Sample records for safety channel instrumentation

  1. Environmental testing of an experimental digital safety channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korsah, K.; Tanaka, T.J.; Wilson, T.L. Jr.; Wood, R.T.


    This document presents the results of environmental stress tests performed on an experimental digital safety channel (EDSC) assembled at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of the NRC-sponsored Qualification of Advanced Instrumentation and Controls (W) System program. The objective of this study is to investigate failure modes and vulnerabilities of microprocessor-based technologies when subjected to environmental stressors. The study contributes to the technical basis for environmental qualification of safety-related digital I&C systems. The EDSC employs technologies and digital subsystems representative of those proposed for use in advanced light-water reactors (ALWRs) or for retrofits in existing plants. Subsystems include computers, electrical and optical serial communication links, fiber-optic network links, analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converters, and multiplexers. The EDSC was subjected to selected stressors that are a potential risk to digital equipment in a mild environment. The selected stressors were electromagnetic and radio-frequency interference (EMYRFI), temperature, humidity, and smoke exposure. The stressors were applied over ranges that were considerably higher than what the channel is likely to experience in a normal nuclear power plant environment. Ranges of stress were selected at a sufficiently high level to induce errors so that failure modes that are characteristic of the technologies employed could be identified.

  2. A multi-channel instrumentation system for biosignal recording. (United States)

    Yu, Hong; Li, Pengfei; Xiao, Zhiming; Peng, Chung-Ching; Bashirullah, Rizwan


    This paper reports a highly integrated battery operated multi-channel instrumentation system intended for physiological signal recording. The mixed signal IC has been fabricated in standard 0.5microm 5V 3M-2P CMOS process and features 32 instrumentation amplifiers, four 8b SAR ADCs, a wireless power interface with Li-ion battery charger, low power bidirectional telemetry and FSM controller with power gating control for improved energy efficiency. The chip measures 3.2mm by 4.8mm and dissipates approximately 2.1mW when fully operational.

  3. 75 FR 12688 - Safety Zone; Gallants Channel, Beaufort, NC (United States)


    ... Beaufort, North Carolina. The contract provides for cleaning, painting, steel repair, and grid floor... waters of Gallants Channel extending 50 yards in all directions from the main span of the Grayden Paul... is a safety zone: The waters of Gallants Channel extending 50 yards in all directions from the main...

  4. Developing the health, safety and environment excellence instrument. (United States)

    Mohammadfam, Iraj; Saraji, Gebraeil Nasl; Kianfar, Ali; Mahmoudi, Shahram


    Quality and efficiency are important issues in management systems. To increase quality, to reach best results, to move towards the continuous improvement of system and also to make the internal and external customers satisfied, it is necessary to consider the system performance measurement. In this study the Health, Safety and Environment Excellence Instrument was represented as a performance measurement tool for a wide range of health, safety and environment management systems. In this article the development of the instrument overall structure, its parts, and its test results in three organizations are presented. According to the results, the scores ranking was the managership organization, the manufacturing company and the powerhouse construction project, respectively. The results of the instrument test in three organizations show that, on the whole, the instrument has the ability to measure the performance of health, safety and environment management systems in a wide range of organizations.

  5. Developing the Health, Safety and Environment Excellence Instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Mohammadfam


    Full Text Available Quality and efficiency are important issues in management systems. To increase quality, to reach best results, to move towards the continuous improvement of system and also to make the internal and external customers satisfied, it is necessary to consider the system performance measurement. In this study the Health, Safety and Environment Excellence Instrument was represented as a performance measurement tool for a wide range of health, safety and environment management systems. In this article the development of the instrument overall structure, its parts, and its test results in three organizations are presented. According to the results, the scores ranking was the managership organization, the manufacturing company and the powerhouse construction project, respectively. The results of the instrument test in three organizations show that, on the whole, the instrument has the ability to measure the performance of health, safety and environment management systems in a wide range of organizations.

  6. Developing the health, safety and environment excellence instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadfam Iraj


    Full Text Available Abstract Quality and efficiency are important issues in management systems. To increase quality, to reach best results, to move towards the continuous improvement of system and also to make the internal and external customers satisfied, it is necessary to consider the system performance measurement. In this study the Health, Safety and Environment Excellence Instrument was represented as a performance measurement tool for a wide range of health, safety and environment management systems. In this article the development of the instrument overall structure, its parts, and its test results in three organizations are presented. According to the results, the scores ranking was the managership organization, the manufacturing company and the powerhouse construction project, respectively. The results of the instrument test in three organizations show that, on the whole, the instrument has the ability to measure the performance of health, safety and environment management systems in a wide range of organizations.

  7. Developing the Health, Safety and Environment Excellence Instrument


    Mohammadfam Iraj; Saraji Gebraeil Nasl; Kianfar Ali; Mahmoudi Shahram


    Abstract Quality and efficiency are important issues in management systems. To increase quality, to reach best results, to move towards the continuous improvement of system and also to make the internal and external customers satisfied, it is necessary to consider the system performance measurement. In this study the Health, Safety and Environment Excellence Instrument was represented as a performance measurement tool for a wide range of health, safety and environment management systems. In t...

  8. Response Time Analysis and Test of Protection System Instrument Channels for APR1400 and OPR1000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Jae; Han, Seung; Yun, Jae Hee; Baek, Seung Min [Department of Instrumentation and Control System Engineering, KEPCO Engineering and Construction, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Jeong [Department of Electronics Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    , the establishment of the systematic response time evaluation methodology is needed to justify the conformance to the response time requirement used in the safety analysis. This paper proposes the response time evaluation methodology for APR1400 and OPR1000 using the combined analysis and test technique to confirm that the plant protection system can meet the analytical response time assumed in the safety analysis. In addition, the results of the quantitative evaluation performed for APR1400 and OPR1000 are presented in this paper. The proposed response time analysis technique consists of defining the response time requirement, determining the critical signal path for the trip parameter, allocating individual response time to each component on the signal path, and analyzing the total response time for the trip parameter, and demonstrates that the total analyzed response time does not exceed the response time requirement. The proposed response time test technique is composed of defining the response time requirement, determining the critical signal path for the trip parameter, determining the test method for each component on the signal path, performing the response time test, and demonstrates that the total test result does not exceed the response time requirement. The total response time should be tested in a single test that covers from the sensor to the final actuation device on the instrument channel. When the total channel is not tested in a single test, separate tests on groups of components or single components including the total instrument channel shall be combined to verify the total channel response. For APR1400 and OPR1000, the ramp test technique is used for the pressure and differential pressure transmitters and the step function testing technique is applied to the signal processing equipment and final actuation device. As a result, it can be demonstrated that the response time requirement is satisfied by the combined analysis and test technique

  9. Development of the Personal Workplace Safety Instrument for Emergency Nurses. (United States)

    Burchill, Christian


    Much of the research on violence committed by patients and family members against healthcare providers in the hospital focus on the frequency and severity of incidents plus personal, perpetrator, and hospital characteristics. The literature lacks research on those factors that make healthcare providers in hospitals feel safe from workplace violence committed by patients and family members. The objective of this project is to design an instrument to measure the perceptions of personal safety of emergency nurses in the workplace. To develop the Personal Workplace Safety Instrument for Emergency Nurses (PWSI EN) an extensive review of the literature was conducted and recurrent themes identified. Informal focus groups of emergency nurses and discussions with administrators were conducted to confirm these themes. A review by workplace violence experts and a pilot test with emergency nurses was conducted. The instrument has 31 Likert-scale items to measure the factors of workplace countermeasures, patient-nurse interactions, and administrative and judicial support measures. Fifteen demographic questions were developed to measure characteristics of the nurse and hospital. Results of the expert panel review yielded high content validity (cumulative validity index = 0.98). The instrument is valid to measure the perceptions of personal safety in the workplace with emergency nurses.

  10. The qualification of electrical components and instrumentations relevant to safety

    CERN Document Server

    Zambardi, F


    Systems and components relevant to safety of nuclear power plants must maintain their functional integrity in order to assure accident prevention and mitigation. Redundancy is utilized against random failures, nevertheless care must be taken to avoid common failures in redundant components. Main sources of degradation and common cause failures consist in the aging effects and in the changes of environmental conditions which occur during the plant life and the postulated accidents. These causes of degradation are expected to be especially significant for instrumentation and electrical equipment, which can have a primary role in safety systems. The qualification is the methodology by which component safety requirements can be met against the above mentioned causes of degradation. In this report the connection between the possible, plant conditions and the resulting degradation effects on components is preliminarily addressed. A general characterization of the qualification is then presented. Basis, methods and ...

  11. Effect of Safe Failures on the Reliability of Safety Instrumented Systems


    Kvam, Eva


    Safety instrumented systems (SISs) are of prime importance to the process industry to avoid catastrophic consequences or even loss of human life. The dangerous situations that any equipment may face should be analysed in order to quantify the associated risk and to choose a design of the SIS that reduces the risk to a tolerable level. The safe failure fraction (SFF) is a parameter defined in the standards IEC 61508 and IEC 61511, and is used to determine the need for additional channels that ...

  12. Environmental testing of a prototypic digital safety channel, phase I: System design and test methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korsah, K.; Turner, G.W.; Mullens, J.A.


    A microprocessor-based reactor trip channel has been assembled for environmental testing under an Instrumentation and Control (I&C) Qualification Program sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The goal of this program is to establish the technical basis for the qualification of advanced I&C systems. The trip channel implemented for this study employs technologies and digital subsystems representative of those proposed for use in some advanced light-water reactors (ALNWS) such as the Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBNW) and AP600. It is expected that these tests will reveal any potential system vulnerabilities for technologies representative of those proposed for use in ALNWS. The experimental channel will be purposely stressed considerably beyond what it is likely to experience in a normal nuclear power plant environment, so that the tests can uncover the worst-case failure modes (i.e., failures that are likely to prevent an entire trip system from performing its safety function when required to do so). Based on information obtained from this study, it may be possible to recommend tests that are likely to indicate the presence of such failure mechanisms. Such recommendations would be helpful in augmenting current qualification guidelines.

  13. A SiGe BiCMOS Instrumentation Channel for Extreme Environment Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandradevi Ulaganathan


    Full Text Available An instrumentation channel is designed, implemented, and tested in a 0.5-μm SiGe BiCMOS process. The circuit features a reconfigurable Wheatstone bridge network that interfaces an assortment of external sensors to signal processing circuits. Also, analog sampling is implemented in the channel using a flying capacitor configuration. The analog samples are digitized by a low-power multichannel A/D converter. Measurement results show that the instrumentation channel supports input signals up to 200 Hz and operates across a wide temperature range of -180°C to 125°C. This work demonstrates the use of a commercially available first generation SiGe BiCMOS process in designing circuits suitable for extreme environment applications.

  14. 77 FR 29899 - Safety Zone; International Special Operations Forces Week Capability Exercise, Seddon Channel... (United States)


    ... Week Capability Exercise, Seddon Channel, Tampa, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on the waters of Seddon Channel... Channel, in the vicinity of the Tampa Convention Center in Tampa, Florida. The exercise will consist of...

  15. 75 FR 38019 - Safety Zone; Fixed Mooring Balls, South of Barbers Pt. Harbor Channel, Oahu, HI (United States)


    .... Harbor Channel, Oahu, HI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: Due to the..., approximately 2,500 yards south of Barbers Point Harbor channel buoy 2, Oahu, Hawaii. Entry of persons, vessels... Safety Zone; Fixed Mooring Balls, South of Barbers Pt Harbor Channel, Oahu, Hawaii. (a) Location. The...

  16. Comparing NICU teamwork and safety climate across two commonly used survey instruments (United States)

    Profit, Jochen; Lee, Henry C; Sharek, Paul J; Kan, Peggy; Nisbet, Courtney C; Thomas, Eric J; Etchegaray, Jason M; Sexton, Bryan


    Background and objectives Measurement and our understanding of safety culture are still evolving. The objectives of this study were to assess variation in safety and teamwork climate and in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) setting, and compare measurement of safety culture scales using two different instruments (Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ) and Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPSC)). Methods Cross-sectional survey study of a voluntary sample of 2073 (response rate 62.9%) health professionals in 44 NICUs. To compare survey instruments, we used Spearman's rank correlation coefficients. We also compared similar scales and items across the instruments using t tests and changes in quartile-level performance. Results We found significant variation across NICUs in safety and teamwork climate scales of SAQ and HSOPSC (pteamwork scales (teamwork climate and teamwork within units) of the two instruments correlated strongly (safety r=0.72, pteamwork r=0.67, p<0.001). However, the means and per cent agreements for all scale scores and even seemingly similar item scores were significantly different. In addition, comparisons of scale score quartiles between the two instruments revealed that half of the NICUs fell into different quartiles when translating between the instruments. Conclusions Large variation and opportunities for improvement in patient safety culture exist across NICUs. Important systematic differences exist between SAQ and HSOPSC such that these instruments should not be used interchangeably. PMID:26700545

  17. Comprehensive analysis and differentiated assessment of food safety control systems: a diagnostic instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luning, P.A.; Bango, L.; Kussaga, J.; Rovira, J.; Marcelis, W.J.


    In this article, an instrument is presented to diagnose microbial safety control activities in a food safety management system. The need of such a tool is derived from the importance of microbial safety control and the need for improvement of existing control systems. Careful diagnosis of these

  18. On-line testing of calibration of process instrumentation channels in nuclear power plants. Phase 2, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashemian, H.M. [Analysis and Measurement Services Corp., Knoxville, TN (United States)


    The nuclear industry is interested in automating the calibration of process instrumentation channels; this report provides key results of one of the sponsored projects to determine the validity of automated calibrations. Conclusion is that the normal outputs of instrument channels in nuclear plants can be monitored over a fuel cycle while the plant is operating to determine calibration drift in the field sensors and associated signal conversion and signal conditioning equipment. The procedure for on-line calibration tests involving calculating the deviation of each instrument channel from the best estimate of the process parameter that the instrument is measuring. Methods were evaluated for determining the best estimate. Deviation of each signal from the best estimate is updated frequently while the plant is operating and plotted vs time for entire fuel cycle, thereby providing time history plots that can reveal channel drift and other anomalies. Any instrument channel that exceeds allowable drift or channel accuracy band is then scheduled for calibration during a refueling outage or sooner. This provides calibration test results at the process operating point, one of the most critical points of the channel operation. This should suffice for most narrow-range instruments, although the calibration of some instruments can be verified at other points throughout their range. It should be pointed out that the calibration of some process signals such as the high pressure coolant injection flow in BWRs, which are normally off- scale during plant operation, can not be tested on-line.

  19. Comparing NICU teamwork and safety climate across two commonly used survey instruments. (United States)

    Profit, Jochen; Lee, Henry C; Sharek, Paul J; Kan, Peggy; Nisbet, Courtney C; Thomas, Eric J; Etchegaray, Jason M; Sexton, Bryan


    Measurement and our understanding of safety culture are still evolving. The objectives of this study were to assess variation in safety and teamwork climate and in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) setting, and compare measurement of safety culture scales using two different instruments (Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ) and Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPSC)). Cross-sectional survey study of a voluntary sample of 2073 (response rate 62.9%) health professionals in 44 NICUs. To compare survey instruments, we used Spearman's rank correlation coefficients. We also compared similar scales and items across the instruments using t tests and changes in quartile-level performance. We found significant variation across NICUs in safety and teamwork climate scales of SAQ and HSOPSC (pteamwork scales (teamwork climate and teamwork within units) of the two instruments correlated strongly (safety r=0.72, pteamwork r=0.67, p<0.001). However, the means and per cent agreements for all scale scores and even seemingly similar item scores were significantly different. In addition, comparisons of scale score quartiles between the two instruments revealed that half of the NICUs fell into different quartiles when translating between the instruments. Large variation and opportunities for improvement in patient safety culture exist across NICUs. Important systematic differences exist between SAQ and HSOPSC such that these instruments should not be used interchangeably. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  20. Systematic psychometric review of self-reported instruments to assess patient safety culture in primary care. (United States)

    Desmedt, Melissa; Bergs, Jochen; Vertriest, Sonja; Vlayen, Annemie; Schrooten, Ward; Hellings, Johan; Vandijck, Dominique


    To give an overview of empirical studies using self-reported instruments to assess patient safety culture in primary care and to synthesize psychometric properties of these instruments. A key condition for improving patient safety is creating a supportive safety culture to identify weaknesses and to develop improvement strategies so recurrence of incidents can be minimized. However, most tools to measure and strengthen safety culture have been developed and tested in hospitals. Nevertheless, primary care is facing greater risks and a greater likelihood of causing unintentional harm to patients. A systematic literature review of research evidence and psychometric properties of self-reported instruments to assess patient safety culture in primary care. Three databases until November 2016. The review was carried out according to the protocol for systematic reviews of measurement properties recommended by the COSMIN panel and the PRISMA reporting guidelines. In total, 1.229 records were retrieved from multiple database searches (Medline = 865, Web of Science = 362 and Embase = 2). Resulting from an in-depth literature search, 14 published studies were identified, mostly originated from Western high-income countries. As these studies come with great diversity in tools used and outcomes reported, comparability of the results is compromised. Based on the psychometric review, the SCOPE-Primary Care survey was chosen as the most appropriate instrument to measure patient safety culture in primary care as the instrument had excellent internal consistency with Cronbach's alphas ranging from 0.70-0.90 and item factor loadings ranging from 0.40-0.96, indicating a good structural validity. The findings of the present review suggest that the SCOPE-Primary Care survey is the most appropriate tool to assess patient safety culture in primary care. Further psychometric techniques are now essential to ensure that the instrument provides meaningful information regarding safety

  1. Instrumentation-related uncertainty of reflectance and transmittance measurements with a two-channel spectrophotometer. (United States)

    Peest, Christian; Schinke, Carsten; Brendel, Rolf; Schmidt, Jan; Bothe, Karsten


    Spectrophotometers are operated in numerous fields of science and industry for a variety of applications. In order to provide confidence for the measured data, analyzing the associated uncertainty is valuable. However, the uncertainty of the measurement results is often unknown or reduced to sample-related contributions. In this paper, we describe our approach for the systematic determination of the measurement uncertainty of the commercially available two-channel spectrophotometer Agilent Cary 5000 in accordance with the Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurements. We focus on the instrumentation-related uncertainty contributions rather than the specific application and thus outline a general procedure which can be adapted for other instruments. Moreover, we discover a systematic signal deviation due to the inertia of the measurement amplifier and develop and apply a correction procedure. Thereby we increase the usable dynamic range of the instrument by more than one order of magnitude. We present methods for the quantification of the uncertainty contributions and combine them into an uncertainty budget for the device.

  2. Impact of Passive Safety on FHR Instrumentation Systems Design and Classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, David Eugene [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    Fluoride salt-cooled high-temperature reactors (FHRs) will rely more extensively on passive safety than earlier reactor classes. 10CFR50 Appendix A, General Design Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants, establishes minimum design requirements to provide reasonable assurance of adequate safety. 10CFR50.69, Risk-Informed Categorization and Treatment of Structures, Systems and Components for Nuclear Power Reactors, provides guidance on how the safety significance of systems, structures, and components (SSCs) should be reflected in their regulatory treatment. The Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) has provided 10 CFR 50.69 SSC Categorization Guideline (NEI-00-04) that factors in probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) model insights, as well as deterministic insights, through an integrated decision-making panel. Employing the PRA to inform deterministic requirements enables an appropriately balanced, technically sound categorization to be established. No FHR currently has an adequate PRA or set of design basis accidents to enable establishing the safety classification of its SSCs. While all SSCs used to comply with the general design criteria (GDCs) will be safety related, the intent is to limit the instrumentation risk significance through effective design and reliance on inherent passive safety characteristics. For example, FHRs have no safety-significant temperature threshold phenomena, thus enabling the primary and reserve reactivity control systems required by GDC 26 to be passively, thermally triggered at temperatures well below those for which core or primary coolant boundary damage would occur. Moreover, the passive thermal triggering of the primary and reserve shutdown systems may relegate the control rod drive motors to the control system, substantially decreasing the amount of safety-significant wiring needed. Similarly, FHR decay heat removal systems are intended to be running continuously to minimize the amount of safety-significant instrumentation needed to initiate

  3. Automated Electrophysiology Makes the Pace for Cardiac Ion Channel Safety Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens eMoeller


    Full Text Available The field of automated patch-clamp electrophysiology has emerged from the tension between the pharmaceutical industry’s need for high-throughput compound screening versus its need to be conservative due to regulatory requirements. On the one hand, hERG channel screening was increasingly requested for new chemical entities, as the correlation between blockade of the ion channel coded by hERG and Torsades de Pointes cardiac arrhythmia gained increasing attention. On the other hand, manual patch-clamping, typically quoted as the gold-standard for understanding ion channel function and modulation, was far too slow (and, consequently, too expensive for keeping pace with the numbers of compounds submitted for hERG channel investigations from pharmaceutical R&D departments. In consequence it became more common for some pharmaceutical companies to outsource safety pharmacological investigations, with a focus on hERG channel interactions. This outsourcing has allowed those pharmaceutical companies to build up operational flexibility and greater independence from internal resources, and allowed them to obtain access to the latest technological developments that emerged in automated patch-clamp electrophysiology – much of which arose in specialized biotech companies. Assays for nearly all major cardiac ion channels are now available by automated patch-clamping using heterologous expression systems, and recently, automated action potential recordings from stem-cell derived cardiomyocytes have been demonstrated. Today, most of the large pharmaceutical companies have acquired automated electrophysiology robots and have established various automated cardiac ion channel safety screening assays on these, in addition to outsourcing parts of their needs for safety screening.

  4. 78 FR 17094 - Safety Zone; 2013 Naval Air Station Key West Air Spectacular, Boca Chica Channel; Boca Chica, FL (United States)


    ... Spectacular, Boca Chica Channel; Boca Chica, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on the waters of the Boca Chica Channel... extend into Boca Chica Channel located west of Boca Chica, Florida. The Blue Angels will be performing...

  5. 33 CFR 165.T14-204 - Safety Zone; fixed mooring balls, south of Barbers Pt Harbor Channel, Oahu, Hawaii. (United States)


    ..., south of Barbers Pt Harbor Channel, Oahu, Hawaii. 165.T14-204 Section 165.T14-204 Navigation and... Pt Harbor Channel, Oahu, Hawaii. (a) Location. The following area is a safety zone: All waters... position is approximately 2,500 yards south of Barbers Point Harbor channel buoy #2, Oahu, Hawaii. This...

  6. Optimization of Safety Instrumented System Design and Maintenance Frequency for Oil and Gas Industry Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redutskiy Yury


    Full Text Available Oil and gas industry processes are associated with significant expenditures and risks. Adequacy of the decisions on safety measures made during early stages of planning the facilities and processes contributes to avoiding technological incidents and corresponding losses. Formulating straightforward requirements for safety instrumented systems that are followed further during the detailed engineering design and operations is proposed, and a mathematical model for safety system design is introduced in a generalized form. The model aims to reflect the divergent perspectives of the main parties involved in oil and gas projects, and, therefore, it is formulated as a multi-objective problem. Application of black box optimization is suggested for solving real-life problem instances. A Markov model is applied to account for device failures, technological incidents, continuous restorations and periodic maintenance for a given process and safety system configuration. This research is relevant to engineering departments and contractors, who specialize in planning and designing the technological solution.

  7. JACoW Safety instrumented systems and the AWAKE plasma control as a use case

    CERN Document Server

    Blanco Viñuela, Enrique; Fernández Adiego, Borja; Speroni, Roberto


    Safety is likely the most critical concern in many process industries, yet there is a general uncertainty on the proper engineering to reduce the risks and ensure the safety of persons or material at the same time as providing the process control system. Some of the reasons for this misperception are unclear requirements, lack of functional safety engineering knowledge or incorrect protection functionalities attributed to the BPCS (Basic Process Control System). Occasionally the control engineers are not aware of the hazards inherent to an industrial process and this causes an incorrect design of the overall controls. This paper illustrates the engineering of the SIS (Safety Instrumented System) and the BPCS of the plasma vapour controls of the AWAKE R&D; project, the first proton-driven plasma wakefield acceleration experiment in the world. The controls design and implementation refers to the IEC61511/ISA84 standard, including technological choices, design, operation and maintenance. Finally, the publica...

  8. A quality control method for nuclear instrumentation and control systems based on software safety prediction (United States)

    Son, Han Seong; Seong, Poong Hyun


    In the case of safety-related applications like nuclear instrumentation and control (NI&C), safety-oriented quality control is required. The objective of this paper is to present a software safety classification method as a safety-oriented quality control tool. Based on this method, we predict the risk (and thus safety) of software items that are at the core of NI&C systems. Then we classify the software items according to the degree of the risk. The method can be used earlier than at the detailed design phase. Furthermore, the method can also be used in all the development phases without major changes. The proposed method seeks to utilize the measures that can be obtained from the safety analysis and requirements analysis. Using the measures proved to be desirable in a few aspects. The authors have introduced fuzzy approximate reasoning to the classification method because experts' knowledge covers the vague frontiers between good quality and bad quality with linguistic uncertainty and fuzziness. Fuzzy Colored Petri Net (FCPN) is introduced in order to offer a formal framework for the classification method and facilitate the knowledge representation, modification, or verification. Through the proposed quality control method, high-quality NI&C systems can be developed effectively and used safely.

  9. Triple-channel portable capillary electrophoresis instrument with individual background electrolytes for the concurrent separations of anionic and cationic species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, Thanh Duc; Le, Minh Duc [Centre for Environmental Technology and Sustainable Development (CETASD), Hanoi University of Science, Nguyen Trai Street 334, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Sáiz, Jorge [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Physical Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Alcalá, Ctra. Madrid-Barcelona Km 33.6, Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Duong, Hong Anh [Centre for Environmental Technology and Sustainable Development (CETASD), Hanoi University of Science, Nguyen Trai Street 334, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Koenka, Israel Joel [University of Basel, Department of Chemistry, Spitalstrasse 51, 4056 Basel (Switzerland); Pham, Hung Viet, E-mail: [Centre for Environmental Technology and Sustainable Development (CETASD), Hanoi University of Science, Nguyen Trai Street 334, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Hauser, Peter C., E-mail: [University of Basel, Department of Chemistry, Spitalstrasse 51, 4056 Basel (Switzerland)


    The portable capillary electrophoresis instrument is automated and features three independent channels with different background electrolytes to allow the concurrent optimized determination of three different categories of charged analytes. The fluidic system is based on a miniature manifold which is based on mechanically milled channels for injection of samples and buffers. The planar manifold pattern was designed to minimize the number of electronic valves required for each channel. The system utilizes pneumatic pressurization to transport solutions at the grounded as well as the high voltage side of the separation capillaries. The instrument has a compact design, with all components arranged in a briefcase with dimensions of 45 (w) × 35 (d) × 15 cm (h) and a weight of about 15 kg. It can operate continuously for 8 h in the battery-powered mode if only one electrophoresis channel is in use, or for about 2.5 h in the case of simultaneous employment of all three channels. The different operations, i.e. capillary flushing, rinsing of the interfaces at both capillary ends, sample injection and electrophoretic separation, are activated automatically with a control program featuring a graphical user interface. For demonstration, the system was employed successfully for the concurrent separation of different inorganic cations and anions, organic preservatives, additives and artificial sweeteners in various beverage and food matrices. - Highlights: • The use of parallel channels allows the concurrent separation of different classes of analytes. • Separate background electrolytes allow individual optimization. • The instrument is compact and field portable.

  10. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M


    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation involves the assessment and the development of sensitive measurement systems used within a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the assessment of optical fibre components and their adaptability to radiation environments. The evaluation of ageing processes of instrumentation in fission plants, the development of specific data evaluation strategies to compensate for ageing induced degradation of sensors and cable performance form part of these activities. In 2000, particular emphasis was on in-core reactor instrumentation applied to fusion, accelerator driven and water-cooled fission reactors. This involved the development of high performance instrumentation for irradiation experiments in the BR2 reactor in support of new instrumentation needs for MYRRHA, and for diagnostic systems for the ITER reactor.

  11. Safety evaluation of molten steel carrier by using instrument indentation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Ki; Kim, Yi Gon; Yoo, Dae Wha; Kim, Chung Youb [School of Mechanical Design Engineering, Chonnam National University, Yeosu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kwang Ho [Frontics Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyeong Ro [Dept. of Automotive Management, Joongbu University, Geumsan (Korea, Republic of)


    Because a molten steel carrier is used in high-temperature and corrosive environments, erosion and corrosion decrease the thickness of the structure and expand the vent hole for emitting gas generated from refractory bricks. This increases the stress throughout the structure and introduces a significant stress concentration around the vent hole. In addition, the high-temperature environment degrades mechanical properties such as the yield and tensile strengths. These problems seriously affect the safety of the structure. In this study, the safety of a 10-year-old structure was evaluated by analyzing the stress distribution and measuring the mechanical properties of the structure. The mechanical properties were directly measured on the structure surface using the instrument indentation technique.

  12. Vibrotactile Perception of Segmental Features of Speech: A Comparison of Single-Channel and Multichannel Instruments. (United States)

    Carney, Arlene Earley


    The recognition performance for segmental stimuli was compared when presented through a single-channel tactile device and through a 24-channel vocoder. Both consonant and vowel stimuli were tested under visual only, tactile only, and visual/tactile conditions. Results indicated no significant performance differences for the 12 artificially…

  13. Comparative instrumental evaluation of efficacy and safety between a binary and a ternary system in chemexfoliation. (United States)

    Cameli, Norma; Mariano, Maria; Ardigò, Marco; Corato, Cristina; De Paoli, Gianfranco; Berardesca, Enzo


    To instrumentally evaluate the efficacy and the safety of a new ternary system chemo exfoliating formulation (water-dimethyl isosorbide-acid) vs traditional binary systems (water and acid) where the acid is maintained in both the systems at the same concentration. Different peelings (binary system pyruvic acid and trichloroacetic acid-TCA, and ternary system pyruvic acid and TCA) were tested on the volar forearm of 20 volunteers of both sexes between 28 and 50 years old. The outcomes were evaluated at the baseline, 10 minutes, 24 hours, and 1 week after the peeling by means of noninvasive skin diagnosis techniques. In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy was used for stratum corneum evaluation, transepidermal waterloss, and Corneometry for skin barrier and hydration, Laser Doppler velocimetry in association with colorimetry for irritation and erythema analysis. The instrumental data obtained showed that the efficacy and safety of the new ternary system peel compounds were significantly higher compared with the binary system formulations tested. The new formulation peels improved chemexfoliation and reduced complications such as irritation, redness, and postinflammatory pigmentation compared to the traditional aqueous solutions. The study showed that ternary system chemexfoliation, using a controlled delivery technology, was able to provide the same clinical effects in term of stratum corneum reduction with a significantly reduced barrier alteration, water loss, and irritation/erythema compared to traditional binary system peels. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Modelling of Disturbing Efects within Communication Channel for Safety-Related Communication System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Franekova


    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is using of modelling within development of safety–related communication systems presented in the areas where guaranty of safety integrity level is required. In the paper basic principles used in the process of safety evaluation in closed transmission systems are summarised. Dangerous states of system are mainly caused by random failures of HW within non-trusted transmission system, by electromagnetic interference caused with noise or interferences and by systematic failures within specification of system. Main part of paper describes the simulation of disturbing effects within communication channel via programme Matlab, relations for determination of probability of undetected errors of code words with using block codes and results of residual error rate for Hamming code.

  15. Instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buehrer, W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)


    The present paper mediates a basic knowledge of the most commonly used experimental techniques. We discuss the principles and concepts necessary to understand what one is doing if one performs an experiment on a certain instrument. (author) 29 figs., 1 tab., refs.

  16. Biophysics and Molecular Biology of Cardiac Ion Channels for the Safety Pharmacologist. (United States)

    Pugsley, Michael K; Curtis, Michael J; Hayes, Eric S


    Cardiac safety pharmacology is a continuously evolving discipline that uses the basic principles of pharmacology in a regulatory-driven process to generate data to inform risk/benefit assessment of a new chemical entity (NCE). The aim of cardiac safety pharmacology is to characterise the pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic (PK/PD) relationship of a drug's adverse effects on the heart using continuously evolving methodology. Unlike Toxicology, safety pharmacology includes within its remit a regulatory requirement to predict the risk of rare cardiotoxic (potentially lethal) events such as torsades de pointes (TdP), which is statistically associated with drug-induced changes in the QT interval of the ECG due to blockade of I Kr or K v11.1 current encoded by hERG. This gives safety pharmacology its unique character. The key issues for the safety pharmacology assessment of a drug on the heart are detection of an adverse effect liability, projection of the data into safety margin calculation and clinical safety monitoring. This chapter will briefly review the current cardiac safety pharmacology paradigm outlined in the ICH S7A and ICH S7B guidance documents and the non-clinical models and methods used in the evaluation of new chemical entities in order to define the integrated risk assessment for submission to regulatory authorities. An overview of how the present cardiac paradigm was developed will be discussed, explaining how it was based upon marketing authorisation withdrawal of many non-cardiovascular compounds due to unanticipated proarrhythmic effects. The role of related biomarkers (of cardiac repolarisation, e.g. prolongation of the QT interval of the ECG) will be considered. We will also provide an overview of the 'non-hERG-centric' concepts utilised in the evolving comprehensive in vitro proarrhythmia assay (CIPA) that details conduct of the proposed ion channel battery test, use of human stem cells and application of in silico models to early cardiac safety

  17. Unmanned airborne vehicle (UAV): Flight testing and evaluation of two-channel E-field very low frequency (VLF) instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Using VLF frequencies, transmitted by the Navy`s network, for airborne remote sensing of the earth`s electrical, magnetic characteristics was first considered by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) around the mid 1970s. The first VLF system was designed and developed by the USGS for installation and operation on a single engine, fixed wing aircraft used by the Branch of Geophysics for geophysical surveying. The system consisted of five channels. Two E-field channels with sensors consisting of a fixed vertical loaded dipole antenna with pre-amp mounted on top of the fuselage and a gyro stabilized horizontal loaded dipole antenna with pre-amp mounted on a tail boom. The three channel magnetic sensor consisted of three orthogonal coils mounted on the same gyro stabilized platform as the horizontal E-field antenna. The main features of the VLF receiver were: narrow band-width frequency selection using crystal filters, phase shifters for zeroing out system phase variances, phase-lock loops for generating real and quadrature gates, and synchronous detectors for generating real and quadrature outputs. In the mid 1990s the Branch of Geophysics designed and developed a two-channel E-field ground portable VLF system. The system was built using state-of-the-art circuit components and new concepts in circuit architecture. Small size, light weight, low power, durability, and reliability were key considerations in the design of the instrument. The primary purpose of the instrument was for collecting VLF data during ground surveys over small grid areas. Later the system was modified for installation on a Unmanned Airborne Vehicle (UAV). A series of three field trips were made to Easton, Maryland for testing and evaluating the system performance.

  18. The H-PEPSS: an instrument to measure health professionals' perceptions of patient safety competence at entry into practice. (United States)

    Ginsburg, Liane; Castel, Evan; Tregunno, Deborah; Norton, Peter G


    Enhancing competency in patient safety at entry to practice requires introduction and integration of patient safety into health professional education. As efforts to include patient safety in health professional education increase, it is important to capture new health professionals' perspectives of their own patient safety competence at entry to practice. Existing instruments to measure patient safety knowledge, skills and attitudes have been developed largely to examine the impact of specific patient safety curricular initiatives and the psychometric analyses of the instruments used thus far have been exploratory in nature. Confirmatory factor analytic approaches are used to extensively test the Health Professional Education in Patient Safety Survey (H-PEPSS), a newly designed survey rooted in a patient safety competency framework and designed to measure health professionals' self-reported patient safety competence around the time of entry to practice. The H-PEPSS focuses primarily on the socio-cultural aspects of patient safety including culture, teamwork, communication, managing risk and understanding human factors. Results support a parsimonious six-factor measurement model of health professionals' perceptions of patient safety competency. These results support the validity of a reduced version of the H-PEPSS and suggest it can be appropriately used at or near training completion with a variety of health professional groups. Given increased demands for patient safety competency among health professionals at entry to practice and slow, but emerging changes in health professional education, ongoing research to understand the extent of patient safety competency among health professionals around the time of entry to practice will be important.

  19. Biomedical instruments: safety, quality control, maintenance, prospects and benefits of African technology. (United States)

    Zubair, A R


    Biomedical instruments are fundamental to successful medical practice. Medical instruments are devices intended to diagnose, treat, or monitor the patient under medical supervision. Such devices make physical or electrical contact with the patient and/or transfer energy to or from the patient and/or detect such energy transfer to or from the patient. These devices are imported to Africa from developed countries. They are operated in tropical African hospitals where as they were designed for more temperate environment. African countries pay high prices for these devices. The result is that these devices are not available in most African hospitals. Patients have to travel to the major cities to benefit from such devices.These devices must be properly installed in an environment in which they can give accurate and uninterrupted service. Proper operation, regular care and maintenance of these devices are essential. The consequences of breakdown of biomedical instruments include unusable equipment, untreated patients, wrong diagnosis, wrong treatment, frustrated medical staff and overloaded repair shops. The important interwoven issues of safety, quality control and maintenance are discussed. To achieve the millennium development goal of health for all, it is necessary to increase the availability of these devices in Africa. The prospects and benefits of manufacturing and or assembling these devices in Africa are discussed. Can the Engineering Faculties and Industries in Africa meet this challenge? The answer is 'yes'! The design and construction of Bedside Monitor by four Electrical/Electronic Engineering Undergraduates of the University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria is presented as a case study.

  20. The interaction between room and musical instruments studied by multi-channel auralization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindel, Jens Holger; Otondo, Felipe


    in the anechoic recording. With this technique the variations in sound radiation from the musical instrument during the performance e.g. due to changes in level or movements can be reproduced with the influence of the surrounding room surfaces. Examples include a grand piano and a clarinet....

  1. NESSI and `Alopeke: Two new dual-channel speckle imaging instruments (United States)

    Scott, Nicholas J.


    NESSI and `Alopeke are two new speckle imagers built at NASA's Ames Research Center for community use at the WIYN and Gemini telescopes, respectively. The two instruments are functionally similar and include the capability for wide-field imaging in additional to speckle interferometry. The diffraction-limited imaging available through speckle effectively eliminates distortions due to the presence of Earth's atmosphere by `freezing out' changes in the atmosphere by taking extremely short exposures and combining the resultant speckles in Fourier space. This technique enables angular resolutions equal to the theoretical best possible for a given telescope, effectively giving space-based resolution from the ground. Our instruments provide the highest spatial resolution available today on any single aperture telescope.A primary role of these instruments is exoplanet validation for the Kepler, K2, TESS, and many RV programs. Contrast ratios of 6 or more magnitudes are easily obtained. The instrument uses two emCCD cameras providing simultaneous dual-color observations help to characterize detected companions. High resolution imaging enables the identification of blended binaries that contaminate many exoplanet detections, leading to incorrectly measured radii. In this way small, rocky systems, such as Kepler-186b and the TRAPPIST-1 planet family, may be validated and thus the detected planets radii are correctly measured.

  2. Safety analysis of high pressure 3He-filled micro-channels for thermal neutron detection.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferko, Scott M.; Galambos, Paul C.; Derzon, Mark Steven; Renzi, Ronald F.


    This document is a safety analysis of a novel neutron detection technology developed by Sandia National Laboratories. This technology is comprised of devices with tiny channels containing high pressure {sup 3}He. These devices are further integrated into large scale neutron sensors. Modeling and preliminary device testing indicates that the time required to detect the presence of special nuclear materials may be reduced under optimal conditions by several orders of magnitude using this approach. Also, these devices make efficient use of our {sup 3}He supply by making individual devices more efficient and/or extending the our limited {sup 3}He supply. The safety of these high pressure devices has been a primary concern. We address these safety concerns for a flat panel configuration intended for thermal neutron detection. Ballistic impact tests using 3 g projectiles were performed on devices made from FR4, Silicon, and Parmax materials. In addition to impact testing, operational limits were determined by pressurizing the devices either to failure or until they unacceptably leaked. We found that (1) sympathetic or parasitic failure does not occur in pressurized FR4 devices (2) the Si devices exhibited benign brittle failure (sympathetic failure under pressure was not tested) and (3) the Parmax devices failed unacceptably. FR4 devices were filled to pressures up to 4000 + 100 psig, and the impacts were captured using a high speed camera. The brittle Si devices shattered, but were completely contained when wrapped in thin tape, while the ductile FR4 devices deformed only. Even at 4000 psi the energy density of the compressed gas appears to be insignificant compared to the impact caused by the incoming projectile. In conclusion, the current FR4 device design pressurized up to 4000 psi does not show evidence of sympathetic failure, and these devices are intrinsically safe.

  3. A Systematic Review of Primary Care Safety Climate Survey Instruments: Their Origins, Psychometric Properties, Quality, and Usage. (United States)

    Curran, Ciara; Lydon, Sinéad; Kelly, Maureen; Murphy, Andrew; Walsh, Chloe; OʼConnor, Paul


    Safety climate (SC) measurement is a common and feasible method of proactive safety assessment in primary care. However, there is no consensus on which instrument is "best" to use. The aim of the study was to identify the origins, psychometric properties, quality, and SC domains measured by survey instruments used to assess SC in primary care settings. Systematic searches were conducted using Medline, Embase, CINAHL, and PsycInfo in February 2016. English-language, peer-reviewed studies that reported the development and/or use of a SC survey in a primary care setting were included. Two reviewers independently extracted data (survey characteristics, origins, and psychometric properties) from studies and applied the Quality Assessment Tool for Studies with Diverse Designs to assess methodological rigour. Safety climate domains within surveys were deductively analyzed and categorized into common healthcare SC themes. Seventeen SC surveys were identified, of which 16 had been adapted from 2 main U.S. hospital-based surveys. Only 1 survey was developed de novo for a primary care setting. The quantity and quality of psychometric testing varied considerably across the surveys. Management commitment to safety was the most frequently measured SC theme (87.5%). Workload was infrequently measured (25%). Valid and reliable instruments, which are context specific to the healthcare environment for intentional use, are essential to accurately assess SC. Key recommendations include further establishing the construct and criterion-related validity of existing instruments as opposed to developing additional surveys.

  4. Technical feasibility and safety of an intraoperative head-up display device during spine instrumentation. (United States)

    Yoon, Jang W; Chen, Robert E; Han, Phillip K; Si, Phong; Freeman, William D; Pirris, Stephen M


    The primary aim of this study was to determine the safety and feasibility of capturing and streaming neuronavigation images onto a head-up display during spine instrumentation. Using a novel device, neuronavigation images were captured and transferred wirelessly via a password-encrypted network to the head-up display. At the end of the procedure, the surgeons completed a survey to gather their opinions of the system. Forty pedicle screws were placed using the head-up display. The average screw placement time was slightly shorter when the head-up display was used (4.13 min with vs. 4.86 min without). The post-procedure survey demonstrated that 79% of surgeon's responses were positive. A wearable head-up display can benefit current neuronavigation systems, but larger, outcomes-based trials are needed. Higher processing speed would allow streaming of higher resolution images. Along with an enlarged display, these may significantly improve utilization of this technology. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Safety and function of a new clinical intracerebral microinjection instrument for stem cells and therapeutics examined in the Göttingen minipig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarkam, Carsten R; GLUD, AN; Margolin, Lee


    Safety and function of a new clinical intracerebral microinjection instrument for stem cells and therapeutics examined in the Göttingen minipig......Safety and function of a new clinical intracerebral microinjection instrument for stem cells and therapeutics examined in the Göttingen minipig...

  6. KAERI software safety guideline for developing safety-critical software in digital instrumentation and control system of nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jang Soo; Kim, Jang Yeol; Eum, Heung Seop


    Recently, the safety planning for safety-critical software systems is being recognized as the most important phase in the software life cycle, and being developed new regulatory positions and standards by the regulatory and the standardization organization. The requirements for software important to safety of nuclear reactor are described in such positions and standards. Most of them are describing mandatory requirements, what shall be done, for the safety-critical software. The developers of such a software. However, there have been a lot of controversial factors on whether the work practices satisfy the regulatory requirements, and to justify the safety of such a system developed by the work practices, between the licenser and the licensee. We believe it is caused by the reason that there is a gap between the mandatory requirements (What) and the work practices (How). We have developed a guidance to fill such gap, which can be useful for both licenser and licensee to conduct a justification of the safety in the planning phase of developing the software for nuclear reactor protection systems. (author). 67 refs., 13 tabs., 2 figs.

  7. 76 FR 70647 - Safety Zone; Fireworks Display, Potomac River, National Harbor Access Channel, MD (United States)


    ... Harbor Access Channel, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast... floating platform located within the National Harbor Access Channel, in Prince Georges County, Maryland... Access Channel, within a 50 yards radius of a fireworks discharge platform in approximate position...

  8. Optimal Design of Safety Instrumented Systems for Pressure Control of Methanol Separation Columns in the Bisphenol a Manufacturing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Bok Lee


    Full Text Available A bisphenol A production plant possesses considerable potential risks in the top of the methanol separation column, as pressurized acetone, methanol, and water are processed at an elevated temperature, especially in the event of an abnormal pressure increase due to a sudden power outage. This study assesses the potential risks in the methanol separation column through hazard and operability assessments and evaluates the damages in the case of fire and explosion accident scenarios. The study chooses three leakage scenarios: a 5-mm puncture on the methanol separation column, a 50-mm diameter fracture of a discharge pipe and a catastrophic rupture, and, simulated using Phast (Ver. 6.531, the concentration distribution of scattered methanol, thermal radiation distribution of fires, and overpressure distribution of vapor cloud explosions. Implementation of a safety-instrumented system equipped with two-out-of-three voting as a safety measure can detect overpressure at the top of the column and shut down the main control valve and the emergency shutoff valve simultaneously. By applying a safety integrity level of three, the maximal release volume of the safety relief valve can be reduced and, therefore, the design capacity of the flare stack can also be reduced. Such integration will lead to improved safety at a reduced cost.

  9. Optimization of Safety Instrumented System Design and Maintenance Frequency for Oil and Gas Industry Processes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yury Redutskiy


    ... for safety system design is introduced in a generalized form. The model aims to reflect the divergent perspectives of the main parties involved in oil and gas projects, and, therefore, it is formulated as a multi-objective problem...

  10. Surprising Incentive: An Instrument for Promoting Safety Performance of Construction Employees (United States)

    Ghasemi, Fakhradin; Mohammadfam, Iraj; Soltanian, Ali Reza; Mahmoudi, Shahram; Zarei, Esmaeil


    Background In comparison with other industries, the construction industry still has a higher rate of fatal injuries, and thus, there is a need to apply new and innovative approaches for preventing accidents and promoting safe conditions at construction sites. Methods In this study, the effectiveness of a new incentive system—the surprising incentive system—was assessed. One year after the implementation of this new incentive system, behavioral changes of employees with respect to seven types of activities were observed. Results The results of this study showed that there is a significant relationship between the new incentive system and the safety performance of frontline employees. The new incentive system had a greater positive impact in the first 6 months since its implementation. In the long term, however, safety performance experienced a gradual reduction. Based on previous studies, all activities selected in this study are important indicators of the safety conditions at workplaces. However, there is a need for a comprehensive and simple-to-apply tool for assessing frontline employees' safety performance. Shortening the intervals between incentives is more effective in promoting safety performance. Conclusion The results of this study proved that the surprising incentive would improve the employees' safety performance just in the short term because the surprising value of the incentives dwindle over time. For this reason and to maintain the surprising value of the incentive system, the amount and types of incentives need to be evaluated and modified annually or biannually. PMID:26929832

  11. Surprising Incentive: An Instrument for Promoting Safety Performance of Construction Employees. (United States)

    Ghasemi, Fakhradin; Mohammadfam, Iraj; Soltanian, Ali Reza; Mahmoudi, Shahram; Zarei, Esmaeil


    In comparison with other industries, the construction industry still has a higher rate of fatal injuries, and thus, there is a need to apply new and innovative approaches for preventing accidents and promoting safe conditions at construction sites. In this study, the effectiveness of a new incentive system-the surprising incentive system-was assessed. One year after the implementation of this new incentive system, behavioral changes of employees with respect to seven types of activities were observed. The results of this study showed that there is a significant relationship between the new incentive system and the safety performance of frontline employees. The new incentive system had a greater positive impact in the first 6 months since its implementation. In the long term, however, safety performance experienced a gradual reduction. Based on previous studies, all activities selected in this study are important indicators of the safety conditions at workplaces. However, there is a need for a comprehensive and simple-to-apply tool for assessing frontline employees' safety performance. Shortening the intervals between incentives is more effective in promoting safety performance. The results of this study proved that the surprising incentive would improve the employees' safety performance just in the short term because the surprising value of the incentives dwindle over time. For this reason and to maintain the surprising value of the incentive system, the amount and types of incentives need to be evaluated and modified annually or biannually.

  12. The Importance of Being Profiled: Improving Drug Candidate Safety and Efficacy Using Ion Channel Profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory J. Kaczorowski


    Full Text Available Profiling of putative lead compounds against a representative panel of relevant enzymes, receptors, ion channels and transporters is a pragmatic approach to establish a preliminary view of potential issues that might later hamper development. An early idea of which off-target activities must be minimized can save valuable time and money during the preclinical lead optimization phase if pivotal questions are asked beyond the usual profiling at hERG. The best data for critical evaluation of activity at ion channels is obtained using functional assays, since binding assays cannot detect all interactions and do not provide information on whether the interaction is that of an agonist, antagonist, or allosteric modulator. For ion channels present in human cardiac muscle, depending on the required throughput, manual- or automated- patch-clamp methodologies can be easily used to evaluate compounds individually to accurately reveal any potential liabilities. The issue of expanding screening capacity against a cardiac panel has recently been addressed by developing a series of robust, high-throughput, cell-based counter-screening assays employing fluorescence-based readouts. Similar assay development approaches can be used to configure panels of efficacy assays that can be used to assess selectivity within a family of related ion channels, such as Nav1.X channels. This overview discusses the benefits of in vitro assays, specific decision points where profiling can be of immediate benefit, and highlights the development and validation of patch-clamp and fluorescence-based profiling assays for ion channels.

  13. The feasibility of vacuum technique in minimal invasive surgery : Improving the patient safety through instrument design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonck, D.


    Grasping in minimal invasive surgery (MIS) is conducted with so called laparoscopic graspers. These graspers are generally derivatives of instruments used in open surgery. The performance of these graspers depends on the technical and medical functionality, the skills and experience of the user, the

  14. Surprising Incentive: An Instrument for Promoting Safety Performance of Construction Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhradin Ghasemi


    Conclusion: The results of this study proved that the surprising incentive would improve the employees' safety performance just in the short term because the surprising value of the incentives dwindle over time. For this reason and to maintain the surprising value of the incentive system, the amount and types of incentives need to be evaluated and modified annually or biannually.

