compared with simulations obtained using the libRadtran radiative transfer model code. The results show an excellent agreement between the simulated and the approximated AMF values for solar zenith angle lower than 75 . In addition, the relative differences remain lower than 2% at 85 . These good results are mainly due to the fact that the altitude of the ozone layer assumed constant by the Brewer algorithm for all latitudes notably can be considered representative of the real profile of ozone above Madrid (average value of 21.7{+-}1.8 km). The operational ozone AMF calculations for Brewer instruments are limited, in general, to SZA below 80 . Extending the usable SZA range is especially relevant for Brewer instruments located at high mid-latitudes. (orig.)

  19. Psychosocial factors and safety behaviour as predictors of accidental work injuries in farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glasscock, David John; Rasmussen, Kurt; Carstensen, Ole

    2006-01-01

    be a problem faced by farmers, there is a particular need to investigate the associations between farm accidents and work stressors and stress reactions. Using multivariate logistic regression analyses, this study aimed to uncover the best psychosocial predictors of injury, while controlling for exposure-related......, the relation with accidents occurred via an interaction with safety behaviour. The combination of high levels of stress symptoms and poor safety behaviour was associated with a particularly high accident risk.......Farming is one of the most hazardous occupations in terms of the incidence and seriousness of accidental injuries. Research with other occupational groups has drawn attention to the role of psychosocial factors and stress. Such research needs to be extended to agriculture. Since stress may...

  20. Potential safety issues and other factors that may affect the introduction and uptake of rotavirus vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliabadi, N.; Tate, J.E.; Parashar, U.D.

    2018-01-01

    Rotavirus vaccines have demonstrated significant impact in reducing the burden of morbidity and mortality from childhood diarrhoea in countries that have implemented routine vaccination to date. Despite this success, in many countries, rotavirus vaccine coverage remains lower than that of other routine childhood vaccines. Several issues may potentially affect vaccine uptake, namely safety concerns related to intussusception with consequent age restrictions on rotavirus vaccination, contamination with porcine circovirus, vaccine-derived reassortant strains and hospitalization in newborn nurseries at time of administration of live oral rotavirus vaccine. In addition to these safety concerns, other factors may also affect uptake, including lower vaccine efficacy in the developing world, potential emergence of strains escaping from vaccine protection resulting in lower overall impact of a vaccination programme and sustainable vaccine financing. Although further work is needed to address some of these concerns, global policy bodies have reaffirmed that the benefits of rotavirus vaccination outweigh the risks, and vaccine use is recommended globally. PMID:27129416

  1. Potential safety issues and other factors that may affect the introduction and uptake of rotavirus vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliabadi, N; Tate, J E; Parashar, U D

    2016-12-01

    Rotavirus vaccines have demonstrated significant impact in reducing the burden of morbidity and mortality from childhood diarrhoea in countries that have implemented routine vaccination to date. Despite this success, in many countries, rotavirus vaccine coverage remains lower than that of other routine childhood vaccines. Several issues may potentially affect vaccine uptake, namely safety concerns related to intussusception with consequent age restrictions on rotavirus vaccination, contamination with porcine circovirus, vaccine-derived reassortant strains and hospitalization in newborn nurseries at time of administration of live oral rotavirus vaccine. In addition to these safety concerns, other factors may also affect uptake, including lower vaccine efficacy in the developing world, potential emergence of strains escaping from vaccine protection resulting in lower overall impact of a vaccination programme and sustainable vaccine financing. Although further work is needed to address some of these concerns, global policy bodies have reaffirmed that the benefits of rotavirus vaccination outweigh the risks, and vaccine use is recommended globally. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Factors shaping effective utilization of health information technology in urban safety-net clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Sheba; Garth, Belinda; Fish, Allison; Baker, Richard

    2013-09-01

    Urban safety-net clinics are considered prime targets for the adoption of health information technology innovations; however, little is known about their utilization in such safety-net settings. Current scholarship provides limited guidance on the implementation of health information technology into safety-net settings as it typically assumes that adopting institutions have sufficient basic resources. This study addresses this gap by exploring the unique challenges urban resource-poor safety-net clinics must consider when adopting and utilizing health information technology. In-depth interviews (N = 15) were used with key stakeholders (clinic chief executive officers, medical directors, nursing directors, chief financial officers, and information technology directors) from staff at four clinics to explore (a) nonhealth information technology-related clinic needs, (b) how health information technology may provide solutions, and (c) perceptions of and experiences with health information technology. Participants identified several challenges, some of which appear amenable to health information technology solutions. Also identified were requirements for effective utilization of health information technology including physical infrastructural improvements, funding for equipment/training, creation of user groups to share health information technology knowledge/experiences, and specially tailored electronic billing guidelines. We found that despite the potential benefit that can be derived from health information technologies, the unplanned and uninformed introduction of these tools into these settings might actually create more problems than are solved. From these data, we were able to identify a set of factors that should be considered when integrating health information technology into the existing workflows of low-resourced urban safety-net clinics in order to maximize their utilization and enhance the quality of health care in such settings.

  3. Five factor model personality traits relate to adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder but not to their distinct neurocognitive profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dijk, Fiona E; Mostert, Jeannette; Glennon, Jeffrey; Onnink, Marten; Dammers, Janneke; Vasquez, Alejandro Arias; Kan, Cornelis; Verkes, Robbert Jan; Hoogman, Martine; Franke, Barbara; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2017-12-01

    Deficits in multiple neuropsychological domains and specific personality profiles have been observed in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this study we investigated whether personality traits are related to neurocognitive profiles in adults with ADHD. Neuropsychological performance and Five Factor Model (FFM) personality traits were measured in adults with ADHD (n = 133) and healthy controls (n = 132). Three neuropsychological profiles, derived from previous community detection analyses, were investigated for personality trait differences. Irrespective of cognitive profile, participants with ADHD showed significantly higher Neuroticism and lower Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness than healthy controls. Only the FFM personality factor Openness differed significantly between the three profiles. Higher Openness was more common in those with aberrant attention and inhibition than those with increased delay discounting and atypical working memory / verbal fluency. The results suggest that the personality trait Openness, but not any other FFM factor, is linked to neurocognitive profiles in ADHD. ADHD symptoms rather than profiles of cognitive impairment have associations with personality traits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. How to evaluate the effectiveness of safety assessment in the area of human factors?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolina, G.; Moisdon, J.C.; Jeffroy, F.

    2007-01-01

    The Three Mile Island nuclear reactor accident in 1979 led to a new approach regarding safety that includes a better consideration of man and his activities. A few years later, with the set up of a group of specialists at Electricite de France and at the Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, a new player appeared at France's nuclear safety organisation: the assessment expert specialising in human factors (HF). The improvement of man-machine interfaces was one of the first projects undertaken by the HF experts, the majority of whom specialise in ergonomics. A review of the literature and analysis of the archives, revealed that the specialists' scope of investigation has since increased; so that organisation is also the subject of HF assessment. However, this area is not one of consensual or established knowledge; neither researchers nor specialists can agree on a model of safe organisation. What then can we say about effectiveness of HF assessment? How can we define the criteria of effectiveness of a safety assessment production system in this area? The question is the subject of original research based on collaboration between the scientific management centre (CGS) of the Ecole des Mines in Paris and the section for the study of human factors (SEFH) at IRSN. To address this question, the CGS team monitors some assessments to which SEFH contributes. In other words, it attends different meetings on framing, technical instruction, reporting, taking notes and collecting related documents (minutes of meetings,...). It carries out additional interviews with different parties involved in assessment in order to ascertain their point of view. A sample of five assessments was defined to cover a varied number of situations encountered by the team of HF experts. The type of facility, the operator and the subject concerned are some of the variables integrated for this choice

  5. Study of neurontin: titrate to effect, profile of safety (STEPS) trial: a narrative account of a gabapentin seeding trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumholz, Samuel D; Egilman, David S; Ross, Joseph S

    2011-06-27

    Seeding trials, clinical studies conducted by pharmaceutical companies for marketing purposes, have rarely been described in detail. We examined all documents relating to the clinical trial Study of Neurontin: Titrate to Effect, Profile of Safety (STEPS) produced during the Neurontin marketing, sales practices, and product liability litigation, including company internal and external correspondence, reports, and presentations, as well as depositions elicited in legal proceedings of Harden Manufacturing vs Pfizer and Franklin vs Warner-Lambert, most which were created between 1990 and 2009. Using a systematic search strategy, we identified and reviewed all documents related to the STEPS trial in order to identify key themes related to the trial's conduct and determine the extent of marketing involvement in its planning and implementation. Documents demonstrated that STEPS was a seeding trial posing as a legitimate scientific study. Documents consistently described the trial itself, not trial results, to be a marketing tactic in the company's marketing plans. Documents demonstrated that at least 2 external sources questioned the validity of the study before execution, and that data quality during the study was often compromised. Furthermore, documents described company analyses examining the impact of participating as a STEPS investigator on rates and dosages of gabapentin prescribing, finding a positive association. None of these findings were reported in 2 published articles. The STEPS trial was a seeding trial, used to promote gabapentin and increase prescribing among investigators, and marketing was extensively involved in its planning and implementation.

  6. The pharmacokinetics and safety profile of oral ganciclovir in combination with trimethoprim in HIV- and CMV-seropositive patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Donald; AbdelHameed, Magdy H; Hunter, John; Teitelbaum, Philip; Dorr, Albert; Griffy, Kay

    1999-01-01

    Aims We investigated the pharmacokinetics and safety profile of oral ganciclovir coadministered with trimethoprim in HIV-and CMV-seropositive patients. Methods In an open-label, randomized, 3-way crossover study, 12 adult males received oral ganciclovir 1000 mg every 8h, oral trimethoprim 200 mg once daily, or both drugs concomitantly in a sequence of three 7-day treatment periods. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined and adverse events recorded for each treatment. Results The presence of trimethoprim significantly decreased CLr (12.9%, P = 0.0068) and increased t1/2 (18.1%, P = 0.0378) of ganciclovir. However, these changes are unlikely to be clinically meaningful. There were no statistically significant changes in trimethoprim pharmacokinetic parameters in the presence of ganciclovir, with the exception of a 12.7% increase in Cmin. Ganciclovir was well tolerated when administered alone or in combination with trimethoprim. Conclusions There was no clinically significant pharmacokinetic interaction between oral ganciclovir and trimethoprim when coadministered. PMID:10215748

  7. Consideration of the FQPA Safety Factor and Other Uncertainty Factors in Cumulative Risk Assessment of Chemicals Sharing a Common Mechanism of Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    This guidance document provides OPP's current thinking on application of the provision in FFDCA about an additional safety factor for the protection of infants and children in the context of cumulative risk assessments.

  8. Risk factors for fishermen’s health and safety in Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frantzeskou, Elpida; Kastania, Anastasia N; Riza, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study is to determine the risks for health and safety in Greek fisheries workers by exploring their health status and the health risk factors present in their occupational environment, thus providing a current baseline for further research in the future and for documentation....... The health risks factors studied include excessive weight, cardiovascular incidents and dermatological, musculoskeletal, respiratory, hearing, stress, and anxiety problems. The occupational health risk factors include alcohol, fatty food consumption, smoking, and lack of physical exercise. Conclusions......: The health effects observed are causally related to diet, smoking, and exercise, which in turn relate to the specific working conditions and culture in small-scale fishing that need to be taken into consideration in prevention programmes. The results are comparable withinternational fisheries experience...

  9. Universal analytical scattering form factor for shell-, core-shell, or homogeneous particles with continuously variable density profile shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Tobias

    2011-09-01

    A novel analytical and continuous density distribution function with a widely variable shape is reported and used to derive an analytical scattering form factor that allows us to universally describe the scattering from particles with the radial density profile of homogeneous spheres, shells, or core-shell particles. Composed by the sum of two Fermi-Dirac distribution functions, the shape of the density profile can be altered continuously from step-like via Gaussian-like or parabolic to asymptotically hyperbolic by varying a single "shape parameter", d. Using this density profile, the scattering form factor can be calculated numerically. An analytical form factor can be derived using an approximate expression for the original Fermi-Dirac distribution function. This approximation is accurate for sufficiently small rescaled shape parameters, d/R (R being the particle radius), up to values of d/R ≈ 0.1, and thus captures step-like, Gaussian-like, and parabolic as well as asymptotically hyperbolic profile shapes. It is expected that this form factor is particularly useful in a model-dependent analysis of small-angle scattering data since the applied continuous and analytical function for the particle density profile can be compared directly with the density profile extracted from the data by model-free approaches like the generalized inverse Fourier transform method. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  10. Risk Factors Profile of Shoulder Dystocia in Oman: A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha M. Al-Khaduri

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to assess the risk factor profile of shoulder dystocia and associated neonatal complications in Oman, a developing Arab country. Methods: A retrospective case-control study was conducted among 111 cases with dystocia and 111 controls, identified during 1994-2006 period in a tertiary care hospital in Oman. Controls were randomly selected among women who did not have dystocia, and were matched to cases on the day of delivery. Data related to potential risk factors, delivery, and obstetric complications were collected. Results: Dystocia was significantly associated with older maternal age, higher parity, larger BMI, diabetes, and previous record of dystocia. In addition, dystocia was associated more with vacuum and forceps deliveries. Routine traction (51% was the most used manoeuvre. Among dystocia cases, 13% were associated with fetal complications of which Erb’s Palsy was the most prevalent (79%. Conclusion: Our finding of significant associations with risk factors lays out the ground to develop a predictability index for shoulder dystocia, which would help in making it preventable. Further prospective studies are required to confirm the obtained results.

  11. Risk Factors Profile of Shoulder Dystocia in Oman: A Case Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khaduri, Maha M.; Abudraz, Rania Mohammed; Al-Farsi, Yahya M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to assess the risk factor profile of shoulder dystocia and associated neonatal complications in Oman, a developing Arab country. Methods A retrospective case-control study was conducted among 111 cases with dystocia and 111 controls, identified during 1994-2006 period in a tertiary care hospital in Oman. Controls were randomly selected among women who did not have dystocia, and were matched to cases on the day of delivery. Data related to potential risk factors, delivery, and obstetric complications were collected. Results Dystocia was significantly associated with older maternal age, higher parity, larger BMI, diabetes, and previous record of dystocia. In addition, dystocia was associated more with vacuum and forceps deliveries. Routine traction (51%) was the most used manoeuvre. Among dystocia cases, 13% were associated with fetal complications of which Erb’s Palsy was the most prevalent (79%). Conclusion Our finding of significant associations with risk factors lays out the ground to develop a predictability index for shoulder dystocia, which would help in making it preventable. Further p rospective studies are required to confirm the obtained results. PMID:25337307

  12. Mental health services for homeless: patient profile and factors associated with suicide and homicide.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dunne, E

    2012-03-01

    This study aimed to establish a profile of users of the mental health service for homeless in Cork, comparing this group with those attending a General Adult Service. The homeless group were significantly more likely to be male (89% v. 46%o), unemployed (96% v. 68%), unmarried (98% v. 75%) and under 65 (94% v. 83%). Diagnostically, there was a significantly higher prevalence of schizophrenia (50% v. 34%); personality disorder (37% v. 11%) and substance dependence (74% v. 19%) in the homeless service users. They were more likely to have a history of deliberate self harm (54% v. 21%) and violence (48% v. 10%). Severe mental illness has a high prevalence in the homeless population, with particularly high levels of factors associated with suicide and homicide. Poor compliance and complexity of illness lead to a requirement for significant input from multidisciplinary mental health teams members.

