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Sample records for safely reduced inflammatory

  1. SIR (Safe Integral Reactor) - reducing size can reduce cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayns, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    Traditional engineering economics have favoured the advantages of larger size as a means of reducing specific capital costs and hence unit generating costs. For large and small plants utilising the same concept, e.g. a small four-loop PWR vs a large four-loop PWR with the same number of components, economies of scale are well established. If, however, a smaller plant is sized to take advantage of features which are only feasible at smaller outputs, is of simpler design, with the advantage taken of the simplified design to produce the most cost-effective layout, and incorporates fewer, more easily replaceable components with minimal assembly on site, it is possible to produce a plant which is competitive with larger plant of more traditional design. When 'system' effects, such as better matching of installed capacity to the growth in demand and the fact that a smaller total capacity will be needed to meet a given demand with a specified level of confidence, are taken into account, it can be shown that a utility's overall cash-flow position can be improved with lower associated absolute financial risks. The UK/US Safe Integral Reactor (SIR) is an integral pressurized water reactor in the 300-400 MW(e) range which utilises conventional water reactor technology in a way not feasible at the very large, sizes of recent years. The SIR concept is briefly explained and its technical and economic advantages in terms of simplicity, construction, maintenance, availability, decommissioning, safety and siting described. The results of system analyses which demonstrate the overall financial advantages to a utility are presented. (author)

  2. Safe and Inclusive Cities Research to Reduce Urban Violence ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2014-04-08

    TOm mCKeLVey. Date: Tuesday April 8, 2014, 2:00-4:00pm | Location: Medellín, Colombia, Plaza Mayor (Yellow Pavilion, Room 5) ... discuss the challenges of creating safe urban spaces where all residents can ... MULTI FUNDER INITIATIVE.

  3. Citral reduces nociceptive and inflammatory response in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucindo J. Quintans-Júnior

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Citral (CIT, which contains the chiral enantiomers, neral (cis and geranial (trans, is the majority monoterpene from Lippia alba and Cymbopogon citratus. The present study aimed to evaluate CIT for antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities in rodents. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects were studied by measuring nociception through acetic acid and formalin tests, while inflammation was verified by inducing peritonitis and paw edema with carrageenan. All tested doses of CIT had significant protection (p<0.001 against acetic acid (0.8% induced nociceptive behavior and the effects were also similar to morphine while formalin induced nociception was significantly protected (p<0.05 only at higher dose (200 mg/kg of CIT in the first phase of the test. CIT significantly reduce (p<0.001 nociceptive behavior emanating from inflammation in second phase at all the doses.The pretreatment with CIT (100 and 200 mg/kg significantly reduced the paw edema induced by carrageenan. Moreover, systemic treatment with CIT (100 and 200 mg/kg significantly reduced (p<0.001 the leukocyte migration in the carrageenan-induced migration to the peritoneal cavity. Our investigation shows that CIT possess significant central and peripheral antinociceptive effects. It was also verified an anti-inflammatory activity. All together these results suggest that CIT might represent important tool for treatment of painful conditions.

  4. Citral reduces nociceptive and inflammatory response in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucindo J. Quintans-Júnior

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Citral (CIT, which contains the chiral enantiomers, neral (cis and geranial (trans, is the majority monoterpene from Lippia alba and Cymbopogon citratus. The present study aimed to evaluate CIT for antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities in rodents. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects were studied by measuring nociception through acetic acid and formalin tests, while inflammation was verified by inducing peritonitis and paw edema with carrageenan. All tested doses of CIT had significant protection (p<0.001 against acetic acid (0.8% induced nociceptive behavior and the effects were also similar to morphine while formalin induced nociception was significantly protected (p<0.05 only at higher dose (200 mg/kg of CIT in the first phase of the test. CIT significantly reduce (p<0.001 nociceptive behavior emanating from inflammation in second phase at all the doses.The pretreatment with CIT (100 and 200 mg/kg significantly reduced the paw edema induced by carrageenan. Moreover, systemic treatment with CIT (100 and 200 mg/kg significantly reduced (p<0.001 the leukocyte migration in the carrageenan-induced migration to the peritoneal cavity. Our investigation shows that CIT possess significant central and peripheral antinociceptive effects. It was also verified an anti-inflammatory activity. All together these results suggest that CIT might represent important tool for treatment of painful conditions.

  5. Airway Humidification Reduces the Inflammatory Response During Mechanical Ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Min; Song, Jun-Jie; Guo, Xiao-Li; Tang, Yong-Lin; Li, Hai-Bo

    2015-12-01

    Currently, no clinical or animal studies have been performed to establish the relationship between airway humidification and mechanical ventilation-induced lung inflammatory responses. Therefore, an animal model was established to better define this relationship. Rabbits (n = 40) were randomly divided into 6 groups: control animals, sacrificed immediately after anesthesia (n = 2); dry gas group animals, subjected to mechanical ventilation for 8 h without humidification (n = 6); and experimental animals, subjected to mechanical ventilation for 8 h under humidification at 30, 35, 40, and 45°C, respectively (n = 8). Inflammatory cytokines in the bronchi alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were measured. The integrity of the airway cilia and the tracheal epithelium was examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. Peripheral blood white blood cell counts and the wet to dry ratio and lung pathology were determined. Dry gas group animals showed increased tumor necrosis factor alpha levels in BALF compared with control animals (P humidification temperature was increased to 40°C. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed that cilia integrity was maintained in the 40°C groups. Peripheral white blood cell counts were not different among those groups. Compared with control animals, the wet to dry ratio was significantly elevated in the dry gas group (P humidification at 40°C resulted in reduced pathologic injury compared with the other groups based on the histologic score. Pathology and reduced inflammation observed in animals treated at 40°C was similar to that observed in the control animals, suggesting that appropriate humidification reduced inflammatory responses elicited as a consequence of mechanical ventilation, in addition to reducing damage to the cilia and reducing water loss in the airway. Copyright © 2015 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  6. Citral reduces nociceptive and inflammatory response in rodents

    OpenAIRE

    Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo J.; Guimarães, Adriana G.; Santana, Marilia T. de; Araújo, Bruno E.S.; Moreira, Flávia V.; Bonjardim, Leonardo R.; Araújo, Adriano A. S.; Siqueira, Jullyana S.; Antoniolli, Ângelo R.; Botelho, Marco A.; Almeida, Jackson R. G. S.; Santos, Márcio R. V.

    2011-01-01

    Citral (CIT), which contains the chiral enantiomers, neral (cis) and geranial (trans), is the majority monoterpene from Lippia alba and Cymbopogon citratus. The present study aimed to evaluate CIT for antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities in rodents. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects were studied by measuring nociception through acetic acid and formalin tests, while inflammation was verified by inducing peritonitis and paw edema with carrageenan. All tested doses of CIT...

  7. Reducing Maternal Mortality in Papua New Guinea: Contextualizing Access to Safe Surgery and Anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Alicia T

    2018-01-01

    Papua New Guinea has one of the world's highest maternal mortality rates with approximately 215 women dying per 100,000 live births. The sustainable development goals outline key priority areas for achieving a reduction in maternal mortality including a focus on universal health coverage with safe surgery and anesthesia for all pregnant women. This narrative review addresses the issue of reducing maternal mortality in Papua New Guinea by contextualizing the need for safe obstetric surgery and anesthesia within a structure of enabling environments at key times in a woman's life. The 3 pillars of enabling environments are as follows: a stable humanitarian government; a safe, secure, and clean environment; and a strong health system. Key times, and their associated specific issues, in a woman's life include prepregnancy, antenatal, birth and the postpartum period, childhood, adolescence and young womanhood, and the postchildbearing years.

  8. Cell saver for on-pump coronary operations reduces systemic inflammatory markers: a randomized trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Sune; Nielsen, Claus Henrik; Andersen, Lars Willy

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated whether intraoperative use of a cell saver reduces the systemic inflammatory response after coronary operations using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB).......This study investigated whether intraoperative use of a cell saver reduces the systemic inflammatory response after coronary operations using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB)....

  9. Reducing inappropriate non-steroidal anti-inflammatory prescription in primary care patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keohane, David M; Dennehy, Thomas; Keohane, Kenneth P; Shanahan, Eamonn

    2017-08-14

    non-steroidal anti-inflammatory prescription. It established a safe, reliable and efficient process for reducing morbidity and mortality, improving quality of life and limiting the CKD associated health burden.

  10. Dose-Reduced Trastuzumab Emtansine: Active and Safe in Acute Hepatic Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Sharp

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. The majority of deaths attributed to breast cancer are a result of metastatic disease, and 30% of early breast cancers (EBC will develop distant disease. The 5-year survival of patients with metastatic disease is estimated at 23%. Breast cancer subtypes continue to be stratified histologically on oestrogen, progesterone and human epidermal growth factor-2 (HER2 receptor expression. HER2-positive breast cancers represent 25% of all breast cancer diagnoses. The therapies available for metastatic breast cancer (MBC are expanding, in particular within the field of HER2-positive disease, with the approval of trastuzumab, pertuzumab, lapatinib and trastuzumab emtansine (TDM-1. Recently, TDM-1 has been shown to improve progression-free survival in HER2 MBC when compared to capecitabine and lapatinib in clinical studies. Its main toxicities are deranged liver function tests and thrombocytopenia. There have also been cases of acute liver failure. Therefore, its use in acute hepatic dysfunction, to our knowledge, has been neither studied nor reported. We report a patient with progressive HER2-positive MBC who had previously responded to multiple HER2-targeted therapies that presented with acute hepatic dysfunction. She was treated with dose-reduced TDM-1 safely, with clear evidence of rapid biochemical, clinical and radiological response. This allowed dose escalation of TDM-1, and the patient maintains an ongoing response.

  11. Bacteriophages safely reduce Salmonella contamination in pet food and raw pet food ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffer, Nitzan; Abuladze, Tamar; Woolston, Joelle; Li, Manrong; Hanna, Leigh Farris; Heyse, Serena; Charbonneau, Duane; Sulakvelidze, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Contamination of pet food with Salmonella is a serious public health concern, and several disease outbreaks have recently occurred due to human exposure to Salmonella tainted pet food. The problem is especially challenging for raw pet foods (which include raw meats, seafood, fruits, and vegetables). These foods are becoming increasingly popular because of their nutritional qualities, but they are also more difficult to maintain Salmonella -free because they lack heat-treatment. Among various methods examined to improve the safety of pet foods (including raw pet food), one intriguing approach is to use bacteriophages to specifically kill Salmonella serotypes. At least 2 phage preparations (SalmoFresh® and Salmonelex™) targeting Salmonella are already FDA cleared for commercial applications to improve the safety of human foods. However, similar preparations are not yet available for pet food applications. Here, we report the results of evaluating one such preparation (SalmoLyse®) in reducing Salmonella levels in various raw pet food ingredients (chicken, tuna, turkey, cantaloupe, and lettuce). Application of SalmoLyse® in low (ca. 2-4×10 6 PFU/g) and standard (ca. 9×10 6 PFU/g) concentrations significantly ( P contamination in all raw foods examined compared to control treatments. When SalmoLyse®-treated (ca. 2×10 7 PFU/g) dry pet food was fed to cats and dogs, it did not trigger any deleterious side effects in the pets. Our data suggest that the bacteriophage cocktail lytic for Salmonella can significantly and safely reduce Salmonella contamination in various raw pet food ingredients.

  12. Localized Sympathectomy Reduces Mechanical Hypersensitivity by Restoring Normal Immune Homeostasis in Rat Models of Inflammatory Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wenrui; Chen, Sisi; Strong, Judith A; Li, Ai-Ling; Lewkowich, Ian P; Zhang, Jun-Ming

    2016-08-17

    Some forms of chronic pain are maintained or enhanced by activity in the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), but attempts to model this have yielded conflicting findings. The SNS has both pro- and anti-inflammatory effects on immunity, confounding the interpretation of experiments using global sympathectomy methods. We performed a "microsympathectomy" by cutting the ipsilateral gray rami where they entered the spinal nerves near the L4 and L5 DRG. This led to profound sustained reductions in pain behaviors induced by local DRG inflammation (a rat model of low back pain) and by a peripheral paw inflammation model. Effects of microsympathectomy were evident within one day, making it unlikely that blocking sympathetic sprouting in the local DRGs or hindpaw was the sole mechanism. Prior microsympathectomy greatly reduced hyperexcitability of sensory neurons induced by local DRG inflammation observed 4 d later. Microsympathectomy reduced local inflammation and macrophage density in the affected tissues (as indicated by paw swelling and histochemical staining). Cytokine profiling in locally inflamed DRG showed increases in pro-inflammatory Type 1 cytokines and decreases in the Type 2 cytokines present at baseline, changes that were mitigated by microsympathectomy. Microsympathectomy was also effective in reducing established pain behaviors in the local DRG inflammation model. We conclude that the effect of sympathetic fibers in the L4/L5 gray rami in these models is pro-inflammatory. This raises the possibility that therapeutic interventions targeting gray rami might be useful in some chronic inflammatory pain conditions. Sympathetic blockade is used for many pain conditions, but preclinical studies show both pro- and anti-nociceptive effects. The sympathetic nervous system also has both pro- and anti-inflammatory effects on immune tissues and cells. We examined effects of a very localized sympathectomy. By cutting the gray rami to the spinal nerves near the lumbar sensory

  13. Closed-system drug-transfer devices plus safe handling of hazardous drugs versus safe handling alone for reducing exposure to infusional hazardous drugs in healthcare staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan; Best, Lawrence Mj; Tanguay, Cynthia; Lennan, Elaine; Korva, Mika; Bussières, Jean-François

    2018-03-27

    Occupational exposure to hazardous drugs can decrease fertility and result in miscarriages, stillbirths, and cancers in healthcare staff. Several recommended practices aim to reduce this exposure, including protective clothing, gloves, and biological safety cabinets ('safe handling'). There is significant uncertainty as to whether using closed-system drug-transfer devices (CSTD) in addition to safe handling decreases the contamination and risk of staff exposure to infusional hazardous drugs compared to safe handling alone. To assess the effects of closed-system drug-transfer of infusional hazardous drugs plus safe handling versus safe handling alone for reducing staff exposure to infusional hazardous drugs and risk of staff contamination. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, OSH-UPDATE, CINAHL, Science Citation Index Expanded, economic evaluation databases, the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and ClinicalTrials.gov to October 2017. We included comparative studies of any study design (irrespective of language, blinding, or publication status) that compared CSTD plus safe handling versus safe handling alone for infusional hazardous drugs. Two review authors independently identified trials and extracted data. We calculated the risk ratio (RR) and mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) using both fixed-effect and random-effects models. We assessed risk of bias according to the risk of bias in non-randomised studies of interventions (ROBINS-I) tool, used an intracluster correlation coefficient of 0.10, and we assessed the quality of the evidence using GRADE. We included 23 observational cluster studies (358 hospitals) in this review. We did not find any randomised controlled trials or formal economic evaluations. In 21 studies, the people who used the intervention (CSTD plus safe handling) and control (safe handling alone) were pharmacists or pharmacy

  14. Subconjunctival Delivery of p75NTR Antagonists Reduces the Inflammatory, Vascular, and Neurodegenerative Pathologies of Diabetic Retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galan, Alba; Barcelona, Pablo F; Nedev, Hinyu; Sarunic, Marinko V; Jian, Yifan; Saragovi, H Uri

    2017-06-01

    The p75NTR is a novel therapeutic target validated in a streptozotocin mouse model of diabetic retinopathy. Intravitreal (IVT) injection of small molecule p75NTR antagonist THX-B was therapeutic and resolved the inflammatory, vascular, and neurodegenerative phases of the retinal pathology. To simplify clinical translation, we sought a superior drug delivery method that circumvents risks associated with IVT injections. We compared the pharmacokinetics of a single 40 μg subconjunctival (SCJ) depot to the reported effective 5 μg IVT injections of THX-B. We quantified therapeutic efficacy, with endpoints of inflammation, edema, and neuronal death. The subconjunctival depot affords retinal exposure equal to IVT injection, without resulting in detectable drug in circulation. At week 2 of diabetic retinopathy, the SCJ depot provided therapeutic efficacy similar to IVT injections, with reduced inflammation, reduced edema, reduced neuronal death, and a long-lasting protection of the retinal structure. Subconjunctival injections are a safe and effective route for retinal delivery of p75NTR antagonists. The subconjunctival route offers an advantageous, less-invasive, more compliant, and nonsystemic method to deliver p75NTR antagonists for the treatment of retinal diseases.

  15. AMP-activated protein kinase reduces inflammatory responses and cellular senescence in pulmonary emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiao-Yu; Li, Yang-Yang; Huang, Cheng; Li, Jun; Yao, Hong-Wei

    2017-04-04

    Current drug therapy fails to reduce lung destruction of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has emerged as an important integrator of signals that control energy balance and lipid metabolism. However, there are no studies regarding the role of AMPK in reducing inflammatory responses and cellular senescence during the development of emphysema. Therefore, we hypothesize that AMPK reduces inflammatroy responses, senescence, and lung injury. To test this hypothesis, human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) and small airway epithelial cells (SAECs) were treated with cigarette smoke extract (CSE) in the presence of a specific AMPK activator (AICAR, 1 mM) and inhibitor (Compound C, 5 μM). Elastase injection was performed to induce mouse emphysema, and these mice were treated with a specific AMPK activator metformin as well as Compound C. AICAR reduced, whereas Compound C increased CSE-induced increase in IL-8 and IL-6 release and expression of genes involved in cellular senescence. Knockdown of AMPKα1/α2 increased expression of pro-senescent genes (e.g., p16, p21, and p66shc) in BEAS-2B cells. Prophylactic administration of an AMPK activator metformin (50 and 250 mg/kg) reduced while Compound C (4 and 20 mg/kg) aggravated elastase-induced airspace enlargement, inflammatory responses and cellular senescence in mice. This is in agreement with therapeutic effect of metformin (50 mg/kg) on airspace enlargement. Furthermore, metformin prophylactically protected against but Compound C further reduced mitochondrial proteins SOD2 and SIRT3 in emphysematous lungs. In conclusion, AMPK reduces abnormal inflammatory responses and cellular senescence, which implicates as a potential therapeutic target for COPD/emphysema.

  16. Equine colostral carbohydrates reduce lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses in equine peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendrig, J C; Coffeng, L E; Fink-Gremmels, J

    2012-12-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that reactions to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), particularly in the gut, can be partly or completely mitigated by colostrum- and milk-derived oligosaccharides. Confirmation of this hypothesis could lead to the development of new therapeutic concepts. To demonstrate the influence of equine colostral carbohydrates on the inflammatory response in an in vitro model with equine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Carbohydrates were extracted from mare colostrum, and then evaluated for their influence on LPS-induced inflammatory responses in PBMCs isolated from the same mares, mRNA expression of tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6 and interleukin-10 was measured as well as the protein levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-10 (IL-10). Equine colostral carbohydrates significantly reduced LPS-induced TNF-alpha protein at both times measured and significantly reduced LPS-induced TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-10 mRNA expression by PBMCs. Moreover, cell viability significantly increased in the presence of high concentrations of colostral carbohydrates. Carbohydrates derived from equine colostrum reduce LPS-induced inflammatory responses of equine PBMCs. Colostrum and milk-derived carbohydrates are promising candidates for new concepts in preventive and regenerative medicine.

  17. Xanthophyll supplementation reduced inflammatory mediators and apoptosis in hens and chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y-Y; Jin, L; Ji, J; Sun, B-L; Xu, L-H; Wang, Q-X; Wang, C-K; Bi, Y-Z

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated effects of xanthophylls (containing 40% lutein and 60% zeaxanthin) on gene expression of inflammatory mediators ( [] and []) and apoptosis ( [] and ) of breeding hens and chicks. In Exp. 1, 432 hens were divided into 3 groups and fed diets supplemented with 0 (as the control group), 20, or 40 mg/kg xanthophylls. The liver, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were sampled after 35 d. Results showed that 40 mg/kg of xanthophyll addition decreased in the liver, in the liver and duodenum, and in the liver and jejunum while increasing level in the liver and jejunum. Experiment 2 was a 2 × 2 factorial design. Male chicks hatched from hens fed 0 or 40 mg/kg xanthophyll diets were fed diets containing either 0 or 40 mg/kg xanthophylls. The liver, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were sampled at 0, 7, 14, and 21 d after hatching. Results showed that in ovo xanthophylls reduced inflammatory mediators and apoptosis in the liver, duodenum, and jejunum of chicks mainly within 1 wk after hatching, whereas dietary xanthophylls only decreased expression in the liver from 2 wk onward. These results underlined important anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic effects of maternal but not progeny dietary xanthophylls. In conclusion, xanthophylls can suppress inflammatory mediators and apoptosis in different tissues of hens and chicks.

  18. Biaryl amide compounds reduce the inflammatory response in macrophages by regulating Dectin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyung, Kyeong Eun; Lee, Mi Ji; Lee, Yun-Jung; Lee, Do Ik; Min, Hye Young; Park, So-Young; Min, Kyung Hoon; Hwang, Kwang Woo

    2016-03-01

    Macrophages are archetypal innate immune cells that play crucial roles in the recognition and phagocytosis of invading pathogens, which they identify using pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Dectin-1 is essential for antifungal immune responses, recognizing the fungal cellular component β-glucan, and its role as a PRR has been of increasing interest. Previously, we discovered and characterized a novel biaryl amide compound, MPS 03, capable of inhibiting macrophage phagocytosis of zymosan. Therefore, in this study we aimed to identify other biaryl amide compounds with greater effectiveness than MPS 03, and elucidate their cellular mechanisms. Several MPS 03 derivatives were screened, four of which reduced zymosan phagocytosis in a similar manner to MPS 03. To establish whether such phagocytosis inhibition influenced the production of inflammatory mediators, pro-inflammatory cytokine and nitric oxide (NO) levels were measured. The production of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-12, and NO was significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the inflammation-associated MAPK signaling pathway was also affected by biaryl amide compounds. To investigate the underlying cellular mechanism, PRR expression was measured. MPS 03 and its derivatives were found to inhibit zymosan phagocytosis by decreasing Dectin-1 expression. Furthermore, when macrophages were stimulated by zymosan after pretreatment with biaryl amide compounds, downstream transcription factors such as NFAT, AP-1, and NF-κB were downregulated. In conclusion, biaryl amide compounds reduce zymosan-induced inflammatory responses by downregulating Dectin-1 expression. Therefore, such compounds could be used to inhibit Dectin-1 in immunological experiments and possibly regulate excessive inflammatory responses. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Orally Administered Enoxaparin Ameliorates Acute Colitis by Reducing Macrophage-Associated Inflammatory Responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Ying Lean

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel diseases, such as ulcerative colitis, cause significant morbidity and decreased quality of life. The currently available treatments are not effective in all patients, can be expensive and have potential to cause severe side effects. This prompts the need for new treatment modalities. Enoxaparin, a widely used antithrombotic agent, is reported to possess anti-inflammatory properties and therefore we evaluated its therapeutic potential in a mouse model of colitis. Acute colitis was induced in male C57BL/6 mice by administration of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS. Mice were treated once daily with enoxaparin via oral or intraperitoneal administration and monitored for colitis activities. On termination (day 8, colons were collected for macroscopic evaluation and cytokine measurement, and processed for histology and immunohistochemistry. Oral but not intraperitoneal administration of enoxaparin significantly ameliorated DSS-induced colitis. Oral enoxaparin-treated mice retained their body weight and displayed less diarrhea and fecal blood loss compared to the untreated colitis group. Colon weight in enoxaparin-treated mice was significantly lower, indicating reduced inflammation and edema. Histological examination of untreated colitis mice showed a massive loss of crypt architecture and goblet cells, infiltration of immune cells and the presence of edema, while all aspects of this pathology were alleviated by oral enoxaparin. Reduced number of macrophages in the colon of oral enoxaparin-treated mice was accompanied by decreased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Oral enoxaparin significantly reduces the inflammatory pathology associated with DSS-induced colitis in mice and could therefore represent a novel therapeutic option for the management of ulcerative colitis.

  20. Borneol, a Bicyclic Monoterpene Alcohol, Reduces Nociceptive Behavior and Inflammatory Response in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Roberto Guedes da Silva Almeida

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Borneol, a bicyclic monoterpene, has been evaluated for antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities were studied by measuring nociception by acetic acid, formalin, hot plate, and grip strength tests, while inflammation was prompted by carrageenan-induced peritonitis. The rotarod test was used to evaluate motor coordination. Borneol produced a significant (P<0.01 reduction of the nociceptive behavior at the early and late phases of paw licking and reduced the writhing reflex in mice (formalin and writhing tests, resp.. When the hot plate test was conducted, borneol (in higher dose produced an inhibition (P<0.05 of the nociceptive behavior. Such results were unlikely to be provoked by motor abnormality. Additionally, borneol-treated mice reduced the carrageenan-induced leukocytes migration to the peritoneal cavity. Together, our results suggest that borneol possess significant central and peripheral antinociceptive activity; it has also anti-inflammatory activity. In addition, borneol did not impair motor coordination.

  1. Reduced tissue osmolarity increases TRPV4 expression and pro-inflammatory cytokines in intervertebral disc cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BA Walter

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical behaviour and cellular metabolism of intervertebral discs (IVDs and articular cartilage are strongly influenced by their proteoglycan content and associated osmotic properties. This osmotic environment is a biophysical signal that changes with disease and may contribute to the elevated matrix breakdown and altered biologic response to loading observed in IVD degeneration and osteoarthritis. This study tested the hypothesis that changes in osmo-sensation by the transient receptor potential vallinoid-4 (TRPV4 ion channel occur with disease and contribute to the inflammatory environment found during degeneration. Immunohistochemistry on bovine IVDs from an inflammatory organ culture model were used to investigate if TRPV4 is expressed in the IVD and how expression changes with degeneration. Western blot, live-cell calcium imaging, and qRT-PCR were used to investigate whether osmolarity changes or tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα regulate TRPV4 expression, and how altered TRPV4 expression influences calcium signalling and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. TRPV4 expression correlated with TNFα expression, and was increased when cultured in reduced medium osmolarity and unaltered with TNFα-stimulation. Increased TRPV4 expression increased the calcium flux following TRPV4 activation and increased interleukin-1β (IL-1β and IL-6 gene expression in IVD cells. TRPV4 expression was qualitatively elevated in regions of aggrecan depletion in degenerated human IVDs. Collectively, results suggest that reduced tissue osmolarity, likely following proteoglycan degradation, can increase TRPV4 signalling and enhance pro-inflammatory cytokine production, suggesting changes in TRPV4 mediated osmo-sensation may contribute to the progressive matrix breakdown in disease.

  2. Motion-Cyclo-oxygenase-2 Selective Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs are as Safe as Placebo for the Stomach: Arguments for the Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard H Hunt

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are known to cause gastritis, gastric and duodenal ulcers, and gastrointestinal (GI blood loss, as well as alterations in small bowel permeability. Patients at a high risk for these complications include those who are older than 60 years of age, those with a previous history of complicated peptic disease and bleeding, and those who take high dose or multiple NSAIDs, including low dose aspirin, corticosteroids or anticoagulants. The introduction of selective inhibitors of cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2 has provided effective treatment of inflammatory arthritis and musculoskeletal pain, with dramatic reductions in the risk of GI adverse events. The two most widely prescribed coxibs are celecoxib and rofecoxib, and others are being developed. Endoscopic studies have revealed that coxibs are only half as likely to induce upper GI ulceration than are traditional NSAIDs, and are as safe as placebo. Furthermore, the newer drugs do not cause excessive blood loss from the GI tract and do not affect small bowel permeability. The Vioxx Gastrointestinal Outcomes Research Study (VIGOR revealed that the incidence of myocardial infarction was significantly lower with naproxen than rofecoxib, although this study was not designed to look at this endpoint. Coxibs are an important addition to the pharmacotherapy of inflammatory disease.

  3. Cryotherapy Reduces Inflammatory Response Without Altering Muscle Regeneration Process and Extracellular Matrix Remodeling of Rat Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira Ramos, Gracielle; Pinheiro, Clara Maria; Messa, Sabrina Peviani; Delfino, Gabriel Borges; Marqueti, Rita de Cássia; Salvini, Tania de Fátima; Durigan, Joao Luiz Quagliotti

    2016-01-04

    The application of cryotherapy is widely used in sports medicine today. Cooling could minimize secondary hypoxic injury through the reduction of cellular metabolism and injury area. Conflicting results have also suggested cryotherapy could delay and impair the regeneration process. There are no definitive findings about the effects of cryotherapy on the process of muscle regeneration. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a clinical-like cryotherapy on inflammation, regeneration and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling on the Tibialis anterior (TA) muscle of rats 3, 7 and 14 days post-injury. It was observed that the intermittent application of cryotherapy (three 30-minute sessions, every 2 h) in the first 48 h post-injury decreased inflammatory processes (mRNA levels of TNF-α, NF-κB, TGF-β and MMP-9 and macrophage percentage). Cryotherapy did not alter regeneration markers such as injury area, desmin and Myod expression. Despite regulating Collagen I and III and their growth factors, cryotherapy did not alter collagen deposition. In summary, clinical-like cryotherapy reduces the inflammatory process through the decrease of macrophage infiltration and the accumulation of the inflammatory key markers without influencing muscle injury area and ECM remodeling.

  4. Maintaining access to safe abortion and reducing sex ratio imbalances in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganatra, Bela

    2008-05-01

    High sex ratios at birth (108 boys to 100 girls or higher) are seen in China, Taiwan, South Korea and parts of India and Viet Nam. The imbalance is the result of son preference, accentuated by declining fertility. Prenatal sex detection with ultrasound followed by second trimester abortion is one of the ways sex selection manifests itself, but it is not the causative factor. Advocates and governments seeking to reverse this imbalance have largely prohibited sex detection tests and/or sex selective abortion, assuming these measures would reverse the trend. Such policies have been difficult to enforce and have met with only limited success. At the same time, such policies are starting to have adverse effects on the already limited access to safe and legal second trimester abortion for reasons other than sex selection. Moreover, the sex selection issue is being used as a platform for anti-abortion rhetoric by certain groups. Maintaining access to safe abortion and achieving a decline in high sex ratios are both important goals. Both are possible if the focus shifts to addressing the conditions that drive son preference.

  5. Kefir reduces insulin resistance and inflammatory cytokine expression in an animal model of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Damiana D; Grześkowiak, Łukasz M; Ferreira, Célia L L F; Fonseca, Ana Carolina M; Reis, Sandra A; Dias, Mariana M; Siqueira, Nathane P; Silva, Leticia L; Neves, Clóvis A; Oliveira, Leandro L; Machado, Alessandra B F; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo G

    2016-08-10

    There is growing evidence that kefir can be a promising tool in decreasing the risk of many diseases, including metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of kefir supplementation in the diet of Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR) in which MetS was induced with monosodium glutamate (MSG), and to determine its effect on metabolic parameters, inflammatory and oxidation marker expression and glycemic index control. Thirty animals were used in this experiment. For the induction of MetS, twenty two-day-old male SHR received five consecutive intradermal injections of MSG. For the Negative Control, ten newborn male SHR received intradermal injections of saline solution (0.9% saline solution). After weaning, animals received standard diet and water ad libitum until reaching 3 months old, for the development of MetS. They were then divided into three groups (n = 10): negative control (NC, 1 mL saline solution per day), positive control (PC, 1 mL saline solution per day) and the Kefir group (1 mL kefir per day). Feeding was carried out by gavage for 10 weeks and the animals received standard food and water ad libitum. Obesity, insulin resistance, pro- and anti-inflammatory markers, and the histology of pancreatic and adipose tissues were among the main variables evaluated. Compared to the PC group, kefir supplementation reduced plasma triglycerides, liver lipids, liver triglycerides, insulin resistance, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, thoracic circumference, abdominal circumference, products of lipid oxidation, pro-inflammatory cytokine expression (IL-1β) and increased anti-inflammatory cytokine expression (IL-10). The present findings indicate that kefir has the potential to benefit the management of MetS.

  6. Reduced inflammatory and muscle damage biomarkers following oral supplementation with bioavailable curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlin, Brian K; Venable, Adam S; Henning, Andrea L; Sampson, Jill N Best; Pennel, Kathryn; Vingren, Jakob L; Hill, David W

    2016-06-01

    Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage (EIMD) and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) impact subsequent training sessions and activities of daily living (ADL) even in active individuals. In sedentary or diseased individuals, EIMD and DOMS may be even more pronounced and present even in the absence of structured exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of oral curcumin supplementation (Longvida® 400 mg/days) on muscle & ADL soreness, creatine kinase (CK), and inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10) following EMID (eccentric-only dual-leg press exercise). Subjects (N = 28) were randomly assigned to either curcumin (400 mg/day) or placebo (rice flour) and supplemented 2 days before to 4 days after EMID. Blood samples were collected prior to (PRE), and 1, 2, 3, and 4 days after EIMD to measure CK and inflammatory cytokines. Data were analyzed by ANOVA with P < 0.05. Curcumin supplementation resulted in significantly smaller increases in CK (- 48%), TNF-α (- 25%), and IL-8 (- 21%) following EIMD compared to placebo. We observed no significant differences in IL-6, IL-10, or quadriceps muscle soreness between conditions for this sample size. Collectively, the findings demonstrated that consumption of curcumin reduced biological inflammation, but not quadriceps muscle soreness, during recovery after EIMD. The observed improvements in biological inflammation may translate to faster recovery and improved functional capacity during subsequent exercise sessions. These findings support the use of oral curcumin supplementation to reduce the symptoms of EIMD. The next logical step is to evaluate further the efficacy of an inflammatory clinical disease model.

  7. Training reduces catabolic and inflammatory response to a single practice in female volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliakim, Alon; Portal, Shawn; Zadik, Zvi; Meckel, Yoav; Nemet, Dan

    2013-11-01

    We examined the effect of training on hormonal and inflammatory response to a single volleyball practice in elite adolescent players. Thirteen female, national team level, Israeli volleyball players (age 16.0 ± 1.4 years, Tanner stage 4-5) participated in the study. Blood samples were collected before and immediately after a typical 60 minutes of volleyball practice, before and after 7 weeks of training during the initial phase of the season. Training involved tactic and technical drills (20% of time), power and speed drills (25% of time), interval sessions (25% of time), endurance-type training (15% of time), and resistance training (15% of time). To achieve greater training responses, the study was performed during the early phase (first 7 weeks) of the volleyball season. Hormonal measurements included the anabolic hormones growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF-binding protein-3, the catabolic hormone cortisol, the proinflammatory marker interleukin-6 (IL-6), and the anti-inflammatory marker IL-1 receptor antagonist. Training led to a significant improvement of vertical jump, anaerobic properties (peak and mean power by the Wingate Anaerobic Test), and predicted VO2max (by the 20-m shuttle run). Volleyball practice, both before and after the training intervention, was associated with a significant increase of serum lactate, GH, and IL-6. Training resulted in a significantly reduced cortisol response ([INCREMENT]cortisol: 4.2 ± 13.7 vs. -4.4 ± 12.3 ng · ml, before and after training, respectively; p volleyball practice. The results suggest that along with the improvement of power and anaerobic and aerobic characteristics, training reduces the catabolic and inflammatory response to exercise.

  8. Lactobacilli require physical contact to reduce staphylococcal TSST-1 secretion and vaginal epithelial inflammatory response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younes, Jessica A; Reid, Gregor; van der Mei, Henny C; Busscher, Henk J

    2016-06-01

    ITALIC! Staphylococcus aureusbiofilms can be found on vaginal epithelia, secreting toxins and causing inflammation. The co-vaginal species ITALIC! Lactobacilluscan alter staphylococcal-induced epithelial secretion of inflammatory cytokines and quench staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 secretion. It is hypothesized that these effects of lactobacilli require direct physical contact between lactobacilli, staphylococci and the epithelium. Indeed, lactobacilli only reduced ITALIC! S. aureus-induced inflammatory cytokine expression when allowed physical contact with vaginal epithelial cells. Furthermore, a reduction in toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 secretion only occurred when a probiotic ITALIC! Lactobacillusstrain was allowed contact, but not when being physically separated from ITALIC! S. aureus Bacterial-probe atomic force microscopy demonstrated that lactobacilli and staphylococci strongly adhere to epithelial cells, while lactobacilli adhere stronger to staphylococci than staphylococci to each other, giving lactobacilli opportunity to penetrate and reside in staphylococcal biofilms, as visualized using confocal laser scanning microscopy with fluorescence ITALIC! in situhybridization probes. These results identify that physical contact and biochemical signaling by lactobacilli are intrinsically linked mechanisms that reduce virulence of ITALIC! S. aureusbiofilm. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Reducing the Risk of Tick-Borne Diseases through Smart, Safe and Sustainable Pest Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Each year PestWise programs form new partnerships to address ongoing and emerging issues. Reducing the risk from ticks and tick-borne disease is an issue of importance and EPA is contributing to a larger federal effort.

  10. Palmitoylethanolamide: A Natural Body-Own Anti-Inflammatory Agent, Effective and Safe against Influenza and Common Cold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Keppel Hesselink

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA is a food component known since 1957. PEA is synthesized and metabolized in animal cells via a number of enzymes and exerts a multitude of physiological functions related to metabolic homeostasis. Research on PEA has been conducted for more than 50 years, and over 350 papers are referenced in PubMed describing the physiological properties of this endogenous modulator and its pharmacological and therapeutical profile. The major focus of PEA research, since the work of the Nobel laureate Levi-Montalcini in 1993, has been neuropathic pain states and mast cell related disorders. However, it is less known that 6 clinical trials in a total of nearly 4000 people were performed and published last century, specifically studying PEA as a therapy for influenza and the common cold. This was done before Levi-Montalcini’s clarification of PEA’s mechanism of action, analyzing the role of PEA as an anti-inflammatory agent. We will review in depth these studies, as the results support the effectiveness and safety of PEA in flu and respiratory infections.

  11. 17-AAG kills intracellular Leishmania amazonensis while reducing inflammatory responses in infected macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Antonio Luis de Oliveira Almeida; Guedes, Carlos Eduardo Sampaio; Versoza, Carolina Leite; Lima, José Geraldo Bomfim; de Freitas, Luiz Antônio Rodrigues; Borges, Valéria Matos; Veras, Patrícia Sampaio Tavares

    2012-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a neglected endemic disease with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations. Pentavalent antimonials have been the treatment of choice for the past 70 years and, due to the emergence of resistant cases, the efficacy of these drugs has come under scrutiny. Second-line drugs are less efficacious, cause a range of side effects and can be costly. The formulation of new generations of drugs, especially in developing countries, has become mandatory. We investigated the anti-leishmanial effect of 17-(allylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG), an HSP90 inhibitor, in vitro. This inhibitor is currently in clinical trials for cancer treatment; however, its effects against intracellular Leishmania remain untested. Macrophages infected with L. amazonensis were treated with 17-AAG (25-500 nM) and parasite load was quantified using optical microscopy. Parasite load declined in 17-AAG-treated macrophages in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Intracellular parasite death became irreversible after 4 h of treatment with 17-AAG, and occurred independent of nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide (O(2) (-)) production. Additionally, intracellular parasite viability was severely reduced after 48 h of treatment. Interestingly, treatment with 17-AAG reduced pro-inflammatory mediator production, including TNF-α, IL-6 and MCP-1, yet IL-12 remained unaffected. Electron microscopy revealed morphological alterations, such as double-membrane vacuoles and myelin figures at 24 and 48 h after 17-AAG treatment. The HSP90 inhibitor, 17-AAG, possesses high potency under low dosage and reduces both pro-inflammatory and oxidative molecule production. Therefore, further studies are warranted to investigate this inhibitor's potential in the development of new generations of anti-leishmanials.

  12. Agmatine attenuates intestinal ischemia and reperfusion injury by reducing oxidative stress and inflammatory reaction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Inci; Ozacmak, Hale Sayan; Ozacmak, V Haktan; Barut, Figen; Araslı, Mehmet

    2017-11-15

    Oxidative stress and inflammatory response are major factors causing several tissue injuries in intestinal ischemia and reperfusion (I/R). Agmatine has been reported to attenuate I/R injury of various organs. The present study aims to analyze the possible protective effects of agmatine on intestinal I/R injury in rats. Four groups were designed: sham control, agmatine-treated control, I/R control, and agmatine-treated I/R groups. IR injury of small intestine was induced by the occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery for half an hour to be followed by a 3-hour-long reperfusion. Agmatine (10mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally before reperfusion period. After 180min of reperfusion period, the contractile responses to both carbachol and potassium chloride (KCl) were subsequently examined in an isolated-organ bath. Malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), and the activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) were measured in intestinal tissue. Plasma cytokine levels were determined. The expression of the intestinal inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was also assessed by immunohistochemistry. The treatment with agmatine appeared to be significantly effective in reducing the MDA content and MPO activity besides restoring the content of GSH. The treatment also attenuated the histological injury. The increases in the I/R induced expressions of iNOS, IFN-γ, and IL-1α were brought back to the sham control levels by the treatment as well. Our findings indicate that the agmatine pretreatment may ameliorate reperfusion induced injury in small intestine mainly due to reducing inflammatory response and oxidative stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Tocopherol Supplementation Reduces NO Production and Pulmonary Inflammatory Response to Bleomycin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jin Dong; Golden, Thea; Guo, Chang-Jiang; Tu, Shui Ping; Scott, Pamela; Lee, Mao-Jung; Yang, Chung S.; Gow, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Bleomycin causes acute lung injury through production of reactive species and initiation of inflammation. Previous work has shown alteration to the production of reactive oxygen species results in attenuation of injury. Vitamin E, in particular, γ-tocopherol, isoform, has the potential to scavenge reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. This study examines the utility of dietary supplementation with tocopherols in reducing bleomycin-mediated acute lung injury. Male C57BL6/J mice were intratracheally instilled with PBS or 2 units/kg bleomycin. Animals were analyzed 3 and 8 days post instillation at the cellular, tissue, and organ levels. Results showed successful delivery of tocopherols to the lung via dietary supplementation. Also, increases in reactive oxygen and nitrogen species due to bleomycin are normalized in those mice fed tocopherol diet. Injury was not prevented but inflammation progression was altered, in particular macrophage activation and function. Inflammatory scores based on histology demonstrate limited progression of inflammation in those mice treated with bleomycin and fed tocopherol diet compared to control diet. Upregulation of enzymes and cytokines involved in pro-inflammation were limited by tocopherol supplementation. Day 3 functional changes in elastance in response to bleomycin are prevented, however, 8 days post injury the effect of the tocopherol diet is lost. The effect of tocopherol supplementation upon the inflammatory process is demonstrated by a shift in the phenotype of macrophage activation. The effect of these changes on resolution and the progression of pulmonary fibrosis has yet to be elucidated. PMID:23669183

  14. Reduced Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines after Eight Weeks of Low-Dose Naltrexone for Fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Parkitny

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Fibromyalgia (FM is a complex, multi-symptom condition that predominantly affects women. The majority of those affected are unlikely to gain significant symptomatic control from the few treatments that are approved for FM. In this 10-week, single-blind, crossover trial we tested the immune effects of eight weeks of oral administration of low-dose naltrexone (LDN. We enrolled eight women with an average age of 46 years, symptom severity of 62 out of 100, and symptom duration of 14 years. We found that LDN was associated with reduced plasma concentrations of interleukin (IL-1β, IL-1Ra, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p40, IL-12p70, IL-15, IL-17A, IL-27, interferon (IFN-α, transforming growth factor (TGF-α, TGF-β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF. We also found a 15% reduction of FM-associated pain and an 18% reduction in overall symptoms. The findings of this pilot trial suggest that LDN treatment in fibromyalgia is associated with a reduction of several key pro-inflammatory cytokines and symptoms. The potential role of LDN as an atypical anti-inflammatory medication should be explored further.

  15. Oral Magnesium Treatment Reduces Anemia and Levels of Inflammatory Markers in Experimental Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ige, A O; Adewoye, E O

    2016-07-26

    Magnesium has been reported to improve glucose utilization in diabetes mellitus. However, information on its effects on anemic and inflammatory markers in diabetes mellitus is limited. This study investigated the effect of oral magnesium (Mg) treatment on some markers of anemia and inflammation in 25 male Wistar rats. Rats (200 ± 15 g) were randomly divided into five groups (n = 5). Group 1 was control (received orally 0.2 mL distilled water daily), group 2 (Diabetic Untreated), group 3 (Diabetic Mg treated-100 mg/kg bw), group 4 (Diabetic Mg treated-250 mg/kg bw), group 5 (Diabetic Insulin treated-1 IU/kg bw). Diabetes was induced with a single dose of alloxan (100 mg/kg intraperitoneal (i.p.)). All treatments were done for 14 days. Anemic and inflammatory markers were investigated on blood samples obtained from each animal using standard laboratory methods. Significant increase (p DMg 100 (5.86 ± 0.74 × 10 9 /L) and DMg 250 (5.06 ± 0.78 × 10 9 /L). Hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume (PCV) and red blood cell (RBC) count was decreased (p DMg 100, and DI rats. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) was significantly increased (p DMg 100, DMg 250, and DI groups. Fibrinogen level was increased (p DMg 100 (0.30 ± 0.03 g/dL), DMg 250 (0.22 ± 0.04 g/dL), and DI (0.36 ± 0.02 g/dL) rats were comparable to control (0.26 ± 0.02 g/dL). Total protein, albumin, and globulin levels were decreased in DU rats compared to normal control, DMg 100, DMg 250, and DI rats. In conclusion, anemia and increased hematologic and metabolic inflammatory markers may be associated with untreated diabetes mellitus. Treatment of alloxan-induced diabetic rats with magnesium improved the anemic state and reduced hematologic and metabolic inflammatory markers.

  16. Food-safe modification of stainless steel food processing surfaces to reduce bacterial biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Tarek Samir; Asker, Dalal; Hatton, Benjamin D

    2018-06-11

    Biofilm formation on stainless steel (SS) surfaces of food processing plants, leading to foodborne illness outbreaks, is enabled by the attachment and confinement within microscale cavities of surface roughness (grooves, scratches). We report Foodsafe Oil-based Slippery Coatings (FOSCs) for food processing surfaces that suppress bacterial adherence and biofilm formation by trapping residual oil lubricant within these surface cavities to block microbial growth. SS surfaces were chemically functionalized with alkylphosphonic acid to preferentially wet a layer of food grade oil. FOSCs reduced the effective surface roughness, the adhesion of organic food residue, and bacteria. FOSCs significantly reduced Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation on standard roughness SS-316 by 5 log CFU cm-2, and by 3 log CFU cm-2 for mirror-finished SS. FOSCs also enhanced surface cleanability, which we measured by bacterial counts after conventional detergent cleaning. Importantly, both SS grades maintained their anti-biofilm activity after erosion of the oil layer by surface wear with glass beads, which suggests there is a residual volume of oil that remains to block surface cavity defects. These results indicate the potential of such low-cost, scalable approaches to enhance the cleanability of SS food processing surfaces and improve food safety by reducing biofilm growth.

  17. Birds be safe: Can a novel cat collar reduce avian mortality by domestic cats (Felis catus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Willson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The domestic cat (Felis catus has been described as the largest anthropogenic threat to songbird populations in North America. We examined the effectiveness of a novel cat collar in reducing avian and small mammal mortality by cats. The 2-inch wide Birdsbesafe® collar cover (CC is worn over a nylon quick-release collar, and the bright colors and patterns of the CC are hypothesized to warn birds of approaching cats. We conducted two seasonal trials, each lasting 12 weeks, in autumn 2013 (n=54 cats and spring 2014 (n=19 cats. Cats were randomly assigned to two groups, and CCs with interior collars were removed or put on every two weeks, to control for weather fluctuations and seasonal change. Cats wearing Birdsbesafe® CCs killed 19 times fewer birds than uncollared cats in the spring trial, and 3.4 times fewer birds in the fall. Birdsbesafe® CCs were extremely effective at reducing predation on birds. Small mammal data were less clear, but did decrease predation by half in the fall. The Birdsbesafe® CC is a highly effective device for decreasing bird predation, especially in the spring season. We suggest that the CCs be used as a conservation tool for owned as well as feral cats.

  18. En bloc ligation of renal vessels is safe and reduces duration of surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azawi, Nessn Htum; Hult, Mariam Annalisa Skibsted; Dahl, Claus

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Conventionally, individual ligation of the renal vessels with clips is performed during laparoscopic nephrectomy (LN). Concomitant ligation of the vessels is not a standard procedure due to an expected risk of stapler dysfunction and the development of arteriovenous fistulas (AVF......). Using the EndoGIA stapler 45/2.5 mm, we compared en bloc ligation with individual ligation during LN and nephroureterectomy (LNU) with a special focus on the development of AVF and technique safety. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of all patients undergoing LN or LNU at the Department of Urology......, Roskilde Hospital, Denmark, between January 2010 and April 2014. The follow-up period was minimum six months. RESULTS: A total of 228 patients underwent LN and 56 patients underwent LNU. In the LN group, 77 patients underwent en bloc ligation. The mean surgical time was significantly reduced to 89 minutes...

  19. Can a Risk Factor Based Approach Safely Reduce Screening for Retinopathy of Prematurity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Friddle

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Current American retinopathy of prematurity (ROP screening guidelines is imprecise for infants ≥ 30 weeks with birth weights between 1500 and 2000 g. Our objective was to evaluate a risk factor based approach for screening premature infants at low risk for severe ROP. Study Design. We performed a 13-year review from Intermountain Health Care (IHC data. All neonates born at ≤32 weeks were reviewed to determine ROP screening and/or development of severe ROP. Severe ROP was defined by stage ≥ 3 or need for laser therapy. Regression analysis was used to identify significant risk factors for severe ROP. Results. We identified 4607 neonates ≤ 32 weeks gestation. Following exclusion for death, with no retinal exam or incomplete data, 2791 (61% were included in the study. Overall, severe ROP occurred in 260 (9.3%, but only 11/1601 ≥ 29 weeks (0.7%. All infants with severe ROP ≥ 29 weeks had at least 2 identified ROP risk factors. Implementation of this risk based screening strategy to the IHC population over the timeline of this study would have eliminated screening in 21% (343/1601 of the screened population. Conclusions. Limiting ROP screening for infants ≥ 29 and ≤ 32 weeks to only those with clinical risk factors could significantly reduce screening exams while identifying all infants with severe ROP.

  20. A community-based cluster randomised trial of safe storage to reduce pesticide self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pearson, Melissa; Konradsen, Flemming; Gunnell, David

    2011-01-01

    . One approach to reducing access to pesticides is for households to store pesticides in lockable "safe-storage" containers. However, before this approach can be promoted, evidence is required on its effectiveness and safety. Methods/Design A community-based cluster randomised controlled trial has been...... at the 5% significance level. Secondary outcomes will include the incidence of all pesticide poisoning and total self-harm. Discussion This paper describes a large effectiveness study of a community intervention to reduce the burden of intentional poisoning in rural Sri Lanka. The study builds on a strong...... partnership between provincial health services, local and international researchers, and local communities. We discuss issues in relation to randomisation and contamination, engaging control villages, the intervention, and strategies to improve adherence. Trial Registritation The trial is registered...

  1. Decommissioning Programme Management: reducing risk and cost while accelerating schedules through improved planning, Earned Value Management and safe work execution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, S.E.

    2008-01-01

    CH2M HILL experience includes more than two decades of managing nuclear facilities and providing clean-up and operations support for commercial and government facilities worldwide. Our expertise ranges from decommissioning and defence sector businesses to nuclear technology development and innovation. Our approach places top priority on the safe execution of work while reducing both risk and cost. Our nuclear services include: programme management, nuclear safety analysis, radiological protection, radioactive waste management, nuclear remediation, nuclear materials and waste transportation management, nuclear safeguards and security services, and nuclear decontamination and decommissioning. This paper will discuss our approach which has resulted in a strong track record of accelerating schedules and reducing costs of major nuclear programmes, including Rocky Flats, Idaho, and our work at UKAEA sites. (author)

  2. Should I drink responsibly, safely or properly? Confusing messages about reducing alcohol-related harm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra C Jones

    Full Text Available 'Responsible drinking' campaigns emerged in the early 1970s as a means of addressing hazardous drinking and its related consequences. While these were initially the product of public health agencies and health-related NGOs, they are increasingly being developed and disseminated by the alcohol industry. There is considerable debate as to whether industry-generated campaigns are designed to reduce hazardous drinking and related problems (as argued by their developers or are designed to avoid government regulation or even to increase sales. The aim of the present study was to explore the way that recent industry-developed responsible drinking campaigns are perceived and interpreted by the general public. That is, do they promote low-risk drinking, promote risky drinking, or just muddy the waters. Two sub-studies were conducted. The first, a mall intercept study with 180 adults in two Australian shopping districts, explored participants' understanding of slogans/taglines. The second, an online survey with 480 Australian adults, explored understandings and interpretations of television/online commercials. The results of the two studies revealed diversity in participants' interpretation of the 'responsible drinking' advertisements. Terminology utilised in industry-developed advertisements was found to be ambiguous; for example, what age group was being referred to in the tagline 'Kids and alcohol don't mix', and whether 'Drink Properly' meant not drinking to excess or drinking in a way that made you look more sophisticated. In Study Two, the government-developed campaign ('Know when to say when' was clearly interpreted as warning against risky consumption of alcohol; whereas the industry-developed campaigns ('How to drink properly', 'Kids absorb your drinking', 'Friends are waiting' were interpreted to have a range of different meanings, including some seemingly unrelated to alcohol. These findings are consistent with the literature evaluating anti

  3. Plasmid Transfer of Plasminogen K1-5 Reduces Subcutaneous Hepatoma Growth by Affecting Inflammatory Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea A. Koch

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that plasminogen K1-5 (PlgK1-5 directly affects tumour cells and inflammation. Therefore, we analysed if PlgK1-5 has immediate effects on hepatoma cells and inflammatory factors in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, effects of plasmid encoding PlgK1-5 (pK1-5 on Hepa129, Hepa1-6, and HuH7 cell viability, apoptosis, and proliferation as well as VEGF and TNF-alpha expression and STAT3-phosphorylation were investigated. In vivo, tumour growth, proliferation, vessel density, and effects on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha expression were examined following treatment with pK1-5. In vivo, pK1-5 halved cell viability; cell death was increased by up to 15% compared to the corresponding controls. Proliferation was not affected. VEGF, TNF-alpha, and STAT3-phosphorylation were affected following treatment with pK1-5. In vivo, ten days after treatment initiation, pK1-5 reduced subcutaneous tumour growth by 32% and mitosis by up to 77% compared to the controls. Vessel density was reduced by 50%. TNF-alpha levels in tumour and liver tissue were increased, whereas VEGF levels in tumours and livers were reduced after pK1-5 treatment. Taken together, plasmid gene transfer of PlgK1-5 inhibits hepatoma (cell growth not only by reducing vessel density but also by inducing apoptosis, inhibiting proliferation, and triggering inflammation.

  4. Doxycycline inhibits experimental cerebral malaria by reducing inflammatory immune reactions and tissue-degrading mediators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim E Schmidt

    Full Text Available Malaria ranks among the most important infectious diseases worldwide and affects mostly people living in tropical countries. Mechanisms involved in disease progression are still not fully understood and specific treatments that might interfere with cerebral malaria (CM are limited. Here we show that administration of doxycycline (DOX prevented experimental CM (ECM in Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA-infected C57BL/6 wildtype (WT mice in an IL-10-independent manner. DOX-treated mice showed an intact blood-brain barrier (BBB and attenuated brain inflammation. Importantly, if WT mice were infected with a 20-fold increased parasite load, they could be still protected from ECM if they received DOX from day 4-6 post infection, despite similar parasitemia compared to control-infected mice that did not receive DOX and developed ECM. Infiltration of T cells and cytotoxic responses were reduced in brains of DOX-treated mice. Analysis of brain tissue by RNA-array revealed reduced expression of chemokines and tumour necrosis factor (TNF in brains of DOX-treated mice. Furthermore, DOX-administration resulted in brains of the mice in reduced expression of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2 and granzyme B, which are both factors associated with ECM pathology. Systemic interferon gamma production was reduced and activated peripheral T cells accumulated in the spleen in DOX-treated mice. Our results suggest that DOX targeted inflammatory processes in the central nervous system (CNS and prevented ECM by impaired brain access of effector T cells in addition to its anti-parasitic effect, thereby expanding the understanding of molecular events that underlie DOX-mediated therapeutic interventions.

  5. Doxycycline inhibits experimental cerebral malaria by reducing inflammatory immune reactions and tissue-degrading mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Kim E; Kuepper, Janina M; Schumak, Beatrix; Alferink, Judith; Hofmann, Andrea; Howland, Shanshan W; Rénia, Laurent; Limmer, Andreas; Specht, Sabine; Hoerauf, Achim

    2018-01-01

    Malaria ranks among the most important infectious diseases worldwide and affects mostly people living in tropical countries. Mechanisms involved in disease progression are still not fully understood and specific treatments that might interfere with cerebral malaria (CM) are limited. Here we show that administration of doxycycline (DOX) prevented experimental CM (ECM) in Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA)-infected C57BL/6 wildtype (WT) mice in an IL-10-independent manner. DOX-treated mice showed an intact blood-brain barrier (BBB) and attenuated brain inflammation. Importantly, if WT mice were infected with a 20-fold increased parasite load, they could be still protected from ECM if they received DOX from day 4-6 post infection, despite similar parasitemia compared to control-infected mice that did not receive DOX and developed ECM. Infiltration of T cells and cytotoxic responses were reduced in brains of DOX-treated mice. Analysis of brain tissue by RNA-array revealed reduced expression of chemokines and tumour necrosis factor (TNF) in brains of DOX-treated mice. Furthermore, DOX-administration resulted in brains of the mice in reduced expression of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) and granzyme B, which are both factors associated with ECM pathology. Systemic interferon gamma production was reduced and activated peripheral T cells accumulated in the spleen in DOX-treated mice. Our results suggest that DOX targeted inflammatory processes in the central nervous system (CNS) and prevented ECM by impaired brain access of effector T cells in addition to its anti-parasitic effect, thereby expanding the understanding of molecular events that underlie DOX-mediated therapeutic interventions.

  6. Treatment with some anti-inflammatory drugs reduces germ tube formation in Candida albicans strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Rusu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is an opportunistic dimorphic fungus that inhabits various host mucosal sites. It can cause both superficial and serious systemic disease. Conversion from the yeast to the hyphal form has been associated with increased virulence and mucosal invasiveness. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sodium diclofenac and aspirin on germs tube formation of different Candida albicans strains. Prostaglandins may play an important role in fungal colonization. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are inhibitors of the cyclooxygenase isoenzymes. These drugs specifically block the biosynthesis of mammalian prostaglandins by inhibiting one or both of cyclooxygenase isoenzymes. In tests for germ tube formation sodium diclofenac reduced the filamentation to the 12.5%- 5.1%. In the presence of aspirin the filamentation was reduced up to 85-45% depending on the tested strain. Our results suggest that cyclooxygenase-depending synthesis of fungal prostaglandins is important for morphogenesis and fungal virulence. Inhibitors of cyclooxygenase isoensymes (aspirin and diclofenac are effective in decreasing germ tube formation of Candida albicans.