  15. Safety of the novel atrial-selective K+-channel blocker AVE0118 in experimental heart failure. (United States)

    Schneider, H-J; Husser, O; Rihm, M; Fredersdorf, S; Birner, C; Dhein, S; Muders, F; Jeron, A; Goegelein, H; Riegger, G A; Luchner, A


    Congestive heart failure (CHF) is often associated with atrial fibrillation. The safety of many antiarrhythmic drugs in CHF is limited by proarrhythmic effects. We aimed to assess the safety of a novel atrial-selective K(+)-channel blocker AVE0118 in CHF compared to a selective (dofetilide) and a non-selective IKr blocker (terfenadine). For the induction of CHF, rabbits (n = 12) underwent rapid right ventricular pacing (330-380 bpm for 30 days). AVE0118 (1 mg/kg) dofetilide (0.02 mg/kg) and terfenadine (2 mg/kg) were administered in baseline (BL) and CHF. A six-lead ECG was continuously recorded digitally for 30 min after each drug administration. At BL, dofetilide and terfenadine significantly prolonged QTc interval (218 +/- 30 ms vs 155 +/- 8 ms, p = 0.001 and 178 +/- 23 ms vs. 153 +/- 12 ms, p = 0.01, respectively) while QTc intervals were constant after administration of AVE0118 (p = n.s.). In CHF, dofetilide and terfenadine caused torsades de pointes and symptomatic bradycardia, respectively, and prolonged QTc interval (178 +/- 30 ms vs. 153 +/- 14 ms, p = 0.02 and 157 +/- 7 ms vs. 147 +/- 10 ms, p = 0.02, respectively) even at reduced dosages, whereas no QTc-prolongation or arrhythmia was observed after full-dose administration of AVE0118. In conclusion, atrial-selective K(+)-channel blockade by AVE0118 appears safe in experimental CHF.

  16. 78 FR 25577 - Safety Zone, Figure Eight Causeway Channel; Figure Eight Island, NC (United States)


    ... support of the fireworks display for a private wedding. This action is necessary to protect the life and... support of a private wedding over the waters of the Figure Eight Causeway Channel. The fireworks will be... private sector of $100,000,000 (adjusted for inflation) or more in any one year. Though this rule will not...

  17. Safety of aquaflor (florfenicol, 50% type a medicated article), administered in feed to channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (United States)

    Gaikowski, Mark P.; Wolf, Jeffery C.; Endris, Richard G.; Gingerich, William H.


    Aquaflor, a feed premix containing the broad spectrum antibacterial agent florfenicol (50% w/w), is being developed for use to control enteric septicemia (ESC) in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus caused by the gram-negative enterobacterium Edwardsiella ictaluri. The recommended dose of Aquaflor to control ESC is 10 mg/kg body weight (BW)/day for 10 days. The study objective was to determine the safety of Aquaflor administered in feed to channel catfish at doses of 0 (control), 10, 30, and 50 mg/kg BW/day for 20 consecutive days. Parameters evaluated included daily mortality, behavioral (appetite, distribution, flight/fright response), and water chemistry observations, initial and terminal weight measurements, and gross and microscopic pathology. Medicated feed consumption was 67-86% of target with group mean doses of 8.5 mg/kg BW/day, 24.6 mg/kg BW/day, and 34.9 mg/kg BW/day. There were no mortalities or clinically observable changes noted at any of the dose levels tested. Aquaflor-related changes were limited to the food consumption and histopathology data. Although Aquaflor-related decreased feed consumption was noted in the 30 and 50 mg/kg BW/day groups, there were no differences in fish growth among the treatment groups. Aquaflor-related histopathology findings were limited to a histomorphologically evident dose-dependent decrease in hematopoietic/lymphopoietic tissue in the anterior kidneys, posterior kidneys, and spleens of channel catfish.

  18. Preliminary safety analysis report for project 89-GEB-610 Plutonium Finishing Plant instrumentation upgrade. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, T.E.


    This document consists of an analysis of the MICON system upgrade. This project shall install a Micon Co. distributed process monitor and control system with Sparc Sun workstation operator interfaces. The Sparc workstations are housed in consoles custom designed to human factors specifications. The distributed control system (DCS) shall have the installed capacity to monitor and control all related instruments and equipment presently connected to the panels in the PFP Power Control Room 321A as listed in the input/output list. This also includes all devices monitored and controlled by the 2736-ZB Allen Bradley programmable logic controller. The system has since assumed the control and monitoring responsibilities for Projects B- 680H ``Low Level Waste Treatment Facility`` and C-031H ``PFP Liquid Effluent Facilities``. Part of the new en`s change area in Building 234-5ZA, Room 712, has been remodeled to house two consoles and one supervisor console. Local control units containing the microprocontrollers and the input/output interface circuit boards shall be wired to the instrumentation and controlled equipment. These units communicate with the Sparc workstations via a redundant data communications highway and shall be strategic, throughout the PFP facility. The DCS has already been purchased from Micon Co., located in Houston Texas, presently on site.

  19. Safety Measurements for Heating of Instruments for Cardiovascular Interventions in Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI - First Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L. Duschka


    Full Text Available Magnetic particle imaging (MPI has emerged as a new imaging method with the potential of delivering images of high spatial and temporal resolutions and free of ionizing radiation. Recent studies demonstrated the feasibility of differentiation between signal-generating and non-signal-generating devices in Magnetic Particle Spectroscopy (MPS and visualization of commercially available catheters and guide-wires in MPI itself. Thus, MPI seems to be a promising imaging tool for cardiovascular interventions. Several commercially available catheters and guide-wires were tested in this study regarding heating. Heating behavior was correlated to the spectra generated by the devices and measured by the MPI. The results indicate that each instrument should be tested separately due to the wide spectrum of measured temperature changes of signal-generating instruments, which is up to 85°C in contrast to non-signal-generating devices. Development of higher temperatures seems to be a limitation for the use of these devices in cardiovascular interventions.

  20. A subglacial meltwater channel system in Marguerite Bay: observations from sediment cores, an underwater ROV and ship-mounted instruments (United States)

    Hogan, Kelly; Dowdeswell, Julian; Bartholomew, Ian; Noormets, Riko; Evans, Jeffrey; Cofaigh, Colm Ó.


    On the western Antarctic Peninsula grounded ice is known to have advanced through Marguerite Bay to a position at the shelf edge during the last glacial. Multibeam bathymetry from Marguerite Trough have revealed streamlined subglacial bedforms along the length of the trough and meltwater features (subglacial basins and channels) in the bay and on the inner to middle continental shelf. The channels are inferred to be subglacial in origin based on the fact that they have sections with negative slope gradients and areas of overdeepening along their thalwegs. We investigate the subglacial channel systems on the continental shelf in several ways. First, we investigate channel origin by analysing a series of sediment cores acquired in the channels and in the flat areas immediately in front of them. Interestingly, the cores record a relatively "normal" Late Pleistocene glacial-postglacial stratigraphy of (glacial) diamicts overlain by (post-glacial) hemipelagic muds and do not sample any waterlain sediments (bedded sands, gravels). Physical parameters from the cores allow us to correlate these facies with sediment cores further out on the continental shelf (cf. Kilfeather et al., 2011) suggesting that ice was grounded in the channel system during the last glacial. Secondly, we investigate channel morphometry using high-resolution multibeam data (gridded surfaces have cell sizes c. 0.4 m) and the medium-resolution multibeam data (grid cell sizes of c. 40 m) from ship-mounted systems; the data are complimented by seafloor photographs taken by the Isis ROV. Integration of the these data reveals that the side slopes of the channels are much steeper than originally thought, with some even being undercut, which will affect estimates of potential meltwater flux through the channel system. Given the incredibly large meltwater fluxes that would be required for continuous flow through the channel system, and the evidence for grounded ice during the last glacial, we consider it

  1. Sodium-NaK engineering handbook. Volume III. Sodium systems, safety, handling, and instrumentation. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foust, O J [ed.


    The handbook is intended for use by present and future designers in the Liquid Metals Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) Program and by the engineering and scientific community performing other type investigation and exprimentation requiring high-temperature sodium and NaK technology. The arrangement of subject matter progresses from a technological discussion of sodium and sodium--potassium alloy (NaK) to discussions of varius categories and uses of hardware in sodium and NaK systems. Emphasis is placed on sodium and NaK as heat-transport media. Sufficient detail is included for basic understanding of sodium and NaK technology and of technical aspects of sodium and NaK components and instrument systems. Information presented is considered adequate for use in feasibility studies and conceptual design, sizing components and systems, developing preliminary component and system descriptions, identifying technological limitations and problem areas, and defining basic constraints and parameters.

  2. Development of the safety regulation technology for digital instrumentation and control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chul Hwan; Ahn, Sang Phil; Yuh, Sang Min; Kang, Yoon Sik; Ahn, Sang Min; Kim, In Su; Kim, Dong Su; Kang, Jin Su [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    A general nuclear power stations desire to continue operating for as long as possible. But, cable in nuclear power stations can be subjected to energetic radiation to various degrees as well as other environmental stimuli. It is of major importance to know how these materials will respond and how any resulting aging phenomena can be monitored. From the point of view of nuclear safety the interest in these cables derives from the fact that they are of vital importance. Many researches on cable condition monitoring have been conducting for many years and various techniques of condition monitoring have been suggested until now. We will develop the combination of CM methods using merits of preliminary methods and CM methods using signal processing technique.

  3. Safety in stigmatizing? Instrumental stigma beliefs and protective sexual behavior in Sub-Saharan Africa. (United States)

    Cort, David A; Tu, Hsin Fei


    How are people's expression of HIV stigma beliefs connected to their own personal decisions concerning safe sexual practices? Does this relationship vary across countries and by the national context in which people reside? To answer these questions, we develop and test individual, contextual, and cross-level interactional hypotheses of the impact of instrumental HIV stigma attitudes on several measures of protective sexual behavior. Using Demographic and Health Survey data from 467,656 unpartnered individuals across 34 sub-Saharan African countries, we first find that counterintuitively, conservative HIV stigma attitudes are associated with lower likelihoods of participating in all types of protective sexual behaviors. Second, this negative relationship is most pronounced in the Southern and Eastern regions of Africa, where HIV prevalence is highest. Together, these findings suggest that stigma beliefs can shape private behaviors in counterintuitive yet important ways that have profound implications for current epidemiological and public health approaches to slowing the spread of HIV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Promoting Safety in Hypnosis: A Clinical Instrument for the Assessment of Alertness. (United States)

    Howard, Hedy A


    Hypnosis has long demonstrated its power to facilitate various approaches to psychotherapy. Like other potent modalities, hypnosis may produce unwanted effects. Although its negative sequelae are usually mild and transient, more serious complications may occur. Recently, attention has been drawn to the powerful role of failures of dehypnosis or alerting/realerting in producing unwanted effects. Traditionally, alerting has been viewed as a relatively uncomplicated process that requires little more than the simple suggestion that the subject will return or awaken from trance, and exiting from trance has generally been considered the cessation of the phenomena suggested during induction and thereafter. Newer findings challenge these assumptions and suggest that restoring the subject to a prehypnotic baseline level of alertness is of equal or greater importance. Here, I describe the Howard Alertness Scale (HAS), with which subjects can be made aware of their baseline levels of alertness to help them understand the unique ways that their trance states differ from their normal alert states, and assess and measure their subjective perception of alertness before and after hypnosis. Furthermore, regular use of the HAS holds potential to enhance both the therapeutic alliance and the patient's sense of safety and mastery. The development and use of the HAS is discussed along with three vignettes illustrating its clinical application.

  5. Perancangan Safety Instrumented System pada Proses Loading PT Pertamina (Persero Refinery Unit VI Balongan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmat Tri widodo


    Full Text Available Salah satu proses yang ada di PT Pertamina (Persero Refinery Unit VI adalah pengiriman crude oil menuju kapal tanker. Proses tersebut disebut dengan proses loading. Terdapat beberapa jenis crude yang dikirim pada proses loading tersebut, diantaranya adalah crude Jatibarang dan Crude DCO. Terdapat beberapa masalah yang kerap terjadi pada proses loading ini. Yang sering terjadi adalah kebocoran offshore pipeline yang biasa disebabkan oleh korosi air laut. Selain itu juga pernah terjadi penyumbatan pipa oleh crude akibat heater yang tidak berfungsi dengan baik. Sampai saat ini safety system yang ada pada proses loading ini hanya sebuah shutdown valve yang dijalankan manual dengan menggunakan hand switch. Sistem tersebut masih belum bisa menangani permasalahan yang ada. Oleh karena itu pada tugas akhir kali ini dilakukan perancangan SIS pada jalur loading PT Pertamina RU VI Balongan yang kemudian disimulasikan pada software Matlab (Simulink. Simulasi dilakukan dengan memberikan manipulasi besar disturbance yang merepresentasikan kebocoran pada offshore pipeline. Berdasarkan simulasi yang dilakukan, didapatkan bahwa SIS dapat berjalan dengan baik karena dapat menghentikan proses dengan menutup ESDV dan mematikan pompa saat keadaan perbedaan tekanan antara ujung-ujung pipa offshore tinggi. Tingginya perbedaan tekanan antar ujung offshore pipeline mengindikasikan terjadinya kebocoran. SIS yang sudah dirancang kemudian dihitung nilai PFDtotal dan diapatkan nilai sebesar 0,085 sehingga rancangan SIS.

  6. Experimental and numerical investigations on the direct contact condensation phenomenon in horizontal flow channels and its implications in nuclear safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceuca, Sabin Cristian [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) gGmbH, Garching (Germany); Laurinavicius, Darius [Lithuanian Energy Institute, Kaunas (Lithuania)


    The complex direct contact condensation phenomenon is investigated in horizontal flow channels both experimentally and numerically with special emphasis on its implications on safety assessment studies. Under certain conditions direct contact condensation can act as the driving force for the water hammer phenomenon with potentially local devastating results, thus posing a threat to the integrity of the affected NPP components. New experimental results of in-depth analysis of the direct contact condensation phenomena obtained in Kaunas at the Lithuanian Energy Institute will be presented. The German system code ATHLET employing for the calculation of the heat transfer coefficient a mechanistic model accounting for two different eddy length scales, combined with the interfacial area transport equation will be assessed against condensation induced water hammer experimental data from the integral thermal-hydraulic experimental facility PMK-2, located at the KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute in Budapest Hungary.

  7. Final Technical Report on Quantifying Dependability Attributes of Software Based Safety Critical Instrumentation and Control Systems in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smidts, Carol [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Huang, Funqun [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Li, Boyuan [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Li, Xiang [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)


    With the current transition from analog to digital instrumentation and control systems in nuclear power plants, the number and variety of software-based systems have significantly increased. The sophisticated nature and increasing complexity of software raises trust in these systems as a significant challenge. The trust placed in a software system is typically termed software dependability. Software dependability analysis faces uncommon challenges since software systems’ characteristics differ from those of hardware systems. The lack of systematic science-based methods for quantifying the dependability attributes in software-based instrumentation as well as control systems in safety critical applications has proved itself to be a significant inhibitor to the expanded use of modern digital technology in the nuclear industry. Dependability refers to the ability of a system to deliver a service that can be trusted. Dependability is commonly considered as a general concept that encompasses different attributes, e.g., reliability, safety, security, availability and maintainability. Dependability research has progressed significantly over the last few decades. For example, various assessment models and/or design approaches have been proposed for software reliability, software availability and software maintainability. Advances have also been made to integrate multiple dependability attributes, e.g., integrating security with other dependability attributes, measuring availability and maintainability, modeling reliability and availability, quantifying reliability and security, exploring the dependencies between security and safety and developing integrated analysis models. However, there is still a lack of understanding of the dependencies between various dependability attributes as a whole and of how such dependencies are formed. To address the need for quantification and give a more objective basis to the review process -- therefore reducing regulatory uncertainty

  8. Safety instrumented systems in the oil and gas industry : Concepts and methods for safety and reliability assessments in design and operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundteigen, Mary Ann


    This thesis proposes new methods and gives new insight to safety and reliability assessments of safety instrumented systems (SISs). These systems play an important role in many industry sectors and are used to detect the onset of hazardous events and mitigate their consequences to humans, the environment, and material assets. The thesis focuses on SIS applications in the oil and gas industry. Here, the SIS must respond to hazardous events such as gas leakages, fires, and over pressurization. Because there are personnel onboard the oil and gas installations, the operations take place in a vulnerable marine environment, and substantial values are associated with the offshore facilities, the reliability of SIS is of great concern to the public, the authorities, and the plant owners. The objective of this project has been to identify some of the key factors that influence the SIS reliability, clarify their effects on reliability, and suggest means to improve the treatment of these factors in safety and reliability assessments in design and operation. The project builds on concepts, methods, and definitions in two key standards for SIS design, construction, and operation: IEC 61508 and IEC 61511. The main contributions from this project are: A product development model that integrates reliability, availability, maintainability, and safety (RAMS) requirements with product development. The contributions have been presented in ten articles, five published in international journals, two submitted for publication, and three presented at conferences and in conference proceedings. The contributions are also directed to the industry and the actors that are involved in SIS design, construction, and operation. Even if the oil and gas industry is the main focus area, the results may be relevant for other industry sectors as well. SIS manufacturers and SIS designers face a large number of requirements from authorities, oil companies, international standards, and so on. At the same


    CERN Multimedia

    Niels Dupont


    CERN Safety rules and Radiation Protection at CMS The CERN Safety rules are defined by the Occupational Health & Safety and Environmental Protection Unit (HSE Unit), CERN’s institutional authority and central Safety organ attached to the Director General. In particular the Radiation Protection group (DGS-RP1) ensures that personnel on the CERN sites and the public are protected from potentially harmful effects of ionising radiation linked to CERN activities. The RP Group fulfils its mandate in collaboration with the CERN departments owning or operating sources of ionising radiation and having the responsibility for Radiation Safety of these sources. The specific responsibilities concerning "Radiation Safety" and "Radiation Protection" are delegated as follows: Radiation Safety is the responsibility of every CERN Department owning radiation sources or using radiation sources put at its disposition. These Departments are in charge of implementing the requi...

  10. 77 FR 36394 - Safety Zone for Fireworks Display, Potomac River, National Harbor Access Channel; Oxon Hill, MD (United States)


    ..., National Harbor Access Channel; Oxon Hill, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule... launched from a floating platform located within the National Harbor Access Channel at Oxon Hill in Prince... River, National Harbor Access Channel, within a 150 yards radius of a fireworks discharge platform in...

  11. 77 FR 56115 - Safety Zone for Fireworks Display, Potomac River, National Harbor Access Channel; Oxon Hill, MD (United States)


    ..., National Harbor Access Channel; Oxon Hill, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule... launched from a floating platform located within the National Harbor Access Channel at Oxon Hill in Prince... Potomac River, National Harbor Access Channel, within a 150 yards radius of a fireworks discharge platform...

  12. Aircraft based four-channel thermal dissociation laser induced fluorescence instrument for simultaneous measurements of NO2, total peroxy nitrate, total alkyl nitrate, and HNO3 (United States)

    Di Carlo, P.; Aruffo, E.; Busilacchio, M.; Giammaria, F.; Dari-Salisburgo, C.; Biancofiore, F.; Visconti, G.; Lee, J.; Moller, S.; Reeves, C. E.; Bauguitte, S.; Forster, G.; Jones, R. L.; Ouyang, B.


    A four-channel thermal dissociation laser induced fluorescence (TD-LIF) instrument has been developed for simultaneous measurements of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), total peroxy nitrate (∑PNs), total alkyl nitrate (∑ANs) and nitric acid (HNO3). NO2 is measured directly by LIF at 532 nm, whereas organic nitrates and nitric acid are thermally dissociated at distinct temperatures in the inlet to form NO2, which is then measured by LIF. The concentrations of each dissociated species are derived by the differences in measured NO2 relative to the reference colder inlet channel. The TD-LIF was adapted to fly on board the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) BAe 146-301 atmospheric research aircraft in summer 2010, and to date has successfully flown in five field campaigns. This paper reports novel improvements in the TD-LIF instrumentations, including (1) the use of a single wavelength laser, which makes the system compact and relatively cheap; (2) the use of a single beam laser that allows easy alignment and optical stability against the vibrational aircraft environment; and (3) the optical assembly of four detection cells that allow simultaneous and fast (time resolution up to 0.1 s) measurements of NO2, ∑PNs, ∑ANs and HNO3. Laboratory-generated mixtures of PNs, ANs and HNO3 in zero air are converted into NO2 and used to fix the dissociation temperatures of each heated inlet to test the selectivity of the instrument and potential interferences due to recombination reactions of the dissociated products. The effectiveness of the TD-LIF was demonstrated during the RONOCO aircraft campaign (summer 2010). A chemiluminescence system that was measuring NO2 and a broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectrometer (BBCEAS) that was measuring one of the PNs (N2O5) were installed on the same aircraft during the campaign. The in-flight intercomparison of the new TD-LIF with the chemiluminescence system for NO2 measurements and the intercomparison between

  13. Combined hERG channel inhibition and disruption of trafficking in drug-induced long QT syndrome by fluoxetine: a case-study in cardiac safety pharmacology. (United States)

    Hancox, J C; Mitcheson, J S


    Drug-induced prolongation of the rate-corrected QT interval (QTCI) on the electrocardiogram occurs as an unwanted effect of diverse clinical and investigational drugs and carries a risk of potentially fatal cardiac arrhythmias. hERG (human ether-à-go-go-related gene) is the gene encoding the alpha-subunit of channels mediating the rapid delayed rectifier K+ current, which plays a vital role in repolarising the ventricles of the heart. Most QTCI prolonging drugs can inhibit the function of recombinant hERG K+ channels, consequently in vitro hERG assays are used widely as front-line screens in cardiac safety-testing of novel chemical entities. In this issue, Rajamani and colleagues report a case of QTCI prolongation with the antidepressant fluoxetine and correlate this with a dual effect of the drug and of its major metabolite norfluoxetine on hERG channels. Both compounds were found to produce an acute inhibition of the hERG channel by pharmacological blockade, but in addition they also were able to disrupt the normal trafficking of hERG protein to the cell membrane. Mutations to a key component of the drug binding site in the S6 region of the channel greatly attenuated channel block, but did not impair disruption of trafficking; this suggests that channel block and drug effects on trafficking were mediated by different mechanisms. These findings add to growing evidence for disruption of hERG channel trafficking as a mechanism for drug-induced long QT syndrome and raise questions as to possible limitations of acute screening methods in the assessment of QTcI prolonging liability of drugs in development.

  14. Structural safety of coolant channel components under excessively high pressure tube diametral expansion rate at garter spring location

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aravind, M. [Reactor Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Sinha, S.K., E-mail: [Reactor Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India)


    Structural safety of coolant channel assembly in the event of high diametral expansion of pressure tube in a 220 MWe pressurised heavy water reactor was investigated using axisymmetric and 3-D finite element models. The axisymmetric analyses were performed and stresses were evaluated for pressure tube, girdle wire and calandria tube at different point of time for diametral expansion rates of 0.2%, 0.25% and 0.3% per year of the pressure tube inside diameter. The results of this study indicated that for the case of 0.3% per year of diametral expansion rate (worst case scenario), occurrence of complete circumferential interference of garter spring with calandria tube at the location of maximum expansion would take place much earlier at around 14 years or 4.2% of the total expansion of pressure tube as opposed to its anticipated design life (30 years). This fact was further corroborated by 3-D finite element analysis performed for the actual assembly configuration under actual loadings. The latter analysis revealed that net section yielding of calandria tube occurs in just 1 year after the occurrence of total circumferential interference between calandria tube and garter spring spacer. It has also been observed that the maximum stress intensity in girdle wire does not increase beyond the ultimate tensile strength even when maximum stress intensity in calandria tube reaches its yield strength. These analyses also revealed that the structural as well as functional integrity of pressure tube and the garter spring is not affected as result of this interference.

  15. Data transmission via erasure type channels protected by linear codes (United States)

    Wacker, H. D.; Pendli, P.; Börcsök, J.


    The paper is concerned with data transmission via channels composed of a memoryless binary symmetric channel and the erasure channel of Peter Elias. Channels of this type play an important role in modelling different types of networks especially wireless networks, and have been investigated using, amongst others, the theory of Markov chains. Channel Capacities and network flows have been determined. The authors focus their interest on some aspects of coding theory. They assume the data transmission to be protected by a linear code, a CRC for example, and determine the probability of undetected error of the code. They then consider redundant transmission via two or more channels with bit inversion, and calculate the probability of undetected error. They prove some inequalities that are useful instruments to estimate the rate of transmission errors and to determine safety integrity levels according to the standards. Finally the authors apply their results to Bluetooth channels suffering from different types of noise.

  16. RHIC instrumentation (United States)

    Shea, T. J.; Witkover, R. L.


    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) consists of two 3.8 km circumference rings utilizing 396 superconducting dipoles and 492 superconducting quadrupoles. Each ring will accelerate approximately 60 bunches of 1011 protons to 250 GeV, or 109 fully stripped gold ions to 100 GeV/nucleon. Commissioning is scheduled for early 1999 with detectors for some of the 6 intersection regions scheduled for initial operation later in the year. The injection line instrumentation includes: 52 beam position monitor (BPM) channels, 56 beam loss monitor (BLM) channels, 5 fast integrating current transformers and 12 video beam profile monitors. The collider ring instrumentation includes: 667 BPM channels, 400 BLM channels, wall current monitors, DC current transformers, ionization profile monitors (IPMs), transverse feedback systems, and resonant Schottky monitors. The use of superconducting magnets affected the beam instrumentation design. The BPM electrodes must function in a cryogenic environment and the BLM system must prevent magnet quenches from either fast or slow losses with widely different rates. RHIC is the first superconducting accelerator to cross transition, requiring close monitoring of beam parameters at this time. High space-charge due to the fully stripped gold ions required the IPM to collect magnetically guided electrons rather than the conventional ions. Since polarized beams will also be accelerated in RHIC, additional constraints were put on the instrumentation. The orbit must be well controlled to minimize depolarizing resonance strengths. Also, the position monitors must accommodate large orbit displacements within the Siberian snakes and spin rotators. The design of the instrumentation will be presented along with results obtained during bench tests, the injection line commissioning, and the first sextant test.

  17. Efficacy and safety of calcium channel blockers in heart failure : Focus on recent trials with second-generation dihydropyridines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, RJM; van Veldhuisen, DJ; Dunselman, PHJM

    Background Chronic heart failure (CHF) has high morbidity and mortality rates despite treatment with angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors, diuretics, and digoxin. Adjunctive-vasodilation through calcium channel blockade has been suggested as potentially useful, However, the first-generation

  18. Evaluation of an in silico cardiac safety assay: using ion channel screening data to predict QT interval changes in the rabbit ventricular wedge. (United States)

    Beattie, Kylie A; Luscombe, Chris; Williams, Geoff; Munoz-Muriedas, Jordi; Gavaghan, David J; Cui, Yi; Mirams, Gary R


    Drugs that prolong the QT interval on the electrocardiogram present a major safety concern for pharmaceutical companies and regulatory agencies. Despite a range of assays performed to assess compound effects on the QT interval, QT prolongation remains a major cause of attrition during compound development. In silico assays could alleviate such problems. In this study we evaluated an in silico method of predicting the results of a rabbit left-ventricular wedge assay. Concentration-effect data were acquired from either: the high-throughput IonWorks/FLIPR; the medium-throughput PatchXpress ion channel assays; or QSAR, a statistical IC50 value prediction model, for hERG, fast sodium, L-type calcium and KCNQ1/minK channels. Drug block of channels was incorporated into a mathematical differential equation model of rabbit ventricular myocyte electrophysiology through modification of the maximal conductance of each channel by a factor dependent on the IC50 value, Hill coefficient and concentration of each compound tested. Simulations were performed and agreement with experimental results, based upon input data from the different assays, was evaluated. The assay was found to be 78% accurate, 72% sensitive and 81% specific when predicting QT prolongation (>10%) using PatchXpress assay data (77 compounds). Similar levels of predictivity were demonstrated using IonWorks/FLIPR data (121 compounds) with 78% accuracy, 73% sensitivity and 80% specificity. QT shortening (<-10%) was predicted with 77% accuracy, 33% sensitivity and 90% specificity using PatchXpress data and 71% accuracy, 42% sensitivity and 81% specificity using IonWorks/FLIPR data. Strong quantitative agreement between simulation and experimental results was also evident. The in silico action potential assay demonstrates good predictive ability, and is suitable for very high-throughput use in early drug development. Adoption of such an assay into cardiovascular safety assessment, integrating ion channel data from

  19. Comparison of AIHA ISO 9001-based occupational health and safety management system guidance document with a manufacturer's occupational health and safety assessment instrument. (United States)

    Dyjack, D T; Levine, S P; Holtshouser, J L; Schork, M A


    Numerous manufacturing and service organizations have integrated or are considering integration of their respective occupational health and safety management and audit systems into the International Organization for Standardization-based (ISO) audit-driven Quality Management Systems (ISO 9000) or Environmental Management Systems (ISO 14000) models. Companies considering one of these options will likely need to identify and evaluate several key factors before embarking on such efforts. The purpose of this article is to identify and address the key factors through a case study approach. Qualitative and quantitative comparisons of the key features of the American Industrial Hygiene Association ISO-9001 harmonized Occupational Health and Safety Management System with The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co. management and audit system were conducted. The comparisons showed that the two management systems and their respective audit protocols, although structured differently, were not substantially statistically dissimilar in content. The authors recommend that future studies continue to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of various audit protocols. Ideally, these studies would identify those audit outcome measures that can be reliably correlated with health and safety performance.

  20. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Schaefer and N. Dupont


      “Safety is the highest priority”: this statement from CERN is endorsed by the CMS management. An interpretation of this statement may bring you to the conclusion that you should stop working in order to avoid risks. If the safety is the priority, work is not! This would be a misunderstanding and misinterpretation. One should understand that “working safely” or “operating safely” is the priority at CERN. CERN personnel are exposed to different hazards on many levels on a daily basis. However, risk analyses and assessments are done in order to limit the number and the gravity of accidents. For example, this process takes place each time you cross the road. The hazard is the moving vehicle, the stake is you and the risk might be the risk of collision between both. The same principle has to be applied during our daily work. In particular, keeping in mind the general principles of prevention defined in the late 1980s. These principles wer...


    CERN Document Server

    M. Plagge, C. Schaefer and N. Dupont


    Fire Safety – Essential for a particle detector The CMS detector is a marvel of high technology, one of the most precise particle measurement devices we have built until now. Of course it has to be protected from external and internal incidents like the ones that can occur from fires. Due to the fire load, the permanent availability of oxygen and the presence of various ignition sources mostly based on electricity this has to be addressed. Starting from the beam pipe towards the magnet coil, the detector is protected by flooding it with pure gaseous nitrogen during operation. The outer shell of CMS, namely the yoke and the muon chambers are then covered by an emergency inertion system also based on nitrogen. To ensure maximum fire safety, all materials used comply with the CERN regulations IS 23 and IS 41 with only a few exceptions. Every piece of the 30-tonne polyethylene shielding is high-density material, borated, boxed within steel and coated with intumescent (a paint that creates a thick co...

  2. Progress of nuclear safety for symbiosis and sustainability advanced digital instrumentation, control and information systems for nuclear power plants

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshikawa, Hidekazu


    This book introduces advanced methods of computational and information systems allowing readers to better understand the state-of-the-art design and implementation technology needed to maintain and enhance the safe operation of nuclear power plants. The subjects dealt with in the book are (i) Full digital instrumentation and control systems and human?machine interface technologies (ii) Risk? monitoring methods for large and? complex? plants (iii) Condition monitors for plant components (iv) Virtual and augmented reality for nuclear power plants and (v) Software reliability verification and val

  3. Effects of Chelidonium majus extracts and major alkaloids on hERG potassium channels and on dog cardiac action potential - a safety approach. (United States)

    Orvos, Péter; Virág, László; Tálosi, László; Hajdú, Zsuzsanna; Csupor, Dezső; Jedlinszki, Nikoletta; Szél, Tamás; Varró, András; Hohmann, Judit


    Chelidonium majus or greater celandine is spread throughout the world, and it is a very common and frequent component of modern phytotherapy. Although C. majus contains alkaloids with remarkable physiological effect, moreover, safety pharmacology properties of this plant are not widely clarified, medications prepared from this plant are often used internally. In our study the inhibitory effects of C. majus herb extracts and alkaloids on hERG potassium current as well as on cardiac action potential were investigated. Our data show that hydroalcoholic extracts of greater celandine and its alkaloids, especially berberine, chelidonine and sanguinarine have a significant hERG potassium channel blocking effect. These extracts and alkaloids also prolong the cardiac action potential in dog ventricular muscle. Therefore these compounds may consequently delay cardiac repolarization, which may result in the prolongation of the QT interval and increase the risk of potentially fatal ventricular arrhythmias. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Safety and efficacy of a Nav1.7 selective sodium channel blocker in patients with trigeminal neuralgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zakrzewska, Joanna M; Palmer, Joanne; Morisset, Valerie


    received open-label, BIIB074 150 mg three times per day, orally, for 21 days. Patients who met at least one response criteria were then randomly assigned (1:1) to BIIB074 or placebo for up to 28 days in a double-blind phase. We used an interactive web response system to assign patients with a computer......, can be administered at therapeutic doses without titration, and has shown good tolerability in healthy individuals in phase 1 studies. We therefore assessed the safety and efficacy of BIIB074 in patients with trigeminal neuralgia in a phase 2a study. METHODS: We did a double-blind, multicentre...

  5. A Digital Correlation Spectrometer Chip with 1 GHz Bandwidth, 4096 Spectral Channels, and 4 W Power Consumption for Passive Microwave Remote Sensing Instruments Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's future Earth-Sun System missions require the rapid development of small, low-cost remote sensing instruments for the analysis of chemical and physical...

  6. Local and integral ulrasonic gauges for two-phase flow instrumentation in nuclear reactor and safety technology. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chochlov, V.N.; Duncev, A.V.; Ivanov, V.V.; Kontelev, V.V.; Melnikov, V.I.; Stoppel, L.K. [Technical State Univ. of Nishny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Prasser, H.M.; Zippe, W.; Zschau, J. [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V. (FZR) (Germany). Inst. fuer Sicherheitsforschung; Zboray, R. [Technische Univ. Delft (Netherlands). Interfacultair Reactor Inst.


    The present project was executed in the frame of a co-operation agreement between FZR and the scientific group of Prof. Melnikov of the technical University of Nishny Novgorod (TUNN) in the Russian Federation. It is part of the Federal Government's programme for the provision of advice for Eastern Europe on the building up of democracy and social market economy (TRANSFORM Programme). New methods of two-phase flow instrumentation were developed: Intrusive wave-guide probes can be used for local void fraction measurements. The new ultrasonic mesh sensors allow a fast two-phase flow visualisation with about 250 frames per second. Experiments carried out at the test loop in Rossendorf, but also the tests at the DESIRE facility in Delft have shown that both local wave-guide probes and ultrasonic mesh sensors can be successfully applied under the conditions of high pressure and temperature steam-water mixture, as well as in organic liquids and refrigerants. Furthermore, non-intrusive wave-guide sensors as well as density sensors based on the measurement of the wave propagation velocity in wave-guides immersed into the measuring liquid were developed and tested. In the present stage of the development, the non-intrusive sensors can rather be used for a qualitative gas respectively level detection than for void fraction measurements. The wave-guide density sensor was successfully demonstrated that it is able to measure densities of single-phase liquids. It requires further development of the electronic circuitry. The main innovation was achieved by the development of the ultrasonic mesh sensor, the resoluting capability of which is comparable to methods like electrical wire-mesh sensors and ultra-fast X-ray tomography, while the device itself is robust and low expensive. (orig.) [German] Das vorliegende Projekt wurde im Rahmen einer Kooperationsvereinbarung zwischen dem Forschungszentrum Rossendorf (FZR) und der wissenschaftlichen Gruppe von Prof. Melnikov von der

  7. The impact of the instrumentation and control systems in the safety of a nuclear plant: a general vision; El impacto de los sistemas de instrumentacion y control en la seguridad de una planta nuclear: una vision general

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celis del Angel, L.; Rivero, T., E-mail: [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)


    One of the fundamental components so much for the sure operation, like in emergency cases or accident are the equipment s and instrumentation and control systems. The nuclear industry has had some accidents where the instrumentation and control have played and important part: a wrong design, instrumentation lack, faulty systems of safety, etc. At the present time the necessity to modernize the instrumentation and control in a nuclear power plant is before the challenge of finding innovative forms to improve the competitiveness and readiness, reducing operation costs without put ing in risk the safety and reliability of the nuclear power plant. Most of the nuclear power plants require actualizing their instrumentation and control systems, here the digital systems represent a great alternative, improving the performance and the safety, increasing the readiness and reducing the maintenance s. However they require of strict tests that allow assuring their application in critical systems. It is also necessary, the development of modernization programs that allow the programmed substitution of the systems without affecting the readiness of the nuclear power plants. During this whole modernization process will be necessary to put special attention in the cyber-safety because the attacks every time they are more elaborated. Therefore will be necessary to go toward the modernization of the instrumentation and control with the challenge of making without detriment some in the safety of the normal operation and with response reliability in emergency conditions or accident that which represents an effort that should not be postponed in the case of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde. (Author)

  8. Use of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 as an adjunct for instrumented posterior arthrodesis in the occipital cervical region: An analysis of safety, efficacy, and dosing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Kojo Hamilton


    Full Text Available Background: There have been few reports on the use of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP-2 in posterior spine. However, no study has investigated the dosing, safety, and efficacy of its use in the posterior atlantoaxial, and/or craniovertebral junction. Recent case report of the cytokine-mediated inflammatory reaction, following off label use of rhBMP-2 as an adjunct for cervical fusion, particularly in complex cases, has increased concern about complications associated with the product. Objective: To assess the safety, efficacy, and dosing of rhBMP-2 as an adjunct for instrumented posterior atlantoaxial and/or craniovertebral junction arthrodesis. Materials and Methods: We included all patients treated by the senior author that included posterior atlantoaxial and/or craniovertebral junction instrumented fusion using rhBMP-2 from 2003 to 2008 with a minimum two year follow-up. Diagnosis, levels fused, rhBMP-2 dose, complications, and fusion were assessed. Results: Twenty three patients with a mean age of 60.9 years (range 4 - 89 years and an average follow-up of 45 months (range 27 to 84 months met inclusion criteria. The indications for surgery included, atlantoaxial instability (n = 16, basilar invagination (n = 6, and kyphoscoliosis (n = 1. The specific pathologic diagnosis included type 2 dens fracture (n = 7, complex C1 and C2 ring fracture (n = 2, chordoma (n = 2, degenerative/osteoporosis (n = 3, rheumatoid disease (n = 8, and pseudogout (n = 1. The average rhBMP-2 dose was 2.38 mg/level, with a total of 76 levels treated (average 3.3 levels, SD= 1.4 levels. There were no complications. During the most recent follow-up, all patients had achieved fusion. Conclusions: In a series of patients with complex pathology and/or rheumatoid arthritis, 100% fusion rate was achieved with adjunct use of rhBMP-2, with a safe and effective average rhBMP-2 dose of 2.38 mg per level.

  9. Design and implementation of a wireless (Bluetooth) four channel bio-instrumentation amplifier and digital data acquisition device with user-selectable gain, frequency, and driven reference. (United States)

    Cosmanescu, Alin; Miller, Benjamin; Magno, Terence; Ahmed, Assad; Kremenic, Ian


    A portable, multi-purpose Bio-instrumentation Amplifier and Data AcQuisition device (BADAQ) capable of measuring and transmitting EMG and EKG signals wirelessly via Bluetooth is designed and implemented. Common topologies for instrumentation amplifiers and filters are used and realized with commercially available, low-voltage, high precision operational amplifiers. An 8-bit PIC microcontroller performs 10-bit analog-to-digital conversion of the amplified and filtered signals and controls a Bluetooth transceiver capable of wirelessly transmitting the data to any Bluetooth enabled device. Electrical isolation between patient/subject, circuitry, and ancillary equipment is achieved by optocoupling components. The design focuses on simplicity, portability, and affordability.

  10. The SPIRIT airborne instrument: a three-channel infrared absorption spectrometer with quantum cascade lasers for in situ atmospheric trace-gas measurements (United States)

    Catoire, Valéry; Robert, Claude; Chartier, Michel; Jacquet, Patrick; Guimbaud, Christophe; Krysztofiak, Gisèle


    An infrared absorption spectrometer called SPIRIT (SPectromètre Infra-Rouge In situ Toute altitude) has been developed for airborne measurements of trace gases in the troposphere. At least three different trace gases can be measured simultaneously every 1.6 s using the coupling of a single Robert multipass optical cell with three Quantum Cascade Lasers (QCLs), easily interchangeable to select species depending on the scientific objectives. Absorptions of the mid-infrared radiations by the species in the cell at reduced pressure (path lengths adjustable up to 167.78 m, are quantified using an HgCdTe photodetector cooled by Stirling cycle. The performances of the instrument are assessed: a linearity with a coefficient of determination R 2 > 0.979 for the instrument response is found for CO, CH4, and NO2 volume mixing ratios under typical tropospheric conditions. In-flight comparisons with calibrated gas mixtures allow to show no instrumental drift correlated with atmospheric pressure and temperature changes (when vertical profiling) and to estimate the overall uncertainties in the measurements of CO, CH4, and NO2 to be 0.9, 22, and 0.5 ppbv, respectively. In-flight precision (1 σ) for these species at 1.6 s sampling is 0.3, 5, and 0.3 ppbv, respectively.

  11. Efficacy and Safety of Rivaroxaban Versus Warfarin in Patients Taking Nondihydropyridine Calcium Channel Blockers for Atrial Fibrillation (from the ROCKET AF Trial). (United States)

    Washam, Jeffrey B; Hellkamp, Anne S; Lokhnygina, Yuliya; Piccini, Jonathan P; Berkowitz, Scott D; Nessel, Christopher C; Becker, Richard C; Breithardt, Günter; Fox, Keith A A; Halperin, Jonathan L; Hankey, Graeme J; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Singer, Daniel E; Patel, Manesh R


    Non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers (non-DHP CCBs) possess combined P-glycoprotein and moderate CYP3A4 inhibition, which may lead to increased exposure of medications that are substrates for these metabolic pathways, such as rivaroxaban. We evaluated the use and outcomes of non-DHP CCBs in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) in Rivaroxaban Once Daily Oral Direct Factor Xa Inhibition Compared with Vitamin K Antagonism for Prevention of Stroke and Embolism Trial in Atrial Fibrillation (ROCKET AF). We assessed clinical outcomes in patients who received non-DHP CCBs and the impact on the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban compared with warfarin. Stroke or noncentral nervous system (CNS) systemic embolism (SE), major or nonmajor clinically relevant (NMCR) bleeding, all-cause death, and major bleeding were compared according to non-DHP CCB use. At randomization, 1,308 patients (9.2%) were taking a non-DHP CCB. They were more likely to be women, have diabetes and COPD, and less likely to have heart failure and had a lower mean CHADS 2 score (3.3 vs 3.5). Non-DHP CCB use was not associated with an increased risk of stroke/non-CNS SE (p = 0.11) or the composite outcome of NMCR or major bleeding (p = 0.087). Non-DHP CCB use was associated with an increased risk of major bleeding (adjusted hazard ratio 1.50, 95% CI 1.11 to 2.04) and intracranial hemorrhage (adjusted hazard ratio 2.84, 95% CI 1.53 to 5.29). No significant difference was observed in the primary efficacy (stroke or non-CNS SE; adjusted interaction p value = 0.38) or safety outcome (NMCR or major bleeding; adjusted interaction p value = 0.14) between rivaroxaban and warfarin with non-DHP CCB use. In conclusion, although the overall use of non-DHP CCBs was associated with an increased risk of major bleeding and intracranial hemorrhage, the use was not associated with a significant change in the safety or efficacy of rivaroxaban compared with warfarin observed in ROCKET AF. Copyright © 2017

  12. Safety concerns for the use of calcium channel blockers in pregnancy for the treatment of spontaneous preterm labour and hypertension: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis. (United States)

    Khan, Khalid; Zamora, Javier; Lamont, Ronald F; Van Geijn Hp, Herman; Svare, Jens; Santos-Jorge, Carlos; Jacquemyn, Yves; Husslein, Peter; Helmer H, Hanns; Dudenhausen, Joachim; Di Renzo, Gian Carlo; Roura, Luis Cabero; Beattie, Bryan


    Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are not licensed for use in pregnancy but are used without robust surveillance to treat hypertension in pregnancy and preterm labour. The objective of this study was to evaluate the fetomaternal safety of CCB in pregnancy by a quantitative systematic review. Medline (1996-2005), EMBASE (1996-2003), BIOSIS (1993-2003), Current contents (1995-2003), DERWENT DRUGFILE (1983-2003) and Cochrane Library (2005: issue 3). The number of women reporting an adverse event was used to compute a percentage of the total number of women in whom the occurrence of that event or confirmation of its absence was reported. Meta-regression with generalised estimation equations modelling explored reasons for heterogeneity, seeking factors that increased the rates of the most commonly reported adverse events. Of 269 relevant reports, including 5607 women, adverse fetomaternal events varied according to the total dose of nifedipine and study design. Adverse events were highest amongst women given more than 60 mg total dose of nifedipine [odds ratio (OR) 3.78, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.27-11.2, p = 0.017] and in reports from case series compared to controlled studies (OR 2.45, 95% CI 1.17-5.15, p = 0.018). Adverse event rates generated from this study provide an evidence base for clinical guidelines and informed patient consent for CCB use in pregnancy.

  13. Safety; Avertissement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This annual report of the Senior Inspector for the Nuclear Safety, analyses the nuclear safety at EDF for the year 1999 and proposes twelve subjects of consideration to progress. Five technical documents are also provided and discussed concerning the nuclear power plants maintenance and safety (thermal fatigue, vibration fatigue, assisted control and instrumentation of the N4 bearing, 1300 MW reactors containment and time of life of power plants). (A.L.B.)

  14. Upgrading a marketing channels role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tišma-Borota Ankica


    Full Text Available As one of the marketing mix instruments, marketing channels were usually behind other instruments (product, price and promotion. Many companies regarded marketing channels as something that was 'left' after more important strategies of price, product and promotion were created. In recent past, things have changed and marketing channels became more interesting for research. This change came as a result of change in global market functioning especially in competitive advantage, distributors' strength and increasing technology.

  15. RF safety assessment of a bilateral four-channel transmit/receive 7 Tesla breast coil: SAR versus tissue temperature limits. (United States)

    Fiedler, Thomas M; Ladd, Mark E; Bitz, Andreas K


    The purpose of this work was to perform an RF safety evaluation for a bilateral four-channel transmit/receive breast coil and to determine the maximum permissible input power for which RF exposure of the subject stays within recommended limits. The safety evaluation was done based on SAR as well as on temperature simulations. In comparison to SAR, temperature is more directly correlated with tissue damage, which allows a more precise safety assessment. The temperature simulations were performed by applying three different blood perfusion models as well as two different ambient temperatures. The goal was to evaluate whether the SAR and temperature distributions correlate inside the human body and whether SAR or temperature is more conservative with respect to the limits specified by the IEC. A simulation model was constructed including coil housing and MR environment. Lumped elements and feed networks were modeled by a network co-simulation. The model was validated by comparison of S-parameters and B1+ maps obtained in an anatomical phantom. Three numerical body models were generated based on 3 Tesla MRI images to conform to the coil housing. SAR calculations were performed and the maximal permissible input power was calculated based on IEC guidelines. Temperature simulations were performed based on the Pennes bioheat equation with the power absorption from the RF simulations as heat source. The blood perfusion was modeled as constant to reflect impaired patients as well as with a linear and exponential temperature-dependent increase to reflect two possible models for healthy subjects. Two ambient temperatures were considered to account for cooling effects from the environment. The simulation model was validated with a mean deviation of 3% between measurement and simulation results. The highest 10 g-averaged SAR was found in lung and muscle tissue on the right side of the upper torso. The maximum permissible input power was calculated to be 17 W. The temperature

  16. Improved Detection System Description and New Method for Accurate Calibration of Micro-Channel Plate Based Instruments and Its Use in the Fast Plasma Investigation on NASA's Magnetospheric MultiScale Mission (United States)

    Gliese, U.; Avanov, L. A.; Barrie, A. C.; Kujawski, J. T.; Mariano, A. J.; Tucker, C. J.; Chornay, D. J.; Cao, N. T.; Gershman, D. J.; Dorelli, J. C.; hide


    The Fast Plasma Investigation (FPI) on NASAs Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) mission employs 16 Dual Electron Spectrometers (DESs) and 16 Dual Ion Spectrometers (DISs) with 4 of each type on each of 4 spacecraft to enable fast (30 ms for electrons; 150 ms for ions) and spatially differentiated measurements of the full 3D particle velocity distributions. This approach presents a new and challenging aspect to the calibration and operation of these instruments on ground and in flight. The response uniformity, the reliability of their calibration and the approach to handling any temporal evolution of these calibrated characteristics all assume enhanced importance in this application, where we attempt to understand the meaning of particle distributions within the ion and electron diffusion regions of magnetically reconnecting plasmas. Traditionally, the micro-channel plate (MCP) based detection systems for electrostatic particle spectrometers have been calibrated using the plateau curve technique. In this, a fixed detection threshold is set. The detection system count rate is then measured as a function of MCP voltage to determine the MCP voltage that ensures the count rate has reached a constant value independent of further variation in the MCP voltage. This is achieved when most of the MCP pulse height distribution (PHD) is located at higher values (larger pulses) than the detection system discrimination threshold. This method is adequate in single-channel detection systems and in multi-channel detection systems with very low crosstalk between channels. However, in dense multi-channel systems, it can be inadequate. Furthermore, it fails to fully describe the behavior of the detection system and individually characterize each of its fundamental parameters. To improve this situation, we have developed a detailed phenomenological description of the detection system, its behavior and its signal, crosstalk and noise sources. Based on this, we have devised a new detection

  17. Safety analyses: the importance of PSA and ZEDB. ZEDB: tool determining plant-specific reliability data; Sicherheitsanalysen, Bedeutung von PSA und ZEDB. ZEDB: Instrument zur Ermittlung anlagenspezifischer Zuverlaessigkeitsdaten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brahmstaedt, Kai-Uwe [E.ON Kernkraft GmbH, Kernkraftwerk Brokdorf (Germany); Schubert, Bernd [Vattenfall Europe Nuclear Energy GmBH, Stoerfall- und Zuverlaessigkeitsanalysen, Anlagentechnik, Hamburg (Germany); Seidel, Andre [VGB Power Tech e.V., Essen (Germany)


    Safety inspections of nuclear power plants under the Atomic Energy Act are regulated, inter alia, in the Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) guideline. These analyses are performed in addition to the safety assessments based, on deterministic principles. In this way, the influence of components, systems, and structures, as well as actions by personnel, on plant behavior in terms of technical safety can be described in a holistic approach and the safety level thus can be assessed quantitatively. Conducting a PSA requires plant-specific reliability data which are determined in the plant in question, but are also collected and stored centrally in the central reliability and event database (ZEDB). (orig.)

  18. The design of the layout of faceted multi-channel electro-optical spatial coordinates measuring instrument for point-like bright objects (United States)

    Repin, Vladislav A.; Gorbunova, Elena V.; Chertov, Aleksandr N.; Korotaev, Valery V.


