WorldWideScience

Sample records for safety channel instrumentation

  1. Upgrade of Dhruva fuel channel flow instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadgil, Kaustubh; Awale, P.K.; Sengupta, C.; Sumanth, P.; Roy, Kallol

    2014-01-01

    Dhruva, a 100 MW Heavy Water moderated and cooled, vertical tank-type Research Reactor, using metallic natural Uranium fuel has flow instrumentation for all the 144 fuel channels, consisting of venturi and triplicate DP gauges for each fuel channel. These gauges provide contacts for generation of reactor trip on low flow through fuel channel. These DP gauges were facing numerous generic and ageing related failures over the years and was also difficult to maintain owing to obsolescence. While considering an upgrade for these DP gauges, it was also planned to replace the existing Coolant Low Flow Trip (CLFT) system with a computer based Reactor Trip Logic System (RTLS). Being a retrofit job, the existing panels for mounting the gauges, cable layout, impulse tubing layout, etc. were retained, thereby simplifying the site execution, reducing reactor down time and also reducing person-milli-Sievert consumption. A customized Electronic DP Indicating Switch (EDPIS) was conceptualized for achieving these objectives. Such a design, utilizing a standard DP transmitter with customized electronic circuitry, was developed, evaluated and finalized after a series of factory trials, field trials and prototyping. The instrument design included contact input for existing CLFT system and also provision for 4-20 mA current output for the proposed computer based RTLS. The display and form factor of the instrument remained identical to older one and ensures familiarity of O and M personnel. Since EDPIS is classified as Safety Class IA, stringent type tests, hardware FMEA and V and V of the micro-controller software were carried out as per the requirements laid down by relevant standards for qualification of these instruments. Being a customized instrument, the manufacturing process was closely monitored and was followed by stringent QA plan and acceptance tests. A total of 396 gauges were replaced in a phased manner during scheduled fuelling outages and thereby did not affect reactor

  2. The Instrumentation Channel for the MUCOOL Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahn, S. A.; Guler, H.; Lu, C.; McDonald, K. T.; Prebys, E. J.; Vahsen, S. E.

    1999-01-01

    The MUCOOL facility is proposed to examine cooling techniques that could be used in a muon collider. The solenoidal beam channel before and after the cooling test section are instrumented to measure the beam emittance. This instrumentation channel includes a bent solenoid to provide dispersion and time projection chambers to measure the beam variables before and after the bend. The momentum of the muons is obtained from a measurement of the drift of the muon trajectory in the bent solenoid. The timing measurement is made by determining the phase from the momentum of the muon before and after it traverses RF cavities or by the use of a fast Cherenkov chamber. A computer simulation of the muon solenoidal channel is performed using GEANT. This study evaluates the resolution of the beam emittance measurement for MUCOOL

  3. Safety Evaluation of Kartini Reactor Based on Instrumentation System Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjipta Suhaemi; Djen Djen Dj; Itjeu K; Johnny S; Setyono

    2003-01-01

    The safety of Kartini reactor has been evaluated based on instrumentation system aspect. The Kartini reactor is designed by BATAN. Design power of the reactor is 250 kW, but it is currently operated at 100 kW. Instrumentation and control system function is to monitor and control the reactor operation. Instrumentation and control system consists of safety system, start-up and automatic power control, and process information system. The linear power channel and logarithmic power channel are used for measuring power. There are 3 types of control rod for controlling the power, i.e. safety rod, shim rod, and regulating rod. The trip and interlock system are used for safety. There are instrumentation equipment used for measuring radiation exposure, flow rate, temperature and conductivity of fluid The system of Kartini reactor has been developed by introducing a process information system, start-up system, and automatic power control. It is concluded that the instrumentation of Kartini reactor has followed the requirement and standard of IAEA. (author)

  4. Operator Actions Within a Safety Instrumented Function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suttinger, L.T.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the factors that should be considered when crediting operator action for performing a safety function or being a part of the process of enabling a safety function. Criteria for evaluating operator action, such as required time response and operator training among others, are discussed. The paper will address these and other factors that should be considered when determining the reliability of the operator to respond and perform his/her part of the safety function. The entire safety function includes the operator and the reliability of the instrumented system that provides the alarm or indication, the final control element, and support systems. The integration of the operator performance with the hardware safety availability, including the effects of the supporting systems is discussed. The analysis of these factors will provide the justification for the amount of risk reduction or safety integrity level that can be credited for the Safety Instrumented Function (SIF), including operator action

  5. Conceptual design of safety instrumentation for PFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muralikrishna, G.; Seshadri, U.; Raghavan, K.

    1996-01-01

    Instrumentation systems enable monitoring of the process which in turn enables control and shutdown of the process as per the requirements. Safety Instrumentation due to its vital importance has a stringent role and this needs to be designed methodically. This paper presents the details of the conceptual design for PFBR. (author). 4 figs, 3 tabs

  6. Euro NCAP, a safety instrument.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2007-01-01

    Since early 1997, in Europe, a cooperation of consumer organizations, European governments, the European Commission, and car organizations have been doing crash tests to judge the safety of cars. This programme is called Euro NCAP. The test programme consists of four tests of new cars to see how

  7. New trends in pile safety instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furet, J.

    1961-01-01

    This report addresses the protection of nuclear piles against damages due to operation incidents. The author discusses the current trends in the philosophy of safety of atomic power piles, identifies the parameters which define safety systems, presents tests to be performed on safety chains, comments the relationship between safety and the decrease of the number of pile inadvertent shutdowns, discusses the issues of instrument failures and chain multiplicity, comments the possible improvement of the operation of elements which build up safety chains (design simplification, development of semiconductors, replacement of electromechanical relays by static relays), the role of safety logical computers and the development of automatics in pile safety, presents automatic control as a safety factor (example of automatic start-up), and finally comments the use of fuses

  8. Calibration through on-line monitoring of instruments channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, R.W.

    1996-01-01

    Plant technical specifications require periodic calibration of instrument channels, and this has traditionally meant calibration at fixed time intervals for nearly all instruments. Experience has shown that unnecessarily frequent calibrations reduce channel availability and reliability, impact outage durations, and increase maintenance costs. An alternative approach to satisfying existing requirements for periodic calibration consists of on-line monitoring and quantitative comparison of instrument channels during operation to identify instrument degradation and failure. A Utility Working Group has been formed by EPRI to support the technical activities necessary to achieve generic NRC acceptance of on-line monitoring of redundant instrument channels as a basis for determining when to perform calibrations. A topical report proposing NRC acceptance of this approach was submitted in August 1995, and the Working Group is currently resolving NRC technical questions. This paper describes the proposed approach and the current status of the topical report with regard to NRC review. While these activities will not preclude utilities from continuing to use existing calibration approaches, successful acceptance of this performance-based approach will allow utilities to substantially reduce the number of calibrations which are performed. Concurrent benefits will include reduced I ampersand C impact on outage durations and improved sensitivity to instrument channel performance

  9. Reliability Improved Design for a Safety System Channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Eung Se; Kim, Yun Goo

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, these systems are implemented with a same platform type, such as a qualified programmable logic controller (PLC). The platform intensively uses digital communication with fiber-optic links to reduce cabling costs and to achieve effective signal isolation. These communication interface and redundancies within a channel increase the complexness of an overall system design. This paper proposes a simpler channel architecture design to reduce the complexity and to enhance overall channel reliability. Simplified safety channel configuration is proposed and the failure probabilities are compared with baseline safety channel configuration using an estimated generic value. The simplified channel configuration achieves 40 percent failure reduction compare to baseline safety channel configuration. If this configuration can be implemented within a processor module, overall safety channel reliability is increase and costs of fabrication and maintenance will be greatly reduced

  10. Reliability Improved Design for a Safety System Channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Eung Se; Kim, Yun Goo [KHNP, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Nowadays, these systems are implemented with a same platform type, such as a qualified programmable logic controller (PLC). The platform intensively uses digital communication with fiber-optic links to reduce cabling costs and to achieve effective signal isolation. These communication interface and redundancies within a channel increase the complexness of an overall system design. This paper proposes a simpler channel architecture design to reduce the complexity and to enhance overall channel reliability. Simplified safety channel configuration is proposed and the failure probabilities are compared with baseline safety channel configuration using an estimated generic value. The simplified channel configuration achieves 40 percent failure reduction compare to baseline safety channel configuration. If this configuration can be implemented within a processor module, overall safety channel reliability is increase and costs of fabrication and maintenance will be greatly reduced.

  11. Integrated synchronous receiver channel for optical instrumentation applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benten, Harold G. P. H.; Ruotsalainen, Tarmo; Maekynen, Anssi J.; Rahkonen, Timo E.; Kopola, Harri K.

    1997-09-01

    A two-channel synchronous receiver circuit for optical instrumentation applications has been designed and implemented. Each receiver channel comprises a.o. transimpedance preamplifier, voltage amplifiers, programmable feedback networks, and a synchronous detector. The function of the channel is to extract the slowly varying information carrying signal from a modulated carrier which is accompanied by relatively high levels of noise. As a whole, the channel can be characterized as a narrow band filter around the frequency of interest. Medical applications include arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) measurement and dental pulp vitality measurement. In both cases, two optical signals with different frequencies are received by a single photodiode. The measured performance of the optical receiver shows its suitability for the above mentioned applications. Therefore the circuit will be used in a small sized, battery-operated sensor prototype to test the sensing method in a clinical environment. Other applications include the signal processing of optical position-sensitive detectors. A summary of measured receiver channel performance: input reduced noise current spectral density between 0.20 and 0.30 pA/(root)Hz at all relevant frequencies, total programmable channel transimpedance between 7 M(Omega) and 500 M(Omega) , lower -3 dB frequency of at least 50 Hz, upper -3 dB frequency of 40 kHz, maximum voltage swing at the demodulator output of 2.4 V.

  12. Design and installation of advanced computer safety related instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, S.; Andolina, K.; Ruether, J.

    1993-01-01

    The rapidly developing area of computer systems creates new opportunities for commercial utilities operating nuclear reactors to improve plant operation and efficiency. Two of the main obstacles to utilizing the new technology in safety-related applications is the current policy of the licensing agencies and the fear of decision making managers to introduce new technologies. Once these obstacles are overcome, advanced diagnostic systems, CRT-based displays, and advanced communication channels can improve plant operation considerably. The article discusses outstanding issues in the area of designing, qualifying, and licensing of computer-based instrumentation and control systems. The authors describe the experience gained in designing three safety-related systems, that include a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) based Safeguard Load Sequencer for NSP Prairie Island, a digital Containment Isolation monitoring system for TVA Browns Ferry, and a study that was conducted for EPRI/NSP regarding a PLC-based Reactor Protection system. This article presents the benefits to be gained in replacing existing, outdated equipment with new advanced instrumentation

  13. Environmental testing of an experimental digital safety channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korsah, K.; Tanaka, T.J.; Wilson, T.L. Jr.; Wood, R.T.

    1996-09-01

    This document presents the results of environmental stress tests performed on an experimental digital safety channel (EDSC) assembled at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of the NRC-sponsored Qualification of Advanced Instrumentation and Controls (W) System program. The objective of this study is to investigate failure modes and vulnerabilities of microprocessor-based technologies when subjected to environmental stressors. The study contributes to the technical basis for environmental qualification of safety-related digital I ampersand C systems. The EDSC employs technologies and digital subsystems representative of those proposed for use in advanced light-water reactors (ALWRs) or for retrofits in existing plants. Subsystems include computers, electrical and optical serial communication links, fiber-optic network links, analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converters, and multiplexers. The EDSC was subjected to selected stressors that are a potential risk to digital equipment in a mild environment. The selected stressors were electromagnetic and radio-frequency interference (EMYRFI), temperature, humidity, and smoke exposure. The stressors were applied over ranges that were considerably higher than what the channel is likely to experience in a normal nuclear power plant environment. Ranges of stress were selected at a sufficiently high level to induce errors so that failure modes that are characteristic of the technologies employed could be identified

  14. Atmospheric effects on laser eye safety and damage to instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilberman, Arkadi; Kopeika, Natan S.

    2017-10-01

    Electro-optical sensors as well as unprotected human eyes are extremely sensitive to laser radiation and can be permanently damaged from direct or reflected beams. Laser detector/eye hazard depends on the interaction between the laser beam and the media in which it traverses. The environmental conditions including terrain features, atmospheric particulate and water content, and turbulence, may alter the laser's effect on the detector/eye. It is possible to estimate the performance of an electro-optical system as long as the atmospheric propagation of the laser beam can be adequately modeled. More recent experiments and modeling of atmospheric optics phenomena such as inner scale effect, aperture averaging, atmospheric attenuation in NIR-SWIR, and Cn2 modeling justify an update of previous eye/detector safety modeling. In the present work, the influence of the atmospheric channel on laser safety for personnel and instrumentation is shown on the basis of theoretical and experimental data of laser irradiance statistics for different atmospheric conditions. A method for evaluating the probability of damage and hazard distances associated with the use of laser systems in a turbulent atmosphere operating in the visible and NIR-SWIR portions of the electromagnetic spectrum is presented. It can be used as a performance prediction model for directed energy engagement of ground-based or air-based systems.

  15. Design aspects of safety critical instrumentation of nuclear installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaminathan, P. [Electronics Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102, Tamil Nadu (India)]. E-mail: swamy@igcar.ernet.in

    2005-07-01

    Safety critical instrumentation systems ensure safe shutdown/configuration of the nuclear installation when process status exceeds the safety threshold limits. Design requirements for safety critical instrumentation such as functional and electrical independence, fail-safe design, and architecture to ensure the specified unsafe failure rate and safe failure rate, human machine interface (HMI), etc., are explained with examples. Different fault tolerant architectures like 1/2, 2/2, 2/3 hot stand-by are compared for safety critical instrumentation. For embedded systems, software quality assurance is detailed both during design phase and O and M phase. Different software development models such as waterfall model and spiral model are explained with examples. The error distribution in embedded system is detailed. The usage of formal method is outlined to reduce the specification error. The guidelines for coding of application software are outlined. The interface problems of safety critical instrumentation with sensors, actuators, other computer systems, etc., are detailed with examples. Testability and maintainability shall be taken into account during design phase. Online diagnostics for safety critical instrumentation is detailed with examples. Salient details of design guides from Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, International Atomic Energy Agency and standards from IEEE, BIS are given towards the design of safety critical instrumentation systems. (author)

  16. Design aspects of safety critical instrumentation of nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swaminathan, P.

    2005-01-01

    Safety critical instrumentation systems ensure safe shutdown/configuration of the nuclear installation when process status exceeds the safety threshold limits. Design requirements for safety critical instrumentation such as functional and electrical independence, fail-safe design, and architecture to ensure the specified unsafe failure rate and safe failure rate, human machine interface (HMI), etc., are explained with examples. Different fault tolerant architectures like 1/2, 2/2, 2/3 hot stand-by are compared for safety critical instrumentation. For embedded systems, software quality assurance is detailed both during design phase and O and M phase. Different software development models such as waterfall model and spiral model are explained with examples. The error distribution in embedded system is detailed. The usage of formal method is outlined to reduce the specification error. The guidelines for coding of application software are outlined. The interface problems of safety critical instrumentation with sensors, actuators, other computer systems, etc., are detailed with examples. Testability and maintainability shall be taken into account during design phase. Online diagnostics for safety critical instrumentation is detailed with examples. Salient details of design guides from Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, International Atomic Energy Agency and standards from IEEE, BIS are given towards the design of safety critical instrumentation systems. (author)

  17. Safety regulations concerning instrumentation and control systems for research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shanshoury, A.I.

    2009-01-01

    A brief study on the safety and reliability issues related to instrumentation and control systems in nuclear reactor plants is performed. In response, technical and strategic issues are used to accomplish instrumentation and control systems safety. For technical issues there are ; systems aspects of digital I and C technology, software quality assurance, common-mode software, failure potential, safety and reliability assessment methods, and human factors and human machine interfaces. The strategic issues are the case-by-case licensing process and the adequacy of the technical infrastructure. The purpose of this work was to review the reliability of the safety systems related to these technical issues for research reactors

  18. Surveillance of instrumentation channels at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thie, J.A.

    1989-06-01

    Surveillance activities at nuclear plants, involving-calibrations, functional tests, and simple checks, have many associated problems. These problems are of the following four types: administrative, equipment, human, and systemic. An extensive search of the literature has led to 63 generic classes of problems falling within these types and involving instrumentation department activities. The classification system is that which writers of incidents are essentially using, based on historical traditions, in naming their problems' causes. An interesting finding in the search was the strong correlation of this project to many aspects of industrial safety; technology transfer opportunities from the latter are identified. A survey of plant instrumentation experts was conducted to obtain a ranking of the most important problems. Classes of solutions to these problems are listed and discussed. Outlined is a possible methodology of matching these solutions to problems. Finally applications of this study are listed, and include extensions to training, operations, and maintenance departments of power plants. Appendices give several general examples for each problem class and many specific suggestions from experts on addressing the problems felt to be more important. 15 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs

  19. Response Time Analysis and Test of Protection System Instrument Channels for APR1400 and OPR1000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang Jae; Han, Seung; Yun, Jae Hee; Baek, Seung Min; Lee, Sang Jeong

    2015-01-01

    , the establishment of the systematic response time evaluation methodology is needed to justify the conformance to the response time requirement used in the safety analysis. This paper proposes the response time evaluation methodology for APR1400 and OPR1000 using the combined analysis and test technique to confirm that the plant protection system can meet the analytical response time assumed in the safety analysis. In addition, the results of the quantitative evaluation performed for APR1400 and OPR1000 are presented in this paper. The proposed response time analysis technique consists of defining the response time requirement, determining the critical signal path for the trip parameter, allocating individual response time to each component on the signal path, and analyzing the total response time for the trip parameter, and demonstrates that the total analyzed response time does not exceed the response time requirement. The proposed response time test technique is composed of defining the response time requirement, determining the critical signal path for the trip parameter, determining the test method for each component on the signal path, performing the response time test, and demonstrates that the total test result does not exceed the response time requirement. The total response time should be tested in a single test that covers from the sensor to the final actuation device on the instrument channel. When the total channel is not tested in a single test, separate tests on groups of components or single components including the total instrument channel shall be combined to verify the total channel response. For APR1400 and OPR1000, the ramp test technique is used for the pressure and differential pressure transmitters and the step function testing technique is applied to the signal processing equipment and final actuation device. As a result, it can be demonstrated that the response time requirement is satisfied by the combined analysis and test technique

  20. Response Time Analysis and Test of Protection System Instrument Channels for APR1400 and OPR1000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Jae; Han, Seung; Yun, Jae Hee; Baek, Seung Min [Department of Instrumentation and Control System Engineering, KEPCO Engineering and Construction, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Jeong [Department of Electronics Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-01

    , the establishment of the systematic response time evaluation methodology is needed to justify the conformance to the response time requirement used in the safety analysis. This paper proposes the response time evaluation methodology for APR1400 and OPR1000 using the combined analysis and test technique to confirm that the plant protection system can meet the analytical response time assumed in the safety analysis. In addition, the results of the quantitative evaluation performed for APR1400 and OPR1000 are presented in this paper. The proposed response time analysis technique consists of defining the response time requirement, determining the critical signal path for the trip parameter, allocating individual response time to each component on the signal path, and analyzing the total response time for the trip parameter, and demonstrates that the total analyzed response time does not exceed the response time requirement. The proposed response time test technique is composed of defining the response time requirement, determining the critical signal path for the trip parameter, determining the test method for each component on the signal path, performing the response time test, and demonstrates that the total test result does not exceed the response time requirement. The total response time should be tested in a single test that covers from the sensor to the final actuation device on the instrument channel. When the total channel is not tested in a single test, separate tests on groups of components or single components including the total instrument channel shall be combined to verify the total channel response. For APR1400 and OPR1000, the ramp test technique is used for the pressure and differential pressure transmitters and the step function testing technique is applied to the signal processing equipment and final actuation device. As a result, it can be demonstrated that the response time requirement is satisfied by the combined analysis and test technique

  1. Use of modern software - based instrumentation in safety critical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmett, J.; Smith, B.

    2005-01-01

    Many Nuclear Power Plants are now ageing and in need of various degrees of refurbishment. Installed instrumentation usually uses out of date 'analogue' technology and is often no longer available in the market place. New technology instrumentation is generally un-qualified for nuclear use and specifically the new 'smart' technology contains 'firmware', (effectively 'soup' (Software of Uncertain Pedigree)) which must be assessed in accordance with relevant safety standards before it may be used in a safety application. Particular standards are IEC 61508 [1] and the British Energy (BE) PES (Programmable Electronic Systems) guidelines EPD/GEN/REP/0277/97. [2] This paper outlines a new instrument evaluation system, which has been developed in conjunction with the UK Nuclear Industry. The paper concludes with a discussion about on-line monitoring of Smart instrumentation in safety critical applications. (author)

  2. Developing the health, safety and environment excellence instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadfam, Iraj; Saraji, Gebraeil Nasl; Kianfar, Ali; Mahmoudi, Shahram

    2013-01-07

    Quality and efficiency are important issues in management systems. To increase quality, to reach best results, to move towards the continuous improvement of system and also to make the internal and external customers satisfied, it is necessary to consider the system performance measurement. In this study the Health, Safety and Environment Excellence Instrument was represented as a performance measurement tool for a wide range of health, safety and environment management systems. In this article the development of the instrument overall structure, its parts, and its test results in three organizations are presented. According to the results, the scores ranking was the managership organization, the manufacturing company and the powerhouse construction project, respectively. The results of the instrument test in three organizations show that, on the whole, the instrument has the ability to measure the performance of health, safety and environment management systems in a wide range of organizations.

  3. Performance Monitoring for Nuclear Safety Related Instrumentation at PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (RTP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zareen Khan Abdul Jalil Khan; Ridzuan Abdul Mutalib; Mohd Sabri Minhat

    2015-01-01

    The Reactor TRIGA PUSPATI (RTP) at Malaysia Nuclear Agency is a TRIGA Mark II type reactor and pool type cooled by natural circulation of light water. This paper describe on performance monitoring for nuclear safety related instrumentation in TRIGA PUSPATI Reactor (RTP) of based on various parameter of reactor safety instrument channel such as log power, linear power, Fuel temperature, coolant temperature will take into consideration. Methodology of performance on estimation and monitoring is to evaluate and analysis of reactor parameters which is important of reactor safety and control. And also to estimate power measurement, differential of log and linear power and fuel temperature during reactor start-up, operation and shutdown .This study also focus on neutron power fluctuation from fission chamber during reactor start-up and operation. This work will present result of performance monitoring from RTP which indicated the safety parameter identification and initiate safety action on crossing the threshold set point trip. Conclude that performance of nuclear safety related instrumentation will improved the reactor control and safety parameter during reactor start-up, operation and shutdown. (author)

  4. Reactor safety instrumentation of Paks NPP (experience and perspective)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elo, S.; Hamar, K.

    1993-01-01

    The majority of the existing control and protection systems in nuclear power plants use old analog technology and design philosophy. Maintenance and the procurement of spare parts is becoming increasingly difficult. In general there is an age degradation concern. Aging degradation in nuclear power plants must be effectively managed to avoid a loss of vital safety function, shutdown of the station, a reduced power generation, or any failure leading to expensive repair. Even with the best efforts in developing reliable and long life instrumentation and control systems for nuclear power plants it is expected that these systems for most plants will require replacements during the life of the plants. The instrumentation and control system of the nuclear power plants designed during the 70's and constructed in the 80's went out-of-date since nuclear safety is not a static concept and the digital computer technology has undergone rapid improvements during the 70's and 80's. Simultaneously the operation and the maintenance of the I ampersand C system of those plants described above becomes more and more difficult and expensive. In this context the pure quality of the former Soviet designed process instrumentation system increases the needs of upgrading this system. The author reviews the main design characteristics of the reactor safety instrumentation of the Paks NPP. Further he attempts to convey the perspective on upgrading the reactor safety instrumentation as seen by the HAEC and its Nuclear Safety Inspectorate

  5. Standardization and improvement of safety for radioisotope equipped instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumi, Tetsuo

    1980-01-01

    The safety for radioisotope-equipped instruments is considered. The one is the safety for the source assembly. The radioisotopes employed for radioisotope-equipped instruments are sealed sources which are used in the state of being contained in the enclosures. Many of the enclosures are provided with shutter mechanism for the purpose of emitting radiation only during the period required. If the possible troubles that might lead to the accidents are sampled out of the results of field operation of radiation instruments, and the safety measures for source enclosures are considered in connection with these troubles, it is no exaggeration to say that the safety for source enclosures has been maintained by preventing the critical accidents by the management of users and the cooperation of manufactures though there were the chance for investigating the safety in the common field and the establishment of JIS Z 4614 standard. Another consideration is concerned with the measures to improve the safety. No accident in the past never guarantees no accident in the future. Accumulation of experience is most effective for those measures, and the more experiences the better. It may be most effective that the manufacturers disclose their experiences each other from the wide outlook overcoming the barrier of trade secret. Fortunately, such consciousness has risen since a few years ago, and the investigation group is doing the works in the Japan Radioisotope Association. On the other hand, the reasonable revision of the radiation injury prevention law is desired. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  6. Real-Time Emulation of Nonstationary Channels in Safety-Relevant Vehicular Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golsa Ghiaasi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes and discusses the architecture for a real-time vehicular channel emulator capable of reproducing the input/output behavior of nonstationary time-variant radio propagation channels in safety-relevant vehicular scenarios. The vehicular channel emulator architecture aims at a hardware implementation which requires minimal hardware complexity for emulating channels with the varying delay-Doppler characteristics of safety-relevant vehicular scenarios. The varying delay-Doppler characteristics require real-time updates to the multipath propagation model for each local stationarity region. The vehicular channel emulator is used for benchmarking the packet error performance of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS vehicular IEEE 802.11p modems and a fully software-defined radio-based IEEE 802.11p modem stack. The packet error ratio (PER estimated from temporal averaging over a single virtual drive and the packet error probability (PEP estimated from ensemble averaging over repeated virtual drives are evaluated and compared for the same vehicular scenario. The proposed architecture is realized as a virtual instrument on National Instruments™ LabVIEW. The National Instrument universal software radio peripheral with reconfigurable input-output (USRP-Rio 2953R is used as the software-defined radio platform for implementation; however, the results and considerations reported are of general purpose and can be applied to other platforms. Finally, we discuss the PER performance of the modem for two categories of vehicular channel models: a vehicular nonstationary channel model derived for urban single lane street crossing scenario of the DRIVEWAY’09 measurement campaign and the stationary ETSI models.

  7. Perspective channel-type reactor with enhanced safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamov, E.O.; Grozdov, I.I.; Kuznetsov, S.P.; Petrov, A.A.; Rozhdestvensky, M.I.; Cherkashov, Yu.M.

    1994-01-01

    Following the search for new design solutions to develop within the framework of channel trends the reactor with enhanced safety the Research and Development Institute of Power Engineering has developed the design of the multiloop boiling water reactor (MKER). The MKER enhanced safety is attained when involving the inherent safety features, passive safety systems as well as the accident consequences confinement devices. The design realizes several advantages which are typical of the channel-type reactors, namely: The design desintegration simplifying the manufacture, control, equipment delivery and decreasing, versus the pressure vessel reactors, the accident effect if it proceeds in an explosive manner; small operating reactivity margin and fuel burnup increased due to continuous refuelling; fuel cycle flexibility allowing comparatively easily to adopt the reactor to the conjuncture of the country fuel balance; multiloop circuit of the main coolant which reduces the degree and effect of the accidents connected with the equipment and pipings rupture; monitoring of the channels and fuel assemblies leak-tightness. (orig.)

  8. OASIS: An automotive analysis and safety engineering instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mader, Roland; Armengaud, Eric; Grießnig, Gerhard; Kreiner, Christian; Steger, Christian; Weiß, Reinhold

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a novel software tool named OASIS (AutOmotive Analysis and Safety EngIneering InStrument). OASIS supports automotive safety engineering with features allowing the creation of consistent and complete work products and to simplify and automate workflow steps from early analysis through system development to software development. More precisely, it provides support for (a) model creation and reuse, (b) analysis and documentation and (c) configuration and code generation. We present OASIS as a part of a tool chain supporting the application of a safety engineering workflow aligned with the automotive safety standard ISO 26262. In particular, we focus on OASIS' (1) support for property checking and model correction as well as its (2) support for fault tree generation and FMEA (Failure Modes and Effects Analysis) table generation. Finally, based on the case study of hybrid electric vehicle development, we demonstrate that (1) and (2) are able to strongly support FTA (Fault Tree Analysis) and FMEA

  9. Fibre Channel Instrumentation Environment Profile (IEP). Version 0.8

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Sid

    1999-01-01

    .... Since this document is focused at the system level, the target audience is both the end-item designer concerned about interoperability and the instrumentation engineer concerned with understanding...

  10. Modernization of Safety and Control Instrumentation of the IEA-R1 Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Carvalho, P.V., E-mail: paulov@ien.gov.br [Institute of Nuclear Engineering (IEN), National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    The research reactor IEA-R1 located in the Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research (IPEN), São Paulo, Brazil, obtained its first criticality on 16 September 1957 and since then has served the scientific and medical community in the performance of experiments in applied nuclear physics, as well as the provision of radioisotopes for production of radiopharmaceuticals. The reactor produces radioisotopes {sup 82}Br and {sup 41}Ar for special processes in industrial inspection and {sup 192}Ir and {sup 198}Au as sources of radiation used in brachytherapy, {sup 153}Sm for pain relief in patients with bone metastasis, and calibrated sources of {sup 133}Ba, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 57}Co, {sup 60}Co, {sup 241}Am and {sup 152}Eu used in medical clinics and hospitals practicing nuclear medicine and research laboratories. Services are offered in regular non-destructive testing by neutron radiography, neutron irradiation of silicon for phosphorous doping and other various irradiations with neutrons. The reactor is responsible for producing approximately 70% of radiopharmaceutical {sup 131}I used in Brazil, which saves about US$ 800 000 annually for the country. After more than 50 years of use, most of its equipment and systems have been modernized, and recently the reactor power was increased to 5 MW in order to enhance radioisotope production capability. However, the control room and nuclear instrumentation system used for reactor safety have operated more than 30 years and require constant maintenance. Many equipment and electronic components are obsolete, and replacements are not available in the market. The modernization of the nuclear safety and control instrumentation systems of IEA-R1 is being carried out with consideration for the internationally recognized criteria for safety and reliable reactor operations and the latest developments in nuclear electronic technology. The project for the new reactor instrumentation system specifies three wide range neutron monitoring

  11. Multi-channel grouping techniques for conducting reactor safety studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waltar, A.E.; Wilburn, N.P.

    1975-01-01

    In conducting safety studies for postulated unprotected accidents in an LMFBR system, it is common practice to employ multi-channel coupled neutronics, thermal hydraulics computer programs such as SAS3A or MELT-III. The multichannel feature of such code systems is important if the natural fuel failure incoherencies and the resulting sodium void/fuel motion reactivity feedbacks--which have strong spatial variations--are to be properly modeled. Because of the large amounts of computer time associated with many channel runs, however, there is a strong incentive to conduct parametric studies with as few channels as possible. The paper presented is focused on methods successfully employed to accomplish this end for a study of the hypothetical unprotected transient overpower accident conducted for the FFTF

  12. Safety critical FPGA-based NPP instrumentation and control systems: assessment, development and implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakhmach, E. S.; Siora, A. A.; Tokarev, V. I. [Research and Production Corporation Radiy, 29 Geroev Stalingrada Str., Kirovograd 25006 (Ukraine); Kharchenko, V. S.; Sklyar, V. V.; Andrashov, A. A., E-mail: marketing@radiy.co [Center for Safety Infrastructure-Oriented Research and Analysis, 37 Astronomicheskaya Str., Kharkiv 61085 (Ukraine)

    2010-10-15

    The stages of development, production, verification, licensing and implementation methods and technologies of safety critical instrumentation and control systems for nuclear power plants (NPP) based on FPGA (Field Programmable Gates Arrays) technologies are described. A life cycle model and multi-version technologies of dependability and safety assurance of FPGA-based instrumentation and control systems are discussed. An analysis of NPP instrumentation and control systems construction principles developed by Research and Production Corporation Radiy using FPGA-technologies and results of these systems implementation and operation at Ukrainian and Bulgarian NPP are presented. The RADIY{sup TM} platform has been designed and developed by Research and Production Corporation Radiy, Ukraine. The main peculiarity of the RADIY{sup TM} platform is the use of FPGA as programmable components for logic control operation. The FPGA-based RADIY{sup TM} platform used for NPP instrumentation and control systems development ensures sca lability of system functions types, volume and peculiarities (by changing quantity and quality of sensors, actuators, input/output signals and control algorithms); sca lability of dependability (safety integrity) (by changing a number of redundant channel, tiers, diagnostic and reconfiguration procedures); sca lability of diversity (by changing types, depth and method of diversity selection). (Author)

  13. Safety critical FPGA-based NPP instrumentation and control systems: assessment, development and implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakhmach, E. S.; Siora, A. A.; Tokarev, V. I.; Kharchenko, V. S.; Sklyar, V. V.; Andrashov, A. A.

    2010-10-01

    The stages of development, production, verification, licensing and implementation methods and technologies of safety critical instrumentation and control systems for nuclear power plants (NPP) based on FPGA (Field Programmable Gates Arrays) technologies are described. A life cycle model and multi-version technologies of dependability and safety assurance of FPGA-based instrumentation and control systems are discussed. An analysis of NPP instrumentation and control systems construction principles developed by Research and Production Corporation Radiy using FPGA-technologies and results of these systems implementation and operation at Ukrainian and Bulgarian NPP are presented. The RADIY TM platform has been designed and developed by Research and Production Corporation Radiy, Ukraine. The main peculiarity of the RADIY TM platform is the use of FPGA as programmable components for logic control operation. The FPGA-based RADIY TM platform used for NPP instrumentation and control systems development ensures sca lability of system functions types, volume and peculiarities (by changing quantity and quality of sensors, actuators, input/output signals and control algorithms); sca lability of dependability (safety integrity) (by changing a number of redundant channel, tiers, diagnostic and reconfiguration procedures); sca lability of diversity (by changing types, depth and method of diversity selection). (Author)

  14. Statistical Hot Channel Factors and Safety Limit CHFR/OFIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byeonghee; Park, Suki [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The fuel integrity of research reactors are usually judged by comparing the critical heat flux ratio (CHFR) and the maximum fuel temperature (MFT) with the safety limits. Onset of flow instability ratio (OFIR) can also be used for the examination with CHFR. Hot channel factors (HCFs) are incorporated when calculating the CHFR/OFIR and MFT, to consider the uncertainties of fuel properties and thermo-hydraulic variables affecting them. The HCFs and safety limit CHFR is sometimes estimated to include too much conservatism, deteriorating the design flexibilities and operating margins. In this paper, a statistical estimation of HCFs and the safety limit CHFR/OFIR is presented by a random sampling of uncertainty parameters. A 15MW pool type research reactor is selected as the sample reactor for the estimation. The HCFs and the safety limit CHFR/OFIR of a 15MW pool type research reactor are evaluated statistically. The parameters affecting the HCF and the safety limit CHFR/OFIR are listed and their uncertainties are estimated. The relevant parameter uncertainties are sampled randomly and the HCFs and the safety limits are evaluated from them. The HCFs and the safety limit CHFR/OFIR with 95% probability are smaller than those estimated deterministically because the statistical evaluation convolute the correlation uncertainties and the other uncertainties in probabilistic way, whereas the deterministic evaluation simply multiply them.

  15. Instrumental variable methods in comparative safety and effectiveness research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookhart, M Alan; Rassen, Jeremy A; Schneeweiss, Sebastian

    2010-06-01

    Instrumental variable (IV) methods have been proposed as a potential approach to the common problem of uncontrolled confounding in comparative studies of medical interventions, but IV methods are unfamiliar to many researchers. The goal of this article is to provide a non-technical, practical introduction to IV methods for comparative safety and effectiveness research. We outline the principles and basic assumptions necessary for valid IV estimation, discuss how to interpret the results of an IV study, provide a review of instruments that have been used in comparative effectiveness research, and suggest some minimal reporting standards for an IV analysis. Finally, we offer our perspective of the role of IV estimation vis-à-vis more traditional approaches based on statistical modeling of the exposure or outcome. We anticipate that IV methods will be often underpowered for drug safety studies of very rare outcomes, but may be potentially useful in studies of intended effects where uncontrolled confounding may be substantial.

  16. Instrumental variable methods in comparative safety and effectiveness research†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookhart, M. Alan; Rassen, Jeremy A.; Schneeweiss, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    Summary Instrumental variable (IV) methods have been proposed as a potential approach to the common problem of uncontrolled confounding in comparative studies of medical interventions, but IV methods are unfamiliar to many researchers. The goal of this article is to provide a non-technical, practical introduction to IV methods for comparative safety and effectiveness research. We outline the principles and basic assumptions necessary for valid IV estimation, discuss how to interpret the results of an IV study, provide a review of instruments that have been used in comparative effectiveness research, and suggest some minimal reporting standards for an IV analysis. Finally, we offer our perspective of the role of IV estimation vis-à-vis more traditional approaches based on statistical modeling of the exposure or outcome. We anticipate that IV methods will be often underpowered for drug safety studies of very rare outcomes, but may be potentially useful in studies of intended effects where uncontrolled confounding may be substantial. PMID:20354968

  17. The qualification of electrical components and instrumentations relevant to safety

    CERN Document Server

    Zambardi, F

    1989-01-01

    Systems and components relevant to safety of nuclear power plants must maintain their functional integrity in order to assure accident prevention and mitigation. Redundancy is utilized against random failures, nevertheless care must be taken to avoid common failures in redundant components. Main sources of degradation and common cause failures consist in the aging effects and in the changes of environmental conditions which occur during the plant life and the postulated accidents. These causes of degradation are expected to be especially significant for instrumentation and electrical equipment, which can have a primary role in safety systems. The qualification is the methodology by which component safety requirements can be met against the above mentioned causes of degradation. In this report the connection between the possible, plant conditions and the resulting degradation effects on components is preliminarily addressed. A general characterization of the qualification is then presented. Basis, methods and ...

  18. Validity of instruments to assess students' travel and pedestrian safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Jason A; Watson, Kathy; Baranowski, Tom; Nicklas, Theresa A; Uscanga, Doris K; Hanfling, Marcus J

    2010-05-18

    Safe Routes to School (SRTS) programs are designed to make walking and bicycling to school safe and accessible for children. Despite their growing popularity, few validated measures exist for assessing important outcomes such as type of student transport or pedestrian safety behaviors. This research validated the SRTS school travel survey and a pedestrian safety behavior checklist. Fourth grade students completed a brief written survey on how they got to school that day with set responses. Test-retest reliability was obtained 3-4 hours apart. Convergent validity of the SRTS travel survey was assessed by comparison to parents' report. For the measure of pedestrian safety behavior, 10 research assistants observed 29 students at a school intersection for completion of 8 selected pedestrian safety behaviors. Reliability was determined in two ways: correlations between the research assistants' ratings to that of the Principal Investigator (PI) and intraclass correlations (ICC) across research assistant ratings. The SRTS travel survey had high test-retest reliability (kappa = 0.97, n = 96, p < 0.001) and convergent validity (kappa = 0.87, n = 81, p < 0.001). The pedestrian safety behavior checklist had moderate reliability across research assistants' ratings (ICC = 0.48) and moderate correlation with the PI (r = 0.55, p = < 0.01). When two raters simultaneously used the instrument, the ICC increased to 0.65. Overall percent agreement (91%), sensitivity (85%) and specificity (83%) were acceptable. These validated instruments can be used to assess SRTS programs. The pedestrian safety behavior checklist may benefit from further formative work.

  19. Instrumentation and control systems important to safety in nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This Safety Guide was prepared under the IAEA programme for establishing safety standards for nuclear power plants. It supplements Safety Standards Series No. NS-R-1: Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design (the Requirements for Design), which establishes the design requirements for ensuring the safety of nuclear power plants. This Safety Guide describes how the requirements should be met for instrumentation and control (I and C) systems important to safety. This publication is a revision and combination of two previous Safety Guides: Safety Series Nos 50-SG-D3 and 50-SG-D8, which are superseded by this new Safety Guide. The revision takes account of developments in I and C systems important to safety since the earlier Safety Guides were published in 1980 and 1984, respectively. The objective of this Safety Guide is to provide guidance on the design of I and C systems important to safety in nuclear power plants, including all I and C components, from the sensors allocated to the mechanical systems to the actuated equipment, operator interfaces and auxiliary equipment. This Safety Guide deals mainly with design requirements for those I and C systems that are important to safety. It expands on paragraphs of Ref in the area of I and C systems important to safety. This publication is intended for use primarily by designers of nuclear power plants and also by owners and/or operators and regulators of nuclear power plants. This Safety Guide provides general guidance on I and C systems important to safety which is broadly applicable to many nuclear power plants. More detailed requirements and limitations for safe operation specific to a particular plant type should be established as part of the design process. The present guidance is focused on the design principles for systems important to safety that warrant particular attention, and should be applied to both the design of new I and C systems and the modernization of existing systems. Guidance is provided on how design

  20. Proof-testing strategies induced by dangerous detected failures of safety-instrumented systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yiliu; Rausand, Marvin

    2016-01-01

    Some dangerous failures of safety-instrumented systems (SISs) are detected almost immediately by diagnostic self-testing as dangerous detected (DD) failures, whereas other dangerous failures can only be detected by proof-testing, and are therefore called dangerous undetected (DU) failures. Some items may have a DU- and a DD-failure at the same time. After the repair of a DD-failure is completed, the maintenance team has two options: to perform an insert proof test for DU-failure or not. If an insert proof test is performed, it is necessary to decide whether the next scheduled proof test should be postponed or performed at the scheduled time. This paper analyzes the effects of different testing strategies on the safety performance of a single channel of a SIS. The safety performance is analyzed by Petri nets and by approximation formulas and the results obtained by the two approaches are compared. It is shown that insert testing improves the safety performance of the channel, but the feasibility and cost of the strategy may be a hindrance to recommend insert testing. - Highlights: • Identify the tests induced by detected failures. • Model the testing strategies following DD-failures. • Propose analytical formulas for effects of strategies. • Simulate and verify the proposed models.

  1. Validity of instruments to assess students' travel and pedestrian safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baranowski Tom

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Safe Routes to School (SRTS programs are designed to make walking and bicycling to school safe and accessible for children. Despite their growing popularity, few validated measures exist for assessing important outcomes such as type of student transport or pedestrian safety behaviors. This research validated the SRTS school travel survey and a pedestrian safety behavior checklist. Methods Fourth grade students completed a brief written survey on how they got to school that day with set responses. Test-retest reliability was obtained 3-4 hours apart. Convergent validity of the SRTS travel survey was assessed by comparison to parents' report. For the measure of pedestrian safety behavior, 10 research assistants observed 29 students at a school intersection for completion of 8 selected pedestrian safety behaviors. Reliability was determined in two ways: correlations between the research assistants' ratings to that of the Principal Investigator (PI and intraclass correlations (ICC across research assistant ratings. Results The SRTS travel survey had high test-retest reliability (κ = 0.97, n = 96, p Conclusions These validated instruments can be used to assess SRTS programs. The pedestrian safety behavior checklist may benefit from further formative work.

  2. On-Line Monitoring of Instrument Channel Performance in Nuclear Power Plant Using PEANO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fantoni, Paolo F.; Hoffmann, Mario; Shankar, Ramesh; Davis, Eddie L.

    2002-01-01

    On-Line monitoring evaluates instrument channel performance by assessing its consistency with other plant indications. Industry and EPRI experience at several plants has shown this overall approach to be very effective in identifying instrument channels that are exhibiting degrading or inconsistent performance characteristics. On-Line monitoring of instrument channels provides information about the condition of the monitored channels through accurate, more frequent monitoring of each channel's performance over time. This type of performance monitoring is a methodology that offers an alternate approach to traditional time-directed calibration. On-line monitoring of these channels can provide an assessment of instrument performance and provide a basis for determining when adjustments are necessary. Elimination or reduction of unnecessary field calibrations can reduce associated labor costs, reduce personnel radiation exposure and reduce the potential for miss-calibration. PEANO is a system for on-line calibration monitoring developed in the years 1995-2000 at the Institutt for energiteknikk (IFE), Norway, which makes use of Artificial Intelligence techniques for its purpose. The system has been tested successfully in Europe in off-line tests with EDF (France), Tecnatom (Spain) and ENEA (Italy). PEANO is currently installed and used for on-line monitoring at the HBWR reactor in Halden. This paper describes the results of performance tests on PEANO with real data from a US PWR plant, in the framework of a co-operation among IFE, EPRI and Edan Engineering, to evaluate the potentials of PEANO for future installations in US nuclear plants. (authors)

  3. On-line calibration of process instrumentation channels in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashemian, H.M.; Farmer, J.P. [Analysis and Measurement Services Corp., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-04-01

    An on-line instrumentation monitoring system was developed and validated for use in nuclear power plants. This system continuously monitors the calibration status of instrument channels and determines whether or not they require manual calibrations. This is accomplished by comparing the output of each instrument channel to an estimate of the process it is monitoring. If the deviation of the instrument channel from the process estimate is greater than an allowable limit, then the instrument is said to be {open_quotes}out of calibration{close_quotes} and manual adjustments are made to correct the calibration. The success of the on-line monitoring system depends on the accuracy of the process estimation. The system described in this paper incorporates both simple intercomparison techniques as well as analytical approaches in the form of data-driven empirical modeling to estimate the process. On-line testing of the calibration of process instrumentation channels will reduce the number of manual calibrations currently performed, thereby reducing both costs to utilities and radiation exposure to plant personnel.

  4. The interaction between room and musical instruments studied by multi-channel auralization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindel, Jens Holger; Otondo, Felipe

    2005-01-01

    in the anechoic recording. With this technique the variations in sound radiation from the musical instrument during the performance e.g. due to changes in level or movements can be reproduced with the influence of the surrounding room surfaces. Examples include a grand piano and a clarinet.......The directivity of musical instruments is very complicated and typically changes from one tone to the next. So, instead of measuring the average directivity, a multi-channel auralization method has been developed, which allows a highly accurate and realistic sounding auralization of musical...... instruments in rooms. Anechoic recordings have been made with 5 and 13 evenly distributed microphones around the musical instrument. The reproduction is made with a room acoustics simulation software using a compound source, which is in fact a number of highly directive sources, one for each of the channels...

  5. The qualification of electrical components and instrumentations relevant to safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zambardi, F.

    1989-03-01

    Systems and components relevant to safety of nuclear power plants must maintain their functional integrity in order to assure accident prevention and mitigation. Redundancy is utilized against random failures, nevertheless care must be taken to avoid common failures in redundant components. Main sources of degradation and common cause failures consist in the aging effects and in the changes of environmental conditions which occur during the plant life and the postulated accidents. These causes of degradation are expected to be especially significant for instrumentation and electrical equipment, which can have a primary role in safety systems. The qualification is the methodology by which component safety requirements can be met against the above mentioned causes of degradation. In this report the connection between the possible, plant conditions and the resulting degradation effects on components is preliminarily addressed. A general characterization of the qualification is then presented. Basis, methods and peculiar aspects are discussed and the qualification by testing is taken into special account. Technical and organizational aspects related to a plant qualification program are also focused. The report ends with a look to the most significant research and development activities. (author)

  6. Instrumentation for mine safety: fire and smoke problems and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, R.B.

    1982-01-01

    Underground fires continue to be one of the most serious hazards to life and property in the mining industry. Although underground mines are analogous to high-rise buildings where persons are isolated from immediate escape or rescue, application of technology to locate and control fire hazards while still in their controllable state is slow to be implemented in underground mines. This paper describes several USBM (Bureau of Mines) safety programs which included in-mine testing with mine fire and smoke sensors, telemetry and instrumentation to develop recommendations for improving mine fire safety. It is hoped that the technology developed during these programs can be added to other programs to provide the mining industry with the necessary fire safety facts. By recognizing fire potentials and being provided with cost-effective, proven components that will perform reliably under the poor environmental conditions of mining, mine operators can provide protection for their working life and property equal to that which they provide for themselves and their families at home. The basis of this report is two USBM programs for fire protection in metal and nonmetal mines and one coal program. The data was collected beginning in May 1974 and continuing through the present with underground tests of a South African fire system installed at Magma Mine in Superior, Arizona, and a computer-assisted, experimental system at Peabody Coal Mine in Pawnee, Illinois

  7. Environmental tests of a digital safety channel: An investigation of stress-related vulnerabilities of computer-based safety system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korsah, K.; Wilson, T.L.; Wood, R.; Tanaka, T.

    1997-01-01

    This article presents the results of environmental stress tests performed on an experimental digital safety channel (EDSC) assembled at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory as part of the Qualification of Advanced Instrumentation and Controls Systems Research program, which was sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The program is expected to provide recommendations for environmental qualification of digital safety systems. The purpose of the study was to investigate potential vulnerabilities of distributed computer systems used in safety applications when subjected to environmental stressors. The EDSC assembled for the tests employs technologies and digital subsystems representative of those proposed for use in advanced light-water reactors or as retrofits in existing plants. Subsystems include computers, electrical and optical serial communication links, fiber-optic network links, analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converters, and multiplexers. The EDSC was subjected to selected stressors that are a potential risk to digital equipment in a mild environment. The selected stressors were electromagnetic and radiofrequency interferences (EMI-RFI), temperature, humidity, and smoke exposure. The stressors were applied at levels of intensity considerably higher than the safety channel is likely to experience in a normal nuclear power plant environment. Ranges of stress were selected at a sufficiently high level to induce errors so that failure modes that are characteristic of the technologies employed could be identified. On the basis of the incidence of functional errors observed during testing, EMI-RFI, smoke exposure, and high temperature coupled with high relative humidity, in that order, were found to have the greatest impact of the stressors investigated. The most prevalent stressor-induced upsets, as well as the most severe, were found to occur during the EMI-RFI tests

  8. Upgrading instrumentation and control systems for plant safety and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, M.; Prehler, H.J.; Schramm, W.