  7. Altered joint tribology in osteoarthritis: Reduced lubricin synthesis due to the inflammatory process. New horizons for therapeutic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szychlinska, M A; Leonardi, R; Al-Qahtani, M; Mobasheri, A; Musumeci, G

    2016-06-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of joint disease. This review aimed to consolidate the current evidence that implicates the inflammatory process in the attenuation of synovial lubrication and joint tissue homeostasis in OA. Moreover, with these findings, we propose some evidence for novel therapeutic strategies for preventing and/or treating this complex disorder. The studies reviewed support that inflammatory mediators participate in the onset and progression of OA after joint injury. The flow of pro-inflammatory cytokines following an acute injury seems to be directly associated with altered lubricating ability in the joint tissue. The latter is associated with reduced level of lubricin, one of the major joint lubricants. Future research should focus on the development of new therapies that attenuate the inflammatory process and restore lubricin synthesis and function. This approach could support joint tribology and synovial lubrication leading to improved joint function and pain relief. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. [Pulsatilla decoction inhibits vulvovaginal Candida albicans proliferation and reduces inflammatory cytokine levels in vulvovaginal candidiasis mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Dan; Zhang, Mengxiang; Shi, Gaoxiang; Xu, Zhiqing; Wu, Daqiang; Shao, Jing; Wang, Tianming; Wang, Changzhong

    2016-02-01

    To explore the possible regulatory effect of Pulsatilla decoction on Th17 cells and inflammatory cytokines of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) mice. Seventy-two female Kunming mice were randomly assigned into six groups: a blank control group, a VVC model group, a fluconazole group and three Pulsatilla decoction groups (dose levels: 22.5, 15.0 and 7.5 g/kg, respectively). The VVC mouse models were established by vaginal inoculation with Candida albicans (C. albicans) in female mice in pseudoestrus state caused by estradiol injection. After 7-day treatment on VVC mice, the vaginal C. albicans burden was assessed using dilution spread plate method; the vaginal C. albicans morphology was observed by Gram staining method; the levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-17, IL-21 and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) in sera were detected by ELISA. The content of the transcription factor retinoid related orphan receptor gamma t (RORγt) in vaginal tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry. The VVC mouse models were successfully developed. After treatment, the vaginal C. albicans burden of the fluconazole group and 22.5 g/kg Pulsatilla decoction group dropped significantly compared with that of the VVC model group. Gram staining showed that the VVC mice had lots of C. albicans hyphae in vaginal discharge, that 7.5 g/kg Pulsatilla decoction group remained the mycelia-phase C. albicans, and that 15.0 g/kg Pulsatilla decoction group had the majority of yeast-phase C. albicans and a few of mycelia-phase, while no hyphae and only very few of yeast-phase C. albicans were observed in 22.5 g/kg Pulsatilla decoction group and fluconazole group. After 7-day treatment, compared with the model group, the levels of IL-6, IL- 17, IL-21 and TNF-α in the sera of the fluconazole group, 15.0 and 22.5 g/kg Pulsatilla decoction groups were reduced significantly and the levels of RORγt in the vaginal tissues of the fluconazole group, 15.0 and 22.5 g/kg Pulsatilla decoction groups also decreased

  9. The Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug Diclofenac Reduces Acid-Induced Heartburn Symptoms in Healthy Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Takashi; Oshima, Tadayuki; Tomita, Toshihiko; Fukui, Hirokazu; Okada, Hiroki; Watari, Jiro; Miwa, Hiroto

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the effects of diclofenac, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug that inhibits prostaglandin production, on induction of esophageal sensation by acid perfusion in healthy men. We performed a prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2-period, cross-over study over 3 visits in 12 healthy men. Diclofenac was given 6 hours and 2 hours before an acid perfusion test. During the test, hydrochloric acid (0.15 mol/L) was perfused into the lower esophagus for 30 minutes; we evaluated upper gastrointestinal symptoms using a validated categoric rating scale. Then, we calculated and assessed the acid perfusion sensitivity score (APSS). Biopsy specimens were collected by endoscopy of the distal esophagus before and after acid perfusion; levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) (pg/mg) were measured in the samples using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Compared with placebo, diclofenac significantly reduced the APSS for heartburn (82.2 ± 12.2 for placebo and 47.5 ± 8.9 for diclofenac; P heartburn was reduced significantly by diclofenac. Compared with placebo, diclofenac reduced the overproduction of PGE2 by esophageal tissues after acid perfusion (23.3 ± 5.2 for placebo and 11.4 ± 3.5 for diclofenac; P heartburn and esophageal levels of PGE2 (r = 0.53; P heartburn vs PGE2). Diclofenac attenuated acid-induced heartburn by inhibiting PGE2 overproduction in the esophagus. Esophageal PGE2 might be involved in producing heartburn symptoms. Clinical Trials Registry no: UMIN000014595. Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Lycopene rich extract from red guava (Psidium guajava L.) displays anti-inflammatory and antioxidant profile by reducing suggestive hallmarks of acute inflammatory response in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Andreanne G; Amorim, Adriany das G N; Dos Santos, Raimunda C; Souza, Jessica Maria T; de Souza, Luan Kelves M; Araújo, Thiago de S L; Nicolau, Lucas Antonio D; de Lima Carvalho, Lucas; de Aquino, Pedro Everson A; da Silva Martins, Conceição; Ropke, Cristina D; Soares, Pedro Marcos G; Kuckelhaus, Selma Aparecida S; Medeiros, Jand-Venes R; Leite, José Roberto de S A

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of the extract (LEG) and purified (LPG) lycopene from guava (Psidium guajava L.), as well as some mechanisms possibly involved in this effect. The anti-inflammatory activity was initially assessed using paw edema induced by Carrageenan, Dextran, Compound 48/80, Histamine and Prostaglandin E2 in Swiss mice. A peritonitis model was used to evaluate neutrophil migration, the activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration; while the effect on the expression of iNOS, COX-2 and NF-κB, was assessed by immunohistochemistry analysis. Results showed that oral and intraperitoneal administration of LEG and LPG inhibited inflammation caused by carrageenan. LPG (12.5mg/kg p.o.) significantly inhibited the edema formation induced by different phlogistic agents and immunostaining for iNOS, COX-2 and NF-κB. Leukocytes migration in paw tissue and peritoneal cavity was reduced, as well as MPO concentration, whereas GSH levels increased. Thus, lycopene-rich extract from red guava has beneficial effect on acute inflammation, offering protection against the consequences of oxidative stress by downregulating inflammatory mediators and inhibiting gene expression involved in inflammation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Motion – Cyclo-oxygenase-2 Selective Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs are as Safe as Placebo for the Stomach: Arguments Against the Motion

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    Andreas Maetzel

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclo-oxygenase (COX exists in two isoforms, COX-1 and COX-2, that direct the synthesis of prostaglandins, prostacyclin and thromboxane. Traditional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs inhibit both isoenzymes, resulting in damage to the mucosa of the stomach and duodenum, but also in cardioprotection. Selective COX-2 inhibitors are less likely to damage the upper gastrointestinal tract, as has been shown by large, randomized, controlled trials. Specifically, the newer agents are superior to ibuprofen and naproxen in this regard, but celecoxib and diclofenac were not significantly different in patients who were not also taking low-dose acetylsalicylic acid. These studies did not include a placebo arm, however, and controlled comparisons of COX-2 inhibitors with placebo have not enlisted enough subjects to demonstrate conclusively that they are equally safe. Selectivity for the COX-2 isoform affords protection against upper gastrointestinal toxicity possibly at the expense of the cardioprotective effect of traditional NSAIDs. This might explain the higher rate of nonfatal myocardial infarction in patients who aregiven rofecoxib compared with naproxen. A traditional NSAID, combined with either misoprostol or a proton pump inhibitor, is still a suitable alternative to selective COX-2 inhibitors for the treatment of arthritis.

  12. Anticancer Drug 2-Methoxyestradiol Protects against Renal Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury by Reducing Inflammatory Cytokines Expression

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    Ying-Yin Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury is a major cause of acute renal failure and allograft dysfunction in kidney transplantation. ROS/inflammatory cytokines are involved in I/R injury. 2-Methoxyestradiol (2ME2, an endogenous metabolite of estradiol, inhibits inflammatory cytokine expression and is an antiangiogenic and antitumor agent. We investigated the inhibitory effect of 2ME2 on renal I/R injury and possible molecular actions. Methods. BALB/c mice were intraperitoneally injected with 2ME2 (10 or 20 mg/kg or vehicle 12 h before and immediately after renal I/R experiments. The kidney weight, renal function, tubular damages, and apoptotic response were examined 24 h after I/R injury. The expression of mRNA of interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor- (TNF α, caspase-3, hypoxia inducible factor- (HIF 1α, and proapoptotic Bcl-2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa interacting protein 3 (BNIP3 in kidney tissue was determined using RT-PCR, while the expression of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB, BCL-2, and BCL-xL, activated caspase-9, and HIF-1α was determined using immunoblotting. In vitro, we determined the effect of 2ME2 on reactive oxygen species (ROS production and cell viability in antimycin-A-treated renal mesangial (RMC and tubular (NRK52E cells. Results. Serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen were significantly higher in mice with renal I/R injury than in sham control and in I/R+2ME2-treated mice. Survival in I/R+2ME2-treated mice was higher than in I/R mice. Histological examination showed that 2ME2 attenuated tubular damage in I/R mice, which was associated with lower expression TNF-α, IL-1β, caspase-9, HIF-1α, and BNIP3 mRNA in kidney tissue. Western blotting showed that 2ME2 treatment substantially decreased the expression of activated caspase-9, NF-κB, and HIF-1α but increased the antiapoptotic proteins BCL-2 and BCL-xL in kidney of I/R injury. In vitro, 2MR2 decreased ROS production and increased cell viability in antimycin

  13. The safe motherhood referral system to reduce cesarean sections and perinatal mortality - a cross-sectional study [1995-2006

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    Rudge Marilza VC

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2000, the eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs set targets for reducing child mortality and improving maternal health by 2015. Objective To evaluate the results of a new education and referral system for antenatal/intrapartum care as a strategy to reduce the rates of Cesarean sections (C-sections and maternal/perinatal mortality. Methods Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Botucatu Medical School, Sao Paulo State University/UNESP, Brazil. Population: 27,387 delivering women and 27,827 offspring. Data collection: maternal and perinatal data between 1995 and 2006 at the major level III and level II hospitals in Botucatu, Brazil following initiation of a safe motherhood education and referral system. Main outcome measures: Yearly rates of C-sections, maternal (/100,000 LB and perinatal (/1000 births mortality rates at both hospitals. Data analysis: Simple linear regression models were adjusted to estimate the referral system's annual effects on the total number of deliveries, C-section and perinatal mortality ratios in the two hospitals. The linear regression were assessed by residual analysis (Shapiro-Wilk test and the influence of possible conflicting observations was evaluated by a diagnostic test (Leverage, with p Results Over the time period evaluated, the overall C-section rate was 37.3%, there were 30 maternal deaths (maternal mortality ratio = 109.5/100,000 LB and 660 perinatal deaths (perinatal mortality rate = 23.7/1000 births. The C-section rate decreased from 46.5% to 23.4% at the level II hospital while remaining unchanged at the level III hospital. The perinatal mortality rate decreased from 9.71 to 1.66/1000 births and from 60.8 to 39.6/1000 births at the level II and level III hospital, respectively. Maternal mortality ratios were 16.3/100,000 LB and 185.1/100,000 LB at the level II and level III hospitals. There was a shift from direct to indirect causes of

  14. Rosiglitazone Reduces Plasma Levels of Inflammatory and Hemostatic Biomarkers and Improves Global Endothelial Function in Habitual Heavy Smokers Without Diabetes Mellitus or Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Chih Chen

    2010-02-01

    Conclusion: Rosiglitazone significantly reduces plasma levels of inflammatory and hemostatic biomarkers, and restores global endothelial dysfunction, independently from insulin sensitization, in healthy smokers.

  15. Gold nanoparticles and diclofenac diethylammonium administered by iontophoresis reduce inflammatory cytokines expression in Achilles tendinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohnert, Marcelo B; Venâncio, Mirelli; Possato, Jonathann C; Zeferino, Rodrigo C; Dohnert, Luciana H; Zugno, Alexandra I; De Souza, Cláudio T; Paula, Marcos M S; Luciano, Thais F

    2012-01-01

    Tendinitis affects a substantial number of people in several occupations involving repetitive work or direct trauma. Iontophoresis is a therapeutic alternative used in the treatment of injury during the inflammatory phase. In recent years, gold nanoparticles (GNP) have been studied due to their therapeutic anti-inflammatory capacity and as an alternative to the transport of several proteins. This study evaluates the therapeutic effects of iontophoresis using GNPs and diclofenac diethylammonium on inflammatory parameters in rats challenged with traumatic tendinitis. Wistar rats were divided in three treatment groups (n = 15): (1) iontophoresis + diclofenac diethylammonium; (2) iontophoresis + GNP; and (3) iontophoresis + diclofenac diethylammonium + GNP. External control was formed by challenged tendons without treatment (n = 15). Iontophoresis was administered using 0.3 mA direct current on 1.5 cm(2) electrodes. The levels of both inflammatory cytokines were significantly higher in untreated challenged rats, when compared with the control (5.398 ± 234 for interleukin 1 beta and 6.411 ± 432 for tumor necrosis factor alpha), which confirms the occurrence of an inflammatory stage in injury (P diclofenac and GNP, results were similar to the control (1.732 ± 239) (P diclofenac and GNPs presented decreased levels, compared with the control (3.221 ± 369) (P < 0.05). The results show the efficacy of drug administration using direct current to treat tendinitis in an animal model, and the potential anti-inflammatory, carrier, and enhancing effects of GNPs in iontophoresis.

  16. Isoliquiritigenin protects against sepsis-induced lung and liver injury by reducing inflammatory responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiong; Cai, Xueding; Le, Rongrong; Zhang, Man; Gu, Xuemei; Shen, Feixia; Hong, Guangliang; Chen, Zimiao

    2018-02-05

    Sepsis, one of the most fatal diseases worldwide, often leads to multiple organ failure, mainly due to uncontrolled inflammatory responses. Despite accumulating knowledge obtained in recent years, effective drugs to treat sepsis in the clinic are still urgently needed. Isoliquiritigenin (ISL), a chalcone compound, has been reported to exert anti-inflammatory properties. However, little is known about the effects of ISL on sepsis and its related complications. In this study, we investigated the potential protective effects of ISL on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced injuries and identified the mechanisms underlying these effects. ISL inhibited inflammatory cytokine expression in mouse primary peritoneal macrophages (MPMs) exposed to LPS. In an acute lung injury (ALI) mouse model, ISL prevented LPS-induced structural damage and inflammatory cell infiltration. Additionally, pretreatment with ISL attenuated sepsis-induced lung and liver injury, accompanied by a reduction in inflammatory responses. Moreover, these protective effects were mediated by the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway-mediated inhibition of inflammatory responses in vitro and in vivo. Our study suggests that ISL may be a potential therapeutic agent for sepsis-induced injuries. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Low-Dose Epinephrine Plus Tranexamic Acid Reduces Early Postoperative Blood Loss and Inflammatory Response: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wei-Nan; Liu, Jun-Li; Wang, Fu-You; Chen, Cheng; Zhou, Qiang; Yang, Liu

    2018-02-21

    The reductions of perioperative blood loss and inflammatory response are important in total knee arthroplasty. Tranexamic acid reduced blood loss and the inflammatory response in several studies. However, the effect of epinephrine administration plus tranexamic acid has not been intensively investigated, to our knowledge. In this study, we evaluated whether the combined administration of low-dose epinephrine plus tranexamic acid reduced perioperative blood loss or inflammatory response further compared with tranexamic acid alone. This randomized placebo-controlled trial consisted of 179 consecutive patients who underwent primary total knee arthroplasty. Patients were randomized into 3 interventions: Group IV received intravenous low-dose epinephrine plus tranexamic acid, Group TP received topical diluted epinephrine plus tranexamic acid, and Group CT received tranexamic acid alone. The primary outcome was perioperative blood loss on postoperative day 1. Secondary outcomes included perioperative blood loss on postoperative day 3, coagulation and fibrinolysis parameters (measured by thromboelastography), inflammatory cytokine levels, transfusion values (rate and volume), thromboembolic complications, length of hospital stay, wound score, range of motion, and Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) score. The mean calculated total blood loss (and standard deviation) in Group IV was 348.1 ± 158.2 mL on postoperative day 1 and 458.0 ± 183.4 mL on postoperative day 3, which were significantly reduced (p 0.05). The combined administration of low-dose epinephrine and tranexamic acid demonstrated an increased effect in reducing perioperative blood loss and the inflammatory response compared with tranexamic acid alone, with no apparent increased incidence of thromboembolic and other complications. Therapeutic Level I. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  18. Safe sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sex; Sexually transmitted - safe sex; GC - safe sex; Gonorrhea - safe sex; Herpes - safe sex; HIV - safe sex; ... contact. STIs include: Chlamydia Genital herpes Genital warts Gonorrhea Hepatitis HIV HPV Syphilis STIs are also called ...

  19. Does physical exercise reduce excessive daytime sleepiness by improving inflammatory profiles in obstructive sleep apnea patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Eduardo da Silva; Ackel-D'Elia, Carolina; Luz, Gabriela Pontes; Cunha, Thays Crosara Abrahão; Carneiro, Gláucia; Tufik, Sergio; Bittencourt, Lia Rita Azeredo; de Mello, Marco Tulio

    2013-05-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is associated with a variety of long-term consequences such as high rates of morbidity and mortality, due to excessive diurnal somnolence as well as cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Obesity, recurrent episodes of upper airway obstruction, progressive hypoxemia, and sleep fragmentation during sleep cause neural, cardiovascular, and metabolic changes. These changes include activation of peripheral sympathetic nervous system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, insulin sensitivity, and inflammatory cytokines alterations, which predispose an individual to vascular damage. Previous studies proposed that OSAS modulated the expression and secretion of inflammatory cytokines from fat and other tissues. Independent of obesity, patients with OSAS exhibited elevated levels of C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6, which are associated with sleepiness, fatigue, and the development of a variety of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. OSAS and obesity are strongly associated with each other and share many common pathways that induce chronic inflammation. Previous studies suggested that the protective effect of exercise may be partially attributed to the anti-inflammatory effect of regular exercise, and this effect was observed in obese patients. Although some studies assessed the effects of physical exercise on objective and subjective sleep parameters, the quality of life, and mood in patients with OSAS, no study has evaluated the effects of this treatment on inflammatory profiles. In this review, we cited some studies that directed our opinion to believe that since OSAS causes increased inflammation and has excessive daytime sleepiness as a symptom and being that physical exercise improves inflammatory profiles and possibly OSAS symptoms, it must be that physical exercise improves excessive daytime sleepiness due to its improvement in inflammatory profiles.

  20. Alpha-, gamma- and delta-tocopherols reduce inflammatory angiogenesis in human microvascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Shannon R; Jennings, Merilyn H; Rome, Courtney; Hadjivassiliou, Vicky; Papas, Konstantinos A; Alexander, Jonathon S

    2010-07-01

    Vitamin E, a micronutrient (comprising alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-tocopherols, alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-tocotrienols), has documented antioxidant and non-antioxidant effects, some of which inhibit inflammation and angiogenesis. We compared the abilities of alpha-, gamma- and delta-tocopherols to regulate human blood cytotoxicity (BEC) and lymphatic endothelial cytotoxicity (LEC), proliferation, invasiveness, permeability, capillary formation and suppression of TNF-alpha-induced VCAM-1 as in vitro models of inflammatory angiogenesis. alpha-, gamma- and delta-tocopherols were not toxic to either cell type up to 40 microM. In BEC, confluent cell density was decreased by all concentrations of delta- and gamma-tocopherol (10-40 microM) but not by alpha-tocopherol. LEC showed no change in cell density in response to tocopherols. delta-Tocopherol (40 microM), but not other isomers, decreased BEC invasiveness. In LEC, all doses of gamma-tocopherol, as well as the highest dose of alpha-tocopherol (40 microM), decreased cell invasiveness. delta-Tocopherol had no effect on LEC invasiveness at any molarity. delta-Tocopherol dose dependently increased cell permeability at 48 h in BEC and LEC; alpha- and gamma-tocopherols showed slight effects. Capillary tube formation was decreased by high dose (40 microM) concentrations of alpha-, gamma- and delta-tocopherol, but showed no effects with smaller doses (10-20 microM) in BEC. gamma-Tocopherol (10-20 microM) and alpha-tocopherol (10 microM), but not delta-tocopherol, increased LEC capillary tube formation. Lastly, in BEC, alpha-, gamma- and delta-tocopherol each dose-dependently reduced TNF-alpha-induced expression of VCAM-1. In LEC, there was no significant change to TNF-alpha-induced VCAM-1 expression with any concentration of alpha-, gamma- or delta-tocopherol. These data demonstrate that physiological levels (0-40 microM) of alpha-, gamma- and delta-tocopherols are nontoxic and dietary tocopherols, especially delta

  1. Short-term exercise training reduces anti-inflammatory action of interleukin-10 in adults with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Julianne C; Simtchouk, Svetlana; Durrer, Cody; Jung, Mary E; Mui, Alice L; Little, Jonathan P

    2018-06-06

    A key pathological component of obesity is chronic low-grade inflammation, which is propagated by infiltration of immune cells into tissues and overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Cytokines that possess anti-inflammatory properties, such as interleukin (IL)-10 and IL6, may also play an important role. This study was designed to determine the impact of short-term exercise on the anti-inflammatory action of IL10 and IL6. Thirty-three inactive obese adults were randomized to two weeks of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) or moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT). Fasting blood samples were collected before and after training. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production was measured in whole blood cultures in the presence or absence of IL10 or IL6. IL10 and IL6 receptor expression were measured on circulating monocytes, neutrophils, and T cells. HIIT and MICT reduced the ability of IL10 to inhibit LPS-induced TNFα production, with a greater effect with HIIT (Group × Time and IL10 × Time interactions, p's  0.05). HIIT and MICT differentially affected IL6 function (Group × Time and IL6 × Time interactions, p's < 0.05) with evidence of reductions in the anti-inflammatory ability of IL6 with HIIT. Neither HIIT nor MICT altered levels of circulating IL10, IL6, or TNFα. The impact of short-term HIIT and MICT resulted in differential effects on anti-inflammatory cytokine function. The clinical implications remain to be determined but these novel findings indicate that measuring anti-inflammatory cytokine action could reveal important immunomodulatory effects of exercise. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Pro-inflammatory delipidizing cytokines reduce adiponectin secretion from human adipocytes without affecting adiponectin oligomerization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, Peter J.; van den Pangaart, Petra S.; Aerts, Johannes M. F. G.; Boon, Louis

    2007-01-01

    Adiponectin and, especially, its oligomeric complex composition have been suggested to be critical in determining insulin sensitivity. Pro-inflammatory cytokines play an important role in the development of insulin resistance in obesity and associated diseases. Therefore, we investigated the effect

  3. Lactobacilli require physical contact to reduce staphylococcal TSST-1 secretion and vaginal epithelial inflammatory response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Younes, Jessica A.; Reid, Gregor; van der Mei, Henny C.; Busscher, Henk J.

    Staphylococcus aureus biofilms can be found on vaginal epithelia, secreting toxins and causing inflammation. The co-vaginal species Lactobacillus can alter staphylococcal-induced epithelial secretion of inflammatory cytokines and quench staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 secretion. It is

  4. Royal Jelly Inhibits Pseudomonas aeruginosa Adherence and Reduces Excessive Inflammatory Responses in Human Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heni Susilowati

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative bacterium and causes respiratory infection especially in elderly patients. Royal jelly has been used worldwide as a traditional remedy and as a nutrient; however, the effect against P. aeruginosa is unclear. The aim of this study was to analyze antibacterial, antiadherent, and anti-inflammatory effects of royal jelly against P. aeruginosa. Wild-type strain PAO1 and clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa were used for antibacterial assay and antiadherent assay to abiotic surface and epithelial cells, which are pharynx (Detroit 562 and lung (NCI-H292 epithelial cells. In anti-inflammatory assay, epithelial cells were pretreated with royal jelly before bacterial exposure to investigate its inhibitory effect on interleukin (IL-8 and macrophage inflammatory protein-3α/CCL20 overproduction. Although royal jelly did not have antibacterial activity at concentration of 50% w/v, antiadherent activity was confirmed on the abiotic surface and epithelial cells under concentration of 25%. Pretreatment with royal jelly significantly inhibited overproduction of IL-8 and CCL20 from both cells. These results demonstrated that royal jelly inhibits P. aeruginosa adherence and protects epithelial cells from excessive inflammatory responses against P. aeruginosa infection. Our findings suggested that royal jelly may be a useful supplement as complementary and alternative medicine for preventing respiratory infection caused by P. aeruginosa.

  5. Intra-articular enzyme replacement therapy with rhIDUA is safe, well-tolerated, and reduces articular GAG storage in the canine model of mucopolysaccharidosis type I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Raymond Y; Aminian, Afshin; McEntee, Michael F; Kan, Shih-Hsin; Simonaro, Calogera M; Lamanna, William C; Lawrence, Roger; Ellinwood, N Matthew; Guerra, Catalina; Le, Steven Q; Dickson, Patricia I; Esko, Jeffrey D

    2014-08-01

    abolished in rhIDUA-treated joints only. Intra-articular rhIDUA is well-tolerated and safe in the canine MPS I animal model. Qualitative and quantitative assessments indicate that IA-rhIDUA successfully reduces tissue and cellular GAG storage in synovium and articular cartilage, including cartilage deep to the articular surface, and eliminates inflammatory macrophages from synovial tissue. The MPS I canine IA-rhIDUA results suggest that clinical studies should be performed to determine if IA-rhIDUA is a viable approach to ameliorating refractory orthopedic disease in human MPS I. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Fluoxetine ameliorates atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in BALB/c mice through reducing psychological stress and inflammatory response

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    Yanxi Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis (AD is a common chronic inflammatory skin disorder, and patients with AD suffer from severe psychological stress, which markedly increases the prevalence rate of depression and anxiety disorders in later life. Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, has recently been reported to exert anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. However, it is unclear whether fluoxetine is effective in the treatment of AD through reducing psychological stress and inflammatory reaction. Here, we reported that a BALB/c mouse model of AD was induced by application of 2,4‑dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB onto hairless dorsal skin. Chronic fluoxetine treatment (10 mg/kg per day, i.p. significantly attenuated AD-like symptoms, as reflected by a dramatic decrease in scratching bouts, as well as a decrease in anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors. Furthermore, these behavioral changes were accompanied by a significant decrease in epidermal thickness, the number of mast cells in skin tissue, mRNA levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4 and IL-13 in the spleen, as well as serum immunoglobulin E (IgE in the DNCB-treated mice by treatment with fluoxetine. Taken together, these results indicate that fluoxetine may suppress psychological stress and inflammatory response during AD development, and subsequently ameliorate AD symptoms, suggesting that fluoxetine may be a potential therapeutic agent against AD in clinic.

  7. Gold nanoparticles and diclofenac diethylammonium administered by iontophoresis reduce inflammatory cytokines expression in Achilles tendinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dohnert MB

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Marcelo B Dohnert1,2, Mirelli Venâncio1, Jonathann C Possato1, Rodrigo C Zeferino1, Luciana H Dohnert2, Alexandra I Zugno1, Cláudio T De Souza1, Marcos MS Paula1, Thais F Luciano11Postgraduation Program in Health Sciences, Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências da Saúde PPGCS, Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense, Criciúma, Santa Catarina, 2Department of Physiotherapy, Universidade Luterana do Brasil, Torres, Rio Grande do Sul, BrazilIntroduction: Tendinitis affects a substantial number of people in several occupations involving repetitive work or direct trauma. Iontophoresis is a therapeutic alternative used in the treatment of injury during the inflammatory phase. In recent years, gold nanoparticles (GNP have been studied due to their therapeutic anti-inflammatory capacity and as an alternative to the transport of several proteins. Purpose: This study evaluates the therapeutic effects of iontophoresis using GNPs and diclofenac diethylammonium on inflammatory parameters in rats challenged with traumatic tendinitis.Methods: Wistar rats were divided in three treatment groups (n = 15: (1 iontophoresis + diclofenac diethylammonium; (2 iontophoresis + GNP; and (3 iontophoresis + diclofenac diethylammonium + GNP. External control was formed by challenged tendons without treatment (n = 15. Iontophoresis was administered using 0.3 mA direct current on 1.5 cm² electrodes. Results: The levels of both inflammatory cytokines were significantly higher in untreated challenged rats, when compared with the control (5.398 ± 234 for interleukin 1 beta and 6.411 ± 432 for tumor necrosis factor alpha, which confirms the occurrence of an inflammatory stage in injury (P < 0.05. A significant decrease was observed in expression of cytokines interleukin 1 beta in the three treatment groups, in comparison with untreated challenged tendons, although, in the group treated with diclofenac and GNP, results were similar to the control (1.732 ± 239 (P < 0

  8. Reduced butyrylcholinesterase activity is an early indicator of trauma-induced acute systemic inflammatory response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zivkovic AR

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aleksandar R Zivkovic, Jochen Bender, Thorsten Brenner, Stefan Hofer,* Karsten Schmidt* Department of Anesthesiology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: Early diagnosis of systemic inflammatory response syndrome is fundamentally important for an effective and a goal-directed therapy. Various inflammation biomarkers have been used in clinical and experimental practice. However, a definitive diagnostic tool for an early detection of systemic inflammation remains to be identified. Acetylcholine (Ach has been shown to play an important role in the inflammatory response. Serum cholinesterase (butyrylcholinesterase [BChE] is the major Ach hydrolyzing enzyme in blood. The role of this enzyme during inflammation has not yet been fully understood. This study tests whether a reduction in the BChE activity could indicate the onset of the systemic inflammatory response upon traumatic injury. Patients and methods: This observational study measured BChE activity in patients with traumatic injury admitted to the emergency room by using point-of-care-test system (POCT. In addition, the levels of routine inflammation biomarkers during the initial treatment period were measured. Injury Severity Score was used to assess the trauma severity. Results: Altered BChE activity was correlated with trauma severity, resulting in systemic inflammation. Reduction in the BChE activity was detected significantly earlier compared to those of routinely measured inflammatory biomarkers. Conclusion: This study suggests that the BChE activity reduction might serve as an early indicator of acute systemic inflammation. Furthermore, BChE activity, measured using a POCT system, might play an important role in the early diagnosis of the trauma-induced systemic inflammation. Keywords: trauma, injury, early diagnostics, cholinergic, pseudocholinesterase, SIRS

  9. Exopolysaccharide Produced by Probiotic Strain Lactobacillus paraplantarum BGCG11 Reduces Inflammatory Hyperalgesia in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Dinić

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test the potential of high molecular weight exopolysaccharide (EPS produced by the putative probiotic strain Lactobacillus paraplantarum BGCG11 (EPS CG11 to alleviate inflammatory pain in Wistar rats. The EPS CG11 was isolated from bacterial surface and was subjected to Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and thermal analysis. FTIR spectra confirmed the polysaccharide structure of isolated sample, while the thermal methods revealed good thermal properties of the polymer. The antihyperalgesic and antiedematous effects of the EPS CG11 were examined in the rat model of inflammation induced by carrageenan injection in hind paw. The results showed that the intraperitoneal administration of EPS CG11 produced a significant decrease in pain sensations (mechanical hyperalgesia and a paw swelling in a dose-dependent manner as it was measured using Von Frey anesthesiometer and plethysmometer, respectively. These effects were followed by a decreased expression of IL-1β and iNOS mRNAs in rat’s paw tissue suggesting that the antihyperalgesic and antiedematous effects of the EPS CG11 are related to the suppression of inflammatory response. Additionally, we demonstrated that EPS CG11 exhibits immunosuppressive properties in the peritonitis model induced by carrageenan. Expression levels of pro-inflammatory mediators IL-1β, TNF-α and iNOS were decreased, together with the enhanced secretion of anti-inflammatory IL-10 and IL-6 cytokines, while neutrophil infiltration was not changed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study which reports an antihyperalgesic effect as the novel property of bacterial EPSs. Given the high demands of pharmaceutical industry for the replacement of commonly used analgesics due to numerous side effects, this study describes a promising natural compound for the future pharmacological testing in the area.

  10. High Intensity Interval Training Reduces the Levels of Serum Inflammatory Cytokine on Women with Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckling, F M; Farinha, J B; Santos, D L D; Bresciani, G; Mortari, J A; Stefanello, S T; Courtes, A A; Duarte, T; Duarte, M M M F; Moresco, R N; Cardoso, M S; Soares, F A A

    2016-11-01

    Objectives: This study investigate the effects of a high intensity interval training (HIIT) and 2 weeks of detraining in functional and body composition parameters, lipoproteins, glucose metabolismand inflammation markers in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome (MS). Design: 17 untrained women with MS underwent a HIIT program for 12 weeks. Methods: The training was performed in treadmills, 3 days per week, with intensity ranging from 70-90% of the maximum heart rate (HR max ) and 2 weeks untrained (inactive). Functional and body composition parameters were evaluated before and after the training, while maximal oxygen uptake, lipoprotein and inflammation markers were analyzed before, after training and also in detraining. Results: The HITT program resulted in changesparameters as glucose, HbA1cand NOx after training. In addition, a reduction in pro-inflammatory interleukins and an increase in IL-10 after the HIIT program were found. However, an increase in plasma levels of lipoprotein was found and body composition parameters remain unaltered.Besides, only 2 weeks of detraining are able to revert the effects on inflammatory parameters afforded by the HIIT program. Conclusions: The HIIT program used here positively affected inflammatory profile and other parameters, as glucose, HbA1cand NOx, on postmenopausal women with MS. Moreover, 2 weeks of detraining can reverse the beneficial effects of HIIT program. Our results point out the necessity to aply acontinuous HITT program, in order maintain the benefits detected, to post menopausal women with MS. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. PPARgamma agonist curcumin reduces the amyloid-beta-stimulated inflammatory responses in primary astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Mei; Zhao, Yan-Xin; Zhang, Shi; Liu, Gui-Dong; Kang, Wen-Yan; Tang, Hui-Dong; Ding, Jian-Qing; Chen, Sheng-Di

    2010-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common age-related neurodegenerative disorder. Accumulating data indicate that astrocytes play an important role in the neuroinflammation related to the pathogenesis of AD. It has been shown that microglia and astrocytes are activated in AD brain and amyloid-beta (Abeta) can increase the expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), interleukin-1, and interleukin-6. Suppressing the inflammatory response caused by activated astrocytes may help to inhibit the development of AD. Curcumin is a major constituent of the yellow curry spice turmeric and proved to be a potential anti-inflammatory drug in arthritis and colitis. There is a low age-adjusted prevalence of AD in India, a country where turmeric powder is commonly used as a culinary compound. Curcumin has been shown to suppress activated astroglia in amyloid-beta protein precursor transgenic mice. The real mechanism by which curcumin inhibits activated astroglia is poorly understood. Here we report that the expression of COX-2 and glial fibrillary acidic protein were enhanced and that of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) was decreased in Abeta(25-35)-treated astrocytes. In line with these results, nuclear factor-kappaB translocation was increased in the presence of Abeta. All these can be reversed by the pretreatment of curcumin. Furthermore, GW9662, a PPARgamma antagonist, can abolish the anti-inflammatory effect of curcumin. These results show that curcumin might act as a PPARgamma agonist to inhibit the inflammation in Abeta-treated astrocytes.

  12. Antagonizing Arachidonic Acid-Derived Eicosanoids Reduces Inflammatory Th17 and Th1 Cell-Mediated Inflammation and Colitis Severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M. Monk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During colitis, activation of two inflammatory T cell subsets, Th17 and Th1 cells, promotes ongoing intestinal inflammatory responses. n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid- (PUFA- derived eicosanoids, such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, promote Th17 cell-mediated inflammation, while n-3 PUFA antagonize both Th17 and Th1 cells and suppress PGE2 levels. We utilized two genetic mouse models, which differentially antagonize PGE2 levels, to examine the effect on Th17 cells and disease outcomes in trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid- (TNBS- induced colitis. Fat-1 mice contain the ω3 desaturase gene from C. elegans and synthesize n-3 PUFA de novo, thereby reducing the biosynthesis of n-6 PUFA-derived eicosanoids. In contrast, Fads1 Null mice contain a disrupted Δ5 desaturase gene and produce lower levels of n-6 PUFA-derived eicosanoids. Compared to Wt littermates, Fat-1 and Fads1 Null mice exhibited a similar colitic phenotype characterized by reduced colonic mucosal inflammatory eicosanoid levels and mRNA expression of Th17 cell markers (IL-17A, RORγτ, and IL-23, decreased percentages of Th17 cells and, improved colon injury scores (P≤0.05. Thus, during colitis, similar outcomes were obtained in two genetically distinct models, both of which antagonize PGE2 levels via different mechanisms. Our data highlight the critical impact of n-6 PUFA-derived eicosanoids in the promotion of Th17 cell-mediated colonic inflammation.

  13. Nicoboxil/nonivamide cream effectively and safely reduces acute nonspecific low back pain – a randomized, placebo-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blahova Z

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Zuzana Blahova,1 Janina Claudia Holm,1 Thomas Weiser,2 Erika Richter,2 Matthias Trampisch,2 Elena Akarachkova3 1Boehringer Ingelheim RCV GmbH & Co KG, Vienna, Austria; 2Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH & Co KG, Ingelheim am Rhein, Germany; 3I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow, Russian Federation Background/objective: Low back pain affects many patients and has a high socioeconomic impact. Topical capsaicinoids have been used for decades to treat musculoskeletal pain. This study investigated the effects of the fixed dose combination (FDC of nonivamide (a capsaicinoid and nicoboxil (a nicotinic acid ester cream in the treatment of acute nonspecific low back pain.Materials and methods: This phase III randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multinational, multi-center trial investigated efficacy, safety, and tolerability of topical nicoboxil 1.08%/nonivamide 0.17% (Finalgon® cream in treatment of acute nonspecific low back pain with the endpoints: pain intensity (PI difference between pre-dose baseline and 8 hours after first application and the end of treatment, mobility score, and efficacy score.Results: Patients (n=138, 21–65 years of age, were treated for up to 4 days with FDC or placebo cream. Mean baseline PI was 6.8 on a 0–10 point numerical rating scale. After 8 hours, pain was more reduced with the FDC than with placebo (adjusted means: 2.824 vs. 0.975 points; p<0.0001. On the last treatment day, mean pain reduction by the FDC was stronger than with placebo (adjusted means: 5.132 vs. 2.174 points; p<0.0001. Mobility on Day 1 was in favor of the FDC when compared to placebo (odds ratio [95% confidence interval {CI}]: 7.200 [3.609, 14.363], p<0.0001. At the end of treatment, patients treated with the FDC rated efficacy significantly higher than placebo (odds ratio [95% CI]: 11.370 [5.342, 24.199], p<0.0001. Both treatments were tolerated well. No serious adverse events were reported.Conclusion: Nicoboxil

  14. TNF-α-induced up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines is reduced by phosphatidylcholine in intestinal epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griffiths Gareth

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phosphatidylcholine (PC is a major lipid of the gastrointestinal mucus layer. We recently showed that mucus from patients suffering from ulcerative colitis has low levels of PC. Clinical studies reveal that the therapeutic addition of PC to the colonic mucus using slow release preparations is beneficial. The positive role of PC in this disease is still unclear; however, we have recently shown that PC has an intrinsic anti-inflammatory property. It could be demonstrated that the exogenous application of PC inhibits membrane-dependent actin assembly and TNF-α-induced nuclear NF-κB activation. We investigate here in more detail the hypothesis that the exogenous application of PC has anti-inflammatory properties. Methods PC species with different fatty acid side chains were applied to differentiated and non-differentiated Caco-2 cells treated with TNF-α to induce a pro-inflammatory response. We analysed TNF-α-induced NF-κB-activation via the transient expression of a NF-κB-luciferase reporter system. Pro-inflammatory gene transcription was detected with the help of a quantitative real time (RT-PCR analysis. We assessed the binding of TNF-α to its receptor by FACS and analysed lipid rafts by isolating detergent resistant membranes (DRMs. Results The exogenous addition of all PC species tested significantly inhibited TNF-α-induced pro-inflammatory signalling. The expression levels of IL-8, ICAM-1, IP-10, MCP-1, TNF-α and MMP-1 were significantly reduced after PC pre-treatment for at least two hours. The effect was comparable to the inhibition of NF-kB by the NF-kB inhibitor SN 50 and was not due to a reduced binding of TNF-α to its receptor or a decreased surface expression of TNF-α receptors. PC was also effective when applied to the apical side of polarised Caco-2 cultures if cells were stimulated from the basolateral side. PC treatment changed the compartmentation of the TNF-α-receptors 1 and 2 to DRMs. Conclusion PC

  15. Compound 49b Reduces Inflammatory Markers and Apoptosis after Ocular Blast Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-01

    inflammatory and apoptotic markers, but not to control levels. Figure 1. ELISA results for TNF(left) and IL-1(right) in mouse retina without exposure to...anti- apoptotic protein BcL-xL (bottom left). ELISA results for cleaved caspase 3. *Pɘ.05 vs. NT. #Pɘ.05 vs. blast only at the same time point. N=5...E). ELISA results for cleaved caspase 3 (C) in IGFBP-3 knockdown mice without exposure to blast, IGFBP-3 KD mice exposed to blast for 4, 24, and 72

  16. Short-term heating reduces the anti-inflammatory effects of fresh raw garlic extracts on the LPS-induced production of NO and pro-inflammatory cytokines by downregulating allicin activity in RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jung-Hye; Ryu, Ji Hyeon; Kang, Min Jung; Hwang, Cho Rong; Han, Jaehee; Kang, Dawon

    2013-08-01

    Garlic has a variety of biologic activities, including anti-inflammatory properties. Although garlic has several biologic activities, some people dislike eating fresh raw garlic because of its strong taste and smell. Therefore, garlic formulations involving heating procedures have been developed. In this study, we investigated whether short-term heating affects the anti-inflammatory properties of garlic. Fresh and heated raw garlic extracts (FRGE and HRGE) were prepared with incubation at 25 °C and 95 °C, respectively, for 2 h. Treatment with FRGE and HRGE significantly reduced the LPS-induced increase in the pro-inflammatory cytokine concentration (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) and NO through HO-1 upregulation in RAW 264.7 macrophages. The anti-inflammatory effect was greater in FRGE than in HRGE. The allicin concentration was higher in FRGE than in HRGE. Allicin treatment showed reduced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and NO and increased HO-1 activity. The results show that the decrease in LPS-induced NO and pro-inflammatory cytokines in RAW 264.7 macrophages through HO-1 induction was greater for FRGE compared with HRGE. Additionally, the results indicate that allicin is responsible for the anti-inflammatory effect of FRGE. Our results suggest a potential therapeutic use of allicin in the treatment of chronic inflammatory disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Better cognitive control of emotional information is associated with reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine reactivity to emotional stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Grant S; Kuchenbecker, Shari Young; Pressman, Sarah D; Sumida, Ken D; Slavich, George M

    2016-01-01

    Stress is strongly associated with several mental and physical health problems that involve inflammation, including asthma, cardiovascular disease, certain types of cancer, and depression. It has been hypothesized that better cognitive control of emotional information may lead to reduced inflammatory reactivity to stress and thus better health, but to date no studies have examined whether differences in cognitive control predict pro-inflammatory cytokine responses to stress. To address this issue, we conducted a laboratory-based experimental study in which we randomly assigned healthy young-adult females to either an acute emotional stress (emotionally evocative video) or no-stress (control video) condition. Salivary levels of the key pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 were measured before and after the experimental manipulation, and following the last cytokine sample, we assessed participants' cognitive control of emotional information using an emotional Stroop task. We also assessed participants' cortisol levels before and after the manipulation to verify that documented effects were specific to cytokines and not simply due to increased nonwater salivary output. As hypothesized, the emotional stressor triggered significant increases in IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8. Moreover, even in fully adjusted models, better cognitive control following the emotional (but not control) video predicted less pronounced cytokine responses to that stressor. In contrast, no effects were observed for cortisol. These data thus indicate that better cognitive control specifically following an emotional stressor is uniquely associated with less pronounced pro-inflammatory cytokine reactivity to such stress. These findings may therefore help explain why superior cognitive control portends better health over the lifespan.

  18. Fasciola hepatica infection reduces Mycobacterium bovis burden and mycobacterial uptake and suppresses the pro-inflammatory response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza-Cuartero, L; O'Sullivan, J; Blanco, A; McNair, J; Welsh, M; Flynn, R J; Williams, D; Diggle, P; Cassidy, J; Mulcahy, G

    2016-07-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis, has an annual incidence in cattle of 0.5% in the Republic of Ireland and 4.7% in the UK, despite long-standing eradication programmes being in place. Failure to achieve complete eradication is multifactorial, but the limitations of diagnostic tests are significant complicating factors. Previously, we have demonstrated that Fasciola hepatica infection, highly prevalent in these areas, induced reduced sensitivity of the standard diagnostic tests for BTB in animals co-infected with F. hepatica and M. bovis. This was accompanied by a reduced M. bovis-specific Th1 immune response. We hypothesized that these changes in co-infected animals would be accompanied by enhanced growth of M. bovis. However, we show here that mycobacterial burden in cattle is reduced in animals co-infected with F. hepatica. Furthermore, we demonstrate a lower mycobacterial recovery and uptake in blood monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) from F. hepatica-infected cattle which is associated with suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and a switch to alternative activation of macrophages. However, the cell surface expression of TLR2 and CD14 in MDM from F. hepatica-infected cattle is increased. These findings reflecting the bystander effect of helminth-induced downregulation of pro-inflammatory responses provide insights to understand host-pathogen interactions in co-infection. © 2016 The Authors. Parasite Immunology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Pregabalin reduces acute inflammatory and persistent pain associated with nerve injury and cancer in rat models of orofacial pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummig, Wagner; Kopruszinski, Caroline Machado; Chichorro, Juliana Geremias

    2014-01-01

    To assess the analgesic effect of pregabalin in orofacial models of acute inflammatory pain and of persistent pain associated with nerve injury and cancer, and so determine its effectiveness in controlling orofacial pains having different underlying mechanisms. Orofacial capsaicin and formalin tests were employed in male Wistar rats to assess the influence of pregabalin (or vehicle) pretreatment in acute pain models, and the results from these experiments were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Newman Keuls post-hoc test. Pregabalin (or vehicle) treatment was also tested on the facial heat hyperalgesia that was evaluated in rats receiving injection of the inflammatory irritant carrageenan into the upper lip, as well as after constriction of the infraorbital nerve (a model of trigeminal neuropathic pain), or after inoculation of tumor cells into the facial vibrissal pad; two-way repeated measures ANOVA followed by Newman-Keuls post-hoc test was used to analyze data from these experiments. Facial grooming induced by capsaicin was abolished by pretreatment with pregabalin at 10 and 30 mg/kg. However, pregabalin failed to modify the first phase of the formalin response, but reduced the second phase at both doses (10 and 30 mg/kg). In addition, treatment of rats with pregabalin reduced the heat hyperalgesia induced by carrageenan, as well as by nerve injury and facial cancer. Pregabalin produced a marked antinociceptive effect in rat models of facial inflammatory pain as well as in facial neuropathic and cancer pain models, suggesting that it may represent an important agent for the clinical control of orofacial pain.

  20. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug or glucosamine reduced pain and improved muscle strength with resistance training in a randomized controlled trial of knee osteoarthritis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Susanne G; Beyer, Nina; Hansen, Mette

    2011-01-01

    Petersen SG, Beyer N, Hansen M, Holm L, Aagaard P, Mackey AL, Kjaer M. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug or glucosamine reduced pain and improved muscle strength with resistance training in a randomized controlled trial of knee osteoarthritis patients.......Petersen SG, Beyer N, Hansen M, Holm L, Aagaard P, Mackey AL, Kjaer M. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug or glucosamine reduced pain and improved muscle strength with resistance training in a randomized controlled trial of knee osteoarthritis patients....

  1. Apigenin reduce lipoteichoic acid-induced inflammatory response in rat cardiomyoblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Venegas, Gloria; González-Rosas, Zeltzin

    2017-02-01

    Infective endocarditis is caused by Streptococcus sanguinis present in dental plaque, which can induce inflammatory responses in the endocardium. The present study depicts research on the properties of apigenin in embryonic mouse heart cells (H9c2) treated with lipoteichoic acid (LTA) obtained from S. sanguinis. Interleukin-1β and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression were detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. In addition, western blot assays and immuno-fluorescence staining were used to assess translocation of nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-κB), degradation of IκB, as well as activity of the mitogen activated protein kinases: extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, p38, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Effect of apigenin on cell viability was equally assessed in other experimental series. Our results showed that apigenin blocked activation of ERK, JNK, and p38 in cardiomyocytes treated with LTA in a dose-dependent fashion. Moreover, apigenin showed no cytotoxic effects; it blocked NF-κB translocation and IκB degradation. Our findings suggested that apigenin possessed potential value in the treatment of infectious endocarditis.

  2. Bioactivity of Polyphenols: Preventive and Adjuvant Strategies toward Reducing Inflammatory Bowel Diseases—Promises, Perspectives, and Pitfalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anouk Kaulmann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs are characterized by autoimmune and inflammation-related complications of the large intestine (ulcerative colitis and additional parts of the digestive tract (Crohn’s disease. Complications include pain, diarrhoea, chronic inflammation, and cancer. IBD prevalence has increased during the past decades, especially in Westernized countries, being as high as 1%. As prognosis is poor and medication often ineffective or causing side effects, additional preventive/adjuvant strategies are sought. A possible approach is via diets rich in protective constituents. Polyphenols, the most abundant phytochemicals, have been associated with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and apoptotic properties. Locally reducing oxidative stress, they can further act on cellular targets, altering gene expression related to inflammation, including NF-κB, Nrf-2, Jak/STAT, and MAPKs, suppressing downstream cytokine formation (e.g., IL-8, IL-1β, and TNF-α, and boosting the bodies’ own antioxidant status (HO-1, SOD, and GPx. Moreover, they may promote, as prebiotics, healthy microbiota (e.g., Bifidobacteria, Akkermansia, short-chain fatty acid formation, and reduced gut permeability/improved tight junction stability. However, potential adverse effects such as acting as prooxidants, or perturbations of efflux transporters and phase I/II metabolizing enzymes, with increased uptake of undesired xenobiotics, should also be considered. In this review, we summarize current knowledge around preventive and arbitrary actions of polyphenols targeting IBD.

  3. Anti-Inflammatory Agent Indomethacin Reduces Invasion and Alters Metabolism in a Human Breast Cancer Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Ackerstaff

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Hostile physiological environments such as hypoxia and acidic extracellular pH, which exist in solid tumors, may promote invasion and metastasis through inflammatory responses and formation of eicosanoids. Here, we have investigated the effects of the antiinflammatory agent indomethacin on the invasion and metabolism of the human breast cancer cell line MDAMB-435 in Dulbecco's Modified Eagles (DME-based or Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI-based cell medium, using a magnetic resonance-compatible invasion assay. Indomethacin treatment significantly reduced the invasion of MDA-MB-435 cells independent of the culture and perfusion conditions examined. Significant changes were detected in levels of intracellular choline phospholipid metabolites and in triglyceride (TG concentrations of these cells, depending on indomethacin treatment and basal cell medium used. Additionally, genetic profiling of breast cancer cells, grown and treated with low-dose indomethacin in cell culture using an RPMI-based medium, revealed the upregulation of several genes implicating cyclooxygenaseindependent targets of indomethacin. These data confirm the ability of an anti-inflammatory agent to reduce breast cancer invasion and demonstrate, depending on cell culture and perfusion conditions, that the indomethacin-induced decrease in invasion is associated with changes in choline phospholipid metabolism, TG metabolism, and gene expression.

  4. Sr-doped nanowire modification of Ca-Si-based coatings for improved osteogenic activities and reduced inflammatory reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai; Hu, Dandan; Xie, Youtao; Huang, Liping; Zheng, Xuebin

    2018-02-01

    Biomedical coatings for orthopedic implants should facilitate osseointegration and mitigate implant-induced inflammatory reactions. In our study, Ca-Si coatings with Sr-containing nanowire-like structures (NW-Sr-CS) were achieved via hydrothermal treatment. In order to identify the effect of nanowire-like topography and Sr dopant on the biological properties of Ca-Si-based coatings, the original Ca-Si coating, Ca-Si coatings modified with nanoplate (NP-CS) and similar nanowire-like structure (NW-CS) were fabricated as the control. Surface morphology, phase composition, surface area, zeta potential and ion release of these coatings were characterized. The in vitro osteogenic activities and immunomodulatory properties were evaluated with bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and RAW 264.7 cells, a mouse macrophage cell line. Compared with the CS and NP-CS coatings, the NW-CS coating possessed a larger surface area and pore volume, beneficial protein adsorption, up-regulated the expression levels of integrin β1, Vinculin and focal adhesion kinase and promoted cell spreading. Furthermore, the NW-CS coating significantly enhanced the osteogenic differentiation and mineralization as indicated by the up-regulation of ALP activity, mineralized nodule formation and osteoblastogenesis-related gene expression. With the introduction of Sr, the NW-Sr-CS coatings exerted a greater effect on the BMSC proliferation rate, calcium sensitive receptor gene expression as well as PKC and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. In addition, the Sr-doped coatings significantly up-regulated the ratio of OPG/RANKL in the BMSCs. The NW-Sr-CS coatings could modulate the polarization of macrophages towards the wound-healing M2 phenotype, reduce the mRNA expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6) and enhance anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1ra, IL-10). The Sr-doped nanowire modification may be a valuable approach to enhance osteogenic activities and reduce inflammatory reactions.

  5. Intermittent fasting combined with supplementation with Ayurvedic herbs reduces anxiety in middle aged female rats by anti-inflammatory pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harpal; Kaur, Taranjeet; Manchanda, Shaffi; Kaur, Gurcharan

    2017-08-01

    Intermittent fasting-dietary restriction (IF-DR) is an increasingly popular intervention to promote healthy aging and delay age associated decline in brain functions. Also, the use of herbal interventions is gaining attention due to their non-pharmacological approach to treat several abnormalities and promote general health with least side effects. The present study was aimed to investigate the synergistic effects of IF-DR regimen with herbal supplementation on anxiety-like behavior and neuroinflammation in middle aged female rats. We used dried leaf powder of Withania somnifera and dried stem powder of Tinospora cordifolia for our study. The rats were divided into three groups: (1) Control group fed ad libitum (AL); (2) rats deprived of food for full day and fed ad libitum on every alternate day (IF-DR); and (3) IF-DR and herbal extract (DRH) group in which rats were fed ad libitum with herbal extract supplemented diet, every alternate day. Post regimen, the rats were tested for anxiety-like behavior and further used for study of key inflammatory molecules (NFκB, Iba1, TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6) and glial marker (GFAP) in hippocampus and piriform cortex regions of brain. The study was further extended to explore the effect of DRH regimen on stress response protein (HSP70) and calcium dependent regulators of synaptic plasticity (CaMKIIα, Calcineurin). Our data demonstrated that DRH regimen reduced anxiety-like behavior in middle age female rats and associated neuroinflammation by ameliorating key inflammatory cytokines and modulated stress response. The present data may provide scientific validation for anxiolytic and anti-inflammatory potential of herbal intervention combined with short term IF-DR regimen.

  6. A Novel Pleiotropic Anti-Inflammatory Drug to Reduce ARDS Incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    the gut , which significantly reduced TRB-N0224 adsorption. To solve this problem we have requested a one-year no-cost extension to use an intravenous...use or care of human subjects, vertebrate animals, biohazards, and/or select agents: Nothing to report. Products: Nothing to report Participants

  7. No dry dock: safely strategy for avoiding unplanned dry dock and reducing safety, health and environment risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constantinis, Danny A.; Brett, David E. [EM and I Alliance, Cheshire (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    There are currently over 150 operational FPUs with an expected increase of a further 100 units in the next 5 years. This results from several factors: increasing demand for hydrocarbons; new reserves in deep water; pipeline infrastructure is not required and FPU design fits many field requirements. FPUs are increasingly chosen for large, deep water, longer life developments. Units are bigger and more complex. Regulators and oil majors are imposing more stringent integrity requirements to protect against safety, environmental and operational risks related to loss of containment and loss of hull structure integrity which could lead to HSE risks, increased costs and production losses which would become particularly onerous should the unit have to dry dock. There are a number of other important components the context of asset integrity, e.g. mooring and sub sea systems, but these are outside the scope of this paper. The 'No Dry dock....Safely' approach is based on the principle of Criticality Based Integrity which identifies components whose integrity is critical to avoiding incidents and the risk of dry docking. Once critical components are identified the challenge is to establish integrity status and maintain fitness-for-service. Various JIPs e.g. the Hull Inspection Techniques and Strategies are looking at best practice inspection methodologies. The industry is progressing ways of maintaining and repairing critical items without going to dry dock. The challenges include coating maintenance, structural and pressure system repairs. Advances in cathodic protection and coating maintenance strategies are proving successful as are techniques for carrying out major structural repairs. The 'No Dry dock...Safely' methodology is a proven solution and case histories have been included. Technological advances will further improve integrity in the industry. There is no reason why FPUs cannot be kept on station and in production for 25 years or more whilst

  8. Community uptake of safe storage boxes to reduce self-poisoning from pesticides in rural Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konradsen, Flemming; Pieris, Ravi; Weerasinghe, Manjula

    2007-01-01

    exposure from the rain and sun and a reduced risk of theft. Data were analysed for 172 households that reported agricultural use of pesticides at follow-up. Of these, 141 (82%) kept pesticides in the house under lock against 3 (2%) at baseline. As expected, the distribution of boxes significantly reduced...

  9. Creatine supplementation reduces plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and PGE2 after a half-ironman competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassit, R A; Curi, R; Costa Rosa, L F B P

    2008-08-01

    The effect of creatine supplementation upon plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines: Interleukin (IL) 1 beta and IL-6, Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNFalpha), and Interferon alpha (INF alpha) and Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) after a half-ironman competition were investigated. Eleven triathletes, each with at least three years experience of participation in this sport were randomly divided between the control and experimental groups. During 5 days prior to competition, the control group (n = 6) was supplemented with carbohydrate (20 g x d(-1)) whereas the experimental group (n = 5) received creatine (20 g x d(-1)) in a double-blind trial. Blood samples were collected 48 h before and 24 and 48 h after competition and were used for the measurement of cytokines and PGE(2). Forty-eight hours prior to competition there was no difference between groups in the plasma concentrations (pg x ml(-1), mean +/- SEM) of IL-6 (7.08 +/- 0.63), TNFalpha (76.50 +/- 5.60), INF alpha (18.32 +/- 1.20), IL-1 beta (23.42 +/- 5.52), and PGE(2) (39.71 +/- 3.8). Twenty-four and 48 h after competition plasma levels of TNFalpha, INF alpha, IL-1 beta and PGE(2) were significantly increased (P long distance triathlon competition may reduce the inflammatory response induced by this form of strenuous of exercise.

  10. How safe is safe?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, C.F.; Flood, M.

    1996-01-01

    60 and 70 degree convexo-concave valve. Nine hundred and one valves were implanted in Australia. Twelve strut fractures were reported. Two other patients have been explanted and have demonstrated 'single leg separation'. This particular problem was only investigated when two patients died of a fractured valve in the same hospital on the same day. A retrospective study of all known patients in Australia has shown poor follow up, lack of knowledge and indeed lack of interest in device failure modes. Consequently, the Australian and New Zealand Heart Valve Registry was established to track all implanted valves and to notify physicians of any new information. This is perhaps the first device-specific register in Australia. The safety of individual devices is often not known by manufacturers, regulators and clinicians alike. No follow up is available and large volume long term studies are yet to be implemented for the majority of devices. Without such studies and without mandatory problem reporting, the relative safety of medical devices will continue to be measured by banner headlines, sensational TV 'grabs' and protracted law suits. At present, only schemes such as the Problem Reporting Scheme can tell us (albeit vaguely) 'how safe is safe'

  11. An Extended Exercise-Based Cardiac Rehabilitation Program reduces Key Inflammatory Biomarkers in Atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Malene Munk; Petersen, Annemette Krintel; Mølby Nielsen, Mette

    2018-01-01

    ECR program was more successful in reducing low-grade vascular inflammation, compared to a conventional 8-week ECR program. A total of 110 patients treated for IHD, and referred to ECR, were randomized to a 12-week or 8-week ECR intervention. We measured the concentration of soluble vascular cell...... adhesion molecule 1 (sVCAM-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), highsensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), before and after participation in either of the two ECRs and at 6-month and one year follow-up. Additionally, we determined the absolute White Blood Cell count (WBC), the absolute monocyte count...... at the end of ECR (IL-6: p=0.002; hsCRP: pprogram. However, this effect was not sustained on a long...

  12. The problem of search safe and effective method in reducing injuries in bodybuilding stage of specialized basic training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.S. Slavityak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To identify the most frequently used coaches and athletes in bodybuilding principles that can help to reduce the injuries of athletes while maintaining the progressivity results. Material : a survey participated 86 coaches and 120 athletes, bodybuilders from 5 to 8 years. Results : It was found that most of the coaches used in the course of employment principles generally accepted system of training. In such circumstances, the risk of injury to athletes is large enough. When using pre-exhaustion principle to increase the intensity of the training process increases the risk of overloading the body athletes. Conclusions : Athletes with a longer training experience (about 8 years, more likely to use the principle of prior exhaustion. In this case athletes try using this principle to reduce the operating parameters of volume load. This helps to reduce the level of injury and maintain positive dynamics performance.

  13. Haemoadsorption reduces the inflammatory response and improves blood flow during ex vivo renal perfusion in an experimental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosgood, Sarah A; Moore, Tom; Kleverlaan, Theresa; Adams, Tom; Nicholson, Michael L

    2017-10-25

    Ex-vivo normothermic perfusion strategies are a promising new instrument in organ transplantation. The perfusion conditions are designed to be protective however the artificial environment can induce a local inflammatory response. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of incorporating a Cytosorb adsorber into an isolated kidney perfusion system. Porcine kidneys were subjected to 22 h of cold ischaemia then reperfused for 6 h on an ex vivo reperfusion circuit. Pairs of kidneys were randomised to either control (n = 5) or reperfusion with a Cytosorb adsorber (n = 5) integrated into the circuit. Tissue, blood and urine samples were taken for the measurement of inflammation and renal function. Baseline levels of cytokines (IL-6, TNFα, IL-8, IL-10, IL-1β, IL-1α) were similar between groups. Levels of IL-6 and IL-8 in the perfusate significantly increased during reperfusion in the control group but not in the Cytosorb group (P = 0.023, 0.049). Levels of the other cytokines were numerically lower in the Cytosorb group; however, this did not reach statistical significance. The mean renal blood flow (RBF) was significantly higher in the Cytosorb group (162 ± 53 vs. 120 ± 35 mL/min/100 g; P = 0.022). Perfusate levels of prostaglandin E2 were significantly lower in the Cytosorb group (642 ± 762 vs. 3258 ± 980 pg/mL; P = 0.0001). Levels of prostacyclin were significantly lower in the Cytosorb group at 1, 3 and 6 h of reperfusion (P = 0.008, 0.003, 0.0002). Levels of thromboxane were also significantly lower in the Cytosorb group throughout reperfusion (P = 0.005). Haemoadsorption had no effect on creatinine clearance (P = 0.109). Haemoadsorption can reduce the inflammatory response and improve renal blood flow during perfusion. Nonetheless, in this model haemoadsorption had no influence on renal function and this may relate to the broad-spectrum action of the Cytosorb adsorber that also removes potentially important anti-inflammatory

  14. An artificial neural network to safely reduce the number of ambulance ECGs transmitted for physician assessment in a system with prehospital detection of ST elevation myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forberg Jakob L

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pre-hospital electrocardiogram (ECG transmission to an expert for interpretation and triage reduces time to acute percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI in patients with ST elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI. In order to detect all STEMI patients, the ECG should be transmitted in all cases of suspected acute cardiac ischemia. The aim of this study was to examine the ability of an artificial neural network (ANN to safely reduce the number of ECGs transmitted by identifying patients without STEMI and patients not needing acute PCI. Methods Five hundred and sixty ambulance ECGs transmitted to the coronary care unit (CCU in routine care were prospectively collected. The ECG interpretation by the ANN was compared with the diagnosis (STEMI or not and the need for an acute PCI (or not as determined from the Swedish coronary angiography and angioplasty register. The CCU physician's real time ECG interpretation (STEMI or not and triage decision (acute PCI or not were registered for comparison. Results The ANN sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values for STEMI was 95%, 68%, 18% and 99%, respectively, and for a need of acute PCI it was 97%, 68%, 17% and 100%. The area under the ANN's receiver operating characteristics curve for STEMI detection was 0.93 (95% CI 0.89-0.96 and for predicting the need of acute PCI 0.94 (95% CI 0.90-0.97. If ECGs where the ANN did not identify a STEMI or a need of acute PCI were theoretically to be withheld from transmission, the number of ECGs sent to the CCU could have been reduced by 64% without missing any case with STEMI or a need of immediate PCI. Conclusions Our ANN had an excellent ability to predict STEMI and the need of acute PCI in ambulance ECGs, and has a potential to safely reduce the number of ECG transmitted to the CCU by almost two thirds.