    For many applied problems it is necessary to obtain information about the situation in a wide angular field in order to measure various parameters of objects: their spatial coordinates, instantaneous velocities, and so on. In this case, one interesting bionic approach can be used - a mosaic (or discrete, otherwise, facet) angular field. Such electro-optical system constructively imitates the visual apparatus of insects: many photodetectors like ommatidia (elements of the facet eye structure) are located on a non-planar surface. Such devices can be used in photogrammetry and aerial photography systems (if the space is sufficient), in the transport sector as vehicle orientation organs, as systems for monitoring in unmanned aerial vehicles, in endoscopy for obtaining comprehensive information on the state of various cavities, in intelligent robotic systems. In this manuscript discusses the advantages and disadvantages of multi-channeled optoelectronic systems with a mosaic angular field, presents possible options for their use, and discusses some of the design procedures performed when developing a layout of a coordinate measuring device.

  19. Application range affected by software failures in safety relevant instrumentation and control systems of nuclear power plants; Auswirkungsbereiche von Softwarefehlern in sicherheitstechnisch wichtigen Einrichtungen von Kernkraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jopen, Manuela; Mbonjo, Herve; Sommer, Dagmar; Ulrich, Birte


    This report presents results that have been developed within a BMUB-funded research project (Promotion Code 3614R01304). The overall objective of this project was to broaden the knowledge base of GRS regarding software failures and their impact in software-based instrumentation and control (I and C) systems. To this end, relevant definitions and terms in standards and publications (DIN, IEEE standards, IAEA standards, NUREG publications) as well as in the German safety requirements for nuclear power plants were analyzed first. In particular, it was found that the term ''software fault'' is defined differently and partly contradictory in the considered literature sources. For this reason, a definition of software fault was developed on the basis of the software life cycle of software-based I and C systems within the framework of this project, which takes into account the various aspects relevant to software faults and their related effects. It turns out that software failures result from latent faults in a software-based control system, which can lead to a non-compliant behavior of a software-based I and C system. Hereby a distinction should be made between programming faults and specification faults. In a further step, operational experience with software failures in software-based I and C systems in nuclear facilities and in nonnuclear sector was investigated. The identified events were analyzed with regard to their cause and impacts and the analysis results were summarized. Based on the developed definition of software failure and on the COMPSIS-classification scheme for events related to software based I and C systems, the COCS-classification scheme was developed to classify events from operating experience with software failures, in which the events are classified according to the criteria ''cause'', ''affected system'', ''impact'' and ''CCF potential''. This

  20. The effectiveness of maritime safety policy instruments from the Finnish maritime experts’ point of view – case Gulf of Finland and prevention of an oil accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jouni Lappalainen


    Full Text Available Sea accidents are aimed to be prevented with an extensive amount of maritime safety regulation. The purpose of this paper is to present the findings of a questionnaire study that was targeted at Finnish maritime experts and addressed the question: how to prevent an oil accident in the Gulf of Finland. This study also includes a literature study about the problems of the current maritime safety regime. The findings of the questionnaire study are compared to the findings of the literature study. The questionnaire study showed that many kinds of policies have improved maritime safety, and they are needed to ensure maritime safety. For instance, ship construction, fairway maintenance, nautical charts and rules of the road at sea can be considered the cornerstones of maritime safety. However, the results ranked voluntary activities of companies as the most effective way to improve maritime safety in the future. Self-regulative approaches could solve some problems connected to more traditional policy-making.

  1. Instrumentation Automation for Concrete Structures. Report 4. Demonstration of Instrumentation Automation Techniques at Beaver Dam, Eureka Springs, Arkansas (United States)


    and Rehabilitation (REMR) reports entitled ’Instrumentation Automation for Concrete Structures .’ As a demonstration installation of the instruments...instrumentation for older concrete structures . Improvement of data acquisition instrumentation and implementation of the benefits of these improvements was of our concrete structures . Keywords: Computers, Crack measurement, Dam safety, Data acquisition, Installation techniques, Instrumentation automation.

  2. Radioisotope instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Cameron, J F; Silverleaf, D J


    International Series of Monographs in Nuclear Energy, Volume 107: Radioisotope Instruments, Part 1 focuses on the design and applications of instruments based on the radiation released by radioactive substances. The book first offers information on the physical basis of radioisotope instruments; technical and economic advantages of radioisotope instruments; and radiation hazard. The manuscript then discusses commercial radioisotope instruments, including radiation sources and detectors, computing and control units, and measuring heads. The text describes the applications of radioisotop

  3. The efficacy and safety of arotinolol combined with a different calcium channel blocker in the treatment of Chinese patients with essential hypertension: a one-year follow-up study. (United States)

    Fang, Hong; Chen, Wei; Liu, Xuan; Xu, Wenjun


    Combined treatment of a calcium antagonist and α/β-adrenoreceptor blocker is expected to offer some advantages in the management of hypertension; however, their antihypertensive efficacy and safety remain relatively under-explored. The current study addresses the 24-h antihypertensive efficacy and safety of arotinolol combined with a different calcium channel blocker. One-hundred fifty-two patients were randomly divided into three groups: nifedipine, amlodipine and felodipine group. In each group, the antihypertensive treatment dose was 30 mg/d, 5 mg/d, 5 mg/d long acting nifedipine, amlodipine, felodipine plus 20 mg/d arotinolol, respectively. Blood pressure was measured in ABPM devices and mercury manometer. The result showed that the effective rate of one year antihypertensive treatment of arotinolol combined with nifedipine was 51 of 53, significantly effective (p  0.05) in controlled rate of morning peak blood pressure between treatment of arotinolol combined with amlodipine and arotinolol combined with nifedipine, but there was a significant difference (p arotinolol combined with nifedipine vs. felodipine and arotinolol combined with amlodipine vs. felodipine. The therapy approached of arotinolol combined with nifedipine or amlodipine could be effective and well-tolerated, and they can be used as the better chosen antihypertensive drug.

  4. Luminescence Instrumentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Mayank; Bøtter-Jensen, Lars


    This chapter gives an introduction to instrumentation for stimulated luminescence studies, with special focus on luminescence dating using the natural dosimeters, quartz and feldspars. The chapter covers basic concepts in luminescence detection, and thermal and optical stimulation, and reference...... irradiation. It then briefly describes development of spectrometers in dating applications, and finally gives an overview of recent development in the field directly linked to novel instrumentation. Contents of Paper...

  5. Instruments of Transformative Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana

    production and distribution channels. PDPs aim at overcoming current market and government failures by pooling resources in the attempt to solve this global social challenge. Thus, PDPs are a case of instruments of transformative research and innovation, operating in a transnational governance context....... They exhibit three novelties: they address strategic long-term problems in a holistic manner, set substantive output-oriented goals, and are implemented through new organizational structures. After characterizing the different types of current PDPs and the context in which they emerged, the paper examines...

  6. MEMS in microfluidic channels.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashby, Carol Iris Hill; Okandan, Murat; Michalske, Terry A.; Sounart, Thomas L.; Matzke, Carolyn M.


    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) comprise a new class of devices that include various forms of sensors and actuators. Recent studies have shown that microscale cantilever structures are able to detect a wide range of chemicals, biomolecules or even single bacterial cells. In this approach, cantilever deflection replaces optical fluorescence detection thereby eliminating complex chemical tagging steps that are difficult to achieve with chip-based architectures. A key challenge to utilizing this new detection scheme is the incorporation of functionalized MEMS structures within complex microfluidic channel architectures. The ability to accomplish this integration is currently limited by the processing approaches used to seal lids on pre-etched microfluidic channels. This report describes Sandia's first construction of MEMS instrumented microfluidic chips, which were fabricated by combining our leading capabilities in MEMS processing with our low-temperature photolithographic method for fabricating microfluidic channels. We have explored in-situ cantilevers and other similar passive MEMS devices as a new approach to directly sense fluid transport, and have successfully monitored local flow rates and viscosities within microfluidic channels. Actuated MEMS structures have also been incorporated into microfluidic channels, and the electrical requirements for actuation in liquids have been quantified with an elegant theory. Electrostatic actuation in water has been accomplished, and a novel technique for monitoring local electrical conductivities has been invented.

  7. Oxygen safety (United States)

    COPD - oxygen safety; Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - oxygen safety; Chronic obstructive airways disease - oxygen safety; Emphysema - oxygen safety; Heart failure - oxygen-safety; Palliative care - oxygen safety; Hospice - oxygen safety

  8. Instrumental Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Valerio


    Full Text Available During the history of human kind, since our first ancestors, tools have represented a mean to reach objectives which might otherwise seemed impossibles. In the called New Economy, where tangibles assets appear to be losing the role as the core element to produce value versus knowledge, tools have kept aside man in his dairy work. In this article, the author's objective is to describe, in a simple manner, the importance of managing the organization's group of tools or instruments (Instrumental Capital. The characteristic conditions of this New Economy, the way Knowledge Management deals with these new conditions and the sub-processes that provide support to the management of Instrumental Capital are described.

  9. Instrumental aspects (United States)

    Qureshi, Navid


    Every neutron scattering experiment requires the choice of a suited neutron diffractometer (or spectrometer in the case of inelastic scattering) with its optimal configuration in order to accomplish the experimental tasks in the most successful way. Most generally, the compromise between the incident neutron flux and the instrumental resolution has to be considered, which is depending on a number of optical devices which are positioned in the neutron beam path. In this chapter the basic instrumental principles of neutron diffraction will be explained. Examples of different types of experiments and their respective expectable results will be shown. Furthermore, the production and use of polarized neutrons will be stressed.

  10. Long-term safety and effectiveness of lubiprostone, a chloride channel (ClC-2) activator, in patients with chronic idiopathic constipation. (United States)

    Lembo, Anthony J; Johanson, John F; Parkman, Henry P; Rao, Satish S; Miner, Philip B; Ueno, Ryuji


    Lubiprostone helps relieve constipation in short-term 4-week studies. There are limited data on long-term pharmacological treatment with lubiprostone for chronic idiopathic constipation. To examine the long-term safety and effectiveness of lubiprostone in patients with chronic idiopathic constipation. In this prospective, multicenter, open-labeled trial, 248 patients aged ≥18 years with chronic idiopathic constipation were directed to take lubiprostone 24 mcg BID as needed for 48 weeks. Patients were allowed to decrease the dose in response to the perceived severity of constipation and need for relief. Hematology and chemistry profiles and assessment of constipation symptoms and its severity were performed at all visits. Adverse events (AEs) were recorded. Of the 248 patients who entered the trial, 127 (51%) completed the trial. A dose reduction was observed in 17% of the patients, resulting in an average study medication exposure across the study of approximately 1.7 capsules (or approximately 40.8 mcg) per day. The most common treatment-related AEs were nausea (19.8%), diarrhea (9.7%), abdominal distension (6.9%), headache (6.9%), and abdominal pain (5.2%). No deaths were reported and of the 16 reported serious AEs, one was considered possibly treatment related. Average changes in serum electrolytes were not clinically relevant at any time point during the study. On average, lubiprostone significantly (p lubiprostone was well tolerated. Bowel symptoms consistently improved over 48 weeks in adult patients with chronic idiopathic constipation.

  11. Proposal of a synchro panel meter instrument to replace the obsolete Synchro/Resolver reading device used as position indicator of safety rods assembly of the Brazilian IEA-R1 Nuclear Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toledo, Fabio de; Brancaccio, Franco; Cardenas, Jose Patricio N., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    IPEN (Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares) was founded in 1956 (as Atomic Energy Institute - IEA) as a facility complex, for the research, development and application, in the nuclear technology field. The institute is recognized as a national leader in nuclear research and development (R and D), including the areas of reactor operation, radiopharmaceuticals, industrial and laboratory applications, materials science and laser technologies and applications. IPEN's main facility is the IEA-R1, nuclear research reactor (NRR), today, the only one in Brazil with a power level suitable for applications in physics, chemistry, biology and engineering. Some radioisotopes are also produced in IEA-R1, for medical and other applications. A common problem faced in the IEA-R1 maintenance is instrumentation obsolescence; spare parts are no more available, because of discontinued production, and an updating program is mandatory, aiming at modernization of old-aged I and C systems. In the presented context, an electronic system is here proposed, as a replacement for the reactor safety (shim) rods assembly position indicator, based on an open-source physical computing platform called Arduino, which includes a simple microcontroller board and a software-code development environment. A mathematical algorithm for the synchro-motor signal processing was developed, and the obtained resolution was better than 1.5%. (author)

  12. Laser instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrera, R.J.; Eagar, T.W.


    An instrument is described for intercepting a carbon dioxide incident laser beam after it has energized a desired surgical target site but before it energizes material adjacent to the surgical target site. The instrument consists of: a substrate means for transmitting energy received from a laser beam away from a surgical target site, the substrate means having a high thermal conductivity and an exterior surface; a coating means for absorbing laser energy at the wavelength of a carbon dioxide laser, the coating means covering substantially the entirety of the exterior surface of the substrate means and having a high absorptivity for energy at the wavelength of the incident laser beam; and, the coating means having thickness which is large enough to provide high absorptivity but small enough to permit absorbed energy to be readily transferred to the high conductivity substrate means, and the thickness of the coating means being not greater than 0.001 inch.

  13. Instrumentation viewpoint


    Sarti, Centro Tecnológico de Vilanova i la Geltrú


    Following our traditional edition line, on this issue our magazine presents the annual summary of the different projects and research activities developed by SARTI research group during 2011. The research projects undertaken by SARTI, in collaboration with other Spanish and international research teams, are linked to the development of instrumentation technology for marine applications, as well as for general industry. SARTI, as research group of the Universitat Politècnica de Cat...

  14. Lubiprostone, a locally acting chloride channel activator, in adult patients with chronic constipation: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging study to evaluate efficacy and safety. (United States)

    Johanson, J F; Ueno, R


    Lubiprostone, a locally acting type-2 chloride channel activator, induces intestinal fluid secretion. To assess efficacy and safety of oral lubiprostone at multiple doses for the treatment of chronic constipation. A total of 129 patients with chronic constipation were randomized to receive lubiprostone (24, 48 or 72 mcg/day) or placebo for 3 weeks. Spontaneous bowel movement (SBM) frequency, rescue medication use, symptom assessments and adverse events (AEs) were tracked. Over the double-blinded period, mean SBM frequencies were higher for lubiprostone groups (5.1-6.1) vs. placebo (3.8) and the overall difference was statistically significant (P = 0.046). SBM frequencies at week 1 were significantly higher in patients taking lubiprostone 48 or 72 mcg/day (P lubiprostone doses yielded significantly higher SBM rates vs. placebo (P lubiprostone 48 and 72 mcg/day also experienced a SBM on the first treatment day (P Lubiprostone improved SBM rates in a dose-dependent manner. AEs were tolerable for most patients. Increased AE severity at 72 mcg/day did not provide a clear risk-to-benefit advantage compared with lubiprostone 48 mcg/day, the dose chosen for subsequent Phase 3 studies.

  15. Instrumentation Cables Test Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muna, Alice Baca [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); LaFleur, Chris Bensdotter [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    A fire at a nuclear power plant (NPP) has the potential to damage structures, systems, and components important to safety, if not promptly detected and suppressed. At Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Plant on March 22, 1975, a fire in the reactor building damaged electrical power and control systems. Damage to instrumentation cables impeded the function of both normal and standby reactor coolant systems, and degraded the operators’ plant monitoring capability. This event resulted in additional NRC involvement with utilities to ensure that NPPs are properly protected from fire as intended by the NRC principle design criteria (i.e., general design criteria 3, Fire Protection). Current guidance and methods for both deterministic and performance based approaches typically make conservative (bounding) assumptions regarding the fire-induced failure modes of instrumentation cables and those failure modes effects on component and system response. Numerous fire testing programs have been conducted in the past to evaluate the failure modes and effects of electrical cables exposed to severe thermal conditions. However, that testing has primarily focused on control circuits with only a limited number of tests performed on instrumentation circuits. In 2001, the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) conducted a series of cable fire tests designed to address specific aspects of the cable failure and circuit fault issues of concern1. The NRC was invited to observe and participate in that program. The NRC sponsored Sandia National Laboratories to support this participation, whom among other things, added a 4-20 mA instrumentation circuit and instrumentation cabling to six of the tests. Although limited, one insight drawn from those instrumentation circuits tests was that the failure characteristics appeared to depend on the cable insulation material. The results showed that for thermoset insulated cables, the instrument reading tended to drift


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Stošić Mihajlović


    Full Text Available Marketing channel is a set of entities and institutions, completion of distribution and marketing activities, attend the efficient and effective networking of producers and consumers. Marketing channels include the total flows of goods, money and information taking place between the institutions in the system of marketing, establishing a connection between them. The functions of the exchange, the physical supply and service activities, inherent in the system of marketing and trade. They represent paths which products and services are moving after the production, which will ultimately end up buying and eating by the user.

  17. Safety and Efficacy of Single-Stage versus 2-Stage Spinal Fusion via Posterior Instrumentation and Anterior Thoracoscopy: A Retrospective Matched-Pair Cohort Study with 247 Consecutive Patients. (United States)

    Viezens, Lennart; Reer, Phillip; Strahl, Andre; Weiser, Lukas; Schroeder, Malte; Beyerlein, Joerg; Schaefer, Christian


    Posterior-anterior spondylodesis is often used to stabilize the spine in various pathologies. The anterior procedure is often performed via thoracoscopy. It is unclear whether the anterior procedure should be performed immediately after posterior instrumentation or after the patient has convalesced. This retrospective study compared perioperative safety and morbidity in 1-stage versus 2-stage posterior-anterior fusion surgery with a thoracoscopic anterior approach. All consecutive patients who underwent surgery for posterior-anterior spinal stabilization from 2006 to 2013 were included. American Society of Anesthesiologists score, preoperative and postoperative laboratory values, operation duration, blood loss, intensive care unit stay, pain, postoperative hospital stay, perioperative complications, and preoperative and postoperative Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group and Frankel scores were assessed. A subset of the cohort was selected by propensity score matching to eliminate possible selection bias. There were 247 patients who underwent 1-stage (n = 104) or 2-stage (n = 143) stabilization with thoracoscopic fusion. Spinal pathologies were fracture, malignancy, pyogenic spondylodiscitis, degenerative spinal disorders, and failed previous surgery. One-stage and 2-stage procedures were similar in terms of preoperative, surgical, and postoperative variables, including complication rates, except that the 1-stage procedure was associated with greater pain 2 days after surgery and shorter hospital stay. The propensity score-matched cohort of 64 pairs yielded similar results with only 1-stage patients showing elevated visual analog scale score on postoperative day 2 (3.8 vs. 2.4, P = 0.043). One-stage stabilization was as safe as 2-stage stabilization and associated with shorter hospitalization. Greater pain after the 1-stage procedure, which resolved 30 days after surgery, reflects the fact that 2-stage patients already had pain relief when they underwent

  18. Design and reliability of a specific instrument to evaluate patient safety for patients with acute myocardial infarction treated in a predefined care track: a retrospective patient record review study in a single tertiary hospital in the Netherlands. (United States)

    Eindhoven, Daniëlle C; Borleffs, C Jan Willem; Dietz, Marlieke F; Schalij, Martin J; Brouwers, Corline; de Bruijne, Martine C


    Numerous studies have shown that a substantial number of patients suffer from adverse events (AEs) as a result of hospital care. However, specific data on AEs in acute cardiac care are scarce. The current manuscript describes the development and validation of a specific instrument to evaluate patient safety of a predefined care track for patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Retrospective patient record review study. A total of 879 hospital admissions treated in a tertiary care centre for an AMI (age 64±12 years, 71% male). In the first phase, the medical records of patients with AMI warranting coronary angiography or coronary intervention were analysed for process deviations. In the second phase, the medical records of these patients were checked for any harm that had occurred which was caused by the healthcare provider or the healthcare organisation (AE) and whether the harm that occurred was preventable. Of all 879 patients included in the analysis, 40% (n=354) had 1 or more process deviation. Of these 354 patients, 116 (33%) had an AE. Patients with AE experienced more process deviations compared with patients without AE (2±1.7 vs 1.5±0.9 process deviations per patient, p=0.005). Inter-rater reliability in assessing a causal relation of healthcare with the origin of an AE showed a κ of 0.67 (95% CI 0.51 to 0.83). This study shows that it is possible to develop a reliable method, which can objectively assess process deviations and the occurrence of AEs in a specified population. This method could be a starting point for developing an electronic tracking system for continuous monitoring in strictly predefined care tracks. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  19. Safety climate and attitude as evaluation measures of organizational safety. (United States)

    Isla Díaz, R; Díaz Cabrera, D


    The main aim of this research is to develop a set of evaluation measures for safety attitudes and safety climate. Specifically it is intended: (a) to test the instruments; (b) to identify the essential dimensions of the safety climate in the airport ground handling companies; (c) to assess the quality of the differences in the safety climate for each company and its relation to the accident rate; (d) to analyse the relationship between attitudes and safety climate; and (e) to evaluate the influences of situational and personal factors on both safety climate and attitude. The study sample consisted of 166 subjects from three airport companies. Specifically, this research was centered on ground handling departments. The factor analysis of the safety climate instrument resulted in six factors which explained 69.8% of the total variance. We found significant differences in safety attitudes and climate in relation to type of enterprise.

  20. Channel Power in Multi-Channel Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.G. Dekimpe (Marnik); B. Skiera (Bernd)


    textabstractIn the literature, little attention has been paid to instances where companies add an Internet channel to their direct channel portfolio. However, actively managing multiple sales channels requires knowing the customers’ channel preferences and the resulting channel power. Two key

  1. Channel Wall Landslides (United States)


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] The multiple landslides in this VIS image occur along a steep channel wall. Note the large impact crater in the context image. The formation of the crater may have initially weakened that area of the surface prior to channel formation. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -2.7, Longitude 324.8 East (35.2 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  2. On Shor's Channel Extension and Constrained Channels (United States)

    Holevo, A. S.; Shirokov, M. E.

    Several equivalent formulations of the additivity conjecture for constrained channels, which formally is substantially stronger than the unconstrained additivity, are given. To this end a characteristic property of the optimal ensemble for such a channel is derived, generalizing the maximal distance property. It is shown that the additivity conjecture for constrained channels holds true for certain nontrivial classes of channels. After giving an algebraic formulation for Shor's channel extension, its main asymptotic property is proved. It is then used to show that additivity for two constrained channels can be reduced to the same problem for unconstrained channels, and hence, ``global'' additivity for channels with arbitrary constraints is equivalent to additivity without constraints.

  3. Criticality safety training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodruff, S.K. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)


    Criticality safety training is an important element of the Plutonium Facility safety program at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Training consists of student self-study handbooks and hands-on performance-based training in a mock-up laboratory containing gloveboxes, trolley conveyor system, and self-monitoring instruments. A 10-minute video tape and lecture was presented to describe how training in this area is conducted.

  4. Printed Electrochemical Instruments for Biosensors


    Beni, Valerio; Nilsson, D.; Arven, P.; Norberg, P.; Gustafsson, G.; Turner, Anthony


    Mobile diagnostics for healthcare, food safety and environmental monitoring, demand a new generation of inexpensive sensing systems suitable for production in high volume. Herein we report on the development of a new disposable electrochemical instrument exploiting the latest advances in printed electronics and printed biosensors. The current system is manufactured under ambient conditions with all interconnections printed; electrochemical measurements and data elaboration are realized by the...

  5. Instrumentation of VISTA test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Seok; Choi, Ki Young; Park, Hyun Sik; Lee, Seong Jae; Park, Chun Kyong; Chung, Moon Ki


    VISTA (Experimental Verification by Integral Simulation of Transients and Accidents) is experimental facility to verify the performance and safety issues of SMART-P(Pilot plant of the System-integrated Modular Advanced Reactor), basic design of which has been completed by KAERI. The present report provide instrumentation details of VISTA in order to improve understanding on the phenomena and to certify the experimental data.

  6. MISR Instrument Data Visualization (United States)

    Nelson, David; Garay, Michael; Diner, David; Thompson, Charles; Hall, Jeffrey; Rheingans, Brian; Mazzoni, Dominic


    The MISR Interactive eXplorer (MINX) software functions both as a general-purpose tool to visualize Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument data, and as a specialized tool to analyze properties of smoke, dust, and volcanic plumes. It includes high-level options to create map views of MISR orbit locations; scrollable, single-camera RGB (red-greenblue) images of MISR level 1B2 (L1B2) radiance data; and animations of the nine MISR camera images that provide a 3D perspective of the scenes that MISR has acquired. NASA Tech Briefs, September 2008 55 The plume height capability provides an accurate estimate of the injection height of plumes that is needed by air quality and climate modelers. MISR provides global high-quality stereo height information, and this program uses that information to perform detailed height retrievals of aerosol plumes. Users can interactively digitize smoke, dust, or volcanic plumes and automatically retrieve heights and winds, and can also archive MISR albedos and aerosol properties, as well as fire power and brightness temperatures associated with smoke plumes derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. Some of the specialized options in MINX enable the user to do other tasks. Users can display plots of top-of-atmosphere bidirectional reflectance factors (BRFs) versus camera-angle for selected pixels. Images and animations can be saved to disk in various formats. Also, users can apply a geometric registration correction to warp camera images when the standard processing correction is inadequate. It is possible to difference the images of two MISR orbits that share a path (identical ground track), as well as to construct pseudo-color images by assigning different combinations of MISR channels (angle or spectral band) to the RGB display channels. This software is an interactive application written in IDL and compiled into an IDL Virtual Machine (VM) ".sav" file.

  7. 24 CFR 232.570 - Endorsement of credit instrument. (United States)


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endorsement of credit instrument. 232.570 Section 232.570 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... of Fire Safety Equipment Eligible Security Instruments § 232.570 Endorsement of credit instrument...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ER-2 Lightning Instrument Package (LIP) consists of 7 rotating vane type electric field sensors and a two channel conductivity probe along with a central...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The TCSP ER-2 Lightning Instrument Package (LIP) consists of 7 rotating vane type electric field sensors and a two channel conductivity probe along with a central...

  10. 75 FR 18755 - Security Zone; Calcasieu River and Ship Channel, LA (United States)


    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zone; Calcasieu River and Ship Channel, LA..., LA. The Coast Guard is also disestablishing the Calcasieu River ship channel moving safety zone and replacing it with a moving security zone. The revised moving security zone extends channel edge to channel...

  11. 33 CFR 100.T05-0443 - Safety Zone; Fireworks Display, Delaware River, New Hope, PA. (United States)


    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.T05-0443... safety zone can be contacted on VHF marine band radio, channels 13 and 16. The Captain of the Port can be... of this safety zone by Marine Safety Radio Broadcast on VHF-FM marine band radio, channel 22 (157.1...

  12. Drug Safety (United States)

    ... over-the-counter drug. The FDA evaluates the safety of a drug by looking at Side effects ... clinical trials The FDA also monitors a drug's safety after approval. For you, drug safety means buying ...

  13. TROPOMI and TROPI: UV/VIS/NIR/SWIR instruments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levelt, P.F.; Oord, G.H.J. van den; Dobber, M.; Eskes, H.; Weele, M. van; Veefkind, P.; Oss, R. van; Aben, I.; Jongma, R.T.; Landgraf, J.; Vries, J. de; Visser, H.


    TROPOMI (Tropospheric Ozone-Monitoring Instrument) is a five-channel UV-VIS-NIR-SWIR non-scanning nadir viewing imaging spectrometer that combines a wide swath (114°) with high spatial resolution (10 × 10 km 2). The instrument heritage consists of GOME on ERS-2, SCIAMACHY on Envisat and, especially,

  14. IOT Overview: IR Instruments (United States)

    Mason, E.

    In this instrument review chapter the calibration plans of ESO IR instruments are presented and briefly reviewed focusing, in particular, on the case of ISAAC, which has been the first IR instrument at VLT and whose calibration plan served as prototype for the coming instruments.

  15. Astronomical Instruments in India (United States)

    Sarma, Sreeramula Rajeswara

    The earliest astronomical instruments used in India were the gnomon and the water clock. In the early seventh century, Brahmagupta described ten types of instruments, which were adopted by all subsequent writers with minor modifications. Contact with Islamic astronomy in the second millennium AD led to a radical change. Sanskrit texts began to lay emphasis on the importance of observational instruments. Exclusive texts on instruments were composed. Islamic instruments like the astrolabe were adopted and some new types of instruments were developed. Production and use of these traditional instruments continued, along with the cultivation of traditional astronomy, up to the end of the nineteenth century.

  16. Health physics instrument manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupton, E.D.


    The purpose of this manual is to provide apprentice health physics surveyors and other operating groups not directly concerned with radiation detection instruments a working knowledge of the radiation detection and measuring instruments in use at the Laboratory. The characteristics and applications of the instruments are given. Portable instruments, stationary instruments, personnel monitoring instruments, sample counters, and miscellaneous instruments are described. Also, information sheets on calibration sources, procedures, and devices are included. Gamma sources, beta sources, alpha sources, neutron sources, special sources, a gamma calibration device for badge dosimeters, and a calibration device for ionization chambers are described. (WHK)

  17. High throughput electrophysiology: new perspectives for ion channel drug discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willumsen, Niels J; Bech, Morten; Olesen, Søren-Peter


    Proper function of ion channels is crucial for all living cells. Ion channel dysfunction may lead to a number of diseases, so-called channelopathies, and a number of common diseases, including epilepsy, arrhythmia, and type II diabetes, are primarily treated by drugs that modulate ion channels...... channel targets accessible for drug screening. Specifically, genuine HTS parallel processing techniques based on arrays of planar silicon chips are being developed, but also lower throughput sequential techniques may be of value in compound screening, lead optimization, and safety screening....... The introduction of new powerful HTS electrophysiological techniques is predicted to cause a revolution in ion channel drug discovery....

  18. The Deep Space Network: A Radio Communications Instrument for Deep Space Exploration (United States)

    Renzetti, N. A.; Stelzried, C. T.; Noreen, G. K.; Slobin, S. D.; Petty, S. M.; Trowbridge, D. L.; Donnelly, H.; Kinman, P. W.; Armstrong, J. W.; Burow, N. A.


    The primary purpose of the Deep Space Network (DSN) is to serve as a communications instrument for deep space exploration, providing communications between the spacecraft and the ground facilities. The uplink communications channel provides instructions or commands to the spacecraft. The downlink communications channel provides command verification and spacecraft engineering and science instrument payload data.

  19. Protecting researchers from instrument biohazards. (United States)

    Hambleton, P; Dedonato, G


    The prevention and control of biohazards arising from the use of laboratory instruments have become increasingly important in clinical and research applications. Centrifuges can be susceptible to contamination because of intense wear on primary containers (specimen tubes and bottles), worn O-ring container seals, or rotors and buckets lacking tight seals. A recent study by the Center for Applied Microbiology and Research, Porton Down, UK, has determined the biological safety of certain rotors in various speed ranges. This paper presents and discusses these findings.

  20. Citizens and service channels: channel choice and channel management implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieterson, Willem Jan


    The arrival of electronic channels in the 1990s has had a huge impact on governmental service delivery. The new channels have led to many new opportunities to improve public service delivery, not only in terms of citizen satisfaction, but also in cost reduction for governmental agencies. However,

  1. Safety excavation; Seguranca em escavacoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Walter Manoel [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    In the construction and maintenance services of buried pipelines, the excavation is the activity that contains larger risk, could cause serious accidents. Norms, procedures and technical articles, national and international goods, should be followed for legal and technical aspects. This paper - Safety in Excavations - has purpose to gather all the technical concepts and of safety in a document denominated Procedure of Safety Excavation, serving as instrument to systematize and control the execution of excavation services in construction civil, assembly and pipelines repairs, seeking the people, facilities and the environment's safety. (author)

  2. Channel nut tool (United States)

    Olson, Marvin


    A method, system, and apparatus for installing channel nuts includes a shank, a handle formed on a first end of a shank, and an end piece with a threaded shaft configured to receive a channel nut formed on the second end of the shaft. The tool can be used to insert or remove a channel nut in a channel framing system and then removed from the channel nut.

  3. 47 CFR 95.29 - Channels available. (United States)


    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO... the duplex mode, the following 467 MHz channels may be used only to transmit communications through a... no more than 5 watts ERP. (g) Fixed stations in GMRS systems authorized before March 18, 1968...

  4. Avionics Instrument Systems Specialist (AFSC 32551). (United States)

    Miller, Lawrence B.; Crowcroft, Robert A.

    This six-volume student text is designed for use by Air Force personnel enrolled in a self-study extension course for avionics instrument systems specialists. Covered in the individual volumes are career field familiarization (career field progression and training, security, occupational safety and health, and career field reference material);…

  5. SAR Simulations & Safety. (United States)

    Fiedler, Thomas M; Ladd, Mark E; Bitz, Andreas K


    At ultra-high fields, the assessment of radiofrequency (RF) safety presents several new challenges compared to low-field systems. Multi-channel RF transmit coils in combination with parallel transmit techniques produce time-dependent and spatially varying power loss densities in the tissue. Further, in ultra-high-field systems, localized field effects can be more pronounced due to a transition from the quasi stationary to the electromagnetic field regime. Consequently, local information on the RF field is required for reliable RF safety assessment as well as for monitoring of RF exposure during MR examinations. Numerical RF and thermal simulations for realistic exposure scenarios with anatomical body models are currently the only practical way to obtain the requisite local information on magnetic and electric field distributions as well as tissue temperature. In this article, safety regulations and the fundamental characteristics of RF field distributions in ultra-high-field systems are reviewed. Numerical methods for computation of RF fields as well as typical requirements for the analysis of realistic multi-channel RF exposure scenarios including anatomical body models are highlighted. In recent years, computation of the local tissue temperature has become of increasing interest, since a more accurate safety assessment is expected because temperature is directly related to tissue damage. Regarding thermal simulation, bio-heat transfer models and approaches for taking into account the physiological response of the human body to RF exposure are discussed. In addition, suitable methods are presented to validate calculated RF and thermal results with measurements. Finally, the concept of generalized simulation-based specific absorption rate (SAR) matrix models is discussed. These models can be incorporated into local SAR monitoring in multi-channel MR systems and allow the design of RF pulses under constraints for local SAR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  6. Instrument Modeling and Synthesis (United States)

    Horner, Andrew B.; Beauchamp, James W.

    During the 1970s and 1980s, before synthesizers based on direct sampling of musical sounds became popular, replicating musical instruments using frequency modulation (FM) or wavetable synthesis was one of the “holy grails” of music synthesis. Synthesizers such as the Yamaha DX7 allowed users great flexibility in mixing and matching sounds, but were notoriously difficult to coerce into producing sounds like those of a given instrument. Instrument design wizards practiced the mysteries of FM instrument design.

  7. The Instrumental Model (United States)

    Yeates, Devin Rodney


    The goal of this dissertation is to enable better predictive models by engaging raw experimental data through the Instrumental Model. The Instrumental Model captures the protocols and procedures of experimental data analysis. The approach is formalized by encoding the Instrumental Model in an XML record. Decoupling the raw experimental data from…

  8. Aeroacoustics of Musical Instruments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fabre, B.; Gilbert, J.; Hirschberg, Abraham; Pelorson, X.


    We are interested in the quality of sound produced by musical instruments and their playability. In wind instruments, a hydrodynamic source of sound is coupled to an acoustic resonator. Linear acoustics can predict the pitch of an instrument. This can significantly reduce the trial-and-error process

  9. [Memory and potassium channels]. (United States)

    Solntseva, E I; Bukanova, Iu V; Skrebitskiĭ, V G


    The K(+)-channels of the surface membrane play a crucial role in the generation of electrical activity of a neuron. There is a large diversity of the K(+)-channels that depends on a great number (over 200) of genes encoding channels proteins. An evolutionary conservation of channel's proteins is determined. The K(+)-channels were found to have a great importance in the memory processes. It was shown on different model systems that K(+)-current of the surface membrane decreases during the learning. The antagonists of K(+)-channels were found to improve the learning and memory. It was revealed in electrophysiological experiments that K(+)-channels antagonists can either themselves induce a long-term synaptic potentiation or intensify the synaptic potentiation induced by a tetanization. The disfunction of K(+)-channels is believed to be an important link in the mechanisms of memory disturbances. In animal mutants with K(+)-channels disfunction, learning and memory are deficient. In behavioral experiments, the use of K(+)-channels openers make the learning worse. Amnesia caused by cerebral ischemia is explained by strong activity of K(+)-channels which not only inhibits neuronal excitement but also causes neurodegeneration. The question on the K(+)-channels involvement into pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease is discussed. Neurotoxic peptide beta-amyloid, which is supposed to be involved into mechanisms of Alzheimer's disease, modulates K(+)-channels function. The effect of beta-amyloid depends on the subtype of K(+)-channels: A-channels are inhibited, and KDR-channels, on the contrary, become stronger. The effect of the cognitive enhancers (vinpocetine, piracetam, tacrine, linopirdine) on K(+)-current also depends on the subtype of K(+)-channels. Slow-inactivating K(+)-currents (IDR, IK(Ca), IM) are inhibited in the presence of these drugs, while fast-in-activating K(+)-current (A-current) remains unchanged or even increases.

  10. Hadamard quantum broadcast channels (United States)

    Wang, Qingle; Das, Siddhartha; Wilde, Mark M.


    We consider three different communication tasks for quantum broadcast channels, and we determine the capacity region of a Hadamard broadcast channel for these various tasks. We define a Hadamard broadcast channel to be such that the channel from the sender to one of the receivers is entanglement-breaking and the channel from the sender to the other receiver is complementary to this one. As such, this channel is a quantum generalization of a degraded broadcast channel, which is well known in classical information theory. The first communication task we consider is classical communication to both receivers, the second is quantum communication to the stronger receiver and classical communication to other, and the third is entanglement-assisted classical communication to the stronger receiver and unassisted classical communication to the other. The structure of a Hadamard broadcast channel plays a critical role in our analysis: The channel to the weaker receiver can be simulated by performing a measurement channel on the stronger receiver's system, followed by a preparation channel. As such, we can incorporate the classical output of the measurement channel as an auxiliary variable and solve all three of the above capacities for Hadamard broadcast channels, in this way avoiding known difficulties associated with quantum auxiliary variables.

  11. Auto Safety (United States)

    ... to Talk to Your Child About the News Gun Safety Too Late for the Flu Vaccine? Eating ... many local health departments, public safety groups, hospitals, law enforcement agencies, and fire departments have technicians or ...

  12. Water Safety (United States)

    ... School Counselors Kidney Stones Brain and Nervous System Water Safety KidsHealth > For Teens > Water Safety Print A ... tied to alcohol use. previous continue At the Water Park OK, so you do more splashing than ...

  13. Safety Plan (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge Safety Plan discusses policies for the safety of the station employees, volunteers, and public. This plan seeks to identify...

  14. Water Safety (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Water Safety KidsHealth / For Parents / Water Safety What's in ... remains your best measure of protection. Making Kids Water Wise It's important to teach your kids proper ...

  15. USACE Navigation Channels 2012 (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This dataset represents both San Francisco and Los Angeles District navigation channel lines. All San Francisco District channel lines were digitized from CAD files...

  16. Calcium channel blocker overdose (United States)

    ... page: // Calcium-channel blocker overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Calcium-channel blockers are a type of medicine used to ...

  17. Performing the Super Instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallionpaa, Maria


    The genre of contemporary classical music has seen significant innovation and research related to new super, hyper, and hybrid instruments, which opens up a vast palette of expressive potential. An increasing number of composers, performers, instrument designers, engineers, and computer programmers...... have become interested in different ways of “supersizing” acoustic instruments in order to open up previously-unheard instrumental sounds. Super instruments vary a great deal but each has a transformative effect on the identity and performance practice of the performing musician. Furthermore, composers...... provides the performer extensive virtuoso capabilities in terms of instrumental range, harmony, timbre, or spatial, textural, acoustic, technical, or technological qualities. The discussion will be illustrated by a composition case study involving augmented musical instrument electromagnetic resonator...

  18. Fire safety (United States)

    Robert H. White; Mark A. Dietenberger


    Fire safety is an important concern in all types of construction. The high level of national concern for fire safety is reflected in limitations and design requirements in building codes. These code requirements are discussed in the context of fire safety design and evaluation in the initial section of this chapter. Since basic data on fire behavior of wood products...

  19. HANARO core channel flow-rate measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Heon Il; Chae, Hee Tae; Im, Don Soon; Kim, Seon Duk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    HANARO core consists of 23 hexagonal flow tubes and 16 cylindrical flow tubes. To get the core flow distribution, we used 6 flow-rate measuring dummy fuel assemblies (instrumented dummy fuel assemblies). The differential pressures were measured and converted to flow-rates using the predetermined relationship between AP and flow-rate for each instrumented dummy fuel assemblies. The flow-rate for the cylindrical flow channels shows +-7% relative errors and that for the hexagonal flow channels shows +-3.5% relative errors. Generally the flow-rates of outer core channels show smaller values compared to those of inner core. The channels near to the core inlet pipe and outlet pipes also show somewhat lower flow-rates. For the lower flow channels, the thermal margin was checked by considering complete linear power histories. From the experimental results, the gap flow-rate was estimated to be 49.4 kg/s (cf. design flow of 50 kg/s). 15 tabs., 9 figs., 10 refs. (Author) .new.

  20. 78 FR 55118 - Seismic Instrumentation for Nuclear Power Plants (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Seismic Instrumentation for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION..., ``Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants: LWR Edition... Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants: LWR Edition'' (SRP, from the current Revision 2 to a...

  1. Channel morphology [Chapter 5 (United States)

    Jonathan W. Long; Alvin L. Medina; Daniel G. Neary


    Channel morphology has become an increasingly important subject for analyzing the health of rivers and associated fish populations, particularly since the popularization of channel classification and assessment methods. Morphological data can help to evaluate the flows of sediment and water that influence aquatic and riparian habitat. Channel classification systems,...

  2. KV7 potassium channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stott, Jennifer B; Jepps, Thomas Andrew; Greenwood, Iain A


    Potassium channels are key regulators of smooth muscle tone, with increases in activity resulting in hyperpolarisation of the cell membrane, which acts to oppose vasoconstriction. Several potassium channels exist within smooth muscle, but the KV7 family of voltage-gated potassium channels have been...

  3. Instrumentation Engineers Handbook (United States)


    concrete -lined, plastic-lined, and fiberglass- reinforced pipes. These are significant enough to either completely scatter the transmitted signal or...9-10 9.3.7 Fibre channel ................................................................................................ 9-10...Ethernet, Fibre Channel, and proprietary data buses and digital interfaces. The old adage that “a picture is worth a thousand words” is applicable

  4. Guidelines for engineering design for process safety

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    .... Key areas to be enhanced in the new edition include inherently safer design, specifically concepts for design of inherently safer unit operations and Safety Instrumented Systems and Layer of Protection Analysis...

  5. Westinghouse Integrated Control and Instrumentation System in Sizewell B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, S.; Bordelon, F. [Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Pennsylvania (United States)


    The Westinghouse supplied control and instrumentation system for the Sizewell B Station in the United Kingdom is the first implementation of the state-of-art digital control technology in an integrated plant-wide protection, control and information system in a nuclear power plant. The system is comprised of four primary functions - control room, data processing and display generation, control and protection, and plant process. The total system is subdivided into two primary system, Primary Protection System (PPS) and Integrated System for Centralized Operation (W-IMCO). PPS is micro-processor based Westinghouse Eagle Series equipment based on 4 redundant channels of measured input, signal processing and conditioning, Trip demands and Engineered Safety Features actuation (Trip/ESA). Witco is comprised of the High Integrity Control System (Hicks), the Process Control System (P/CAS) and the Distributed Computer System (DDS). PPS and W-IMCO are organized in hierarchy to meet the all the functions of measurement, control and Man Machine Interface (Mi) functions for the safe and efficient operation of the plant. The PPS and Witco are based entirely upon well proven Westinghouse I and C products, PPS and Hicks with Eagle Series equipment, P/CAS and DES with Westinghouse-standard Westinghouse Distributed Processor Family (WDPF) equipment. This integrated system approach where the functional design is logically separated from the equipment configuration allowed plant construction, I and C design and manufacturing to proceed in parallel.

  6. Ion channel pharmacology. (United States)

    Camerino, Diana Conte; Tricarico, Domenico; Desaphy, Jean-François


    Because ion channels are involved in many cellular processes, drugs acting on ion channels have long been used for the treatment of many diseases, especially those affecting electrically excitable tissues. The present review discusses the pharmacology of voltage-gated and neurotransmitter-gated ion channels involved in neurologic diseases, with emphasis on neurologic channelopathies. With the discovery of ion channelopathies, the therapeutic value of many basic drugs targeting ion channels has been confirmed. The understanding of the genotype-phenotype relationship has highlighted possible action mechanisms of other empirically used drugs. Moreover, other ion channels have been pinpointed as potential new drug targets. With regards to therapy of channelopathies, experimental investigations of the intimate drug-channel interactions have demonstrated that channel mutations can either increase or decrease affinity for the drug, modifying its potential therapeutic effect. Together with the discovery of channel gene polymorphisms that may affect drug pharmacodynamics, these findings highlight the need for pharmacogenetic research to allow identification of drugs with more specific effects on channel isoforms or mutants, to increase efficacy and reduce side effects. With a greater understanding of channel genetics, structure, and function, together with the identification of novel primary and secondary channelopathies, the number of ion channel drugs for neurologic channelopathies will increase substantially.

  7. Instrumentation a reader

    CERN Document Server

    Pope, P


    This book contains a selection of papers and articles in instrumentation previously pub­ lished in technical periodicals and journals of learned societies. Our selection has been made to illustrate aspects of current practice and applications of instrumentation. The book does not attempt to be encyclopaedic in its coverage of the subject, but to provide some examples of general transduction techniques, of the sensing of particular measurands, of components of instrumentation systems and of instrumentation practice in two very different environments, the food industry and the nuclear power industry. We have made the selection particularly to provide papers appropriate to the study of the Open University course T292 Instrumentation. The papers have been chosen so that the book covers a wide spectrum of instrumentation techniques. Because of this, the book should be of value not only to students of instrumen­ tation, but also to practising engineers and scientists wishing to glean ideas from areas of instrumen...

  8. First Experience with the LHC Cryogenic Instrumentation

    CERN Document Server

    Vauthier, N; Balle, Ch; Casas-Cubillos, J; Ciechanowski, M; Fernandez-Penacoba, G; Fortescue-Beck, E; Gomes, P; Jeanmonod, N; Lopez-Lorente, A; Suraci, A


    The LHC under commissioning at CERN will be the world's largest superconducting accelerator and therefore makes extensive use of cryogenic instruments. These instruments are installed in the tunnel and therefore have to withstand the LHC environment that imposes radiation-tolerant design and construction. Most of the instruments require individual calibration; some of them exhibit several variants as concerns measuring span; all relevant data are therefore stored in an Oracle® database. Those data are used for the various quality assurance procedures defined for installation and commissioning, as well as for generating tables used by the control system to configure automatically the input/output channels. This paper describes the commissioning of the sensors and the corresponding electronics, the first measurement results during the cool-down of one machine sector; it discusses the different encountered problems and their corresponding solutions.

  9. Proceedings of the Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting: Volume 1, Plenary session; Advanced reactor research; advanced control system technology; advanced instrumentation and control hardware; human factors research; probabilistic risk assessment topics; thermal hydraulics; thermal hydraulic research for advanced passive LWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteleone, S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)] [comp.


    This three-volume report contains 90 papers out of the 102 that were presented at the Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, during the week of October 25--27, 1993. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from France, Germany, Japan, Russia, Switzerland, Taiwan, and United Kingdom. The titles of the papers and the names of the authors have been updated and may differ from those that appeared in the final program of the meeting. Individual papers have been cataloged separately. This document, Volume 1 covers the following topics: Advanced Reactor Research; Advanced Instrumentation and Control Hardware; Advanced Control System Technology; Human Factors Research; Probabilistic Risk Assessment Topics; Thermal Hydraulics; and Thermal Hydraulic Research for Advanced Passive Light Water Reactors.

  10. Safety Training: Basic safety courses

    CERN Document Server

    Laetitia Laddada


    Safety Training: Basic safety courses Due to the 50th anniversary events, basic safety courses are cancelled  during  week 43. We remind that in general, courses take place each Tuesday morning in French and Tuesday afternoon in English in Bdg.65-1-003. The duration of the course is 1h30. There are two half day sessions: 9 a.m. and 11 a.m. in French, and 2 p.m. and 4 p.m. in English. Thanks for your  understanding.  SC-DI FORMATION EN SECURITE SAFETY TRAINING Laetitia Laddada 73811 - 79236

  11. Networked Instrumentation Element (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Armstrong researchers have developed a networked instrumentation system that connects modern experimental payloads to existing analog and digital communications...

  12. Ocean Optics Instrumentation Systems (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides instrumentation suites for a wide variety of measurements to characterize the ocean’s optical environment. These packages have been developed to...

  13. Compound Wiretap Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kramer Gerhard


    Full Text Available Abstract This paper considers the compound wiretap channel, which generalizes Wyner's wiretap model to allow the channels to the (legitimate receiver and to the eavesdropper to take a number of possible states. No matter which states occur, the transmitter guarantees that the receiver decodes its message and that the eavesdropper is kept in full ignorance about the message. The compound wiretap channel can also be viewed as a multicast channel with multiple eavesdroppers, in which the transmitter sends information to all receivers and keeps the information secret from all eavesdroppers. For the discrete memoryless channel, lower and upper bounds on the secrecy capacity are derived. The secrecy capacity is established for the degraded channel and the semideterministic channel with one receiver. The parallel Gaussian channel is further studied. The secrecy capacity and the secrecy degree of freedom ( are derived for the degraded case with one receiver. Schemes to achieve the for the case with two receivers and two eavesdroppers are constructed to demonstrate the necessity of a prefix channel in encoder design. Finally, the multi-antenna (i.e., MIMO compound wiretap channel is studied. The secrecy capacity is established for the degraded case and an achievable is given for the general case.

  14. Instrumentation Design and Development Facilities (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — RTTC has facilities for design, development and fabrication of: custominstrumentation, mobile instrumentation, miniaturized instrumentation, wirelessinstrumentation,...

  15. Traffic safety effects of navigation systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, P.J.; Hogema, J.H.; Vonk, T.


    Abstract— To investigate effects of navigation systems on traffic safety, a literature search, a damages database analysis, a user survey and an instrumented car study were conducted. This paper presents the instrumented car study to investigate the effects of a navigation system on driving behavior

  16. Visit safety

    CERN Multimedia


    Experiment areas, offices, workshops: it is possible to have co-workers or friends visit these places.     You already know about the official visits service, the VIP office, and professional visits. But do you know about the safety instruction GSI-OHS1, “Visits on the CERN site”? This is a mandatory General Safety Instruction that was created to assist you in ensuring safety for all your visits, whatever their nature—especially those that are non-official. Questions? The HSE Unit will be happy to answer them. Write to   The HSE Unit

  17. Ariel Spectrometer Instrument Control and Data Processing Software (United States)

    Farina, M.; Galli, E.; Di Giorgio, A. M.; Focardi, M.; Pace, E.; Micela, G.


    The scientific payload of the ESA ARIEL Mission consists in a 1m-class telescope feeding a two channels near infrared spectrometer (covering the wavelength from 1.2 to 7.8 microns at low and medium resolution) and a three channels photometric instrument (bands between 0.5 and 1.2 microns). An Instrument Control Unit (ICU) implements the commanding and control of the ARIEL Spectrometer (AIRS). To maximize the overall instrument scientific return, it is important to have an efficient and effective onboard software system implementing both the instrument functionalities control and the necessary onboard data preprocessing activities. This contribution describes the preliminary high level architecture of the ICU control and data processing software.