    1997-01-01

    Upgrading the electrical systems and instrumentation and control systems has become increasingly more important in the past few years for nuclear power plants currently in operation. As the requirements to be met in terms of plant safety and availability have become more stringent in the past few years, Western plants built in the sixties and seventies have been the subject of manifold backfitting and upgrading measures in the past. In the meantime, however, various nuclear power plants are facing much more thorough upgrading phases because of the difficulties in obtaining spare parts for older equipment systems. As digital technology has become widespread in many areas because of its advantages, and as applications are continuously expanding, conventional equipment and systems are losing more and more ground as a consequence of decreasing demand. Merely because of the pronounced decline in demand for conventional electronic components it is possible for equipment manufacturers to guarantee spare parts deliveries for older systems only for specific future periods of time. In addition, one-off manufacture entails high costs in purchases of spare parts. As a consequence of current thinking more and more focusing on availability and economy, upgrading of electrical systems and instrumentation and control systems is becoming a more and more topical question, for older plants even to ensure completion of full service life. (orig.) [de

  9. Optical Performance of Breadboard Amon-Ra Imaging Channel Instrument for Deep Space Albedo Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Hyun Park

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The AmonRa instrument, the primary payload of the international EARTHSHINE mission, is designed for measurement of deep space albedo from L1 halo orbit. We report the optical design, tolerance analysis and the optical performance of the breadborad AmonRa imaging channel instrument optimized for the mission science requirements. In particular, an advanced wavefront feedback process control technique was used for the instrumentation process including part fabrication, system alignment and integration. The measured performances for the complete breadboard system are the RMS 0.091 wave(test wavelength: 632.8 nm in wavefront error, the ensquared energy of 61.7%(in 14 μ m and the MTF of 35.3%(Nyquist frequency: 35.7 mm^{-1} at the center field. These resulting optical system performances prove that the breadboard AmonRa instrument, as built, satisfies the science requirements of the EARTHSHINE mission.

  10. Environmental testing of a prototypic digital safety channel, Phase I: System design and test methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korsah, K.; Turner, G.W.; Mullens, J.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-04-01

    A microprocessor-based reactor trip channel has been assembled for environmental testing under an Instrumentation and Control (I&C) Qualification Program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The goal of this program is to establish the technical basis and acceptance criteria for the qualification of advanced I&C systems. The trip channel implemented for this study employs technologies and digital subsystems representative of those proposed for use in some advanced light-water reactors (ALWRs) such as the Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR). It is expected that these tests will reveal any potential system vulnerabilities for technologies representative of those proposed for use in ALWRs. The experimental channel will be purposely stressed considerably beyond what it is likely to experience in a normal nuclear power plant environment, so that the tests can uncover the worst-case failure modes (i.e., failures that are likely to prevent an entire trip system from performing its safety function when required to do so). Based on information obtained from this study, it may be possible to recommend tests that are likely to indicate the presence of such failure mechanisms. Such recommendations would be helpful in augmenting current qualification guidelines.

  11. Environmental testing of a prototypic digital safety channel, phase I: System design and test methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korsah, K.; Turner, G.W.; Mullens, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    A microprocessor-based reactor trip channel has been assembled for environmental testing under an Instrumentation and Control (I ampersand C) Qualification Program sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The goal of this program is to establish the technical basis for the qualification of advanced I ampersand C systems. The trip channel implemented for this study employs technologies and digital subsystems representative of those proposed for use in some advanced light-water reactors (ALNWS) such as the Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBNW) and AP600. It is expected that these tests will reveal any potential system vulnerabilities for technologies representative of those proposed for use in ALNWS. The experimental channel will be purposely stressed considerably beyond what it is likely to experience in a normal nuclear power plant environment, so that the tests can uncover the worst-case failure modes (i.e., failures that are likely to prevent an entire trip system from performing its safety function when required to do so). Based on information obtained from this study, it may be possible to recommend tests that are likely to indicate the presence of such failure mechanisms. Such recommendations would be helpful in augmenting current qualification guidelines

  12. CARMENES-NIR channel spectrograph cooling system AIV: thermo-mechanical performance of the instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerril, S.; Mirabet, E.; Lizon, J. L.; Abril, M.; Cárdenas, C.; Ferro, I.; Morales, R.; Pérez, D.; Ramón, A.; Sánchez-Carrasco, M. A.; Quirrenbach, A.; Amado, P.; Ribas, I.; Reiners, A.; Caballero, J. A.; Seifert, W.; Herranz, J.

    2016-07-01

    CARMENES is the new high-resolution high-stability spectrograph built for the 3.5m telescope at the Calar Alto Observatory (CAHA, Almería, Spain) by a consortium formed by German and Spanish institutions. This instrument is composed by two separated spectrographs: VIS channel (550-1050 nm) and NIR channel (950- 1700 nm). The NIR-channel spectrograph's responsible is the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAACSIC). It has been manufactured, assembled, integrated and verified in the last two years, delivered in fall 2015 and commissioned in December 2015. One of the most challenging systems in this cryogenic channel involves the Cooling System. Due to the highly demanding requirements applicable in terms of stability, this system arises as one of the core systems to provide outstanding stability to the channel. Really at the edge of the state-of-the-art, the Cooling System is able to provide to the cold mass ( 1 Ton) better thermal stability than few hundredths of degree within 24 hours (goal: 0.01K/day). The present paper describes the Assembly, Integration and Verification phase (AIV) of the CARMENES-NIR channel Cooling System implemented at IAA-CSIC and later installation at CAHA 3.5m Telescope, thus the most relevant highlights being shown in terms of thermal performance. The CARMENES NIR-channel Cooling System has been implemented by the IAA-CSIC through very fruitful collaboration and involvement of the ESO (European Southern Observatory) cryo-vacuum department with Jean-Louis Lizon as its head and main collaborator. The present work sets an important trend in terms of cryogenic systems for future E-ELT (European Extremely Large Telescope) large-dimensioned instrumentation in astrophysics.

  13. New trends in pile safety instrumentation; Les tendances nouvelles dans l'instrumentation de securite des piles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furet, J.

    1961-04-19

    This report addresses the protection of nuclear piles against damages due to operation incidents. The author discusses the current trends in the philosophy of safety of atomic power piles, identifies the parameters which define safety systems, presents tests to be performed on safety chains, comments the relationship between safety and the decrease of the number of pile inadvertent shutdowns, discusses the issues of instrument failures and chain multiplicity, comments the possible improvement of the operation of elements which build up safety chains (design simplification, development of semiconductors, replacement of electromechanical relays by static relays), the role of safety logical computers and the development of automatics in pile safety, presents automatic control as a safety factor (example of automatic start-up), and finally comments the use of fuses.

  14. Virtual instrument automation of ion channeling setup for 1.7 MV tandetron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suresh, K.; Sundaravel, B.; Panigrahi, B.K.; Nair, K.G.M.; Viswanathan, B.

    2004-01-01

    A virtual instrument based automated ion channeling experimental setup has been developed and implemented in a 1.7 MV tandetron accelerator. Automation of the PC based setup is done using a windows based virtual instrument software allowing the setup to be easily ported between different computer operating systems. The virtual instrument software has been chosen to achieve quick and easy development of versatile, multi-purpose user friendly graphical interface for carrying out channeling experiments. The software has been modular designed to provide independent control of the stepper motors for fixing the sample at any user defined orientation, running and on-line display of azimuthal and tilt angular scans, auto storage of the angular scan data. Using this automated setup, the crystallographic axis of the sample can be aligned with the incident ion beam rapidly minimizing the beam damages to the sample. A standard single crystalline GaAs(100) has been characterized with this set up using 2 MeV He ++ ion beam. The crystalline quality (χ min ) and channeling half angle (ψ 1sol2 ) are measured to be 3.7% and 0.48 deg., respectively, which are close to the theoretical values. Salient features, working principles and design details of the automated setup are discussed in this paper

  15. Digital instrumentation system for nuclear research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghina, Mauricio A.C.; Carvalho, Paulo Vitor R.

    2002-01-01

    This work describes a proposal for a system of nuclear instrumentation and safety totally digital for the Argonauta Reactor. The system divides in the subsystems: channel of pulses, channel of current, conventional instrumentation and safety system. The connection of the subsystems is made through redundant double local net, using the protocol modbus/rtu. So much the channel of pulses, the current channel and safety's system use modules operating in triple redundancy. (author)

  16. Standards for radiation protection instrumentation: design of safety standards and testing procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meissner, Frank

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes by means of examples the role of safety standards for radiation protection and the testing and qualification procedures. The development and qualification of radiation protection instrumentation is a significant part of the work of TUV NORD SysTec, an independent expert organisation in Germany. The German Nuclear Safety Standards Commission (KTA) establishes regulations in the field of nuclear safety. The examples presented may be of importance for governments and nuclear safety authorities, for nuclear operators and for manufacturers worldwide. They demonstrate the advantage of standards in the design of radiation protection instrumentation for new power plants, in the upgrade of existing instrumentation to nuclear safety standards or in the application of safety standards to newly developed equipment. Furthermore, they show how authorities may proceed when safety standards for radiation protection instrumentation are not yet established or require actualization. (author)

  17. On-line testing of calibration of process instrumentation channels in nuclear power plants. Phase 2, Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashemian, H.M.

    1995-11-01

    The nuclear industry is interested in automating the calibration of process instrumentation channels; this report provides key results of one of the sponsored projects to determine the validity of automated calibrations. Conclusion is that the normal outputs of instrument channels in nuclear plants can be monitored over a fuel cycle while the plant is operating to determine calibration drift in the field sensors and associated signal conversion and signal conditioning equipment. The procedure for on-line calibration tests involving calculating the deviation of each instrument channel from the best estimate of the process parameter that the instrument is measuring. Methods were evaluated for determining the best estimate. Deviation of each signal from the best estimate is updated frequently while the plant is operating and plotted vs time for entire fuel cycle, thereby providing time history plots that can reveal channel drift and other anomalies. Any instrument channel that exceeds allowable drift or channel accuracy band is then scheduled for calibration during a refueling outage or sooner. This provides calibration test results at the process operating point, one of the most critical points of the channel operation. This should suffice for most narrow-range instruments, although the calibration of some instruments can be verified at other points throughout their range. It should be pointed out that the calibration of some process signals such as the high pressure coolant injection flow in BWRs, which are normally off- scale during plant operation, can not be tested on-line

  18. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umminger, K.

    2008-01-01

    A proper measurement of the relevant single and two-phase flow parameters is the basis for the understanding of many complex thermal-hydraulic processes. Reliable instrumentation is therefore necessary for the interaction between analysis and experiment especially in the field of nuclear safety research where postulated accident scenarios have to be simulated in experimental facilities and predicted by complex computer code systems. The so-called conventional instrumentation for the measurement of e. g. pressures, temperatures, pressure differences and single phase flow velocities is still a solid basis for the investigation and interpretation of many phenomena and especially for the understanding of the overall system behavior. Measurement data from such instrumentation still serves in many cases as a database for thermal-hydraulic system codes. However some special instrumentation such as online concentration measurement for boric acid in the water phase or for non-condensibles in steam atmosphere as well as flow visualization techniques were further developed and successfully applied during the recent years. Concerning the modeling needs for advanced thermal-hydraulic codes, significant advances have been accomplished in the last few years in the local instrumentation technology for two-phase flow by the application of new sensor techniques, optical or beam methods and electronic technology. This paper will give insight into the current state of instrumentation technology for safety-related thermohydraulic experiments. Advantages and limitations of some measurement processes and systems will be indicated as well as trends and possibilities for further development. Aspects of instrumentation in operating reactors will also be mentioned.

  19. Multi-Instrument Investigation of Ionospheric Flow Channels and Their Impact on the Ionosphere and Thermosphere during Geomagnetic Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-29

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2018-0009 Multi-instrument investigation of ionospheric flow channels and their impact on the ionosphere and thermosphere during...SUBTITLE Multi-instrument investigation of ionospheric flow channels and their impact on the ionosphere and thermosphere during geomagnetic storms 5a...Experiment) and GOCE (Gravity field and steady- state Ocean Circulation Explorer) satellite data. We also created a series of computer algorithms to

  20. A digitized wide range channel for new instrumentation and control system of PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (RTP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zareen Khan Abdul Jalil Khan; Izhar Abu Hussin; Mohd Idris Taib; Nurfarhana Ayuni Joha; Roslan Md Dan

    2010-01-01

    Wide Range Channel is one of very important part of Reactor Instrumentation and Control system. Current system is using all analog system. The main functions of the new system are to provide Wide-log power and Multi-range linear power. The other functions are to provide Percent power and Power rate of change. The linear power level range is up to 125 % and the log power system to cover from below source level to 150 %. The main function of digital signal processor is for pulse shaping, pulse counting and root mean square signal processing. The system employs automatic on-line self diagnostics and calibration verification. (author)

  1. RISK MANAGEMENT AS TRANSPORTATION SAFETY PROVISION INSTRUMENT IN RUSSIA

    OpenAIRE

    V. A. Nikolayev

    2012-01-01

    Safety of transportation in Russia is subject to a variety of threats. Discussed in the article are characteristics of major threats to transportation security. State transportation policy directions that make it possible to ensure the security of cargo and passenger transportation are shown. A listof activities and innovative risk management tools that provide for improved safety of railway transportation is proposed.

  2. RISK MANAGEMENT AS TRANSPORTATION SAFETY PROVISION INSTRUMENT IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Nikolayev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Safety of transportation in Russia is subject to a variety of threats. Discussed in the article are characteristics of major threats to transportation security. State transportation policy directions that make it possible to ensure the security of cargo and passenger transportation are shown. A listof activities and innovative risk management tools that provide for improved safety of railway transportation is proposed.

  3. Instrumentation-related uncertainty of reflectance and transmittance measurements with a two-channel spectrophotometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peest, Christian; Schinke, Carsten; Brendel, Rolf; Schmidt, Jan; Bothe, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    Spectrophotometers are operated in numerous fields of science and industry for a variety of applications. In order to provide confidence for the measured data, analyzing the associated uncertainty is valuable. However, the uncertainty of the measurement results is often unknown or reduced to sample-related contributions. In this paper, we describe our approach for the systematic determination of the measurement uncertainty of the commercially available two-channel spectrophotometer Agilent Cary 5000 in accordance with the Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurements. We focus on the instrumentation-related uncertainty contributions rather than the specific application and thus outline a general procedure which can be adapted for other instruments. Moreover, we discover a systematic signal deviation due to the inertia of the measurement amplifier and develop and apply a correction procedure. Thereby we increase the usable dynamic range of the instrument by more than one order of magnitude. We present methods for the quantification of the uncertainty contributions and combine them into an uncertainty budget for the device.

  4. Cold Vacuum Drying Safety Class Instrumentation and Control System Design Description SYS 93-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WHITEHURST, R.

    1999-01-01

    This document describes the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) Safety Class Instrumentation and Control system (SCIC). The SCIC provides safety functions and features to protect the environment, off-site and on-site personnel and equipment. The function of the SCIC is to provide automatic trip features, valve interlocks, alarms, indication and control for the cold vacuum drying process

  5. Cold Vacuum Drying Safety Class Instrumentation and Control System Design Description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WHITEHURST, R.

    1999-01-01

    This document describes the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) Safety Class Instrumentation and Control system (SCIC). The SCIC provides safety functions and features to protect the environment, off-site and on-site personnel and equipment. The function of the SCIC is to provide automatic trip features, valve interlocks, alarms, indication and control for the cold vacuum drying process

  6. On safety classification of instrumentation and control systems and their components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yastrebenetskij, M.A.; Rozen, Yu.V.

    2004-01-01

    Safety classification of instrumentation and control systems (I and C) and their components (hardware, software, software-hardware complexes) is described: - evaluation of classification principles and criteria in Ukrainian standards and rules; comparison between Ukrainian and international principles and criteria; possibility and ways of coordination of Ukrainian and international standards related to (I and C) safety classification

  7. Comparing NICU teamwork and safety climate across two commonly used survey instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Profit, Jochen; Lee, Henry C; Sharek, Paul J; Kan, Peggy; Nisbet, Courtney C; Thomas, Eric J; Etchegaray, Jason M; Sexton, Bryan

    2016-12-01

    Measurement and our understanding of safety culture are still evolving. The objectives of this study were to assess variation in safety and teamwork climate and in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) setting, and compare measurement of safety culture scales using two different instruments (Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ) and Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPSC)). Cross-sectional survey study of a voluntary sample of 2073 (response rate 62.9%) health professionals in 44 NICUs. To compare survey instruments, we used Spearman's rank correlation coefficients. We also compared similar scales and items across the instruments using t tests and changes in quartile-level performance. We found significant variation across NICUs in safety and teamwork climate scales of SAQ and HSOPSC (pteamwork scales (teamwork climate and teamwork within units) of the two instruments correlated strongly (safety r=0.72, pteamwork r=0.67, p<0.001). However, the means and per cent agreements for all scale scores and even seemingly similar item scores were significantly different. In addition, comparisons of scale score quartiles between the two instruments revealed that half of the NICUs fell into different quartiles when translating between the instruments. Large variation and opportunities for improvement in patient safety culture exist across NICUs. Important systematic differences exist between SAQ and HSOPSC such that these instruments should not be used interchangeably. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Nuclear safety considerations with emphasis on instrumentation and control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beare, J.W.

    1978-01-01

    The conceptual model of a nuclear power plant in Canada is that it consists basically of two kinds of systems. The first kind is the process systems, that is, those structures and components associated with the production of nuclear energy and its conversion to other forms of energy. The second kind is the special safety systems, whose purpose it is to protect the public in the event of a serious failure in the process systems which might otherwise lead to unacceptable radiological consequences. Quantitative limits are set on the unavailability of the special safety systems. These limits are low enough to be consistent with low overall risk and yet can be demonstrated by test during operation of the plant. Low unavailability is an important but not the only condition required for low unrealiability for the special safety systems. The special safety systems minimize the chance of a cross-linked failure particularly under the conditions experienced as a result of the more severe types of postulated serious process failures. Nuclear power plants must also withstand, without a major hazard to the public, certain rare events associated with natural phenomena or man-made activities off-site and also certain in-plant events such as fire or break-up of a turbine-generator which might have a cross-linking effect on process and safety systems. In the latest designs, Canadian nuclear power plants have emergency systems to deal with such events. The emergency systems have an enhanced degree of physical and functional separation from other plant systems. (author)

  9. Research on conceptual design of simplified nuclear safety instrument and control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Jie

    2015-01-01

    The Nuclear safety instrument and control system is directly related to the safety of the reactor. So redundant and diversity design is used to ensure the system's security and reliability. This make the traditional safety system large, more cabinets and wiring complexity. To solve these problem, we can adopt new technology to make the design more simple. The simplify conceptual design can make the system less cabinets, less wiring, but high security, strong reliability. (author)

  10. Impact of proof test interval and coverage on probability of failure of safety instrumented function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Jianghong; Pang, Lei; Hu, Bin; Wang, Xiaodong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Introduction of proof test coverage makes the calculation of the probability of failure for SIF more accurate. • The probability of failure undetected by proof test is independently defined as P TIF and calculated. • P TIF is quantified using reliability block diagram and simple formula of PFD avg . • Improving proof test coverage and adopting reasonable test period can reduce the probability of failure for SIF. - Abstract: Imperfection of proof test can result in the safety function failure of safety instrumented system (SIS) at any time in its life period. IEC61508 and other references ignored or only elementarily analyzed the imperfection of proof test. In order to further study the impact of the imperfection of proof test on the probability of failure for safety instrumented function (SIF), the necessity of proof test and influence of its imperfection on system performance was first analyzed theoretically. The probability of failure for safety instrumented function resulted from the imperfection of proof test was defined as probability of test independent failures (P TIF ), and P TIF was separately calculated by introducing proof test coverage and adopting reliability block diagram, with reference to the simplified calculation formula of average probability of failure on demand (PFD avg ). Research results show that: the shorter proof test period and the higher proof test coverage indicate the smaller probability of failure for safety instrumented function. The probability of failure for safety instrumented function which is calculated by introducing proof test coverage will be more accurate.

  11. Metrological certification of aerosol and iodine channels in instrumentation for radiation monitoring at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belkina, S.K.; Zalmanzon, Yu.E.; Ivanova, A.P.

    1988-01-01

    The method for converting the value of a volume activity unit of radioactive aerosols using the state special standard for operating measurement devices by means of aerosol sources is suggested. The sources are aerosol samples selected for a filter by means of the proper type of a detection unit or a radiometer and, thus, providing full coincidence of measurement geometry of aerosol sample activity during radiation monitoring. Application of aerosol samples permits to solve the problem of metrological certification and verification of aerosol and iodine channels of radiation safety monitoring systems under operating conditions without their dismantling and to establish the unity and correctness in the field of measurement of volume activity of 131 I aerosols at NPP

  12. Radiological safety related provisions and instrumentation in Indian PHWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramamirtham, B.; Dabhadkar, S.B.; Sah, B.M.L.

    1994-01-01

    The collective radiation doses at the nuclear power plants (NPPs) world-wide have shown a significant downward trend which has resulted due to on-going efforts to keep exposures ALARA and also to meet the recently revised individual exposure limits of ICRP. In keeping with this trend a number of additional designed dose reduction features are also being incorporated in the Indian NPPs. These include better separation and shielding of radioactive systems/equipment, elimination of the use of cobalt-free materials in active systems, improved leak tightness of systems carrying heavy water, augmented ventilation and atmosphere drying systems, etc. The build-up of radiation levels in primary heat transport (PHT) system is controlled by incorporating improvements in the fuel performance and periodic system decontamination. Plant layouts have been modified, to improve the contamination control arrangements and optimum utilisation of dosimetry devices. For better control of internal exposures continuous efforts are on to make the protective gear more user-friendly. Green belts are being established around the NPPs to provide further protection against environmental impact. A number of additional radiation monitoring instruments /systems have been incorporated to provide information on radiation/activity levels, both within the plant and outside areas, particularly during emergency conditions. For processing of data provided by the large numbers of installed radiation instruments and initiating corrective/alarm actions, a computerised system (RADAS) has been provided. (author). 7 refs., 2 tabs

  13. Coupling of channel thermalhydraulics and fuel behaviour in ACR-1000 safety analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, F.L.; Lei, Q.M.; Zhu, W.; Bilanovic, Z.

    2008-01-01

    Channel thermalhydraulics and fuel thermal-mechanical behaviour are interlinked. This paper describes a channel thermalhydraulics and fuel behaviour coupling methodology that has been used in ACR-1000 safety analyses. The coupling is done for all 12 fuel bundles in a fuel channel using the channel thermalhydraulics code CATHENA MOD-3.5d/Rev 2 and the transient fuel behaviour code ELOCA 2.2. The coupling approach can be used for every fuel element or every group of fuel elements in the channel. Test cases are presented where a total of 108 fuel element models are set up to allow a full coupling between channel thermalhydraulics and detailed fuel analysis for a channel containing a string of 12 fuel bundles. An additional advantage of this coupling approach is that there is no need for a separate detailed fuel analysis because the coupling analysis, once done, provides detailed calculations for the fuel channel (fuel bundles, pressure tube, and calandria tube) as well as all the fuel elements (or element groups) in the channel. (author)

  14. Advances in crosshole seismic instrumentation for dam safety monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderlini, G.; Anderlini, C. [BC Hydro, Burnaby, BC (Canada); Taylor, R. [RST Instruments Ltd., Coquitlam, BC (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Since 1996, crosshole shear wave velocity measurements have been performed annually at the WAC Bennett Dam in order to monitor the performance of the dam core and integrity of the 1997 sinkhole repairs. As the testing showed to be responsive to embankment conditions and capable of detecting subtle changes, the testing program was expanded to include the development of an electrical shear wave source capable of carrying out crosshole seismic testing in Mica and Revelstoke Dams over distances of 100 metres and depths of 250 metres. This paper discussed the development and capabilities of the crosshole seismic instrumentation and presented preliminary results obtained during initial testing. Specific topics that were discussed included conventional crosshole seismic equipment; design basics; description of new crosshole seismic equipment; and automated in-situ crosshole seismic system (ACSS) system description and operation. It was concluded that the ACSS and accompanying electrical shear wave source, developed as part of the project, has advanced and improved on traditional crosshole seismic equipment. 7 refs., 9 figs.

  15. Safety Assessment of Two Hybrid Instrumentation Techniques in a Dental Student Endodontic Clinic: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Marcelo Santos; Card, Steven John; Tawil, Peter Zahi

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to retrospectively assess the safety potential of a hybrid technique combining nickel-titanium (NiTi) reciprocating and rotary instruments by third- and fourth-year dental students in the predoctoral endodontics clinic at one U.S. dental school. For the study, 3,194 root canal treatments performed by 317 dental students from 2012 through 2015 were evaluated for incidence of ledge creation and instrument separation. The hybrid reciprocating and rotary technique (RRT) consisted of a glide path creation with stainless steel hand files up to size 15/02, a crown down preparation with a NiTi reciprocating instrument, and an apical preparation with NiTi rotary instruments. The control was a traditional rotary and hand technique (RHT) that consisted of the same glide path procedure followed by a crown down preparation with NiTi rotary instruments and an apical preparation with NiTi hand instruments. The results showed that the RHT technique presented a rate of ledge creation of 1.4% per root and the RRT technique was 0.5% per root (protary technique for root canal instrumentation by these dental students provided good safety. This hybrid technique offered a low rate of ledge creation along with no NiTi instrument separation.

  16. Regulatory instrument review: Management of aging of LWR [light water reactor] major safety-related components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werry, E.V.

    1990-10-01

    This report comprises Volume 1 of a review of US nuclear plant regulatory instruments to determine the amount and kind of information they contain on managing the aging of safety-related components in US nuclear power plants. The review was conducted for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the NRC Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program. Eight selected regulatory instruments, e.g., NRC Regulatory Guides and the Code of Federal Regulations, were reviewed for safety-related information on five selected components: reactor pressure vessels, steam generators, primary piping, pressurizers, and emergency diesel generators. Volume 2 will be concluded in FY 1991 and will also cover selected major safety-related components, e.g., pumps, valves and cables. The focus of the review was on 26 NPAR-defined safety-related aging issues, including examination, inspection, and maintenance and repair; excessive/harsh testing; and irradiation embrittlement. The major conclusion of the review is that safety-related regulatory instruments do provide implicit guidance for aging management, but include little explicit guidance. The major recommendation is that the instruments be revised or augmented to explicitly address the management of aging

  17. 75 FR 38019 - Safety Zone; Fixed Mooring Balls, South of Barbers Pt. Harbor Channel, Oahu, HI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 [Docket No. USCG-2010-0457] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Fixed Mooring Balls, South of Barbers Pt. Harbor Channel, Oahu, HI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: Due to the placement of six fixed mooring balls in an...

  18. 33 CFR 165.808 - Corpus Christi Ship Channel, Corpus Christi, TX, safety zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Petroleum Gas, the waters within a 500 yard radius of the LPG carrier while the vessel transits the Corpus Christi Ship Channel to the LPG receiving facility. The safety zone remains in effect until the LPG vessel is moored at the LPG receiving facility. (2) For outgoing tank vessels loaded with LPG, the waters...

  19. Modernization for safety purposes of Russian nuclear power plants with channel-type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riakhin, V.M.

    1999-01-01

    The nineties have crucially changed the Russian policy towards channel-type reactors known as RBMK. After the period of intensive commissioning the new Units (Kursk NPP: 1976, 1979, 1983,1985; Smolensk NPP 1982, 1985, 1990), the main financial flow was directed into reconstruction of these units. Safety upgrade of the units of Kursk NPP is presented in more details

  20. Automatic creation of Markov models for reliability assessment of safety instrumented systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Haitao; Yang Xianhui

    2008-01-01

    After the release of new international functional safety standards like IEC 61508, people care more for the safety and availability of safety instrumented systems. Markov analysis is a powerful and flexible technique to assess the reliability measurements of safety instrumented systems, but it is fallible and time-consuming to create Markov models manually. This paper presents a new technique to automatically create Markov models for reliability assessment of safety instrumented systems. Many safety related factors, such as failure modes, self-diagnostic, restorations, common cause and voting, are included in Markov models. A framework is generated first based on voting, failure modes and self-diagnostic. Then, repairs and common-cause failures are incorporated into the framework to build a complete Markov model. Eventual simplification of Markov models can be done by state merging. Examples given in this paper show how explosively the size of Markov model increases as the system becomes a little more complicated as well as the advancement of automatic creation of Markov models

  1. Automated Electrophysiology Makes the Pace for Cardiac Ion Channel Safety Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens eMoeller

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The field of automated patch-clamp electrophysiology has emerged from the tension between the pharmaceutical industry’s need for high-throughput compound screening versus its need to be conservative due to regulatory requirements. On the one hand, hERG channel screening was increasingly requested for new chemical entities, as the correlation between blockade of the ion channel coded by hERG and Torsades de Pointes cardiac arrhythmia gained increasing attention. On the other hand, manual patch-clamping, typically quoted as the gold-standard for understanding ion channel function and modulation, was far too slow (and, consequently, too expensive for keeping pace with the numbers of compounds submitted for hERG channel investigations from pharmaceutical R&D departments. In consequence it became more common for some pharmaceutical companies to outsource safety pharmacological investigations, with a focus on hERG channel interactions. This outsourcing has allowed those pharmaceutical companies to build up operational flexibility and greater independence from internal resources, and allowed them to obtain access to the latest technological developments that emerged in automated patch-clamp electrophysiology – much of which arose in specialized biotech companies. Assays for nearly all major cardiac ion channels are now available by automated patch-clamping using heterologous expression systems, and recently, automated action potential recordings from stem-cell derived cardiomyocytes have been demonstrated. Today, most of the large pharmaceutical companies have acquired automated electrophysiology robots and have established various automated cardiac ion channel safety screening assays on these, in addition to outsourcing parts of their needs for safety screening.

  2. 33 CFR 165.T14-204 - Safety Zone; fixed mooring balls, south of Barbers Pt Harbor Channel, Oahu, Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., south of Barbers Pt Harbor Channel, Oahu, Hawaii. 165.T14-204 Section 165.T14-204 Navigation and... Pt Harbor Channel, Oahu, Hawaii. (a) Location. The following area is a safety zone: All waters... position is approximately 2,500 yards south of Barbers Point Harbor channel buoy #2, Oahu, Hawaii. This...

  3. Safety concepts and their implications with respect to systems, instrumentation (automatic) control and hardware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paziaud, A.; Walther, M.

    1982-01-01

    This overview of instrumentation and control in the French Nuclear Power Plants sets out the importance of safety requirements. As a matter of fact, the amount of equipment increases proportionally to the increase in safety requirements, resulting in higher costs in spite of the decrease in the prices of each component owing to the advance in electronics. However the improved reliability should improve the plant capacity factor and, as a consequence, improve both the power output and the safety which is often endangered by minor failures starting severe accidents. (orig.)

  4. Impact of Passive Safety on FHR Instrumentation Systems Design and Classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holcomb, David Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Fluoride salt-cooled high-temperature reactors (FHRs) will rely more extensively on passive safety than earlier reactor classes. 10CFR50 Appendix A, General Design Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants, establishes minimum design requirements to provide reasonable assurance of adequate safety. 10CFR50.69, Risk-Informed Categorization and Treatment of Structures, Systems and Components for Nuclear Power Reactors, provides guidance on how the safety significance of systems, structures, and components (SSCs) should be reflected in their regulatory treatment. The Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) has provided 10 CFR 50.69 SSC Categorization Guideline (NEI-00-04) that factors in probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) model insights, as well as deterministic insights, through an integrated decision-making panel. Employing the PRA to inform deterministic requirements enables an appropriately balanced, technically sound categorization to be established. No FHR currently has an adequate PRA or set of design basis accidents to enable establishing the safety classification of its SSCs. While all SSCs used to comply with the general design criteria (GDCs) will be safety related, the intent is to limit the instrumentation risk significance through effective design and reliance on inherent passive safety characteristics. For example, FHRs have no safety-significant temperature threshold phenomena, thus enabling the primary and reserve reactivity control systems required by GDC 26 to be passively, thermally triggered at temperatures well below those for which core or primary coolant boundary damage would occur. Moreover, the passive thermal triggering of the primary and reserve shutdown systems may relegate the control rod drive motors to the control system, substantially decreasing the amount of safety-significant wiring needed. Similarly, FHR decay heat removal systems are intended to be running continuously to minimize the amount of safety-significant instrumentation needed to initiate

  5. Design of Instrumentation and Control Systems for Nuclear Power Plants. Specific Safety Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This publication is a revision and combination of two Safety Guides, IAEA Safety Standards Series No. NS-G-1.1 and No. NS-G-1.3. The revision takes into account developments in instrumentation and control (I&C) systems since the publication of the earlier Safety Guides. The main changes relate to the continuing development of computer applications and the evolution of the methods necessary for their safe, secure and practical use. In addition, account is taken of developments in human factors engineering and the need for computer security. This Safety Guide references and takes into account other IAEA Safety Standards and Nuclear Security Series publications that provide guidance relating to I&C design

  6. Triple-channel portable capillary electrophoresis instrument with individual background electrolytes for the concurrent separations of anionic and cationic species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, Thanh Duc; Le, Minh Duc [Centre for Environmental Technology and Sustainable Development (CETASD), Hanoi University of Science, Nguyen Trai Street 334, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Sáiz, Jorge [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Physical Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Alcalá, Ctra. Madrid-Barcelona Km 33.6, Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Duong, Hong Anh [Centre for Environmental Technology and Sustainable Development (CETASD), Hanoi University of Science, Nguyen Trai Street 334, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Koenka, Israel Joel [University of Basel, Department of Chemistry, Spitalstrasse 51, 4056 Basel (Switzerland); Pham, Hung Viet, E-mail: phamhungviet@hus.edu.vn [Centre for Environmental Technology and Sustainable Development (CETASD), Hanoi University of Science, Nguyen Trai Street 334, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Hauser, Peter C., E-mail: Peter.Hauser@unibas.ch [University of Basel, Department of Chemistry, Spitalstrasse 51, 4056 Basel (Switzerland)

    2016-03-10

    The portable capillary electrophoresis instrument is automated and features three independent channels with different background electrolytes to allow the concurrent optimized determination of three different categories of charged analytes. The fluidic system is based on a miniature manifold which is based on mechanically milled channels for injection of samples and buffers. The planar manifold pattern was designed to minimize the number of electronic valves required for each channel. The system utilizes pneumatic pressurization to transport solutions at the grounded as well as the high voltage side of the separation capillaries. The instrument has a compact design, with all components arranged in a briefcase with dimensions of 45 (w) × 35 (d) × 15 cm (h) and a weight of about 15 kg. It can operate continuously for 8 h in the battery-powered mode if only one electrophoresis channel is in use, or for about 2.5 h in the case of simultaneous employment of all three channels. The different operations, i.e. capillary flushing, rinsing of the interfaces at both capillary ends, sample injection and electrophoretic separation, are activated automatically with a control program featuring a graphical user interface. For demonstration, the system was employed successfully for the concurrent separation of different inorganic cations and anions, organic preservatives, additives and artificial sweeteners in various beverage and food matrices. - Highlights: • The use of parallel channels allows the concurrent separation of different classes of analytes. • Separate background electrolytes allow individual optimization. • The instrument is compact and field portable.

  7. Triple-channel portable capillary electrophoresis instrument with individual background electrolytes for the concurrent separations of anionic and cationic species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mai, Thanh Duc; Le, Minh Duc; Sáiz, Jorge; Duong, Hong Anh; Koenka, Israel Joel; Pham, Hung Viet; Hauser, Peter C.

    2016-01-01

    The portable capillary electrophoresis instrument is automated and features three independent channels with different background electrolytes to allow the concurrent optimized determination of three different categories of charged analytes. The fluidic system is based on a miniature manifold which is based on mechanically milled channels for injection of samples and buffers. The planar manifold pattern was designed to minimize the number of electronic valves required for each channel. The system utilizes pneumatic pressurization to transport solutions at the grounded as well as the high voltage side of the separation capillaries. The instrument has a compact design, with all components arranged in a briefcase with dimensions of 45 (w) × 35 (d) × 15 cm (h) and a weight of about 15 kg. It can operate continuously for 8 h in the battery-powered mode if only one electrophoresis channel is in use, or for about 2.5 h in the case of simultaneous employment of all three channels. The different operations, i.e. capillary flushing, rinsing of the interfaces at both capillary ends, sample injection and electrophoretic separation, are activated automatically with a control program featuring a graphical user interface. For demonstration, the system was employed successfully for the concurrent separation of different inorganic cations and anions, organic preservatives, additives and artificial sweeteners in various beverage and food matrices. - Highlights: • The use of parallel channels allows the concurrent separation of different classes of analytes. • Separate background electrolytes allow individual optimization. • The instrument is compact and field portable.

  8. Safety problems of nuclear power plants with channel-type graphite boiling water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emel'yanov, I.Ya.; Vasilevskij, V.P.; Volkov, V.P.; Gavrilov, P.A.; Kramerov, A.Ya.; Kuznetsov, S.P.; Kunegin, E.P.; Rybakov, N.Z.

    1977-01-01

    Construction of nuclear power plants in a highly populated region near large industrial centres necessitates to pay a special attention to their nuclear and radiation safety. Safety problems of nuclear reactor operation are discussed, in particular, they are: reliable stoppage of fission chain reaction at any emergency cases; reliable core cooling with failure of various equipment; emergency core cooling with breached pipes of a circulating circuit; and prevention of radioactive coolant release outside the nuclear power plant in amount exceeding the values adopted. Channel-type water boiling reactors incorporate specific features requiring a new approach to safety operation of a reactor and a nuclear power plant. These include primarily a rather large steam volume in the coolant circuit, large amount of accumulated heat, void reactivity coefficient. Channel-type reactors characterized by fair neutron balance and flexible fuel cycle, have a series of advantages alleviating the problem of ensuring their safety. The possibility of reliable control over the state of each channel allows to replace failed fuel elements by the new ones, when operating on-load, to increase the number of circulating loops and reduce the diameter of main pipelines, simplifies significantly the problem of channel emergency cooling and localization of a radioactive coolant release from a breached circuit. The concept of channel-type reactors is based on the solution of three main problems. First, plant safety should be assured in emergency switch off of separate units and, if possible, energy conditions should be maintained, this is of particular importance considering the increase in unit power. Second, the system of safety and emergency cooling should eliminate a great many failures of fuel elements in case of potential breaches of any tube in the circulating circuit. Finally, rugged boxes and localizing devices should be provided to exclude damage of structural elements of the nuclear power

  9. On-Line Monitoring of Instrument Channel Performance: Volume 3: Applications to Nuclear Power Plant Technical Specification Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, E.; Rasmussen, B.

    2004-01-01

    This report is a guide for a technical specification change submittal and subsequent implementation of on-line monitoring for safety-related applications. This report is the third in a three-volume set. Volume 1, ''Guidelines for Model Development and Implementation'', presents the various tasks that must be completed to prepare models for and to implement an on-line monitoring system

  10. The 5th questionnaire report of safety control on instrument in nuclear medicine laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-01

    The questionnaire was done every three years from 1986 for the ultimate purpose of safe medical examinations and this 5th one was performed in May, 1998 for the period of April, 1995-March, 1998. Subjects were 1,258 nuclear medicine facilities and answers were obtained in 81.6%. Questionnaire concerned the personnel involved in nuclear medical examinations, instruments, accidents occurred, matters possibly leading to accident, improvement in safety control, serious trouble and breakage of the instrument, request for the instrument manufacturers and so on. Summaries were: numbers of medical radiology technicians were increased, in vitro tests were decreased, SPECT instruments came into wide use, in accident and improvement cases, examination beds were arousing much interest, concerns to examine were further required, communication with the manufacturers was insufficient, and problems for Y2K were pointed out to be resolved. (K.H.)

  11. ON-Line Monitoring of Instrument Channel Performance: Volume 3: Applications to Nuclear Power Plant Technical Specification Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E Davis, B Rasmussen

    2004-12-31

    This report is a guide for a technical specification change submittal and subsequent implementation of on-line monitoring for safety-related applications. This report is the third in a three-volume set. Volume 1, ''Guidelines for Model Development and Implementation'', presents the various tasks that must be completed to prepare models for and to implement an on-line monitoring system.

  12. JACoW Safety instrumented systems and the AWAKE plasma control as a use case

    CERN Document Server

    Blanco Viñuela, Enrique; Fernández Adiego, Borja; Speroni, Roberto

    2018-01-01

    Safety is likely the most critical concern in many process industries, yet there is a general uncertainty on the proper engineering to reduce the risks and ensure the safety of persons or material at the same time as providing the process control system. Some of the reasons for this misperception are unclear requirements, lack of functional safety engineering knowledge or incorrect protection functionalities attributed to the BPCS (Basic Process Control System). Occasionally the control engineers are not aware of the hazards inherent to an industrial process and this causes an incorrect design of the overall controls. This paper illustrates the engineering of the SIS (Safety Instrumented System) and the BPCS of the plasma vapour controls of the AWAKE R&D; project, the first proton-driven plasma wakefield acceleration experiment in the world. The controls design and implementation refers to the IEC61511/ISA84 standard, including technological choices, design, operation and maintenance. Finally, the publica...

  13. Application of Safety Instrumented System (SIS) approach in older nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasimi, Elnara; Gabbar, Hossam A., E-mail: hossam.gabbar@uoit.ca

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Study Safety Instrumented System (SIS) design for older nuclear power plant. • Apply SIS on Reheater Drains (RD) system. • Apply IEC 61508/61511 to design safety system. • Evaluate risk reduction based on proposed SIS design. - Abstract: In order to remain economically effective and financially profitable, the modern industries have to take their safety culture to a higher level and consider production losses in addition to simple accident prevention techniques. Ideally, compliance with safety requirements start during early design stages, but in some older facilities provisions for Safety Instrumented Systems (SIS) may not have been originally included. In this paper, a case study of a Reheater Drains (RD) system is used to illustrate such an example. Frequent failures of tank level controller lead to transients where the operation of shutting down RD pumps requires operators to manually isolate the quenching water and to close the main steam admission valves. Water in this system is at saturation temperature for the reheater steam side pressure, and any manual operation of the system is highly undesirable due to hazards of working with wet steam at approximately 758 kPa(g) pressure, preheated to 237 °C. Additionally, losses of inventory are highly undesirable as well and challenge other systems in the plant. In this paper, it is suggested that RD system can benefit from installation of an independent SIS system in order to address current challenges. This idea is being explored using IEC 61508 framework for “Functional safety of electrical/electronic/programmable electronic safety-related systems” to provide assurance that the SIS will offer the necessary risk reduction required to achieve required safety for the equipment.

  14. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieur, G.; Nadi, M.; Hedjiedj, A.; Weber, S.

    1995-01-01

    This second chapter on instrumentation gives little general consideration on history and classification of instrumentation, and two specific states of the art. The first one concerns NMR (block diagram of instrumentation chain with details on the magnets, gradients, probes, reception unit). The first one concerns precision instrumentation (optical fiber gyro-meter and scanning electron microscope), and its data processing tools (programmability, VXI standard and its history). The chapter ends with future trends on smart sensors and Field Emission Displays. (D.L.). Refs., figs

  15. Requirements and analysis of electromagnetic compatibility of safety-related instrumentation and control system in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Sujuan

    2002-01-01

    The state-of-the-art instrumentation and control system and the influence of their application to the electromagnetic compatibility is analyzed. Based on the present situation of nuclear safety in China and relevant experiences from other countries, the author tries to probe into the requirements and test methods about how safety-related instrument and control system to accommodate electromagnetic interference, radio-frequency interference and power surges in the environments of nuclear power plant so as to develop Chinese safety standards

  16. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2000-01-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation aims at evaluating the potentials of new instrumentation technologies under the severe constraints of a nuclear application. It focuses on the tolerance of sensors to high radiation doses, including optical fibre sensors, and on the related intelligent data processing needed to cope with the nuclear constraints. Main achievements in these domains in 1999 are summarised

  17. Emergency Diesel: Safety-related instrumentation and control with programmable logic controllers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breidenich, G.; Luedtke, M.

    2004-01-01

    This report presents a new concept for the design of emergency diesel equipment protection circuits as a part of the safety related instrumentation in the nuclear power plant Biblis, units A and B. The concept was implemented with state of the art SIMATIC S7/316 programmable logic controllers (PLCs) and can be adapted to any system with high availability requirements (e.g. power plant turbines, aircraft engines, mining pumps etc). (orig.)

  18. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2001-04-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation involves the assessment and the development of sensitive measurement systems used within a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the assessment of optical fibre components and their adaptability to radiation environments. The evaluation of ageing processes of instrumentation in fission plants, the development of specific data evaluation strategies to compensate for ageing induced degradation of sensors and cable performance form part of these activities. In 2000, particular emphasis was on in-core reactor instrumentation applied to fusion, accelerator driven and water-cooled fission reactors. This involved the development of high performance instrumentation for irradiation experiments in the BR2 reactor in support of new instrumentation needs for MYRRHA, and for diagnostic systems for the ITER reactor.

  19. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2001-01-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation involves the assessment and the development of sensitive measurement systems used within a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the assessment of optical fibre components and their adaptability to radiation environments. The evaluation of ageing processes of instrumentation in fission plants, the development of specific data evaluation strategies to compensate for ageing induced degradation of sensors and cable performance form part of these activities. In 2000, particular emphasis was on in-core reactor instrumentation applied to fusion, accelerator driven and water-cooled fission reactors. This involved the development of high performance instrumentation for irradiation experiments in the BR2 reactor in support of new instrumentation needs for MYRRHA, and for diagnostic systems for the ITER reactor

  20. Predicting automatic speech recognition performance over communication channels from instrumental speech quality and intelligibility scores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallardo, L.F.; Möller, S.; Beerends, J.

    2017-01-01

    The performance of automatic speech recognition based on coded-decoded speech heavily depends on the quality of the transmitted signals, determined by channel impairments. This paper examines relationships between speech recognition performance and measurements of speech quality and intelligibility

  1. Probabilistic safety assessment for instrumentation and control systems in nuclear power plants: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Lixuan; Jiang, Jin

    2004-01-01

    Deregulation in the electricity market has resulted in a number of challenges in the nuclear power industry. Nuclear power plants must find innovative ways to remain competitive by reducing operating costs without jeopardizing safety. Instrumentation and Control (I and C) systems not only play important roles in plant operation, but also in reducing the cost of power generation while maintaining and/or enhancing safety. Therefore, it is extremely important that I and C systems are managed efficiently and economically. With the increasing use of digital technologies, new methods are needed to solve problems associated with various aspects of digital I and C systems. Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) has proved to be an effective method for safety analysis and risk-based decisions, even though challenges are still present. This paper provides an overview of PSA applications in three areas of digital I and C systems in nuclear power plants. These areas are Graded Quality Assurance, Surveillance Testing, and Instrumentation and Control System Design. In addition, PSA application in the regulation of nuclear power plants that adopt digital I and C systems is also investigated. (author)

  2. A toolbox for safety instrumented system evaluation based on improved continuous-time Markov chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardana, Awang N. I.; Kurniady, Rahman; Pambudi, Galih; Purnama, Jaka; Suryopratomo, Kutut

    2017-08-01

    Safety instrumented system (SIS) is designed to restore a plant into a safe condition when pre-hazardous event is occur. It has a vital role especially in process industries. A SIS shall be meet with safety requirement specifications. To confirm it, SIS shall be evaluated. Typically, the evaluation is calculated by hand. This paper presents a toolbox for SIS evaluation. It is developed based on improved continuous-time Markov chain. The toolbox supports to detailed approach of evaluation. This paper also illustrates an industrial application of the toolbox to evaluate arch burner safety system of primary reformer. The results of the case study demonstrates that the toolbox can be used to evaluate industrial SIS in detail and to plan the maintenance strategy.

  3. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2002-01-01

    SCK-CEN's R and D programme on instrumentation involves the development of advanced instrumentation systems for nuclear applications as well as the assessment of the performance of these instruments in a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the use of optical fibres as umbilincal links of a remote handling unit for use during maintanance of a fusion reacor, studies on the radiation hardening of plasma diagnostic systems; investigations on new instrumentation for the future MYRRHA accelerator driven system; space applications related to radiation-hardened lenses; the development of new approaches for dose, temperature and strain measurements; the assessment of radiation-hardened sensors and motors for remote handling tasks and studies of dose measurement systems including the use of optical fibres. Progress and achievements in these areas for 2001 are described

  4. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2002-04-01

    SCK-CEN's R and D programme on instrumentation involves the development of advanced instrumentation systems for nuclear applications as well as the assessment of the performance of these instruments in a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the use of optical fibres as umbilincal links of a remote handling unit for use during maintanance of a fusion reacor, studies on the radiation hardening of plasma diagnostic systems; investigations on new instrumentation for the future MYRRHA accelerator driven system; space applications related to radiation-hardened lenses; the development of new approaches for dose, temperature and strain measurements; the assessment of radiation-hardened sensors and motors for remote handling tasks and studies of dose measurement systems including the use of optical fibres. Progress and achievements in these areas for 2001 are described.

  5. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2000-07-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation aims at evaluating the potentials of new instrumentation technologies under the severe constraints of a nuclear application. It focuses on the tolerance of sensors to high radiation doses, including optical fibre sensors, and on the related intelligent data processing needed to cope with the nuclear constraints. Main achievements in these domains in 1999 are summarised.