  15. Tranexamic Acid Safely Reduced Blood Loss in Hemi- and Total Hip Arthroplasty for Acute Femoral Neck Fracture: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Chad D; Houdek, Matthew T; Sems, S Andrew; Cross, William W; Pagnano, Mark W

    2017-07-01

    We aimed to determine whether (1) tranexamic acid (TXA) reduces the incidence of transfusion (2) TXA reduces the calculated blood loss, and (3) there are any observable differences in 30- and 90-day complications with TXA administration during arthroplasty for femoral neck fracture (FNF). Prospective, double-blinded, randomized controlled trial. Level 1 Academic Trauma Center. One hundred thirty-eight patients who presented with a low-energy, isolated, FNF (AO 31B) treated with either hemi- or total hip arthroplasty within 72 hours of injury were randomized to either the TXA group (69 patients) or placebo group (69 patients). In the TXA group, patients received 2 doses of 15 mg/kg intravenous TXA dissolved in 100 mL of saline, each administered over 10 minutes; 1 dose just before incision, and the second at wound closure. In the placebo group, 100 mL of saline solution was administered in a similar fashion. Perioperative care was otherwise standardized including conservative transfusion criteria. Our primary outcome was to determine the proportion of patients who underwent blood transfusion during hospitalization. Secondary outcomes were calculated blood loss, number of units transfused during hospitalization, and incidence of adverse events at 30 and 90 days including thromboembolic event, wound complications, reoperation, hospital readmission, and all-cause mortality. TXA reduced mean incidence of transfusion by 305 mL (P = 0.0005). There was a trend toward decreased transfusion rate in the TXA group (17% vs. 26%, P = 0.22). TXA was safe with no differences in adverse events at 30 and 90 days. This randomized clinical trial found that TXA administration safely reduced blood loss with a tendency for decreased transfusion rate and total blood product consumption for patients undergoing hip arthroplasty for acute FNF. More studies are needed to further ascertain the role of TXA in the management of patients with FNF. Therapeutic Level I. See Instructions for Authors

  16. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction training reduces loneliness and pro-inflammatory gene expression in older adults: a small randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, J David; Irwin, Michael R; Burklund, Lisa J; Lieberman, Matthew D; Arevalo, Jesusa M G; Ma, Jeffrey; Breen, Elizabeth Crabb; Cole, Steven W

    2012-10-01

    Lonely older adults have increased expression of pro-inflammatory genes as well as increased risk for morbidity and mortality. Previous behavioral treatments have attempted to reduce loneliness and its concomitant health risks, but have had limited success. The present study tested whether the 8-week Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program (compared to a Wait-List control group) reduces loneliness and downregulates loneliness-related pro-inflammatory gene expression in older adults (N = 40). Consistent with study predictions, mixed effect linear models indicated that the MBSR program reduced loneliness, compared to small increases in loneliness in the control group (treatment condition × time interaction: F(1,35) = 7.86, p = .008). Moreover, at baseline, there was an association between reported loneliness and upregulated pro-inflammatory NF-κB-related gene expression in circulating leukocytes, and MBSR downregulated this NF-κB-associated gene expression profile at post-treatment. Finally, there was a trend for MBSR to reduce C Reactive Protein (treatment condition × time interaction: (F(1,33) = 3.39, p = .075). This work provides an initial indication that MBSR may be a novel treatment approach for reducing loneliness and related pro-inflammatory gene expression in older adults. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Reduced bone mass and preserved marrow adipose tissue in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases in long-term remission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, C M; Araújo, I M; Nogueira-Barbosa, M H; Salmon, C E G; de Paula, F J A; Troncon, L E A

    2017-07-01

    Bone marrow adipose tissue has not been studied in patients with inactive inflammatory bowel disease. We found that these patients have preserved marrow adiposity even with low bone mass. Factors involved in bone loss in active disease may have long-lasting effects but do not seem to affect bone marrow adiposity. Reduced bone mass is known to occur at varying prevalence in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) because of inflammation, malnutrition, and steroid therapy. Osteoporosis may develop in these patients as the result of an imbalanced relationship between osteoblasts and adipocytes in bone marrow. This study aimed to evaluate for the first time bone mass and bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) in a particular subgroup of IBD patients characterized by long-term, steroid-free remission. Patients with Crohn's disease (CD; N = 21) and ulcerative colitis (UC; N = 15) and controls (C; N = 65) underwent dual X-ray energy absorptiometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the L3 lumbar vertebra for BMAT assessment. Both the CD and UC subgroups showed significantly higher proportions of patients than controls with Z-score ≤-2.0 at L1-L4 (C 1.54%; CD 19.05%; UC 20%; p = 0.02), but not at other sites. The proportions of CD patients with a T-score ˂-1.0 at the femoral neck (C 18.46%; CD 47.62%; p = 0.02) and total hip (C 16.92%; CD 42.86%; p = 0.03) were significantly higher than among controls. There were no statistically significant differences between IBD patients and controls regarding BMAT at L3 (C 28.62 ± 8.15%; CD 29.81 ± 6.90%; UC 27.35 ± 9.80%; p = 0.67). IBD patients in long-term, steroid-free remission may have a low bone mass in spite of preserved BMAT. These findings confirm the heterogeneity of bone disorders in IBD and may indicate that factors involved in bone loss in active disease may have long-lasting effects on these patients.

  18. Joint capsule treatment with enkephalin-encoding HSV-1 recombinant vector reduces inflammatory damage and behavioural sequelae in rat CFA monoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ying; McNearney, Terry A; Wilson, Steven P; Yeomans, David C; Westlund, Karin N

    2008-03-01

    This study assessed enkephalin expression induced by intra-articular application of recombinant, enkephalin-encoding herpes virus (HSV-1) and the impact of expression on nociceptive behaviours and synovial lining inflammation in arthritic rats. Replication-conditional HSV-1 recombinant vectors with cDNA encoding preproenkephalin (HSV-ENK), or control transgene beta-galactosidase cDNA (HSV-beta-gal; control) were injected into knee joints with complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). Joint temperatures, circumferences and nociceptive behaviours were monitored on days 0, 7, 14 and 21 post CFA and vector treatments. Lumbar (L4-6) dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and spinal cords were immunostained for met-enkephalin (met-ENK), beta-gal, HSV-1 proteins and Fos. Joint tissues were immunostained for met-ENK, HSV-1 proteins, and inflammatory mediators Regulated on Activation, Normal T-cell Expressed and Secreted (RANTES) and cyclo-oxygenase-2, or stained with haematoxylin and eosin for histopathology. Compared to exuberant synovial hypertrophy and inflammatory cell infiltration seen in arthritic rats treated with CFA only or CFA and HSV-beta-gal, the CFA- and HSV-ENK-treated arthritic rats had: (i) striking preservation of synovial membrane cytoarchitecture with minimal inflammatory cell infiltrates; (ii) significantly improved nociceptive behavioural responses to mechanical and thermal stimuli; (iii) normalized Fos staining in lumbar dorsal horn; and (iv) significantly increased met-ENK staining in ipsilateral synovial tissue, lumbar DRG and spinal cord. The HSV-1 and transgene product expression were confined to ipsilateral lumbar DRG (HSV-1, met-ENK, beta-gal). Only transgene product (met-ENK and beta-gal) was seen in lumbar spinal cord sections. Targeted delivery of enkephalin-encoding HSV-1 vector generated safe, sustained opioid-induced analgesia with protective anti-inflammatory blunting in rat inflammatory arthritis.

  19. A Novel Platelet Activating Factor Receptor Antagonist Reduces Cell Infiltration and Expression of Inflammatory Mediators in Mice Exposed to Desiccating Conditions after PRK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomon Esquenazi

    2009-01-01

    Results. Confocal microscopy showed an increased number of reflective structures in the corneal epithelium after PRK and exposure to DE in eyes treated with vehicle as compared to eyes treated with LAU-0901. Significant decrease of COX-2 and Arginase I expression and reduced alpha SMA cells was observed after PRK and exposure to DE in eyes treated with LAU-0901. Discussion: Exposure of mice to a DE after PRK increases the epithelial turnover rate. PAF is involved in the inflammatory cell infiltration and expression of inflammatory cytokines that follow PRK under DE.

  20. Buying & Using Medicine Safely

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reducers Safe Daily Use of Aspirin Medication Health Fraud Resources for You FDA Consumer Updates (Drugs) Page ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  1. SAFE Newsletter

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The Center of Excellence SAFE – “Sustainable Architecture for Finance in Europe” – is a cooperation of the Center for Financial Studies and Goethe University Frankfurt. It is funded by the LOEWE initiative of the State of Hessen (Landes-Offensive zur Entwicklung wissenschaftlich-ökonomischer Exzellenz). SAFE brings together more than 40 professors and just as many junior researchers who are all dedicated to conducting research in support of a sustainable financial architecture. The Center has...

  2. Differential Action between Schisandrin A and Schisandrin B in Eliciting an Anti-Inflammatory Action: The Depletion of Reduced Glutathione and the Induction of an Antioxidant Response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pou Kuan Leong

    Full Text Available Schisandrin A (Sch A and schisandrin B (Sch B are active components of Schisandrae Fructus. We compared the biochemical mechanism underlying the anti-inflammatory action of Sch A and Sch B, using cultured lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages and concanavalin (ConA-stimulated mouse splenocytes. Pre-incubation with Sch A or Sch B produced an anti-inflammatory action in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells, as evidenced by the inhibition of the pro-inflammatory c-Jun N-terminal kinases/p38 kinase/nuclear factor-κB signaling pathway as well as the suppression of various pro-inflammatory cytokines and effectors, with the extent of inhibition by Sch A being more pronounced. The greater activity of Sch A in anti-inflammatory response was associated with a greater decrease in cellular reduced glutathione (GSH level and a greater increase in glutathione S-transferase activity than corresponding changes produced by Sch B. However, upon incubation, only Sch B resulted in the activation of the nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2-like factor 2 and the induction of a significant increase in the expression of thioredoxin (TRX in RAW264.7 cells. The Sch B-induced increase in TRX expression was associated with the suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and effectors in LPS-stimulated macrophages. Studies in a mouse model of inflammation (carrageenan-induced paw edema indicated that while long-term treatment with either Sch A or Sch B suppressed the extent of paw edema, only acute treatment with Sch A produced a significant degree of inhibition on the inflammatory response. Although only Sch A decreased the cellular GSH level and suppressed the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and cell proliferation in ConA-simulated splenocytes in vitro, both Sch A and Sch B treatments, while not altering cellular GSH levels, suppressed ConA-stimulated splenocyte proliferation ex vivo. These results suggest that Sch A and Sch B may act differentially on

  3. How safe is safe enough?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desnoyers, B.; Chanzy, Y.

    2004-01-01

    The IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, were historically established with the objective to reduce the probability that persons be exposed to unacceptable doses due to normal operation or accident situations during transport of radioactive material. Based on the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation (BSS), the definition, which was adopted for an unacceptable dose for an accident situation, is the excess of the maximum dose limits permissible in a single year for the occupational exposure of a worker in the BSS. Concerning the severity of accident situations, it has always be clearly stated that the objective of the tests for demonstrating ability to withstand accident conditions of transport was not to cover every accident condition, but solely most of them. The last available evaluations regarding the rate of accidents which are covered by the standardised accident conditions of transport defined in the IAEA Regulations give a range of about 80%, plus or minus 15% which depends on transport mode and studies. Consequently, slight variations in the capabilities of the packages to meet the specified performance would probably not have significant consequences on the protection level in case of accident. In the assessment of the compliance with the regulations, the tendency of experts, taking advantage of the enhanced performances of computer calculation codes, is to ask more and more calculations, with more and more accuracy, leading to more and more restrictions. Consequently, cost and delay are considerably increased without any evidence of an equivalent effect on the level of protection. This paper will initiate a reflection on the general objectives and principles when implementing the Regulations, in such a way that demonstrations remain cost effective, taking into account evolution of the techniques and a high level of safety

  4. Relaxin reduces susceptibility to post-infarct atrial fibrillation in mice due to anti-fibrotic and anti-inflammatory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiert, Thomas; Tiyerili, Vedat; Knappe, Vincent; Effelsberg, Verena; Linhart, Markus; Stöckigt, Florian; Klein, Sabine; Schierwagen, Robert; Trebicka, Jonel; Nickenig, Georg; Schrickel, Jan W; Andrié, René P

    2017-08-26

    Relaxin-2 (RLX) is a peptide hormone that exerts beneficial anti-fibrotic and anti-inflammatory effects in diverse models of cardiovascular disease. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of RLX treatment on the susceptibility to atrial fibrillation (AF) after myocardial infarction (MI). Mice with cryoinfarction of the left anterior ventricular wall were treated for two weeks with either RLX (75 μg/kg/d) or vehicle (sodium acetate) delivered via subcutaneously implanted osmotic minipumps. RLX treatment significantly attenuated the increase in AF-inducibility following cryoinfarction and reduced the mean duration of AF episodes. Furthermore, epicardial mapping of both atria revealed an increase in conduction velocity. In addition to an attenuation of atrial hypertrophy, chronic application of RLX reduced atrial fibrosis, which was linked to a significant reduction in atrial mRNA expression of connective tissue growth factor. Transcript levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 and interleukin-1β were reduced in RLX treated mice, but macrophage infiltration into atrial myocardium was similar in the vehicle and RLX treated groups. Treatment with RLX in mice after MI reduces susceptibility to AF due to anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic properties. Because to these favorable actions, RLX may become a new therapeutic option in the treatment of AF, even when complicating MI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibition reduces tumor necrosis factor-induced inflammatory response in rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    García, S.; Bodaño, A.; Pablos, J. L.; Gómez-Reino, J. J.; Conde, C.

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the effect of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibition on the production of inflammatory mediators and proliferation in tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-stimulated fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Cultured FLS from patients with RA were

  6. Voluntary Wheel Running Reduces the Acute Inflammatory Response to Liver Carcinogen in a Sex-specific Manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, M L; Gehl, Julie; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2017-01-01

    demonstrated to inhibit tumor growth, including diethylnitrosamine-(DEN)-induced hepatocarcinoma. Having observed a sex-dependent development of DEN-induced hepatocarcinoma, we aimed to evaluate the effect of exercise and sex on the acute inflammatory response to DEN. Thus, we randomized male and female mice...

  7. Triterpenoid herbal saponins enhance beneficial bacteria, decrease sulfate-reducing bacteria, modulate inflammatory intestinal microenvironment and exert cancer preventive effects in ApcMin/+ mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Brar, Manreetpal S.; Leung, Frederick C. C.; Hsiao, W. L. Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Saponins derived from medicinal plants have raised considerable interest for their preventive roles in various diseases. Here, we investigated the impacts of triterpenoid saponins isolated from Gynostemma pentaphyllum (GpS) on gut microbiome, mucosal environment, and the preventive effect on tumor growth. Six-week old ApcMin/+ mice and their wild-type littermates were fed either with vehicle or GpS daily for the duration of 8 weeks. The fecal microbiome was analyzed by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Study showed that GpS treatment significantly reduced the number of intestinal polyps in a preventive mode. More importantly, GpS feeding strikingly reduced the sulfate-reducing bacteria lineage, which are known to produce hydrogen sulfide and contribute to damage the intestinal epithelium or even promote cancer progression. Meanwhile, GpS also boosted the beneficial microbes. In the gut barrier of the ApcMin/+ mice, GpS treatment increased Paneth and goblet cells, up-regulated E-cadherin and down-regulated N-cadherin. In addition, GpS decreased the pro-oncogenic β-catenin, p-Src and the p-STAT3. Furthermore, GpS might also improve the inflamed gut epithelium of the ApcMin/+ mice by upregulating the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-4, while downregulating pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-β, IL-1β and IL-18. Intriguingly, GpS markedly stimulated M2 and suppressed M1 macrophage markers, indicating that GpS altered mucosal cytokine profile in favor of the M1 to M2 macrophages switching, facilitating intestinal tissue repair. In conclusion, GpS might reverse the host's inflammatory phenotype by increasing beneficial bacteria, decreasing sulfate-reducing bacteria, and alleviating intestinal inflammatory gut environment, which might contribute to its cancer preventive effects. PMID:27121311

  8. Minocycline Has Anti-inflammatory Effects and Reduces Cytotoxicity in an Ex Vivo Spinal Cord Slice Culture Model of West Nile Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, Eamon D; Seitz, Scott; Clarke, Penny; Tyler, Kenneth L

    2017-11-15

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a neurotropic flavivirus that can cause significant neurological disease. Mouse models of WNV infection demonstrate that a proinflammatory environment is induced within the central nervous system (CNS) after WNV infection, leading to entry of activated peripheral immune cells. We utilized ex vivo spinal cord slice cultures (SCSC) to demonstrate that anti-inflammatory mechanisms may also play a role in WNV-induced pathology and/or recovery. Microglia are a type of macrophage that function as resident CNS immune cells. Similar to mouse models, infection of SCSC with WNV induces the upregulation of proinflammatory genes and proteins that are associated with microglial activation, including the microglial activation marker Iba1 and CC motif chemokines CCL2, CCL3, and CCL5. This suggests that microglia assume a proinflammatory phenotype in response to WNV infection similar to the proinflammatory (M1) activation that can be displayed by other macrophages. We now show that the WNV-induced expression of these and other proinflammatory genes was significantly decreased in the presence of minocycline, which has antineuroinflammatory properties, including the ability to inhibit proinflammatory microglial responses. Minocycline also caused a significant increase in the expression of anti-inflammatory genes associated with alternative anti-inflammatory (M2) macrophage activation, including interleukin 4 (IL-4), IL-13, and FIZZ1. Minocycline-dependent alterations to M1/M2 gene expression were associated with a significant increase in survival of neurons, microglia, and astrocytes in WNV-infected slices and markedly decreased levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). These results demonstrate that an anti-inflammatory environment induced by minocycline reduces viral cytotoxicity during WNV infection in ex vivo CNS tissue. IMPORTANCE West Nile virus (WNV) causes substantial morbidity and mortality, with no specific therapeutic treatments available

  9. Safe Haven.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Gail

    2003-01-01

    Discusses school libraries as safe havens for teenagers and considers elements that foster that atmosphere, including the physical environment, lack of judgments, familiarity, leisure, and a welcoming nature. Focuses on the importance of relationships, and taking the time to listen to teens and encourage them. (LRW)

  10. T cell activation inhibitors reduce CD8+ T cell and pro-inflammatory macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue of obese mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vince N Montes

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue inflammation and specifically, pro-inflammatory macrophages are believed to contribute to insulin resistance (IR in obesity in humans and animal models. Recent studies have invoked T cells in the recruitment of pro-inflammatory macrophages and the development of IR. To test the role of the T cell response in adipose tissue of mice fed an obesogenic diet, we used two agents (CTLA-4 Ig and anti-CD40L antibody that block co-stimulation, which is essential for full T cell activation. C57BL/6 mice were fed an obesogenic diet for 16 weeks, and concomitantly either treated with CTLA-4 Ig, anti-CD40L antibody or an IgG control (300 µg/week. The treatments altered the immune cell composition of adipose tissue in obese mice. Treated mice demonstrated a marked reduction in pro-inflammatory adipose tissue macrophages and activated CD8+ T cells. Mice treated with anti-CD40L exhibited reduced weight gain, which was accompanied by a trend toward improved IR. CTLA-4 Ig treatment, however, was not associated with improved IR. These data suggest that the presence of pro-inflammatory T cells and macrophages can be altered with co-stimulatory inhibitors, but may not be a significant contributor to the whole body IR phenotype.

  11. Cardiac-Restricted IGF-1Ea Overexpression Reduces the Early Accumulation of Inflammatory Myeloid Cells and Mediates Expression of Extracellular Matrix Remodelling Genes after Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Gallego-Colon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Strategies to limit damage and improve repair after myocardial infarct remain a major therapeutic goal in cardiology. Our previous studies have shown that constitutive expression of a locally acting insulin-like growth factor-1 Ea (IGF-1Ea propeptide promotes functional restoration after cardiac injury associated with decreased scar formation. In the current study, we investigated the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms behind the enhanced functional recovery. We observed improved cardiac function in mice overexpressing cardiac-specific IGF-1Ea as early as day 7 after myocardial infarction. Analysis of gene transcription revealed that supplemental IGF-1Ea regulated expression of key metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9, their inhibitors (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2, and collagen types (Col 1α1 and Col 1α3 in the first week after injury. Infiltration of inflammatory cells, which direct the remodelling process, was also altered; in particular there was a notable reduction in inflammatory Ly6C+ monocytes at day 3 and an increase in anti-inflammatory CD206+ macrophages at day 7. Taken together, these results indicate that the IGF-1Ea transgene shifts the balance of innate immune cell populations early after infarction, favouring a reduction in inflammatory myeloid cells. This correlates with reduced extracellular matrix remodelling and changes in collagen composition that may confer enhanced scar elasticity and improved cardiac function.

  12. Indoline-3-propionate and 3-aminopropyl carbamates reduce lung injury and pro-inflammatory cytokines induced in mice by LPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkin-Groner, E; Moradov, D; Shifrin, H; Bejar, C; Nudelman, A; Weinstock, M

    2015-02-01

    In the search for safer and effective anti-inflammatory agents, we investigated the effect of methyl indoline-3-propionate and indoline-3-(3-aminopropyl) carbamates on LPS-induced lung injury and pro-inflammatory cytokines in mice. Their mechanism of action was determined in murine peritoneal macrophages. Lung injury was induced by intratracheal infusion of LPS and assessed by the change in lung weight and structure by light microscopy after staining by haematoxylin and eosin. In LPS-activated macrophages, MAPK proteins and IκBα were measured by Western blotting and the transcription factors, AP-1 and NF-κB by electromobility shift assay. Cytokines in the plasma and spleen of mice injected with LPS were measured by elisa-based assay. AN917 and AN680 (1-10 pM) decreased TNF-α protein in macrophages by inhibiting phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, IκBα degradation and activation of AP-1 and NF-κB without affecting cell viability. In vivo, these compounds (10 μmol · kg(-1)) markedly decreased lung injury induced by LPS and the elevation of TNF-α and IL-6 in lung, plasma and spleen. Activation of α-7nACh receptors contributed to the reduction of TNF-α by AN917, which inhibited AChE in the spleen by 35%. Indoline carbamates are potent inhibitors of pro-inflammatory mediators in murine macrophages and in mice injected with LPS, acting via the p38 MAPK, AP-1 and NF-κB cascades. Indirect α-7nACh receptor activation by AN917, through inhibition of AChE, contributes to its anti-inflammatory effect. Indoline carbamates may have therapeutic potential for lung injury and other diseases associated with chronic inflammation without causing immunosuppression. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  13. New approaches to reduce ulcerogenity of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: achievements, unsolved issues and ways to optimize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. V. Hladkykh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the domestic and foreign literature sources devoted to the study of pathogenetic mechanisms of gastropathy caused by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs was done. Current approaches of prevention and treatment of NSAID-induced gastropathy were lined. The appropriateness of drugs with polytropic pharmacological properties (Quercetin, Vinboron and Tiotriazolin to eliminate the side effects of NSAIDs, including ultserogenesis was discusses.

  14. Safe Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Edward T.; Stewart, Helen; Korsmeyer, David (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The biggest users of GRID technologies came from the science and technology communities. These consist of government, industry and academia (national and international). The NASA GRID is moving into a higher technology readiness level (TRL) today; and as a joint effort among these leaders within government, academia, and industry, the NASA GRID plans to extend availability to enable scientists and engineers across these geographical boundaries collaborate to solve important problems facing the world in the 21 st century. In order to enable NASA programs and missions to use IPG resources for program and mission design, the IPG capabilities needs to be accessible from inside the NASA center networks. However, because different NASA centers maintain different security domains, the GRID penetration across different firewalls is a concern for center security people. This is the reason why some IPG resources are been separated from the NASA center network. Also, because of the center network security and ITAR concerns, the NASA IPG resource owner may not have full control over who can access remotely from outside the NASA center. In order to obtain organizational approval for secured remote access, the IPG infrastructure needs to be adapted to work with the NASA business process. Improvements need to be made before the IPG can be used for NASA program and mission development. The Secured Advanced Federated Environment (SAFE) technology is designed to provide federated security across NASA center and NASA partner's security domains. Instead of one giant center firewall which can be difficult to modify for different GRID applications, the SAFE "micro security domain" provide large number of professionally managed "micro firewalls" that can allow NASA centers to accept remote IPG access without the worry of damaging other center resources. The SAFE policy-driven capability-based federated security mechanism can enable joint organizational and resource owner approved remote

  15. The polymethoxy flavonoid sudachitin suppresses inflammatory bone destruction by directly inhibiting osteoclastogenesis due to reduced ROS production and MAPK activation in osteoclast precursors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Ohyama

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bone diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, periodontitis and peri-implantitis, are associated not only with the production of inflammatory cytokines but also with local oxidative status, which is defined by intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS. Osteoclast differentiation has been reported to be related to increased intracellular ROS levels in osteoclast lineage cells. Sudachitin, which is a polymethoxyflavone derived from Citrus sudachi, possesses antioxidant properties and regulates various functions in mammalian cells. However, the effects of sudachitin on inflammatory bone destruction and osteoclastogenesis remain unknown. In calvaria inflamed by a local lipopolysaccharide (LPS injection, inflammation-induced bone destruction and the accompanying elevated expression of osteoclastogenesis-related genes were reduced by the co-administration of sudachitin and LPS. Moreover, sudachitin inhibited osteoclast formation in cultures of isolated osteoblasts and osteoclast precursors. However, sudachitin rather increased the expression of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL, which is an important molecule triggering osteoclast differentiation, and the mRNA ratio of RANKL/osteoprotegerin that is a decoy receptor for RANKL, in the isolated osteoblasts, suggesting the presence of additional target cells. When osteoclast formation was induced from osteoclast precursors derived from bone marrow cells in the presence of soluble RANKL and macrophage colony-stimulating factor, sudachitin inhibited osteoclastogenesis without influencing cell viability. Consistently, the expression of osteoclast differentiation-related molecules including c-fos, NFATc1, cathepsin K and osteoclast fusion proteins such as DC-STAMP and Atp6v0d2 was reduced by sudachitin. In addition, sudachitin decreased activation of MAPKs such as Erk and JNK and the ROS production evoked by RANKL in osteoclast lineage cells. Our findings suggest that sudachitin is a

  16. Melatonin Treatment Reduces Oxidative Damage and Normalizes Plasma Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines in Patients Suffering from Charcot-Marie-Tooth Neuropathy: A Pilot Study in Three Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahbouni, Mariam; López, María Del Señor; Molina-Carballo, Antonio; de Haro, Tomás; Muñoz-Hoyos, Antonio; Fernández-Ortiz, Marisol; Guerra-Librero, Ana; Acuña-Castroviejo, Darío

    2017-10-14

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy (CMT) is a motor and sensory neuropathy comprising a heterogeneous group of inherited diseases. The CMT1A phenotype is predominant in the 70% of CMT patients, with nerve conduction velocity reduction and hypertrophic demyelination. These patients have elevated oxidative stress and chronic inflammation. Currently, there is no effective cure for CMT; herein, we investigated whether melatonin treatment may reduce the inflammatory and oxidative damage in CMT1A patients. Three patients, aged 8-10 years, were treated with melatonin (60 mg at 21:00 h plus 10 mg at 09:00 h), and plasma levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO), nitrites (NOx), IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, TNF-α, INF-γ, oxidized to reduced glutathione (GSSG/GSH) ratio, and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and reductase (GRd), were determined in erythrocytes at 3 and 6 months of treatment. Healthy age- and sex-matched subjects were used as controls. The results showed increased activities of SOD, GST, GPx, and GRd in CMT1A patients, which were reduced at 3 and 6 months of treatment. The GSSG/GSH ratio significantly increased in the patients, returning to control values after melatonin treatment. The inflammatory process was confirmed by the elevation of all proinflammatory cytokines measured, which were also normalized by melatonin. LPO and NOx, which also were elevated in the patients, were normalized by melatonin. The results document beneficial effects of the use of melatonin in CMT1A patients to reduce the hyperoxidative and inflammatory condition, which may correlate with a reduction of the degenerative process.

  17. Montmorency Cherries Reduce the Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Responses to Repeated Days High-Intensity Stochastic Cycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip G. Bell

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This investigation examined the impact of Montmorency tart cherry concentrate (MC on physiological indices of oxidative stress, inflammation and muscle damage across 3 days simulated road cycle racing. Trained cyclists (n = 16 were divided into equal groups and consumed 30 mL of MC or placebo (PLA, twice per day for seven consecutive days. A simulated, high-intensity, stochastic road cycling trial, lasting 109 min, was completed on days 5, 6 and 7. Oxidative stress and inflammation were measured from blood samples collected at baseline and immediately pre- and post-trial on days 5, 6 and 7. Analyses for lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH, interleukin-6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, interleukin-8 (IL-8, interleukin-1-beta (IL-1-β, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP and creatine kinase (CK were conducted. LOOH (p < 0.01, IL-6 (p < 0.05 and hsCRP (p < 0.05 responses to trials were lower in the MC group versus PLA. No group or interaction effects were found for the other markers. The attenuated oxidative and inflammatory responses suggest MC may be efficacious in combating post-exercise oxidative and inflammatory cascades that can contribute to cellular disruption. Additionally, we demonstrate direct application for MC in repeated days cycling and conceivably other sporting scenario’s where back-to-back performances are required.

  18. A Trypsin Inhibitor from Tamarind Reduces Food Intake and Improves Inflammatory Status in Rats with Metabolic Syndrome Regardless of Weight Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana M. C. Carvalho

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Trypsin inhibitors are studied in a variety of models for their anti-obesity and anti-inflammatory bioactive properties. Our group has previously demonstrated the satietogenic effect of tamarind seed trypsin inhibitors (TTI in eutrophic mouse models and anti-inflammatory effects of other trypsin inhibitors. In this study, we evaluated TTI effect upon satiety, biochemical and inflammatory parameters in an experimental model of metabolic syndrome (MetS. Three groups of n = 5 male Wistar rats with obesity-based MetS received for 10 days one of the following: (1 Cafeteria diet; (2 Cafeteria diet + TTI (25 mg/kg; and (3 Standard diet. TTI reduced food intake in animals with MetS. Nevertheless, weight gain was not different between studied groups. Dyslipidemia parameters were not different with the use of TTI, only the group receiving standard diet showed lower very low density lipoprotein (VLDL and triglycerides (TG (Kruskal–Wallis, p < 0.05. Interleukin-6 (IL-6 production did not differ between groups. Interestingly, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α was lower in animals receiving TTI. Our results corroborate the satietogenic effect of TTI in a MetS model. Furthermore, we showed that TTI added to a cafeteria diet may decrease inflammation regardless of weight loss. This puts TTI as a candidate for studies to test its effectiveness as an adjuvant in MetS treatment.

  19. A novel platelet activating factor receptor antagonist reduces cell infiltration and expression of inflammatory mediators in mice exposed to desiccating conditions after PRK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquenazi, Salomon; He, Jiucheng; Li, Na; Bazan, Nicolas G; Esquenazi, Isi; Bazan, Haydee E P

    2009-01-01

    To study the contribution of a novel PAF receptor antagonist LAU-0901 in the modulation of the increased inflammatory response in mice exposed to dessicating conditions (DE) after PRK. Eighty 13-14 week old female Balb/C mice were used. They were divided into two groups: One group was treated with LAU-0901 topical drops. The other group was treated with vehicle. In each group ten mice served as controls and ten were placed in DE. The other twenty mice underwent bilateral PRK and were divided in two additional groups: ten mice remained under normal conditions (NC) and the other ten were exposed to DE. After 1 week all animals underwent in vivo confocal microscopy, immunostaining and western blotting analysis. Confocal microscopy showed an increased number of reflective structures in the corneal epithelium after PRK and exposure to DE in eyes treated with vehicle as compared to eyes treated with LAU-090). Significant decrease of COX-2 and Arginase I expression and reduced alpha SMA cells was observed after PRK and exposure to DE in eyes treated with LAU-0901. Exposure of mice to a DE after PRK increases the epithelial turnover rate. PAF is involved in the inflammatory cell infiltration and expression of inflammatory cytokines that follow PRK under DE.

  20. Pequi fruit (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.) pulp oil reduces exercise-induced inflammatory markers and blood pressure of male and female runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Vilela, Ana L; Pereira, Luiz C S; Gonçalves, Carlos A; Grisolia, Cesar K

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory properties of pequi (Caryocar brasiliense) fruit oil and its effects on the postprandial lipidemia and arterial blood pressure of male and female athletes. These athletes were evaluated after races in the same environment and under the same type, intensity, and length of weekly training conditions, both before and after ingestion of 400 mg pequi oil capsules for 14 days. Pequi fruit contains several antioxidants, and its oil has been associated with anti-inflammatory properties in other pequi species. Because the oil of pequi is mostly composed of oleic and palmitic fatty acids, the oil may alter the ratio of triglyceride to cholesterol in postprandial lipidemia. Epidemiologic studies suggest that an increased intake of monounsaturated fatty acids (such as oleic acid) is inversely related to blood pressure. Thus, we hypothesize that pequi oil could reduce exercise-induced inflammation and blood pressure, and modulate postprandial lipidemia in runners. To test this hypothesis, arterial blood pressures were checked before races; blood samples were taken after the races and submitted for analysis of leukocytes and platelets analysis, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein values, and postprandial lipids. Pequi oil resulted in anti-inflammatory effects and reduced the total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein in the age group older than 45 years, mainly for men. The results showed a general trend for reduced arterial pressure, suggesting that pequi oil may have a hypotensive effect. However, this finding needs additional investigation. Thus, pequi oil, besides possessing many nutritional properties, may be a good candidate supplement for athletes.

  1. Prefrontal cortex and mediodorsal thalamus reduced connectivity is associated with spatial working memory impairment in rats with inflammatory pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso-Cruz, Helder; Sousa, Mafalda; Vieira, Joana B; Lima, Deolinda; Galhardo, Vasco

    2013-11-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the mediodorsal thalamus (MD) form interconnected neural circuits that are important for spatial cognition and memory, but it is not known whether the functional connectivity between these areas is affected by the onset of an animal model of inflammatory pain. To address this issue, we implanted 2 multichannel arrays of electrodes in the mPFC and MD of adult rats and recorded local field potential activity during a food-reinforced spatial working memory task. Recordings were performed for 3weeks, before and after the establishment of the pain model. Our results show that inflammatory pain caused an impairment of spatial working memory performance that is associated with changes in the activity of the mPFC-MD circuit; an analysis of partial directed coherence between the areas revealed a global decrease in the connectivity of the circuit. This decrease was observed over a wide frequency range in both the frontothalamic and thalamofrontal directions of the circuit, but was more evident from MD to mPFC. In addition, spectral analysis revealed significant oscillations of power across frequency bands, namely with a strong theta component that oscillated after the onset of the painful condition. Finally, our data revealed that chronic pain induces an increase in theta/gamma phase coherence and a higher level of mPFC-MD coherence, which is partially conserved across frequency bands. The present results demonstrate that functional disturbances in mPFC-MD connectivity are a relevant cause of deficits in pain-related working memory. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Acetylsalicylic acid supplementation improves protein utilization efficiency while vitamin E supplementation reduces markers of the inflammatory response in weaned pigs challenged with enterotoxigenic E.coli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jae Cheol Kim; Bruce P.Mullan; John L.Black; Robert J.E.Hewitt; Robert J.van Barneveld; John R.Pluske

    2017-01-01

    Background:This experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that vitamin E (Vit E) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA),a cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor,will additively reduce the production of the immunosuppressive molecule prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and hence reduce inflammatory responses in weaner pigs experimentally infected with an enterotoxigenic strain of E.coli.Methods:The experiment was conducted in a research facility with 192 individually-housed male weaner pigs (Landrace × Large White) weighing 6.6 ± 0.04 kg (mean ± SEM).The pigs were experimentally infected with an enterotoxigenic strain of E.coli and were allocated to a 2 × 3 factorial design with the respective factors being without and with 125 ppm ASA and three levels ofVit E supplementation (50,100 or 200 IU/kg diet,dl-α-tocopheryl acetate).Results:Acetylsalicylic acid supplementation improved average daily gain (P < 0.05) and tended to improve feed:gain ratio (P < 0.10) during the first 14 d after weaning.Acetylsalicylic acid supplementation also improved (P < 0.001) amino acid utilization efficiency (as assessed by plasma urea level) and tended to decrease (P < 0.10) PGE2 production in the liver without affecting small intestinal histology and tight junction protein mRNA expression in the jejunal epithelium.Vitamin E supplementation greater than 100 IU/kg diet sustained both the plasma Vit E concentration (P < 0.001) and plasma haptoglobin content (P < 0.001) after weaning.However,there was no additive effects of the combined supplementation of ASA and Vit E on performance,intestinal barrier function and inflammatory responses of weaned pigs.Conclusions:Although ASA and vitamin E improved amino acid utilization efficiency and reduced acute inflammatory responses,ASA and vitamin E did not additively reduce production of PGE2 and inflammatory responses in weaner pigs experimentally infected with an enterotoxigenic strain of E.coli.

  3. The Daiokanzoto (TJ-84 Kampo Formulation Reduces Virulence Factor Gene Expression in Porphyromonas gingivalis and Possesses Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Protease Activities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jade Fournier-Larente

    Full Text Available Kampo formulations used in Japan to treat a wide variety of diseases and to promote health are composed of mixtures of crude extracts from the roots, bark, leaves, and rhizomes of a number of herbs. The present study was aimed at identifying the beneficial biological properties of Daiokanzoto (TJ-84, a Kampo formulation composed of crude extracts of Rhubarb rhizomes and Glycyrrhiza roots, with a view to using it as a potential treatment for periodontal disease. Daiokanzoto dose-dependently inhibited the expression of major Porphyromonas gingivalis virulence factors involved in host colonization and tissue destruction. More specifically, Daiokanzoto reduced the expression of the fimA, hagA, rgpA, and rgpB genes, as determined by quantitative real-time PCR. The U937-3xκB-LUC monocyte cell line transfected with a luciferase reporter gene was used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory properties of Daiokanzoto. Daiokanzoto attenuated the P. gingivalis-mediated activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway. It also reduced the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and CXCL8 by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated oral epithelial cells and gingival fibroblasts. Lastly, Daiokanzoto, dose-dependently inhibited the catalytic activity of matrix metalloproteinases (-1 and -9. In conclusion, the present study provided evidence that Daiokanzoto shows potential for treating and/or preventing periodontal disease. The ability of this Kampo formulation to act on both bacterial pathogens and the host inflammatory response, the two etiological components of periodontal disease, is of high therapeutic interest.

  4. CPAP Does Not Reduce Inflammatory Biomarkers in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease and Nonsleepy Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thunström, Erik; Glantz, Helena; Yucel-Lindberg, Tülay; Lindberg, Kristin; Saygin, Mustafa; Peker, Yüksel

    2017-11-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and enhanced vascular inflammation coexist in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is first-line treatment for OSA with daytime sleepiness. This analysis of data from the RICCADSA (Randomized Intervention with CPAP in Coronary Artery Disease and Sleep Apnea) trial investigated the effects of CPAP on inflammatory markers in patients with CAD and nonsleepy OSA. This single-center, randomized, controlled, open-label trial enrolled consecutive revascularized patients with nonsleepy OSA (apnea-hypopnea index >15/h; Epworth Sleepiness Scale score CPAP or no-CPAP. A total of 220 patients with analyzable blood samples at baseline and 1 year were included. Baseline IL-6 levels were significantly lower in the CPAP versus no-CPAP group (median 3.1 pmol/L [interquartile range 1.3-5.7] vs. 4.2 pmol/L [2.0-8.9], respectively; p = .005). At 1-year follow-up, median IL-6 levels were significantly reduced in both groups (to 2.2 pmol/L [1.2-3.9] in the CPAP group and to 2.2 [1.2-4.7] in no-CPAP group; both p CPAP adherence and changes in inflammatory marker levels. In patients with stable CAD and nonsleepy OSA, inflammatory biomarkers did not change significantly over time except for IL-6 levels, which reduced to the same extent in the CPAP and no-CPAP groups. ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT00519597; researchweb.org, VGSKAS-4731. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Administration of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen increases macrophage concentrations but reduces necrosis during modified muscle use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, E. V.; Tidball, J. G.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that ibuprofen administration during modified muscle use reduces muscle necrosis and invasion by select myeloid cell populations. METHODS: Rats were subjected to hindlimb unloading for 10 days, after which they experienced muscle reloading by normal weight-bearing to induce muscle inflammation and necrosis. Some animals received ibuprofen by intraperitoneal injection 8 h prior to the onset of muscle reloading, and then again at 8 and 16 h following the onset of reloading. Other animals received buffer injection at 8 h prior to reloading and then ibuprofen at 8 and 16 h following the onset of reloading. Control animals received buffer only at each time point. Quantitative immunohistochemical analysis was used to assess the presence of necrotic muscle fibers, total inflammatory infiltrate, neutrophils, ED1+ macrophages and ED2+ macrophages at 24 h following the onset of reloading. RESULT: Administration of ibuprofen beginning 8 h prior to reloading caused significant reduction in the concentration of necrotic fibers, but increased the concentration of inflammatory cells in muscle. The increase in inflammatory cells was attributable to a 2.6-fold increase in the concentration of ED2+ macrophages. Animals treated with ibuprofen 8 h following the onset of reloading showed no decrease in muscle necrosis or increase in ED2+ macrophage concentrations. CONCLUSION: Administration of ibuprofen prior to increased muscle loading reduces muscle damage, but increases the concentration of macrophages that express the ED2 antigen. The increase in ED2+ macrophage concentration and decrease in necrosis may be mechanistically related because ED2+ macrophages have been associated with muscle regeneration and repair.

  6. Muscle contractures in patients with cerebral palsy and acquired brain injury are associated with extracellular matrix expansion, pro-inflammatory gene expression, and reduced rRNA synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Walden, Ferdinand; Gantelius, Stefan; Liu, Chang; Borgström, Hanna; Björk, Lars; Gremark, Ola; Stål, Per; Nader, Gustavo A; Pontén, Eva

    2018-03-23

    Children with cerebral palsy (CP) and acquired brain injury (ABI) commonly develop muscle contractures with advancing age. An underlying growth defect contributing to skeletal muscle contracture formation in CP/ABI has been suggested. The biceps muscles of children and adolescents with CP/ABI (n=20) and typically developing controls (n=10) were investigated. We used immunohistochemistry, qRT-PCR and western blotting to assess gene expression relevant to growth and size homeostasis. Classical pro-inflammatory cytokines and genes involved in extracellular matrix production were elevated in skeletal muscle of children with CP/ABI. Intramuscular collagen content was increased and satellite cell number decreased and this was associated with reduced levels of RNA polymerase (POL) I transcription factors, 45s pre-rRNA and 28S rRNA. The present study provides novel data suggesting a role for pro-inflammatory cytokines and reduced ribosomal production in the development/maintenance of muscle contractures; possibly underlying stunted growth and perimysial extracellular matrix expansion. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Safe cycling!

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    The HSE Unit will be running a cycling safety campaign at the entrances to CERN's restaurants on 14, 15 and 16 May. Pop along to see if they can persuade you to get back in the saddle!   With summer on its way, you might feel like getting your bike out of winter storage. Well, the HSE Unit has come up with some original ideas to remind you of some of the most basic safety rules. This year, the prevention campaign will be focussing on three themes: "Cyclists and their equipment", "The bicycle on the road", and "Other road users". This is an opportunity to think about the condition of your bike as well as how you ride it. From 14 to 16 May, representatives of the Swiss Office of Accident Prevention and the Touring Club Suisse will join members of the HSE Unit at the entrances to CERN's restaurants to give you advice on safe cycling (see box). They will also be organising three activity stands where you can test your knowle...

  8. Relaxin reduces susceptibility to post-infarct atrial fibrillation in mice due to anti-fibrotic and anti-inflammatory properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beiert, Thomas; Tiyerili, Vedat; Knappe, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    Background Relaxin-2 (RLX) is a peptide hormone that exerts beneficial anti-fibrotic and anti-inflammatory effects in diverse models of cardiovascular disease. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of RLX treatment on the susceptibility to atrial fibrillation (AF) after myocardial...... infarction (MI). Methods Mice with cryoinfarction of the left anterior ventricular wall were treated for two weeks with either RLX (75 μg/kg/d) or vehicle (sodium acetate) delivered via subcutaneously implanted osmotic minipumps. Results RLX treatment significantly attenuated the increase in AF......-inducibility following cryoinfarction and reduced the mean duration of AF episodes. Furthermore, epicardial mapping of both atria revealed an increase in conduction velocity. In addition to an attenuation of atrial hypertrophy, chronic application of RLX reduced atrial fibrosis, which was linked to a significant...

  9. Functional Anthocyanin-Rich Sausages Diminish Colorectal Cancer in an Animal Model and Reduce Pro-Inflammatory Bacteria in the Intestinal Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Fernández

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is the fourth most common neoplasia in Europe, where it accounts for 28.2 new cases per 100,000 inhabitants. In an effort to decrease the incidence of this disease, various prevention measures are being studied, one of which are anthocyanin-rich foods. Anthocyanins are potent antioxidant flavonoids mainly found in flowers and colorful fruits and vegetables. These nutraceuticals have diverse biological functions once ingested, including immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and antitumor functions. In order to test the preventive effect of these flavonoids against colorectal cancer, an animal model (Rattus norvegicus F344 was developed. In this model two doses of azoxymethane (10 mg/kg and two treatments with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS were administered to the animals. For 20 weeks they were fed either control rat feed, control sausages, or functional sausages containing 0.1% (w/w of anthocyanins from a mixture of dehydrated blackberries and strawberries. At the end of that period, the animals were sacrificed and their antioxidant plasma levels and digestive tract tissues were analyzed. The results revealed a statistically significant reduction in the number of colon tumors in the functional sausages cohort with respect to the control animals and an increase in the FRAP (ferric reducing ability of plasma total antioxidant activity in that same cohort. Colon microbiota differences were also examined via metagenomics 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA sequencing, revealing a significant reduction in populations of the pro-inflammatory Bilophila wadsworthia. Therefore, the design of functional processed meat products, such as ones enriched with anthocyanins, may be an effective strategy for preventing inflammatory digestive diseases and colorectal cancer in human populations.

  10. Ablation of the Right Cardiac Vagus Nerve Reduces Acetylcholine Content without Changing the Inflammatory Response during Endotoxemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstanze Plaschke

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholine is the main transmitter of the parasympathetic vagus nerve. According to the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP concept, acetylcholine has been shown to be important for signal transmission within the immune system and also for a variety of other functions throughout the organism. The spleen is thought to play an important role in regulating the CAP. In contrast, the existence of a “non-neuronal cardiac cholinergic system” that influences cardiac innervation during inflammation has been hypothesized, with recent publications introducing the heart instead of the spleen as a possible interface between the immune and nervous systems. To prove this hypothesis, we investigated whether selectively disrupting vagal stimulation of the right ventricle plays an important role in rat CAP regulation during endotoxemia. We performed a selective resection of the right cardiac branch of the Nervus vagus (VGX with a corresponding sham resection in vehicle-injected and endotoxemic rats. Rats were injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 1 mg/kg body weight, intravenously and observed for 4 h. Intraoperative blood gas analysis was performed, and hemodynamic parameters were assessed using a left ventricular pressure-volume catheter. Rat hearts and blood were collected, and the expression and concentration of proinflammatory cytokines using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were measured, respectively. Four hours after injection, LPS induced a marked deterioration in rat blood gas parameters such as pH value, potassium, base excess, glucose, and lactate. The mean arterial blood pressure and the end-diastolic volume had decreased significantly. Further, significant increases in blood cholinesterases and in proinflammatory (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α cytokine concentration and gene expression were obtained. Right cardiac vagus nerve resection (VGX led to a marked decrease in heart

  11. Ablation of the Right Cardiac Vagus Nerve Reduces Acetylcholine Content without Changing the Inflammatory Response during Endotoxemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaschke, Konstanze; Do, Thuc Quyen Monica; Uhle, Florian; Brenner, Thorsten; Weigand, Markus A; Kopitz, Jürgen

    2018-02-01

    Acetylcholine is the main transmitter of the parasympathetic vagus nerve. According to the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP) concept, acetylcholine has been shown to be important for signal transmission within the immune system and also for a variety of other functions throughout the organism. The spleen is thought to play an important role in regulating the CAP. In contrast, the existence of a "non-neuronal cardiac cholinergic system" that influences cardiac innervation during inflammation has been hypothesized, with recent publications introducing the heart instead of the spleen as a possible interface between the immune and nervous systems. To prove this hypothesis, we investigated whether selectively disrupting vagal stimulation of the right ventricle plays an important role in rat CAP regulation during endotoxemia. We performed a selective resection of the right cardiac branch of the Nervus vagus (VGX) with a corresponding sham resection in vehicle-injected and endotoxemic rats. Rats were injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 1 mg/kg body weight, intravenously) and observed for 4 h. Intraoperative blood gas analysis was performed, and hemodynamic parameters were assessed using a left ventricular pressure-volume catheter. Rat hearts and blood were collected, and the expression and concentration of proinflammatory cytokines using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were measured, respectively. Four hours after injection, LPS induced a marked deterioration in rat blood gas parameters such as pH value, potassium, base excess, glucose, and lactate. The mean arterial blood pressure and the end-diastolic volume had decreased significantly. Further, significant increases in blood cholinesterases and in proinflammatory (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α) cytokine concentration and gene expression were obtained. Right cardiac vagus nerve resection (VGX) led to a marked decrease in heart acetylcholine

  12. Short-Term Therapy with High Dose Atorvastatin in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease Can Reduce Inflammatory Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vida Nesar Hossein

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of death and disability in adults. The association between acute coronary syndrom (ACS and elevated serum high sensitivity c-reactive protein (hsCRP suggests that chronic inflammation of the coronary arterial wall may play an important role. A number of drugs used in the treatment of cardiovascular disease reduce serum CRP. It* is therefore possible that reduced inflammation contributes to the beneficial effects of these medications. This was a double blind randomized clinical trial on 52 patients were admitted because of ACS at the Mazandaran Heart Center, Iran in 2007. The patients were divided to three randomized groups which received 20, 40, 80* mg Atorvastatin daily for 6 months. At the time of study enrollment and 1, 3 and 6 months after initiation hsCRP were measured. 1 and 3 month after 20mg atorvastatin therapy the median serum concentration of hsCRP did not decrease significantly, but at the end of 6th month it was* significant difference. At 40mg dosage from 3th month to 6th month versus 1st month to 3th month it was significant decrease, at the end of 1th month and 3rd month it was not significant. At 80mg dose at the end of 1th month it was not significant but at the* end of 3th month and end of 6th month it was significant. Intensive lipid-lowering therapy with high-dose atorvastatin therapy relative to moderate lipid-lowering therapy with low-dose atorvastatin reduces hsCRP better. We found that treatment with greater dose of atorvastatin might decrease greater in plasma level of hsCRP.

  13. Dousing our inflammatory environment(s): is personal carbon trading an option for reducing obesity--and climate change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, G

    2008-09-01

    Obesity and climate change are two problems currently challenging humanity. Although apparently unrelated, an epidemiological approach to both shows a similar environmental aetiology, based in modern human lifestyles and their driving economic forces. One way of analysing this is through inflammation (defined as '. . . a disturbance of function following insult or injury') of both the internal (biological) and external (ecological) environments. Chronic, low-grade, systemic inflammation has recently been shown to accompany obesity, as well as a range of biological pathologies associated with obesity (diabetes, heart disease, some cancers, etc.). This is influenced by the body's inability to soak up excess glucose as a result of insulin resistance. In a broader sense, inflammation is a metaphor for ecological 'pathologies', manifest particularly in unnatural disturbances like climate change, ocean acidity, rising temperatures and species extinction, associated with the inability of the world's environmental 'sinks' to soak up carbon dioxide ('carbon resistance'?). The use of such a metaphorical analysis opens the possibilities for dealing with two interdisciplinary problems simultaneously. Strategies for managing climate change, including personal carbon trading, could provide a 'stealth intervention' for reducing population levels of obesity by increasing personal energy expenditure and decreasing energy-dense food intake, as well as reducing the carbon emissions causing climate change.

  14. Metallic gold treatment reduces proliferation of inflammatory cells, increases expression of VEGF and FGF, and stimulates cell proliferation in the subventricular zone following experimental traumatic brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mie Østergaard; Larsen, Agnete; Pedersen, Dan Sonne

    2009-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury represents a leading cause of morbidity in young individuals and there is an imperative need for neuroprotective treatments limiting the neurologic impairment following such injury. It has recently been demonstrated that bio-liberated gold ions liberated from small metallic...... gold implants reduce inflammation and neuronal apoptosis, while generating an increased neuronal stem cell response following focal brain damage. In this study mice were subjected to a unilateral traumatic cryo-lesion with concomitant injection of 25-45 microm gold particles near the lesion. Placebo...... increase in cell proliferation in both the ipsilateral and the contralateral subventricular zone was found in response to gold-treatment. In conclusion: we confirmed the previously demonstrated anti-inflammatory effect of bio-liberated gold ions, and further show that metallic gold increases growth factor...

  15. Curcumin in inflammatory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehzad, Adeeb; Rehman, Gauhar; Lee, Young Sup

    2013-01-01

    Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a yellow coloring agent extracted from turmeric is also used as a remedy for the treatment and prevention of inflammatory diseases. Acute and chronic inflammation is a major factor in the progression of obesity, type II diabetes, arthritis, pancreatitis, cardiovascular, neurodegenerative and metabolic diseases, as well as certain types of cancer. Turmeric has a long history of use in Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of inflammatory disorders. Recent studies on the efficacy and therapeutic applicability of turmeric have suggested that the active ingredient of tumeric is curcumin. Further, compelling evidence has shown that curcumin has the ability to inhibit inflammatory cell proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis through multiple molecular targets and mechanisms of action. Curcumin is safe, non-toxic, and mediates its anti-inflammatory effects through the down-regulation of inflammatory transcription factors, cytokines, redox status, protein kinases, and enzymes that all promote inflammation. In addition, curcumin induces apoptosis through mitochondrial and receptor-mediated pathways, as well as activation of caspase cascades. In the current study, the anti-inflammatory effects of curcumin were evaluated relative to various chronic inflammatory diseases. Based on the available pharmacological data obtained from in vitro and in vivo research, as well as clinical trials, an opportunity exists to translate curcumin into clinics for the prevention of inflammatory diseases in the near future. Copyright © 2012 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Excreted/secreted Trichuris suis products reduce barrier function and suppress inflammatory cytokine production of intestinal epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiemstra, I. H.; Klaver, E. J.; Vrijland, K.

    2014-01-01

    The administration of helminths is considered a promising strategy for the treatment of autoimmune diseases due to their immunomodulatory properties. Currently, the application of the helminth Trichuris suis as a treatment for Crohn's disease is being studied in large multi-center clinical trials....... The intestinal epithelium forms an efficient barrier between the intestinal lumen containing the microbial flora and helminths, and dendritic cells (DCs) present in the lamina propria that determine the TH response. Here, we investigated how excreted/secreted (E/S) products of T. suis affect the barrier function...... of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) in order to reach the DCs and modulate the immune response. We show that T. suis E/S products reduce the barrier function and the expression of the tight junction proteins EMP-1 and claudin-4 in IEC CMT93/69 monolayers in a glycan-dependent manner. This resulted...

  17. Effect of vitamin D3 supplementation and influence of BsmI polymorphism of the VDR gene of the inflammatory profile and oxidative stress in elderly women with vitamin D insufficiency: Vitamin D3 megadose reduces inflammatory markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Medeiros Cavalcante, Isa Gabriela; Silva, Alexandre Sérgio; Costa, Maria José Carvalho; Persuhn, Darlene Camati; Issa, Chahira Taha Mahd Ibrahim; Issa, ChariraTahaMad Ibraim; de Luna Freire, Tiago Lima; da Conceição Rodrigues Gonçalves, Maria

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of vitamin D3 megadose supplementation and influence of BsmI polymorphism in the VDR gene on the inflammatory profile and oxidative stress in elderly women with vitamin D deficiency. A double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted with 40 elderly women (aged 68±6 years) diagnosed with vitamin D insufficiency (24.7±3.1 ng/mL). Participants were distributed into a supplementation group that received 200,000 IU of vitamin D3 (SG; n=20) and a placebo group (PG; n=20). Blood samples were collected at baseline and after intervention to analyse the 25(OH)D, parathyroid hormone, serum calcium, ultra-sensitive C-reactive protein (us-CRP), alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (AGP-A), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, as well as the renal and hepatic function, and genotyping was performed for BsmI polymorphism. Four weeks after supplementation, elderly women in the SG group showed a significant increase in the serum concentration of 25(OH)D (25.29±2.8 to 31.48±6.0; p=0.0001), which was followed by increased TAC (65.25±15.66 to 71.83±10.71; p=0.03) and decreased serum PTH (46.32±13.2 to 35.45±11.0; p=0.009), us-CRP (0.38±0.3 to 0.19±0.1; p=0.007) and AGP-A levels (75.3±15.4 to 61.1±5.9; p=0.005). Changes in BP, ANAC and MDA were not observed. The 25(OH)D and PTH, us-CRP and AGP-A levels of participants with the BB/Bb genotype were more responsive to supplementation, but their other markers did not change. Supplementation with a vitamin D3 megadose reduced inflammatory markers and increased the total antioxidant capacity in elderly women with vitamin D insufficiency. The 25(OH)D, PTH, us-CRP and AGP-A levels of elderly patients with the BB/Bb genotype were more responsive to supplementation compared with those with the bb genotype. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Fish Oil-Based Fat Emulsion Reduces Acute Kidney Injury and Inflammatory Response in Antibiotic-Treated Polymicrobial Septic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juey-Ming Shih

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is a common complication in sepsis. This study compared the effects of a fish oil-based with a mixed oil fat emulsion on remote renal injury in an antibiotic-treated septic murine model. Mice were randomly assigned to a normal control (NC group and three septic groups. Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP. The antibiotic was injected intraperitoneally (IP after CLP and then daily till the time of sacrifice. Three hours after antibiotic treatment, one of the septic groups was injected IP with a fish oil-based emulsion (FO, while the other two groups were given either a mixed oil emulsion (MO or saline (SC. The septic groups were further divided into two separate time groups, with blood and kidneys samples collected at 24 h or 72 h post-CLP. The results showed that sepsis leads to the activation of neutrophils, T helper (Th1/Th-2/Th-17 and Treg cells (p < 0.05. Plasma NGAL and mRNA expressions of renal MyD88 and TLR4 were also enhanced (p < 0.05. Compared to the SC group, the group given the fish oil-based emulsion had decreased plasma NGAL by 22% and Treg by 33%. Furthermore, renal gene expressions of MyD88 and TLR4 reduced by 46% and 62%, respectively, whereas heat shock protein 70 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ increased by 158% and 69%, respectively (p < 0.05, at Day 3 after CLP. These results suggest that administration of a fish oil-based emulsion has favorable effects, maintaining blood T cell percentage, downregulating Treg expression, attenuating systemic and local inflammation and offering renal protection under conditions of antibiotic-treated polymicrobial sepsis.

  19. Effectiveness of adjunctive antimicrobial photodynamic therapy in reducing peri-implant inflammatory response in individuals vaping electronic cigarettes: A randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Rifaiy, Mohammed Q; Qutub, Osama A; Alasqah, Mohammed N; Al-Sowygh, Zeyad H; Mokeem, Sameer A; Alrahlah, Ali

    2018-06-01

    There are no studies that have assessed the effectiveness of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) in reducing peri-implant inflammatory response in individuals vaping electronic cigarettes (e-cigs). This study explored the effectiveness of aPDT as an adjunct to mechanical debridement (MD) in the treatment of peri-implant mucositis (p-iM) in individuals vaping e-cigs. Vaping individuals with p-iM were divided into 2 groups: (a) Group-I: receiving MD with aPDT (test group); and (b) Group-II: MD only (control group). Peri-implant inflammatory parameters including plaque index (PI), bleeding on probing (BoP), and pocket depth (PD) were assessed at baseline and 12-weeks follow-up. Inter- and intra-group comparisons were made using Mann-Whitney U test and Wilcoxon signed ranks test. P-value vaping individuals in groups I and II were 33.6 ± 2.8 and 35.4 ± 2.1 years, respectively. Mean daily frequency of vaping e-cigs in groups I and II was 7.3 ± 0.9 and 5.9 ± 1.0 whereas mean duration of vaping e-cigs was 4.8 ± 1.5 and 4.1 ± 1.3 years respectively. There was no significant difference between groups at baseline. There was significant improvement in PI (p vaping e-cigs. The findings of the present study should be considered preliminary and interpreted with caution. Further randomized clinical trials should be performed in order to obtain strong conclusions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Minocycline through attenuation of oxidative stress and inflammatory response reduces the neuropathic pain in a rat model of chronic constriction injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Abbaszadeh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Several lines of evidence showed that minocycline possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This study aimed to demonstrate the effects of minocycline in rats subjected to chronic constriction injury (CCI. Materials and Methods: In this study four groups (n = 6–8 of rats were used as follows: Sham, CCI, CCI + minocycline (MIN 10 mg/Kg (IP and CCI + MIN 30 mg/Kg (IP. On days 3, 7, 14, and 21 post-surgery hot-plate, acetone, and von Frey tests were carried out. Finally, Motor Nerve Conduction Velocity Evaluation (MNCV assessment was performed and spinal cords were harvested in order to measure tissue concentrations of TNF_α, IL-1β, Glutathione peroxidase (GPx, Superoxide dismutase (SOD and Malondialdehyde (MDA. Extent of perineural inflammation and damage around the sciatic nerve was histopathologically evaluated. Results: Our results demonstrated that CCI significantly caused hyperalgesia and allodynia twenty-one days after CCI. MIN attenuated heat hyperalgesia, cold and mechanical allodynia and MNCV in animals. MIN also decreased the levels of TNF_α and IL-1β. Antioxidative enzymes (SOD, MDA, and GPx were restored following MIN treatment. Our findings showed that MIN decreased perineural inflammation around the sciatic nerve. According to the results, the neuropathic pain reduced in the CCI hyperalgesia model using 30 mg/kg of minocycline. Conclusion: It is suggested that antinociceptive effects of minocycline might be mediated through the inhibition of inflammatory response and attenuation of oxidative stress.

  1. Treatment with a New Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Agonist, Pyridinecarboxylic Acid Derivative, Increases Angiogenesis and Reduces Inflammatory Mediators in the Heart of Trypanosoma cruzi-Infected Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Nicolás Penas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi infection induces an intense inflammatory response in diverse host tissues. The immune response and the microvascular abnormalities associated with infection are crucial aspects in the generation of heart damage in Chagas disease. Upon parasite uptake, macrophages, which are involved in the clearance of infection, increase inflammatory mediators, leading to parasite killing. The exacerbation of the inflammatory response may lead to tissue damage. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ is a ligand-dependent nuclear transcription factor that exerts important anti-inflammatory effects and is involved in improving endothelial functions and proangiogenic capacities. In this study, we evaluated the intermolecular interaction between PPARγ and a new synthetic PPARγ ligand, HP24, using virtual docking. Also, we showed that early treatment with HP24, decreases the expression of NOS2, a pro-inflammatory mediator, and stimulates proangiogenic mediators (vascular endothelial growth factor A, CD31, and Arginase I both in macrophages and in the heart of T. cruzi-infected mice. Moreover, HP24 reduces the inflammatory response, cardiac fibrosis and the levels of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, interleukin 6 released by macrophages of T. cruzi-infected mice. We consider that PPARγ agonists might be useful as coadjuvants of the antiparasitic treatment of Chagas disease, to delay, reverse, or preclude the onset of heart damage.