  18. Sterilization of endoscopic instruments. (United States)

    Sabnis, Ravindra B; Bhattu, Amit; Vijaykumar, Mohankumar


    Sterilization of endoscopic instruments is an important but often ignored topic. The purpose of this article is to review the current literature on the sterilization of endoscopic instruments and elaborate on the appropriate sterilization practices. Autoclaving is an economic and excellent method of sterilizing the instruments that are not heat sensitive. Heat sensitive instruments may get damaged with hot sterilization methods. Several new endoscopic instruments such as flexible ureteroscopes, chip on tip endoscopes, are added in urologists armamentarium. Many of these instruments are heat sensitive and hence alternative efficacious methods of sterilization are necessary. Although ethylene oxide and hydrogen peroxide are excellent methods of sterilization, they have some drawbacks. Gamma irradiation is mainly for disposable items. Various chemical agents are widely used even though they achieve high-level disinfection rather than sterilization. This article reviews various methods of endoscopic instrument sterilization with their advantages and drawbacks. If appropriate sterilization methods are adopted, then it not only will protect patients from procedure-related infections but prevent hypersensitive allergic reactions. It will also protect instruments from damage and increase its longevity.

  19. Creating a Super Instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallionpää, Maria; Gasselseder, Hans-Peter


    traditionally been dependent on their existing instrumental skills, various technological solutions can be used to reach beyond them. This paper focuses on the possibilities of enhancing composers' and performing pianists' technical and expressive vocabulary in the context of electroacoustic super instrument...

  20. The Neural Noisy Channel


    Yu, Lei; Blunsom, Phil; Dyer, Chris; Grefenstette, Edward; Kocisky, Tomas


    We formulate sequence to sequence transduction as a noisy channel decoding problem and use recurrent neural networks to parameterise the source and channel models. Unlike direct models which can suffer from explaining-away effects during training, noisy channel models must produce outputs that explain their inputs, and their component models can be trained with not only paired training samples but also unpaired samples from the marginal output distribution. Using a latent variable to control ...

  1. A simple quantum channel having superadditivity of channel capacity


    Sasaki, Masahide; Kato, Kentaro; Izutsu, Masayuki; Hirota, Osamu


    When classical information is sent through a quantum channel of nonorthogonal states, there is a possibility that transmittable classical information exceeds a channel capacity in a single use of the initial channel by extending it into multi-product channel. In this paper, it is shown that this remarkable feature of a quantum channel, so-called superadditivity, appears even in as low as the third extended coding of the simplest binary input channel. A physical implementation of this channel ...

  2. TRP channels in schistosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swarna Bais


    Full Text Available Praziquantel (PZQ is effectively the only drug currently available for treatment and control of schistosomiasis, a disease affecting hundreds of millions of people worldwide. Many anthelmintics, likely including PZQ, target ion channels, membrane protein complexes essential for normal functioning of the neuromusculature and other tissues. Despite this fact, only a few classes of parasitic helminth ion channels have been assessed for their pharmacological properties or for their roles in parasite physiology. One such overlooked group of ion channels is the transient receptor potential (TRP channel superfamily. TRP channels share a common core structure, but are widely diverse in their activation mechanisms and ion selectivity. They are critical to transducing sensory signals, responding to a wide range of external stimuli. They are also involved in other functions, such as regulating intracellular calcium and organellar ion homeostasis and trafficking. Here, we review current literature on parasitic helminth TRP channels, focusing on those in schistosomes. We discuss the likely roles of these channels in sensory and locomotor activity, including the possible significance of a class of TRP channels (TRPV that is absent in schistosomes. We also focus on evidence indicating that at least one schistosome TRP channel (SmTRPA has atypical, TRPV1-like pharmacological sensitivities that could potentially be exploited for future therapeutic targeting.

  3. Advanced Concepts for Underwater Acoustic Channel Modeling (United States)

    Etter, P. C.; Haas, C. H.; Ramani, D. V.


    This paper examines nearshore underwater-acoustic channel modeling concepts and compares channel-state information requirements against existing modeling capabilities. This process defines a subset of candidate acoustic models suitable for simulating signal propagation in underwater communications. Underwater-acoustic communications find many practical applications in coastal oceanography, and networking is the enabling technology for these applications. Such networks can be formed by establishing two-way acoustic links between autonomous underwater vehicles and moored oceanographic sensors. These networks can be connected to a surface unit for further data transfer to ships, satellites, or shore stations via a radio-frequency link. This configuration establishes an interactive environment in which researchers can extract real-time data from multiple, but distant, underwater instruments. After evaluating the obtained data, control messages can be sent back to individual instruments to adapt the networks to changing situations. Underwater networks can also be used to increase the operating ranges of autonomous underwater vehicles by hopping the control and data messages through networks that cover large areas. A model of the ocean medium between acoustic sources and receivers is called a channel model. In an oceanic channel, characteristics of the acoustic signals change as they travel from transmitters to receivers. These characteristics depend upon the acoustic frequency, the distances between sources and receivers, the paths followed by the signals, and the prevailing ocean environment in the vicinity of the paths. Properties of the received signals can be derived from those of the transmitted signals using these channel models. This study concludes that ray-theory models are best suited to the simulation of acoustic signal propagation in oceanic channels and identifies 33 such models that are eligible candidates.

  4. Thermal–hydraulic characteristics for CANFLEX fuel channel using burnable poison in CANDU reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ho Bae


    Full Text Available The thermal–hydraulic characteristics for the CANadian Deuterium Uranium Flexible (CANFLEX-burnable poison (BP fuel channel, which is loaded with a BP at the center ring based on the CANFLEX-RU (recycled uranium fuel channel, are evaluated and compared with that of standard 37-element and CANFLEX-NU (natural uranium fuel channels. The distributions of fuel temperature and critical channel power for the CANFLEX-BP fuel channel are calculated using the NUclear Heat Transport CIRcuit Thermohydraulics Analysis Code (NUCIRC code for various creep rate and burnup. CANFLEX-BP fuel channel has been revealed to have a lower fuel temperature compared with that of a standard 37-element fuel channel, especially for high power channels. The critical channel power of CANFLEX-BP fuel channel has increased by about 10%, relative to that of a standard 37-element fuel channel for 380 channels in a core, and has higher value relative to that of the CANFLEX-NU fuel channel except the channels in the outer core. This study has shown that the use of a BP is feasible to enhance the thermal performance by the axial heat flux distribution, as well as the improvement of the reactor physical safety characteristics, and thus the reactor safety can be improved by the use of BP in a CANDU reactor.

  5. Instrumentation, Control, and Intelligent Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Abundant and affordable energy is required for U.S. economic stability and national security. Advanced nuclear power plants offer the best near-term potential to generate abundant, affordable, and sustainable electricity and hydrogen without appreciable generation of greenhouse gases. To that end, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been charged with leading the revitalization of nuclear power in the U.S. The INL vision is to become the preeminent nuclear energy laboratory with synergistic, world-class, multi-program capabilities and partnerships by 2015. The vision focuses on four essential destinations: (1) Be the preeminent internationally-recognized nuclear energy research, development, and demonstration laboratory; (2) Be a major center for national security technology development and demonstration; (3) Be a multi-program national laboratory with world-class capabilities; (4) Foster academic, industry, government, and international collaborations to produce the needed investment, programs, and expertise. Crucial to that effort is the inclusion of research in advanced instrumentation, control, and intelligent systems (ICIS) for use in current and advanced power and energy security systems to enable increased performance, reliability, security, and safety. For nuclear energy plants, ICIS will extend the lifetime of power plant systems, increase performance and power output, and ensure reliable operation within the system's safety margin; for national security applications, ICIS will enable increased protection of our nation's critical infrastructure. In general, ICIS will cost-effectively increase performance for all energy security systems.

  6. Instrumentation reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Boyes, Walt


    Instrumentation is not a clearly defined subject, having a 'fuzzy' boundary with a number of other disciplines. Often categorized as either 'techniques' or 'applications' this book addresses the various applications that may be needed with reference to the practical techniques that are available for the instrumentation or measurement of a specific physical quantity or quality. This makes it of direct interest to anyone working in the process, control and instrumentation fields where these measurements are essential.* Comprehensive and authoritative collection of technical information* Writte

  7. The safety attitudes questionnaire - Ambulatory version: Psychometric properties of the Norwegian translated version for the primary care setting


    Bondevik, Gunnar Tschudi; Hofoss, Dag; Hansen, Elisabeth Holm; Deilkås, Ellen C Tveter


    Background Patient safety culture is how leader and staff interaction, attitudes, routines and practices protect patients from adverse events in healthcare. The Safety Attitudes Questionnaire is the most widely used instrument to measure safety attitudes among health care providers. The instrument may identify possible weaknesses in clinical settings, and motivate and guide quality improvement interventions and reductions in medical errors. The Safety Attitudes Questionnair...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Alibekov


    Full Text Available The dependence of the apparent location of the hydraulic parameters of parabolic channels in earthen channel and volume of dredging required in their design and construction, on the basis of conditions to ensure the stability of the slope at the maximum water flow rate. 

  9. Carbon Footprint Reduction Instruments (United States)

    This page outlines the major differences between Renewable Energy Certificates (REC) and Project Offsets and what types of claims each instrument allows the organization to make in regards to environmental emissions claims.

  10. Fiber Optics Instrumentation Development (United States)

    Chan, Patrick Hon Man; Parker, Allen R., Jr.; Richards, W. Lance


    This is a general presentation of fiber optics instrumentation development work being conducted at NASA Dryden for the past 10 years and recent achievements in the field of fiber optics strain sensors.

  11. Ultrasound physics and instrumentation. (United States)

    Case, T D


    A knowledge of the principles of ultrasound physics and instrumentation allows the surgeon to maintain proper ultrasound techniques and obtain the best possible image. Furthermore, when these principles are understood, artifacts and pitfalls of imaging are avoided.

  12. Medical instruments in museums

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Söderqvist, Thomas; Arnold, Ken


    This essay proposes that our understanding of medical instruments might benefit from adding a more forthright concern with their immediate presence to the current historical focus on simply decoding their meanings and context. This approach is applied to the intriguingly tricky question of what a...... actually is meant by a "medical instrument." It is suggested that a pragmatic part of the answer might lie simply in reconsidering the holdings of medical museums, where the significance of the physical actuality of instruments comes readily to hand.......This essay proposes that our understanding of medical instruments might benefit from adding a more forthright concern with their immediate presence to the current historical focus on simply decoding their meanings and context. This approach is applied to the intriguingly tricky question of what...

  13. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from the PELAGIA in the English Channel, North Atlantic Ocean and others from 2001-08-18 to 2002-05-25 (NODC Accession 0112844) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112844 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from PELAGIA in the English Channel, North Atlantic Ocean, North Sea,...

  14. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from the PELAGIA in the English Channel, North Atlantic Ocean and others from 2001-08-18 to 2002-05-25 (NODC Accession 0112843) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112843 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from PELAGIA in the English Channel, North Atlantic Ocean, North Sea,...

  15. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from MN COLIBRI in the English Channel and North Atlantic Ocean from 2016-01-07 to 2016-05-30 (NCEI Accession 0160554) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0160554 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from MN COLIBRI in the English Channel and North Atlantic...

  16. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from RIO BLANCO in the English Channel, Mediterranean Sea and others from 2009-12-13 to 2010-12-14 (NODC Accession 0117291) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0117291 includes Surface underway data collected from RIO BLANCO in the English Channel, Mediterranean Sea, North Atlantic Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean...

  17. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the METEOR in the English Channel, Indian Ocean and others from 1994-10-12 to 1994-11-12 (NODC Accession 0115605) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115605 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from METEOR in the English Channel, Indian Ocean, North...

  18. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from MIRAI in the Indian Ocean, Mozambique Channel and South Atlantic Ocean from 2003-12-09 to 2004-01-24 (NCEI Accession 0144250) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144250 includes Surface underway data collected from MIRAI in the Indian Ocean, Mozambique Channel and South Atlantic Ocean from 2003-12-09 to...

  19. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from OOCL Tianjin in the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary, East China Sea and others from 2008-09-19 to 2010-02-21 (NODC Accession 0081039) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0081039 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from OOCL Tianjin in the Channel Islands National Marine...

  20. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from the PRIDE OF BILBAO in the Bay of Biscay, English Channel and North Atlantic Ocean from 2005-09-26 to 2010-09-16 (NODC Accession 0108092) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108092 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from PRIDE OF BILBAO in the Bay of Biscay, English Channel and North...

  1. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from DISCOVERY in the English Channel, Inner Sea - West Coast Scotland and others from 2011-06-06 to 2011-07-09 (NCEI Accession 0157451) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157451 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from DISCOVERY in the English Channel, Inner Sea - West Coast...

  2. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from Santa Cruz in the English Channel, North Atlantic Ocean and others from 2014-01-17 to 2014-02-28 (NCEI Accession 0157404) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157404 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from Santa Cruz in the English Channel, North Atlantic Ocean,...

  3. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from MN COLIBRI in the English Channel and North Atlantic Ocean from 2011-01-07 to 2011-01-17 (NCEI Accession 0157367) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157367 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from MN COLIBRI in the English Channel and North Atlantic...

  4. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from MN COLIBRI in the Alboran Sea, English Channel and others from 2010-03-30 to 2011-01-02 (NCEI Accession 0157320) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157320 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from MN COLIBRI in the Alboran Sea, English Channel, Ligurian...

  5. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from Cap San Lorenzo in the English Channel, Mediterranean Sea and others from 2014-11-15 to 2014-11-19 (NCEI Accession 0157277) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157277 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from Cap San Lorenzo in the English Channel, Mediterranean...

  6. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from Cap San Lorenzo in the English Channel, Mediterranean Sea and others from 2015-02-28 to 2015-12-16 (NCEI Accession 0157377) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157377 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from Cap San Lorenzo in the English Channel, Mediterranean...

  7. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from MN COLIBRI in the English Channel and North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-07-04 to 2014-11-04 (NCEI Accession 0157355) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157355 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from MN COLIBRI in the English Channel and North Atlantic...

  8. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from MIRAI in the Indian Ocean and Mozambique Channel from 2003-12-09 to 2004-01-24 (NODC Accession 0108101) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0108101 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from MIRAI in the Indian Ocean and Mozambique Channel from 2003-12-09 to 2004-01-24. These...

  9. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from NOAA Ship DAVID STARR JORDAN in the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary, Cordell Bank National Marine Sanctuary and others from 2007-07-25 to 2007-10-28 (NCEI Accession 0144352) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144352 includes Surface underway data collected from NOAA Ship DAVID STARR JORDAN in the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary, Cordell Bank...

  10. Nuclear Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, E G [ed.


    This document is a review journal that covers significant developments in the field of nuclear safety. Its scope includes the analysis and control of hazards associated with nuclear energy, operations involving fissionable materials, and the products of nuclear fission and their effects on the environment. Primary emphasis is on safety in reactor design, construction, and operation; however, the safety aspects of the entire fuel cycle, including fuel fabrication, spent-fuel processing, nuclear waste disposal, handling of radioisotopes, and environmental effects of these operations, are also treated.

  11. Modeling of Musical Instruments (United States)

    Bader, Rolf; Hansen, Uwe

    Signal processing techniques in acoustics address many concerns. Included are such things as wave propagation variables, amplitude considerations, spectral content, wavelength, and phase. Phase is primarily of concern when waves interact with each other, as well as with a medium, and the imposition of boundary conditions leads to normal mode vibrations. Such conditions are prevalent in all musical instruments, and thus relevant signal processing techniques are essential to both understanding and modeling the structure of musical instruments and the sound radiated.

  12. Cl- channels in apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanitchakool, Podchanart; Ousingsawat, Jiraporn; Sirianant, Lalida


    A remarkable feature of apoptosis is the initial massive cell shrinkage, which requires opening of ion channels to allow release of K(+), Cl(-), and organic osmolytes to drive osmotic water movement and cell shrinkage. This article focuses on the role of the Cl(-) channels LRRC8, TMEM16/anoctamin......, and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) in cellular apoptosis. LRRC8A-E has been identified as a volume-regulated anion channel expressed in many cell types. It was shown to be required for regulatory and apoptotic volume decrease (RVD, AVD) in cultured cell lines. Its presence also......(-) channels or as regulators of other apoptotic Cl(-) channels, such as LRRC8. CFTR has been known for its proapoptotic effects for some time, and this effect may be based on glutathione release from the cell and increase in cytosolic reactive oxygen species (ROS). Although we find that CFTR is activated...

  13. Cardiac potassium channel subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, Nicole; Grunnet, Morten; Olesen, Søren-Peter


    About 10 distinct potassium channels in the heart are involved in shaping the action potential. Some of the K(+) channels are primarily responsible for early repolarization, whereas others drive late repolarization and still others are open throughout the cardiac cycle. Three main K(+) channels...... drive the late repolarization of the ventricle with some redundancy, and in atria this repolarization reserve is supplemented by the fairly atrial-specific KV1.5, Kir3, KCa, and K2P channels. The role of the latter two subtypes in atria is currently being clarified, and several findings indicate...... that they could constitute targets for new pharmacological treatment of atrial fibrillation. The interplay between the different K(+) channel subtypes in both atria and ventricle is dynamic, and a significant up- and downregulation occurs in disease states such as atrial fibrillation or heart failure...

  14. Athermalized channeled spectropolarimeter enhancement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Julia Craven; Way, Brandyn Michael; Mercier, Jeffrey Alan; Hunt, Jeffery P.


    Channeled spectropolarimetry can measure the complete polarization state of light as a function of wavelength. Typically, a channeled spectropolarimeter uses high order retarders made of uniaxial crystal to amplitude modulate the measured spectrum with the spectrally-dependent Stokes polarization information. A primary limitation of conventional channeled spectropolarimeters is related to the thermal variability of the retarders. Thermal variation often forces frequent system recalibration, particularly for field deployed systems. However, implementing thermally stable retarders, made of biaxial crystal, results in an athermal channeled spectropolarimeter that relieves the need for frequent recalibration. This report presents experimental results for an anthermalized channeled spectropolarimeter prototype produced using potassium titanyl phosphate. The results of this prototype are compared to the current thermal stabilization state of the art. Finally, the application of the technique to the thermal infrared is studied, and the athermalization concept is applied to an infrared imaging spectropolarimeter design.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    A method includes determining a sequence of first coefficient estimates of a communication channel based on a sequence of pilots arranged according to a known pilot pattern and based on a receive signal, wherein the receive signal is based on the sequence of pilots transmitted over the communicat......A method includes determining a sequence of first coefficient estimates of a communication channel based on a sequence of pilots arranged according to a known pilot pattern and based on a receive signal, wherein the receive signal is based on the sequence of pilots transmitted over...... the communication channel. The method further includes determining a sequence of second coefficient estimates of the communication channel based on a decomposition of the first coefficient estimates in a dictionary matrix and a sparse vector of the second coefficient estimates, the dictionary matrix including...... filter characteristics of at least one known transceiver filter arranged in the communication channel....

  16. Extreme bosonic linear channels (United States)

    Holevo, A. S.


    The set of all channels with a fixed input and output is convex. We first give a convenient formulation of the necessary and sufficient condition for a channel to be an extreme point of this set in terms of the complementary channel, a notion of great importance in quantum information theory. This formulation is based on the general approach to extremality of completely positive maps in an operator algebra in the spirit of Arveson. We then use this formulation to prove our main result: under certain nondegeneracy conditions, environmental purity is necessary and sufficient for the extremality of a bosonic linear (quasifree) channel. It hence follows that a Gaussian channel between finite-mode bosonic systems is extreme if and only if it has minimum noise.

  17. The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Microwave Imager (GMI) Instrument: Role, Performance, and Status

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bidwell, S. W; Flaming, G. M; Durning, J. F; Smith, E. A


    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Microwave Imager (GMI) instrument is a multi-channel, conical-scanning, microwave radiometer serving an essential role in the near-global-coverage and frequent-revisit-time requirements of GPM...

  18. Future of radiological instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, A.C.


    Future trends in the development of radiation protection instrumentation can be expected to be closely related to current trends in political and social activity that drive legislation, rule-making, and standard practice, with assistance provided by trends in material and electronic technology. Wide-range performance will be emphasized to arm the daily worker with instruments that routinely log background rates and, at the same time, are prepared to measure accident rates. Separate and simultaneous accumulation of data from several sensors to ensure complete coverage of the radiation types will be common. Mathematical manipulation of data will provide for summary data logging and, in some cases, solutions to integral equations to provide corrections to experimental data. Instruments will become more reliable by way of self-checking and correction. Miniaturization and large-scale integration of measuring instruments will provide some instrumentation for the people at large. To be effective, the instruments will necessarily cover a wide range and be very reliable. The net result of these several trends will provide for a widespread understanding of radiation protection and an implementation of as low as reasonably achievable among large segments of the population.

  19. [The instrument for thermography]. (United States)

    Hamaguchi, Shinsuke


    Thermography is an imaging method using the instrument to detect infrared rays emitted from the body surface, and to plot them as a distribution diagram of the temperature information. Therefore, a thermographic instrument can be assumed to measure the skin temperature of the diseased region. Such an instrument is a useful device for noninvasive and objective assessment of various diseases. Examination using a thermographic instrument can assess the autonomic dysfunction by measuring the skin blood flow involved with the sympathetic innervation. Thermography is useful in assisting the determination of the therapeutic effect. However, autonomic dysfunction should be confirmed correctly with the assessment of thermatome that shows abnormal thermal distribution in the region of the disease. Thermography should make noticeable the difference between the body temperature of abnormal and normal sites, and show the alteration of temperature. Monitoring using thermography is useful to determine the effect of sympathetic nerve block. If a thermographic instrument is used, it is important that examiners should understand the function of the instrument, as well as its advantages and disadvantages.

  20. Safety and Efficacy of a Topical Sodium Channel Inhibitor (TV-45070) in Patients With Postherpetic Neuralgia (PHN): A Randomized, Controlled, Proof-of-Concept, Crossover Study, With a Subgroup Analysis of the Nav1.7 R1150W Genotype. (United States)

    Price, Nicola; Namdari, Rostam; Neville, Judith; Proctor, Katie J W; Kaber, Samer; Vest, Jeffery; Fetell, Michael; Malamut, Richard; Sherrington, Robin P; Pimstone, Simon N; Goldberg, Yigal P


    The objective was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of TV-45070 ointment, as a treatment for postherpetic neuralgia, and to explore the response in patients with the Nav1.7 R1150W gain-of-function polymorphism. This was a randomized, placebo-controlled, 2-period, 2-treatment crossover trial. Patients with postherpetic neuralgia with moderate or greater pain received TV-45070 and placebo ointments, each applied twice daily for 3 weeks. The primary efficacy measure was the difference in change in mean daily pain score from baseline compared with the last week of placebo and active treatment. Secondary endpoints included responder rate analyses and a further exploratory analysis of response in carriers of the Nav1.7 R1150W polymorphism was conducted. Seventy patients were enrolled and 54 completed the study. TV-45070 was safe and well tolerated. No statistical difference was observed between treatments for the primary endpoint. However, the proportion of patients with ≥50% reduction in mean pain scores at week 3 was greater on TV-45070 than on placebo (26.8% vs. 10.7%, P=0.0039). Similarly, a greater proportion of patients on TV-45070 had a ≥30% reduction in mean pain scores at week 3 (39.3% on TV-45070 vs. 23.2% on placebo, P=0.0784). Of note, 63% of patients with the R1150W polymorphism versus 35% of wild-type carriers had a ≥30% reduction in mean pain score on TV-45070 at week 3 (no inferential analysis performed). The 50% responder analysis suggests a subpopulation may exist with a more marked analgesic response to TV-45070.The trend toward a larger proportion of responders within Nav1.7 R1150W carriers warrants further investigation.

  1. MC and A instrumentation catalog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neymotin, L. [ed.] [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Sviridova, V. [ed.] [All-Russian Research Inst. of Automatics, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    In 1981 and 1985, two editions of a catalog of non-destructive nuclear measurement instrumentation, and material control and surveillance equipment, were published by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The last edition of the catalog included one hundred and twenty-five entries covering a wide range of devices developed in the US and abroad. More than ten years have elapsed since the publication of the more recent Catalog. Devices described in it have undergone significant modifications, and new devices have been developed. Therefore, in order to assist specialists in the field of Material Control and Accounting (MC and A), a new catalog has been created. Work on this instrumentation catalog started in 1997 as a cooperative effort of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), operated by Brookhaven Science Associates under contract to the US Department of Energy, and the All-Russian Research Institute of Automatics (VNIIA), subordinate institute of the Atomic Energy Ministry of the Russian Federation, within the collaborative US-Russia Material Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC and A) Program. Most of the equipment included in the Catalog are non-destructive assay (NDA) measurement devices employed for purposes of accounting, confirmation, and verification of nuclear materials. Other devices also included in the Catalog are employed in the detection and deterrence of unauthorized access to or removal of nuclear materials (material control: containment and surveillance). Equipment found in the Catalog comprises either: (1) complete devices or systems that can be used for MC and A applications; or (2) parts or components of complete systems, such as multi-channel analyzers, detectors, neutron generators, and software. All devices are categorized by their status of development--from prototype to serial production.

  2. Vaccine Safety (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Vaccine Safety Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... . Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS) New website and ...

  3. Food safety (United States)

    Poor food safety practices can lead to foodborne illness. Symptoms of foodborne illnesses vary. They usually include stomach problems or stomach upset. Foodborne illnesses may be severe and fatal. Young children, older ...

  4. Robots' Safety


    Pirttilahti, Juho


    Human-robot-collaboration is considered one of the answers to the flexible needs of more and more customizing manufacturing. Its purpose is to fit together the best qualities of both human and robots to reduce the cost and time of manufacturing. One of the key questions in this area is safety. The purpose of this thesis was to define the required safety functionality of cartesian, delta and articulated robots based on the current machine needs. Using the future robotic concepts investigat...

  5. Safety first!

    CERN Multimedia


    Among the many duties I assumed at the beginning of the year was the ultimate responsibility for Safety at CERN: the responsibility for the physical safety of the personnel, the responsibility for the safe operation of the facilities, and the responsibility to ensure that CERN acts in accordance with the highest standards of radiation and environmental protection.   The Safety Policy document drawn up in September 2014 is an excellent basis for the implementation of Safety in all areas of CERN’s work. I am happy to commit during my mandate to help meet its objectives, not least by ensuring the Organization makes available the necessary means to achieve its Safety objectives. One of the main objectives of the HSE (Occupational Health and Safety and Environmental Protection) unit in the coming months is to enhance the measures to minimise CERN’s impact on the environment. I believe CERN should become a role model for an environmentally-aware scientific research laboratory. Risk ...

  6. Evaluation channel performance in multichannel environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gensler, S.; Dekimpe, M.; Skiera, B.


    Evaluating channel performance is crucial for actively managing multiple sales channels, and requires understanding the customers' channel preferences. Two key components of channel performance are (i) the existing customers' intrinsic loyalty to a particular channel and (ii) the channel's ability

  7. Assay for calcium channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glossmann, H.; Ferry, D.R.


    This chapter focuses on biochemical assays for Ca/sup 2 +/-selective channels in electrically excitable membranes which are blocked in electrophysiological and pharmacological experiments by verapamil, 1,4-dihydropyridines, diltiazen (and various other drugs), as well as inorganic di- or trivalent cations. The strategy employed is to use radiolabeled 1,4-dihydropyridine derivatives which block calcium channels with ED/sub 50/ values in the nanomolar range. Although tritiated d-cis-diltiazem and verapamil can be used to label calcium channels, the 1,4-dihydropyridines offer numerous advantages. The various sections cover tissue specificity of channel labeling, the complex interactions of divalent cations with the (/sup 3/H)nimodipine-labeled calcium channels, and the allosteric regulation of (/sup 3/H)nimodipine binding by the optically pure enantiomers of phenylalkylamine and benzothiazepine calcium channel blockers. A comparison of the properties of different tritiated 1,4-dihydropyridine radioligands and the iodinated channel probe (/sup 125/I)iodipine is given.

  8. Specification for procurement of water-level sensing instrumentation, specification number HIF-I-1 (United States)

    Rapp, D.H.


    This specification is to communicate to instrument manufacturers the U.S. Geological Survey 's requirements. It covers systems for sensing the elevation of the water surface on open channels, rivers, lakes, reservoirs, storm-sewer pipes, and observation wells at Survey data-collection sites. The signal output (mechanical or electrical) must meet the signal input requirements of analog to digital and digital input recorders in use by the Survey. A classification of stage-sensing systems by common characteristics is used to aid Survey people making system selections. These characteristics are (1) system type (contact or noncontact), (2) sensor type and sensing distance, (3) accuracy, (4) range, (5) power requirements, (6) system size and weight, and (7) data output signal. Acceptable system requirements cover system configurations, signal outputs, materials, operation manuals, detailed environmental conditions, calibration procedures, system accuracy, power requirements, installation limitations, maintainability, safety, and workmanship. An outline of the qualification test procedures and failure criteria are also given. The Hydrologic Instrumentation Facility at NSTL Station, Mississippi will test available systems to determine if they meet the specification in this report for inclusion in the Survey 's 'Qualified Products List'. This list will be used for future procurement of water-level sensing systems by the Survey. (USGS)

  9. Reconfigurable virtual electrowetting channels. (United States)

    Banerjee, Ananda; Kreit, Eric; Liu, Yuguang; Heikenfeld, Jason; Papautsky, Ian


    Lab-on-a-chip systems rely on several microfluidic paradigms. The first uses a fixed layout of continuous microfluidic channels. Such lab-on-a-chip systems are almost always application specific and far from a true "laboratory." The second involves electrowetting droplet movement (digital microfluidics), and allows two-dimensional computer control of fluidic transport and mixing. The merging of the two paradigms in the form of programmable electrowetting channels takes advantage of both the "continuous" functionality of rigid channels based on which a large number of applications have been developed to date and the "programmable" functionality of digital microfluidics that permits electrical control of on-chip functions. In this work, we demonstrate for the first time programmable formation of virtual microfluidic channels and their continuous operation with pressure driven flows using an electrowetting platform. Experimental, theoretical, and numerical analyses of virtual channel formation with biologically relevant electrolyte solutions and electrically-programmable reconfiguration are presented. We demonstrate that the "wall-less" virtual channels can be formed reliably and rapidly, with propagation rates of 3.5-3.8 mm s(-1). Pressure driven transport in these virtual channels at flow rates up to 100 μL min(-1) is achievable without distortion of the channel shape. We further demonstrate that these virtual channels can be switched on-demand between multiple inputs and outputs. Ultimately, we envision a platform that would provide rapid prototyping of microfluidic concepts and would be capable of a vast library of functions and benefitting applications from clinical diagnostics in resource-limited environments to rapid system prototyping to high throughput pharmaceutical applications.

  10. Virtual Instrumentation and Virtual Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoelder, H.J.W.


    Instrumentation, interaction and virtual environments provide a challenging triplet for the next generation of instrumentation and measurement tools. As such, they are the logical continuation of an increasingly important component within (virtual) instrumentation. Despite these changes, however,

  11. Channel Choice: A Literature Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard Madsen, Christian; Kræmmergaard, Pernille


    The channel choice branch of e-government studies citizens’ and businesses’ choice of channels for interacting with government, and how government organizations can integrate channels and migrate users towards the most cost-efficient channels. In spite of the valuable contributions offered no sys...... no systematic overview exist of channel choice. We present a literature review of channel choice studies in government to citizen context identifying authors, countries, methods, concepts, units of analysis, and theories, and offer suggestionsfor future studies....


    CERN Multimedia

    TIS Secretariat


    Please note that the SAFETY INSTRUCTION N0 49 (IS 49) and the SAFETY NOTE N0 28 (NS 28) entitled respectively 'AVOIDING CHEMICAL POLLUTION OF WATER' and 'CERN EXHIBITIONS - FIRE PRECAUTIONS' are available on the web at the following urls: and Paper copies can also be obtained from the TIS Divisional Secretariat, email:

  13. System safety education focused on flight safety (United States)

    Holt, E.


    The measures necessary for achieving higher levels of system safety are analyzed with an eye toward maintaining the combat capability of the Air Force. Several education courses were provided for personnel involved in safety management. Data include: (1) Flight Safety Officer Course, (2) Advanced Safety Program Management, (3) Fundamentals of System Safety, and (4) Quantitative Methods of Safety Analysis.

  14. Heat Flux Instrumentation Laboratory (HFIL) (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description: The Heat Flux Instrumentation Laboratory is used to develop advanced, flexible, thin film gauge instrumentation for the Air Force Research Laboratory....

  15. Biochemistry Instrumentation Core Technology Center (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The UCLA-DOE Biochemistry Instrumentation Core Facility provides the UCLA biochemistry community with easy access to sophisticated instrumentation for a wide variety...

  16. Aethalometer™ Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedlacek, Arthur J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)


    The Aethalometer is an instrument that provides a real-time readout of the concentration of “Black” or “Elemental” carbon aerosol particles (BC or E) in an air stream (see Figure 1 and Figure 2). It is a self-contained instrument that measures the rate of change of optical transmission through a spot on a filter where aerosol is being continuously collected and uses the information to calculate the concentration of optically absorbing material in the sampled air stream. The instrument measures the transmitted light intensities through the “sensing” portion of the filter, on which the aerosol spot is being collected, and a “reference” portion of the filter as a check on the stability of the optical source. A mass flowmeter monitors the sample air flow rate. The data from these three measurements is used to determine the mean BC content of the air stream.

  17. Calibration of Geodetic Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Bajtala


    Full Text Available The problem of metrology and security systems of unification, correctness and standard reproducibilities belong to the preferred requirements of theory and technical practice in geodesy. Requirements on the control and verification of measured instruments and equipments increase and the importance and up-to-date of calibration get into the foreground. Calibration possibilities of length-scales (of electronic rangefinders and angle-scales (of horizontal circles of geodetic instruments. Calibration of electronic rangefinders on the linear comparative baseline in terrain. Primary standard of planar angle – optical traverse and its exploitation for calibration of the horizontal circles of theodolites. The calibration equipment of the Institute of Slovak Metrology in Bratislava. The Calibration process and results from the calibration of horizontal circles of selected geodetic instruments.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian GHEORGHE


    Full Text Available The rules laid down by Romanian Capital Market Law and the regulations put in force for its implementation apply to issuers of financial instruments admitted to trading on the regulated market established in Romania. But the issuers remain companies incorporated under Company Law of 1990. Such dual regulations need increased attention in order to observe the legal status of the issuers/companies and financial instruments/shares. Romanian legislator has chosen to implement in Capital Market Law special rules regarding the administration of the issuers of financial instruments, not only rules regarding admitting and maintaining to a regulated market. Thus issuers are, in Romanian Law perspective, special company that should comply special rule regarding board of administration and general shareholders meeting.

  19. The XGS instrument on-board THESEUS (United States)

    Fuschino, F.; Campana, R.; Labanti, C.; Marisaldi, M.; Amati, L.; Fiorini, M.; Uslenghi, M.; Baldazzi, G.; Evangelista, Y.; Elmi, I.; Feroci, M.; Frontera, F.; Rachevski, A.; Rignanese, L. P.; Vacchi, A.; Zampa, G.; Zampa, N.; Rashevskaya, I.; Bellutti, P.; Piemonte, C.


    Consolidated techniques used for space-borne X-ray and gamma-ray instruments are based on the use of scintillators coupled to Silicon photo-detectors. This technology associated with modern very low noise read-out electronics allows the design of innovative architectures able to reduce drastically the system complexity and power consumption, also with a moderate-to-high number of channels. These detector architectures can be exploited in the design of space instrumentation for gamma-spectroscopy with the benefit of possible smart background rejection strategies. We describe a detector prototype with 3D imaging capabilities to be employed in future gamma-ray and particle space missions in the 0.002-100 MeV energy range. The instrument is based on a stack of scintillating bars read out by Silicon Drift Detectors (SDDs) at both ends. The spatial segmentation and the crystal double-side readout allow a 3D position reconstruction with ∼3 mm accuracy within the full active volume, using a 2D readout along the two external faces of the detector. Furthermore, one of the side of SDDs can be used simultaneously to detect X-rays in the 2-30 keV energy range. The characteristics of this instrument make it suitable in next generation gamma-ray and particle space missions for Earth or outer space observations, and it will be briefly illustrated.

  20. Convex approximations of quantum channels (United States)

    Sacchi, Massimiliano F.; Sacchi, Tito


    We address the problem of optimally approximating the action of a desired and unavailable quantum channel Φ having at our disposal a single use of a given set of other channels {Ψi} . The problem is recast to look for the least distinguishable channel from Φ among the convex set ∑ipiΨi , and the corresponding optimal weights {pi} provide the optimal convex mixing of the available channels {Ψi} . For single-qubit channels we study specifically cases where the available convex set corresponds to covariant channels or to Pauli channels, and the desired target map is an arbitrary unitary transformation or a generalized damping channel.

  1. Scientific evidence contradicts findings and assumptions of Canadian Safety Panel 6: microwaves act through voltage-gated calcium channel activation to induce biological impacts at non-thermal levels, supporting a paradigm shift for microwave/lower frequency electromagnetic field action. (United States)

    Pall, Martin L


    This review considers a paradigm shift on microwave electromagnetic field (EMF) action from only thermal effects to action via voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) activation. Microwave/lower frequency EMFs were shown in two dozen studies to act via VGCC activation because all effects studied were blocked by calcium channel blockers. This mode of action was further supported by hundreds of studies showing microwave changes in calcium fluxes and intracellular calcium [Ca2+]i signaling. The biophysical properties of VGCCs/similar channels make them particularly sensitive to low intensity, non-thermal EMF exposures. Non-thermal studies have shown that in most cases pulsed fields are more active than are non-pulsed fields and that exposures within certain intensity windows have much large biological effects than do either lower or higher intensity exposures; these are both consistent with a VGCC role but inconsistent with only a heating/thermal role. Downstream effects of VGCC activation include calcium signaling, elevated nitric oxide (NO), NO signaling, peroxynitrite, free radical formation, and oxidative stress. Downstream effects explain repeatedly reported biological responses to non-thermal exposures: oxidative stress; single and double strand breaks in cellular DNA; cancer; male and female infertility; lowered melatonin/sleep disruption; cardiac changes including tachycardia, arrhythmia, and sudden cardiac death; diverse neuropsychiatric effects including depression; and therapeutic effects. Non-VGCC non-thermal mechanisms may occur, but none have been shown to have effects in mammals. Biologically relevant safety standards can be developed through studies of cell lines/cell cultures with high levels of different VGCCs, measuring their responses to different EMF exposures. The 2014 Canadian Report by a panel of experts only recognizes thermal effects regarding safety standards for non-ionizing radiation exposures. Its position is therefore contradicted by each

  2. Virtual Sensor Test Instrumentation (United States)

    Wang, Roy


    Virtual Sensor Test Instrumentation is based on the concept of smart sensor technology for testing with intelligence needed to perform sell-diagnosis of health, and to participate in a hierarchy of health determination at sensor, process, and system levels. A virtual sensor test instrumentation consists of five elements: (1) a common sensor interface, (2) microprocessor, (3) wireless interface, (4) signal conditioning and ADC/DAC (analog-to-digital conversion/ digital-to-analog conversion), and (5) onboard EEPROM (electrically erasable programmable read-only memory) for metadata storage and executable software to create powerful, scalable, reconfigurable, and reliable embedded and distributed test instruments. In order to maximize the efficient data conversion through the smart sensor node, plug-and-play functionality is required to interface with traditional sensors to enhance their identity and capabilities for data processing and communications. Virtual sensor test instrumentation can be accessible wirelessly via a Network Capable Application Processor (NCAP) or a Smart Transducer Interlace Module (STIM) that may be managed under real-time rule engines for mission-critical applications. The transducer senses the physical quantity being measured and converts it into an electrical signal. The signal is fed to an A/D converter, and is ready for use by the processor to execute functional transformation based on the sensor characteristics stored in a Transducer Electronic Data Sheet (TEDS). Virtual sensor test instrumentation is built upon an open-system architecture with standardized protocol modules/stacks to interface with industry standards and commonly used software. One major benefit for deploying the virtual sensor test instrumentation is the ability, through a plug-and-play common interface, to convert raw sensor data in either analog or digital form, to an IEEE 1451 standard-based smart sensor, which has instructions to program sensors for a wide variety of

  3. Modeling the vehicle-to-vehicle propagation channel: A review (United States)

    Matolak, David W.


    In this paper we provide a review of the vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) wireless propagation channel. This "car-to-car" application will be used to improve roadway efficiency, provide unique traveler services, and can also enable safety applications that can save lives. We briefly review some currently envisioned applications and the initial V2V radio technology, then address the V2V propagation channel. Propagation basics germane to the V2V setting are described, followed by a discussion of channel dispersion and time variation. The channel impulse response and its Fourier transform, the channel transfer function, are described in detail, and their common statistical characterizations are also reviewed. The most common models for the V2V channel—the tapped delay line and geometry-based stochastic channel models—are covered in some detail. We highlight key differences between the V2V channel and the well-known cellular radio channel. These differences are the more rapid time variation and the higher probability of obstruction of the direct line of sight component; modeling of these effects has required some novel approaches. The V2V channel's nonstationary statistical behavior is addressed, as is the use of multiple-antenna systems. The remaining areas for future work are also described.

  4. Calcium channel blocker poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miran Brvar


    Full Text Available Background: Calcium channel blockers act at L-type calcium channels in cardiac and vascular smooth muscles by preventing calcium influx into cells with resultant decrease in vascular tone and cardiac inotropy, chronotropy and dromotropy. Poisoning with calcium channel blockers results in reduced cardiac output, bradycardia, atrioventricular block, hypotension and shock. The findings of hypotension and bradycardia should suggest poisoning with calcium channel blockers.Conclusions: Treatment includes immediate gastric lavage and whole-bowel irrigation in case of ingestion of sustainedrelease products. All patients should receive an activated charcoal orally. Specific treatment includes calcium, glucagone and insulin, which proved especially useful in shocked patients. Supportive care including the use of catecholamines is not always effective. In the setting of failure of pharmacological therapy transvenous pacing, balloon pump and cardiopulmonary by-pass may be necessary.

  5. Sensing with Ion Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Martinac, Boris


    All living cells are able to detect and translate environmental stimuli into biologically meaningful signals. Sensations of touch, hearing, sight, taste, smell or pain are essential to the survival of all living organisms. The importance of sensory input for the existence of life thus justifies the effort made to understand its molecular origins. Sensing with Ion Channels focuses on ion channels as key molecules enabling biological systems to sense and process the physical and chemical stimuli that act upon cells in their living environment. Its aim is to serve as a reference to ion channel specialists and as a source of new information to non specialists who want to learn about the structural and functional diversity of ion channels and their role in sensory physiology.

  6. Coding for optical channels

    CERN Document Server

    Djordjevic, Ivan; Vasic, Bane


    This unique book provides a coherent and comprehensive introduction to the fundamentals of optical communications, signal processing and coding for optical channels. It is the first to integrate the fundamentals of coding theory and optical communication.

  7. Imperfect Channel State Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Qin


    in a multiuser OFDM CR system. A simple back-off scheme is proposed, and simulation results are provided which show that the proposed scheme is very effective in mitigating the negative impact of channel estimation errors.

  8. Channelized Streams in Iowa (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This draft dataset consists of all ditches or channelized pieces of stream that could be identified using three input datasets; namely the1:24,000 National...

  9. 28-Channel rotary transformer (United States)

    Mclyman, W. T.


    Transformer transmits power and digital data across rotating interface. Array has many parallel data channels, each with potential l megabaud data rate. Ferrite-cored transformers are spaced along rotor; airgap between them reduces crosstalk.

  10. Safety message broadcast in vehicular networks

    CERN Document Server

    Bi, Yuanguo; Zhuang, Weihua; Zhao, Hai


    This book presents the current research on safety message dissemination in vehicular networks, covering medium access control and relay selection for multi-hop safety message broadcast. Along with an overall overview of the architecture, characteristics, and applications of vehicular networks, the authors discuss the challenging issues in the research on performance improvement for safety applications, and provide a comprehensive review of the research literature. A cross layer broadcast protocol is included to support efficient safety message broadcast by jointly considering geographical location, physical-layer channel condition, and moving velocity of vehicles in the highway scenario. To further support multi-hop safety message broadcast in a complex road layout, the authors propose an urban multi-hop broadcast protocol that utilizes a novel forwarding node selection scheme. Additionally, a busy tone based medium access control scheme is designed to provide strict priority to safety applications in vehicle...

  11. Safety and communication, a winning combination

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit


    Since 2013, in line with its mission to support CERN’s proactive communication policy in matters of safety, the HSE unit has been following an annual plan for disseminating information on occupational health and safety and environmental protection.   Safety information designed to underline the importance of prevention is published through a variety of channels: Announcements in the CERN Bulletin, Safety bulletins, notably outlining lessons to be learned in the wake of accidents/incidents occuring at CERN, Safety alerts calling for immediate action, sent by e-mail to the services concerned, Prevention campaigns on the CERN site, Poster campaigns in well frequented public areas. Photo: Christoph Balle. Please heed all prevention messages and apply them in your everyday life. Also, we will be pleased to receive any information or suggestions you may have on safety matters. If you have questions about the HSE unit’s communication activities, please send us an e...

  12. Standard NIM Instrumentation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costrell, Louis [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Lenkszus, Frank R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Rudnick, Stanley J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Davey, Eric [Atomic Energy of Canada (AECL), Limited, Chalk River, ON (Canada); Gould, John [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Rankowitz, Seymour [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Sims, William P. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Whitney, R. Roy [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States). Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF); Dobinson, Robert W. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Verweij, Henk [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Latner, Norman [Environmental Measurements Lab., New York, NY (United States); Negro, Vincent C. [Environmental Measurements Lab., New York, NY (United States); Barsotti, Edward J. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Droege, Thomas E. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Kerns, Cordon [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Turner, Kathleen J. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Downing, Robert W. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Kirsten, Frederick A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Larsh, A. E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Loken, Stewart C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mack, Dick A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wagner, Lee J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lucena, Robert C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); O' Brien, Dennis W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gjovig, Allan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Naivar, Frank [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Nelson, Ronald O. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); White, D. Hywell [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Akerlof, Carl [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Stilwell, Donald E. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC (United States); Trainor, James H. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC (United States); Gobbi, Bruno [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Biggerstaff, John A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hill, Nat W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Schulze, Gerald K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gustavson, David B. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Horelick, Dale [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Kunz, Paul F. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Paffrath, Leo [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Walz, Helmut V. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Dawson, W. Kenneth [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Cresswell, John [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Dhawan, Satish [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Gingell, Charles E. L. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)


    NIM is a standard modular instrumentation system that is in wide use throughout the world. As the NIM system developed and accommodations were made to a dynamic instrumentation field and a rapidly advancing technology, additions, revisions and clarifications were made. These were incorporated into the standard in the form of addenda and errata. This standard is a revision of the NIM document, AEC Report TID-20893 (Rev 4) dated July 1974. It includes all the addenda and errata items that were previously issued as well as numerous additional items to make the standard current with modern technology and manufacturing practice.

  13. Spectroelectrochemical Instrument Measures TOC (United States)

    Kounaves, Sam


    A spectroelectrochemical instrument has been developed for measuring the total organic carbon (TOC) content of an aqueous solution. Measurements of TOC are frequently performed in environmental, clinical, and industrial settings. Until now, techniques for performing such measurements have included, various ly, the use of hazardous reagents, ultraviolet light, or ovens, to promote reactions in which the carbon contents are oxidized. The instrument now being developed is intended to be a safer, more economical means of oxidizing organic carbon and determining the TOC levels of aqueous solutions and for providing a low power/mass unit for use in planetary missions.

  14. Standard NIM instrumentation system

    CERN Document Server


    NIM is a standard modular instrumentation system that is in wide use throughout the world. As the NIM system developed and accommodations were made to a dynamic instrumentation field and a rapidly advancing technology, additions, revisions and clarifications were made. These were incorporated into the standard in the form of addenda and errata. This standard is a revision of the NIM document, AEC Report TID- 20893 (Rev 4) dated July 1974. It includes all the addenda and errata items that were previously issued as well as numerous additional items to make the standard current with modern technology and manufacturing practice.

  15. Advanced Measuring (Instrumentation Methods for Nuclear Installations: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Qiu-kuan


    Full Text Available The nuclear technology has been widely used in the world. The research of measurement in nuclear installations involves many aspects, such as nuclear reactors, nuclear fuel cycle, safety and security, nuclear accident, after action, analysis, and environmental applications. In last decades, many advanced measuring devices and techniques have been widely applied in nuclear installations. This paper mainly introduces the development of the measuring (instrumentation methods for nuclear installations and the applications of these instruments and methods.

  16. Five-Channel Infrared Laser Absorption Spectrometer for Combustion Product Monitoring Aboard Manned Spacecraft (United States)

    Briggs, Ryan M.; Frez, Clifford; Borgentun, Carl E.; Bagheri, Mahmood; Forouhar, Siamak; May, Randy D.


    Continuous combustion product monitoring aboard manned spacecraft can prevent chronic exposure to hazardous compounds and also provides early detection of combustion events. As future missions extend beyond low-Earth orbit, analysis of returned environmental samples becomes impractical and safety monitoring should be performed in situ. Here, we describe initial designs of a five-channel tunable laser absorption spectrometer to continuously monitor combustion products with the goal of minimal maintenance and calibration over long-duration missions. The instrument incorporates dedicated laser channels to simultaneously target strong mid-infrared absorption lines of CO, HCl, HCN, HF, and CO2. The availability of low-power-consumption semiconductor lasers operating in the 2 to 5 micron wavelength range affords the flexibility to select absorption lines for each gas with maximum interaction strength and minimal interference from other gases, which enables the design of a compact and mechanically robust spectrometer with low-level sensitivity. In this paper, we focus primarily on absorption line selection based on the availability of low-power single-mode semiconductor laser sources designed specifically for the target wavelength range.

  17. Measuring and benchmarking safety culture: application of the safety attitudes questionnaire to an acute medical admissions unit. (United States)

    Relihan, E; Glynn, S; Daly, D; Silke, B; Ryder, S


    To assess the safety culture in an acute medical admissions unit (AMAU) of a teaching hospital in order to benchmark results against international data and guide a unit-based, integrated, risk management strategy. The safety attitudes questionnaire (SAQ), a validated instrument for the measurement of safety culture was applied to an AMAU. All AMAU healthcare staff (n = 92) were surveyed: doctors, nurses, healthcare assistants (HCAs) and allied healthcare professionals (AHPs). Safety attitude scores for the overall unit and individual caregiver types were assessed across six domains of safety culture. When compared against an international benchmark, the AMAU scored significantly higher for four of the six safety domains: p safety climate' and 'stress recognition' and p safety climate' (p safety spectrum: employee and environmental safety, clinical risk management and medication safety.

  18. Channelling versus inversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gale, A.S.; Surlyk, Finn; Anderskouv, Kresten


    Evidence from regional stratigraphical patterns in Santonian−Campanian chalk is used to infer the presence of a very broad channel system (5 km across) with a depth of at least 50 m, running NNW−SSE across the eastern Isle of Wight; only the western part of the channel wall and fill is exposed. W......−Campanian chalks in the eastern Isle of Wight, involving penecontemporaneous tectonic inversion of the underlying basement structure, are rejected....