  13. Risk factor profile by etiological subtype of ischemic stroke in the young.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffre, Aude; Ruidavets, Jean Bernard; Calviere, Lionel; Viguier, Alain; Ferrieres, Jean; Larrue, Vincent

    2014-05-01

    Studies of risk factors for ischemic stroke in the young have generally considered ischemic stroke as a whole. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the association of traditional cardiovascular risk factors with etiological subtypes of ischemic stroke in young adults. Retrospective review of data from patients aged 16-54 years consecutively treated for first-ever ischemic stroke in an academic stroke unit. Definite causes of stroke were classified using the ASCO (A for atherothrombosis, S for small vessel disease, C for cardiac source, O for other cause) classification system. We used multinomial logistic regression analysis to evaluate associations of age, gender, smoking, hypertension, diabetes and blood lipids with each etiological subtype. A total of 400 patients were included: 244 men (61.1%), 156 women (38.9%); mean age (SD) 44.5 (8.5) years. A definite cause of stroke could be identified in 202 (50.5%) patients. Definite causes of stroke included: atherothrombosis, 72 (18.0%) patients; cardioembolism, 37 (9.25%) patients; small vessel disease, 28 (7.0%) patients; other definite cause, 65 (16.25%) patients including 44 patients with carotid or vertebral artery dissection. Atherothrombosis was associated with age, smoking, diabetes, hypertension and low HDL-cholesterol. Small vessel disease was associated with age and hypertension. Cardioembolism was associated with age. The risk factor profile differs between etiological subtypes of ischemic stroke in young adults. Our findings emphasize the impact of smoking, diabetes, hypertension and low HDL-cholesterol as risk factors for atherothrombosis, and of hypertension as a risk factor for small vessel disease in young adults. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Profiling ethanol-targeted transcription factors in human carcinoma cell-derived embryoid bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Chanchal; Halder, Debasish; Chai, Jin Choul; Lee, Young Seek; Jung, Kyoung Hwa; Chai, Young Gyu

    2016-01-15

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder is a collective term that represents fetal abnormalities associated with maternal alcohol consumption. Prenatal alcohol exposure and related anomalies are well characterized, but the molecular mechanism behind this phenomenon is not yet understood. Few insights have been gained from genetic and epigenetic studies of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Our aim was to profile the important molecular regulators of ethanol-related alterations of the genome. For this purpose, we have analyzed the gene expression pattern of human carcinoma cell-derived embryoid bodies in the absence or presence of ethanol. A cDNA microarray analysis was used to profile mRNA expression in embryoid bodies at day 7 with or without ethanol treatment. A total of 493 differentially expressed genes were identified in response to 50 mM ethanol exposure. Of these, 111 genes were up-regulated, and 382 were down-regulated. Gene ontology term enrichment analysis revealed that these genes are involved in important biological processes: neurological system processes, cognition, behavior, sensory perception of smell, taste and chemical stimuli and synaptic transmission. Similarly, the enrichment of disease-related genes included relevant categories such as neurological diseases, developmental disorders, skeletal and muscular disorders, and connective tissue disorders. Furthermore, we have identified a group of 26 genes that encode transcription factors. We validated the relative gene expression of several transcription factors using quantitative real time PCR. We hope that our study substantially contributes to the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathology of alcohol-mediated anomalies and facilitates further research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Construction Safety And Health Factors At The Industry Level: The Case Of Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Y.J. Cheah

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The construction industry is one of the most hazardous industries due to the unique nature of its products and the processes involved. Recent occurrences of highly publicized construction site accidents in Singapore have highlighted the immediate needs for the local industry to address safety and attention at the industry level. The objective of this paper is to examine issues and critical factors affecting S&H standards in Singapore. Clearly, collective efforts should be pursued at the industry level as the country moves towards the ultimate safety management strategy of self-regulation. The findings also indicate that the challenge of making worksites safe should not be placed solely on the contractors but should be shared by all parties affecting the value chain of construction, including the developers, the consultants and the government. The factors identified through factor analysis may inform legislators and industry practitioners in terms of the sources of problems and help develop effective strategies for improvement. Some of the experiences mentioned in the paper could also be relevant to other countries facing similar circumstances.

  16. The consideration of the humane factor is essential in safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parisot, F.

    2010-01-01

    In most risk analysis we consider that the staff fit perfectly the tasks to do in terms of training and competence but in fact a lot of factors intervene like the level of stress of the operator, the time available to identify the trouble or to take a decision, the relevance of the procedures, or the level of coordination and communication between the members of the staff. Different methods exist to assess the human factor, most have been designed to be used in the nuclear sector for instance: THERP (Technique for Human Error Rate Prediction) or OATS (Operation Action Tree) or SHARP (Systematic Human Action Reliability Procedure). These methods apply as early as the design stage of the engineered safety systems. Virtual reality has entered these methods because it allows operators to learn by making errors since errors in virtual reality have no consequences. Learning by making errors is an efficient method to get the operator used to accidental situations and as a consequence to reduce his level of stress. Some methods incorporate human elements into system safety analysis through the definition of performance shaping factors that describe the behaviour of operators in terms of physical and psychological abilities. (A.C.)

  17. Slope Safety Factor Calculations With Non-Linear Yield Criterion Using Finite Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Johan; Damkilde, Lars

    2006-01-01

    The factor of safety for a slope is calculated with the finite element method using a non-linear yield criterion of the Hoek-Brown type. The parameters of the Hoek-Brown criterion are found from triaxial test data. Parameters of the linear Mohr-Coulomb criterion are calibrated to the same triaxial...... are carried out at much higher stress levels than present in a slope failure, this leads to the conclusion that the use of the non-linear criterion leads to a safer slope design...

  18. Edge safety factor at the onset of plasma disruption during VDEs in JT-60U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugihara, Masayoshi; Lukash, Victor; Khayrutdinov, Rustam; Neyatani, Yuzuru

    2004-01-01

    Detailed examinations of the value of the edge safety factor (q a ) at the onset of thermal quench (TQ) during intentional vertical displacement event (VDE) experiments in JT-60U are carried out using two different reconstruction methods, FBI/FBEQU and DINA. The results from the two methods are very similar and show that the TQ occurs when the q a value is in the range between 1.5 and 2. This result suggests that the predictive simulations for VDEs should be performed within this range of q to examine the subsequent differences in the halo currents, plasma movement and other plasma behaviour during the current quench

  19. Calibration of brick masonry partial safety factors for the South African Code

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mahachi, J

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available VR of the resistance of the member. The safety index β is determined as follows: )( fp1−−= φβ (4) Where φ-1() is the inverse of the cumulative normal distribution and pf is the probability of failure at the ultimate limit state... carefully controlled. However, data on the effect of inspection on Rn and VR, and on the variability in construction quality control in South Africa is not available. Current partial resistance factors based on the modified British stochastic models...

  20. Reliability-based Calibration of Partial Safety Factors for Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambühl, Simon; Kramer, Morten Mejlhede; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2015-01-01

    of partial safety factors for design of welded details for wave energy converter applications is presented in this paper using probabilistic methods. The paper presents an example with focus on the Wavestar device. SN curves and Rainflow counting are used to model fatigue without considering inspections....... The influence of inspections is modelled using a fracture mechanics approach, which is calibrated by the SN curve approach. Furthermore, the paper assesses the influence of the inspection quality. The results show that with multiple inspections during the lifetime of the device and by applying a good inspection...

  1. Study on the creation and destruction of transport barriers via the effective safety factors for energetic particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Shun; Leoncini, Xavier; Dif-Pradalier, Guilhem; Garbet, Xavier

    2016-12-01

    Charged particles with low kinetic energy move along the magnetic field lines, but so do not the energetic particles. We investigate the topological structure changes in the phase space of energetic particles with respect to the magnetic one. For this study, cylindrical magnetic fields with non-monotonic safety factors that induce the magnetic internal transport barrier are considered. We show that the topological structure of the magnetic field line and of the particle trajectories can be quite different. We explain this difference using the concept of an effective particle q-profile. Using this notion, we can investigate the location and existence of resonances for particle orbits that are different from the magnetic ones. These are examined both numerically by integrating an equation of motion and theoretically by the use of Alfvén's guiding center theory and by the use of an effective reduced Hamiltonian for the integrable unperturbed system. It is clarified that, for the energetic particles, the grad B drift effect shifts the resonances and the drift induced by curvature of the magnetic field line leads to the vanishing of the resonances. As a result, we give two different mechanisms that lead to the creation of transport barriers for energetic particles in the region where the magnetic field line is chaotic.

  2. Bacteriological profile of septicemia and the risk factors in neonates and infants in Sikkim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dechen C Tsering

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bacterial infections remain an important cause of pediatric mortality and morbidity. It might be possible to reduce these factors by early diagnosis and proper management. Aim: The aim of the study was to analyze the bacteriological profiles with their antibiogram, and to register the risk factors for septicemia in neonates and infants. Setting and design: This observational cross-sectional study was conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital at Gangtok, Sikkim, India, and included clinically suspected cases of septicemia in neonates and infants. Materials and Methods: Blood culture reports were studied in 363 cases of clinically suspected septicemia in neonates and infants, using the standard technique of Mackie and McCartney. The antibiotic sensitivity was performed by Kirby-Bauer′s disc diffusion method. Risk factors for sepsis in the children were registered. Results: Blood culture was positive in 22% of cases. Gram-negative septicemia was encountered in 61% of the culture-positive cases. Pseudomonas and Enterobacter species were the predominant pathogens amongst gram-negative organisms. Most gram-negative organisms were sensitive to Amikacin, Ciprofloxacin, and Co-trimoxazole. The most common gram-positive organism isolated was Staphylococcus aureus (97%. More than 70% of Staphylococci isolated were resistant to Penicillin, but were sensitive to Clindamycin (70% and Vancomycin (40%. The most important risk factors of septicemia in our study population were preterm birth (31%, followed by respiratory distress (5% and low birth weight (4%. Conclusion: As the cultures showed variable antibiogram with complicated patterns of resistance, culture and sensitivity test should be performed in all cases of septicemia.

  3. JASPAR 2016: a major expansion and update of the open-access database of transcription factor binding profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathelier, Anthony; Fornes, Oriol; Arenillas, David J; Chen, Chih-Yu; Denay, Grégoire; Lee, Jessica; Shi, Wenqiang; Shyr, Casper; Tan, Ge; Worsley-Hunt, Rebecca; Zhang, Allen W; Parcy, François; Lenhard, Boris; Sandelin, Albin; Wasserman, Wyeth W

    2016-01-04

    JASPAR (http://jaspar.genereg.net) is an open-access database storing curated, non-redundant transcription factor (TF) binding profiles representing transcription factor binding preferences as position frequency matrices for multiple species in six taxonomic groups. For this 2016 release, we expanded the JASPAR CORE collection with 494 new TF binding profiles (315 in vertebrates, 11 in nematodes, 3 in insects, 1 in fungi and 164 in plants) and updated 59 profiles (58 in vertebrates and 1 in fungi). The introduced profiles represent an 83% expansion and 10% update when compared to the previous release. We updated the structural annotation of the TF DNA binding domains (DBDs) following a published hierarchical structural classification. In addition, we introduced 130 transcription factor flexible models trained on ChIP-seq data for vertebrates, which capture dinucleotide dependencies within TF binding sites. This new JASPAR release is accompanied by a new web tool to infer JASPAR TF binding profiles recognized by a given TF protein sequence. Moreover, we provide the users with a Ruby module complementing the JASPAR API to ease programmatic access and use of the JASPAR collection of profiles. Finally, we provide the JASPAR2016 R/Bioconductor data package with the data of this release. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  4. Preliminary Assessment for the Effects of the External Hazard Factors on the Safety of NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, So Beom; Hyun, Seung Gyu; Kim, Sang Yun; Lee, Sung Kyu; Hur, Youl

    2010-01-01

    The Ch.etsu Offshore Earthquake(2007.7.16) in Japan caused damage to the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa(K-K) Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) with seismic ground motion that exceeded the design level. This incident drew the interest of the safety evaluation studies for NPPs subjected to earthquakes exceeding the design basis around the world. Also, the Indian Ocean Tsunami(2004.12.26) tripped the Madras NPP by reason of flooding of the intake pump house and inundated the construction site of a fast breeder reactor site in India. In addition, from the various man-made and natural hazards such as the oil spill accident near Mallipo, Taean, Chungnam (2007.12), the forest fire near the Ulchin NPP site, the several inflows of marine organism into the intake of the Ulchin NPP, it was confirmed that the safety of NPPs may be affected by natural and human induced disasters. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has been warned about global warming; the average temperature rose about 1.5 .deg. C during the 20th century and the damages caused by typhoons and heavy rains have also increased in Korea. Accordingly, a natural disaster prevention research team(hereafter team) ,which have been organized and operated since 2009, has assessed the impact of various hazards such as earthquakes and environmental changes due to global warming on the safety of NPP and has discussed to establish countermeasures. This paper introduces that the preliminary assessment for the effects of the external hazard factors on the safety of NPPs was conducted by the team

  5. Profiles of Food Security for US Farmworker Households and Factors Related to Dynamic of Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Edward H; Saldana, Santiago; Arcury, Thomas A; Grzywacz, Joseph G; Trejo, Grisel; Quandt, Sara A

    2015-10-01

    We recruited 248 farmworker families with preschool-aged children in North Carolina and examined food security indicators over 24 months to identify food security patterns and examine the dynamic of change over time. Participants in the Niños Sanos study, conducted 2011 to 2014, completed quarterly food security assessments. Based on responses to items in the US Household Food Security Survey Module, we identified different states of food security by using hidden Markov model analysis, and examined factors associated with different states. We delineated factors associated with changes in state by using mixed-effect ordinal logistic regression. About half of the households (51%) consistently stayed in the most food-secure state. The least food-secure state was transient, with only 29% probability of this state for 2 consecutive quarters. Seasonal (vs migrant) work status, having immigration documents (vs not documented), and season predicted higher levels of food security. Heterogeneity in food security among farmworker households calls for tailoring intervention strategies. The transiency and unpredictability of low food security suggest that access to safety-net programs could reduce low food security risk in this population.

  6. Tubercular meningitis in children: Clinical, pathological, and radiological profile and factors associated with mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil V Israni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Childhood tuberculosis is a major public health problem in developing countries with tubercular meningitis being a serious complication with high mortality and morbidity. Aim: To study the clinicopathological as well as radiological profile of childhood tuberculous meningitis (TBM cases. Settings and Design: Prospective, observational study including children <14 years of age with TBM admitted in a tertiary care hospital from Western India. Subjects and Methods: TBM was diagnosed based on predefined criteria. Glassgow coma scale (GCS and intracranial pressure (ICP was recorded. Staging was done as per British Medical Council Staging System. Mantoux test, chest X-ray, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF examination, neuroimaging, and other investigations were done to confirm TB. Statistical Analysis Used: STATA software (version 9.0 was used for data analysis. Various risk factors were determined using Chi-square tests, and a P< 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Forty-seven children were included, of which 11 (24.3% died. Fever was the most common presenting symptom, and meningismus was the most common sign. Twenty-nine (62% children presented with Stage III disease. Stage III disease, low GCS, and raised ICP were predictors of mortality. Findings on neuroimaging or CSF examination did not predict mortality. Conclusions: Childhood TBM presents with nonspecific clinical features. Stage III disease, low GCS, lack of Bacillus Calmette–Gu͹rin vaccination at birth and raised ICP seem to the most important adverse prognostic factors.

  7. FED-A, an advanced performance FED based on low safety factor and current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Y.K.M.; Rutherford, P.H.

    1983-08-01

    The FED-A study aims to quantify the potential improvement in cost-effectiveness of the Fusion Engineering Device (FED) by assuming low safety factor q (less than 2 as opposed to about 3) at the plasma edge and noninductive current drive (as opposed to only inductive current drive). The FED-A performance objectives are set to be : (1) ignition assuming International Tokamak Reactor (INTOR) plamsa confinement scaling, but still achieving a fusion power amplification Q greater than or equal to 5 when the confinement is degraded by a factor of 2; (2) neutron wall loading of about 1 MW/m 2 , with 0.5 MW/m 2 as a conservative lower bound; and (3) more clearly power-reactor-like operations, such as steady state

  8. Evaluation of response factors for seismic probabilistic safety assessment of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebisawa, K.; Abe, K.; Muramatsu, K.; Itoh, M.; Kohno, K.; Tanaka, T.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a method for evaluating 'response factors' of components in nuclear power plants for use in a seismic probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). The response factor here is a measure of conservatism included in response calculations in seismic design analysis of components and is defined as a ratio of conservative design resonse to actual response. This method has the following characteristic features: (1) The components are classified into several groups based on the differences in their location and in the vibration models used in design response analyses; (2) the response factors are decomposed into subfactors corresponding to the stages of the seismic response analyses in the design practices; (3) the response factors for components are calculated as products of subfactors; (4) the subfactors are expressed either as a single value or as a function of parameters that influence the response of components. This paper describes the outline of this method and results from an application to a sample problem in which response factors were quantified for examples of components selected from the groups. (orig.)