  2. Enteric-coated and highly standardized cranberry extract reduces antibiotic and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use for urinary tract infections during radiotherapy for prostate carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonetta A

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Alberto Bonetta,1 Giandomenico Roviello,2,3 Daniele Generali,3,4 Laura Zanotti,3 Maria Rosa Cappelletti,3 Chiara Pacifico,5 Francesco Di Pierro6 1Oncological Radiotherapy Operative Unit, ASST, Cremona, 2Department of Molecular and Translational Medicine, University of Brescia, Brescia, 3Molecular Therapy and Pharmacogenomics Unit, ASST, Cremona, 4Department of Medical, Surgery and Health Sciences, University of Trieste, Trieste, 5Department of Medical, Surgical and Neurological Sciences, University Hospital of Siena, Siena, 6Velleja Research Scientific Department, Milan, Italy Introduction: Worldwide, bacterial resistance to antibiotic therapy is a major concern for the medical community. Antibiotic resistance mainly affects Gram-negative bacteria that are an important cause of lower urinary tract infections (LUTIs. Pelvic irradiation for prostate cancer is a risk factor for LUTIs. Cranberry extract is reported to reduce the incidence of LUTIs. The prophylactic role of an enteric-coated, highly standardized cranberry extract (VO370® in reducing LUTI episodes, urinary discomfort, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID and antibiotic use during radiotherapy for prostate carcinoma was evaluated. Methods: A total of 924 patients with prostate carcinoma treated by radiotherapy to the prostatic and pelvic areas were randomized to receive (n=489 or not (n=435 the enteric-coated, highly standardized cranberry extract for 6–7 weeks concurrently with irradiation. Outcomes were analyzed by using Mann–Whitney U test and Pearson’s X2 test. Primary endpoint was the number of patients with LUTI; secondary endpoints were incidence of recurrence, days of treatment with antibiotics and number of subjects treated with NSAIDs, and incidence of dysuria. Results: The treatment was very well tolerated, and there were no serious side effects. All enrolled patients completed the study. Urinary infections were detected in 53 of the 489 patients (10

  3. Biofeedback can reduce foot pressure to a safe level and without causing new at-risk zones in patients with diabetes and peripheral neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De León Rodriguez, D; Allet, L; Golay, A; Philippe, J; Assal, J-Ph; Hauert, C-A; Pataky, Z

    2013-02-01

    Plantar pressure reduction is mandatory for diabetic foot ulcer healing. Our aim was to evaluate the impact of a new walking strategy learned by biofeedback on plantar pressure distribution under both feet in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Terminally augmented biofeedback has been used for foot off-loading training in 21 patients with diabetic peripheral sensory neuropathy. The biofeedback technique was based on a subjective estimation of performance and objective visual feedback following walking sequences. The patient was considered to have learned a new walking strategy as soon as the peak plantar pressure (PPP) under the previously defined at-risk zone was within a range of 40-80% of baseline PPP in 70% of the totality of steps and during three consecutive walking sequences. The PPP was measured by a portable in-shoe foot pressure measurement system (PEDAR(®)) at baseline (T0), directly after learning (T1) and at 10-day retention test (T2). The PPP under at-risk zones decreased significantly at T1 (165 ± 9 kPa, p biofeedback leads to a safe and regular plantar pressure distribution without inducing any new 'at-risk' area under both feet. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Plutonium safe handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tvehlov, Yu.

    2000-01-01

    The abstract, prepared on the basis of materials of the IAEA new leadership on the plutonium safe handling and its storage (the publication no. 9 in the Safety Reports Series), aimed at presenting internationally acknowledged criteria on the radiation danger evaluation and summarizing the experience in the safe management of great quantities of plutonium, accumulated in the nuclear states, is presented. The data on the weapon-class and civil plutonium, the degree of its danger, the measures for provision of its safety, including the data on accident radiation consequences with the fission number 10 18 , are presented. The recommendations, making it possible to eliminate the super- criticality danger, as well as ignition and explosion, to maintain the tightness of the facility, aimed at excluding the radioactive contamination and the possibility of internal irradiation, to provide for the plutonium security, physical protection and to reduce irradiation are given [ru

  5. Shifting from Ziegler-Natta to Philips-type catalyst? A simple and safe access to reduced titanium systems for ethylene polymerization

    KAUST Repository

    Popoff, Nicolas

    2011-09-22

    Silica-supported titanium(IV) chloride is readily reduced by Mashima and co-workers\\' reagent (1-methyl-3,6-bis(trimethylsilyl)-1,4-cyclohexadiene) to afford materials active in ethylene polymerisation without need of aluminum alkyl cocatalyst. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Shifting from Ziegler-Natta to Philips-type catalyst? A simple and safe access to reduced titanium systems for ethylene polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popoff, Nicolas; Espinas, Jeff; Gouré, Eric; Boyron, Olivier; Le Roux, Erwan; Basset, Jean-Marie; Gauvin, Régis M; De Mallmann, Aimery; Taoufik, Mostafa

    2011-12-01

    Silica-supported titanium(IV) chloride is readily reduced by Mashima and co-workers' reagent (1-methyl-3,6-bis(trimethylsilyl)-1,4-cyclohexadiene) to afford materials active in ethylene polymerisation without need of aluminum alkyl cocatalyst. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Two to five repeated measurements per patient reduced the required sample size considerably in a randomized clinical trial for patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smedslund Geir

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient reported outcomes are accepted as important outcome measures in rheumatology. The fluctuating symptoms in patients with rheumatic diseases have serious implications for sample size in clinical trials. We estimated the effects of measuring the outcome 1-5 times on the sample size required in a two-armed trial. Findings In a randomized controlled trial that evaluated the effects of a mindfulness-based group intervention for patients with inflammatory arthritis (n=71, the outcome variables Numerical Rating Scales (NRS (pain, fatigue, disease activity, self-care ability, and emotional wellbeing and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-20 were measured five times before and after the intervention. For each variable we calculated the necessary sample sizes for obtaining 80% power (α=.05 for one up to five measurements. Two, three, and four measures reduced the required sample sizes by 15%, 21%, and 24%, respectively. With three (and five measures, the required sample size per group was reduced from 56 to 39 (32 for the GHQ-20, from 71 to 60 (55 for pain, 96 to 71 (73 for fatigue, 57 to 51 (48 for disease activity, 59 to 44 (45 for self-care, and 47 to 37 (33 for emotional wellbeing. Conclusions Measuring the outcomes five times rather than once reduced the necessary sample size by an average of 27%. When planning a study, researchers should carefully compare the advantages and disadvantages of increasing sample size versus employing three to five repeated measurements in order to obtain the required statistical power.

  8. Citrus Polyphenol Hesperidin Stimulates Production of Nitric Oxide in Endothelial Cells while Improving Endothelial Function and Reducing Inflammatory Markers in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizza, Stefano; Muniyappa, Ranganath; Iantorno, Micaela; Kim, Jeong-a; Chen, Hui; Pullikotil, Philomena; Senese, Nicoletta; Tesauro, Manfredi; Lauro, Davide; Cardillo, Carmine

    2011-01-01

    Context: Hesperidin, a citrus flavonoid, and its metabolite hesperetin may have vascular actions relevant to their health benefits. Molecular and physiological mechanisms of hesperetin actions are unknown. Objective: We tested whether hesperetin stimulates production of nitric oxide (NO) from vascular endothelium and evaluated endothelial function in subjects with metabolic syndrome on oral hesperidin therapy. Design, Setting, and Interventions: Cellular mechanisms of action of hesperetin were evaluated in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) in primary culture. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover trial examined whether oral hesperidin administration (500 mg once daily for 3 wk) improves endothelial function in individuals with metabolic syndrome (n = 24). Main Outcome Measure: We measured the difference in brachial artery flow-mediated dilation between placebo and hesperidin treatment periods. Results: Treatment of BAEC with hesperetin acutely stimulated phosphorylation of Src, Akt, AMP kinase, and endothelial NO synthase to produce NO; this required generation of H2O2. Increased adhesion of monocytes to BAEC and expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in response to TNF-α treatment was reduced by pretreatment with hesperetin. In the clinical study, when compared with placebo, hesperidin treatment increased flow-mediated dilation (10.26 ± 1.19 vs. 7.78 ± 0.76%; P = 0.02) and reduced concentrations of circulating inflammatory biomarkers (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A protein, soluble E-selectin). Conclusions: Novel mechanisms for hesperetin action in endothelial cells inform effects of oral hesperidin treatment to improve endothelial dysfunction and reduce circulating markers of inflammation in our exploratory clinical trial. Hesperetin has vasculoprotective actions that may explain beneficial cardiovascular effects of citrus consumption. PMID:21346065

  9. Traveling Safely with Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medications Safely My Medicine List How to Administer Traveling Safely with Medicines Planes, trains, cars – even boats ... your trip, ask your pharmacist about how to travel safely with your medicines. Make sure that you ...

  10. When self-reliance is not safe: associations between reduced help-seeking and subsequent mental health symptoms in suicidal adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labouliere, Christa D; Kleinman, Marjorie; Gould, Madelyn S

    2015-04-01

    The majority of suicidal adolescents have no contact with mental health services, and reduced help-seeking in this population further lessens the likelihood of accessing treatment. A commonly-reported reason for not seeking help is youths' perception that they should solve problems on their own. In this study, we explore associations between extreme self-reliance behavior (i.e., solving problems on your own all of the time), help-seeking behavior, and mental health symptoms in a community sample of adolescents. Approximately 2150 adolescents, across six schools, participated in a school-based suicide prevention screening program, and a subset of at-risk youth completed a follow-up interview two years later. Extreme self-reliance was associated with reduced help-seeking, clinically-significant depressive symptoms, and serious suicidal ideation at the baseline screening. Furthermore, in a subset of youth identified as at-risk at the baseline screening, extreme self-reliance predicted level of suicidal ideation and depressive symptoms two years later even after controlling for baseline symptoms. Given these findings, attitudes that reinforce extreme self-reliance behavior may be an important target for youth suicide prevention programs. Reducing extreme self-reliance in youth with suicidality may increase their likelihood of appropriate help-seeking and concomitant reductions in symptoms.

  11. When Self-Reliance Is Not Safe: Associations between Reduced Help-Seeking and Subsequent Mental Health Symptoms in Suicidal Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christa D. Labouliere

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The majority of suicidal adolescents have no contact with mental health services, and reduced help-seeking in this population further lessens the likelihood of accessing treatment. A commonly-reported reason for not seeking help is youths’ perception that they should solve problems on their own. In this study, we explore associations between extreme self-reliance behavior (i.e., solving problems on your own all of the time, help-seeking behavior, and mental health symptoms in a community sample of adolescents. Approximately 2150 adolescents, across six schools, participated in a school-based suicide prevention screening program, and a subset of at-risk youth completed a follow-up interview two years later. Extreme self-reliance was associated with reduced help-seeking, clinically-significant depressive symptoms, and serious suicidal ideation at the baseline screening. Furthermore, in a subset of youth identified as at-risk at the baseline screening, extreme self-reliance predicted level of suicidal ideation and depressive symptoms two years later even after controlling for baseline symptoms. Given these findings, attitudes that reinforce extreme self-reliance behavior may be an important target for youth suicide prevention programs. Reducing extreme self-reliance in youth with suicidality may increase their likelihood of appropriate help-seeking and concomitant reductions in symptoms.

  12. Combination of Medicinal Herbs KIOM-79 Reduces Advanced Glycation End Product Accumulation and the Expression of Inflammatory Factors in the Aorta of Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunjin Sohn

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have reported that KIOM-79 shows a strong inhibitory effect on AGE formation and inhibited a proinflammatory state in a murine macrophage cell line. In the present study, we investigated the effect of KIOM-79 on AGE accumulation and vascular inflammation in the aorta of Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF rats, a commonly used model of type 2 diabetes. Seven-week-old male ZDF rats were treated with KIOM-79 (50 mg/kg once a day orally for 13 weeks. We examined the dissected aortas for AGE accumulation, expression of the receptor for AGEs (RAGE, and the expression of proinflammatory factors, including monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, and vascular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1. Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS were also measured by Southwestern histochemistry, electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA, and immunohistochemistry, respectively. KIOM-79 markedly reduced the accumulation of AGEs and the expression of RAGE in the aorta. We also found that KIOM-79 attenuated the expression of inflammatory factors including NF-κB, MCP-1, VEGF, VCAM-1, and iNOS in the aortas of ZDF rats. These data suggest that KIOM-79 may prevent or retard the development of inflammation in diabetic vascular disease.

  13. Kids Safe and Smokefree (KiSS): a randomized controlled trial of a multilevel intervention to reduce secondhand tobacco smoke exposure in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepore, Stephen J; Winickoff, Jonathan P; Moughan, Beth; Bryant-Stephens, Tyra C; Taylor, Daniel R; Fleece, David; Davey, Adam; Nair, Uma S; Godfrey, Melissa; Collins, Bradley N

    2013-08-30

    Secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) harms children's health, yet effective interventions to reduce child SHSe in the home and car have proven difficult to operationalize in pediatric practice. A multilevel intervention combining pediatric healthcare providers' advice with behavioral counseling and navigation to pharmacological cessation aids may improve SHSe control in pediatric populations. This trial uses a randomized, two-group design with three measurement periods: pre-intervention, end of treatment and 12-month follow-up. Smoking parents of children parents about child SHSe, advise about SHSe harms, and refer smokers to cessation resources. After receiving clinic intervention, eligible parents are randomized to receive: (a) a 3-month telephone-based behavioral counseling intervention designed to promote reduction in child SHSe, parent smoking cessation, and navigation to access nicotine replacement therapy or cessation medication or (b) an attention control nutrition education intervention. Healthcare providers and assessors are blind to group assignment. Cotinine is used to bioverify child SHSe (primary outcome) and parent quit status. This study tests an innovative multilevel approach to reducing child SHSe. The approach is sustainable, because clinics can easily integrate the tobacco intervention prompts related to "ask, advise, and refer" guidelines into electronic health records and refer smokers to free evidence-based behavioral counseling interventions, such as state quitlines. NCT01745393 (clinicaltrials.gov).

  14. A multi-component patient-handling intervention improves attitudes and behaviors for safe patient handling and reduces aggression experienced by nursing staff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risør, Bettina Wulff; Casper, Sven Dalgas; Andersen, Lars L.

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated an intervention for patient-handling equipment aimed to improve nursing staffs' use of patient handling equipment and improve their general health, reduce musculoskeletal problems, aggressive episodes, days of absence and work-related accidents. As a controlled before......-after study, questionnaire data were collected at baseline and 12-month follow-up among nursing staff at intervention and control wards at two hospitals. At 12-month follow-up, the intervention group had more positive attitudes towards patient-handling equipment and increased use of specific patient......-handling equipment. In addition, a lower proportion of nursing staff in the intervention group had experienced physically aggressive episodes. No significant change was observed in general health status, musculoskeletal problems, days of absence or work-related accidents. The intervention resulted in more positive...

  15. Does reducing unnecessary right ventricular pacing improve sympathetic activity and innervation of heart in sinus node disease patients? MVP and SafeR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Mihoko; Kimura, Yuichiro; Hosoda, Junya; Matsumoto, Katsumi; Matsushita, Kohei; Ishikawa, Toshiyuki; Umemura, Satoshi

    2012-01-01

    Ventricular desynchronization imposed by ventricular pacing causes regional disturbances of adrenergic innervation in the left ventricular myocardium and increases the risk of heart failure and atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients with sinus node disease (SND). As a result, decreased iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (I-(123 )MIBG) uptake occurs in patients with an implanted permanent pacemaker. Fourteen SND patients with an implanted pacemaker equipped with an algorithm for reducing unnecessary right ventricular pacing (RURVP) were enrolled. Pacemakers were programmed to RURVP mode for the first 12 weeks, and then reprogrammed to DDD for the last 12 weeks. At the end of each mode, data on cumulative percent ventricular pacing (%Vp), atrial high rate episodes (%AHR), I-(123 )MIBG myocardial scintigraphy, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), human atrial natriuretic peptide (hANP), and myocardial damage indices typified by troponin T and C-reactive protein (CRP) were collected. %Vp was lower in RURVP than in DDD (0.2% versus 95.7%, P = 0.00098). BNP, hANP, troponin T, and CRP did not differ significantly between the pacing modes. However, I-(123 )MIBG findings of patients with full ventricular pacing in DDD improved in RURVP. In contrast, among patients without full ventricular pacing in DDD, their I-(123 )MIBG findings did not differ significantly between the pacing modes. In SND patients with normal cardiac function and intact atrioventricular conduction, the reduction of %Vp in RURVP was due to the reduction of ineffective pacing and fusion pacing in DDD. Therefore, these 2 types of pacing do not affect cardiac pump function.

  16. Babies Living Safe & Smokefree: randomized controlled trial of a multilevel multimodal behavioral intervention to reduce low-income children’s tobacco smoke exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley N. Collins

    2017-03-01

    -focused telephone counseling, mobile app, and multimedia text messages about improving nutrition. The control condition also receives a referral to the state smoking cessation quitline. Discussion This study tests an innovative community-based, multilevel and integrated multimodal approach to reducing child TSE in a vulnerable, low-income population. The approach is sustainable and has potential for wide reach because WIC can integrate the tobacco intervention prompts into routine workflow and refer smokers to free evidence-based behavioral counseling interventions, such as state quitlines. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02602288 . Registered 9 November 2015.

  17. Facile synthesis of amine-functional reduced graphene oxides as modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe adsorbent for multi-pesticide residues analysis of tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Guicen; Zhang, Minglu; Zhu, Li; Chen, Hongping; Liu, Xin; Lu, Chengyin

    2018-01-05

    Amine-functional reduced graphene oxide (amine-rGO) with different carbon chain length amino groups were successfully synthesized. The graphene oxides (GO) reduction as well as amino grafting were achieved simultaneously in one step via a facile solvothermal synthetic strategy. The obtained materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to confirm the modification of GO with different amino groups. The adsorption performance of catechins and caffeine from tea acetonitrile extracts on different amine functional rGO samples were evaluated. It was found that tributylamine-functional rGO (tri-BuA-rGO) exhibited the highest adsorption ability for catechins and caffeine compared to GO and other amino group functional rGO samples. It was worth to note that the adsorption capacity of catechins on tri-BuA-rGO was 11 times higher than that of GO (203.7mgg -1 vs 18.7mgg -1 ). Electrostatic interaction, π-π interaction and surface hydrophilic-hydrophobic properties of tri-BuA-rGO played important roles in the adsorption of catechins as well as caffeine. The gravimetric analysis confirmed that the tri-BuA-rGO achieved the highest efficient cleanup preformance compared with traditional dispersive solid phase extraction (dSPE) adsorbents like primary-secondary amine (PSA), graphitized carbon black (GCB) or C18. A multi-pesticides analysis method based on tri-BuA-rGO is validated on 33 representative pesticides in tea using gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry or high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The analysis method gave a high coefficient of determination (r 2 >0.99) for each pesticide and satisfactory recoveries in a range of 72.1-120.5%. Our study demonstrated that amine functional rGO as a new type of QuEChERS adsorbent is expected to be widely applied for analysis of pesticides at trace levels. Copyright © 2017

  18. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs use is associated with reduced risk of inflammation-associated cancers: NIH-AARP study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma M Shebl

    Full Text Available Chronic inflammation has been linked to cancers, and use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs has been associated with reduced risk of several cancers. To further refine the magnitude of NSAID-related associations, in particular for cancers related to inflammation, such as alcohol-, infection-, obesity-, and smoking-related cancers, as well as for less common cancers, we evaluated the use of NSAIDs and cancer risk in a very large cohort. We used propensity scores to account for potential selection bias and hypothesized that NSAID use is associated with decreased cancer incidence.We conducted a prospective study among 314,522 participants in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. Individuals who completed the lifestyle questionnaire, which included NSAID use, in 1996-1997 were followed through 2006. Information on cancer incidence was ascertained by linking to cancer registries and vital status databases.During 2,715,994 person-years of follow-up (median 10.1 person-years, there were 51,894 incident cancers. Compared with non-users of NSAIDs, individuals who reported use in the 12 months prior to interview had a significantly lower risk of all inflammation-related cancer, alcohol-related, infection-related, obesity-related, and smoking-related cancers [hazard ratio (HR (95% CI 0.90 (0.87-0.93, 0.80 (0.74-0.85, 0.82 (0.78-0.87, 0.88 (0.84-0.92, and 0.88 (0.85-0.92 respectively].After accounting for potential selection bias, our data showed an inverse association between NSAID use and alcohol-related, infection-related, obesity-related, and smoking-related cancers and support the hypothesis that inflammation is related to an increased risk of certain cancers.

  19. A healthy lifestyle index is associated with reduced risk of colorectal adenomatous polyps among non-users of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabung, Fred K; Steck, Susan E; Burch, James B; Chen, Chin-Fu; Zhang, Hongmei; Hurley, Thomas G; Cavicchia, Philip; Alexander, Melannie; Shivappa, Nitin; Creek, Kim E; Lloyd, Stephen C; Hebert, James R

    2015-02-01

    In a Columbia, South Carolina-based case-control study, we developed a healthy lifestyle index from five modifiable lifestyle factors (smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity, diet, and body mass index), and examined the association between this lifestyle index and the risk of colorectal adenomatous polyps (adenoma). Participants were recruited from a local endoscopy center and completed questionnaires related to lifestyle behaviors prior to colonoscopy. We scored responses on each of five lifestyle factors as unhealthy (0 point) or healthy (1 point) based on current evidence and recommendations. We added the five scores to produce a combined lifestyle index for each participant ranging from 0 (least healthy) to 5 (healthiest), which was dichotomized into unhealthy (0-2) and healthy (3-5) lifestyle scores. We used logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for adenoma with adjustment for multiple covariates. We identified 47 adenoma cases and 91 controls. In the main analyses, there was a statistically nonsignificant inverse association between the dichotomous (OR 0.54; 95% CI 0.22, 1.29) and continuous (OR 0.75; 95% CI 0.51, 1.10) lifestyle index and adenoma. Odds of adenoma were significantly modified by the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (p(interaction) = 0.04). For participants who reported no use of NSAIDs, those in the healthy lifestyle category had a 72% lower odds of adenoma as compared to those in the unhealthy category (OR 0.28; 95% CI 0.08, 0.98), whereas a one-unit increase in the index significantly reduced odds of adenoma by 53% (OR 0.47; 95% CI 0.26, 0.88). Although these findings should be interpreted cautiously given our small sample size, our results suggest that higher scores from this index are associated with reduced odds of adenomas, especially in non-users of NSAIDs. Lifestyle interventions are required to test this approach as a strategy to prevent colorectal adenomatous

  20. Minocycline reduces inflammatory parameters in the brain structures and serum and reverses memory impairment caused by the administration of amyloid β (1-42) in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcez, Michelle Lima; Mina, Francielle; Bellettini-Santos, Tatiani; Carneiro, Franciellen Gonçalves; Luz, Aline Pereira; Schiavo, Gustavo Luis; Andrighetti, Matheus Scopel; Scheid, Maylton Grégori; Bolfe, Renan Pereira; Budni, Josiane

    2017-07-03

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder and the most common type of age-related dementia. Cognitive decline, beta-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation, neurofibrillary tangles, and neuroinflammation are the main pathophysiological characteristics of AD. Minocycline is a tetracycline derivative with anti-inflammatory properties that has a neuroprotective effect. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of minocycline on memory, neurotrophins and neuroinflammation in an animal model of AD induced by the administration of Aβ (1-42) oligomer. Male BALB/c mice were treated with minocycline (50mg/kg) via the oral route for a total of 17days, 24h after intracerebroventricular administration of Aβ (1-42) oligomer. At the end of this period, was performed the radial maze test, and 24h after the last minocycline administration, serum was collected and the cortex and hippocampus were dissected for biochemical analysis. The administration of minocycline reversed the memory impairment caused by Aβ (1-42). In the hippocampus, minocycline reversed the increases in the levels of interleukin (IL-1β), Tumor Necrosis Factor- alpha (TNF-α) and, IL-10 caused by Aβ (1-42). In the cortex, AD-like model increase the levels of IL-1β, TNF-α and, IL-4. Minocycline treatment reversed this. In the serum, Aβ (1-42) increased the levels of IL-1β and IL-4, and minocycline was able to reverse this action, but not to reverse the decrease of IL-10 levels. Minocycline also reversed the increase in the levels of Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus caused by Aβ (1-42), and reduced Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) increases in the total cortex. Therefore, our results indicate that minocycline causes improvements in the spatial memory, and cytokine levels were correlated with this effect in the brain it. Besides this, minocycline reduced BDNF and NGF levels, highlighting the promising effects of minocycline in treating AD-like dementia. Copyright © 2017

  1. Morinda citrifolia (Noni Fruit Juice Reduces Inflammatory Cytokines Expression and Contributes to the Maintenance of Intestinal Mucosal Integrity in DSS Experimental Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Coutinho de Sousa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Morinda citrifolia L. (noni has been shown to treat different disorders. However, data concerning its role in the treatment of intestinal inflammation still require clarification. In the current study, we investigated the effects of noni fruit juice (NFJ in the treatment of C57BL/6 mice, which were continuously exposed to dextran sulfate sodium (DSS for 9 consecutive days. NFJ consumption had no impact on the reduction of the clinical signs of the disease or on weight loss. Nonetheless, when a dilution of 1 : 10 was used, the intestinal architecture of the mice was preserved, accompanied by a reduction in the inflammatory infiltrate. Regardless of the concentration of NFJ, a decrease in both the activity of myeloperoxidase and the key inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IFN-γ, was also observed in the intestine. Furthermore, when NFJ was diluted 1 : 10 and 1 : 100, a reduction in the production of nitric oxide and IL-17 was detected in gut homogenates. Overall, the treatment with NFJ was effective in different aspects associated with disease progression and worsening. These results may point to noni fruit as an important source of anti-inflammatory molecules with a great potential to inhibit the progression of inflammatory diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease.

  2. Synthesis, ex Vivo and in Vitro Hydrolysis Study of an Indoline Derivative Designed as an Anti-Inflammatory with Reduced Gastric Ulceration Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Chin Chung

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The compound 1-(2,6-dichlorophenylindolin-2-one (1, planned as a pro-drug of diclofenac (2, was easily synthesized in 94% yield by an intramolecular reaction in the presence of coupling agent (i.e., EDC. Compound 1 showed anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity without gastro-ulcerogenic effects. The chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis profile of the lactam derivative 1 does not indicate conversion to diclofenac (2. This compound is a new non-ulcerogenic prototype for treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases.

  3. The cholinergic pathway alleviates acute oxygen and glucose deprivation induced renal tubular cell injury by reducing the secretion of inflammatory medium of macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming WU

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the effects of cholinergic pathway on acute renal tubular cell injury induced by acute oxygen and glucose deprivation. Methods Rat kidney macrophages were isolated and cultured for constructing macrophages and renal epithelial cells co-cultivating model of oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD, and the model cells were divided into three groups: OGD alone group, acetylcholine (ACh 100μmol/L+OGD group and ACh + galantamine (Gal 10μmol/L+OGD group. The cells underwent OGD treatment for 1 hour, and normally cultured for 24 hours. The expressions of TNF alpha, IL-1 beta, and IL-10 in supernatant fluid were detected by ELISA, the renal tubular cell viability was determined by MTT assay, the expression of acetylcholine esterase (AChE mRNA and protein were determined by RT-qPCR and Western blotting. The activity of AChE was determined by colorimetric method. Results The expressions of TNF alpha (pg/ml in OGD, Ach+OGD group, Ach+Gal+OGD groups were 140.2±44.81, 119.46±4.42 and 103.31±1.62 respectively (P0.05; The values of renal tubular cell proliferation were 55.02%±6.28%, 66.65%±6.47%, and 79.75%±4.22% respectively (P0.05; those of AchE protein were 0.66±0.07, 0.74±0.04 and 0.67±0.06 respectively (P>0.05; The activity of AChE (kU/L was 0.51±0.02, 0.35±0.05 and 0.32±0.04 respectively (P=0.001, 0.001 and 0.368. Conclusions ACh and Gal could inhibit the secretion of inflammatory mediators and cholinesterase activity and can reduce the acute hypoxic renal tubular cell injury. The modulation of the cholinergic pathway in macrophages may be the important treatment method for acute renal injury in the future. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.08.01

  4. Potentiated clinoptilolite: artificially enhanced aluminosilicate reduces symptoms associated with endoscopically negative gastroesophageal reflux disease and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug induced gastritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potgieter W

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Wilna Potgieter, Caroline Selma Samuels, Jacques Renè SnymanDepartment of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, Gauteng, South AfricaPurpose: The cation exchanger, a potentiated clinoptilolite (Absorbatox™ 2.4D, is a synthetically enhanced aluminosilicate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible benefits of a potentiated clinoptilolite as a gastroprotective agent in reducing the severity of clinical symptoms and signs associated with 1 endoscopically negative gastroesophageal reflux disease (ENGORD and 2 nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID medication.Methods and patients: Two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, pilot studies, the ENGORD and NSAID studies, were conducted. After initial negative gastroscopy, a total of 25 patients suffering from ENGORD were randomized to receive either placebo capsules or 750 mg Absorbatox twice daily for 14 days. The NSAID study recruited 23 healthy patients who received orally either 1,500 mg Absorbatox or placebo three times daily, plus 500 mg naproxen twice daily. Patients underwent gastroscopic evaluation of their stomach linings prior to and on day 14 of the study. Gastric biopsies were obtained and evaluated via the upgraded Sydney system, whereas visible gastric events and status of the gastric mucosa were evaluated via a 0–3 rating scale. During both studies, patients recorded gastric symptoms in a daily symptom diary.Results: In the ENGORD study, patients who received the potentiated clinoptilolite reported a significant reduction (P≤0.05 in severity of symptoms including reduction in heartburn (44%, discomfort (54%, and pain (56%. Symptom-free days improved by 41% compared to the group who received placebo (not significant. This was over and above the benefits seen with the proton pump inhibitor. In the NSAID study, the reduction in gastric symptom severity was echoed in the group who received the potentiated

  5. Safe Kids Worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blog Videos Newsletter facebook twitter instagram pinterest gplus youtube Search Menu Why It Matters Who We Are What We Do Find Your Safe Kids Safe Kids Day Main menu Keeping All Kids Safe Safety Tips Get Involved 4 Star Charity Donate Text Burns and Scalds 4 tips ...

  6. The Inflammatory Response to Miniaturised Extracorporeal Circulation: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunaid A. Vohra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional cardiopulmonary bypass can trigger a systemic inflammatory response syndrome similar to sepsis. Aetiological factors include surgical trauma, reperfusion injury, and, most importantly, contact of the blood with the synthetic surfaces of the heart-lung machine. Recently, a new cardiopulmonary bypass system, mini-extracorporeal circulation (MECC, has been developed and has shown promising early results in terms of reducing this inflammatory response. It has no venous reservoir, a reduced priming volume, and less blood-synthetic interface. This review focuses on the inflammatory and clinical outcomes of using MECC and compares these to conventional cardio-pulmonary bypass (CCPB. MECC has been shown to reduce postoperative cytokines levels and other markers of inflammation. In addition, MECC reduces organ damage, postoperative complications and the need for blood transfusion. MECC is a safe and viable perfusion option and in certain circumstances it is superior to CCPB.

  7. Pulsed ultrasound associated with gold nanoparticle gel reduces oxidative stress parameters and expression of pro-inflammatory molecules in an animal model of muscle injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Eduardo G

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nanogold has been investigated in a wide variety of biomedical applications because of the anti-inflammatory properties. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of TPU (Therapeutic Pulsed Ultrasound with gold nanoparticles (GNP on oxidative stress parameters and the expression of pro-inflammatory molecules after traumatic muscle injury. Materials and methods Animals were divided in nine groups: sham (uninjured muscle; muscle injury without treatment; muscle injury + DMSO; muscle injury + GNP; muscle injury + DMSO + GNP; muscle injury + TPU; muscle injury + TPU + DMSO; muscle injury + TPU + GNP; muscle injury + TPU + DMSO + GNP. The ROS production was determined by concentration of superoxide anion, modulation of antioxidant defenses was determined by the activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase enzymes, oxidative damage determined by formation of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance and protein carbonyls. The levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α were measured as inflammatory parameters. Results Compared to muscle injury without treatment group, the muscle injury + TPU + DMSO + GNP gel group promoted a significant decrease in superoxide anion production and lipid peroxidation levels (p Conclusions Our results suggest that TPU + DMSO + GNP gel presents beneficial effects on the muscular healing process, inducing a reduction in the production of ROS and also the expression of pro-inflammatory molecules.

  8. Postoperative socket irrigation with drinking tap water reduces the risk of inflammatory complications following surgical removal of third molars: a multicenter randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghaeminia, H.; Hoppenreijs, T.J.; Xi, T.; Fennis, J.P.; Maal, T.J.J.; Berge, S.J.; Meijer, G.J.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of postoperative irrigation of the socket with drinking tap water on inflammatory complications following lower third molar removal. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A multicenter randomized controlled trial was carried out from

  9. Ensuring a Safe Technological Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    much lower, and the performance gained can dramatically reduce life -cycle costs. Validated cost data are scarce, and accurate AM cost models need to be...reduce costs, minimize obsolescence issues and improve both capability and readi- ness across the entire life cycle of naval systems—including both the...of naval weapon systems. The Navy is actively engaging its various communi- ties to align needs and ensure that AM can be safely acceler- ated and

  10. "Same Room, Safe Place".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keene Woods, Nikki

    2017-04-01

    There are many different professional stances on safe sleep and then there is the reality of caring for a newborn. There is a debate among professionals regarding safe sleep recommendations. The continum of recommendations vary from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) Safe Sleep Guidelines to the bed-sharing recommendations from the Mother-Baby Behavioral Sleep Laboratory. The lack of consistent and uniform safe sleep recommendations from health professionals has been confusing for families but has more recently raised a real professional ethical dilemma. Despite years of focused safe sleep community education and interventions, sleep-related infant deaths are on the rise in many communities. This commentary calls for a united safe sleep message from all health professionals to improve health for mothers and infants most at-risk, "Same Room, Safe Place."

  11. A Single Bout of Fasting (24 h) Reduces Basal Cytokine Expression and Minimally Impacts the Sterile Inflammatory Response in the White Adipose Tissue of Normal Weight F344 Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speaker, Kristin J; Paton, Madeline M; Cox, Stewart S; Fleshner, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Sterile inflammation occurs when inflammatory proteins are increased in blood and tissues by nonpathogenic states and is a double-edged sword depending on its cause (stress, injury, or disease), duration (transient versus chronic), and inflammatory milieu. Short-term fasting can exert a host of health benefits through unknown mechanisms. The following experiment tested if a 24 h fast would modulate basal and stress-evoked sterile inflammation in plasma and adipose. Adult male F344 rats were either randomized to ad libitum access to food or fasted for 24 h prior to 0 (control), 10, or 100, 1.5 mA-5 s intermittent, inescapable tail shocks (IS). Glucose, nonesterified free fatty acids (NEFAs), insulin, leptin, and corticosterone were measured in plasma and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α , interleukin- (IL-) 1 β , IL-6, and IL-10 in plasma, and subcutaneous, intraperitoneal, and visceral compartments of white adipose tissue (WAT). In control rats, a 24 h fast reduced all measured basal cytokines in plasma and visceral WAT, IL-1 β and IL-6 in subcutaneous WAT, and IL-6 in intraperitoneal WAT. In stressed rats (IS), fasting reduced visceral WAT TNF- α , subcutaneous WAT IL-1 β , and plasma insulin and leptin. Short-term fasting may thus prove to be a useful dietary strategy for reducing peripheral inflammatory states associated with visceral obesity and chronic stress.

  12. A Single Bout of Fasting (24 h Reduces Basal Cytokine Expression and Minimally Impacts the Sterile Inflammatory Response in the White Adipose Tissue of Normal Weight F344 Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin J. Speaker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sterile inflammation occurs when inflammatory proteins are increased in blood and tissues by nonpathogenic states and is a double-edged sword depending on its cause (stress, injury, or disease, duration (transient versus chronic, and inflammatory milieu. Short-term fasting can exert a host of health benefits through unknown mechanisms. The following experiment tested if a 24 h fast would modulate basal and stress-evoked sterile inflammation in plasma and adipose. Adult male F344 rats were either randomized to ad libitum access to food or fasted for 24 h prior to 0 (control, 10, or 100, 1.5 mA-5 s intermittent, inescapable tail shocks (IS. Glucose, nonesterified free fatty acids (NEFAs, insulin, leptin, and corticosterone were measured in plasma and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF- α, interleukin- (IL- 1β, IL-6, and IL-10 in plasma, and subcutaneous, intraperitoneal, and visceral compartments of white adipose tissue (WAT. In control rats, a 24 h fast reduced all measured basal cytokines in plasma and visceral WAT, IL-1β and IL-6 in subcutaneous WAT, and IL-6 in intraperitoneal WAT. In stressed rats (IS, fasting reduced visceral WAT TNF-α, subcutaneous WAT IL-1β, and plasma insulin and leptin. Short-term fasting may thus prove to be a useful dietary strategy for reducing peripheral inflammatory states associated with visceral obesity and chronic stress.

  13. Strategies for safe motherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, A

    1995-02-01

    The Safe Motherhood Initiative was launched in 1988 as a global effort to halve maternal mortality and morbidity by the year 2000. The program uses a combination of health and nonhealth strategies to emphasize the need for maternal health services, extend family planning services, and improve the status of women. The maternal mortality rate (per 100,000 live births) is 390 for the world, 20-30 for developed countries, 450 for developing countries, and 420 for Asia. This translates into 308,000 maternal deaths in Asia, of which 100,000 occur in India. The direct causes of maternal mortality include sepsis, hemorrhage, eclampsia, and ruptured uterus. Indirect causes occur when associated medical conditions, such as anemia and jaundice, are exacerbated by pregnancy. Underlying causes are ineffective health services, inadequate obstetric care, unregulated fertility, infections, illiteracy, early marriage, poverty, malnutrition, and ignorance. India's Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program seeks to achieve immediate improvements by improving health care. Longterm improvements will occur as nutrition, income, education, and the status of women improve. Improvements in health care will occur in through the provision of 1) essential obstetric care for all women (which will be essentially designed for low-risk women), 2) early detection of complications during pregnancy and labor, and 3) emergency services. Services will be provided to pregnant women at their door by field staff, at a first referral hospital, perhaps at maternity villages where high risk cases can be housed in the latter part of their pregnancies, and through the continual accessibility of government vehicles. In addition, family planning services will be improved so that fertility regulation can have its expected beneficial effect on the maternal mortality rate. The professional health organizations in India will also play a vital role in the success of this effort to reduce maternal mortality.

  14. Combined anti-tumor necrosis factor-α therapy and DMARD therapy in rheumatoid arthritis patients reduces inflammatory gene expression in whole blood compared to DMARD therapy alone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl K Edwards

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Periodic assessment of gene expression for diagnosis and monitoring in rheumatoid arthritis (RA may provide a readily available and useful method to detect subclinical disease progression and follow responses to therapy with disease modifying anti-rheumatic agents (DMARDs or anti-TNF-α therapy. We used quantitative real-time PCR to compare peripheral blood gene expression profiles in active ("unstable" RA patients on DMARDs, stable RA patients on DMARDs, and stable RA patients treated with a combination of a DMARD and an anti-TNF-α agent (infliximab or etanercept to healthy human controls. The expression of 48 inflammatory genes were compared between healthy controls (N=122, unstable DMARD patients (N=18, stable DMARD patients (N=26, and stable patients on combination therapy (N=20. Expression of 13 genes was very low or undetectable in all study groups. Compared to healthy controls, patients with unstable RA on DMARDs exhibited increased expression of 25 genes, stable DMARD patients exhibited increased expression of 14 genes and decreased expression of five genes, and combined therapy patients exhibited increased expression of six genes and decreased expression of 10 genes. These findings demonstrate that active RA is associated with increased expression of circulating inflammatory markers whereas increases in inflammatory gene expression are diminished in patients with stable disease on either DMARD or anti-TNF-α therapy. Furthermore, combination DMARD and anti-TNF-α therapy is associated with greater reductions in circulating inflammatory gene expression compared to DMARD therapy alone. These results suggest that assessment of peripheral blood gene expression may prove useful to monitor disease progression and response to therapy.

  15. Riboflavin Reduces Pro-Inflammatory Activation of Adipocyte-Macrophage Co-culture. Potential Application of Vitamin B2 Enrichment for Attenuation of Insulin Resistance and Metabolic Syndrome Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur-Bialy, Agnieszka Irena; Pocheć, Ewa

    2016-12-15

    Due to the progressive increase in the incidence of obese and overweight individuals, cardiometabolic syndrome has become a worldwide pandemic in recent years. Given the immunomodulatory properties of riboflavin, the current study was performed to investigate the potency of riboflavin in reducing obesity-related inflammation, which is the main cause of insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus 2 or arteriosclerosis. We determined whether pretreatment with a low dose of riboflavin (10.4-1000 nM) affected the pro-inflammatory activity of adipocyte-macrophage co-culture (3T3 L1-RAW 264.7) following lipopolysaccharide stimulation (LPS; 100 ng/mL) which mimics obesity-related inflammation. The apoptosis of adipocytes and macrophages as well as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 1beta (IL-1β), monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGFβ), interleukin 10 (IL-10), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), nitric oxide (NO), matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) expression and release, macrophage migration and adipokines (adiponectin and leptin) were determined. Our results indicated an efficient reduction in pro-inflammatory factors (TNFα, IL-6, MCP-1, HMGB1) upon culture with riboflavin supplementation (500-1000 nM), accompanied by elevation in anti-inflammatory adiponectin and IL-10. Moreover, macrophage migration was reduced by the attenuation of chemotactic MCP-1 release and degradation of the extracellular matrix by MMP-9. In conclusion, riboflavin effectively inhibits the pro-inflammatory activity of adipocyte and macrophage co-cultures, and therefore we can assume that its supplementation may reduce the likelihood of conditions associated with the mild inflammation linked to obesity.

  16. Riboflavin Reduces Pro-Inflammatory Activation of Adipocyte-Macrophage Co-culture. Potential Application of Vitamin B2 Enrichment for Attenuation of Insulin Resistance and Metabolic Syndrome Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Irena Mazur-Bialy

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the progressive increase in the incidence of obese and overweight individuals, cardiometabolic syndrome has become a worldwide pandemic in recent years. Given the immunomodulatory properties of riboflavin, the current study was performed to investigate the potency of riboflavin in reducing obesity-related inflammation, which is the main cause of insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus 2 or arteriosclerosis. We determined whether pretreatment with a low dose of riboflavin (10.4–1000 nM affected the pro-inflammatory activity of adipocyte-macrophage co-culture (3T3 L1-RAW 264.7 following lipopolysaccharide stimulation (LPS; 100 ng/mL which mimics obesity-related inflammation. The apoptosis of adipocytes and macrophages as well as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, interleukin 6 (IL-6, interleukin 1beta (IL-1β, monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1, high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1, transforming growth factor–beta 1 (TGFβ, interleukin 10 (IL-10, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, nitric oxide (NO, matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1 expression and release, macrophage migration and adipokines (adiponectin and leptin were determined. Our results indicated an efficient reduction in pro-inflammatory factors (TNFα, IL-6, MCP-1, HMGB1 upon culture with riboflavin supplementation (500–1000 nM, accompanied by elevation in anti-inflammatory adiponectin and IL-10. Moreover, macrophage migration was reduced by the attenuation of chemotactic MCP-1 release and degradation of the extracellular matrix by MMP-9. In conclusion, riboflavin effectively inhibits the pro-inflammatory activity of adipocyte and macrophage co-cultures, and therefore we can assume that its supplementation may reduce the likelihood of conditions associated with the mild inflammation linked to obesity.

  17. Safe havens in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Eleven safe havens exist in Europe providing offshore banking and low taxes. Ten of these states are very small while Switzerland is moderately small. All 11 countries are richer than their large neighbors. It is shown that causality is from small to safe haven to wealth, and that theoretically...... equilibriums are likely to exist where a certain regulation is substantially lower in a small country than in its big neighbor. This generates a large capital inflow to the safe havens. The pool of funds that may reach the safe havens is shown to be huge. It is far in excess of the absorptive capacity...... of the safe havens, but it still explains, why they are rich. Microstates offer a veil of anonymity to funds passing through, and Switzerland offers safe storage of funds....

  18. Fish-oil-derived n-3 PUFAs reduce inflammatory and chemotactic adipokine-mediated cross-talk between co-cultured murine splenic CD8+ T cells and adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Jennifer M; Liddle, Danyelle M; De Boer, Anna A; Brown, Morgan J; Power, Krista A; Ma, David Wl; Robinson, Lindsay E

    2015-04-01

    Obese adipose tissue (AT) inflammation is characterized by dysregulated adipokine production and immune cell accumulation. Cluster of differentiation (CD) 8+ T cell AT infiltration represents a critical step that precedes macrophage infiltration. n-3 (ω-3) Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) exert anti-inflammatory effects in obese AT, thereby disrupting AT inflammatory paracrine signaling. We assessed the effect of n-3 PUFAs on paracrine interactions between adipocytes and primary CD8+ T cells co-cultured at the cellular ratio observed in obese AT. C57BL/6 mice were fed either a 3% menhaden fish-oil + 7% safflower oil (FO) diet (wt:wt) or an isocaloric 10% safflower oil (wt:wt) control (CON) for 3 wk, and splenic CD8+ T cells were isolated by positive selection (via magnetic microbeads) and co-cultured with 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Co-cultures were unstimulated (cells alone), T cell receptor stimulated, or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated for 24 h. In LPS-stimulated co-cultures, FO reduced secreted protein concentrations of interleukin (IL)-6 (-42.6%), tumor necrosis factor α (-67%), macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP) 1α (-52%), MIP-1β (-62%), monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP) 1 (-23%), and MCP-3 (-19%) vs. CON, which coincided with a 74% reduction in macrophage chemotaxis toward secreted chemotaxins in LPS-stimulated FO-enriched co-culture-conditioned media. FO increased mRNA expression of the inflammatory signaling negative regulators monocyte chemoattractant 1-induced protein (Mcpip; +9.3-fold) and suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (Socs3; +1.7-fold), whereas FO reduced activation of inflammatory transcription factors nuclear transcription factor κB (NF-κB) p65 and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) by 27% and 33%, respectively. Finally, mRNA expression of the inflammasome components Caspase1 (-36.4%), Nod-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 (Nlrp3; -99%), and Il1b (-68.8%) were decreased by FO compared with CON (P

  19. Cystathionine-gamma-lyase deficient mice are protected against the development of multiorgan failure and exhibit reduced inflammatory response during burn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Akbar; Druzhyna, Nadiya; Szabo, Csaba

    2017-08-01

    Considering the role of H 2 S in critical illness, the aim of this study was to compare the outcome of burn in wild-type mice and in mice deficient in CSE, one of the principal mammalian H 2 S-generating enzymes. Animals were subjected to scald burn. Outcome variables included indices of organ injury, clinical chemistry parameters and plasma levels of inflammatory mediators. Plasma levels of H 2 S significantly increased in response to burn in wild-type mice, but remained unchanged in CSE -/- mice. Expression of the three H 2 S-producing enzymes (CSE, CBS and 3-MST) in the lung and liver, and the capacity of tissue homogenates to produce H 2 S, however, was not affected by burn. In CSE deficient mice there was a significant amelioration of burn-induced accumulation of myeloperoxidase levels in heart, lung, liver and kidney and significantly lower degree of malon dialdehyde accumulation in the heart, lung and kidney than in wild-type mice. CSE deficient mice, compared to wild-type mice, showed a significant attenuation of the burn-induced elevation in circulating alkaline aminotransferase and blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels, indicative of protective effects of CSE deficiency against burn-induced hepatic, and renal functional impairment. Multiple burn-induced inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-12) were significantly lower in the plasma of CSE -/- animals after burn than in the plasma of wild-type controls subjected to burns. In conclusion, CSE deficiency improves organ function and attenuates the inflammatory response in a murine model of burn. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  20. Pigment Epithelium-Derived Factor Reduces Apoptosis and Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Gene Expression in a Murine Model of Focal Retinal Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujuan Wang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available AMD (age-related macular degeneration is a neurodegenerative disease causing irreversible central blindness in the elderly. Apoptosis and inflammation play important roles in AMD pathogenesis. PEDF (pigment epithelium-derived factor is a potent neurotrophic and anti-inflammatory glycoprotein that protects the retinal neurons and photoreceptors against cell death caused by pathological insults. We studied the effects of PEDF on focal retinal lesions in DKO rd8 (Ccl2 −/− /Cx3cr1 −/− on C57BL/6N [Crb1rd8 ] mice, a model for progressive, focal rd (retinal degeneration. First, we found a significant decrease in PEDF transcript expression in DKO rd8 mouse retina and RPE (retinal pigment epithelium than WT (wild-type, C57BL/6N. Next, cultured DKO rd8 RPE cells secreted lower levels of PEDF protein in the media than WT. Then the right eyes of DKO rd8 mice were injected intravitreously with recombinant human PEDF protein (1 μg, followed by a subconjunctival injection of PEDF (3 μg 4 weeks later. The untreated left eyes served as controls. The effect of PEDF was assessed by fundoscopy, ocular histopathology and A2E {[2,6-dimethyl-8-(2,6,6-trimethyl-1-cyclohexen-1-yl-1E,3E,5E,7E-octatetra-enyl]-1-(2-hydroxyethyl-4-[4-methyl-6(2,6,6-trimethyl-1-cyclohexen-1-yl 1E,3E,5E,7E-hexatrienyl]-pyridinium} levels, as well as apoptotic and inflammatory molecules. The PEDF-treated eyes showed slower progression or attenuation of the focal retinal lesions, fewer and/or smaller photoreceptor and RPE degeneration, and significantly lower A2E, relative to the untreated eyes. In addition, lower expression of apoptotic and inflammatory molecules were detected in the PEDF-treated than untreated eyes. Our results establish that PEDF potently stabilizes photoreceptor degeneration via suppression of both apoptotic and inflammatory pathways. The multiple beneficial effects of PEDF represent a novel approach for potential AMD treatment.

  1. Pigment epithelium-derived factor reduces apoptosis and pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression in a murine model of focal retinal degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yujuan; Subramanian, Preeti; Shen, Defen; Tuo, Jingsheng; Becerra, S Patricia; Chan, Chi-Chao

    2013-11-26

    AMD (age-related macular degeneration) is a neurodegenerative disease causing irreversible central blindness in the elderly. Apoptosis and inflammation play important roles in AMD pathogenesis. PEDF (pigment epithelium-derived factor) is a potent neurotrophic and anti-inflammatory glycoprotein that protects the retinal neurons and photoreceptors against cell death caused by pathological insults. We studied the effects of PEDF on focal retinal lesions in DKO rd8 (Ccl2(-/-)/Cx3cr1(-/-) on C57BL/6N [Crb1(rd8)]) mice, a model for progressive, focal rd (retinal degeneration). First, we found a significant decrease in PEDF transcript expression in DKO rd8 mouse retina and RPE (retinal pigment epithelium) than WT (wild-type, C57BL/6N). Next, cultured DKO rd8 RPE cells secreted lower levels of PEDF protein in the media than WT. Then the right eyes of DKO rd8 mice were injected intravitreously with recombinant human PEDF protein (1 μg), followed by a subconjunctival injection of PEDF (3 μg) 4 weeks later. The untreated left eyes served as controls. The effect of PEDF was assessed by fundoscopy, ocular histopathology and A2E {[2,6-dimethyl-8-(2,6,6-trimethyl-1-cyclohexen-1-yl)-1E,3E,5E,7E-octatetra-enyl]-1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-4-[4-methyl-6(2,6,6-trimethyl-1-cyclohexen-1-yl) 1E,3E,5E,7E-hexatrienyl]-pyridinium} levels, as well as apoptotic and inflammatory molecules. The PEDF-treated eyes showed slower progression or attenuation of the focal retinal lesions, fewer and/or smaller photoreceptor and RPE degeneration, and significantly lower A2E, relative to the untreated eyes. In addition, lower expression of apoptotic and inflammatory molecules were detected in the PEDF-treated than untreated eyes. Our results establish that PEDF potently stabilizes photoreceptor degeneration via suppression of both apoptotic and inflammatory pathways. The multiple beneficial effects of PEDF represent a novel approach for potential AMD treatment.

  2. Making Our Food Safe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Full text: As civilization has progressed societies have strived to make food safer; from using fire to cook our food, and boiling our water to make it safe to drink, advances in technology have helped kill microorganisms that can make food unsafe. The FAO/IAEA Joint Division helps provide technical assistance to Member States that want to implement irradiation technology in making their food safer. Food and waterborne diarrhoeal diseases are estimated to kill roughly 2.2 million people annually, of which 1.9 million are children. Irradiating some of the foods we eat can save many of these lives by reducing the risk of food poisoning and killing the organisms that cause disease. Irradiation works by treating food with a small dose of ionizing radiation, this radiation disrupts the bacteria’s DNA and cell membranes structure stopping the organism from reproducing or functioning, but does not make the food radioactive. It can be applied to a variety of foods from spices and seasonings, to fruits and vegetables and is similar to pasteurization, but without the need for high temperatures that might impair food quality. (author)

  3. Aflatoxins & Safe Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe eVillers

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines both field experience and research on the prevention of the exponential growth of aflatoxins during multi-month post harvest storage in hot, humid countries. The approach described is the application of modern safe storage methods using flexible, Ultra Hermetic™ structures that create an unbreatheable atmosphere through insect and microorganism respiration alone, without use of chemicals, fumigants, or pumps. Laboratory and field data are cited and specific examples are given describing the uses of Ultra Hermetic storage to prevent the growth of aflatoxins with their significant public health consequences. Also discussed is the presently limited quantitative information on the relative occurrence of excessive levels of aflatoxin (>20 ppb before versus after multi-month storage of such crops as maize, rice and peanuts when under high humidity, high temperature conditions and, consequently, the need for further research to determine the frequency at which excessive aflatoxin levels are reached in the field versus after months of post-harvest storage. The significant work being done to reduce aflatoxin levels in the field is mentioned, as well as its probable implications on post harvest storage. Also described is why, with some crops such as peanuts, using Ultra Hermetic storage may require injection of carbon dioxide or use of an oxygen absorber as an accelerant. The case of peanuts is discussed and experimental data is described.

  4. Are Detox Diets Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Are Detox Diets Safe? KidsHealth / For Teens / Are Detox Diets ... seguras las dietas de desintoxicación? What Is a Detox Diet? The name sounds reassuring — everyone knows that ...

  5. Chernobyl new safe confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodd, L.

    2011-01-01

    The author presents the new safe confinement that will be commissioned at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl NPP in 2015. The confinement will ensure that Chernobyl Unit 4 will be placed in an environmentally safe condition for at least next 100 years. The article highlights the current work status, future perspectives and the feasibility of confinement concept [ru

  6. Asymptotically Safe Dark Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco; Shoemaker, Ian M.

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new paradigm for dark matter (DM) interactions in which the interaction strength is asymptotically safe. In models of this type, the coupling strength is small at low energies but increases at higher energies, and asymptotically approaches a finite constant value. The resulting...... searches are the primary ways to constrain or discover asymptotically safe dark matter....

  7. FTY720 and two novel butterfly derivatives exert a general anti-inflammatory potential by reducing immune cell adhesion to endothelial cells through activation of S1P(3) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imeri, Faik; Blanchard, Olivier; Jenni, Aurelio; Schwalm, Stephanie; Wünsche, Christin; Zivkovic, Aleksandra; Stark, Holger; Pfeilschifter, Josef; Huwiler, Andrea

    2015-12-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a key lipid regulator of a variety of cellular responses including cell proliferation and survival, cell migration, and inflammatory reactions. Here, we investigated the effect of S1P receptor activation on immune cell adhesion to endothelial cells under inflammatory conditions. We show that S1P reduces both tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α- and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated adhesion of Jurkat and U937 cells to an endothelial monolayer. The reducing effect of S1P was reversed by the S1P1+3 antagonist VPC23019 but not by the S1P1 antagonist W146. Additionally, knockdown of S1P3, but not S1P1, by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) abolished the reducing effect of S1P, suggesting the involvement of S1P3. A suppression of immune cell adhesion was also seen with the immunomodulatory drug FTY720 and two novel butterfly derivatives ST-968 and ST-1071. On the molecular level, S1P and all FTY720 derivatives reduced the mRNA expression of LPS- and TNF-α-induced adhesion molecules including ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-selectin, and CD44 which was reversed by the PI3K inhibitor LY294002, but not by the MEK inhibitor U0126.In summary, our data demonstrate a novel molecular mechanism by which S1P, FTY720, and two novel butterfly derivatives acted anti-inflammatory that is by suppressing gene transcription of various endothelial adhesion molecules and thereby preventing adhesion of immune cells to endothelial cells and subsequent extravasation.

  8. Inhaled nitric oxide improves short term memory and reduces the inflammatory reaction in a mouse model of mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping; Li, Yong-Sheng; Quartermain, David; Boutajangout, Allal; Ji, Yong

    2013-07-19

    Although the mechanisms underlying mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) are becoming well understood, treatment options are still limited. In the present study, mTBI was induced by a weight drop model to produce a closed head injury to mice and the effect of inhaled nitric oxide (INO) was evaluated by a short term memory task (object recognition task) and immunohistochemical staining of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and CD45 for the detection of reactive astrocytes and microglia. Results showed that mTBI model did not produce brain edema, skull fracture or sensorimotor coordination dysfunctions. Mice did however exhibit a significant deficit in short term memory (STM) and strong inflammatory reaction in the ipsilateral cortex and hippocampus compared to sham-injured controls 24h after mTBI. Additional groups of untreated mice tested 3 and 7 days later, demonstrated that recognition memory had recovered to normal levels by Day 3. Mice treated with 10ppm INO for 4 or 8h, beginning immediately after TBI demonstrated significantly improved STM at 24h when compared with room air controls (pshort durations of INO prevents this memory loss and also attenuates the inflammatory response. These findings may have relevance for the treatment of patients diagnosed with concussion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Synthesis of quinoline attached-furan-2(3H-ones having anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties with reduced gastro-intestinal toxicity and lipid peroxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhter Mymoona

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of 3-[2-chloroquinolin-3-ylmethylene]-5-aryl-furan-2(3H-ones {3(a-p} were synthesized. The required 3-(substitutedbenzoyl propionic acids {2(a-d} were prepared under Friedal Craft acylation reaction conditions. The substituted 2-chloroquinoline-3-carbaldehydes {1(a-d} were synthesized by reaction of substitutedphenylethanone-oxime with phosphorus oxychloride in presence of dimethyl formamide using the Vilsmeir Haack reaction method. These compounds were screened for their anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activities along with their ulcerogenic and lipid peroxidation potentials. The compounds that showed significant anti-inflammatory activity were further screened for their analgesic activity. The compounds were less toxic in terms of ulcerogenicity as compared to a standard, which was also supported by lipid peroxidation studies. The antibacterial activities were performed against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Compounds 3f, 3n and 3o showed significant activity against both S. aureus and E. coli having an MIC value of 6.25μg mL-1.

  10. Electroacupuncture Reduces Carrageenan- and CFA-Induced Inflammatory Pain Accompanied by Changing the Expression of Nav1.7 and Nav1.8, rather than Nav1.9, in Mice Dorsal Root Ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Ping; Chen, Hsiang-Ni; Su, Hong-Lin; Hsieh, Ching-Liang; Chen, Wei-Hsin; Lai, Zhen-Rung; Lin, Yi-Wen

    2013-01-01

    Several voltage-gated sodium channels (Navs) from nociceptive nerve fibers have been identified as important effectors in pain signaling. The objective of this study is to investigate the electroacupuncture (EA) analgesia mechanism by changing the expression of Navs in mice dorsal root ganglia (DRG). We injected carrageenan and complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) into the mice plantar surface of the hind paw to induce inflammation and examined the antinociception effect of EA at the Zusanli (ST36) acupoint at 2 Hz low frequency. Mechanical hyperalgesia was evaluated by using electronic von Frey filaments, and thermal hyperalgesia was assessed using Hargreaves' test. Furthermore, we observed the expression and quality of Navs in DRG neurons. Our results showed that EA reduced mechanical and thermal pain in inflammatory animal model. The expression of Nav1.7 and Nav1.8 was increased after 4 days of carrageenan- and CFA-elicited inflammatory pain and further attenuated by 2 Hz EA stimulation. The attenuation cannot be observed in Nav1.9 sodium channels. We demonstrated that EA at Zusanli (ST36) acupoint at 2 Hz low-frequency stimulation attenuated inflammatory pain accompanied by decreasing the expression of Nav1.7 and 1.8, rather than Nav1.9, sodium channels in peripheral DRG neurons.

  11. UCCB01-125, a dimeric inhibitor of PSD-95, reduces inflammatory pain without disrupting cognitive or motor performance: Comparison with the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jesper T.; Bach, Anders; Gynther, Mikko

    2013-01-01

    Excessive N-Methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-dependent production of nitric oxide (NO) is involved in the development and maintenance of chronic pain states, and is mediated by postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95). By binding to both the NMDAR and neuronal NO synthase (nNOS), PSD-95 mediates...... a specific coupling between NMDAR activation and NO production. NMDAR antagonism shows anti-nociceptive action in humans and animal models of chronic pain but is associated with severe disturbances of cognitive and motor functions. An alternative approach to modulate the NMDAR-related activity is to perturb......'s adjuvant (CFA) model of inflammatory pain. To examine side-effect profiles we also compared the effects of UCCB01-125 and MK-801 in tests of attention, long-term memory, and motor performance. When administered concurrently with CFA, both MK-801 and UCCB01-125 prevented the development of CFA...