  19. Ion Channels in Leukocytes (United States)


    state (170).-Single K, channel currents were blocked by gesting that the synthesis of new channel protein was external-Ba (2.5 mM) and, like whole...Hg, La, cells, NK cells, human 2M2, 267 nifedipine, and murine B-cells diltiazem, chlorpromazine , forskolin, trifluorperazine, noxiustoxin -K, (I...Cells that ultimately leads to an increase in DNA synthesis and cell division. T lymphocytes develop in the thymus and have both effector and

  20. Course on Ionic Channels

    CERN Document Server


    This book is based on a series of lectures for a course on ionic channels held in Santiago, Chile, on November 17-20, 1984. It is intended as a tutorial guide on the properties, function, modulation, and reconstitution of ionic channels, and it should be accessible to graduate students taking their first steps in this field. In the presentation there has been a deliberate emphasis on the spe­ cific methodologies used toward the understanding of the workings and function of channels. Thus, in the first section, we learn to "read" single­ channel records: how to interpret them in the theoretical frame of kinetic models, which information can be extracted from gating currents in re­ lation to the closing and opening processes, and how ion transport through an open channel can be explained in terms of fluctuating energy barriers. The importance of assessing unequivocally the origin and purity of mem­ brane preparations and the use of membrane vesicles and optical tech­ niques in the stUGY of ionic channels a...

  1. Interacting divided channel method for compound channel flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huthoff, Freek; Roos, Pieter C.; Augustijn, Dionysius C.M.; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.


    A new method to calculate flow in compound channels is proposed: the interacting divided channel method (IDCM), based on a new parametrization of the interface stress between adjacent flow compartments, typically between the main channel and floodplain of a two-stage channel. This expression is

  2. Specification for Instrumentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margheritini, Lucia; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    This paper is intended to give an overview on instrumentation for monitoring the efficiency of the Converter and the performance of the device. Real-time control of plant and data monitoring and storage are the main objectives of the control system....

  3. The ozone monitoring instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levelt, P.F.; Oord, G.H.J. van den; Dobber, M.R.; Mälkki, A.; Visser, H.; Vries, J. de; Stammes, P.; Lundell, J.O.V.; Saari, H.


    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) flies on the National Aeronautics and Space Adminsitration's Earth Observing System Aura satellite launched in July 2004. OMI is a ultraviolet/visible (UV/VIS) nadir solar backscatter spectrometer, which provides nearly global coverage in one day with a spatial

  4. Integrating Nephelometer Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uin, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)


    The Integrating Nephelometer (Figure 1) is an instrument that measures aerosol light scattering. It measures aerosol optical scattering properties by detecting (with a wide angular integration – from 7 to 170°) the light scattered by the aerosol and subtracting the light scattered by the carrier gas, the instrument walls and the background noise in the detector (zeroing). Zeroing is typically performed for 5 minutes every day at midnight UTC. The scattered light is split into red (700 nm), green (550 nm), and blue (450 nm) wavelengths and captured by three photomultiplier tubes. The instrument can measure total scatter as well as backscatter only (from 90 to 170°) (Heintzenberg and Charlson 1996; Anderson et al. 1996; Anderson and Ogren 1998; TSI 3563 2015) At ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement), two identical Nephelometers are usually run in series with a sample relative humidity (RH) conditioner between them. This is possible because Nephelometer sampling is non-destructive and the sample can be passed on to another instrument. The sample RH conditioner scans through multiple RH values in cycles, treating the sample. This kind of setup allows to study how aerosol particles’ light scattering properties are affected by humidification (Anderson et al. 1996). For historical reasons, the two Nephelometers in this setup are labeled “wet” and “dry”, with the “dry” Nephelometer usually being the one before the conditioner and sampling ambient air (the names are switched for the MAOS measurement site due to the high RH of the ambient air).

  5. Measurement and Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkham, Harold


    This is a chapter for a book called the Standard Handbook for Electrical Engineering. Though it is not obvious from the title, the book deals mainly with power engineering. The first chapter (not mine) is about the fundamental quantities used in measurement. This chapter is about the process and the instrumentation.

  6. Neutron instrumentation for biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, S.A. [Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble (France)


    In the October 1994 round of proposals at the ILL, the external biology review sub- committee was asked to allocate neutron beam time to a wide range of experiments, on almost half the total number of scheduled neutron instruments: on 3 diffractometers, on 3 small angle scattering instruments, and on some 6 inelastic scattering spectrometers. In the 3.5 years since the temporary reactor shutdown, the ILL`s management structure has been optimized, budgets and staff have been trimmed, the ILL reactor has been re-built, and many of the instruments up-graded, many powerful (mainly Unix) workstations have been introduced, and the neighboring European Synchrotron Radiation Facility has established itself as the leading synchrotron radiation source and has started its official user program. The ILL reactor remains the world`s most intense dedicated neutron source. In this challenging context, it is of interest to review briefly the park of ILL instruments used to study the structure and energetics of small and large biological systems. A brief summary will be made of each class of experiments actually proposed in the latest ILL proposal round.

  7. Economic Policy Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemmensen, Børge


    Økonomiske instrumenter begrundes med behovet for politiske indgreb, der muliggør internaliseringen af omkostningerne ved de miljøpåvirkninger, produktion and levevis afstedkommer, således at hensyntagen til miljøet bliver en del af virksomheders og husholdningers omkostninger og dermed en tilsky...

  8. Virtual reality musical instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serafin, Stefania; Erkut, Cumhur; Kojs, Juraj


    The rapid development and availability of low cost technologies has created a wide interest in virtual reality (VR), but how to design and evaluate multisensory interactions in VR remains as a challenge. In this paper, we focus on virtual reality musical instruments, present an overview of our...

  9. Deep Impact instrument calibration (United States)

    Klaasen, K.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Baca, M.; Delamere, A.; Desnoyer, M.; Farnham, T.; Groussin, O.; Hampton, D.; Ipatov, S.; Li, J.-Y.; Lisse, C.; Mastrodemos, N.; McLaughlin, S.; Sunshine, J.; Thomas, P.; Wellnitz, D.


    Calibration of NASA's Deep Impact spacecraft instruments allows reliable scientific interpretation of the images and spectra returned from comet Tempel 1. Calibrations of the four onboard remote sensing imaging instruments have been performed in the areas of geometric calibration, spatial resolution, spectral resolution, and radiometric response. Error sources such as noise (random, coherent, encoding, data compression), detector readout artifacts, scattered light, and radiation interactions have been quantified. The point spread functions (PSFs) of the medium resolution instrument and its twin impactor targeting sensor are near the theoretical minimum [~1.7 pixels full width at half maximum (FWHM)]. However, the high resolution instrument camera was found to be out of focus with a PSF FWHM of ~9 pixels. The charge coupled device (CCD) read noise is ~1 DN. Electrical cross-talk between the CCD detector quadrants is correctable to <2 DN. The IR spectrometer response nonlinearity is correctable to ~1%. Spectrometer read noise is ~2 DN. The variation in zero-exposure signal level with time and spectrometer temperature is not fully characterized; currently corrections are good to ~10 DN at best. Wavelength mapping onto the detector is known within 1 pixel; spectral lines have a FWHM of ~2 pixels. About 1% of the IR detector pixels behave badly and remain uncalibrated. The spectrometer exhibits a faint ghost image from reflection off a beamsplitter. Instrument absolute radiometric calibration accuracies were determined generally to <10% using star imaging. Flat-field calibration reduces pixel-to-pixel response differences to ~0.5% for the cameras and <2% for the spectrometer. A standard calibration image processing pipeline is used to produce archival image files for analysis by researchers.

  10. The Science of String Instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Rossing, Thomas D


    Many performing musicians, as well as instrument builders, are coming to realize the importance of understanding the science of musical instruments. This book explains how string instruments produce sound. It presents basic ideas in simple language, and it also translates some more sophisticated ideas in non-technical language. It should be of interest to performers, researchers, and instrument makers alike.

  11. Declarative flow control for distributed instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parvin, Bahram; Taylor, John; Fontenay, Gerald; Callahan, Daniel


    We have developed a 'microscopy channel' to advertise a unique set of on-line scientific instruments and to let users join a particular session, perform an experiment, collaborate with other users, and collect data for further analysis. The channel is a collaborative problem solving environment (CPSE) that allows for both synchronous and asynchronous collaboration, as well as flow control for enhanced scalability. The flow control is a declarative feature that enhances software functionality at the experimental scale. Our testbed includes several unique electron and optical microscopes with applications ranging from material science to cell biology. We have built a system that leverages current commercial CORBA services, Web Servers, and flow control specifications to meet diverse requirements for microscopy and experimental protocols. In this context, we have defined and enhanced Instrument Services (IS), Exchange Services (ES), Computational Services (CS), and Declarative Services (DS) that sit on top of CORBA and its enabling services (naming, trading, security, and notification) IS provides a layer of abstraction for controlling any type of microscope. ES provides a common set of utilities for information management and transaction. CS provides the analytical capabilities needed for online microscopy. DS provides mechanisms for flow control for improving the dynamic behavior of the system.

  12. Development Of A Multi-Channel Personal Computer (Pc) Based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development Of A Multi-Channel Personal Computer (Pc) Based Data Logger. ... Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana) ... PC (Personal Computer) based instrumentation is getting more attention because of three technological enhancements; increasing reliability of PCs, steadily decreasing cost of hard drive space ...

  13. Playground Safety. (United States)

    Sipes, James L.


    Discusses the issues of risk, liability, and fun when landscaping playgrounds with safety in mind. The importance of playground surfaces and several preventive measures landscapers can use to reduce the risk of injury are discussed. Concluding comments address playground design features and liability. (GR)

  14. Safety Resources. (United States)

    Hoot, James L.; Bartkowiak, Elaine T.


    Lists 72 organizations and programs that deal with child safety, grouped by the following categories: (1) general; (2) general violence; (3) gun violence; (4) media violence; (5) drugs and alcohol; (6) child abuse and at-risk children; (7) parenting programs; (8) community service programs; (9) leadership programs; (10) peer counseling; (11)…

  15. Patient safety

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    medical error and patient harm. The patient safety movement is now 13 years old, led by the publication of the US. Institute of Medicine (IOM) Report To Err is Human.1 The basic premise at the time was that annually up to 98 000 Americans were estimated to have died because of medical error (although this calculation.

  16. A deleterious gene-by-environment interaction imposed by calcium channel blockers in Marfan syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doyle, J.J.; Doyle, A.J.; Wilson, N.K.; Habashi, J.P.; Bedja, D.; Whitworth, R.E.; Lindsay, M.E.; Schoenhoff, F.; Myers, L.; Huso, N.; Bachir, S.; Squires, O.; Rusholme, B.; Ehsan, H.; Huso, D.; Thomas, C.J.; Caulfield, M.J.; Eyk, J.E. Van; Judge, D.P.; Dietz, H.C.; Loeys, B.L.


    Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are prescribed to patients with Marfan syndrome for prophylaxis against aortic aneurysm progression, despite limited evidence for their efficacy and safety in the disorder. Unexpectedly, Marfan mice treated with CCBs show accelerated aneurysm expansion, rupture, and

  17. Multilevel model of safety climate for furniture industries. (United States)

    Rodrigues, Matilde A; Arezes, Pedro M; Leão, Celina P


    Furniture companies can analyze their safety status using quantitative measures. However, the data needed are not always available and the number of accidents is under-reported. Safety climate scales may be an alternative. However, there are no validated Portuguese scales that account for the specific attributes of the furniture sector. The current study aims to develop and validate an instrument that uses a multilevel structure to measure the safety climate of the Portuguese furniture industry. The Safety Climate in Wood Industries (SCWI) model was developed and applied to the safety climate analysis using three different scales: organizational, group and individual. A multilevel exploratory factor analysis was performed to analyze the factorial structure. The studied companies' safety conditions were also analyzed. Different factorial structures were found between and within levels. In general, the results show the presence of a group-level safety climate. The scores of safety climates are directly and positively related to companies' safety conditions; the organizational scale is the one that best reflects the actual safety conditions. The SCWI instrument allows for the identification of different safety climates in groups that comprise the same furniture company and it seems to reflect those groups' safety conditions. The study also demonstrates the need for a multilevel analysis of the studied instrument.

  18. netherland hydrological modeling instrument (United States)

    Hoogewoud, J. C.; de Lange, W. J.; Veldhuizen, A.; Prinsen, G.


    Netherlands Hydrological Modeling Instrument A decision support system for water basin management. J.C. Hoogewoud , W.J. de Lange ,A. Veldhuizen , G. Prinsen , The Netherlands Hydrological modeling Instrument (NHI) is the center point of a framework of models, to coherently model the hydrological system and the multitude of functions it supports. Dutch hydrological institutes Deltares, Alterra, Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, RWS Waterdienst, STOWA and Vewin are cooperating in enhancing the NHI for adequate decision support. The instrument is used by three different ministries involved in national water policy matters, for instance the WFD, drought management, manure policy and climate change issues. The basis of the modeling instrument is a state-of-the-art on-line coupling of the groundwater system (MODFLOW), the unsaturated zone (metaSWAP) and the surface water system (MOZART-DM). It brings together hydro(geo)logical processes from the column to the basin scale, ranging from 250x250m plots to the river Rhine and includes salt water flow. The NHI is validated with an eight year run (1998-2006) with dry and wet periods. For this run different parts of the hydrology have been compared with measurements. For instance, water demands in dry periods (e.g. for irrigation), discharges at outlets, groundwater levels and evaporation. A validation alone is not enough to get support from stakeholders. Involvement from stakeholders in the modeling process is needed. There fore to gain sufficient support and trust in the instrument on different (policy) levels a couple of actions have been taken: 1. a transparent evaluation of modeling-results has been set up 2. an extensive program is running to cooperate with regional waterboards and suppliers of drinking water in improving the NHI 3. sharing (hydrological) data via newly setup Modeling Database for local and national models 4. Enhancing the NHI with "local" information. The NHI is and has been used for many

  19. Developments in analytical instrumentation (United States)

    Petrie, G.

    The situation regarding photogrammetric instrumentation has changed quite dramatically over the last 2 or 3 years with the withdrawal of most analogue stereo-plotting machines from the market place and their replacement by analytically based instrumentation. While there have been few new developments in the field of comparators, there has been an explosive development in the area of small, relatively inexpensive analytical stereo-plotters based on the use of microcomputers. In particular, a number of new instruments have been introduced by manufacturers who mostly have not been associated previously with photogrammetry. Several innovative concepts have been introduced in these small but capable instruments, many of which are aimed at specialised applications, e.g. in close-range photogrammetry (using small-format cameras); for thematic mapping (by organisations engaged in environmental monitoring or resources exploitation); for map revision, etc. Another innovative and possibly significant development has been the production of conversion kits to convert suitable analogue stereo-plotting machines such as the Topocart, PG-2 and B-8 into fully fledged analytical plotters. The larger and more sophisticated analytical stereo-plotters are mostly being produced by the traditional mainstream photogrammetric systems suppliers with several new instruments and developments being introduced at the top end of the market. These include the use of enlarged photo stages to handle images up to 25 × 50 cm format; the complete integration of graphics workstations into the analytical plotter design; the introduction of graphics superimposition and stereo-superimposition; the addition of correlators for the automatic measurement of height, etc. The software associated with this new analytical instrumentation is now undergoing extensive re-development with the need to supply photogrammetric data as input to the more sophisticated G.I.S. systems now being installed by clients, instead

  20. Channels with Hydrogen Peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Appiah


    Full Text Available The uteri, spontaneously active or Ca2+ (6 mM induced, were allowed to equilibrate, and to inhibit voltage-gated potassium ( channels 1 mM 4-amino pyridine (4-AP was applied for 15 min before adding H2O2 .  H2O2 was added cumulatively: 2 μM, 20 μM, 200 μM, 400 μM, and 3 mM. Average time for H2O2 concentrations (2, 20, 200, and 400 μM to reach its full effect was 15 min. H2O2 3 mM had a prolonged effect and therefore was left to act for 30 min. Two-way ANOVA showed significant differences in time dependency between spontaneous and Ca2+-induced rat uteri after applying 3 mM H2O2 (type of contraction, , but not 400 μM H2O2 (. Our results indicate that H2O2 oxidises channel intracellular thiol groups and activates the channel, inducing relaxation. Cell antioxidative defence system quickly activates glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx defence mechanism but not catalase (CAT defence mechanism. Intracellular redox mechanisms repair the oxidised sites and again establish deactivation of channels, recuperating contractility. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that channels can be altered in a time-dependent manner by reversible redox-dependent intracellular alterations.

  1. Channel Identification Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel A. Lazar


    Full Text Available We present a formal methodology for identifying a channel in a system consisting of a communication channel in cascade with an asynchronous sampler. The channel is modeled as a multidimensional filter, while models of asynchronous samplers are taken from neuroscience and communications and include integrate-and-fire neurons, asynchronous sigma/delta modulators and general oscillators in cascade with zero-crossing detectors. We devise channel identification algorithms that recover a projection of the filter(s onto a space of input signals loss-free for both scalar and vector-valued test signals. The test signals are modeled as elements of a reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS with a Dirichlet kernel. Under appropriate limiting conditions on the bandwidth and the order of the test signal space, the filter projection converges to the impulse response of the filter. We show that our results hold for a wide class of RKHSs, including the space of finite-energy bandlimited signals. We also extend our channel identification results to noisy circuits.

  2. Building Bigger, Better Instruments with Dry Cryostats (United States)

    Benford, Dominic J.; Voellmer, George


    The cylindrical instrument volume allowable n SOFIA is large, comprising perhaps 400 liters at 4K. However, the cryogen accommodation to enable this environment consumes roughly 20% of the volume, and worsens rues, airworthiness/safety, and handling/operation, Present-day pulse tube coolers have negligible cold volumes, provide adequate cooling powers, and reach colder temperatures than stored cryogen. In addition, they permit safer, more reliable, lower maintenance instrument operation. While the advantages of dry cryostats are well-known and commonly used in labs and ground-based astronomical facilities, SOFIA would require some charges in accommodations to permit a pulse tube cooler to operate on board, Whil e these changes are not negligible, we present our investigation into the feasibility and desirability of making SOFIA a dry cryostat-capable observatory

  3. Portable calibration instrument of hemodialysis unit (United States)

    Jin, Liang-bing; Li, Dong-sheng; Chen, Ai-jun


    For the purpose of meeting the rapid development of blood purification in China, improve the level of blood purification treatment, and get rid of the plight of the foreign technology monopolization to promise patients' medical safety, a parameter-calibrator for the hemodialysis unit, which can detect simultaneously multi-parameter, is designed. The instrument includes a loop, which connects to the hemodialysis unit. Sensors are in the loop in series, so that the dialysis can flow through this loop and the sensors can acquisitive data of various parameters. In order to facilitate detection and carrying, the integrated circuit part modularly based on the ultralow-power microcontrollers,TI MSP430 is designed. High-performance and small-packaged components are used to establish a modular, high-precision, multi-functional, portable system. The functions and the key technical indexes of the instrument have reached the level of products abroad.

  4. Virtual Reality Musical Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serafin, Stefania; Erkut, Cumhur; Kojs, Juraj


    The rapid development and availability of low-cost technologies have created a wide interest in virtual reality. In the field of computer music, the term “virtual musical instruments” has been used for a long time to describe software simulations, extensions of existing musical instruments......, and ways to control them with new interfaces for musical expression. Virtual reality musical instruments (VRMIs) that include a simulated visual component delivered via a head-mounted display or other forms of immersive visualization have not yet received much attention. In this article, we present a field...... overview of VRMIs from the viewpoint of the performer. We propose nine design guidelines, describe evaluation methods, analyze case studies, and consider future challenges....

  5. Pesticide reducing instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lars-Bo; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Andersen, Martin


    -mentioned models and tools. All three scenarios are constructed such that they result in the same welfare implication (measured by national consumption in the CGE model). The scenarios are: 1) pesticide taxes resulting in a 25 percent overall reduction; 2) use of unsprayed field margins, resulting in the same...... welfare loss as in scenario 1; and finally 3) increased conversion to organic farming also resulting in the same welfare loss as in scenario 1. Biological and geological results from the first part of our analysis suggest that the use of unsprayed field margins is the most cost-effective instrument...... for improving bio-diversity and securing drinking water. That is, combining economic modeling with physical biological modeling and geological evaluation allows us to select unsprayed field margins as the most effective instrument. Sensitivity analysis conducted on bio-diversity suggest that this result...

  6. Social Responsibility Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Mizera


    Full Text Available Responsible business notion is more and more present in Polish economy, however the results of the research carried out in Polish business still shows a low level of CRS idea knowledge, especially in small and medium companies. Although responsible business notion is generally known, its details, ways of preparing strategy, instruments and what is more its benefits are still narrowly spread. Many business people face the lack of knowledge and information, which on one hand make it easier to spread and deepen wrong stereotypes connected with this notion and on the other hand make business people unwilling to implement CRS in their companies. The subjects of this article are examples of instruments which are responsible for realization of social responsibility strategy.

  7. Axis instrumentation: surgical results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei F. Joaquim


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the surgical results of axis screw instrumentation. METHODS: Retrospective evaluation of the clinical and radiological data of patients submitted to axis fixation using screws. RESULTS: Seventeen patients were surgically treated. The mean age was 41.8 years (range: 12-73. Spinal cord trauma was the most common cause of instability (8 patients - 47%. Bilateral axis fixation was performed in all cases, except one, with laminar screw (total of 33 axis screws. Seven patients (41.1% underwent bilateral pars screws; laminar screws were used in six cases and pedicular screws were used in two. In two cases, we performed a hybrid construction (laminar + pars and pedicle + pars. There was no neurological worsening or death, nor complications directly related to use axis screws. CONCLUSION: Axis instrumentation was effective and safe, regardless of the technique used for stabilization. Based on our learnt experience, we proposed an algorithm to choose the best technique for axis screw fixation.

  8. Data acquisition instruments: Psychopharmacology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, D.S. III


    This report contains the results of a Direct Assistance Project performed by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., for Dr. K. O. Jobson. The purpose of the project was to perform preliminary analysis of the data acquisition instruments used in the field of psychiatry, with the goal of identifying commonalities of data and strategies for handling and using the data in the most advantageous fashion. Data acquisition instruments from 12 sources were provided by Dr. Jobson. Several commonalities were identified and a potentially useful data strategy is reported here. Analysis of the information collected for utility in performing diagnoses is recommended. In addition, further work is recommended to refine the commonalities into a directly useful computer systems structure.

  9. Metrological Support in Technosphere Safety (United States)

    Akhobadze, G. N.


    The principle of metrological support in technosphere safety is considered. It is based on the practical metrology. The theoretical aspects of accuracy and errors of the measuring instruments intended for diagnostics and control of the technosphere under the influence of factors harmful to human beings are presented. The necessity to choose measuring devices with high metrological characteristics according to the accuracy class and contact of sensitive elements with a medium under control is shown. The types of additional errors in measuring instruments that arise when they are affected by environmental influences are described. A specific example of the analyzers application to control industrial emissions and measure the oil and particulate matter in wastewater is shown; it allows assessing advantages and disadvantages of analyzers. Besides, the recommendations regarding the missing metrological characteristics of the instruments in use are provided. The technosphere continuous monitoring taking into account the metrological principles is expected to efficiently forecast the technosphere development and make appropriate decisions.

  10. A multi-channel coronal spectrophotometer. (United States)

    Landman, D. A.; Orrall, F. Q.; Zane, R.


    We describe a new multi-channel coronal spectrophotometer system, presently being installed at Mees Solar Observatory, Mount Haleakala, Maui. The apparatus is designed to record and interpret intensities from many sections of the visible and near-visible spectral regions simultaneously, with relatively high spatial and temporal resolution. The detector, a thermoelectrically cooled silicon vidicon camera tube, has its central target area divided into a rectangular array of about 100,000 pixels and is read out in a slow-scan (about 2 sec/frame) mode. Instrument functioning is entirely under PDP 11/45 computer control, and interfacing is via the CAMAC system.

  11. Chaos in quantum channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosur, Pavan; Qi, Xiao-Liang [Department of Physics, Stanford University,476 Lomita Mall, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Roberts, Daniel A. [Center for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Yoshida, Beni [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology,1200 E California Blvd, Pasadena CA 91125 (United States)


    We study chaos and scrambling in unitary channels by considering their entanglement properties as states. Using out-of-time-order correlation functions to diagnose chaos, we characterize the ability of a channel to process quantum information. We show that the generic decay of such correlators implies that any input subsystem must have near vanishing mutual information with almost all partitions of the output. Additionally, we propose the negativity of the tripartite information of the channel as a general diagnostic of scrambling. This measures the delocalization of information and is closely related to the decay of out-of-time-order correlators. We back up our results with numerics in two non-integrable models and analytic results in a perfect tensor network model of chaotic time evolution. These results show that the butterfly effect in quantum systems implies the information-theoretic definition of scrambling.

  12. Nanoscale Vacuum Channel Transistor. (United States)

    Han, Jin-Woo; Moon, Dong-Il; Meyyappan, M


    Vacuum tubes that sparked the electronics era had given way to semiconductor transistors. Despite their faster operation and better immunity to noise and radiation compared to the transistors, the vacuum device technology became extinct due to the high power consumption, integration difficulties, and short lifetime of the vacuum tubes. We combine the best of vacuum tubes and modern silicon nanofabrication technology here. The surround gate nanoscale vacuum channel transistor consists of sharp source and drain electrodes separated by sub-50 nm vacuum channel with a source to gate distance of 10 nm. This transistor performs at a low voltage (3 microamperes). The nanoscale vacuum channel transistor can be a possible alternative to semiconductor transistors beyond Moore's law.

  13. Volume Regulated Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Thomas Kjær

    of volume perturbations evolution have developed system of channels and transporters to tightly control volume homeostasis. In the past decades evidence has been mounting, that the importance of these volume regulated channels and transporters are not restricted to the defense of cellular volume......- serves a multitude of functions in the mammalian cell, regulating the membrane potential (Em), cell volume, protein activity and the driving force for facilitated transporters giving Cl- and Cl- channels a major potential of regulating cellular function. These functions include control of the cell cycle....... Understanding the structure/function relationship of TRPV4 is essential for future development of specific TRPV4 agonist for treatment of diseases causes by dysfunctional TRPV4. E.g. two inherited bone dysplasias have recently been demonstrated in humans to originate from TRPV4 mutations....

  14. Model-Driven Development of Safety Architectures (United States)

    Denney, Ewen; Pai, Ganesh; Whiteside, Iain


    We describe the use of model-driven development for safety assurance of a pioneering NASA flight operation involving a fleet of small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS) flying beyond visual line of sight. The central idea is to develop a safety architecture that provides the basis for risk assessment and visualization within a safety case, the formal justification of acceptable safety required by the aviation regulatory authority. A safety architecture is composed from a collection of bow tie diagrams (BTDs), a practical approach to manage safety risk by linking the identified hazards to the appropriate mitigation measures. The safety justification for a given unmanned aircraft system (UAS) operation can have many related BTDs. In practice, however, each BTD is independently developed, which poses challenges with respect to incremental development, maintaining consistency across different safety artifacts when changes occur, and in extracting and presenting stakeholder specific information relevant for decision making. We show how a safety architecture reconciles the various BTDs of a system, and, collectively, provide an overarching picture of system safety, by considering them as views of a unified model. We also show how it enables model-driven development of BTDs, replete with validations, transformations, and a range of views. Our approach, which we have implemented in our toolset, AdvoCATE, is illustrated with a running example drawn from a real UAS safety case. The models and some of the innovations described here were instrumental in successfully obtaining regulatory flight approval.

  15. Spectroradiometric Instruments And Applications (United States)

    Walker, Richard A.; Miller, Kenneth A.; Bulpitt, Thomas H.


    This paper discusses spectroradiometric instruments and applications. Multiple-detector spectroradiometers and single-detector scanning spectroradiometers are described, with particular emphasis on current state-of-the-art integrated systems. Applications discussed include: color measurement (colorimetry); photometry and colorimetry of cathode-ray-tubes , light-emitting-diodes and other displays; photometry and colorimetry of light sources and flash lamps; and colorimetry of reflective and transmissive materials. Future trends are also discussed.

  16. Guide to Instrumentation Literature (United States)


    pp. 2622. L. K. Spink, Princirles and practice of flow meter engineering., Iie Foxboro Coo, Foxboro$ Mass., Ed. 7# 1950. 1418 pp. 2623. Reid F...ring. 1952. 269 pp. Vol., 2 - Method- for associating mathematical solutions with common forms, 1953. 827 pp. Vol. 3 - Applications of the instrument...weights, and Volumetric glassware. -13.1 - 2.9. Periodicals P1100. Standards; Metrology; Testing, General (Cont.) P1127. Revista chilena do

  17. Instrumentation: endoscopes and equipment. (United States)

    Gaab, Michael R


    The technology and instrumentation for neuroendoscopy are described: endoscopes (principles, designs, applications), light sources, instruments, accessories, holders, and navigation. Procedures for cleaning, sterilizing, and storing are included. The description is based on the author's own technical development and neuroendoscopic experience, published technology and devices, and publications on endoscopic surgery. The main work horses in neuroendoscopy are rigid glass rod endoscopes (Hopkins optics) due to the optical quality, which allows full high-definition video imaging, different angles of view, and autoclavability, which is especially important in neuroendoscopy due to the risk of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease infection. Applications are endoscopy assistance to microsurgery, stand-alone endoscopy controlled approaches such as transnasal skull base, ventriculoscopy, and cystoscopy in the cranium. Rigid glass rod optics are also applicable in spinal endoscopy and peripheral nerve decompression using special tubes and cannulas. Rigid minifiberoptics with less resolution may be used in less complex procedures (ventriculoscopy, cystoscopy, endoscopy assistance with pen-designs) and have the advantages of smaller diameters and disposable designs. Flexible fiberoptics are usually used in combination with rigid scopes and can be steered, e.g. through the ventricles, in spinal procedures for indications including syringomyelia and multicystic hydrocephalus. Upcoming flexible chip endoscopes ("chip-in-the-tip") may replace flexible fiberoptics in the future, offering higher resolution and cold LED-illumination, and may provide for stereoscopic neuroendoscopy. Various instruments (mechanical, coagulation, laser guides, ultrasonic aspirators) and holders are available. Certified methods for cleaning and sterilization, with special requirements in neuroapplications, are important. Neuroendoscopic instrumentation is now an established technique in neurosurgical practice and

  18. Instrumentation and diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakaishi, C.V.; Bedick, R.C.


    This Technology Status Report describes research and accomplishments for the Instrumentation and Diagnostics (I D) Projects within the Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR TD) Program of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). Process understanding and control can be improved through the development of advanced instrumentation and diagnostics. The thrust of the I D Projects is to further develop existing measurement and control techniques for application to advanced coal-based technologies. Project highlights are: an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) instrument has been developed to analyze trace elements in gasification and combustion process streams. An in situ two-color Mie scattering technique with LSS can simultaneously measure the size, velocity, and elemental composition of coal particles during combustion. A high-temperature, fluorescence thermometry technique has accurately measured gas temperatures during field testing in combustion and gasification environments. Expert systems have been developed to improve the control of advanced coal-based processes. Capacitance flowmeters were developed to determine the mass flowrate, solid volume fraction, and particle velocities of coal slurries. 32 refs., 9 figs.

  19. Ionic Channels in Thunderclouds (United States)

    Losseva, T. V.; Fomenko, A. S.; Nemtchinov, I. V.


    We proceed to study the formation and propagation of ionic channels in thunderclouds in the framework of the model of the corona discharge wave propagation (Fomenko A.S., Losseva T.V., Nemtchinov I.V. The corona discharge waves in thunderclouds and formation of ionic channels // 2004 Fall Meeting. EOS Trans. AGU. 2004. V. 85. ¹ 47. Suppl. Abstract AE23A-0835.). In this model we proposed a hypothesis that the structure of a thundercloud becomes nonuniform due to corona discharge on the drops and ice particles and formation of ionic channels with higher conductivity than the surrounding air. When the onset strength of corona discharge becomes smaller than the electric field strength the corona discharge increases concentrations of ions in a small part of the cloud (a hot spot). An additional charge at opposite ends of the hot spot forms due to polarization process. The increased electric field initiates corona discharge in other parts of the cloud on ice particles and water drops with smaller sizes. The corona discharge front moves as a wave with the velocity of the order of ion drift and formes a highly conductive channel. We model this non-stationary problem with Poisson equation which is solved simultaneously with a simplified set of kinetic equations for ions, small charged particles and electrons (at high electric fields), including ionization due to electronic impact, attachment and formation of positive ions. By applying 3D numerical simulations we obtain the parameters of formed ionic channels with respect to onset electric fields both from large particles (in hot spot) and from small particles (surrounding hot spot), microscopic currents from particles with different sizes and the external electric field in the cloud. The interaction of ionic channels is also investigated. This work was supported by Russian Foundation of Basic Research (Project No 07-05-00998-à).

  20. Aquaporins as gas channels. (United States)

    Herrera, Marcela; Garvin, Jeffrey L


    Gas molecules play important roles in human physiology. Volatile substances produced by one cell often regulate neighboring cells in a paracrine fashion. While gaseous molecules have traditionally been thought to travel from cell to cell by free diffusion through the bilayer portion of the membrane, this does not explain their rapid physiological actions. The recent observations that: (1) water channels can transport other molecules besides water, and (2) aquaporins are often expressed in tissues where gas (but not water) transport is essential suggest that these channels conduct physiologically important gases in addition to water. This review summarizes recent findings on the role of aquaporins as gas transporters as well as their physiological significance.

  1. Sodium channels and pain. (United States)

    Habib, Abdella M; Wood, John N; Cox, James J


    Human and mouse genetic studies have led to significant advances in our understanding of the role of voltage-gated sodium channels in pain pathways. In this chapter, we focus on Nav1.7, Nav1.8, Nav1.9 and Nav1.3 and describe the insights gained from the detailed analyses of global and conditional transgenic Nav knockout mice in terms of pain behaviour. The spectrum of human disorders caused by mutations in these channels is also outlined, concluding with a summary of recent progress in the development of selective Nav1.7 inhibitors for the treatment of pain.

  2. 47 CFR 80.303 - Watch on 156.800 MHz (Channel 16). (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Watch on 156.800 MHz (Channel 16). 80.303 Section 80.303 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO... Watches § 80.303 Watch on 156.800 MHz (Channel 16). (a) During its hours of operation, each coast station...

  3. 47 CFR 80.148 - Watch on 156.8 MHz (Channel 16). (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Watch on 156.8 MHz (Channel 16). 80.148 Section 80.148 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO... Watches § 80.148 Watch on 156.8 MHz (Channel 16). Each compulsory vessel, while underway, must maintain a...

  4. 33 CFR 162.35 - Channel of Christina River, Del.; navigation. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Channel of Christina River, Del.; navigation. 162.35 Section 162.35 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.35 Channel of...

  5. 33 CFR 162.30 - Channel of Tuckerton Creek, N.J.; navigation. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Channel of Tuckerton Creek, N.J.; navigation. 162.30 Section 162.30 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.30 Channel of...

  6. Process control under safety aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollmer, T. E-mail:; Borcherding, K.; Hellriegel, G.; Penzhorn, R.-D


    The safety of people and the environment is increasingly important in the operation and, consequently, also in the project design of process equipment. Rules and regulations for safeguarding of industrial process plants (not-nuclear and nuclear) by means of process control engineering are either being developed or expanded. This includes the international harmonization of existing national codes. This article presents an introduction into the philosophy of ensuring plant safety by means of instrumentation and control protection systems. The methods of risk assessment are described, and various potential solutions are shown which are geared to achieving the necessary level of safety and, at the same time, allowing flexible operation to be maintained. Reference is made to the problems existing with respect to integrating people into this process, i.e. man-machine interaction, especially in view of possible interventions in emergencies.

  7. Simulation visualization through dynamic instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisset, K.R.


    The goal of the instrument composition system is to allow a simulation user to dynamically create instruments as a simulation executes. Instruments can include graphical displays, data collectors, and debugging aides. Instruments are made up of small building blocks which can be easily combined into larger, more complex instruments. Through the sue of an Attribute Server (a distributed publication/subscription mechanism), the actors and instruments in a simulation can interact without direct knowledge of each other. Instead, each actor publishes the attributes which it has available. An instrument subscribes to the attributes in which it is interested, and is notified whenever the value of one of these attribute changes. An instrument can also publish attributes for use by other instruments. Since the Attribute Server is distributed, the publisher of an attribute need not execute on the same machine as the subscriber. This allows CPU intensive data visualization to execute on separate machines from the simulation, minimizing the impact on the simulation.

  8. FHR Process Instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL


    Fluoride salt-cooled High temperature Reactors (FHRs) are entering into early phase engineering development. Initial candidate technologies have been identified to measure all of the required process variables. The purpose of this paper is to describe the proposed measurement techniques in sufficient detail to enable assessment of the proposed instrumentation suite and to support development of the component technologies. This paper builds upon the instrumentation chapter of the recently published FHR technology development roadmap. Locating instruments outside of the intense core radiation and high-temperature fluoride salt environment significantly decreases their environmental tolerance requirements. Under operating conditions, FHR primary coolant salt is a transparent, low-vapor-pressure liquid. Consequently, FHRs can employ standoff optical measurements from above the salt pool to assess in-vessel conditions. For example, the core outlet temperature can be measured by observing the fuel s blackbody emission. Similarly, the intensity of the core s Cerenkov glow indicates the fission power level. Short-lived activation of the primary coolant provides another means for standoff measurements of process variables. The primary coolant flow and neutron flux can be measured using gamma spectroscopy along the primary coolant piping. FHR operation entails a number of process measurements. Reactor thermal power and core reactivity are the most significant variables for process control. Thermal power can be determined by measuring the primary coolant mass flow rate and temperature rise across the core. The leading candidate technologies for primary coolant temperature measurement are Au-Pt thermocouples and Johnson noise thermometry. Clamp-on ultrasonic flow measurement, that includes high-temperature tolerant standoffs, is a potential coolant flow measurement technique. Also, the salt redox condition will be monitored as an indicator of its corrosiveness. Both

  9. New Trends in Cancer Therapy: Targeting Ion Channels and Transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annarosa Arcangeli


    Full Text Available The expression and activity of different channel types mark and regulate specific stages of cancer establishment and progression. Blocking channel activity impairs the growth of some tumors, both in vitro and in vivo, which opens a new field for pharmaceutical research. However, ion channel blockers may produce serious side effects, such as cardiac arrhythmias. For instance, Kv11.1 (hERG1 channels are aberrantly expressed in several human cancers, in which they control different aspects of the neoplastic cell behaviour. hERG1 blockers tend to inhibit cancer growth. However they also retard the cardiac repolarization, thus lengthening the electrocardiographic QT interval, which can lead to life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias. Several possibilities exist to produce less harmful compounds, such as developing specific drugs that bind hERG1 channels in the open state or disassemble the ion channel/integrin complex which appears to be crucial in certain stages of neoplastic progression. The potential approaches to improve the efficacy and safety of ion channel targeting in oncology include: (1 targeting specific conformational channel states; (2 finding ever more specific inhibitors, including peptide toxins, for channel subtypes mainly expressed in well-identified tumors; (3 using specific ligands to convey traceable or cytotoxic compounds; (4 developing channel blocking antibodies; (5 designing new molecular tools to decrease channel expression in selected cancer types. Similar concepts apply to ion transporters such as the Na+/K+ pump and the Na+/H+ exchanger. Pharmacological targeting of these transporters is also currently being considered in anti-neoplastic therapy.

  10. Safety Note

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Secretariat


    Please note that the Safety Note no 29 (NS 29) entitled 'Fire Prevention for Insulating Core (Sandwich) Panel Structures for Inside Use Guidelines for Selection, Installation and Use' is available on the web at the following url: Paper copies can also be obtained from the SC Unit secretariat, e-mail : SC Secretariat

  11. CARMENES instrument overview (United States)

    Quirrenbach, A.; Amado, P. J.; Caballero, J. A.; Mundt, R.; Reiners, A.; Ribas, I.; Seifert, W.; Abril, M.; Aceituno, J.; Alonso-Floriano, F. J.; Ammler-von Eiff, M.; Antona Jiménez, R.; Anwand-Heerwart, H.; Azzaro, M.; Bauer, F.; Barrado, D.; Becerril, S.; Béjar, V. J. S.; Benítez, D.; Berdiñas, Z. M.; Cárdenas, M. C.; Casal, E.; Claret, A.; Colomé, J.; Cortés-Contreras, M.; Czesla, S.; Doellinger, M.; Dreizler, S.; Feiz, C.; Fernández, M.; Galadí, D.; Gálvez-Ortiz, M. C.; García-Piquer, A.; García-Vargas, M. L.; Garrido, R.; Gesa, L.; Gómez Galera, V.; González Álvarez, E.; González Hernández, J. I.; Grözinger, U.; Guàrdia, J.; Guenther, E. W.; de Guindos, E.; Gutiérrez-Soto, J.; Hagen, H.-J.; Hatzes, A. P.; Hauschildt, P. H.; Helmling, J.; Henning, T.; Hermann, D.; Hernández Castaño, L.; Herrero, E.; Hidalgo, D.; Holgado, G.; Huber, A.; Huber, K. F.; Jeffers, S.; Joergens, V.; de Juan, E.; Kehr, M.; Klein, R.; Kürster, M.; Lamert, A.; Lalitha, S.; Laun, W.; Lemke, U.; Lenzen, R.; López del Fresno, Mauro; López Martí, B.; López-Santiago, J.; Mall, U.; Mandel, H.; Martín, E. L.; Martín-Ruiz, S.; Martínez-Rodríguez, H.; Marvin, C. J.; Mathar, R. J.; Mirabet, E.; Montes, D.; Morales Muñoz, R.; Moya, A.; Naranjo, V.; Ofir, A.; Oreiro, R.; Pallé, E.; Panduro, J.; Passegger, V.-M.; Pérez-Calpena, A.; Pérez Medialdea, D.; Perger, M.; Pluto, M.; Ramón, A.; Rebolo, R.; Redondo, P.; Reffert, S.; Reinhardt, S.; Rhode, P.; Rix, H.-W.; Rodler, F.; Rodríguez, E.; Rodríguez-López, C.; Rodríguez-Pérez, E.; Rohloff, R.-R.; Rosich, A.; Sánchez-Blanco, E.; Sánchez Carrasco, M. A.; Sanz-Forcada, J.; Sarmiento, L. F.; Schäfer, S.; Schiller, J.; Schmidt, C.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Solano, E.; Stahl, O.; Storz, C.; Stürmer, J.; Suárez, J. C.; Ulbrich, R. G.; Veredas, G.; Wagner, K.; Winkler, J.; Zapatero Osorio, M. R.; Zechmeister, M.; Abellán de Paco, F. J.; Anglada-Escudé, G.; del Burgo, C.; Klutsch, A.; Lizon, J. L.; López-Morales, M.; Morales, J. C.; Perryman, M. A. C.; Tulloch, S. M.; Xu, W.


    This paper gives an overview of the CARMENES instrument and of the survey that will be carried out with it during the first years of operation. CARMENES (Calar Alto high-Resolution search for M dwarfs with Exoearths with Near-infrared and optical Echelle Spectrographs) is a next-generation radial-velocity instrument under construction for the 3.5m telescope at the Calar Alto Observatory by a consortium of eleven Spanish and German institutions. The scientific goal of the project is conducting a 600-night exoplanet survey targeting ~ 300 M dwarfs with the completed instrument. The CARMENES instrument consists of two separate echelle spectrographs covering the wavelength range from 0.55 to 1.7 μm at a spectral resolution of R = 82,000, fed by fibers from the Cassegrain focus of the telescope. The spectrographs are housed in vacuum tanks providing the temperature-stabilized environments necessary to enable a 1 m/s radial velocity precision employing a simultaneous calibration with an emission-line lamp or with a Fabry-Perot etalon. For mid-M to late-M spectral types, the wavelength range around 1.0 μm (Y band) is the most important wavelength region for radial velocity work. Therefore, the efficiency of CARMENES has been optimized in this range. The CARMENES instrument consists of two spectrographs, one equipped with a 4k x 4k pixel CCD for the range 0.55 - 1.05 μm, and one with two 2k x 2k pixel HgCdTe detectors for the range from 0.95 - 1.7μm. Each spectrograph will be coupled to the 3.5m telescope with two optical fibers, one for the target, and one for calibration light. The front end contains a dichroic beam splitter and an atmospheric dispersion corrector, to feed the light into the fibers leading to the spectrographs. Guiding is performed with a separate camera; on-axis as well as off-axis guiding modes are implemented. Fibers with octagonal cross-section are employed to ensure good stability of the output in the presence of residual guiding errors. The

  12. On-Line Monitoring: Technical Specification for Instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Davis


    The report describes content and scope of Technical Specification changes in support of on-line monitoring of calibration of instrumentation. The uncertainty of the multivariate state estimation technique is addressed with respect to safety-related setpoints. Validation and verification of the associated software is addressed.

  13. Nuclear safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Program on Nuclear Safety comprehends Radioprotection, Radioactive Waste Management and Nuclear Material Control. These activities are developed at the Nuclear Safety Directory. The Radioactive Waste Management Department (GRR) was formally created in 1983, to promote research and development, teaching and service activities in the field of radioactive waste. Its mission is to develop and employ technologies to manage safely the radioactive wastes generated at IPEN and at its customer’s facilities all over the country, in order to protect the health and the environment of today's and future generations. The Radioprotection Service (GRP) aims primarily to establish requirements for the protection of people, as workers, contractors, students, members of the general public and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation. Furthermore, it also aims to establish the primary criteria for the safety of radiation sources at IPEN and planning and preparing for response to nuclear and radiological emergencies. The procedures about the management and the control of exposures to ionizing radiation are in compliance with national standards and international recommendations. Research related to the main activities is also performed. The Nuclear Material Control has been performed by the Safeguard Service team, which manages the accountability and the control of nuclear material at IPEN facilities and provides information related to these activities to ABACC and IAEA. (author)

  14. Reflections on system safety and the law (United States)

    Hayes, D. F., Sr.


    The application of law to the determination of what constitutes safeness is discussed. The numerous factors are analyzed which enter into the decisions of courts in deciding what is safe and what is unsafe. It is pointed out that as technology changes, legal interpretations of safety also change. Arguements are given for the use of system safety techniques and better engineering analyses as instruments of defense against liability.

  15. Cardiovascular Safety Pharmacology of Sibutramine. (United States)

    Yun, Jaesuk; Chung, Eunyong; Choi, Ki Hwan; Cho, Dae Hyun; Song, Yun Jeong; Han, Kyoung Moon; Cha, Hey Jin; Shin, Ji Soon; Seong, Won-Keun; Kim, Young-Hoon; Kim, Hyung Soo


    Sibutramine is an anorectic that has been banned since 2010 due to cardiovascular safety issues. However, counterfeit drugs or slimming products that include sibutramine are still available in the market. It has been reported that illegal sibutramine-contained pharmaceutical products induce cardiovascular crisis. However, the mechanism underlying sibutramine-induced cardiovascular adverse effect has not been fully evaluated yet. In this study, we performed cardiovascular safety pharmacology studies of sibutramine systemically using by hERG channel inhibition, action potential duration, and telemetry assays. Sibutramine inhibited hERG channel current of HEK293 cells with an IC50 of 3.92 μM in patch clamp assay and increased the heart rate and blood pressure (76 Δbpm in heart rate and 51 ΔmmHg in blood pressure) in beagle dogs at a dose of 30 mg/kg (per oral), while it shortened action potential duration (at 10 μM and 30 μM, resulted in 15% and 29% decreases in APD50, and 9% and 17% decreases in APD90, respectively) in the Purkinje fibers of rabbits and had no effects on the QTc interval in beagle dogs. These results suggest that sibutramine has a considerable adverse effect on the cardiovascular system and may contribute to accurate drug safety regulation.

  16. UMTS Common Channel Sensitivity Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pratas, Nuno; Rodrigues, António; Santos, Frederico


    The UMTS common transport channels forward access channel (FACH) and the random access channel (RACH) are two of the three fundamental channels for a functional implementation of an UMTS network. Most signaling procedures, such as the registration procedure, make use of these channels...... and as such it is necessary that both channels be available across the cell radius. This requirement makes the choice of the transmission parameters a fundamental one. This paper presents a sensitivity analysis regarding the transmission parameters of two UMTS common channels: RACH and FACH. Optimization of these channels...... is performed and values for the key transmission parameters in both common channels are obtained. On RACH these parameters are the message to preamble offset, the initial SIR target and the preamble power step while on FACH it is the transmission power offset....

  17. Chemistry in Microfluidic Channels (United States)

    Chia, Matthew C.; Sweeney, Christina M.; Odom, Teri W.


    General chemistry introduces principles such as acid-base chemistry, mixing, and precipitation that are usually demonstrated in bulk solutions. In this laboratory experiment, we describe how chemical reactions can be performed in a microfluidic channel to show advanced concepts such as laminar fluid flow and controlled precipitation. Three sets of…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique eBalderas


    Full Text Available Since its discovery in a glioma cell line 15 years ago, mitochondrial BKCa channel (mitoBKCa has been studied in brain cells and cardiomyocytes sharing general biophysical properties such as high K+ conductance (~300 pS, voltage-dependency and Ca2+-sensitivity. Main advances in deciphering the molecular composition of mitoBKCa have included establishing that it is encoded by the Kcnma1 gene, that a C-terminal splice insert confers mitoBKCa ability to be targeted to cardiac mitochondria, and evidence for its potential coassembly with β subunits. Notoriously, β1 subunit directly interacts with cytochrome c oxidase and mitoBKCa can be modulated by substrates of the respiratory chain. mitoBKCa channel has a central role in protecting the heart from ischemia, where pharmacological activation of the channel impacts the generation of reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial Ca2+ preventing cell death likely by impeding uncontrolled opening of the mitochondrial transition pore. Supporting this view, inhibition of mitoBKCa with Iberiotoxin, enhances cytochrome c release from glioma mitochondria. Many tantalizing questions remain. Some of them are: how is mitoBKCa coupled to the respiratory chain? Does mitoBKCa play non-conduction roles in mitochondria physiology? Which are the functional partners of mitoBKCa? What are the roles of mitoBKCa in other cell types? Answers to these questions are essential to define the impact of mitoBKCa channel in mitochondria biology and disease.

  19. Learning in Tactile Channels (United States)

    Gescheider, George A.; Wright, John H.


    Vibrotactile intensity-discrimination thresholds for sinusoidal stimuli applied to the thenar eminence of the hand declined as a function of practice. However, improvement was confined to the tactile information-processing channel in which learning had occurred. Specifically, improvements in performance with training within the Pacinian-corpuscle…

  20. Preliminary safety information document for the standard MHTGR: Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report presents preliminary safety information for the standard MHTGR. Topics discussed include: plant protection, instrumentation, and control; electrical systems; service systems; and steam and energy conversion systems. (JDB)

  1. Nuclear safety, Volume 38, Number 1, January--March 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This journal contains nine articles which fall under the following categories: (1) general safety considerations; (2) control and instrumentation; (3) design features (4) environmental effects; (5) US Nuclear Regulatory Commission information and analyses; and (6) recent developments.

