Phuti E Makgotlho
Full Text Available The Staphylococcus aureus regulatory saePQRS system controls the expression of numerous virulence factors, including extracellular adherence protein (Eap, which amongst others facilitates invasion of host cells. The saePQRS operon codes for 4 proteins: the histidine kinase SaeS, the response regulator SaeR, the lipoprotein SaeP and the transmembrane protein SaeQ. S. aureus strain Newman has a single amino acid substitution in the transmembrane domain of SaeS (L18P which results in constitutive kinase activity. SDS was shown to be one of the signals interfering with SaeS activity leading to inhibition of the sae target gene eap in strains with SaeS(L but causing activation in strains containing SaeS(P. Here, we analyzed the possible involvement of the SaeP protein and saePQ region in SDS-mediated sae/eap expression. We found that SaePQ is not needed for SDS-mediated SaeS signaling. Furthermore, we could show that SaeS activity is closely linked to the expression of Eap and the capacity to invade host cells in a number of clinical isolates. This suggests that SaeS activity might be directly modulated by structurally non-complex environmental signals, as SDS, which possibly altering its kinase/phosphatase activity.
de Freitas, C R
The Executive Board of the International Society of Biometeorology (ISB) founded the Commission on Climate, Tourism and Recreation (CCTR) at the 15th International Congress of Biometeorology in Sydney, Australia in 1999. The aims of the CCTR are to bring together researchers from around the world to critically review the current state of knowledge in tourism and recreation climatology and explore possibilities for future research. Almost two decades on, research in tourism climatology has developed and expanded due in large part to the initiatives and activities of the CCTR and several collaborative research projects run under the auspices of the CCTR. This work is reviewed here. Recent CCTR meeting highlighted the fact that, although climate is an essential part of the resource base for tourism, which is one of the world's biggest and fastest growing industries, relatively little is known about the effects of climate on tourist choices and broad demand patterns or the influence climate has on the commercial prospects and sustainability of tourism operators and destinations. The work here reviews what has been done, its conceptual underpinnings and current research frontiers.
Ray F. Iunius
Full Text Available Several challenges regarding the European tourism industry were recently identified at EU level which the experts of the European Commission tried to meet, thus formulating several priorities within the newest Tourism Action Framework: Stimulate long-term competitiveness in the European tourism sector, promote the development of sustainable and high-quality tourism, and consolidate the image and promotion of European tourist destinations. Due to the new generational context, information and communications technology ICT and innovation became keywords within the most recent European Tourism Policy. Considering the symbiotic relationship that exists at the European tourism level between sustainable development, innovative ICT solutions, and long-term competitiveness, the decision-makers in European destinations should focus on identifying innovative ways to implement the new Tourism Action Framework adopted by the European Commission, through ICT applications, in order to support long-term competitiveness achievement. Two such authentic proposals are formulated within the present discussion paper: the creation of a decision support system for the management of sustainable European destinations and the development of a trip-planner for quality-sensitive tourists based on an umbrella European certification/labeling system for tourism quality. There is still a fertile field in these areas and, therefore, more innovative ICT tools to support the long-term competitiveness of European tourist destinations can be developed.
Cho, Hoonsik; Jeong, Do-Won; Li, Chunling; Bae, Taeok
In Staphylococcus aureus, the SaeRS two-component system controls the expression of multiple virulence factors. Of the two promoters in the sae operon, P1 is autoinduced and has two binding sites for the response regulator SaeR. In this study, we examined the organizational requirements of the SaeR binding sites in P1 for transcription activation. Mutational studies showed that both binding sites are essential for binding to phosphorylated SaeR (P-SaeR) and transcription activation. When the 21-bp distance between the centers of the two SaeR binding sites was altered to 26 bp, 31 bp, 36 bp, or 41 bp, only the 31-bp mutant retained approximately 40% of the original promoter activity. When the -1-bp spacing (i.e.,1-bp overlap) between the primary SaeR binding site and the -35 promoter region was altered, all mutant P1 promoters failed to initiate transcription; however, when the first nucleotide of the -35 region was changed from A to T, the mutants with 0-bp or 22-bp spacing showed detectable promoter activity. Although P-SaeR was essential for the binding of RNA polymerase to P1, it was not essential for the binding of the enzyme to the alpha-hemolysin promoter. When the nonoptimal spacing between promoter elements in P1 or the coagulase promoter was altered to the optimal spacing of 17 bp, both promoters failed to initiate transcription. These results suggest that SaeR binding sites are under rather strict organizational restrictions and provide clues for understanding the molecular mechanism of sae-mediated transcription activation.
de Freitas, C R
This work grew from initiatives of the International Society of Biometeorology's Commission on Climate, Tourism and Recreation (ISBCCTR). The ISBCCTR was formed during the 15th Congress of the ISB held in November 1999 in Sydney, Australia. The aim of ISBCCTR is to promote research in tourism climatology. The first formal meeting of the Commission took place at the Meliton Resort, Halkidiki, Greece, 5-10 October 2001. The aims were to (1) bring together a selection of scientists and tourism experts to review the current state of knowledge of tourism climatology and (2) explore areas and priorities for future work and the role of the Commission in this. The Workshop highlighted the fact that, although climate is widely recognised as vitally important to tourism, relatively little is known about its effects. Even less is known about the economic impact or significance of climate on commercial prospects for tourism. Important research themes that warrant attention were identified. Among these was the need for a tourism climate index (or indices) that integrates all facets of climate, uses standard data and is objectively tested and verified. Work is also required on developing a better understanding of what climate-related information is required by both tourists and the tourism industry, exploring the distinction between the impact of climate on tourists and the impact on the tourism industry, setting a standard approach to tourism climate assessment, assessing the role of weather forecasts and long-term expectations of climate on choices made by tourists, the risks to tourism caused by extreme atmospheric events, what climate-related criteria people use to make decisions about tourism and recreational choices, how products giving information about weather and climate are currently used by the recreation and tourism industry and what are the existing and future requirements for this climate information.
Agriculture in Finland and globally struggles and farmers have difficulties reaching profitability. Among other industries, tourism is found as an efficient alternative for diversification thanks to several factors. However, to forward the positive influences, tourism enterprise must succeed. This bachelor thesis is a qualitative research aiming to identify success factors in Finnish farm tourism. The research was conducted in spring semester 2016. It is commissioned by Lomalaidun Ry, a ...