  9. National young-driver survey: teen perspective and experience with factors that affect driving safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Kenneth R; Winston, Flaura K; Senserrick, Teresa M; García-España, Felipe; Kinsman, Sara; Quistberg, D Alex; Ross, James G; Elliott, Michael R

    2008-05-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of fatality and acquired disability in adolescents. Young, inexperienced drivers are overrepresented in crashes. Our goal was to explore the adolescent perspective on driving safety to provide a better understanding of factors that influence safety and teenagers' exposure to driving hazards. Adolescents generated, prioritized, and explained their viewpoint by using the teen-centered method. These viewpoints were obtained from a school-based nationally representative survey of 9th-, 10th-, and 11th-graders (N = 5665) from 68 high schools, conducted in spring 2006, that included teen-generated items. The main outcome measures were rating of risk and prevalence of witnessing driving hazards. Drinking while driving was ranked as the greatest hazard (87% of the respondents reported that it made a lot of difference), although only 12% witnessed it often. Ranked next as dangers while driving were text-messaging, racing, impairment from marijuana, and road rage. Sixty percent viewed inexperience as a significant hazard, although only 15% reported seeing it often. Cell phone use was viewed as a significant hazard by 28%, although 57% witnessed it frequently. Only 10% viewed peer passengers as hazardous, but 64% frequently observed them. Distracting peer behaviors, among other distractions, were viewed as more dangerous. Subpopulations varied in the degree they perceived hazards. For example, black and Hispanic adolescents viewed substance use while driving as less hazardous than did white adolescents but witnessed it more frequently. Adolescents generally understand the danger of intoxicated driving. However, some groups need to better recognize this hazard. Distractions take teenagers' focus off the road, but not all are viewed as hazardous. Although inexperience is the key factor that interacts with other conditions to cause crashes, adolescents do not recognize what merits experience. Future research is needed to explore how to

  10. Understanding human and organisational factors - Nuclear safety and at-risk organisations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, Benoit

    2014-01-01

    This book addresses human and organisational factors which are present at different moments of the lifetime of an at-risk installation (from design to dismantling). At-risk organisations are considered as firstly human systems, and the objective is then to highlight individual and collective mechanisms in these organisations. Several questions are addressed, notably the origins of at-risk behaviour, and the reasons of the repetition of errors by these organisations. A first chapter, while referring to examples, addresses the human dimension of safety: human and organisational factors as obstacles, normal accidents (Three Mile Island), accidents in high-reliability organisations (Chernobyl), identification of root causes (Tokai-mura), and social-technical approach to safety (Fukushima). By also referring to examples, the second chapter addresses how to analyse at-risk organisations: individual behaviours (case of naval and air transport accidents), team coordination (a fire, the Challenger accident), and organisational regulation (organisations forms and routines, explosion of BP Texas City, explosion of Columbia)

  11. A Pharmacovigilance Study in First Episode of Psychosis: Psychopharmacological Interventions and Safety Profiles in the PEPs Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioque, Miquel; Llerena, Adrián; Cabrera, Bibiana; Mezquida, Gisela; Lobo, Antonio; González-Pinto, Ana; Díaz-Caneja, Covadonga M; Corripio, Iluminada; Aguilar, Eduardo J; Bulbena, Antoni; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; Vieta, Eduard; Lafuente, Amàlia; Mas, Sergi; Parellada, Mara; Saiz-Ruiz, Jerónimo; Cuesta, Manuel J; Bernardo, Miguel

    2016-04-01

    The characterization of the first episode of psychosis and how it should be treated are principal issues in actual research. Realistic, naturalistic studies are necessary to represent the entire population of first episode of psychosis attended in daily practice. Sixteen participating centers from the PEPs project recruited 335 first episode of psychosis patients, aged 7 to 35 years. This article describes and discusses the psychopharmacological interventions and safety profiles at baseline and during a 60-day pharmacovigilance period. The majority of first episode of psychosis patients received a second-generation antipsychotic (96.3%), orally (95%), and in adjusted doses according to the product specifications (87.2%). A total of 24% were receiving an antipsychotic polytherapy pattern at baseline, frequently associated with lower or higher doses of antipsychotics than the recommended ones. Eight patients were taking clozapine, all in monotherapy. Males received higher doses of antipsychotic (P=.043). A total of 5.2% of the patients were being treated with long-acting injectable antipsychotics; 12.2% of the patients received anticholinergic drugs, 12.2% antidepressants, and 13.7% mood stabilizers, while almost 40% received benzodiazepines; and 35.52% reported at least one adverse drug reaction during the pharmacovigilance period, more frequently associated with higher antipsychotic doses and antipsychotic polytherapy (85.2% vs 45.5%, Psecurity issues, support future research of determinate pharmacological strategies for the treatment of early phases of psychosis, such as the role of clozapine, long-acting injectable antipsychotics, antipsychotic combination, and the use of benzodiazepines. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  12. Clinical profile, common thrombophilia markers and risk factors in 85 young Indian patients with arterial thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahendra Narain Mishra

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Arterial thrombosis may occur consequent to hereditary thrombophilia and increased lipoprotein(a [Lp(a] and fibrinogen. Our aim was to study the prevalence of common thrombophilia markers in 85 consecutive cases of arterial thrombosis. DESIGN AND SETTING: A retrospective study was conducted from 85 consecutive young patients treated as outpatients or admitted due to stroke or myocardial infarction at a tertiary care hospital. METHODS: Eighty-five Indian patients (age < 45 years presenting ischemic stroke (n = 48 or myocardial infarction (n = 37 and 50 controls were studied for seven thrombophilia markers including antithrombin (AT, factor V, protein C, protein S, activated protein C resistance (APC-R, fibrinogen and Lp(a. Functional assays for protein C, protein S, factor V and APC-R were performed using clotting-based methods. Semi-quantitative estimation of fibrinogen was done using Clauss's method and Lp(a using immunoturbidimetry. Statistical analysis was done using the Epi Info 6 software. RESULTS: Thirty-three samples (38.8% tested positive for one or more thrombophilia markers. The three commonest abnormalities were elevated Lp(a (20%, fibrinogen (17.6% and low APC-R (14.2%. Low levels of protein C, protein S and AT were present in 4.7, 9.4 and 7% of the patients, respectively. Overall, the risk factor profile was: smoking (33%, positive family history (15.3%, hyperlipidemia (7%, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and obesity (2.3% each. CONCLUSIONS: An association was found between low levels of protein C, protein S and AT and arterial thrombosis, but only elevated fibrinogen levels, smoking, positive family history and hyperlipidemia showed statistical significance.

  13. Profile of conventional risk factors in patients presenting for coronary angiography in a tertiary care hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, N.S.

    2014-01-01

    The conventional risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD) include hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidaemia and cigarette smoking(1). There is a large body of evidence, which implicates these factors in the causation of coronary artery disease. Objective: To study the attern of the above-mentioned as well as additional risk factors including age, gender, family history, obesity and hepatitis B and C seropositivity in the population of patients undergoing coronary angiography at our tertiary care hospital.Methodology:In this cross-sectional survey, 465 patients undergoing coronary angiography were studied using a questionnaire as well as clinical and laboratory data. The information obtained included age, sex, clinical presentation, past medical history, family history, the presence or absence of previous ischemic heart disease, diabetes, hypertension and a history of smoking. A history of duration of diabetes and hypertension, their treatment and the presence or absence of complications was also noted. A proportion of patients had their fasting blood lipid levels measured. Height, weight and waist circumference as well as HepBsAg and anti-HCV levels were also determined.Results: The 465 patients studied included 383 males and 82 females. The mean age of all patients was 49.68 +- 0.464 years and the difference between genders was not significant. A past history of ischaemic heart disease was present in 31% of patients. Diabetes mellitus was present in 23% of males and 45% of females. A history of hypertension was present in 30.8% males and 70.7% of the females. Of the patients who could be studied, the mean LDL was 110.29 +- 1.706 mg/dL, the mean HDL was 41.01 +- 0.319 mg/dL and the mean TG was 189.67 +- 4.21 mg/dL. The difference in lipid profile values between male and female patients was not significant (p-value >0.05). Waist circumference was increased in 69.7% males and 93.9% females and here the difference between genders was significant, Hep

  14. A STUDY ON RISK FACTORS AND LIPID PROFILE PATTERN IN PATIENTS OF STROKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawgam Umbon

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Stroke is usually end result of predisposing conditions that originated years before the ictus. Creating awareness and treatment of its modifiable risk factors will reduce the incidence of stroke. OBJECTIVE To study the risk factors and lipid profile pattern in stroke patients. METHODS Patients with diagnosis of stroke comprising 50 consecutive patients each of ischaemic and haemorrhagic strokes who were admitted in Jorhat Medical College & Hospital, Assam over a period of 1 year (May 2015 - April 2016 included in the study, while patients on lipid lowering therapy were excluded from the study. History of risk factors like hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking and alcoholism were taken. To determine the subtype of stroke, clinical examination followed by CT scan/MRI of brain were done. A serum sample after 8 hours of overnight fasting was taken on the next day of admission for both groups of patients. Total serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol was determined, using enzymatic colorimetric method. RESULTS A total of 100 patients were studied, of whom 66 were males and 34 were females. The mean age for the ischaemic group was 62±12 years and for the haemorrhagic group were 55±14 years. In this study, dyslipidaemia was present in 58 (58% patients. Patients with high total cholesterol - 33 (18 ischaemic, 15 haemorrhagic, high LDL-cholesterol was found in 38 (22 ischaemic, 16 haemorrhagic, high triglycerides in 31 (14 ischaemic, 17 haemorrhagic and low HDL-cholesterol in 47 (29 ischaemic, 18 haemorrhagic. Among 100 patients, 66 had hypertension, 20 had diabetes mellitus, 18 had both diabetes and hypertension, 43 were smokers, 36 consumed alcohol and >2 risk factor were found in 44. CONCLUSION Dyslipidaemia was found in 58% of patients and most striating features were low HDL-cholesterol and elevated triglycerides level, indicating they are independent risk factors for stroke. No

  15. The profile of physical activity and coronary risk factors in Monica Jakarta survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dede Kusmana

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available A population study was done to know the profile of daily physical activity including sports, and its influence on major coronary risk factors in three districts of Jakarta using questionnaire, physicaL and laboratory examination, and 12 leads ECC. The questionnaire gave the data about physical activity (work load and sport, and smoking habit. Work load was divided into light, moderate and heavy. Sport activity was divided into regular (≥ twice a week, 20 minutes or more, irregular (≤ once or occasional, and no sport activity. In addition, blood pressure  (hypertension was grouped according to WHO criteria, total cholesterol (regarded as hypercholesterolemia when > 200 mg%, and ECG were measured. ECG interpretation was done using Minnesota Code. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS. Out of 2400 people there were  2073(86.4%  respondents that consist of 1086 females and 987 males. The profile of physical activity as a whole showed 33.4% light, 50.7% moderate and 15.8% heavy activity. OnLy 22.5% of respondents had sport regularly, while 30.3% had sport irregularly, and 47.2% had no sport activity. The type of sport was walking (45.0%, callisthenic (22.0% jogging/running (15.6%, badminton (6.5%, volley ball/soccer (4.1%, tennis (3.8%, and golf (0.1%. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of hypertension between people with heavy (12.0%, moderate (44.8% and light work load (43.2% (P<0.003, in the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia (13.2%: 50.8%: 36% (P<0.0003, and smoking (19.7%; 44.1%: 36.2% (P<0.00001, respectively. The difference also occurred in the prevalence of abnormal ECG (Q/QS, ST and T  abnormalities between people having regular sport (19.0%, irregular (22.7%, and no sport activity (58.3% (P<0.05. The number of respondents having enough physical activity (including regular sport was relatively low. Therefore, promotion should be done as a preventive method to overcome cardiovascular risk factors. (Med J Indones

  16. Exploring Barriers to Medication Safety in an Ethiopian Hospital Emergency Department: A Human Factors Engineering Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ephrem Abebe

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe challenges associated with the medication use process and potential medication safety hazards in an Ethiopian hospital emergency department using a human factors approach. Methods: We conducted a qualitative study employing observations and semi-structured interviews guided by the Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety model of work system as an analytical framework. The study was conducted in the emergency department of a teaching hospital in Ethiopia. Study participants included resident doctors, nurses, and pharmacists. We performed content analysis of the qualitative data using accepted procedures. Results: Organizational barriers included communication failures, limited supervision and support for junior staff contributing to role ambiguity and conflict. Compliance with documentation policy was minimal. Task related barriers included frequent interruptions and work-related stress resulting from job requirements to continuously prioritize the needs of large numbers of patients and family members. Person related barriers included limited training and work experience. Work-related fatigue due to long working hours interfered with staff’s ability to document and review medication orders. Equipment breakdowns were common as were non-calibrated or poorly maintained medical devices contributing to erroneous readings. Key environment related barriers included overcrowding and frequent interruption of staff’s work. Cluttering of the work space compounded the problem by impeding efforts to locate medications, medical supplies or medical charts. Conclusions: Applying a systems based approach allows a context specific understanding of medication safety hazards in EDs from low-income countries. When developing interventions to improve medication and overall patient safety, health leaders should consider the interactions of the different factors. Conflict of Interest We declare no conflicts of interest or

  17. Missing focus on Human Factors - organizational and cognitive ergonomics - in the safety management for the petroleum industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, Stig O; Kilskar, Stine Skaufel; Fossum, Knut Robert

    2017-08-01

    More attention has recently been given to Human Factors in petroleum accident investigations. The Human Factors areas examined in this article are organizational, cognitive and physical ergonomics. A key question to be explored is as follows: To what degree are the petroleum industry and safety authorities in Norway focusing on these Human Factors areas from the design phase? To investigate this, we conducted an innovative exploratory study of the development of four control centres in Norwegian oil and gas industry in collaboration between users, management and Human Factors experts. We also performed a literature survey and discussion with the professional Human Factors network in Norway. We investigated the Human Factors focus, reasons for not considering Human Factors and consequences of missing Human Factors in safety management. The results revealed an immature focus and organization of Human Factors. Expertise on organizational ergonomics and cognitive ergonomics are missing from companies and safety authorities and are poorly prioritized during the development. The easy observable part of Human Factors (i.e. physical ergonomics) is often in focus. Poor focus on Human Factors in the design process creates demanding conditions for human operators and impact safety and resilience. There is lack of non-technical skills such as communication and decision-making. New technical equipment such as Closed Circuit Television is implemented without appropriate use of Human Factors standards. Human Factors expertise should be involved as early as possible in the responsible organizations. Verification and validation of Human Factors should be improved and performed from the start, by certified Human Factors experts in collaboration with the workforce. The authorities should check-back that the regulatory framework of Human Factors is communicated, understood and followed.