  2. Micromachining inertial instruments (United States)

    Weinberg, Marc S.; Bernstein, Jonathan J.; Borenstein, Jeffrey T.; Campbell, J.; Cousens, J.; Cunningham, Robert K.; Fields, R.; Greiff, Paul; Hugh, Brenda; Niles, Les; Sohn, Jerome B.


    Draper Laboratory, using silicon microfabrication techniques to achieve high yields by batch processing, has been developing miniature microelectromechanical instruments for over 10 years. During this time, considerable progress has been made in the development and fabrication of micromechanical gyroscopes, accelerometers, and acoustic sensors. Inertial instruments have become a worldwide research and commercial topic. Draper gyroscopes and accelerometers have been fabricated with measurement ranges from 50 to 500 deg/s and 10 to 100,000 g, respectively. In gyroscopes, stabilities are 20 deg/h in room temperature tests and 4.4 deg/h applying 0.3 degrees C thermal control. For accelerometers, less than 1 mg has been demonstrated in room temperature tests. These units have performed successfully across a temperature range of -40 to 85 degrees C, and have survived 80,000- to 120,000-g shock tests along all axes. Continuing development activities are expected to yield over an order of magnitude in performance enhancement. These micromechanical instruments are built using a silicon wafer process that results in crystal silicon structures that are anodically bonded on a Pyrex substrate that contains sensing and control electrodes. This silicon-on-glass configuration has low stray capacitance, and is ideally suited for hybrid or flip-chip bonding technology. Draper's inertial sensors incorporate excellent fabrication, however, building the silicon and Pyrex sensor chip is only one of many important contributions in a complete sensor system. Other equally important steps include: 1) electronics and application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) 2) packaging, 3) test, and 4) modeling and analysis. This presentation focuses on sensor fabrication. Draper's accelerometers and gyroscopes and the dissolved wafer fabrication process are described. The evolution of gyro design, fabrication, and performance is summarized. Garnered through experience in both conventional and

  3. Jedem Kind ein Instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Finn


    I forbindelse med skolereformen 2014 er der kommet øget fokus på samarbejdet mellem musikskole og folkeskole (grundskole). En kortlægningsundersøgelse viste op til reformen, at så godt som alle musikskoler har et samarbejde med grundskolen, mens der er en del folkeskoler, som ikke har et samarbej...... muligheder. Jedem Kind ein Instrument (JeKi) er et grundskoleprogram med instrumentundervisning, som bygger på samarbejde mellem musikskole og grundskole. Der indgår over 70.000 elever årligt, og der er etableret et omfattende forskningsprogram....

  4. Leir beam instrumentation

    CERN Document Server

    Bal, C; Burger, S; Dutriat, C; Gasior, M; Lefèvre, T; Lenardon, F; Odier, P; Raich, U; Soby, L; Tan, J; Tranquille, G; Vuitton, C


    The Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR) is central to the “Ions for LHC” project. Its role is to transform a serie of long low intensity ion pulses from Linac 3, into short high density pulses, which will be further accelerated in the PS and SPS rings, before injection into LHC. To do so the injected pulses are stacked and phase space cooled using electron cooling, before acceleration to the ejection energy of 72 MEV/u. This note describes different types of instruments which will be installed in the LEIR ring and transfer lines.

  5. Payment Instrument Characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jacques; Kjeldsen, Martin; Hedman, Jonas


    Over the last decade, we have witnessed payment innovations that fundamentally have changed the ways we pay. Payment innovations, such as mobile payments and on-line banking, include characteristics or features that are essential to understand if we want to know how and why payers choose among...... payment innovations. Using the Repertory Grid technique to explore 15 payers’ perception of six payment instruments, including coins, banknotes, debit cards, credit cards, mobile payments, and on-line banking, we identify 16 payment characteristics. The characteristics aggregate seventy-six unique...... features. Many of the characteristics and one of the categories are completely novel and unaccounted for in previous works....

  6. Development of an approach for the analysis of network technologies in safety related instrumentation and control systems with respect to the propagation and effect of postulated failures; Entwicklung eines Ansatzes zur Analyse der Netzwerktechnologien in sicherheitsrelevanten Leittechniksystemen hinsichtlich Verbreitung und Auswirkung postulierter Fehler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herb, Joachim; Jopen, Manuela; Lindner, Falk; Piljugin, Ewgenij; Vogt, Pascal


    So far, safety related instrumentation and control (I and C) functions in nuclear power plants, such as controlling of safety systems, were mostly performed by conventional (analog) I and C equipment. For some years now, I and C systems and equipment in nuclear power plants worldwide, but also in Germany, are modernized by computer-based I and C systems. In signal processing of the computer-based I and C systems, modern network technologies are used both for internal and external communication, whereas the reliability and safety for information transfer and processing plays an important role. National and interna-tional operational experience shows a significant influence of communication in a net-worked I and C system on its reliability. The aim of the GRS within the project 361R01351 ''Development of an approach for an analysis of network technologies in safety related I and C systems in view of distribution and effect of postulated failures'' was to improve the expertise in the field of network communication, to investigate phenomenologically potential sources of failures and fault propagation paths (Network failures) in a generic I and C system as well as to develop methodic approaches for analyses of propagation and effect of postulated failures in typical networks. The GRS conducted extensive research in the field of ''Data communication in digital I and C systems''. In this report, the basic principles of data communication of computer-based I and C systems are presented. This includes, among other things, network topolo-gies, communication protocols and standards as well as generic failures. Additionally, the properties of different analysis methods and its applicability for reliability analyses of network communication in computer-based I and C systems are discussed. Based on state of the art evaluation, an analysis approach was developed, which takes into account the specific properties of network communication and

  7. Calibration of "Babyline" RP instruments

    CERN Multimedia


      If you have old RP instrumentation of the “Babyline” type, as shown in the photo, please contact the Radiation Protection Group (Joffrey Germa, 73171) to have the instrument checked and calibrated. Thank you. Radiation Protection Group

  8. The Mars express MARSIS sounder instrument (United States)

    Jordan, R.; Picardi, G.; Plaut, J.; Wheeler, K.; Kirchner, D.; Safaeinili, A.; Johnson, W.; Seu, R.; Calabrese, D.; Zampolini, E.; Cicchetti, A.; Huff, R.; Gurnett, D.; Ivanov, A.; Kofman, W.; Orosei, R.; Thompson, T.; Edenhofer, P.; Bombaci, O.


    The Mars advanced radar for subsurface and ionospheric sounding (MARSIS) on Mars Express is the first high-frequency sounding radar operating from orbital altitudes since the Apollo 17 Lunar Sounder flown in 1972. The radar operates from a highly elliptical orbit but acquires data only from altitudes lower than 1200 km. The periapsis altitude is 250 km. This radar has been succesfully operating since August 2005. The radar is a dual channel low-frequency sounder, operates between 1.3 and 5.5 MHz (MegaHertz) with wavelengths between 230 and 55 m in free space for subsurface sounding and between 0.1 and 5.5 MHz (wavelengths between 3000 and 55 m) for ionospheric sounding. The subsurface sounder can operate at one or two-frequency bands out of four available bands at either like or cross polarization. The subsurface sounding radar transmits radio frequency (RF) pulses of 250 μs duration through a 40 m dipole antenna. The return echoes are then converted to digital form and temporarily stored on board for some digital processing. A second antenna, a monopole, provides reception for the cross-polarized return and its data are processed by a second channel. This processing reduces the data rate produced by the instrument to rates allowed by the spacecraft communications channel. These processed returns are then sent to Earth by the telecommunications system on the spacecraft. The advances in digital data acquisition and processing, since 1972, have enabled this technique to be used in a compact spacecraft science instrument.. This sounder has obtained returns from several kilometers below the surface of the Mars. The ionospheric sounder operates at altitudes greater than 800 km in a mode that sweeps the entire 0.1-5.5 MHz range. During ionospheric sounding, the transmitter sends a 91 μs tone at 127 pulses per second rate. The frequency sweep takes 7.3 s to complete the 0.1-5.5 MHz range. Operational aspects of the instrument are described, including the selection of

  9. Reactor Safety Research Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edler, S. K.


    This document summarizes the work performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) from January 1 through March 31, 1981, for the Division of Reactor Safety Research within the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Evaluations of nondestructive examination (NDE) techniques and instrumentation are reported; areas of investigation include demonstrating the feasibility of determining the strength of structural graphite, evaluating the feasibility of detecting and analyzing flaw growth in reactor pressure boundary systems, examining NDE reliability and probabilistic fracture mechanics, and assessing the integrity of pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generator tubes where service-induced degradation has been indicated. Experimental data and analytical models are being provided to aid in decision-making regarding pipeto- pipe impacts following postulated breaks in high-energy fluid system piping. Core thermal models are being developed to provide better digital codes to compute the behavior of full-scale reactor systems under postulated accident conditions. Fuel assemblies and analytical support are being provided for experimental programs at other facilities. These programs include loss-ofcoolant accident (LOCA) simulation tests at the NRU reactor, Chalk River, Canada; fuel rod deformation, severe fuel damage, and postaccident coolability tests for the ESSOR reactor Super Sara Test Program, Ispra, Italy; the instrumented fuel assembly irradiation program at Halden, Norway; and experimental programs at the Power Burst Facility, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). These programs will provide data for computer modeling of reactor system and fuel performance during various abnormal operating conditions.

  10. EUROSAFE Forum for nuclear safety. Towards Convergence of Technical Nuclear Safety Practices in Europe. Safety Improvements - Reasons, Strategies, Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erven, Ulrich (ed.) [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, GRS mbH, Schwertnergasse 1, 50667 Koeln (Germany); Cherie, Jean-Bernard (ed.) [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, IRSN, BP 17, 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); Boeck, Benoit De (ed.) [Association Vincotte Nuclear, AVN, Rue Walcourt 148, 1070 Bruxelles (Belgium)


    The EUROSAFE Forum for Nuclear Safety is part of the EUROSAFE approach, which consists of two further elements: the EUROSAFE Tribune and the EUROSAFE Web site. The general aim of EUROSAFE is to contribute to fostering the convergence of technical nuclear safety practices in a broad European context. This is done by providing technical safety and research organisations, safety authorities, power utilities, the rest of the industry and non-governmental organisations mainly from the European Union and East-European countries, and international organisations with a platform for the presentation of recent analyses and R and D in the field of nuclear safety. The goal is to share experiences, to exchange technical and scientific opinions, and to conduct debates on key issues in the fields of nuclear safety and radiation protection. The EUROSAFE Forum on 2005 focused on Safety Improvements, Reasons - Strategies - Implementation, from the point of view of the authorities, TSOs and industry. Latest work in nuclear installation safety and research, waste management, radiation safety as well as nuclear material and nuclear facilities security carried out by GRS, IRSN, AVN and their partners in the European Union, Switzerland and Eastern Europe are presented. A high level of nuclear safety is a priority for the countries of Europe. The technical safety organisations play an important role in contributing to that objective through appropriate approaches to major safety issues as part of their assessments and research activities. The challenges to nuclear safety are international. Changes in underlying technologies such as instrumentation and control, the impact of electricity market deregulation, demands for improved safety and safety management, the ageing of nuclear facilities, waste management, maintaining and improving scientific and technical knowledge, and the need for greater transparency - these are all issues where the value of an international approach is gaining

  11. Food safety


    VRABCOVÁ, Kateřina


    In the diploma thesis I was dealing with the issue of food safety in the Czech Republic and labeling of meat products. In the practical part were carried out two surveys, public opinion poll and survey of proper labeling of meat products. Opinion polls were attended by 462 consumers and analysis of proper labelling was subjected to 489 meat products in select retail chains in Prague. Survey results of labeling of meat products were not very positive, but can be expected to improve, as well as...

  12. Safety training

    CERN Document Server

    SC Unit


    Habilitation électrique A course entitled "Habilitation électrique pour personnel de laboratoire" (electrical safety qualification for laboratory personnel) will be held on 22 and 23 June. Registration by e-mail to Explosion Hazards in the handling of flammable solvents and gases A course entitled "Explosion Hazards in the handling of flammable solvents and gases" given in French will be held on 18-19 June 2009. This course is obligatory for all FGSOs at CERN, and it is recommended for anyone handling flammable gas or solvents. To sign up please visit this page. For more information please contact Isabelle Cusato, tel. 73811.

  13. An Instrumental Innovation (United States)


    Think of guitars and you think of rock and country music, or the vigorous rhythms of the gypsy flamenco, or perhaps the classical strumming of a Segovia. About the last thing you would associate with guitars is aerospace technology. Yet there is a connection. A whole family of quality guitars is an outgrowth of helicopter rotor research conducted for the military services and NASA by an aerospace contractor. These musical spinoffs, commercially available and rapidly gaining in popularity, are the Ovation guitar line, manufactured by Ovation Instruments, Inc., Bloomfield, Connecticut. Ovation Instruments is a subsidiary of Kaman Corporation, a diversified company originally formed to develop and build helicopters. A helicopter's rotor system, with thousands of moving parts, is highly susceptible to vibration. For rotor efficiency, vibration must be "dampened," or reduced. Like other helicopter builders, Kaman Corporation spent years of research toward that end. The technology thus developed, together with the availability of staff experts in vibration engineering, sparked an idea in the mind of the company's president and founder, Charles H. Karnan. A guitarist of professional caliber, Kaman reasoned that vibration-dampening technology could be turned around to enhance vibration and thereby produce a guitar with superior sound.

  14. Far ultraviolet instrument technology (United States)

    Paxton, Larry J.; Schaefer, Robert K.; Zhang, Yongliang; Kil, Hyosub


    The far ultraviolet (FUV) spectral range (from about 115 nm to 180 nm) is one of the most useful spectral regions for characterizing the upper atmosphere (thermosphere and ionosphere). The principal advantages are that there are FUV signatures of the major constituents of the upper atmosphere as well as the signatures of the high-latitude energy inputs. Because of the absorption by thermospheric O2, the FUV signatures are seen against a "black" background, i.e., one that is not affected by ground albedo or clouds and, as a consequence, can make useful observations of the aurora during the day or when the Moon is above the horizon. In this paper we discuss the uses of FUV remote sensing, summarize the various techniques, and discuss the technological challenges. Our focus is on a particular type of FUV instrument, the scanning imaging spectrograph or SIS: an instrument exemplified by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Special Sensor Ultraviolet Imager and Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics Global Ultraviolet Imager. The SIS combines spatial imaging of the disk with limb profiles as well as spectral information at each point in the scan.

  15. The QUIET Instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bischoff, C.; et al.


    The Q/U Imaging ExperimenT (QUIET) is designed to measure polarization in the Cosmic Microwave Background, targeting the imprint of inflationary gravitational waves at large angular scales ({approx}1{sup o}). Between 2008 October and 2010 December, two independent receiver arrays were deployed sequentially on a 1.4m side-fed Dragonian telescope. The polarimeters which form the focal planes use a highly compact design based on High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs) that provides simultaneous measurements of the Stokes parameters Q, U, and I in a single module. The 17-element Q-band polarimeter array, with a central frequency of 43.1 GHz, has the best sensitivity (69 {mu}Ks{sup 1/2}) and the lowest instrumental systematic errors ever achieved in this band, contributing to the tensor-to-scalar ratio at r < 0:1. The 84-element W-band polarimeter array has a sensitivity of 87 {mu}Ks{sup 1/2} at a central frequency of 94.5 GHz. It has the lowest systematic errors to date, contributing at r < 0:01. The two arrays together cover multipoles in the range {ell} {approx} 25 -- 975. These are the largest HEMT-based arrays deployed to date. This article describes the design, calibration, performance of, and sources of systematic error for the instrument.

  16. Balances instruments, manufacturers, history

    CERN Document Server

    Robens, Erich; Kiefer, Susanne


    The book deals mainly with direct mass determination by means of a conventional balances. It covers the history of the balance from the beginnings in Egypt earlier than 3000 BC to recent developments. All balance types are described with emphasis on scientific balances. Methods of indirect mass determination, which are applied to very light objects like molecules and the basic particles of matter and celestial bodies, are included.  As additional guidance, today’s manufacturers are listed and the profile of important companies is reviewed. Several hundred photographs, reproductions and drawings show instruments and their uses. This book includes commercial weighing instruments for merchandise and raw materials in workshops as well as symbolic weighing in the ancient Egyptian’s ceremony of ‘Weighing of the Heart’, the Greek fate balance, the Roman  Justitia, Juno Moneta and Middle Ages scenes of the Last Judgement with Jesus or St. Michael and of modern balances. The photographs are selected from the...

  17. Planck 2013 results. VI. High Frequency Instrument data processing

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P.A.R.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J. -P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J.J.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bowyer, J.W.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Cardoso, J. -F.; Catalano, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R. -R.; Chen, X.; Chiang, L. -Y; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J. -M.; Désert, F. -X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Girard, D.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Herent, O.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hou, Z.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J. -M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R.J.; Lawrence, C.R.; Jeune, M. Le; Leonardi, R.; Leroy, C.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macías-Pérez, J.F.; MacTavish, C.J.; Maffei, B.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M. -A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Mottet, S.; Munshi, D.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; North, C.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Orieux, F.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G.W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J. -L.; Rachen, J.P.; Racine, B.; Reach, W.T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rusholme, B.; Sanselme, L.; Santos, D.; Sauvé, A.; Savini, G.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Starck, J. -L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A. -S.; Sygnet, J. -F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Techene, S.; Terenzi, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vibert, L.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; White, S.D.M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.


    We describe the processing of the 531 billion raw data samples from the High Frequency Instrument (hereafter HFI), which we performed to produce six temperature maps from the first 473 days of Planck-HFI survey data. These maps provide an accurate rendition of the sky emission at 100, 143, 217, 353, 545, and 857 GHz with an angular resolution ranging from 9.7 to 4.6 arcmin. The detector noise per (effective) beam solid angle is respectively, 10, 6, 12 and 39 microKelvin in HFI four lowest frequency channel (100--353 GHz) and 13 and 14 kJy/sr for the 545 and 857 GHz channels. Using the 143 GHz channel as a reference, these two high frequency channels are intercalibrated within 5% and the 353 GHz relative calibration is at the percent level. The 100 and 217 GHz channels, which together with the 143 GHz channel determine the high-multipole part of the CMB power spectrum (50 < l <2500), are intercalibrated at better than 0.2 %.

  18. Instrument Remote Control via the Astronomical Instrument Markup Language (United States)

    Sall, Ken; Ames, Troy; Warsaw, Craig; Koons, Lisa; Shafer, Richard


    The Instrument Remote Control (IRC) project ongoing at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Information Systems Center (ISC) supports NASA's mission by defining an adaptive intranet-based framework that provides robust interactive and distributed control and monitoring of remote instruments. An astronomical IRC architecture that combines the platform-independent processing capabilities of Java with the power of Extensible Markup Language (XML) to express hierarchical data in an equally platform-independent, as well as human readable manner, has been developed. This architecture is implemented using a variety of XML support tools and Application Programming Interfaces (API) written in Java. IRC will enable trusted astronomers from around the world to easily access infrared instruments (e.g., telescopes, cameras, and spectrometers) located in remote, inhospitable environments, such as the South Pole, a high Chilean mountaintop, or an airborne observatory aboard a Boeing 747. Using IRC's frameworks, an astronomer or other scientist can easily define the type of onboard instrument, control the instrument remotely, and return monitoring data all through the intranet. The Astronomical Instrument Markup Language (AIML) is the first implementation of the more general Instrument Markup Language (IML). The key aspects of our approach to instrument description and control applies to many domains, from medical instruments to machine assembly lines. The concepts behind AIML apply equally well to the description and control of instruments in general. IRC enables us to apply our techniques to several instruments, preferably from different observatories.

  19. Cockpit emergency safety system (United States)

    Keller, Leo


    A comprehensive safety concept is proposed for aircraft's experiencing an incident to the development of fire and smoke in the cockpit. Fire or excessive heat development caused by malfunctioning electrical appliance may produce toxic smoke, may reduce the clear vision to the instrument panel and may cause health-critical respiration conditions. Immediate reaction of the crew, safe respiration conditions and a clear undisturbed view to critical flight information data can be assumed to be the prerequisites for a safe emergency landing. The personal safety equipment of the aircraft has to be effective in supporting the crew to divert the aircraft to an alternate airport in the shortest possible amount of time. Many other elements in the cause-and-effect context of the emergence of fire, such as fire prevention, fire detection, the fire extinguishing concept, systematic redundancy, the wiring concept, the design of the power supplying system and concise emergency checklist procedures are briefly reviewed, because only a comprehensive and complete approach will avoid fatal accidents of complex aircraft in the future.

  20. Safety first

    CERN Multimedia


    Safety is a priority for CERN. That is a message I conveyed in my New Year’s address and that I reiterated at one of the first Enlarged Directorate meetings of 2012 when I outlined five key safety objectives for the year, designed and implemented according to accepted international standards.   As we move from spring to summer, it’s time to take stock of how we are doing. Objective number one for 2012, which overarches everything else, is to limit the number of incidents in the workplace. That means systematically investigating and acting on every incident that involves work stoppage, along with all the most frequent workplace accidents: falls, trips and slips. The performance indicator we set ourselves is the percentage of investigations and follow-ups completed. Year on year, these figures are rising but we can never be complacent, and must strive to reach and sustain 100% follow-up. The second objective is to improve hazard control, with a focus in 2012 on chemical ha...

  1. Metrological Array of Cyber-Physical Systems. Part 11. Remote Error Correction of Measuring Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy YATSUK


    Full Text Available The multi-channel measuring instruments with both the classical structure and the isolated one is identified their errors major factors basing on general it metrological properties analysis. Limiting possibilities of the remote automatic method for additive and multiplicative errors correction of measuring instruments with help of code-control measures are studied. For on-site calibration of multi- channel measuring instruments, the portable voltage calibrators structures are suggested and their metrological properties while automatic errors adjusting are analysed. It was experimentally envisaged that unadjusted error value does not exceed ± 1 mV that satisfies most industrial applications. This has confirmed the main approval concerning the possibilities of remote errors self-adjustment as well multi- channel measuring instruments as calibration tools for proper verification.

  2. The predictive validity of safety climate. (United States)

    Johnson, Stephen E


    Safety professionals have increasingly turned their attention to social science for insight into the causation of industrial accidents. One social construct, safety climate, has been examined by several researchers [Cooper, M. D., & Phillips, R. A. (2004). Exploratory analysis of the safety climate and safety behavior relationship. Journal of Safety Research, 35(5), 497-512; Gillen, M., Baltz, D., Gassel, M., Kirsch, L., & Vacarro, D. (2002). Perceived safety climate, job Demands, and coworker support among union and nonunion injured construction workers. Journal of Safety Research, 33(1), 33-51; Neal, A., & Griffin, M. A. (2002). Safety climate and safety behaviour. Australian Journal of Management, 27, 66-76; Zohar, D. (2000). A group-level model of safety climate: Testing the effect of group climate on microaccidents in manufacturing jobs. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85(4), 587-596; Zohar, D., & Luria, G. (2005). A multilevel model of safety climate: Cross-level relationships between organization and group-level climates. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90(4), 616-628] who have documented its importance as a factor explaining the variation of safety-related outcomes (e.g., behavior, accidents). Researchers have developed instruments for measuring safety climate and have established some degree of psychometric reliability and validity. The problem, however, is that predictive validity has not been firmly established, which reduces the credibility of safety climate as a meaningful social construct. The research described in this article addresses this problem and provides additional support for safety climate as a viable construct and as a predictive indicator of safety-related outcomes. This study used 292 employees at three locations of a heavy manufacturing organization to complete the 16 item Zohar Safety Climate Questionnaire (ZSCQ) [Zohar, D., & Luria, G. (2005). A multilevel model of safety climate: Cross-level relationships between organization and group

  3. Development of a rotary instrumentation system, phase 2 (United States)

    Adler, A.; Skidmore, W.


    A rotary instrumentation system which consists of ruggedized miniature telemetry transmitters installed on the rotating shaft of a gas turbine engine to telemeter the outputs of sensors (strain gages, thermocouples, etc.) on rotating engine components was designed. A small prototype system, which demonstrates the capabilities of performing in the intended environment and demonstrates that the system is expandable to handle about 100 data channels was developed.

  4. Radar channel balancing with commutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin Walter


    When multiple channels are employed in a pulse-Doppler radar, achieving and maintaining balance between the channels is problematic. In some circumstances the channels may be commutated to achieve adequate balance. Commutation is the switching, trading, toggling, or multiplexing of the channels between signal paths. Commutation allows modulating the imbalance energy away from the balanced energy in Doppler, where it can be mitigated with filtering.

  5. Intracellular ion channels and cancer


    Luigi eLeanza; Lucia eBiasutto; Antonella eManago; Erich eGulbins; Mario eZoratti; Ildikò eSzabò


    Several types of channels play a role in the maintenance of ion homeostasis in subcellular organelles including endoplasmatic reticulum, nucleus, lysosome, endosome, and mitochondria. Here we give a brief overview of the contribution of various mitochondrial and other organellar channels to cancer cell proliferation or death. Much attention is focused on channels involved in intracellular calcium signaling and on ion fluxes in the ATP-producing organelle mitochondria. Mitochondrial K+ channel...

  6. ``Just Another Distribution Channel?'' (United States)

    Lemstra, Wolter; de Leeuw, Gerd-Jan; van de Kar, Els; Brand, Paul

    The telecommunications-centric business model of mobile operators is under attack due to technological convergence in the communication and content industries. This has resulted in a plethora of academic contributions on the design of new business models and service platform architectures. However, a discussion of the challenges that operators are facing in adopting these models is lacking. We assess these challenges by considering the mobile network as part of the value system of the content industry. We will argue that from the perspective of a content provider the mobile network is ‘just another’ distribution channel. Strategic options available for the mobile communication operators are to deliver an excellent distribution channel for content delivery or to move upwards in the value chain by becoming a content aggregator. To become a mobile content aggregator operators will have to develop or acquire complementary resources and capabilities. Whether this strategic option is sustainable remains open.

  7. Lipid Ion Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Heimburg, Thomas


    The interpretation electrical phenomena in biomembranes is usually based on the assumption that the experimentally found discrete ion conduction events are due to a particular class of proteins called ion channels while the lipid membrane is considered being an inert electrical insulator. The particular protein structure is thought to be related to ion specificity, specific recognition of drugs by receptors and to macroscopic phenomena as nerve pulse propagation. However, lipid membranes in their chain melting regime are known to be highly permeable to ions, water and small molecules, and are therefore not always inert. In voltage-clamp experiments one finds quantized conduction events through protein-free membranes in their melting regime similar to or even undistinguishable from those attributed to proteins. This constitutes a conceptual problem for the interpretation of electrophysiological data obtained from biological membrane preparations. Here, we review the experimental evidence for lipid ion channels...

  8. Beijing opera percussion instrument dataset




    The Beijing Opera percussion instrument dataset is a collection of audio examples of individual strokes spanning the four percussion instrument classes used in Beijing Opera (Jingju, 京剧)./nBeijing Opera uses six main percussion instruments that can be grouped into four classes: /n/n1/ Bangu (Clapper-drum) consisting of Ban (the clapper, a wooden board-­shaped instrument) + danpigu (a wooden drum struck by two wooden sticks)/n2/ Naobo (Cymbals) consisting of two cymbal instruments Qibo+Danao/n...

  9. The M2 Channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santner, Paul

    Drug resistance of Influenza A against antivirals is an increasing problem. No effective Influenza A drugs targeting the crucial viral protein, the proton transporter M2 are available anymore due to widespread resistance. Thanks to research efforts elucidating M2 protein structure, function and i...... resistance escape routes from drug inhibition. We thereby were hopefully able to provide a platform for the large-scale evaluation of M2 channel activity, inhibitors and resistance....

  10. Micro-channel plate detector (United States)

    Elam, Jeffrey W.; Lee, Seon W.; Wang, Hsien -Hau; Pellin, Michael J.; Byrum, Karen; Frisch, Henry J.


    A method and system for providing a micro-channel plate detector. An anodized aluminum oxide membrane is provided and includes a plurality of nanopores which have an Al coating and a thin layer of an emissive oxide material responsive to incident radiation, thereby providing a plurality of radiation sensitive channels for the micro-channel plate detector.

  11. Development of a validated process for manual preparation of dental transmission instruments. (United States)

    Büchter, Andre; Kruse-Loesler, Birgit


    The goal of the study was to develop a validated manual preparation process that conforms to the requirements of validation guidelines. Twelve dental transmission devices from various manufacturers (turbines, handpieces, and contra-angle handpieces) were artificially contaminated with bovine hemoglobin for the test. Ten microliters (corresponding to 800 μg) of bovine hemoglobin solution (concentration 80 mg/ml) was pipetted into the spray water and spray air channels. The manual preparation was conducted by blowing air through the spray channels of the transmission instruments through an attachment to a treatment unit (model 1060T, KaVo, Biberach, Germany) for 5 s. The spray channels were cleaned with WL-Clean (Alpro, Georgen, Germany) as directed by the manufacturer. The spray channels were disinfected with WL-Cid (Alpro) and the spray channels were blow-dried with WL-Dry (Alpro) at the end of the exposure time as directed by the manufacturer. To determine the protein content (protein residue analysis) in the channels of the transmission instruments, 2 ml of an alkaline SDS solution (1%; pH 11) was flushed through the channels. For the quantitative protein residue analysis, the Biuret method was used as described in DIN EN 15883-1:2006. After the application of this method, all results of the protein residue analysis were within the acceptance criteria of the validation guideline. The newly developed manual preparation process is therefore confirmed as suitable from a hygienic viewpoint for preparation of transmission instruments in the dental practice.

  12. Ion channeling revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, Barney Lee [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Corona, Aldo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nguyen, Anh [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    A MS Excel program has been written that calculates accidental, or unintentional, ion channeling in cubic bcc, fcc and diamond lattice crystals or polycrystalline materials. This becomes an important issue when simulating the creation by energetic neutrons of point displacement damage and extended defects using beams of ions. All of the tables and graphs in the three Ion Beam Analysis Handbooks that previously had to be manually looked up and read from were programed into Excel in handy lookup tables, or parameterized, for the case of the graphs, using rather simple exponential functions with different powers of the argument. The program then offers an extremely convenient way to calculate axial and planar half-angles and minimum yield or dechanneling probabilities, effects on half-angles of amorphous overlayers, accidental channeling probabilities for randomly oriented crystals or crystallites, and finally a way to automatically generate stereographic projections of axial and planar channeling half-angles. The program can generate these projections and calculate these probabilities for axes and [hkl] planes up to (555).

  13. Totally Asynchronous Interference Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Moshksar, Kamyar


    This paper addresses an interference channel consisting of $\\mathbf{n}$ active users sharing $u$ frequency sub-bands. Users are asynchronous meaning there exists a mutual delay between their transmitted codes. A stationary model for interference is considered by assuming the starting point of an interferer's data is uniformly distributed along the codeword of any user. The spectrum is divided to private and common bands each containing $v_{\\mathrm{p}}$ and $v_{\\mathrm{c}}$ frequency sub-bands respectively. We consider a scenario where all transmitters are unaware of the number of active users and the channel gains. The optimum $v_{\\mathrm{p}}$ and $v_{\\mathrm{c}}$ are obtained such that the so-called outage capacity per user is maximized. If $\\Pr\\{\\mathbf{n}\\leq 2\\}=1$, upper and lower bounds on the mutual information between the input and output of the channel for each user are derived using a genie-aided technique. The proposed bounds meet each other as the code length grows to infinity yielding a closed ex...

  14. Instrumented Pipeline Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Piro; Michael Ream


    This report summarizes technical progress achieved during the cooperative agreement between Concurrent Technologies Corporation (CTC) and U.S. Department of Energy to address the need for a for low-cost monitoring and inspection sensor system as identified in the Department of Energy (DOE) National Gas Infrastructure Research & Development (R&D) Delivery Reliability Program Roadmap.. The Instrumented Pipeline Initiative (IPI) achieved the objective by researching technologies for the monitoring of pipeline delivery integrity, through a ubiquitous network of sensors and controllers to detect and diagnose incipient defects, leaks, and failures. This report is organized by tasks as detailed in the Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO). The sections all state the objective and approach before detailing results of work.


    Mims, L.S.


    A multi-purpose instrument for measuring neutron flux, coolant flow rate, and coolant temperature in a nuclear reactor is described. The device consists essentially of a hollow thimble containing a heat conducting element protruding from the inner wall, the element containing on its innermost end an amount of fissionsble materinl to function as a heat source when subjected to neutron flux irradiation. Thermocouple type temperature sensing means are placed on the heat conducting element adjacent the fissionable material and at a point spaced therefrom, and at a point on the thimble which is in contact with the coolant fluid. The temperature differentials measured between the thermocouples are determinative of the neutron flux, coolant flow, and temperature being measured. The device may be utilized as a probe or may be incorporated in a reactor core. (AE C)

  16. Astronomical Instrumentation System Markup Language (United States)

    Goldbaum, Jesse M.


    The Astronomical Instrumentation System Markup Language (AISML) is an Extensible Markup Language (XML) based file format for maintaining and exchanging information about astronomical instrumentation. The factors behind the need for an AISML are first discussed followed by the reasons why XML was chosen as the format. Next it's shown how XML also provides the framework for a more precise definition of an astronomical instrument and how these instruments can be combined to form an Astronomical Instrumentation System (AIS). AISML files for several instruments as well as one for a sample AIS are provided. The files demonstrate how AISML can be utilized for various tasks from web page generation and programming interface to instrument maintenance and quality management. The advantages of widespread adoption of AISML are discussed.

  17. The DYNES Instrument: A Description and Overview

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    Scientific innovation continues to increase requirements for the computing and networking infrastructures of the world. Collaborative partners, instrumentation, storage, and processing facilities are often geographically and topologically separated, as is the case with LHC virtual organizations. These separations challenge the technology used to interconnect available resources, often delivered by Research and Education (R&E) networking providers, and leads to complications in the overall process of end-to-end data management. Capacity and traffic management are key concerns of R&E network operators; a delicate balance is required to serve both long-lived, high capacity network flows, as well as more traditional end-user activities. The advent of dynamic circuit services, a technology that enables the creation of variable duration, guaranteed bandwidth networking channels, allows for the efficient use of common network infrastructures. These gains are seen particularly in locations whe...

  18. chemical safety in laboratories of african universities

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The first version of this paper was presented at the meeting of the Committee on Promoting Safe and. Secure Chemical Management in ..... Lab management and safety, instrumentation, web-based teaching. TANZANIA. University of Dar es Salaam Handling modern equipments, newly discovered technologies, ICT use in ...

  19. Inter-calibration and validation of observations from SAPHIR and ATMS instruments (United States)

    Moradi, I.; Ferraro, R. R.


    We present the results of evaluating observations from microwave instruments aboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP, ATMS instrument) and Megha-Tropiques (SAPHIR instrument) satellites. The study includes inter-comparison and inter-calibration of observations of similar channels from the two instruments, evaluation of the satellite data using high-quality radiosonde data from Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program and GPS Radio Occultaion Observations from COSMIC mission, as well as geolocation error correction. The results of this study are valuable for generating climate data records from these instruments as well as for extending current climate data records from similar instruments such as AMSU-B and MHS to the ATMS and SAPHIR instruments. Reference: Moradi et al., Intercalibration and Validation of Observations From ATMS and SAPHIR Microwave Sounders. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing. 01/2015; DOI: 10.1109/TGRS.2015.2427165

  20. Multi-channel PSD Estimators for Speech Dereverberation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuklasinski, Adam; Doclo, Simon; Gerkmann, Timo


    In this paper we perform an extensive theoretical and experimental comparison of two recently proposed multi-channel speech dereverberation algorithms. Both of them are based on the multi-channel Wiener filter but they use different estimators of the speech and reverberation power spectral...... distributions of the interference both estimators yield the same MSE. The theoretically derived MSE values are in good agreement with numerical simulation results and with instrumental speech quality measures in a realistic speech dereverberation task for binaural hearing aids....

  1. Construction safety

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Rita Yi Man


    A close-to-ideal blend of suburb and city, speedy construction of towers of Babylon, the sparkling proportion of glass and steel buildings’ facade at night showcase the wisdom of humans. They also witness the footsteps, sweats and tears of architects and engineers. Unfortunately, these signatures of human civilizations are swathed in towering figures of construction accidents. Fretting about these on sites, different countries adopt different measures on sites. This book firstly sketches the construction accidents on sites, followed by a review on safety measures in some of the developing countries such as Bermuda, Egypt, Kuwait and China; as well as developed countries, for example, the United States, France and Singapore. It also highlights the enormous compensation costs with the courts’ experiences in the United Kingdom and Hong Kong.

  2. Safety first

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvie, W.


    Expansion of international business opportunities for Canadian producers and service companies brings with it a dimension almost never considered on home base - security. It was pointed out that once abroad, safety and defence of people and equipment can become significant problems in many parts of the world. The nature of the security risks involved, and how best to deal with them, were discussed. The use of consultants, mostly foreign ones to date, and the kind of assistance they can provide, everything from written reports on the local situation to counter surveillance training, and bodyguard services, have been described. Examples of recent involvements with guerilla groups demanding `revolutionary war taxes`, kidnapping executives for ransom, due diligence investigations of potential partners, and the like, have been provided to illustrate the unique character of the problem, and the constant need for being alert, educated to risks, and being prepared to react to risk situations.

  3. Intracellular ion channels and cancer. (United States)

    Leanza, Luigi; Biasutto, Lucia; Managò, Antonella; Gulbins, Erich; Zoratti, Mario; Szabò, Ildikò


    Several types of channels play a role in the maintenance of ion homeostasis in subcellular organelles including endoplasmatic reticulum, nucleus, lysosome, endosome, and mitochondria. Here we give a brief overview of the contribution of various mitochondrial and other organellar channels to cancer cell proliferation or death. Much attention is focused on channels involved in intracellular calcium signaling and on ion fluxes in the ATP-producing organelle mitochondria. Mitochondrial K(+) channels (Ca(2+)-dependent BKCa and IKCa, ATP-dependent KATP, Kv1.3, two-pore TWIK-related Acid-Sensitive K(+) channel-3 (TASK-3)), Ca(2+) uniporter MCU, Mg(2+)-permeable Mrs2, anion channels (voltage-dependent chloride channel VDAC, intracellular chloride channel CLIC) and the Permeability Transition Pore (MPTP) contribute importantly to the regulation of function in this organelle. Since mitochondria play a central role in apoptosis, modulation of their ion channels by pharmacological means may lead to death of cancer cells. The nuclear potassium channel Kv10.1 and the nuclear chloride channel CLIC4 as well as the endoplasmatic reticulum (ER)-located inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptor, the ER-located Ca(2+) depletion sensor STIM1 (stromal interaction molecule 1), a component of the store-operated Ca(2+) channel and the ER-resident TRPM8 are also mentioned. Furthermore, pharmacological tools affecting organellar channels and modulating cancer cell survival are discussed. The channels described in this review are summarized on Figure 1. Overall, the view is emerging that intracellular ion channels may represent a promising target for cancer treatment.

  4. Intracellular ion channels and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi eLeanza


    Full Text Available Several types of channels play a role in the maintenance of ion homeostasis in subcellular organelles including endoplasmatic reticulum, nucleus, lysosome, endosome and mitochondria. Here we give a brief overview of the contribution of various mitochondrial and other organellar channels to cancer cell proliferation or death. Much attention is focused on channels involved in intracellular calcium signaling and on ion fluxes in the ATP-producing organelle mitochondria. Mitochondrial K+ channels (Ca2+-dependent BKCa and IKCa, ATP-dependent KATP, Kv1.3, two-pore TWIK-related Acid-Sensitive K+ channel-3 (TASK-3, Ca2+ uniporter MCU, Mg2+-permeable Mrs2, anion channels (voltage-dependent chloride channel VDAC, intracellular chloride channel CLIC and the Permeability Transition Pore (MPTP contribute importantly to the regulation of function in this organelle. Since mitochondria play a central role in apoptosis, modulation of their ion channels by pharmacological means may lead to death of cancer cells. The nuclear potassium channel Kv10.1 and the nuclear chloride channel CLIC4 as well as the endoplasmatic reticulum (ER-located inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3 receptor, the ER-located Ca2+ depletion sensor STIM1 (stromal interaction molecule 1, a component of the store-operated Ca2+ channel and the ER-resident TRPM8 are also mentioned. Furthermore, pharmacological tools affecting organellar channels and modulating cancer cell survival are discussed. The channels described in this review are summarized on Figure 1. Overall, the view is emerging that intracellular ion channels may represent a promising target for cancer treatment.

  5. Global safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorien J. DeTombe


    Full Text Available Global Safety is a container concept referring to various threats such as HIV/Aids, floods and terrorism; threats with different causes and different effects. These dangers threaten people, the global economy and the slity of states. Policy making for this kind of threats often lack an overview of the real causes and the interventions are based on a too shallow analysis of the problem, mono-disciplinary and focus mostly only on the effects. It would be more appropriate to develop policy related to these issues by utilizing the approaches, methods and tools that have been developed for complex societal problems. Handling these complex societal problems should be done multidisciplinary instead of mono-disciplinary. In order to give politicians the opportunity to handle complex problems multidisciplinary, multidisciplinary research institutes should be created. These multidisciplinary research institutes would provide politicians with better approaches to handle this type of problem. In these institutes the knowledge necessary for the change of these problems can be created through the use of the Compram methodology which has been developed specifically for handling complex societal problems. In a six step approach, experts, actors and policymakers discuss the content of the problem and the possible changes. The framework method uses interviewing, the Group Decision Room, simulation models and scenario's in a cooperative way. The methodology emphasizes the exchange of knowledge and understanding by communication among and between the experts, actors and politicians meanwhile keeping emotion in mind. The Compram methodology will be further explained in relation to global safety in regard to terrorism, economy, health care and agriculture.

  6. Patient safety as perceived by Swedish leaders. (United States)

    Härenstam, Karin Pukk; Elg, Mattias; Svensson, Carina; Brommels, Mats; Ovretveit, John


    The purpose of this paper is to survey Swedish healthcare leaders' patient safety awareness, the priority they give to safety issues and their views on suitable safety management strategies. A total 623 leaders of a sample of 1,129 responded to a mail questionnaire (55 percent response rate). Descriptive statistics of the responses are presented as frequency distributions across respondent subgroups. Means were tested for similarity by a repetitive one-way ANOVA procedure. Homogeneous response groups were sought by hierarchical cluster analysis. Swedish healthcare leaders show relatively high safety awareness and how their organizations prioritize safety management. There is a marked polarization between leaders; half feel that the system works reasonably well, and that adequate funds are available to improve or maintain services. The other half thinks the system needs major change and calls for additional funding. A majority sees system errors as the main cause for adverse events; a substantial minority find human errors to be more important. Two-thirds were willing to make safety performance information on organizations and specialties public, one third was restrictive. Survey instruments used to explore leaders' patient safety views have not yet been rigorously tested against psychometric criteria. One hospital type was slightly over-represented and three regions somewhat under-represented in the respondent groups. This is the first systematic attempt to explore the views of Swedish healthcare leaders on patient safety. It provides input to a national strategy to improve patient safety.

  7. Safety of Transmission in Railway Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Franekova


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the problems of data security in safety - related transmission systems defined within railway process. It is intent on summary of treats and security tools against them within closed and open security systems. In details is analysed possibility of using channel coding techniques and cryptography mechanisms, which are defined according to norms EN 50159. For chosen security mechanisms are deal mathematical apparatus of probability of undetected error determination for channel decoders, relations for determination decipher encoder's complexity and error probability of cryptography code word.

  8. Instrumental Variable Estimation with Heteroskedasticity and Many Instruments


    Jerry A. Hausman; Newey, Whitney K.; Woutersen, Tiemen; Chao, John; Swanson, Norman


    This paper gives a relatively simple, well behaved solution to the problem of many instruments in heteroskedastic data. Such settings are common in microeconometric applications where many instruments are used to improve efficiency and allowance for heteroskedasticity is generally important. The solution is a Fuller (1977) like estimator and standard errors that are robust to heteroskedasticity and many instruments. We show that the estimator has finite moments and high asymptotic efficiency ...

  9. Pancreatitis Quality of Life Instrument: Development of a new instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahid Wassef


    Full Text Available Objectives: The goal of this project was to develop the first disease-specific instrument for the evaluation of quality of life in chronic pancreatitis. Methods: Focus groups and interview sessions were conducted, with chronic pancreatitis patients, to identify items felt to impact quality of life which were subsequently formatted into a paper-and-pencil instrument. This instrument was used to conduct an online survey by an expert panel of pancreatologists to evaluate its content validity. Finally, the modified instrument was presented to patients during precognitive testing interviews to evaluate its clarity and appropriateness. Results: In total, 10 patients were enrolled in the focus groups and interview sessions where they identified 50 items. Once redundant items were removed, the 40 remaining items were made into a paper-and-pencil instrument referred to as the Pancreatitis Quality of Life Instrument. Through the processes of content validation and precognitive testing, the number of items in the instrument was reduced to 24. Conclusions: This marks the development of the first disease-specific instrument to evaluate quality of life in chronic pancreatitis. It includes unique features not found in generic instruments (economic factors, stigma, and spiritual factors. Although this marks a giant step forward, psychometric evaluation is still needed prior to its clinical use.

  10. Pancreatitis Quality of Life Instrument: Development of a new instrument. (United States)

    Wassef, Wahid; Bova, Carol; Barton, Bruce; Hartigan, Celia


    The goal of this project was to develop the first disease-specific instrument for the evaluation of quality of life in chronic pancreatitis. Focus groups and interview sessions were conducted, with chronic pancreatitis patients, to identify items felt to impact quality of life which were subsequently formatted into a paper-and-pencil instrument. This instrument was used to conduct an online survey by an expert panel of pancreatologists to evaluate its content validity. Finally, the modified instrument was presented to patients during precognitive testing interviews to evaluate its clarity and appropriateness. In total, 10 patients were enrolled in the focus groups and interview sessions where they identified 50 items. Once redundant items were removed, the 40 remaining items were made into a paper-and-pencil instrument referred to as the Pancreatitis Quality of Life Instrument. Through the processes of content validation and precognitive testing, the number of items in the instrument was reduced to 24. This marks the development of the first disease-specific instrument to evaluate quality of life in chronic pancreatitis. It includes unique features not found in generic instruments (economic factors, stigma, and spiritual factors). Although this marks a giant step forward, psychometric evaluation is still needed prior to its clinical use.

  11. Consumer Confidence in the Safety of Food and Newspaper Coverage of Food Safety Issues: A Longitudinal Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de J.; Trijp, van J.C.M.; Renes, R.J.; Frewer, L.J.


    This study develops a longitudinal perspective on consumer confidence in the safety of food to explore if, how, and why consumer confidence changes over time. In the first study, a theory-based monitoring instrument for consumer confidence in the safety of food was developed and validated. The

  12. Development of a Crosslink Channel Simulator (United States)

    Hunt, Chris; Smith, Carl; Burns, Rich


    Distributed Spacecraft missions are an integral part of current and future plans for NASA and other space agencies. Many of these multi-vehicle missions involve utilizing the array of spacecraft as a single, instrument requiring communication via crosslinks to achieve mission goals. NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is developing the Formation Flying Test Bed (FFTB) to provide a hardware-in-the-loop simulation environment to support mission concept development and system trades with a primary focus on Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) challenges associated with spacecraft flying. The goal of the FFTB is to reduce mission risk by assisting in mission planning and analysis, provide a technology development platform that allows algorithms to be developed for mission functions such as precision formation navigation and control and time synchronization. The FFTB will provide a medium in which the various crosslink transponders being used in multi-vehicle missions can be integrated for development and test; an integral part of the FFTB is the Crosslink Channel Simulator (CCS). The CCS is placed into the communications channel between the crosslinks under test, and is used to simulate on-mission effects to the communications channel such as vehicle maneuvers, relative vehicle motion, or antenna misalignment. The CCS is based on the Starlight software programmable platform developed at General Dynamics Decision Systems and provides the CCS with the ability to be modified on the fly to adapt to new crosslink formats or mission parameters. This paper briefly describes the Formation Flying Test Bed and its potential uses. It then provides details on the current and future development of the Crosslink Channel Simulator and its capabilities.

  13. EPICS Channel Access Server for LabVIEW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    It can be challenging to interface National Instruments LabVIEW ( with EPICS ( Such interface is required when an instrument control program was developed in LabVIEW but it also has to be part of global control system. This is frequently useful in big accelerator facilities. The Channel Access Server is written in LabVIEW, so it works on any hardware/software platform where LabVIEW is available. It provides full server functionality, so any EPICS client can communicate with it.

  14. A Micromechanical RF Channelizer (United States)

    Akgul, Mehmet

    The power consumption of a radio generally goes as the number and strength of the RF signals it must process. In particular, a radio receiver would consume much less power if the signal presented to its electronics contained only the desired signal in a tiny percent bandwidth frequency channel, rather than the typical mix of signals containing unwanted energy outside the desired channel. Unfortunately, a lack of filters capable of selecting single channel bandwidths at RF forces the front-ends of contemporary receivers to accept unwanted signals, and thus, to operate with sub-optimal efficiency. This dissertation focuses on the degree to which capacitive-gap transduced micromechanical resonators can achieve the aforementioned RF channel-selecting filters. It aims to first show theoretically that with appropriate scaling capacitive-gap transducers are strong enough to meet the needed coupling requirements; and second, to fully detail an architecture and design procedure needed to realize said filters. Finally, this dissertation provides an actual experimentally demonstrated RF channel-select filter designed using the developed procedures and confirming theoretical predictions. Specifically, this dissertation introduces four methods that make possible the design and fabrication of RF channel-select filters. The first of these introduces a small-signal equivalent circuit for parallel-plate capacitive-gap transduced micromechanical resonators that employs negative capacitance to model the dependence of resonance frequency on electrical stiffness in a way that facilitates the analysis of micromechanical circuits loaded with arbitrary electrical impedances. The new circuit model not only correctly predicts the dependence of electrical stiffness on the impedances loading the input and output electrodes of parallel-plate capacitive-gap transduced micromechanical device, but does so in a visually intuitive way that identifies current drive as most appropriate for

  15. Linking Safety Analysis to Safety Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kirsten Mark

    Software for safety critical systems must deal with the hazards identified by safety analysistechniques: Fault trees, event trees,and cause consequence diagrams can be interpreted as safety requirements and used in the design activity. We propose that the safety analysis and the system design use...... the same system model and that this model is formalized in a real-time, interval logic, based on a conventional dynamic systems model with a state over time. The three safety analysis techniques are interpreted in this model and it is shown how to derive safety requirements for components of a system....

  16. CERN's new safety policy

    CERN Multimedia


    The documents below, published on 29 September 2014 on the HSE website, together replace the document SAPOCO 42 as well as Safety Codes A1, A5, A9, A10, which are no longer in force. As from the publication date of these documents any reference made to the document SAPOCO 42 or to Safety Codes A1, A5, A9 and A10 in contractual documents or CERN rules and regulations shall be deemed to constitute a reference to the corresponding provisions of the documents listed below.   "The CERN Safety Policy" "Safety Regulation SR-SO - Responsibilities and organisational structure in matters of Safety at CERN" "General Safety Instruction GSI-SO-1 - Departmental Safety Officer (DSO)" "General Safety Instruction GSI-SO-2 - Territorial Safety Officer (TSO)" "General Safety Instruction GSI-SO-3 - Safety Linkperson (SLP)" "General Safety Instruction GSI-SO-4 - Large Experiment Group Leader In Matters of Safety (LEXGLI...