  12. Anti-inflammatory effects of the selective phosphodiesterase 3 inhibitor, cilostazol, and antioxidants, enzymatically-modified isoquercitrin and α-lipoic acid, reduce dextran sulphate sodium-induced colorectal mucosal injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangawa, Yumi; Yoshida, Toshinori; Abe, Hajime; Seto, Yoshiki; Miyashita, Taishi; Nakamura, Michi; Kihara, Tohru; Hayashi, Shim-Mo; Shibutani, Makoto

    2017-04-04

    Developing effective treatments and preventing inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are urgent challenges in improving patients' health. It has been suggested that platelet activation and reactive oxidative species generation are involved in the pathogenesis of IBD. We examined the inhibitory effects of a selective phosphodiesterase-3 inhibitor, cilostazol (CZ), and two antioxidants, enzymatically modified isoquercitrin (EMIQ) and α-lipoic acid (ALA), against dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. BALB/c mice were treated with 0.3% CZ, 1.5% EMIQ, and 0.2% ALA in their feed. Colitis was induced by administering 5% DSS in drinking water for 8days. The inhibitory effects of these substances were evaluated by measuring relevant clinical symptoms (faecal blood, diarrhoea, and body weight loss), colon length, plasma cytokine and chemokine levels, whole genome gene expression, and histopathology. Diarrhoea was suppressed by each treatment, while CZ prevented shortening of the colon length. All treatment groups exhibited decreased plasma levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α compared with the DSS group. Microarray analysis showed that cell adhesion, cytoskeleton regulation, cell proliferation, and apoptosis, which might be related to inflammatory cell infiltration and mucosal healing, were affected in all the groups. DSS-induced mucosal injuries such as mucosal loss, submucosal oedema, and inflammatory cell infiltration in the distal colon were prevented by CZ or antioxidant treatment. These results suggest that anti-inflammatory effects of these agents reduced DSS-induced mucosal injuries in mice and, therefore, may provide therapeutic benefits in IBD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Activation of α-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor reduces ischemic stroke injury through reduction of pro-inflammatory macrophages and oxidative stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenying Han

    Full Text Available Activation of α-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α-7 nAchR has a neuro-protective effect on ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. However, the underlying mechanism is not completely understood. We hypothesized that α-7 nAchR agonist protects brain injury after ischemic stroke through reduction of pro-inflammatory macrophages (M1 and oxidative stress. C57BL/6 mice were treated with PHA568487 (PHA, α-7 nAchR agonist, methyllycaconitine (MLA, nAchR antagonist, or saline immediately and 24 hours after permanent occlusion of the distal middle cerebral artery (pMCAO. Behavior test, lesion volume, CD68(+, M1 (CD11b(+/Iba1(+ and M2 (CD206/Iba1+ microglia/macrophages, and phosphorylated p65 component of NF-kB in microglia/macrophages were quantified using histological stained sections. The expression of M1 and M2 marker genes, anti-oxidant genes and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH oxidase were quantified using real-time RT-PCR. Compared to the saline-treated mice, PHA mice had fewer behavior deficits 3 and 7 days after pMCAO, and smaller lesion volume, fewer CD68(+ and M1 macrophages, and more M2 macrophages 3 and 14 days after pMCAO, whereas MLA's effects were mostly the opposite in several analyses. PHA increased anti-oxidant genes and NADPH oxidase expression associated with decreased phosphorylation of NF-kB p65 in microglia/macrophages. Thus, reduction of inflammatory response and oxidative stress play roles in α-7 nAchR neuro-protective effect.

  14. Curcuma longa extract reduces inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers in osteoarthritis of knee: a four-month, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Shobhit; Saksena, Anil K; Khattri, Sanjay; Kumar, Santosh; Dagur, Raghubendra Singh

    2016-12-01

    Curcuma longa L. (CL), an Indian herb, has been used to treat many disorders because of its wide spectrum of pharmacological activities. It has been shown to exhibit anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, and is being used as herbal remedy since ancient times. Osteoarthritis of knee (KOA) is a chronic painful disorder in which prolong use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or steroids may result into many serious side effects; hence, there is a need to develop herbal drugs, having good analgesia without side effects. Therefore, we planned to evaluate the efficacy of CL in KOA. The study was designed as a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in patients of KOA. After obtaining ethical clearance and written informed consent, a total of 160 patients of KOA were randomly enrolled into two groups to receive either CL extract or placebo along with the standard drug regimen. The patients were assessed on day 0, day 60, and day 120. On the days of their visit, the clinical prognosis was assessed by visual analog scale (VAS) and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) Osteoarthritis index. On these days, the radiographs were also taken for Kellgren and Lawrence grading and blood samples were collected for assessing the changes in levels of IL-1β and biomarkers of oxidative stress, such as reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde (MDA). Over all significant improvement was observed in the patients of CL extract group as compared to placebo group. Clinically, the VAS and WOMAC scores became better, and simultaneously, the levels of biomarkers, viz., IL-1β, ROS, and MDA, were also significantly (p < 0.05) improved. It may be concluded that on chronic administration, CL suppresses inflammation and brings clinical improvement in patients of KOA, which may be observed by decreased level of IL-1β and VAS/WOMAC scores, respectively. At the same time, CL decreases the oxidative stress also.

  15. Safe Sleep for Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Safe Sleep for Babies Eliminating hazards Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Page Problem Every year, there are thousands of sleep-related deaths among babies. View large image and ...

  16. Safe operating envelope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliva, N [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1997-12-01

    Safe Operating Envelope is described representing: The outer bound of plant conditions within which day-to-day plant operation must be maintained in order to comply with regulatory requirements, associated safety design criteria and corporate nuclear safety goals. Figs.

  17. The first safe country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaela Puggioni

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Dublin II Regulation makes the first safe country of refuge solelyresponsible for refugees and asylum seekers. In the case of Italy, thefirst responsible country has not been acting responsibly.

  18. Karate: Keep It Safe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, David

    1981-01-01

    Safety guidelines for each phase of a karate practice session are presented to provide an accident-free and safe environment for teaching karate in a physical education or traditional karate training program. (JMF)

  19. Safe operating envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliva, N.

    1997-01-01

    Safe Operating Envelope is described representing: The outer bound of plant conditions within which day-to-day plant operation must be maintained in order to comply with regulatory requirements, associated safety design criteria and corporate nuclear safety goals. Figs

  20. Safe driving for teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driving and teenagers; Teens and safe driving; Automobile safety - teenage drivers ... months before taking friends as passengers. Teenage-related driving deaths occur more often in certain conditions. OTHER SAFETY TIPS FOR TEENS Reckless driving is still a ...

  1. Removing Hair Safely

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Removing Hair Safely Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... related to common methods of hair removal. Laser Hair Removal In this method, a laser destroys hair ...

  2. Medications: Using Them Safely

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Safely Give Ibuprofen Childproofing and Preventing Household Accidents Medicines for Diabetes Complementary and Alternative Medicine How Do Pain Relievers Work? What Medicines Are and What They Do Medicines ...

  3. DroidSafe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Massachusetts Avenue, Build E19-750 Cambridge , MA 02139-4307 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS...Activity objects illustrating the challenges of points-to and information flow analysis...measure how many malicious flows Droid- Safe was able to detect). As these results illustrate , DroidSafe implements an analysis of unprece- dented

  4. Safe biodegradable fluorescent particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Sue I [Berkeley, CA; Fergenson, David P [Alamo, CA; Srivastava, Abneesh [Santa Clara, CA; Bogan, Michael J [Dublin, CA; Riot, Vincent J [Oakland, CA; Frank, Matthias [Oakland, CA

    2010-08-24

    A human-safe fluorescence particle that can be used for fluorescence detection instruments or act as a safe simulant for mimicking the fluorescence properties of microorganisms. The particle comprises a non-biological carrier and natural fluorophores encapsulated in the non-biological carrier. By doping biodegradable-polymer drug delivery microspheres with natural or synthetic fluorophores, the desired fluorescence can be attained or biological organisms can be simulated without the associated risks and logistical difficulties of live microorganisms.

  5. Human Milk and Donkey Milk, Compared to Cow Milk, Reduce Inflammatory Mediators and Modulate Glucose and Lipid Metabolism, Acting on Mitochondrial Function and Oleylethanolamide Levels in Rat Skeletal Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinchese, Giovanna; Cavaliere, Gina; De Filippo, Chiara; Aceto, Serena; Prisco, Marina; Chun, Jong Tai; Penna, Eduardo; Negri, Rossella; Muredda, Laura; Demurtas, Andrea; Banni, Sebastiano; Berni-Canani, Roberto; Mattace Raso, Giuseppina; Calignano, Antonio; Meli, Rosaria; Greco, Luigi; Crispino, Marianna; Mollica, Maria P

    2018-01-01

    Scope: Milk from various species differs in nutrient composition. In particular, human milk (HM) and donkey milk (DM) are characterized by a relative high level of triacylglycerol enriched in palmitic acid in sn-2 position. These dietary fats seem to exert beneficial nutritional properties through N-acylethanolamine tissue modulation. The aim of this study is to compare the effects of cow milk (CM), DM, and HM on inflammation and glucose and lipid metabolism, focusing on mitochondrial function, efficiency, and dynamics in skeletal muscle, which is the major determinant of resting metabolic rate. Moreover, we also evaluated the levels of endocannabinoids and N-acylethanolamines in liver and skeletal muscle, since tissue fatty acid profiles can be modulated by nutrient intervention. Procedures: To this aim, rats were fed with CM, DM, or HM for 4 weeks. Then, glucose tolerance and insulin resistance were analyzed. Pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines were evaluated in serum and skeletal muscle. Skeletal muscle was also processed to estimate mitochondrial function, efficiency, and dynamics, oxidative stress, and antioxidant/detoxifying enzyme activities. Fatty acid profiles, endocannabinoids, and N-acylethanolamine congeners were determined in liver and skeletal muscle tissue. Results: We demonstrated that DM or HM administration reducing inflammation status, improves glucose disposal and insulin resistance and reduces lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle. Moreover, HM or DM administration increases redox status, and mitochondrial uncoupling, affecting mitochondrial dynamics in the skeletal muscle. Interestingly, HM and DM supplementation increase liver and muscle levels of the N-oleoylethanolamine (OEA), a key regulator of lipid metabolism and inflammation. Conclusions: HM and DM have a healthy nutritional effect, acting on inflammatory factors and glucose and lipid metabolism. This beneficial effect is associated to a modulation of mitochondrial function

  6. Human Milk and Donkey Milk, Compared to Cow Milk, Reduce Inflammatory Mediators and Modulate Glucose and Lipid Metabolism, Acting on Mitochondrial Function and Oleylethanolamide Levels in Rat Skeletal Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Trinchese

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Scope: Milk from various species differs in nutrient composition. In particular, human milk (HM and donkey milk (DM are characterized by a relative high level of triacylglycerol enriched in palmitic acid in sn-2 position. These dietary fats seem to exert beneficial nutritional properties through N-acylethanolamine tissue modulation. The aim of this study is to compare the effects of cow milk (CM, DM, and HM on inflammation and glucose and lipid metabolism, focusing on mitochondrial function, efficiency, and dynamics in skeletal muscle, which is the major determinant of resting metabolic rate. Moreover, we also evaluated the levels of endocannabinoids and N-acylethanolamines in liver and skeletal muscle, since tissue fatty acid profiles can be modulated by nutrient intervention.Procedures: To this aim, rats were fed with CM, DM, or HM for 4 weeks. Then, glucose tolerance and insulin resistance were analyzed. Pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines were evaluated in serum and skeletal muscle. Skeletal muscle was also processed to estimate mitochondrial function, efficiency, and dynamics, oxidative stress, and antioxidant/detoxifying enzyme activities. Fatty acid profiles, endocannabinoids, and N-acylethanolamine congeners were determined in liver and skeletal muscle tissue.Results: We demonstrated that DM or HM administration reducing inflammation status, improves glucose disposal and insulin resistance and reduces lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle. Moreover, HM or DM administration increases redox status, and mitochondrial uncoupling, affecting mitochondrial dynamics in the skeletal muscle. Interestingly, HM and DM supplementation increase liver and muscle levels of the N-oleoylethanolamine (OEA, a key regulator of lipid metabolism and inflammation.Conclusions: HM and DM have a healthy nutritional effect, acting on inflammatory factors and glucose and lipid metabolism. This beneficial effect is associated to a modulation of

  7. Resuscitative therapy with erythropoietin reduces oxidative stress and inflammatory responses of vital organs in a rat severe fixed-volume hemorrhagic shock model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbaran, Mina; Kadkhodaee, Mehri; Seifi, Behjat; Mirzaei, Reza; Ahghari, Parisa

    2018-01-01

    Hemorrhagic shock (HS) still has a high mortality rate and none of the known resuscitative regimens completely reverse its adverse outcomes. This study investigated the effects of different models of resuscitative therapy on the healing of organ damage in a HS model. Male Wistar rats were randomized into six groups: Sham, without HS induction; HS, without resuscitation; HS+Blood, resuscitation with the shed blood; HS+Blood+NS, resuscitation with blood and normal saline; HS+Blood+RL, resuscitation with blood and Ringer's lactate; EPO, erythropoietin was added to the blood and RL. Blood and urine samples were obtained 3 h after resuscitation. Kidney, liver and brain tissue samples were harvested for multiple organ failure evaluation. Survival rate was the highest in the Sham, EPO and HS+Blood+RL groups compared to others. Plasma creatinine concentration, ALT, AST, urinary NAG activity and renal NGAL mRNA expression significantly increased in the HS+Blood+RL group compared to the Sham group. There was a significant increase in tissue oxidative stress markers and pro-inflammatory cytokines in HS+Blood+RL group compared to the Sham rats. EPO had more protective effects on multiple organ failure compared to the HS+Blood+RL group. EPO, as a resuscitative treatment, attenuated HS-induced organ damage. It seems that it has a potential to be attractive for clinical trials.

  8. Safeness of radiological machinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Shun

    1979-01-01

    The human factors affecting the safeness of radiological machinery, which are often very big and complicated machines, are described from the stand point of handling. 20 to 50% of the troubles on equipments seem to be caused by men. This percentage will become even higher in highly developed equipments. Human factors have a great influence on the safeness of radiological equipments. As the human factors, there are sensory factors and knowledge factors as well as psychological factors, and the combination of these factors causes mishandling and danger. Medical services at present are divided in various areas, and consist of the teamwork of the people in various professions. Good human relationship, education and control are highly required to secure the safeness. (Kobatake, H.)

  9. Inflammatory pathways of importance for management of inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jannie; Coskun, Mehmet; Soendergaard, Christoffer

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of chronic disorders of the gastrointestinal tract comprising Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Their etiologies are unknown, but they are characterised by an imbalanced production of pro-inflammatory mediators, e.g., tumor necrosis factor......-inflammatory cytokines, antibodies targeting integrins, and small anti-adhesion molecules that block adhesion between leukocytes and the intestinal vascular endothelium, reducing their infiltration into the inflamed mucosa. In this review we have elucidated the major signaling pathways of clinical importance for IBD...

  10. Keeping Food Safe

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-27

    This CDC Kidtastics podcast discusses things kids and parents can do to help prevent illness by keeping food safe.  Created: 5/27/2009 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 5/27/2009.

  11. Effective and Safe Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Amdahl, Jørgen; Rutgersson, Olle

    1996-01-01

    A Joint Nordic Research project "Effecive and Safe Ships" is presented. The project is aiming to develop methods and tools for quantitative evaluation fo ship safety. This report is the report of the preliminary phase where the plan for the main project is developed. The objectives of the project...

  12. Are EU Banks Safe?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J. Theissen (Roel)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ What exactly are the rules banks are subject to, and are they fit for purpose? These are the two questions addressed in this book ‘Are EU banks safe?’ and its descriptive companion book ‘EU banking supervision’. The full rulebook on banks is difficult to find

  13. The safe home project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arphorn, Sara; Jiraniratisai, Sopaphan; Rungtakul, Rungsri; Phutta, Nikom

    2011-12-01

    The Thai Health Promotion Foundation supported the Improvement of Quality of Life of Informal Workers project in Ban Luang District, Amphur Photaram, Ratchaburi Province. There were many informal workers in Ban Luang District. Sweet-crispy fish producers in Ban Luang were the largest group among the sweet-crispy fish producers in Thailand. This project was aimed at improving living and working conditions of informal workers, with a focus on the sweet-crispy fish group. Good practices of improved living and working conditions were used to help informal workers build safe, healthy and productive work environments. These informal workers often worked in substandard conditions and were exposed to various hazards in the working area. These hazards included risk of exposure to hot work environment, ergonomics-related injuries, chemical hazards, electrical hazards etc. Ergonomics problems were commonly in the sweet-crispy fish group. Unnatural postures such as prolonged sitting were performed dominantly. One hundred and fifty informal workers participated in this project. Occupational health volunteers were selected to encourage occupational health and safety in four groups of informal workers in 2009. The occupational health volunteers trained in 2008 were farmers, beauty salon workers and doll makers. The occupational health and safety knowledge is extended to a new informal worker group: sweet-crispy fish producer, in 2009. The occupational health and safety training for sweet-crispy fish group is conducted by occupational health volunteers. The occupational health volunteers increased their skills and knowledge assist in to make safe home and safe community through participatory oriented training. The improvement of living and working condition is conducted by using a modified WISH, Work Improvement for Safe Home, checklist. The plans of improvement were recorded. The informal workers showed improvement mostly on material handling and storage. The safe uses and safe

  14. Muscle shortening maneuver and not topical anti-inflammatory therapy is effective in reducing the width of subacromial-subdeltoid bursa in shoulder impingement syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchiorre, Daniela; Lippi, Paolo; Marchi, Alberto; Maresca, Marco; Bravi, Riccardo; Eros, Quarta; Lazzerini, Patrizia; Bagni, Maria Angela

    2018-04-01

    Aim of the study was to compare the efficacy of a muscle shortening maneuver (MSM) with the efficacy of a topical NSAID (flurbiprofen) in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome (SIS). The effects of these therapies were evaluated by sonographic exam (US). SIS was diagnosed by US in 78 patients with painful shoulder. Thirty patients (first group) were treated with topical flurbiprofen for 15 days. Forty-eight patients (second group) were treated with MSM, which was performed once. The shoulder was analyzed in all patients by US before and after treatment. Before treatment and 15 days after treatment, pain by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), range of motion (ROM) and Neer's Test were evaluated. Pain was decreased by both treatments. In only 8 patients of the first group, the encroachment of acromion into the rotator cuff was no more detectable by US after the treatment; ROM increased (> 45°) only in 11 patients (36%) and the width of subacromial-subdeltoid bursa (SSB) was not significantly reduced. At variance with the results obtained in the first group, in all patients of the second group the encroachment of acromion was no more detectable by US, ROM increased (> 45°) and the width of SSB was significantly reduced after the maneuver. Both topical flurbiprofen and MSM were helpful in pain control, but better results, with decrease of width of SSB assessed by US, were obtained by MSM.

  15. Safe use of nanomaterials

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The use of nanomaterials  is on the increase worldwide, including at CERN. The HSE Unit has established a safety guideline to inform you of the main requirements for the safe handling and disposal of nanomaterials at CERN.   A risk assessment tool has also been developed which guides the user through the process of evaluating the risk for his or her activity. Based on the calculated risk level, the tool provides a list of recommended control measures.   We would therefore like to draw your attention to: Safety Guideline C-0-0-5 - Safe handling and disposal of nanomaterials; and Safety Form C-0-0-2 - Nanomaterial Risk Assessment   You can consult all of CERN’s safety rules and guidelines here. Please contact the HSE Unit for any questions you may have.   The HSE Unit

  16. InaSAFE applications in disaster preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pranantyo, Ignatius Ryan; Fadmastuti, Mahardika; Chandra, Fredy

    2015-04-01

    Disaster preparedness activities aim to reduce the impact of disasters by being better prepared to respond when a disaster occurs. In order to better anticipate requirements during a disaster, contingency planning activities can be undertaken prior to a disaster based on a realistic disaster scenario. InaSAFE is a tool that can inform this process. InaSAFE is a free and open source software that estimates the impact to people and infrastructure from potential hazard scenarios. By using InaSAFE, disaster managers can develop scenarios of disaster impacts (people and infrastructures affected) to inform their contingency plan and emergency response operation plan. While InaSAFE provides the software framework exposure data and hazard data are needed as inputs to run this software. Then InaSAFE can be used to forecast the impact of the hazard scenario to the exposure data. InaSAFE outputs include estimates of the number of people, buildings and roads are affected, list of minimum needs (rice and clean water), and response checklist. InaSAFE is developed by Indonesia's National Disaster Management Agency (BNPB) and the Australian Government, through the Australia-Indonesia Facility for Disaster Reduction (AIFDR), in partnership with the World Bank - Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR). This software has been used in many parts of Indonesia, including Padang, Maumere, Jakarta, and Slamet Mountain for emergency response and contingency planning.

  17. Curcuminoids from Curcuma longaL. reduced intestinal mucositis induced by 5-fluorouracil in mice: Bioadhesive, proliferative, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvande Xavier dos Santos Filho

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intestinal mucositis is a frequent limiting factor in anticancer therapy and there is currently no broadly effective treatment targeted to cure this side effect. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a mucoadhesive formulation containing curcuminoids (MFC from Curcuma longa L. on the pathogenesis of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis. Methods: Three intraperitoneal 5-FU injections (200 mg/kg were used to induce intestinal mucositis in adult Swiss male mice. Treatment was provided orally (MFC 3.75, 7.5 and 15 mg/kg, thirty minutes before 5-FU injections, daily until euthanasia. Duodenal samples were collected to perform morphometric and histopathological analysis, to investigate the expression of Ki-67, p53, Bax and Bcl-2 by immunohistochemistry, to evaluate neutrophil activity myeloperoxidase (MPO-mediated and oxidative stress by malondialdehyde (MDA determination. Mice body weight was assessed as well. Results: As expected, 5-FU induced a significant weight loss (∼17%, P < 0.001, shortening in villi height (∼55.4% and crypts depth (∼47%, and increased (∼64% the histological severity score when compared to other groups (P < 0.05. These pathological changes were markedly alleviated by the three MFC treatment doses (P < 0.05, in special with the dose MFC 15 mg/kg. This dose also stimulated cell proliferation by ∼90% in the epithelial cells lining from villi and crypts (P < 0.05, reduced MPO levels and MDA formation by 60% and 44%, respectively (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Our data suggest the therapeutic potential of the formulation for treating intestinal mucositis in mice. Supplementary studies are underway searching for the elucidation of mechanisms involved in the protective effects of MFC in order to make this formulation a clinical tool for mucositis treatment. Keywords: Mucoadhesive formulation, Curcuminoids, Curcuma longa L, Intestinal mucositis, 5-Fluorouracil

  18. Escola segura Safe school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Ferreira Liberal

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Revisão das estratégias para tornar o ambiente escolar seguro. Inicialmente os autores contextualizam a violência e os acidentes no ambiente escolar e fazem recomendações, baseadas em dados da literatura, para a implantação de escolas seguras. FONTE DE DADOS: Artigos publicados entre 1993 e 2005 na base de dados MEDLINE. Dados nacionais epidemiológicos e da literatura também foram pesquisados. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Há evidência crescente de que a intervenção tem múltiplos componentes. O foco político é a prática em educação em saúde com o envolvimento de toda a comunidade. O norte dessas intervenções é ajudar estudantes e toda a comunidade a adotar um comportamento seguro e saudável. As escolas estão assumindo um envolvimento crescente na promoção da saúde, prevenção de doenças e prevenção de trauma. Nesse contexto de prevenção de causas externas de morbimortalidade, é importante reconhecer o risco ambiental, locais e comportamentos de risco como favoráveis ao trauma e à violência, além de um novo conceito de acidentes como algo que possa ser evitado. CONCLUSÃO: A implementação da escola segura representa uma nova direção promissora para o trabalho preventivo baseado na escola. É importante notar que uma escola segura deve intervir não meramente na sua estrutura física, mas também torná-la tão segura quanto possível, trabalhando com a comunidade escolar por meio de educação em saúde, discutindo principalmente o comportamento saudável.OBJECTIVE: To review the strategies to make school a safe environment. The paper first addresses the social context of accidents and violence in the school environment, and makes recommendations, based on the literature data, for the implementation of safe schools. SOURCE OF DATA: Articles published between 1993 and 2005 in the MEDLINE database. Brazilian epidemiological and literature data have also been searched. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: There is

  19. Safe motherhood at risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, A

    1996-12-01

    Health professionals' negative attitudes toward clients often exacerbate the problems women face in terms of health status and access to health care. Thus, the health professionals can themselves be obstacles to women seeking the health care they need. A key challenge to midwives, in addition to providing technically competent services, is gaining insight into the people for whom they are responsible so that childbirth traditions are treated with respect and women are offered dignity. Safe motherhood requires intersectoral collaboration. Many innovative approaches to safe motherhood are based on the community's participation in planning services that meet the needs of women. Other approaches are based on decentralization of services. For example, a large university teaching hospital in Lusaka, Zambia, set up birthing centers around the city to take the pressure off the hospital. Midwives head up these centers, which are close to the women's homes. Decentralization of delivery services has improved the physical and emotional outcomes for mothers and newborns. Midwives must be prepared to articulate concerns about inequalities and deficiencies in the health care system in order to persuade the government to change. Women, including midwives, need to form multidisciplinary alliances to work together to effect change. The front-line workers in maternity care are midwives. They should adopt the following strategies to become even more effective in their efforts to make motherhood safer. They should listen to what women say about their needs. They should scale services to a manageable, human scale. They should learn the skills to become politically active advocates. They should work with other midwives, women, leaders, and other professional groups. Motherhood can be safe when women have more control over their own decision making, the education to liberate themselves to make their own decisions, and access to skilled care.

  20. Inherently safe reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maartensson, Anders

    1992-01-01

    A rethinking of nuclear reactor safety has created proposals for new designs based on inherent and passive safety principles. Diverging interpretations of these concepts can be found. This article reviews the key features of proposed advanced power reactors. An evaluation is made of the degree of inherent safety for four different designs: the AP-600, the PIUS, the MHTGR and the PRISM. The inherent hazards of today's most common reactor principles are used as reference for the evaluation. It is concluded that claims for the new designs being inherently, naturally or passively safe are not substantiated by experience. (author)

  1. Safe handling of tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The main objective of this publication is to provide practical guidance and recommendations on operational radiation protection aspects related to the safe handling of tritium in laboratories, industrial-scale nuclear facilities such as heavy-water reactors, tritium removal plants and fission fuel reprocessing plants, and facilities for manufacturing commercial tritium-containing devices and radiochemicals. The requirements of nuclear fusion reactors are not addressed specifically, since there is as yet no tritium handling experience with them. However, much of the material covered is expected to be relevant to them as well. Annex III briefly addresses problems in the comparatively small-scale use of tritium at universities, medical research centres and similar establishments. However, the main subject of this publication is the handling of larger quantities of tritium. Operational aspects include designing for tritium safety, safe handling practice, the selection of tritium-compatible materials and equipment, exposure assessment, monitoring, contamination control and the design and use of personal protective equipment. This publication does not address the technologies involved in tritium control and cleanup of effluents, tritium removal, or immobilization and disposal of tritium wastes, nor does it address the environmental behaviour of tritium. Refs, figs and tabs

  2. Vitamins, Are They Safe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Hamishehkar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of a daily multivitamin among people all over the world is dramatically increasing in recent years. Most of the people believe that if vitamins are not effective, at least they are safe. However, the long term health consequences of vitamins consumption are unknown. This study aimed to assess the side effects and possible harmful and detrimental properties of vitamins and to discuss whether vitamins can be used as safe health products or dietary supplements. We performed a MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus and Google Scholar search and assessed reference lists of the included studies which were published from 1993 through 2015. The studies, with an emphasis on RCTs (randomized controlled clinical trials, were reviewed. As some vitamins such as fat-soluble vitamins (vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E, and also some of the water-soluble vitamins like folic acid may cause adverse events and some like vitamin C is widely taken assuming that it has so many benefits and no harm, we included relevant studies with negative or undesired results regarding the effect of these vitamins on health. Our recommendation is that taking high-dose supplements of vitamins A, E, D, C, and folic acid is not always effective for prevention of disease, and it can even be harmful to the health.

  3. Cool and Safe: Multiplicity in Safe Innovation at Unilever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penders, Bart

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the making of a safe innovation: the application of ice structuring protein (ISP) in edible ices. It argues that safety is not the absence of risk but is an active accomplishment; innovations are not "made safe afterward" but "safe innovations are made". Furthermore, there are multiple safeties to be accomplished in the…

  4. Safe pill-dispensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Massimiliano; Pollard, John

    2007-01-01

    Each patient is supplied with a smart-card containing a Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) chip storing a unique identification code. The patient places the Smart-card on a pill-dispenser unit containing an RFID reader. The RFID chip is read and the code sent to a Base-station via a wireless Bluetooth link. A database containing both patient details and treatment information is queried at the Base-station using the RFID as the search key. The patient's treatment data (i.e., drug names, quantities, time, etc.) are retrieved and sent back to the pill-dispenser unit via Bluetooth. Appropriate quantities of the required medications are automatically dispensed, unless the patient has already taken his/her daily dose. Safe, confidential communication and operation is ensured.

  5. A safe workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rittsel, Hans; Andersson, Bengt A.

    1993-01-01

    Full text: The video 'A safe workplace' has been produced by ABB Atom in order to create a tool for showing different target audiences that ABB Atom Nuclear Fuel Production Plant is a safe workplace and to 'de-mystify' nuclear fuel production. The main target audiences are visitor groups and employees of the company, but the video also qualifies for use as an information tool for other target groups who ask for a proper explanation of the way nuclear fuel is produced. The summarized content of the video is as follows: All individual steps of the production process are described with focus on the safety, quality and environmental requirements. The first part shows the delivery of UF 6 (uranium hexafluoride) to the plant and the following process for the conversion to UO 2 (uranium dioxide). The conversion method used is wet conversion that includes evaporation, precipitation, filtration, washing, reduction and stabilization. The next part is a description of the fuel pellet manufacture including uranium oxide blending, pellet pressing, sintering, grinding and a final visual inspection. A separate part, describing the manufacture of fuel pellets with a burnable neutron absorber, is included. The third part shows how to produce fuel rods and complete assemblies. Some of the moments of quality supervision that support the entire manufacturing process are also shown. The last part of the video comprises a brief description of the manufacture of fuel channels and other reactor core components like control rods. The video is produced with a Swedish spoken narrative. The playing time is 15 minutes. The video will be delivered with a text printed in English and copies reproduced in the PAL/VHS system may be ordered from ABB Atom Communication Dept. telefax no +4621-11 41 90, at the price of USD 100.- or SEK 750.- each. (author)

  6. A novel redox-active metalloporphyrin reduces reactive oxygen species and inflammatory markers but does not improve marginal mass engraftment in a murine donation after circulatory death islet transplantation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, Antonio; Pepper, Andrew R; Gala-Lopez, Boris; Pawlick, Rena; Abualhassan, Nasser; Crapo, James D; Piganelli, Jon D; Shapiro, A M James

    2016-07-03

    Islet transplantation is a highly effective treatment for stabilizing glycemic control for select patients with type-1 diabetes. Despite improvements to clinical transplantation, single-donor transplant success has been hard to achieve routinely, necessitating increasing demands on viable organ availability. Donation after circulatory death (DCD) may be an alternative option to increase organ availability however, these organs tend to be more compromised. The use of metalloporphyrin anti-inflammatory and antioxidant (MnP) compounds previously demonstrated improved in vivo islet function in preclinical islet transplantation. However, the administration of MnP (BMX-001) in a DCD islet isolation and transplantation model has yet to be established. In this study, murine donors were subjected to a 15-min warm ischemic (WI) period prior to isolation and culture with or without MnP. Subsequent to one-hour culture, islets were assessed for in vitro viability and in vivo function. A 15-minute WI period significantly reduced islet yield, regardless of MnP-treatment relative to yields from standard isolation. MnP-treated islets did not improve islet viability compared to DCD islets alone. MnP-treatment did significantly reduce the presence of extracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) (p islets (200 islets) transplanted under the renal capsule exhibited similar in vivo outcomes regardless of WI or MnP-treatment. DCD islet grafts harvested 7 d post-transplant exhibited sustained TNF-α and IL-10, while MnP-treated islet-bearing grafts demonstrated reduced IL-10 levels. Taken together, 15-minute WI in murine islet isolation significantly impairs islet yield. DCD islets do indeed demonstrate in vivo function, though MnP therapy was unable to improve viability and engraftment outcomes.

  7. Safe Handover : Safe Patients - The Electronic Handover System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, Alex; Sall, Hanish; Wilkinson, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Failure of effective handover is a major preventable cause of patient harm. We aimed to promote accurate recording of high-quality clinical information using an Electronic Handover System (EHS) that would contribute to a sustainable improvement in effective patient care and safety. Within our hospital the human factors associated with poor communication were compromising patient care and unnecessarily increasing the workload of staff due to the poor quality of handovers. Only half of handovers were understood by the doctors expected to complete them, and more than half of our medical staff felt it posed a risk to patient safety. We created a standardised proforma for handovers that contained specific sub-headings, re-classified patient risk assessments, and aided escalation of care by adding prompts for verbal handover. Sources of miscommunication were removed, accountability for handovers provided, and tasks were re-organised to reduce the workload of staff. Long-term, three-month data showed that each sub-heading achieved at least 80% compliance (an average improvement of approximately 40% for the overall quality of handovers). This translated into 91% of handovers being subjectively clear to junior doctors. 87% of medical staff felt we had reduced a risk to patient safety and 80% felt it increased continuity of care. Without guidance, doctors omit key information required for effective handover. All organisations should consider implementing an electronic handover system as a viable, sustainable and safe solution to handover of care that allows patient safety to remain at the heart of the NHS.

  8. Stay Safe at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... use. Take steps to manage stress. Chronic (ongoing) stress at work or at home can increase your risk of getting sick or hurt. You can reduce stress by planning ahead, noticing when you feel stressed, ...

  9. Safe percutaneous suprapubic catheterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, N K; Goel, A; Sankhwar, S N

    2012-11-01

    We describe our technique of percutaneous suprapubic catheter insertion with special reference to steps that help to avoid common complications of haematuria and catheter misplacement. The procedure is performed using a stainless steel reusable trocar under local infiltrative anaesthesia, usually at the bedside. After clinical confirmation of a full bladder, the trocar is advanced into the bladder through a skin incision. Once the bladder is entered, the obturator is removed and the assistant inserts a Foley catheter followed by rapid balloon inflation. Slight traction is applied to the catheter for about five minutes. Patients with previous lower abdominal surgery, an inadequately distended bladder or acute pelvic trauma do not undergo suprapubic catheterisation using this method. The procedure was performed in 72 men (mean age: 42.4 years, range: 18-78 years) with urinary retention with a palpable bladder. The average duration of the procedure was less than five minutes. No complications were noted in any of the patients. Trocar suprapubic catheter insertion is a safe and effective bedside procedure for emergency bladder drainage and can be performed by resident surgeons. The common complications associated with the procedure can be avoided with a few careful steps.

  10. Safe Handling of Radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1958-01-01

    Under its Statute the International Atomic Energy Agency is empowered to provide for the application of standards of safety for protection against radiation to its own operations and to operations making use of assistance provided by it or with which it is otherwise directly associated. To this end authorities receiving such assistance are required to observe relevant health and safety measures prescribed by the Agency. As a first step, it has been considered an urgent task to provide users of radioisotopes with a manual of practice for the safe handling of these substances. Such a manual is presented here and represents the first of a series of manuals and codes to be issued by the Agency. It has been prepared after careful consideration of existing national and international codes of radiation safety, by a group of international experts and in consultation with other international bodies. At the same time it is recommended that the manual be taken into account as a basic reference document by Member States of the Agency in the preparation of national health and safety documents covering the use of radioisotopes.

  11. OPINION: Safe exponential manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoenix, Chris; Drexler, Eric

    2004-08-01

    In 1959, Richard Feynman pointed out that nanometre-scale machines could be built and operated, and that the precision inherent in molecular construction would make it easy to build multiple identical copies. This raised the possibility of exponential manufacturing, in which production systems could rapidly and cheaply increase their productive capacity, which in turn suggested the possibility of destructive runaway self-replication. Early proposals for artificial nanomachinery focused on small self-replicating machines, discussing their potential productivity and their potential destructiveness if abused. In the light of controversy regarding scenarios based on runaway replication (so-called 'grey goo'), a review of current thinking regarding nanotechnology-based manufacturing is in order. Nanotechnology-based fabrication can be thoroughly non-biological and inherently safe: such systems need have no ability to move about, use natural resources, or undergo incremental mutation. Moreover, self-replication is unnecessary: the development and use of highly productive systems of nanomachinery (nanofactories) need not involve the construction of autonomous self-replicating nanomachines. Accordingly, the construction of anything resembling a dangerous self-replicating nanomachine can and should be prohibited. Although advanced nanotechnologies could (with great difficulty and little incentive) be used to build such devices, other concerns present greater problems. Since weapon systems will be both easier to build and more likely to draw investment, the potential for dangerous systems is best considered in the context of military competition and arms control.

  12. Involvement of both the V2 and V3 Regions of the CCR5-Tropic Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Envelope in Reduced Sensitivity to Macrophage Inflammatory Protein 1α

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Yosuke; Foda, Mohamed; Matsushita, Shuzo; Harada, Shinji

    2000-01-01

    To determine whether C-C chemokines play an important role in the phenotype switch of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) from CCR5 to CXCR4 usage during the course of an infection in vivo, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α-resistant variants were isolated from CCR5-tropic (R5) HIV-1 in vitro. The selected variants displayed reduced sensitivities to MIP-1α (fourfold) through CCR5-expressing CD4-HeLa/long terminal repeat–β-galactosidase (MAGI/CCR5) cells. The variants were also resistant to other natural ligands for CCR5, namely, MIP-1β (>4-fold) and RANTES (regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted) (6-fold). The env sequence analyses revealed that the variants had amino acid substitutions in V2 (valine 166 to methionine) and V3 (serine 303 to glycine), although the same V3 substitution appeared in virus passaged without MIP-1α. A single-round replication assay using a luciferase reporter HIV-1 strain pseudotyped with mutant envelopes confirmed that mutations in both V2 and V3 were necessary to confer the reduced sensitivity to MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and RANTES. However, the double mutant did not switch its chemokine receptor usage from CCR5 to CXCR4, indicating the altered recognition of CCR5 by this mutant. These results indicated that V2 combined with the V3 region of the CCR5-tropic HIV-1 envelope modulates the sensitivity of HIV-1 to C-C chemokines without altering the ability to use chemokine receptors. PMID:10644351

  13. Chronic Inflammatory Diseases and Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Riis

    2018-01-01

    Inflammation plays a significant role in atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Patients with chronic inflammatory diseases are at increased risk of CVD, but it is debated whether this association is causal or dependent on shared risk factors, other exposures, genes, and/or inflammatory...... pathways. The current review summarizes epidemiological, clinical, and experimental data supporting the role of shared inflammatory mechanisms between atherosclerotic CVD and rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, inflammatory bowel disease, and periodontitis, respectively, and provides insights to future...... prospects in this area of research. Awareness of the role of inflammation in CVD in patients with chronic inflammatory diseases and the potential for anti-inflammatory therapy, e.g., with tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitors, to also reduce atherosclerotic CVD has evolved into guideline- based recommendations...

  14. Coprescribing proton-pump inhibitors with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: risks versus benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwee, Kok Ann; Goh, Vernadine; Lima, Graca; Setia, Sajita

    2018-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are often coadministered with proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) to reduce NSAID-induced gastrointestinal (GI) adverse events. This coadministration is generally regarded as safe, and is included in many of the guidelines on NSAID prescription. However, recent evidence indicates that the GI risks associated with NSAIDs can be potentiated when they are combined with PPIs. This review discusses the GI effects and complications of NSAIDs and how PPIs may potentiate these effects, options for prevention of GI side effects, and appropriate use of PPIs in combination with NSAIDs.

  15. Safe Handover : Safe Patients – The Electronic Handover System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, Alex; Sall, Hanish; Wilkinson, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Failure of effective handover is a major preventable cause of patient harm. We aimed to promote accurate recording of high-quality clinical information using an Electronic Handover System (EHS) that would contribute to a sustainable improvement in effective patient care and safety. Within our hospital the human factors associated with poor communication were compromising patient care and unnecessarily increasing the workload of staff due to the poor quality of handovers. Only half of handovers were understood by the doctors expected to complete them, and more than half of our medical staff felt it posed a risk to patient safety. We created a standardised proforma for handovers that contained specific sub-headings, re-classified patient risk assessments, and aided escalation of care by adding prompts for verbal handover. Sources of miscommunication were removed, accountability for handovers provided, and tasks were re-organised to reduce the workload of staff. Long-term, three-month data showed that each sub-heading achieved at least 80% compliance (an average improvement of approximately 40% for the overall quality of handovers). This translated into 91% of handovers being subjectively clear to junior doctors. 87% of medical staff felt we had reduced a risk to patient safety and 80% felt it increased continuity of care. Without guidance, doctors omit key information required for effective handover. All organisations should consider implementing an electronic handover system as a viable, sustainable and safe solution to handover of care that allows patient safety to remain at the heart of the NHS. PMID:26734244

  16. Plasma inflammatory biomarkers response to aerobic versus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adversely affects quality of life, alteration in ventilatory and skeletal muscles functions. Moreover ... ued intervention (2 patients disliked the diet regimen, 2 patients had work ..... ibility/resistance exercise, reduces serum inflammatory cytokines ...

  17. EVALUATION OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY, ANTIBACTERIAL AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Anti-inflammatory activity was determined using a LOX-inhibitor screening assay kit according to the ... and the Ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). Antimicrobial activities ..... the best of our knowledge this is the first report on the.

  18. Improvement in Depressive Symptoms Is Associated with Reduced Oxidative Damage and Inflammatory Response in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Subsyndromal Depression: The Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Psychoeducation, Physical Exercise, and Enhanced Treatment as Usual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijana Vučić Lovrenčić

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To examine one-year changes in oxidative damage and inflammation level in type 2 diabetic patients undergoing behavioral treatment for subsyndromal depression. Materials and Methods. A randomized controlled comparison of psychoeducation (A, physical exercise (B, and enhanced treatment as usual (C was performed in 209 eligible subjects in a tertiary diabetes care setting. Depressive symptoms (primary outcome and selected biomarkers of oxidative damage and inflammation (secondary outcomes were assessed at baseline and six- and twelve-month follow-up. Results. Out of the 74, 67, and 68 patients randomised into groups A, B, and C, respectively, 201 completed the interventions, and 179 were analysed. Participants in all three groups equally improved in depressive symptoms from baseline to one-year follow-up (repeated measures ANOVA; F=12.51, p<0.0001, η2=0.07. Urinary 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine (u-8-oxodG decreased (F=10.66, p<0.0001, η2=0.06, as did sialic acid and leukocytes (F=84.57, η2=0.32 and F=12.61, η2=0.07, resp.; p<0.0001, while uric acid increased (F=12.53, p<0.0001, η2=0.07 in all subjects during one year. Improvement of depressive symptoms at 6 months significantly predicted one-year reduction in u-8-oxodG (β=0.15, p=0.044. Conclusion. Simple behavioral interventions are capable not only of alleviating depressive symptoms, but also of reducing the intensity of damaging oxidative/inflammatory processes in type 2 diabetic patients with subsyndromal depression. This trial is registered with ISRCTN05673017.

  19. Applications of Genetically Modified Immunobiotics with High Immunoregulatory Capacity for Treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigemori, Suguru; Shimosato, Takeshi

    2017-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), including ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, are chronic inflammatory diseases characterized by dysregulated immune responses of the gastrointestinal tract. In recent years, the incidence of IBDs has increased in developed nations, but their prophylaxis/treatment is not yet established. Site-directed delivery of molecules showing anti-inflammatory properties using genetically modified (gm)-probiotics shows promise as a new strategy for the prevention and treatment of IBD. Advantages of gm-probiotics include (1) the ability to use bacteria as a delivery vehicle, enabling safe and long-term use by humans, (2) decreased risks of side effects, and (3) reduced costs. The intestinal delivery of anti-inflammatory proteins such as cytokines and enzymes using Lactococcus lactis has been shown to regulate host intestinal homeostasis depending on the delivered protein-specific machinery. Additionally, clinical experience using interleukin 10-secreting Lc. lactis has been shown to be safe and to facilitate biological containment in IBD therapy. On the other hand, some preclinical studies have demonstrated that gm-strains of immunobiotics (probiotic strains able to beneficially regulate the mucosal immunity) provide beneficial effects on intestinal inflammation as a result of the synergy between the immunoregulatory effects of the bacterium itself and the anti-inflammatory effects of the delivered recombinant proteins. In this review, we discuss the rapid progression in the development of strategies for the prophylaxis and treatment of IBD using gm-probiotics that exhibit immune regulation effects (gm-immunobiotics). In particular, we discuss the type of strains used as delivery agents.

  20. Examination of a University-Affiliated Safe Ride Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieck, D. Joseph; Slagle, David M.

    2010-01-01

    A university-affiliated safe ride program was evaluated to determine whether these programs can reduce drunk-driving related costs. Data was collected from 187 safe ride passengers during three nights of operation. Among the passengers, 93% were enrolled at a local University, 31% were younger than 21, and 40% reported a prior alcohol-related…

  1. Safe Minimum Internal Temperature Chart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Internal Temperature Chart Safe steps in food handling, cooking, and storage are essential in preventing foodborne illness. You can't see, smell, or taste harmful bacteria that may cause illness. In every step of food preparation, follow the four guidelines to keep food safe: ...

  2. More than a Safe Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowski, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Over the past three decades, much of the conversation about LGBTQ students in schools has centered on safety--anti-bullying policies, the "safe space" of gay-straight alliances, and "safe zones" marked by rainbow-colored stickers on classroom doors. In this article, Michael Sadowski argues that it's time to move beyond safety…

  3. Staying Safe in the Water

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this podcast, Dr. Julie Gilchrist, a pediatrician and medical epidemiologist from CDC’s Injury Center, talks about staying safe in the water. Tips are for all audiences, with a focus on preventing drownings and keeping children safe in and around the pool, lake, or ocean.

  4. Vitamin D deficiency changes the intestinal microbiome reducing B vitamin production in the gut. The resulting lack of pantothenic acid adversely affects the immune system, producing a "pro-inflammatory" state associated with atherosclerosis and autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gominak, S C

    2016-09-01

    that make up the normal microbiome are also commensal, each excretes at least one B vitamin that the other three need but cannot make. 4) Improved sleep and more cellular repairs eventually depletes body stores of pantothenic acid, causing reduced cortisol production, increased arthritic pain and widespread "pro-inflammatory" effects on the immune system. 5) Pantothenic acid deficiency also decreases available acetylcholine, the neurotransmitter used by the parasympathetic nervous system. Unopposed, increased sympathetic tone then produces hypertension, tachycardia, atrial arrhythmias and a "hyper-adrenergic" state known to predispose to heart disease and stroke. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Safe Anesthesia For Every Tot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss, Markus; Vutskits, Laszlo; Hansen, Tom G

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The term 'safe use of anesthesia in children is ill-defined and requires definition of and focus on the 'safe conduct of pediatric anesthesia'. RECENT FINDINGS: The Safe Anesthesia For Every Tot initiative (www.safetots.org) has been set up during the last year to focus...... on the safe conduct of pediatric anesthesia. This initiative aims to provide guidance on markers of quality anesthesia care. The introduction and implementation of national regulations of 'who, where, when and how' are required and will result in an improved perioperative outcome in vulnerable children....... The improvement of teaching, training, education and supervision of the safe conduct of pediatric anesthesia are the main goals of the safetots.org initiative. SUMMARY: This initiative addresses the well known perioperative risks in young children, perioperative causes for cerebral morbidity as well as gaps...

  6. Method of safely operating nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochiai, Kanehiro.

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a method of safely operating an nuclear reactor, comprising supporting a load applied to a reactor container partly with secondary container facilities thereby reducing the load borne by the reactor container when water is injected into the core to submerge the core in an emergency. Method: In a reactor emergency, water is injected into the reactor core thereby to submerge the core. Further, water is injected into a gap between the reactor container and the secondary container facilities. By the injection of water into the gap between the reactor container and the secondary container facilities a large apparent mass is applied to the reactor container, as a result of which the reactor container undergoes the same vibration as that of the secondary container facilities. Therefore, the load borne by the reactor container itself is reduced and stress at the bottom part of the reactor container is released. This permits the reactor to be operated more safely. (Moriyama, K.)

  7. Anti-Inflammatory Iridoids of Botanical Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viljoen, A; Mncwangi, N; Vermaak, I

    2012-01-01

    Inflammation is a manifestation of a wide range of disorders which include; arthritis, atherosclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease, inflammatory bowel syndrome, physical injury and infection amongst many others. Common treatment modalities are usually non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin, paracetamol, indomethacin and ibuprofen as well as corticosteroids such as prednisone. These however, may be associated with a host of side effects due to non-selectivity for cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes involved in inflammation and those with selectivity may be highly priced. Thus, there is a continuing search for safe and effective anti-inflammatory molecules from natural sources. Research has confirmed that iridoids exhibit promising anti-inflammatory activity which may be beneficial in the treatment of inflammation. Iridoids are secondary metabolites present in various plants, especially in species belonging to the Apocynaceae, Lamiaceae, Loganiaceae, Rubiaceae, Scrophulariaceae and Verbenaceae families. Many of these ethnobotanicals have an illustrious history of traditional use alluding to their use to treat inflammation. Although iridoids exhibit a wide range of pharmacological activities such as cardiovascular, hepatoprotection, hypoglycaemic, antimutagenic, antispasmodic, anti-tumour, antiviral, immunomodulation and purgative effects this review will acutely focus on their anti-inflammatory properties. The paper aims to present a summary for the most prominent iridoid-containing plants for which anti-inflammatory activity has been demonstrated in vitro and / or in vivo. PMID:22414102

  8. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Palaskar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor is an uncommon lesion of unknown cause. It encompasses a spectrum of myofibroblastic proliferation along with varying amount of inflammatory infiltrate. A number of terms have been applied to the lesion, namely, inflammatory pseudotumor, fibrous xanthoma, plasma cell granuloma, pseudosarcoma, lymphoid hamartoma, myxoid hamartoma, inflammatory myofibrohistiocytic proliferation, benign myofibroblatoma, and most recently, inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor. The diverse nomenclature is mostly descriptive and reflects the uncertainty regarding true biologic nature of these lesions. Recently, the concept of this lesion being reactive has been challenged based on the clinical demonstration of recurrences and metastasis and cytogenetic evidence of acquired clonal chromosomal abnormalities. We hereby report a case of inflammatory pseudotumor and review its inflammatory versus neoplastic behavior.

  9. Safe genetically engineered plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosellini, D; Veronesi, F [Dipartimento di Biologia Vegetale e Biotecnologie Agroambientali e Zootecniche, Universita degli Studi di Perugia, Borgo XX giugno 74, 06121 Perugia (Italy)

    2007-10-03

    The application of genetic engineering to plants has provided genetically modified plants (GMPs, or transgenic plants) that are cultivated worldwide on increasing areas. The most widespread GMPs are herbicide-resistant soybean and canola and insect-resistant corn and cotton. New GMPs that produce vaccines, pharmaceutical or industrial proteins, and fortified food are approaching the market. The techniques employed to introduce foreign genes into plants allow a quite good degree of predictability of the results, and their genome is minimally modified. However, some aspects of GMPs have raised concern: (a) control of the insertion site of the introduced DNA sequences into the plant genome and of its mutagenic effect; (b) presence of selectable marker genes conferring resistance to an antibiotic or an herbicide, linked to the useful gene; (c) insertion of undesired bacterial plasmid sequences; and (d) gene flow from transgenic plants to non-transgenic crops or wild plants. In response to public concerns, genetic engineering techniques are continuously being improved. Techniques to direct foreign gene integration into chosen genomic sites, to avoid the use of selectable genes or to remove them from the cultivated plants, to reduce the transfer of undesired bacterial sequences, and make use of alternative, safer selectable genes, are all fields of active research. In our laboratory, some of these new techniques are applied to alfalfa, an important forage plant. These emerging methods for plant genetic engineering are briefly reviewed in this work.

  10. Safe genetically engineered plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosellini, D; Veronesi, F

    2007-01-01

    The application of genetic engineering to plants has provided genetically modified plants (GMPs, or transgenic plants) that are cultivated worldwide on increasing areas. The most widespread GMPs are herbicide-resistant soybean and canola and insect-resistant corn and cotton. New GMPs that produce vaccines, pharmaceutical or industrial proteins, and fortified food are approaching the market. The techniques employed to introduce foreign genes into plants allow a quite good degree of predictability of the results, and their genome is minimally modified. However, some aspects of GMPs have raised concern: (a) control of the insertion site of the introduced DNA sequences into the plant genome and of its mutagenic effect; (b) presence of selectable marker genes conferring resistance to an antibiotic or an herbicide, linked to the useful gene; (c) insertion of undesired bacterial plasmid sequences; and (d) gene flow from transgenic plants to non-transgenic crops or wild plants. In response to public concerns, genetic engineering techniques are continuously being improved. Techniques to direct foreign gene integration into chosen genomic sites, to avoid the use of selectable genes or to remove them from the cultivated plants, to reduce the transfer of undesired bacterial sequences, and make use of alternative, safer selectable genes, are all fields of active research. In our laboratory, some of these new techniques are applied to alfalfa, an important forage plant. These emerging methods for plant genetic engineering are briefly reviewed in this work

  11. Inflammatory cytokines and immune system modulation by aerobic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Immune function, inflammatory cytokines, aerobic exercise, resistance exercise, aging. ... Physical exercise is effective in reducing (or ameliorate) the ..... moderate resistance training program increases muscle .... Nutrition Metabo-.

  12. Indoor Tanning Is Not Safe

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the sun is by using these tips for skin cancer prevention. Indoor tanning is not a safe way to get vitamin ... to previous findings on the association between indoor tanning and skin cancer. Only a small number of people reported ...

  13. Alcohol use and safe drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001944.htm Alcohol use and safe drinking To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Alcohol use involves drinking beer, wine, or hard liquor. ...

  14. Dukovany NPP - Safely 16 TERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlcek, J.

    2008-01-01

    In this presentation increasing of power output of the Dukovany NPP is reviewed. To operate all Dukovany Units safely with the perspective of long-term operation (LTO) of 50 - 60 years it is proposed.

  15. Safe drinking during cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000060.htm Drinking water safely during cancer treatment To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. During and right after your cancer treatment, your body may not be able to protect ...

  16. Safe handling of radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Nasir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab Razak Hamzah; Abd Aziz Mohamed; Mohammad Pauzi Ismail

    2004-01-01

    This chapter discussed the subjects related to the safe handling of radiation sources: type of radiation sources, method of use: transport within premises, transport outside premises; Disposal of Gamma Sources

  17. Towards Safe Robotic Surgical Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Christoffer; Wisniewski, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    a controller for motion compensation in beating-heart surgery, and prove that it is safe, i.e., the surgical tool is kept within an allowable distance and orientation of the heart. We solve the problem by simultaneously finding a control law and a barrier function. The motion compensation system is simulated...... from several initial conditions to demonstrate that the designed control system is safe for every admissible initial condition....

  18. Safe use of ionizing radiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1973-01-01

    Based on the ''Code of Practice for the protection of persons against ionizing radiations arising from medical and dental use'' (CIS 74-423), this handbook shows how hospital staff can avoid exposing themselves and others to these hazards. It is designed particularly for junior and student nurses. Contents: ionizing radiations, their types and characteristics; their uses and dangers; basic principles in their safe use; safe use in practice; explanation of terms.

  19. Staying Safe in the Water

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-05-15

    In this podcast, Dr. Julie Gilchrist, a pediatrician and medical epidemiologist from CDC’s Injury Center, talks about staying safe in the water. Tips are for all audiences, with a focus on preventing drownings and keeping children safe in and around the pool, lake, or ocean.  Created: 5/15/2008 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 5/19/2008.

  20. Proton-pump inhibitors are associated with a reduced risk for bleeding and perforated gastroduodenal ulcers attributable to non-steriodal anti-inflammatory drugs: a nested case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonkeman, Harald Erwin; Fernandes, Robert W.; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria; van Roon, Eric N.; van de Laar, Mart A F J

    2007-01-01

    Treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is hampered by gastrointestinal ulcer complications, such as ulcer bleeding and perforation. The efficacy of proton-pump inhibitors in the primary prevention of ulcer complications arising from the use of NSAIDs remains unproven.

  1. Reducing costs by reducing size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayns, M.R.; Shepherd, J.

    1991-01-01

    The present paper discusses briefly the many factors, including capital cost, which have to be taken into account in determining whether a series of power stations based on a small nuclear plant can be competitive with a series based on traditional large unit sizes giving the guaranteed level of supply. The 320 MWe UK/US Safe Integral Reactor is described as a good example of how the factors discussed can be beneficially incorporated into a design using proven technology. Finally it goes on to illustrate how the overall costs of a generating system can indeed by reduced by use of the 320 MWe Safe Integral Reactor rather than conventional units of around 1200 MWe. (author). 9 figs

  2. Reducing Fever in Children: Safe Use of Acetaminophen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... label or you can’t tell how much to give, ask your pharmacist or doctor what to do. Never give more of an acetaminophen-containing medicine than directed. If the medicine doesn’t help your child feel better, talk to your doctor, nurse, or pharmacist. If the ...

  3. Safe and Inclusive Cities: Research to Reduce Urban Violence ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Urbanization brings with it possibilities of improved access to jobs, goods, and services ... base on the connections between urban violence, poverty, and inequalities. ... IWRA/IDRC webinar on climate change and adaptive water management.

  4. Inherently safe light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ise, Takeharu

    1987-01-01

    Today's large nuclear power reactors of world-wise use have been designed based on the philosophy. It seems that recent less electricity demand rates, higher capital cost and the TMI accident let us acknowledge relative small and simplified nuclear plants with safer features, and that Chernobyl accident in 1983 underlines the needs of intrinsic and passive safety characteristics. In such background, several inherently safe reactor concepts have been presented abroad and domestically. First describing 'Can inherently safe reactors be designed,' then I introduce representative reactor concepts of inherently safe LWRs advocated abroad so far. All of these innovative reactors employ intrinsic and passive features in their design, as follows: (1) PIUS, an acronym for Process Inherent Ultimate Safety, or an integral PWR with passive heat sink and passive shutdown mechanism, advocated by ASEA-ATOM of Sweden. (2) MAP(Minimum Attention Plant), or a self-pressurized, natural circulation integral PWR, promoted by CE Inc. of the U.S. (3) TPS(TRIGA Power System), or a compact PWR with passive heat sink and inherent fuel characteristics of large prompt temperature coefficient, prompted by GA Technologies Inc. of the U.S. (4) PIUS-BWR, or an inherently safe BWR employing passively actuated fluid valves, in competition with PIUS, prompted by ORNL of the U.S. Then, I will describe the domestic trends in Japan and the innovative inherently safe LWRs presented domestically so far. (author)

  5. Co-administration of cholera toxin and apple polyphenol extract as a novel and safe mucosal adjuvant strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Naoto; Fujihashi, Kohtaro; Hagiwara, Yukari; Kanno, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Kiyomi; Kobayashi, Ryoki; Inaba, Noriyuki; Noda, Masatoshi; Sato, Shigehiro

    2009-07-30

    Although native cholera toxin (CT) is an extremely effective adjuvant, its toxicity prevents its use in humans. We report here that apple polyphenol extract (APE), obtained from unripe apples, reduces CT-induced morphological changes and cAMP accumulation. Based upon this finding, we have attempted to design a novel, effective and safe mucosal vaccine by using CT with several dosages of APE as nasal adjuvants. Mice nasally immunized with OVA plus CT and an optimal dosage of APE showed significantly reduced levels of inflammatory responses as well as total and OVA-specific IgE antibodies when compared with mice given without APE. However, levels of both mucosal and systemic OVA-specific antibody responses were maintained. Further, APE significantly down-regulated accumulation of CT in the olfactory nerves and epithelium. In summary, an optimal dosage of APE would take full advantage of mucosal adjuvanticity of native CT without any toxicity for application in humans.

  6. Zingerone suppresses liver inflammation induced by antibiotic mediated endotoxemia through down regulating hepatic mRNA expression of inflammatory markers in Pseudomonas aeruginosa peritonitis mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokender Kumar

    Full Text Available Antibiotic-induced endotoxin release is associated with high mortality rate even when appropriate antibiotics are used for the treatment of severe infections in intensive care units. Since liver is involved in systemic clearance and detoxification of endotoxin hence it becomes a primary target organ for endotoxin mediated inflammation. Currently available anti-inflammatory drugs give rise to serious side effects. Hence, there is an urgent need for safe and effective anti-inflammatory therapy. It is likely that anti-inflammatory phytochemicals and neutraceutical agents may have the potential to reduce the endotoxin mediated inflammation and complications associated with endotoxin release. Keeping this in mind, the present study was planned to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of zingerone (active compound of zingiber officinale against liver inflammation induced by antibiotic mediated endotoxemia. The selected antibiotics capable of releasing high content of endotoxin were employed for their in vivo efficacy in P.aeruginosa peritonitis model. Released endotoxin induced inflammation and zingerone as co-anti-inflammatory therapy significantly reduced inflammatory response. Improved liver histology and reduced inflammatory markers MDA, RNI, MPO, tissue damage markers (AST, ALT, ALP and inflammatory cytokines (MIP-2, IL-6 and TNF-α were indicative of therapeutic potential of zingerone. The mechanism of action of zingerone may be related to significant inhibition of the mRNA expression of inflammatory markers (TLR4, RelA, NF-kB2, TNF- α, iNOS, COX-2 indicating that zingerone interferes with cell signalling pathway and suppresses hyper expression of cell signaling molecules of inflammatory pathway. Zingerone therapy significantly protected liver from endotoxin induced inflammatory damage by down regulating biochemical as well as molecular markers of inflammation. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that zingerone is a potent anti-inflammatory

  7. Zingerone suppresses liver inflammation induced by antibiotic mediated endotoxemia through down regulating hepatic mRNA expression of inflammatory markers in Pseudomonas aeruginosa peritonitis mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Lokender; Chhibber, Sanjay; Harjai, Kusum

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic-induced endotoxin release is associated with high mortality rate even when appropriate antibiotics are used for the treatment of severe infections in intensive care units. Since liver is involved in systemic clearance and detoxification of endotoxin hence it becomes a primary target organ for endotoxin mediated inflammation. Currently available anti-inflammatory drugs give rise to serious side effects. Hence, there is an urgent need for safe and effective anti-inflammatory therapy. It is likely that anti-inflammatory phytochemicals and neutraceutical agents may have the potential to reduce the endotoxin mediated inflammation and complications associated with endotoxin release. Keeping this in mind, the present study was planned to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of zingerone (active compound of zingiber officinale) against liver inflammation induced by antibiotic mediated endotoxemia. The selected antibiotics capable of releasing high content of endotoxin were employed for their in vivo efficacy in P.aeruginosa peritonitis model. Released endotoxin induced inflammation and zingerone as co-anti-inflammatory therapy significantly reduced inflammatory response. Improved liver histology and reduced inflammatory markers MDA, RNI, MPO, tissue damage markers (AST, ALT, ALP) and inflammatory cytokines (MIP-2, IL-6 and TNF-α) were indicative of therapeutic potential of zingerone. The mechanism of action of zingerone may be related to significant inhibition of the mRNA expression of inflammatory markers (TLR4, RelA, NF-kB2, TNF- α, iNOS, COX-2) indicating that zingerone interferes with cell signalling pathway and suppresses hyper expression of cell signaling molecules of inflammatory pathway. Zingerone therapy significantly protected liver from endotoxin induced inflammatory damage by down regulating biochemical as well as molecular markers of inflammation. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that zingerone is a potent anti-inflammatory

  8. Prospects for inherently safe reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkenbus, J.N.

    1988-01-01

    Public fears over nuclear safety have led some within the nuclear community to investigate the possibility of producing inherently safe nuclear reactors; that is, reactors that are transparently incapable of producing a core melt. While several promising designs of such reactors have been produced, support for large-scale research and development efforts has not been forthcoming. The prospects for commercialization of inherently safe reactors, therefore, are problematic; possible events such as further nuclear reactor accidents and superpower summits, could alter the present situation significantly. (author)

  9. Is nuclear power safe enough

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andresen, A F [Institutt for Atomenergi, Kjeller (Norway)

    1979-01-01

    The lecture formed a commentary on the report of the Norwegian Government's Commission on Nuclear power Safety which was published in October 1978. It was introductorily pointed out that 'safe' and 'safety' are not in themselves meaningful terms and that the probability of an occurrence is the real measure. The main items in the Commission's report have been core meltdown, releases during reprocessing, waste disposal, plutonium diversion and environmental impacts. The 21 members of the Commission were unanimous in 7 of the 8 chapters. In chapter 2, 'Summary and Conclusions', 3 members dissented from the majority opinion, that, subject to certain conditions, nuclear power was a safe and acceptable source of energy.