  18. What factors facilitate regulatory competence in supervising the safety of nuclear technology?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishar, Marina

    2012-01-01

    The proposed utilization of nuclear energy for electricity generation as the alternative energy source requires Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB), the Malaysian nuclear regulatory body taking key role in supervising the safety of the program. This study looked into factors influencing the competency of current AELB human resource as technical competency has been identified as one of the main contributors to the success of a civil nuclear power program. The four quadrant competency model developed by International Atomic Energy Agency was utilized as the required competency. A comprehensive study on 81 personnel from five states in different geographic regions of the country were carried out to investigate the impact of six factors related to competency (educational level, years of working experience, trainings attended, participation in technical committees, numbers of technical papers written and number of technical presentation presented) on four dependent measures in the areas of regulatory competency (legal basis, technical disciplines, regulatory practices and personal and interpersonal effectiveness). Multiple regression (method enter) identified factors that had significant contribution to level of competency while stepwise regression resulted in identifying predictors to enhance competencies. Results were mixed but each of the independent factors is a predictor to different competencies. This study had identified the best predictors that could significantly contribute to the enhancement of regulatory. (author)

  19. Incorporating organizational factors into probabilistic safety assessment of nuclear power plants through canonical probabilistic models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galan, S.F. [Dpto. de Inteligencia Artificial, E.T.S.I. Informatica (UNED), Juan del Rosal, 16, 28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: seve@dia.uned.es; Mosleh, A. [2100A Marie Mount Hall, Materials and Nuclear Engineering Department, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)]. E-mail: mosleh@umd.edu; Izquierdo, J.M. [Area de Modelado y Simulacion, Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear, Justo Dorado, 11, 28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: jmir@csn.es

    2007-08-15

    The {omega}-factor approach is a method that explicitly incorporates organizational factors into Probabilistic safety assessment of nuclear power plants. Bayesian networks (BNs) are the underlying formalism used in this approach. They have a structural part formed by a graph whose nodes represent organizational variables, and a parametric part that consists of conditional probabilities, each of them quantifying organizational influences between one variable and its parents in the graph. The aim of this paper is twofold. First, we discuss some important limitations of current procedures in the {omega}-factor approach for either assessing conditional probabilities from experts or estimating them from data. We illustrate the discussion with an example that uses data from Licensee Events Reports of nuclear power plants for the estimation task. Second, we introduce significant improvements in the way BNs for the {omega}-factor approach can be constructed, so that parameter acquisition becomes easier and more intuitive. The improvements are based on the use of noisy-OR gates as model of multicausal interaction between each BN node and its parents.

  20. Incorporating organizational factors into probabilistic safety assessment of nuclear power plants through canonical probabilistic models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galan, S.F.; Mosleh, A.; Izquierdo, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The ω-factor approach is a method that explicitly incorporates organizational factors into Probabilistic safety assessment of nuclear power plants. Bayesian networks (BNs) are the underlying formalism used in this approach. They have a structural part formed by a graph whose nodes represent organizational variables, and a parametric part that consists of conditional probabilities, each of them quantifying organizational influences between one variable and its parents in the graph. The aim of this paper is twofold. First, we discuss some important limitations of current procedures in the ω-factor approach for either assessing conditional probabilities from experts or estimating them from data. We illustrate the discussion with an example that uses data from Licensee Events Reports of nuclear power plants for the estimation task. Second, we introduce significant improvements in the way BNs for the ω-factor approach can be constructed, so that parameter acquisition becomes easier and more intuitive. The improvements are based on the use of noisy-OR gates as model of multicausal interaction between each BN node and its parents

  1. Multiple interacting factors influence adherence, and outcomes associated with surgical safety checklists: a qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna R Gagliardi

    Full Text Available The surgical safety checklist (SSC is meant to enhance patient safety but studies of its impact conflict. This study explored factors that influenced SSC adherence to suggest how its impact could be optimized.Participants were recruited purposively by profession, region, hospital type and time using the SSC. They were asked to describe how the SSC was adopted, associated challenges, perceived impact, and suggestions for improving its use. Grounded theory and thematic analysis were used to collect and analyse data. Findings were interpreted using an implementation fidelity conceptual framework.Fifty-one participants were interviewed (29 nurses, 13 surgeons, 9 anaesthetists; 18 small, 14 large and 19 teaching hospitals; 8 regions; 31 had used the SC for ≤12 months, 20 for 13+ months. The SSC was inconsistently reviewed, and often inaccurately documented as complete. Adherence was influenced by multiple issues. Extensive modification to accommodate existing practice patterns eliminated essential interaction at key time points to discuss patient management. Staff were often absent or not paying attention. They did not feel it was relevant to their work given limited evidence of its effectiveness, and because they were not engaged in its implementation. Organizations provided little support for implementation, training, monitoring and feedback, which are needed to overcome these, and other individual and team factors that challenged SSC adherence. Responses were similar across participants with different characteristics.Multiple processes and factors influenced SSC adherence. This may explain why, in studies evaluating SSC impact, outcomes were variable. Recommendations included continuing education, time for pilot-testing, and engaging all staff in SSC review. Others may use the implementation fidelity framework to plan SSC implementation or evaluate SSC adherence. Further research is needed to establish which SSC components can be modified

  2. The Dread Factor: How Hazards and Safety Training Influence Learning and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Michael J.; Salvador, Rommel O.; Smith-Crowe, Kristin; Chan-Serafin, Suzanne; Smith, Alexis; Sonesh, Shirley

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of hypotheses derived from social and experiential learning theories, we meta-analytically investigated how safety training and workplace hazards impact the development of safety knowledge and safety performance. The results were consistent with an expected interaction between the level of engagement of safety training and hazardous…

  3. Bacterial profiles of saliva in relation to diet, lifestyle factors, and socioeconomic status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Holmstrup, Palle; Nielsen, Claus H

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The bacterial profile of saliva is composed of bacteria from different oral surfaces. The objective of this study was to determine whether different diet intake, lifestyle, or socioeconomic status is associated with characteristic bacterial saliva profiles. DESIGN: Stimu...... of saliva. CONCLUSIONS: The bacterial profile of saliva seems independent of diet intake, but influenced by smoking and maybe socioeconomic status.......BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The bacterial profile of saliva is composed of bacteria from different oral surfaces. The objective of this study was to determine whether different diet intake, lifestyle, or socioeconomic status is associated with characteristic bacterial saliva profiles. DESIGN...... presence and levels (mean HOMIM-value) of bacterial probes as endpoints, the influence of diet intake, lifestyle, and socioeconomic status on the bacterial saliva profile was analyzed by Mann-Whitney tests with Benjamini-Hochberg's correction for multiple comparisons and principal component analysis...

  4. Estimation of Hypertension Risk from Lifestyle Factors and Health Profile: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuoyuan Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a highly prevalent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and it can also lead to other diseases which seriously harm the human health. Screening the risks and finding a clinical model for estimating the risk of onset, maintenance, or the prognosis of hypertension are of great importance to the prevention or treatment of the disease, especially if the indicator can be derived from simple health profile. In this study, we investigate a chronic disease questionnaire data set of 6563 rural citizens in East China and find out a clinical signature that can assess the risk of hypertension easily and accurately. The signature achieves an accuracy of about 83% on the external test dataset, with an AUC of 0.91. Our study demonstrates that a combination of simple lifestyle features can sufficiently reflect the risk of hypertension onset. This finding provides potential guidance for disease prevention and control as well as development of home care and home-care technologies.

  5. [Cryptogenic West syndrome: Clinical profile, response to treatment and prognostic factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón Romero, María; Arce Portillo, Elena; López Lobato, Mercedes; Muñoz Cabello, Beatriz; Blanco Martínez, Bárbara; Madruga Garrido, Marcos; Alonso Luego, Olga

    2017-12-06

    West syndrome (WS) is an age-dependent epileptic encephalopathy in which the prognosis varies according to the, not always identified, underlying origin. To define the profile of cryptogenic (a least studied isolated sub-group) WS, in Spain. To study its outcome, response to different treatments, and to establish prognostic factors. The study included a review of the medical records of 16 patients diagnosed with cryptogenic WS during the period, 2000-2015. The mean follow-up time was 6.6 years, with a minimum of 2 years. The large majority (11/16) were male. The mean age at onset was 6 months, and 6/16 had a family history of idiopathic epilepsy. The first line treatment with vigabatrin had an electrical-clinical response in 5/16 patients, with the remaining cases responding to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). Almost half (44%) of the patients progressed to other types of epilepsy, with no difference between those treated with vigabatrin or ACTH. A greater number of adverse effects were obtained with ACTH, with no retinal involvement being observed with vigabatrin. The aetiological cause was found in 2/16. Being female, late onset, and early control of the hypsarrhythmia, were factors of a good prognosis. The overall prognosis of cryptogenic WS was more serious than expected. Although the incidence of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome was low, the progression to focal epilepsy was the most common, with it appearing within the first 2 years of the diagnosis. The initial response to vigabatrin was lower than expected, but the long-term result was comparable to ACTH. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  6. Updating Human Factors Engineering Guidelines for Conducting Safety Reviews of Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, J.M.; Higgins, J.; Fleger, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the human factors engineering (HFE) programs of applicants for nuclear power plant construction permits, operating licenses, standard design certifications, and combined operating licenses. The purpose of these safety reviews is to help ensure that personnel performance and reliability are appropriately supported. Detailed design review procedures and guidance for the evaluations is provided in three key documents: the Standard Review Plan (NUREG-0800), the HFE Program Review Model (NUREG-0711), and the Human-System Interface Design Review Guidelines (NUREG-0700). These documents were last revised in 2007, 2004 and 2002, respectively. The NRC is committed to the periodic update and improvement of the guidance to ensure that it remains a state-of-the-art design evaluation tool. To this end, the NRC is updating its guidance to stay current with recent research on human performance, advances in HFE methods and tools, and new technology being employed in plant and control room design. This paper describes the role of HFE guidelines in the safety review process and the content of the key HFE guidelines used. Then we will present the methodology used to develop HFE guidance and update these documents, and describe the current status of the update program.

  7. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Home Environment and Home Social Behavior Data from the Elementary School Success Profile for Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegmann, Kate M.; Thompson, Aaron M.; Bowen, Natasha K.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to test the factor structure and scale quality of data provided by caregivers about the home environment and child behavior at home using the Elementary School Success Profile (ESSP) for Families. The ESSP for Families is one component of the ESSP, an online social-environmental assessment that also collects…

  8. Statistics of past errors as a source of safety factors for current models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shlyakhter, A.I.

    1994-01-01

    Results of a comparative analysis of actual vs. estimated uncertainty in several data sets derived from natural and social sciences are presented. Data sets include: (i) time trends in the sequential measurements of the same physical quantity; (ii) environmental measurements of uranium in soil, (iii) national population projections; (iv) projections for the United States' energy sector. Probabilities of large deviations from the true values are parametrized by an exponential distribution with the slope determined by the data. One can hedge against unsuspected uncertainties by inflating reported uncertainty range by a default safety factor determined from the relevant historical data sets. This emperical approach can be used in the uncertainty analysis of the low probability/high consequence events, such as risk of global warming

  9. A probabilistic analysis method to evaluate the effect of human factors on plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ujita, H.

    1987-01-01

    A method to evaluate the effect of human factors on probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) is developed. The main features of the method are as follows: 1. A time-dependent multibranch tree is constructed to treat time dependency of human error probability. 2. A sensitivity analysis is done to determine uncertainty in the PSA due to branch time of human error occurrence, human error data source, extraneous act probability, and human recovery probability. The method is applied to a large-break, loss-of-coolant accident of a boiling water reactor-5. As a result, core melt probability and risk do not depend on the number of time branches, which means that a small number of branches are sufficient. These values depend on the first branch time and the human error probability

  10. Lurasidone for schizophrenia: a review of the efficacy and safety profile for this newly approved second-generation antipsychotic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrome, L

    2011-02-01

    To describe the efficacy and safety of lurasidone for the treatment of schizophrenia. The pivotal registration trials were accessed by querying the literature databases PubMed, EMBASE, ISI Web of Knowledge, as well as http://www.fda.gov and http://www.clinicaltrials.gov for the search term 'lurasidone'. Product labelling provided additional information. All available clinical reports of studies were identified. Descriptions of the principal results and calculation of number needed to treat (NNT) and number needed to harm (NNH) for relevant dichotomous outcomes were extracted from the available study reports, abstracts and posters. Additional safety outcomes subject to NNH analysis were obtained from product labelling. Lurasidone is a second-generation antipsychotic approved for the treatment of schizophrenia at a recommended starting dose of 40 mg/day administered once daily with food (≥350 calories). The maximum recommended dose is 80 mg/day. Regulatory approval was based primarily on a clinical trial programme that included four 6-week randomised clinical trials demonstrating efficacy vs. placebo in acute patients with schizophrenia. One additional Phase II clinical trial was considered a failed study because neither lurasidone nor the active control, haloperidol, separated from placebo on the primary outcome measure. One additional Phase III study was completed after the new drug application was submitted to the US Food and Drug Administration. Efficacy outcomes appear consistently in favour of lurasidone 80 mg/day vs. placebo on multiple measures of psychopathology, however, at least two studies also demonstrated efficacy for the doses of 40 and 120 mg/day. NNT vs. placebo was 3-6 for response as defined by ≥20% reduction in psychopathological rating scale total scores from baseline, depending on the study and the dose. Response as defined by a ≥30% improvement yielded NNTs ranging from 7 to 13. The most common adverse events in the clinical trials were

  11. Safety profiles of anti-VEGF drugs: bevacizumab, ranibizumab, aflibercept and ziv-aflibercept on human retinal pigment epithelium cells in culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Deepika; Tarek, Mohamed; Caceres del Carpio, Javier; Ramirez, Claudio; Boyer, David; Kenney, M Cristina; Kuppermann, Baruch D

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To compare the safety profiles of antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) drugs ranibizumab, bevacizumab, aflibercept and ziv-aflibercept on retinal pigment epithelium cells in culture. Methods Human retinal pigment epithelium cells (ARPE-19) were exposed for 24 h to four anti-VEGF drugs at 1/2×, 1×, 2× and 10× clinical concentrations. Cell viability and mitochondrial membrane potential assay were performed to evaluate early apoptotic changes and rate of overall cell death. Results Cell viability decreased at 10× concentrations in bevacizumab (82.38%, p=0.0001), aflibercept (82.68%, p=0.0002) and ziv-aflibercept (77.25%, p<0.0001), but not at lower concentrations. However, no changes were seen in cell viability in ranibizumab-treated cells at all concentrations including 10×. Mitochondrial membrane potential was slightly decreased in 10× ranibizumab-treated cells (89.61%, p=0.0006) and 2× and 10× aflibercept-treated cells (88.76%, 81.46%; p<0.01, respectively). A larger reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential was seen at 1×, 2× and 10× concentrations of bevacizumab (86.53%, 74.38%, 66.67%; p<0.01) and ziv-aflibercept (73.50%, 64.83% and 49.65% p<0.01) suggestive of early apoptosis at lower doses, including the clinical doses. Conclusions At clinical doses, neither ranibizumab nor aflibercept produced evidence of mitochondrial toxicity or cell death. However, bevacizumab and ziv-aflibercept showed mild mitochondrial toxicity at clinically relevant doses. PMID:24836865

  12. Substance use and social, health and safety-related factors among fatally injured drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karjalainen, Karoliina; Blencowe, Tom; Lillsunde, Pirjo

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine different socio-demographic, health and safety-related factors, and psychoactive substance use among fatally injured drivers in road traffic accidents in Finland during 2006-2008. An accident information register maintained by the Traffic Safety Committee of Insurance Companies (VALT) of the Finnish Motor Insurers' Centre was used as basic data, and the basic data were complemented with further toxicological analytical information retrieved from autopsy reports from the Department of Forensic Medicine, Helsinki University. The data included all the drivers (n=556) who were driving a motor vehicle and who died in a road traffic accident in Finland during 2006-2008. Of all the 556 fatally injured drivers 43% (n=238) had psychoactive substance findings. 51% (n=121) of substance positive drivers had a finding for alcohol only, the rest had a finding for one or more illicit/medicinal drugs impairing driving ability, and possibly also alcohol. Fatally injured drivers with alcohol findings were significantly younger (mean age 34 years) than sober drivers (mean age 44 years) or drivers with findings for drugs (mean age 45 years). Socio-demographic background did not differ substantially among drunken/drugged and sober drivers, although drivers with alcohol findings had a slightly lower education and socioeconomic position. Previous substance abuse problems were highly prevalent among drivers with substance findings and mental or both mental and physical health problems were more common among drivers with drug findings. The non-use of safety equipment and driving at a high speed were more common among fatally injured drivers with substance findings. Substance abuse and mental health problems, as well as reckless driving behavior were more pronounced among fatally injured drivers with substance findings when compared to sober drivers. Thus, prevention and early intervention concerning substance abuse, mental health problems and DUI are