  6. Process and device for controlling the operatability of a measuring channel in safety arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edelmann, M.

    1983-01-01

    In addition to the neutron - and temperature - measuring channels, the detectors and thermocouples for active functional testing are also included in the safety circuits. The measuring parameter (neutron flux or coolant outlet temperature) is modulated by the output control system or output and/or coolant flow. This modulation is determined using an auxillary parameter (movement of control rods or neutron flux). To represent the actual value of the measuring parameter to be compared with the previously determined reference value, there is a division of the relative change of the neutron flux or the coolant outlet temperature by the change of control rod position or reactor output caused by it. The effect of the auxiliary parameter on the measured parameter is measured by the cross correlation of both of them and of the auxiliary parameter directly or by auto correlation. The coarse and fine monitoring of the measuring channels takes place with different time constants. (orig./PW)

  7. Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buehrer, W.

    1996-01-01

    The present paper mediates a basic knowledge of the most commonly used experimental techniques. We discuss the principles and concepts necessary to understand what one is doing if one performs an experiment on a certain instrument. (author) 29 figs., 1 tab., refs

  8. Instrumentation of fuel safety test rods of the PWR system in the Phebus reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schley, Robert; Leveque, J.P.; Aujollet, J.M.; Dutraive, Pierre; Colome, Jean; Bouly, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    The tests were performed in an experimental cell centred in the core of the PHEBUS water reactor of 50 MW. The CEA make two types of apparatus for testing the safety of PWR fuel. One is for testing a single fuel stick and the other a bunch of 25 sticks. The instrumentation described enables the main parameters of the test to be known: temperatures of the fuel - central temperature of the UO 2 - cladding surface temperatures; temperature of the cooling circuits - thermal balance - temperatures of the structures, etc.; coolant pressure; internal pressure of the fuel sticks; direction and flow rate of the fluid. This instrumentation and the technological problems to be overcome are described and the results of the first tests carried out are given [fr

  9. International legal instruments promoting synergy's in nuclear safety, security and safeguards: myth of reality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasmant, A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to assess the existing synergies between nuclear safety, nuclear security and non-proliferation/safeguards resulting from the adoption of international legal instruments. Keeping in mind that a synergy is the extra success achieved by two or more elements of a system working together instead of on their own, this paper will try to evaluate the possibility of a so-called '3 S' approach to optimize the benefits so defined. to achieve this, Part 1 focuses on the history of the three regimes and their major features, while Part 2, 3 and 4 explore the various benefits of, limits to, synergies between the nuclear safety, nuclear security and safeguards regimes. Part 5 describes the potential '3 S' approach in international nuclear law. (N.C.)

  10. Evaluating the Impact of Radio Frequency Identification Retained Surgical Instruments Tracking on Patient Safety: Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnock, Kumiko O; Biggs, Bonnie; Fladger, Anne; Bates, David W; Rozenblum, Ronen

    2017-02-22

    Retained surgical instruments (RSI) are one of the most serious preventable complications in operating room settings, potentially leading to profound adverse effects for patients, as well as costly legal and financial consequences for hospitals. Safety measures to eliminate RSIs have been widely adopted in the United States and abroad, but despite widespread efforts, medical errors with RSI have not been eliminated. Through a systematic review of recent studies, we aimed to identify the impact of radio frequency identification (RFID) technology on reducing RSI errors and improving patient safety. A literature search on the effects of RFID technology on RSI error reduction was conducted in PubMed and CINAHL (2000-2016). Relevant articles were selected and reviewed by 4 researchers. After the literature search, 385 articles were identified and the full texts of the 88 articles were assessed for eligibility. Of these, 5 articles were included to evaluate the benefits and drawbacks of using RFID for preventing RSI-related errors. The use of RFID resulted in rapid detection of RSI through body tissue with high accuracy rates, reducing risk of counting errors and improving workflow. Based on the existing literature, RFID technology seems to have the potential to substantially improve patient safety by reducing RSI errors, although the body of evidence is currently limited. Better designed research studies are needed to get a clear understanding of this domain and to find new opportunities to use this technology and improve patient safety.

  11. NESSI and `Alopeke: Two new dual-channel speckle imaging instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Nicholas J.

    2018-01-01

    NESSI and `Alopeke are two new speckle imagers built at NASA's Ames Research Center for community use at the WIYN and Gemini telescopes, respectively. The two instruments are functionally similar and include the capability for wide-field imaging in additional to speckle interferometry. The diffraction-limited imaging available through speckle effectively eliminates distortions due to the presence of Earth's atmosphere by `freezing out' changes in the atmosphere by taking extremely short exposures and combining the resultant speckles in Fourier space. This technique enables angular resolutions equal to the theoretical best possible for a given telescope, effectively giving space-based resolution from the ground. Our instruments provide the highest spatial resolution available today on any single aperture telescope.A primary role of these instruments is exoplanet validation for the Kepler, K2, TESS, and many RV programs. Contrast ratios of 6 or more magnitudes are easily obtained. The instrument uses two emCCD cameras providing simultaneous dual-color observations help to characterize detected companions. High resolution imaging enables the identification of blended binaries that contaminate many exoplanet detections, leading to incorrectly measured radii. In this way small, rocky systems, such as Kepler-186b and the TRAPPIST-1 planet family, may be validated and thus the detected planets radii are correctly measured.

  12. Aberration compensation of an ultrasound imaging instrument with a reduced number of channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei; Astheimer, Jeffrey P; Waag, Robert C

    2012-10-01

    Focusing and imaging qualities of an ultrasound imaging system that uses aberration correction were experimentally investigated as functions of the number of parallel channels. Front-end electronics that consolidate signals from multiple physical elements can be used to lower hardware and computational costs by reducing the number of parallel channels. However, the signals from sparse arrays of synthetic elements yield poorer aberration estimates. In this study, aberration estimates derived from synthetic arrays of varying element sizes are evaluated by comparing compensated receive focuses, compensated transmit focuses, and compensated b-scan images of a point target and a cyst phantom. An array of 80 x 80 physical elements with a pitch of 0.6 x 0.6 mm was used for all of the experiments and the aberration was produced by a phantom selected to mimic propagation through abdominal wall. The results show that aberration correction derived from synthetic arrays with pitches that have a diagonal length smaller than 70% of the correlation length of the aberration yield focuses and images of approximately the same quality. This connection between correlation length of the aberration and synthetic element size provides a guideline for determining the number of parallel channels that are required when designing imaging systems that employ aberration correction.

  13. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muehllehner, G.; Colsher, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    This chapter reviews the parameters which are important to positron-imaging instruments. It summarizes the options which various groups have explored in designing tomographs and the methods which have been developed to overcome some of the limitations inherent in the technique as well as in present instruments. The chapter is not presented as a defense of positron imaging versus single-photon or other imaging modality, neither does it contain a description of various existing instruments, but rather stresses their common properties and problems. Design parameters which are considered are resolution, sampling requirements, sensitivity, methods of eliminating scattered radiation, random coincidences and attenuation. The implementation of these parameters is considered, with special reference to sampling, choice of detector material, detector ring diameter and shielding and variations in point spread function. Quantitation problems discussed are normalization, and attenuation and random corrections. Present developments mentioned are noise reduction through time-of-flight-assisted tomography and signal to noise improvements through high intrinsic resolution. Extensive bibliography. (U.K.)

  14. Safety assessment of inter-channel / inter-system digital communications: A defensive measures approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thuy, N. N. Q.

    2006-01-01

    Inappropriately designed inter-channel and inter-system digital communications could initiate common cause failure of multiple channels or multiple systems. Defensive measures were introduced in EPRI report TR-1002835 (Guideline for Performing Defense-in-Depth and Diversity Assessments for Digital Upgrades) to assess, on a deterministic basis, the susceptibility of digital systems architectures to common-cause failures. This paper suggests how this approach could be applied to assess inter-channel and inter-system digital communications from a safety standpoint. The first step of the approach is to systematically identify the so called 'influence factors' that one end of the data communication path can have on the other. Potential factors to be considered would typically include data values, data volumes and data rates. The second step of the approach is to characterize the ways possible failures of a given end of the communication path could affect these influence factors (e.g., incorrect data values, excessive data rates, time-outs, incorrect data volumes). The third step is to analyze the designed-in measures taken to guarantee independence of the other end. In addition to classical error detection and correction codes, typical defensive measures are one-way data communication, fixed-rate data communication, fixed-volume data communication, validation of data values. (authors)

  15. Advanced Concepts for Pressure-Channel Reactors: Modularity, Performance and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffey, Romney B.; Pioro, Igor L.; Kuran, Sermet

    Based on an analysis of the development of advanced concepts for pressure-tube reactor technology, we adapt and adopt the pressure-tube reactor advantage of modularity, so that the subdivided core has the potential for optimization of the core, safety, fuel cycle and thermal performance independently, while retaining passive safety features. In addition, by adopting supercritical water-cooling, the logical developments from existing supercritical turbine technology and “steam” systems can be utilized. Supercritical and ultra-supercritical boilers and turbines have been operating for some time in coal-fired power plants. Using coolant outlet temperatures of about 625°C achieves operating plant thermal efficiencies in the order of 45-48%, using a direct turbine cycle. In addition, by using reheat channels, the plant has the potential to produce low-cost process heat, in amounts that are customer and market dependent. The use of reheat systems further increases the overall thermal efficiency to 55% and beyond. With the flexibility of a range of plant sizes suitable for both small (400 MWe) and large (1400 MWe) electric grids, and the ability for co-generation of electric power, process heat, and hydrogen, the concept is competitive. The choice of core power, reheat channel number and exit temperature are all set by customer and materials requirements. The pressure channel is a key technology that is needed to make use of supercritical water (SCW) in CANDU®1 reactors feasible. By optimizing the fuel bundle and fuel channel, convection and conduction assure heat removal using passive-moderator cooling. Potential for severe core damage can be almost eliminated, even without the necessity of activating the emergency-cooling systems. The small size of containment structure lends itself to a small footprint, impacts economics and building techniques. Design features related to Canadian concepts are discussed in this paper. The main conclusion is that development of

  16. Comparative instrumental evaluation of efficacy and safety between a binary and a ternary system in chemexfoliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameli, Norma; Mariano, Maria; Ardigò, Marco; Corato, Cristina; De Paoli, Gianfranco; Berardesca, Enzo

    2017-09-20

    To instrumentally evaluate the efficacy and the safety of a new ternary system chemo exfoliating formulation (water-dimethyl isosorbide-acid) vs traditional binary systems (water and acid) where the acid is maintained in both the systems at the same concentration. Different peelings (binary system pyruvic acid and trichloroacetic acid-TCA, and ternary system pyruvic acid and TCA) were tested on the volar forearm of 20 volunteers of both sexes between 28 and 50 years old. The outcomes were evaluated at the baseline, 10 minutes, 24 hours, and 1 week after the peeling by means of noninvasive skin diagnosis techniques. In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy was used for stratum corneum evaluation, transepidermal waterloss, and Corneometry for skin barrier and hydration, Laser Doppler velocimetry in association with colorimetry for irritation and erythema analysis. The instrumental data obtained showed that the efficacy and safety of the new ternary system peel compounds were significantly higher compared with the binary system formulations tested. The new formulation peels improved chemexfoliation and reduced complications such as irritation, redness, and postinflammatory pigmentation compared to the traditional aqueous solutions. The study showed that ternary system chemexfoliation, using a controlled delivery technology, was able to provide the same clinical effects in term of stratum corneum reduction with a significantly reduced barrier alteration, water loss, and irritation/erythema compared to traditional binary system peels. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Account of requirements for modernization in VPBER-600 enhanced safety reactor instrumentation and control system development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shashkin, S.L.; Pobedonostsev, A.B.; Drumov, V.V.; Chudin, A.G.

    1993-01-01

    Nuclear power plant (NPP) with VPBER-600 reactor is a station of new generation. The specified term of reactor plant operation is 60 years and taking into account that the proposed term of starting the first power unit is on the turn of centuries one can definitely state that for Russia conditions VPBER-600 is a plant of 21 century. Such far removed term for NPP now in the stage of development as it can seem does not put the problems of modernization as first order tasks. But open-quotes...who does not think about future lives in the past.close quotes It is that the NPP instrumentation and control (I ampersand C) systems are in the most degree subjected to the influence of factors which favor their modifications. These factors can be arbitrarily divided into two groups: (1) inner factors, i.e. changes (failures, aging, etc) in I ampersand C components as well as changes dictated by technological reasons (change of equipment composition, control algorithms, operation modes); (2) outer factors, i.e. intensive development of information technologies and rapid improvement of electronic components. This presentation addresses the problem of modernization of the safety instrumentation for this next generation facility, and the research effort it will entail. The system is designed to allow for modernization, and the relatively easy adoption of new instrumentation and technology as it becomes available

  18. Development of FPGA-based safety-related instrumentation and control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, N.; Tanaka, A.; Izumi, M.; Tarumi, T.; Sato, T. [Toshiba Corporation, Isogo Nuclear Engineering Center, Yokohama (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    Toshiba has developed systems which perform signal processing by field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) for safety-related instrumentation and control systems. FPGA is a device which consists only of defined digital circuit: hardware, which performs defined processing. FPGA-based system solves issues existing both in the conventional systems operated by analog circuits (analog-based system) and the systems operated by central processing units (CPU-based system). The advantages of applying FPGA are to keep the long-life supply of products, improving testability (verification), and to reduce the drift which may occur in analog-based system. Considering application to safety-related systems, nonvolatile and non rewritable FPGA which is impossible to be changed after once manufactured has been adopted in Toshiba FPGA-based system. The systems which Toshiba developed this time are Power range Monitor (PRM) and Trip Module (TM). These systems are compatible with the conventional analog-based systems and the CPU-based systems. Therefore, requested cost for upgrading will be minimized. Toshiba is planning to expand application of FPGA-based technology by adopting this development method to the other safety-related systems from now on. (authors)

  19. Probabilistic safety assessment for instrumentation and control systems in nuclear power plants. A literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Lixuan; Jiang, Jin

    2003-01-01

    Deregulation in electricity market will create a great deal of challenges for Nuclear Power Plants (NPP). To stay competitive, NPP will need to find new ways to reduce their operation costs. In NPP, Instrumentation and Control (I and C) systems play an important role in reducing the cost of producing electricity while maintaining and/or enhancing safety. Therefore, it is extremely important that one should manage the I and C systems more efficiently and economically. Meanwhile, obsolescence problem associated with I and C systems encouraged the usage of advanced digital techniques in I and C systems. Thus, new methodologies are needed to analyze the reliability and determine the maintenance strategy for the digital I and C systems. Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) has been probed to be a promising method to deal with this issue. This paper provides a literature survey on the development of digital I and C systems in NPP, followed by a detailed review of PSA including its benefits, limitations and the future direction of its development. Most importantly, potential applications of PSA in various aspects of I and C systems are brought into perspective throughout the paper. Furthermore, the applicability of PSA in the regulation of safety-related I and C systems is demonstrated. Detailed information on PSA applications in 1) the resource allocation for I and C systems: 2) the determination of surveillance testing strategies; and 3) I and C system designs, is provided. (author)

  20. Probabilistic safety assessment for digital instrumentation and control systems in nuclear power plants - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, L.; Jiang, J.

    2003-01-01

    Deregulation in electricity market has created a great deal of challenges for nuclear power industries [1]. To stay competitive, Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) will have to find ways to reduce their operational costs and to improve the plant safety. Instrumentation and Control (I and C) systems play an important role in this regard. Thus, new methodologies need to be developed to manage the operation of I and C systems more economically without jeopardizing the overall plant safety. Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) technique is one of the promising methods to deal with such an issue, because PSA analyzes various system operational issues from a probabilistic sense, rather than a worst-case approach. However, there are several limitations when PSA is applied to I and C systems directly. A possible solution to this problem can be found by incorporating PSA with several other approaches. To better understand the issues involved, an attempt has been made in this paper to carry out a literature survey on this and related subject, particularly the effort will be made on: 1) the development of digital I and C systems in NPP, 2) PSA and its potential benefits and limitations, and 3) applications of PSA in various aspects of I and C systems including the resource allocation, the determination of surveillance testing strategies and the design of I and C systems. Finally, some solutions to overcome the aforementioned obstacles when applying PSA in I and C systems are also examined critically. (author)

  1. Methodology and development of instruments for the safety analysis of a nuclear reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markett, J.

    1987-01-01

    Characteristics and overlapping aspects in the elaboration of safety analyses for the nuclear and conventional units are presented. The current methods are presented and their limits of applicability characterized. The transferability of individual methods or their elements to the analysis of the reference plant of Wackersdorf is examined and the procedure for the systems analysis is determined. It is of great importance to prove that the essential kinds of incidents and possibilities of release with potential effects in the environment are completely identified. The incidents are divided into basic incidents, which are characterized by superior physical/chemical release mechanisms. An essential objective is to systematize the safety analysis and to summarize the presentation of results. Selection criteria are presented, which allow a limitation of the analysis to essential influencing parameters without removing aspects from the overall safety-relevant statement. Besides the selection criteria, instruments and mathematical models are explained with the help of which the representative and possible incidents covering all potential risks for all areas of the plant, systems and components can be selected. These design-basis accidents (criticality, self-heating, fire, explosion, leakages, earth quakes) are decisive for the determination of potential damaging effects in the environment and thus for the overall statement on the licensability. (orig./HP) [de

  2. Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This annual report of the Senior Inspector for the Nuclear Safety, analyses the nuclear safety at EDF for the year 1999 and proposes twelve subjects of consideration to progress. Five technical documents are also provided and discussed concerning the nuclear power plants maintenance and safety (thermal fatigue, vibration fatigue, assisted control and instrumentation of the N4 bearing, 1300 MW reactors containment and time of life of power plants). (A.L.B.)

  3. The Joint Convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management. An instrument to achieve a global safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risoluti, P.

    2006-01-01

    The Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management (the Joint Convention) is the first legally binding international treaty in the area of radioactive material management. It was adopted by a Diplomatic Conference in September 1997 and opened for signature on 29 September 1997. The Convention entered into force on 18 June 1998, and to date (May 2006) has been ratified by 41 countries. The Joint Convention applies to spent fuel and radioactive waste resulting from civilian application. Its principal aim is to achieve and maintain a high degree of safety in their management worldwide. The Convention is an incentive instrument, not designed to ensure fulfilment of obligations through control and sanction, but by a volunteer peer review mechanism. The obligations of the Contracting Parties are mainly based on the international safety standards developed by the IAEA in past decades. The Convention is of interest of all countries generating radioactive waste. Therefore it is relevant not only for those using nuclear power, but for any country where application of nuclear energy in education, agriculture, medicine and industry is currently used. Obligations of Contracting Parties include attending a Review Meeting held every three years and prepare National Reports for review by the other Contracting Parties. In the National Reports basic information on inventory and facilities for management of radioactive materials has to be provided. Countries with small nuclear power and/or research programs or countries having radioactive materials only from nuclear application on medicine, agriculture or conventional industry, can benefit from the exchange of information and the technical knowledge gained by the reporting procedure set up by the Convention. The second Review Meeting is to be held at IAEA headquarters from 15 to 26 May 2006. This paper presents the objectives and the implementation status of the Convention, the

  4. RBMK fuel channel integrity. A publication of the extrabudgetary programme on the safety of WWER and RBMK nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The fuel channel integrity in the RBMK NPPs is an issue of high safety concern. To date, three single fuel channel ruptures have occurred. Fuel channel rupture results in release of radioactivity to the reactor cavity and may lead to a release of radioactivity to the environment if the confinement safety system does not function properly. A multiple fuel channel rupture exceeding the venting capacity of the reactor cavity overpressure protection system poses a major impact on the plant safety. Further, due to incorrect prediction at the design stage the gas gap between the fuel channel pressure tube and the graphite blocks closes after approximately 17 years of plant operation. There is no safety justification available for the continued plant operation in this condition and the reactors are being retubed to avoid operation in this out of design condition, which may have negative impact on the fuel channel integrity. The loss of the mechanical integrity of fuel channel pressure tubes is a major safety concern for RBMK reactors since it may lead to overpressurization of the reactor cavity and consequently develop into a severe accident. In this report, information on the main design features of the RBMK reactor related to the fuel channel integrity is given. Further, detailed information on the fuel channel pressure tube and the graphite blocks with respect to their design, manufacture, in-service inspection, operating experience, ageing behaviour including degradation mechanisms is discussed in detail. The behaviour of the system fuel channel-graphite core including the corrective actions developed and implemented is discussed. Both normal operating conditions and accident conditions are addressed, considering also the gas gap closure process and its impact. The report also covers the fuel channel ducts. It is concluded in the report that for RBMK-1000 reactors and the adopted retubing strategy, limited local gas gap closure occurs at the time of pressure tube

  5. Applications of Multi-Channel Safety Authentication Protocols in Wireless Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Young-Long; Liau, Ren-Hau; Chang, Liang-Yu

    2016-01-01

    People can use their web browser or mobile devices to access web services and applications which are built into these servers. Users have to input their identity and password to login the server. The identity and password may be appropriated by hackers when the network environment is not safe. The multiple secure authentication protocol can improve the security of the network environment. Mobile devices can be used to pass the authentication messages through Wi-Fi or 3G networks to serve as a second communication channel. The content of the message number is not considered in a multiple secure authentication protocol. The more excessive transmission of messages would be easier to collect and decode by hackers. In this paper, we propose two schemes which allow the server to validate the user and reduce the number of messages using the XOR operation. Our schemes can improve the security of the authentication protocol. The experimental results show that our proposed authentication protocols are more secure and effective. In regard to applications of second authentication communication channels for a smart access control system, identity identification and E-wallet, our proposed authentication protocols can ensure the safety of person and property, and achieve more effective security management mechanisms.

  6. Technical Support Section Instrument Support Program for nuclear and nonnuclear facilities with safety requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adkisson, B.P.; Allison, K.L.

    1995-01-01

    This document describes requirements, procedures, and supervisory responsibilities of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Instrumentation and Controls (I ampersand C) Division's Technical Support Section (TSS) for instrument surveillance and maintenance in nonreactor nuclear facilities having identified Operational Safety Requirements (OSRs) or Limiting Conditions Document (LCDs). Implementation of requirements comply with the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Orders 5480.5, 5480.22, and 5481.1B; Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), Policy Procedure ESS-FS-201; and ORNL SPP X-ESH-15. OSRs and LCDs constitute an agreement or contract between DOE and the facility operating management regarding the safe operation of the facility. One basic difference between OSRs and LCDs is that violation of an OSR is considered a Category II occurrence, whereas violation of an LCD requirement is considered a Category III occurrence (see Energy Systems Standard ESS-OP-301 and ORNL SPP X-GP-13). OSRs are required for high- and moderate-hazard nuclear facilities, whereas the less-rigorous LCDs are required for low-hazard nuclear facilities and selected open-quotes generally acceptedclose quotes operations. Hazard classifications are determined through a hazard screening process, which each division conducts for its facilities

  7. Neuroendoscopic Resection of Intraventricular Tumors and Cysts through a Working Channel with a Variable Aspiration Tissue Resector: A Feasibility and Safety Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edjah Kweku-Ebura Nduom

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pure neuroendoscopic resection of intraventricular lesions through a burr hole is limited by the instrumentation that can be used with a working channel endoscope. We describe a safety and feasibility study of a variable aspiration tissue resector, for the resection of a variety of intraventricular lesions. Our initial experience using the variable aspiration tissue resector involved 16 patients with a variety of intraventricular tumors or cysts. Nine patients (56% presented with obstructive hydrocephalus. Patient ages ranged from 20 to 88 years (mean 44.2. All patients were operated on through a frontal burr hole, using a working channel endoscope. A total of 4 tumors were resected in a gross total fashion and the remaining intraventricular lesions were subtotally resected. Fifteen of 16 patients had relief of their preoperative symptoms. The 9 patients who presented with obstructive hydrocephalus had restoration of cerebrospinal fluid flow though one required a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Three patients required repeat endoscopic resections. Use of a variable aspiration tissue resector provides the ability to resect a variety of intraventricular lesions in a safe, controlled manner through a working channel endoscope. Larger intraventricular tumors continue to pose a challenge for complete removal of intraventricular lesions.

  8. Modeling safety instrumented systems with MooN voting architectures addressing system reconfiguration for testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres-Echeverria, A.C.; Martorell, S.; Thompson, H.A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the modeling of probability of dangerous failure on demand and spurious trip rate of safety instrumented systems that include MooN voting redundancies in their architecture. MooN systems are a special case of k-out-of-n systems. The first part of the article is devoted to the development of a time-dependent probability of dangerous failure on demand model with capability of handling MooN systems. The model is able to model explicitly common cause failure and diagnostic coverage, as well as different test frequencies and strategies. It includes quantification of both detected and undetected failures, and puts emphasis on the quantification of common cause failure to the system probability of dangerous failure on demand as an additional component. In order to be able to accommodate changes in testing strategies, special treatment is devoted to the analysis of system reconfiguration (including common cause failure) during test of one of its components, what is then included in the model. Another model for spurious trip rate is also analyzed and extended under the same methodology in order to empower it with similar capabilities. These two models are powerful enough, but at the same time simple, to be suitable for handling of dependability measures in multi-objective optimization of both system design and test strategies for safety instrumented systems. The level of modeling detail considered permits compliance with the requirements of the standard IEC 61508. The two models are applied to brief case studies to demonstrate their effectiveness. The results obtained demonstrated that the first model is adequate to quantify time-dependent PFD of MooN systems during different system states (i.e. full operation, test and repair) and different MooN configurations, which values are averaged to obtain the PFD avg . Also, it was demonstrated that the second model is adequate to quantify STR including spurious trips induced by internal component failure and

  9. An overview of process instrumentation, protective safety interlocks and alarm system at the JET facilities active gas handling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, N.; Brennan, P.; Brown, K.; Gibbons, C.; Jones, G.; Knipe, S.; Manning, C.; Perevezentsev, A.; Stagg, R.; Thomas, R.; Yorkshades, J.

    2003-01-01

    The Joint European Torus (JET) Facilities Active Gas Handling System (AGHS) comprises ten interconnected processing sub-systems that supply, process and recover tritium from gases used in the JET Machine. Operations require a diverse range of process instrumentation to carry out a multiplicity of monitoring and control tasks and approximately 500 process variables are measured. The different types and application of process instruments are presented with specially adapted or custom-built versions highlighted. Forming part of the Safety Case for tritium operations, a dedicated hardwired interlock and alarm system provides an essential safety function. In the event of failure modes, each hardwired interlock will back-up software interlocks and shutdown areas of plant to a failsafe condition. Design of the interlock and alarm system is outlined and general methodology described. Practical experience gained during plant operations is summarised and the methods employed for routine functional testing of essential instrument systems explained

  10. The ConCom Safety Management Scale: developing and testing a measurement instrument for control-based and commitment-based safety management approaches in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alingh, Carien W; Strating, Mathilde M H; van Wijngaarden, Jeroen D H; Paauwe, Jaap; Huijsman, Robbert

    2018-03-06

    Nursing management is considered important for patient safety. Prior research has predominantly focused on charismatic leadership styles, although it is questionable whether these best characterise the role of nurse managers. Managerial control is also relevant. Therefore, we aimed to develop and test a measurement instrument for control-based and commitment-based safety management of nurse managers in clinical hospital departments. A cross-sectional survey design was used to test the newly developed questionnaire in a sample of 2378 nurses working in clinical departments. The nurses were asked about their perceptions of the leadership behaviour and management practices of their direct supervisors. Psychometric properties were evaluated using confirmatory factor analysis and reliability estimates. The final 33-item questionnaire showed acceptable goodness-of-fit indices and internal consistency (Cronbach's α of the subscales range: 0.59-0.90). The factor structure revealed three subdimensions for control-based safety management: (1) stressing the importance of safety rules and regulations; (2) monitoring compliance; and (3) providing employees with feedback. Commitment-based management consisted of four subdimensions: (1) showing role modelling behaviour; (2) creating safety awareness; (3) showing safety commitment; and (4) encouraging participation. Construct validity of the scale was supported by high factor loadings and provided preliminary evidence that control-based and commitment-based safety management are two distinct yet related constructs. The findings were reconfirmed in a cross-validation procedure. The results provide initial support for the construct validity and reliability of our ConCom Safety Management Scale. Both management approaches were found to be relevant for managing patient safety in clinical hospital departments. The scale can be used to deepen our understanding of the influence of patient safety management on healthcare professionals

  11. Safety precautions of Dover Channel Tunnel boring machine; Kaitei tonneru kussakuki to anzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, Y.; Fujioka, K. [Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    1995-02-15

    In May 6th 1994, the Dover Channel Tunnel referred to the largest project in this century has been opened for traffic. France and England, which have been separated by the strait with a width of about 38 km, have been connected through the submarine railway tunnel and became to be a land continuation. Since Napoleon the first, who conquested European Continent, has made a tunnel construction plan towards England, in really 27th planning, the Eurotunnel, which has been a dream in Europe for 200 years, was realized. A position of this tunnel is at a depth of 100 m under marine surface, and a geology of the strait part is a chalk layer with a calcium carbonate as a main component. For a tunnel excavation, 6 units in England side, and 5 units in France side, and therefore total 11 units of tunnel boring machines were used. Out of them, in 2 tunnels for train from France side, 2 units of tunnel boring machine (TBM) made in Japan were used. In this paper a structure and excavation method of TBM was explained, and a safety countermeasure of TBM adopted in this project was outlined. 1 ref., 10 figs.

  12. Impact of state-of-the-art instrumentation on safety-related experimental studies proposed in containment studies facility (CSF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gole, N.V.; Markandeya, S.G.; Subramaniam, K.; Ghosh, A.K.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Conducting an experimental program for safety related studies for nuclear power plants (NPPs) is an extremely laborious and time-consuming task due to several reasons. Requirement for frequent replacements, testing and recalibration of a large number of instruments is one of them. Off-line analysis leading to identification of errors is another. A particular test may have to be abandoned based on such analysis. Following the rapid advances in instrumentation, a larger number of options are now available, which make experimentation easy. CSF is one of the upcoming facilities wherein deployment of state-of-the art became inevitable. This paper discusses in detail the design intent of instrumentation, the state-of-the-art instrumentation provisions made to fulfill it the overall impact of this on successful experimentation

  13. Safety-related instrumentation and control systems for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This Safety Guide deals mainly with design requirements for those I and C systems that are important to safety but are not safety systems. The Guide is intended to expand paragraphs 3.1, 3.2 and 3.3 of the Code of Practice on Design for Safety of Nuclear Power Plants (IAEA Safety Series No.50-C-D) in the area of I and C systems important to safety and refers to them as safety-related I and C systems. It also gives guidance and enumerates requirements for multiplexing and the use of the digital computers employed in this area

  14. Safety Research Experiment Facility Project. Conceptual design report. Volume VIII. Instrumentation and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Included are sections dealing with the following: nuclear instrumentation system, reactor control system, plant protection system, plant annunciator system, data acquisition system, and reactor cooling system instrumentation and control

  15. Safety and function of a new clinical intracerebral microinjection instrument for stem cells and therapeutics examined in the Göttingen minipig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarkam, Carsten R; GLUD, AN; Margolin, Lee

    2010-01-01

    Safety and function of a new clinical intracerebral microinjection instrument for stem cells and therapeutics examined in the Göttingen minipig......Safety and function of a new clinical intracerebral microinjection instrument for stem cells and therapeutics examined in the Göttingen minipig...

  16. Safety evaluation for instrumentation and control system upgrading project of Malaysian TRIGA MARK II PUSPATI Research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridha Roslan; Nik Mohd Faiz Khairuddin

    2013-01-01

    Full-text: Malaysian TRIGA MARK II research reactor has been in safe operation since its first criticality in 1982. The reactor is licensed to be operated by Malaysian Nuclear Agency to perform training and research development related activities. Due to its extensive operation since last three decades, the option of modifications for safety and safety-related item and component become a necessary to replace the outdated equipment to a stat-of-art, reliable technologies. This paper will present the current regulatory activities performed by Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB) to ensure the upgrading of analogue to digital instrumentation and control system is implemented in safe manner. The review activity includes documentation review, manufacturer quality audit and on-site inspection for commissioning. The review performed by AELB is based on The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safety Requirements NS-R-4, entitled Safety of Research Reactors. During this endeavour, AELB seeks technical cooperation from Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS), the nuclear experts organization of the country of origin of the instrumentation and control technology. The regulatory activity is still on-going and is expected to be completed by issuance of Authorization for Restart on December 2013. (author)

  17. KAERI software safety guideline for developing safety-critical software in digital instrumentation and control system of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jang Soo; Kim, Jang Yeol; Eum, Heung Seop.

    1997-07-01

    Recently, the safety planning for safety-critical software systems is being recognized as the most important phase in the software life cycle, and being developed new regulatory positions and standards by the regulatory and the standardization organization. The requirements for software important to safety of nuclear reactor are described in such positions and standards. Most of them are describing mandatory requirements, what shall be done, for the safety-critical software. The developers of such a software. However, there have been a lot of controversial factors on whether the work practices satisfy the regulatory requirements, and to justify the safety of such a system developed by the work practices, between the licenser and the licensee. We believe it is caused by the reason that there is a gap between the mandatory requirements (What) and the work practices (How). We have developed a guidance to fill such gap, which can be useful for both licenser and licensee to conduct a justification of the safety in the planning phase of developing the software for nuclear reactor protection systems. (author). 67 refs., 13 tabs., 2 figs

  18. KAERI software safety guideline for developing safety-critical software in digital instrumentation and control system of nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jang Soo; Kim, Jang Yeol; Eum, Heung Seop

    1997-07-01

    Recently, the safety planning for safety-critical software systems is being recognized as the most important phase in the software life cycle, and being developed new regulatory positions and standards by the regulatory and the standardization organization. The requirements for software important to safety of nuclear reactor are described in such positions and standards. Most of them are describing mandatory requirements, what shall be done, for the safety-critical software. The developers of such a software. However, there have been a lot of controversial factors on whether the work practices satisfy the regulatory requirements, and to justify the safety of such a system developed by the work practices, between the licenser and the licensee. We believe it is caused by the reason that there is a gap between the mandatory requirements (What) and the work practices (How). We have developed a guidance to fill such gap, which can be useful for both licenser and licensee to conduct a justification of the safety in the planning phase of developing the software for nuclear reactor protection systems. (author). 67 refs., 13 tabs., 2 figs.

  19. Outline of the requirements of application of computer based instrumentation and control systems in the systems important to safety on Bohunice NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacurik, J.

    1997-01-01

    The most important regulatory requirements and issues are described related to the review, evaluation and assessment of computer-based safety-related IandC systems, with emphasis on safety instrumentation and control. These aspects include safety classification and categorization of IandC, ranking of applicable codes and standards, design evaluation on the system level, and software assessment. (author)

  20. Instrumentation utilisation for risk control in safety operations. [balloons and rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swayer, F. R.

    1987-01-01

    Ways in which instrumentation is utilized for risk control for inherently safe (no control or guidance) and flight programmed launch vehicles is presented. Instrumentation and how it is utilized in the launching and recovery of balloons and payloads is also presented. Wind sensing, computer systems, tracking, and telemetry are discussed.

  1. Food Sanitation and Safety Self-assessment Instrument for Family Day-Care Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990

    This self-assessment instrument for family day care providers is designed to help caregivers provide safe food to children. The eight sections of the instrument, presented in checklist format, concern: (1) personal hygiene; (2) purchasing and inspecting of food; (3) food storage; (4) kitchen equipment; (5) food preparation; (6) infant food…

  2. Contribution to the safety assessment of instrumentation and control software for nuclear power plants. Application to spin N4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soubies, B.; Boulc'h, J.; Elsensohn, O.; Le Meur, M.; Henry, J.Y.

    1994-01-01

    The process of licensing nuclear power plants for operation consists of mandatory steps featuring detailed examination of the instrumentation and control system. Significant changes were introduced by the operator in the process of designing and producing 1400 MWe pressurized water reactor safety systems and, in particular, in the case of the Digital Integrated Protection System, (French abbreviation SPIN). The methodology applied by the Institute of Protection and Nuclear Safety (IPSN) to examine the software of this system is described. It consists of the methods used by the manufacturer to develop SPIN software for the 1400 MWe PWRs, and the approach adopted by the IPSN to evaluate SPIN safety softwares of the protection system for the N4 series of reactors. (R.P.). 2 refs

  3. Research on the evaluation model of the software reliability in nuclear safety class digital instrumentation and control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Ying; Yang Ming; Li Fengjun; Ma Zhanguo; Zeng Hai

    2014-01-01

    In order to analyze the software reliability (SR) in nuclear safety class digital instrumentation and control system (D-I and C), firstly, the international software design standards were analyzed, the standards' framework was built, and we found that the D-I and C software standards should follow the NUREG-0800 BTP7-14, according to the NRC NUREG-0800 review of requirements. Secondly, the quantitative evaluation model of SR using Bayesian Belief Network and thirteen sub-model frameworks were established. Thirdly, each sub-models and the weight of corresponding indexes in the evaluation model were analyzed. Finally, the safety case was introduced. The models lay a foundation for review and quantitative evaluation on the SR in nuclear safety class D-I and C. (authors)

  4. Validation of smart sensor technologies for instrument calibration reduction in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashemian, H.M.; Mitchell, D.W.; Petersen, K.M.; Shell, C.S.

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the preliminary results of a research and development project on the validation of new techniques for on-line testing of calibration drift of process instrumentation channels in nuclear power plants. These techniques generally involve a computer-based data acquisition and data analysis system to trend the output of a large number of instrument channels and identify the channels that have drifted out of tolerance. This helps limit the calibration effort to those channels which need the calibration, as opposed to the current nuclear industry practice of calibrating essentially all the safety-related instrument channels at every refueling outage

  5. Safety audits/Verkehrssicherheitsaudits : ein vielsprechendes Instrument zur Förderung der Verkehrssicherheit ?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M. & Schagen, I.N.L.G. van

    1998-01-01

    Das Instrument `Verkehrssicherheitsaudit' (`Audits') hat zum Zweck die infrastrukturellen Bedingungen für Verkehrssicherheit bereits während der Entwurf- und Realisierungsphase der Verkehrsinfrastruktur einzubauen. Dieser Bericht gibt ein Übersicht der Tragweite des Audits. Ausserdem werden

  6. Optimal Design of Safety Instrumented Systems for Pressure Control of Methanol Separation Columns in the Bisphenol a Manufacturing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Bok Lee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A bisphenol A production plant possesses considerable potential risks in the top of the methanol separation column, as pressurized acetone, methanol, and water are processed at an elevated temperature, especially in the event of an abnormal pressure increase due to a sudden power outage. This study assesses the potential risks in the methanol separation column through hazard and operability assessments and evaluates the damages in the case of fire and explosion accident scenarios. The study chooses three leakage scenarios: a 5-mm puncture on the methanol separation column, a 50-mm diameter fracture of a discharge pipe and a catastrophic rupture, and, simulated using Phast (Ver. 6.531, the concentration distribution of scattered methanol, thermal radiation distribution of fires, and overpressure distribution of vapor cloud explosions. Implementation of a safety-instrumented system equipped with two-out-of-three voting as a safety measure can detect overpressure at the top of the column and shut down the main control valve and the emergency shutoff valve simultaneously. By applying a safety integrity level of three, the maximal release volume of the safety relief valve can be reduced and, therefore, the design capacity of the flare stack can also be reduced. Such integration will lead to improved safety at a reduced cost.

  7. Upgrade of the NCSU PULSTAR instrumentation power channels. Final technical report, September 1, 1992 - August 31, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, P.B.

    1998-01-01

    The Nuclear Reactor Program at North Carolina State University initiated an upgrade program at the NCSU PULSTAR Reactor in 1990. The originally supplied instrumentation has been replaced with solid-state and current technology equipment. The financial assistance from the US Department of Energy has been the primary source of support. This is the final report for the Instrumentation Upgrade

  8. Safety assessment of computerized instrumentation and control for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fride, B.; Henry, J.Y.; Manners, S.

    1996-01-01

    France's latest 1400 MWe 'N4' generation of Pressurised Water Reactors (PWR) use distributed programmable control systems interconnected by data networks. The protection system is also software based. IPSN have the task of evaluating the safety demonstration before the government safety authority (DSIN) give the licensee (EDF) permission to fuel the reactor and to raise power. Some of the different aspects of the evaluation carried out and the methodologies used for assessing the C and I are presented. (author)

  9. Safety assessment of computerized instrumentation and control for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fride, B.; Henry, J.Y.; Manners, S.

    1996-12-31

    France`s latest 1400 MWe `N4` generation of Pressurised Water Reactors (PWR) use distributed programmable control systems interconnected by data networks. The protection system is also software based. IPSN have the task of evaluating the safety demonstration before the government safety authority (DSIN) give the licensee (EDF) permission to fuel the reactor and to raise power. Some of the different aspects of the evaluation carried out and the methodologies used for assessing the C and I are presented. (author). 3 refs.

  10. Seismic qualification of safety-related instrumentation cabinets for nuclear generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauve, R.G.; Bell, R.P.; Cuttler, J.M.

    1979-06-01

    The problem of seismically qualifying different electrical instruments mounted in cabinets of a standard design is discussed and the following economical approach is described in detail. An analytical model of the cabinet structure is developed and validated by comparison with the results of shake table tests on a prototype cabinet. Modal analysis is then used to calculate the input spectra for shake table tests to qualify the individual instruments that are mounted at the required elevations in the cabinet. The worst input spectrum, appropriate to qualify each instrument, is then specified to the suppliers. This approach avoids the need to test each cabinet configuration in an assembled state in order to qualify it. (auth)

  11. Unique differences in applying safety analyses for a graphite moderated, channel reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moffitt, R.L.

    1993-06-01

    Unlike its predecessors, the N Reactor at the Hanford Site in Washington State was designed to produce electricity for civilian energy use as well as weapons-grade plutonium. This paper describes the major problems associated with applying safety analysis methodologies developed for commercial light water reactors (LWR) to a unique reactor like the N Reactor. The focus of the discussion is on non-applicable LWR safety standards and computer modeling/analytical variances of standards. The approaches used to resolve these problems to develop safety standards and limits for the N Reactor are described

  12. Food Sanitation and Safety Self-Assessment Instrument for School Nutrition Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    Like food-service establishments, child nutrition programs are responsible for preserving the quality and wholesomeness of food. Proper food-handling practices prevent contamination and job-related accidents. Application of the evaluation instrument presented in this document to individual programs helps to define proper practices, assess the…

  13. Nuclear power plants - Instrumentation and control systems important for safety - Classification (International Electrotechnical Commission Standard Publication 1226:1993)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanik, J.

    1996-01-01

    This international standard established a method of classification of the information and command functions for nuclear power plants, and the I and C and equipment that provide those functions, into categories that designate the importance for safety of the functions, and the associated systems and equipment. The resulting classification then determines relevant design criteria. The design criteria are the measures of quality by which the adequacy of each functions, and the associated systems and equipment in relation to its importance to plant safety is ensured. In this standard, the criteria are those of functionality, reliability, performance, environmental durability and quality assurance. This standard is applicable to all the information and command functions, and the instrumentation and control systems and equipment that provide those functions. The functions, systems and equipment under consideration provide automated protection, closed or open loop control, and information to the operating staff. They keep the NPP conditions inside the safe operating envelope and provide automatic actions, or enable manual actions, that mitigate accidents or prevent or minimize radioactive releases to the site or wider environment. The functions, and the associated systems and equipment that fulfill these roles safeguard the health and safety of the NPP operators and the public. This standard complements, and does not replace or supersede, the Safety Guides and Codes of Practice published by the International Atomic Energy Agency

  14. Reliability analysis and computation of computer-based safety instrumentation and control used in German nuclear power plant. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Yongjian; Krause, Ulrich; Gu, Chunlei

    2014-01-01

    The trend of technological advancement in the field of safety instrumentation and control (I and C) leads to increasingly frequent use of computer-based (digital) control systems which consisting of distributed, connected bus communications computers and their functionalities are freely programmable by qualified software. The advantages of the new I and C system over the old I and C system with hard-wired technology are e.g. in the higher flexibility, cost-effective procurement of spare parts, higher hardware reliability (through higher integration density, intelligent self-monitoring mechanisms, etc.). On the other hand, skeptics see the new technology with the computer-based I and C a higher potential by influences of common cause failures (CCF), and the easier manipulation by sabotage (IT Security). In this joint research project funded by the Federal Ministry for Economical Affaires and Energy (BMWi) (2011-2014, FJZ 1501405) the Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg and Magdeburg-Stendal University of Applied Sciences are therefore trying to develop suitable methods for the demonstration of the reliability of the new instrumentation and control systems with the focus on the investigation of CCF. This expertise of both houses shall be extended to this area and a scientific contribution to the sound reliability judgments of the digital safety I and C in domestic and foreign nuclear power plants. First, the state of science and technology will be worked out through the study of national and international standards in the field of functional safety of electrical and I and C systems and accompanying literature. On the basis of the existing nuclear Standards the deterministic requirements on the structure of the new digital I and C system will be determined. The possible methods of reliability modeling will be analyzed and compared. A suitable method called multi class binomial failure rate (MCFBR) which was successfully used in safety valve applications will be

  15. Questionnaire report of safety control on instrument in nuclear medicine laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    A questionaire survey concerning the safety of equipment and facilities used in nuclear medicine laboratories was made in order to clarify the incidence of accidents during nuclear medicine testing. The questionaire consists of two parts. One part contains questions regarding the testing personnel, facilities, equipment and maintenance and management of the equipment. The other part deals with accidents that had occurred within the areas under management, potential risks that may cause accidents, measures to improve safety management, troubles with and failure of equipment, and requests and opinions directed to equipment manufactures. It is concluded from results of the survey that to raise the safety of equipment, so-called man-machine interfaces should be improved by increasing the durability of equipment and performance of the personnel operating the equipment while reducing the physical and mental effects on the persons subjected to testing. Systematic educational measures, including lecture meetings and training courses, are required to raise the consciousness of personnel. Such education and training should cover safety handling techniques, including those for checking of equipment and for instructing and helping the persons under testing. (Nogami, K.)

  16. Surprising Incentive: An Instrument for Promoting Safety Performance of Construction Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhradin Ghasemi

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: The results of this study proved that the surprising incentive would improve the employees' safety performance just in the short term because the surprising value of the incentives dwindle over time. For this reason and to maintain the surprising value of the incentive system, the amount and types of incentives need to be evaluated and modified annually or biannually.

  17. Using instrumented probe bicycles to develop bicycle safety and comfort prediction models.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, A. Dias, L. Mohanty, S. Carvalho, T. Commandeur, J. & Lovegrove, G.

    2014-01-01

    Common deterrents to cycling in North America are the real and/or perceived concerns on the safety, comfort, and practicality of choosing cycling over other modes of transportation, concerns that may be addressed by improved cycling facilities. The challenge lies in effectively quantifying the

  18. Alternative development and action plan for the atomic safety regulation instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. Y.; Ahn, S. K.; Ham, Y. S.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this study to provide highly practical model to regulation agency. Since nuclear power safety regulation has different characteristics, compared to general regulation, it is important to have new point of view and approach. But application possibility for regulation that guarantees the 'perfect safety' is very low. Therefore, it is important establish nuclear power safety regulation that is realistic as well as safety securing. In order to establish high quality regulation, evaluation of existing regulation must be done first. Thus in this study, 6 standards to evaluate existing regulation are suggested. They are clearness, efficiency, flexibility, reliability, responsibility and political consideration. Also, strategies to complement the weak points of regulatory governance, regulatory sunset, regulatory map, regulatory negotiation, regulatory benefit cost analysis, etc. These strategies can be applied all in one regulation, and can strategically be selected for application. After analyzing the result if case analysis on nuclear furnace regulation for research study, agreement was made that it is most efficient to consider in the order if clearness reliability, flexibility, confidence, political consideration, administrative efficiency and economic efficiency

  19. Quantitative assessment of probability of failing safely for the safety instrumented system using reliability block diagram method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Jianghong; Pang, Lei; Zhao, Shoutang; Hu, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Models of PFS for SIS were established by using the reliability block diagram. • The more accurate calculation of PFS for SIS can be acquired by using SL. • Degraded operation of complex SIS does not affect the availability of SIS. • The safe undetected failure is the largest contribution to the PFS of SIS. - Abstract: The spurious trip of safety instrumented system (SIS) brings great economic losses to production. How to ensure the safety instrumented system is reliable and available has been put on the schedule. But the existing models on spurious trip rate (STR) or probability of failing safely (PFS) are too simplified and not accurate, in-depth studies of availability to obtain more accurate PFS for SIS are required. Based on the analysis of factors that influence the PFS for the SIS, using reliability block diagram method (RBD), the quantitative study of PFS for the SIS is carried out, and gives some application examples. The results show that, the common cause failure will increase the PFS; degraded operation does not affect the availability of the SIS; if the equipment was tested and repaired one by one, the unavailability of the SIS can be ignored; the corresponding occurrence time of independent safe undetected failure should be the system lifecycle (SL) rather than the proof test interval and the independent safe undetected failure is the largest contribution to the PFS for the SIS

  20. Human-Robot Collaboration Dynamic Impact Testing and Calibration Instrument for Disposable Robot Safety Artifacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagalakis, Nicholas G; Yoo, Jae Myung; Oeste, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The Dynamic Impact Testing and Calibration Instrument (DITCI) is a simple instrument with a significant data collection and analysis capability that is used for the testing and calibration of biosimulant human tissue artifacts. These artifacts may be used to measure the severity of injuries caused in the case of a robot impact with a human. In this paper we describe the DITCI adjustable impact and flexible foundation mechanism, which allows the selection of a variety of impact force levels and foundation stiffness. The instrument can accommodate arrays of a variety of sensors and impact tools, simulating both real manufacturing tools and the testing requirements of standards setting organizations. A computer data acquisition system may collect a variety of impact motion, force, and torque data, which are used to develop a variety of mathematical model representations of the artifacts. Finally, we describe the fabrication and testing of human abdomen soft tissue artifacts, used to display the magnitude of impact tissue deformation. Impact tests were performed at various maximum impact force and average pressure levels.