  10. Safe and Liquid Mortgage Bonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dick-Nielsen, Jens; Gyntelberg, Jacob; Lund, Jesper

    This paper shows that strict match pass-through funding of covered bonds provides safe and liquid mortgage bonds. Despite a 30% drop in house prices during the 2008 global crisis Danish mortgage bonds remained as liquid as most European government bonds. The Danish pass-through system effectively...... eliminates credit risk from the investor's perspective. Similar to other safe bonds, funding liquidity becomes the main driver of mortgage bond liquidity and this creates commonality in liquidity across markets and countries. These findings have implications for how to design a robust mortgage bond system...

  11. Safe-haven CDS Premia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klingler, Sven; Lando, David

    We argue that Credit Default Swap (CDS) premia for safe-haven sovereigns, like Germany and the United States, are driven to a large extent by regulatory requirements under which derivatives dealing banks have an incentive to buy CDS to hedge counterparty credit risk of their counterparties. We...

  12. Thermodynamics of asymptotically safe theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rischke, Dirk H.; Sannino, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the thermodynamic properties of a novel class of gauge-Yukawa theories that have recently been shown to be completely asymptotically safe, because their short-distance behaviour is determined by the presence of an interacting fixed point. Not only do all the coupling constants freeze...

  13. How Safe Are Our Libraries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Lifer, Evan

    1994-01-01

    Addresses issues of safety and security in libraries. Topics discussed include keeping library collections safe; patron behavioral problems; factoring loss into the budget; staff theft; access versus security; apathy regarding library crime; a need for a unified security apparatus; preventive measures; staff and patron safety; and a…

  14. Safe disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooker, P.; Metcalfe, R.; Milodowski, T.; Holliday, D.

    1997-01-01

    A high degree of international cooperation has characterized the two studies reported here which aim to address whether radioactive waste can be disposed of safely. Using hydrogeochemical and mineralogical surveying techniques earth scientists from the British Geological Survey have sought to identify and characterise suitable disposal sites. Aspects of the studies are explored emphasising their cooperative nature. (UK)

  15. Staying Safe on the Water

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-06-05

    In this podcast for all audiences, Dr. Julie Gilchrist from CDC's Injury Center outlines tips for safe boating.  Created: 6/5/2008 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 6/8/2008.

  16. Safe transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Delivering radioactive material to where it is needed is a vital service to industry and medicine. Millions of packages are shipped all over the world by all modes of transport. The shipments pass through public places and must meet stringent safety requirements. This video explains how radioactive material is safely transported and describes the rules that carriers and handlers must follow

  17. Working safely with ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    A small leaflet provides information on working safely with ionizing radiation. Topics covered include the types of radiation, radiological units, external radiation, contamination and internal radiation, methods of protection form radiation, radiation monitors, protective clothing for contamination, personal dosemeters, radiation dose limits for classified workers and finally the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985. (UK)

  18. Morin protects gastric mucosa from nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, indomethacin induced inflammatory damage and apoptosis by modulating NF-κB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Krishnendu; Sadhukhan, Pritam; Saha, Sukanya; Pal, Pabitra Bikash; Sil, Parames C

    2015-04-01

    Deregulation in prostaglandin (PG) biosynthesis, severe oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis contribute to the pathogenesis of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced gastropathy. Unfortunately, most of the prescribed anti-ulcer drugs generate various side effects. In this scenario, we could consider morin as a safe herbal potential agent against IND-gastropathy and rationalize its action systematically. Rats were pretreated with morin for 30 min followed by IND (48 mgkg(-1)) administration for 4 h. The anti-ulcerogenic nature of morin was assessed by morphological and histological analysis. Its effects on the inflammatory (MPO, cytokines, adhesion molecules), ulcer-healing (COXs, PGE(2)), and signaling parameters (NF-κB and apoptotic signaling) were assessed by biochemical, RP-HPLC, immunoblots, IHC, RT-PCR, and ELISA at the time points of their maximal changes due to IND administration. IND induced NF-κB and apoptotic signaling in rat's gastric mucosa. These increased proinflammatory responses, but reduced the antioxidant enzymes and other protective factors. Morin reversed all the adverse effects to prevent IND-induced gastric ulceration in a PGE2 independent manner. Also, it did not affect the absorption and/or primary pharmacological activity of IND. The gastroprotective action of morin is primarily attributed to its potent antioxidant nature that also helps in controlling several IND-induced inflammatory responses. For the first time, the study reveals a mechanistic basis of morin mediated protective action against IND-induced gastropathy. As morin is a naturally abundant safe antioxidant, future detailed pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies are expected to establish it as a gastroprotective agent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Inflammatory pathways of importance for management of inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Jannie; Coskun, Mehmet; Soendergaard, Christoffer; Salem, Mohammad; Nielsen, Ole Haagen

    2014-01-07

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of chronic disorders of the gastrointestinal tract comprising Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Their etiologies are unknown, but they are characterised by an imbalanced production of pro-inflammatory mediators, e.g., tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, as well as increased recruitment of leukocytes to the site of inflammation. Advantages in understanding the role of the inflammatory pathways in IBD and an inadequate response to conventional therapy in a large portion of patients, has over the last two decades lead to new therapies which includes the TNF inhibitors (TNFi), designed to target and neutralise the effect of TNF-α. TNFi have shown to be efficient in treating moderate to severe CD and UC. However, convenient alternative therapeutics targeting other immune pathways are needed for patients with IBD refractory to conventional therapy including TNFi. Indeed, several therapeutics are currently under development, and have shown success in clinical trials. These include antibodies targeting and neutralising interleukin-12/23, small pharmacologic Janus kinase inhibitors designed to block intracellular signaling of several pro-inflammatory cytokines, antibodies targeting integrins, and small anti-adhesion molecules that block adhesion between leukocytes and the intestinal vascular endothelium, reducing their infiltration into the inflamed mucosa. In this review we have elucidated the major signaling pathways of clinical importance for IBD therapy and highlighted the new promising therapies available. As stated in this paper several new treatment options are under development for the treatment of CD and UC, however, no drug fits all patients. Hence, optimisations of treatment regimens are warranted for the benefit of the patients either through biomarker establishment or other rationales to maximise the effect of the broad range of mode-of-actions of the present and future drugs in IBD.

  20. Inflammatory Drug (NSAID)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inflammatory Drug (NSAID)-Induced Seizures in a Patient with HIV Infection ... interaction not supported by existing literature, and it is possible that the background HIV infection may have a role to .... Foods and Drug Administration and Control.

  1. Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... white women. Inflammatory breast tumors are frequently hormone receptor negative, which means they cannot be treated with ...

  2. Chronic inflammatory demyelinative polyneuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Said, Gérard; Krarup, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinative polyneuropathy (CIDP) is an acquired polyneuropathy presumably of immunological origin. It is characterized by a progressive or a relapsing course with predominant motor deficit. The diagnosis rests on the association of non-length-dependent predominantly motor...

  3. Inherently safe in situ uranium recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumhansl, James L; Brady, Patrick V

    2014-04-29

    An in situ recovery of uranium operation involves circulating reactive fluids through an underground uranium deposit. These fluids contain chemicals that dissolve the uranium ore. Uranium is recovered from the fluids after they are pumped back to the surface. Chemicals used to accomplish this include complexing agents that are organic, readily degradable, and/or have a predictable lifetime in an aquifer. Efficiency is increased through development of organic agents targeted to complexing tetravalent uranium rather than hexavalent uranium. The operation provides for in situ immobilization of some oxy-anion pollutants under oxidizing conditions as well as reducing conditions. The operation also artificially reestablishes reducing conditions on the aquifer after uranium recovery is completed. With the ability to have the impacted aquifer reliably remediated, the uranium recovery operation can be considered inherently safe.

  4. Safe new reactor for radionuclide production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, P.L.

    1995-01-01

    In late 1995, DOE is schedule to announce a new tritium production unit. Near the end of the last NPR (New Production Reactors) program, work was directed towards eliminating risks in current designs and reducing effects of accidents. In the Heavy Water Reactor Program at Savannah River, the coolant was changed from heavy to light water. An alternative, passively safe concept uses a heavy-water-filled, zircaloy reactor calandria near the bottom of a swimming pool; the calandria is supported on a light-water-coolant inlet plenum and has upflow through assemblies in the calandria tubes. The reactor concept eliminates or reduces significantly most design basis and severe accidents that plague other deigns. The proven, current SRS tritium cycle remains intact; production within the US of medical isotopes such as Mo-99 would also be possible

  5. Transfer pricing and safe harbours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Solilová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Transfer prices are significant for both taxpayers and tax administrations because they determine in large part taxable profits of associated enterprises in different tax jurisdictions. Moreover, in the context of taxation, transfer prices must be complied with the arm’s length principle. However, Multinational Enterprises have been faced daily by conflicting rules and approaches to applying the arm’s length principle, burdensome documentation requirements, inconsistent audit standards and unpredictable competent authority outcomes. Therefore, the Committee on Fiscal Affairs launched another project on the administrative aspects of transfer pricing in 2010. On 16 May 2013 as a partial solution of this project was approved by the OECD Council the Revised Section E on Safe Harbours in Chapter IV of the Transfer Pricing Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises and Tax Authorities. The paper is focused on significant changes of newly approved chapter IV of the Transfer Pricing Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises and Tax Authorities, further on analysis of practice in this area, on advantages and disadvantages of safe harbours for taxpayers and competent authorities with aim to suggest recommendations on use of safe harbours in the Czech Republic.

  6. Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs, Variation in Inflammatory Genes, and Aggressive Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John S. Witte

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that prostatic inflammation plays a key role in the development of prostate cancer. It remains controversial whether non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs reduce the risk of prostate cancer. Here, we investigate how a previously reported inverse association between NSAID use and the risk of aggressive prostate cancer is modulated by variants in several inflammatory genes. We found that NSAIDs may have differential effects on prostate cancer development, depending on one’s genetic makeup. Further study of these inflammatory pathways may clarify the mechanisms through which NSAIDs impact prostate cancer risk.

  7. USING THE SAFE SYSTEM APPROACH TO KEEP OLDER DRIVERS SAFELY MOBILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim LANGFORD

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2003, Australian road transport jurisdictions collectively accepted that the greatest road safety gains would be achieved through adopting a Safe System approach, derived from Sweden's Vision Zero and the Netherlands' Sustainable Safety strategies. A key objective of all three approaches is to manage vehicles, the road infrastructure, speeds, road users and the interactions between these components, to ensure that in the event of crashes, crash energies will remain at levels that minimize the probability of death and serious injury. Older drivers pose a particular challenge to the Safe System approach, given particularly their greater physical frailty, their driving patterns and for some at least, their reduced fitness to drive. This paper has analyzed the so-called ‘older driver problem’ and identified a number of key factors underpinning their crash levels, for which countermeasures can be identified and implemented within a Safe System framework. The recommended countermeasures consist of: (1 safer roads, through a series of design improvements particularly governing urban intersections; (2 safer vehicles, through both the promotion of crashworthiness as a critical consideration when purchasing a vehicle and the wide use of developed and developing ITS technologies; (3 safer speeds especially at intersections; and (4 safer road users, through both improved assessment procedures to identify the minority of older drivers with reduced fitness to drive and educational efforts to encourage safer driving habits particularly but not only through self-regulation.

  8. Astute and safe use of topical ocular corticosteroids in general practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Astute and safe use of topical ocular corticosteroids in general practice: ... is often contact-lens associated) and fungal keratitis. ... for 1 week in acute follicular conjunctivitis presumed to be ... Steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. In: Rhee DJ. Ophthalmic Drug Guide. London: ... Cataract – by performing a red reflex test. • Herpes ...

  9. Reducing invasiveness, duration, and cost of magnetic resonance imaging in rheumatoid arthritis by omitting intravenous contrast injection -- Does it change the assessment of inflammatory and destructive joint changes by the OMERACT RAMRIS?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Mikkel; Conaghan, Philip G; O'Connor, Philip

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Gadolinium (Gd)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides highly sensitive assessment of inflammatory and destructive changes in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) joints, but intravenous (IV) Gd injection prolongs examination time and increases cost, invasiveness, and patient discomfort...... images, whereas complete image sets were available for the second reading. RESULTS: Gd contrast injection appeared unimportant to MRI scores of bone erosions and bone edema in RA wrist and MCP joints. However, when post-Gd MRI was considered the standard reference, MRI without Gd provided only moderate......: Omitting IV contrast injection did not change scores of bone erosions and bone edema, but decreased the reliability of synovitis scores. However, this disadvantage may for some purposes be outweighed by the possibility to assess more joints and/or greater feasibility....

  10. Consumption of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 in yogurt reduced expression of TLR-2 on peripheral blood-derived monocytes and pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Huicui; Ba, Zhaoyong; Lee, Yujin; Peng, Jiayu; Lin, Junli; Fleming, Jennifer A; Furumoto, Emily J; Roberts, Robert F; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Rogers, Connie J

    2017-03-01

    Probiotic bacteria modulate immune parameters and inflammatory outcomes. Emerging evidence demonstrates that the matrix used to deliver probiotics may influence the efficacy of probiotic interventions in vivo. The aims of the current study were to evaluate (1) the effect of one species, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 at a dose of log10 ± 0.5 CFUs/day on immune responses in a randomized, partially blinded, 4-period crossover, free-living study, and (2) whether the immune response to BB-12 differed depending on the delivery matrix. Healthy adults (n = 30) aged 18-40 years were recruited and received four treatments in a random order: (A) yogurt smoothie alone; smoothie with BB-12 added (B) before or (C) after yogurt fermentation, or (D) BB-12 given in capsule form. At baseline and after each 4-week treatment, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated, and functional and phenotypic marker expression was assessed. BB-12 interacted with peripheral myeloid cells via Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR-2). The percentage of CD14 + HLA-DR + cells in peripheral blood was increased in male participants by all yogurt-containing treatments compared to baseline (p = 0.0356). Participants who consumed yogurt smoothie with BB-12 added post-fermentation had significantly lower expression of TLR-2 on CD14 + HLA-DR + cells (p = 0.0186) and reduction in TNF-α secretion from BB-12- (p = 0.0490) or LPS-stimulated (p = 0.0387) PBMCs compared to baseline. These findings not only demonstrate a potential anti-inflammatory effect of BB-12 in healthy adults, but also indicate that the delivery matrix influences the immunomodulatory properties of BB-12.

  11. Inflammatory Bowel Disease During Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajapakse, Ramona; Korelitz, Burton I.

    2001-06-01

    The management of both male and female patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) who wish to have a baby is challenging. For women, the most important factor to bear in mind is that the outcome of pregnancy is largely influenced by disease activity at the time of conception. Women with quiescent disease are likely to have an uncomplicated pregnancy with the delivery of a healthy baby, whereas women with active disease are more likely to have complications such as spontaneous abortions, miscarriages, stillbirths, and exacerbation of the disease. This is more true of patients with Crohn's disease than of patients with ulcerative colitis. Although the safety of medications used during pregnancy is an important issue, the impact of the medications used to treat IBD is less important in comparison to disease activity itself. 5-Aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) products appear to be safe during pregnancy; corticosteroids are probably safe; 6-mercaptopurine and azathioprine should be used with caution; and methotrexate is contraindicated. There are inadequate data on the use of infliximab during pregnancy. In regard to men with IBD, the disease itself does not seem to have any negative impact on fertility. However, there is controversy about the effects of using 6-mercaptopurine and azathioprine prior to and during fertilization. In view of possible adverse pregnancy outcomes, it would be prudent to withhold 6-mercaptopurine and azathioprine therapy in men with IBD for 3 months prior to conception, when feasible. Most IBD medications should be continued before, during, and after pregnancy, with careful attention to the known cautions and exceptions. If IBD in a pregnant patient is in remission, the prognosis for pregnancy is the same as if she did not have IBD. Active disease should therefore be treated aggressively and remission accomplished before pregnancy is attempted. Similarly, a woman who unexpectedly becomes pregnant while her IBD is active should be treated

  12. How safe are nuclear plants? How safe should they be?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouts, H.

    1988-01-01

    It has become customary to think about safety of nuclear plants in terms of risk as defined by the WASH-1400 study that some of the implications for the non-specialist escape our attention. Yet it is known that a rational program to understand safety, to identify unsafe events, and to use this kind of information or analysis to improve safety, requires us to use the methods of quantitative risk assessment. How this process can be made more understandable to a broader group of nontechnical people and how can a wider acceptance of the results of the process be developed have been questions under study and are addressed in this report. These are questions that have been struggled with for some time in the world of nuclear plant safety. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission examined them for several years as it moved toward developing a position on safety goals for nuclear plants, a requirement that had been assigned it by Congress. Opinion was sought from a broad spectrum of individuals, within the field of nuclear power and outside it, on the topic that was popularly called, ''How safe is safe enough?'' Views were solicited on the answer to the question and also on the way the answer should be framed when it was adopted. This report discusses the public policy and its implementation

  13. A zebrafish model of inflammatory lymphangiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhide S. Okuda

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is a disabling chronic inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract. IBD patients have increased intestinal lymphatic vessel density and recent studies have shown that this may contribute to the resolution of IBD. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in IBD-associated lymphangiogenesis are still unclear. In this study, we established a novel inflammatory lymphangiogenesis model in zebrafish larvae involving colitogenic challenge stimulated by exposure to 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS or dextran sodium sulphate (DSS. Treatment with either TNBS or DSS resulted in vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (Vegfr-dependent lymphangiogenesis in the zebrafish intestine. Reduction of intestinal inflammation by the administration of the IBD therapeutic, 5-aminosalicylic acid, reduced intestinal lymphatic expansion. Zebrafish macrophages express vascular growth factors vegfaa, vegfc and vegfd and chemical ablation of these cells inhibits intestinal lymphatic expansion, suggesting that the recruitment of macrophages to the intestine upon colitogenic challenge is required for intestinal inflammatory lymphangiogenesis. Importantly, this study highlights the potential of zebrafish as an inflammatory lymphangiogenesis model that can be used to investigate the role and mechanism of lymphangiogenesis in inflammatory diseases such as IBD.

  14. Effect of Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) Supplementation on Inflammatory Cytokine Levels in Infants at High Genetic Risk for Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, H. Peter; Boulware, David; Rodriguez, Henry; Donaldson, David; Chritton, Sonia; Rafkin-Mervis, Lisa; Krischer, Jeffrey; Skyler, Jay S.; Clare-Salzler, Michael

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Type 1 diabetes (T1D) results from the inflammatory destruction of pancreatic β-cells. In the present study, we investigated the effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation on stimulated inflammatory cytokine production in white blood cells (WBC) from infants with a high genetic risk for T1D. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This was a multicenter, two-arm, randomized, double blind pilot trial of DHA supplementation, beginning either in the last trimester of pregnancy (41 infants) or in the first five months after birth (57 infants). Levels of DHA in infant and maternal red blood cell (RBC) membranes and in breast milk were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Inflammatory cytokines were assayed from whole blood culture supernatants using the Luminex Multiplex assay after stimulation with high dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS), 1μg/mL. RESULTS The levels of RBC DHA were increased by 61–100% in treated compared to control infants at ages 6 to 36 months. There were no statistically significant reductions in production of the inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β, TNFα or IL-12p40 at any of the 6 time points measured. The inflammatory marker, hsCRP, was significantly lower in breast-fed DHA-treated infants compared to all formula-fed infants at age 12 months. Three infants (two received DHA) were removed from the study as a result of developing ≥ two persistently positive biochemical islet autoantibodies. CONCLUSIONS This pilot trial showed that supplementation of infant diets with DHA is safe and fulfilled the pre-study goal of increasing infant RBC DHA levels by at least 20%. Inflammatory cytokine production was not consistently reduced. PMID:25039804

  15. Effect of docosahexaenoic acid supplementation on inflammatory cytokine levels in infants at high genetic risk for type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, H Peter; Boulware, David; Rodriguez, Henry; Donaldson, David; Chritton, Sonia; Rafkin-Mervis, Lisa; Krischer, Jeffrey; Skyler, Jay S; Clare-Salzler, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) results from the inflammatory destruction of pancreatic β-cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation on stimulated inflammatory cytokine production in white blood cells (WBC) from infants with a high genetic risk for T1D. This was a multicenter, two-arm, randomized, double-blind pilot trial of DHA supplementation, beginning either in the last trimester of pregnancy (41 infants) or in the first 5 months after birth (57 infants). Levels of DHA in infant and maternal red blood cell (RBC) membranes and in breast milk were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Inflammatory cytokines were assayed from whole blood culture supernatants using the Luminex multiplex assay after stimulation with high dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS), 1 µg/mL. The levels of RBC DHA were increased by 61-100% in treated compared to control infants at ages 6-36 months. There were no statistically significant reductions in production of the inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β, TNFα, or IL-12p40 at any of the six timepoints measured. The inflammatory marker, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), was significantly lower in breast-fed DHA-treated infants compared to all formula-fed infants at the age of 12 months. Three infants (two received DHA) were removed from the study as a result of developing ≥two persistently positive biochemical islet autoantibodies. This pilot trial showed that supplementation of infant diets with DHA is safe and fulfilled the pre-study goal of increasing infant RBC DHA levels by at least 20%. Inflammatory cytokine production was not consistently reduced. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Safe motherhood -- from advocacy to action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, A

    1991-12-01

    Every minute a woman dies from complications related to pregnancy or childbirth. That translates to 500,000 annually, of which, 99% live in developing countries. A woman in Africa has a 1:18 lifetime chance of dying from pregnancy-related causes, compared with a northern European woman who has a 1:10,000 chance. Thus, in 1987 international and regional agencies and national governments started a global program titled the Safe Motherhood Initiative. Its goal is to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality 50% by 2000. The death of a woman during pregnancy or child birth means that her surviving children are much more likely to die. In a bangladesh study it was found that the death of the mother was associated with a 200% increase in mortality for her sons and 350% for her daughters for children up to 10. Family planning is the key, since it is the single best tool of preventing these deaths, by reducing the number of times a woman gets pregnant. Family planning also reduces the number of abortions which are estimated to kill 200,000 women annually in developing countries. Trained midwives who can provide obstetrical emergency assistance will also make a large impact. Risk assessment was once considered very important, but studies have shown that the majority of pregnancy complications develop without being detected. Further, the number of women with risk factors that develop complications is much lower than the number of women who develop complications during pregnancy. So monitoring women with risk factors misses most complications. Regular monitoring and medical examinations are much more effective for preventing complications. Safe motherhood can only be achieved if each program is tailored to the needs of the community. Donor nations are necessary for this program to succeed, but ultimate success rests in the hands of each country. National priorities must be set, resources must be allocated, and programs must be designed to be effective.

  17. Small intrinsically safe reactor implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakabayashi, Hiroaki

    1985-01-01

    Reviewing the history of nuclear power, it is found that peaceful uses of nuclear power are children of the war-like atom. Importance of special growth in a shielded environment is emphasized to exploit fully the advantages of nuclear power. Nuclear power reactors must be safe for their assimilation into society from the points of view of both technology and social psychology. ISR/ISER is identified as a missing link in the development of nuclear power reactors from this perspective and advocated for international development and utilization, being unleashed from the concerns of politicization, safety, and proliferation

  18. Mifrenz: Safe email for children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Hunt

    Full Text Available Products currently available for monitoring children\\'s email usage are either considered to encourage dubious ethical behaviour or are time consuming for parents to administer. This paper describes the development of a new email client application for children called Mifrenz. This new application gives parents the ability to let their children safely use email, with the minimum of intervention. It was developed using mostly free software and also with the desire to provide real first hand programming examples to demonstrate to students.

  19. Type-safe pattern combinators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhiger, Morten

    2009-01-01

    Macros still haven't made their way into typed higher-order programming languages such as Haskell and Standard ML. Therefore, to extend the expressiveness of Haskell or Standard ML, one must express new linguistic features in terms of functions that fit within the static type systems of these lan...... of these languages. This is particularly challenging when introducing features that span across multiple types and that bind variables. We address this challenge by developing, in a step by step manner, mechanisms for encoding patterns and pattern matching in Haskell in a type-safe way....

  20. Inflammatory Macrophages Promotes Development of Diabetic Encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Beiyun; Miao, Ya; Zhao, Zhe; Zhong, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes and Alzheimer's disease are often associated with each other, whereas the relationship between two diseases is ill-defined. Although hyperglycemia during diabetes is a major cause of encephalopathy, diabetes may also cause chronic inflammatory complications including peripheral neuropathy. Hence the role and the characteristics of inflammatory macrophages in the development of diabetic encephalopathy need to be clarified. Diabetes were induced in mice by i.p. injection of streptozotocin (STZ). Two weeks after STZ injection and confirmation of development of diabetes, inflammatory macrophages were eliminated by i.p. injection of 20µg saporin-conjugated antibody against a macrophage surface marker CD11b (saporin-CD11b) twice per week, while a STZ-treated group received injection of rat IgG of same frequency as a control. The effects of macrophage depletion on brain degradation markers, brain malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase, superoxidase anion-positive cells and nitric oxide (NO) were measured. Saporin-CD11b significantly reduced inflammatory macrophages in brain, without affecting mouse blood glucose, serum insulin, glucose responses and beta cell mass. However, reduced brain macrophages significantly inhibited the STZ-induced decreases in brain MDA, catalase and superoxidase anion-positive cells, and the STZ-induced decreases in brain NO. Inflammatory macrophages may promote development of diabetic encephalopathy. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Nuclear hydrogen production and its safe handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Hongsuk; Paek, Seungwoo; Kim, Kwang-Rag; Ahn, Do-Hee; Lee, Minsoo; Chang, Jong Hwa

    2003-01-01

    An overview of the hydrogen related research presently undertaken at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute are presented. These encompass nuclear hydrogen production, hydrogen storage, and the safe handling of hydrogen, High temperature gas-cooled reactors can play a significant role, with respect to large-scale hydrogen production, if used as the provider of high temperature heat in fossil fuel conversion or thermochemical cycles. A variety of potential hydrogen production methods for high temperature gas-cooled reactors were analyzed. They are steam reforming of natural gas, thermochemical cycles, etc. The produced hydrogen should be stored safely. Titanium metal was tested primarily because its hydride has very low dissociation pressures at normal storage temperatures and a high capacity for hydrogen, it is easy to prepare and is non-reactive with air in the expected storage conditions. There could be a number of potential sources of hydrogen evolution risk in a nuclear hydrogen production facility. In order to reduce the deflagration detonation it is necessary to develop hydrogen control methods that are capable of dealing with the hydrogen release rate. A series of experiments were conducted to assess the catalytic recombination characteristics of hydrogen in an air stream using palladium catalysts. (author)

  2. Inherently safe characteristics of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This report is based on a detailed study which was carried out by Colenco (a company of the Motor-Columbus Group) on behalf of the Commission of the European Communities (CEC). It presents a summary of this study and concentrates more on the generic issues involved in the subject of inherent safety in nuclear power plants. It is assumed that the reader is reasonably familiar with the design outline of the systems included in the report. The report examines the role of inherent design features in achieving the safety of nuclear power plants as an alternative to the practice, which is largely followed in current reactors, of achieving safety by the addition of engineered safety features. The report examines current reactor systems to identify the extent to which their characteristics are either already inherently safe or, on the other hand, have inherent characteristics that require protective action to be taken. It then considers the advantages of introducing design changes to improve their inherent safety characteristics. Next, it looks at some new reactor types for which claims of inherent safety are made to see to what extent these claims are justified. The general question is then considered whether adoption of the inherently safe reactors would give advantages (by reducing risk in real terms or by improving the public acceptability of nuclear power) which are sufficient to offset the expected high costs and the technical risks associated with any new technology

  3. Fish-oil-derived n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids reduce NLRP3 inflammasome activity and obesity-related inflammatory cross-talk between adipocytes and CD11b(+) macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Boer, Anna A; Monk, Jennifer M; Liddle, Danyelle M; Hutchinson, Amber L; Power, Krista A; Ma, David W L; Robinson, Lindsay E

    2016-08-01

    Adipocyte-macrophage cross-talk propagates immune responses in obese adipose tissue (AT). Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) mitigate inflammation, partly through up-regulation of adiponectin; however, specific mechanisms are unclear. We determined if adipocyte-macrophage cross-talk could be mitigated by dietary LC n-3 PUFA and if this was dependent on adiponectin-mediated signaling. We utilized an in vitro co-culture model mimicking the ratio of adipocytes:macrophages in obese AT, whereby 3T3-L1 adipocytes were co-cultured with splenic CD11b(+) macrophages from C57BL/6 mice fed high-fat control (HF-CON; 34% w/w fat) or fish oil diets (HF-FO; 34% w/w fat containing 7.6% w/w FO), as well as mice fed low-fat control (LF-CON; 10% w/w fat) or FO diets (LF-FO; 10% w/w fat containing 3% w/w FO). Co-culture conditions tested effects of soluble mediator-driven mechanisms (trans-well system), cell contact and low-dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mimicking acute or chronic inflammatory conditions. HF-FO macrophages from acute LPS-stimulated trans-well co-cultures had decreased mRNA expression of Casp1, Il1β and Il18, as well as cellular caspase-1 activity compared to HF-CON macrophages (P≤.05). Moreover, adipocytes from acute LPS-stimulated HF-FO co-cultures had decreased caspase-1 activity and decreased IL-1β/IL-18 levels following chronic LPS pretreatment compared to HF-CON co-cultures (P≤.05). Additionally, in contact co-cultures with adiponectin-neutralizing antibody, the FO-mediated modulation of NFκB activity and decrease in phosphorylated p65 NFκB, expression of NLRP3 inflammasome genes, M1 macrophage marker genes and inflammatory cytokine/chemokine secretion were controlled partly through adiponectin, while cellular caspase-1 activity and IL-1β/1L-18 levels were decreased independently of adiponectin (P≤.05). LC n-3 PUFA may decrease the intensity of adipocyte-macrophage cross-talk to mitigate obesity-associated pathologies. Copyright

  4. Comparison of pulsed dye laser versus combined pulsed dye laser and Nd:YAG laser in the treatment of inflammatory acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salah El Din, Manal Mohamed; Samy, Nevien Ahmed; Salem, Amira Eid

    2017-06-01

    Both pulsed dye laser and combined 585/1064-nm (sequential dual-wavelength PDL and Nd:YAG) laser improves inflammatory skin disorders including acne vulgaris. To compare the efficacy of 585-nm pulsed dye laser versus sequential dual-wavelength PDL and Nd:YAG in treatment of acne vulgaris. Thirty patients with acne vulgaris were treated by PDL alone on half of the face while contra lateral half was treated by combined 585/1064 nm laser. The study showed that inflammatory acne lesions count was significantly reduced by 82.5% (p 0.0001) on PDL sides and by 83.5% (p 0.00001) on combined 585/1064-nm side after 8 weeks, while reduction of non-inflammatory acne lesions was observed at 8 weeks by 58.4% and 71.5% respectively. However, difference between the two modalities was not statistically significant. PDL and combined PDL/Nd:YAG laser treatment were found to be an effective, safe and well-tolerated treatment option for inflammatory and non-inflammatory acne vulgaris.

  5. Inflammatory reaction in chondroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamura, Sigeki; Sato, Keiji; Sugiura, Hideshi; Iwata, Hisashi

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the inflammatory reaction accompanying chondroblastoma and to define the value of the finding in clinical practice. We reviewed the clinical, radiographic, and magnetic resonance (MR) findings in six patients with histologically proven chondroblastoma. In all cases, MR imaging showered marrow and soft tissue edema. In four of six cases, periosteal reaction related to intra-osseous edema was more clearly demonstrated on MR imaging than on radiographs. Follow-up MR studies after surgery were available in three patients and all showed disappearance of inflammatory responses such as marrow and soft tissue edema, and reactive synovitis. We propose that these inflammatory reactions of chondroblastomas are inportant signs for detecting residual tumor in recurrences after surgery, as well as for making a precise diagnosis. The MR changes may also be valuable in demonstrating eradication of the tumor. (orig./MG)

  6. Lung inflammatory pseudo tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veliz, Elizabeth; Leone, Gaetano; Cano, Fernando; Sanchez, Jaime

    2005-01-01

    The inflammatory pseudo tumor is a non neoplastic process characterized by an irregular growth of inflammatory cells. We described the case of a 38 year-old patient, she went to our institute for a in situ cervix cancer and left lung nodule without breathing symptoms; valued by neumology who did bronchoscopy with biopsy whose result was negative for malignancy. She went to surgery in where we find intraparenquima nodule in felt lingula of approximately 4 cms, we remove it; the result was: Inflammatory pseudotumor. This pathology is a not very frequent, it can develop in diverse regions of the organism, it is frequent in lung. The image tests are not specific for the diagnose, which it is possible only with the biopsy. The treatment is the complete resection. (The author)

  7. Inflammatory reaction in chondroblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamura, Sigeki [Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery, Nagoya Univ. School of Medicine (Japan); Sato, Keiji [Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery, Nagoya Univ. School of Medicine (Japan); Sugiura, Hideshi [Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery, Nagoya Univ. School of Medicine (Japan); Iwata, Hisashi [Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery, Nagoya Univ. School of Medicine (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the inflammatory reaction accompanying chondroblastoma and to define the value of the finding in clinical practice. We reviewed the clinical, radiographic, and magnetic resonance (MR) findings in six patients with histologically proven chondroblastoma. In all cases, MR imaging showered marrow and soft tissue edema. In four of six cases, periosteal reaction related to intra-osseous edema was more clearly demonstrated on MR imaging than on radiographs. Follow-up MR studies after surgery were available in three patients and all showed disappearance of inflammatory responses such as marrow and soft tissue edema, and reactive synovitis. We propose that these inflammatory reactions of chondroblastomas are inportant signs for detecting residual tumor in recurrences after surgery, as well as for making a precise diagnosis. The MR changes may also be valuable in demonstrating eradication of the tumor. (orig./MG)

  8. Safe transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Recently the Agency redefined its policy for education and training in radiation safety. The emphasis is now on long-term strategic planning of general education and training programmes. In line with this general policy the Agency's Standing Advisory Group for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (SAGSTRAM) in its 7th meeting (April 1989) agreed that increased training activity should be deployed in the area of transport. SAGSTRAM specifically recommended the development of a standard training programme on this subject area, including audio-visual aids, in order to assist Member States in the implementation of the Agency's Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. This training programme should be substantiated by a biennial training course which is thought to be held either as an Interregional or a Regional Course depending on demand. This training manual, issued as a first publication in the Training Course Series, represents the basic text material for future training courses in transport safety. The topic areas covered by this training manual and most of the texts have been developed from the course material used for the 1987 Bristol Interregional Course on Transport Safety. The training manual is intended to give guidance to the lecturers of a course and will be provided to the participants for retention. Refs, figs and tabs

  9. Safe Driving After Propofol Sedation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerlin-Grady, Lee; Austin, Paul N; Gabaldon, Dion A

    2017-10-01

    Propofol is a short-acting medication with fast cognitive and psychomotor recovery. However, patients are usually instructed not to drive a motor vehicle for 24 hours after receiving propofol. The purpose of this article was to review the evidence examining when it is safe to drive after receiving propofol for sedation for diagnostic and surgical procedures. This is a systematic review of the literature. A search of the literature was conducted using Google Scholar, PubMed, and the Cochrane Library for the time period 1990 to 2015. Two randomized controlled trials and two observational studies met the inclusion criteria. Using a simulator, investigators examined driving ability of subjects who received modest doses (about 100 mg) of propofol for endoscopic procedures and surveyed subjects who drove immediately after discharge. There were methodological concerns with the studies such as small sample sizes, modest doses of propofol, and three of the four studies were done in Japan by the same group of investigators limiting generalizability. This limited research suggests that it may be safe for patients to drive sooner than 24 hours after receiving propofol. However, large multicenter trials using heterogenous samples using a range of propofol doses are needed to support an evidence-based revision to the current discharge guidelines for patients receiving propofol. Copyright © 2016 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Keeping you safe by making machine tools safe

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    CERN’s third safety objective for 2012 concerns the safety of equipment - and machine tools in particular.   There are three prerequisites for ensuring that a machine tool can be used safely: ·      the machine tool must comply with Directive 2009/104/EC, ·      the layout of the workshop must be compliant, and ·      everyone who uses the machine tool must be trained. Provided these conditions are met, the workshop head can grant authorisation to use the machine tool. To fulfil this objective, an inventory of the machine tools must be drawn up and the people responsible for them identified. The HSE Unit's Safety Inspection Service produces compliance reports for the machine tools. In order to meet the third objective set by the Director-General, the section has doubled its capacity to carry out inspections: ...

  11. Vasculitis and inflammatory arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Richard A; Scott, David G I

    2016-10-01

    Vasculitis has been described in most types of inflammatory arthritis. The best described and most widely recognised form is rheumatoid vasculitis. The incidence of systemic rheumatoid vasculitis has declined significantly following the general early use of methotrexate in the 1990s, and it is now a rare form of vasculitis. Treatment of rheumatoid vasculitis is conventionally with glucocorticoids and cyclophosphamide, but there is an increasing role for rituximab similar to that in other types of vasculitis. Despite these developments the mortality of rheumatoid vasculitis remains high. Vasculitis in other types of inflammatory arthritis is less well described and the treatment remains empirical. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Dairy Foods in a Moderate Energy Restricted Diet Do Not Enhance Central Fat, Weight, and Intra-Abdominal Adipose Tissue Losses nor Reduce Adipocyte Size or Inflammatory Markers in Overweight and Obese Adults: A Controlled Feeding Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta D. Van Loan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Research on dairy foods to enhance weight and fat loss when incorporated into a modest weight loss diet has had mixed results. Objective. A 15-week controlled feeding study to determine if dairy foods enhance central fat and weight loss when incorporated in a modest energy restricted diet of overweight and obese adults. Design. A 3-week run-in to establish energy needs; a 12-week 500 kcal/d energy reduction with 71 low-dairy-consuming overweight and obese adults randomly assigned to diets: ≤1 serving dairy/d (low dairy, LD or ≤4 servings dairy/d (adequate dairy, AD. All foods were weighed and provided by the metabolic kitchen. Weight, fat, intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT macrophage number, SAT inflammatory gene expression, and circulating cytokines were measured. Results. No diet differences were observed in weight, fat, or IAAT loss; nor SAT mRNA expression of inflammation, circulating cytokines, fasting lipids, glucose, or insulin. There was a significant increase (P=0.02 in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the AD group. Conclusion. Whether increased dairy intake during weight loss results in greater weight and fat loss for individuals with metabolic syndrome deserves investigation. Assessment of appetite, hunger, and satiety with followup on weight regain should be considered.

  13. Carvedilol alleviates adjuvant-induced arthritis and subcutaneous air pouch edema: Modulation of oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arab, Hany H.; El-Sawalhi, Maha M.

    2013-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic inflammatory disease with cardiovascular complications as the leading cause of morbidity. Carvedilol is an adrenergic antagonist which has been safely used in treatment of several cardiovascular disorders. Given that carvedilol has powerful antioxidant/anti-inflammatory properties, we aimed to investigate its protective potential against arthritis that may add further benefits for its clinical usefulness especially in RA patients with concomitant cardiovascular disorders. Two models were studied in the same rat; adjuvant arthritis and subcutaneous air pouch edema. Carvedilol (10 mg/kg/day p.o. for 21 days) effectively suppressed inflammation in both models with comparable efficacy to the standard anti-inflammatory diclofenac (5 mg/kg/day p.o.). Notably, carvedilol inhibited paw edema and abrogated the leukocyte invasion to air pouch exudates. The latter observation was confirmed by the histopathological assessment of the pouch lining that revealed mitigation of immuno-inflammatory cell influx. Carvedilol reduced/normalized oxidative stress markers (lipid peroxides, nitric oxide and protein thiols) and lowered the release of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6), and eicosanoids (PGE 2 and LTB 4 ) in sera and exudates of arthritic rats. Interestingly, carvedilol, per se, didn't present any effect on assessed biochemical parameters in normal rats. Together, the current study highlights evidences for the promising anti-arthritic effects of carvedilol that could be mediated through attenuation of leukocyte migration, alleviation of oxidative stress and suppression of proinflammatory cytokines and eicosanoids. - Highlights: ► Carvedilol possesses promising anti-arthritic properties. ► It markedly suppressed inflammation in adjuvant arthritis and air pouch edema. ► It abrogated the leukocyte invasion to air pouch exudates and linings. ► It reduced/normalized oxidative stress markers in sera and exudates of arthritic rats

  14. Carvedilol alleviates adjuvant-induced arthritis and subcutaneous air pouch edema: Modulation of oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arab, Hany H., E-mail: hany_h_arab@yahoo.com [Biochemistry Division, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Taif University, Taif (Saudi Arabia); Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo (Egypt); El-Sawalhi, Maha M. [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2013-04-15

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic inflammatory disease with cardiovascular complications as the leading cause of morbidity. Carvedilol is an adrenergic antagonist which has been safely used in treatment of several cardiovascular disorders. Given that carvedilol has powerful antioxidant/anti-inflammatory properties, we aimed to investigate its protective potential against arthritis that may add further benefits for its clinical usefulness especially in RA patients with concomitant cardiovascular disorders. Two models were studied in the same rat; adjuvant arthritis and subcutaneous air pouch edema. Carvedilol (10 mg/kg/day p.o. for 21 days) effectively suppressed inflammation in both models with comparable efficacy to the standard anti-inflammatory diclofenac (5 mg/kg/day p.o.). Notably, carvedilol inhibited paw edema and abrogated the leukocyte invasion to air pouch exudates. The latter observation was confirmed by the histopathological assessment of the pouch lining that revealed mitigation of immuno-inflammatory cell influx. Carvedilol reduced/normalized oxidative stress markers (lipid peroxides, nitric oxide and protein thiols) and lowered the release of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6), and eicosanoids (PGE{sub 2} and LTB{sub 4}) in sera and exudates of arthritic rats. Interestingly, carvedilol, per se, didn't present any effect on assessed biochemical parameters in normal rats. Together, the current study highlights evidences for the promising anti-arthritic effects of carvedilol that could be mediated through attenuation of leukocyte migration, alleviation of oxidative stress and suppression of proinflammatory cytokines and eicosanoids. - Highlights: ► Carvedilol possesses promising anti-arthritic properties. ► It markedly suppressed inflammation in adjuvant arthritis and air pouch edema. ► It abrogated the leukocyte invasion to air pouch exudates and linings. ► It reduced/normalized oxidative stress markers in sera and exudates of

  15. Is renewable energy 100% environmentally safe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasr, Ali Ahmed

    2006-01-01

    Renewable energy (RE) concerned are usually optimistic in introducing RE as environmentally safe resource. This might be reasonably acceptable when compared with conventional energy resources, there should be some side effects however. Those effects, and critics, when considered and possibly avoided, RE sources will be environmentally more acceptable and as a result will be appreciated by consumers. In this paper we try to investigate and point out some of these critics, and negative impacts by examining examples of some RE systems and how different solutions were tackled and partially managed. Through Re resources have advantages over other resources, when environmental issues are considered, there still exists, however, some negative impacts on the environment caused by RE resources. Present study showed that the above mentioned impacts can be reduced to some reasonable level.(Author)

  16. An inherently safe power reactor module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salerno, L.N.

    1985-01-01

    General Electric's long participation in liquid metal reactor technology has led to a Power Reactor Inherently Safe Module (PRISM) concept supported by DOE contract DE-AC06-85NE37937. The reactor module is sized to maximize inherent safety features. The small size allows factory fabrication, reducing field construction and field QA/QC labor, and allows safety to be demonstrated in full scale, to support a pre-licensed standard commercial product. The module is small enough to be placed underground, and can be combined with steam and electrical generating equipment to provide a complete electrical power producing plant in the range of 400-1200 MWe. Initial assessments are that the concept has the potential to be economically competitive with existing methods of power production used by the utility industry

  17. Dementia - keeping safe in the home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000031.htm Dementia - keeping safe in the home To use the ... make sure the homes of people who have dementia are safe for them. Safety Tips for the ...

  18. Breastfeeding FAQs: Safely Storing Breast Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search English Español Breastfeeding FAQs: Safely Storing Breast Milk KidsHealth / For Parents / Breastfeeding FAQs: Safely Storing Breast ... may have. How do I store my breast milk? You can freeze and/or refrigerate your pumped ( ...

  19. [Towards safe motherhood. World Health Day].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plata, M I

    1998-06-01

    The objective of the 'safe motherhood' initiative is to reduce maternal mortality by 50% by the year 2000. A strong policy is needed to permit development of national and international programs. The lifetime risk of death from causes related to complications of pregnancy is estimated at 1/16 in Africa, 1/65 in Asia, 1/130 in Latin America and the Caribbean, 1/1400 in Europe, and 1/3700 in North America. A minimum of 585,000 women die of maternal causes each year, with nearly 90% of the deaths occurring in Asia and Africa. Approximately 50 million women suffer from illnesses related to childbearing. A principal cause of maternal mortality is lack of medical care during labor, delivery, and the postpartum period. Motherhood will become safe if governments, multilateral and bilateral funding agencies, and nongovernmental organizations give it the high priority it requires. Women also die because they lack rights. Their reduced decision-making power and inequitable access to family and social resources prevents them from overcoming barriers to health care. Women die when they begin childbearing at a very young age, yet an estimated 11% of births throughout the world each year are to adolescents. Adolescents have very limited access to family planning, either through legal restrictions or obstacles created by family planning workers. Maternal deaths would be avoided if all births were attended by trained health workers; an estimated 60 million births annually are not. Prevention of unwanted pregnancy and, thus, of the 50 million abortions estimated to take place each year would avoid over 200 maternal deaths each day. Unsafe abortions account for 13% of maternal deaths. The evidence demonstrates that rates of unsafe abortion and abortion mortality are higher where laws are more restrictive.

  20. Working safely with electronics racks

    CERN Document Server

    Simon Baird, HSE Unit Head

    2016-01-01

    Think of CERN and you’ll probably think of particle accelerators and detectors. These are the tools of the trade in particle physics, but behind them are the racks of electronics that include power supplies, control systems and data acquisition networks.   Inside an electronics rack: danger could be lurking if the rack is not powered off. In routine operation, these are no more harmful than the home entertainment system in your living room. But unscrew the cover and it’s a different matter. Even after following appropriate training, and with formal authorisation from your group leader or equivalent to carry out electrical work or any work in the vicinity of electrical hazards, and even with extensive experience of carrying out such operations, it’s important to incorporate safe working practices into your routine. At CERN, before the racks of electronics reach their operational configurations for the accelerators and detectors, they play a vital role in test set-ups ...

  1. Workshop on Developing Safe Software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, J.D.

    1994-11-01

    The Workshop on Developing Safe Software was held July 22--23, 1992, at the Hotel del Coronado, San Diego, California. The purpose of the workshop was to have four world experts discuss among themselves software safety issues which are of interest to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. These issues concern the development of software systems for use in nuclear power plant protection systems. The workshop comprised four sessions. Wednesday morning, July 22, consisted of presentations from each of the four panel members. On Wednesday afternoon, the panel members went through a list of possible software development techniques and commented on them. The Thursday morning, July 23, session consisted of an extended discussion among the panel members and the observers from the NRC. A final session on Thursday afternoon consisted of a discussion among the NRC observers as to what was learned from the workshop

  2. Workshop on developing safe software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    The Workshop on Developing Safe Software was held July 22--23 at the Hotel del Coronado, San Diego, California. The purpose of the workshop was to have four world experts discuss among themselves software safety issues which are of interest to the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). These issues concern the development of software systems for use in nuclear power plant protection systems. The workshop comprised four sessions. Wednesday morning, July 22, consisted of presentations from each of the four panel members. On Wednesday afternoon, the panel members went through a list of possible software development techniques and commented on them. The Thursday morning, July 23, session consisted of an extended discussion among the panel members and the observers from the NRC. A final session on Thursday afternoon consisted of a discussion among the NRC observers as to what was teamed from the workshop

  3. The Difference Safe Spaces Make

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendric Coleman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT students have become very visible at Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs, but this visibility is not reflected in some colleges’ student programs and activities. Only a few notable HBCUs, such as Howard University and Spelman College, have made a concerted effort. Acknowledging that the LGBT community is significant and exists, and fostering such support, comes up against a steep wall of religious tradition and doctrines, and conservative administrations. It is imperative that HBCUs address LGBT issues and create and support a safe space for students to articulate their identity. Meanwhile, many LGBT students on these campuses find voice and understanding in Black scholars and writers such as Audre Lorde’s Zami: A New Spelling of My Name and Charles Michael Smith’s Fighting Words: Personal Essays by Black Gay Men.

  4. Safe Distribution of Declarative Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, Thomas; Mukkamala, Raghava Rao; Slaats, Tijs

    2011-01-01

    of projections that covers a DCR Graph that the network of synchronously communicating DCR Graphs given by the projections is bisimilar to the original global process graph. We exemplify the distribution technique on a process identified in a case study of an cross-organizational case management system carried...... process model generalizing labelled prime event structures to a systems model able to finitely represent ω-regular languages. An operational semantics given as a transition semantics between markings of the graph allows DCR Graphs to be conveniently used as both specification and execution model....... The technique for distribution is based on a new general notion of projection of DCR Graphs relative to a subset of labels and events identifying the set of external events that must be communicated from the other processes in the network in order for the distribution to be safe.We prove that for any vector...

  5. Spark-safe power source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mester, I M; Konushkin, N A; Nevozinskiy, A K; Rubinshteyn, B Sh; Serov, V I; Vasnev, M A

    1981-01-01

    A shortcoming of the known power sources is their low reliability. The purpose of the invention is to improve the reliability of the device. This is achieved because the spark-safe power source is equipped with a by-passing transistor and potentiometer, and also a generator of control interruptions in the circuit, an I-element, first separating transformer, control block, second separating transformer whose secondary winding has a relay winding whose contacts are connected to the load circuit are connected in series. The generator of control separations of the circuit is connected to the base of the by-passing transistor and to the power source outlet, the potentiometer is connected in series to the main thyristor. The middle point of the potentiometer is connected to the second inlet of the I-element.

  6. Renal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heerwagen, S T; Jensen, C; Bagi, P

    2007-01-01

    Renal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a rare soft-tissue tumor of controversial etiology with a potential for local recurrence after incomplete surgical resection. The radiological findings in renal IMT are not well described. We report two cases in adults with a renal mass treated...

  7. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a serious condition, in women. 1 in 8 women with a history of PID experience difficulties getting pregnant. You can prevent PID if you know how to protect yourself. What is PID? Pelvic inflammatory disease is an infection of a woman’s reproductive organs. It is a complication often caused ...

  8. Inflammatory bowel disease epidemiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burisch, Johan; Munkholm, Pia

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing worldwide, yet the reasons remain unknown. New therapeutic approaches have been introduced in medical IBD therapy, but their impact on the natural history of IBD remains uncertain. This review will summarize the recent findings...

  9. Safe injection procedures, injection practices, and needlestick ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Safe injection procedures regarding final waste disposal were sufficiently adopted, while measures regarding disposable injection equipment, waste containers, hand hygiene, as well as injection practices were inadequately carried out. Lack of job aid posters that promote safe injection and safe disposal of ...

  10. Developing Safe Schools Partnerships with Law Enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosiak, John

    2009-01-01

    Safe schools are the concern of communities throughout the world. If a school is safe, and if children feel safe, students "are better able to learn. But what are the steps to make" this happen? First, it is important to understand the problem: What are the threats to school safety? These include crime-related behaviors that find their way to…

  11. The SafeBoosC phase II clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riera, Joan; Hyttel-Sorensen, Simon; Bravo, María Carmen

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The SafeBoosC phase II randomised clinical trial recently demonstrated the benefits of a combination of cerebral regional tissue oxygen saturation (rStO2) by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and a treatment guideline to reduce the oxygen imbalance in extremely preterm infants. AIMS: ...

  12. Keeping It Safe: Aging in Place among Rural Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peek, Gina G.; Bishop, Alex J.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study addressed in this article was to identify ways to reduce risk and improve safe aging in place among rural older adults. Resident and Extension faculty and county educators visited study participants at home to assess functional capacity and the home environment. Extension professionals may be uniquely positioned to provide…

  13. Chemical composition, acute toxicity, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Moroccan Tetraclinis articulata L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Jemli, Meryem; Kamal, Rabie; Marmouzi, Ilias; Doukkali, Zouhra; Bouidida, El Houcine; Touati, Driss; Nejjari, Rachid; El Guessabi, Lahcen; Cherrah, Yahia; Alaoui, Katim

    2017-07-01

    Hydro-distilled essential oil (EO) from the leaves of the western Mediterranean and Moroccan endemic plant Tetraclinis articulata was analyzed by GC/MS and examined for its acute toxicity on mice, in order to establish the safe doses. Furthermore, the anti-Inflammatory activity was evaluated based on carrageenan and trauma induced rats paw edema and the antioxidant potential has been investigated using different methods including DPPH radical-scavenging assay, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and Ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP). The major identified compounds in GC/MS analysis were bornyl acetate (26.81%), camphor (22.40%) and α-pinene (7.16%), with 25 other minor constituents. No mortalities in acute toxicity were observed, indicating that the LD 50 of T. articulata essential oil is highest than 5 g/kg. In the anti-inflammatory test based on chemical and mechanical induced trauma, the EO demonstrated an effective reduce swelling by 64.71 ± 9.38% and 69.09 ± 6.02% respectively obtained 6 h after administration at the dose of 200 mg/kg when compared to the control groups. Moreover in the antioxidant testing battery, T. articulata essential oil showed a promising scavenging effect measured by DPPH, TEAC and ferric-reducing power assays with IC 50 values of 12.05 ± 0.24 mg/mL, 8.90 ± 0.17 mg/mL and 0.15 ± 0.01 mg/mL respectively. These results suggest that, the EO from the leaves of T. articulata constitutes a valuable source of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant metabolites. These findings argue for the possible integration of this oil in pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries.

  14. Chemical composition, acute toxicity, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Moroccan Tetraclinis articulata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meryem El Jemli

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydro-distilled essential oil (EO from the leaves of the western Mediterranean and Moroccan endemic plant Tetraclinis articulata was analyzed by GC/MS and examined for its acute toxicity on mice, in order to establish the safe doses. Furthermore, the anti-Inflammatory activity was evaluated based on carrageenan and trauma induced rats paw edema and the antioxidant potential has been investigated using different methods including DPPH radical-scavenging assay, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC and Ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP. The major identified compounds in GC/MS analysis were bornyl acetate (26.81%, camphor (22.40% and α-pinene (7.16%, with 25 other minor constituents. No mortalities in acute toxicity were observed, indicating that the LD50 of T. articulata essential oil is highest than 5 g/kg. In the anti-inflammatory test based on chemical and mechanical induced trauma, the EO demonstrated an effective reduce swelling by 64.71 ± 9.38% and 69.09 ± 6.02% respectively obtained 6 h after administration at the dose of 200 mg/kg when compared to the control groups. Moreover in the antioxidant testing battery, T. articulata essential oil showed a promising scavenging effect measured by DPPH, TEAC and ferric-reducing power assays with IC50 values of 12.05 ± 0.24 mg/mL, 8.90 ± 0.17 mg/mL and 0.15 ± 0.01 mg/mL respectively. These results suggest that, the EO from the leaves of T. articulata constitutes a valuable source of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant metabolites. These findings argue for the possible integration of this oil in pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries.

  15. Boswellia serrata Preserves Intestinal Epithelial Barrier from Oxidative and Inflammatory Damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Catanzaro

    Full Text Available Aminosalicylates, corticosteroids and immunosuppressants are currently the therapeutic choices in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD, however, with limited remission and often serious side effects. Meanwhile complementary and alternative medicine (CAM use is increasing, particularly herbal medicine. Boswellia serrata is a traditional Ayurvedic remedy with anti-inflammatory properties, of interest for its usefulness in IBDs. The mechanism of this pharmacological potential of Boswellia serrata was investigated in colonic epithelial cell monolayers exposed to H2O2 or INF-γ+TNF-α, chosen as in vitro experimental model of intestinal inflammation. The barrier function was evaluated by the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER and paracellular permeability assay, and by the tight junction proteins (zonula occludens-1, ZO-1 and occludin immunofluorescence. The expression of phosphorylated NF-κB and reactive oxygen species (ROS generation were determined by immunoblot and cytofluorimetric assay, respectively. Boswellia serrata oleo-gum extract (BSE and its pure derivative acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid (AKBA, were tested at 0.1-10 μg/ml and 0.027 μg/ml, respectively. BSE and AKBA safety was demonstrated by no alteration of intestinal cell viability and barrier function and integrity biomarkers. H2O2 or INF-γ+TNF-α treatment of Caco-2 cell monolayers significantly reduced TEER, increased paracellular permeability and caused the disassembly of tight junction proteins occludin and ZO-1. BSE and AKBA pretreatment significantly prevented functional and morphological alterations and also the NF-κB phosphorylation induced by the inflammatory stimuli. At the same concentrations BSE and AKBA counteracted the increase of ROS caused by H2O2 exposure. Data showed the positive correlation of the antioxidant activity with the mechanism involved in the physiologic maintenance of the integrity and function of the intestinal epithelium. This study

  16. Anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of Tagetes minuta essential oil in activated macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimian, Parastoo; Kavoosi, Gholamreza; Amirghofran, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of Tagetes minuta (T. minuta) essential oil. Methods In the present study T. minuta essential oil was obtained from leaves of T. minuta via hydro-distillation and then was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The anti-oxidant capacity of T. minuta essential oil was examined by measuring reactive oxygen, reactive nitrogen species and hydrogen peroxide scavenging. The anti-inflammatory activity of T. minuta essential oil was determined through measuring NADH oxidase, inducible nitric oxide synthase and TNF-α mRNA expression in lipopolysacharide-stimulated murine macrophages using real-time PCR. Results Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis indicated that the main components in the T. minuta essential oil were dihydrotagetone (33.86%), E-ocimene (19.92%), tagetone (16.15%), cis-β-ocimene (7.94%), Z-ocimene (5.27%), limonene (3.1%) and epoxyocimene (2.03%). The T. minuta essential oil had the ability to scavenge all reactive oxygen/reactive nitrogen species radicals with IC50 12-15 µg/mL, which indicated a potent radical scavenging activity. In addition, T. minuta essential oil significantly reduced NADH oxidase, inducible nitric oxide synthaseand TNF-α mRNA expression in the cells at concentrations of 50 µg/mL, indicating a capacity of this product to potentially modulate/diminish immune responses. Conclusions T. minuta essential oil has radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory activities and could potentially be used as a safe effective source of natural anti-oxidants in therapy against oxidative damage and stress associated with some inflammatory conditions. PMID:25182441

  17. Anti-inflammatory effects and anti-oxidant capacity of Myrathius arboreus (Cecropiaceae) in experimental models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwole, Oluwafemi Gabriel; Ologe, Olufunmilayo; Alabi, Akinyinka; Tunde Yusuf, Ganiyu; Umukoro, Solomon

    2017-11-27

    Inflammation is involved in various diseases; search for safe treatments is warranted. Anti-inflammatory effects of ethanol extract of Myrathius arboreus (EEMa) were studied in carrageenan-induced model, formaldehyde sub-acute-induced model, and in 48 h lipopolysaccharide-induced air pouch model of inflammation. EEMa membrane-stabilizing activities and anti-oxidant capacity were determined in vitro. In the carrageenan model EEMa (125, 250, or 500 mg/kg), indomethacin (5 mg/kg), or vehicle 3 mL/kg was administered orally in rats (n=5). After 1 h, 0.1 mL of 1% carrageenan was injected into the right hind paw of rats. Change in edema sizes was measured for 3 h with plethysmometer. One-tenth milliliter (0.1 mL) of 2.5% formaldehyde was injected into the rat paw on the first day and the third day to induce sub-acute inflammation; changes in the edema sizes were determined, and percentages of inhibitions were calculated. Anti-inflammatory effects of EEMa were further examined in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced air-pouch based on leukocytes count, volume of exudates, levels of malondialdehyde, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, nitric oxides, and tumor necrosis factor released into the inflammatory fluids. EEMa-free radicals scavenging activities were studied in DPPH and reducing power tests. Membrane-stabilizing activities of EEMa were evaluated in the red blood cell lysis induced by thermal and hypotonic solution. EEMa (250, 500 mg/kg) produced significant (p<0.001; p<0.05) inhibition of inflammation when compared with vehicle. Also, EEMa (250, 500, or 1000 μg/mL) significantly stabilized membrane and produced free radical scavenging activities. M. arboreus possesses anti-inflammatory and the anti-oxidant properties that might benefit translational medicine.