  13. Cardiovascular and heart failure safety profile of vildagliptin: a meta-analysis of 17 000 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnes, G; Evans, M; Del Prato, S; Stumvoll, M; Schweizer, A; Lukashevich, V; Shao, Q; Kothny, W

    2015-11-01

    To report the cardiovascular (CV) safety profile and heart failure (HF) risk of vildagliptin from a large pool of studies, including trials in high-risk patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), such as those with congestive HF and/or moderate/severe renal impairment. We conducted a retrospective meta-analysis of prospectively adjudicated CV events. Patient-level data were pooled from 40 double-blind, randomized controlled phase III and IV vildagliptin studies. The primary endpoint was occurrence of major adverse CV events (MACEs; myocardial infarction, stroke and CV death). Assessments of the individual MACE components and HF events (requiring hospitalization or new onset) were secondary endpoints. The risk ratio (RR) of vildagliptin (50 mg once- and twice-daily combined) versus comparators (placebo and all non-vildagliptin treatments) was calculated using the Mantel-Haenszel (M-H) method. Of the 17 446 patients, 9599 received vildagliptin (9251.4 subject-years of exposure) and 7847 received comparators (7317.0 subject-years of exposure). The mean age of the patients was 57 years, body mass index 30.5 kg/m(2) (nearly 50% obese), glycated haemoglobin concentration 8.1% and T2DM duration 5.5 years. A MACE occurred in 83 (0.86%) vildagliptin-treated patients and 85 (1.20%) comparator-treated patients, with an M-H RR of 0.82 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.61-1.11]. Similar RRs were observed for the individual events. Confirmed HF events were reported in 41 (0.43%) vildagliptin-treated patients and 32 (0.45%) comparator-treated patients, with an M-H RR 1.08 (95% CI 0.68-1.70). This large meta-analysis indicates that vildagliptin is not associated with an increased risk of adjudicated MACEs relative to comparators. Moreover, this analysis did not find a significant increased risk of HF in vildagliptin-treated patients. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Preclinical safety profile of trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1): Mechanism of action of its cytotoxic component retained with improved tolerability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poon, Kirsten Achilles, E-mail: achilles.kirsten@gene.com [Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, CA (United States); Flagella, Kelly; Beyer, Joseph [Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, CA (United States); Tibbitts, Jay [UCB, Brussels (Belgium); Kaur, Surinder; Saad, Ola; Yi, Joo-Hee; Girish, Sandhya; Dybdal, Noel; Reynolds, Theresa [Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) is the first antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) approved for patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive metastatic breast cancer. The therapeutic premise of ADCs is based on the hypothesis that targeted delivery of potent cytotoxic drugs to tumors will provide better tolerability and efficacy compared with non-targeted delivery, where poor tolerability can limit efficacious doses. Here, we present results from preclinical studies characterizing the toxicity profile of T-DM1, including limited assessment of unconjugated DM1. T-DM1 binds primate ErbB2 and human HER2 but not the rodent homolog c-neu. Therefore, antigen-dependent and non-antigen-dependent toxicity was evaluated in monkeys and rats, respectively, in both single- and repeat-dose studies; toxicity of DM1 was assessed in rats only. T-DM1 was well tolerated at doses up to 40 mg/kg (∼ 4400 μg DM1/m{sup 2}) and 30 mg/kg (∼ 6000 μg DM1/m{sup 2}) in rats and monkeys, respectively. In contrast, DM1 was only tolerated up to 0.2 mg/kg (1600 μg DM1/m{sup 2}). This suggests that at least two-fold higher doses of the cytotoxic agent are tolerated in T-DM1, supporting the premise of ADCs to improve the therapeutic index. In addition, T-DM1 and DM1 safety profiles were similar and consistent with the mechanism of action of DM1 (i.e., microtubule disruption). Findings included hepatic, bone marrow/hematologic (primarily platelet), lymphoid organ, and neuronal toxicities, and increased numbers of cells of epithelial and phagocytic origin in metaphase arrest. These adverse effects did not worsen with chronic dosing in monkeys and are consistent with those reported in T-DM1-treated patients to date. - Highlights: • T-DM1 was well tolerated in preclinical studies in rats and cynomolgus monkeys. • T-DM1 is associated with bone marrow/hematologic, hepatic, and neuronal toxicities. • T-DM1 toxicities are related to DM1 mechanisms of action and pharmacologic

  15. Exploring road design factors influencing tram road safety - Melbourne tram driver focus groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naznin, Farhana; Currie, Graham; Logan, David

    2018-01-01

    Melbourne, Australia has the largest tram/streetcar network in the world including the largest mixed traffic tram operating environment. Therefore, Melbourne tram drivers are responsible for controlling one of the heaviest vehicles on road ranging from shared tram lanes to exclusive tram lanes. In addition to different tram lane configurations, tram drivers need to follow different traffic signal phases at intersections including tram priority signals as well as need to serve passengers at various types of closely spaced tram stops. Despite all these challenges, no research has explored tram driver perceptions of the risk factors on different tram route road design configurations. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate how tram drivers' safety perceptions alter along various tram route sections, signal settings and stop configurations. A tram driver focus group approach was adopted for this research involving thirty tram drivers (4 female and 26 male drivers). The tram drivers' age ranged from 29 to 63 years, with an average age of 47.6 years (standard deviation of 10.1 years), and their experience of tram driving ranged from 1.17 to 31 years, with an average experience of 12.5 years (standard deviation of 10.2 years). The participating tram drivers perceived that the raised tram tracks and tramways with raised yellow curbing beside tracks are safer lane priority features on the Melbourne tram network compared to full-time, part-time and mixed traffic tram lanes. They regarded 'hook turns' as a safe form of tram signal priority treatment at intersections and platform tram stops as the safest tram stop design for all passengers among all other tram stop designs in Melbourne. Findings of this research could enhance the understanding of crash risk factors for different tram route features and thus can offer effective planning strategies for transit agencies to improve tram road safety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Description of contributing factors in adverse events related to patient safety and their preventability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-García, María Mercedes; Campos-Rivas, Beatriz; Sanmarful-Schwarz, Alexandra; Vírseda-Sacristán, Alicia; Dorrego-López, M Aránzazu; Charle-Crespo, Ángeles

    2017-11-25

    To assess the extent of healthcare related adverse events (AEs), their effect on patients, and their seriousness. To analyse the factors leading to the development of AEs, their relationship with the damage caused, and their degree of preventability. Retrospective descriptive study. Porriño, Pontevedra, Spain, Primary Care Service, from January-2014 to April-2016. Reported AEs were entered into the Patient Safety Reporting and Learning System (SiNASP). The variables measured were: Near Incident (NI) an occurrence with no effect or harm on the patient; Adverse Event (AE) an occurrence that affects or harms a patient. The level of harm is classified as minimal, minor, moderate, critical, and catastrophic. Preventability was classified as little evidence of being preventable, 50% preventable, and sound evidence of being preventable. percentages and Chi-squared test for qualitative variables; P<.05 with SPSS.15. SiNASP. Ethical considerations: approved by the Research Ethics Committee (2016/344). There were 166 recorded AEs (50.6% in males, and 46.4% in women. The mean age was 60.80years). Almost two-thirds 62.7% of AEs affected the patient, with 45.8% causing minimal damage, while 2.4% caused critical damages. Healthcare professionals were a contributing factor in 71.7% of the AEs, with the trend showing that poor communication and lack of protocols were related to the damage caused. Degree of preventability: 96.4%. Most AEs affected the patient, and were related to medication, diagnostic tests, and laboratory errors. The level of harm was related to communication problems, lack of, or deficient, protocols and a poor safety culture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Analysis of rainfall-induced slope instability using a field of local factor of safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ning; Şener-Kaya, Başak; Wayllace, Alexandra; Godt, Jonathan W.

    2012-01-01

    Slope-stability analyses are mostly conducted by identifying or assuming a potential failure surface and assessing the factor of safety (FS) of that surface. This approach of assigning a single FS to a potentially unstable slope provides little insight on where the failure initiates or the ultimate geometry and location of a landslide rupture surface. We describe a method to quantify a scalar field of FS based on the concept of the Coulomb stress and the shift in the state of stress toward failure that results from rainfall infiltration. The FS at each point within a hillslope is called the local factor of safety (LFS) and is defined as the ratio of the Coulomb stress at the current state of stress to the Coulomb stress of the potential failure state under the Mohr-Coulomb criterion. Comparative assessment with limit-equilibrium and hybrid finite element limit-equilibrium methods show that the proposed LFS is consistent with these approaches and yields additional insight into the geometry and location of the potential failure surface and how instability may initiate and evolve with changes in pore water conditions. Quantitative assessments applying the new LFS field method to slopes under infiltration conditions demonstrate that the LFS has the potential to overcome several major limitations in the classical FS methodologies such as the shape of the failure surface and the inherent underestimation of slope instability. Comparison with infinite-slope methods, including a recent extension to variably saturated conditions, shows further enhancement in assessing shallow landslide occurrence using the LFS methodology. Although we use only a linear elastic solution for the state of stress with no post-failure analysis that require more sophisticated elastoplastic or other theories, the LFS provides a new means to quantify the potential instability zones in hillslopes under variably saturated conditions using stress-field based methods.

  18. Human Factors Evaluation of Man-Machine Interface for Periodic Safety Review of Yonggwang Unit no. 1, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Hee; Lee, Jung Woon; Park, Jae Chang

    2006-01-01

    This report describes the research results of human factors assessment on the MMI(Man Machine Interface) equipment as part of Periodic Safety Review(PSR) of Yonggwang Unit no. 1, 2. As MMI is a key factor among human factors to be reviewed in PSR, we reviewed the MMI components of nuclear power plants in aspect of human factors engineering. The availability, suitability, and effectiveness of the MMI devices were chosen to be reviewed. The MMI devices were investigated through the review of design documents related to the MMI, survey of control panels, evaluation of experts, and experimental assessment. Checklists were used to perform this assessment and record the review results. The items mentioned by the expert comments to review in detail in relation with task procedures were tested by experiments with operators' participation. For some questionable issues arisen during this MMI review, operator workload and possibility of errors in operator actions were analysed. The reviewed MMI devices contain MCR(Main Control Room), SPDS(Safety Parameter Display System), RSP(Remote Shutdown Panel), and the selected LCBs(Local Control Boards) importantly related to safety. As results of the assessments, any significant problem challenging the safety was not found on human factors in the MMI devices. However, several small items to be changed and improved in suitability of MMI devices were discovered. An action plan is recommended to accommodate the suggestions and review comments. It will enhance the plant safety on MMI area

  19. Human Factors Evaluation of Man-Machine Interface for Periodic Safety Review of Yonggwang Unit no. 1, 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Hee; Lee, Jung Woon; Park, Jae Chang (and others)

    2006-01-15

    This report describes the research results of human factors assessment on the MMI(Man Machine Interface) equipment as part of Periodic Safety Review(PSR) of Yonggwang Unit no. 1, 2. As MMI is a key factor among human factors to be reviewed in PSR, we reviewed the MMI components of nuclear power plants in aspect of human factors engineering. The availability, suitability, and effectiveness of the MMI devices were chosen to be reviewed. The MMI devices were investigated through the review of design documents related to the MMI, survey of control panels, evaluation of experts, and experimental assessment. Checklists were used to perform this assessment and record the review results. The items mentioned by the expert comments to review in detail in relation with task procedures were tested by experiments with operators' participation. For some questionable issues arisen during this MMI review, operator workload and possibility of errors in operator actions were analysed. The reviewed MMI devices contain MCR(Main Control Room), SPDS(Safety Parameter Display System), RSP(Remote Shutdown Panel), and the selected LCBs(Local Control Boards) importantly related to safety. As results of the assessments, any significant problem challenging the safety was not found on human factors in the MMI devices. However, several small items to be changed and improved in suitability of MMI devices were discovered. An action plan is recommended to accommodate the suggestions and review comments. It will enhance the plant safety on MMI area.

  20. Faces On Facebook Associated Factors In Choosing The Facebook Profile Picture By Young Adults In SLIATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. Gunasekara

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This is a preliminary study which focuses on Facebook profile picture from two different perspectives selection and substitution. It attempt to identify amp evaluate the related variables that has an impact on profile picture selection. Participants include 309 male and female Facebook users between the ages of 18 to 34 who are enrolled in a higher education institute in Sri Lanka. The analysis finds that profile picture categories differ according to gender. Majority of the males prefer to use their own close up photo while female equally like to use their own close up photo or a photo of a celebrity. Profile picture category did not significantly vary by age perhaps because of less variation in the age group considered. But it depends on the appearance Facebook user is trying to convey through the profile picture. The individuals who post their own close up photos believe that they appear attractive. The individuals who feel that they look happy are uploading photos with their friends mostly. Most of the individuals change their profile picture when they find a better picture. Reason for changing the profile picture vary according to the age. The males believe they can build an impression about themselves through the profile picture whilst the females respond is neutral. Implications of these findings as well as suggestions for future research are discussed.

  1. Results of a phase I/II open-label, safety and efficacy trial of coagulation factor IX (recombinant), albumin fusion protein in haemophilia B patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinowitz, U; Lissitchkov, T; Lubetsky, A; Jotov, G; Barazani-Brutman, T; Voigt, C; Jacobs, I; Wuerfel, T; Santagostino, E

    2015-11-01

    rIX-FP is a coagulation factor IX (recombinant), albumin fusion protein with more than fivefold half-life prolongation over other standard factor IX (FIX) products available on the market. This prospective phase II, open-label study evaluated the safety and efficacy of rIX-FP for the prevention of bleeding episodes during weekly prophylaxis and assessed the haemostatic efficacy for on-demand treatment of bleeding episodes in previously treated patients with haemophilia B. The study consisted of a 10-14 day evaluation of rIX-FP pharmacokinetics (PK), and an 11 month safety and efficacy evaluation period with subjects receiving weekly prophylaxis treatment. Safety was evaluated by the occurrence of related adverse events, and immunogenic events, including development of inhibitors. Efficacy was evaluated by annualized spontaneous bleeding rate (AsBR), and the number of injections to achieve haemostasis. Seventeen subjects participated in the study, 13 received weekly prophylaxis and 4 received episodic treatment only. No inhibitors were detected in any subject. The mean and median AsBR were 1.25, and 1.13 respectively in the weekly prophylaxis arm. All bleeding episodes were treated with 1 or 2 injections of rIX-FP. Three prophylaxis subjects who were treated on demand prior to study entry had >85% reduction in AsBR compared to the bleeding rate prior to study entry. This study demonstrated the efficacy for weekly routine prophylaxis of rIX-FP to prevent spontaneous bleeding episodes and for the treatment of bleeding episodes. In addition no safety issues were detected during the study and an improved PK profile was demonstrated. © 2015 CSL Behring. Haemophilia published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Establishment and prioritization of relevant factors to the safety of fuel cycle facilities non reactor through dynamics archetypes evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, Anna Leticia Barbosa de

    2012-01-01

    The present work aims to establish and prioritize factors that are important to the safety of nuclear fuel cycle facilities in order to model, analyze and design safety as a physical system, employing systemic models in an innovative way. This work takes into consideration the fact that models that use adaptations of methodologies for nuclear reactors will not properly work due to the specificities of fuel cycle facilities. Based on the fundamentals of the theory of systems, the four levels of system thinking, and the relationship of eight socio technical factors, a mental model has been developed for safety management in the nuclear fuel cycle context. From this conceptual model, safety archetypes were constructed in order to identify and highlight the processes of change and decision making that allow the system to migrate to a state of loss of safety. After that, stock and flow diagrams were created so that their behavior could be assessed by the system's dynamics. The results from the analysis using the model that simulates the dynamic behavior of the variables (socio technical factors) indicated, as expected, that the system's dynamics proved to be an appropriate and efficient tool for modeling fuel cycle safety as an emergent property. (author)

  3. Identification of transcription factors potential related to brown planthopper resistance in rice via microarray expression profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yubing

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens Stål, is one of the most destructive insect pests of rice. The molecular responses of plants to sucking insects resemble responses to pathogen infection. However, the molecular mechanism of BPH-resistance in rice remains unclear. Transcription factors (TF are up-stream regulators of various genes that bind to specific DNA sequences, thereby controlling the transcription from DNA to mRNA. They are key regulators for transcriptional expression in biological processes, and are probably involved in the BPH-induced pathways in resistant rice varieties. Results We conducted a microarray experiment to analyze TF genes related to BPH resistance in a Sri Lankan rice cultivar, Rathu Heenati (RHT. We compared the expression profiles of TF genes in RHT with those of the susceptible rice cultivar Taichun Native 1 (TN1. We detected 2038 TF genes showing differential expression signals between the two rice varieties. Of these, 442 TF genes were probably related to BPH-induced resistance in RHT and TN1, and 229 may be related to constitutive resistance only in RHT. These genes showed a fold change (FC of more than 2.0 (P10, there were 37 induced TF genes and 26 constitutive resistance TF genes. Of these, 13 were probably involved in BPH-induced resistance, and 8 in constitutive resistance to BPH in RHT. Conclusions We explored the molecular mechanism of resistance to BPH in rice by comparing expressions of TF genes between RHT and TN1. We speculate that the level of gene repression, especially for early TF genes, plays an important role in the defense response. The fundamental point of the resistance strategy is that plants protect themselves by reducing their metabolic level to inhibit feeding by BPH and prevent damage from water and nutrient loss. We have selected 21 TF genes related to BPH resistance for further analyses to understand the molecular responses to BPH feeding in rice.