  1. Chapter 2: Development of instrumentation for safety analyses in fuel reprocessing and treatment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    Development and provision of methods allowing for safety-related statements on non-appropriate operation of intermediate storage, reprocessing and waste conditioning on the basis of probabilities. By applying the methods and models to the courses of events considered, activity releases at the chimney and their probable frequency were determined. For accidents known to be radiologically relevant, expected values for exposure were computed by means of complex distribution and exposure models. (DG) [de

  2. The safety of transcranial magnetic stimulation with deep brain stimulation instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Shimojima, Yoshio; Morita, Hiroshi; Nishikawa, Noriko; Kodaira, Minori; Hashimoto, Takao; Ikeda, Shu-ichi

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been employed in patients with an implanted deep brain Stimulation (DBS) device. We investigated the safety of TMS using Simulation models with an implanted DBS device. Methods: The DBS lead was inserted into plastic phantoms filled with dilute gelatin showing impedance similar to that of human brain. TMS was performed with three different types of magnetic coil. During TMS (I) electrode movement, (2) temperature change around the lead, ...

  3. Improvement of risk informed surveillance test interval for the safety related instrument and control system of Ulchin units 3 and 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Seung Cheol; Lee, Yun Hwan; Lee, Seung Joon; Han, Sang Hoon

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this research is the development of various methodologies necessary for the licensing of the risk informed surveillance test interval(STI) improvement for the safety related I and C systems in UCN 3 and 4, for instance, reactor protection system (RPS), engineered safety features actuation system (ESFAS), ESF auxiliary relay cabinet (ARC), and core protection calculator (CPC). The technical adequacy of the methodology was sufficiently verified through the application to the following STI changes. o CPC channel functional test (change from 1 month to 3 months including safety channel and log power test) o RPS channel functional test (change from 1 month to 3 months) o RPS logic and trip channel test (change from 1 month to 3 months. 1 month for RPS manual actuation test) o ESFAS channel functional test (change from 1 month to 3 months) o ESFAS logic and trip channel test (change from 1 month to 3 months) o ESF auxiliary relay test (change from 1 month to 3 months with staggered test. Manual actuation at the ESF ARC is added as a backup of ESF actuation signals during emergency operation

  4. Improvement of risk informed surveillance test interval for the safety related instrumentation and control system of Yonggwang units 3 and 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Seung Cheol; Lee, Yun Hwan; Lee, Seung Joon; Han, Sang Hoon

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this research is the development of various methodologies necessary for the licensing of the risk informed surveillance test interval(STI) improvement for the safety related I and C systems in YGN 3 and 4, for instance, reactor protection system (RPS), engineered safety features actuation system (ESFAS), ESF auxiliary relay cabinet (ARC), and core protection calculator (CPC). The technical adequacy of the methodology was sufficiently verified through the application to the following STI changes. o CPC channel functional test (change from 1 month to 3 months including safety channel and log power test) o RPS channel functional test (change from 1 month to 3 months) o RPS logic and trip channel test (change from 1 month to 3 months. 1 month for RPS manual actuation test) o ESFAS channel functional test (change from 1 month to 3 months) o ESFAS logic and trip channel test (change from 1 month to 3 months) o ESF auxiliary relay test (change from 1 month to 3 months with staggered test. Manual actuation at the ESF ARC is added as a backup of ESF actuation signals during emergency operation

  5. Monitoring human and organizational factors influencing common-cause failures of safety-instrumented system during the operational phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahimi, Maryam; Rausand, Marvin

    2013-01-01

    Safety-instrumented systems (SISs) are important safety barriers in many technical systems in the process industry. Reliability requirements for SISs are specified as a safety integrity level (SIL) with reference to the standard IEC 61508. The SIS reliability is often threatened by common-cause failures (CCFs), and the beta-factor model is the most commonly used model for incorporating the effects of CCFs. In the design phase, the beta-factor, β, is determined by answering a set of questions that is given in part 6 of IEC 61508. During the operational phase, there are several factors that influence β, such that the actual β differs from what was predicted in the design phase, and therefore the required reliability may not be maintained. Among the factors influencing β in the operational phase are human and organizational factors (HOFs). A number of studies within industries that require highly reliable products have shown that HOFs have significant influence on CCFs and therefore on β in the operational phase, but this has been neglected in the process industry. HOFs are difficult to predict, and susceptible to be changed during the operational phase. Without proper management, changing HOFs may cause the SIS reliability to drift out of its required value. The aim of this article is to highlight the importance of HOFs in estimation of β for SISs, and also to propose a framework to follow the HOFs effects and to manage them such that the reliability requirement can be maintained

  6. Reactor instrumentation renewal of the TRIGA reactor Vienna, Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeck, H.; Weiss, H.; Hood, W.E.; Hyde, W.K.

    1992-01-01

    The TRIGA Mark-II reactor at the Atominstitut in Vienna, Austria is replacing its twenty-four year old instrumentation system with a microprocessor based control system supplied by General Atomics. Ageing components, new governmental safety requirements and a need for state of the art instrumentation for training students has spurred the demand for new reactor instrumentation. In Austria a government appointed expert is assigned the responsibility of reviewing the proposed installation and verifying all safety aspects. After a positive review, final assembly and checkout of the instrumentation system may commence. The instrumentation system consists of three basic modules: the control system console, the data acquisition console and the NH-1000 wide range channel. Digital communications greatly reduce interwiring requirements. Hardwired safety channels are independent of computer control, thus, the instrumentation system in no way relies on any computer intervention for safety function. In addition, both the CSC and DAC computers are continuously monitored for proper operation via watchdog circuits which are capable of shutting down the reactor in the event of computer malfunction. Safety channels include two interlocked NMP-1000 multi-range linear channels for steady state mode, an NPP-1000 linear safety channel for pulse mode and a set of three independent fuel temperature monitoring channels. The microprocessor controlled wide range NM- 1000 digital neutron monitor (fission chamber based) functions as a startup/operational channel, and provides all power level related Interlocks. The Atominstitut TRIGA reactor is configured for four modes of operation: manual mode, automatic mode (servo control), pulsing mode and square wave mode. Control of the standard control rods is via stepping motor control rod drives, which offers the operator the choice of which control rods are operated by the servo system in automatic and square wave model. (author)

  7. Preliminary safety analysis report for project 89-GEB-610 Plutonium Finishing Plant instrumentation upgrade. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, T.E.

    1995-01-01

    This document consists of an analysis of the MICON system upgrade. This project shall install a Micon Co. distributed process monitor and control system with Sparc Sun workstation operator interfaces. The Sparc workstations are housed in consoles custom designed to human factors specifications. The distributed control system (DCS) shall have the installed capacity to monitor and control all related instruments and equipment presently connected to the panels in the PFP Power Control Room 321A as listed in the input/output list. This also includes all devices monitored and controlled by the 2736-ZB Allen Bradley programmable logic controller. The system has since assumed the control and monitoring responsibilities for Projects B- 680H ''Low Level Waste Treatment Facility'' and C-031H ''PFP Liquid Effluent Facilities''. Part of the new en's change area in Building 234-5ZA, Room 712, has been remodeled to house two consoles and one supervisor console. Local control units containing the microprocontrollers and the input/output interface circuit boards shall be wired to the instrumentation and controlled equipment. These units communicate with the Sparc workstations via a redundant data communications highway and shall be strategic, throughout the PFP facility. The DCS has already been purchased from Micon Co., located in Houston Texas, presently on site

  8. Experimental and numerical investigations on the direct contact condensation phenomenon in horizontal flow channels and its implications in nuclear safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceuca, Sabin Cristian [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) gGmbH, Garching (Germany); Laurinavicius, Darius [Lithuanian Energy Institute, Kaunas (Lithuania)

    2016-11-15

    The complex direct contact condensation phenomenon is investigated in horizontal flow channels both experimentally and numerically with special emphasis on its implications on safety assessment studies. Under certain conditions direct contact condensation can act as the driving force for the water hammer phenomenon with potentially local devastating results, thus posing a threat to the integrity of the affected NPP components. New experimental results of in-depth analysis of the direct contact condensation phenomena obtained in Kaunas at the Lithuanian Energy Institute will be presented. The German system code ATHLET employing for the calculation of the heat transfer coefficient a mechanistic model accounting for two different eddy length scales, combined with the interfacial area transport equation will be assessed against condensation induced water hammer experimental data from the integral thermal-hydraulic experimental facility PMK-2, located at the KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute in Budapest Hungary.

  9. The safety of transcranial magnetic stimulation with deep brain stimulation instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimojima, Yoshio; Morita, Hiroshi; Nishikawa, Noriko; Kodaira, Minori; Hashimoto, Takao; Ikeda, Shu-Ichi

    2010-02-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been employed in patients with an implanted deep brain stimulation (DBS) device. We investigated the safety of TMS using simulation models with an implanted DBS device. The DBS lead was inserted into plastic phantoms filled with dilute gelatin showing impedance similar to that of human brain. TMS was performed with three different types of magnetic coil. During TMS (1) electrode movement, (2) temperature change around the lead, and (3) TMS-induced current in various situations were observed. The amplitude and area of each evoked current were measured to calculate charge density of the evoked current. There was no movement or temperature increase during 0.2 Hz repetitive TMS with 100% stimulus intensity for 1 h. The size of evoked current linearly increased with TMS intensity. The maximum charge density exceeded the safety limit of 30 muC/cm(2)/phase during stimulation above the loops of the lead with intensity over 50% using a figure-eight coil. Strong TMS on the looped DBS leads should not be administered to avoid electrical tissue injury. Subcutaneous lead position should be paid enough attention for forthcoming situations during surgery. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Sodium-NaK engineering handbook. Volume III. Sodium systems, safety, handling, and instrumentation. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foust, O J [ed.

    1978-01-01

    The handbook is intended for use by present and future designers in the Liquid Metals Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) Program and by the engineering and scientific community performing other type investigation and exprimentation requiring high-temperature sodium and NaK technology. The arrangement of subject matter progresses from a technological discussion of sodium and sodium--potassium alloy (NaK) to discussions of varius categories and uses of hardware in sodium and NaK systems. Emphasis is placed on sodium and NaK as heat-transport media. Sufficient detail is included for basic understanding of sodium and NaK technology and of technical aspects of sodium and NaK components and instrument systems. Information presented is considered adequate for use in feasibility studies and conceptual design, sizing components and systems, developing preliminary component and system descriptions, identifying technological limitations and problem areas, and defining basic constraints and parameters.

  11. Development of the safety regulation technology for digital instrumentation and control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chul Hwan; Ahn, Sang Phil; Yuh, Sang Min; Kang, Yoon Sik; Ahn, Sang Min; Kim, In Su; Kim, Dong Su; Kang, Jin Su [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-15

    A general nuclear power stations desire to continue operating for as long as possible. But, cable in nuclear power stations can be subjected to energetic radiation to various degrees as well as other environmental stimuli. It is of major importance to know how these materials will respond and how any resulting aging phenomena can be monitored. From the point of view of nuclear safety the interest in these cables derives from the fact that they are of vital importance. Many researches on cable condition monitoring have been conducting for many years and various techniques of condition monitoring have been suggested until now. We will develop the combination of CM methods using merits of preliminary methods and CM methods using signal processing technique.

  12. Development of the safety regulation technology for digital instrumentation and control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chul Hwan; Ahn, Sang Phil; Yuh, Sang Min; Kang, Yoon Sik; Ahn, Sang Min; Kim, In Su; Kim, Dong Su; Kang, Jin Su

    2001-03-01

    A general nuclear power stations desire to continue operating for as long as possible. But, cable in nuclear power stations can be subjected to energetic radiation to various degrees as well as other environmental stimuli. It is of major importance to know how these materials will respond and how any resulting aging phenomena can be monitored. From the point of view of nuclear safety the interest in these cables derives from the fact that they are of vital importance. Many researches on cable condition monitoring have been conducting for many years and various techniques of condition monitoring have been suggested until now. We will develop the combination of CM methods using merits of preliminary methods and CM methods using signal processing technique

  13. Instrumentation and control program to support modernization of safety and control in NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, D.; James, R.; Naser, J.; Torok, R.

    1997-01-01

    The original analog IandC equipment of most operating nuclear power plants requires increasing maintenance efforts to sustain system performance. Decreasing availability of replacement parts and support organizations for analog technology accentuate obsolescence problems and resultant OandM cost increases. Modern technology, especially digital systems, offers improved functionality, performance and reliability; solutions to obsolescence of equipment; reduction in OandM costs; and the potential to enhance safety. Digital systems with their inherent advantages will be implemented only if reliable and cost-effective implementation is achieved and if the upgraded system supports reduced power production costs. EPRI and its member utilities are working together under the Integrated IandC Upgrade Initiative to address IandC issues. The present paper describes and gives the status of EPRI's Integrated IandC Upgrade Initiative. (author)

  14. The 3rd questionnaire report of safety control on instrument in nuclear medicine laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The present 3rd survey was aimed at grasping safety control in nuclear medicine examination and the trend for SPECT usage. Questionnaires were sent to 1238 facilities dealing with nuclear medicine; and 1127 facilities (91.0%) responded. The survey period was three years from April 1, 1989 through March 31, 1992. The following 7 items were surveyed: (1) nuclear medicine personnel, (2) nuclear medicine equipments, (3) accidents occurring in nuclear medicine laboratories, (4) risk factors leading to accidents, (5) countermeasures for improving safety control, (6) major breakdown of the machinery and equipment, and (7) demands for makers. Majority of nuclear medicine personnel were male and were less than 50 years old. The number of SPECT equipments increased from 714 in the previous survey to 968. Accidents (personal injuries) and narrow escape from an accident were seen in 45 and 154 cases. Personal injuries such as falling occurred in 37 patients and 8 nuclear medicine personnel. According to nuclear medicine examinations, SPECT was the most common examination associated with accident and narrow escape cases (86/199). Such cases at the beginning of examination were remarkably decreased, as compared with those in the previous two surveys. Accidents were primarily attributable to careless management by personnel. Breakdown of the machinery and equipment was reported in 207 cases. In Item 5, the following contents were presented: heads for examination, personnel's behavior, education, examination equipments, collimators and others. Finally, contents in Item 7 included: equipment design, heads for examination, maintenance or management, data processing, collimators, examination equipments and others. (N.K.)

  15. RBMK nuclear reactors: Proposals for instrumentation and control improvements to enhanced safety and availability. IEC technical report of type 3. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The present material presents a CD+V draft report ''RBMK nuclear reactors: Proposals for instrumentation and control improvements to enhance safety and availability'' prepared by the Joint IEC/IAEA team during 1993-1995. Experience has demonstrated the need to improve the safety instrumentation of the RBMK type reactors using well proven modern technology. The working group identified the upgrades and changes of the highest priority based on the evaluation of the RBMK systems and the events where the instrumentation was found to be inadequate for safe operation. The subjects discussed in this document were not selected on a systematic basis but were selected by the IEC and IAEA experts as considered to be appropriate to the activities of the IEC and for which technical experience was available. The items identified therefore do not reflect any ranking of the safety issues or any priority or impact on safety of any of the measures were they to be implemented. Many important safety issued and areas where physical measures are required to improve safety have been omitted and indeed not even acknowledged in this document. The recommendations presented in the document differ from those normally produced by the IEC in the form of standards as they are of a transitory nature and some have already been overtaken by the continuing process of improvements to plant safety. Figs and tabs

  16. The enhancement of Ignalina NPP in design and operational safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negrivoda, G.

    1999-01-01

    Enhancement of Ignalina NPP design include: core design improvements; fuel channel integrity (multiple pressure tube rupture); improvements of shutdown systems; improvements of instrumentation and control devices; containment strength and tightness; design basis accident analysis; improvements of safety and support systems; seismic safety enhancement; Year 2000 project; cracks in pipes. Enhancement of operational safety includes: quality assurance; configuration management; safety management and safety culture; emergency operating procedures; training and full scope simulator; in-service inspection; fire protection and ageing monitoring and management

  17. Analysis of mechanical preparations in extracted teeth using ProTaper rotary instruments: value of the safety quotient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, J Y; Machtou, P; Ruddle, C; Micallef, J P

    2003-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to apply the Endographe to analyze the vertical forces and torque developed during mechanical preparations in extracted teeth. The data collected in this study may be used to calculate the safety quotient (SQ) as proposed by J.T. McSpadden. The SQ formula is defined as the torque required to break a file at D3 divided by the mean working torque required to cut dentin. The Endographe is a unique force-analyzer device equipped to measure, record, and generate graphs of the vertical forces and torque exerted during root canal preparation. All preparations were performed by endodontists in roots with narrow, more restrictive canals, larger, more open canals, or in roots sectioned in two halves. All canals, including the sectioned canals, were prepared with ProTaper files in accordance with the manufacturer's guidelines for use. For narrow canals, the mean values of the generated vertical forces (g) and torque (g.cm) varied from 80 (+/- 20) g (SX) to 232 (+/- 60) g (F2) and from 80 (+/- 24) g x cm (F1) to 150 (+/- 45) g x cm (S2), respectively. For large canals, the mean values of the generated vertical forces (g) and torque (g x cm) varied from 80 (+/- 20) g (SX) to 340 (+/- 20) g (F1) and from 31 (+/- 9) g x cm (S2) to 96 (+/- 35) g x cm (SX), respectively. The SQ varied from 0.93 to 7.95 for narrow canals and from 1.58 to 14.50 for large canals. The SQ is intended to provide values that can be analyzed to predict whether a rotary file will have a tendency to break or will work safely during clinical use. However, if the formula is going to provide useful information, it must index the "rotation to failure torque" with the "mean working torque" at a specific location along the cutting blades of a file. Additionally, this mathematical formula does not account for factors such as the concentration of forces, the way the instruments are used, or the wear of the instruments. A precise protocol for canal preparation should emphasize using

  18. A new classifier-based strategy for in-silico ion-channel cardiac drug safety assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitesh eMistry

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There is currently a strong interest in using high-throughput in-vitro ion-channel screening data to make predictions regarding the cardiac toxicity potential of a new compound in both animal and human studies. A recent FDA think tank encourages the use of biophysical mathematical models of cardiac myocytes for this prediction task. However, it remains unclear whether this approach is the most appropriate. Here we examine five literature data-sets that have been used to support the use of four different biophysical models and one statistical model for predicting cardiac toxicity in numerous species using various endpoints. We propose a simple model that represents the balance between repolarisation and depolarisation forces and compare the predictive power of the model against the original results (leave-one-out cross-validation. Our model showed equivalent performance when compared to the four biophysical models and one statistical model. We therefore conclude that this approach should be further investigated in the context of early cardiac safety screening when in-vitro potency data is generated.

  19. Influence of single-phase heat transfer correlations on safety analysis of research reactors with narrow rectangular fuel channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawashdeh, A.; Altamimi, R.; Lee, B.; Chung, Y. J.; Park, S.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of different single-phase heat transfer correlations on the fuel temperature and minimum critical heat flux ratio (MCHFR) during a typical accident of a 5 MW research reactor is investigated. A reactor uses plate type fuel, of which the cooling channels have a narrow rectangular shape. RELAP5/MOD3.3 tends to over-predict the Nusselt number (Nu) at a low Reynolds number (Re) region, and therefore the correlation set is modified to properly describe the thermal behavior at that region. To demonstrate the effect of Nu at a low-Re region on an accident analysis, a two-pump failure accident was chosen as a sample problem. In the accident, the downward core flow decreases by a pump coast-down, and then reverses upward by natural convection. During the pump coast-down and flow reversal, the flow undergoes a laminar flow regime which has a different Nu with respect to the correlation sets. Compared to the results by the original RELAP5/MOD3.3, the modified correlation set predicts the fuel temperature to be a little higher than the original value, and the MCHFR to be a little lower than the original value. Although the modified correlation set predicts the fuel temperature and the MCHFR to be less conservative than those calculated from the original correlation of RELAP5/MOD3.3, the maximum fuel temperature and the MCHFR still satisfy the safety acceptance criteria

  20. Final Technical Report on Quantifying Dependability Attributes of Software Based Safety Critical Instrumentation and Control Systems in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smidts, Carol; Huang, Fuqun; Li, Boyuan; Li, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    With the current transition from analog to digital instrumentation and control systems in nuclear power plants, the number and variety of software-based systems have significantly increased. The sophisticated nature and increasing complexity of software raises trust in these systems as a significant challenge. The trust placed in a software system is typically termed software dependability. Software dependability analysis faces uncommon challenges since software systems' characteristics differ from those of hardware systems. The lack of systematic science-based methods for quantifying the dependability attributes in software-based instrumentation as well as control systems in safety critical applications has proved itself to be a significant inhibitor to the expanded use of modern digital technology in the nuclear industry. Dependability refers to the ability of a system to deliver a service that can be trusted. Dependability is commonly considered as a general concept that encompasses different attributes, e.g., reliability, safety, security, availability and maintainability. Dependability research has progressed significantly over the last few decades. For example, various assessment models and/or design approaches have been proposed for software reliability, software availability and software maintainability. Advances have also been made to integrate multiple dependability attributes, e.g., integrating security with other dependability attributes, measuring availability and maintainability, modeling reliability and availability, quantifying reliability and security, exploring the dependencies between security and safety and developing integrated analysis models. However, there is still a lack of understanding of the dependencies between various dependability attributes as a whole and of how such dependencies are formed. To address the need for quantification and give a more objective basis to the review process -- therefore reducing regulatory uncertainty

  1. Final Technical Report on Quantifying Dependability Attributes of Software Based Safety Critical Instrumentation and Control Systems in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smidts, Carol [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Huang, Funqun [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Li, Boyuan [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Li, Xiang [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2016-03-25

    With the current transition from analog to digital instrumentation and control systems in nuclear power plants, the number and variety of software-based systems have significantly increased. The sophisticated nature and increasing complexity of software raises trust in these systems as a significant challenge. The trust placed in a software system is typically termed software dependability. Software dependability analysis faces uncommon challenges since software systems’ characteristics differ from those of hardware systems. The lack of systematic science-based methods for quantifying the dependability attributes in software-based instrumentation as well as control systems in safety critical applications has proved itself to be a significant inhibitor to the expanded use of modern digital technology in the nuclear industry. Dependability refers to the ability of a system to deliver a service that can be trusted. Dependability is commonly considered as a general concept that encompasses different attributes, e.g., reliability, safety, security, availability and maintainability. Dependability research has progressed significantly over the last few decades. For example, various assessment models and/or design approaches have been proposed for software reliability, software availability and software maintainability. Advances have also been made to integrate multiple dependability attributes, e.g., integrating security with other dependability attributes, measuring availability and maintainability, modeling reliability and availability, quantifying reliability and security, exploring the dependencies between security and safety and developing integrated analysis models. However, there is still a lack of understanding of the dependencies between various dependability attributes as a whole and of how such dependencies are formed. To address the need for quantification and give a more objective basis to the review process -- therefore reducing regulatory uncertainty

  2. Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    A brief account of activities carried out by the Nuclear power plants Jaslovske Bohunice in 1997 is presented. These activities are reported under the headings: (1) Nuclear safety; (2) Industrial and health safety; (3) Radiation safety; and Fire protection

  3. Safety instrumented systems in the oil and gas industry : Concepts and methods for safety and reliability assessments in design and operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundteigen, Mary Ann

    2009-07-01

    This thesis proposes new methods and gives new insight to safety and reliability assessments of safety instrumented systems (SISs). These systems play an important role in many industry sectors and are used to detect the onset of hazardous events and mitigate their consequences to humans, the environment, and material assets. The thesis focuses on SIS applications in the oil and gas industry. Here, the SIS must respond to hazardous events such as gas leakages, fires, and over pressurization. Because there are personnel onboard the oil and gas installations, the operations take place in a vulnerable marine environment, and substantial values are associated with the offshore facilities, the reliability of SIS is of great concern to the public, the authorities, and the plant owners. The objective of this project has been to identify some of the key factors that influence the SIS reliability, clarify their effects on reliability, and suggest means to improve the treatment of these factors in safety and reliability assessments in design and operation. The project builds on concepts, methods, and definitions in two key standards for SIS design, construction, and operation: IEC 61508 and IEC 61511. The main contributions from this project are: A product development model that integrates reliability, availability, maintainability, and safety (RAMS) requirements with product development. The contributions have been presented in ten articles, five published in international journals, two submitted for publication, and three presented at conferences and in conference proceedings. The contributions are also directed to the industry and the actors that are involved in SIS design, construction, and operation. Even if the oil and gas industry is the main focus area, the results may be relevant for other industry sectors as well. SIS manufacturers and SIS designers face a large number of requirements from authorities, oil companies, international standards, and so on. At the same

  4. Safety and efficacy of a Nav1.7 selective sodium channel blocker in patients with trigeminal neuralgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zakrzewska, Joanna M; Palmer, Joanne; Morisset, Valerie

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Current standard of care for trigeminal neuralgia is treatment with the sodium channel blockers carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine, which although effective are associated with poor tolerability and the need for titration. BIIB074, a Nav1.7-selective, state-dependent sodium-channel blocker...

  5. Modernization of control instrumentation and security of reactor IAN - R1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, J. M.

    1993-01-01

    The program to modernize IAN-R1 research reactor control and safety instrumentation has been carried out considering two main aspects: updating safety philosophy requirements and acquiring the newest reactor control instrumentation controlled by computer, following the present criteria internationally recognized, for safety and reliable reactor operations and the latest developments of nuclear electronic technology. The new IAN-R1 reactor instrumentation consist of two wide range neutron monitoring channels, commanded by microprocessor a data acquisition system and reactor control, (controlled by computers). The reactor control desk is providing through two displays; all safety and control signals to the reactor operators; furthermore some signals like reactor power, safety and period signals are also showed on digital bar graphics, which are hard wired directly from the neutron monitoring channels

  6. 33 CFR 165.731 - Safety/Security Zone: Cumberland Sound, Georgia and St. Marys River Entrance Channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety/Security Zone: Cumberland... Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED... Seventh Coast Guard District § 165.731 Safety/Security Zone: Cumberland Sound, Georgia and St. Marys River...

  7. Application range affected by software failures in safety relevant instrumentation and control systems of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jopen, Manuela; Mbonjo, Herve; Sommer, Dagmar; Ulrich, Birte

    2017-03-01

    This report presents results that have been developed within a BMUB-funded research project (Promotion Code 3614R01304). The overall objective of this project was to broaden the knowledge base of GRS regarding software failures and their impact in software-based instrumentation and control (I and C) systems. To this end, relevant definitions and terms in standards and publications (DIN, IEEE standards, IAEA standards, NUREG publications) as well as in the German safety requirements for nuclear power plants were analyzed first. In particular, it was found that the term ''software fault'' is defined differently and partly contradictory in the considered literature sources. For this reason, a definition of software fault was developed on the basis of the software life cycle of software-based I and C systems within the framework of this project, which takes into account the various aspects relevant to software faults and their related effects. It turns out that software failures result from latent faults in a software-based control system, which can lead to a non-compliant behavior of a software-based I and C system. Hereby a distinction should be made between programming faults and specification faults. In a further step, operational experience with software failures in software-based I and C systems in nuclear facilities and in nonnuclear sector was investigated. The identified events were analyzed with regard to their cause and impacts and the analysis results were summarized. Based on the developed definition of software failure and on the COMPSIS-classification scheme for events related to software based I and C systems, the COCS-classification scheme was developed to classify events from operating experience with software failures, in which the events are classified according to the criteria ''cause'', ''affected system'', ''impact'' and ''CCF potential''. This classification scheme was applied to evaluate the events identified in the framework of this project

  8. Measurement techniques and safety culture in radiation protection -reflections after 37 years of occupation with measuring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maushart, R.

    1994-01-01

    Safety Culture in radiation use and radiation protection implies primarily knowledge and competence of the decision makers. As the measuring techniques are basic for practical radiation protection, only such person can be called competent who has sufficient expertise on measuring techniques, and is able to evaluate its application and results. Safety Culture also implies the readiness to expose errors, and to learn from them. ''Believing in infallibility'' excludes Safety Culture. Therefore, correctly applied measuring technique contributes to recognize weak points early. How far it is used consciously and actively to prevent undesirable developments and exceeding of limits, can be considered outright as a yardstick for a high-ranking safety culture. Safety Culture as a whole, however, needs more than more measuring techniques. It requires its own and adequate Measurement Culture, presupposing also motivation and determination to measure. Therefore, education, training, knowledge and consciousness of safety of the people who are responsible for measurements are decisive for successful radiation protection. (orig.) [de

  9. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    Niels Dupont

    2013-01-01

    CERN Safety rules and Radiation Protection at CMS The CERN Safety rules are defined by the Occupational Health & Safety and Environmental Protection Unit (HSE Unit), CERN’s institutional authority and central Safety organ attached to the Director General. In particular the Radiation Protection group (DGS-RP1) ensures that personnel on the CERN sites and the public are protected from potentially harmful effects of ionising radiation linked to CERN activities. The RP Group fulfils its mandate in collaboration with the CERN departments owning or operating sources of ionising radiation and having the responsibility for Radiation Safety of these sources. The specific responsibilities concerning "Radiation Safety" and "Radiation Protection" are delegated as follows: Radiation Safety is the responsibility of every CERN Department owning radiation sources or using radiation sources put at its disposition. These Departments are in charge of implementing the requi...

  10. Channel box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Akira.

    1993-01-01

    In a channel box of a BWR type reactor, protruding pads are disposed in axial position on the lateral side of a channel box opposing to a control rod and facing the outer side portion of the control rod in a reactor core loaded state. In the initial loading stage of fuel assemblies, channel fasteners and spacer pads are abutted against each other in the upper portion between the channel boxes sandwiching the control rod therebetween. Further, in the lower portion, a gap as a channel for the movement of the control rod is ensured by the support of fuel support metals. If the channel box is bent toward the control rod along with reactor operation, the pads are abutted against each other to always ensure the gap through which the control rod can move easily. Further, when the pads are brought into contact with each other, the bending deformation of the channel box is corrected by urging to each other. Thus, the control rod can always be moved smoothly to attain reactor safety operation. (N.H.)

  11. Statutory Instrument No. 1439 (C.26) The Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974 (Commencement No.1) Order 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    This Order brings into operation progressively Parts I, II and IV of the Safety at Work etc. Act of 31 July 1974. Certain provisions entered into force as from 1 October 1974 and the remainder as from 1 April 1974; the provisions respectively relate to the establishment and functions of the Health and Safety Commission, the Health and Safety Executive and the general duties of employers. (NEA) [fr

  12. Process and device for controlling the operatability of a measuring channel in safety arrangements. Verfahren und Vorrichtung zum Kontrollieren der Funktionsfaehigkeit eines in einer Sicherheitsanordnung enthaltenen Messkanals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelmann, M.

    1983-01-20

    In addition to the neutron - and temperature - measuring channels, the detectors and thermocouples for active functional testing are also included in the safety circuits. The measuring parameter (neutron flux or coolant outlet temperature) is modulated by the output control system or output and/or coolant flow. This modulation is determined using an auxillary parameter (movement of control rods or neutron flux). To represent the actual value of the measuring parameter to be compared with the previously determined reference value, there is a division of the relative change of the neutron flux or the coolant outlet temperature by the change of control rod position or reactor output caused by it. The effect of the auxiliary parameter on the measured parameter is measured by the cross correlation of both of them and of the auxiliary parameter directly or by auto correlation. The coarse and fine monitoring of the measuring channels takes place with different time constants.

  13. Multi-objective optimization of design and testing of safety instrumented systems with MooN voting architectures using a genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres-Echeverría, A.C.; Martorell, S.; Thompson, H.A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the optimization of design and test policies of safety instrumented systems using MooN voting redundancies by a multi-objective genetic algorithm. The objectives to optimize are the Average Probability of Dangerous Failure on Demand, which represents the system safety integrity, the Spurious Trip Rate and the Lifecycle Cost. In this way safety, reliability and cost are included. This is done by using novel models of time-dependent probability of failure on demand and spurious trip rate, recently published by the authors. These models are capable of delivering the level of modeling detail required by the standard IEC 61508. Modeling includes common cause failure and diagnostic coverage. The Probability of Failure on Demand model also permits to quantify results with changing testing strategies. The optimization is performed using the multi-objective Genetic Algorithm NSGA-II. This allows weighting of the trade-offs between the three objectives and, thus, implementation of safety systems that keep a good balance between safety, reliability and cost. The complete methodology is applied to two separate case studies, one for optimization of system design with redundancy allocation and component selection and another for optimization of testing policies. Both optimization cases are performed for both systems with MooN redundancies and systems with only parallel redundancies. Their results are compared, demonstrating how introducing MooN architectures presents a significant improvement for the optimization process.

  14. Twenty-fifth water reactor safety information meeting: Proceedings. Volume 3: Thermal hydraulic research and codes; Digital instrumentation and control; Structural performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteleone, S.

    1998-04-01

    This three-volume report contains papers presented at the conference. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from France, Japan, Norway, and Russia. The titles of the papers and the names of the authors have been updated and may differ from those that appeared in the final program of the meeting. This volume contains the following: (1) thermal hydraulic research and codes; (2) digital instrumentation and control; (3) structural performance

  15. Contribution to the safety assessment of instrumentation and control software for nuclear power plants: Application to SPIN N4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soubies, B.; Henry, J.Y.; Le Meur, M. [and others

    1995-04-01

    1300 MWe pressurised water reactors (PWRs), like the 1400 MWe reactors, operate with microprocessor-based safety systems. This is particularly the case for the Digital Integrated Protection System (SPIN), which trips the reactor in an emergency and sets in action the safeguard functions. The softwares used in these systems must therefore be highly dependable in the execution of their functions. In the case of SPIN, three players are working at different levels to achieve this goal: the protection system manufacturer, Merlin Gerin; the designer of the nuclear steam supply system, Framatome; the operator of the nuclear power plants, Electricite de France (EDF), which is also responsible for the safety of its installations. Regulatory licenses are issued by the French safety authority, the Nuclear Installations Safety Directorate (French abbreviation DSIN), subsequent to a successful examination of the technical provisions adopted by the operator. This examination is carried out by the IPSN and the standing group on nuclear reactors. This communication sets out: the methods used by the manufacturer to develop SPIN software for the 1400 MWe PWRs (N4 series); the approach adopted by the IPSN to evaluate the safety software of the protection system for the N4 series of reactors.

  16. The Training Requirements for the Workers a Legal Instrument to Ensure the Safety Use of the Ionizing Radiation Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosca, G.; Coroianu, A.; Stanescu, G.

    2009-01-01

    Recognizing the need for a graded and commensurate with the practice associated risk approach, the Romanian Regulatory Authority developed the legal framework for defining the roles, duties and responsibilities for the radiation workers (RWs) and the radiological safety officer (RPO). The licensee is responsible to provide for the RWs basic knowledge and understanding of radiation proprieties, good knowledge of the local rules and the operational radiation protection methods and the safety features of the devices, on the job training under the supervision of a RPO or a qualified expert (RPE). Every 5 years the participation to a refresher course is required

  17. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: In-containment instrumentation and control cables. Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-12-01

    At present, there are over four hundred operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in IAEA Member States. Operating experience has shown that ineffective control of the ageing degradation of major NPP components (e.g. caused by unanticipated phenomena and by operating, maintenance, design or manufacturing error) can jeopardize plant safety and also plant life. Ageing in these NPPs must be therefore effectively managed to ensure the availability of design functions throughout the plant service life. From the safety perspective, this means controlling within acceptable limits the ageing degradation and wear-out of plant components important to safety so that adequate safety margins remain, i.e. integrity and functional capability in excess of normal operating requirements. This publication is one in a series of guidance reports on the assessment and management of ageing of the major NPP components important to safety. The reports are based on experience and practices of NPP operators, regulators, designers, manufacturers, and technical support organizations and a widely accepted Methodology for the Management of Ageing of NPP Components Important to Safety, which was issued by the IAEA in 1992. The current practices for the assessment of safety margins (fitness-for-service) and the inspection, monitoring and mitigation of ageing degradation of selected components of Canadian deuterium-uranium (CANDU) reactors, boiling water reactors (BWRs), pressurized water reactors (PWRs), including the Soviet designed 'water moderated and water cooled energy reactors' (WWERs), are documented in the reports. These practices are intended to help all involved directly and indirectly in ensuring the safe operation of NPPs, and to provide a common technical basis for dialogue between plant operators and regulators when dealing with age related licensing issues. The guidance reports are directed at technical experts and managers from NPPs and from regulatory, plant design, manufacturing

  18. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: In-containment instrumentation and control cables. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-12-01

    At present, there are over four hundred operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in IAEA Member States. Operating experience has shown that ineffective control of the ageing degradation of major NPP components (e.g. caused by unanticipated phenomena and by operating, maintenance, design or manufacturing error) can jeopardize plant safety and also plant life. Ageing in these NPPs must be therefore effectively managed to ensure the availability of design functions throughout the plant service life. From the safety perspective, this means controlling within acceptable limits the ageing degradation and wear-out of plant components important to safety so that adequate safety margins remain, i.e. integrity and functional capability in excess of normal operating requirements. This publication is one in a series of guidance reports on the assessment and management of ageing of the major NPP components important to safety. The reports are based on experience and practices of NPP operators, regulators, designers, manufacturers, and technical support organizations and a widely accepted Methodology for the Management of Ageing of NPP Components Important to Safety, which was issued by the IAEA in 1992. The current practices for the assessment of safety margins (fitness-for-service) and the inspection, monitoring and mitigation of ageing degradation of selected components of Canadian deuterium-uranium (CANDU) reactors, boiling water reactors (BWRs), pressurized water reactors (PWRs), including the Soviet designed 'water moderated and water cooled energy reactors' (WWERs), are documented in the reports. These practices are intended to help all involved directly and indirectly in ensuring the safe operation of NPPs, and to provide a common technical basis for dialogue between plant operators and regulators when dealing with age related licensing issues. The guidance reports are directed at technical experts and managers from NPPs and from regulatory, plant design, manufacturing

  19. Comparison of AIHA ISO 9001-based occupational health and safety management system guidance document with a manufacturer's occupational health and safety assessment instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyjack, D T; Levine, S P; Holtshouser, J L; Schork, M A

    1998-06-01

    Numerous manufacturing and service organizations have integrated or are considering integration of their respective occupational health and safety management and audit systems into the International Organization for Standardization-based (ISO) audit-driven Quality Management Systems (ISO 9000) or Environmental Management Systems (ISO 14000) models. Companies considering one of these options will likely need to identify and evaluate several key factors before embarking on such efforts. The purpose of this article is to identify and address the key factors through a case study approach. Qualitative and quantitative comparisons of the key features of the American Industrial Hygiene Association ISO-9001 harmonized Occupational Health and Safety Management System with The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co. management and audit system were conducted. The comparisons showed that the two management systems and their respective audit protocols, although structured differently, were not substantially statistically dissimilar in content. The authors recommend that future studies continue to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of various audit protocols. Ideally, these studies would identify those audit outcome measures that can be reliably correlated with health and safety performance.

  20. Retrograde Wiring of Collateral Channels of the Heart in Chronic Total Occlusions: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Safety, Feasibility, and Incremental Value in Achieving Revascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khand, Aleem; Patel, Bilal; Palmer, Nicholas; Jones, Julia; Andron, Mohammed; Perry, Raph; Mehrotra, Sanjay; Mitsudo, Kazuaki

    2015-11-01

    To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis on retrograde wiring in chronic total occlusions (CTOs) with focus on its safety and feasibility. We searched publications from 1990 to December 2013 in PubMed, Ovid, EMBASE, and the Cochrane database inserting a number of terms relating to the collateral circulation of the heart in CTOs. A total of 18 case series (n range17-462) with a total of 2280 CTO revascularization attempts fulfilled criteria for a study of retrograde wiring of collateral channels in CTOs. There were no randomized studies comparing a primary antegrade with a primary retrograde approach. Procedural CTO revascularization rates ranged from 67% to 90.6% with a large proportion having previously failed an "antegrade" approach. The septal perforator collaterals and epicardial channels were used in 73.2% (n = 1670) and 21.7% (n = 495) of cases. Although collateral/coronary perforation was not infrequent (n = 90, 5%), serious acute complications were uncommon; in the combined population 18 cases of cardiac tamponade (0.8%) and 3 deaths (0.1%). Septal perforating wiring (79.3%) was significantly more likely to be successful compared to epicardial coronary artery wiring (72.5%) when chosen by the operator as a route of retrograde access to the CTO body (relative risk 1.11 [95% confidence interval: 1.02-1.20; P = .013]). Successful retrograde wiring of collateral channels in selected patients undertaken by "CTO dedicated" operators can significantly enhance the chances of revascularization of complex CTOs with a low risk of acute serious complications. Septal perforator channels are significantly more likely to be successfully retrogradely wired compared to epicardial vessels when either is selected, by reference to their anatomical suitability by the operator, as a route of access. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Comparison of the Safety Critical Software V and V Requirements for the Research Reactor Instrumentation and Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Sungmoon; Suh, Yong-Suk; Park, Cheol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    This study was motivated by a research reactor project where the owner of the project and the equipment vendors are from two different standards frameworks. This paper reviews two major standards frameworks - NRC-IEEE and IAEA-IEC - and the software classification schemes as a background, then discuss the V and V issue. The purpose of this paper is by no means to solve the cross-standards-framework qualification issue, but, rather, is to remind the stakeholders of research reactor projects. V and V are also essential for the approval from regulatory bodies. As standards define or recommend consolidated engineering practices, methods, or criteria, V and V activities for software qualification are not exceptional. Within a standards framework, usually, the processes for the qualification of safety-critical software are well-established such that the safety is maximized while minimizing the compromises in software quality, safety, and reliability. When, however, multiple standards frameworks are involved in a research reactor project, it is difficult for equipment vendors to implement appropriate V and V activities as there is no unified view on this cross-standards-framework qualification issue yet. There are two major standards frameworks for safety-critical software development in nuclear industry. Unfortunately different safety classifications for software and thus different requirements for qualification are in place. What makes things worse is that (i) there are ambiguities in the standards and rooms for each stakeholders’ interpretation, and (ii) there is no one-to-one mapping between the associated V and V methods and activities. These may put the stakeholders of research reactor projects in trouble.

  2. Comparison of the Safety Critical Software V and V Requirements for the Research Reactor Instrumentation and Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, Sungmoon; Suh, Yong-Suk; Park, Cheol

    2016-01-01

    This study was motivated by a research reactor project where the owner of the project and the equipment vendors are from two different standards frameworks. This paper reviews two major standards frameworks - NRC-IEEE and IAEA-IEC - and the software classification schemes as a background, then discuss the V and V issue. The purpose of this paper is by no means to solve the cross-standards-framework qualification issue, but, rather, is to remind the stakeholders of research reactor projects. V and V are also essential for the approval from regulatory bodies. As standards define or recommend consolidated engineering practices, methods, or criteria, V and V activities for software qualification are not exceptional. Within a standards framework, usually, the processes for the qualification of safety-critical software are well-established such that the safety is maximized while minimizing the compromises in software quality, safety, and reliability. When, however, multiple standards frameworks are involved in a research reactor project, it is difficult for equipment vendors to implement appropriate V and V activities as there is no unified view on this cross-standards-framework qualification issue yet. There are two major standards frameworks for safety-critical software development in nuclear industry. Unfortunately different safety classifications for software and thus different requirements for qualification are in place. What makes things worse is that (i) there are ambiguities in the standards and rooms for each stakeholders’ interpretation, and (ii) there is no one-to-one mapping between the associated V and V methods and activities. These may put the stakeholders of research reactor projects in trouble

  3. Application of the defense-in-depth concept to qualify computer-based instrumentation and control systems important to safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, F.

    1998-01-01

    In parallel to the technological development, the authorities and expert organisations are preparing the application of computer-based I and C to NPPs from the regulatory point of view. Generally the associated world-wide procedure follows steps like identification of safety issues, completion of the regulatory framework particularly regarding the licensing requirements and furthermore, recommendation of an appropriate set of qualification methods to prove that the requirements are met. The paper's intention is to show from the regulatory point of view that the choice as well as the combination of the qualification methods depend on system design features and development strategy. Similar as for the safety system design required, a defense-in-depth qualification concept is suggested to be helpful in order to prove that the computer-based system meets the licensing requirements. (author)

  4. Application of the defense-in-depth concept to qualify computer-based instrumentation and control systems important to safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidel, F [Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Salzgitter (Germany)

    1998-10-01

    In parallel to the technological development, the authorities and expert organisations are preparing the application of computer-based I and C to NPPs from the regulatory point of view. Generally the associated world-wide procedure follows steps like identification of safety issues, completion of the regulatory framework particularly regarding the licensing requirements and furthermore, recommendation of an appropriate set of qualification methods to prove that the requirements are met. The paper`s intention is to show from the regulatory point of view that the choice as well as the combination of the qualification methods depend on system design features and development strategy. Similar as for the safety system design required, a defense-in-depth qualification concept is suggested to be helpful in order to prove that the computer-based system meets the licensing requirements. (author)

  5. 77 FR 36394 - Safety Zone for Fireworks Display, Potomac River, National Harbor Access Channel; Oxon Hill, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    ... to coordinate protest activities so that your message can be received without jeopardizing the safety or security of people, places or vessels. 7. Unfunded Mandates Reform Act The Unfunded Mandates..., adjacent to the Gaylord National Resort Hotel, at Oxon Hill in Prince Georges County, Maryland scheduled on...

  6. Seismic instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-06-01

    RFS or Regles Fondamentales de Surete (Basic Safety Rules) applicable to certain types of nuclear facilities lay down requirements with which compliance, for the type of facilities and within the scope of application covered by the RFS, is considered to be equivalent to compliance with technical French regulatory practice. The object of the RFS is to take advantage of standardization in the field of safety, while allowing for technical progress in that field. They are designed to enable the operating utility and contractors to know the rules pertaining to various subjects which are considered to be acceptable by the Service Central de Surete des Installations Nucleaires, or the SCSIN (Central Department for the Safety of Nuclear Facilities). These RFS should make safety analysis easier and lead to better understanding between experts and individuals concerned with the problems of nuclear safety. The SCSIN reserves the right to modify, when considered necessary, any RFS and specify, if need be, the terms under which a modification is deemed retroactive. The aim of this RFS is to define the type, location and operating conditions for seismic instrumentation needed to determine promptly the seismic response of nuclear power plants features important to safety to permit comparison of such response with that used as the design basis

  7. The qualification of electrical components and instrumentations relevant to safety; La qualificazione dei componenti elettrici e di strumentazione rilevanti per la sicurezza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zambardi, F [ENEA - Direzione Sicurezza Nucleare e Protezione Sanitaria, Divisione Sistemi Elettrici e Strumentazione, Rome (Italy)

    1989-03-15

    Systems and components relevant to safety of nuclear power plants must maintain their functional integrity in order to assure accident prevention and mitigation. Redundancy is utilized against random failures, nevertheless care must be taken to avoid common failures in redundant components. Main sources of degradation and common cause failures consist in the aging effects and in the changes of environmental conditions which occur during the plant life and the postulated accidents. These causes of degradation are expected to be especially significant for instrumentation and electrical equipment, which can have a primary role in safety systems. The qualification is the methodology by which component safety requirements can be met against the above mentioned causes of degradation. In this report the connection between the possible, plant conditions and the resulting degradation effects on components is preliminarily addressed. A general characterization of the qualification is then presented. Basis, methods and peculiar aspects are discussed and the qualification by testing is taken into special account. Technical and organizational aspects related to a plant qualification program are also focused. The report ends with a look to the most significant research and development activities. (author)

  8. Progress of nuclear safety for symbiosis and sustainability advanced digital instrumentation, control and information systems for nuclear power plants

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshikawa, Hidekazu

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces advanced methods of computational and information systems allowing readers to better understand the state-of-the-art design and implementation technology needed to maintain and enhance the safe operation of nuclear power plants. The subjects dealt with in the book are (i) Full digital instrumentation and control systems and human?machine interface technologies (ii) Risk? monitoring methods for large and? complex? plants (iii) Condition monitors for plant components (iv) Virtual and augmented reality for nuclear power plants and (v) Software reliability verification and val

  9. Distribution Channels Conflict and Management

    OpenAIRE

    Kiran, Dr Vasanth; Majumdar, Dr Mousumi; Kishore, Dr Krishna

    2012-01-01

    Relationships in distribution channels tend to be long-term oriented and members of the channel rely on each other to jointly realize their goals by serving buyers. Despite the channels focus on serving buyers, conflicts often arise between channel members because of each members self-interest. When conflicts arise, the perceptions of a channel member based on normative, rational/instrumental, or emotional reasoning will influence relational norms like trust and commitment that characterize t...