  17. Waterproofing EMG Instrumentation. (United States)

    Benfield, Rebecca D; Newton, Edward R; Hortobágyi, Tibor


    While still experimental, measurement of external uterine electromyographic (EMG) activity is a more sensitive and noninvasive method for measuring uterine contractility in human labor than the methods currently used in clinical practice. Hydrotherapy is purported to improve contractility in labor, yet there have been no reports of abdominal uterine EMG activity measured during immersion. To test telemetric EMG equipment and different waterproofing techniques under dry and immersed conditions, the authors recorded surface EMG activity from the abdominal muscles of 11 healthy, nonpregnant women, 22 to 51 years of age. After attaching one pair of electrodes to the skin on either side of the umbilicus and applying the waterproofing material, the authors tested the signal by asking participants to perform a short series of leg lifts while seated in a chair to evoke abdominal muscle contractions. They were then immersed to the chest in a hydrotherapy tub while performing two to three leg lifts over 60 s every 5 min for 60 min with 20 lb of weight suspended from their ankles to counteract the buoyancy effect of water. EMG activity was continuously recorded. They then repeated the dry-measures sequence. While waterproofing remained intact, EMG signals were essentially unchanged between dry and wet conditions. Of the 11 waterproofing applications tested, 10 failed at some point. In the data from the successful application, EMG signals in both channels exhibited stable baselines throughout and an absence of low-frequency artifact. The development of this technique allows for the recording of external uterine EMG activity during hydrotherapy. The authors have begun using it to investigate the effects of hydrotherapy on uterine contractility during human labor.

  18. Impact Disdrometers Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartholomew, Mary Jane [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)


    To improve the quantitative description of precipitation processes in climate models, the U.S. Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility has been collecting observations of the drop size spectra of rain events since early in 2006. Impact disdrometers were the initial choice due to their reliability, ease of maintenance, and relatively low cost. Each of the two units deployed was accompanied by a nearby tipping bucket. In 2010, the tipping buckets were replaced by weighing buckets rain gauges. Five video disdrometers were subsequently purchased and are described in ARM’s VDIS Handbook.1 As of April 2011, three of the weighing bucket instruments were deployed, one was to travel with the second ARM Mobile Facility, and the fifth was a spare. Two of the video disdrometers were deployed, a third was to be deployed later in the spring of 2011, one was to travel with the second ARM Mobile Facility, and the last was a spare. Detailed descriptions of impact disdrometers and their datastreams are provided in this document.

  19. Industrial instrumentation principles and design

    CERN Document Server

    Padmanabhan, Tattamangalam R


    Pneumatic, hydraulic and allied instrumentation schemes have given way to electronic schemes in recent years thanks to the rapid strides in electronics and allied areas. Principles, design and applications of such state-of-the-art instrumentation schemes form the subject matter of this book. Through representative examples, the basic building blocks of instrumentation schemes are identified and each of these building blocks discussed in terms of its design and interface characteristics. The common generic schemes synthesized with such building blocks are dealt with subsequently. This forms the scope of Part I. The focus in Part II is on application. Displacement and allied instrumentation, force and allied instrumentation and process instrumentation in terms of temperature, flow, pressure level and other common process variables are dealt with separately and exhaustively. Despite the diversity in the sensor principles and characteristics and the variety in the applications and their environments, it is possib...

  20. Instruments to assess integrated care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngsø, Anne Marie; Godtfredsen, Nina Skavlan; Høst, Dorte


    INTRODUCTION: Although several measurement instruments have been developed to measure the level of integrated health care delivery, no standardised, validated instrument exists covering all aspects of integrated care. The purpose of this review is to identify the instruments concerning how...... to measure the level of integration across health-care sectors and to assess and evaluate the organisational elements within the instruments identified. METHODS: An extensive, systematic literature review in PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, Web of Science for the years 1980-2011. Selected...... abstracts were independently reviewed by two investigators. RESULTS: We identified 23 measurement instruments and, within these, eight organisational elements were found. No measurement instrument covered all organisational elements, but almost all studies include well-defined structural and process aspects...

  1. Advancements in Actuated Musical Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overholt, Daniel; Berdahl, Edgar; Hamilton, Robert


    This article presents recent developments in actuated musical instruments created by the authors, who also describe an ecosystemic model of actuated performance activities that blur traditional boundaries between the physical and virtual elements of musical interfaces. Actuated musical instruments...... are physical instruments that have been endowed with virtual qualities controlled by a computer in real-time but which are nevertheless tangible. These instruments provide intuitive and engaging new forms of interaction. They are different from traditional (acoustic) and fully automated (robotic) instruments...... in that they produce sound via vibrating element(s) that are co-manipulated by humans and electromechanical systems. We examine the possibilities that arise when such instruments are played in different performative environments and music-making scenarios, and we postulate that such designs may give rise to new...

  2. Road Infrastructure Safety Management in Poland (United States)

    Budzynski, Marcin; Jamroz, Kazimierz; Kustra, Wojciech; Michalski, Lech; Gaca, Stanislaw


    The objective of road safety infrastructure management is to ensure that when roads are planned, designed, built and used road risks can be identified, assessed and mitigated. Road transport safety is significantly less developed than that of rail, water and air transport. The average individual risk of being a fatality in relation to the distance covered is thirty times higher in road transport that in the other modes. This is mainly because the different modes have a different approach to safety management and to the use of risk management methods and tools. In recent years Poland has had one of the European Union’s highest road death numbers. In 2016 there were 3026 fatalities on Polish roads with 40,766 injuries. Protecting road users from the risk of injury and death should be given top priority. While Poland’s national and regional road safety programmes address this problem and are instrumental in systematically reducing the number of casualties, the effects are far from the expectations. Modern approaches to safety focus on three integrated elements: infrastructure measures, safety management and safety culture. Due to its complexity, the process of road safety management requires modern tools to help with identifying road user risks, assess and evaluate the safety of road infrastructure and select effective measures to improve road safety. One possible tool for tackling this problem is the risk-based method for road infrastructure safety management. European Union Directive 2008/96/EC regulates and proposes a list of tools for managing road infrastructure safety. Road safety tools look at two criteria: the life cycle of a road structure and the process of risk management. Risk can be minimized through the application of the proposed interventions during design process as reasonable. The proposed methods of risk management bring together two stages: risk assessment and risk response occurring within the analyzed road structure (road network, road



    Enrique eBalderas; Jin eZhang; Enrico eStefani; Ligia eToro


    Since its discovery in a glioma cell line 15 years ago, mitochondrial BKCa channel (mitoBKCa) has been studied in brain cells and cardiomyocytes sharing general biophysical properties such as high K+ conductance (~300 pS), voltage-dependency and Ca2+-sensitivity. Main advances in deciphering the molecular composition of mitoBKCa have included establishing that it is encoded by the Kcnma1 gene, that a C-terminal splice insert confers mitoBKCa ability to be targeted to cardiac mitochondria, an...

  4. A Cabled, High Bandwidth Instrument Platform for Continuous Scanning of the Upper Ocean Water Column (United States)

    McRae, E.; Delaney, J. R.; Kelly, D.; Daly, K. L.; Luther, D. S.; Harkins, G.; Harrington, M.; McGuire, C.; Tilley, J.; Dosher, J.; Waite, P.; Cram, G.; Kawka, O. E.


    The Cabled Array portion of the National Science Foundation funded Ocean Observatories Initiative is a large scale, high bandwidth and high power subsea science network designed by the University of Washington Applied Physics Laboratory. Part of that system is a set of winched profilers which continuously scan the upper 200m of the ocean at their deployment sites. The custom built profilers leverage the Cabled Array's technology for interfacing collections of science instruments and add the ability to run predefined missions and to switch missions or mission parameters on the fly via command from shore. The profilers were designed to operate continuously for up to two years after deployment after which certain wearing components must be replaced. The data from the profiler's science and engineering sensors are streamed to shore via the seafloor network in real time. Data channel capacity from the profilers exceeds 40 Mbps. For profiler safety, mission execution is controlled within the platform. Inputs such as 3D gyro, pressure depth and deployed cable calculations are monitored to assure safe operation during any sea state. The profilers never surface but are designed to approach within 5m of the surface if conditions allow. Substantial engineering effort was focused on reliable cable handling under all ocean conditions. The profilers are currently operated from subsea moorings which also contain sets of fixed science and engineering sensors. The profilers and their associated mooring instrument assemblies are designed for rapid replacement using ROVs. We have operated this system for two years, including one annual maintenance turn and information relative to that experience will be included in the paper.[Image Caption] Cabled Array Shallow Profiler shown in its parking position.

  5. Rebuilding a safety culture (United States)

    Rodney, George A.


    The development of a culture of safety and NASA since the Challenger accident is reviewed. The technical elements of the strengthened NASA safety program are described, including problem reporting, risk/assessment/risk management, operational safety, and safety assurance are addressed. Future directions in the development of safety are considered.

  6. Measurement, instrumentation, and sensors handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Eren, Halit


    The Second Edition of the bestselling Measurement, Instrumentation, and Sensors Handbook brings together all aspects of the design and implementation of measurement, instrumentation, and sensors. Reflecting the current state of the art, it describes the use of instruments and techniques for performing practical measurements in engineering, physics, chemistry, and the life sciences and discusses processing systems, automatic data acquisition, reduction and analysis, operation characteristics, accuracy, errors, calibrations, and the incorporation of standards for control purposes. Organized acco

  7. Instrumentation in Frontal Sinus Surgery. (United States)

    Tajudeen, Bobby A; Adappa, Nithin D


    Frontal recess dissection proposes many challenges to the surgeon. These challenges stem from its highly variable nature, small caliber, difficult visualization, and proximity to vital structures such as the skull base and orbit. As such, delicate mucosal-sparing dissection of the frontal recess with proper instrumentation is paramount to minimize scar formation and ensure patency. Here, the article explores key instrumentation in frontal recess surgery with an emphasis on hand instruments and adjunctive technologies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Nanofluidic Channel Fabrication and Manipulation of DNA Molecules (United States)

    Wang, Kai-Ge; Niu, Hanben

    Confining DNA molecules in a nanofluidic channel, particularly in channels with cross sections comparable to the persistence length of the DNA molecule (about 50 nm), allows the discovery of new biophysical phenomena. This sub-100 nm nanofluidic channel can be used as a novel platform to study and analyze the static as well as the dynamic properties of single DNA molecules, and can be integrated into a biochip to investigate the interactions between protein and DNA molecules. For instance, nanofluidic channel arrays that have widths of approximately 40 nm, depths of 60 nm, and lengths of 50 μm are created rapidly and exactly by a focused-ion beam milling instrument on a silicon nitride film; and the open channels are sealed with anodic bonding technology. Subsequently, lambda phage DNA (λ-DNA; stained with the fluorescent dye, YOYO-1) molecules are introduced into these nanoconduits by capillary force. The movements of the DNA molecules, e.g. stretching, recoiling, and transporting along channels, are studied with fluorescence microscopy.

  9. Improving virtual channel discrimination in a multi-channel context. (United States)

    Srinivasan, Arthi G; Shannon, Robert V; Landsberger, David M


    Improving spectral resolution in cochlear implants is key to improving performance in difficult listening conditions (e.g. speech in noise, music, etc.). Current focusing might reduce channel interaction, thereby increasing spectral resolution. Previous studies have shown that combining current steering and current focusing reduces spread of excitation and improves virtual channel discrimination in a single-channel context. It is unclear whether the single-channel benefits from current focusing extend to a multi-channel context, in which the physical and perceptual interference of multiple stimulated channels might overwhelm the benefits of improved spectral resolution. In this study, signal discrimination was measured with and without current focusing, in the presence of competing stimuli on nearby electrodes. Results showed that signal discrimination was consistently better with current focusing than without, regardless of the amplitude of the competing stimuli. Therefore, combining current steering and current focusing may provide more effective spectral cues than are currently available.

  10. Cholesterol binding to ion channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena eLevitan


    Full Text Available Numerous studies demonstrated that membrane cholesterol is a major regulator of ion channel function. The goal of this review is to discuss significant advances that have been recently achieved in elucidating the mechanisms responsible for cholesterol regulation of ion channels. The first major insight that comes from growing number of studies that based on the sterol specificity of cholesterol effects, show that several types of ion channels (nAChR, Kir, BK, TRPV are regulated by specific sterol-protein interactions. This conclusion is supported by demonstrating direct saturable binding of cholesterol to a bacterial Kir channel. The second major advance in the field is the identification of putative cholesterol binding sites in several types of ion channels. These include sites at locations associated with the well-known cholesterol binding motif CRAC and its reversed form CARC in nAChR, BK, and TRPV, as well as novel cholesterol binding regions in Kir channels. Notably, in the majority of these channels, cholesterol is suggested to interact mainly with hydrophobic residues in non-annular regions of the channels being embedded in between transmembrane protein helices. We also discuss how identification of putative cholesterol binding sites is an essential step to understand the mechanistic basis of cholesterol-induced channel regulation. Clearly, however, these are only the first few steps in obtaining a general understanding of cholesterol-ion channels interactions and their roles in cellular and organ functions.

  11. Where are my instruments? Hazards in delivery of surgical instruments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guédon, A.C.P.; Wauben, L.S.G.L.; Van der Eijk, A.C.; Vernooij, A.S.N.; Meeuwsen, F.C.; Van der Elst, M.; Hoeijmans, V.; Dankelman, J.; Van den Dobbelsteen, J.J.


    Background Unavailability of instruments is recognised to cause delays and stress in the operating room, which can lead to additional risks for the patients. The aim was to provide an overview of the hazards in the entire delivery process of surgical instruments and to provide insight into how

  12. Safety climate in Swiss hospital units: Swiss version of the Safety Climate Survey (United States)

    Gehring, Katrin; Mascherek, Anna C.; Bezzola, Paula


    Abstract Rationale, aims and objectives Safety climate measurements are a broadly used element of improvement initiatives. In order to provide a sound and easy‐to‐administer instrument for the use in Swiss hospitals, we translated the Safety Climate Survey into German and French. Methods After translating the Safety Climate Survey into French and German, a cross‐sectional survey study was conducted with health care professionals (HCPs) in operating room (OR) teams and on OR‐related wards in 10 Swiss hospitals. Validity of the instrument was examined by means of Cronbach's alpha and missing rates of the single items. Item‐descriptive statistics group differences and percentage of ‘problematic responses’ (PPR) were calculated. Results 3153 HCPs completed the survey (response rate: 63.4%). 1308 individuals were excluded from the analyses because of a profession other than doctor or nurse or invalid answers (n = 1845; nurses = 1321, doctors = 523). Internal consistency of the translated Safety Climate Survey was good (Cronbach's alpha G erman = 0.86; Cronbach's alpha F rench = 0.84). Missing rates at item level were rather low (0.23–4.3%). We found significant group differences in safety climate values regarding profession, managerial function, work area and time spent in direct patient care. At item level, 14 out of 21 items showed a PPR higher than 10%. Conclusions Results indicate that the French and German translations of the Safety Climate Survey might be a useful measurement instrument for safety climate in Swiss hospital units. Analyses at item level allow for differentiating facets of safety climate into more positive and critical safety climate aspects. PMID:25656302

  13. Physical and other data from CTD casts, current meters, and other instruments from the SHOYO and other platforms from the North Pacific Ocean and other locations by the Japanese Hydrographic Office and the Maritime Safety Agency; Hydrographic Division from 01 January 1990 to 31 December 1991 (NODC Accession 9300113) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical and other data from CTD casts, current meters, and other instruments from the SHOYO and other platforms from the North Pacific Ocean and other locations...

  14. A major safety overhaul

    CERN Multimedia


    A redefined policy, a revamped safety course, an environmental project... the TIS (Technical Inspection and Safety) Division has begun a major safety overhaul. Its new head, Wolfgang Weingarten, explains to the Bulletin why and how this is happening.

  15. Bathroom safety - adults (United States)

    Older adult bathroom safety; Falls - bathroom safety ... You may need to have safety bars in your bathroom. These grab bars should be secured vertically or horizontally to the wall, not diagonally. DO NOT use ...

  16. Bromine Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, B


    The production and handling in 1999 of about 200 million kilograms of bromine plus substantial derivatives thereof by Great Lakes Chemical Corp. and Albemarle Corporation in their southern Arkansas refineries gave OSHA Occupational Injury/Illness Rates (OIIR) in the range of 0.74 to 1.60 reportable OIIRs per 200,000 man hours. OIIRs for similar industries and a wide selection of other U.S. industries range from 1.6 to 23.9 in the most recent OSHA report. Occupational fatalities for the two companies in 1999 were zero compared to a range in the U.S.of zero for all computer manufacturing to 0.0445 percent for all of agriculture, forestry and fishing in the most recent OSHA report. These results show that bromine and its compounds can be considered as safe chemicals as a result of the bromine safety standards and practices at the two companies. The use of hydrobromic acid as an electrical energy storage medium in reversible PEM fuel cells is discussed. A study in 1979 of 20 megawatt halogen working fluid power plants by Oronzio de Nora Group found such energy to cost 2 to 2.5 times the prevailing base rate at that time. New conditions may reduce this relative cost. The energy storage aspect allows energy delivery at maximum demand times where the energy commands premium rates. The study also found marginal cost and performance advantages for hydrobromic acid over hydrochloric acid working fluid. Separate studies in the late 70s by General Electric also showed marginal performance advantages for hydrobromic acid.

  17. Eye Protection: Safety Glasses. Safety Spotlight (United States)

    Deck, Anita; Roy, Ken


    When it comes to eye safety, there are some situations in which regular safety glasses will work adequately for the needs of the STEM education classroom or laboratory. However, there are certain instances in which safety goggles must be used for safer protection. Taking the time to analyze hazards and assess the risks prior to any activity in the…

  18. Modeling Dubai City Artificial Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elhakeem Mohamed


    Full Text Available Dubai’s new channel further enhances the urban-scape of the city offering new waterfront developments, transportation venues and diversified panoramas to the city. This paper performs a study to simulate the flow field in the proposed Dubai artificial channel using a 2D hydrodynamic model. The model predicts the flow depth and velocity in the channel, lagoons and bends. The model predictions show that the velocity is higher in the channel sections compared to the lagoons and bends sections. On the other hand, the water depth is lower in the channel sections compared to the lagoons and bends sections. Nonetheless, the velocities in the channel are within the accepted range that prevents boundary erosion and sediment deposition.

  19. Impacts of channel deposition on the risk of flooding in a watershed (United States)

    Ting-Yue, Hong; Chia-Ling, Chang


    Taiwan is located in East Asian where is always hit by typhoons. Typhoons usually bring huge amounts of rainfall and result in the problems of channel deposition. Deposition influences the functions of channel and increases the risk of flooding. The Luliao Reservoir Watershed is the case area in this study. It is the major water source for agricultural activity and domestic use. The objective of this study is to assess the possible impacts of channel deposition on the watershed environment. This study applies the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) to predict the hydrologic responses and evaluate the risk of flooding. The results show that the decrease of cross section induced by deposition in a channel may increase the risk of flooding and impact the safety of watershed environment. Therefore, canal desilting is important in channel regulation. The discussion and analysis can be useful references for channel regulation.

  20. 14 CFR 27.1337 - Powerplant instruments. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Powerplant instruments. 27.1337 Section 27... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Instruments: Installation § 27.1337 Powerplant instruments. (a) Instruments and instrument lines. (1) Each powerplant instrument line must meet the...

  1. 14 CFR 29.1337 - Powerplant instruments. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Powerplant instruments. 29.1337 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Instruments: Installation § 29.1337 Powerplant instruments. (a) Instruments and instrument lines. (1) Each powerplant and auxiliary power unit instrument...

  2. 14 CFR 25.1337 - Powerplant instruments. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Powerplant instruments. 25.1337 Section 25... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Instruments: Installation § 25.1337 Powerplant instruments. (a) Instruments and instrument lines. (1) Each powerplant and auxiliary power unit instrument...

  3. Technician Program Uses Advanced Instruments. (United States)

    Stinson, Stephen


    Describes various aspects of a newly-developed computer-assisted drafting/computer-assisted manufacture (CAD/CAM) facility in the chemical engineering technology department at Broome Community College, Binghamton, New York. Stresses the use of new instruments such as microcomputers and microprocessor-equipped instruments. (CS)

  4. Zach's instruments and their characteristics (United States)

    Wolfschmidt, Gudrun

    The astronomically interested Duke Ernst II von Sachsen-Gotha-Altenburg (1745-1804) hired Baron Franz Xaver von Zach (1754-1832) as court astronomer in 1786. Immediatedly Zach started to make plans for instrumentation for a new observatory. But first they travelled with their instruments (a 2-foot Ramsden transit instrument, the Sisson quadrant, three Hadley sextants, two achromatic refractors and chronometers) to southern France. In Hyàres a tower of the wall around the town was converted into an observatory in 1787. For the building of the new observatory Zach had chosen a place outside of Gotha on the top of the Seeberg. The three main instruments were an 8-foot transit instrument made by Ramsden, a northern and southern mural quadrant made by Sisson and a zenith sector made by Cary, in addition an 8-foot circle made by Ramsden. By analysing the whole instrumentation of Gotha observatory, we can see a change around 1800 in the kind of instruments, from quadrants and sextants to the full circles and from the transit instrument to the meridian circle. The decline of the Gotha observatory started with the early death of the Duke in 1804 and the subsequent departure of Zach in 1806.

  5. Instrumentation issues in implementation science. (United States)

    Martinez, Ruben G; Lewis, Cara C; Weiner, Bryan J


    Like many new fields, implementation science has become vulnerable to instrumentation issues that potentially threaten the strength of the developing knowledge base. For instance, many implementation studies report findings based on instruments that do not have established psychometric properties. This article aims to review six pressing instrumentation issues, discuss the impact of these issues on the field, and provide practical recommendations. This debate centers on the impact of the following instrumentation issues: use of frameworks, theories, and models; role of psychometric properties; use of 'home-grown' and adapted instruments; choosing the most appropriate evaluation method and approach; practicality; and need for decision-making tools. Practical recommendations include: use of consensus definitions for key implementation constructs; reporting standards (e.g., regarding psychometrics, instrument adaptation); when to use multiple forms of observation and mixed methods; and accessing instrument repositories and decision aid tools. This debate provides an overview of six key instrumentation issues and offers several courses of action to limit the impact of these issues on the field. With careful attention to these issues, the field of implementation science can potentially move forward at the rapid pace that is respectfully demanded by community stakeholders.

  6. Developing a workplace resilience instrument. (United States)

    Mallak, Larry A; Yildiz, Mustafa


    Resilience benefits from the use of protective factors, as opposed to risk factors, which are associated with vulnerability. Considerable research and instrument development has been conducted in clinical settings for patients. The need existed for an instrument to be developed in a workplace setting to measure resilience of employees. This study developed and tested a resilience instrument for employees in the workplace. The research instrument was distributed to executives and nurses working in the United States in hospital settings. Five-hundred-forty completed and usable responses were obtained. The instrument contained an inventory of workplace resilience, a job stress questionnaire, and relevant demographics. The resilience items were written based on previous work by the lead author and inspired by Weick's [1] sense-making theory. A four-factor model yielded an instrument having psychometric properties showing good model fit. Twenty items were retained for the resulting Workplace Resilience Instrument (WRI). Parallel analysis was conducted with successive iterations of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Respondents were classified based on their employment with either a rural or an urban hospital. Executives had significantly higher WRI scores than nurses, controlling for gender. WRI scores were positively and significantly correlated with years of experience and the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire. An instrument to measure individual resilience in the workplace (WRI) was developed. The WRI's four factors identify dimensions of workplace resilience for use in subsequent investigations: Active Problem-Solving, Team Efficacy, Confident Sense-Making, and Bricolage.

  7. A Database Management Assessment Instrument (United States)

    Landry, Jeffrey P.; Pardue, J. Harold; Daigle, Roy; Longenecker, Herbert E., Jr.


    This paper describes an instrument designed for assessing learning outcomes in data management. In addition to assessment of student learning and ABET outcomes, we have also found the instrument to be effective for determining database placement of incoming information systems (IS) graduate students. Each of these three uses is discussed in this…

  8. Cryogenic Caging for Science Instrumentation (United States)

    Penanen, Konstantin; Chui, Talso C.


    A method has been developed for caging science instrumentation to protect from pyro-shock and EDL (entry, descent, and landing) acceleration damage. Caging can be achieved by immersing the instrument (or its critical parts) in a liquid and solidifying the liquid by cooling. After the launch shock and/or after the payload has landed, the solid is heated up and evaporated.

  9. Single-channel kinetics of BK (Slo1) channels (United States)

    Geng, Yanyan; Magleby, Karl L.


    Single-channel kinetics has proven a powerful tool to reveal information about the gating mechanisms that control the opening and closing of ion channels. This introductory review focuses on the gating of large conductance Ca2+- and voltage-activated K+ (BK or Slo1) channels at the single-channel level. It starts with single-channel current records and progresses to presentation and analysis of single-channel data and the development of gating mechanisms in terms of discrete state Markov (DSM) models. The DSM models are formulated in terms of the tetrameric modular structure of BK channels, consisting of a central transmembrane pore-gate domain (PGD) attached to four surrounding transmembrane voltage sensing domains (VSD) and a large intracellular cytosolic domain (CTD), also referred to as the gating ring. The modular structure and data analysis shows that the Ca2+ and voltage dependent gating considered separately can each be approximated by 10-state two-tiered models with five closed states on the upper tier and five open states on the lower tier. The modular structure and joint Ca2+ and voltage dependent gating are consistent with a 50 state two-tiered model with 25 closed states on the upper tier and 25 open states on the lower tier. Adding an additional tier of brief closed (flicker states) to the 10-state or 50-state models improved the description of the gating. For fixed experimental conditions a channel would gate in only a subset of the potential number of states. The detected number of states and the correlations between adjacent interval durations are consistent with the tiered models. The examined models can account for the single-channel kinetics and the bursting behavior of gating. Ca2+ and voltage activate BK channels by predominantly increasing the effective opening rate of the channel with a smaller decrease in the effective closing rate. Ca2+ and depolarization thus activate by mainly destabilizing the closed states. PMID:25653620

  10. Nuclear criticality safety guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruvost, N.L.; Paxton, H.C. [eds.


    This technical reference document cites information related to nuclear criticality safety principles, experience, and practice. The document also provides general guidance for criticality safety personnel and regulators.

  11. Farm Health and Safety (United States)

    ... jobs in the United States. Farms have many health and safety hazards, including Chemicals and pesticides Machinery, ... equipment can also reduce accidents. Occupational Safety and Health Administration

  12. New Safety rules

    CERN Multimedia

    Safety Commission


    The revision of CERN Safety rules is in progress and the following new Safety rules have been issued on 15-04-2008: Safety Procedure SP-R1 Establishing, Updating and Publishing CERN Safety rules:; Safety Regulation SR-S Smoking at CERN:; Safety Regulation SR-M Mechanical Equipment:; General Safety Instruction GSI-M1 Standard Lifting Equipment:; General Safety Instruction GSI-M2 Standard Pressure Equipment:; General Safety Instruction GSI-M3 Special Mechanical Equipment: These documents apply to all persons under the Director General’s authority. All Safety rules are available at the web page: The Safety Commission

  13. Deterministic Safety Technology for RBMK Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. D'Auria


    The paper summarizes the activities performed at NIKIET in Moscow and at University of Pisa (UNIPI in Pisa. A top-down approach is pursued in structuring the executive summary that includes the following sections: (i the safety needed for the RBMK NPP, (ii the roadmap, (iii\tthe adopted computational tools, (iv\tkey findings, (v\tEmphasis is given to the multiple pressure tube rupture (MPTR issue and the individual channel monitoring (ICM proposal.

  14. Marketing channels and competitive advantage


    Jovičić Dragoljub


    Issue that can already be seen and will be very clear in the future is that the central problem in the market of tube caps will not be the product or the price or promotion, but marketing channels. Therefore, the competitive advantage will most probably be built on marketing channels and not the production - as it has been so far, so, the questions of choice functioning and modification of marketing channels, as well as selection of the most appropriate members of channels will become more an...

  15. Defect Distributions in Channeling Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Henrik; Sigmund, P.


    A simple collision model allows to calculate energy losses of perfectly channeled particles. The maximum energy loss is related in a simple way to the displacement energy of lattice atoms perpendicular to the channel. From that, one obtains rather definite predictions on the possibility...... of radiation damage by channeled particles. As an application, one gets a necessary criterion for the occurence of super tails in channeling experiments. The theory involves some assumptions on the behaviour of Born-Mayer potentials which are verified by comparison to experimental displacement energies....

  16. [Instrument for assessing the quality of mobile emergency pre-hospital care: content validation]. (United States)

    Dantas, Rodrigo Assis Neves; Torres, Gilson de Vasconcelos; Salvetti, Marina de Góes; Dantas, Daniele Vieira; Mendonça, Ana Elza Oliveira de


    To validate an instrument to assess quality of mobile emergency pre-hospital care. A methodological study where 20 professionals gave their opinions on the items of the proposed instrument. The analysis was performed using Kappa test (K) and Content Validity Index (CVI), considering K> 0.80 and CVI ≥ 0.80. Three items were excluded from the instrument: Professional Compensation; Job Satisfaction and Services Performed. Items that obtained adequate K and CVI indexes and remained in the instrument were: ambulance conservation status; physical structure; comfort in the ambulance; availability of material resources; user/staff safety; continuous learning; safety demonstrated by the team; access; welcoming; humanization; response time; costumer privacy; guidelines on care; relationship between professionals and costumers; opportunity for costumers to make complaints and multiprofessional conjunction/actuation. The instrument to assess quality of care has been validated and may contribute to the evaluation of pre-hospital care in mobile emergency services.

  17. Patient safety: Safety culture and patient safety ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Marlene Dyrløv


    Patient safety - the prevention of medical error and adverse events - and the initiative of developing safety cultures to assure patients from harm have become one of the central concerns in quality improvement in healthcare both nationally andinternationally. This subject raises numerous...... the problems, and suggest possible solutions for improving patient safety through the promotion of safety culture and ethics. I seek to illuminate theissues of patient safety from several perspectives; the organizational healthcare system, in particular the healthcare workers perspectives and experiences......, and those of patients who experience the physical effect of poor patient safety. The dissertationconsists of nine papers and an appendix. Paper 1 describes the results of doctors and nurses attitudes towards reporting and the handling of adverse events. Paper 2 is a study and “review” of the international...

  18. Beyond the Manual Channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This collection of papers stems from the Sixth Workshop on the Representation and Processing of Sign Languages, held in May 2014 as a satellite to the Language Resources and Evaluation Conference in Reykjavik. While there has been occasional attention for sign languages at the main LREC conference......, the main focus there is on spoken languages in their written and spoken forms. This series of workshops, however, offers a forum for researchers focussing on sign languages. For the fourth time, the workshop had sign language corpora as its main topic. This time, the focus was on any aspect beyond...... the manual channel. Not surprisingly, most papers deal with non-manuals on the face. Once again, the papers at this workshop clearly identify the potentials of even closer cooperation between sign linguists and sign language engineers, and we think it is events like this that contribute a lot to a better...

  19. GPS Radiation Measurements: Instrument Modeling and Simulation (Project w14_gpsradiation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, John P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    The following topics are covered: electron response simulations and typical calculated response. Monte Carlo calculations of the response of future charged particle instruments (dosimeters) intended to measure the flux of charged particles in space were performed. The electron channels are called E1- E11 – each of which is intended to detect a different range of electron energies. These instruments are on current and future GPS satellites.

  20. Implementation of an ASIC for Detector Instrumentation in Nuclear Physics Applications


    McIntosh, James Alexander


    A prototype ASIC (EFT1) for silicon strip detector instrumentation has been designed and tested. The ASIC design contains the electronics necessary for preamplification, shaping, hit detection, and data readout control.The specific­ ation of the ASIC makes it suitable for charged particle spectroscopy applications with the implementation of multiple channels on a single chip reducing the cost compared to expensive discrete instrumentation. The ASIC contains features wh...

  1. Software safety analysis practice in installation phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, H. W.; Chen, M. H.; Shyu, S. S., E-mail: [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, No. 1000 Wenhua Road, Chiaan Village, Longtan Township, 32546 Taoyuan County, Taiwan (China)


    This work performed a software safety analysis in the installation phase of the Lung men nuclear power plant in Taiwan, under the cooperation of Institute of Nuclear Energy Research and Tpc. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission requests licensee to perform software safety analysis and software verification and validation in each phase of software development life cycle with Branch Technical Position 7-14. In this work, 37 safety grade digital instrumentation and control systems were analyzed by failure mode and effects analysis, which is suggested by IEEE standard 7-4.3.2-2003. During the installation phase, skew tests for safety grade network and point to point tests were performed. The failure mode and effects analysis showed all the single failure modes can be resolved by the redundant means. Most of the common mode failures can be resolved by operator manual actions. (Author)

  2. Instrumental variables and Mendelian randomization with invalid instruments (United States)

    Kang, Hyunseung

    Instrumental variables (IV) methods have been widely used to determine the causal effect of a treatment, exposure, policy, or an intervention on an outcome of interest. The IV method relies on having a valid instrument, a variable that is (A1) associated with the exposure, (A2) has no direct effect on the outcome, and (A3) is unrelated to the unmeasured confounders associated with the exposure and the outcome. However, in practice, finding a valid instrument, especially those that satisfy (A2) and (A3), can be challenging. For example, in Mendelian randomization studies where genetic markers are used as instruments, complete knowledge about instruments' validity is equivalent to complete knowledge about the involved genes' functions. The dissertation explores the theory, methods, and application of IV methods when invalid instruments are present. First, when we have multiple candidate instruments, we establish a theoretical bound whereby causal effects are only identified as long as less than 50% of instruments are invalid, without knowing which of the instruments are invalid. We also propose a fast penalized method, called sisVIVE, to estimate the causal effect. We find that sisVIVE outperforms traditional IV methods when invalid instruments are present both in simulation studies as well as in real data analysis. Second, we propose a robust confidence interval under the multiple invalid IV setting. This work is an extension of our work on sisVIVE. However, unlike sisVIVE which is robust to violations of (A2) and (A3), our confidence interval procedure provides honest coverage even if all three assumptions, (A1)-(A3), are violated. Third, we study the single IV setting where the one IV we have may actually be invalid. We propose a nonparametric IV estimation method based on full matching, a technique popular in causal inference for observational data, that leverages observed covariates to make the instrument more valid. We propose an estimator along with

  3. Mass-media information campaigns about road safety. [previously known as: Public information about road safety.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    In the Netherlands, public information is often used as an instrument to improve road safety. The purpose of each public information campaign is a voluntary and lasting change in traffic behaviour. This requires road users to have sufficient knowledge about a problem and to adapt their behaviour.

  4. The design and analysis of channel transmission communication system of XCTD profiler. (United States)

    Zheng, Yu; Wang, Xiao-Rui; Jin, Xiang-Yu; Song, Guo-Min; Shang, Ying-Sheng; Li, Hong-Zhi


    In this paper, a channel transmission communication system of expendable conductivity-temperature-depth is established in accordance to the operation characteristics of the transmission line to more accurately assess the characteristics of deep-sea abandoned profiler channel. The wrapping inductance is eliminated to maximum extent through the wrapping pattern of the underwater spool and the overwater spool and the calculation of the wrapping diameter. The feasibility of the proposed channel transmission communication system is verified through theoretical analysis and practical measurement of the transmission signal error rate in the amplitude shift keying (ASK) modulation. The proposed design provides a new research method for the channel assessment of complex abandoned measuring instrument and an important experiment evidence for the rapid development of the deep-sea abandoned measuring instrument.

  5. Laparoscopically assisted ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement using 2-mm instrumentation. (United States)

    Reardon, P R; Scarborough, T K; Matthews, B D; Marti, J L; Preciado, A


    Laparoscopy has potential benefit in the placement of ventriculoperitoneal shunts. In patients who have undergone multiple shunt revisions or other abdominal operations, laparoscopy may be particularly beneficial when finding of a suitable area in which to place the shunt is a concern. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of laparoscopically assisted ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement, with an emphasis on using 2-mm instrumentation. Laparoscopically assisted ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement using 2-mm instrumentation was performed in eight adult hydrocephalus patients from August 1996 to September 1998. All eight patients had undergone 1 to 18 prior shunt revisions. The procedures were performed with two 2-mm trocars. The instrumentation consisted of a 2-mm laparoscope, a 2-mm grasper, and 2-mm scissors. All shunts were placed in an area free of adhesions and checked for flow under direct vision. Four of the patients required a lysis of adhesions to create a space adequate for catheter placement. All of the procedures were successful, with no operative complications. The operative times ranged from 29 to 99 min, (mean, 63 min). The blood loss in all of the procedures was minimal. At this writing, none of the patients have required subsequent distal shunt revisions. No conversions to larger instruments or an open procedure were required. Laparoscopically assisted ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement using 2-mm instrumentation is safe and effective, offering several advantages over the open procedure. This procedure is ideal for the use of 2-mm instruments.

  6. Aquarius Instrument and Salinity Retrieval (United States)

    Le Vine, D. M.


    Aquarius has been designed to map the surface salinity field of the global ocean from space a parameter important for understanding ocean circulation and its relationship to climate and the global water cycle. Salinity is measured remotely from space by measuring the thermal emission from the ocean surface. This is done at the low frequency end of the microwave spectrum (e.g. 1.4 GHz) where the emission is sufficiently sensitive to changes in salinity to be detected with sophisticated radiometers. The goal is to monitor the seasonal and interannual variation of the large scale features of the surface salinity field in the open ocean by providing maps on a monthly basis with a spatial resolution of 150 km and an accuracy of 0.2 psu. These are challenging requirements that have led to some unique features of the instrument. These include: a) The addition of a co-located scatterometer to help provide a correction for roughness; b) The addition of a polarimetric channel (third Stokes parameter) to the radiometer to help correct for Faraday rotation; c) Asun-synchronous orbit with a 6 pm ascending equatorial crossing to minimize Faraday rotation and with the antennas looking away from the sun toward the nighttime side to minimize contamination by radiation from the sun; and d) An antenna designed to limit side lobes in the direction of rays from the sun. In addition, achieving the accuracy goal of 0.2 psu requires averaging over one month and to do this requires a highly stable radiometer. Aquarius has three separate radiometers that image in pushbroom fashion with the three antenna beams looking across track. The antenna is a 2.5-m diameter, offset parabolic reflector with three feed horns and the three beams are arranged to image with the boresight aligned to look across track, roughly perpendicular to the spacecraft heading and pointing away from the Sun. The three beams point at angles of theta = 25.8 deg., 33.8 deg. and 40.3 deg. with respect to the spacecraft

  7. Ultrasonic Digital Communication System for a Steel Wall Multipath Channel: Methods and Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Timothy L. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)


    As of the development of this thesis, no commercially available products have been identified for the digital communication of instrumented data across a thick ({approx} 6 n.) steel wall using ultrasound. The specific goal of the current research is to investigate the application of methods for digital communication of instrumented data (i.e., temperature, voltage, etc.) across the wall of a steel pressure vessel. The acoustic transmission of data using ultrasonic transducers prevents the need to breach the wall of such a pressure vessel which could ultimately affect its safety or lifespan, or void the homogeneity of an experiment under test. Actual digital communication paradigms are introduced and implemented for the successful dissemination of data across such a wall utilizing solely an acoustic ultrasonic link. The first, dubbed the ''single-hop'' configuration, can communicate bursts of digital data one-way across the wall using the Differential Binary Phase-Shift Keying (DBPSK) modulation technique as fast as 500 bps. The second, dubbed the ''double-hop'' configuration, transmits a carrier into the vessel, modulates it, and retransmits it externally. Using a pulsed carrier with Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM), this technique can communicate digital data as fast as 500 bps. Using a CW carrier, Least Mean-Squared (LMS) adaptive interference suppression, and DBPSK, this method can communicate data as fast as 5 kbps. A third technique, dubbed the ''reflected-power'' configuration, communicates digital data by modulating a pulsed carrier by varying the acoustic impedance at the internal transducer-wall interface. The paradigms of the latter two configurations are believed to be unique. All modulation methods are based on the premise that the wall cannot be breached in any way and can therefore be viably implemented with power delivered wirelessly through the acoustic channel using ultrasound. Methods

  8. CARMENES instrument control system and operational scheduler (United States)

    Garcia-Piquer, Alvaro; Guàrdia, Josep; Colomé, Josep; Ribas, Ignasi; Gesa, Lluis; Morales, Juan Carlos; Pérez-Calpena, Ana; Seifert, Walter; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Amado, Pedro J.; Caballero, José A.; Reiners, Ansgar


    The main goal of the CARMENES instrument is to perform high-accuracy measurements of stellar radial velocities (1m/s) with long-term stability. CARMENES will be installed in 2015 at the 3.5 m telescope in the Calar Alto Observatory (Spain) and it will be equipped with two spectrographs covering from the visible to the near-infrared. It will make use of its near-IR capabilities to observe late-type stars, whose peak of the spectral energy distribution falls in the relevant wavelength interval. The technology needed to develop this instrument represents a challenge at all levels. We present two software packages that play a key role in the control layer for an efficient operation of the instrument: the Instrument Control System (ICS) and the Operational Scheduler. The coordination and management of CARMENES is handled by the ICS, which is responsible for carrying out the operations of the different subsystems providing a tool to operate the instrument in an integrated manner from low to high user interaction level. The ICS interacts with the following subsystems: the near-IR and visible channels, composed by the detectors and exposure meters; the calibration units; the environment sensors; the front-end electronics; the acquisition and guiding module; the interfaces with telescope and dome; and, finally, the software subsystems for operational scheduling of tasks, data processing, and data archiving. We describe the ICS software design, which implements the CARMENES operational design and is planned to be integrated in the instrument by the end of 2014. The CARMENES operational scheduler is the second key element in the control layer described in this contribution. It is the main actor in the translation of the survey strategy into a detailed schedule for the achievement of the optimization goals. The scheduler is based on Artificial Intelligence techniques and computes the survey planning by combining the static constraints that are known a priori (i.e., target

  9. Spectral line polarimetry with a channeled polarimeter. (United States)

    van Harten, Gerard; Snik, Frans; Rietjens, Jeroen H H; Martijn Smit, J; Keller, Christoph U


    Channeled spectropolarimetry or spectral polarization modulation is an accurate technique for measuring the continuum polarization in one shot with no moving parts. We show how a dual-beam implementation also enables spectral line polarimetry at the intrinsic resolution, as in a classic beam-splitting polarimeter. Recording redundant polarization information in the two spectrally modulated beams of a polarizing beam-splitter even provides the possibility to perform a postfacto differential transmission correction that improves the accuracy of the spectral line polarimetry. We perform an error analysis to compare the accuracy of spectral line polarimetry to continuum polarimetry, degraded by a residual dark signal and differential transmission, as well as to quantify the impact of the transmission correction. We demonstrate the new techniques with a blue sky polarization measurement around the oxygen A absorption band using the groundSPEX instrument, yielding a polarization in the deepest part of the band of 0.160±0.010, significantly different from the polarization in the continuum of 0.2284±0.0004. The presented methods are applicable to any dual-beam channeled polarimeter, including implementations for snapshot imaging polarimetry.

  10. Instrumentation Automation for Concrete Structures; Report 1: Instrumentation Automation Techniques (United States)


    REPORT REMR-r::S-5 INSTRUMENl h 1 !0!\\’ /I’J\\UTOMA-r!n FUK CONCRETE STRUCTURES 1 ~eport 1 INSTRUMENTATION AUTOMATION TECHf\\liQUES by ,John Lindsey...measurements of structural behavior ano environmental conditions at large concrete structures , along with the suggested methods to replace or retrofit...8217.!.’RODUCTION 1. This report is the first of ~ series of three reports entitled, "Instrumentation l:iutomation for Concrete Structures ", and issued by

  11. Instrumental variable estimation with heteroskedasticity and many instruments


    Hausman, Jerry; Newey, Whitney; Chao, John; Swanson, Norman


    It is common practice in econometrics to correct for heteroskedasticity.This paper corrects instrumental variables estimators with many instruments for heteroskedasticity.We give heteroskedasticity robust versions of the limited information maximum likelihood (LIML) and Fuller (1977, FULL) estimators; as well as heteroskedasticity consistent standard errors thereof. The estimators are based on removing the own observation terms in the numerator of the LIML variance ratio. We derive asymptotic...

  12. Consideration of conditions required for multi-channel simultaneous bioimpedance measurement


    Yamamoto, Yoshitake; Nakamura, Takao; Kusuhara, Toshimasa; Adli, Mr.


    Impedance techniques have been widely applied to the biomedical engineering field. In order to obtain definite results from bioimpedance, multi-channel measurement is effective. A linearity of biological tissue and fundamental technical parameters for the instrument must be confirmed. In this study, the fundamental conditions have been investigated for multi-channel bioimpedance measurement and the condition of measurement for biological tissue has been confirmed. The differences of every mea...

  13. Instrumentation and control strategies for an integral pressurized water reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belle R. Upadhyaya


    Full Text Available Several vendors have recently been actively pursuing the development of integral pressurized water reactors (iPWRs that range in power levels from small to large reactors. Integral reactors have the features of minimum vessel penetrations, passive heat removal after reactor shutdown, and modular construction that allow fast plant integration and a secure fuel cycle. The features of an integral reactor limit the options for placing control and safety system instruments. The development of instrumentation and control (I&C strategies for a large 1,000 MWe iPWR is described. Reactor system modeling—which includes reactor core dynamics, primary heat exchanger, and the steam flashing drum—is an important part of I&C development and validation, and thereby consolidates the overall implementation for a large iPWR. The results of simulation models, control development, and instrumentation features illustrate the systematic approach that is applicable to integral light water reactors.

  14. Perceived quality of channel zapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, R.E.; Ahmed, K.; Brunnström, K.


    The end user experience of service quality is critical to the success of a service provider's IPTV deployment program. A key element involved in validating IPTV quality of experience (QoE) is how quickly and reliably users can change TV channels, often referred to as channel zapping. Currently there

  15. The EMBL-EBI channel. (United States)

    McEntyre, Jo; Birney, Ewan


    This editorial introduces the EMBL-EBI channel in F1000Research. The aims of the channel are to present EMBL-EBI outputs and collate research published on F1000Research contributed, in whole or in part, EMBL-EBI researchers.

  16. FMCG companies specific distribution channels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ioana Barin


    ... existing distribution channels and logistics system. One of the essential functions of a distribution is performing acts of sale, through which, with the actual movement of goods, their change of ownership takes place, that the successive transfer of ownership from producer to consumer. This is an itinerary in the economic cycle of goods, called the distribution channel.

  17. An improved channel assessment scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Bader, Ahmed


    A source node in a multihop network determines whether to transmit in a channel based on whether the channel is occupied by a packet transmission with a large number of relays; whether the source node is in the data tones back-off zone; and the source node is in the busy tone back-off zone.

  18. The Orange Juice Distribution Channels

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    is to provide a general overview about the agents in the European marketing channels of the FCOJ, focusing on the final juice consumers, retailing, food service and the beverage industry. The framework for this part is build up of the marketing channel concepts and functions (Stern et al., 1996; Berman,. 1996; Rosembloom ...

  19. Hydrodynamic instability of meandering channels (United States)

    Ali, Sk Zeeshan; Dey, Subhasish


    In this paper, we explore the hydrodynamic instability of meandering channels driven by the turbulent flow. The governing equations of channel dynamics with suitable boundary conditions are closed with the fluid and granular constitutive relationships. A regular expansion of the fundamental variables is employed to linearize the parent equations by superimposing the perturbations on the basic unperturbed flow. The channel dynamics reveal a resonance phenomenon which occurs when the key variables fall in the vicinity of the distinct critical values. The resonance phenomenon preserves its distinctive signature in different flow regimes which are guided by the characteristic values of the shear Reynolds number. The hydrodynamic analysis indicates that the fluid friction and the volumetric sediment flux play a decisive role to characterize the channel instability in different flow regimes. The growths of azimuthal velocity perturbation in phase with curvature, bed topography perturbation, bend amplification rate, and meander propagation speed in different flow regimes are investigated by varying the meander wavenumber, Shields number, channel aspect ratio, and relative roughness number. The analysis is capable to capture the effects of grain size on azimuthal velocity perturbation, bed topography perturbation, bend amplification rate, and meandering propagation speed over a wide range of shear Reynolds numbers. The variations of resonant wavenumbers in different flow regimes with the Shields number, channel aspect ratio, and relative roughness number are addressed. For a specific flow regime, the upstream and downstream migrations of meandering channels are typically governed by the Shields number, channel aspect ratio, and relative roughness number.

  20. Capacity of quantum Gaussian channels (United States)

    Holevo, A. S.; Sohma, M.; Hirota, O.


    The aim of this paper is to give explicit calculation of the classical capacity of quantum Gaussian channels, in particular, involving squeezed states. The calculation is based on a general formula for the entropy of a quantum Gaussian state, which is of independent interest, and on the recently proved coding theorem for quantum communication channels.

  1. Lubiprostone: chloride channel activator for chronic constipation. (United States)

    Rivkin, Anastasia; Chagan, Larisa


    Chronic constipation is a common and costly health problem occurring in approximately 4.5 million Americans. Current management of constipation is suboptimal and requires a stepwise approach using a combination of laxatives to decrease symptoms. The objective of this review was to describe the efficacy and safety of a new therapeutic entity, lubiprostone, recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of chronic idiopathic constipation. Computerized searches of MEDLINE and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts were conducted (1966-July 10, 2006). Search terms utilized were lubiprostone, RU-0211, and chronic constipation. References of selected articles were searched for additional articles or abstracts. All relevant published literature regarding lubiprostone was included in this review. Pertinent abstracts presented at meetings of the American College of Gastroenterology and Digestive Diseases Week were also included. Lubiprostone activates a chloride channel (ie, subtype 2) and increases chloride and fluid secretion into the intestines, resulting in relief of constipation. It is poorly absorbed after oral administration, and its metabolism occurs primarily in the stomach and jejunum. Lubiprostone was evaluated in 6 placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized Phase II or III clinical trials. Overall, in clinical trials, >1400 patients were exposed to 24 mug of lubiprostone BID for up to 48 weeks. It improved the number of bowel movements, stool consistency, bloating, and global assessment of constipation compared with placebo (P lubiprostone was given with food. Lubiprostone is the first in its class of chloride channel activators that results in improvement of symptoms of constipation. It has not been compared with other laxatives but, based on the available placebo-controlled studies, its efficacy is superior to placebo and its safety is acceptable. Considering the currently available laxatives, lubiprostone will become an

  2. The Importance of Providing Multiple-Channel Sections in Dredging Activities to Improve Fish Habitat Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Pin Chiu


    Full Text Available After Typhoon Morakot, dredging engineering was conducted while taking the safety of humans and structures into consideration, but partial stream reaches were formed in the multiple-channel sections in Cishan Stream because of anthropogenic and natural influences. This study mainly explores the distribution of each fish species in both the multiple- and single-channel sections in the Cishan Stream. Parts of the environments did not exhibit significant differences according to a one-way ANOVA comparing the multiple- and single-channel sections, but certain areas of the multiple-channel sections had more diverse habitats. Each fish species was widely distributed by non-metric multidimensional scaling in the multiple-channel sections as compared to those in the single-channel sections. In addition, according to the principal component analysis, each fish species has a preferred environment, and all of them have a wide choice of habitat environments in the multiple-channel sections. Finally, the existence of multiple-channel sections could significantly affect the existence of the fish species under consideration in this study. However, no environmental factors were found to have an influence on fish species in the single-channel sections, with the exception of Rhinogobius nantaiensis. The results show that providing multiple-channel sections in dredging activities could improve fish habitat environments.