Pratt, Richard M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gowri, Krishnan [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Vehicle to grid communication standards enable interoperability among vehicles, charging stations and utility providers and provide the capability to implement charge management. Several standards initiatives by the Society of Automobile Engineers (SAE), International Standards Organization and International Electrotechnical Commission (ISO/IEC), and ZigBee/HomePlug Alliance are developing requirements for communication messages and protocols. Recent work by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) in collaboration with SAE and automobile manufacturers has identified vehicle to grid communication performance requirements and developed a test plan as part of SAE J2931/1 committee work. This laboratory test plan was approved by the SAE J2931/1 committee and included test configurations, test methods, and performance requirements to verify reliability, robustness, repeatability, maximum communication distance, and authentication features of power line carrier (PLC) communication modules at the internet protocol layer level. The goal of the testing effort was to select a communication technology that would enable automobile manufacturers to begin the development and implementation process. The EPRI/Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)/Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) testing teams divided the testing so that results for each test could be presented by two teams, performing the tests independently. The PNNL team performed narrowband PLC testing including the Texas Instruments (TI) Concerto, Ariane Controls AC-CPM1, and the MAXIM Tahoe 2 evaluation boards. The scope of testing was limited to measuring the vendor systems communication performance between Electric Vehicle Support Equipment (EVSE) and plug-in electric vehicles (PEV). The testing scope did not address PEV’s CAN bus to PLC or PLC to EVSE (Wi-Fi, cellular, PLC Mains, etc.) communication integration. In particular, no evaluation was performed to delineate the effort needed to translate the IPv6
Krute, Christina N; Rice, Kelly C; Bose, Jeffrey L
In previous studies, we identified the fatty acid kinase virulence factor regulator B (VfrB) as a potent regulator of α-hemolysin and other virulence factors in Staphylococcus aureus In this study, we demonstrated that VfrB is a positive activator of the SaeRS two-component regulatory system. Analysis of vfrB , saeR , and saeS mutant strains revealed that VfrB functions in the same pathway as SaeRS. At the transcriptional level, the promoter activities of SaeRS class I ( coa ) and class II ( hla ) target genes were downregulated during the exponential growth phase in the vfrB mutant, compared to the wild-type strain. In addition, saePQRS expression was decreased in the vfrB mutant strain, demonstrating a need for this protein in the autoregulation of SaeRS. The requirement for VfrB-mediated activation was circumvented when SaeS was constitutively active due to an SaeS (L18P) substitution. Furthermore, activation of SaeS via human neutrophil peptide 1 (HNP-1) overcame the dependence on VfrB for transcription from class I Sae promoters. Consistent with the role of VfrB in fatty acid metabolism, hla expression was decreased in the vfrB mutant with the addition of exogenous myristic acid. Lastly, we determined that aspartic acid residues D38 and D40, which are predicted to be key to VfrB enzymatic activity, were required for VfrB-mediated α-hemolysin production. Collectively, this study implicates VfrB as a novel accessory protein needed for the activation of SaeRS in S. aureus IMPORTANCE The SaeRS two-component system is a key regulator of virulence determinant production in Staphylococcus aureus Although the regulon of this two-component system is well characterized, the activation mechanisms, including the specific signaling molecules, remain elusive. Elucidating the complex regulatory circuit of SaeRS regulation is important for understanding how the system contributes to disease causation by this pathogen. To this end, we have identified the fatty acid kinase
Amol Bhanage; Nilesh Satonkar; Pratap Deshmukh; Rupesh Sundge
The concept of crashworthy coaches came into existence after a crash. This demands, avoid vehicle deformation of other/central parts. For this, the behaviour of plastic deformation of the material is necessary to be known. So, these results are required to study the crashworthy behaviour of the structure. In this research, Comparative study has been taken on the automotive materials of SAE 1026, SAE 4140, SAE 5120 and SAE8620. This paper presents the results of fracture toughness, impact e...
Background Staphylococcus epidermidis (SE) has emerged as one of the most important causes of nosocomial infections. The SaeRS two-component signal transduction system (TCS) influences virulence and biofilm formation in Staphylococcus aureus. The deletion of saeR in S. epidermidis results in impaired anaerobic growth and decreased nitrate utilization. However, the regulatory function of SaeRS on biofilm formation and autolysis in S. epidermidis remains unclear. Results The saeRS genes of SE1457 were deleted by homologous recombination. The saeRS deletion mutant, SE1457ΔsaeRS, exhibited increased biofilm formation that was disturbed more severely (a 4-fold reduction) by DNase I treatment compared to SE1457 and the complementation strain SE1457saec. Compared to SE1457 and SE1457saec, SE1457ΔsaeRS showed increased Triton X-100-induced autolysis (approximately 3-fold) and decreased cell viability in planktonic/biofilm states; further, SE1457ΔsaeRS also released more extracellular DNA (eDNA) in the biofilms. Correlated with the increased autolysis phenotype, the transcription of autolysis-related genes, such as atlE and aae, was increased in SE1457ΔsaeRS. Whereas the expression of accumulation-associated protein was up-regulated by 1.8-fold in 1457ΔsaeRS, the expression of an N-acetylglucosaminyl transferase enzyme (encoded by icaA) critical for polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA) synthesis was not affected by the deletion of saeRS. Conclusions Deletion of saeRS in S. epidermidis resulted in an increase in biofilm-forming ability, which was associated with increased eDNA release and up-regulated Aap expression. The increased eDNA release from SE1457ΔsaeRS was associated with increased bacterial autolysis and decreased bacterial cell viability in the planktonic/biofilm states. PMID:21702925
Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus epidermidis (SE has emerged as one of the most important causes of nosocomial infections. The SaeRS two-component signal transduction system (TCS influences virulence and biofilm formation in Staphylococcus aureus. The deletion of saeR in S. epidermidis results in impaired anaerobic growth and decreased nitrate utilization. However, the regulatory function of SaeRS on biofilm formation and autolysis in S. epidermidis remains unclear. Results The saeRS genes of SE1457 were deleted by homologous recombination. The saeRS deletion mutant, SE1457ΔsaeRS, exhibited increased biofilm formation that was disturbed more severely (a 4-fold reduction by DNase I treatment compared to SE1457 and the complementation strain SE1457saec. Compared to SE1457 and SE1457saec, SE1457ΔsaeRS showed increased Triton X-100-induced autolysis (approximately 3-fold and decreased cell viability in planktonic/biofilm states; further, SE1457ΔsaeRS also released more extracellular DNA (eDNA in the biofilms. Correlated with the increased autolysis phenotype, the transcription of autolysis-related genes, such as atlE and aae, was increased in SE1457ΔsaeRS. Whereas the expression of accumulation-associated protein was up-regulated by 1.8-fold in 1457ΔsaeRS, the expression of an N-acetylglucosaminyl transferase enzyme (encoded by icaA critical for polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA synthesis was not affected by the deletion of saeRS. Conclusions Deletion of saeRS in S. epidermidis resulted in an increase in biofilm-forming ability, which was associated with increased eDNA release and up-regulated Aap expression. The increased eDNA release from SE1457ΔsaeRS was associated with increased bacterial autolysis and decreased bacterial cell viability in the planktonic/biofilm states.
These Proceedings gather outstanding papers submitted to the 2014 SAE-China Congress, the majority of which are from China, the most dynamic car market in the world. The book covers a wide range of automotive topics, presenting the latest technical achievements in the industry. Many of the approaches it presents can help technicians to solve the practical problems that most affect their daily work.
Full Text Available Staphylococcus epidermidis, which is a causative pathogen of nosocomial infection, expresses its virulent traits such as biofilm and autolysis regulated by two-component signal transduction system SaeRS. In this study, we performed a proteomic analysis of differences in expression between the S. epidermidis 1457 wild-type and saeRS mutant to identify candidates regulated by saeRS using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE combined with matrix-assisted laser desorption/lonization mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS. Of 55 identified proteins that significantly differed in expression between the two strains, 15 were upregulated and 40 were downregulated. The downregulated proteins included enzymes related to glycolysis and TCA cycle, suggesting that glucose is not properly utilized in S. epidermidis when saeRS was deleted. The study will be helpful for treatment of S. epidermidis infection from the viewpoint of metabolic modulation dependent on two-component signal transduction system SaeRS.