  10. Two viewpoints for software failures and their relation in probabilistic safety assessment of digital instrumentation and control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Man Cheol

    2015-01-01

    As the use of digital systems in nuclear power plants increases, the reliability of the software becomes one of the important issues in probabilistic safety assessment. In this paper, two viewpoints for a software failure during the operation of a digital system or a statistical software test are identified, and the relation between them is provided. In conventional software reliability analysis, a failure is mainly viewed with respect to the system operation. A new viewpoint with respect to the system input is suggested. The failure probability density functions for the two viewpoints are defined, and the relation between the two failure probability density functions is derived. Each failure probability density function can be derived from the other failure probability density function by applying the derived relation between the two failure probability density functions. The usefulness of the derived relation is demonstrated by applying it to the failure data obtained from the software testing of a real system. The two viewpoints and their relation, as identified in this paper, are expected to help us extend our understanding of the reliability of safety-critical software. (author)

  11. Safety and pharmacodynamics of dalazatide, a Kv1.3 channel inhibitor, in the treatment of plaque psoriasis: A randomized phase 1b trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J Tarcha

    Full Text Available Dalazatide is a specific inhibitor of the Kv1.3 potassium channel. The expression and function of Kv1.3 channels are required for the function of chronically activated memory T cells, which have been shown to be key mediators of autoimmune diseases, including psoriasis.The primary objective was to evaluate the safety of repeat doses of dalazatide in adult patients with mild-to-moderate plaque psoriasis. Secondary objectives were to evaluate clinical proof of concept and the effects of dalazatide on mediators of inflammation in the blood and on chronically activated memory T cell populations.Patients (n = 24 were randomized 5:5:2 to receive dalazatide at 30 mcg/dose, 60 mcg/dose, or placebo twice weekly by subcutaneous injection (9 doses total. Safety was assessed on the basis of physical and neurological examination and laboratory testing. Clinical assessments included body-surface area affected, Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI, and investigator and patient questionnaires.The most common adverse events were temporary mild (Grade 1 hypoesthesia (n = 20; 75% placebo, 85% dalazatide and paresthesia (n = 15; 25% placebo, 70% dalazatide involving the hands, feet, or perioral area. Nine of 10 patients in the 60 mcg/dose group had a reduction in their PASI score between baseline and Day 32, and the mean reduction in PASI score was significant in this group (P < 0.01. Dalazatide treatment reduced the plasma levels of multiple inflammation markers and reduced the expression of T cell activation markers on peripheral blood memory T cells.The study was small and drug treatment was for a short duration (4 weeks.This study indicates that dalazatide is generally well tolerated and can improve psoriatic skin lesions by modulating T cell surface and activation marker expression and inhibiting mediators of inflammation in the blood. Larger studies of longer duration are warranted.

  12. Meteorological instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-06-01

    RFS or ''Regles Fondamentales de Surete'' (Basic Safety Rules) applicable to certain types of nuclear facilities lay down requirements with which compliance, for the type of facilities and within the scope of application covered by the RFS, is considered to be equivalent to compliance with technical French regulatory practice. The object of the RFS is to take advantage of standardization in the field of safety , while allowing for technical progress in that field. They are designed to enable the operating utility and contractors to know the rules pertaining to various subjects which are considered to be acceptable by the ''Service Central de Surete des Installations Nucleaires'' or the SCSIN (Central Department for the Safety of Nuclear Facilities). These RFS should make safety analysis easier and lead to better understanding between experts and individuals concerned with the problems of nuclear safety. The SCSIN reserves the right to modify, when considered necessary any RFS and specify, if need be, the terms under which a modification is deemed retroactive. The purpose of this RFS is to specify the meteorological instrumentation required at the site of each nuclear power plant equipped with at least one pressurized water reactor

  13. Design and implementation of a wireless (Bluetooth) four channel bio-instrumentation amplifier and digital data acquisition device with user-selectable gain, frequency, and driven reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosmanescu, Alin; Miller, Benjamin; Magno, Terence; Ahmed, Assad; Kremenic, Ian

    2006-01-01

    A portable, multi-purpose Bio-instrumentation Amplifier and Data AcQuisition device (BADAQ) capable of measuring and transmitting EMG and EKG signals wirelessly via Bluetooth is designed and implemented. Common topologies for instrumentation amplifiers and filters are used and realized with commercially available, low-voltage, high precision operational amplifiers. An 8-bit PIC microcontroller performs 10-bit analog-to-digital conversion of the amplified and filtered signals and controls a Bluetooth transceiver capable of wirelessly transmitting the data to any Bluetooth enabled device. Electrical isolation between patient/subject, circuitry, and ancillary equipment is achieved by optocoupling components. The design focuses on simplicity, portability, and affordability.

  14. Multiobjective optimization of strategies for operation and testing of low-demand safety instrumented systems using a genetic algorithm and fault trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longhi, Antonio Eduardo Bier; Pessoa, Artur Alves; Garcia, Pauli Adriano de Almada

    2015-01-01

    Since low-demand safety instrumented systems (SISs) do not operate continuously, their failures are often only detected when the system is demanded or tested. The conduction of tests, besides adding costs, can raise risks of failure on demand during their execution and also increase the frequency of spurious activation. Additionally, it is often necessary to interrupt production to carry out tests. In light of this scenario, this paper presents a model to optimize strategies for operation and testing of these systems, applying modeling by fault trees associated with optimization by a genetic algorithm. Its main differences are: (i) ability to represent four modes of operation and test them for each SIS subsystem; (ii) ability to represent a SIS that executes more than one safety instrumented function; (iii) ability to keep track of the down-time generated in the production system; and (iv) alteration of a genetic selection mechanism that permits identification of more efficient solutions with smaller influence on the optimization parameters. These aspects are presented by applying this model in three case studies. The results obtained show the applicability of the proposed approach and its potential to help make more informed decisions. - Highlights: • Models the integrity and cost related to operation and testing of low-demand SISs. • Keeps track of the production down-time generated by SIS tests and repairs. • Allows multiobjective optimization to identify operation and testing strategies. • Enables integrated assessment of an SIS that executes more than one SIF. • Allows altering the selection mechanism to identify the most efficient strategies

  15. Design of a Channel Error Simulator using Virtual Instrument Techniques for the Initial Testing of TCP/IP and SCPS Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horan, Stephen; Wang, Ru-Hai

    1999-01-01

    There exists a need for designers and developers to have a method to conveniently test a variety of communications parameters for an overall system design. This is no different when testing network protocols as when testing modulation formats. In this report, we discuss a means of providing a networking test device specifically designed to be used for space communications. This test device is a PC-based Virtual Instrument (VI) programmed using the LabVIEW(TM) version 5 software suite developed by National Instruments(TM)TM. This instrument was designed to be portable and usable by others without special, additional equipment. The programming was designed to replicate a VME-based hardware module developed earlier at New Mexico State University (NMSU) and to provide expanded capabilities exceeding the baseline configuration existing in that module. This report describes the design goals for the VI module in the next section and follows that with a description of the design of the VI instrument. This is followed with a description of the validation tests run on the VI. An application of the error-generating VI to networking protocols is then given.

  16. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Plagge, C. Schaefer and N. Dupont

    2013-01-01

    Fire Safety – Essential for a particle detector The CMS detector is a marvel of high technology, one of the most precise particle measurement devices we have built until now. Of course it has to be protected from external and internal incidents like the ones that can occur from fires. Due to the fire load, the permanent availability of oxygen and the presence of various ignition sources mostly based on electricity this has to be addressed. Starting from the beam pipe towards the magnet coil, the detector is protected by flooding it with pure gaseous nitrogen during operation. The outer shell of CMS, namely the yoke and the muon chambers are then covered by an emergency inertion system also based on nitrogen. To ensure maximum fire safety, all materials used comply with the CERN regulations IS 23 and IS 41 with only a few exceptions. Every piece of the 30-tonne polyethylene shielding is high-density material, borated, boxed within steel and coated with intumescent (a paint that creates a thick co...

  17. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Schaefer and N. Dupont

    2013-01-01

      “Safety is the highest priority”: this statement from CERN is endorsed by the CMS management. An interpretation of this statement may bring you to the conclusion that you should stop working in order to avoid risks. If the safety is the priority, work is not! This would be a misunderstanding and misinterpretation. One should understand that “working safely” or “operating safely” is the priority at CERN. CERN personnel are exposed to different hazards on many levels on a daily basis. However, risk analyses and assessments are done in order to limit the number and the gravity of accidents. For example, this process takes place each time you cross the road. The hazard is the moving vehicle, the stake is you and the risk might be the risk of collision between both. The same principle has to be applied during our daily work. In particular, keeping in mind the general principles of prevention defined in the late 1980s. These principles wer...

  18. HAI: A novel airborne multi-channel hygrometer for fast multi-phase H2O quantification: Performance of the HAI instrument during the first flights on the German HALO aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, B.; Ebert, V.; Kraemer, M.; Afchine, A.

    2014-12-01

    Common gas phase H2O measurements on fast airborne platforms e.g. using backward facing or "Rosemount"-inlets can lead to a high risk of ice and droplets contamination. In addition, currently no single hygrometer exists that allows a simultaneous, high-speed measurement of all phases (gas, liquid, ice) with the same detection principle. In the rare occasions multi-phase measurements are realized, gas-and condensed-phase observations rely on different methods, instruments and calibration strategies so that precision and accuracy levels are quite difficult to quantify. This is effectively avoided by the novel TDLAS instrument, HAI, Hygrometer for Atmospheric Investigation, which allows a simultaneous, high speed, multi-phase detection without any sensor calibration in a unique "2+2" channel concept. Hai combines two independent wavelength channels, at 1.4 µm and at 2.6 µm, for a wide dynamic range from 1 to 30 000 ppmv, with a simultaneous closed path (extractive) and open path detection. Thus, "Total", i.e. gas-phase plus condensed-phase water is measured by sampling via a forward facing inlet into "closed-path" extractive cells. A selective, sampling-free, high speed gas phase detection is realized via a dual-wavelength "open-path" cell placed outside of the aircraft fuselage. All channels can be sampled with 120 Hz (measurement cycle time Dt=1.6 ms) allowing an unprecedented spatial resolution of 30 cm at 900 km/h. The evaluation of the individual multi-channel raw-data is done post flight, without any channel interdependencies, in calibration-free mode, thus allowing fast, accurate and precise multi-phase water detection in flight. The performance could be shown in more than 200 net flights hours in three scientific flight campaigns (TACTS, ESMVal, ML-CIRRUS) on the new German HALO aircraft. In addition the level of the accuracy of the calibration free evaluation was evaluated at the German national primary water vapor standard.

  19. Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.M.S.

    1987-01-01

    Aspects of fission reactors are considered - control, heat removal and containment. Brief descriptions of the reactor accidents at the SL-1 reactor (1961), Windscale (1957), Browns Ferry (1975), Three Mile Island (1979) and Chernobyl (1986) are given. The idea of inherently safe reactor designs is discussed. Safety assessment is considered under the headings of preliminary hazard analysis, failure mode analysis, event trees, fault trees, common mode failure and probabalistic risk assessments. These latter can result in a series of risk distributions linked to specific groups of fault sequences and specific consequences. A frequency-consequence diagram is shown. Fatal accident incidence rates in different countries including the United Kingdom for various industries are quoted. The incidence of fatal cancers from occupational exposure to chemicals is tabulated. Human factors and the acceptability of risk are considered. (U.K.)

  20. Local and integral ulrasonic gauges for two-phase flow instrumentation in nuclear reactor and safety technology. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chochlov, V.N.; Duncev, A.V.; Ivanov, V.V.; Kontelev, V.V.; Melnikov, V.I.; Stoppel, L.K.; Prasser, H.M.; Zippe, W.; Zschau, J.; Zboray, R.

    2000-11-01

    The present project was executed in the frame of a co-operation agreement between FZR and the scientific group of Prof. Melnikov of the technical University of Nishny Novgorod (TUNN) in the Russian Federation. It is part of the Federal Government's programme for the provision of advice for Eastern Europe on the building up of democracy and social market economy (TRANSFORM Programme). New methods of two-phase flow instrumentation were developed: Intrusive wave-guide probes can be used for local void fraction measurements. The new ultrasonic mesh sensors allow a fast two-phase flow visualisation with about 250 frames per second. Experiments carried out at the test loop in Rossendorf, but also the tests at the DESIRE facility in Delft have shown that both local wave-guide probes and ultrasonic mesh sensors can be successfully applied under the conditions of high pressure and temperature steam-water mixture, as well as in organic liquids and refrigerants. Furthermore, non-intrusive wave-guide sensors as well as density sensors based on the measurement of the wave propagation velocity in wave-guides immersed into the measuring liquid were developed and tested. In the present stage of the development, the non-intrusive sensors can rather be used for a qualitative gas respectively level detection than for void fraction measurements. The wave-guide density sensor was successfully demonstrated that it is able to measure densities of single-phase liquids. It requires further development of the electronic circuitry. The main innovation was achieved by the development of the ultrasonic mesh sensor, the resoluting capability of which is comparable to methods like electrical wire-mesh sensors and ultra-fast X-ray tomography, while the device itself is robust and low expensive. (orig.) [de

  1. Systematic evaluation program review of NRC Safety Topic VI-10.A associated with the electrical, instrumentation and control portions of the testing of reactor trip system and engineered safety features, including response time for the Dresden station, Unit II nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St Leger-Barter, G.

    1980-11-01

    This report documents the technical evaluation and review of NRC Safety Topic VI-10.A, associated with the electrical, instrumentation, and control portions of the testing of reactor trip systems and engineered safety features including response time for the Dresden II nuclear power plant, using current licensing criteria

  2. Technical evaluation of the electrical, instrumentation, and control design aspects of the override of containment purge valve isolation and other engineered safety feature signals for the Fort Calhoun Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackett, D.B.

    1980-01-01

    This report documents the technical evaluation of the electrical, instrumentation, and control design aspects of the override of containment purge valve isolation and other engineered safety feature signals for the Fort Calhoun nuclear power plant. The review criteria are based on IEEE Std-279-1971 requirements for the safety signals to all purge and ventilation isolation valves. This report is supplied as part of the Selected Electrical, Instrumentation, and Control Systems Issues Program being conducted for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory

  3. Upgrading a marketing channels role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tišma-Borota Ankica

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available As one of the marketing mix instruments, marketing channels were usually behind other instruments (product, price and promotion. Many companies regarded marketing channels as something that was 'left' after more important strategies of price, product and promotion were created. In recent past, things have changed and marketing channels became more interesting for research. This change came as a result of change in global market functioning especially in competitive advantage, distributors' strength and increasing technology.

  4. The impact of the instrumentation and control systems in the safety of a nuclear plant: a general vision; El impacto de los sistemas de instrumentacion y control en la seguridad de una planta nuclear: una vision general

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celis del Angel, L.; Rivero, T., E-mail: lina.celis@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2011-11-15

    One of the fundamental components so much for the sure operation, like in emergency cases or accident are the equipment s and instrumentation and control systems. The nuclear industry has had some accidents where the instrumentation and control have played and important part: a wrong design, instrumentation lack, faulty systems of safety, etc. At the present time the necessity to modernize the instrumentation and control in a nuclear power plant is before the challenge of finding innovative forms to improve the competitiveness and readiness, reducing operation costs without put ing in risk the safety and reliability of the nuclear power plant. Most of the nuclear power plants require actualizing their instrumentation and control systems, here the digital systems represent a great alternative, improving the performance and the safety, increasing the readiness and reducing the maintenance s. However they require of strict tests that allow assuring their application in critical systems. It is also necessary, the development of modernization programs that allow the programmed substitution of the systems without affecting the readiness of the nuclear power plants. During this whole modernization process will be necessary to put special attention in the cyber-safety because the attacks every time they are more elaborated. Therefore will be necessary to go toward the modernization of the instrumentation and control with the challenge of making without detriment some in the safety of the normal operation and with response reliability in emergency conditions or accident that which represents an effort that should not be postponed in the case of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde. (Author)

  5. Improved Detection System Description and New Method for Accurate Calibration of Micro-Channel Plate Based Instruments and Its Use in the Fast Plasma Investigation on NASA's Magnetospheric MultiScale Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gliese, U.; Avanov, L. A.; Barrie, A. C.; Kujawski, J. T.; Mariano, A. J.; Tucker, C. J.; Chornay, D. J.; Cao, N. T.; Gershman, D. J.; Dorelli, J. C.; hide

    2015-01-01

    The Fast Plasma Investigation (FPI) on NASAs Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) mission employs 16 Dual Electron Spectrometers (DESs) and 16 Dual Ion Spectrometers (DISs) with 4 of each type on each of 4 spacecraft to enable fast (30 ms for electrons; 150 ms for ions) and spatially differentiated measurements of the full 3D particle velocity distributions. This approach presents a new and challenging aspect to the calibration and operation of these instruments on ground and in flight. The response uniformity, the reliability of their calibration and the approach to handling any temporal evolution of these calibrated characteristics all assume enhanced importance in this application, where we attempt to understand the meaning of particle distributions within the ion and electron diffusion regions of magnetically reconnecting plasmas. Traditionally, the micro-channel plate (MCP) based detection systems for electrostatic particle spectrometers have been calibrated using the plateau curve technique. In this, a fixed detection threshold is set. The detection system count rate is then measured as a function of MCP voltage to determine the MCP voltage that ensures the count rate has reached a constant value independent of further variation in the MCP voltage. This is achieved when most of the MCP pulse height distribution (PHD) is located at higher values (larger pulses) than the detection system discrimination threshold. This method is adequate in single-channel detection systems and in multi-channel detection systems with very low crosstalk between channels. However, in dense multi-channel systems, it can be inadequate. Furthermore, it fails to fully describe the behavior of the detection system and individually characterize each of its fundamental parameters. To improve this situation, we have developed a detailed phenomenological description of the detection system, its behavior and its signal, crosstalk and noise sources. Based on this, we have devised a new detection

  6. Review report: safety and reliability issues on digital instrumentation and control systems in nuclear power plants and United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s dispositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Norio; Suzudo, Tomoaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-09-01

    Recently, digital instrumentation and control (I and C) systems have been applied to nuclear power plants (NPPs) in various countries. Introduction of digital I and C systems, however, raises special issues on design, implementation, safety and licensing. Since FY 1997, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has been carrying out a project, Study on Reliability of Digital I and C Systems, which includes extensive reviews of design approaches, technical standards, regulatory processes, especially, in the United States. This report summarizes the results from the study of National Research Council (NRC) and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (USNRC`s) responses to the recommendations made by the NRC`s study. That study identified six technical key issues (system aspects of digital I and C technology, software quality assurance, common-mode software failure potential, safety and reliability assessment methods, human factors and man-machine interface, dedication of commercial off-the-shelf hardware and software) and two strategic key issues (case-by-case licensing process, adequacy of technical infrastructure) that arise from the introduction of digital I and C technology and then, made recommendations to the USNRC for coping with digital I and C applications. The USNRC responded to each recommendation and showed their own dispositions in which the USNRC agreed with most of the recommendations. In Japan, it is expected that introduction of digital I and C technology is inevitable in NPPs because the vendors are gradually discontinuing support and stocking of analog components. To cope with such situations, there is a need to develop and update the standards and guidelines applicable to digital I and C technology. The key issues and the USNRC`s dispositions provided in this report is believed to be useful for developing and updating them. (J.P.N.)

  7. Review report: safety and reliability issues on digital instrumentation and control systems in nuclear power plants and United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission's dispositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Norio; Suzudo, Tomoaki

    1998-09-01

    Recently, digital instrumentation and control (I and C) systems have been applied to nuclear power plants (NPPs) in various countries. Introduction of digital I and C systems, however, raises special issues on design, implementation, safety and licensing. Since FY 1997, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has been carrying out a project, Study on Reliability of Digital I and C Systems, which includes extensive reviews of design approaches, technical standards, regulatory processes, especially, in the United States. This report summarizes the results from the study of National Research Council (NRC) and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (USNRC's) responses to the recommendations made by the NRC's study. That study identified six technical key issues (system aspects of digital I and C technology, software quality assurance, common-mode software failure potential, safety and reliability assessment methods, human factors and man-machine interface, dedication of commercial off-the-shelf hardware and software) and two strategic key issues (case-by-case licensing process, adequacy of technical infrastructure) that arise from the introduction of digital I and C technology and then, made recommendations to the USNRC for coping with digital I and C applications. The USNRC responded to each recommendation and showed their own dispositions in which the USNRC agreed with most of the recommendations. In Japan, it is expected that introduction of digital I and C technology is inevitable in NPPs because the vendors are gradually discontinuing support and stocking of analog components. To cope with such situations, there is a need to develop and update the standards and guidelines applicable to digital I and C technology. The key issues and the USNRC's dispositions provided in this report is believed to be useful for developing and updating them. (J.P.N.)

  8. Systematic evaluation program review of NRC Safety Topic VI-7.3 associated with the electrical, instrumentation and control portions of the ECCS actuation system for the Dresden II Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St Leger-Barter, G.

    1980-11-01

    This report documents the technical evaluation and review of NRC Safety Topic VI-7.A.3, associated with the electrical, instrumentation, and control portions of the classification of the ECCS actuation system for the Dresden II nuclear power plant, using current licensing criteria

  9. Systematic evaluation program review of NRC safety topic VII-2 associated with the electrical, instrumentation and control portions of the ESF system control logic and design for the Dresden Station, Unit II nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St Leger-Barter, G.

    1980-11-01

    This report documents the technical evaluation and review of NRC Safety Topic VII-2, associated with the electrical, instrumentation, and control portions of the ESF system control logic and design for the Dresden Station Unit II nuclear power plant, using current licensing criteria

  10. The design of the layout of faceted multi-channel electro-optical spatial coordinates measuring instrument for point-like bright objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repin, Vladislav A.; Gorbunova, Elena V.; Chertov, Aleksandr N.; Korotaev, Valery V.

    2017-06-01

    For many applied problems it is necessary to obtain information about the situation in a wide angular field in order to measure various parameters of objects: their spatial coordinates, instantaneous velocities, and so on. In this case, one interesting bionic approach can be used - a mosaic (or discrete, otherwise, facet) angular field. Such electro-optical system constructively imitates the visual apparatus of insects: many photodetectors like ommatidia (elements of the facet eye structure) are located on a non-planar surface. Such devices can be used in photogrammetry and aerial photography systems (if the space is sufficient), in the transport sector as vehicle orientation organs, as systems for monitoring in unmanned aerial vehicles, in endoscopy for obtaining comprehensive information on the state of various cavities, in intelligent robotic systems. In this manuscript discusses the advantages and disadvantages of multi-channeled optoelectronic systems with a mosaic angular field, presents possible options for their use, and discusses some of the design procedures performed when developing a layout of a coordinate measuring device.

  11. RF safety assessment of a bilateral four-channel transmit/receive 7 Tesla breast coil: SAR versus tissue temperature limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, Thomas M; Ladd, Mark E; Bitz, Andreas K

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to perform an RF safety evaluation for a bilateral four-channel transmit/receive breast coil and to determine the maximum permissible input power for which RF exposure of the subject stays within recommended limits. The safety evaluation was done based on SAR as well as on temperature simulations. In comparison to SAR, temperature is more directly correlated with tissue damage, which allows a more precise safety assessment. The temperature simulations were performed by applying three different blood perfusion models as well as two different ambient temperatures. The goal was to evaluate whether the SAR and temperature distributions correlate inside the human body and whether SAR or temperature is more conservative with respect to the limits specified by the IEC. A simulation model was constructed including coil housing and MR environment. Lumped elements and feed networks were modeled by a network co-simulation. The model was validated by comparison of S-parameters and B 1 + maps obtained in an anatomical phantom. Three numerical body models were generated based on 3 Tesla MRI images to conform to the coil housing. SAR calculations were performed and the maximal permissible input power was calculated based on IEC guidelines. Temperature simulations were performed based on the Pennes bioheat equation with the power absorption from the RF simulations as heat source. The blood perfusion was modeled as constant to reflect impaired patients as well as with a linear and exponential temperature-dependent increase to reflect two possible models for healthy subjects. Two ambient temperatures were considered to account for cooling effects from the environment. The simulation model was validated with a mean deviation of 3% between measurement and simulation results. The highest 10 g-averaged SAR was found in lung and muscle tissue on the right side of the upper torso. The maximum permissible input power was calculated to be 17 W. The

  12. Technical basis for instrumentation and control design improvements in WWER-440/230 nuclear power plants. A publication of the extrabudgetary programme on the safety of WWER and RBMK nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Instrumentation and control (I and C) has been recognized as an area which requires substantial improvements in WWER NNPs, particularly for model 230 plants. Under contract with the IAEA the Spanish company Empresarios Agrupados (EA) developed a basic document proposing a technical basis for improvements related to the following most significant aspects of I and C: criteria for safety classification; remote shutdown panel; I and C support to operation and control room design; instrumentation set point margins; accident monitoring instrumentation. This publication is derived from the original report of EA which was circulated by the IAEA for review by staff members and experts from various Member States. It was finally agreed upon at a Consultants' meeting convened by the IAEA in Vienna in May 1994 with the participation of experts from France, Germany and Spain. The guidance expressed in this report is based on the IAEA/NUSS standards, safety guides and practices, and on regulations in use in various Member States. It is proposed as a way of carrying out the necessary studies to improve safety by upgrading the vital part of instrumentation an control in WWER-440 model 230 nuclear power plants. 28 refs, 3 figs

  13. Radiometric well logging instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davydov, A.V.

    1975-01-01

    The technical properties of well instruments for radioactive logging used in the radiometric logging complexes PKS-1000-1 (''Sond-1'') and PRKS-2 (''Vitok-2'') are described. The main features of the electric circuit of the measuring channels are given

  14. Support tube of in-core instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzumura, Takeshi; Saito, Shozo; Yasuda, Tetsuo; Shirosaki, Kiyotaka.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To permit satisfactory output measurement by preventing the bending of a in-core instrument tube within a reactor due to vibrations by means of a spring and thereby preventing mechanical damage of an adjacent fuel channel box. Structure: At a corner of a channel box of a fuel assembly, a in-core instrument tube is arranged along a channel box and has its surface provided with a plurality of removable leaf springs arranged in the direction of axis of the in-core instrument tube and each having an arcular tip. Thus, when the in-core instrument tube is inserted into the reactor, the arcular tip portions of the leaf springs are brought into plane contact with the corner of the channel box so that the in-core instrument tube is elastically supported on the channel box. Thus, there is no possibility of causing damage to the adjacent fuel channel box. (Kamimura, M.)

  15. A Study on the Inter-Channel Communication Independence for SMART I and C System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Kwang Il; Keum, Jong Yong; Park, Je Yun

    2009-01-01

    In nuclear power plants (NPP) the greatest concern is to ensure the safety goal, so it is designed with a protection conception using diversity and redundancy methods. Usually the I and C (Instrumentation and Control) system of NPP is composed of four channels to enhance the performance of the safety functions and performs the monitoring and control functions. In these redundant structures, the most important thing is that a malfunction in one channel cannot affect the safety functions of the redundant channels. The communication network of the digital I and C system is playing a role in intra-channel communication and inter-channel communication in four-channel I and C structure. Recent licensee experience indicates that companies planning to use the interchannel communication must perform a detailed analysis of all credible failure modes. In this paper, we propose some evaluation criteria to evaluate the inter-channel communication independence of SMART I and C system and preliminary design for mitigating methodologies of each credible failure

  16. Instrumentation for Nuclear Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this project was to develop and coordinate nuclear instrumentation standards with resulting economies for the nuclear and radiation fields. There was particular emphasis on coordination and management of the Nuclear Instrument Module (NIM) System, U.S. activity involving the CAMAC international standard dataway system, the FASTBUS modular high-speed data acquisition and control system and processing and management of national nuclear instrumentation and detector standards, as well as a modest amount of assistance and consultation services to the Pollutant Characterization and Safety Research Division of the Office of Health and Environmental Research. The principal accomplishments were the development and maintenance of the NIM instrumentation system that is the predominant instrumentation system in the nuclear and radiation fields worldwide, the CAMAC digital interface system in coordination with the ESONE Committee of European Laboratories, the FASTBUS high-speed system and numerous national and international nuclear instrumentation standards

  17. Safety; Avertissement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This annual report of the Senior Inspector for the Nuclear Safety, analyses the nuclear safety at EDF for the year 1999 and proposes twelve subjects of consideration to progress. Five technical documents are also provided and discussed concerning the nuclear power plants maintenance and safety (thermal fatigue, vibration fatigue, assisted control and instrumentation of the N4 bearing, 1300 MW reactors containment and time of life of power plants). (A.L.B.)

  18. Application range affected by software failures in safety relevant instrumentation and control systems of nuclear power plants; Auswirkungsbereiche von Softwarefehlern in sicherheitstechnisch wichtigen Einrichtungen von Kernkraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jopen, Manuela; Mbonjo, Herve; Sommer, Dagmar; Ulrich, Birte

    2017-03-15

    This report presents results that have been developed within a BMUB-funded research project (Promotion Code 3614R01304). The overall objective of this project was to broaden the knowledge base of GRS regarding software failures and their impact in software-based instrumentation and control (I and C) systems. To this end, relevant definitions and terms in standards and publications (DIN, IEEE standards, IAEA standards, NUREG publications) as well as in the German safety requirements for nuclear power plants were analyzed first. In particular, it was found that the term ''software fault'' is defined differently and partly contradictory in the considered literature sources. For this reason, a definition of software fault was developed on the basis of the software life cycle of software-based I and C systems within the framework of this project, which takes into account the various aspects relevant to software faults and their related effects. It turns out that software failures result from latent faults in a software-based control system, which can lead to a non-compliant behavior of a software-based I and C system. Hereby a distinction should be made between programming faults and specification faults. In a further step, operational experience with software failures in software-based I and C systems in nuclear facilities and in nonnuclear sector was investigated. The identified events were analyzed with regard to their cause and impacts and the analysis results were summarized. Based on the developed definition of software failure and on the COMPSIS-classification scheme for events related to software based I and C systems, the COCS-classification scheme was developed to classify events from operating experience with software failures, in which the events are classified according to the criteria ''cause'', ''affected system'', ''impact'' and ''CCF potential''. This

  19. Safety Research Program for Light Water Reactors. Technical report 2: BMFT support project RS 0036 B. Reflooding experiments with regard to primary circuits (PKL) instrumentation of experimental setup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweickert, H.; Mandl, R.

    The reflooding of the hot core of a PWR will be investigated in a model of the complete primary system. The demands that the instrumentation must meet as well as a description of the measurement methods used in the circuit are described. Data on the efficiency of the instruments, error estimates and constructive solutions to design problems are also given

  20. The channeling experiment - instrumentation and site preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abelin, H.; Birgersson, L.; Aagren, T.

    1990-01-01

    Physical properties of in situ single fractures have been investigated by drilling large diameter holes (200 mm) 2.5 to 3 m into and along prominent single fractures. Photo logs as well as hydraulic- tracer tests have been performed. The experiment is divided into two parts, (1) the single hole experiments and (2) the double hole experiment. In the single hole experiment water was injected into the fracture and the injection flowrates over 50 mm sections along the fracture plane were monitored. In the double hole test two parallel large diameter holes, in the same fracture, 1.75 m apart, have been used for pressure pulse tests and a tracer test where 5 different nonsorbing tracers were injected. Equipment has been designed for water injection into single fractures where injection flowrates and pressure responses are simultaneously monitored in twenty 50 mm sections along the intersection of the fracture with the bore hole. The Multipede injection packer designed to be used in diameter 200 mm bore hole with a maximum depth of 2.5 m. Injection is done with constant pressure which is stable within ±0.0025 bar, and can be separately adjusted for each of the 20 injection zones. Injection flowrates can be monitored with a resolution of 1/100 ml/h, which equals one drop of water every five hours. The injection and pressure pulse tests are run by a computer and all data are stored on magnetic disks. A fracture survey at the 360 m level and adjacent levels has been done. The survey focused on prominent planar fractures with extension of more than 2 m. Approximately 100 fractures were found. (authors)

  1. Radioisotope instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Cameron, J F; Silverleaf, D J

    1971-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Nuclear Energy, Volume 107: Radioisotope Instruments, Part 1 focuses on the design and applications of instruments based on the radiation released by radioactive substances. The book first offers information on the physical basis of radioisotope instruments; technical and economic advantages of radioisotope instruments; and radiation hazard. The manuscript then discusses commercial radioisotope instruments, including radiation sources and detectors, computing and control units, and measuring heads. The text describes the applications of radioisotop

  2. Tests on instrumentation and control systems important to safety in nuclear power stations. Systempruefung der leittechnischen Einrichtungen des Sicherheitssystems in Kernkraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    The rule applies to the reactor protection system, to the protection and state boundaries, to control devices important to safety, and to danger alarms of the classes S and I. The system inspection of the control devices of the safety system comprises in-service testing and recurrent testing.

  3. A Comparative Analysis of the Impact of the IAEA Cooperation Instruments in the Field of Nuclear Safety to Deal with the Fukushima Daiichi Accident vis-a-vis the Chernobyl Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Silva Simões, V.

    2016-01-01

    entrenched among nuclear power plant operators, governments and regulators.” This work intends to make a comparative analysis of the impact of the IAEA cooperation instruments in the field of nuclear safety to deal with the Fukushima Daiichi accident vis-a-vis the Chernobyl accident. (author)

  4. Safety analysis of the 2.5 MV accelerator in the Solid State Division's Positive Heavy Ion Scattering Implantation, Channeling and Sputtering (PHISICS) facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schow, O.E.

    1975-09-01

    A safety system, with precautions against radiation hazards, electrical hazards, hazards from high pressure and high vacuum equipment, and fire hazards, is described. The possible radiation doses for operators are considered, including neutron production and ion implantation effects. The system logic and testing of the radiation monitor system are discussed, and a block diagram of the entire safety system is given. (PMA)

  5. CANDU channel flow verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazalu, N.; Negut, Gh.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this evaluation was to obtain accurate information on each channel flow that enables us to assess precisely the level of reactor thermal power and, for reasons of safety, to establish which channel is boiling. In order to assess the channel flow parameters, computer simulations were done with the NUCIRC code and the results were checked by measurements. The complete channel flow measurements were made in the zero power cold condition. In hot conditions there were made flow measurements using the Shut Down System 1 (SDS 1) flow devices from 0.1 % F.P. up to 100 % F.P. The NUCIRC prediction for CANDU channel flows and the measurements by Ultrasonic Flow Meter at zero power cold conditions and SDS 1 flow channel measurements at different reactor power levels showed an acceptable agreement. The 100 % F.P. average errors for channel flow of R, shows that suitable NUCIRC flow assessment can be made. So, it can be done a fair prediction of the reactor power distribution. NUCIRC can predict accurately the onset of boiling and helps to warn at the possible power instabilities at high powers or it can detect the flow blockages. The thermal hydraulic analyst has in NUCIRC a suitable tool to do accurate predictions for the thermal hydraulic parameters for different steady state power levels which subsequently leads to an optimal CANDU reactor operation. (authors)

  6. Instrumental interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Luciani , Annie

    2007-01-01

    International audience; The expression instrumental interaction as been introduced by Claude Cadoz to identify a human-object interaction during which a human manipulates a physical object - an instrument - in order to perform a manual task. Classical examples of instrumental interaction are all the professional manual tasks: playing violin, cutting fabrics by hand, moulding a paste, etc.... Instrumental interaction differs from other types of interaction (called symbolic or iconic interactio...

  7. The effectiveness of maritime safety policy instruments from the Finnish maritime experts’ point of view – case Gulf of Finland and prevention of an oil accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jouni Lappalainen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sea accidents are aimed to be prevented with an extensive amount of maritime safety regulation. The purpose of this paper is to present the findings of a questionnaire study that was targeted at Finnish maritime experts and addressed the question: how to prevent an oil accident in the Gulf of Finland. This study also includes a literature study about the problems of the current maritime safety regime. The findings of the questionnaire study are compared to the findings of the literature study. The questionnaire study showed that many kinds of policies have improved maritime safety, and they are needed to ensure maritime safety. For instance, ship construction, fairway maintenance, nautical charts and rules of the road at sea can be considered the cornerstones of maritime safety. However, the results ranked voluntary activities of companies as the most effective way to improve maritime safety in the future. Self-regulative approaches could solve some problems connected to more traditional policy-making.

  8. Monitoring circuit for reactor safety systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Donald J.

    1976-01-01

    The ratio between the output signals of a pair of reactor safety channels is monitored. When ratio falls outside of a predetermined range, it indicates that one or more of the safety channels has malfunctioned.

  9. Monitoring circuit for reactor safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.J.

    1976-01-01

    The ratio between the output signals of a pair of reactor safety channels is monitored. When ratio falls outside of a predetermined range, it indicates that one or more of the safety channels has malfunctioned. 3 claims, 2 figures

  10. Neutron flux monitoring with pre-startup channels in FBTR [Paper No.:E6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaraj, C.P.; Ramakrishnan, R.; Subha Rao, R.; Pillai, C.P.; Muralikrishan, G.; Raghavan, K.

    1993-01-01

    The pre-start up instrumentation system using boron lined proportional counters has been well designed and the counters have been rigorously tested. This system in conjunction with the regular start-up channels (with more than 3 decades overlap) covers the start up measurement range adequately and provides necessary indications, interlocks and trips on low count rate, high count rate and doubling time to ensure safety. The pre-startup channels have been operational. The reactor trip on LOG NO due to count rate on start-up channels less than 3 cps is automatically inhibited with the higher count rate obtained on the pre-startup channels. With this and log CRM readings from PSU well on scale has facilitated smooth and safe reactor start ups even with low shutdown count rates. (author). 5 figs

  11. Operational safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The PNL Safety, Standards and Compliance Program contributed to the development and issuance of safety policies, standards, and criteria; for projects in the nuclear and nonnuclear areas. During 1976 the major emphasis was on developing criteria, instruments and methods to assure that radiation exposure to occupational personnel and to people in the environs of nuclear-related facilities is maintained at the lowest level technically and economically practicable. Progress in 1976 is reported on the preparation of guidelines for radiation exposure; Pu dosimetry studies; the preparation of an environmental monitoring handbook; and emergency instrumentation preparedness

  12. Contributions to the research programs in nuclear and industrial electronics, domestic production of instrumentation, safety and control systems and equipment for nuclear reactors and auxiliary installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talpariu, C; Talpariu, J.; Matei, C.

    2001-01-01

    Domestic production of component system and equipment for the control and safety of nuclear facilities was one of the priority objective of the Nuclear Research Institute Pitesti. The problems addressed were particularly related to design and production of analog and digital equipment for measurements, triggering and display of the values of process parameters as well as to regulating complex functions of this equipment. Associated to this effort were the research works concerning: - reliability and in-service life-time of the electronic components and equipment in the safety and control systems for nuclear processes; - radiation endurance of industrial electronic components; utilization of whirling currents in calandria tube testing; - expert systems and applications in nuclear reactor control and safety; design and testing methods of process real time software packages for safety in control critical systems for nuclear domain. There are presented characteristics of the following equipment: 1. amplifier for ionization chambers with triggering comparator circuits for the CANDU 600 reactor shut down system; 2. amplifier for ionization chambers without triggering comparator circuits for power regulating system; 3. safety and regulating computerized system for C9 and C5 cans; 4. acquisition system for dosimetric data in nuclear facilities; 5. program able digital comparator for the reactor shut down system; 6. stationary gamma areal monitors for CANDU 600 reactors and other nuclear facilities

  13. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the Bristol Channel, English Channel and others from 2012-09-13 to 2012-09-25 (NCEI Accession 0157385)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157385 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the Bristol Channel, English Channel,...

  14. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the Bristol Channel, English Channel and others from 2013-09-10 to 2013-10-02 (NCEI Accession 0157366)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157366 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the Bristol Channel, English Channel,...

  15. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the Bristol Channel, English Channel and others from 2013-05-08 to 2013-05-28 (NCEI Accession 0157373)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157373 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the Bristol Channel, English Channel,...

  16. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the Bristol Channel, English Channel and others from 2013-04-19 to 2013-05-08 (NCEI Accession 0157305)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157305 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the Bristol Channel, English Channel,...

  17. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the Bristol Channel, English Channel and others from 2012-09-27 to 2012-10-04 (NCEI Accession 0157267)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157267 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the Bristol Channel, English Channel,...

  18. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the Bristol Channel, English Channel and others from 2013-02-03 to 2013-02-13 (NCEI Accession 0157382)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157382 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the Bristol Channel, English Channel,...

  19. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the Bristol Channel, English Channel and others from 2012-10-23 to 2012-11-09 (NCEI Accession 0157241)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157241 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the Bristol Channel, English Channel,...

  20. Reliability analysis and computation of computer-based safety instrumentation and control used in German nuclear power plant. Final report; Zuverlaessigkeitsuntersuchung und -berechnung rechnerbasierter Sicherheitsleittechnik zum Einsatz in deutschen Kernkraftwerken. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Yongjian [Hochschule Magdeburg-Stendal, Magdeburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Elektrotechnik; Krause, Ulrich [Magdeburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Apparate- und Umwelttechnik; Gu, Chunlei

    2014-08-21

    The trend of technological advancement in the field of safety instrumentation and control (I and C) leads to increasingly frequent use of computer-based (digital) control systems which consisting of distributed, connected bus communications computers and their functionalities are freely programmable by qualified software. The advantages of the new I and C system over the old I and C system with hard-wired technology are e.g. in the higher flexibility, cost-effective procurement of spare parts, higher hardware reliability (through higher integration density, intelligent self-monitoring mechanisms, etc.). On the other hand, skeptics see the new technology with the computer-based I and C a higher potential by influences of common cause failures (CCF), and the easier manipulation by sabotage (IT Security). In this joint research project funded by the Federal Ministry for Economical Affaires and Energy (BMWi) (2011-2014, FJZ 1501405) the Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg and Magdeburg-Stendal University of Applied Sciences are therefore trying to develop suitable methods for the demonstration of the reliability of the new instrumentation and control systems with the focus on the investigation of CCF. This expertise of both houses shall be extended to this area and a scientific contribution to the sound reliability judgments of the digital safety I and C in domestic and foreign nuclear power plants. First, the state of science and technology will be worked out through the study of national and international standards in the field of functional safety of electrical and I and C systems and accompanying literature. On the basis of the existing nuclear Standards the deterministic requirements on the structure of the new digital I and C system will be determined. The possible methods of reliability modeling will be analyzed and compared. A suitable method called multi class binomial failure rate (MCFBR) which was successfully used in safety valve applications will be

  1. Safety report for the independent CO2 loop for cooling the samples irradiated in the vertical experimental channels of the RA reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlovic, A.; Zivkovic, S.; Milosevic, M.; Strugar, P.

    1969-01-01

    Independent CO 2 loop was designed for cooling the samples irradiated in the vertical experimental channels in the region of heavy water or in the graphite reflector. It is considered as a significant improvement of the RA reactor experimental possibilities. Six 'heads' are placed in vertical experimental channels and connected in parallel with the outer loop which contains out-of-reactor equipment. It is planned to irradiate samples in the 'heads' of the loop for the needs of Hot laboratory and Laboratory for reactor materials. Heat generated during sample irradiation is removed by CO 2 circulation. This report contains detailed description of the main loop, auxiliary systems, calculation results of anti reactivity and activation of construction materials of the low-temperature CO 2 loop. A separate chapter is devoted to control and regulation of temperature and pressure. Testing of the fundamental parameters of the coolant loop showed that it could fulfill more demanding tasks than designed by the project. Annex of this report includes results of leak testing for the loop 'heads' in vertical experimental channels VEK-6 and VEK-8 by helium leak detector [sr

  2. Instrumentation Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Provides instrumentation support for flight tests of prototype weapons systems using a vast array of airborne sensors, transducers, signal conditioning and encoding...

  3. Ion channeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erramli, H.; Blondiaux, G.

    1994-01-01

    Channeling phenomenon was predicted, many years ago, by stark. The first channeling experiments were performed in 1963 by Davies and his coworkers. Parallely Robinson and Oen have investigated this process by simulating trajectories of ions in monocrystals. This technique has been combined with many methods like Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (R.B.S.), Particles Induced X-rays Emission (P.I.X.E) and online Nuclear Reaction (N.R.A.) to localize trace elements in the crystal or to determine crystalline quality. To use channeling for material characterization we need data about the stopping power of the incident particle in the channeled direction. The ratios of channeled to random stopping powers of silicon for irradiation in the direction have been investigated and compared to the available theoretical results. We describe few applications of ion channeling in the field of materials characterization. Special attention is given to ion channeling combined with Charged Particle Activation Analysis (C.P.A.A.) for studying the behaviour of oxygen atoms in Czochralski silicon lattices under the influence of internal gettering and in different gaseous atmospheres. Association between ion channeling and C.P.A.A was also utilised for studying the influence of the growing conditions on concentration and position of carbon atoms at trace levels in the MOVPE Ga sub (1-x) Al sub x lattice. 6 figs., 1 tab., 32 refs. (author)

  4. Specification of requirements for the implementation of ASICs and FPGA in instrumentation and control systems important to safety in German NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnurer, G.

    2007-01-01

    This paper gives an overview concerning the design as well as the verification and validation of Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) and Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) in German NPPs which are applied to carry out I and C functions. The qualification procedures dealt with restricted on ASICs without any microcontroller core. Dependent on the different safety categories, recommendations concerning the qualification level and procedures are elaborated which have to be achieved for ASICs and FPGA. Important aspects within the framework of the expert judgement for upgrading of safety relevant I and C by ASICs and FPGA are dealt with. These aspects are of general character and are mainly focused on suitability test procedures and robustness requirements of ASICs and FPGA

  5. Twenty-second water reactor safety information meeting: Proceedings. Volume 1: Plenary session; Advanced instrumentation and control hardware and software; Human factors research; IPE and PRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteleone, S. [comp.] [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-04-01

    This three-volume report contains papers presented at the Twenty-Second Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, during the week of October 24--26, 1994. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from Finland, France, Italy, Japan, Russia, and United Kingdom. The titles of the papers and the names of the authors have been updated and may differ from those that appeared in the final program of the meeting. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  6. Twenty-second water reactor safety information meeting: Proceedings. Volume 1: Plenary session; Advanced instrumentation and control hardware and software; Human factors research; IPE and PRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteleone, S.

    1995-04-01

    This three-volume report contains papers presented at the Twenty-Second Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, during the week of October 24--26, 1994. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from Finland, France, Italy, Japan, Russia, and United Kingdom. The titles of the papers and the names of the authors have been updated and may differ from those that appeared in the final program of the meeting. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  7. Nucleonic instruments from VUPJT Tesla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smola, J.

    1986-01-01

    The instruments currently produced by Tesla Premysleni are listed and briefly characterized. They include a low level alpha-beta counter, an automatic low level alpha-beta counter, detection units for environmental sample counting, instruments for measuring specific activity of liquids and radon concentration in water, a radioactive aerosol meter, dose ratemeters, portable alpha-beta indicators for surface contamintion monitoring, neutron monitors, single-, two- and three-channel spectrometric units. (M.D.)

  8. Reconstruction of instrumentation and control system (SKR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiening, K.-H.

    2001-01-01

    For the first time extensive upgrades have been performed in all safety related areas of units with WWER 440/230 reactors. One of the most important actions was the replacement of the safety and safety related instrumentation and control. The state of the art digital safety instrumentation and control system TELEPERM XS has been implemented in units 1 and 2 of the Bohunice V1 power plant. The requirements as deduced from safety assessments conducted by commissions of international experts have been fulfilled, so that Bohunice V1 after this gradual reconstruction has been upgraded to an internationally accepted safety level for the remainder of its service life. (author)

  9. Reactor instrumentation and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wach, D.; Beraha, D.

    1980-01-01

    The methods for measuring radiation are shortly reviewed. The instrumentation for neutron flux measurement is classified into out-of-core and in-core instrumentation. The out-of-core instrumentation monitors the operational range from the subcritical reactor to full power. This large range is covered by several measurement channels which derive their signals from counter tubes and ionization chambers. The in-core instrumentation provides more detailed information on the power distribution in the core. The self-powered neutron detectors and the aeroball system in PWR reactors are discussed. Temperature and pressure measurement devices are briefly discussed. The different methods for leak detection are described. In concluding the plant instrumentation part some new monitoring systems and analysis methods are presented: early failure detection methods by noise analysis, acoustic monitoring and vibration monitoring. The presentation of the control starts from an qualitative assessment of the reactor dynamics. The chosen control strategy leads to the definition of the part-load diagram, which provides the set-points for the different control systems. The tasks and the functions of these control systems are described. In additiion to the control, a number of limiting systems is employed to keep the reactor in a safe operating region. Finally, an outlook is given on future developments in control, concerning mainly the increased application of process computers. (orig./RW)

  10. Instrumentation development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubbes, W.F.; Yow, J.L. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Instrumentation is developed for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program to meet several different (and sometimes conflicting) objectives. This paper addresses instrumentation development for data needs that are related either directly or indirectly to a repository site, but does not touch on instrumentation for work with waste forms or other materials. Consequently, this implies a relatively large scale for the measurements, and an in situ setting for instrument performance. In this context, instruments are needed for site characterization to define phenomena, develop models, and obtain parameter values, and for later design and performance confirmation testing in the constructed repository. The former set of applications is more immediate, and is driven by the needs of program design and performance assessment activities. A host of general technical and nontechnical issues have arisen to challenge instrumentation development. Instruments can be classed into geomechanical, geohydrologic, or other specialty categories, but these issues cut across artificial classifications. These issues are outlined. Despite this imposing list of issues, several case histories are cited to evaluate progress in the area

  11. Instrumentation report 1: specification, design, calibration, and installation of instrumentation for an experimental, high-level, nuclear waste storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brough, W.G.; Patrick, W.C.

    1982-01-01

    The Spent Fuel Test-Climax (SFT-C) is being conducted 420 m underground at the Nevada Test Site under the auspices of the US Department of Energy. The test facility houses 11 spent fuel assemblies from an operating commercial nuclear reactor and numerous other thermal sources used to simulate the near-field effects of a large repository. We developed a large-scale instrumentation plan to ensure that a sufficient quality and quantity of data were acquired during the three- to five-year test. These data help satisfy scientific, operational, and radiation safety objectives. Over 800 data channels are being scanned to measure temperature, electrical power, radiation, air flow, dew point, stress, displacement, and equipment operation status (on/off). This document details the criteria, design, specifications, installation, calibration, and current performance of the entire instrumentation package

  12. Surface channeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sizmann, R.; Varelas, C.

    1976-01-01

    There is experimental evidence that swift light ions incident at small angles towards single crystalline surfaces can lose an appreciable fraction of their kinetic energy during reflection. It is shown that these projectiles penetrate into the bulk surface region of the crystal. They can travel as channeled particles along long paths through the solid (surface channeling). The angular distribution and the depth history of the re-emerged projectiles are investigated by computer simulations. A considerable fraction of the penetrating projectiles re-emerges from the crystal with constant transverse energy if the angle of incidence is smaller than the critical angle for axial channeling. Analytical formulae are derived based on a diffusion model for surface channeling. A comparison with experimental data exhibits the relevance of the analytical solutions. (Auth.)