  3. The JCMT future instrumentation project (United States)

    Dempsey, Jessica T.; Ho, Paul T. P.; Walther, Craig; Friberg, Per; Bintley, Dan; Chen, Ming-Tang


    Under the new operational purview of the East Asian Observatory, the JCMT continues to produce premier wide-field submillimetre science. Now the Observatory looks to embark on an ambitious series of instrumentation upgrades and opportunities to keep the telescope at the bleeding edge of its performance capabilities, whilst harnessing the collaborative expertise of the participating EAO regions and its JCMT partners. New heterodyne instruments include a new receiver at 230 GHz, a super array (90 pixels) at 345 GHz and the upgrade possibilities for the continuum camera SCUBA-2. In addition, the opportunities for PI and visiting instruments, including TimePilot and Gismo-2 will be described.

  4. Microbiological evaluation of the steam sterilization of assembled laparoscopic instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Carolina de Camargo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: assess the safety of steam sterilization of assembled laparoscopic instruments with challenge contamination. Method: a laboratory experimental study, using as test samples trocars and laparoscopic graspers. Geobacillus stearothermophillus ATCC-7953 was used, with a microbial population of 106UFC/Filter paper substrate, removed from the biological indicator. Three of them were introduced into each instrument at the time of assembly, and sterilized at pressurized saturated steam, 134oC for 5 minutes. After sterilization, the instrument was disassembled and each filter paper substrate was inoculated in soybean casein culture and incubated at 56oC for 21 days. In case of absence of growth, they were subjected to heat shock of 80oC, for 20 minutes and re-incubated for 72 hours. Sample size: 185 graspers and 185 trocars, with 95% power. We paired the experiments with comparative negative control groups (5 graspers and 5 trocars with challenge contamination, sterilized disassembled and positive control (30 filter paper supports, unsterilized, subject to the same incubation procedures. Results: there was no microbial growth in experimental and negative control. The results of the positive control were satisfactory. Conclusion: this study provided strong scientific evidence to support the safety of steam sterilizing of the assembled laparoscopic instrument.

  5. The safety relief valve handbook design and use of process safety valves to ASME and International codes and standards

    CERN Document Server

    Hellemans, Marc


    The Safety Valve Handbook is a professional reference for design, process, instrumentation, plant and maintenance engineers who work with fluid flow and transportation systems in the process industries, which covers the chemical, oil and gas, water, paper and pulp, food and bio products and energy sectors. It meets the need of engineers who have responsibilities for specifying, installing, inspecting or maintaining safety valves and flow control systems. It will also be an important reference for process safety and loss prevention engineers, environmental engineers, and plant and process designers who need to understand the operation of safety valves in a wider equipment or plant design context. . No other publication is dedicated to safety valves or to the extensive codes and standards that govern their installation and use. A single source means users save time in searching for specific information about safety valves. . The Safety Valve Handbook contains all of the vital technical and standards informat...

  6. Marketing channels and competitive advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić Dragoljub


    Full Text Available Issue that can already be seen and will be very clear in the future is that the central problem in the market of tube caps will not be the product or the price or promotion, but marketing channels. Therefore, the competitive advantage will most probably be built on marketing channels and not the production - as it has been so far, so, the questions of choice functioning and modification of marketing channels, as well as selection of the most appropriate members of channels will become more and more important. Accordingly, it may freely be said that the choice, i.e. the movement of marketing channels represents one of the strategic decisions which has to be made by a company management and which will subsequently very significantly influence the functioning and efficacy of not only the system of distribution, but also the entire business transactions.

  7. 77 FR 52633 - Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau Seeks Comment on Post-Reconfiguration 800 MHz Band... (United States)


    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 90 Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau Seeks Comment on Post- Reconfiguration... channel plans along the U.S.-Mexico border. The Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau (Bureau), by... in May 2007, the Commission delegated authority to Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau to...

  8. Channel Aggregation Schemes for Cognitive Radio Networks (United States)

    Lee, Jongheon; So, Jaewoo

    This paper proposed three channel aggregation schemes for cognitive radio networks, a constant channel aggregation scheme, a probability distribution-based variable channel aggregation scheme, and a residual channel-based variable channel aggregation scheme. A cognitive radio network can have a wide bandwidth if unused channels in the primary networks are aggregated. Channel aggregation schemes involve either constant channel aggregation or variable channel aggregation. In this paper, a Markov chain is used to develop an analytical model of channel aggregation schemes; and the performance of the model is evaluated in terms of the average sojourn time, the average throughput, the forced termination probability, and the blocking probability. Simulation results show that channel aggregation schemes can reduce the average sojourn time of cognitive users by increasing the channel occupation rate of unused channels in a primary network.

  9. Psychometric model for safety culture assessment in nuclear research facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, C.S. do, E-mail: [Centro Tecnológico da Marinha em São Paulo (CTMSP), Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2468, 05508-000 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Andrade, D.A., E-mail: [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN – SP), Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508-000 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Mesquita, R.N. de, E-mail: [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN – SP), Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508-000 São Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    Highlights: • A psychometric model to evaluate ‘safety climate’ at nuclear research facilities. • The model presented evidences of good psychometric qualities. • The model was applied to nuclear research facilities in Brazil. • Some ‘safety culture’ weaknesses were detected in the assessed organization. • A potential tool to develop safety management programs in nuclear facilities. - Abstract: A safe and reliable operation of nuclear power plants depends not only on technical performance, but also on the people and on the organization. Organizational factors have been recognized as the main causal mechanisms of accidents by research organizations through USA, Europe and Japan. Deficiencies related with these factors reveal weaknesses in the organization’s safety culture. A significant number of instruments to assess the safety culture based on psychometric models that evaluate safety climate through questionnaires, and which are based on reliability and validity evidences, have been published in health and ‘safety at work’ areas. However, there are few safety culture assessment instruments with these characteristics (reliability and validity) available on nuclear literature. Therefore, this work proposes an instrument to evaluate, with valid and reliable measures, the safety climate of nuclear research facilities. The instrument was developed based on methodological principles applied to research modeling and its psychometric properties were evaluated by a reliability analysis and validation of content, face and construct. The instrument was applied to an important nuclear research organization in Brazil. This organization comprises 4 research reactors and many nuclear laboratories. The survey results made possible a demographic characterization and the identification of some possible safety culture weaknesses and pointing out potential areas to be improved in the assessed organization. Good evidence of reliability with Cronbach's alpha

  10. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the MONTE OLIVIA and Rio Blanco in the English Channel, North Atlantic Ocean and others from 2009-01-18 to 2009-12-23 (NODC Accession 0117337) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0117337 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from MONTE OLIVIA and Rio Blanco in the English Channel, North...

  11. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the Caribbean Sea, Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary and others from 1997-07-28 to 1997-11-14 (NODC Accession 0081011) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0081011 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the Caribbean Sea, Channel...

  12. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from DISCOVERY in the English Channel, Inner Sea - West Coast Scotland and others from 2011-06-06 to 2011-07-09 (NCEI Accession 0157465) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157465 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from DISCOVERY in the English Channel, Inner Sea - West Coast...

  13. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from POLARSTERN in the English Channel, North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 1991-12-04 to 1994-06-12 (NODC Accession 0117725) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0117725 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from POLARSTERN in the English Channel, North Atlantic Ocean...

  14. Safety at CERN

    CERN Multimedia


    Safety is an integral part of our working lives, and should be in our minds whatever job we do at CERN. Ultimately, safety is the responsibility of the Director General – your safety is my concern. That’s why I have this week appointed a new Safety Policy Committee (SAPOCO) that reflects the new Organizational structure of CERN. CERN’s Staff Rules and Regulations clearly lay out in chapter 3 the scope of safety at CERN as well as my responsibilities and yours in safety matters. At CERN, safety is considered in the broadest sense, encompassing occupational Health and Safety, environmental protection, and the safety of equipment and installations. It is my responsibility to put appropriate measures in place to ensure that these conditions are met. And it is the responsibility of us all to ensure that we are fully conversant with safety provisions applicable in our areas of work and that we comply with them. The appointment of a n...

  15. Voltage-gated Proton Channels (United States)

    DeCoursey, Thomas E.


    Voltage-gated proton channels, HV1, have vaulted from the realm of the esoteric into the forefront of a central question facing ion channel biophysicists, namely the mechanism by which voltage-dependent gating occurs. This transformation is the result of several factors. Identification of the gene in 2006 revealed that proton channels are homologues of the voltage-sensing domain of most other voltage-gated ion channels. Unique, or at least eccentric, properties of proton channels include dimeric architecture with dual conduction pathways, perfect proton selectivity, a single-channel conductance ~103 smaller than most ion channels, voltage-dependent gating that is strongly modulated by the pH gradient, ΔpH, and potent inhibition by Zn2+ (in many species) but an absence of other potent inhibitors. The recent identification of HV1 in three unicellular marine plankton species has dramatically expanded the phylogenetic family tree. Interest in proton channels in their own right has increased as important physiological roles have been identified in many cells. Proton channels trigger the bioluminescent flash of dinoflagellates, facilitate calcification by coccolithophores, regulate pH-dependent processes in eggs and sperm during fertilization, secrete acid to control the pH of airway fluids, facilitate histamine secretion by basophils, and play a signaling role in facilitating B-cell receptor mediated responses in B lymphocytes. The most elaborate and best-established functions occur in phagocytes, where proton channels optimize the activity of NADPH oxidase, an important producer of reactive oxygen species. Proton efflux mediated by HV1 balances the charge translocated across the membrane by electrons through NADPH oxidase, minimizes changes in cytoplasmic and phagosomal pH, limits osmotic swelling of the phagosome, and provides substrate H+ for the production of H2O2 and HOCl, reactive oxygen species crucial to killing pathogens. PMID:23798303

  16. 47 CFR 95.7 - Channel sharing. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Channel sharing. 95.7 Section 95.7... SERVICES General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) § 95.7 Channel sharing. (a) Channels or channel pairs (one 462... and use of channels to reduce interference and to make the most effective use of the facilities. (b...

  17. Teen drivers' awareness of vehicle instrumentation in naturalistic research. (United States)

    Ehsani, J P; Haynie, D; Ouimet, M C; Zhu, C; Guillaume, C; Klauer, S G; Dingus, T; Simons-Morton, B G


    Naturalistic driving methods require the installation of instruments and cameras in vehicles to record driving behavior. A critical, yet unexamined issue in naturalistic driving research is the extent to which the vehicle instruments and cameras used for naturalistic methods change human behavior. We sought to describe the degree to which teenage participants' self-reported awareness of vehicle instrumentation changes over time, and whether that awareness was associated with driving behaviors. Forty-two newly-licensed teenage drivers participated in an 18-month naturalistic driving study. Data on driving behaviors including crash/near-crashes and elevated gravitational force (g-force) events rates were collected over the study period. At the end of the study, participants were asked to rate the extent to which they were aware of instruments in the vehicle at four time points. They were also asked to describe their own and their passengers' perceptions of the instrumentation in the vehicle during an in-depth interview. The number of critical event button presses was used as a secondary measure of camera awareness. The association between self-reported awareness of the instrumentation and objectively measured driving behaviors was tested using correlations and linear mixed models. Most participants' reported that their awareness of vehicle instrumentation declined across the duration of the 18-month study. Their awareness increased in response to their passengers' concerns about the cameras or if they were involved in a crash. The number of the critical event button presses was initially high and declined rapidly. There was no correlation between driver's awareness of instrumentation and their crash and near-crash rate or elevated g-force events rate. Awareness was not associated with crash and near-crash rates or elevated g-force event rates, consistent with having no effect on this measure of driving performance. Naturalistic driving studies are likely to yield

  18. Technical Training seminar: Texas Instruments

    CERN Multimedia


    Monday 6 November TECHNICAL TRAINING SEMINAR 14:00 to 17:30 - Training Centre Auditorium (bldg. 593) Texas Instruments Technical Seminar Michael Scholtholt, Field Application Engineer / TEXAS INSTRUMENTS (US, D, CH) POWER - A short approach to Texas Instruments power products Voltage mode vs. current mode control Differentiating DC/DC converters by analyzing control and compensation schemes: line / load regulation, transient response, BOM, board space, ease-of-use Introduction to the SWIFT software FPGA + CPLD power solutions WIRELESS / CHIPCON Decision criteria when choosing a RF platform Introduction to Texas Instruments wireless products: standardized platforms proprietary platforms ( 2.4 GHz / sub 1 GHz) development tools Antenna design: example for 2.4 GHz questions, discussion Industrial partners: Robert Medioni, François Caloz / Spoerle Electronic, CH-1440 Montagny (VD), Switzerland Phone: +41 24 447 0137, email:, Language: English. Free s...

  19. Intelligent instrumentation principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bhuyan, Manabendra


    With the advent of microprocessors and digital-processing technologies as catalyst, classical sensors capable of simple signal conditioning operations have evolved rapidly to take on higher and more specialized functions including validation, compensation, and classification. This new category of sensor expands the scope of incorporating intelligence into instrumentation systems, yet with such rapid changes, there has developed no universal standard for design, definition, or requirement with which to unify intelligent instrumentation. Explaining the underlying design methodologies of intelligent instrumentation, Intelligent Instrumentation: Principles and Applications provides a comprehensive and authoritative resource on the scientific foundations from which to coordinate and advance the field. Employing a textbook-like language, this book translates methodologies to more than 80 numerical examples, and provides applications in 14 case studies for a complete and working understanding of the material. Beginn...

  20. Compact Formaldehyde Fluorescence Instrument Element (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The successful completion of this IRAD will deliver a fully functional instrument at TRL 6.  The key characteristics that we will demonstrate are simplicity,...

  1. Virtual Sensor Test Instrumentation Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Mobitrum has started the development of virtual sensor test instrumentation in Phase I for characterization and measurement of ground testing of propulsion systems....

  2. Convergence of estuarine channels (United States)

    Dronkers, Job


    Tide-dominated coastal plain estuaries have typically up-estuary convergent tidal channels. Analysis of estuarine characteristics indicates a dependence of the convergence length on relative tidal amplitude, relative intertidal area and river flow velocity. In order to explain these relationships we investigate a condition for continuity of net sediment transport throughout the estuary, corresponding to morphodynamic equilibrium. We show, by using an analytical solution of the tidal equations, that this condition is equivalent to a condition on the convergence length. This condition is evaluated for 21 estuaries in different regions of the world. It appears that the convergence length determined in this way can explain observed convergence lengths for the considered set of estuaries. The dependence of the convergence length on different estuarine characteristics is analysed by solving the fully coupled hydro-morphodynamic equations. We show that this dependence limits the range of variation of the tidal velocity amplitude. The analysis provides insight in the morphological response of estuaries to human interventions. The condition can easily be evaluated to yield an estimate of this response.

  3. Mass Spectrometry Instrumentation in Proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sprenger, Richard Remko; Roepstorff, Peter


    , Orbitrap and ion mobility instruments. Together they offer various and complementary capabilities in terms of ionization, sensitivity, speed, resolution, mass accuracy, dynamic range and methods of fragmentation. Mass spectrometers can acquire qualitative and quantitative information on a large scale....... In terms of desired outcome, cost and time, combining and choosing between available instrumentation and methodologies is key to find the best analytical strategy suiting a particular proteomics experiment....

  4. Luminescence techniques: Instrumentation and methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, L.


    This paper describes techniques, instruments and methods used in luminescence dating and environmental dosimetry in many laboratories around the world. These techniques are based on two phenomena - thermally stimulated luminescence and optically stimulated luminescence. The most commonly used...... luminescence stimulation and detection techniques are reviewed and information is given on recent developments in instrument design and on the stale of the art in luminescence measurements and analysis. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  5. Instruments to assess integrated care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngsø, Anne Marie; Godtfredsen, Nina Skavlan; Høst, Dorte


    to measure the level of integration across health-care sectors and to assess and evaluate the organisational elements within the instruments identified. METHODS: An extensive, systematic literature review in PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, Web of Science for the years 1980-2011. Selected...... was prevalent. It is uncertain whether development of a single 'all-inclusive' model for assessing integrated care is desirable. We emphasise the continuing need for validated instruments embedded in theoretical contexts....

  6. Notes on instrumentation and control

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, G J


    Notes on Instrumentation and Control presents topics on pressure (i.e., U-tube manometers and elastic type gauges), temperature (i.e. glass thermometer, bi-metallic strip thermometer, filled system thermometer, vapor pressure thermometer), level, and flow measuring devices. The book describes other miscellaneous instruments, signal transmitting devices, supply and control systems, and monitoring systems. The theory of automatic control and semi-conductor devices are also considered. Marine engineers will find the book useful.

  7. MIRA: Dual wavelength band instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Georgii


    Full Text Available MIRA is a dual wavelength band instrument operated by Technische Universität München TUM, which provides neutrons over a wide range of wavelengths 3.5 Å < λ < 20 Å combining the two beam ports of MIRA-1 and MIRA-2. The instrument´s setup is modular and allows for various different cold neutron experiments such as diffraction, spectroscopy or reflectometry.

  8. POES MEPED differential flux retrievals and electron channel contamination correction (United States)

    Peck, E. D.; Randall, C. E.; Green, J. C.; Rodriguez, J. V.; Rodger, C. J.


    A correction method to remove proton contamination from the electron channels of the Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites Medium Energy Proton/Electron Detector (MEPED) is described. Proton contamination estimates are based on measurements in five of the MEPED proton spectral channels. A constrained inversion of the MEPED proton channel response function matrix is used to calculate proton differential flux spectra. In this inversion, the proton energy distribution is described by a weighted combination of exponential, power law, and Maxwellian distributions. Proton contamination in the MEPED electron spectral channels is derived by applying the electron channel proton sensitivities to the proton fluxes from the best fit proton spectra. Once the electron channel measurements are corrected for proton contamination, an inversion of the electron channel response function matrix is used to calculate electron differential flux spectra. A side benefit of the method is that it yields an estimate for the integrated electron flux in the energy range from 300 keV to 2.5 MeV with a center energy at ~800 keV. The final product is a differential spectrum of electron flux covering the energy range from about 10 keV to 2.5 MeV that is devoid of proton contamination except during large solar proton events. Comparisons of corrected MEPED differential fluxes to the Detection of Electromagnetic Emissions Transmitted from Earthquake Regions Instrument for Detecting Particles show that MEPED fluxes are greater than what is expected from altitude-induced particle population changes; this is attributed at least partially to measurement differences in pitch angle range.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Fourier transform spectrometers developed in three distinct spectral regions in the early 1960s. Pierre Connes and his coworkers in France developed remarkably sophisticated step-scan interferometers that permitted near-infrared spectra to be measured with a resolution of better than 0.0 1 cm{sup {minus}1}. These instruments may be considered the forerunners of the step-scan interferometers made by Bruker, Bio-Rad (Cambridge, MA, USA) and Nicolet although their principal application was in the field of astronomy. Low-resolution rapid-scanning interferometers were developed by Larry Mertz and his colleagues at Block Engineering (Cambridge, MA, USA) for remote sensing. Nonetheless, the FT-IR spectrometers that are so prevalent in chemical laboratories today are direct descendants of these instruments. The interferometers that were developed for far-infrared spectrometry in Gebbie's laboratory ,have had no commercial counterparts for at least 15 years. However, it could be argued that these instruments did as much to demonstrate the power of Fourier transform spectroscopy to the chemical community as any of the instruments developed for mid- and near-infrared spectrometry. Their performance was every bit as good as today's rapid-scanning interferometers. However, the market for these instruments is so small today that it has proved more lucrative to modify rapid-scanning interferometers that were originally designed for mid-infrared spectrometry than to compete with these instruments with slow continuous scan or step-scan interferometers.

  10. Sulfur Dioxide Analyzer Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springston, Stephen R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)


    The Sulfur Dioxide Analyzer measures sulfur dioxide based on absorbance of UV light at one wavelength by SO2 molecules which then decay to a lower energy state by emitting UV light at a longer wavelength. Specifically, SO2 + hυ1 →SO2 *→SO2 + hυ2 The emitted light is proportional to the concentration of SO2 in the optical cell. External communication with the analyzer is available through an Ethernet port configured through the instrument network of the AOS systems. The Model 43i-TLE is part of the i-series of Thermo Scientific instruments. The i-series instruments are designed to interface with external computers through the proprietary Thermo Scientific iPort Software. However, this software is somewhat cumbersome and inflexible. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has written an interface program in National Instruments LabView that both controls the Model 43i-TLE Analyzer AND queries the unit for all measurement and housekeeping data. The LabView vi (the software program written by BNL) ingests all raw data from the instrument and outputs raw data files in a uniform data format similar to other instruments in the AOS and described more fully in Section 6.0 below.

  11. Benchmarking Global Food Safety Performances: The Era of Risk Intelligence. (United States)

    Valleé, Jean-Charles Le; Charlebois, Sylvain


    Food safety data segmentation and limitations hamper the world's ability to select, build up, monitor, and evaluate food safety performance. Currently, there is no metric that captures the entire food safety system, and performance data are not collected strategically on a global scale. Therefore, food safety benchmarking is essential not only to help monitor ongoing performance but also to inform continued food safety system design, adoption, and implementation toward more efficient and effective food safety preparedness, responsiveness, and accountability. This comparative study identifies and evaluates common elements among global food safety systems. It provides an overall world ranking of food safety performance for 17 Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) countries, illustrated by 10 indicators organized across three food safety risk governance domains: risk assessment (chemical risks, microbial risks, and national reporting on food consumption), risk management (national food safety capacities, food recalls, food traceability, and radionuclides standards), and risk communication (allergenic risks, labeling, and public trust). Results show all countries have very high food safety standards, but Canada and Ireland, followed by France, earned excellent grades relative to their peers. However, any subsequent global ranking study should consider the development of survey instruments to gather adequate and comparable national evidence on food safety.

  12. The DYNES Instrument: A Description and Overview (United States)

    Zurawski, Jason; Ball, Robert; Barczyk, Artur; Binkley, Mathew; Boote, Jeff; Boyd, Eric; Brown, Aaron; Brown, Robert; Lehman, Tom; McKee, Shawn; Meekhof, Benjeman; Mughal, Azher; Newman, Harvey; Rozsa, Sandor; Sheldon, Paul; Tackett, Alan; Voicu, Ramiro; Wolff, Stephen; Yang, Xi


    Scientific innovation continues to increase requirements for the computing and networking infrastructures of the world. Collaborative partners, instrumentation, storage, and processing facilities are often geographically and topologically separated, as is the case with LHC virtual organizations. These separations challenge the technology used to interconnect available resources, often delivered by Research and Education (R&E) networking providers, and leads to complications in the overall process of end-to-end data management. Capacity and traffic management are key concerns of R&E network operators; a delicate balance is required to serve both long-lived, high capacity network flows, as well as more traditional end-user activities. The advent of dynamic circuit services, a technology that enables the creation of variable duration, guaranteed bandwidth networking channels, allows for the efficient use of common network infrastructures. These gains are seen particularly in locations where overall capacity is scarce compared to the (sustained peak) needs of user communities. Related efforts, including those of the LHCOPN [3] operations group and the emerging LHCONE [4] project, may take advantage of available resources by designating specific network activities as a “high priority”, allowing reservation of dedicated bandwidth or optimizing for deadline scheduling and predicable delivery patterns. This paper presents the DYNES instrument, an NSF funded cyberinfrastructure project designed to facilitate end-to-end dynamic circuit services [2]. This combination of hardware and software innovation is being deployed across R&E networks in the United States at selected end-sites located on University Campuses. DYNES is peering with international efforts in other countries using similar solutions, and is increasing the reach of this emerging technology. This global data movement solution could be integrated into computing paradigms such as cloud and grid computing

  13. Thermal studies of Martian channels and valleys using Termoskan data: New results (United States)

    Betts, B. H.; Murray, B. C.


    The Termoskan instrument onboard the Phobos '88 spacecraft acquired the highest-spatial-resolution thermal data ever obtained for Mars. Included in the thermal images are 2 km/pixel midday observations of several major channel and valley systems, including significant portions of Shalbatana Vallis, Ravi Vallis, Al-Qahira Vallis, Ma'adim Vallis, the channel connecting Valles Marineris with Hydraotes Chaos, and channel material in Eos Chasma. Termoskan also observed small portions of the southern beginnings of Simud, Tiu, and Ares Valles and some channel material in Gangis Chasma. Simultaneous broad band visible data were obtained for all but Ma'adim Vallis. We find that most of the channels and valleys have higher inertias than their surroundings, consistent with Viking IRTM-based thermal studies of Martian channels. We see for the first time that thermal inertia boundaries closely match all flat channel floor boundaries. Combining Termoskan thermal data, relative observations from Termoskan visible channel data, Viking absolute bolometric albedos, and a thermal model of the Mars surface, we have derived lower bounds on channel thermal inertias. Lower bounds on typical channel thermal inertias range from 8.4 to 12.5 (10(exp -3) cal cm(exp -2) s(exp -1/2)K(exp -1)) (352 to 523 in SI units). Lower bounds on inertia differences with the surrounding heavily cratered plains range from 1.1 to 3.5 (46 to 147 in SI units). Atmospheric and geometric effects are not sufficient to cause the inertia enhancements. We agree with previous researchers that localized, dark, high inertia areas within channels are likely eolian in nature. However, the Temloskan data show that eolian deposits do not fill the channels, nor are they responsible for the overall thermal inertia enhancement. Thermal homogeneity and strong correlation of thermal boundaries with the channel floor boundaries lead us to favor noneolian overall explanations.

  14. TWRS safety program plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderon, L.M., Westinghouse Hanford


    Management of Nuclear Safety, Industrial Safety, Industrial Hygiene, and Fire Protection programs, functions, and field support resources for Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) has, until recently, been centralized in TWRS Safety, under the Emergency, Safety, and Quality organization. Industrial hygiene technician services were also provided to support operational needs related to safety basis compliance. Due to WHC decentralization of safety and reengineering efforts in West Tank Farms, staffing and safety responsibilities have been transferred to the facilities. Under the new structure, safety personnel for TWRS are assigned directly to East Tank Farms, West Tank Farms, and a core Safety Group in TWRS Engineering. The Characterization Project Operations (CPO) safety organization will remain in tact as it currently exists. Personnel assigned to East Tank Farms, West Tank Farms, and CPO will perform facility-specific or project-specific duties and provide field implementation of programs. Those assigned to the core group will focus on activities having a TWRS-wide or programmatic focus. Hanford-wide activities will be the responsibility of the Safety Center of Expertise. In order to ensure an effective and consistent safety program for TWRS under the new organization program functions, goals, organizational structure, roles, responsibilities, and path forward must be clearly established. The purpose of the TWRS Safety Program Plan is to define the overall safety program, responsibilities, relationships, and communication linkages for safety personnel under the new structure. In addition, issues associated with reorganization transition are addressed, including training, project ownership, records management, and dissemination of equipment. For the purpose of this document ``TWRS Safety`` refers to all safety professionals and technicians (Industrial Safety, Industrial Hygiene, Fire Protection, and Nuclear Safety) within the TWRS organization, regardless of their

  15. Dual axial channel heat pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alario, J.P.; Haslett, R.A.; Kosson, R.L.


    A heat pipe comprising an elongated sealed metallic envelope having at least a pair of longitudinal channels extending along the length thereof. One of the channels is for the circulation of the vapor phase of the working medium in operation and the other for the liquid phase and capillary means are provided to furnish fluid communication therebetween. Dedicated vapor and liquid channels result in low viscous pressure drops, the capillary communication means and circumferential grooving in the vapor channel provide high capillary pressure differences, and circumferential grooving is provided to furnish the high evaporation and condensation film coefficients required. To support higher heat fluxes, wicking can be used to augment the capillary flow from the liquid channel. To support higher evaporator heat flux without the need for wicking means, the heat pipe can be provided with more than one liquid channel, each communicating with the vapor channel by capillary means. The heat pipe can be provided with an integral fin or equivalent means for rejection of heat by radiation to ambient or for attachment to a source of heat in the evaporator region thereof.

  16. Thermally stable imaging channeled spectropolarimetry (United States)

    Craven-Jones, Julia; Way, Brandyn M.; Hunt, Jeff; Kudenov, Michael W.; Mercier, Jeffrey A.


    Channeled spectropolarimetry can measure the complete polarization state of light as a function of wavelength. Typically, a channeled spectropolarimeter uses high order retarders made of uniaxial crystal to amplitude modulate the measured spectrum with the spectrally-dependent Stokes polarization information. A primary limitation of conventional channeled spectropolarimeters is related to the thermal variability of the retarders. Thermal variation often forces frequent system recalibration, particularly for field deployed systems. However, implementing thermally stable retarders results in an athermal channeled spectropolarimeter that relieves the need for frequent recalibration. Past work has addressed this issue by developing athermalized retarders using two or more uniaxial crystals. Recently, a retarder made of biaxial KTP and cut at a thermally insensitive angle was used to produce an athermal channeled spectropolarimeter. This paper presents the results of the biaxial crystal system and compares the two thermal stabilization techniques in the context of producing an imaging thermally stable channeled spectropolarimeter. A preliminary design for a snapshot imaging channeled spectropolarimeter is also presented.

  17. Ion Channels in Brain Metastasis. (United States)

    Klumpp, Lukas; Sezgin, Efe C; Eckert, Franziska; Huber, Stephan M


    Breast cancer, lung cancer and melanoma exhibit a high metastatic tropism to the brain. Development of brain metastases severely worsens the prognosis of cancer patients and constrains curative treatment options. Metastasizing to the brain by cancer cells can be dissected in consecutive processes including epithelial-mesenchymal transition, evasion from the primary tumor, intravasation and circulation in the blood, extravasation across the blood-brain barrier, formation of metastatic niches, and colonization in the brain. Ion channels have been demonstrated to be aberrantly expressed in tumor cells where they regulate neoplastic transformation, malignant progression or therapy resistance. Moreover, many ion channel modulators are FDA-approved drugs and in clinical use proposing ion channels as druggable targets for future anti-cancer therapy. The present review article aims to summarize the current knowledge on the function of ion channels in the different processes of brain metastasis. The data suggest that certain channel types involving voltage-gated sodium channels, ATP-release channels, ionotropic neurotransmitter receptors and gap junction-generating connexins interfere with distinct processes of brain metastazation.

  18. Ion Channels in Brain Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Klumpp


    Full Text Available Breast cancer, lung cancer and melanoma exhibit a high metastatic tropism to the brain. Development of brain metastases severely worsens the prognosis of cancer patients and constrains curative treatment options. Metastasizing to the brain by cancer cells can be dissected in consecutive processes including epithelial–mesenchymal transition, evasion from the primary tumor, intravasation and circulation in the blood, extravasation across the blood–brain barrier, formation of metastatic niches, and colonization in the brain. Ion channels have been demonstrated to be aberrantly expressed in tumor cells where they regulate neoplastic transformation, malignant progression or therapy resistance. Moreover, many ion channel modulators are FDA-approved drugs and in clinical use proposing ion channels as druggable targets for future anti-cancer therapy. The present review article aims to summarize the current knowledge on the function of ion channels in the different processes of brain metastasis. The data suggest that certain channel types involving voltage-gated sodium channels, ATP-release channels, ionotropic neurotransmitter receptors and gap junction-generating connexins interfere with distinct processes of brain metastazation.

  19. 76 FR 2647 - Application(s) for Duty-Free Entry of Scientific Instruments (United States)


    ... instrument will be used for a wide variety of research projects, including the study of graphene nanoribbons... artificial atoms, nanomagnetic research, and advanced semiconductor devices. The device will be used to... local magnetic fields, and to fabricate semiconductor devices with extreme short channels. Justification...

  20. Landslide-channel feedbacks amplify flood response and channel erosion (United States)

    Bennett, Georgina; Kean, Jason; Rengers, Francis; Ryan, Sandra; Rathburn, Sara


    Flood stream power is amplified in mountainous catchments by channel confinement and steep slopes, generating widespread channel erosion and causing significant challenges for flood risk management. Approaches to predicting flood channel response include identification of stream power thresholds. However, in a mountainous catchment in Colorado, USA, we find that stream power, estimated from the pre-storm DEM, was not a good predictor of channel flood response and that landslide-channel feedbacks better explain the observed pattern of channel erosion. The North St Vrain is a 250 km2 catchment in the Colorado Front Range. It was among several catchments impacted by a 1000 yr prolonged rainfall event in September 2013, which generated a 200 yr flood and >100 landslides in the catchment. We estimated peak discharge and stream power using radar-based rainfall data, wherein the rainfall was converted to a discharge based on the upstream drainage area and assuming no infiltration (a reasonable assumption after 3 days of heavy rainfall). Measured high water marks in key reaches were used to calculate a field-based estimate of peak discharge. These discharge estimates were compared with spatial erosion estimates, calculated using the differenced pre- and post-flood LiDAR DEMs. We found that the onset of profound channel erosion was determined by the formation and failure of an in-channel dam. The dam, composed of debris flow and tributary sediment input, was sufficiently large (˜150,000 m3) to temporarily overwhelm channel transport capacity even during flood. Our field-based estimate of peak discharge downstream of the dam is more than 2 times greater than our rainfall-based estimate, which suggests a dam burst event occurred. Further downstream we observe additional channel reaches in which erosion was amplified by landslide and tributary sediment input, either through the formation and failure of dams or potentially through sediment bulking alone. These findings imply

  1. Occupational safety motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Louise; Kines, Pete


    Background: Motivation is one of the most important factors for safety behaviour and for implementing change in general. However, theoretical and psychometric studies of safety performance have traditionally treated safety motivation, safety compliance and safety participation unidimensionally....... At the same time many motivation questionnaire items are seldom founded on theory and/or do not account for the theories’ ontological and epistemological differences, e.g. of how knowledge, attitude and action are related. Present questionnaire items tap into occupational safety motivation in asking whether...... or not respondents ‘are’ motivated and whether they feel that safety is important or worthwhile. Another important aspect is ‘what’ motivates workers to comply to and participate in safety. The aim of this article is to introduce a new theory-based occupational safety motivation scale which is validated...

  2. What constitutes patient safety culture in Chinese hospitals? (United States)

    Zhu, Junya; Li, Liping; Li, Yuxia; Shi, Meiyu; Lu, Haiying; Garnick, Deborah W; Weingart, Saul N


    To develop a patient safety culture instrument for use in Chinese hospitals, we assessed the appropriateness of existing safety culture questionnaires used in the USA and Japan for Chinese respondents and identified new items and domains suitable to Chinese hospitals. Focus group study. Twenty-four physicians, nurses and other health-care workers from 11 hospitals in three Chinese cities. Three focus groups were conducted in 2010 to elicit information from hospital workers about their perceptions of the appropriateness and importance of each of 97 questionnaire items, derived from a literature review and an expert panel, characterizing hospital safety culture. understood the concepts of patient safety and safety culture and identified features associated with safe care. They judged that numerous questions from existing surveys were inappropriate, including 39 items that were dropped because they were judged unimportant, semantically redundant, confusing, ambiguous or inapplicable in Chinese settings. Participants endorsed eight new items and three additional dimensions addressing staff training, mentoring of new hires, compliance with rules and procedures, equipment availability and leadership walk-rounds they judged appropriate to assessing safety culture in Chinese hospitals. This process resulted in a 66-item instrument for testing in cognitive interviews, the next stage of survey development. Focus group participants provided important insights into the refinement of existing items and the construction of new items for measuring patient safety culture in Chinese hospitals. This is a necessary first step in producing a culturally appropriate instrument applicable to specific local contexts.

  3. Marine Toxins Targeting Ion Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo R. Arias


    Full Text Available Abstract: This introductory minireview points out the importance of ion channels for cell communication. The basic concepts on the structure and function of ion channels triggered by membrane voltage changes, the so-called voltage-gated ion channels (VGICs, as well as those activated by neurotransmitters, the so-called ligand-gated ion channel (LGICs, are introduced. Among the most important VGIC superfamiles, we can name the voltage-gated Na+ (NaV, Ca2+ (CaV, and K+ (KV channels. Among the most important LGIC super families, we can include the Cys-loop or nicotinicoid, the glutamate-activated (GluR, and the ATP-activated (P2XnR receptor superfamilies. Ion channels are transmembrane proteins that allow the passage of different ions in a specific or unspecific manner. For instance, the activation of NaV, CaV, or KV channels opens a pore that is specific for Na+, Ca2+, or K+, respectively. On the other hand, the activation of certain LGICs such as nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, GluRs, and P2XnRs allows the passage of cations (e.g., Na+, K+, and/or Ca2+, whereas the activation of other LGICs such as type A γ-butyric acid and glycine receptors allows the passage of anions (e.g., Cl− and/or HCO3−. In this regard, the activation of NaV and CaV as well as ligand-gated cation channels produce membrane depolarization, which finally leads to stimulatory effects in the cell, whereas the activation of KV as well as ligand-gated anion channels induce membrane hyperpolarization that finally leads to inhibitory effects in the cell. The importance of these ion channel superfamilies is emphasized by considering their physiological functions throughout the body as well as their pathophysiological implicance in several neuronal diseases. In this regard, natural molecules, and especially marine toxins, can be potentially used as modulators (e.g., inhibitors or prolongers of ion channel functions to treat or to alleviate a specific

  4. Skeletal Muscle Na+ Channel Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina eSimkin


    Full Text Available Five inherited human disorders affecting skeletal muscle contraction have been traced to mutations in the gene encoding the voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.4. The main symptoms of these disorders are myotonia or periodic paralysis caused by changes in skeletal muscle fiber excitability. Symptoms of these disorders vary from mild or latent disease to incapacitating or even death in severe cases. As new human sodium channel mutations corresponding to disease states become discovered, the importance of understanding the role of the sodium channel in skeletal muscle function and disease state grows.

  5. ACE Strategy with Virtual Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Tichy


    Full Text Available Cochlear implant is an electronic device, which can mediate hearing sensations to profoundly deaf people. Contemporary cochlear implants are sophisticated electronic devices; however, their performance could still be improved. This paper describes an experiment we made in that direction: additional 21 virtual channels were implemented by sequential stimulation of adjacent intracochlear electrodes, and the ACE strategy with virtual channels (ACEv, Advanced Combination Encoder strategy with virtual channels for the Nucleus® 24 Cochlear Implant System was created and verified in a clinical test with four patients.

  6. [Street food safety in Rome, Italy]. (United States)

    Quaranta, Gianluigi; Nardone, Ida; Laurenti, Patrizia


    The Authors describe the results of inspections carried out in 22 street food outlets in the city of Rome, Italy, from 7 April to 28 May 2014. In general, structural requirements of outlets were met but some critical aspects related to hygiene, in particular of instruments, surfaces and worktops, were identified. Results suggest the need to ensure compliance with sanitation requirements of this particular type of food outlet, in order to ensure food safety and, consequently, consumers' health.

  7. Geomorphic context of channel locational probabilities along the Lower Mississippi River, USA (United States)

    Wasklewicz, Thad A.; Anderson, Shawn; Liu, Pin-Shou


    Channel change is an important aspect of geomorphological evolution and habitat dynamics in large alluvial rivers. Planimetric maps of channel locations were used to investigate spatio-temporal alluvial channel changes in a geomorphic context along the Lower Mississippi River (LMR). Analyses were conducted with the aid of a time-weighted locational probability map. The locational probability map was constructed in ArcGIS and covered a period of 205 years. An examination of the pixel data from the probability maps indicates a high occurrence of low probability pixels along the Lower Mississippi River, which is in accordance with the dynamism of alluvial rivers. The northern section of the Lower Mississippi River (Columbus, KY to Memphis, TN) has been much more stable than the southern river segments (Helena, AR to Natchez, MS). Areas of high channel probability (channel stability) were often associated with alluvial channel confinement from a combination of flood-plain deposits, geologic structures and large stable islands. Low channel probability locations were found along sections exhibiting the following geomorphic characteristics: changes in meander amplitude, meander neck and chute cutoffs, meander extensional processes and islands lost in channel migrational processes. The results provide a strong foundation for understanding channel change on the Lower Mississippi River and serves as a valuable instrument for future management and restoration schemes.

  8. An 8-channel transceiver 7-channel receive RF coil setup for high SNR ultrahigh-field MRI of the shoulder at 7T. (United States)

    Rietsch, Stefan H G; Pfaffenrot, Viktor; Bitz, Andreas K; Orzada, Stephan; Brunheim, Sascha; Lazik-Palm, Andrea; Theysohn, Jens M; Ladd, Mark E; Quick, Harald H; Kraff, Oliver


    In this work, we present an 8-channel transceiver (Tx/Rx) 7-channel receive (Rx) radiofrequency (RF) coil setup for 7T ultrahigh-field MR imaging of the shoulder. A C-shaped 8-channel Tx/Rx coil was combined with an anatomically close-fitting 7-channel Rx-only coil. The safety and performance parameters of this coil setup were evaluated on the bench and in phantom experiments. The 7T MR imaging performance of the shoulder RF coil setup was evaluated in in vivo measurements using a 3D DESS, a 2D PD-weighted TSE sequence, and safety supervision based on virtual observation points. Distinct SNR gain and acceleration capabilities provided by the additional 7-channel Rx-only coil were demonstrated in phantom and in vivo measurements. The power efficiency indicated good performance of each channel and a maximum B1(+)  of 19 μT if the hardware RF power limits of the MR system were exploited. MR imaging of the shoulder was demonstrated with clinically excellent image quality and sub-millimeter spatial resolution. The presented 8-channel transceiver 7-channel receive RF coil setup was successfully applied for in vivo 7T MRI of the shoulder providing a clear SNR gain versus the transceiver array without the additional receive array. Homogeneous images across the shoulder region were obtained using 8-channel subject-specific phase-only RF shimming. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Planck 2013 results. VI. High Frequency Instrument data processing


    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.


    We describe the processing of the 531 billion raw data samples from the High Frequency Instrument (HFI), which we performed to produce six temperature maps from the first 473 days of Planck-HFI survey data. These maps provide an accurate rendition of the sky emission at 100, 143, 217, 353, 545, and 857GHz with an angular resolution ranging from 9.́7 to 4.́6. The detector noise per (effective) beam solid angle is respectively, 10, 6 , 12, and 39 μK in the four lowest HFI frequency channels (10...

  10. Affective and instrumental communication in primary care interactions: predicting the satisfaction of nursing staff and patients. (United States)

    Haskard, Kelly B; DiMatteo, M Robin; Heritage, John


    Verbal and nonverbal communication between nursing staff and patients has received scant research attention. This study examined patients' and nursing staff members' global affective and instrumental communication, mutual influence, and relationship to postvisit satisfaction. This study employed ratings of videotaped primary care visits of 81 nursing staff members with 235 patients, and assessed communication in 2 channels: nonverbal visual and speech including vocal tone. Communication channel differences and prediction of patient satisfaction were examined. The visual and vocal communication of nursing staff members and patients robustly predicted each other's satisfaction and reflected their own satisfaction with the dyadic visit. Affect was communicated more clearly through the speech with vocal tone channel, whereas instrumental communication was stronger in visual nonverbal behavior. Patients' and nursing staff members' behaviors of pleasantness and involvement frequently co-occurred.

  11. On Representative Spaceflight Instrument and Associated Instrument Sensor Web Framework (United States)

    Kizhner, Semion; Patel, Umeshkumar; Vootukuru, Meg


    Sensor Web-based adaptation and sharing of space flight mission resources, including those of the Space-Ground and Control-User communication segment, could greatly benefit from utilization of heritage Internet Protocols and devices applied for Spaceflight (SpaceIP). This had been successfully demonstrated by a few recent spaceflight experiments. However, while terrestrial applications of Internet protocols are well developed and understood (mostly due to billions of dollars in investments by the military and industry), the spaceflight application of Internet protocols is still in its infancy. Progress in the developments of SpaceIP-enabled instrument components will largely determine the SpaceIP utilization of those investments and acceptance in years to come. Likewise SpaceIP, the development of commercial real-time and instrument colocated computational resources, data compression and storage, can be enabled on-board a spacecraft and, in turn, support a powerful application to Sensor Web-based design of a spaceflight instrument. Sensor Web-enabled reconfiguration and adaptation of structures for hardware resources and information systems will commence application of Field Programmable Arrays (FPGA) and other aerospace programmable logic devices for what this technology was intended. These are a few obvious potential benefits of Sensor Web technologies for spaceflight applications. However, they are still waiting to be explored. This is because there is a need for a new approach to spaceflight instrumentation in order to make these mature sensor web technologies applicable for spaceflight. In this paper we present an approach in developing related and enabling spaceflight instrument-level technologies based on the new concept of a representative spaceflight Instrument Sensor Web (ISW).

  12. Beyond safety accountability

    CERN Document Server

    Geller, E Scott


    Written in an easy-to-read conversational tone, Beyond Safety Accountability explains how to develop an organizational culture that encourages people to be accountable for their work practices and to embrace a higher sense of personal responsibility. The author begins by thoroughly explaining the difference between safety accountability and safety responsibility. He then examines the need of organizations to improve safety performance, discusses why such performance improvement can be achieved through a continuous safety process, as distinguished from a safety program, and provides the practic

  13. Safety-in-numbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, Rune; Bjørnskau, Torkel


    Highlights •26 studies of the safety-in-numbers effect are reviewed. •The existence of a safety-in-numbers effect is confirmed. •Results are consistent. •Causes of the safety-in-numbers effect are incompletely known.......Highlights •26 studies of the safety-in-numbers effect are reviewed. •The existence of a safety-in-numbers effect is confirmed. •Results are consistent. •Causes of the safety-in-numbers effect are incompletely known....

  14. Using Mathcad To Teach Instrumental Techniques. (United States)

    Van Bramer, Scott E.


    Describes a set of Mathcad instrument simulations and documents that introduce important concepts for instrumental analysis. Enables students to adjust parameters and optimize an instrument in a timely fashion. (DDR)

  15. Aerosol Optical Depth Value-Added Product for the SAS-He Instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ermold, B [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Flynn, CJ [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Barnard, J [University of Nevada Reno


    The Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer – Hemispheric (SAS-He) is a ground-based, shadowband instrument that measures the direct and diffuse solar irradiance. In this regard, the instrument is similar to the Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) – an instrument that has been in the ARM suite of instruments for more than 15 years. However, the two instruments differ significantly in wavelength resolution and range. In particular, the MFRSR only observes the spectrum in six discrete wavelength channels of about 10 nm width from 415 to 940 nm. The SAS-He, in contrast, incorporates two fiber-coupled grating spectrometers: a Si CCD spectrometer with over 2000 pixels covering the range from 325-1040 nm with ~ 2.5 nm resolution ,and an InGaAs array spectrometer with 256 pixels covering the wavelength range from 960-1700 nm with ~ 6 nm resolution.

  16. Catalytic reaction in confined flow channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Hassel, Bart A.


    A chemical reactor comprises a flow channel, a source, and a destination. The flow channel is configured to house at least one catalytic reaction converting at least a portion of a first nanofluid entering the channel into a second nanofluid exiting the channel. The flow channel includes at least one turbulating flow channel element disposed axially along at least a portion of the flow channel. A plurality of catalytic nanoparticles is dispersed in the first nanofluid and configured to catalytically react the at least one first chemical reactant into the at least one second chemical reaction product in the flow channel.

  17. Apical instrumentation in endodontic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurniasri Darliana


    Full Text Available Cleaning and shaping of the root canal as the foundation for successful endodontic therapy. Cleaning of the root canal as the removal of all the contents of the root canal systems before and during shaping. Mechanical cleaning as the most important part of the root canal therapy. Instrumentation of the apical region has long been considered to be an essential component in the cleaning and shaping process. The apical area as the critical zone for instrumentation. The apical portion of the root canal system can retain microorganisms that could potentially cause periradicular inflammation. The nickel-titanium rotary instrumentation system to facilitate the cleaning and shaping process. Larger instrumentation sizes not only allow proper irrigation but also significantly decrease remaining bacteria in the canal system. How the larger apical sizes preparation must be achieved to clinical success. This paper will describe the major factors impacting the selection of final apical size, the factors are the anatomy of the apical constriction, root canal diameter, apical instrumentation, and bacteria in dentin tubuli.

  18. Road safety rhetoric versus road safety politics. (United States)

    Køltzow, K


    In-depth interviews with top level decision makers in the road sector in Norway were conducted over a four-year period: Three principal impediments to safety interventions were identified: (i) Mobility is considered of primary importance; the "freedom of the car" is difficult to restrict, (ii) as a consequence there is much more lobbying for mobility than for safety, and (iii) road safety commitment and policies are weak, even among some of those responsible. For these reasons, efficient road safety work is often side-tracked at the top level, and substituted by nonbinding demands for road users' "change of attitude". In addition, road safety is often used as a proxy argument for measures that mainly promote mobility.

  19. Safety KPIs - Monitoring of safety performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Lališ


    Full Text Available This paper aims to provide brief overview of aviation safety development focusing on modern trends represented by implementation of Safety Key Performance Indicators. Even though aviation is perceived as safe means of transport, it is still struggling with its complexity given by long-term growth and robustness which it has reached today. Thus nowadays safety issues are much more complex and harder to handle than ever before. We are more and more concerned about organizational factors and control mechanisms which have potential to further increase level of aviation safety. Within this paper we will not only introduce the concept of Key Performance Indicators in area of aviation safety as an efficient control mechanism, but also analyse available legislation and documentation. Finally we will propose complex set of indicators which could be applied to Czech Air Navigation Service Provider.

  20. An Adaptive Channel Access Method for Dynamic Super Dense Wireless Sensor Networks. (United States)

    Lei, Chunyang; Bie, Hongxia; Fang, Gengfa; Zhang, Xuekun


    Super dense and distributed wireless sensor networks have become very popular with the development of small cell technology, Internet of Things (IoT), Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communications, Vehicular-to-Vehicular (V2V) communications and public safety networks. While densely deployed wireless networks provide one of the most important and sustainable solutions to improve the accuracy of sensing and spectral efficiency, a new channel access scheme needs to be designed to solve the channel congestion problem introduced by the high dynamics of competing nodes accessing the channel simultaneously. In this paper, we firstly analyzed the channel contention problem using a novel normalized channel contention analysis model which provides information on how to tune the contention window according to the state of channel contention. We then proposed an adaptive channel contention window tuning algorithm in which the contention window tuning rate is set dynamically based on the estimated channel contention level. Simulation results show that our proposed adaptive channel access algorithm based on fast contention window tuning can achieve more than 95 % of the theoretical optimal throughput and 0 . 97 of fairness index especially in dynamic and dense networks.