  4. Hematological and Biochemistry Profile and Risk Factors Associated with Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients in Guyana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajini Kurup

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the hematological and biochemistry profile of patients with or without HIV-TB at the Georgetown Chest Clinic, Guyana. Methods. An observational, laboratory based study was designed to assess the relationship of PTB and HIV with patients routine biochemical and hematological values. The study was conducted during the period January 2013 to December 2014; a total sample size of 316 patients was enrolled following exclusion and inclusion criteria. Results. Mean age of study population was 40.1 ± 13.8 (95% CI 38.6–41.7 and most were between 40 and 49 age group (27.8%, 95% CI 23.2–33.0. More males were in the study 74.4% (95% CI 69.3–78.8 than females 81% (95% CI 21.1–30.7. 30% (95% CI 25.3–35.3 had a sputum smear grade of 3+ and 62.5% (95% CI 47.0–75.7 showed a CD4 count <200. The study demonstrated significantly low hemoglobin (Hb 91.7% (95% CI 78.2–97.1, low WBC 27.8% (95% CI 15.8–44.0, high indirect bilirubin 7.4% (95% CI 2.1–23.3, ALT 41.8% (95% CI 28.4–56.7, and AST 72.2% (95% CI 57.3–83.3 among TB-HIV patients. Homelessness RR (relative risk 2.2 (95% CI 0.48–12.3, smoking RR 1.09 (95% CI 1.01–1.19, and gender (male RR 1.2 (95% CI 0.61–2.26 were main associated risk factors. Conclusions. There is slight variation among PTB and PTB-HIV coinfected patients in some hematological and biochemistry parameters.

  5. Prevalence of conventional risk factors and lipid profiles in patients with acute coronary syndrome and significant coronary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Pacheco H

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Héctor González-Pacheco,1 Jesús Vargas-Barrón,2 Maite Vallejo,2 Yigal Piña-Reyna,3 Alfredo Altamirano-Castillo,1 Pedro Sánchez-Tapia,1 Carlos Martínez-Sánchez1 1Coronary Care Unit, National Institute of Cardiology in Mexico City, Mexico City, Mexico; 2Department of Clinical Research, National Institute of Cardiology in Mexico City, Mexico City, Mexico; 3Catheterization Laboratory, National Institute of Cardiology in Mexico City, Mexico City, Mexico Background: Among patients with coronary artery disease (CAD, 80%–90% present at least one conventional risk factor. On the other hand, lipid profile modification after a cardiovascular event related to acute coronary syndrome (ACS has been recognized. The prevalence of conventional risk factors and the lipid profile at the time of admission in patients with ACS and significant CAD (stenosis ≥50% determined through coronary angiography is not well described. Methods: We studied 3,447 patients with a diagnosis of ACS and significant CAD with stenosis ≥50%, as shown on angiography. We recorded the presence of conventional risk factors, including smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes. In addition, we analyzed the lipid profiles within the first 24 hours of admission. We analyzed the studied population and compared findings according to sex.Results: Most patients (81.7% were male. ST-elevation myocardial infarction was present in 51.3% of patients, and non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome was present in 48.7%. The most frequent risk factor was smoking, which was present in 68% of patients, followed by hypertension (57.8%, dyslipidemia (47.5%, and diabetes (37.7%. In women, the most frequent risk factors were hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia, whereas in men, smoking was the most frequent. We identified at least one risk factor in 95.7% of all patients, two or three risk factors in 62%, and four risk factors in 8.6% of patients. The lipid profile analysis revealed that

  6. Longitudinal Study of Cytokine Expression, Lipid Profile and Neuronal Growth Factors in Human Breast Milk from Term and Preterm Deliveries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carmen Collado

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Breast milk (BM is considered as a reference for infant nutrition. The role of bioactive components, such as cytokines, hormones, growth factors (GFs and fatty acids (FAs is poorly known, but they might be implicated in immune response development. The aim of this study was to identify the lipid profile and the spectrum of cytokines and neuronal GF in BM samples and analyse the influence of gestational age and lactation time on these components. This study used a longitudinal prospective method for the characterization of cytokines, FAs and GFs global profiles in 120 BM samples from 40 healthy mothers (20 preterm and 20 term collected as colostrum, transitional and mature milk. The cytokines were analysed by protein array (Ray Bio® Human Cytokine Array G6. Ray Biotech, Inc. Norcross, GA, USA and the FAs were analysed by gas chromatography. The FA profile was similar between the term and the preterm BM samples. Omega-3-α-linoleic and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and omega-6-linoleic acid were the most abundant in the term and preterm samples during lactation. Omega-3 ETA and omega-3 EPA we observed exclusively in the preterm samples. The cytokine profile showed a different trend based on gestational age. A significantly higher expression of neurotrophic factors was found in the mature preterm milk samples as compared to the mature term samples. Our study is the first to identify the influence and interactions of perinatal factors on cytokine, GFs and FAs in human milk.

  7. Expanding the epidemiologic profile: risk factors for active tuberculosis in people immigrating to Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wobeser, Wendy L.; Yuan, Lilian; Naus, Monika; Corey, Paul; Edelson, Jeff; Heywood, Neil; Holness, D. Linn

    2000-01-01

    Background Many people immigrating to Canada come from countries with a high burden of tuberculosis. The aim of this study was to develop a detailed epidemiologic profile of foreign-born people with tuberculosis living in Ontario. Methods In this population-based case-control study, cases of tuberculosis diagnosed in 1994-1995 were identified from the database of the Ontario Reportable Disease Information Service and were considered eligible for analysis if a record of landing (receipt of permission to establish residence in Canada) from the period 1986-1995 was found in the Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC) database, if the person was at least 11 years of age at the time their visa was issued, and if the person had not been diagnosed with tuberculosis before becoming legally landed in Canada. Control subjects, who met the same criteria as the case subjects but who did not have tuberculosis in 1994-1995, were identified from a CIC database for landed immigrants. Results A total of 1341 cases of tuberculosis in foreign-born people were reported in Ontario in 1994-1995. A record of landing was found in CIC databases for 1099 of these people, 224 of whom were not legally landed at the time of diagnosis. In total, 602 cases met the inclusion criteria. The 2 strongest determinants of risk among those who had become landed within the preceding 10 years were referral for medical surveillance by immigration officials (odds ratio [OR] 3.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.6-6.0) and world region of origin (Somalia [OR 67.7, 95% CI 31.3-154.9], Vietnam [OR 25.0, 95% CI 12.5-50.0], the Philippines [OR 11.9, 95% CI 6.0-23.3], other sub-Saharan African countries [OR 11.6, 95% CI 5.7-23.2], India [OR 9.7, 95% CI 4.9-18.9], China [OR 6.1, 95% CI 3.1-12.1], other Asian countries [OR 4.7, 95% CI 2.4-9.1], the Middle East [OR 4.1, 95% CI 2.0-8.3], Latin America [OR 1.9, 95% CI 0.9-3.8), and the former socialist countries of Europe [OR 1.8, 95% CI 0.8-3.8]; the reference

  8. Insight and Lessons Learned on Organizational Factors and Safety Culture from the Review of Human Error-related Events of NPPs in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Tae; Lee, Dhong Hoon; Choi, Young Sung [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    Event investigation is one of the key means of enhancing nuclear safety deriving effective measures and preventing recurrences. However, it is difficult to analyze organizational factors and safety culture. This paper tries to review human error-related events from perspectives of organizational factors and safety culture, and to derive insights and lessons learned in developing the regulatory infrastructure of plant oversight on safety culture.

  9. Insight and Lessons Learned on Organizational Factors and Safety Culture from the Review of Human Error-related Events of NPPs in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji Tae; Lee, Dhong Hoon; Choi, Young Sung

    2014-01-01

    Event investigation is one of the key means of enhancing nuclear safety deriving effective measures and preventing recurrences. However, it is difficult to analyze organizational factors and safety culture. This paper tries to review human error-related events from perspectives of organizational factors and safety culture, and to derive insights and lessons learned in developing the regulatory infrastructure of plant oversight on safety culture

  10. Factors Associated with the Adoption of Food Safety Controls by the Mexican Meat Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado-Simán, Ema; Martínez-Hernández, Pedro Arturo; García-Muñiz, José G.; Cadena-Meneses, José

    Food marketing at international and domestic markets has focused on processing systems that improve food safety. The objective of this research is to determine the factors influencing the implementation of the HACCP system in the Mexican meat industry, and to identify the main marketing destination of their products. Only 18.5% of enterprises reports fully operational HACCP in their plants. The main destination of their production in the domestic market is supermarkets, suppliers and distributors and specific niches of the domestic market. Exports are to USA, Japan, Korea and Central America and some niches of the domestic market with requirements of higher quality. The four principal factors that motivate enterprises to adopt HACCP are associated with improvement of plant efficiency and profitability, adoption of good practices, improvement of product quality and waste reduction. It is concluded that Mexican enterprises adopt HACCP to successfully remain and face competition by foreign enterprises in the domestic market and to a lesser extent to compete in the international market.

  11. Evaluation of Influence Factors within Implementing of Nuclear Safety Culture in Embarking Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Situmorang, J.

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation of the implementation nuclear safety culture at BATAN has been performed. BATAN is Indonesia’s national nuclear energy agency. Nowadays, BATAN is planning to develop an experimental power reactor. To implement the nuclear safety culture BATAN has issued BATAN chairman regulation (Perka BATAN 200). Perka BATAN is the reference for individuals and organizations to implement nuclear safety culture which includes basic principles, mechanisms, assessment, as well as the implementation of the application of safety culture. It covers the establishment of safety policies, program development, program implementation, development and measurement of safety culture. Each facilities within BATAN is expected to well implement a safety culture. The implementation of safety culture is developed by considering the characteristics, attributes and indicators. The characteristics, attributes and indicators referenced are elaborated from the IAEA. The activities to strengthen safety culture are monthly workshop with participants is head of every facilities, safety leadership training and workshop for safety division manager in every facilities. It is also issued a handbook of safety that is distributed to all employees BATAN.

  12. Human factors and safety issues associated with actinide retrieval from spent light water reactor fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spelt, P.F.

    1992-01-01

    A major problem in environmental restoration and waste management is the disposition of used fuel assemblies from the many light water reactors in the United States, which present a radiation hazard to those whose job is to dispose of them, with a similar threat to the general environment associated with long-term storage in fuel repositories around the country. Actinides resident in the fuel pins as a result of their use in reactor cores constitute a significant component of this hazard. Recently, the Department of Energy has initiated an Actinide Recycle Program to study the feasibility of using pyrochemical (molten salt) processes to recover actinides from the spent fuel assemblies of commercial reactors. This project concerns the application of robotics technology to the operation and maintenance functions of a plant whose objective is to recover actinides from spent fuel assemblies, and to dispose of the resulting hardware and chemical components from this process. Such a procedure involves a number of safety and human factors issues. The purpose of the project is to explore the use of robotics and artificial intelligence to facilitate accomplishment of the program goals while maintaining the safety of the humans doing the work and the integrity of the environment. This project will result in a graphic simulation on a Silicon Graphics workstation as a proof of principle demonstration of the feasibility of using robotics along with an intelligent operator interface. A major component of the operator-system interface is a hybrid artificial intelligence system developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, which combines artificial neural networks and an expert system into a hybrid, self-improving computer-based system interface. 10 refs

  13. Effectiveness and Safety of Immunomodulators With Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor Therapy in Crohn's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterman, Mark T; Haynes, Kevin; Delzell, Elizabeth; Zhang, Jie; Bewtra, Meenakshi; Brensinger, Colleen M; Chen, Lang; Xie, Fenglong; Curtis, Jeffrey R; Lewis, James D

    2015-07-01

    The benefit of continuing immunomodulators when "stepping up" to anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) therapy for Crohn's disease (CD) is uncertain. This study assessed the effectiveness and safety of immunomodulators with anti-TNF therapy in CD. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of new users of anti-TNF therapy for CD in Medicare. Users of anti-TNF combination therapy with immunomodulators were matched to up to 3 users of anti-TNF monotherapy via propensity score and compared by using 3 metrics of effectiveness-surgery, hospitalization, and discontinuation of anti-TNF therapy or surgery-and 2 metrics of safety-serious infection and non-Candida opportunistic infection. Cox regression was used for all analyses. Among new users of infliximab, we matched 381 users of combination therapy to 912 users of monotherapy; among new users of adalimumab, we matched 196 users of combination therapy to 505 users of monotherapy. Combination therapy occurred predominantly as "step up" after thiopurine therapy. The rates of surgery (hazard ratio [HR], 1.20; 95% confidence interval, 0.73-1.96), hospitalization (HR, 0.82; 0.57-1.19), discontinuation of anti-TNF therapy or surgery (HR, 1.09; 0.88-1.34), and serious infection (HR, 0.93; 0.88-1.34) did not differ between users of anti-TNF combination therapy and monotherapy. However, the risks of opportunistic infection (HR, 2.64; 1.21-5.73) and herpes zoster (HR, 3.16; 1.25-7.97) were increased with combination therapy. We found that continuation of immunomodulators after "stepping up" to anti-TNF therapy did not improve outcomes but was associated with an increased risk of opportunistic infection. Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Bacterial profiles of saliva in relation to diet, lifestyle factors, and socioeconomic status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Belstrøm

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: The bacterial profile of saliva is composed of bacteria from different oral surfaces. The objective of this study was to determine whether different diet intake, lifestyle, or socioeconomic status is associated with characteristic bacterial saliva profiles. Design: Stimulated saliva samples from 292 participants with low levels of dental caries and periodontitis, enrolled in the Danish Health Examination Survey (DANHES, were analyzed for the presence of approximately 300 bacterial species by means of the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM. Using presence and levels (mean HOMIM-value of bacterial probes as endpoints, the influence of diet intake, lifestyle, and socioeconomic status on the bacterial saliva profile was analyzed by Mann–Whitney tests with Benjamini–Hochberg's correction for multiple comparisons and principal component analysis. Results: Targets for 131 different probes were identified in 292 samples, with Streptococcus and Veillonella being the most predominant genera identified. Two bacterial taxa (Streptococcus sobrinus and Eubacterium [11][G-3] brachy were more associated with smokers than non-smokers (adjusted p-value<0.01. Stratification of the group based on extreme ends of the parameters age, gender, alcohol consumption, body mass index (BMI, and diet intake had no statistical influence on the composition of the bacterial profile of saliva. Conversely, differences in socioeconomic status were reflected by the bacterial profiles of saliva. Conclusions: The bacterial profile of saliva seems independent of diet intake, but influenced by smoking and maybe socioeconomic status.