  13. Spark Channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haydon, S. C. [Department of Physics, University of New England, Armidale, NSW (Australia)

    1968-04-15

    A brief summary is given of the principal methods used for initiating spark channels and the various highly time-resolved techniques developed recently for studies with nanosecond resolution. The importance of the percentage overvoltage in determining the early history and subsequent development of the various phases of the growth of the spark channel is discussed. An account is then given of the recent photographic, oscillographic and spectroscopic investigations of spark channels initiated by co-axial cable discharges of spark gaps at low [{approx} 1%] overvoltages. The phenomena observed in the development of the immediate post-breakdown phase, the diffuse glow structure, the growth of the luminous filament and the final formation of the spark channel in hydrogen are described. A brief account is also given of the salient features emerging from corresponding studies of highly overvolted spark gaps in which the spark channel develops from single avalanche conditions. The essential differences between the two types of channel formation are summarized and possible explanations of the general features are indicated. (author)

  14. Instrumental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Jae; Seo, Seong Gyu

    1995-03-15

    This textbook deals with instrumental analysis, which consists of nine chapters. It has Introduction of analysis chemistry, the process of analysis and types and form of the analysis, Electrochemistry on basic theory, potentiometry and conductometry, electromagnetic radiant rays and optical components on introduction and application, Ultraviolet rays and Visible spectrophotometry, Atomic absorption spectrophotometry on introduction, flame emission spectrometry and plasma emission spectrometry. The others like infrared spectrophotometry, X-rays spectrophotometry and mass spectrometry, chromatography and the other instrumental analysis like radiochemistry.

  15. Instrumental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Jae; Seo, Seong Gyu

    1995-03-01

    This textbook deals with instrumental analysis, which consists of nine chapters. It has Introduction of analysis chemistry, the process of analysis and types and form of the analysis, Electrochemistry on basic theory, potentiometry and conductometry, electromagnetic radiant rays and optical components on introduction and application, Ultraviolet rays and Visible spectrophotometry, Atomic absorption spectrophotometry on introduction, flame emission spectrometry and plasma emission spectrometry. The others like infrared spectrophotometry, X-rays spectrophotometry and mass spectrometry, chromatography and the other instrumental analysis like radiochemistry.

  16. LOFT instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bixby, W.W.

    1979-01-01

    A description of instrumentation used in the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) large break Loss-of-Coolant Experiments is presented. Emphasis is placed on hydraulic and thermal measurements in the primary system piping and components, reactor vessel, and pressure suppression system. In addition, instrumentation which is being considered for measurement of phenomena during future small break testing is discussed. (orig.) 891 HP/orig. 892 BRE [de

  17. Causes and effects of vital instrumentation and control power supply bus failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhlheim, M.D.; Murphy, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study in which the objective was to evaluate nuclear power-plant operating experience to identify the causes and the effects of vital instrumentation and control (I and C) power supply bus failures. Vital I and C power is normally provided to essential instrumentation and controls through either vital d-c or a-c power supply systems. The vital d-c power supply system generally provides control power for starting the diesel generators, for operating electrical circuit breakers, and for controlling various logic circuits. The vital d-c power system also supplies vital a-c power through an inverter. The vital a-c power supply system generally feeds the reactor protection system channels, the engineered safety features actuation system channels, and critical instrumentation in the control room. The leading cause of vital bus failures is inverter failures; other causes are human errors, battery charger failures, and miscellaneous failures. The effects of these failures are that the margin of safety can be degraded by (1) denying key information to the operators, (2) inducing plant transients, (3) causing safety injection actuations, and (4) causing the loss of shutdown cooling flow

  18. Power station instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jervis, M.W.

    1993-01-01

    Power stations are characterized by a wide variety of mechanical and electrical plant operating with structures, liquids and gases working at high pressures and temperatures and with large mass flows. The voltages and currents are also the highest that occur in most industries. In order to achieve maximum economy, the plant is operated with relatively small margins from conditions that can cause rapid plant damage, safety implications, and very high financial penalties. In common with other process industries, power stations depend heavily on control and instrumentation. These systems have become particularly significant, in the cost-conscious privatized environment, for providing the means to implement the automation implicit in maintaining safety standards, improving generation efficiency and reducing operating manpower costs. This book is for professional instrumentation engineers who need to known about their use in power stations and power station engineers requiring information about the principles and choice of instrumentation available. There are 8 chapters; chapter 4 on instrumentation for nuclear steam supply systems is indexed separately. (Author)

  19. Instrumentation needs and data management by the French protection and nuclear safety institute for the diagnosis and prognosis of the release during an emergency on a PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rague, B.; Janot, L.; Jouzier, A.

    1992-01-01

    IPSN in conjunction with EDF has been developing for the last years an approach for the diagnosis and prognosis of the Source Term during an accident on a PWR. Intended for the off-site emergency teams, this methodology is implemented with dedicated manual and computerized tools within the frame of the SESAME project. It is necessary to have access during the accident to various information dealing with the state of the plant. These information needs and the various means available to pick up data from the plant are described in this paper. Emphasis is given on the analysis of data that is needed to avoid any failure in the assessment of the state of the safety barriers and functions. This analysis deals with: the quality of the information depending on the environmental conditions and on the availability of the supply systems, the cross-check between measurements of same type, the cross-check between measurements of different types

  20. The Texts of Instruments connected with the Agency's Supply of Uranium to Japan. Letters relating to the Agency's Safeguards and Health and Safety measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1962-01-01

    On 2 March 1962 the Director General, pursuant to a decision taken by the Board of Governors on 28 February, addressed a letter to the Governor from Japan cancelling those provisions of the letter of 24 March 1959 that related to the safeguards against diversion applicable to the JRR-3 research reactor project. On 20 June the Director General, pursuant to a decision taken by the Board on 14 June, addressed a further letter to the Governor cancelling the remaining provisions of the letter of 24 March 1959, which related to health and safety measures for the project. The texts of the two letters in question are reproduced in this document for the information of all Members

  1. Instruments of Transformative Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana

    production and distribution channels. PDPs aim at overcoming current market and government failures by pooling resources in the attempt to solve this global social challenge. Thus, PDPs are a case of instruments of transformative research and innovation, operating in a transnational governance context....... They exhibit three novelties: they address strategic long-term problems in a holistic manner, set substantive output-oriented goals, and are implemented through new organizational structures. After characterizing the different types of current PDPs and the context in which they emerged, the paper examines...

  2. A Hybrid Model for Safety Pharmacology on an Automated Patch Clamp Platform: Using Dynamic Clamp to Join iPSC-Derived Cardiomyocytes and Simulations of Ik1 Ion Channels in Real-Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Goversen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An important aspect of the Comprehensive In Vitro Proarrhythmia Assay (CiPA proposal is the use of human stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes and the confirmation of their predictive power in drug safety assays. The benefits of this cell source are clear; drugs can be tested in vitro on human cardiomyocytes, with patient-specific genotypes if needed, and differentiation efficiencies are generally excellent, resulting in a virtually limitless supply of cardiomyocytes. There are, however, several challenges that will have to be surmounted before successful establishment of hSC-CMs as an all-round predictive model for drug safety assays. An important factor is the relative electrophysiological immaturity of hSC-CMs, which limits arrhythmic responses to unsafe drugs that are pro-arrhythmic in humans. Potentially, immaturity may be improved functionally by creation of hybrid models, in which the dynamic clamp technique joins simulations of lacking cardiac ion channels (e.g., IK1 with hSC-CMs in real-time during patch clamp experiments. This approach has been used successfully in manual patch clamp experiments, but throughput is low. In this study, we combined dynamic clamp with automated patch clamp of iPSC-CMs in current clamp mode, and demonstrate that IK1 conductance can be added to iPSC-CMs on an automated patch clamp platform, resulting in an improved electrophysiological maturity.

  3. Survey and analysis of radiation safety management systems at medical institutions. Second report. Radiation measurement, calibration of radiation survey meters, and periodic check of installations, equipment, and protection instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohba, Hisateru; Ogasawara, Katsuhiko; Aburano, Tamio

    2006-01-01

    We carried out a questionnaire survey to determine the actual situation of radiation safety management measures in all medical institutions in Japan that had nuclear medicine facilities. The questionnaire consisted of questions concerning the evaluation of shielding capacity; radiation measurement; periodic checks of installations, equipment, and protection instruments; and the calibration of radiation survey meters. The analysis was undertaken according to region, type of establishment, and number of beds. The overall response rate was 60 percent. For the evaluation of shielding capacity, the outsourcing rate was 53 percent of the total. For the radiation measurements of ''leakage radiation dose and radioactive contamination'' and contamination of radioactive substances in the air'', the outsourcing rates were 28 percent and 35 percent of the total, respectively (p<0.001, according to region and establishment). For the periodic check of radiation protection instruments, the implementation rate was 98 percent, and the outsourcing rate was 32 percent for radiation survey meters and 47 percent for lead aprons. The non-implemented rate for calibration of radiation survey meters was 25 percent of the total (p<0.001, according to region and establishment). The outsourcing rate for calibration of radiation survey meters accounted for 87 percent of the total, and of these medical institutions, 72 percent undertook annual calibration. The implementation rate for patient exposure measurement was 20 percent of the total (p<0.001, according to number of beds), and of these medical institutions 46 percent recorded measurement outcome. (author)

  4. Instrumental Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Valerio

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available During the history of human kind, since our first ancestors, tools have represented a mean to reach objectives which might otherwise seemed impossibles. In the called New Economy, where tangibles assets appear to be losing the role as the core element to produce value versus knowledge, tools have kept aside man in his dairy work. In this article, the author's objective is to describe, in a simple manner, the importance of managing the organization's group of tools or instruments (Instrumental Capital. The characteristic conditions of this New Economy, the way Knowledge Management deals with these new conditions and the sub-processes that provide support to the management of Instrumental Capital are described.

  5. MARKETING CHANNELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Stošić Mihajlović

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Marketing channel is a set of entities and institutions, completion of distribution and marketing activities, attend the efficient and effective networking of producers and consumers. Marketing channels include the total flows of goods, money and information taking place between the institutions in the system of marketing, establishing a connection between them. The functions of the exchange, the physical supply and service activities, inherent in the system of marketing and trade. They represent paths which products and services are moving after the production, which will ultimately end up buying and eating by the user.

  6. Innovative instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    At this year's particle physics conference at Brighton, a parallel session was given over to instrumentation and detector development. While this work is vital to the health of research and its continued progress, its share of prime international conference time is limited. Instrumentation can be innovative three times — first when a new idea is outlined, secondly when it is shown to be feasible, and finally when it becomes productive in a real experiment, amassing useful data rather than operational experience. Hyams' examples showed that it can take a long time for a new idea to filter through these successive stages, if it ever makes it at all

  7. Innovative instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1983-11-15

    At this year's particle physics conference at Brighton, a parallel session was given over to instrumentation and detector development. While this work is vital to the health of research and its continued progress, its share of prime international conference time is limited. Instrumentation can be innovative three times — first when a new idea is outlined, secondly when it is shown to be feasible, and finally when it becomes productive in a real experiment, amassing useful data rather than operational experience. Hyams' examples showed that it can take a long time for a new idea to filter through these successive stages, if it ever makes it at all.

  8. Instrumental aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qureshi Navid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Every neutron scattering experiment requires the choice of a suited neutron diffractometer (or spectrometer in the case of inelastic scattering with its optimal configuration in order to accomplish the experimental tasks in the most successful way. Most generally, the compromise between the incident neutron flux and the instrumental resolution has to be considered, which is depending on a number of optical devices which are positioned in the neutron beam path. In this chapter the basic instrumental principles of neutron diffraction will be explained. Examples of different types of experiments and their respective expectable results will be shown. Furthermore, the production and use of polarized neutrons will be stressed.

  9. Using Geographical Information Systems (GIS) as an instrument of water resource management: a case study from a GIS-based Water Safety Plan in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wienand, I; Nolting, U; Kistemann, T

    2009-01-01

    Following international developments and the new WHO Drinking Water Guidelines (WHO 2004) a process-orientated concept for risk, monitoring and incident management has been developed and implemented in this study. The concept will be reviewed with special consideration for resource protection (first barrier of the multi-barrier system) and in turn, for the Water Safety Plan (WSP) which adequately considers-beyond the current framework of legal requirements-possible new hygienic-microbiologically relevant risks (especially emerging pathogens) for the drinking water supply. The development of a WSP within the framework of risk, monitoring and incident management includes the application of Geographical Information Systems (GIS). In the present study, GIS was used for visualization and spatial analysis in decisive steps in the WSP. The detailed process of GIS-supported implementation included the identification of local participants and their tasks and interactions as an essential part of risk management. A detailed ecological investigation of drinking water conditions in the catchment area was conducted in addition to hazard identification, risk assessment and the monitoring of control measures. The main task of our study was to find out in which steps of the WSP the implementation of GIS could be integrated as a useful, and perhaps even an essential tool.

  10. Development of mechanisms and instruments of increasing economic safety with regard to the peculiarities of the present stage of the economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. M. Sokolinskaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of theoretical provisions of economic security, their mechanisms and instruments is determined by the laws of the economy that reveal the management of production, the market processes of distribution, exchange, consumption, taking into account the features of industries, regions, the level of globalization, etc. Each sphere, region or branch of the economy is characterized by peculiar economic processes justified by a specific approach to their disclosure. Economic security, its emergence, development and adaptation to changing market conditions, is based on the information economy or on the knowledge economy. Economic security is determined by the costs of information, its confidentiality, taking into account the interaction, on the one hand, and the competition of various enterprises, regions and countries, on the other. In the process of economic development, knowledge in general and any specialists are needed, but only those that are necessary in the economy. Communication and interaction of science, knowledge, information with production provides not only economic security, but also their successful development. To develop certain principles or laws for the interaction of technological and economic factors, their degree and level of interaction, a study of economic activity was conducted. In the present study, a civilizational approach was used that is based on the determining role of man in the economy and society and the importance of knowledge and information, when the important mechanisms remain: the development of technology and technology, the role of knowledge and information, and communication. The implementation of the civilized approach takes into account the new methodological level of increasing economic security, when the main factor in the development of the economy is the scientific and technological progress that justifies the information path of economic development.

  11. Surgical Instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dankelman, J.; Horeman, T.

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a surgical instrument for minimall-invasive surgery, comprising a handle, a shaft and an actuating part, characterised by a gastight cover surrounding the shaft, wherein the cover is provided with a coupler that has a feed- through opening with a loskable seal,

  12. Weather Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, L. Reed, Sr.; Demanche, Edna L.; Klemm, E. Barbara; Kyselka, Will; Phillips, Edwin A.; Pottenger, Francis M.; Yamamoto, Karen N.; Young, Donald B.

    This booklet presents some activities to measure various weather phenomena. Directions for constructing a weather station are included. Instruments including rain gauges, thermometers, wind vanes, wind speed devices, humidity devices, barometers, atmospheric observations, a dustfall jar, sticky-tape can, detection of gases in the air, and pH of…

  13. Home-made refurbishment of the instrumentation and control system of the TRIGA reactor of the University of Pavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borio di Tigliole, A.; Cagnazzo, M.; Magrotti, G.; Manera, S.; Salvini, A.; Musitelli, G.; Nardo, R.

    2008-01-01

    The Instrumentation and Control (I and C) System of the TRIGA reactor of the University of Pavia was dated and, in order to grant a safe and continuous reactor operation for the future, it became necessary to substitute or to upgrade the system. Since the substitution of the I and C system with a new-made one was very difficult to be performed due to long authorization procedures, an home-made refurbishment was planned. Using commercial components of high quality, almost a complete substitution, channel-by-channel, of the I and C system was realized without changing the operating and safety logics. The system includes: - the Reactor Linear Power Channel and Chart Recorder; - the Reactor Percent Power Safety Channel; - the High Voltage and Low Voltage Power Supply; - the Automatic Reactor Power Control; - the Fuel Elements and Cooling-Water Temperatures Measuring Channels; - the Water Conductivity Measuring Channel. The refurbished I and C system shows a very good operational behavior and reliability and will assure a continuous operation of the reactor for the future

  14. Aviation Safety Issues Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello, Samuel A.; Ricks, Wendell R.

    2009-01-01

    The aviation safety issues database was instrumental in the refinement and substantiation of the National Aviation Safety Strategic Plan (NASSP). The issues database is a comprehensive set of issues from an extremely broad base of aviation functions, personnel, and vehicle categories, both nationally and internationally. Several aviation safety stakeholders such as the Commercial Aviation Safety Team (CAST) have already used the database. This broader interest was the genesis to making the database publically accessible and writing this report.

  15. Efficacy and safety of a therapeutic interchange from high-dose calcium channel blockers to a fixed-dose combination of amlodipine/benazepril in patients with moderate-to-severe hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilleman, D E; Reyes, A P; Wurdeman, R L; Faulkner, M

    2001-08-01

    Recent hypertension trials have demonstrated the importance of achieving goal blood pressures to reduce the risk of target organ damage. In patients with moderate to severe hypertension, the use of high-dose monotherapy and/or combinations of drugs are necessary to achieve these goals. Fixed-dose combination products may be useful in these patients by reducing the number of daily doses required to control blood pressure. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a therapeutic interchange between high-dose calcium channel blocker therapy and a fixed-dose combination of amlodipine/ benazepril (Lotrel; Novartis Pharmaceuticals, USA) in patients with moderate to severe hypertension. A total of 75 patients were switched from amlodipine (n = 25), felodipine (n = 25), and nifedipine-GITS (n = 25) to amlodipine/benazepril. Twenty-eight of the 75 patients (37%) were taking either a beta-blocker or a diuretic in addition to the high-dose calcium channel blocker prior to the switch. Blood pressure control, side effects and the cost of the therapeutic interchange were evaluated in the year following the therapeutic interchange. Sixty-six of the 75 (88%) patients were successfully switched with maintenance of blood pressure control and without the development of new dose-limiting side effects. Reasons for treatment failure after the therapeutic interchange included loss of blood pressure control in five patients and the development of new dose-limiting side effects in four patients. These side effects included cough in three patients and rash in one patient. After accounting for differences in drug acquisition cost and costs related to the switch (clinic and emergency room and laboratory tests), a cost savings of $16030 for all 75 patients was realised in the first year. The per patient-per year cost savings was $214. Our data indicate that a therapeutic interchange from selected high-dose calcium channel blockers to a fixed-dose combination

  16. Channel Power in Multi-Channel Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.G. Dekimpe (Marnik); B. Skiera (Bernd)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIn the literature, little attention has been paid to instances where companies add an Internet channel to their direct channel portfolio. However, actively managing multiple sales channels requires knowing the customers’ channel preferences and the resulting channel power. Two key

  17. Nuclear instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weill, Jacky; Fabre, Rene.

    1981-01-01

    This article sums up the Research and Development effort at present being carried out in the five following fields of applications: Health physics and Radioprospection, Control of nuclear reactors, Plant control (preparation and reprocessing of the fuel, testing of nuclear substances, etc.), Research laboratory instrumentation, Detectors. It also sets the place of French industrial activities by means of an estimate of the French market, production and flow of trading with other countries [fr

  18. Divided Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, A.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Although the division of the zodiac into 360° probably derives from Egypt or Assyria around 2000 BC, there is no surviving evidence of Mesopotamian cultures embodying this division into a mathematical instrument. Almost certainly, however, it was from Babylonia that the Greek geometers learned of the 360° circle, and by c. 80 BC they had incorporated it into that remarkably elaborate device gener...

  19. Instrumentation development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Areas being investigated for instrumentation improvement during low-level pollution monitoring include laser opto-acoustic spectroscopy, x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, optical fluorescence spectroscopy, liquid crystal gas detectors, advanced forms of atomic absorption spectroscopy, electro-analytical chemistry, and mass spectroscopy. Emphasis is also directed toward development of physical methods, as opposed to conventional chemical analysis techniques for monitoring these trace amounts of pollution related to energy development and utilization

  20. Traceability of radiation protection instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hino, Y.; Kurosawa, T.

    2007-08-01

    Radiation protection instruments are used in daily measurement of dose and activities in workplaces and environments for safety management. The requirements for calibration certificates with traceability are increasing for these instruments to ensure the consistency and reliabilities of the measurement results. The present traceability scheme of radiation protection instruments for dose and activity measurements is described with related IEC/ISO requirements. Some examples of desirable future calibration systems with recent new technologies are also discussed to establish the traceability with reasonable costs and reliabilities.

  1. Instrumentation maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, D.A.

    1976-09-01

    It is essential to any research activity that accurate and efficient measurements be made for the experimental parameters under consideration for each individual experiment or test. Satisfactory measurements in turn depend upon having the necessary instruments and the capability of ensuring that they are performing within their intended specifications. This latter requirement can only be achieved by providing an adequate maintenance facility, staffed with personnel competent to understand the problems associated with instrument adjustment and repair. The Instrument Repair Shop at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is designed to achieve this end. The organization, staffing and operation of this system is discussed. Maintenance policy should be based on studies of (1) preventive vs. catastrophic maintenance, (2) records indicating when equipment should be replaced rather than repaired and (3) priorities established to indicate the order in which equipment should be repaired. Upon establishing a workable maintenance policy, the staff should be instructed so that they may provide appropriate scheduled preventive maintenance, calibration and corrective procedures, and emergency repairs. The education, training and experience of the maintenance staff is discussed along with the organization for an efficient operation. The layout of the various repair shops is described in the light of laboratory space and financial constraints

  2. 47 CFR 101.1405 - Channeling plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Channeling plan. 101.1405 Section 101.1405 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE... Channeling plan. Each license shall have one spectrum block of 500 megahertz per geographic area that can be...

  3. Practical course on reactor instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeck, H.; Villa, M.

    2004-06-01

    This course is based on the description of the instrumentation of the TRIGA-reactor Vienna, which is used for training research and isotope production. It comprises the following chapters: 1. instrumentation, 2. calibration of the nuclear channels, 3. rod drop time of the control rods, 4. neutron flux density measurements using compensated ionization, 5. neutron flux density measurement with fission chambers (FC), 6. neutron flux density measurement with self-powered neutron detectors (SPND), 7. pressurized water reactor simulator, 8. verification of the radiation level during reactor operation. There is one appendix about neutron-sensitive thermocouples. (nevyjel)

  4. Radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Riessen, A.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Experience has shown that modem, fully enclosed, XRF and XRD units are generally safe. This experience may lead to complacency and ultimately a lowering of standards which may lead to accidents. Maintaining awareness of radiation safety issues is thus an important role for all radiation safety officers. With the ongoing progress in technology, a greater number of radiation workers are more likely to use a range of instruments/techniques - eg portable XRF, neutron beam analysis, and synchrotron radiation analysis. The source for each of these types of analyses is different and necessitates an understanding of the associated dangers as well as use of specific radiation badges. The trend of 'suitcase science' is resulting in scientists receiving doses from a range of instruments and facilities with no coordinated approach to obtain an integrated dose reading for an individual. This aspect of radiation safety needs urgent attention. Within Australia a divide is springing up between those who work on Commonwealth property and those who work on State property. For example a university staff member may operate irradiating equipment on a University campus and then go to a CSIRO laboratory to operate similar equipment. While at the University State regulations apply and while at CSIRO Commonwealth regulations apply. Does this individual require two badges? Is there a need to obtain two licences? The application of two sets of regulations causes unnecessary confusion and increases the workload of radiation safety officers. Radiation safety officers need to introduce risk management strategies to ensure that both existing and new procedures result in risk minimisation. A component of this strategy includes ongoing education and revising of regulations. AXAA may choose to contribute to both of these activities as a service to its members as well as raising the level of radiation safety for all radiation workers. Copyright (2002) Australian X-ray Analytical

  5. Instrumentation Cables Test Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muna, Alice Baca [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); LaFleur, Chris Bensdotter [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-10-01

    A fire at a nuclear power plant (NPP) has the potential to damage structures, systems, and components important to safety, if not promptly detected and suppressed. At Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Plant on March 22, 1975, a fire in the reactor building damaged electrical power and control systems. Damage to instrumentation cables impeded the function of both normal and standby reactor coolant systems, and degraded the operators’ plant monitoring capability. This event resulted in additional NRC involvement with utilities to ensure that NPPs are properly protected from fire as intended by the NRC principle design criteria (i.e., general design criteria 3, Fire Protection). Current guidance and methods for both deterministic and performance based approaches typically make conservative (bounding) assumptions regarding the fire-induced failure modes of instrumentation cables and those failure modes effects on component and system response. Numerous fire testing programs have been conducted in the past to evaluate the failure modes and effects of electrical cables exposed to severe thermal conditions. However, that testing has primarily focused on control circuits with only a limited number of tests performed on instrumentation circuits. In 2001, the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) conducted a series of cable fire tests designed to address specific aspects of the cable failure and circuit fault issues of concern1. The NRC was invited to observe and participate in that program. The NRC sponsored Sandia National Laboratories to support this participation, whom among other things, added a 4-20 mA instrumentation circuit and instrumentation cabling to six of the tests. Although limited, one insight drawn from those instrumentation circuits tests was that the failure characteristics appeared to depend on the cable insulation material. The results showed that for thermoset insulated cables, the instrument reading tended to drift

  6. Management system of instrument database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xin

    1997-01-01

    The author introduces a management system of instrument database. This system has been developed using with Foxpro on network. The system has some characters such as clear structure, easy operation, flexible and convenient query, as well as the data safety and reliability

  7. Nuclear instrumentation for uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarma, Ch. V.N.; Sarma, C.V.R.; Sreehari, R.

    1999-01-01

    Instrumentation required for uranium exploration may be broadly classified based on surface and sub-surface measurement of gamma-ray intensity. Surface measurement of gross and spectral gamma intensity are carried out by employing portable Geiger Mueller/scintillation counters and four-channel spectrometers. Measurement of thoron ( 220 Rn) and radon ( 222 Rn) in the soil gas is being carried out by closed circuit technique using radon measuring system. Radiometric mapping of trenches, pits and mine-faces are carried out using shielded probe with 2π source geometry, whereas logging sonde with instruments through the steel armoured cable are employed for point to 4π geometry. Spectral borehole logging system with built-in multi-channel analyser (MCA) has been developed for the uranium exploration programme for AMD. Note-book PC based high sensitivity air-borne gamma-ray spectrometric survey system has been designed, developed and test flown. (author)

  8. Proposal of a synchro panel meter instrument to replace the obsolete Synchro/Resolver reading device used as position indicator of safety rods assembly of the Brazilian IEA-R1 Nuclear Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledo, Fabio de; Brancaccio, Franco; Cardenas, Jose Patricio N.

    2015-01-01

    IPEN (Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares) was founded in 1956 (as Atomic Energy Institute - IEA) as a facility complex, for the research, development and application, in the nuclear technology field. The institute is recognized as a national leader in nuclear research and development (R and D), including the areas of reactor operation, radiopharmaceuticals, industrial and laboratory applications, materials science and laser technologies and applications. IPEN's main facility is the IEA-R1, nuclear research reactor (NRR), today, the only one in Brazil with a power level suitable for applications in physics, chemistry, biology and engineering. Some radioisotopes are also produced in IEA-R1, for medical and other applications. A common problem faced in the IEA-R1 maintenance is instrumentation obsolescence; spare parts are no more available, because of discontinued production, and an updating program is mandatory, aiming at modernization of old-aged I and C systems. In the presented context, an electronic system is here proposed, as a replacement for the reactor safety (shim) rods assembly position indicator, based on an open-source physical computing platform called Arduino, which includes a simple microcontroller board and a software-code development environment. A mathematical algorithm for the synchro-motor signal processing was developed, and the obtained resolution was better than 1.5%. (author)

  9. Proposal of a synchro panel meter instrument to replace the obsolete Synchro/Resolver reading device used as position indicator of safety rods assembly of the Brazilian IEA-R1 Nuclear Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toledo, Fabio de; Brancaccio, Franco; Cardenas, Jose Patricio N., E-mail: fatoledo@ipen.br, E-mail: fbrancac@ipen.br, E-mail: ahiru@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    IPEN (Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares) was founded in 1956 (as Atomic Energy Institute - IEA) as a facility complex, for the research, development and application, in the nuclear technology field. The institute is recognized as a national leader in nuclear research and development (R and D), including the areas of reactor operation, radiopharmaceuticals, industrial and laboratory applications, materials science and laser technologies and applications. IPEN's main facility is the IEA-R1, nuclear research reactor (NRR), today, the only one in Brazil with a power level suitable for applications in physics, chemistry, biology and engineering. Some radioisotopes are also produced in IEA-R1, for medical and other applications. A common problem faced in the IEA-R1 maintenance is instrumentation obsolescence; spare parts are no more available, because of discontinued production, and an updating program is mandatory, aiming at modernization of old-aged I and C systems. In the presented context, an electronic system is here proposed, as a replacement for the reactor safety (shim) rods assembly position indicator, based on an open-source physical computing platform called Arduino, which includes a simple microcontroller board and a software-code development environment. A mathematical algorithm for the synchro-motor signal processing was developed, and the obtained resolution was better than 1.5%. (author)

  10. 24 CFR 232.570 - Endorsement of credit instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endorsement of credit instrument... of Fire Safety Equipment Eligible Security Instruments § 232.570 Endorsement of credit instrument. The Commissioner shall indicate his insurance of the loan by endorsing the credit instrument and...

  11. FMIT diagnostic instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilpatrick, J.D.; Chamberlin, D.D.

    1985-01-01

    The Fusion Materials Irradiation Test facility (FMIT) cw prototype accelerator has noninterceptive beamline instrumentation to measure beam parameters. The transverse emittances and beam profiles are measured with an array of photodiode sensors viewing light emitted from the beam region. Tomographic reconstructions of both spatial-density distributions and of transverse-emittance distributions are performed throughout a quadrupole focusing section. Beam bunches passing through capacitive probes produce bipolar waveforms whose zero crossing corresponds to the bunch's longitudinal centroid. By measuring the time required for a bunch to travel the known distance between two probes, velocity and energy are determined. A toroidal transformer measures the average ac beam current. Beam spill is measured by a set of movable jaws that intercept the beam edges. Each jaw contains a water flow channel whose flow rate and differential temperature are measured to derive a transverse power distribution. Beam centroid position is measured by a four-lobe, magnetic-loop pickup. 5 refs., 6 figs

  12. Instrument validation system of general application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filshtein, E.L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the Instrument Validation System (IVS) as a software system which has the capability of evaluating the performance of a set of functionally related instrument channels to identify failed instruments and to quantify instrument drift. Under funding from Combustion Engineering (C-E), the IVS has been developed to the extent that a computer program exists whose use has been demonstrated. The initial development work shows promise for success and for wide application, not only to power plants, but also to industrial manufacturing and process control. Applications in the aerospace and military sector are also likely

  13. Channelling and electromagnetic radiation of channelling particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalashnikov, N.

    1983-01-01

    A brief description is presented of the channelling of charged particles between atoms in the crystal lattice. The specificities are discussed of the transverse motion of channelling particles as are the origin and properties of quasi-characteristic radiation of channelling particles which accompany transfers from one band of permissible energies of the transverse motion of channelling particles to the other. (B.S.)

  14. Remarks to the hot channel power characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinka, I.; Tinkova, E.

    2002-01-01

    In connection with methodological improvements of safety analyses, some effects of detail power distributions, that should be taken into account for the hot channel characteristics determination, have been studied. This determination concerns the whole channel power (power of the fuel rod) and its axial (along the channel) and radial (across the fuel pellet radius) distribution. The total power of the channel is studied from the point of possible restrictions for different numbers of main cooling loops in operation. For radial power distribution the effect of burnup has been studied and for axial distribution the effect of the control rod vicinity (its coupler part) has been evaluated. The DNBR and fuel temperatures have been the key safety parameters influenced by these hot channel characteristics and have been evaluated in this study (Authors)

  15. EPRTM Reactor neutron instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeiffer, Maxime; SALA, Stephanie

    2013-06-01

    The core safety during operation is linked, in particular, to the respect of criteria related to the heat generated in fuel rods and to the heat exchange between the rods and the coolant. This local power information is linked to the power distribution in the core. In order to evaluate the core power distribution, the EPR TM reactor relies on several types of neutron detectors: - ionization chambers located outside the vessel and used for protection and monitoring - a fixed in-core instrumentation based on Cobalt Self Powered Neutron Detectors used for protection and monitoring - a mobile reference in-core instrumentation based on Vanadium aero-balls This document provides a description of this instrumentation and its use in core protection, limitation, monitoring and control functions. In particular, a description of the detectors and the principles of their signal generation is supplied as well as the description of the treatments related to these detectors in the EPR TM reactor I and C systems (including periodical calibration). (authors)

  16. Channel Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Arne; Schinnenburg, Marc; Gross, James; Aguiar, Ana

    For any communication system the Signal-to-Interference-plus-Noise-Ratio of the link is a fundamental metric. Recall (cf. Chapter 9) that the SINR is defined as the ratio between the received power of the signal of interest and the sum of all "disturbing" power sources (i.e. interference and noise). From information theory it is known that a higher SINR increases the maximum possible error-free transmission rate (referred to as Shannon capacity [417] of any communication system and vice versa). Conversely, the higher the SINR, the lower will be the bit error rate in practical systems. While one aspect of the SINR is the sum of all distracting power sources, another issue is the received power. This depends on the transmitted power, the used antennas, possibly on signal processing techniques and ultimately on the channel gain between transmitter and receiver.

  17. Channeling experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abelin, H.; Birgersson, L.; Widen, H.; Aagren, T.; Moreno, L.; Neretnieks, I.

    1990-07-01

    Channeling of water flow and tracer transport in real fractures in a granite body at Stripa have been investigated experimentally. The experimental site was located 360 m below the ground level. Two kinds of experiments were performed. In the single hole experiments, 20 cm diameter holes were drilled about 2.5 m into the rock in the plane of the fracture. Specially designed packers were used to inject water into the fracture in 5 cm intervals all along the fracture trace in the hole. The variation of the injection flowrates along the fracture were used to determine the transmissivity variations in the fracture plane. Detailed photographs were taken from inside the hole and the visual fracture aperture was compared with the injection flowrates in the same locations. Geostatistical methods were used to evaluate the results. Five holes were measured in great detail. In addition 7 holes were drilled and scanned by simpler packer systems. A double hole experiment was performed where two parallel holes were drilled in the same fracture plane at nearly 2 m distance. Pressure pulse tests were made between the holes in both directions. Tracers were injected in 5 locations in one hole and monitored for in many locations in the other hole. The single hole experiment and the double hole experiment show that most of the fracture planes are tight but that there are open sections which form connected channels over distances of at least 2 meters. It was also found in the double hole experiment that the investigated fracture was intersected by at least one fracture between the two holes which diverted a large amount of the injected tracers to several distant locations at the tunnel wall. (authours)

  18. Seismic instrumentation for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senne Junior, M.

    1983-07-01

    A seismic instrumentation system used in Nuclear Power Plants to monitor the design parameters of systems, structures and components, needed to provide safety to those plants, against the action of earth quarks is described. The instrumentation is based on the nuclear standards and other components used, as well as their general localization is indicated. The operation of the instrumentation system as a whole and the handling of the recovered data are dealt with accordingly. The accelerometer is described in detail. (Author) [pt

  19. LOFT integral test system final safety analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-03-01

    Safety analyses are presented for the following LOFT Reactor systems: engineering safety features; support buildings and facilities; instrumentation and controls; electrical systems; and auxiliary systems. (JWR)

  20. Radiological instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronenberg, S.; McLaughlin, W.L.; Seibentritt, C.R. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    An instrument is described for measuring radiation, particularly nuclear radiation, comprising: a radiation sensitive structure pivoted toward one end and including a pair of elongated solid members contiguously joined together along their length dimensions and having a common planar interface therebetween. One of the pairs of members is comprised of radiochromic material whose index of refraction changes due to anomolous dispersion as a result of being exposed to nuclear radiation. The pair of members further has mutually different indices of refraction with the member having the larger index of refraction further being transparent for the passage of light and of energy therethrough; means located toward the other end of the structure for varying the angle of longitudinal elevation of the pair of members; means for generating and projecting a beam of light into one end of the member having the larger index of refraction. The beam of light is projected toward the planar interface where it is reflected out of the other end of the same member as a first output beam; means projecting a portion of the beam of light into one end of the member having the larger index of refraction where it traverses therethrough without reflection and out of the other end of the same member as a second output beam; and means adjacent the structure for receiving the first and second output beams, whereby a calibrated change in the angle of elevation of the structure between positions of equal intensity of the first and second output beams prior to and following exposure provides a measure of the radiation sensed due to a change of refraction of the radiochromic material

  1. Microspectrometers: an industry and instrumentation overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neece, Gregory A.

    2008-08-01

    Microspectrometers, miniature spectrometers, portable spectrometers, or Fiber Optic Spectrometers are some of the names typically given to the class small spectrometers that are derived from simple, fixed optics, and low cost detector arrays. The author will use these terms interchangeably. This class of instrument has been available for over 18 years, gaining industry acceptance with each year. From a very basic optical platform to sophisticated instrumentation for scientific investigation and process control, this class of instrument has evolved substantially since its introduction to the market. For instance it is now possible to cover the range from 200 - 2,500 nm utilizing only two channels of spectrometers with either synchronous or asynchronous channel control. On board processing and memory have enabled the instruments to become fully automated, stand alone sensors communicating with their environment via analog, digital, USB2 and even wireless protocols. New detectors have entered the market enabling solutions "tuned" to the demands of specific applications.

  2. Playground Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention Fall Prevention Playground Safety Poisoning Prevention Road Traffic Safety Sports Safety Get Email Updates To receive ... at the Consumer Product Safety Commission’s Playground Safety website . References U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission. Injuries and ...

  3. CERCA's fuel elements instrumentation manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harbonnier, G.; Jarousse, C.; Pin, T.; Febvre, M.; Colomb, P.

    2005-01-01

    When research and test reactors wish to further understand the Fuel Elements behavior when operating as well as mastering their irradiation conditions, operators carry out neutron and thermo hydraulic analysis. For thermal calculation, the codes used have to be preliminary validated, at least in the range of the reactor safety operational limits. When some further investigations are requested either by safety authorities or for its own reactor needs, instrumented tools are the ultimate solution for providing representative measurements. Such measurements can be conducted for validating thermal calculation codes, at nominal operating condition as well as during transients ones, or for providing numerous and useful data in the frame of a new products qualification program. CERCA, with many years of experience for implanting thermocouples in various products design, states in this poster his manufacturing background on instrumented elements, plates or targets. (author)

  4. Uncertainty analysis for hot channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panka, I.; Kereszturi, A.

    2006-01-01

    The fulfillment of the safety analysis acceptance criteria is usually evaluated by separate hot channel calculations using the results of neutronic or/and thermo hydraulic system calculations. In case of an ATWS event (inadvertent withdrawal of control assembly), according to the analysis, a number of fuel rods are experiencing DNB for a longer time and must be regarded as failed. Their number must be determined for a further evaluation of the radiological consequences. In the deterministic approach, the global power history must be multiplied by different hot channel factors (kx) taking into account the radial power peaking factors for each fuel pin. If DNB occurs it is necessary to perform a few number of hot channel calculations to determine the limiting kx leading just to DNB and fuel failure (the conservative DNBR limit is 1.33). Knowing the pin power distribution from the core design calculation, the number of failed fuel pins can be calculated. The above procedure can be performed by conservative assumptions (e.g. conservative input parameters in the hot channel calculations), as well. In case of hot channel uncertainty analysis, the relevant input parameters (k x, mass flow, inlet temperature of the coolant, pin average burnup, initial gap size, selection of power history influencing the gap conductance value) of hot channel calculations and the DNBR limit are varied considering the respective uncertainties. An uncertainty analysis methodology was elaborated combining the response surface method with the one sided tolerance limit method of Wilks. The results of deterministic and uncertainty hot channel calculations are compared regarding to the number of failed fuel rods, max. temperature of the clad surface and max. temperature of the fuel (Authors)

  5. Nuclear electronic instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez J, F. J.

    2010-01-01

    The activities carried out in the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) in the field of the nuclear electronic instrumentation included those activities corresponding to the design and production of nuclear instruments in a first stage, as well as the internal activities of design, repair and maintenance that have supported to other projects of the institution during many years. It is mentioned of the presence and constant collaboration of the ININ with the IAEA in different projects and programs. Also, it is mentioned on the establishment of the Radiation Detectors Laboratory, which for their characteristics and repair capacities of radiation detectors of cooled semiconductor, it is only in their specialty. It is emphasized the investigation and the development in the field of new radiation detectors and applications, as well as the important contribution in this field, in institutions like: Mexican Petroleum, National Commission of Nuclear Safety and Safeguards and Federal Commission of Electricity. Finally a position of the future of these activities is made, considering the speed of the advances of the electronic and nuclear technology. (Author)

  6. Neutron instrumentation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, Takao; Arita, Setsuo; Yuchi, Hiroyuki

    1989-01-01

    The neutron instrumentation system of this invention can greatly reduce the possibility that the shutdown flux is increased greater than a predetermiend value to cause scram due to vibrations caused by earthquakes or shocks in the neutron instrumentation system without injuring the reactor safety. That is, a sensor having a zero sensitivity to a neutron flux which is an object to be detected by the sensor (dummy sensor) is used together with a conventional sensor (a sensor having predetermined sensitivity to a neutron flux as an object to be measured ----- true sensor). Further, identical signal transmission cables, connector and the signal processing circuits are used for both of true sensor and the dummy sensor. The signal from the dummy sensor is subtracted from the signal from the true sensor at the output of the signal processing circuit. Since the output of the dummy sensor is zero during normal operation, the subtracted value is the same as the value from the true sensor. If the true sensor causes an output with the reason other than the neutron flux, this is outputted also from the dummy sensor but does not appear in the subtracted value. (I.S.)

  7. Safety climate and attitude as evaluation measures of organizational safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isla Díaz, R; Díaz Cabrera, D

    1997-09-01

    The main aim of this research is to develop a set of evaluation measures for safety attitudes and safety climate. Specifically it is intended: (a) to test the instruments; (b) to identify the essential dimensions of the safety climate in the airport ground handling companies; (c) to assess the quality of the differences in the safety climate for each company and its relation to the accident rate; (d) to analyse the relationship between attitudes and safety climate; and (e) to evaluate the influences of situational and personal factors on both safety climate and attitude. The study sample consisted of 166 subjects from three airport companies. Specifically, this research was centered on ground handling departments. The factor analysis of the safety climate instrument resulted in six factors which explained 69.8% of the total variance. We found significant differences in safety attitudes and climate in relation to type of enterprise.

  8. Seismic instrumentation for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senne Junior, M.

    1983-01-01

    A seismic instrumentation system used in Nuclear Power Plants to monitor the design parameters of systems, structures and components, needed to provide safety to those Plants, against the action of earthquakes is described. The instrumentation described is based on the nuclear standards in force. The minimum amount of sensors and other components used, as well as their general localization, is indicated. The operation of the instrumentation system as a whole and the handling of the recovered data are dealt with accordingly. The various devices used are not covered in detail, except for the accelerometer, which is the seismic instrumentation basic component. (Author) [pt

  9. TCSP ER-2 LIGHTNING INSTRUMENT PACKAGE (LIP) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The TCSP ER-2 Lightning Instrument Package (LIP) consists of 7 rotating vane type electric field sensors and a two channel conductivity probe along with a central...

  10. HTGR Measurements and Instrumentation Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, Sydney J.; Holcomb, David Eugene; Cetiner, Mustafa Sacit

    2012-01-01

    This report provides an integrated overview of measurements and instrumentation for near-term future high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). Instrumentation technology has undergone revolutionary improvements since the last HTGR was constructed in the United States. This report briefly describes the measurement and communications needs of HTGRs for normal operations, maintenance and inspection, fuel fabrication, and accident response. The report includes a description of modern communications technologies and also provides a potential instrumentation communications architecture designed for deployment at an HTGR. A principal focus for the report is describing new and emerging measurement technologies with high potential to improve operations, maintenance, and accident response for the next generation of HTGRs, known as modular HTGRs, which are designed with passive safety features. Special focus is devoted toward describing the failure modes of the measurement technologies and assessing the technology maturity.

  11. Seismic Instrumentation Placement Recommendations Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, W.N.

    1998-01-01

    DOE Order 420.1, ''Facility Safety'', requires that facilities or sites with hazardous materials be provided with instrumentation or other means to detect and record the occurrences and severity of seismic events. These requirements assure that necessary records are available after an earthquake for evaluation purposes and to supplement other data to justify a facility restart or curtailing plant operations after an earthquake. This report documents the basis for the selection of Savannah River Site areas and existing facilities to be instrumented. The need to install instrumentation in new facilities such as the Actinide Packaging and Storage Facility, Commercial Light Water Reactor Tritium Extraction Facility and the Accelerator Production of Tritium Facility will be assessed separately

  12. Nuclear reactor instrumentation power monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Shigeru.

    1989-01-01

    The present invention concerns a nuclear reactor instrumentation power monitor that can be used in, for example, BWR type nuclear power plants. Signals from multi-channel detectors disposed on field units are converted respectively by LPRM signal circuits. Then, the converted signals are further converted by a multiplexer into digital signals and transmitted as serial data to a central monitor unit. The thus transmitted serial data are converted into parallel data in the signal processing section of the central monitor unit. Then, LPRM signals are taken out from each of channel detectors to conduct mathematical processing such as trip judgment or averaging. Accordingly, the field unit and the central monitor unit can be connected by way of only one data transmission cable thereby enabling to reduce the number of cables. Further, since the data are transmitted on digital form, it less undergoes effect of noises. (I.S.)

  13. Texas Instruments : Veiligheid is niet iets om over te stemmen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blijswijk, M. van; Pennekamp, E.

    1990-01-01

    In dit artikel wordt het VGW-beleid bij Texas Instruments beschreven. Hiertoe zijn interviews gehouden met B. Veekamp, hoofd opleidingen bij Texas Instruments Holland BV (TIH) en de J. Stapel, voorzitter van de VGW-commissie. Occupational health and safety policy of Texas Instruments Holland B.V.

  14. New technology in nuclear power plant instrumentation and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The primary topic of this book is what can be done to improve nuclear power plant operation safety and the economic benefits that can be gained with the utilization of advance instrumentation and control technology. Other topics discussed are the industry's reluctance to accept new designs determining cost effective improvements, and difficulties in meeting regulatory standards with new technology control. The subjects will be useful when considering the area of instrumentation and control for enhancing plant operation and safety. Contents: Advanced Instrumention, Plant Control and Monitoring, Plant Diagnostics and Failure Detection, Human Factors Considerations in Instrumentation and Control, NRC and Industry Perspective on Advanced Instrumentation and Control

  15. Reactor safety method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vachon, L.J.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to safety means for preventing a gas cooled nuclear reactor from attaining criticality prior to start up in the event the reactor core is immersed in hydrogenous liquid. This is accomplished by coating the inside surface of the reactor coolant channels with a neutral absorbing material that will vaporize at the reactor's operating temperature

  16. Instrumental Landing Using Audio Indication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlak, E. A.; Nabatchikov, A. M.; Korsun, O. N.

    2018-02-01

    The paper proposes an audio indication method for presenting to a pilot the information regarding the relative positions of an aircraft in the tasks of precision piloting. The implementation of the method is presented, the use of such parameters of audio signal as loudness, frequency and modulation are discussed. To confirm the operability of the audio indication channel the experiments using modern aircraft simulation facility were carried out. The simulated performed the instrument landing using the proposed audio method to indicate the aircraft deviations in relation to the slide path. The results proved compatible with the simulated instrumental landings using the traditional glidescope pointers. It inspires to develop the method in order to solve other precision piloting tasks.

  17. Citizens and service channels: channel choice and channel management implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieterson, Willem Jan

    2010-01-01

    The arrival of electronic channels in the 1990s has had a huge impact on governmental service delivery. The new channels have led to many new opportunities to improve public service delivery, not only in terms of citizen satisfaction, but also in cost reduction for governmental agencies. However,

  18. Operational and reliability experience with reactor instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, F.; Gow, R.S.

    1978-01-01

    In the last 15 years the CEGB has experienced progressive plant development, integration and changes in operating regime through nine nuclear (gas-cooled reactor) power stations with corresponding instrumentation advances leading towards more refined centralized control. Operation and reliability experience with reactor instrumentation is reported in this paper with reference to the progressive changes related to the early magnox, late magnox and AGR periods. Data on instrumentation reliability in terms of reactor forced outages are presented and show that the instrumentation contributions to loss of generating plant availability are small. Reactor safety circuits, neutron flux and temperature measurements, gas analysis and vibration monitoring are discussed. In reviewing the reactor instrumentation the emphasis is on reporting recent experience, particularly on AGR equipment, but overall performance and changes to magnox equipment are included so that some appreciation can be obtained of instrumentation requirements with respect to plant lifetimes. (author)

  19. Evaluating musical instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, D. Murray

    2014-01-01

    Scientific measurements of sound generation and radiation by musical instruments are surprisingly hard to correlate with the subtle and complex judgments of instrumental quality made by expert musicians

  20. Probabilistic safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoertner, H.; Schuetz, B.

    1982-09-01

    For the purpose of assessing applicability and informativeness on risk-analysis methods in licencing procedures under atomic law, the choice of instruments for probabilistic analysis, the problems in and experience gained in their application, and the discussion of safety goals with respect to such instruments are of paramount significance. Naturally, such a complex field can only be dealt with step by step, making contribution relative to specific problems. The report on hand shows the essentials of a 'stocktaking' of systems relability studies in the licencing procedure under atomic law and of an American report (NUREG-0739) on 'Quantitative Safety Goals'. (orig.) [de

  1. TROPOMI and TROPI: UV/VIS/NIR/SWIR instruments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levelt, P.F.; Oord, G.H.J. van den; Dobber, M.; Eskes, H.; Weele, M. van; Veefkind, P.; Oss, R. van; Aben, I.; Jongma, R.T.; Landgraf, J.; Vries, J. de; Visser, H.