These proceedings gather outstanding papers submitted to the 2015 SAE-China Congress, the majority of which are from China, the biggest car maker as well as most dynamic car market in the world. The book covers a wide range of automotive topics, presenting the latest technical achievements in the industry. Many of the approaches presented can help technicians to solve the practical problems that most affect their daily work.
Full Text Available Whether one falls into the category of successfully aging elderly (SAE is generally determined by biological, medical, psychological, and cognitive factors. SAE, pathological aging and usual aging, are the three subgroups presented in the seminal science paper by Rowe & Kahn in 1987. SAE is currently vaguely defined as being free of disease, having preserved cognitive function and an active life, but a more detailed definition is lacking. As a result, the research on SAE is heterogeneous and hard to summarize. Nevertheless, it is clear that genetics, health, basic aging mechanisms, brain changes, cognition early in life, education level, lifestyle factors, subjective factors, the availability of societal health care, environmental factors, and any interaction between all these variables, are important. There are also methodological difficulties associated with studies of causal relationships across the lifespan. Obtaining a detailed understanding of SAE research will be a challenging task for future researchers
Full Text Available As a consequence of the new political world geography, today we can reflect about the relationship that links geopolitics and geoeconomy, both on a global scale and in the European enlargement process. There is a number of participators in European tourism on the beginning of the 21st century. Many international organizations and commissions are directing tourism development today. Some countries leave their old principles and practice and they adjust on common European interests. Furthermore, development plans, which observe tourism in line with spatial, economical and social development, are made in Europe. One of them is a famous plan FORCE that associates development activities and stimulates tourism development in Europe. So, Europe has a tendency to explore all production potential and to reinforce the tourism on national, regional and local level.
He, Xingyue; Riceberg, Jessica; Soucy, Teresa; Koenig, Erik; Minissale, James; Gallery, Melissa; Bernard, Hugues; Yang, Xiaofeng; Liao, Hua; Rabino, Claudia; Shah, Pooja; Xega, Kristina; Yan, Zhong-Hua; Sintchak, Mike; Bradley, John; Xu, He; Duffey, Matt; England, Dylan; Mizutani, Hirotake; Hu, Zhigen; Guo, Jianping; Chau, Ryan; Dick, Lawrence R; Brownell, James E; Newcomb, John; Langston, Steve; Lightcap, Eric S; Bence, Neil; Pulukuri, Sai M
Small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) family proteins regulate target-protein functions by post-translational modification. However, a potent and selective inhibitor targeting the SUMO pathway has been lacking. Here we describe ML-792, a mechanism-based SUMO-activating enzyme (SAE) inhibitor with nanomolar potency in cellular assays. ML-792 selectively blocks SAE enzyme activity and total SUMOylation, thus decreasing cancer cell proliferation. Moreover, we found that induction of the MYC oncogene increased the ML-792-mediated viability effect in cancer cells, thus indicating a potential application of SAE inhibitors in treating MYC-amplified tumors. Using ML-792, we further explored the critical roles of SUMOylation in mitotic progression and chromosome segregation. Furthermore, expression of an SAE catalytic-subunit (UBA2) S95N M97T mutant rescued SUMOylation loss and the mitotic defect induced by ML-792, thus confirming the selectivity of ML-792. As a potent and selective SAE inhibitor, ML-792 provides rapid loss of endogenously SUMOylated proteins, thereby facilitating novel insights into SUMO biology.
This proceedings volume gathers outstanding papers submitted to the 2016 SAE-China Congress, the majority of which are from China, the biggest car maker as well as most dynamic car market in the world. The book includes insights into the current challenges that the whole industry is currently facing, and it offers possible solutions to problems such as emission controls, environmental pollution, the energy shortage, traffic congestion and sustainable development. It also presents the latest technical achievements in the automotive industry. Many of the approaches it presents can help technicians to solve the practical problems that most affect their daily work.
Marincola, Gabriella; Wolz, Christiane
In gram-positive bacteria, RNase J1, RNase J2 and RNase Y are thought to be major contributors to mRNA degradation and maturation. In Staphylococcus aureus, RNase Y activity is restricted to regulating the mRNA decay of only certain transcripts. Here the saePQRS operon was used as a model to analyze RNase Y specificity in living cells. A RNase Y cleavage site is located in an intergenic region between saeP and saeQ. This cleavage resulted in rapid degradation of the upstream fragment and stabilization of the downstream fragment. Thereby, the expression ratio of the different components of the operon was shifted towards saeRS, emphasizing the regulatory role of RNase Y activity. To assess cleavage specificity different regions surrounding the sae CS were cloned upstream of truncated gfp, and processing was analyzed in vivo using probes up- and downstream of CS. RNase Y cleavage was not determined by the cleavage site sequence. Instead a 24-bp double-stranded recognition structure was identified that was required to initiate cleavage 6 nt upstream. The results indicate that RNase Y activity is determined by secondary structure recognition determinants, which guide cleavage from a distance. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.
Matzarakis, A.; Freitas, C.R. de; Scott, D. (eds.)
This publication grew out of the Second International Workshop of the International Society of Biometeorology, Commission on Climate Tourism and Recreation (ISB-CCTR) that took place at the Orthodox Academy of Crete in Kolimbari, Greece, 8-11 June 2004. The aim of the meeting was to (a) bring together a selection of researchers and tourism experts to review the current state of knowledge of tourism and recreation climatology and (b) explore possibilities for future research and the role of the ISB-CCTR in this. A total of 40 delegates attended the June 2004 ISB-CCTR Workshop. Their fields of expertise included biometeorology, bioclimatology, thermal comfort and heat balance modelling, tourism marketing and planning, urban and landscape planning, architecture, climate change, emission reduction and climate change impact assessment. Participants came from universities and research institutions in Australia, Austria, Canada, Croatia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Portugal, Slovenia, United Kingdom and United States of America. Business conducted at the Workshop was divided between five sessions: assessment of climatic resources; climate change; health; weather, sports and risk forecasts; and behaviour and perception. However, the content of this publication is organised so that it reflects the new perspectives and methods that have evolved since the ISB-CCTR was established. (orig.)
Mashruwala, Ameya A; Gries, Casey M; Scherr, Tyler D; Kielian, Tammy; Boyd, Jeffrey M
Biofilms are multicellular communities of microorganisms living as a quorum rather than as individual cells. The bacterial human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus uses oxygen as a terminal electron acceptor during respiration. Infected human tissues are hypoxic or anoxic. We recently reported that impaired respiration elicits a p rogrammed c ell l ysis (PCL) phenomenon in S. aureus leading to the release of cellular polymers that are utilized to form biofilms. PCL is dependent upon the AtlA murein hydrolase and is regulated, in part, by the SrrAB two-component regulatory system (TCRS). In the current study, we report that the SaeRS TCRS also governs fermentative biofilm formation by positively influencing AtlA activity. The SaeRS-modulated factor fibronectin-binding protein A (FnBPA) also contributed to the fermentative biofilm formation phenotype. SaeRS-dependent biofilm formation occurred in response to changes in cellular respiratory status. Genetic evidence presented suggests that a high cellular titer of phosphorylated SaeR is required for biofilm formation. Epistasis analyses found that SaeRS and SrrAB influence biofilm formation independently of one another. Analyses using a mouse model of orthopedic implant-associated biofilm formation found that both SaeRS and SrrAB govern host colonization. Of these two TCRSs, SrrAB was the dominant system driving biofilm formation in vivo We propose a model wherein impaired cellular respiration stimulates SaeRS via an as yet undefined signal molecule(s), resulting in increasing expression of AtlA and FnBPA and biofilm formation. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.