  15. Transcatheter arterial Chemoembolization for infiltrative hepatocellular carcinoma: Clinical safety and efficacy and factors influencing patient survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Kichang; Kim, Jin Hyoung; Yoon, Hee Mang; Kim, Eun Joung; Gwon, Dong Il; Ko, Gi Young; Yoon, Hyun Ki; Ko, Heung Kyu

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) in patients with infiltrative hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and to identify the prognostic factors associated with patient survival. Fifty two patients who underwent TACE for infiltrative HCC were evaluated between 2007 and 2010. The maximum diameter of the tumors ranged from 7 cm to 22 cm (median 15 cm). Of 46 infiltrative HCC patients with portal vein tumor thrombosis, 32 patients received adjuvant radiation therapy for portal vein tumor thrombosis after TACE. The tumor response by European Association for the Study of the Liver criteria was partial in 18%, stable in 47%, and progressive in 35% of the patients. The median survival time was 5.7 months (Kaplan-Meier analysis). The survival rates were 48% at six months, 25% at one year, and 12% at two years. In the multivariable Cox regression analysis, Child-Pugh class (p = 0.02), adjuvant radiotherapy (p 0.003) and tumor response after TACE (p = 0.004) were significant factors associated with patient survival. Major complications occurred in nine patients. The major complication rate was significantly higher in patients with Child-Pugh B than in patients with Child-Pugh A (p = 0.049, x 2 test). Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization can be a safe treatment option in infiltrative HCC patients with Child Pugh class A. Child Pugh class A, radiotherapy for portal vein tumor thrombosis after TACE and tumor response are good prognostic factors for an increased survival after TACE in patients with infiltrative HCCs.

  16. Facilitating improved road safety based on increased knowledge about driving behaviour and profiling sub-groups of drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Laila Marianne

    The aim of the Ph.D. study presented in this thesis was to facilitate improved road safety through increased understanding of methods used to measure driving behaviour, and through increased knowledge about driving behaviour in sub-groups of drivers. More specifically, the usefulness of the Driver...... with underlying mechanisms of lack of focus, emotional stress, recklessness and confusion, and hence it is highly important to further explore means to making drivers become more focused or attentive when driving, and to deal with emotional responses in traffic like impatience and frustration (Article 1). 2......, indicating that the problem lies in the drivers’ attitudes towards safety (Article 3). 6. It is indicated that rather than viewing safety and risk as two ends of a continuum, safety and risk should be understood as two separate constructs, with different underlying motives. Therefore it is suggested...

  17. A firm size and safety performance profile of the U.S. motor carrier industry : [executive summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Motor carrier crashes continue to present a societal and public policy : problem. Large commercial truck crashes are a topic of serious concern : in Iowa. Statistics illustrate the need to make further progress on the : safety performance of motor ca...

  18. Identification of Analytical Factors Affecting Complex Proteomics Profiles Acquired in a Factorial Design Study with Analysis of Variance : Simultaneous Component Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mitra, V.; Govorukhina, N.; Zwanenburg, G.; Hoefsloot, H.; Westra, I.; Smilde, A.; Reijmers, T.; van der Zee, A.G.J.; Suits, F.; Bischoff, R.; Horvatovich, P.

    2016-01-01

    Complex shotgun proteomics peptide profiles obtained in quantitative differential protein expression studies, such as in biomarker discovery, may be affected by multiple experimental factors. These preanalytical factors may affect the measured protein abundances which in turn influence the outcome

  19. Profiles of bullying victimization, discrimination, social support, and school safety: Links with Latino/a youth acculturation, gender, depressive symptoms, and cigarette use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Unger, Jennifer B; Oshri, Assaf; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Soto, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Latino/a youth are at risk for symptoms of depression and cigarette smoking but this risk varies by acculturation and gender. To understand why some youth are at greater risk than others, we identified profiles of diverse community experiences (perceived discrimination, bullying victimization, social support, perceived school safety) and examined associations between profiles of community experience and depressive symptoms, cigarette smoking, acculturation, and gender. Data came from Project Red (Reteniendo y Entendiendo Diversidad para Salud), a school-based longitudinal study of acculturation among 1,919 Latino/a adolescents (52% female; 84% 14 years old; 87% U.S. born). Latent profile analysis (LPA) revealed 4 distinct profiles of community experience that varied by gender and acculturation. Boys were overrepresented in profile groups with high perceived discrimination, some bullying, and lack of positive experiences, while girls were overrepresented in groups with high bullying victimization in the absence and presence of other community experiences. Youth low on both U.S. and Latino/a cultural orientation described high perceived discrimination and lacked positive experiences, and were predominantly male. Profiles characterized by high perceived discrimination and /or high bullying victimization in the absence of positive experiences had higher levels of depressive symptoms and higher risk of smoking, relative to the other groups. Findings suggest that acculturation comes with diverse community experiences that vary by gender and relate to smoking and depression risk. Results from this research can inform the development of tailored intervention and prevention strategies to reduce depression and/or smoking for Latino/a youth. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Effects of Inner Surface Roughness and Asymmetric Pipe Flow on Accuracy of Profile Factor for Ultrasonic Flow Meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michitsugu Mori; Kenichi Tezuka; Yasushi Takeda

    2006-01-01

    Flow profile factors (PFs), which adjust measurements to real flow rates, also strongly depend on flow profiles. To determine profile factors for actual power plants, manufactures of flowmeters usually conduct factory calibration tests under ambient flow conditions. Indeed, flow measurements with high accuracy for reactor feedwater require them to conduct calibration tests under real conditions, such as liquid conditions and piping layouts. On the contrary, as nuclear power plants are highly aging, readings of flowmeters for reactor feedwater systems drift due to the changes of flow profiles. The causes of those deviations are affected by the change of wall roughness of inner surface of pipings. We have conducted experiments to quantify the effects of flow patterns on the PFs due to pipe roughness and asymmetric flow, and the results of our experiments have shown the effects of elbows and pipe inner roughness, which strongly affect to the creation of the flow patterns. Those changes of flow patterns lead to large errors in measurements with transit time (time-of-flight: TOF) ultrasonic flow meters. In those experiments, changes of pipe roughness result in the changes of PFs with certain errors. Therefore, we must take into account those effects in order to measure the flow rates of feedwater with better accuracy in actual power plants. (authors)

  1. Identification of transcription factors potential related to brown planthopper resistance in rice via microarray expression profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yubing; Guo, Huimin; Li, Haichao; Zhang, Hao; Miao, Xuexia

    2012-12-10

    Brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens Stål, is one of the most destructive insect pests of rice. The molecular responses of plants to sucking insects resemble responses to pathogen infection. However, the molecular mechanism of BPH-resistance in rice remains unclear. Transcription factors (TF) are up-stream regulators of various genes that bind to specific DNA sequences, thereby controlling the transcription from DNA to mRNA. They are key regulators for transcriptional expression in biological processes, and are probably involved in the BPH-induced pathways in resistant rice varieties. We conducted a microarray experiment to analyze TF genes related to BPH resistance in a Sri Lankan rice cultivar, Rathu Heenati (RHT). We compared the expression profiles of TF genes in RHT with those of the susceptible rice cultivar Taichun Native 1 (TN1). We detected 2038 TF genes showing differential expression signals between the two rice varieties. Of these, 442 TF genes were probably related to BPH-induced resistance in RHT and TN1, and 229 may be related to constitutive resistance only in RHT. These genes showed a fold change (FC) of more than 2.0 (Pgenes related to BPH-induced resistance, most of them were readily induced in TN1 than in RHT by BPH feeding, for instance, 154 TF genes were up-regulated in TN1, but only 31 TF genes were up-regulated in RHT at 24 hours after BPH infestation; 2-4 times more TF genes were induced in TN1 than in RHT by BPH. At an FC threshold of >10, there were 37 induced TF genes and 26 constitutive resistance TF genes. Of these, 13 were probably involved in BPH-induced resistance, and 8 in constitutive resistance to BPH in RHT. We explored the molecular mechanism of resistance to BPH in rice by comparing expressions of TF genes between RHT and TN1. We speculate that the level of gene repression, especially for early TF genes, plays an important role in the defense response. The fundamental point of the resistance strategy is that plants

  2. Profile correction to electron temperature and enhancement factor in soft-x-ray pulse-height-analysis measurements in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sesnic, S.; Diesso, M.; Hill, K.; Holland, A.; Pohl, F.

    1988-01-01

    Because soft-x-ray pulse-height-analysis spectra contain chordal information, the electron temperature and the radiation intensity (enhancement factor) measurements do not represent the local values. The correction factors for the electron temperature and the enhancement factor as a function of the temperature and density profile parameters and the energy are obtained. The spectrum distortion due to pulse pileup effects is also evaluated. A set of curves is given from which the distortion of the spectrum can be obtained if the electron temperature, the Be filter thickness, and the electronic parameters of the acquisition system are known. PG 1810,1812 ID 131801CON N X-ray diagnostics TT Profile correction to electron temperature and enhancement factor in soft-x-ray pulse-height-analysis measurements in tokamaks AU S. Sesnic, M. Diesso, K. Hill, and A. Holland LO Princeton University, Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 AU F. Pohl LO Max-Planck Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, 8046-Garching, Federal Republic of Germany SD (Presented on 16 March 1988) AB Because soft-x-ray pulse-height-analysis spectra contain chordal information, the electron temperature and the radiation intensity (enhancement factor) measurements do not represent the local values. The correction factors for the electron temperature and the enhancement factor as a function of the temperature and density profile parameters and the energy are obtained. The spectrum distortion due to pulse pileup effects is also evaluated. A set of curves is given from which the distortion of the spectrum can be obtained if the electron tempe

  3. Subgroup-specific intrinsic disorder profiles of arabidopsis NAC transcription factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Emil G.; O'Shea, Charlotte; Skriver, Karen

    2015-01-01

    disordered but contain short, functionally important regions with structure propensities known as molecular recognition features. Here, we analyze for NAC subgroup-specific ID patterns. Some subgroups, such as the VND subgroup implicated in secondary cell wall biosynthesis, and the NAP/SHYG subgroup have...... highly conserved ID profiles. For the stress-associated ATAF1 subgroup and the CUC/ORE1 subgroup involved in development, only sub clades have similar ID patterns. For similar ID profiles, conserved molecular recognition features and sequence motifs represent likely functional determinants of e.......g. transcriptional activation and interactions. Based on our analysis, we suggest that ID profiling of regulatory proteins in general can be used to guide identification of interaction partners of network proteins....

  4. Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy in the management of gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors: efficacy profile, safety, and quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severi S

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Stefano Severi,1 Ilaria Grassi,1 Silvia Nicolini,1 Maddalena Sansovini,1 Alberto Bongiovanni,2 Giovanni Paganelli1 1Nuclear Medicine Unit, 2Osteoncology and Rare Tumors Center, Istituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori (IRST IRCCS, Meldola, Italy Abstract: Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT, developed over the last two decades, is carried out using radiopharmaceuticals such as 90Y-DOTA-Tyr3-octreotide and 177Lu-DOTA-Tyr3-octreotate (177Lu-Dotatate. These radiocompounds are obtained by labeling a synthetic somatostatin analog with a β-emitting radioisotope. The compounds differ from each other in terms of their energetic features (due to the radionuclide and peptide receptor affinity (due to the analog but share the common characteristic of binding specific membrane somatostatin receptors that are (generally overexpressed in neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs and their metastases. NENs are tumors arising from diffuse neuroendocrine system cells that are classified according to grading based on Ki67 percentage values (Grades 1 and 2 are classed as neuroendocrine tumors [NETs] and to the anatomical site of occurrence (in this paper, we only deal with gastroenteropancreatic [GEP]-NETs, which account for 60%–70% of all NENs. They are also characterized by specific symptoms such as diarrhea and flushing (30% of cases. Despite substantial experience gained in the area of PRRT and its demonstrable effects in terms of efficacy, safety, and improvement in quality of life, these compounds are still not registered (registration of 177Lu-Dotatate for the treatment of midgut NETs is expected soon. Thus, PRRT can only be used in experimental protocols. We provide an overview of the work of leading groups with wide-ranging experience and continuity in data publication in the area of GEP-NET PRRT and report our own personal experience of using different dosage schedules based on the presence of kidney and bone marrow risk factors

  5. Polyvinyl alcohol terminal chemoembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma with hepatic arteriovenous shunts: Safety, efficacy, and prognostic factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Qiu-song; Mei, Que-lin; Li, Yan-hao, E-mail: cjr.liyanhao@vip.163.com

    2017-04-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) terminal chemoembolization and to identify the prognostic factors associated with survival in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with hepatic arteriovenous shunts (HAVS). Materials and methods: Of 133 patients’ managements were retrospectively analyzed. HAVS was classified into three types: slow-flow, intermediate-flow and high-flow. The size of the PVA used was determined following the scheme: slow-flow HAVS: 300–500 μm PVA; intermediate-flow HAVS: 500–710 μm PVA; high-flow HAVS: 710–1000 μm PVA. The HCCs with slow-flow and intermediate-flow HAVS were embolized by PVA plus chemotherapeutic agents lipiodol emulsion, while the high-flow HAVS were treated by PVA with chemotherapeutic agents. Survival curves were calculated by Kaplan-Meier method and compared by log-rank test. The influence of possible prognostic factors on survival were analyzed by multivariate Cox proportional-hazards method. Results: The median overall survival (OS) of 133 patients was 9.1 months. The median OS of the slow-flow type, intermediate-flow type and high-flow type patients were 10.8, 9.1 and 7.3 months, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference among different HAVS types (P = 0.239). The 30-day mortality was 3.8%. Cox multivariate survival analysis revealed that initial preoperative AFP value ≥ 400 ng/ml (HR = 2.105, P = 0.006) was an independent risk factor. While multiple embolization (HR = 0.482, P = 0.011), tumor remission (HR = 0.431, P = 0.041) and multimodality therapy (HR = 0.416, P = 0.004) were independent protection factors. Conclusion: It is safe and effective for HCCs with HAVS treated by terminal chemoembolization therapy with PVA plus chemotherapeutic agents lipiodol emulsion (or PVA plus chemotherapeutic agents). The HCCs with HAVS achieves good prognosis with multiple embolization, tumor remission and multimodality therapy, while achieves poor prognosis with

  6. Utilizing relative potency factors (RPF) and threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) concepts to assess hazard and human risk assessment profiles of environmental metabolites: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, C; Rasoulpour, R J; Knowles, S; Billington, R

    2015-03-01

    There is currently no standard paradigm for hazard and human risk assessment of environmental metabolites for agrochemicals. Using an actual case study, solutions to challenges faced are described and used to propose a generic concept to address risk posed by metabolites to human safety. A novel approach - built on the foundation of predicted human exposures to metabolites in various compartments (such as food and water), the threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) and the concept of comparative toxicity - was developed for environmental metabolites of a new chemical, sulfoxaflor (X11422208). The ultimate aim was to address the human safety of the metabolites with the minimum number of in vivo studies, while at the same time, ensuring that human safety would be considered addressed on a global regulatory scale. The third component, comparative toxicity, was primarily designed to determine whether the metabolites had the same or similar toxicity profiles to their parent molecule, and also to one another. The ultimate goal was to establish whether the metabolites had the potential to cause key effects - such as cancer and developmental toxicity, based on mode-of-action (MoA) studies - and to develop a relative potency factor (RPF) compared to the parent molecule. Collectively, the work presented here describes the toxicology programme developed for sulfoxaflor and its metabolites, and how it might be used to address similar future challenges aimed at determining the relevance of the metabolites from a human hazard and risk perspective. Sulfoxaflor produced eight environmental metabolites at varying concentrations in various compartments - soil, water, crops and livestock. The MoA for the primary effects of the parent molecule were elucidated in detail and a series of in silico, in vitro, and/or in vivo experiments were conducted on the environmental metabolites to assess relative potency of their toxicity profiles when compared to the parent. The primary metabolite

  7. What is the minimum value of the safety factor on the magnetic axis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussac, M.N.; Pellat, R.; Edery, D.; Soule, J.L.