    2006-01-01

    TROPOMI (Tropospheric Ozone-Monitoring Instrument) is a five-channel UV-VIS-NIR-SWIR non-scanning nadir viewing imaging spectrometer that combines a wide swath (114°) with high spatial resolution (10 × 10 km 2). The instrument heritage consists of GOME on ERS-2, SCIAMACHY on Envisat and, especially,

  2. IOT Overview: IR Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, E.

    In this instrument review chapter the calibration plans of ESO IR instruments are presented and briefly reviewed focusing, in particular, on the case of ISAAC, which has been the first IR instrument at VLT and whose calibration plan served as prototype for the coming instruments.

  3. Dependability analysis of proposed I and C architecture for safety systems of a large PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabra, Ashutosh; Karmakar, G.; Tiwari, A.P.; Manoj Kumar; Marathe, P.P.

    2014-01-01

    Instrumentation and Control (I and C) systems in a reactor provide protection against unsafe operation during steady-state and transient power operations. Indian reactors traditionally adopted 2-out-of-3 (2oo3) architecture for safety systems. But, contemporary reactor safety systems are employing 2-out-of-4 (2oo4) architecture in spite of the increased cost due to the additional channel. This motivated us to carry out a comparative study of 2oo3 and 2oo4 architecture, especially for their dependability attributes - safety and availability. Quantitative estimation of safety and availability has been used to adjudge the worthiness of adopting 2oo4 architecture in I and C safety systems of a large PWR. Our analysis using Markov model shows that 2oo4 architecture, even with lower diagnostic coverage and longer proof test interval, can provide better safety and availability in comparison of 2oo3 architecture. This reduces total life cycle cost of system during development phase and complexity and frequency of surveillance test during operational phase. The paper also describes the proposed architecture for Reactor Protection System (RPS), a representative safety system, and determines its dependability using Markov analysis and Failure Mode Effect Analysis (FMEA). The proposed I and C safety system architecture also has been qualitatively analyzed for their effectiveness against common cause failures (CCFs). (author)

  4. Health physics instrument manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupton, E.D.

    1978-08-01

    The purpose of this manual is to provide apprentice health physics surveyors and other operating groups not directly concerned with radiation detection instruments a working knowledge of the radiation detection and measuring instruments in use at the Laboratory. The characteristics and applications of the instruments are given. Portable instruments, stationary instruments, personnel monitoring instruments, sample counters, and miscellaneous instruments are described. Also, information sheets on calibration sources, procedures, and devices are included. Gamma sources, beta sources, alpha sources, neutron sources, special sources, a gamma calibration device for badge dosimeters, and a calibration device for ionization chambers are described

  5. Astronomical Instruments in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Sreeramula Rajeswara

    The earliest astronomical instruments used in India were the gnomon and the water clock. In the early seventh century, Brahmagupta described ten types of instruments, which were adopted by all subsequent writers with minor modifications. Contact with Islamic astronomy in the second millennium AD led to a radical change. Sanskrit texts began to lay emphasis on the importance of observational instruments. Exclusive texts on instruments were composed. Islamic instruments like the astrolabe were adopted and some new types of instruments were developed. Production and use of these traditional instruments continued, along with the cultivation of traditional astronomy, up to the end of the nineteenth century.

  6. Thermostatted dual-channel portable capillary electrophoresis instrument

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koenka, I.J.; Küng, N.; Kubáň, Pavel; Chwalek, T.; Furrer, G.; Wehrli, B.; Müller, B.; Hauser, P.C.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 37, 17-18 (2016), s. 2368-2375 ISSN 0173-0835 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : portable devices * on-site measurements * capillary electrophoresis Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry , Separation Impact factor: 2.744, year: 2016

  7. Thermostatted dual-channel portable capillary electrophoresis instrument

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koenka, I.J.; Küng, N.; Kubáň, Pavel; Chwalek, T.; Furrer, G.; Wehrli, B.; Müller, B.; Hauser, P.C.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 37, 17-18 (2016), s. 2368-2375 ISSN 0173-0835 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : portable devices * on-site measurements * capillary electrophoresis Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.744, year: 2016

  8. Troubleshooting in nuclear instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    This report on troubleshooting of nuclear instruments is the product of several scientists and engineers, who are closely associated with nuclear instrumentation and with the IAEA activities in the field. The text covers the following topics: Preamplifiers, amplifiers, scalers, timers, ratemeters, multichannel analyzers, dedicated instruments, tools, instruments, accessories, components, skills, interfaces, power supplies, preventive maintenance, troubleshooting in systems, radiation detectors. The troubleshooting and repair of instruments is illustrated by some real examples

  9. Development of Interactive Monitoring System for Neutron Scattering Instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    So, Ji Yong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Neutron scattering instruments in HANARO research reactor have been contributed to various fields of basic science and material engineering. These instruments are open to publics and researchers can apply beam-time and do experiments with instrument scientists. In most cases, these instruments run for several weeks without stopping, and therefore instrument scientist wants to see the instrument status and receive information if the instruments have some problem. This is important for the safety. However, it is very hard to get instrument information outside of instruments. Access from external site is strongly forbidden in the institute due to the network safety, I developed another way to send instrument status information using commercial short messaging service(SMS). In this presentation, detailed features of this system will be shown. As a prototype, this system is being developed for the single instrument: Disk-chopper time-of-flight instruments (DC-TOF). I have successfully developed instruments and operate for several years. This information messaging system can be used for other neutron scattering instruments.

  10. USACE Navigation Channels 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This dataset represents both San Francisco and Los Angeles District navigation channel lines. All San Francisco District channel lines were digitized from CAD files...

  11. Calcium channel blocker overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002580.htm Calcium-channel blocker overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Calcium-channel blockers are a type of medicine used ...

  12. Auto Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Auto Safety KidsHealth / For Parents / Auto Safety What's in this ... by teaching some basic rules. Importance of Child Safety Seats Using a child safety seat (car seat) ...

  13. Performing the Super Instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallionpaa, Maria

    2016-01-01

    can empower performers by producing super instrument works that allow the concert instrument to become an ensemble controlled by a single player. The existing instrumental skills of the performer can be multiplied and the qualities of regular acoustic instruments extended or modified. Such a situation......The genre of contemporary classical music has seen significant innovation and research related to new super, hyper, and hybrid instruments, which opens up a vast palette of expressive potential. An increasing number of composers, performers, instrument designers, engineers, and computer programmers...... have become interested in different ways of “supersizing” acoustic instruments in order to open up previously-unheard instrumental sounds. Super instruments vary a great deal but each has a transformative effect on the identity and performance practice of the performing musician. Furthermore, composers...

  14. Planck 2013 results. VI. High Frequency Instrument data processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.

    2013-01-01

    We describe the processing of the 531 billion raw data samples from the High Frequency Instrument (HFI), which we performed to produce six temperature maps from the first 473 days of Planck-HFI survey data. These maps provide an accurate rendition of the sky emission at 100, 143,217, 353, 545......, these two high frequency channels are calibrated to within 5% and the 353 GHz channel to the percent level. The 100 and217 GHz channels, which together with the 143 GHz channel determine the high-multipole part of the CMB power spectrum (50

  15. Quantum Channels With Memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rybar, T.

    2012-01-01

    Quantum memory channels represent a very general, yet simple and comprehensible model for causal processes. As such they have attracted considerable research interest, mostly aimed on their transfer capabilities and structure properties. Most notably it was shown that memory channels can be implemented via physically naturally motivated collision models. We also define the concept of repeatable channels and show that only unital channels can be implemented repeat ably with pure memory channels. In the special case of qubit channels we also show that every unital qubit channel has a repeatable implementation. We also briefly explore the possibilities of stroboscopical simulation of channels and show that all random unitary channels can be stroboscopically simulated. Particularly in qubit case, all indivisible qubit channels are also random unitary, hence for qubit all indivisible channels can be stroboscopically simulated. Memory channels also naturally capture the framework of correlated experiments. We develop methods to gather and interpret data obtained in such setting and in detail examine the two qubit case. We also show that for control unitary interactions the measured data will never contradict a simple unitary evolution. Thus no memory effects can be spotted then. (author)

  16. Eight channel fast scalar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waddoup, W D; Stubbs, R J [Durham Univ. (UK)

    1977-11-01

    An eight channel 64-bit scaler has been constructed with a static CMOS memory. Scaling frequencies are independently variable, at each channel, as are the number of bits/channel. The scaler, when used in conjunction with a multichannel charge to time converter results in a very flexible, gated multichannel ADC.

  17. KV7 potassium channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stott, Jennifer B; Jepps, Thomas Andrew; Greenwood, Iain A

    2014-01-01

    Potassium channels are key regulators of smooth muscle tone, with increases in activity resulting in hyperpolarisation of the cell membrane, which acts to oppose vasoconstriction. Several potassium channels exist within smooth muscle, but the KV7 family of voltage-gated potassium channels have been...

  18. Enhancing operational nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengoku, Katsuhisa

    2008-01-01

    's safety standards and program which provides the safety objective following the 10 fundamental safety principles. The safety requirements defines the functional conditions required for safety and the safety guides provides user-friendly and up-to-date practical guidance representing good/best practices to fulfill the requirements. The IAEA provides safety review services and fields safety review teams upon request of member states for the regulatory, the International Regulatory Review Team (IRRT) and Operational Safety Review Team (OSART) and Peer Review of the Operational and Safety Performance Experience Review (PROSPER). The OSART programme's purpose is to assist member states in enhancing the operational safety of individual nuclear power plants and to promote the continuous development of operational safety within all member states by the dissemination of information on good practice. The OSART Mission Results (OSMIR) database contains the results from 73 OSART missions and 54 follow up visits from 1991 and its continually updated. The Asian Nuclear Safety Network (ANSN) was established to pool and share existing and new technical knowledge and practical experience to further improve the safety of nuclear installation in Asia. In summary, the enhancement of the GNSR is anchored in the recognition that all the states are in the same boat and the increasing importance of sharing and mutual learning, sharing knowledge and experience through regional and global networking. It requires joint and coordinated strategy by all states. The IAEA is willing and ready to support the GNSR through the establishment and application of safety standards, and safety review and advisory services and international instruments. (Author)

  19. HANARO core channel flow-rate measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Heon Il; Chae, Hee Tae; Im, Don Soon; Kim, Seon Duk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-06-01

    HANARO core consists of 23 hexagonal flow tubes and 16 cylindrical flow tubes. To get the core flow distribution, we used 6 flow-rate measuring dummy fuel assemblies (instrumented dummy fuel assemblies). The differential pressures were measured and converted to flow-rates using the predetermined relationship between AP and flow-rate for each instrumented dummy fuel assemblies. The flow-rate for the cylindrical flow channels shows +-7% relative errors and that for the hexagonal flow channels shows +-3.5% relative errors. Generally the flow-rates of outer core channels show smaller values compared to those of inner core. The channels near to the core inlet pipe and outlet pipes also show somewhat lower flow-rates. For the lower flow channels, the thermal margin was checked by considering complete linear power histories. From the experimental results, the gap flow-rate was estimated to be 49.4 kg/s (cf. design flow of 50 kg/s). 15 tabs., 9 figs., 10 refs. (Author) .new.

  20. Safety aspects of NPP ageing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Preparation of safety practices on assessment and management of aging of major NPP components important to safety, CRP on management of aging of concrete containment buildings, CRP on management of aging of in-containment instrumentation and control cables are outlined

  1. Temperature measurement of the reactor materials samples irradiated in the fuel channels of the RA reactor - Annex 16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolic, M.; Djalovic, M.

    1964-01-01

    Reactor materials as graphite, stainless steel, magnox, zirconium alloys, etc. were exposed to fast neutron flux inside the fuel elements specially adapted for this purpose. Samples in the form ampoules were placed in capsules inside the fuel channels and cooled by heavy water which cools the fuel elements. In order to monitor the samples temperature 42 thermocouples were placed in the samples. That was necessary for reactor safety reasons and for further interpretation of measured results. Temperature monitoring was done continuously by multichannel milivoltmeters. This paper describes the technique of introducing the thermocouples, compensation instruments, control of the cold ends and adaptation of the instruments for precision (0.5%) temperature measurement in the range 30 deg - 130 deg C; 30 deg - 280 deg C and 30 deg - 80 deg C [sr

  2. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the English Channel, Irish Sea and St. George's Channel and North Atlantic Ocean from 2013-02-16 to 2013-03-13 (NCEI Accession 0157256)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157256 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the English Channel, Irish Sea and St....

  3. Safety study application guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., (Energy Systems) is committed to performing and documenting safety analyses for facilities it manages for the Department of Energy (DOE). Included are analyses of existing facilities done under the aegis of the Safety Analysis Report Upgrade Program, and analyses of new and modified facilities. A graded approach is used wherein the level of analysis and documentation for each facility is commensurate with the magnitude of the hazard(s), the complexity of the facility and the stage of the facility life cycle. Safety analysis reports (SARs) for hazard Category 1 and 2 facilities are usually detailed and extensive because these categories are associated with public health and safety risk. SARs for Category 3 are normally much less extensive because the risk to public health and safety is slight. At Energy Systems, safety studies are the name given to SARs for Category 3 (formerly open-quotes lowclose quotes) facilities. Safety studies are the appropriate instrument when on-site risks are limited to irreversible consequences to a few people, and off-site consequences are limited to reversible consequences to a few people. This application guide provides detailed instructions for performing safety studies that meet the requirements of DOE Orders 5480.22, open-quotes Technical Safety Requirements,close quotes and 5480.23, open-quotes Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports.close quotes A seven-chapter format has been adopted for safety studies. This format allows for discussion of all the items required by DOE Order 5480.23 and for the discussions to be readily traceable to the listing in the order. The chapter titles are: (1) Introduction and Summary, (2) Site, (3) Facility Description, (4) Safety Basis, (5) Hazardous Material Management, (6) Management, Organization, and Institutional Safety Provisions, and (7) Accident Analysis

  4. Instrumentation and control doctrine for VVER upgrading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pernette, R.; Cucciniello, J.; Trebot, R.

    1997-01-01

    The main results are reported of analyses carried out on the WWER-400 and WWER-1000 series, and the reasons are summed up underlying the decision to establish a policy of WWER instrumentation and control upgrading. It is shown that such a policy forms a key stage in any upgrading project and contributes to the improvement of reactor safety at several levels: it helps to optimize the integration of safety requirements; it makes it easier to achieve a high level of automation and a better man-machine interaction; it should raise the culture of reactor safety. Four annexes demonstrate the factual fundamentals and structure of such a policy. (A.K.)

  5. Two-channel neutron boron meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yongqing; Yin Guowei; Chai Songshan; Deng Zhaoping; Zhou Bin

    1993-09-01

    The two-channel neutron boron meter is a continuous on-line measuring device to measure boron concentration of primary cooling liquid of reactors. The neutron-leakage-compensation method is taken in the measuring mechanism. In the primary measuring configuration, the mini-boron-water annulus and two-channel and central calibration loop are adopted. The calibration ring and constant-temperature of boron-water can be remotely controlled by secondary instruments. With the microcomputer data processing system the boron concentration is automatically measured and calibrated in on-line mode. The meter has many advantages such as high accuracy, fast response, multi-applications, high reliability and convenience

  6. Fine Channel Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    A color image of fine channel networks on Mars; north toward top. The scene shows heavily cratered highlands dissected by dendritic open channel networks that dissect steep slopes of impact crater walls. This image is a composite of Viking high-resolution images in black and white and low-resolution images in color. The image extends from latitude 9 degrees S. to 5 degrees S. and from longitude 312 degrees to 320 degrees; Mercator projection. The dendritic pattern of the fine channels and their location on steep slopes leads to the interpretation that these are runoff channels. The restriction of these types of channels to ancient highland rocks suggests that these channels are old and date from a time on Mars when conditions existed for precipitation to actively erode rocks. After the channels reach a low plain, they appear to end. Termination may have resulted from burial by younger deposits or perhaps the flows percolated into the surface materials and continued underground.

  7. Ion channels in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrich, Rainer

    2012-10-01

    Since the first recordings of single potassium channel activities in the plasma membrane of guard cells more than 25 years ago, patch-clamp studies discovered a variety of ion channels in all cell types and plant species under inspection. Their properties differed in a cell type- and cell membrane-dependent manner. Guard cells, for which the existence of plant potassium channels was initially documented, advanced to a versatile model system for studying plant ion channel structure, function, and physiology. Interestingly, one of the first identified potassium-channel genes encoding the Shaker-type channel KAT1 was shown to be highly expressed in guard cells. KAT1-type channels from Arabidopsis thaliana and its homologs from other species were found to encode the K(+)-selective inward rectifiers that had already been recorded in early patch-clamp studies with guard cells. Within the genome era, additional Arabidopsis Shaker-type channels appeared. All nine members of the Arabidopsis Shaker family are localized at the plasma membrane, where they either operate as inward rectifiers, outward rectifiers, weak voltage-dependent channels, or electrically silent, but modulatory subunits. The vacuole membrane, in contrast, harbors a set of two-pore K(+) channels. Just very recently, two plant anion channel families of the SLAC/SLAH and ALMT/QUAC type were identified. SLAC1/SLAH3 and QUAC1 are expressed in guard cells and mediate Slow- and Rapid-type anion currents, respectively, that are involved in volume and turgor regulation. Anion channels in guard cells and other plant cells are key targets within often complex signaling networks. Here, the present knowledge is reviewed for the plant ion channel biology. Special emphasis is drawn to the molecular mechanisms of channel regulation, in the context of model systems and in the light of evolution.

  8. Instrument Modeling and Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Andrew B.; Beauchamp, James W.

    During the 1970s and 1980s, before synthesizers based on direct sampling of musical sounds became popular, replicating musical instruments using frequency modulation (FM) or wavetable synthesis was one of the “holy grails” of music synthesis. Synthesizers such as the Yamaha DX7 allowed users great flexibility in mixing and matching sounds, but were notoriously difficult to coerce into producing sounds like those of a given instrument. Instrument design wizards practiced the mysteries of FM instrument design.

  9. Nuclear reactor instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncombe, E.; McGonigal, G.

    1975-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor is described which has an equal number of fuel sub-assemblies and sensing instruments. Each instrument senses temperature and rate of coolant flow of a coolant derived from a group of three sub-assemblies so that an abnormal value for one sub-assembly will be indicated on three instruments thereby providing for redundancy of up to two of the three instruments. The abnormal value may be a precurser to unstable boiling of coolant

  10. Rolls-Royce successful modernization of safety-critical Instrumentation and Control (I and C) equipment at the Dukovany VVER 440/213 Nuclear Power Plant, based on SPINLINE 3 platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebreyend, P.; Burel, J.P.; Spoc, J.; Karasek, A.

    2010-01-01

    Rolls-Royce has provided on-time delivery of a substantial safety-critical I and C overhaul for four Nuclear reactors operated by Czech Republic utility, CEZ a.s. This nine-year project is considered to be one of the largest I and C modernization projects in the world. The Dukovany VVER 440 I and C modernization project and its key success factors are profiled in this paper. The project is in the final stages with the last unit to be completed in 2009. Beginning in September 2000, the project is in compliance with the initial schedule. Rolls-Royce has been designing and manufacturing I and C solutions dedicated to the implementation of safety and safety-related functions in nuclear power plants (NPPs) for more than 30 years. Though the early solutions were non-software-based, since 1984 software-based solutions for safety I and C functions have been deployed in operating NPPs across France and 15 other countries. The Rolls-Royce platform is suitable for implementation of safety I and C functions in new NPPs, as well as in the modernization of safety equipment in existing plants. CEZ a.s. is a major electricity supplier for the national grid. At Dukovany, CEZ a.s. operates four units of VVER-440/213-type reactors producing one quarter of CEZ a.s. electricity production. The first of these units was connected to the grid in 1985. Since the year 2000, the nine-year modernization program has been underway at Dukovany, at a cost of more than 200 million Euros. The equipment replacement was implemented during regular, planned outages of the original equipment and systems. After an international bidding phase, CEZ a.s. awarded a contract to Skoda JS for general engineering and project management. Individual subcontracts were then signed between Skoda JS and a consortium between Rolls-Royce and Areva for modernization of the safety systems, including the Reactor Protection System (RPS), the Reactor Control System (RCS), and the Post-Accident Monitoring System (PAMS). Two

  11. Aeroacoustics of Musical Instruments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fabre, B.; Gilbert, J.; Hirschberg, Abraham; Pelorson, X.

    2012-01-01

    We are interested in the quality of sound produced by musical instruments and their playability. In wind instruments, a hydrodynamic source of sound is coupled to an acoustic resonator. Linear acoustics can predict the pitch of an instrument. This can significantly reduce the trial-and-error process

  12. Enhancing Public Helicopter Safety as a Component of Homeland Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Risk Assessment Tool GPS Global Positioning System IFR instrument flight rules ILS instrument landing system IMC instrument meteorological...daily operations. Additionally, the effectiveness of the standards is evaluated by determining if these standards would have prevented the accidents...trends, such as human behavior and lack of standards, that are common in public safety helicopter accidents. Public safety aviation agencies can use this

  13. An international nuclear safety regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, M.

    1995-01-01

    For all the parties involved with safe use of nuclear energy, the opening for signature of the 'Convention on Nuclear Safety' (signed by 60 countries) and the ongoing work to prepare a 'Convention on Radioactive Waste Safety' are particularly important milestones. 'Convention on Nuclear Safety' is the first legal instrument that directly addresses the safety of nuclear power plants worldwide. The two conventions are only one facet of international cooperation to enhance safety. A review of some cooperative efforts of the past decades, and some key provisions of the new safety conventions, presented in this paper, show how international cooperation is increasing nuclear safety worldwide. The safety philosophy and practices involved with legal framework for the safe use of nuclear power will foster a collective international involvement and commitment. It will be a positive step towards increasing public confidence in nuclear power

  14. RB research reactor Safety Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotic, O.; Pesic, M.; Vranic, S.

    1979-04-01

    This RB reactor safety report is a revised and improved version of the Safety report written in 1962. It contains descriptions of: reactor building, reactor hall, control room, laboratories, reactor components, reactor control system, heavy water loop, neutron source, safety system, dosimetry system, alarm system, neutron converter, experimental channels. Safety aspects of the reactor operation include analyses of accident causes, errors during operation, measures for preventing uncontrolled activity changes, analysis of the maximum possible accident in case of different core configurations with natural uranium, slightly and highly enriched fuel; influence of possible seismic events

  15. Determination of elemental impurities in polymer materials of electrical cables for use in safety systems of nuclear power plants and for data transfer in the Large Hadron Collider by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kučera, Jan; Cabalka, M.; Ferencei, Jozef; Kubešová, Marie; Strunga, Vladimír

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 309, č. 3 (2016), s. 1341-1348 ISSN 0236-5731 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA02010218; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : instrumental neutron activation analysis * polymer materials * undesired elements * nuclear power plant * Large Hadron Collider Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.282, year: 2016

  16. Compound Wiretap Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shlomo Shamai (Shitz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the compound wiretap channel, which generalizes Wyner's wiretap model to allow the channels to the (legitimate receiver and to the eavesdropper to take a number of possible states. No matter which states occur, the transmitter guarantees that the receiver decodes its message and that the eavesdropper is kept in full ignorance about the message. The compound wiretap channel can also be viewed as a multicast channel with multiple eavesdroppers, in which the transmitter sends information to all receivers and keeps the information secret from all eavesdroppers. For the discrete memoryless channel, lower and upper bounds on the secrecy capacity are derived. The secrecy capacity is established for the degraded channel and the semideterministic channel with one receiver. The parallel Gaussian channel is further studied. The secrecy capacity and the secrecy degree of freedom (s.d.o.f. are derived for the degraded case with one receiver. Schemes to achieve the s.d.o.f. for the case with two receivers and two eavesdroppers are constructed to demonstrate the necessity of a prefix channel in encoder design. Finally, the multi-antenna (i.e., MIMO compound wiretap channel is studied. The secrecy capacity is established for the degraded case and an achievable s.d.o.f. is given for the general case.

  17. Compound Wiretap Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kramer Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper considers the compound wiretap channel, which generalizes Wyner's wiretap model to allow the channels to the (legitimate receiver and to the eavesdropper to take a number of possible states. No matter which states occur, the transmitter guarantees that the receiver decodes its message and that the eavesdropper is kept in full ignorance about the message. The compound wiretap channel can also be viewed as a multicast channel with multiple eavesdroppers, in which the transmitter sends information to all receivers and keeps the information secret from all eavesdroppers. For the discrete memoryless channel, lower and upper bounds on the secrecy capacity are derived. The secrecy capacity is established for the degraded channel and the semideterministic channel with one receiver. The parallel Gaussian channel is further studied. The secrecy capacity and the secrecy degree of freedom ( are derived for the degraded case with one receiver. Schemes to achieve the for the case with two receivers and two eavesdroppers are constructed to demonstrate the necessity of a prefix channel in encoder design. Finally, the multi-antenna (i.e., MIMO compound wiretap channel is studied. The secrecy capacity is established for the degraded case and an achievable is given for the general case.

  18. ATP Release Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiyuki Taruno

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Adenosine triphosphate (ATP has been well established as an important extracellular ligand of autocrine signaling, intercellular communication, and neurotransmission with numerous physiological and pathophysiological roles. In addition to the classical exocytosis, non-vesicular mechanisms of cellular ATP release have been demonstrated in many cell types. Although large and negatively charged ATP molecules cannot diffuse across the lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane, conductive ATP release from the cytosol into the extracellular space is possible through ATP-permeable channels. Such channels must possess two minimum qualifications for ATP permeation: anion permeability and a large ion-conducting pore. Currently, five groups of channels are acknowledged as ATP-release channels: connexin hemichannels, pannexin 1, calcium homeostasis modulator 1 (CALHM1, volume-regulated anion channels (VRACs, also known as volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying (VSOR anion channels, and maxi-anion channels (MACs. Recently, major breakthroughs have been made in the field by molecular identification of CALHM1 as the action potential-dependent ATP-release channel in taste bud cells, LRRC8s as components of VRACs, and SLCO2A1 as a core subunit of MACs. Here, the function and physiological roles of these five groups of ATP-release channels are summarized, along with a discussion on the future implications of understanding these channels.

  19. Radiation safety audit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadadunna, K.P.I.K.; Mod Ali, Noriah

    2008-01-01

    Audit has been seen as one of the effective methods to ensure harmonization in radiation protection. A radiation safety audit is a formal safety performance examination of existing or future work activities by an independent team. Regular audit will assist the management in its mission to maintain the facilities environment that is inherently safe for its employees. The audits review the adequacy of facilities for the type of use, training, and competency of workers, supervision by authorized users, availability of survey instruments, security of radioactive materials, minimization of personnel exposure to radiation, safety equipment, and the required record keeping. All approved areas of use are included in these periodic audits. Any deficiency found in the audit shall be corrected as soon as possible after they are reported. Radiation safety audit is a proactive approach to improve radiation safety practices and identify and prevent any potential radiation accident. It is an excellent tool to identify potential problem to radiation users and to assure that safety measures to eliminate or reduce the problems are fully considered. Radiation safety audit will help to develop safety culture of the facility. It is intended to be the cornerstone of a safety program designed to aid the facility, staff and management in maintaining a safe environment in which activities are carried out. The initiative of this work is to evaluate the need of having a proper audit as one of the mechanism to manage the safety using ionizing radiation. This study is focused on the need of having a proper radiation safety audit to identify deviations and deficiencies of radiation protection programmes. It will be based on studies conducted on several institutes/radiation facilities in Malaysia in 2006. Steps will then be formulated towards strengthening radiation safety through proper audit. This will result in a better working situation and confidence in the radiation protection community

  20. Status of safeguards instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higinbotham, W.A.

    The International Atomic Energy Agency is performing safeguards at some nuclear power reactors, 50 bulk processing facilities, and 170 research facilities. Its verification activities require the use of instruments to measure nuclear materials and of surveillance instruments to maintain continuity of knowledge of the locations of nuclear materials. Instruments that are in use and under development to measure weight, volume, concentration, and isotopic composition of nuclear materials, and the major surveillance instruments, are described in connection with their uses at representative nuclear facilities. The current status of safeguards instrumentation and the needs for future development are discussed

  1. Early modern mathematical instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Jim

    2011-12-01

    In considering the appropriate use of the terms "science" and "scientific instrument," tracing the history of "mathematical instruments" in the early modern period is offered as an illuminating alternative to the historian's natural instinct to follow the guiding lights of originality and innovation, even if the trail transgresses contemporary boundaries. The mathematical instrument was a well-defined category, shared across the academic, artisanal, and commercial aspects of instrumentation, and its narrative from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century was largely independent from other classes of device, in a period when a "scientific" instrument was unheard of.

  2. Safety aspects of pulsed YAYOI and Japan Linac Booster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, S.; Oka, Y.; Wakabayashi, J.

    1976-01-01

    The paper consists of two parts. The first part is concerned with safety aspects of pulsed YAYOI. Reactivity pulsed operation of YAYOI is performed with reactivity oscillating devices. Inherent safety characteristics due to dilation of metal fuel, a small amount of f.p. build up, reactor operation preserving fuel integrity and experience on transient experiments are the principal basis for safety assurance. Conditions for pulsed operation, namely, maximum allowable temperature, maximum number of repetition of pulsed operation and so on are derived from the consideration on the integrity of fuel. Instrumentation and control systems are reinforced by displacement meter in the core, interlock system, special timer for pulsed operation, additional scram conditions and reactivity meter. Accident analysis and safety evaluation indicate the conservative safety features of the facility. Concerning pulsed operation of YAYOI combined with Linac, special attention must be given to the design of Linac target placed in the core. In the second part are described the principal guide-lines and basic ideas for safety design of Japan Linac Booster (JLB). JLB is a U-Mo fueled and sodium cooled fast reactor with rotating reflector and Linac target in the core. The pulsed neutrons are injected into the core coincidentally with repetitive peaks of reactivity. Design of rotating reflector and Linac target system are the new and important safety problems not yet encountered in the usual sodium fast reactor design. The axis of the rotating reflector is horizontal, which avoids the collision of reflector block with core in the case of failure of rotating reflector. The separate cooling channels for target and the Linac electron beam control system are provided. Reactor shut down and power control systems must be carefully designed. Core meltdown and disassembly accident is considered as a hypothetical accident which is a basis for containment system design. (auth.)

  3. Nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    This book reviews the accomplishments, operations, and problems faced by the defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board. Specifically, it discusses the recommendations that the Safety Board made to improve safety and health conditions at the Department of Energy's defense nuclear facilities, problems the Safety Board has encountered in hiring technical staff, and management problems that could affect the Safety Board's independence and credibility

  4. Fire safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keski-Rahkonen, O.; Bjoerkman, J.; Hostikka, S.; Mangs, J.; Huhtanen, R.; Palmen, H.; Salminen, A.; Turtola, A.

    1998-01-01

    According to experience and probabilistic risk assessments, fires present a significant hazard in a nuclear power plant. Fires may be initial events for accidents or affect safety systems planned to prevent accidents and to mitigate their consequences. The project consists of theoretical work, experiments and simulations aiming to increase the fire safety at nuclear power plants. The project has four target areas: (1) to produce validated models for numerical simulation programmes, (2) to produce new information on the behavior of equipment in case of fire, (3) to study applicability of new active fire protecting systems in nuclear power plants, and (4) to obtain quantitative knowledge of ignitions induced by important electric devices in nuclear power plants. These topics have been solved mainly experimentally, but modelling at different level is used to interpret experimental data, and to allow easy generalisation and engineering use of the obtained data. Numerical fire simulation has concentrated in comparison of CFD modelling of room fires, and fire spreading on cables on experimental data. So far the success has been good to fair. A simple analytical and numerical model has been developed for fire effluents spreading beyond the room of origin in mechanically strongly ventilated compartments. For behaviour of equipment in fire several full scale and scaled down calorimetric experiments were carried out on electronic cabinets, as well as on horizontal and vertical cable trays. These were carried out to supply material for CFD numerical simulation code validation. Several analytical models were developed and validated against obtained experimental results to allow quick calculations for PSA estimates as well as inter- and extrapolations to slightly different objects. Response times of different commercial fire detectors were determined for different types of smoke, especially emanating from smoldering and flaming cables to facilitate selection of proper detector

  5. Improving the service life and performance of CANDU fuel channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Causey, A.R.; Cheadle, B.A.; Coleman, C.E.; Price, E.G.

    1997-01-01

    The development objective for CANDU fuel channels is to produce a design that can operate for 40 years at 90% capacity. Steady progress toward this objective is being made. The factors that determine the life of the channel are reviewed and the processes necessary to achieve the objectives identified. Performance of future fuel channels will be enhanced by reduced operating costs, increased safety margins to postulated accident conditions, and reduced retubing costs compared to current channels. The approaches to these issues are discussed briefly in the paper. (author)

  6. Improving the service life and performance of CANDU fuel channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Causey, A.R.; Cheadle, B.A.; Coleman, C.E.; Price, E.G.

    1996-02-01

    The development objective for CANDU fuel channels is to produce a design that can operate for 40 years at 90% capacity. Steady progress toward this objective is being made. The factors that determine the life of a CANDU fuel channel are reviewed and the processes necessary to achieve the objectives identified. Performance of future fuel channels will be enhanced by reduced operating costs, increased safety margins to postulated accident conditions, and reduced retubing costs compared with those for current channels. The approaches to these issues are discussed briefly in this report. (author). 14 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs

  7. Improving the service life and performance of CANDU fuel channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, C.E.; Cheadle, B.A.; Causey, A.R.; Doubt, G.L.; Fong, R.W.L.; Venkatapathi, S.

    1996-03-01

    The development objective for CANDU fuel channels is to produce a design that can operate for 40 years at 90% capacity. Steady progress toward this objective is being made. The factors that determine the life of a CANDU fuel channel are reviewed and the processes necessary to achieve the objectives are identified. Performance of future fuel channels will be enhanced by reduced operating costs and increased safety margins to postulated accident conditions compared with those for current channels. The approaches to these issues are discussed briefly in this report. (author)

  8. Volume Regulated Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Thomas Kjær

    of volume perturbations evolution have developed system of channels and transporters to tightly control volume homeostasis. In the past decades evidence has been mounting, that the importance of these volume regulated channels and transporters are not restricted to the defense of cellular volume...... but are also essential for a number of physiological processes such as proliferation, controlled cell death, migration and endocrinology. The thesis have been focusing on two Channels, namely the swelling activated Cl- channel (ICl, swell) and the transient receptor potential Vanilloid (TRPV4) channel. I: Cl......- serves a multitude of functions in the mammalian cell, regulating the membrane potential (Em), cell volume, protein activity and the driving force for facilitated transporters giving Cl- and Cl- channels a major potential of regulating cellular function. These functions include control of the cell cycle...

  9. Road safety policy of the European Union.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    The European Union (EU) is important for national road safety policies. The EU has several policymaking instruments, such as binding regulations and directives, and non-binding recommendations. An important element in the EU policy plans on road safety are the non-binding European road safety

  10. HIPPI and Fibre Channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolmie, D.E.

    1992-01-01

    The High-Performance Parallel Interface (HIPPI) and Fibre Channel are near-gigabit per second data communications interfaces being developed in ANSI standards Task Group X3T9.3. HIPPI is the current interface of choice in the high-end and supercomputer arena, and Fibre Channel is a follow-on effort. HIPPI came from a local area network background, and Fibre Channel came from a mainframe to peripheral interface background

  11. Nuclear reactor coolant channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macbeth, R.V.

    1978-01-01

    Reference is made to coolant channels for pressurised water and boiling water reactors and the arrangement described aims to improve heat transfer between the fuel rods and the coolant. Baffle means extending axially within the channel are provided and disposed relative to the fuel rods so as to restrict flow oscillations occurring within the coolant from being propagated transversely to the axis of the channel. (UK)

  12. Online calibration method for condition monitoring of nuclear reactor instrumentations based on electrical signature analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syaiful Bakhri

    2013-01-01

    Electrical signature analysis currently becomes an alternative in condition monitoring in nuclear power plants not only for stationary components such as sensors, measurement and instrumentation channels, and other components but also for dynamic components such as electric motors, pumps, generator or actuators. In order to guarantee the accuracy, the calibration of monitoring system is a necessary which practically is performed offline, under limited schedules and certain tight procedures. This research aims to introduce online calibration technique for electrical signature condition monitoring in order that the accuracy can be maintained continuously which in turn increases the reactor safety as a whole. The research was performed step by stepin detail from the conventional technique, online calibration using baseline information and online calibration using differential gain adjustment. Online calibration based on differential gain adjustment provides better results than other techniques even tough under extreme gain insertion as well as external disturbances such as supply voltages. (author)

  13. Qualification issues associated with the use of advanced instrumentation and control systems hardware in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korsah, K.; Antonescu, C.

    1993-01-01

    The instrumentation and control (I ampersand C) systems in advanced reactors will make extensive use of digital controls, microprocessors, multiplexing, and Tiber-optic transmission. Elements of these advances in I ampersand C have been implemented on some current operating plants. However, the widespread use of the above technologies, as well as the use of artificial intelligence with minimum reliance on human operator control of reactors, highlights the need to develop standards for qualifying I ampersand C used in the next generation of nuclear power plants. As a first step in this direction, the protection system I ampersand C for present-day plants was compared to that proposed for advanced light water reactors (ALWRs). An evaluation template was developed by assembling a configuration of a safety channel instrument string for a generic ALWR, then comparing the impact of environmental stressors on that string to their effect on an equivalent instrument string from an existing light water reactor. The template was then used to address reliability issues for microprocessor-based protection systems. Standards (or lack thereof) for the qualification of microprocessor-based safety I ampersand C systems were also identified. This approach addresses in part issues raised in Nuclear Regulatory Commission policy document SECY-91-292. which recognizes that advanced I ampersand C systems for the nuclear industry are ''being developed without consensus standards, as the technology available for design is ahead of the technology that is well understood through experience and supported by application standards.''

  14. Qualification issues associated with the use of advanced instrumentation and control systems hardware in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korsah, K.; Antonescu, C.

    1993-01-01

    The instrumentation and control (I ampersand C) systems in advanced reactors will make extensive use of digital controls, microprocessors, multiplexing, and fiber-optic transmission. Elements of these advances in I ampersand C have been implemented on some current operating plants. However, the widespread use of the above technologies, as well as the use of artificial intelligence with minimum reliance on human operator control of reactors, highlights the need to develop standards for qualifying I ampersand C used in the next generation of nuclear power plants. As a first step in this direction, the protection system I ampersand C for present-day plants was compared to that proposed for advanced light water reactors (ALWRs). An evaluation template was developed by assembling a configuration of a safety channel instrument string for a generic ALWR, then comparing the impact of environmental stressors on that string to their effect on an equivalent instrument string from an existing light water reactor. The template was then used to address reliability issues for microprocessor-based protection systems. Standards (or lack thereof) for the qualification of microprocessor-based safety I ampersand C systems were also identified. This approach addresses in part issues raised in Nuclear Regulatory Commission policy document SECY-91-292, which recognizes that advanced I ampersand C systems for the nuclear industry are open-quotes being developed without consensus standards, as the technology available for design is ahead of the technology that is well understood through experience and supported by application standards.close quotes

  15. Drifting plasmons in open two-dimensional channels: modal analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sydoruk, O

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the properties of plasmons in two-dimensional channels is important for developing methods of terahertz generation. This paper presents a modal analysis of plasmonic reflection in open channels supporting dc currents. As it shows, the plasmons can be amplified upon reflection if a dc current flows away from a conducting boundary; de-amplification occurs for the opposite current direction. The problem is solved analytically, based on a perturbation calculation, and numerically, and agreement between the methods is demonstrated. The power radiated by a channel is found to be negligible, and plasmon reflection in open channels is shown to be similar to that in closed channels. Based on this similarity, the oscillator designs developed earlier for closed channels could be applicable also for open ones. The results develop the modal-decomposition technique further as an instrument for the design of terahertz plasmonic sources. (paper)

  16. New Channels, New Possibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pieterson, Willem; Ebbers, Wolfgang; Østergaard Madsen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    In this contribution we discuss the characteristics of what we call the fourth generation of public sector service channels: social robots. Based on a review of relevant literature we discuss their characteristics and place into multi-channel models of service delivery. We argue that social robots......-channel models of service delivery. This is especially relevant given the current lack of evaluations of such models, the broad range of channels available, and their different stages of deployment at governments around the world. Nevertheless, social robots offer an potentially very relevant addition...

  17. Calcium Channel Blockers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Certain calcium channel blockers interact with grapefruit products. Kaplan NM, et al. Treatment of hypertension: Drug therapy. In: Kaplan's Clinical Hypertension. 11th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Wolters Kluwer ...

  18. A channel profile analyser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gobbur, S.G.

    1983-01-01

    It is well understood that due to the wide band noise present in a nuclear analog-to-digital converter, events at the boundaries of adjacent channels are shared. It is a difficult and laborious process to exactly find out the shape of the channels at the boundaries. A simple scheme has been developed for the direct display of channel shape of any type of ADC on a cathode ray oscilliscope display. This has been accomplished by sequentially incrementing the reference voltage of a precision pulse generator by a fraction of a channel and storing ADC data in alternative memory locations of a multichannel pulse height analyser. Alternative channels are needed due to the sharing at the boundaries of channels. In the flat region of the profile alternate memory locations are channels with zero counts and channels with the full scale counts. At the boundaries all memory locations will have counts. The shape of this is a direct display of the channel boundaries. (orig.)

  19. Drug Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... over-the-counter drug. The FDA evaluates the safety of a drug by looking at Side effects ... clinical trials The FDA also monitors a drug's safety after approval. For you, drug safety means buying ...

  20. Nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarride, Bruno

    2015-10-01

    The author proposes an overview of methods and concepts used in the nuclear industry, at the design level as well as at the exploitation level, to ensure an acceptable safety level, notably in the case of nuclear reactors. He first addresses the general objectives of nuclear safety and the notion of acceptable risk: definition and organisation of nuclear safety (relationships between safety authorities and operators), notion of acceptable risk, deterministic safety approach and main safety principles (safety functions and confinement barriers, concept of defence in depth). Then, the author addresses the safety approach at the design level: studies of operational situations, studies of internal and external aggressions, safety report, design principles for important-for-safety systems (failure criterion, redundancy, failure prevention, safety classification). The next part addresses safety during exploitation and general exploitation rules: definition of the operation domain and of its limits, periodic controls and tests, management in case of incidents, accidents or aggressions

  1. National Chemistry Teacher Safety Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plohocki, Barbra A.

    This study evaluated the status of secondary school instructional chemistry laboratory safety using a survey instrument which focused on Teacher background Information, Laboratory Safety Equipment, Facility Safety, General Safety, and a Safety Content Knowledge Survey. A fifty question survey instrument based on recent research and questions developed by the researcher was mailed to 500 secondary school chemistry teachers who participated in the 1993 one-week Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation Chemistry Institute conducted at Princeton University, New Jersey. The data received from 303 respondents was analyzed by t tests and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The level of significance for the study was set at ~\\ performance on the Safety Content Knowledge Survey and secondary school chemistry teachers who have had undergraduate and/or graduate safety training and those who have not had undergraduate and/or graduate safety training. Secondary school chemistry teachers who attended school district sponsored safety inservices did not score higher on the Safety Content Knowledge Survey than teachers who did not attend school district sponsored safety inservice sessions. The type of school district (urban, suburban, or rural) had no significant correlation to the type of laboratory safety equipment found in the instructional chemistry laboratory. The certification area (chemistry or other type of certificate which may or may not include chemistry) of the secondary school teacher had no significant correlation to the type of laboratory equipment found in the instructional chemistry laboratory. Overall, this study indicated a majority of secondary school chemistry teachers were interested in attending safety workshops applicable to chemistry safety. Throughout this research project, many teachers indicated they were not adequately instructed on the collegiate level in science safety and had to rely on common sense and self-study in their future teaching careers.

  2. Safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keen, L.J.

    2003-01-01

    Safety culture has become a topic of increasing interest for industry and regulators as issues are raised on safety problems around the world. The keys to safety culture are organizational effectiveness, effective communications, organizational learning, and a culture that encourages the identification and resolution of safety issues. The necessity of a strong safety culture places an onus on all of us to continually question whether the safety measures already in place are sufficient, and are being applied. (author)

  3. RF radiation safety handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitchen, Ronald.

    1993-01-01

    Radio frequency radiation can be dangerous in a number of ways. Hazards include electromagnetic compatibility and interference, electro-explosive vapours and devices, and direct effects on the human body. This book is a general introduction to the sources and nature of RF radiation. It describes the ways in which our current knowledge, based on relevant safety standards, can be used to safeguard people from any harmful effects of RF radiation. The book is designed for people responsible for, or concerned with, safety. This target audience will primarily be radio engineers, but includes those skilled in other disciplines including medicine, chemistry or mechanical engineering. The book covers the problems of RF safety management, including the use of measuring instruments and methods, and a review of current safety standards. The implications for RF design engineers are also examined. (Author)

  4. Nuclear Reactor RA Safety Report, Vol. 14, Safety protection measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-11-01

    Nuclear reactor accidents can be caused by three type of errors: failure of reactor components including (1) control and measuring instrumentation, (2) errors in operation procedure, (3) natural disasters. Safety during reactor operation are secured during its design and construction and later during operation. Both construction and administrative procedures are applied to attain safe operation. Technical safety features include fission product barriers, fuel elements cladding, primary reactor components (reactor vessel, primary cooling pipes, heat exchanger in the pump), reactor building. Safety system is the system for safe reactor shutdown and auxiliary safety system. RA reactor operating regulations and instructions are administrative acts applied to avoid possible human error caused accidents [sr

  5. First Experience with the LHC Cryogenic Instrumentation

    CERN Document Server

    Vauthier, N; Balle, Ch; Casas-Cubillos, J; Ciechanowski, M; Fernandez-Penacoba, G; Fortescue-Beck, E; Gomes, P; Jeanmonod, N; Lopez-Lorente, A; Suraci, A

    2008-01-01

    The LHC under commissioning at CERN will be the world's largest superconducting accelerator and therefore makes extensive use of cryogenic instruments. These instruments are installed in the tunnel and therefore have to withstand the LHC environment that imposes radiation-tolerant design and construction. Most of the instruments require individual calibration; some of them exhibit several variants as concerns measuring span; all relevant data are therefore stored in an Oracle® database. Those data are used for the various quality assurance procedures defined for installation and commissioning, as well as for generating tables used by the control system to configure automatically the input/output channels. This paper describes the commissioning of the sensors and the corresponding electronics, the first measurement results during the cool-down of one machine sector; it discusses the different encountered problems and their corresponding solutions.

  6. Convention on nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Convention on Nuclear Safety was adopted on 17 June 1994 by Diplomatic Conference convened by the International Atomic Energy Agency at its Headquarters from 14 to 17 June 1994. The Convention will enter into force on the ninetieth day after the date of deposit with the Depository (the Agency's Director General) of the twenty-second instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval, including the instruments of seventeen States, having each at leas one nuclear installation which has achieved criticality in a reactor core. The text of the Convention as adopted is reproduced in the Annex hereto for the information of all Member States

  7. Innovative methods for the design of miniatured state of the art neutronic channels for future FBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivaramakrishna, M.; Shukla, Rahul; Nagaraj, C.P.; Madhusoodanan, K.

    2011-01-01

    Neutron flux in fast reactor varies over 10 decades from shutdown to full power. This is monitored in all states of the reactor by Neutron flux monitoring systems. The system consists of several sets of detectors and instrument channels. For smooth transition from one set of instrument channel to other, interlocks with auto inhibition in safety logic are provided. In the present reactor, Fission counters are placed in control plug under vessel. The signals from these detectors are connected to preamplifiers near to the sensors. The signals from these preamplifiers are again connected to instrument channels in control building local control centres, which generate parameters such as logarithmic power, period, linear power and reactivity signals. Interlocks with auto inhibition are provided in safety logic for smooth transition from one detector-channel to other. With this arrangement, difficulties are faced such as, two sets of detectors are required at two different locations. Three different types of instrument channels are required. In each channel, there is a trade-off between response time and accuracy. Many interlocks with auto inhibitions are to be provided for transition from one system to another. Volume of electronics involved is very high. The pulses are also not periodical. Hence counting techniques do not result in accurate prediction of frequency and intern power. Either the accuracy of counting or the counting time has to be sacrificed. It can also be seen that as the frequency goes up the pulses over lap. Hence estimating the power using pulse counting can't predict the power correctly. In the Campbell method, which is used in the intermediate range also there is a trade-off between the accuracy and response time and linearity could be seen only for 3 decades. Hence the new approach viz. PCA (principle component analysis) is discussed in this paper. PCA is non-parametric method of extracting relevant information from mixed data by reducing a complex

  8. Tamper indicating radiation surveillance instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, W.H.; Ney, J.F.

    1975-01-01

    Prototype personnel and shipping dock portal monitors suitable for unattended use were fabricated and tested. The requirement for continuous operation with only periodic inspection along with a desire for minimum costs and minimum interference with normal plant operation imposed unique design constraints. The design, operation, and performance of the detection and data recording instrumentation are described, as well as the tamper indicating techniques required to protect the collected data. The essential elements of either of the two instruments include a gamma detector array, signal conditioning electronics, digital alarm logic circuitry, power supplies, a microwave occupancy monitor, surveillance camera, irreversible electromechanical counters, and the appropriate tamper indicating envelope protecting these elements. Attempts to penetrate the tamper indicating envelope require material removal, and undetectable repair is very difficult, if not impossible. The techniques for joining major subassemblies and providing unique seals are also described. The personnel doorway uses a double pole array of NaI(Tl) detectors, and outputs are taken from a single channel pulse height analyzer with a window set at 60 to 250 keV and the lower level discriminator at greater than 60 keV. A sliding interval counter is used to make comparisons to an accumulated background at the 4sigma level. Logic design, sensitivity for special nuclear materials, false alarm data, and test procedures are described in detail. The shipping dock monitor had different design constraints and therefore uses a single, long, cylindrical plastic scintillator. Some differences in signal conditioning and processing are also described. (auth)

  9. Nuclear instrumentation system operating experience and nuclear instrument testing in the EBR-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yingling, G.E.; Curran, R.N.