Schaefer, Daniel; Lam, Thien-Tri; Geiger, Tobias; Mainiero, Markus; Engelmann, Susanne; Hussain, Muzaffar; Bosserhoff, Armin; Frosch, Matthias; Bischoff, Markus; Wolz, Christiane; Reidl, Joachim; Sinha, Bhanu
Staphylococcus aureus reacts to changing environmental conditions such as heat, pH, and chemicals through global regulators such as the sae (S. aureus exoprotein expression) two-component signaling system. Subinhibitory concentrations of some antibiotics were shown to increase virulence factor
Full Text Available The frame, as one of the basic components of a car, plays an important role of connecting components and withstanding various loads. The truss-frame is the commonest form of Formula SAE car in that it has many advantages, such as low cost, simple manufacture, high rigidity and high strength. The development of frame is reviewed. First, the key performance indicators and the mechanical state of the frame under different conditions are discussed. Second, a variety of optimization methods used in the design of frame are described. Finally, the test method of frame are introduced, with the experimental data and the finite element analysis of results being compared. Through analyzing and summarizing the development of the design, optimization and testing technology of the Formula SAE truss-frame, forecasting the future trends, the great theoretical reference is provided for the design and research of the follow-up frame.
Blancas, Francisco Javier; Lozano-Oyola, Macarena; González, Mercedes
The tourism sector in Europe faces important challenges which it must deal with to promote its future development. In this context, the European Commission considers that two key issues must be addressed. On the one hand, a better base of socio-economic knowledge about tourism and its relationship with the environment is needed, and, on the other hand, it is necessary to improve the image of European areas as quality sustainable tourism destinations. In this paper we present analytical tools that cover these needs. Specifically, we define a system of sustainable tourism indicators and we obtain a composite indicator incorporating weights quantified using a panel of experts. Employing the values of this global indicator as a basis, we define a Sustainable Tourism Country-Brand Ranking which assesses the perception of each country-brand depending on its degree of sustainability, and a system of sustainable tourism labels which reward the management carried out. - Highlights: • We define a system of indicators to improve the knowledge about sustainable tourism. • We obtain composite indicators based on expert knowledge. • The Sustainable Tourism Country-Brand Ranking would improve the image of destinations. • We define a Sustainable Tourism Labels System to assess country-brands. • The conclusions of the empirical analysis can be extrapolated to other tourist areas
Blancas, Francisco Javier, E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Economics, Quantitative Methods and Economic History, Pablo de Olavide University, Carretera de Utrera Km 1, 41013 Seville (Spain); Lozano-Oyola, Macarena, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Economics, Quantitative Methods and Economic History, Pablo de Olavide University, Carretera de Utrera Km 1, 41013 Seville (Spain); González, Mercedes, E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Applied Economics (Mathematics), Malaga University, Campus El Ejido, 29071 Málaga (Spain)
The tourism sector in Europe faces important challenges which it must deal with to promote its future development. In this context, the European Commission considers that two key issues must be addressed. On the one hand, a better base of socio-economic knowledge about tourism and its relationship with the environment is needed, and, on the other hand, it is necessary to improve the image of European areas as quality sustainable tourism destinations. In this paper we present analytical tools that cover these needs. Specifically, we define a system of sustainable tourism indicators and we obtain a composite indicator incorporating weights quantified using a panel of experts. Employing the values of this global indicator as a basis, we define a Sustainable Tourism Country-Brand Ranking which assesses the perception of each country-brand depending on its degree of sustainability, and a system of sustainable tourism labels which reward the management carried out. - Highlights: • We define a system of indicators to improve the knowledge about sustainable tourism. • We obtain composite indicators based on expert knowledge. • The Sustainable Tourism Country-Brand Ranking would improve the image of destinations. • We define a Sustainable Tourism Labels System to assess country-brands. • The conclusions of the empirical analysis can be extrapolated to other tourist areas.
Shoaib Ullah, Syed
The key aim of this thesis is to determine how the sharing economy companies, especially sharing accommodation services like Airbnb, are affecting travel and tourism industry in Fin-land and in Hong Kong. The thesis also looks into the future of sharing economy in travel and tourism industry and any possibilities of cooperation between traditional service providers and sharing economy companies. The thesis is commissioned by the Association of Finnish Travel Agents (AFTA/SMAL). In the the...
Deng, Sarah K; Yin, Yi; Petes, Thomas D; Symington, Lorraine S
Foldback priming at DNA double-stranded breaks is one mechanism proposed to initiate palindromic gene amplification, a common feature of cancer cells. Here, we show that small (5-9 bp) inverted repeats drive the formation of large palindromic duplications, the major class of chromosomal rearrangements recovered from yeast cells lacking Sae2 or the Mre11 nuclease. RPA dysfunction increased the frequency of palindromic duplications in Sae2 or Mre11 nuclease-deficient cells by ∼ 1,000-fold, consistent with intra-strand annealing to create a hairpin-capped chromosome that is subsequently replicated to form a dicentric isochromosome. The palindromic duplications were frequently associated with duplication of a second chromosome region bounded by a repeated sequence and a telomere, suggesting the dicentric chromosome breaks and repairs by recombination between dispersed repeats to acquire a telomere. We propose secondary structures within single-stranded DNA are potent instigators of genome instability, and RPA and Mre11-Sae2 play important roles in preventing their formation and propagation, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Andrades, Lidia; Dimanche, Frederic
Russia is one of the fastest growing tourism markets (+8% growth in 2011) with many resources that are yet untapped. This paper presents NETOUR, a project of European and Russian universities that aims at boosting Russia’s competitiveness as a tourism destination. The purpose of this project, funded by the European Commission through a TEMPUS grant, is to propose a model for cooperation between universities and the main stakeholders in the tourism sector, in order to favour its sustainable de...
Maria Izelta da Silva Santos
Full Text Available Realizar uma revisao bibliografica acerca da Sistematização da Assistencia de Enfermagem (SAE como instrumento para auditoria de qualidade. Metodos: Foram revisados 12 artigos cientificos sobre auditoria e 10 artigos sobre SAE, bem como dois livros sobre os assuntos abordados. Esta revisao e de carater descritivo. Resultados: Por meio da pesquisa, tornou-se evidente a correlação da SAE com a auditoria. A SAE bem implementada pode contribuir para uma auditoria de qualidade.