  18. Efficacy and safety of bisphosphonates in management of low bone density in inflammatory bowel disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Liwei; Wang, Haiqing; Dong, Wenwei; Liu, Zhenxin; Mao, Haijiao

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This study aims to determine whether bisphosphonates are safe, as well as effective against bone mineral loss in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). A computerized search of electronic databases from 1966 to 2016 was performed. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included in this review to evaluate the role of bisphosphonates in the management of osteoporosis in IBD patients. A revised 7-point Jadad scale was used to evaluate the quality of each study. Overall, 13 RCTs and 923 patients met the inclusion criteria of this meta-analysis. The result showed that bisphosphonates decreased bone mass density (BMD) loss at the lumbar spine (P = 0.0002), reduced the risk of new fractures (P = 0.01), and retained the similar adverse events (P = 0.86). Bisphosphonates may provide protection and safety against bone mineral loss in IBD patients. PMID:28099343

  19. Coprescribing proton-pump inhibitors with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: risks versus benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwee KA

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Kok Ann Gwee,1 Vernadine Goh,2 Graca Lima,3 Sajita Setia4 1Stomach, Liver, and Bowel Centre, Gleneagles Hospital, 2Department of Pharmacy, National University of Singapore, Singapore; 3Global Medical Affairs, Asia-Pacific Region, Pfizer, Hong Kong; 4Medical Affairs, Pfizer, Singapore Abstract: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are often coadministered with proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs to reduce NSAID-induced gastrointestinal (GI adverse events. This coadministration is generally regarded as safe, and is included in many of the guidelines on NSAID prescription. However, recent evidence indicates that the GI risks associated with NSAIDs can be potentiated when they are combined with PPIs. This review discusses the GI effects and complications of NSAIDs and how PPIs may potentiate these effects, options for prevention of GI side effects, and appropriate use of PPIs in combination with NSAIDs. Keywords: PPIs, COX2 inhibitors, NSAIDs, enteropathy, gastrointestinal

  20. The role of laparoscopic surgery in the management of children and adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Anna E; Sashittal, Shikha G; Chatzizacharias, Nikolaos A; Davies, R Justin

    2015-05-01

    Although laparoscopic surgery is readily used in the management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in adults, its role in the surgical treatment of IBD in the pediatric population is not well established. The aim of this narrative review was to analyze the published evidence comparing laparoscopic and open resection in the management of children and adolescents with IBD. The Pubmed and Embase databases were searched using the terms "inflammatory bowel disease," "children," "adolescents," "laparoscopic," and "colectomy." The review identified 10 appropriate studies. Even though laparoscopic surgery generally resulted in longer operating times (between a mean of 40 and 140 min), benefits included reduced postoperative pain (mean duration of opiate use 3 vs 6 days) and reduced length of stay (median length of stay 5-8 vs 10.5-19 days) compared with open surgery. Postoperative complication rates were similar following both approaches. Due to the limited available data and the small sample size of the published series, definite recommendations are not able to be drawn. Nevertheless, current evidence indicates that laparoscopic colorectal resection is safe and feasible in the management of IBD in the paediatric population, with reductions in postoperative pain and length of hospital stay achievable.

  1. [Non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and rheumatic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossermelli, W; Pastor, E H

    1995-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) comprise an important class of medicaments that reduced the symptoms of inflamation in rheumatic disease. This article emphasizes similarities and class characteristics of the NSAID, mechanisms of action, and drug-interactions.

  2. Eye safe laser range finders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snir, M.; Margaliot, M.; Amitzi, A.

    2004-01-01

    During the 1970's, Ruby (Q switched) laser based range finders with a wavelength of 694nm were first used. These lasers operated in a pulse mode within the visible light range and produced a risk for the eye retina. The laser beam striking the macula could damage the eye and might cause blindness. Over the years, Nd:YAG (Q switched) lasers were developed (operating at 1064nm) for range finding and designation uses. The wavelength of these lasers, operating in the near Infra-Red range (invisible), is also focused tightly on the retina. The human eye does not respond to the invisible light so there is no natural protection (eye blink reflex) as in the visible light. The operation of these lasers worldwide, especially when the laser beam is exposed, causes occasional eye accidents. Another risk is stemming from the use of observation systems with a high optical gain, in the laser operation areas, which enlarge the range of risk quite significantly. Therefore, research and development efforts were invested in order to introduce eye safe lasers. One of the solutions for this problem is presented in following document

  3. Working safely with radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, Wynne

    1993-01-01

    In common with exposure to many other laboratory chemicals, exposure to ionising radiations and to radioactive materials carries a small risk of causing harm. Because of this, there are legal limits to the amount of exposure to ionising radiations at work and special rules for working with radioactive materials. Although radiation protection is a complex subject it is possible to simplify to 10 basic things you should do -the Golden Rules. They are: 1) understand the nature of the hazard and get practical training; 2) plan ahead to minimise time spent handling radioactivity; 3) distance yourself appropriately from sources of radiation; 4) use appropriate shielding for the radiation; 5) contain radioactive materials in defined work areas; 6) wear appropriate protective clothing and dosimeters; 7) monitor the work area frequently for contamination control; 8) follow the local rules and safe ways of working; 9) minimise accumulation of waste and dispose of it by appropriate routes, and 10) after completion of work, monitor, wash, and monitor yourself again. These rules are expanded in this article. (author)

  4. Materials for passively safe reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simnad, T.

    1993-01-01

    Future nuclear power capacity will be based on reactor designs that include passive safety features if recent progress in advanced nuclear power developments is realized. There is a high potential for nuclear systems that are smaller and easier to operate than the current generation of reactors, especially when passive or intrinsic characteristics are applied to provide inherent stability of the chain reaction and to minimize the burden on equipment and operating personnel. Taylor, has listed the following common generic technical features as the most important goals for the principal reactor development systems: passive stability, simplification, ruggedness, case of operation, and modularity. Economic competitiveness also depends on standardization and assurance of licensing. The performance of passively safe reactors will be greatly influenced by the successful development of advanced fuels and materials that will provide lower fuel-cycle costs. A dozen new designs of advanced power reactors have been described recently, covering a wide spectrum of reactor types, including pressurized water reactors, boiling water reactors, heavy-water reactors, modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (MHTGRs), and fast breeder reactors. These new designs address the need for passive safety features as well as the requirement of economic competitiveness

  5. Safe and green nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushwaha, H.S.

    2010-01-01

    Energy development plays an important role in the national economic growth. Presently the per capita consumption of energy in our country is about 750 kWh including captive power generation which is low in comparison to that in the developed countries like USA where it is about 12,000 kWh. As of now the total installed capacity of electricity generation is about 152,148 MW(e) which is drawn from Thermal (65%), Hydel (24%), Nuclear (3%) power plants and Renewables (8%). It is expected that by the end of year 2020, the required installed capacity would be more than 3,00,000 MW(e), if we assume per capita consumption of about 800-1000 kWh for Indian population of well over one billion. To meet the projected power requirement in India, suitable options need to be identified and explored for generation of electricity. For choosing better alternatives various factors such as availability of resources, potential to generate commercial power, economic viability, etc. need to be considered. Besides these factors, an important factor which must be taken into consideration is protection of environment around the operating power stations. This paper attempts to demonstrate that the nuclear power generation is an environmentally benign option for meeting the future requirement of electricity in India. It also discusses the need for creating the public awareness about the safe operations of the nuclear power plants and ionising radiation. (author)

  6. SAFE testing nuclear rockets economically

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, Steven D.; Travis, Bryan; Zerkle, David K.

    2003-01-01

    Several studies over the past few decades have recognized the need for advanced propulsion to explore the solar system. As early as the 1960s, Werner Von Braun and others recognized the need for a nuclear rocket for sending humans to Mars. The great distances, the intense radiation levels, and the physiological response to zero-gravity all supported the concept of using a nuclear rocket to decrease mission time. These same needs have been recognized in later studies, especially in the Space Exploration Initiative in 1989. One of the key questions that has arisen in later studies, however, is the ability to test a nuclear rocket engine in the current societal environment. Unlike the Rover/NERVA programs in the 1960s, the rocket exhaust can no longer be vented to the open atmosphere. As a consequence, previous studies have examined the feasibility of building a large-scale version of the Nuclear Furnace Scrubber that was demonstrated in 1971. We have investigated an alternative that would deposit the rocket exhaust along with any entrained fission products directly into the ground. The Subsurface Active Filtering of Exhaust, or SAFE, concept would allow variable sized engines to be tested for long times at a modest expense. A system overview, results of preliminary calculations, and cost estimates of proof of concept demonstrations are presented. The results indicate that a nuclear rocket could be tested at the Nevada Test Site for under $20 M

  7. The systemic inflammatory response syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Charles M; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2006-04-01

    The systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is the body's response to an infectious or noninfectious insult. Although the definition of SIRS refers to it as an "inflammatory" response, it actually has pro- and anti-inflammatory components. This review outlines the pathophysiology of SIRS and highlights potential targets for future therapeutic intervention in patients with this complex entity.

  8. A 'simple anterior fish excluder' (SAFE for mitigating penaeid-trawl bycatch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J McHugh

    Full Text Available Various plastic strips and sheets (termed 'simple anterior fish excluders'-SAFEs were positioned across the openings of penaeid trawls in attempts at reducing the unwanted bycatches of small teleosts. Initially, three SAFEs (a single wire without, and with small and large plastic panels were compared against a control (no SAFE on paired beam trawls. All SAFEs maintained targeted Metapenaeus macleayi catches, while the largest plastic SAFE significantly reduced total bycatch by 51% and the numbers of Pomatomus saltatrix, Mugil cephalus and Herklotsichthys castelnaui by up to 58%. A redesigned SAFE ('continuous plastic' was subsequently tested (against a control on paired otter trawls, significantly reducing total bycatch by 28% and P. saltatrix and H. castelnaui by up to 42%. The continuous-plastic SAFE also significantly reduced M. macleayi catches by ~7%, but this was explained by ~5% less wing-end spread, and could be simply negated through otter-board refinement. Further work is required to refine the tested SAFEs, and to quantify species-specific escape mechanisms. Nevertheless, the SAFE concept might represent an effective approach for improving penaeid-trawl selectivity.

  9. The SafeCOP ECSEL Project: Safe Cooperating Cyber-Physical Systems Using Wireless Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul; Scholle, Detlef; Hansson, Hans

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the ECSEL project entitled "Safe Cooperating Cyber-Physical Systems using Wireless Communication" (SafeCOP), which runs during the period 2016 -- 2019. SafeCOP targets safety-related Cooperating Cyber-Physical Systems (CO-CPS) characterised by use of wireless...... detection of abnormal behaviour, triggering if needed a safe degraded mode. SafeCOP will also develop methods and tools, which will be used to produce safety assurance evidence needed to certify cooperative functions. SafeCOP will extend current wireless technologies to ensure safe and secure cooperation...

  10. Antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and toxicological evaluation of semi-synthetic molecules obtained from a benzyl-isothiocyanate isolated from Moringa oleifera Lam. in a temporomandibular joint inflammatory hypernociception model in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Alain Oliveira; do Val, Danielle Rocha; da Silveira, Felipe Dantas; Gomes, Francisco Isaac Fernandes; Freitas, Hermany Capistrano; de Assis, Ellen Lima; de Almeida, Diana Kelly Castro; da Silva, Igor Iuco Castro; Barbosa, Francisco Geraldo; Mafezoli, Jair; da Silva, Marcos Reinaldo; de Castro Brito, Gerly Anne; Clemente-Napimoga, Juliana Trindade; de Paulo Teixera Pinto, Vicente de Paulo Teixeira; Filho, Gerardo Cristino; Bezerra, Mirna Marques; Chaves, Hellíada Vasconcelos

    2018-02-01

    Inflammation is a key component of many clinical conditions that affect the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and Moringa oleifera Lam. has been used to treat inflammatory diseases. Here, we evaluated the toxicological effects on mice of a naturally-occurring isothiocyanate from M. oleifera and its seven analogue molecules. Further, the anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects on a rat model of TMJ inflammatory hypernociception were assessed. The systemic toxicological profile was determined in mice over a 14-day period: MC-1 1 μg/kg; MC-D1 1 μg/kg, MC-D3 100 μg/kg, MC-D6 1 μg/kg, MC-D7 1 μg/kg, MC-D8 1 μg/kg, MC-D9 10 μg/kg, and MC-H 1 μg/kg. The safest molecules were assayed for anti-nociceptive efficacy in the formalin (1.5%, 50 μL) and serotonin (255 mg) induced TMJ inflammatory hypernociception tests. The anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated through the vascular permeability assay using Evans blue. Further, the rota-rod test evaluated any motor impairment. Among the tested molecules, MC-D7, MC-D9, and MC-H were not toxic at the survival rate test, biochemical, and hystological analysis. They reduced the formalin-induced TMJ inflammatory hypernociception, but only MC-H decreased the serotonin-induced TMJ inflammation, suggesting an adrenergic receptor-dependent effect. They diminished the plasmatic extravasation, showing anti-inflammatory activity. At the rota-rod test, no difference was observed in comparison with control groups, reinforcing the hypothesis of anti-nociceptive effetc without motor impairment in animals. The analogues MC-D7, MC-D9, and MC-H were safe at the tested doses and efficient in reducing the formalin-induced TMJ hypernociception in rats. Our next steps include determining their mechanisms of anti-nociceptive action. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Chitosan drives anti-inflammatory macrophage polarisation and pro-inflammatory dendritic cell stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MI Oliveira

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Macrophages and dendritic cells (DC share the same precursor and play key roles in immunity. Modulation of their behaviour to achieve an optimal host response towards an implanted device is still a challenge. Here we compare the differentiation process and polarisation of these related cell populations and show that they exhibit different responses to chitosan (Ch, with human monocyte-derived macrophages polarising towards an anti-inflammatory phenotype while their DC counterparts display pro-inflammatory features. Macrophages and DC, whose interactions with biomaterials are frequently analysed using fully differentiated cells, were cultured directly on Ch films, rather than exposed to the polymer after complete differentiation. Ch was the sole stimulating factor and activated both macrophages and DC, without leading to significant T cell proliferation. After 10 d on Ch, macrophages significantly down-regulated expression of pro-inflammatory markers, CD86 and MHCII. Production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, particularly TNF-α, decreased with time for cells cultured on Ch, while anti-inflammatory IL-10 and TGF-β1, significantly increased. Altogether, these results suggest an M2c polarisation. Also, macrophage matrix metalloproteinase activity was augmented and cell motility was stimulated by Ch. Conversely, DC significantly enhanced CD86 expression, reduced IL-10 secretion and increased TNF-α and IL-1β levels. Our findings indicate that cells with a common precursor may display different responses, when challenged by the same biomaterial. Moreover, they help to further comprehend macrophage/DC interactions with Ch and the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory signals associated with implant biomaterials. We propose that an overall pro-inflammatory reaction may hide the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines, likely relevant for tissue repair/regeneration.

  12. Safe prescribing: a titanic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routledge, Philip A

    2012-10-01

    The challenge to achieve safe prescribing merits the adjective 'titanic'. The organisational and human errors leading to poor prescribing (e.g. underprescribing, overprescribing, misprescribing or medication errors) have parallels in the organisational and human errors that led to the loss of the Titanic 100 years ago this year. Prescribing can be adversely affected by communication failures, critical conditions, complacency, corner cutting, callowness and a lack of courage of conviction, all of which were also factors leading to the Titanic tragedy. These issues need to be addressed by a commitment to excellence, the final component of the 'Seven C's'. Optimal prescribing is dependent upon close communication and collaborative working between highly trained health professionals, whose role is to ensure maximum clinical effectiveness, whilst also protecting their patients from avoidable harm. Since humans are prone to error, and the environments in which they work are imperfect, it is not surprising that medication errors are common, occurring more often during the prescribing stage than during dispensing or administration. A commitment to excellence in prescribing includes a continued focus on lifelong learning (including interprofessional learning) in pharmacology and therapeutics. This should be accompanied by improvements in the clinical working environment of prescribers, and the encouragement of a strong safety culture (including reporting of adverse incidents as well as suspected adverse drug reactions whenever appropriate). Finally, members of the clinical team must be prepared to challenge each other, when necessary, to ensure that prescribing combines the highest likelihood of benefit with the lowest potential for harm. © 2012 The Author. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  13. Safe prescribing: a titanic challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routledge, Philip A

    2012-01-01

    The challenge to achieve safe prescribing merits the adjective ‘titanic’. The organisational and human errors leading to poor prescribing (e.g. underprescribing, overprescribing, misprescribing or medication errors) have parallels in the organisational and human errors that led to the loss of the Titanic 100 years ago this year. Prescribing can be adversely affected by communication failures, critical conditions, complacency, corner cutting, callowness and a lack of courage of conviction, all of which were also factors leading to the Titanic tragedy. These issues need to be addressed by a commitment to excellence, the final component of the ‘Seven C's’. Optimal prescribing is dependent upon close communication and collaborative working between highly trained health professionals, whose role is to ensure maximum clinical effectiveness, whilst also protecting their patients from avoidable harm. Since humans are prone to error, and the environments in which they work are imperfect, it is not surprising that medication errors are common, occurring more often during the prescribing stage than during dispensing or administration. A commitment to excellence in prescribing includes a continued focus on lifelong learning (including interprofessional learning) in pharmacology and therapeutics. This should be accompanied by improvements in the clinical working environment of prescribers, and the encouragement of a strong safety culture (including reporting of adverse incidents as well as suspected adverse drug reactions whenever appropriate). Finally, members of the clinical team must be prepared to challenge each other, when necessary, to ensure that prescribing combines the highest likelihood of benefit with the lowest potential for harm. PMID:22738396

  14. In vivo immune signatures of healthy human pregnancy: Inherently inflammatory or anti-inflammatory?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Graham

    Full Text Available Changes in maternal innate immunity during healthy human pregnancy are not well understood. Whether basal immune status in vivo is largely unaffected by pregnancy, is constitutively biased towards an inflammatory phenotype (transiently enhancing host defense or exhibits anti-inflammatory bias (reducing potential responsiveness to the fetus is unclear. Here, in a longitudinal study of healthy women who gave birth to healthy infants following uncomplicated pregnancies within the Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD cohort, we test the hypothesis that a progressively altered bias in resting innate immune status develops. Women were examined during pregnancy and again, one and/or three years postpartum. Most pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, including CCL2, CXCL10, IL-18 and TNFα, was reduced in vivo during pregnancy (20-57%, p<0.0001. Anti-inflammatory biomarkers (sTNF-RI, sTNF-RII, and IL-1Ra were elevated by ~50-100% (p<0.0001. Systemic IL-10 levels were unaltered during vs. post-pregnancy. Kinetic studies demonstrate that while decreased pro-inflammatory biomarker expression (CCL2, CXCL10, IL-18, and TNFα was constant, anti-inflammatory expression increased progressively with increasing gestational age (p<0.0001. We conclude that healthy resting maternal immune status is characterized by an increasingly pronounced bias towards a systemic anti-inflammatory innate phenotype during the last two trimesters of pregnancy. This is resolved by one year postpartum in the absence of repeat pregnancy. The findings provide enhanced understanding of immunological changes that occur in vivo during healthy human pregnancy.

  15. SAFE/SNAP application to shipboard security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grady, L.M.; Walker, J.L.; Polito, J.

    1981-11-01

    An application of the combined Safeguards Automated Facility Evaluation/Safeguards Network Analysis Procedure (SAFE/SNAP) modeling technique to a physical protection system (PPS) aboard a generic ship is described. This application was performed as an example of how the SAFE and SNAP techniques could be used. Estimates of probability of interruption and neutralization for the example shipboard PPS are provided by SAFE as well as an adversary scenario, which serves as input to SNAP. This adversary scenario is analyzed by SNAP through four cases which incorporate increasingly detailed security force tactics. Comparisons between the results of the SAFE and SNAP analyses are made and conclusions drawn on the validity of each technique. Feedback from SNAP to SAFE is described, and recommendations for upgrading the ship based on the results of the SAFE/SNAP application are also discussed

  16. A rapid infusion protocol is safe for total dose iron polymaltose: time for change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, M; Morrison, G; Friedman, A; Lau, A; Lau, D; Gibson, P R

    2011-07-01

    Intravenous correction of iron deficiency by total dose iron polymaltose is inexpensive and safe, but current protocols entail prolonged administration over more than 4 h. This results in reduced patient acceptance, and hospital resource strain. We aimed to assess prospectively the safety of a rapid intravenous protocol and compare this with historical controls. Consecutive patients in whom intravenous iron replacement was indicated were invited to have up to 1.5 g iron polymaltose by a 58-min infusion protocol after an initial 15-min test dose without pre-medication. Infusion-related adverse events (AE) and delayed AE over the ensuing 5 days were also prospectively documented and graded as mild, moderate or severe. One hundred patients, 63 female, mean age 54 (range 18-85) years were studied. Thirty-four infusion-related AE to iron polymaltose occurred in a total of 24 patients--25 mild, 8 moderate and 1 severe; higher than previously reported for a slow protocol iron infusion. Thirty-one delayed AE occurred in 26 patients--26 mild, 3 moderate and 2 severe; similar to previously reported. All but five patients reported they would prefer iron replacement through the rapid protocol again. The presence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) predicted infusion-related reactions (54% vs 14% without IBD, P cost, resource utilization and time benefits for the patient and hospital system. © 2011 The Authors. Internal Medicine Journal © 2011 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  17. Decreasing Skin Graft Contraction through Topical Wound Bed Preparation with Anti-Inflammatory Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-14-2-0153 TITLE: Decreasing Skin Graft Contraction through Topical Wound Bed Preparation with Anti-Inflammatory Agents...09/14/2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE “Decreasing Skin Graft Contraction through Topical Wound Bed Preparation with Anti-Inflammatory Agents” 5a...of a specific topical anti-inflammatory drug that will reduce and shorten the inflammatory state of the recipient wound bed and thus, skin graft

  18. Immuno-modulation and anti-inflammatory benefits of antibiotics: The example of tilmicosin

    OpenAIRE

    Buret, André G.

    2010-01-01

    Exagerated immune responses, such as those implicated in severe inflammatory reactions, are costly to the metabolism. Inflammation and pro-inflammatory mediators negatively affect production in the food animal industry by reducing growth, feed intake, reproduction, milk production, and metabolic health. An ever-increasing number of findings have established that antibiotics, macrolides in particular, may generate anti-inflammatory effects, including the modulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine...

  19. Blocking NF-κB: an inflammatory issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Arshad; Fazal, Fabeha

    2011-11-01

    The nuclear factor (NF)-κB is considered the master regulator of inflammatory responses. Studies in mouse models have established this transcription factor as an important mediator of many inflammatory disease states, including pulmonary diseases such as acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Endothelial cells provide the first barrier for leukocytes migrating to the inflamed sites and hence offer an attractive cellular context for targeting NF-κB for treatment of these diseases. However, recent studies showing that NF-κB also plays an important role in resolution phase of inflammation and in tissue repair and homeostasis have challenged the view of therapeutic inhibition of NF-κB. This article reviews the regulation of NF-κB in the context of endothelial cell signaling and provides a perspective on why "dampening" rather than "abolishing" NF-κB activation may be a safe and effective treatment strategy for inflammation-associated pulmonary and other inflammatory diseases.

  20. Residential Tornado Safe Rooms from Commodity Wood Products: Wall Development and Impact Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. Falk; James J. Bridwell; John C. Hermanson

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, tornadoes cause significant damage and result in many injuries and deaths. Although the development and use of tornado safe rooms and shelters have helped reduce the human toll associated with these events, the cost of these structures is often too high for many that could benefit from their use. The development of a residential tornado safe room...

  1. Characteristics of Young Children Exposed to Violence: The Safe Start Demonstration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Joy S.; Ortega, Sandra; Schewe, Paul A.; Kracke, Kristen

    2011-01-01

    The Safe Start demonstration projects, funded by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) under the first phase of the Safe Start initiative, are primarily designed to influence change at the systems or macrolevels to reduce the incidence of and impact of exposure to violence for children aged birth to 6 years; direct…

  2. Vedolizumab in Paediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledder, Oren; Assa, Amit; Levine, Arie

    2017-01-01

    Background: Vedolizumab, an anti-integrin antibody, has proven to be effective in adults with inflammatory bowel disease [IBD], but the data in paediatrics are limited. We describe the short-term effectiveness and safety of vedolizumab in a European multi-centre paediatric IBD cohort. Method......: Retrospective review of children [aged 2-18 years] treated with vedolizumab from 19 centres affiliated with the Paediatric IBD Porto group of ESPGHAN. Primary outcome was Week 14 corticosteroid-free remission [CFR]. Results: In all, 64 children were included (32 [50%] male, mean age 14.5 ± 2.8 years...... minor drug-related adverse events. Only 3 of 16 children who underwent endoscopic evaluation had mucosal healing after treatment (19%). Conclusions: Vedolizumab was safe and effective in this cohort of paediatric refractory IBD. These data support previous findings of slow induction rate of vedolizumab...

  3. Inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Peter R; Iser, John

    2005-04-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing in frequency in Australia. General practitioners play an important role in early diagnosis and in a multidisciplinary approach to managing such patients. Keeping abreast of evolving concepts, particularly in treatment, is challenging. This article aims to address key issues in diagnosis and management to better equip general practitioners for their role in multidisciplinary management of patients with IBD. Making the diagnosis can be difficult, but is facilitated by appropriate clinical suspicion and sensible judgment as to who undergoes diagnostic tests such as colonoscopy. Treatment of ulcerative colitis has changed little in recent years, except for our improved ability to deliver mesalazine to the large bowel via the recent availability of several oral and rectal preparations. Prevention of relapse using these is an important strategy in the majority of patients. Treatment of Crohn disease is changing due to more realistic concepts of the natural history of the disease and the development of new, powerful anti-inflammatory therapies. Attention to issues other than intestinal inflammation such as nutrition, education and counselling, remain important in achieving optimal management.

  4. Inflammatory breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagnerova, M.

    2012-01-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is an extremely aggressive disease that progresses rapidly and carries a very grim prognosis. It is characterized by erythema, rapid enlargement of the breast, skin ridging, and a characteristics peau d´orange appearance of the skin secondary to dermal lymphatic tumor involvement. Although a palpable tumor may not by present, about 55% to 85% of patient will present with metastases to the axillary or supraclavicular lymph nodes. Diagnosis of IBC is made on the basis of these clinical characteristics, as well as histologic verification of carcinoma. Accurate diagnosis is critically important, as multimodal therapy can significantly improve outcome if instituted early enough. Primary systemic treatment (neoadjuvant, induction, initials) is standard treatment for inflammatory breast cancer. If treatment response is not satisfactory it is necessary to look for new treatment regimens with different concept of dose intensity, density and sequence of treatment. In the neoadjuvant setting it is possible to employ all targeted and non-targeted therapies as was shown in a number of clinical trials. (author)

  5. Distributed Programming via Safe Closure Passing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Haller

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Programming systems incorporating aspects of functional programming, e.g., higher-order functions, are becoming increasingly popular for large-scale distributed programming. New frameworks such as Apache Spark leverage functional techniques to provide high-level, declarative APIs for in-memory data analytics, often outperforming traditional "big data" frameworks like Hadoop MapReduce. However, widely-used programming models remain rather ad-hoc; aspects such as implementation trade-offs, static typing, and semantics are not yet well-understood. We present a new asynchronous programming model that has at its core several principles facilitating functional processing of distributed data. The emphasis of our model is on simplicity, performance, and expressiveness. The primary means of communication is by passing functions (closures to distributed, immutable data. To ensure safe and efficient distribution of closures, our model leverages both syntactic and type-based restrictions. We report on a prototype implementation in Scala. Finally, we present preliminary experimental results evaluating the performance impact of a static, type-based optimization of serialization.

  6. Safe nuclear power for the Third World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, W.R.; Lyon, C.F.; Redick, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    It is clear that using nuclear power for the generation of electricity is one way of reducing the emissions of CO 2 and other gases that contribute to the greenhouse effect. Equally clear is the fact that the reduction can be magnified by converting domestic, commercial, and industrial power-consuming activities from the direct use of fossil fuel sources to electrical energy. A major area for future progress in limiting CO 2 emissions is in the Third World, where population growth and expectations for a higher social and economic standard of living portend vast increases in future energy use. A number of problems come to mind as one contemplates the widespread expansion of nuclear energy use into the Third World. The authors propose a method involving the marriage of two currently evolving concepts by which nuclear electrical generation can be expanded throughout the world in a manner that will address these problems. The idea is to form multinational independent electric generating companies, or nuclear electric companies (NECs), that would design, build, operate, and service a standardized fleet of nuclear power plants. The plants would be of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) design, now under development at Argonne National Laboratory, and, in particular, a commercial conceptualization of the IFR sponsored by General Electric Company, the Power Reactor Inherently Safe Module (PRISM)

  7. Virus Alert: Ten Steps to Safe Computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, Glenda A.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses computer viruses and explains how to detect them; discusses virus protection and the need to update antivirus software; and offers 10 safe computing tips, including scanning floppy disks and commercial software, how to safely download files from the Internet, avoiding pirated software copies, and backing up files. (LRW)

  8. Implementation of an Improved Safe Operating Envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prime, Robyn; McIntyre, Mark; Reeves, David

    2008-01-01

    This paper is a continuation of the paper presented at IYNC 2004 on 'The Definition of a Safe Operating Envelope'. The current paper concentrates on the implementation process of the Safe Operating Envelope employed at the Point Lepreau Generating Station. (authors)

  9. Creating Safe Spaces for Music Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Karin S.; Smith, Tawnya D.; Stanuch, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This article offers a practical model for fostering emotionally safe learning environments that instill in music students a positive sense of self-belief, freedom, and purpose. The authors examine the implications for music educators of creating effective learning environments and present recommendations for creating a safe space for learning,…

  10. Implementation of an Improved Safe Operating Envelope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prime, Robyn; McIntyre, Mark [NB Power Nuclear, P.O. Box 600, Lepreau, NB (Canada); Reeves, David [Atlantic Nuclear Services Ltd., PO Box 1268 Fredericton, NB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    This paper is a continuation of the paper presented at IYNC 2004 on 'The Definition of a Safe Operating Envelope'. The current paper concentrates on the implementation process of the Safe Operating Envelope employed at the Point Lepreau Generating Station. (authors)

  11. Capacity building in safe nanotechnologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, Markus; Gommel, Udo

    2011-01-01

    In all places where engineered Nanoparticles (ENPs) are produced, used or handled, adequate workplace safety precautions should be implemented due to the protection of workers and the surrounding environment. Any possible accidental release of ENPs should be evaluated. Thereby detected potential risks have to be eliminated as far as possible. An implemented reasonable safety culture in each ENP-related company will help to meet this challenge. Different infrastructures and workplace design can help to reduce the risk of an accidentally contact of the workers with ENPs: Transferable examples will be shown from the semiconductor and life-science Industry. These systems like clean rooms, glove boxes, fume cupboards, filter and suction systems and other restricted area barrier access systems (RABS) are mainly being developed to protect sensitive products, but they can also be used to protect working personnel. Clean environments regarding airborne particulate contaminations can be classified according to ISO 14644-1. A short insight into this ISO-classification will be given. But overall, a simple and reasonable workplace and workflow organization will reduce the risk of an accidental release of ENPs largely. This may lead to a therefore necessary adaption of existing workflow patterns. The workers have to get aware about the potential risks! This can be done with appropriate education materials, leaflets, posters and brochures. These are some of the later outcomes from the NanoDevice dissemination and handbook work package.

  12. Capacity building in safe nanotechnologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Markus; Gommel, Udo

    2011-07-01

    In all places where engineered Nanoparticles (ENPs) are produced, used or handled, adequate workplace safety precautions should be implemented due to the protection of workers and the surrounding environment. Any possible accidental release of ENPs should be evaluated. Thereby detected potential risks have to be eliminated as far as possible. An implemented reasonable safety culture in each ENP-related company will help to meet this challenge. Different infrastructures and workplace design can help to reduce the risk of an accidentally contact of the workers with ENPs: Transferable examples will be shown from the semiconductor and life-science Industry. These systems like clean rooms, glove boxes, fume cupboards, filter and suction systems and other restricted area barrier access systems (RABS) are mainly being developed to protect sensitive products, but they can also be used to protect working personnel. Clean environments regarding airborne particulate contaminations can be classified according to ISO 14644-1. A short insight into this ISO-classification will be given. But overall, a simple and reasonable workplace and workflow organization will reduce the risk of an accidental release of ENPs largely. This may lead to a therefore necessary adaption of existing workflow patterns. The workers have to get aware about the potential risks! This can be done with appropriate education materials, leaflets, posters and brochures. These are some of the later outcomes from the NanoDevice dissemination and handbook work package.

  13. Capacity building in safe nanotechnologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Markus; Gommel, Udo, E-mail: markus.keller@ipa.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Engineering and Automation IPA, Ultraclean Technology and Micromanufacturing, Nobelstr 12, D-70569 (Germany)

    2011-07-06

    In all places where engineered Nanoparticles (ENPs) are produced, used or handled, adequate workplace safety precautions should be implemented due to the protection of workers and the surrounding environment. Any possible accidental release of ENPs should be evaluated. Thereby detected potential risks have to be eliminated as far as possible. An implemented reasonable safety culture in each ENP-related company will help to meet this challenge. Different infrastructures and workplace design can help to reduce the risk of an accidentally contact of the workers with ENPs: Transferable examples will be shown from the semiconductor and life-science Industry. These systems like clean rooms, glove boxes, fume cupboards, filter and suction systems and other restricted area barrier access systems (RABS) are mainly being developed to protect sensitive products, but they can also be used to protect working personnel. Clean environments regarding airborne particulate contaminations can be classified according to ISO 14644-1. A short insight into this ISO-classification will be given. But overall, a simple and reasonable workplace and workflow organization will reduce the risk of an accidental release of ENPs largely. This may lead to a therefore necessary adaption of existing workflow patterns. The workers have to get aware about the potential risks{!} This can be done with appropriate education materials, leaflets, posters and brochures. These are some of the later outcomes from the NanoDevice dissemination and handbook work package.

  14. Inflammatory Process in Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCO ANTONIO eMERAZ RIOS

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer Disease (AD is a neurodegenerative disorder and the most common form of dementia. Histopathologically is characterized by the presence of two major hallmarks, the intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs and extracellular neuritic plaques (NPs surrounded by activated astrocytes and microglia. NFTs consist of paired helical filaments of truncated tau protein that is abnormally hyperphosphorylated. The main component in the NP is the amyloid-β peptide (Aβ, a small fragment of 40-42 amino acids with a molecular weight of 4kD. It has been proposed that the amyloid aggregates and microglia activation are able to favor the neurodegenerative process observed in AD patients. However, the role of inflammation in AD is controversial, because in early stages the inflammation could have a beneficial role in the pathology, since it has been thought that the microglia and astrocytes activated could be involved in Aβ clearance. Nevertheless the chronic activation of the microglia has been related with an increase of Aβ and possibly with tau phosphorylation. Studies in AD brains have shown an upregulation of complement molecules, pro-inflammatory cytokines, acute phase reactants and other inflammatory mediators that could contribute with the neurodegenerative process. Clinical trials and animal models with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs indicate that these drugs may decrease the risk of developing AD and apparently reduce Aβ deposition. Finally, further studies are needed to determine whether treatment with anti-inflammatory strategies, may decrease the neurodegenerative process that affects these patients.

  15. Training to Increase Safe Tray Carrying Among Cocktail Servers

    OpenAIRE

    Scherrer, Megan D; Wilder, David A

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of training on proper carrying techniques among 3 cocktail servers to increase safe tray carrying on the job and reduce participants' risk of developing musculoskeletal disorders. As participants delivered drinks to their tables, their finger, arm, and neck positions were observed and recorded. Each participant received individual safety training that focused on proper carrying positions and techniques after baseline data were collected. A multiple baseline design acr...

  16. Neuroimmune regulation of inflammatory responses in inflammatory bowel disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnierse, Anneke

    2006-01-01

    The term inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is used to describe chronic inflammatory conditions of the gastro-intestinal tract. Patients suffer from abdominal pain, diarrhea, rectal bleeding and a substantial personal burden. The etiology of IBD is gradually being unraveled but remains a complex

  17. Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Didde; Andreassen, Bente Utoft; Heegaard, Niels Henrik H

    2018-01-01

    Background: Kidney disease has been reported in adults with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and is regarded an extraintestinal manifestation or more rarely a side effect of the medical treatment. Methods: In this cross-sectional study we describe the extent of kidney pathology in a cohort of 56...... children with IBD. Blood and urine samples were analyzed for markers of kidney disease and ultrasonography was performed to evaluate pole-to-pole kidney length. Results: We found that 25% of the patients had either previously reported kidney disease or ultrasonographic signs of chronic kidney disease...... are at risk of chronic kidney disease, and the risk seems to be increased with the severity of the disease....

  18. Inflammatory biomarkers and cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Line Jee Hartmann; Schultz, Martin; Gaardsting, Anne

    2017-01-01

    and previous cancer diagnoses compared to patients who were not diagnosed with cancer. Previous cancer, C-reactive protein (CRP) and suPAR were significantly associated with newly diagnosed cancer during follow-up in multiple logistic regression analyses adjusted for age, sex and CRP. Neither any of the PRRs......In Denmark, patients with serious nonspecific symptoms and signs of cancer (NSSC) are referred to the diagnostic outpatient clinics (DOCs) where an accelerated cancer diagnostic program is initiated. Various immunological and inflammatory biomarkers have been associated with cancer, including...... soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) and the pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) pentraxin-3, mannose-binding lectin, ficolin-1, ficolin-2 and ficolin-3. We aimed to evaluate these biomarkers and compare their diagnostic ability to classical biomarkers for diagnosing cancer...

  19. HIV and safe, healthy sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    If a woman wants to become pregnant, how can she reduce her risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections? When a young man is growing up and worried about his future, how can you expect him to be concerned about HIV? Many HIV prevention projects focus on HIV and other sexually transmitted infections without considering people's broader reproductive and sexual health concerns. HIV prevention depends on people being able to make choices about their sexual behavior. This means understanding how their bodies work, knowing what choices are available to them, and having the confidence and skills to discuss and make changes in their sexual and reproductive lives. HIV educators, family planning workers, youth counselors, and others need to be able to respond to a range of questions and concerns in a sensitive and supportive way. This special, double issue of AIDS Action provides basic facts about the reproductive system, fertility, sexually transmitted infections and contraception, and looks at the links between HIV, sex, and reproduction. Talking about sex can be difficult. Sex is a private matter and people often feel embarrassed talking about it. This issue also contains tips for communication and activities to find out what people know already and help them learn. You may find that not everything in this issue is necessary for the people you are working with. This is a 'pick and mix' issue for you to pick out what is useful, adapting it if you wish. full text

  20. Anti-inflammatory activity of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Hsiung Pan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating epidemiological and clinical evidence shows that inflammation is an important risk factor for various human diseases. Thus, suppressing chronic inflammation has the potential to delay, prevent, and control various chronic diseases, including cerebrovascular, cardiovascular, joint, skin, pulmonary, blood, lymph, liver, pancreatic, and intestinal diseases. Various natural products from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM have been shown to safely suppress proinflammatory pathways and control inflammation-associated disease. In vivo and/or in vitro studies have demonstrated that anti-inflammatory effects of TCM occur by inhibition of the expression of master transcription factors (for example, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB, pro-inflammatory cytokines (for example, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, chemokines (for example, chemokine (C-C motif ligand (CCL-24, intercellular adhesion molecule expression and pro-inflammatory mediators (for example, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2. However, a handful of review articles have focused on the anti-inflammatory activities of TCM and explore their possible mechanisms of action. In this review, we summarize recent research attempting to identify the anti-inflammatory constituents of TCM and their molecular targets that may create new opportunities for innovation in modern pharmacology.

  1. Antioxidant, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties of the aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Andrographis paniculata in some laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedapo, Adeolu Alex; Adeoye, Bisi Olajumoke; Sofidiya, Margaret Oluwatoyin; Oyagbemi, Ademola Adetokunbo

    2015-07-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antioxidant properties of Andrographis paniculata leaf extracts in laboratory animals. The dried and powdered leaves of the plant were subjected to phytochemical and proximate analyses. Its mineral content was also determined. Acute toxicity experiments were first performed to determine a safe dose level. The plant material was extracted using water and ethanol as solvents. These extracts were then used to test for the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antioxidant properties of the plant. The anti-inflammatory tests included carrageenan-induced and histamine-induced paw oedema. The analgesic tests conducted were formalin paw lick test and acetic acid writhing test. The antioxidant activities of the extracts of A. paniculata were determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), total polyphenol (TP) and 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) using ascorbic acid as standard for both DPPH and FRAP, and gallic acid as a standard for both TP and ABTS. The acute toxicity experiment demonstrated that the plant is safe at high doses even at 1600 mg/kg. It was observed that the ethanolic extract of A. paniculata had higher antioxidant activity than the aqueous extract. The experiments using both extracts may suggest that the extracts of A. paniculata leaves possess anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antioxidant properties, although the ethanolic extract seemed to have higher biological properties than the aqueous extract. The results from this study may have justified the plant's folkloric use for medicinal purpose.

  2. Published diagnostic models safely excluded colorectal cancer in an independent primary care validation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elias, Sjoerd G; Kok, Liselotte; Witteman, Ben J M; Goedhard, Jelle G; Romberg-Camps, Mariëlle J L; Muris, Jean W M; de Wit, Niek J; Moons, Karel G M

    OBJECTIVE: To validate published diagnostic models for their ability to safely reduce unnecessary endoscopy referrals in primary care patients suspected of significant colorectal disease. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Following a systematic literature search, we independently validated the identified

  3. Improving Safe Sleep Modeling in the Hospital through Policy Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitmann, Rachel; Nilles, Ester K; Jeans, Ashley; Moreland, Jackie; Clarke, Chris; McDonald, Morgan F; Warren, Michael D

    2017-11-01

    Introduction Sleep-related infant deaths are major contributors to Tennessee's high infant mortality rate. The purpose of this initiative was to evaluate the impact of policy-based efforts to improve modeling of safe sleep practices by health care providers in hospital settings across Tennessee. Methods Safe sleep policies were developed and implemented at 71 hospitals in Tennessee. Policies, at minimum, were required to address staff training on the American Academy of Pediatrics' safe sleep recommendations, correct modeling of infant safe sleep practices, and parent education. Hospital data on process measures related to training and results of crib audits were compiled for analysis. Results The overall observance of infants who were found with any risk factors for unsafe sleep decreased 45.6% (p ≤ 0.001) from the first crib audit to the last crib audit. Significant decreases were noted for specific risk factors, including infants found asleep not on their back, with a toy or object in the crib, and not sleeping in a crib. Significant improvements were observed at hospitals where printed materials or video were utilized for training staff compared to face-to-face training. Discussion Statewide implementation of the hospital policy intervention resulted in significant reductions in infants found in unsafe sleep situations. The most common risk factors for sleep-related infant deaths can be modeled in hospitals. This effort has the potential to reduce sleep-related infant deaths and ultimately infant mortality.

  4. Safe actinide disposition in molten salt reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gat, U.

    1997-01-01

    Safe molten salt reactors (MSR) can readily accommodate the burning of all fissile actinides. Only minor compromises associated with plutonium are required. The MSRs can dispose safely of actinides and long lived isotopes to result in safer and simpler waste. Disposing of actinides in MSRs does increase the source term of a safety optimized MSR. It is concluded that the burning and transmutation of actinides in MSRs can be done in a safe manner. Development is needed for the processing to handle and separate the actinides. Calculations are needed to establish the neutron economy and the fuel management. 9 refs

  5. Cannabidiol, a safe and non-psychotropic ingredient of the marijuana plant Cannabis sativa, is protective in a murine model of colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrelli, Francesca; Aviello, Gabriella; Romano, Barbara; Orlando, Pierangelo; Capasso, Raffaele; Maiello, Francesco; Guadagno, Federico; Petrosino, Stefania; Capasso, Francesco; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Izzo, Angelo A

    2009-11-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease affects millions of individuals; nevertheless, pharmacological treatment is disappointingly unsatisfactory. Cannabidiol, a safe and non-psychotropic ingredient of marijuana, exerts pharmacological effects (e.g., antioxidant) and mechanisms (e.g., inhibition of endocannabinoids enzymatic degradation) potentially beneficial for the inflamed gut. Thus, we investigated the effect of cannabidiol in a murine model of colitis. Colitis was induced in mice by intracolonic administration of dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid. Inflammation was assessed both macroscopically and histologically. In the inflamed colon, cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were evaluated by Western blot, interleukin-1beta and interleukin-10 by ELISA, and endocannabinoids by isotope dilution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Human colon adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) cells were used to evaluate the effect of cannabidiol on oxidative stress. Cannabidiol reduced colon injury, inducible iNOS (but not cyclooxygenase-2) expression, and interleukin-1beta, interleukin-10, and endocannabinoid changes associated with 2,4,6-dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid administration. In Caco-2 cells, cannabidiol reduced reactive oxygen species production and lipid peroxidation. In conclusion, cannabidiol, a likely safe compound, prevents experimental colitis in mice.

  6. A cluster randomised stepped wedge trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a multifaceted information technology-based intervention in reducing high-risk prescribing of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and antiplatelets in primary medical care: The DQIP study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dreischulte Tobias

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-risk prescribing of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs and antiplatelet agents accounts for a significant proportion of hospital admissions due to preventable adverse drug events. The recently completed PINCER trial has demonstrated that a one-off pharmacist-led information technology (IT-based intervention can significantly reduce high-risk prescribing in primary care, but there is evidence that effects decrease over time and employing additional pharmacists to facilitate change may not be sustainable. Methods/design We will conduct a cluster randomised controlled with a stepped wedge design in 40 volunteer general practices in two Scottish health boards. Eligible practices are those that are using the INPS Vision clinical IT system, and have agreed to have relevant medication-related data to be automatically extracted from their electronic medical records. All practices (clusters that agree to take part will receive the data-driven quality improvement in primary care (DQIP intervention, but will be randomised to one of 10 start dates. The DQIP intervention has three components: a web-based informatics tool that provides weekly updated feedback of targeted prescribing at practice level, prompts the review of individual patients affected, and summarises each patient's relevant risk factors and prescribing; an outreach visit providing education on targeted prescribing and training in the use of the informatics tool; and a fixed payment of 350 GBP (560 USD; 403 EUR up front and a small payment of 15 GBP (24 USD; 17 EUR for each patient reviewed in the 12 months of the intervention. We hypothesise that the DQIP intervention will reduce a composite of nine previously validated measures of high-risk prescribing. Due to the nature of the intervention, it is not possible to blind practices, the core research team, or the data analyst. However, outcome assessment is entirely objective and automated. There will

  7. Staying Safe on Social Network Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tips Security Tip (ST06-003) Staying Safe on Social Networking Sites Original release date: January 26, 2011 | Last revised: ... so you should take certain precautions. What are social networking sites? Social networking sites, sometimes referred to as "friend- ...

  8. Implicit attitudes towards risky and safe driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Laila Marianne; Sømhovd, Mikael Julius; Møller, Mette

    ; further, self-reports of the intention to drive safely (or not) are socially sensitive. Therefore, we examined automatic preferences towards safe and risky driving with a Go/No-go Association Task (GNAT). The results suggest that (1) implicit attitudes towards driving behavior can be measured reliably...... with the GNAT; (2) implicit attitudes towards safe driving versus towards risky driving may be separable constructs. We propose that research on driving behavior may benefit from routinely including measures of implicit cognition. A practical advantage is a lesser susceptibility to social desirability biases......, compared to self-report methods. Pending replication in future research, the apparent dissociation between implicit attitudes towards safe versus risky driving that we observed may contribute to a greater theoretical understanding of the causes of unsafe and risky driving behavior....

  9. High-Protein Diets: Are They Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Nutrition and healthy eating Are high-protein diets safe for weight loss? Answers from Katherine ... L.D. For most healthy people, a high-protein diet generally isn't harmful, particularly when followed ...

  10. Safe delivery, Service utilization, Metekel Zone

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    decision making power of subjects were found to have a statistically significant association with preference of safe delivery ... Studies that focused on maternal mortality and proportion of ...... Anna M, Hannekee M, Frank Odhiambo et.al. Use.

  11. The safe transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messenger, W. de L.M.

    1979-02-01

    The hazards of radioactive materials in transport are surveyed. The system whereby they are safely transported between nuclear establishments in the United Kingdom and overseas is outlined. Several popular misconceptions are dealt with. (author)

  12. Layered Safe Motion Planning for Autonomous Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The major problem addressed by this research is how to plan a safe motion for autonomous vehicles in a two dimensional, rectilinear world. With given start and goal configurations, the planner performs motion planning which

  13. AFSC/REFM: Groundfish SAFE Economic Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Groundfish SAFE Economic Report, published annually as a supplement to the Stock Assessment and Fishery Evaluation Reports for Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...

  14. Think Before You Ink: Are Tattoos Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumers Consumer Updates Think Before You Ink: Are Tattoos Safe? Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... I be concerned about unsafe practices, or the tattoo ink itself? Both. While you can get serious ...

  15. Safe Eats - Eating Out and Bringing In

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to stay safe. What's On the Menu? When dining out: Remember that harmful bacteria can be hidden ... above the "danger zone." Remember the 2-Hour Rule : Discard any perishables (foods that can spoil or ...

  16. Safeguards Automated Facility Evaluation (SAFE) methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, L.D.; Grady, L.M.; Bennett, H.A.; Sasser, D.W.; Engi, D.

    1978-01-01

    The SAFE procedure is an efficient method of evaluating the physical protection system of a nuclear facility. Since the algorithms used in SAFE for path generation and evaluation are analytical, many paths can be evaluated with a modest investment in computer time. SAFE is easy to use because the information required is well-defined and the interactive nature of this procedure lends itself to straightforward operation. The modular approach that has been taken allows other functionally equivalent modules to be substituted as they become available. The SAFE procedure has broad applications in the nuclear facility safeguards field as well as in the security field in general. Any fixed facility containing valuable materials or components to be protected from theft or sabotage could be analyzed using this same automated evaluation technique

  17. SAFE users manual. Volume 4. Computer programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grady, L.M.

    1983-06-01

    Documentation for the Safeguards Automated Facility Evaluation (SAFE) computer programs is presented. The documentation is in the form of subprogram trees, program abstracts, flowcharts, and listings. Listings are provided on microfiche

  18. Ultrasonic Detectors Safely Identify Dangerous, Costly Leaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    In 1990, NASA grounded its space shuttle fleet. The reason: leaks detected in the hydrogen fuel systems of the Space Shuttles Atlantis and Columbia. Unless the sources of the leaks could be identified and fixed, the shuttles would not be safe to fly. To help locate the existing leaks and check for others, Kennedy Space Center engineers used portable ultrasonic detectors to scan the fuel systems. As a gas or liquid escapes from a leak, the resulting turbulence creates ultrasonic noise, explains Gary Mohr, president of Elmsford, New York-based UE Systems Inc., a long-time leader in ultrasonic detector technologies. "In lay terms, the leak is like a dog whistle, and the detector is like the dog ear." Because the ultrasound emissions from a leak are highly localized, they can be used not only to identify the presence of a leak but also to help pinpoint a leak s location. The NASA engineers employed UE s detectors to examine the shuttle fuel tanks and solid rocket boosters, but encountered difficulty with the devices limited range-certain areas of the shuttle proved difficult or unsafe to scan up close. To remedy the problem, the engineers created a long-range attachment for the detectors, similar to "a zoom lens on a camera," Mohr says. "If you are on the ground, and the leak is 50 feet away, the detector would now give you the same impression as if you were only 25 feet away." The enhancement also had the effect of reducing background noise, allowing for a clearer, more precise detection of a leak s location.

  19. [Nutrition in inflammatory bowel disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banai, János

    2009-05-03

    Aetiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is complex and probably multifactorial. Nutrition has been proposed to be an important aetiological factor for development of IBD. Several components of the diet (such as sugar, fat, fibre, fruit and vegetable, protein, fast food, preservatives etc.) were examined as possible causative agents for IBD. According to some researchers infant feeding (breast feeding) may also contribute to the development of IBD. Though the importance of environmental factors is evidenced by the increasing incidence in developed countries and in migrant population in recent decades, the aetiology of IBD remained unclear. There are many theories, but as yet no dietary approaches have been proved to reduce the risk of developing IBD. The role of nutrition in the management of IBD is better understood. The prevention and correction of malnutrition, the provision of macro- and micronutrients and vitamins and the promotion of optimal growth and development of children are key points of nutritional therapy. In active disease, the effective support of energy and nutrients is a very important part of the therapy. Natural and artificial nutrition or the combination of two can be chosen for supporting therapy of IBD. The author summarises the aetiological and therapeutic role of nutrition in IBD.

  20. Standards for safe operation of research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The safety of research reactors is based on many factors such as suitable choice of location, design and construction according to the international standards, it also depends on well trained and qualified operational staff. These standards determine the responsibilities of all who are concerned with the research reactors safe operation, and who are responsible of all related activities in all the administrative and technical stages in a way that insures the safe operation of the reactor

  1. Influencing behaviour for safe working environments

    OpenAIRE

    Boer, de, J. (Johannes); Teeuw, W.B. (Wouter)

    2011-01-01

    Safety at work The objective of the project Safety at Work is to increase safety at the workplace by applying and combining state of the art artefacts from personal protective equipment and ambient intelligence technology. In this state of the art document we focus on the developments with respect to how (persuasive) technology can help to influence behaviour in a natural, automatic way in order to make industrial environments safer. We focus on personal safety, safe environments and safe beh...

  2. Licensing issues for inherently safe fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastenberg, W.E.; Lee, S.; Okrent, D.

    1986-01-01

    There has been considerable interest recently in a new generation of liquid metal reactor (LMR) concepts in the US. Some significant changes in regulatory philosophy will be required if the anticipated cost advantages of inherently safe designs are to be achieved. The defense in depth philosophy will need to be significantly re-evaluated in the context of inherently safe reactors. It is the purpose of this paper to begin such a re-evaluation of this regulatory philosophy

  3. Curiosity's Autonomous Surface Safing Behavior Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilson, Tracy A.; Manning, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    The safing routines on all robotic deep-space vehicles are designed to put the vehicle in a power and thermally safe configuration, enabling communication with the mission operators on Earth. Achieving this goal is made a little more difficult on Curiosity because the power requirements for the core avionics and the telecommunication equipment exceed the capability of the single power source, the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator. This drove the system design to create an operational mode, called "sleep mode", where the vehicle turns off most of the loads in order to charge the two Li-ion batteries. The system must keep the vehicle safe from over-heat and under-heat conditions, battery cell failures, under-voltage conditions, and clock failures, both while the computer is running and while the system is sleeping. The other goal of a safing routine is to communicate. On most spacecraft, this simply involves turning on the receiver and transmitter continuously. For Curiosity, Earth is above the horizon only a part of the day for direct communication to the Earth, and the orbiter overpass opportunities only occur a few times a day. The design must robustly place the Rover in a communicable condition at the correct time. This paper discusses Curiosity's autonomous safing behavior and describes how the vehicle remains power and thermally safe while sleeping, as well as a description of how the Rover communicates with the orbiters and Earth at specific times.

  4. Managing Cassini Safe Mode Attitude at Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    The Cassini spacecraft was launched on October 15, 1997 and arrived at Saturn on June 30, 2004. It has performed detailed observations and remote sensing of Saturn, its rings, and its satellites since that time. In the event safe mode interrupts normal orbital operations, Cassini has flight software fault protection algorithms to detect, isolate, and recover to a thermally safe and commandable attitude and then wait for further instructions from the ground. But the Saturn environment is complex, and safety hazards change depending on where Cassini is in its orbital trajectory around Saturn. Selecting an appropriate safe mode attitude that insures safe operation in the Saturn environment, including keeping the star tracker field of view clear of bright bodies, while maintaining a quiescent, commandable attitude, is a significant challenge. This paper discusses the Cassini safe table management strategy and the key criteria that must be considered, especially during low altitude flybys of Titan, in deciding what spacecraft attitude should be used in the event of safe mode.

  5. Efficacy and safety of bisphosphonates in management of low bone density in inflammatory bowel disease: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Liwei; Wang, Haiqing; Dong, Wenwei; Liu, Zhenxin; Mao, Haijiao

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to determine whether bisphosphonates are safe, as well as effective against bone mineral loss in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). A computerized search of electronic databases from 1966 to 2016 was performed. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included in this review to evaluate the role of bisphosphonates in the management of osteoporosis in IBD patients. A revised 7-point Jadad scale was used to evaluate the quality of each study. Overall, 13 RCTs and 923 patients met the inclusion criteria of this meta-analysis. The result showed that bisphosphonates decreased bone mass density (BMD) loss at the lumbar spine (P = 0.0002), reduced the risk of new fractures (P = 0.01), and retained the similar adverse events (P = 0.86). Bisphosphonates may provide protection and safety against bone mineral loss in IBD patients.

  6. Evolving guidelines in the use of topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the treatment of osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmaceda, Casilda M

    2014-01-21

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a standard treatment for osteoarthritis (OA), but the use of oral NSAIDs has been linked to an elevated risk for cardiovascular and gastrointestinal adverse events and renal toxicity. Topical NSAIDs are thought to afford efficacy that is comparable to oral formulations while reducing widespread systemic drug exposure, which may provide a benefit in terms of safety and tolerability. As a result, European treatment guidelines have, for many years, recommended the use of topical NSAIDs as a safe and effective treatment option for OA. Following the recent approval of several topical NSAID formulations by the US Food and Drug Administration, US treatment guidelines are increasingly recommending the use of topical NSAIDs as an alternative therapy and, in some cases, as a first-line option for OA. This commentary summarizes OA treatment guidelines that are currently available and discusses their potential evolution with regard to the increased inclusion of topical NSAIDs.

  7. Predicting soil acidification trends at Plynlimon using the SAFE model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Reynolds

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The SAFE model has been applied to an acid grassland site, located on base-poor stagnopodzol soils derived from Lower Palaeozoic greywackes. The model predicts that acidification of the soil has occurred in response to increased acid deposition following the industrial revolution. Limited recovery is predicted following the decline in sulphur deposition during the mid to late 1970s. Reducing excess sulphur and NOx deposition in 1998 to 40% and 70% of 1980 levels results in further recovery but soil chemical conditions (base saturation, soil water pH and ANC do not return to values predicted in pre-industrial times. The SAFE model predicts that critical loads (expressed in terms of the (Ca+Mg+K:Alcrit ratio for six vegetation species found in acid grassland communities are not exceeded despite the increase in deposited acidity following the industrial revolution. The relative growth response of selected vegetation species characteristic of acid grassland swards has been predicted using a damage function linking growth to soil solution base cation to aluminium ratio. The results show that very small growth reductions can be expected for 'acid tolerant' plants growing in acid upland soils. For more sensitive species such as Holcus lanatus, SAFE predicts that growth would have been reduced by about 20% between 1951 and 1983, when acid inputs were greatest. Recovery to c. 90% of normal growth (under laboratory conditions is predicted as acidic inputs decline.

  8. Fail-safe computer-based plant protection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keats, A.B.

    1983-01-01

    A fail-safe mode of operation for computers used in nuclear reactor protection systems was first evolved in the UK for application to a sodium cooled fast reactor. The fail-safe properties of both the hardware and the software were achieved by permanently connecting test signals to some of the multiplexed inputs. This results in an unambiguous data pattern, each time the inputs are sequentially scanned by the multiplexer. The ''test inputs'' simulate transient excursions beyond defined safe limits. The alternating response of the trip algorithms to the ''out-of-limits'' test signals and the normal plant measurements is recognised by hardwired pattern recognition logic external to the computer system. For more general application to plant protection systems, a ''Test Signal Generator'' (TSG) is used to compute and generate test signals derived from prevailing operational conditions. The TSG, from its knowledge of the sensitivity of the trip algorithm to each of the input variables, generates a ''test disturbance'' which is superimposed upon each variable in turn, to simulate a transient excursion beyond the safe limits. The ''tripped'' status yielded by the trip algorithm when using data from a ''disturbed'' input forms part of a pattern determined by the order in which the disturbances are applied to the multiplexer inputs. The data pattern formed by the interleaved test disturbances is again recognised by logic external to the protection system's computers. This fail-safe mode of operation of computer-based protection systems provides a powerful defence against common-mode failure. It also reduces the importance of software verification in the licensing procedure. (author)

  9. Idiopathic inflammatory myositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieu, Joanna; Lundberg, Ingrid E; Limaye, Vidya

    2016-02-01

    Knowledge on idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM) has evolved with the identification of myositis-associated and myositis-specific antibodies, development of histopathological classification and the recognition of how these correlate with clinical phenotype and response to therapy. In this paper, we outline key advances in diagnosis and histopathology, including the more recent identification of antibodies associated with immune-mediated necrotising myopathy (IMNM) and inclusion body myositis (IBM). Ongoing longitudinal observational cohorts allow further classification of these patients with IIM, their predicted clinical course and response to specific therapies. Registries have been developed worldwide for this purpose. A challenging aspect in IIM, a multisystem disease with multiple clinical subtypes, has been defining disease status and clinically relevant improvement. Tools for assessing activity and damage are now recognised to be important in determining disease activity and guiding therapeutic decision-making. The International Myositis Assessment and Clinical Studies (IMACS) group has developed such tools for use in research and clinical settings. There is limited evidence for specific treatment strategies in IIM. With significant development in the understanding of IIM and improved classification, longitudinal observational cohorts and trials using validated outcome measures are necessary, to provide important information for evidence-based care in the clinical setting. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Interventions to Improve Safe Sleep Among Hospitalized Infants at Eight Children's Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, Stephanie; Ahlers-Schmidt, Carolyn R; Lukasiewicz, Gloria; Truong, Therese Macasiray

    2016-02-01

    Within hospital pediatric units, there is a lack of consistent application or modeling of the American Academy of Pediatrics recommendations for safe infant sleep. The purpose of this study was to improve safe sleep practices for infants in nonneonatal pediatric units with implementation of specific interventions. This multi-institutional study was conducted by using baseline observations collected for sleep location, position, and environment (collectively, "safe sleep") of infants admitted to pediatric units. Interventions consisted of: (1) staff education, including a commitment to promote safe sleep; (2) implementing site-generated safe sleep policies; (3) designating supply storage in patient rooms; and/or (4) caregiver education. Postintervention observations of safe sleep were collected. Eight hospitals participated from the Inpatient FOCUS Group of the Children's Hospital Association. Each site received institutional review board approval/exemption. Safe sleep was observed for 4.9% of 264 infants at baseline and 31.2% of 234 infants postintervention (Ppresent in 77% of cribs at baseline and 44% postintervention. However, the mean number of unsafe items observed in each sleeping environment was reduced by >50% (P=.001). Implementation of site-specific interventions seems to improve overall safe sleep in inpatient pediatric units, although continued improvement is needed. Specifically, extra items are persistently left in the sleeping environment. Moving forward, hospitals should evaluate their compliance with American Academy of Pediatrics recommendations and embrace initiatives to improve modeling of safe sleep. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  11. Calculations on safe storage and transportation of radioactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hathout, A M; El-Messiry, A M; Amin, E [National Center for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control and AEA, Cairo (Egypt)

    1997-12-31

    In this work the safe storage and transportation of fresh fuel as a radioactive material studied. Egypt planned ET RR 2 reactor which is of relatively high power and would require adequate handling and transportation. Therefore, the present work is initiated to develop a procedure for safe handling and transportation of radioactive materials. The possibility of reducing the magnitude of radiation transmitted on the exterior of the packages is investigated. Neutron absorbers are used to decrease the neutron flux. Criticality calculations are carried out to ensure the achievement of subcriticality so that the inherent safety can be verified. The discrete ordinate transport code ANISN was used. The results show good agreement with other techniques. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. 105-C Reactor interim safe storage project technology integration plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulsford, S.K.