    1980-01-01

    In March of 1972 three wide range nuclear channels were purchased from Gulf Atomics Corporation and installed in EBR-II as a test. The three channels were operated as a test until April 1975 when they became a permanent part of the reactor shutdown system. Also described are the activities involved in evaluating and qualifying neutron detectors for LMFBR applications. Included are descriptions of the ANL Components Technology Division Test Program and the EBR-II Nuclear Instrument Test Facilities (NITF) used for the in-reactor testing and a summary of program test results from EBR-II

  10. Instrumentation a reader

    CERN Document Server

    Pope, P

    1990-01-01

    This book contains a selection of papers and articles in instrumentation previously pub­ lished in technical periodicals and journals of learned societies. Our selection has been made to illustrate aspects of current practice and applications of instrumentation. The book does not attempt to be encyclopaedic in its coverage of the subject, but to provide some examples of general transduction techniques, of the sensing of particular measurands, of components of instrumentation systems and of instrumentation practice in two very different environments, the food industry and the nuclear power industry. We have made the selection particularly to provide papers appropriate to the study of the Open University course T292 Instrumentation. The papers have been chosen so that the book covers a wide spectrum of instrumentation techniques. Because of this, the book should be of value not only to students of instrumen­ tation, but also to practising engineers and scientists wishing to glean ideas from areas of instrumen...

  11. VIRUS instrument enclosures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, T.; Allen, R.; Mondrik, N.; Rheault, J. P.; Sauseda, M.; Boster, E.; James, M.; Rodriguez-Patino, M.; Torres, G.; Ham, J.; Cook, E.; Baker, D.; DePoy, Darren L.; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Hill, G. J.; Perry, D.; Savage, R. D.; Good, J. M.; Vattiat, Brian L.

    2014-08-01

    The Visible Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument will be installed at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope† in the near future. The instrument will be housed in two enclosures that are mounted adjacent to the telescope, via the VIRUS Support Structure (VSS). We have designed the enclosures to support and protect the instrument, to enable servicing of the instrument, and to cool the instrument appropriately while not adversely affecting the dome environment. The system uses simple HVAC air handling techniques in conjunction with thermoelectric and standard glycol heat exchangers to provide efficient heat removal. The enclosures also provide power and data transfer to and from each VIRUS unit, liquid nitrogen cooling to the detectors, and environmental monitoring of the instrument and dome environments. In this paper, we describe the design and fabrication of the VIRUS enclosures and their subsystems.

  12. A linearization of quantum channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowder, Tanner

    2015-06-01

    Because the quantum channels form a compact, convex set, we can express any quantum channel as a convex combination of extremal channels. We give a Euclidean representation for the channels whose inverses are also valid channels; these are a subset of the extreme points. They form a compact, connected Lie group, and we calculate its Lie algebra. Lastly, we calculate a maximal torus for the group and provide a constructive approach to decomposing any invertible channel into a product of elementary channels.

  13. Radiation protection instrument 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The Radiation Protection Instrument, 1993 (Legislative Instrument 1559) prescribes the powers and functions of the Radiation Protection Board established under the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission by the Atomic Energy Commission (Amendment) Law, 1993 (P.N.D.C. Law 308). Also included in the Legislative Instrument are schedules on control and use of ionising radiation and radiation sources as well as procedures for notification, licensing and inspection of ionising radiation facilities. (EAA)

  14. Omni channel fashion shopping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemperman, A.D.A.M.; van Delft, L.; Borgers, A.W.J.; Pantano, E.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter gives insight into consumers' online and offline fashion shopping behavior, consumers' omni-channel usage during the shopping process, and consumer fashion shopper segments. Based on a literature review, omni-channel shopping behavior during the shopping process was operationalized.

  15. Hardware design for new instrumentation and control system of RTP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Idris Taib; Izhar Abu Hussin; Zareen Khan Abdul Jalil Khan; Mohd Dzul Aiman Aslan; Mohd Khairulezwan Abdul Manan; Nurfarhana Ayuni Joha; Mohd Sabri Minhat

    2010-01-01

    The design for New Instrumentation and Control system of RTP are proposed. Physical system is modular-based, comprise of several cabinets such as Reactor Protection System 1 and 2, Control Console, Information Console 1 and 2 as well as Communication Console. Reactor Protection System automatically will shut-down reactor whenever safety limit setting was approach. Control console is where the reactor operator actually controls the reactor with control the movement of control rods. Information Consoles using Liquid Crystal Display to monitor the reactor parameters. Communication Console is where the communication tools such as telephone and intercom are located. This new system will incorporated analog, digital and computer-based. Reactor Protection System will use all analog system. Reactor Control System and Reactor Monitoring System will use analog as well as computer-based system. Wide-range channel will use digital signal processor as a main component. Controlling control rod movement is using control rod button via microprocessor-based control rod controller. Automatic Flux Controller is using embedded computer for flexibility of programming. Data Acquisition System is using Programmable Logic Controller and Industrial Computer. The main software for this system will be developed using WinCC software. (author)

  16. Upgrading instrumentation and control in nuclear power plants. Design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Rodriguez, M.C.; Alvarez Menendez, A.

    1997-01-01

    The use of programmed digital technology in Protection, Control, Monitoring and Information Systems in new generation nuclear power plants, or the use of this technology to replace or upgrade existing systems based on wired analog instrumentation and electromechanical relays, has led to new international standards which establish new design requirements or adapt existing requirements to this technology. Additionally, both regulatory organisations and the industry are discussing the reliability of this technology, regarding common mode failures that may occur in redundant protection channels, due to the use of equipment and software with the same characteristics. The first part of this paper addresses the most important aspects of new international standards regarding classification criteria for I and C systems, equipment and functions, depending on their importance to safety and the design criteria applicable to each category. Special attention is drawn to requirements concerning software quality assurance and the design of new control rooms. The paper then goes on to discuss the different technical solutions being implemented, using equipment and software diversification, in order to prevent the possibility of common mode failures affecting the protection function. (Author)

  17. Networked Instrumentation Element

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Armstrong researchers have developed a networked instrumentation system that connects modern experimental payloads to existing analog and digital communications...

  18. Instrument validation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, B.A.; Daymo, E.A.; Geeting, J.G.H.; Zhang, J.

    1996-06-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company Project W-211 is responsible for providing the system capabilities to remove radioactive waste from ten double-shell tanks used to store radioactive wastes on the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The project is also responsible for measuring tank waste slurry properties prior to injection into pipeline systems, including the Replacement of Cross-Site Transfer System. This report summarizes studies of the appropriateness of the instrumentation specified for use in Project W-211. The instruments were evaluated in a test loop with simulated slurries that covered the range of properties specified in the functional design criteria. The results of the study indicate that the compact nature of the baseline Project W-211 loop does not result in reduced instrumental accuracy resulting from poor flow profile development. Of the baseline instrumentation, the Micromotion densimeter, the Moore Industries thermocouple, the Fischer and Porter magnetic flow meter, and the Red Valve Pressure transducer meet the desired instrumental accuracy. An alternate magnetic flow meter (Yokagawa) gave nearly identical results as the baseline fischer and Porter. The Micromotion flow meter did not meet the desired instrument accuracy but could potentially be calibrated so that it would meet the criteria. The Nametre on-line viscometer did not meet the desired instrumental accuracy and is not recommended as a quantitative instrument although it does provide qualitative information. The recommended minimum set of instrumentation necessary to ensure the slurry meets the Project W-058 acceptance criteria is the Micromotion mass flow meter and delta pressure cells

  19. Instrument performance evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinth, K.L.

    1993-03-01

    Deficiencies exist in both the performance and the quality of health physics instruments. Recognizing the implications of such deficiencies for the protection of workers and the public, in the early 1980s the DOE and the NRC encouraged the development of a performance standard and established a program to test a series of instruments against criteria in the standard. The purpose of the testing was to establish the practicality of the criteria in the standard, to determine the performance of a cross section of available instruments, and to establish a testing capability. Over 100 instruments were tested, resulting in a practical standard and an understanding of the deficiencies in available instruments. In parallel with the instrument testing, a value-impact study clearly established the benefits of implementing a formal testing program. An ad hoc committee also met several times to establish recommendations for the voluntary implementation of a testing program based on the studies and the performance standard. For several reasons, a formal program did not materialize. Ongoing tests and studies have supported the development of specific instruments and have helped specific clients understand the performance of their instruments. The purpose of this presentation is to trace the history of instrument testing to date and suggest the benefits of a centralized formal program

  20. [Controlling instruments in radiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, M

    2013-10-01

    Due to the rising costs and competitive pressures radiological clinics and practices are now facing, controlling instruments are gaining importance in the optimization of structures and processes of the various diagnostic examinations and interventional procedures. It will be shown how the use of selected controlling instruments can secure and improve the performance of radiological facilities. A definition of the concept of controlling will be provided. It will be shown which controlling instruments can be applied in radiological departments and practices. As an example, two of the controlling instruments, material cost analysis and benchmarking, will be illustrated.

  1. Ocean Optics Instrumentation Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides instrumentation suites for a wide variety of measurements to characterize the ocean’s optical environment. These packages have been developed to...

  2. Experiment to evaluate software safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soubies, B.; Henry, J.Y.

    1994-01-01

    The process of licensing nuclear power plants for operation consists of mandatory steps featuring detailed examination of the instrumentation and control system by the safety authorities, including softwares. The criticality of these softwares obliges the manufacturer to develop in accordance with the IEC 880 standard 'Computer software in nuclear power plant safety systems' issued by the International Electronic Commission. The evaluation approach, a two-stage assessment is described in detail. In this context, the IPSN (Institute of Protection and Nuclear Safety), the technical support body of the safety authority uses the MALPAS tool to analyse the quality of the programs. (R.P.). 4 refs

  3. Safety excavation; Seguranca em escavacoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Walter Manoel [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    In the construction and maintenance services of buried pipelines, the excavation is the activity that contains larger risk, could cause serious accidents. Norms, procedures and technical articles, national and international goods, should be followed for legal and technical aspects. This paper - Safety in Excavations - has purpose to gather all the technical concepts and of safety in a document denominated Procedure of Safety Excavation, serving as instrument to systematize and control the execution of excavation services in construction civil, assembly and pipelines repairs, seeking the people, facilities and the environment's safety. (author)

  4. Channel electron multipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidman, A.; Avrahami, Z.; Sheinfux, B.; Grinberg, J.

    1976-01-01

    A channel electron multiplier is described having a tubular wall coated with a secondary-electron emitting material and including an electric field for accelerating the electrons, the electric field comprising a plurality of low-resistive conductive rings each alternating with a high-resistive insulating ring. The thickness of the low-resistive rings is many times larger than that of the high-resistive rings, being in the order of tens of microns for the low-resistive rings and at least one order of magnitude lower for the high-resistive rings; and the diameter of the channel tubular walls is also many times larger than the thickness of the high-resistive rings. Both single-channel and multiple-channel electron multipliers are described. A very important advantage, particularly in making multiple-channel multipliers, is the simplicity of the procedure that may be used in constructing such multipliers. Other operational advantages are described

  5. Cardiac potassium channel subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, Nicole; Grunnet, Morten; Olesen, Søren-Peter

    2014-01-01

    About 10 distinct potassium channels in the heart are involved in shaping the action potential. Some of the K(+) channels are primarily responsible for early repolarization, whereas others drive late repolarization and still others are open throughout the cardiac cycle. Three main K(+) channels...... drive the late repolarization of the ventricle with some redundancy, and in atria this repolarization reserve is supplemented by the fairly atrial-specific KV1.5, Kir3, KCa, and K2P channels. The role of the latter two subtypes in atria is currently being clarified, and several findings indicate...... that they could constitute targets for new pharmacological treatment of atrial fibrillation. The interplay between the different K(+) channel subtypes in both atria and ventricle is dynamic, and a significant up- and downregulation occurs in disease states such as atrial fibrillation or heart failure...

  6. Cl- channels in apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanitchakool, Podchanart; Ousingsawat, Jiraporn; Sirianant, Lalida

    2016-01-01

    A remarkable feature of apoptosis is the initial massive cell shrinkage, which requires opening of ion channels to allow release of K(+), Cl(-), and organic osmolytes to drive osmotic water movement and cell shrinkage. This article focuses on the role of the Cl(-) channels LRRC8, TMEM16/anoctamin......, and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) in cellular apoptosis. LRRC8A-E has been identified as a volume-regulated anion channel expressed in many cell types. It was shown to be required for regulatory and apoptotic volume decrease (RVD, AVD) in cultured cell lines. Its presence also......(-) channels or as regulators of other apoptotic Cl(-) channels, such as LRRC8. CFTR has been known for its proapoptotic effects for some time, and this effect may be based on glutathione release from the cell and increase in cytosolic reactive oxygen species (ROS). Although we find that CFTR is activated...

  7. CHANNEL ESTIMATION TECHNIQUE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    A method includes determining a sequence of first coefficient estimates of a communication channel based on a sequence of pilots arranged according to a known pilot pattern and based on a receive signal, wherein the receive signal is based on the sequence of pilots transmitted over the communicat......A method includes determining a sequence of first coefficient estimates of a communication channel based on a sequence of pilots arranged according to a known pilot pattern and based on a receive signal, wherein the receive signal is based on the sequence of pilots transmitted over...... the communication channel. The method further includes determining a sequence of second coefficient estimates of the communication channel based on a decomposition of the first coefficient estimates in a dictionary matrix and a sparse vector of the second coefficient estimates, the dictionary matrix including...... filter characteristics of at least one known transceiver filter arranged in the communication channel....

  8. Reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butz, H.P.; Heuser, F.W.; May, H.

    1985-01-01

    The paper comprises an introduction into nuclear physics bases, the safety concept generally speaking, safety devices of pwr type reactors, accident analysis, external influences, probabilistic safety assessment and risk studies. It further describes operational experience, licensing procedures under the Atomic Energy Law, research in reactor safety and the nuclear fuel cycle. (DG) [de

  9. Safety analysis procedures for PHWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Byung Joo; Kim, Hyoung Tae; Yoo, Kun Joong

    2004-03-01

    The methodology of safety analyses for CANDU reactors in Canada, a vendor country, uses a combination of best-estimate physical models and conservative input parameters so as to minimize the uncertainty of the plant behavior predictions. As using the conservative input parameters, the results of the safety analyses are assured the regulatory requirements such as the public dose, the integrity of fuel and fuel channel, the integrity of containment and reactor structures, etc. However, there is not the comprehensive and systematic procedures for safety analyses for CANDU reactors in Korea. In this regard, the development of the safety analyses procedures for CANDU reactors is being conducted not only to establish the safety analyses system, but also to enhance the quality assurance of the safety assessment. In the first phase of this study, the general procedures of the deterministic safety analyses are developed. The general safety procedures are covered the specification of the initial event, selection of the methodology and accident sequences, computer codes, safety analysis procedures, verification of errors and uncertainties, etc. Finally, These general procedures of the safety analyses are applied to the Large Break Loss Of Coolant Accident (LBLOCA) in Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) for Wolsong units 2, 3, 4

  10. Instrumentation of steam cycle HTR's up to 900 MWe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leithner, D.E.; Winkenbach, B.

    1982-06-01

    Due to basic design features and inherent safety qualities in-core instrumentation is not needed in an HTR. Reactor safety requirements can be met by integral measurements. A modest spatial resolving power of the out-of-core instrumentation is sufficient for all operational purposes in small and medium sized steam cycle HTR's. Thus, the instrumentation concept of the THTR 300 MWe prototype reactor can be adopted without major changes for the HTR 450 MWe reactor project, as is demonstrated here for the neutron flux and temperature measurements. (author)

  11. Performing instrumentation and controls upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessler, F. M.; Connell, T. J.; Ryan, M. P.

    1992-01-01

    control upgrades. Digital equipment provides state of the art status and has been proven by extensive use in both non-nuclear applications and nuclear applications. It is flexible, can reduce spare parts inventory, can support expanded I and C functions, and can be readily substituted for current safety and non-safety instrumentation and controls. The backbit and installation of instrumentation and control equipment will be described in this paper from many perspectives. Areas such as current technology, availability, testability, reliability, information display, and maintenance need to be considered. Various approaches available to carry out an I and C upgrade along with the PROM's and con's of certain methods will be discussed. Finally, the actual implementation of the upgrade will be described including specific examples of methods to ensure maximum efficiency and to minimize the 'in plant' requirements to support implementing the upgrade

  12. Renovation of PARR instrumentation and controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karim, A.; Haq, I.; Akhtar, K.M.; Alam, G.D.

    1987-01-01

    The Pakistan research reactor (PARR) was commissioned in 1965 and operated since then in accordance with the requirements. In the first instance, it was proposed that the controls and instrumentation be modernized according to the state of current technology and for meeting the more stringent safety, and operational needs. A computer has been added for data acquisition, logging and analysis. A closed circuit television system has been installed to monitor access of personnel to the reactor building and for viewing the reactor core with an underwater camera. This report gives a brief account of the old instrumentation and some details of the new replacements. (orig./A.B)

  13. Overview of LOFT instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bixby, W.W.

    1979-01-01

    A description of instrumentation used in the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) large break Loss-of-Coolant Experiments is presented. Emphasis is placed on hydraulic and thermal measurements in the primary system piping and components, reactor vessel, and pressure suppression system. In addition, instrumentation which is being considered for measurement of phenomena during future small break testing is discussed

  14. Handbook of laboratory health and safety measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, S.B.

    1985-01-01

    The application of radioactive isotopes and various scientific instruments based on different ionizing and non-ionizing radiation have brought new safety problems to laboratory workers today. Therefore, there is a need to revise present knowledge of safety measures to deal with new hazards, thus broadening the outlook towards health and safety measures for contemporary laboratory staff. This handbook presents a series of articles on current knowledge regarding laboratory safety

  15. HTGR safety research program. Progress report, April--June 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirk, W.L.

    1975-09-01

    Progress in HTGR safety research is reported under the following headings: fission product technology; primary coolant impurities; structural investigation; safety instrumentation and control systems; phenomena modeling and systems analysis. (JWR)

  16. Coherifying quantum channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzekwa, Kamil; Czachórski, Stanisław; Puchała, Zbigniew; Życzkowski, Karol

    2018-04-01

    Is it always possible to explain random stochastic transitions between states of a finite-dimensional system as arising from the deterministic quantum evolution of the system? If not, then what is the minimal amount of randomness required by quantum theory to explain a given stochastic process? Here, we address this problem by studying possible coherifications of a quantum channel Φ, i.e., we look for channels {{{Φ }}}{ \\mathcal C } that induce the same classical transitions T, but are ‘more coherent’. To quantify the coherence of a channel Φ we measure the coherence of the corresponding Jamiołkowski state J Φ. We show that the classical transition matrix T can be coherified to reversible unitary dynamics if and only if T is unistochastic. Otherwise the Jamiołkowski state {J}{{Φ }}{ \\mathcal C } of the optimally coherified channel is mixed, and the dynamics must necessarily be irreversible. To assess the extent to which an optimal process {{{Φ }}}{ \\mathcal C } is indeterministic we find explicit bounds on the entropy and purity of {J}{{Φ }}{ \\mathcal C }, and relate the latter to the unitarity of {{{Φ }}}{ \\mathcal C }. We also find optimal coherifications for several classes of channels, including all one-qubit channels. Finally, we provide a non-optimal coherification procedure that works for an arbitrary channel Φ and reduces its rank (the minimal number of required Kraus operators) from {d}2 to d.

  17. Nuclear power plant control and instrumentation in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lantieri, A.

    1992-01-01

    The National Energy Plan (PEN) approved by the Government of Italy in August 1988 provides a programme of research and industrial development or reactors with inherent and passive safety features. For the Control Systems and Instrumentation there is the aim to define rules and design criteria, by evaluating the impact of inherent safety goals on the C and I design. The effort on man-machine interface is considered essential to increase safety and efficiency of advanced reactors. The paper briefly describes the activity in control systems and in the instrumentation area. (author)

  18. Reconfigurable virtual electrowetting channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Ananda; Kreit, Eric; Liu, Yuguang; Heikenfeld, Jason; Papautsky, Ian

    2012-02-21

    Lab-on-a-chip systems rely on several microfluidic paradigms. The first uses a fixed layout of continuous microfluidic channels. Such lab-on-a-chip systems are almost always application specific and far from a true "laboratory." The second involves electrowetting droplet movement (digital microfluidics), and allows two-dimensional computer control of fluidic transport and mixing. The merging of the two paradigms in the form of programmable electrowetting channels takes advantage of both the "continuous" functionality of rigid channels based on which a large number of applications have been developed to date and the "programmable" functionality of digital microfluidics that permits electrical control of on-chip functions. In this work, we demonstrate for the first time programmable formation of virtual microfluidic channels and their continuous operation with pressure driven flows using an electrowetting platform. Experimental, theoretical, and numerical analyses of virtual channel formation with biologically relevant electrolyte solutions and electrically-programmable reconfiguration are presented. We demonstrate that the "wall-less" virtual channels can be formed reliably and rapidly, with propagation rates of 3.5-3.8 mm s(-1). Pressure driven transport in these virtual channels at flow rates up to 100 μL min(-1) is achievable without distortion of the channel shape. We further demonstrate that these virtual channels can be switched on-demand between multiple inputs and outputs. Ultimately, we envision a platform that would provide rapid prototyping of microfluidic concepts and would be capable of a vast library of functions and benefitting applications from clinical diagnostics in resource-limited environments to rapid system prototyping to high throughput pharmaceutical applications.

  19. Evaluation channel performance in multichannel environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gensler, S.; Dekimpe, M.; Skiera, B.

    2007-01-01

    Evaluating channel performance is crucial for actively managing multiple sales channels, and requires understanding the customers' channel preferences. Two key components of channel performance are (i) the existing customers' intrinsic loyalty to a particular channel and (ii) the channel's ability

  20. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the English Channel and North Atlantic Ocean from 2012-03-24 to 2012-04-07 (NCEI Accession 0157273)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157273 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the English Channel and North Atlantic...

  1. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from RIO BLANCO in the English Channel, Mediterranean Sea and others from 2009-12-13 to 2010-12-14 (NODC Accession 0117291)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0117291 includes Surface underway data collected from RIO BLANCO in the English Channel, Mediterranean Sea, North Atlantic Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean...

  2. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from Santa Cruz in the English Channel, North Atlantic Ocean and others from 2014-01-17 to 2014-02-28 (NCEI Accession 0157404)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157404 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from Santa Cruz in the English Channel, North Atlantic Ocean,...

  3. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from MN COLIBRI in the Alboran Sea, English Channel and others from 2010-03-30 to 2011-01-02 (NCEI Accession 0157320)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157320 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from MN COLIBRI in the Alboran Sea, English Channel, Ligurian...

  4. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from MN COLIBRI in the English Channel and North Atlantic Ocean from 2011-01-07 to 2011-01-17 (NCEI Accession 0157367)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157367 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from MN COLIBRI in the English Channel and North Atlantic...

  5. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the English Channel and North Sea from 2013-07-11 to 2013-07-23 (NCEI Accession 0157281)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157281 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the English Channel and North Sea from...

  6. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from MN COLIBRI in the English Channel and North Atlantic Ocean from 2016-01-07 to 2016-05-30 (NCEI Accession 0160554)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0160554 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from MN COLIBRI in the English Channel and North Atlantic...

  7. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the English Channel, North Atlantic Ocean and North Sea from 2013-10-12 to 2013-10-22 (NCEI Accession 0157304)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157304 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the English Channel, North Atlantic...

  8. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from Cap San Lorenzo in the English Channel, North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2016-01-29 to 2016-07-27 (NCEI Accession 0160551)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0160551 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from Cap San Lorenzo in the English Channel, North Atlantic...

  9. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from Cap San Lorenzo in the English Channel, Mediterranean Sea and others from 2015-02-28 to 2015-12-16 (NCEI Accession 0157377)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157377 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from Cap San Lorenzo in the English Channel, Mediterranean...

  10. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the English Channel, North Atlantic Ocean and North Sea from 2012-02-18 to 2012-02-29 (NCEI Accession 0157300)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157300 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the English Channel, North Atlantic...

  11. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the METEOR in the English Channel, Indian Ocean and others from 1994-10-12 to 1994-11-12 (NODC Accession 0115605)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115605 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from METEOR in the English Channel, Indian Ocean, North...

  12. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from MIRAI in the Indian Ocean and Mozambique Channel from 2003-12-09 to 2004-01-24 (NODC Accession 0108101)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0108101 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from MIRAI in the Indian Ocean and Mozambique Channel from 2003-12-09 to 2004-01-24. These...

  13. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity and salinity collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from ARMORIQUE in the English Channel from 2013-03-15 to 2013-12-22 (NCEI Accession 0157444)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157444 includes Surface underway, chemical and physical data collected from ARMORIQUE in the English Channel from 2013-03-15 to 2013-12-22. These...

  14. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from the PRIDE OF BILBAO in the Bay of Biscay, English Channel and North Atlantic Ocean from 2005-09-26 to 2010-09-16 (NODC Accession 0108092)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108092 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from PRIDE OF BILBAO in the Bay of Biscay, English Channel and North...

  15. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from the PELAGIA in the English Channel, North Atlantic Ocean and others from 2001-08-18 to 2002-05-25 (NODC Accession 0112844)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112844 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from PELAGIA in the English Channel, North Atlantic Ocean, North Sea,...

  16. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from the PELAGIA in the English Channel, North Atlantic Ocean and others from 2001-08-18 to 2002-05-25 (NODC Accession 0112843)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112843 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from PELAGIA in the English Channel, North Atlantic Ocean, North Sea,...

  17. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from MIRAI in the Indian Ocean, Mozambique Channel and South Atlantic Ocean from 2003-12-09 to 2004-01-24 (NCEI Accession 0144250)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144250 includes Surface underway data collected from MIRAI in the Indian Ocean, Mozambique Channel and South Atlantic Ocean from 2003-12-09 to...

  18. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from Benguela Stream in the Caribbean Sea, English Channel and North Atlantic Ocean from 2015-01-08 to 2015-08-27 (NCEI Accession 0160490)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0160490 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from Benguela Stream in the Caribbean Sea, English Channel and...

  19. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from PRINCE OF SEAS in the Caribbean Sea, English Channel and others from 1994-06-03 to 1995-08-04 (NCEI Accession 0157050)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157050 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from PRINCE OF SEAS in the Caribbean Sea, English Channel,...

  20. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from DISCOVERY in the English Channel, Inner Sea - West Coast Scotland and others from 2011-06-06 to 2011-07-09 (NCEI Accession 0157451)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157451 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from DISCOVERY in the English Channel, Inner Sea - West Coast...

  1. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from POLARSTERN in the Bay of Biscay, English Channel and others from 2010-01-31 to 2010-11-25 (NCEI Accession 0157388)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157388 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from POLARSTERN in the Bay of Biscay, English Channel, North...

  2. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from NOAA Ship DAVID STARR JORDAN in the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary, Cordell Bank National Marine Sanctuary and others from 2007-07-25 to 2007-10-28 (NCEI Accession 0144352)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144352 includes Surface underway data collected from NOAA Ship DAVID STARR JORDAN in the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary, Cordell Bank...

  3. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity and salinity collected from surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from ARMORIQUE in the English Channel from 2014-03-18 to 2014-10-09 (NCEI Accession 0163193)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0163193 includes chemical, physical and surface underway data collected from ARMORIQUE in the English Channel from 2014-03-18 to 2014-10-09. These...

  4. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from POLARSTERN in the English Channel, North Atlantic Ocean and others from 2009-01-09 to 2010-01-25 (NCEI Accession 0157325)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157325 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from POLARSTERN in the English Channel, North Atlantic Ocean,...

  5. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from MN COLIBRI in the English Channel and North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-07-04 to 2014-11-04 (NCEI Accession 0157355)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157355 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from MN COLIBRI in the English Channel and North Atlantic...

  6. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from Benguela Stream in the Caribbean Sea, English Channel and North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-04-30 to 2014-12-19 (NCEI Accession 0159093)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0159093 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from Benguela Stream in the Caribbean Sea, English Channel and...

  7. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from Benguela Stream in the Caribbean Sea, English Channel and North Atlantic Ocean from 2009-01-10 to 2009-12-30 (NCEI Accession 0157285)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157285 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from Benguela Stream in the Caribbean Sea, English Channel and...

  8. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from Cap San Lorenzo in the English Channel, Mediterranean Sea and others from 2014-11-15 to 2014-11-19 (NCEI Accession 0157277)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157277 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from Cap San Lorenzo in the English Channel, Mediterranean...

  9. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from Atlantic Cartier in the English Channel, Inner Sea - West Coast Scotland and others from 2016-03-07 to 2016-11-09 (NCEI Accession 0157322)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157322 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from Atlantic Cartier in the English Channel, Inner Sea - West...

  10. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from Benguela Stream in the Caribbean Sea, English Channel and North Atlantic Ocean from 2010-01-09 to 2010-12-30 (NCEI Accession 0157319)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157319 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from Benguela Stream in the Caribbean Sea, English Channel and...

  11. Channel follower leakage restrictor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, H.E.; Smith, B.A.

    1977-01-01

    An improved means is provided to control coolant leakage between the flow channel and the lower tie plate of a nuclear fuel assembly. The means includes an opening in the lower tie plate and a movable element adjacent thereto. The coolant pressure within the tie plate biases the movable means toward the inner surface of the surrounding flow channel to compensate for any movement of the flow channel away from the lower tie plate to thereby control the leakage of coolant flow from the fuel assemblies to the spaces among the fuel assemblies of the core. 9 figures

  12. Direct channel problems and phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutkosky, R.E.

    1975-01-01

    Direct channel problems and phenomena are considered covering the need for precision hadron spectroscopy, the data base for precision hadron spectroscopy, some relations between direct-channel and cross-channel effects, and spin rotation phenomena

  13. Innovative instrumentation for VVERs based in non-invasive techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeanneau, H.; Favennec, J.M.; Tournu, E.; Germain, J.L.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear power plants such as VVERs can greatly benefit from innovative instrumentation to improve plant safety and efficiency. In recent years innovative instrumentation has been developed for PWRs with the aim of providing additional measurements of physical parameters on the primary and secondary circuits: the addition of new instrumentation is made possible by using non-invasive techniques such as ultrasonics and radiation detection. These innovations can be adapted for upgrading VVERs presently in operation and also in future VVERs. The following innovative instrumentation for the control, monitoring or testing at VVERs is described: 1. instrumentation for more accurate primary side direct measurements (for a better monitoring of the primary circuit); 2. instrumentation to monitor radioactivity leaks (for a safer plant); 3. instrumentation-related systems to improve the plant efficiency (for a cheaper kWh)

  14. Radiation safety and workers safety: partners instead of rivals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambotte, S.; Severitt, S.; Sobetzko, T.; Voelker, T.

    2008-01-01

    It is shown how important and paying it is to look upon working systems as a whole with regard to danger and load at the working place, and to use existing synergies. At many places, a change of approach in this direction is still necessary, in order to recognize the connection between the various fields of operational safety as well as the potential that is hidden behind an effective utilization of the instruments for workers safety. (orig.)

  15. Many channel spectrum unfolding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najzer, M.; Glumac, B.; Pauko, M.

    1980-01-01

    The principle of the ITER unfolding code as used for the many channel spectrum unfolding is described. Its unfolding ability is tested on seven typical neutron spectra. The effect of the initial spectrum approximation upon the solution is discussed

  16. Channelized Streams in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This draft dataset consists of all ditches or channelized pieces of stream that could be identified using three input datasets; namely the1:24,000 National...

  17. Coding for optical channels

    CERN Document Server

    Djordjevic, Ivan; Vasic, Bane

    2010-01-01

    This unique book provides a coherent and comprehensive introduction to the fundamentals of optical communications, signal processing and coding for optical channels. It is the first to integrate the fundamentals of coding theory and optical communication.

  18. Sensing with Ion Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Martinac, Boris

    2008-01-01

    All living cells are able to detect and translate environmental stimuli into biologically meaningful signals. Sensations of touch, hearing, sight, taste, smell or pain are essential to the survival of all living organisms. The importance of sensory input for the existence of life thus justifies the effort made to understand its molecular origins. Sensing with Ion Channels focuses on ion channels as key molecules enabling biological systems to sense and process the physical and chemical stimuli that act upon cells in their living environment. Its aim is to serve as a reference to ion channel specialists and as a source of new information to non specialists who want to learn about the structural and functional diversity of ion channels and their role in sensory physiology.

  19. Calcium channel blocker poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miran Brvar

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calcium channel blockers act at L-type calcium channels in cardiac and vascular smooth muscles by preventing calcium influx into cells with resultant decrease in vascular tone and cardiac inotropy, chronotropy and dromotropy. Poisoning with calcium channel blockers results in reduced cardiac output, bradycardia, atrioventricular block, hypotension and shock. The findings of hypotension and bradycardia should suggest poisoning with calcium channel blockers.Conclusions: Treatment includes immediate gastric lavage and whole-bowel irrigation in case of ingestion of sustainedrelease products. All patients should receive an activated charcoal orally. Specific treatment includes calcium, glucagone and insulin, which proved especially useful in shocked patients. Supportive care including the use of catecholamines is not always effective. In the setting of failure of pharmacological therapy transvenous pacing, balloon pump and cardiopulmonary by-pass may be necessary.

  20. TRP channels: an overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Stine Falsig; Owsianik, Grzegorz; Nilius, Bernd

    2005-01-01

    The TRP ("transient receptor potential") family of ion channels now comprises more than 30 cation channels, most of which are permeable for Ca2+, and some also for Mg2+. On the basis of sequence homology, the TRP family can be divided in seven main subfamilies: the TRPC ('Canonical') family......, the TRPV ('Vanilloid') family, the TRPM ('Melastatin') family, the TRPP ('Polycystin') family, the TRPML ('Mucolipin') family, the TRPA ('Ankyrin') family, and the TRPN ('NOMPC') family. The cloning and characterization of members of this cation channel family has exploded during recent years, leading...... to a plethora of data on the roles of TRPs in a variety of tissues and species, including mammals, insects, and yeast. The present review summarizes the most pertinent recent evidence regarding the structural and functional properties of TRP channels, focusing on the regulation and physiology of mammalian TRPs....

  1. Proceedings of the Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting: Volume 1, Plenary session; Advanced reactor research; advanced control system technology; advanced instrumentation and control hardware; human factors research; probabilistic risk assessment topics; thermal hydraulics; thermal hydraulic research for advanced passive LWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteleone, S.

    1994-04-01

    This three-volume report contains 90 papers out of the 102 that were presented at the Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, during the week of October 25--27, 1993. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from France, Germany, Japan, Russia, Switzerland, Taiwan, and United Kingdom. The titles of the papers and the names of the authors have been updated and may differ from those that appeared in the final program of the meeting. Individual papers have been cataloged separately. This document, Volume 1 covers the following topics: Advanced Reactor Research; Advanced Instrumentation and Control Hardware; Advanced Control System Technology; Human Factors Research; Probabilistic Risk Assessment Topics; Thermal Hydraulics; and Thermal Hydraulic Research for Advanced Passive Light Water Reactors

  2. Proceedings of the Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting: Volume 1, Plenary session; Advanced reactor research; advanced control system technology; advanced instrumentation and control hardware; human factors research; probabilistic risk assessment topics; thermal hydraulics; thermal hydraulic research for advanced passive LWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteleone, S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)] [comp.

    1994-04-01

    This three-volume report contains 90 papers out of the 102 that were presented at the Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, during the week of October 25--27, 1993. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from France, Germany, Japan, Russia, Switzerland, Taiwan, and United Kingdom. The titles of the papers and the names of the authors have been updated and may differ from those that appeared in the final program of the meeting. Individual papers have been cataloged separately. This document, Volume 1 covers the following topics: Advanced Reactor Research; Advanced Instrumentation and Control Hardware; Advanced Control System Technology; Human Factors Research; Probabilistic Risk Assessment Topics; Thermal Hydraulics; and Thermal Hydraulic Research for Advanced Passive Light Water Reactors.

  3. Assessing hospitals' clinical risk management: Development of a monitoring instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pfeiffer Yvonne

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical risk management (CRM plays a crucial role in enabling hospitals to identify, contain, and manage risks related to patient safety. So far, no instruments are available to measure and monitor the level of implementation of CRM. Therefore, our objective was to develop an instrument for assessing CRM in hospitals. Methods The instrument was developed based on a literature review, which identified key elements of CRM. These elements were then discussed with a panel of patient safety experts. A theoretical model was used to describe the level to which CRM elements have been implemented within the organization. Interviews with CRM practitioners and a pilot evaluation were conducted to revise the instrument. The first nationwide application of the instrument (138 participating Swiss hospitals was complemented by in-depth interviews with 25 CRM practitioners in selected hospitals, for validation purposes. Results The monitoring instrument consists of 28 main questions organized in three sections: 1 Implementation and organizational integration of CRM, 2 Strategic objectives and operational implementation of CRM at hospital level, and 3 Overview of CRM in different services. The instrument is available in four languages (English, German, French, and Italian. It allows hospitals to gather comprehensive and systematic data on their CRM practice and to identify areas for further improvement. Conclusions We have developed an instrument for assessing development stages of CRM in hospitals that should be feasible for a continuous monitoring of developments in this important area of patient safety.

  4. Assessing hospitals' clinical risk management: Development of a monitoring instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briner, Matthias; Kessler, Oliver; Pfeiffer, Yvonne; Wehner, Theo; Manser, Tanja

    2010-12-13

    Clinical risk management (CRM) plays a crucial role in enabling hospitals to identify, contain, and manage risks related to patient safety. So far, no instruments are available to measure and monitor the level of implementation of CRM. Therefore, our objective was to develop an instrument for assessing CRM in hospitals. The instrument was developed based on a literature review, which identified key elements of CRM. These elements were then discussed with a panel of patient safety experts. A theoretical model was used to describe the level to which CRM elements have been implemented within the organization. Interviews with CRM practitioners and a pilot evaluation were conducted to revise the instrument. The first nationwide application of the instrument (138 participating Swiss hospitals) was complemented by in-depth interviews with 25 CRM practitioners in selected hospitals, for validation purposes. The monitoring instrument consists of 28 main questions organized in three sections: 1) Implementation and organizational integration of CRM, 2) Strategic objectives and operational implementation of CRM at hospital level, and 3) Overview of CRM in different services. The instrument is available in four languages (English, German, French, and Italian). It allows hospitals to gather comprehensive and systematic data on their CRM practice and to identify areas for further improvement. We have developed an instrument for assessing development stages of CRM in hospitals that should be feasible for a continuous monitoring of developments in this important area of patient safety.

  5. Multi-channel mechanical test machine for HANARO (I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, M. S.; Choi, Y.; Cho, M. S.; Kim, B. G.; Kang, Y. H.

    2004-01-01

    Design and fabrication of multi-channel mechanical test machine is useful and important for the study of in-pile test of nuclear materials in HANARO. The dimension and shape of the multi-channel mechanical test machine should be fixed to a test reactor and their objectives. KAERI successfully developed a non-instrumented multi-channel mechanical test machine for material irradiation tests in a domestic research reactor, HANARO. This results in strongly stimulating and accelerating irradiation tests of materials in domestic industry and research fields with HANARO. Although various types of in-pile creep capsule were made for well installation in each test reactor, there is no in-pile creep multi-channel mechanical test machine for HANARO. Hence, the objectives of this study are to fabricate and test a multi-channel mechanical test machine of HANARO

  6. Advances in constant-velocity Moessbauer instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veiga, A.; Martinez, N.; Zelis, P. Mendoza; Pasquevich, G. A.; Sanchez, F. H.

    2006-01-01

    A prototype of a programmable constant-velocity scaler is presented. This instrument allows the acquisition of partial Moessbauer spectra in selected energy regions using standard drivers and transducers. It can be fully operated by a remote application, thus data acquisition can be automated. The instrument consists of a programmable counter and a constant-velocity reference. The reference waveform generator is amplitude modulated with 13-bit resolution, and is programmable in a wide range of frequencies and waveforms in order to optimize the performance of the transducer. The counter is compatible with most standard SCA, and is configured as a rate-meter that provides counts per selectable time slice at the programmed velocity. As a demonstration of the instrument applications, a partial Moessbauer spectrum of a natural iron foil was taken. Only positive energies were studied in 512 channels, accumulating 20 s per channel. A line width of 0.20 mm/s was achieved, performing with an efficiency of 80%.

  7. Authentication over Noisy Channels

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Lifeng; Gamal, Hesham El; Poor, H. Vincent

    2008-01-01

    In this work, message authentication over noisy channels is studied. The model developed in this paper is the authentication theory counterpart of Wyner's wiretap channel model. Two types of opponent attacks, namely impersonation attacks and substitution attacks, are investigated for both single message and multiple message authentication scenarios. For each scenario, information theoretic lower and upper bounds on the opponent's success probability are derived. Remarkably, in both scenarios,...

  8. Channelling versus inversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gale, A.S.; Surlyk, Finn; Anderskouv, Kresten

    2013-01-01

    Evidence from regional stratigraphical patterns in Santonian−Campanian chalk is used to infer the presence of a very broad channel system (5 km across) with a depth of at least 50 m, running NNW−SSE across the eastern Isle of Wight; only the western part of the channel wall and fill is exposed. W......−Campanian chalks in the eastern Isle of Wight, involving penecontemporaneous tectonic inversion of the underlying basement structure, are rejected....

  9. Stream Channel Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    Cycles of wetting and drying are also t ,v itiue swelling and shrinkage of the soil. S 11ied blocks or peds of soil fabric ,,ks. id downslope soil creep ...hydrographs of water and sediment at the point in question. By feeding the output from the hydrology-transport model into the finite element model...the banks as undercut banks fail. Channel irregularities such as seepage zones, cattle crossings, overbank drainage, buried channels, organic deposits

  10. Channeling and dynamic chaos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolotin, IU L; Gonchar, V IU; Truten, V I; Shulga, N F

    1986-01-01

    It is shown that axial channeling of relativistic electrons can give rise to the effect of dynamic chaos which involves essentially chaotic motion of a particle in the channel. The conditions leading to the effect of dynamic chaos and the manifestations of this effect in physical processes associated with the passage of particles through a crystal are examined using a silicon crystal as an example. 7 references.

  11. Instrumentation reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Boyes, Walt

    2002-01-01

    Instrumentation is not a clearly defined subject, having a 'fuzzy' boundary with a number of other disciplines. Often categorized as either 'techniques' or 'applications' this book addresses the various applications that may be needed with reference to the practical techniques that are available for the instrumentation or measurement of a specific physical quantity or quality. This makes it of direct interest to anyone working in the process, control and instrumentation fields where these measurements are essential.* Comprehensive and authoritative collection of technical information* Writte

  12. The latest radiation instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Se Sik; Gwon, Dal Gwan; Kim, Gyeong Geum

    2008-08-01

    This book deals with the latest radiation instrument, which is comprised of eight chapters. It explains X rays instrument for medial treatment, X-ray tube instrument and permissible burden with its history, structure and characteristic high voltage apparatus with high voltage rectifier circuit, X-ray control apparatus for medical treatment, X-ray image equipment X-ray television apparatus and CCD 205, X-ray apparatus of install and types, Digital X-ray apparatus with CR 261 and DR 269, performance management on X-ray for medical treatment with its history, necessity and management in the radiation field.

  13. Soil monitoring instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umbarger, C.J.

    1980-01-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) has an extensive program for the development of nondestructive assay instrumentation for the quantitative analysis of transuranic (TRU) materials found in bulk solid wastes generated by Department of Energy facilities and by the commercial nuclear power industry. Included are wastes generated in decontamination and decommissioning of outdated nuclear facilities as well as wastes from old waste burial ground exhumation programs. The assay instrumentation is designed to have detection limits below 10 nCi/g wherever practicable. Because of the topic of this workshop, only the assay instrumentation applied specifically to soil monitoring will be discussed here. Four types of soil monitors are described

  14. Soil monitoring instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umbarger, C.J.

    1981-01-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) has an extensive program for the development of nondestructive assay instrumentation for the quantitative analysis of transuranic (TRU) materials found in bulk solid wastes generated by Department of Energy facilities and by the commercial nuclear power industry. Included are wastes generated in decontamination and decommissioning of outdated nuclear facilities, as well as from old waste-burial-ground exhumation programs. The assay instrumentation is designed to have detection limits below 10 nCi/g wherever practicable. The assay instrumentation that is applied specifically to soil monitoring is discussed

  15. Jones' instrument technology

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Ernest Beachcroft; Kingham, Edward G; Radnai, Rudolf

    1985-01-01

    Jones' Instrument Technology, Volume 5: Automatic Instruments and Measuring Systems deals with general trends in automatic instruments and measuring systems. Specific examples are provided to illustrate the principles of such devices. A brief review of a considerable number of standards is undertaken, with emphasis on the IEC625 Interface System. Other relevant standards are reviewed, including the interface and backplane bus standards. This volume is comprised of seven chapters and begins with a short introduction to the principles of automatic measurements, classification of measuring system

  16. Medical instruments in museums

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Söderqvist, Thomas; Arnold, Ken

    2011-01-01

    This essay proposes that our understanding of medical instruments might benefit from adding a more forthright concern with their immediate presence to the current historical focus on simply decoding their meanings and context. This approach is applied to the intriguingly tricky question of what...... actually is meant by a "medical instrument." It is suggested that a pragmatic part of the answer might lie simply in reconsidering the holdings of medical museums, where the significance of the physical actuality of instruments comes readily to hand....

  17. An improved instrument setpoint control program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cash, J.S. Jr.; George, R.T.; Kincaid, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    Instrument setpoints have a definite and often significant impact on plant safety, reliability, and availability. Although typically overshadowed by plant design, modification, and physical change activities, instrument setpoints can alter plant status and system operating characteristics just as significantly. Recognizing the need for a formal program that provides configuration control of instrument setpoints, provides a readily accessible and clearly documented basis for instrument setpoints, and integrates and coordinates operations, engineering, and maintenance activities that influence the basis for instrument setpoints, Philadelphia Electric Company (PECo) is developing an Improved Instrument Setpoint Control Program (IISCP) that incorporates current industry guidance and practices and state-of-the-art information systems technology. The IISCP was designed around PECo's then existing business processes for setpoint control, determination, and maintenance. A task force representing the various constituencies from both plants and the engineering and services organizations were formed to identify objectives and design features for the IISCP. Utilizing industry standards and guidance, regulatory documents, the experiences and good practices obtained from other utilities, and PECo's nuclear group strategies, objectives, and goals, specific objectives were identified to enhance the business processes

  18. Course on Ionic Channels

    CERN Document Server

    1986-01-01

    This book is based on a series of lectures for a course on ionic channels held in Santiago, Chile, on November 17-20, 1984. It is intended as a tutorial guide on the properties, function, modulation, and reconstitution of ionic channels, and it should be accessible to graduate students taking their first steps in this field. In the presentation there has been a deliberate emphasis on the spe­ cific methodologies used toward the understanding of the workings and function of channels. Thus, in the first section, we learn to "read" single­ channel records: how to interpret them in the theoretical frame of kinetic models, which information can be extracted from gating currents in re­ lation to the closing and opening processes, and how ion transport through an open channel can be explained in terms of fluctuating energy barriers. The importance of assessing unequivocally the origin and purity of mem­ brane preparations and the use of membrane vesicles and optical tech­ niques in the stUGY of ionic channels a...

  19. A symmetric safety valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burtraw, Dallas; Palmer, Karen; Kahn, Danny

    2010-01-01

    How to set policy in the presence of uncertainty has been central in debates over climate policy. Concern about costs has motivated the proposal for a cap-and-trade program for carbon dioxide, with a 'safety valve' that would mitigate against spikes in the cost of emission reductions by introducing additional emission allowances into the market when marginal costs rise above the specified allowance price level. We find two significant problems, both stemming from the asymmetry of an instrument that mitigates only against a price increase. One is that most important examples of price volatility in cap-and-trade programs have occurred not when prices spiked, but instead when allowance prices collapsed. Second, a single-sided safety valve may have unintended consequences for investment. We illustrate that a symmetric safety valve provides environmental and welfare improvements relative to the conventional one-sided approach.

  20. Advances in fuel channel technology for CANDU reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheadle, B.A.; Coleman, C.E.

    1994-05-01

    The components of the CANDU fuel channels are being developed to have service lives of over 30 years with large margins of safety. Information from research programs and the examination of components removed from reactors has enable improvements to be made to pressure tubes, spacers, calandria tubes and end fittings. Improvements have also been made to the channel design to facilitate planned retubing. (author). 22 refs., 5 tabs., 31 figs