Erelt, Mati, 1941-
Vaadeldakse kogeja vormistamist ning alternatiivsete mallide kasutust ajakirjanduskeeles ajavahemikul 1995-2005. Püütakse välja selgitada toimunud muutused ja nende põhjused. SAE - Euroopa keskmine standard
Erelt, Mati, 1941-
Artiklis vaadeldakse kogeja vormistamist ning alternatiivsete mallide kasutust ajakirjanduskeeles ajavahemikul 1995-2005 eesmärgiga välja selgitada toimunud muutused ning nende põhjused. SAE - Euroopa keskmine standard
Harraghy, Niamh; Kormanec, Jan; Wolz, Christiane; Homerova, Dagmar; Goerke, Christiane; Ohlsen, Knut; Qazi, Saara; Hill, Philip; Herrmann, Mathias
Eap and Emp are two Staphylococcus aureus adhesins initially described as extracellular matrix binding proteins. Eap has since emerged as being important in adherence to and invasion of eukaryotic cells, as well as being described as an immunomodulator and virulence factor in chronic infections. This paper describes the mapping of the transcription start point of the eap and emp promoters. Moreover, using reporter-gene assays and real-time PCR in defined regulatory mutants, environmental conditions and global regulators affecting expression of eap and emp were investigated. Marked differences were found in expression of eap and emp between strain Newman and the 8325 derivatives SH1000 and 8325-4. Moreover, both genes were repressed in the presence of glucose. Analysis of expression of both genes in various regulatory mutants revealed that sarA and agr were involved in their regulation, but the data suggested that there were additional regulators of both genes. In a sae mutant, expression of both genes was severely repressed. sae expression was also reduced in the presence of glucose, suggesting that repression of eap and emp in glucose-containing medium may, in part, be a consequence of a decrease in expression of sae.
Le tourisme culinaire se développe rapidement depuis quelques années et intéresse les intervenants touristiques de nombreuses destinations. L’étude permet de découvrir les différents types de touristes culinaires, leur profil ainsi que leurs intérêts. Le tourisme culinaire va au-delà de l’expérience de la fine cuisine. Selon la CCT (Commission canadienne du tourisme, 2002), « il comprend les activités culinaires, agrotouristiques et agroalimentaires spécialement conçues pour les touristes, qu...
Violante Martínez Quintana
Full Text Available Nature tourism has emerged in the tourism field as a result of a logical evolution in line with public policies and academic research. After negative outcomes from traditional models first raised the alarm, the entire sector has tried to foster local development based on models of responsibility and sustainability. This article revises key concepts of nature – based tourism and shows new tendencies and the perception of cultural landscapes that are seen as tourism products. Finally, it concludes by analysing new tendencies to foster alternative nature – based tourism. It also presents a planning proposal based on a responsible and sustainable tourism model to guarantee a sustainable tourism product within the natural and cultural heritage context.
Sandor, Leonardo Taborda; Ferreira, Itamar
The purpose of this work is to propose a model for evaluating the fracture toughness along the SAE 5115 steel carburized layer. Due to the small thickness of those layers, it is impossible to machine specimens from those layer in accordance with standards. For simulating the microstructures of the carburized layer in order to get samples for tensile and the fracture toughness testing, specimens of SAE 5115, 5140, 5160, and 52100 steels have been machined, assuming the local influence just the...
The rising costs of medical treatment in the United States are fueling a movement to outsource medical treatment. Estimates of the number of Americans traveling overseas for treatment range from 50,000 to 500,000. Charges for common procedures such as heart bypass can be $11,000 in Thailand compared to $130,000 in the United States. Knee replacement in the United States can cost $40,000 compared to $13,000 in Singapore.A new industry, medical tourism, has been created to advise patients on the appropriate facility in the right country for their condition, handle all travel arrangements, teleconference with physicians, and send medical records. To respond to the growth in medical travel, the Joint Commission (formerly the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Health Care Organizations) initiated the Joint Commission International (JCI) to accredit hospitals worldwide. Although outcome statistics from hospitals outside the United States are rare, first-person reports on quality are numerous. Making surgery possible for uninsured and underinsured individuals or self-insured state, municipal, and private entities is a major benefit of medical tourism. Mitigating against medical travel are the lack of legal remedies in place for malpractice and the possibility that travel itself can impose risk to patients. For example, lengthy air flights where the patient is in a fixed position for hours at a time can cause embolisms. If the trend toward medical tourism continues, continuing education, credentialing, and certification services may be required to help assure patient safety.
Robert L Watkins
Full Text Available Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus accounts for a large portion of the increased staphylococcal disease incidence and can cause illness ranging from mild skin infections to rapidly fatal sepsis syndromes. Currently, we have limited understanding of S. aureus-derived mechanisms contributing to bacterial pathogenesis and host inflammation during staphylococcal disease. Herein, we characterize an influential role for the saeR/S two-component gene regulatory system in mediating cytokine induction using mouse models of S. aureus pathogenesis. Invasive S. aureus infection induced the production of localized and systemic pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, interferon gamma (IFN-γ, interleukin (IL-6 and IL-2. In contrast, mice infected with an isogenic saeR/S deletion mutant demonstrated significantly reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. Additionally, secreted factors influenced by saeR/S elicited pro-inflammatory cytokines in human blood ex vivo. Our study further demonstrated robust saeR/S-mediated IFN-γ production during both invasive and subcutaneous skin infections. Results also indicated a critical role for saeR/S in promoting bacterial survival and enhancing host mortality during S. aureus peritonitis. Taken together, this study provides insight into specific mechanisms used by S. aureus during staphylococcal disease and characterizes a relationship between a bacterial global regulator of virulence and the production of pro-inflammatory mediators.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2005-2009. SAMMEC - Smoking-Attributable Mortality, Morbidity, and Economic Costs. Smoking-attributable expenditures (SAEs) are excess health care expenditures...
Dredge, Dianne; Gyimóthy, Szilvia; Birkbak, Andreas; Jensen, Torben Elgaard; Madsen, Anders Koed
This paper has been commissioned by the European Commission’s DG GROWTH to examine the impact of regulatory approaches targeting collaborative economy in the tourism accommodation sector in the cities of Barcelona, Berlin, Amsterdam and Paris. In relation to tourism, the growth of the collaborative economy peer-to-peer accommodation sector has significant impacts for traditional tourism industry structures and relationships. The growth of the collaborative economy peer-to-peer accommodation m...