    1997-01-01

    The 105-C Reactor Interim Safe Storage Project Technology Integration Plan involves the decontamination, dismantlement, and interim safe storage of a surplus production reactor. A major goal is to identify and demonstrate new and innovative D and D technologies that will reduce costs, shorten schedules, enhance safety, and have the potential for general use across the RL complex. Innovative technologies are to be demonstrated in the following areas: Characterization; Decontamination; Waste Disposition; Dismantlement, Segmentation, and Demolition; Facility Stabilization; and Health and Safety. The evaluation and ranking of innovative technologies has been completed. Demonstrations will be selected from the ranked technologies according to priority. The contractor team members will review and evaluate the demonstration performances and make final recommendations to DOE

  13. A concise synthesis of the potent inflammatory mediator 5-oxo-ETE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyagi, Rahul; Shimpukade, Bharat; Blättermann, Stefanie

    2012-01-01

    A concise and practical method for synthesis of the potent inflammatory mediator 5-oxo-6E,8Z,11Z,14Z-eicosatetraenoic acid (5-oxo-ETE, 1) from arachidonic acid in four steps and 70% overall yield is reported. Stability studies indicate that 1 can be safely handled without rigorous precautions...

  14. Integrated Inflammatory Stress (ITIS) Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsgaard, Elisabeth O.; Hjorth, Poul G.; Olufsen, Mette S.

    2017-01-01

    maintains a long-term level of the stress hormone cortisol which is also anti-inflammatory. A new integrated model of the interaction between these two subsystems of the inflammatory system is proposed and coined the integrated inflammatory stress (ITIS) model. The coupling mechanisms describing....... A constant activation results in elevated levels of the variables in the model while a prolonged change of the oscillations in ACTH and cortisol concentrations is the most pronounced result of different LPS doses predicted by the model....

  15. Sleep disorders and inflammatory disease activity: chicken or the egg?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, Parth J; Oldfield Iv, Edward C; Challapallisri, Vaishnavi; Ware, J Catsby; Johnson, David A

    2015-04-01

    Sleep dysfunction is a highly prevalent condition that has long been implicated in accelerating disease states characterized by having an inflammatory component such as systemic lupus erythematosus, HIV, and multiple sclerosis. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic, debilitating disease that is characterized by waxing and waning symptoms, which are a direct result of increased circulating inflammatory cytokines. Recent studies have demonstrated sleep dysfunction and the disruption of the circadian rhythm to result in an upregulation of inflammatory cytokines. Not only does this pose a potential trigger for disease flares but also an increased risk of malignancy in this subset of patients. This begs to question whether or not there is a therapeutic role of sleep cycle and circadian rhythm optimization in the prevention of IBD flares. Further research is needed to clarify the role of sleep dysfunction and alterations of the circadian rhythm in modifying disease activity and also in reducing the risk of malignancy in patients suffering from IBD.

  16. 76 FR 12719 - Safe Schools/Healthy Students Program; Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools; Safe Schools/Healthy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Safe Schools/Healthy Students Program; Office of Safe and Drug- Free Schools; Safe Schools/Healthy Students Program; Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance (CFDA) Numbers: 84... priorities, requirements, and definitions under the Safe Schools/Healthy Students (SS/HS) program. Since...

  17. Inflammatory injury to the neonatal brain – what can we do?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noa eOfek-shlomai

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Perinatal brain damage is one of the leading causes of life long disability. This damage could be hypoxic-ischemic, inflammatory or both.This mini-review discusses different interventions aiming at minimizing inflammatory processes in the neonatal brain, both before and after insult. Current options of anti-inflammatory measures for neonates remain quite limited. We describe current anti-inflammatory intervention strategies such as avoiding perinatal infection and inflammation, and reducing exposure to inflammatory processes. We describe the known effects of anti-inflammatory drugs such as steroids, antibiotics, and indomethacin, and the possible anti-inflammatory role of other substances such as IL-1receptor antagonists, erythropoietin, caffeine, estradiol, insulin like growth factor and melatonin as well as endogenous protectors, and genetic regulation of inflammation. If successful, these may decrease mortality and long term morbidity among term and preterm infants.

  18. Radiotherapy of brain inflammatory diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pil', B.N.

    1982-01-01

    An experience of radiation treatment of brain inflammatory diseases is described. Radiation treatment goes with antiinflammatory, anticonvulsive agents, with resorbing and dehydrating measures and some times with surgical treatment. The methods of radiation treatment of convexital and optochiasmic arachnoiditis

  19. Atypical idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallner-Blazek, Mirja; Rovira, Alex; Fillipp, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Atypical lesions of a presumably idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating origin present quite variably and may pose diagnostic problems. The subsequent clinical course is also uncertain. We, therefore, wanted to clarify if atypical idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating lesions (AIIDLs) can be class......Atypical lesions of a presumably idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating origin present quite variably and may pose diagnostic problems. The subsequent clinical course is also uncertain. We, therefore, wanted to clarify if atypical idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating lesions (AIIDLs) can...... be classified according to previously suggested radiologic characteristics and how this classification relates to prognosis. Searching the databases of eight tertiary referral centres we identified 90 adult patients (61 women, 29 men; mean age 34 years) with ≥1 AIIDL. We collected their demographic, clinical...

  20. Turmeric (Curcuma longa) and its major constituent (curcumin) as nontoxic and safe substances: Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimani, Vahid; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2018-02-26

    Curcumin is the major constituent of turmeric (Curcuma longa). Turmeric has been widely used as a spice in foods and for therapeutic applications such as anti-inflammatory, antihyperlipidemic, and antimicrobial activities. Turmeric and curcumin are nonmutagenic and nongenotoxic. Oral use of turmeric and curcumin did not have reproductive toxicity in animals at certain doses. Studies on human did not show toxic effects, and curcumin was safe at the dose of 6 g/day orally for 4-7 weeks. However, some adverse effects such as gastrointestinal upsets may occur. Moreover, oral bioavailable formulations of curcumin were safe for human at the dose of 500 mg two times in a day for 30 days, but there are still few trials and more studies are needed specially on nanoformulations and it should be discussed in a separate article. In addition, curcumin is known as a generally recognized as safe substance. This review discusses the safety and toxicity of turmeric and curcumin in medicine. Turmeric and curcumin are nontoxic for human especially in oral administration. Turmeric and curcumin are also safe in animals. They are nonmutagenic and are safe in pregnancy in animals but more studies in human are needed. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. THE CONSEQUENCES OF GLOBALIZATION UPON SAFE TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Mihić

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Globalization, a phenomenon on the rise, is characterized by the free cross-bor- der movement of individuals, technologies, and capital. It has far- reaching consequen- ces for tourism, too, as it implies travel for leisure and business, and correspondingly, financial transfers between various nation states. Startinf from the status quo in the field, the current paper sets out to analyze the consequences and implications of globalization upon safe tourism and conduct a marketing research into the perceptions of consumers upon Serbia as a safe vacation destination for the purpose of safe tourism. Finally the research results will be presented and several solutions will be provided for improving security in tourism zones

  2. From Safe Systems to Patient Safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarts, J.; Nøhr, C.

    2010-01-01

    for the third conference with the theme: The ability to design, implement and evaluate safe, useable and effective systems within complex health care organizations. The theme for this conference was "Designing and Implementing Health IT: from safe systems to patient safety". The contributions have reflected...... and implementation of safe systems and thus contribute to the agenda of patient safety? The contributions demonstrate how the health informatics community has contributed to the performance of significant research and to translating research findings to develop health care delivery and improve patient safety......This volume presents the papers from the fourth International Conference on Information Technology in Health Care: Socio-technical Approaches held in Aalborg, Denmark in June 2010. In 2001 the first conference was held in Rotterdam, The Netherlands with the theme: Sociotechnical' approaches...

  3. Intrinsically Safe and Economical Reactor (ISER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakabayashi, Hiroaki; Asahi, Yoshiro

    1991-01-01

    The Intrinsically Safe and Economical Reactor (ISER) is designed based on the principle of a process inherent ultimate safe reactor, PIUS, a so-called inherently safe reactor (ISR). ISER has been developed joingly by the members of the Kanagawa Institute of Technology, the University of Tokyo, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and several industrial firms in Japan. This paper describes the requirements for the next generation of power reactor, the safety design philosphy of ISR and ISER, the controllability of ISER and the results of analyses of some of the design-based accidents (DBA) of ISER, namely station blackout, accidents in which the pressurizer relief valve becomes jammed and stuck in open position and tube breaks in the steam generator. It is concluded that the ISER can ensure a wide range of contraollabitily and fuel integrity for all the analysed DBAs. (orig.)

  4. Inherently safe technologies-chemical and nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, A.M.

    1984-01-01

    Probabilistic risk assessments show an inverse relationship between the likelihood and the consequences of nuclear and chemical plant accidents, but the Bhopal accident has change public complacency about the safety of chemical plants to such an extent that public confidence is now at the same low level as with nuclear plants. The nuclear industry's response was to strengthen its institutions and improve its technologies, but the public may not be convinced. One solution is to develop reactors which do not depend upon the active intervention of humans of electromechanical devices to deal with emergencies, but which have physical properties that limit the possible temperature and power of a reactor. The Process Inherent Ultimately Safe and the modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled reactors are two possibilities. the chemical industry needs to develop its own inherently safe design precepts that incorporate smallness, safe processes, and hardening against sabotage. 5 references

  5. Sun Safe Mode Controller Design for LADEE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Jesse C.; Swei, Sean S. M.; Nakamura, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the development of sun safe controllers which are designed to keep the spacecraft power positive and thermally balanced in the event an anomaly is detected. Employed by NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE), the controllers utilize the measured sun vector and the spacecraft body rates for feedback control. To improve the accuracy of sun vector estimation, the least square minimization approach is applied to process the sensor data, which is proven to be effective and accurate. To validate the controllers, the LADEE spacecraft model engaging the sun safe mode was first simulated and then compared with the actual LADEE orbital fight data. The results demonstrated the applicability of the proposed sun safe controllers.

  6. Implications of inherent safe nuclear power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Yo-Taik

    1987-01-01

    The safety of present day nuclear power reactors and research reactors depends on a combination of design features of passive and active systems, and the alert judgement of their operators. A few inherently safe designs of nuclear reactors for power plants are currently under development. In these designs, the passive systems are emphasized, and the active systems are minimized. Also efforts are made to eliminate the potential for human failures that initiate the series of accidents. If a major system fails in these designs, the core is flooded automatically with coolants that flow by gravity, not by mechanical pumps or electromagnetic actuators. Depending on the choice of the coolants--water, liquid metal and helium gas--there are three principal types of inherently safe reactors. In this paper, these inherently safe reactor designs are reviewed and their implications are discussed. Further, future perspectives of their acceptance by nuclear industries are discussed. (author)

  7. [Inflammatory brain diseases in clinical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lungwitz, J; Voigt, W

    1984-06-01

    Over a period of twenty years all cases of inflammatory diseases treated in a neurological intensive-care unit were analysed in retrospective. For 90 cases of purulent bacterial meningitis, letality amounted to 30%. The need for agent-oriented, intensive early treatment is discussed. At a reduced incidence of tuberculosis, meningitis tuberculosa is generally neglected. In the majority of cases patients suffering from "encephalitic syndrome" make high demands on intensive-therapeutic concepts, including interdisciplinary cooperation, due to high complication-rates and lack of causal therapy. In 95 cases, letality also amounted to 30%.

  8. Anti-inflammatory activity of Lippia dulcis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, S; Meckes, M; Pérez, C; Susunaga, A; Zavala, M A

    2005-10-31

    Lippia dulcis hexane and ethanol extracts were tested for its anti-inflammatory activity in several animal models. Hexane extract showed to be inactive, but the ethanol extract at doses of 400 mg/kg produced significant inhibition of carrageenan-induced paw oedema and reduced the weight of cotton pellet-induced granuloma, moreover, the topical application of 0.5 mg/ear of this extract inhibited the edema induced with TPA by 49.13%, an effect which is of less intensity than that produced by indomethacine at the same dose.

  9. The safe transport of radioactive materials

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, R

    1966-01-01

    The Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials is a handbook that details the safety guidelines in transporting radioactive materials. The title covers the various regulations and policies, along with the safety measures and procedures of radioactive material transport. The text first details the 1963 version of the IAEA regulation for the safe transport of radioactive materials; the regulation covers the classification of radionuclides for transport purposes and the control of external radiation hazards during the transport of radioactive materials. The next chapter deals with concerns in the im

  10. Ergonomics: safe patient handling and mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallmark, Beth; Mechan, Patricia; Shores, Lynne

    2015-03-01

    This article reviews and investigates the issues surrounding ergonomics, with a specific focus on safe patient handling and mobility. The health care worker of today faces many challenges, one of which is related to the safety of patients. Safe patient handling and mobility is on the forefront of the movement to improve patient safety. This article reviews the risks associated with patient handling and mobility, and informs the reader of current evidence-based practice relevant to this area of care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Landscape planning for a safe city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ishikawa

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available To create a safe city free from natural disasters has been one of the important criteria in city planning. Since large cities have suffered from large fires caused by earthquakes, the planning of open spaces to prevent the spread of fires is part of the basic structure of city planning in Japan. Even in the feudal city of Edo, the former name of Tokyo, there had been open spaces to prevent fire disasters along canals and rivers. This paper discusses the historical evolution of open space planning, that we call landscape planning, through the experiences in Tokyo, and clarifies the characteristics and problems for achieving a safe city.

  12. Now, It's Your Turn: How You Can Take Medicine Safely

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Taking Medicines Safely Now, It's Your Turn: How You Can Take Medicine Safely ... medicine. The pharmacist has filled the prescription. Now it's up to you to take the medicine safely. ...

  13. The inherently-safe power reactor DYONISOS (Dynamic Nuclear Inherently-Safe Reactor Operating with Spheres)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taube, M.; Lanfranchi, M.; Weissenfluh, Th. von; Ligou, J.; Yadigaroglu, G.; Taube, P.

    1986-01-01

    A philosophy of inherent safety is formulated and an inherently-safe thermal power reactor is presented. Solid fuel in the form of spheres a few centimetres in diameter is suspended under the hydro-dynamic pressure of molten lead coolant in vertical channels within the graphite moderator. Loss of main pump pressure, or a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA), results in immediate removal of the fuel to rigid sieves below the core, with consequent subcriticality. Residual and decay heat are carried away by thermal conduction through the coolant or, in the case of a LOCA, by a combination of radiation and natural convection of cover gas or incoming air from the fuel to the reactor vessel and convection of air between the vessel and steel containment wall. All decay heat removal systems are passive, though actively initiated external spray cooling of the containment can be used to reduce wall temperature. This, however, is only necessary in the case of a LOCA and after a period of 24 h. (author)

  14. Operationalizing safe operating space for regional social-ecological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Sarwar; Dearing, John A; Eigenbrod, Felix; Johnson, Fiifi Amoako

    2017-04-15

    This study makes a first attempt to operationalize the safe operating space concept at a regional scale by considering the complex dynamics (e.g. non-linearity, feedbacks, and interactions) within a systems dynamic model (SD). We employ the model to explore eight 'what if' scenarios based on well-known challenges (e.g. climate change) and current policy debates (e.g. subsidy withdrawal). The findings show that the social-ecological system in the Bangladesh delta may move beyond a safe operating space when a withdrawal of a 50% subsidy for agriculture is combined with the effects of a 2°C temperature increase and sea level rise. Further reductions in upstream river discharge in the Ganges would push the system towards a dangerous zone once a 3.5°C temperature increase was reached. The social-ecological system in Bangladesh delta may be operated within a safe space by: 1) managing feedback (e.g. by reducing production costs) and the slow biophysical variables (e.g. temperature, rainfall) to increase the long-term resilience, 2) negotiating for transboundary water resources, and 3) revising global policies (e.g. withdrawal of subsidy) that negatively impact at regional scales. This study demonstrates how the concepts of tipping points, limits to adaptations, and boundaries for sustainable development may be defined in real world social-ecological systems. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Inflammatory bowel disease: the role of inflammatory cytokine gene polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Balding

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available THE mechanisms responsible for development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD have not been fully elucidated, although the main cause of disease pathology is attributed to up-regulated inflammatory processes. The aim of this study was to investigate frequencies of polymorphisms in genes encoding pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory markers in IBD patients and controls. We determined genotypes of patients with IBD (n=172 and healthy controls (n=389 for polymorphisms in genes encoding various cytokines (interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6, tumour necrosis factor (TNF, IL-10, IL-1 receptor antagonist. Association of these genotypes to disease incidence and pathophysiology was investigated. No strong association was found with occurrence of IBD. Variation was observed between the ulcerative colitis study group and the control population for the TNF-α-308 polymorphism (p=0.0135. There was also variation in the frequency of IL-6-174 and TNF-α-308 genotypes in the ulcerative colitis group compared with the Crohn's disease group (p=0.01. We concluded that polymorphisms in inflammatory genes are associated with variations in IBD phenotype and disease susceptibility. Whether the polymorphisms are directly involved in regulating cytokine production, and consequently pathophysiology of IBD, or serve merely as markers in linkage disequilibrium with susceptibility genes remains unclear.

  16. Better safe than sorry: Increasing safety in radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaspar, Miklos; Mutluer, Adem

    2015-01-01

    Abderrahim Bouih used to be worried about space. In charge of managing Morocco’s radioactive waste since 2006, he had long projected that the country’s sole radioactive waste facility would fill up by 2019. Thanks to a new methodology he and his colleagues learned through an IAEA project, they can now dismantle smoke detectors, lightning rods and other waste that contains radioactive material, safely separating the radioactive components from the metal, and significantly reducing the amount of radioactive waste they need to store.

  17. The effect of social marketing communication on safe driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dong-Jenn; Lin, Wan-Chen; Lo, Jyue-Yu

    2011-12-01

    Processing of cognition, affect, and intention was investigated in viewers of advertisements to prevent speeding while driving. Results indicated that anchoring-point messages had greater effects on viewers' cognition, attitude, and behavioral intention than did messages without anchoring points. Further, the changes in message anchoring points altered participants' perceptions of acceptable and unacceptable judgments: a higher anchoring point in the form of speeding mortality was more persuasive in promoting the idea of reducing driving speed. Implications for creation of effective safe driving communications are discussed.

  18. A conceptual design of intrinsically safe and economical reactor (ISER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Junro

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the reference conceptual designs of the ISER which were prepared for the ISER development forum in Japan. At the forum, participants from influential utilities, academia, as well as companies in the nuclear industry, discussed the development of the inherently safe reactor over the last two years. The conceptual designs described in this paper are preliminary trial designs at an early stage and essentially versions of the PIUS reactor developed by ASEA-ATOM. A notable feature of the ISER which is different from the original PIUS is its use of a steel reactor pressure vessel for reducing plant construction costs and improving plant performance

  19. WHO safe surgery checklist: Barriers to universal acceptance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Jain

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of the Safe Surgery Checklist is an initiative taken by the World Health Organization (WHO with an aim to reduce the complication rates during the surgical process. Despite gross reduction in the infection rate and morbidity following adoption of the checklist, many health-care providers are hesitant in implementing it in their everyday practice. In this article, we would like to highlight the hurdles in adoption of the WHO Surgical Checklist and measures that can be taken to overcome them.

  20. "SAFE" LEVEL OF SOMATIC HEALTH IN INDICATORS REGULATION OF CARDIORESPIRATORY SYSTEM AT YOUNG MEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander P Romanchuk

    2015-12-01

    2Lviv State University Physical Culture The aim of this study was to determine the functional state cardiorespiratory system in males younger with "safe" level of somatic health (LSH. Were examined 104 males aged 20,6 ± 0,9 years, engaged in various sports, and had no existing acute and chronic diseases. The survey was conducted using spiroarteriocardiorhythmography (SACR. It is shown that in all studied systems of regulation, regulation except SBP probably marked differences between persons with "safe" and "low" LSH. At the same time, the comparison of "safe" and "medium" LSH differences relate only to the predominance of sympathetic influences on heart rate, decrease suprasegmental effects on DBP, reducing regulatory influences on spontaneous breath and their high-frequency components, reducing of baroreflex sensitivity and cardiac output. Key words: "safe" level of somatic health, regulation of the cardiorespiratory system.

  1. How safe are nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danzmann, H.J.

    1976-01-01

    The question 'how safe are nuclear power plants' can be answered differently - it depends on how the term 'safety' is understood. If the 'safety of supply' is left out as a possibility of interpretation, then the alternative views remain: Operational safety in the sense of reliability and safety of personnel and population. (orig.) [de

  2. Safe and Healthy Travel to China

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-10-09

    In this podcast, Dr. Phyllis Kozarsky, CDC Travel Medicine expert, discusses what travelers should do to ensure a safe and healthy trip to China.  Created: 10/9/2008 by National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases (NCPDCID), Division of Global Migration and Quarantine (DGMQ).   Date Released: 10/9/2008.

  3. Safe Space Oddity: Revisiting Critical Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Inspired by an incident in a social work graduate classroom in which she was a teaching assistant, the author reflects on her commitment to constructivist teaching methods, critical theory, and critical pedagogy. Exploring the educational utility of notions such as public space and safe space, the author employs this personal experience to examine…

  4. Safe reduction rules for weighted treewidth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijkhof, F. van den; Bodlaender, H.L.; Koster, A.M.C.A.

    2002-01-01

    Several sets of reductions rules are known for preprocessing a graph when computing its treewidth. In this paper, we give reduction rules for a weighted variant of treewidth, motivated by the analysis of algorithms for probabilistic networks. We present two general reduction rules that are safe for

  5. Safe laparoscopic colorectal surgery performed by trainees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhoff, Peter Koch; Schultz, Martin; Harvald, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer is safe, but there have been hesitations to implement the technique in all departments. One of the reasons for this may be suboptimal learning possibilities since supervised trainees have not been allowed to do the operations to an adequate extent...

  6. Safe and secure: transportation of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, D.

    2015-01-01

    Western Waste Management Facility is Central Transportation Facility for Low and Intermediate waste materials. Transportation support for Stations: Reactor inspection tools and heavy water between stations and reactor components and single bundles of irradiated fuel to AECL-Chalk River for examination. Safety Track Record: 3.2 million kilometres safely travelled and no transportation accident - resulting in a radioactive release.

  7. Using over-the-counter medicines safely

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about OTC drugs. About OTC Medicines You can buy OTC medicines without a prescription in: Drug stores Grocery stores ... Safely You should: Examine the package before you buy it. Make sure it has not been tampered with. Never use medicine you have bought that does not look the ...

  8. Safe Sleep for Babies PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the January 2018 CDC Vital Signs report. Every year, there are about 3,500 sleep-related deaths among U.S. babies. Learn how to create a safe sleep environment for babies.

  9. Stay Safe and Healthy This Winter!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-11-23

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics offer some simple ways to stay safe and healthy during the winter holiday season.  Created: 11/23/2010 by CDC Office of Women’s Health.   Date Released: 11/23/2010.

  10. Safe injection procedures, injection practices, and needlestick ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nermine Mohamed Tawfik Foda

    2017-01-10

    Jan 10, 2017 ... Background: Of the estimated 384,000 needle-stick injuries occurring in hospitals each year, 23% occur in surgical settings. This study was conducted to assess safe injection procedures, injection practices, and circumstances contributing to needlestick and sharps injures (NSSIs) in operating rooms.

  11. Disabled Children: The Right to Feel Safe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mepham, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the fundamental right of disabled children to feel safe and be free from bullying, harassment and abuse. The article proposes that, 20 years since the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, disabled children are still facing barriers to securing this right. The article focuses on recent Mencap research that…

  12. School Counselors: Untapped Resources for Safe Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Connie J.

    2000-01-01

    Principals should consider redirecting school counselors' responsibilities to include directing safe-school teams; establishing networks to identify at-risk students and violent behavior signs; developing conflict-resolution activities; assessing and counseling misbehaving students; devising crisis- management plans; and helping staff predict and…

  13. How to Keep Your Sleeping Baby Safe

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... first hour. After that, or when the mother needs to sleep or cannot do skin-to-skin, babies should ... Back is Best New Crib Standards: What Parents Need to Know Safe Sleep for Babies (Video) The Healthy Children Show: Sleep ( ...

  14. Education in Safe and Unsafe Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callan, Eamonn

    2016-01-01

    Recent student demands within the academy for "safe space" have aroused concern about the constraints they might impose on free speech and academic freedom. There are as many kinds of safety as there are threats to the things that human beings might care about. That is why we need to be very clear about the specific threats of which the…

  15. Asymptotically Safe Standard Model via Vectorlike Fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, R. B.; Meffe, J. R.; Sannino, F.; Steele, T. G.; Wang, Z. W.; Zhang, C.

    2017-12-01

    We construct asymptotically safe extensions of the standard model by adding gauged vectorlike fermions. Using large number-of-flavor techniques we argue that all gauge couplings, including the hypercharge and, under certain conditions, the Higgs coupling, can achieve an interacting ultraviolet fixed point.

  16. Have a Safe and Healthy Fall

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-14

    Fall is a great time to try new and healthy activities with your parents! Have a food tasting or a leaf raking contest! Whatever your plans, make sure to have fun and be safe!  Created: 10/14/2010 by CDC Office of Women’s Health.   Date Released: 10/14/2010.

  17. Elaboration of Safe Community Assessment System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birutė Mikulskienė

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to design an assessment system to monitor and evaluate safety parameters and administrative efforts with the purpose to increase safety in municipalities. The safety monitoring system considered is to be the most important tool for creation and development of safe communities in Lithuania. Several methods were applied to achieve this purpose. In order to determine the role of local government in ensuring the safety of people, property and environment at the local level of a meta-analysis of research reports, the Lithuanian national legislation, strategic planning documents of the state and local government were carried out. Analysis of statistical data, structural analysis, comparative analysis and synthesis methods were used while investigating the areas of safety uncertainty, risk groups, identifying safety risk factors, determining their relationship, and creating a safe community assessment system. A safe community assessment system, which consists of two types of criteria, has been elaborated. The assessment system is based on the multi-level criteria for safety monitoring and the multi-level criteria for the evaluation of municipal activities in the field of building safety. Links between the criteria, peculiarities of their application and advantages in the process of safe community creation and development are analyzed. Design and implementation of the safe community assessment system is one of the most important stages to implement the idea of safe communities. The proposed system integrates a variety of risk areas, the safety achievement criteria are linked to the criteria used in the strategic planning. Periodic assessment of the safety situation using the proposed system ensures possibility to monitor current local safety conditions and assess the changes and the trends. A safe community assessment system is proposed to be used as a tool to unified municipalities safety comprehensiveness and compare safety level in

  18. Elaboration of Safe Community Assessment System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Algirdas Astrauskas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to design an assessment system to monitor and evaluate safety parameters and administrative efforts with the purpose to increase safety in municipalities. The safety monitoring system considered is to be the most important tool for creation anddevelopment of safe communities in Lithuania. Several methods were applied to achieve this purpose. In order to determine the role of local government in ensuring the safety of people, property and environment at the local level of a meta-analysis of research reports,the Lithuanian national legislation, strategic planning documents of the state and local government were carried out. Analysis of statistical data, structural analysis, comparative analysis and synthesis methods were used while investigating the areas of safety uncertainty, risk groups, identifying safety risk factors, determining their relationship, and creating a safe community assessment system.A safe community assessment system, which consists of two types of criteria, has been elaborated. The assessment system is based on the multi-level criteria for safety monitoring and the multi-level criteria for the evaluation of municipal activities in the field of building safety. Links between the criteria, peculiarities of their application and advantages in the process of safe community creation and development are analyzed.Design and implementation of the safe community assessment system is one of the most important stages to implement the idea of safe communities. The proposed system integrates a variety of risk areas, the safety achievement criteria are linked to the criteria used in thestrategic planning. Periodic assessment of the safety situation using the proposed system ensures possibility to monitor current local safety conditions and assess the changes and the trends. A safe community assessment system is proposed to be used as a tool to unified municipalities safety comprehensiveness and compare safety level in

  19. CT characterization of inflammatory paranasal sinus disease in cystic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggesboe, H.B.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: In patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) the prevalence of paranasal sinus affection approaches 100%. We hypothesized that the hyper viscous mucus reducing mucociliary clearance in CF patients could give sinonasal inflammatory patterns different from those in non-CF patients. We wanted to compare the extent and distribution of paranasal sinus disease and the inflammatory patterns in these two groups of patients. Material and Methods: One-hundred-and-eight CF patients (3-54 years old) and 79 controls (7-51 years old) with paranasal sinus disease confirmed at coronal CT were compared. The extent of disease was noted for each sinus and summed for all sinuses. Inflammatory patterns were identified and classified into: 1) routine surgery group (sporadic, infundibular and ostiomeatal complex (OMC) patterns) and 2) complex surgery group (sinonasal polyposis and sphenoethmoid recess (SER) patterns). Results: CF patients had more widespread sinonasal inflammatory changes and more advanced disease for each sinus. Most CF patients displayed sinonasal polyposis and SER patterns while most controls displayed sporadic, infundibular or OMC patterns. As a result, 67% of CF patients were classified to the complex surgery group, compared to only 19% of controls. Conclusion: The impaired mucociliary clearance in CF causes widespread inflammatory paranasal sinus disease, with inflammatory patterns more often requiring extensive surgery, with a higher risk of cerebrospinal fluid leak or bleeding, or involving areas that are more difficult to reach with the endoscope

  20. Bioactive dietary peptides and amino acids in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Hu, Chien-An A; Kovacs-Nolan, Jennifer; Mine, Yoshinori

    2015-10-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), most commonly ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), is a chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. Patients affected with IBD experience symptoms including abdominal pain, persistent diarrhea, rectal bleeding, and weight loss. There is no cure for IBD; thus treatments typically focus on preventing complications, inducing and maintaining remission, and improving quality of life. During IBD, dysregulation of the intestinal immune system leads to increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α and IL-6, and recruitment of activated immune cells to the intestine, causing tissue damage and perpetuating the inflammatory response. Recent biological therapies targeting specific inflammatory cytokines or pathways, in particular TNF-α, have shown promise, but not all patients respond to treatment, and some individuals become intolerant to treatment over time. Dietary peptides and amino acids (AAs) have been shown to modulate intestinal immune functions and influence inflammatory responses, and may be useful as alternative or ancillary treatments in IBD. This review focuses on dietary interventions for IBD treatment, in particular the role of dietary peptides and AAs in reducing inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis in the gut, as well as recent advances in the cellular mechanisms responsible for their anti-inflammatory activity.

  1. Interaction between HIV Awareness, Knowledge, Safe Sex Practice and HIV Incidence: Evidence from Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Ranjan Ray; Kompal Sinha

    2011-01-01

    This paper makes methodological and empirical contributions to the study of HIV awareness, knowledge, incidence and safe sex practice in the context of Botswana, one of the most HIV prone countries in the world. While the focus is on Botswana, the paper presents comparable evidence from India to put the Botswana results in perspective. The results point to the strong role played by affluence and education in increasing HIV knowledge, promoting safe sex and reducing HIV incidence. The study pr...

  2. Choosing and Using Safe Water Technologies: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Luoto, Jill Emily

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines the decision-making of poor rural Kenyan households with respect to the adoption of point-of-use (POU) safe water technologies designed to expand access to safe drinking water in the developing world. Low-cost POU products such as chlorine and filters substantially reduce diarrhea, which kills two million children in poor countries each year. Nevertheless, POU products remain little used in many parts of the developing world, even when they are widely available at s...

  3. Final hazard classification and auditable safety analysis for the 105-C Reactor Interim Safe Storage Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodovsky, T.J.; Larson, A.R.; Dexheimer, D.

    1996-12-01

    This document summarizes the inventories of radioactive and hazardous materials present in the 105-C Reactor Facility and the operations associated with the Interim Safe Storage Project which includes decontamination and demolition and interim safe storage of the remaining facility. This document also establishes a final hazard classification and verifies that appropriate and adequate safety functions and controls are in place to reduce or mitigate the risk associated with those operations

  4. Implementation Evaluation of "Steering Teens Safe": Engaging Parents to Deliver a New Parent-Based Teen Driving Intervention to Their Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Marizen; Yang, Jingzhen; Young, Tracy; Roth, Lisa; Garinger, Anne; Snetselaar, Linda; Peek-Asa, Corinne

    2013-01-01

    Parents play a fundamental role in teaching their children safe driving skills to reduce risk of motor vehicle crashes, the leading cause of death for teens. "Steering Teens Safe" is a new parent-based intervention that equips parents with communication skills to talk about, demonstrate, and practice safe driving behaviors and skills…

  5. Vitamin D status, bone mineral density and mental health in young Australian women: the Safe-D study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma T. Callegari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with both poor bone health and mental ill-health. More recently, a number of studies have found individuals with depressive symptoms tend to have reduced bone mineral density. To explore the interrelationships between vitamin D status, bone mineral density and mental-ill health we are assessing a range of clinical, behavioural and lifestyle factors in young women (Part A of the Safe-D study. Design and methods. Part A of the Safe-D study is a cross-sectional study aiming to recruit 468 young females aged 16-25 years living in Victoria, Australia, through Facebook advertising. Participants are required to complete an extensive, online questionnaire, wear an ultra-violet dosimeter for 14 consecutive days and attend a study site visit. Outcome measures include areal bone mineral measures at the lumbar spine, total hip and whole body, as well as soft tissue composition using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Trabecular and cortical volumetric bone density at the tibia is measured using peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Other tests include serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, serum biochemistry and a range of health markers. Details of mood disorder/s and depressive and anxiety symptoms are obtained by self-report. Cutaneous melanin density is measured by spectrophotometry. Expected impact. The findings of this cross-sectional study will have implications for health promotion in young women and for clinical care of those with vitamin D deficiency and/or mental ill-health. Optimising both vitamin D status and mental health may protect against poor bone health and fractures in later life.

  6. Is ridge preservation/augmentation at periodontally compromised extraction sockets safe? A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Ju; Ben Amara, Heithem; Schwarz, Frank; Kim, Hae-Young; Lee, Jung-Won; Wikesjö, Ulf M E; Koo, Ki-Tae

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the safety of ridge preservation/augmentation procedures when performed at compromised extraction sockets. Patients subject to ridge preservation/augmentation at periodontally compromised sockets at Seoul National University Dental Hospital (SNUDH) were evaluated in a chart review. Tooth extractions due to acute infection were not included in our study as chronically formed lesions are the only lesions that can be detected from radiographic images. If inflammatory symptoms persisted following ridge preservation/augmentation and antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory therapy, the patient was categorized as a re-infection case and implanted biomaterial removed. Of 10,060 patients subject to tooth extractions at SNUDH, 2011 through 2015, 297 cases meeting inclusion criteria were reviewed. The severity and type of lesions were not specific because extracting data was only done by radiographic images and chart records. The review identified eight patients exhibiting inflammatory symptoms that required additional antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory therapy. Within this group, re-infection occurred in two patients requiring biomaterials removal. The final safety rate for the ridge preservation/augmentation was 99.3%. None of the demographic factors, systemic conditions or choice of biomaterial affected the safety of ridge preservation/augmentation. Alveolar ridge preservation/augmentation at periodontally compromised sockets appears safe following thorough removal of infectious source. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Piper attenuatum Methanol Extract in LPS-Stimulated Inflammatory Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Jin Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Piper attenuatum is used as a traditional medicinal plant in India. One of the substances in P. attenuatum has been suggested to have anti-inflammatory effects. However, there is insufficient research about the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of action of P. attenuatum. The effects of P. attenuatum methanol extract (Pa-ME on the production of inflammatory mediators nitric oxide (NO and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, the expression of proinflammatory genes, the translocation level of transcription factors, and intracellular signaling activities were investigated using macrophages. Pa-ME suppressed the production of NO and PGE2 in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-, pam3CSK4-, and poly(I:C-stimulated RAW264.7 cells without displaying cytotoxicity. The mRNA expression levels of inducible NO synthase (iNOS and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2 were decreased by Pa-ME. P-ME reduced the translocation of p50/NF-κB and AP-1 (c-Jun and c-Fos, as well as the activity of their upstream enzymes Src, Syk, and TAK1. Immunoprecipitation analysis showed failure of binding between their substrates, phospho- (p- p85 and p-MKK3/6. p-p85 and p-MKK3/6, which were induced by overexpression of Src, Syk, and TAK1, were also reduced by Pa-ME. Therefore, these results suggest that Pa-ME exerts its anti-inflammatory effects by targeting Src and Syk in the NF-κB signaling pathway and TAK1 in the AP-1 signaling pathway.

  8. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 regulates inflammatory tolerance in astrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beurel, Eléonore; Jope, Richard S.

    2010-01-01

    Inflammatory tolerance is the down-regulation of inflammation upon repeated stimuli, which is well-established to occur in peripheral immune cells. However, less is known about inflammatory tolerance in the brain although it may provide an important protective mechanism from detrimental consequences of prolonged inflammation, which appears to occur in many psychiatric and neurodegenerative conditions. Array analysis of 308 inflammatory molecules produced by mouse primary astrocytes after two sequential stimulations with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) distinguished three classes, tolerant, sensitized and unaltered groups. For many of these inflammatory molecules, inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) increased tolerance and reduced sensitization. Focusing on LPS-tolerance in interleukin-6 (IL-6) production, we found that microglia exhibited a strong tolerance response that matched that of macrophages, whereas astrocytes exhibited only partial tolerance. The astrocyte semi-tolerance was found to be regulated by GSK3. GSK3 inhibitors or knocking down GSK3 levels promoted LPS-tolerance and astrocytes expressing constitutively active GSK3 did not develop LPS-tolerance. These findings identify the critical role of GSK3 in counteracting IL-6 inflammatory tolerance in cells of the CNS, supporting the therapeutic potential of GSK3 inhibitors to reduce neuroinflammation by promoting tolerance. PMID:20553816

  9. Phytochemical screening, safety evaluation, anti-inflammatory and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the leaves of Lannea welwitschii ... was investigated in this study because the plant is used in Traditional African Medicine (TAM) to treat swellings, oedema, gout and diarrhoea. ... that tannin, flavonoid and reducing sugar were present while alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, ...

  10. European guideline for the management of pelvic inflammatory disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross, J; Judlin, P; Nilas, Lisbeth

    2007-01-01

    Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) remains one of the most important consequences of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) resulting in severe morbidity and acting as the economic justification for STI screening programmes. Early and appropriate therapy has the potential to significantly reduce t...

  11. Markers of liver function and inflammatory cytokines modulation by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Aerobic exercise training modulates inflammatory cytokine levels and markers of liver function in patients with nonalcoholic ... and is associated with over nutrition and under activity, ... of these subjects with leptin reduced liver fat and liver enzyme ... tissue, muscle-released interleukin-6 inhibition of tumor.

  12. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY EFFECT OF Myrtus nivellei Batt & Trab ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-01-15

    Jan 15, 2015 ... reduce significantly the paw edema with a comparable effect to that observed with Diclofenac. (positive control). This is the first report to demonstrate a significant anti-inflammatory activity of the methanolic extract prepared from Myrtus nivellei. Keywords: Anti-inflammatoy activity; Myrtus nivellei Batt & Trab; ...

  13. Safeguards Automated Facility Evaluation (SAFE) methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, L.D.; Grady, L.M.; Bennett, H.A.; Sasser, D.W.; Engi, D.

    1978-08-01

    An automated approach to facility safeguards effectiveness evaluation has been developed. This automated process, called Safeguards Automated Facility Evaluation (SAFE), consists of a collection of a continuous stream of operational modules for facility characterization, the selection of critical paths, and the evaluation of safeguards effectiveness along these paths. The technique has been implemented on an interactive computer time-sharing system and makes use of computer graphics for the processing and presentation of information. Using this technique, a comprehensive evaluation of a safeguards system can be provided by systematically varying the parameters that characterize the physical protection components of a facility to reflect the perceived adversary attributes and strategy, environmental conditions, and site operational conditions. The SAFE procedure has broad applications in the nuclear facility safeguards field as well as in the security field in general. Any fixed facility containing valuable materials or components to be protected from theft or sabotage could be analyzed using this same automated evaluation technique

  14. Safe waste management practices in beryllium facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, P.N.; Soundararajan, S.; Sharma, D.N.

    2012-01-01

    Beryllium, an element with the atomic symbol Be, atomic number 4, has very high stiffness to weight ratio and low density. It has good electrical conductive properties with low coefficient of thermal expansion. These properties make the metal beryllium very useful in varied technological endeavours, However, beryllium is recognised as one of the most toxic metals. Revelation of toxic effects of beryllium resulted in institution of stringent health and safety practices in beryllium handling facilities. The waste generated in such facilities may contain traces of beryllium. Any such waste should be treated as toxic waste and suitable safe waste management practices should be adopted. By instituting appropriate waste management practice and through a meticulously incorporated safety measures and continuous surveillance exercised in such facilities, total safety can be ensured. This paper broadly discusses health hazards posed by beryllium and safe methods of management of beryllium bearing wastes. (author)

  15. Evidence supporting broader access to safe legal abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faúndes, Anibal; Shah, Iqbal H

    2015-10-01

    Unsafe abortion continues to be a major cause of maternal death; it accounts for 14.5% of all maternal deaths globally and almost all of these deaths occur in countries with restrictive abortion laws. A strong body of accumulated evidence shows that the simple means to drastically reduce unsafe abortion-related maternal deaths and morbidity is to make abortion legal and institutional termination of pregnancy broadly accessible. Despite this evidence, abortion is denied even when the legal condition for abortion is met. The present article aims to contribute to a better understanding that one can be in favor of greater access to safe abortion services, while at the same time not be "in favor of abortion," by reviewing the evidence that indicates that criminalization of abortion only increases mortality and morbidity without decreasing the incidence of induced abortion, and that decriminalization rapidly reduces abortion-related mortality and does not increase abortion rates. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  16. Advising Your Elderly Patients Concerning Safe Exercising

    OpenAIRE

    Myers, Anita

    1987-01-01

    With the emergence of physical activity programs geared specifically to senior citizens, family physicians will increasingly be called on to provide advice or approval concerning their patients' suitability for participation. In addition, family physicians have been identified as having a key role to play in the promotion of exercise for sedentary older adults. To assist the family practitioner in advising elderly patients concerning safe exercise patterns, this article discusses the document...

  17. The Safe Transportation of Radioactive Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megrahi, Abdulhafeed; Abu-Ali, Giuma; Enhaba; Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present the essential conditions that should be required for transporting the radioactive materials. We demonstrate the procedure for transporting the radioactive iodine-131 from the Centre of Renewable Energies and Desalination of Water in Tajoura, Libya to Tripoli Medical Center. The safe measures were taken during the process of the transportation of the isotope produced in the centre including dosimetry analysis and the thickness of the container. (author)

  18. Safe handling of plutonium in research laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The training film illustrates the main basic requirements for the safe handling of small amounts of plutonium. The film is intended not only for people setting up plutonium research laboratories but also for all those who work in existing plutonium research laboratories. It was awarded the first prize in the category ''Protection of Workers'' at the international film festival organized by the 4th World Congress of the International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA) in Paris in April 1977

  19. Procedure of safe handling with cytostatic drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kodžo Dragan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Working group for safe handling with cytostatic drugs has been formed by the Ministry of Health, and it consists of professionals from IORS, Federal Bureau of Weights and Measures, Industrial Medicine, Institute of Hematology, Military Medical Academy, and Crown Agents. The aim of this working group is to prepare procedures for safe handling with cytostatic drugs, as well as program for educational seminar for nurses, medical technicians, and pharmaceutical technicians. The procedures will serve as a guide of good practice of oncology health care, and will refer to all actions that health care professionals carry out from the moment of drugs arrival to the pharmacy to the moment of their application. In the first segment of this procedure, general rules are given for working with cytotoxic agents, control for risky exposures, safe system of work, control of working environment, monitoring of the employees' health condition adequate protection in the working environment, protective equipment of the employees (gloves, mask, cap, eyeglasses, shoe covers, coats and chambers for vertical laminary air stream. Storing of cytostatics, procedure in case of accident, and waste handling and removal are also described in this segment. Fifty-three standard operational procedures are described in detail in the second segment. Training scheme for preparation of chemotherapy is given in the third segment - education related to various fields and practical part, which would be carried out through workshops, and at the end of the course participants would pass a test and obtain certificate. After the procedures for safe handling with cytostatics are legally regulated employer will have to provide minimum of protective equipment, special rooms for the drugs dissolving, chambers with laminar airflow, 6 hours working time, rotation of the staff working with drugs dissolving in intervals of every five years, higher efficiency, better health control. In conclusion

  20. Safe Sleep for Babies PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2018-01-09

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the January 2018 CDC Vital Signs report. Every year, there are about 3,500 sleep-related deaths among U.S. babies. Learn how to create a safe sleep environment for babies.  Created: 1/9/2018 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 1/9/2018.

  1. Esomeprazole: a safe alternative to lansoprazole allergy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Muammer; Tanoglu, Alpaslan; Kutlu, Ali; Sirkeci, Ozgur; Kekilli, Murat

    2014-08-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are widely prescribed drugs in daily practice. Allergic reactions, even small number of anaphylactic reactions to PPIs have been reported. Omeprazole, lansoprazole, pantoprazole, rapeprazol and esomeprazole are classified in the same group. Despite the similarity of biochemical structures among these drugs, presence of cross-reactivity between PPIs is controversial.1,2 In this letter, we present 3 lansoprazole allergy cases, who were prescribed and took esomeprazole safely after allergic reactions to lansoprazole.

  2. Human cloning: can it be made safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhind, Susan M; Taylor, Jane E; De Sousa, Paul A; King, Tim J; McGarry, Michelle; Wilmut, Ian

    2003-11-01

    There are continued claims of attempts to clone humans using nuclear transfer, despite the serious problems that have been encountered in cloning other mammals. It is known that epigenetic and genetic mechanisms are involved in clone failure, but we still do not know exactly how. Human reproductive cloning is unethical, but the production of cells from cloned embryos could offer many potential benefits. So, can human cloning be made safe?

  3. Iser: an international inherently safe reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakabayashi, Hiroaki

    1988-01-01

    Iser is a modular standardised 200-300 MWe power reactor based on the PIUS principle. It differs from PIUS in being simpler, and making full use of existing steel-vessel-based LWR technology. Iser is an inherently safe reactor concept under development in Japan. It is a generic concept, not a patented commodity, and it is expected that an international association to develop the concept will be formed. (U.K.)

  4. SIR - small is safe [in reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayns, M.

    1989-01-01

    A joint USA-UK venture has been initiated to design a small nuclear reactor which offers low capital cost, greater flexibility and a potentially lower environmental impact. Called Safe Integral Reactor (SIR), the lead unit could be built in the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority's (UKAEA's) Winfrith site if the design is accepted by the UK Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII). This article describes the 320 MWe reactor unit that is the basis of the design being developed. (author)

  5. Safe handling of plutonium in research laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-12-31

    The training film illustrates the main basic requirements for the safe handling of small amounts of plutonium. The film is intended not only for people setting up plutonium research laboratories but also for all those who work in existing plutonium research laboratories. It was awarded the first prize in the category ``Protection of Workers`` at the international film festival organized by the 4th World Congress of the International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA) in Paris in April 1977

  6. Managing radioactive waste safely. Engaging Scotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elrick, D.; Boyes, L.; McCormick, J.

    2002-01-01

    Between January and May 2002 the Scottish Council Foundation undertook a research project to assess 1 the level of public awareness about and interest in engaging the public in decision-making on managing radioactive waste safely in Scotland. This paper presents the main findings from the research that involved 70 people from across Scotland, aged between 14 and over 65 years old, and a literature review of Scottish, UK and international experience in engaging the public

  7. Safe Cooperating Cyber-Physical Systems using Wireless Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul; Scholle, Detlef; Sljivo, Irfan

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the ECSEL project entitled ―Safe Cooperating Cyber-Physical Systems using Wireless Communication‖ (SafeCOP), which runs during the period 2016–2019. SafeCOP targets safety-related Cooperating Cyber-Physical Systems (CO-CPS) characterised by use of wireless...... detection of abnormal behaviour, triggering if needed a safe degraded mode. SafeCOP will also develop methods and tools, which will be used to produce safety assurance evidence needed to certify cooperative functions. SafeCOP will extend current wireless technologies to ensure safe and secure cooperation...

  8. Safe transport of radioactive material. Second edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The transport of radioactive material embraces the carriage of radioisotopes for industrial, medical and research uses, and the movement of waste, in addition to consignments of nuclear fuel cycle material. It has been estimated that between eighteen and thirty-eight million package shipments take place each year. On the recommendation of the Standing Advisory Group on the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (SAGSTRAM), which enjoys wide representations from the Agency's Member States and international organizations, the Secretariat is preparing a training kit comprising this training manual and complementary visual aids. The kit is intended to be the basis for an extensive course on the subject and can be used in whole or in part for inter-regional, regional and even national training purposes. Member States can thus benefit from the material either through training courses sponsored by the Agency, or, alternatively, organized by themselves. As a step towards achieving that goal, the current training manual was compiled using material from the first Inter-Regional Training Course on the Safe Transport of Radioactive material that was held in co-operation with the Nuclear Power Training Centre of the then Central Electricity Generating Board at Bristol, United Kingdom. This Manual was initially published in 1990. On the recommendation of the Agency's Standing Advisory Group on the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (SAGSTRAM), the Manual has since been expanded and updated in time for the second Inter-Regional Training Course, that will in 1991 similarly be held in Bristol. Refs, figs, tabs

  9. Safe transport of radioactive materials in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shinawy, R.M.K.

    1994-01-01

    In Egypt the national regulations for safe transport of radioactive materials (RAM) are based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) regulations. In addition, regulations for the safe transport of these materials through the Suez Canal (SC) were laid down by the Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority (EAEA) and the Suez Canal Authority (SCA). They are continuously updated to meet the increased knowledge and the gained experience. The technical and protective measures taken during transport of RAM through SC are mentioned. Assessment of the impact of transporting radioactive materials through the Suez Canal using the INTERTRAN computer code was carried out in cooperation with IAEA. The transported activities and empty containers, the number of vessels carrying RAM through the canal from 1963 and 1991 and their nationalities are also discussed. The protective measures are mentioned. A review of the present situation of the radioactive wastes storage facilities at the Atomic Energy site at Inshas is given along with the regulation for safe transportation and disposal of radioactive wastes. (Author)

  10. Inherently safe in situ uranium recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumhansl, James Lee; Beauheim, Richard Louis; Brady, Patrick Vane; Arnold, Bill Walter; Kanney, Joseph F.; McKenna, Sean Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Expansion of uranium mining in the United States is a concern to some environmental groups and sovereign Native American Nations. An approach which may alleviate some problems is to develop inherently safe in situ uranium recovery ('ISR') technologies. Current ISR technology relies on chemical extraction of trace levels of uranium from aquifers that, once mined, can still contain dissolved uranium and other trace metals that are a health concern. Existing ISR operations are few in number; however, high uranium prices are driving the industry to consider expanding operations nation-wide. Environmental concerns and enforcement of the new 30 ppb uranium drinking water standard may make opening new mining operations more difficult and costly. Here we propose a technological fix: the development of inherently safe in situ recovery (ISISR) methods. The four central features of an ISISR approach are: (1) New 'green' leachants that break down predictably in the subsurface, leaving uranium, and associated trace metals, in an immobile form; (2) Post-leachant uranium/metals-immobilizing washes that provide a backup decontamination process; (3) An optimized well-field design that increases uranium recovery efficiency and minimizes excursions of contaminated water; and (4) A combined hydrologic/geochemical protocol for designing low-cost post-extraction long-term monitoring. ISISR would bring larger amounts of uranium to the surface, leave fewer toxic metals in the aquifer, and cost less to monitor safely - thus providing a 'win-win-win' solution to all stakeholders.

  11. [Effect of anti-inflammatory therapy on the treatment of dry eye syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrukwa-Kominek, Ewa; Rogowska-Godela, Anna; Gierek-Ciaciura, Stanisława

    2007-01-01

    Dry eye syndrome is a common chronic disease; agents and strategies for its effective management are still lacking. The syndrome tends to be accompanied by ocular surface inflammation; therefore, the use of anti-inflammatory agents might prove beneficial. The authors present up-to-date guidelines, strategies, and efficacy of dry eye syndrome management, including anti-inflammatory treatment. As no diagnostic tests are now available to assess ocular surface inflammation severity, the right timing to launch an anti-inflammatory agent is difficult to determine. Patients with mild intermittent bouts of symptoms which can be alleviated with ophthalmic lubricants do not typically require anti-inflammatory therapy. The latter should be considered in those who do not respond to lubricating drops, obtain poor results on clinical tests, and show symptoms of ocular surface irritation (eg. conjunctivae redness). Anti-inflammatory treatment of dry eye syndrome may include short-term corticosteroids, cyclosporine A emulsion, oral tetracycline therapy, oral omega-3 fatty acid supplements, and autologous serum eye drops. Anti-inflammatory treatment should be safe and effective; potential benefits should be evaluated for each individual patient. The authors have reviewed the advantages of anti-inflammatory treatment in dry eye syndrome, presented in literature.

  12. Nutraceuticals of anti-inflammatory activity as complementary therapy for rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Okbi, Sahar Y

    2014-09-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by elevated oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers. The severe side effects of drug used during such disease necessitate the search for new and safe approaches. Food is a rich source of antioxidants and anti-inflammatory bioactive constituents including phenolic compounds, polyunsaturated fatty acids, phytosterols, toccopherols, and carotenoids. We have a series of publications dealing with the anti-inflammatory activity of different food extracts (as nutraceuticals) in experimental animals (acute and chronic inflammation model) and in clinical study (RA patients). Fish oil, primrose oil, extracts of black cumin, fenugreek, liquorice, coriander, tomato, carrot, sweet potato, broccoli, green tea, rosemary, hazelnut, walnut, wheat germ, and date in addition to the probiotic Bifidobacterium bifidum were the nutraceuticals studied. During these studies, changes in inflammatory biomarkers (erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), seromucoids, fibrinogen, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), prostaglandin E2), oxidative stress (malondialdehyde), antioxidant status (total antioxidant capacity, vitamin C, vitamin E, retinol, β-carotene), the level of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) and colonic microflora in response to the administration of nutraceuticals have been assessed. Results of these studies showed that the majority of nutraceuticals studied possess beneficial effect toward chronic inflammatory diseases, which might be due to the presence of one or more of the above-mentioned phytochemicals. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant nutraceuticals may serve as complementary medicine for the management of RA. © The Author(s) 2012.

  13. Cocoa Polyphenols and Inflammatory Markers of Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nasiruddin; Khymenets, Olha; Urpí-Sardà, Mireia; Tulipani, Sara; Garcia-Aloy, Mar; Monagas, María; Mora-Cubillos, Ximena; Llorach, Rafael; Andres-Lacueva, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated the beneficial effect of plant-derived food intake in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The potential bioactivity of cocoa and its polyphenolic components in modulating cardiovascular health is now being studied worldwide and continues to grow at a rapid pace. In fact, the high polyphenol content of cocoa is of particular interest from the nutritional and pharmacological viewpoints. Cocoa polyphenols are shown to possess a range of cardiovascular-protective properties, and can play a meaningful role through modulating different inflammatory markers involved in atherosclerosis. Accumulated evidence on related anti-inflammatory effects of cocoa polyphenols is summarized in the present review. PMID:24566441

  14. Management of Cardiovascular Risk in Patients with Chronic Inflammatory Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhardsen, Jesper; Kristensen, Søren Lund; Ahlehoff, Ole

    2016-01-01

    An increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been observed in a range of chronic inflammatory diseases (CID), including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriasis, inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The increased risk of CVDs and reduced life expectancy...... considerable interest in recent years. We briefly summarize the current level of evidence of the association between CIDs and CVD and cardiovascular risk management recommendations. Perspectives of ongoing and planned trials are discussed in consideration of potential ways to improve primary and secondary CVD...

  15. Inflammatory Response in Islet Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazhar A. Kanak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Islet cell transplantation is a promising beta cell replacement therapy for patients with brittle type 1 diabetes as well as refractory chronic pancreatitis. Despite the vast advancements made in this field, challenges still remain in achieving high frequency and long-term successful transplant outcomes. Here we review recent advances in understanding the role of inflammation in islet transplantation and development of strategies to prevent damage to islets from inflammation. The inflammatory response associated with islets has been recognized as the primary cause of early damage to islets and graft loss after transplantation. Details on cell signaling pathways in islets triggered by cytokines and harmful inflammatory events during pancreas procurement, pancreas preservation, islet isolation, and islet infusion are presented. Robust control of pre- and peritransplant islet inflammation could improve posttransplant islet survival and in turn enhance the benefits of islet cell transplantation for patients who are insulin dependent. We discuss several potent anti-inflammatory strategies that show promise for improving islet engraftment. Further understanding of molecular mechanisms involved in the inflammatory response will provide the basis for developing potent therapeutic strategies for enhancing the quality and success of islet transplantation.

  16. Inflammatory Response in Islet Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanak, Mazhar A.; Kunnathodi, Faisal; Lawrence, Michael C.; Levy, Marlon F.

    2014-01-01

    Islet cell transplantation is a promising beta cell replacement therapy for patients with brittle type 1 diabetes as well as refractory chronic pancreatitis. Despite the vast advancements made in this field, challenges still remain in achieving high frequency and long-term successful transplant outcomes. Here we review recent advances in understanding the role of inflammation in islet transplantation and development of strategies to prevent damage to islets from inflammation. The inflammatory response associated with islets has been recognized as the primary cause of early damage to islets and graft loss after transplantation. Details on cell signaling pathways in islets triggered by cytokines and harmful inflammatory events during pancreas procurement, pancreas preservation, islet isolation, and islet infusion are presented. Robust control of pre- and peritransplant islet inflammation could improve posttransplant islet survival and in turn enhance the benefits of islet cell transplantation for patients who are insulin dependent. We discuss several potent anti-inflammatory strategies that show promise for improving islet engraftment. Further understanding of molecular mechanisms involved in the inflammatory response will provide the basis for developing potent therapeutic strategies for enhancing the quality and success of islet transplantation. PMID:24883060

  17. Inflammatory mechanisms in Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eikelenboom, P.; Zhan, S. S.; van Gool, W. A.; Allsop, D.

    1994-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is aetiologically heterogeneous, but the pathogenesis is often considered to be initiated by the deposition of amyloid fibrils, followed by neuritic tau pathology and neuronal death. A variety of inflammatory proteins has been identified in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's

  18. Neonatal umbilical inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    antenatal scan. The preferred treatment option is resection of the tumor. Spontaneous regression has been described. Ann Pediatr Surg 13:160–162 c 2017 Annals of Pediatric. Surgery. ... Keywords: inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor, neonatal tumor, surgical resection ... Other anatomical regions were the brain, the.

  19. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Fargesin on Chemically Induced Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bei Yue

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Fargesin is a bioactive lignan from Flos Magnoliae, an herb widely used in the treatment of allergic rhinitis, sinusitis, and headache in Asia. We sought to investigate whether fargesin ameliorates experimental inflammatory bowel disease (IBD in mice. Oral administration of fargesin significantly attenuated the symptoms of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced colitis in mice by decreasing the inflammatory infiltration and myeloperoxidase (MPO activity, reducing tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α secretion, and inhibiting nitric oxide (NO production in colitis mice. The degradation of inhibitory κBα (IκBα, phosphorylation of p65, and mRNA expression of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB target genes were inhibited by fargesin treatment in the colon of the colitis mice. In vitro, fargesin blocked the nuclear translocation of p-p65, downregulated the protein levels of inducible NO synthase (iNOS and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, and dose-dependently inhibited the activity of NF-κB-luciferase in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. Taken together, for the first time, the current study demonstrated the anti-inflammatory effects of fargesin on chemically induced IBD might be associated with NF-κB signaling suppression. The findings may contribute to the development of therapies for human IBD by using fargesin or its derivatives.

  20. Ursodeoxycholic Acid and Its Taurine- or Glycine-Conjugated Species Reduce Colitogenic Dysbiosis and Equally Suppress Experimental Colitis in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Bossche, Lien; Hindryckx, Pieter; Devisscher, Lindsey; Devriese, Sarah; Van Welden, Sophie; Holvoet, Tom; Vilchez-Vargas, Ramiro; Vital, Marius; Pieper, Dietmar H; Vanden Bussche, Julie; Vanhaecke, Lynn; Van de Wiele, Tom; De Vos, Martine; Laukens, Debby

    2017-04-01

    The promising results seen in studies of secondary bile acids in experimental colitis suggest that they may represent an attractive and safe class of drugs for the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). However, the exact mechanism by which bile acid therapy confers protection from colitogenesis is currently unknown. Since the gut microbiota plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of IBD, and exogenous bile acid administration may affect the community structure of the microbiota, we examined the impact of the secondary bile acid ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and its taurine or glycine conjugates on the fecal microbial community structure during experimental colitis. Daily oral administration of UDCA, tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), or glycoursodeoxycholic acid (GUDCA) equally lowered the severity of dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis in mice, as evidenced by reduced body weight loss, colonic shortening, and expression of inflammatory cytokines. Illumina sequencing demonstrated that bile acid therapy during colitis did not restore fecal bacterial richness and diversity. However, bile acid therapy normalized the colitis-associated increased ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes Interestingly, administration of bile acids prevented the loss of Clostridium cluster XIVa and increased the abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila , bacterial species known to be particularly decreased in IBD patients. We conclude that UDCA, which is an FDA-approved drug for cholestatic liver disorders, could be an attractive treatment option to reduce dysbiosis and ameliorate inflammation in human IBD. IMPORTANCE Secondary bile acids are emerging as attractive candidates for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Although bile acids may affect the intestinal microbial community structure, which significantly contributes to the course of these inflammatory disorders, the impact of bile acid therapy on the fecal microbiota during colitis has not yet been considered. Here, we