    This paper is presented in the following way: in chapter 2 the main stability properties in the vicinity of the magnetic axis with respect to the localized modes is recalled. The possibility of decreasing the minimum value of the safety factor q below unity, without violating Mercier's criterion is emphasized. In chapter 3 the ideal internal kink in cylindrical geometry for non-circular cross-sections is studied. The main findings are the small destabilizing effect of an elliptical deformation and the larger stabilizing effect of a triangular deformation. In chapter 4 the previous analysis is completed by toroidal corrections and the complete result for the ideal internal kink for circular magnetic surfaces is given. This mode may be stable in toroidal geometry provided the minimum value of q remains larger than 1/2. In chapter 5 the resistive internal kink and its collisionless high temperature limit is discussed. Toroidal effects and non-linear effects in the non-linear development of the tearing modes are compared

  8. Development of partial safety factors for the design of partially prestressed rectangular sections in biaxial flexure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, Aritra; Bhattacharya, Baidurya; Agrawal, Gunjan; Mondal, Apurba

    2011-01-01

    Partial safety factors (PSFs) used in reliability-based design are intended to account for uncertainties in load, material and mathematical modeling while ensuring that the target reliability is satisfied for the relevant class of structural components in the given load combination and limit state. This paper describes the methodology in detail for developing a set of optimal reliability-based PSFs for the design of rectangular partially prestressed concrete sections subjected to biaxial flexure. The mechanical formulation of the flexural limit state is based on the principle behind prestressed concrete design recommended by IS 1343 and SP16 and failure is defined as tensile cracking of concrete extending beyond the depth of cover. The applied moments are combined according to Wood's criteria. The optimization of the PSFs is based on reliability indices obtained from first order reliability analysis of the structural components; Monte Carlo simulations are performed in each run to determine the capacity statistics and dependence between capacity and applied loads (effected through the axial loads influencing moment capacity corresponding to cracking). Numerical examples involving flexural design of partially prestressed concrete shell elements in nuclear power plant containments under accidental pressure load combination are provided. (author)

  9. Rate of Corneal Collagen Crosslinking Redo in Private Practice: Risk Factors and Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelle Antoun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To report the rate of progression of keratectasia after primary crosslinking (CXL and evaluate the safety and efficiency of CXL redo. Materials and Methods. We conducted a retrospective analysis of the patients who underwent CXL between 2010 and 2013 at the Beirut Eye Specialist Hospital, Lebanon. Progression of keratectasia was based on the presence of an increase in maximum keratometry of 1.00 D, a change in the map difference between two consecutive topographies of 1.00 D, a deterioration of visual acuity, or any change in the refraction. Primary and redo CXL were done using the same protocol. Results. Among the 221 eyes of 130 patients who underwent CXL, 7 eyes (3.17% of five patients met the criteria of progression. All patients reported a history of allergic conjunctivitis and eye rubbing and progressed within 9 to 48 months. No complications were noted and all patients were stable 1 year after CXL redo. Conclusion. Allergic conjunctivitis and eye rubbing were the only risk factors associated with keratoconus progression after CXL. A close followup is thus mandatory, even years after the procedure. CXL redo seems to be a safe and efficient technique to halt the progression after a primary CXL.

  10. Factors influencing the efficiency and safety of systemic thrombolysis in patients with ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Shamalov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic thrombolysis using recombinant tissue plasminogen activator is the most effective and safe therapy option for ischemic stroke (IS in the first 4.5 hours after onset of the disease. The safety and efficiency (or inefficiency of perfusion therapy in patients with IS may be affected by a multitude of factors associated with the time of the therapy, patient age, the presence and size of a brain region with potentially reversible changes, the location of a cerebral lesion region, the specific features of systemic and local hemodynamics, and the degree of blood-brain barrier impairment. The hemorrhagic transformation of a brain lesion focus in IS is a serious complication of thrombolytic therapy (TT. The analysis and detection of predictors for hemorrhagic complications, TT in terms of the clinical and pathogenetic features of the disease, the location of a lesion focus and the degree of early neuroimaging signs, and data of additional studies will contribute to the safer and more effectiveuse of this treatment in patients with IS.

  11. Feedback-Assisted Extension of the Tokamak Operating Space to Low Safety Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, J. M.

    2013-10-01

    Recent DIII-D experiments have demonstrated stable operation at very low edge safety factor, q95 instability. The performance of tokamak fusion devices may benefit from increased plasma current, and thus, decreased q. However, disruptive stability limits are commonly encountered in experiments at qedge ~ 2 (limited plasmas) and q95 ~ 2 (diverted plasmas), limiting exploration of low q regimes. In the recent DIII-D experiments, the impact and control of key disruptive instabilities was studied. Locked n = 1 modes with exponential growth times on the order of the wall eddy current decay timescale τw preceded disruptions at q95 = 2 . The instabilities have a poloidal structure that is consistent with VALEN simulations of the RWM mode structure at q95 = 2 . Applying proportional gain magnetic feedback control of the n = 1 mode resulted in stabilized operation with q95 reaching 1.9, and an extension of the discharge lifetime for > 100τw . Loss of feedback control was accompanied by power supply saturation, followed by a rapidly growing n = 1 mode and disruption. Comparisons of the feedback dynamics with VALEN simulations will be presented. The DIII-D results complement and will be discussed alongside recent RFX-MOD demonstrations of RWM control using magnetic feedback in limited tokamak discharges with qedge economical fusion power production. Supported by the US Department of Energy under DE-FG02-04ER54761 and DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  12. Transarterial Chemoembolization for Hepatocellular Carcinomas with Central Bile Duct Invasion: Safety, Prognosis, and Predictive Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jin Woo; Chung, Jin Wook, E-mail: chungjw@snu.ac.kr [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Yun Ku [VHS Medical Center, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yoon Jun; Yoon, Jung-Hwan [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyo-Cheol; Jae, Hwan Jun [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    PurposeTo assess the safety and effectiveness of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) of patients who have hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) with central bile duct invasion.Materials and MethodsThe institutional review board approved this retrospective study and waived informed consent. Fifty-three patients, initially treated with TACE for HCCs with central bile duct invasion from January 1999 to September 2012, were included. Clinical, laboratory, and survival data were reviewed. Complications and hospitalization length were evaluated using the χ{sup 2} test, Fisher’s exact test, and logistic regression analysis. Survival was analyzed using the Kaplan–Meier method with log-rank test and Cox proportional hazard model.ResultsSeven patients experienced TACE-related major complications (severe post-embolization syndrome in 3, non-fatal sepsis in 3, and secondary bacterial peritonitis in 1). The overall major complication rate was 13.2 %, but there were no permanent adverse sequelae or deaths within 30 days. Serum total bilirubin ≥3.0 mg/dL was the only significant risk factor for long hospitalization [hazard ratio (HR) = 4.341, p = .022]. The median survival was 12.2 months. Extrahepatic metastasis (HR = 6.145, p < .001), international normalized ratio (PT-INR) ≥1.20 (HR = 4.564, p < .001), vascular invasion (HR = 3.484, p = .001), and intermediate tumor enhancement (HR = 2.417, p = .019) were significantly associated with shorter survival.ConclusionTACE can be a safe and effective treatment for patients who have HCCs with central bile duct invasion. In particular, long-term survival can be expected if patients have strongly enhancing tumors without poor prognostic factors such as extrahepatic metastasis, PT-INR prolongation, and vascular invasion.

  13. Key Factors Affecting Construction Safety Performance in Developing Countries: Evidence from Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Durdyev, Serdar; Mohamed, Sherif; Lay, Meng Leang; Ismail, Syuhaida

    2017-01-01

    Although proper safety management in construction is of utmost importance; anecdotal evidence suggests that safety is not adequately considered in many developing countries. This paper considers the key variables affecting construction safety performance in Cambodia. Using an empirical questionnaire survey targeting local construction professionals, respondents were invited to rate the level of importance of 30 variables identified from the seminal literature. The data set was subjected to f...

  14. Estimation of Partial Safety Factors and Target Failure Probability Based on Cost Optimization of Rubble Mound Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Seung-Woo; Suh, Kyung-Duck; Burcharth, Hans F.

    2010-01-01

    The breakwaters are designed by considering the cost optimization because a human risk is seldom considered. Most breakwaters, however, were constructed without considering the cost optimization. In this study, the optimum return period, target failure probability and the partial safety factors...

  15. Food Safety Programs Based on HACCP Principles in School Nutrition Programs: Implementation Status and Factors Related to Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, Wendy Bounds; Carr, Deborah; Nettles, Mary Frances; Johnson, James T.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The objectives of this study were to assess the extent to which school nutrition (SN) programs have implemented food safety programs based on Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) principles, as well as factors, barriers, and practices related to implementation of these programs. Methods: An online survey was…

  16. Factor-of-safety formulations for linear and parabolic failure envelopes for rock. Technical memorandum report RSI-0038

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnirk, P.F.

    1975-01-01

    This report presents documentation of the basic formulation of the factor-of-safety relationships for linear and parabolic failure criteria for rock with an example application for a candidate room-and-pillar configuration at the proposed Alpha repository site in New Mexico. 8 figures, 4 tables

  17. Background for Community-Level Work on Physical Health and Safety in Adolescence: Reviewing the Literature on Contributing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Juliet L.; Scarpa, Juliet

    Although adolescence is characterized by general good health, this developmental stage is a key time for promoting a healthy lifestyle and preventing health-compromising behaviors and injuries. This paper presents a selective review of research into factors predicting health and safety behavior patterns and injury occurrence, focusing on…

  18. Empirical analysis of selected nuclear power plant maintenance factors and plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, J.; Osborn, R.N.; Thurber, J.A.; Sommers, P.E.; Jackson, D.H.

    1985-07-01

    This report contains a statistical analysis of the relationship between selected aspects of nuclear power plant maintenance programs and safety related performance. The report identifies a large number of maintenance resources which can be expected to influence maintenance performance and subsequent plant safety performance. The resources for which data were readily available were related statistically to two sets of performance indicators: maintenance intermediate safety indicators and final safety performance indicators. The results show that the administrative structure of the plant maintenance program is a significant predictor of performance on both sets of indicators

  19. Monte Carlo study of thermal flux profiles and body correction factors for body protein measurements of obese subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGregor, B.J.; Allen, B.J.

    1991-01-01

    In previous calculations for total body nitrogen measurements of children, the anterior/posterior thermal neutron flux profile with depth was found to be fairly flat after an initial rise. However, for obese adults significant variations are found in the flux profile with the central flux value being as low as 20% of the peak value. The significance of these flux variations is examined. Correction factors are calculated for the varying attenuation of the nitrogen and hydrogen photons by a range of obese bodies. The calculations included the effect of the thermal flux profile as well as that of an outer layer of low nitrogen content adipose tissue. The bodies are assumed to have a homogeneous hydrogen content. A study of four obese body models with varying sex and fat content shows that the correction factors do not vary much between males and females. This is surprising since the female models are assumed to have a surface fat layer twice as thick as for the male models. The correction factors are found to be only slightly sensitive to the thermal flux variations with depth. 5 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  20. Factor structure of the Disability and Impact Profile in patients with multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cohen, J. L.; Pouwer, F; Pfennings, L E

    1999-01-01

    and their complementary weighted scores share common variance? What is the factor structure of the weighted scores? To what extent do disease-related information and information from psychological questionnaires offer concurrent validity for the factors? Correlations between impairment ratings and the weighted item...... scores were high; for most items the complementary ratings of impact do not supplement information provided by impairment ratings. The DIP weighted scores can be represented to some extent by three independent dimensions: a motor (skeletal movement) or displacement ability factor, a factor relating...... to sensory-cognitive intactness and a psychological well-being factor. A two-factor solution provides a first factor identical to that of the three-factor solution and a second factor representing psychological well-being. The two factors correlate well with instruments measuring disability...

  1. Development of the Career Indecision Profile: Factor Structure, Reliability, and Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Jason; Carr, Andrea; Abrams, Matthew; Brown, Steven D.

    2013-01-01

    Prior research using a 167-item measure of career indecision (Career Indecision Profile-167 [CIP-167]) has suggested that career choice difficulties may be associated with four major sources of career indecision: neuroticism/negative affectivity, choice/commitment anxiety, lack of readiness, and interpersonal conflicts. The purpose of this study…

  2. Focused ion-beam line profiles: A study of some factors affecting beam broadening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templeton, I.M.; Champion, H.G.

    1995-01-01

    The current--density profile of a focused ion beam (FIB) has a central peak accompanied by broader ''wings'' that, while unimportant in lithographic applications, can lead to unwanted effects during an implantation operation. The origin of the wings, and hence the best way to minimize them, is not clear and needs further study. We have measured the line profiles of several of the ions available in our FIB machine as a function of a number of variables, under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions. No effects are observed from changes in emission current or deliberate defocusing of the objective lens. There are some changes with beam aperture and/or current, but the biggest differences seem to be associated with a change of source type and hence, possibly, with a change in the source/extractor configuration or in the alloy and the emission process. The wing amplitudes are appreciably lower than many previously observed, and their profiles, at least for the lighter ions studied (Be ++ , Be + , and B + ), are Gaussian rather than exponential. It seems possible that our UHV conditions may have eliminated a scattering mechanism responsible for the larger, exponential wings previously observed. The corresponding beam and rectangle-edge profiles have been calculated. copyright 1995 American Vacuum Society

  3. Factors Influencing Knowledge, Food Safety Practices and Food Preferences During Warm Weather of Salmonella and Campylobacter Cases in South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milazzo, Adriana; Giles, Lynne C; Zhang, Ying; Koehler, Ann P; Hiller, Janet E; Bi, Peng

    2017-03-01

    To assess food safety practices, food shopping preferences, and eating behaviors of people diagnosed with Salmonella or Campylobacter infection in the warm seasons, and to identify socioeconomic factors associated with behavior and practices. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among Salmonella and Campylobacter cases with onset of illness from January 1 to March 31, 2013. Multivariable logistic regression analyses examined relationships between socioeconomic position and food safety knowledge and practices, shopping and food preferences, and preferences, perceptions, and knowledge about food safety information on warm days. Respondents in our study engaged in unsafe personal and food hygiene practices. They also carried out unsafe food preparation practices, and had poor knowledge of foods associated with an increased risk of foodborne illness. Socioeconomic position did not influence food safety practices. We found that people's reported eating behaviors and food preferences were influenced by warm weather. Our study has explored preferences and practices related to food safety in the warm season months. This is important given that warmer ambient temperatures are projected to rise, both globally and in Australia, and will have a substantial effect on the burden of infectious gastroenteritis including foodborne disease. Our results provide information about modifiable behaviors for the prevention of foodborne illness in the household in the warm weather and the need for information to be disseminated across the general population. An understanding of the knowledge and factors associated with human behavior during warmer weather is critical for public health interventions on foodborne prevention.

  4. [Self-rating of oral health according to the Oral Health Impact Profile and associated factors: a systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabardo, Marilisa Carneiro Leão; Moysés, Simone Tetu; Moysés, Samuel Jorge

    2013-06-01

    To systematically evaluate the literature to investigate associations between social, demographic, economic, psychosocial, and behavioral factors and the self-perception of oral health measured using the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP). In this systematic review of the literature, the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews (PRISMA) were adapted for the performance of a qualitative metasummary, without meta-analysis. Articles about oral health and associated factors with implications for quality of life were selected, with a focus on the tool for self-rating of the oral health-disease process, the OHIP. Pubmed/National Library of Medicine (NLM) and the Virtual Health Library (Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde - BVS/BIREME) were searched. Articles published between 2001 and 2011 were included. The following Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) were employed: oral health, quality of life, sickness impact profile, and socioeconomic factors. Of 57 articles identified, 20 met the inclusion criteria. The metasummary revealed that a poor self-perception of oral health was associated with unfavorable social, economic, demographic, and psychosocial factors, as well as with undesirable habits and poor clinical oral conditions. There is consensus in the literature about the influence of the investigated factors on the self-perception of oral health and on quality of life. The OHIP is an important aid for determining oral health needs and for developing strategies to control/reduce disease and promote oral health, with a consequent positive impact on quality of life.

  5. Study on real working performance and overload safety factor of high arch dam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Considering the fact that high arch dams have problems such as complicated stress,high cost,and hazards after being damaged,this paper intends to study the effects of load,material strength,and safety analysis method on dam safety and working performance of arch d