Full Text Available When looking at the increase of tourism in a destination, it can be said that tourism is a valuable part of the economy. The proposal offered by today’s competitive paradigm: that higher the number of tourists visiting a city, the higher the income, sounds good at first. The increased number of tourist arrivals gives the appearance of increasing desirability of the city. Parallel with the increased tourism activities, new buildings, new lifestyles, foreign capital and new socio-economic relationships appear rapidly and replace the traditional ones. However, there will be a huge amount of social, cultural, economic and environmental problems faced by the local people as well as the tourists the city. Tourism paradox is the name given to the phenomenon where tourism industry destroys natural and cultural environment in a destination that is necessary for tourism activities. On the other hand the balance, which does not change and disturbs the social and economic relations at the destination is called “tourism equinox”. Therefore, spatial reorganization and urban regeneration play a crucial role for the marketing of cities and this transformation action affects all infrastructure facilities, restorations of old buildings, reorganization of historical zones, and revitalizing the architectural style of the cities. New projects and approaches to solve the problems caused by the growth of urban populations and to establish healthy sustainable tourism destinations are becoming more important than ever. Tourism detox is a treatment that is intended to remove harmful substances from these destinations. This paper investigates the influence of tourism paradox and tourism equinox on urban environments in relation to tourism activities and the protection of natural and cultural resources with the help of tourism detox. It primarily relies on qualitative research to understand the main futures of tourism paradox, equinox and detox taking the physical
Full Text Available This paper provides an examination of tourism in the New Member States of the European Union from the date of accession until the last year for which data is available (2014, assessing not only the importance of tourism for the New Member States economy, but also the factors and trends that might affect this industry. Predictions for tourism after joining the EU had been confident and the statistical findings confirmed that the outcomes had been to a great extent encouraging and favourable. Considerable research has been devoted to tourism in the developed countries from Europe, the so-called Old Member States, but rather less attention has been paid to tourism in the Central Eastern Europe, the New Member States region. In this regard, the paper will start with an overview of the current state of the literature on this topic, section that precedes a presentation of European bodies and policies in the travel and tourism field. According to The World Bank Database (World Tourism Organization, 2016, the number of international inbound tourists in the countries Newest Members of EU increased on average three times and in many cases this is partly a consequence of the Community’s accession policy and the market oriented policies in the new Member States (Enterprise and Industry Directorate-General of the European Commission, 2007. Time series will be analysed in order to identify specific trends in the tourism industry, but also in an attempt to characterize the European integration impact on the New Member States’ tourism. Main future challenges and opportunities in the travel and tourism industry will also be sketched, so the paper to better serve not only participants in the academic community and practitioners in the tourism business, but also financial market parties or consultants.
Klein, J.E.; Wermer, J.R.
SAES metal getter material St 198 was chosen for glovebox stripper tests to evaluate its effectiveness of removing tritium from a nitrogen atmosphere. The St 198 material is unique from a number of other metal hydride-based getter materials in that it is relatively inert to nitrogen and can thus be used in nitrogen glovebox atmospheres. Six tritium stripper experiments which mock-up the use of a SAES St 198 stripper bed for a full-scale (10,500 liter) nitrogen glovebox have been completed. Experiments consisted of a release of small quantity of protium/deuterium spiked with tritium which were scaled to simulate tritium releases of 0.1 g., 1.0 g., and 10 g. into the glovebox. The tritium spike allows detection using tritium ion chambers. The St 198 stripper system produced a reduction in tritium activity of approximately two orders of magnitude in 24 hours (6--8 atmosphere turn-overs) of stripper operation
Suhartini, Titin; Sadik, Kusman; Indahwati
This paper showed the comparative of direct estimation and indirect/Small Area Estimation (SAE) model. Model selection included resolve multicollinearity problem in auxiliary variable, such as choosing only variable non-multicollinearity and implemented principal component (PC). Concern parameters in this paper were the proportion of agricultural venture poor households and agricultural poor households area level in West Java Province. The approach for estimating these parameters could be performed based on direct estimation and SAE. The problem of direct estimation, three area even zero and could not be conducted by directly estimation, because small sample size. The proportion of agricultural venture poor households showed 19.22% and agricultural poor households showed 46.79%. The best model from agricultural venture poor households by choosing only variable non-multicollinearity and the best model from agricultural poor households by implemented PC. The best estimator showed SAE better then direct estimation both of the proportion of agricultural venture poor households and agricultural poor households area level in West Java Province. The solution overcame small sample size and obtained estimation for small area was implemented small area estimation method for evidence higher accuracy and better precision improved direct estimator.
Presenting a comprehensive and dynamic understanding of cultural tourism, this volume examines cultural mediators and how they help tourists appreciate foreign cultures. It also shows how tourism experiences are strategically crafted by mediators, the complexity of the mediation process, and how...... various products are mediated differently. A number of different products are investigated, including destination brand identities, "living" cultures and everyday life, art and history. The author illustrates his arguments by comparing the tourism strategies of Copenhagen and Singapore, and demonstrates...... how tourism is an agent for social change. The author also offers an original and refreshing way of understanding tourist behaviour through the concept of the "versatile tourist". The book's empirical cases and dialogic framework provide new and deep insights into tourism activities. In his...
Full Text Available The article titled Thematic Tourism vs. Mass Tourism in the Czech Republic is concerned with the relationship between thematic tourism, mass tourism and presuppositions of the tourism development. The authors aim is to compare the turnout of thematic tourism attractions and sights focused on mass tourism paying attention to presuppositions of the tourism development and barriers for the turnout of thematic monuments. Comparisons will be based on presuppositions of tourism development and will be based especially on the specifics of thematic tourism - as a marginal field within the tourism industry. The application part will focus on the comparison of sights with massive turnout in the Czech Republic and thematic landmarks as the subject of thematic tourism. Special attention will be paid to the comparison of the two most visited monuments in the Czech Republic as for mass tourism - the Charles Bridge, and the most visited monument as for thematic tourism - the hydro-power plant Dlouhé Stráně, a technical representative of thematic tourism. Both monuments were elected by general public on the list of Seven Wonders of the Czech Republic in 2013. The aim is to confirm / refute the hypothesis that quality preconditions of tourism development are essential for the development of tourism and visiting tourist attractions. The article will use secondary data analysis methods and author's own field research.
Medina F, A.; Naquid G, C. [Gerencia de Ciencia de Materiales, Depto. de Sintesis y Caracterizacion de Materiales, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)
It was micro structurally characterized an AISI-SAE 4140 steel before and after of nitridation through the nitridation process by plasma post-unloading microwaves through Optical microscopy (OM), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) by means of secondary electrons and retrodispersed, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Energy dispersion spectra (EDS) and mapping of elements. (Author)
A. G. Redkin
Full Text Available Aggravation of global environmental problems in the second half of XX century set the task of search of new options for modern world evolution. Thus in one of the first reports – «World Conversation Strategy», published in 1980 by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, the concept of sustainable development was just being discussed, in 1987 the World Commission on Environment and Development in the renowned report «Our Common Future» recognized sustainable development as the central guiding principle for civilization (Our Common Future 1989. By the middle of the 1990s all fields of economic activity including tourism were incorporated with a view to the long-term development. First appeared in the materials of the World Conference on Sustainable Tourism (Lanzarote in 1995 the concepts of sustainable tourism development and sustainable tourism have gained increasing importance and were inscribed into many UNWTO documents and initiatives (Seselkin 2014. There’ so no well-established definition of sustainable tourism for now, while there’s distinct vision and framework approach to how it should be. Sustainable tourism is tourism that meets the needs of present tourists and host regions while protecting and enhancing opportunity for the future development, capable to adapt to specific ethnic and cultural environment, meeting the requirements of social justice, ecologically compatible and retaining the economic advantages (Arsenyeva and others. Various types of tourism can be the basis for sustainable tourism industry in various regions. It must be the type most appealing for local community which by integrating other types of tourism will form tourist destinations due to the principles of sustainable development. Rural tourism serves as the basis for sustainable tourism in Altai krai.
Full Text Available At the turn of the century, the tourism industry underwent a transformation triggered by the sweeping processes of globalization. The traditional forms of tourism were supplemented and expanded by the introduction of new postmodern tourist forms, bringing new and different tourist offers to the marketplace. One of these new forms is the film tourism, a rapidly growing and important new tourism trend, in which the choice of the tourist destination is directly motivated and inspired by the movies. Film tourism establishes a link between the movie characters, locations and stories, and the film-tourists, who are inspired to immerse themselves and relive again the movie-generated and movie-driven emotions at the location of the movie. The film tourism increases the overall economic effects of tourism and establishes a new link between the film and the tourism industry, both of which provide not only pleasure and satisfaction for the film tourist, but also spiritual enrichment and novel learning experience.
Ababsa, Myriam; Crouzel, Isabelle; Neveu, Norig
The tourism sector accounted for 13% of GDP in 2010 and employs nearly a quarter of the workforce, placing Jordan just after Lebanon in tourism receipts as % of GDP, but far ahead of Morocco, Syria and Egypt (fig. VII.29). The bulk of tourism comes from the Arab world, mainly the Gulf, followed by Asia, Europe and the Americas (fig. VII.30). Out of the 9.5 million people who entered Jordan in 2009 (a figure that includes tourism, but also business tourism), 8 million people came from Arab cou...
Rabontu Cecilia Irina
Full Text Available It is discussing,increasingly more often, in contemporary tourism, about new elements that enhances the appearance and development of new forms of tourism, including dark tourism which is based on the increasingly desire of modern tourist to achieve spiritual journeys, which have as attractions- deaths, disasters, atrocities, torture methods and other such issues. This subject has awoke our interest because we can find in Romania demand for this form of tourism but also various possibilities to use it in Romanian tourist circuits and also in the development of authentic tourism products with this subject. For Romania, this new form of tourism showed interest to academic research and to media, but in tourism literature we find a vacuum of information, being quite difficult to identify and label as dark tourism product a particular tourist site, a certain attraction or exhibition associated with death and dark, sinister and frightening elements, but we will try to discover certain components of this kind in Romanian tourism products.
Bruce E. Lord; Charles H. Strauss; Michael J. Powell
In 1997, the Pennsylvania Game Commission established an Elk Viewing Area within Pennsylvania's elk range. The viewing area has become the focus for a developing eco-tourism system. During the four years of operation, a research team from Penn State has measured the number of visitors, their expenditure patterns, and other parameters of their visit. The trends...
Scientific tourism is a type of tourism that is being accomplished by its purpose; it is directly linked to the geographical, archaeological, museum, ethnological, astronomical tourism types. Human being has a great curiosity about the Universe, the stars and other heavenly bodies. In this regard, astronomical tourism is the youngest, but the most popular type.
Uwe Reinhardt stated that medical tourism can do to the US healthcare system what the Japanese automotive industry did to American carmakers after Japanese products developed a value for money and reliability reputation. Unlike cars, however, healthcare can seldom be test-driven. Quality is difficult to assess after an intervention (posteriori), therefore, it is frequently evaluated via accreditation before an intervention (a priori). This article aims to scope the growth in international accreditation and its relationship to medical tourism markets. Using self-reported data from Accreditation Canada, Joint Commission International (JCI) and Australian Council on Healthcare Standards (ACHS), this article examines how quickly international accreditation is increasing, where it is occurring and what providers have been accredited. Since January 2000, over 350 international hospitals have been accredited; the JCI's total nearly tripling between 2007-2011. Joint Commission International staff have conducted most international accreditation (over 90 per cent). Analysing which countries and regions where the most international accreditation has occurred indicates where the most active medical tourism markets are. However, providers will not solely be providing care for medical tourists. Accreditation will not mean that mistakes will never happen, but that accredited providers are more willing to learn from them, to varying degrees. If a provider has been accredited by a large international accreditor then patients should gain some reassurance that the care they receive is likely to be a good standard. The author questions whether commercializing international accreditation will improve quality, arguing that research is necessary to assess the accreditation of these growing markets.
LUIS PAULO PIRES GONCALVES RIBEIRO
Os aços de alta resistência e baixa liga (ARBL) pertencem a uma classe de aços que desperta o interesse de pesquisadores da área metal-mecânica. A pesquisa teve como objetivos estudar a influência dos tratamentos térmicos de têmpera e revenido sobre as propriedades do aço SAE 4140 e avaliar o comportamento do aço SAE 4140 quando submetido ao revenido na faixa de temperatura característica da fragilização. Inicialmente, o material foi tratado termicamente sob di...
Ion-Danut JUGANARU; Mariana JUGANARU; Andreea ANGHEL
Tourism development must be based on sustainability criteria, be long term bearable economically and ethically and socially equitable for the local populations of the destinations. Tourism forms identified by the literature as being “sustainable” are numerous: ecological tourism (ecotourism), green tourism, soft, rural tourism and agrotourism, community tourism, solidarity and responsible tourism, all these opposing to the traditional, mass tourism. According to some specialists only tourism ...
Full Text Available The Department of Cultural Heritage of the University of Padova investigated the topic of film-induced tourism in a year-long project, concluded in April 2015, titled Strumenti innovativi per la promozione turistica: film-induced tourism (Novel Tools to Promote Tourism: Film-induced Tourism. The project was financed by the Veneto Region through ESF funds. It brought together the expertise of film scholars, computer scientists and destination management experts, in partnership with public bodies (Provincia di Padova and ICT companies. The goal of the project was to develop an information system that fosters film-induced tourism combining data about a geographical area and the movies produced in it. The system is designed as a platform to store and convey rich contents, able to address the needs of the tourist but also of stakeholders as DMOs and film commissions. The system was planned as a model for the destinations which could take advantage of a significant cinematographic background, yet are unlikely to spontaneously produce considerable film-induced tourism phenomena. The province of Padova has been used as a case study. Il Dipartimento dei Beni Culturali dell’Università di Padova ha da poco concluso un progetto di ricerca intitolato Strumenti innovativi per la promozione turistica: film-induced tourism, finanziato dalla Regione Veneto con fondi europei FSE, che ha visto coinvolti studiosi di cinema, di informatica ed esperti di destination management, in partenariato con enti pubblici (Provincia di Padova e aziende private del ramo ICT. L’obiettivo del progetto è stato lo sviluppo di un sistema informatico che combini i dati relativi ad un territorio e i film ivi realizzati, con lo scopo di promuovere il film-induced tourism. Il sistema è disegnato come una piattaforma in grado di memorizzare, elaborare e rendere fruibili contenuti multimediali e di ricco carattere informativo, capaci di intercettare sia le necessità del turista
MARIUS BOIŢĂ; ANDREI ANGHELINA; BOBY COSTI
This work aims to present the gastronomic tourism, which is a new conception and form of tourism, dealt with separately from other forms of tourism, which combines features of cultural, thematically and durable tourism, aiming at meeting and educating tourists in traditional culinary arts, bringing benefits to the local people and maintaining various sectors of the economy. Gastronomic tourism consolidates, in this vision, as a key element in the diversification of the tourism ...
Medical tourism, often addressed as health tourism, is a new concept in terms of tourism industry in general, and it is also one of the rapidly developing and growing ones. This thesis gives information on the medical tourism in general and its history. It also revises the development stages of the medical tourism in the world. Cuban medical tourism is analyzed on its own, as well as Russian medical tourism and the demand for it. Medical tourism is rather popular among Russians due to various...
Zhengfeng, Huang; Pengjun, Zheng; Wenjun, Xu; Gang, Ren
Road traffic status is significant for trip decision and traffic management, and thus should be predicted accurately. A contribution is that we consider multi-modal data for traffic status prediction than only using single source data. With the substantial data from Ningbo Passenger Transport Management Sector (NPTMS), we wished to determine whether it was possible to develop Stacked Autoencoders (SAEs) for accurately predicting road traffic status from taxicab operating data and bus smart card data. We show that SAE performed better than linear regression model and Back Propagation (BP) neural network for determining the relationship between road traffic status and those factors. In a 26-month data experiment using SAE, we show that it is possible to develop highly accurate predictions (91% test accuracy) of road traffic status from daily taxicab operating data and bus smart card data.
Andreu, Rosario; Claver-Cortés, Enrique; Quer, Diego
The growth of China’s outbound tourism is a source of both threats and opportunities for European countries. Therefore, European tourism institutions and companies should focus their attention on this emerging market. The objective of this paper is to analyze the consequences that the boom in Chinese tourism could have for European tourism. A critical analysis provides the basis for actions and measures that the main European tourism institutions and companies should adopt in order to face th...
Social Tourism has gained wide recognition for the benefits it brings to citizens who would otherwise not be able to participate in tourism. Social tourism also delivers benefits to the tourism industry, to destinations and to provide a positive return on investment for governments. However, whilst policy makers extol the virtues of social tourism, programmes have struggled to remain resilient under pressure on public finances caused by the Global Financial Crisis. This paper reviews the cont...
Metodijeski, Dejan; Stojanoski, Hristo
The subject of research in this paper is the popular culture and tourism analysed from the perspective of the music aspect of tourism. Although tourism and music can be characterized as a popular culture, these two terms are not analysed individually. Instead, this research is taking into consideration their mutual relation and synergy. This paper is making an attempt to define the popular culture, tourism and music tourism through numerous examples of music tourism around the globe. In ad...
Full Text Available Quality Assurance Courses in VET (Vocational Education and Training for Tourism Organised by the Centre for Tourism Training. The article seeks to give utterance to the findings of the pilot course on quality assurance designed and organised by the Centre for Tourism Training (CTT as part of the AQUA.TS European Lifelong Learning project. The CTT has become involved in research and exchange of experience in the field of quality assurance driven by the educational policy-related background set out by the European documents and tools, including EQARF, EQAVET, the principles of lifelong learning and adult education. The main theoretic background to the present paper was assured by the European Commission documents regarding quality assurance in VET, while the experience and good practices acquired by the CTT have profoundly marked its quality assurance–oriented policy. Against this background, The Centre for Tourism Training (CTT of the Faculty of Geography, University Babes-Bolyai, Romania, delivered a pilot training course on Quality Assurance in VET during 16 March and 10 April 2015. The training consisted of a theoretical knowledge-building module (16.03. 2015 – 27.03. 2015 and a practical module (30.03.2015 -10.04.2015, the latter focused on the use of the AQUA.TS TOOLKIT, an IT device aimed at the self-evaluation of the quality of performance of trainers and training providers, whose efficiency was tested during the organised training program.
Full Text Available This work aims to present the gastronomic tourism, which is a new conception and form of tourism, dealt with separately from other forms of tourism, which combines features of cultural, thematically and durable tourism, aiming at meeting and educating tourists in traditional culinary arts, bringing benefits to the local people and maintaining various sectors of the economy. Gastronomic tourism consolidates, in this vision, as a key element in the diversification of the tourism supply and stimulation of the development of local regional, and national economy, with values of sustainability based on local and authentic products, in accordance with the current trends of cultural tourism consumption.
Green tourism is defined as environmentally friendly tourism activities with various focuses and meanings. In a broad term, green tourism is about being an environmentally friendly tourist or providing environmentally friendly tourist services. The green tourism concept would be highly appealing to tourism enterprises and operators owing to increasing governmental pressure to improve environmental performance by adopting effective and tangible environmental management techniques. Green to...
Full Text Available The last decades of the XX century, which the United Nations declared the decade of cultural tourism in the world, have contributed to encouraging people to think about the question of how tourism can contribute to the development of heritage and culture, or how tourism the same may compromise. However, the cultural offer today, is an essential and important part of a modern tourist offer, without which it can no longer be imagined, as cultural tourism is becoming an increasingly important segment of the global tourism market. It had a great share in the expansion of a tourist demand and tourist offer and their profiling, leading to a whole series of specific forms of tourism in its embrace, and today more attention is paid to the industrial heritage, cultural routes, cultural landscapes and similar, as current forms of cultural tourism in the modern tourism market. In fact, theorists of tourism are now faced with a number of new types of tourist movements which have resulted in the creation of various forms of cultural tourism that were not even discussed in the last century, and the fact is that a change in tourist demand brings new habits and new needs that can be implemented only through special forms of tourism.
Mijalce Gjorgievski; Sinolicka Melles Trpkova
At the turn of the century, the tourism industry underwent a transformation triggered by the sweeping processes of globalization. The traditional forms of tourism were supplemented and expanded by the introduction of new postmodern tourist forms, bringing new and different tourist offers to the marketplace. One of these new forms is the film tourism, a rapidly growing and important new tourism trend, in which the choice of the tourist destination is directly motivated and inspired by the movi...
Rainer Andergassen; Guido Candela
This paper investigates the effectiveness of development strategies for tourism destinations. We argue that resource investments unambiguously increase tourism revenues and that increasing the degree of tourism sophistication, that is increasing the variety of tourism related goods and services, increases tourism activity and decreases the perceived quality of the destination's resource endowment, leading to an ambiguous effect on tourism revenues. We disentangle these two effects and charact...
The high number of uninsured or underinsured Americans and the spiraling cost of healthcare in the United States has spurred growth in patients traveling abroad for affordable healthcare, which has become known as medical tourism. It is projected to become a $21 billion a year industry by 2011. Overseas prices for most procedures, including airfare, are often half the cost of those performed in the United States; some procedures are 80% less. International facilities in India, Thailand, and elsewhere are obtaining Joint Commission International (JCI) accreditation and aggressively marketing to Western customers and insurance agencies and advertising high quality standards and personalized service. The acceptance of medial tourism is growing, with a recent poll showing more than 40% of US healthcare consumers willing to travel abroad for care. Insurance companies have begun to integrate foreign care into their coverage, offering discounts to patients agreeing to overseas travel. Physician groups have been slow to respond, even though estimates are that medical tourism may represent $162 billion in lost spending in America by 2012. Some experts think the continued US healthcare cost crisis will drive an increase in medical tourism and international competition, significantly impacting domestic physicians and hospitals.
Pappas, Nathaniel R [ORNL; Watkins, Thomas R [ORNL; Cavin, Odis Burl [ORNL; Jaramillo, Roger A [ORNL; Ludtka, Gerard Michael [ORNL
Steel is an iron-carbon alloy that contains up to 2% carbon by weight. Understanding which phases of iron and carbon form as a function of temperature and percent carbon is important in order to process/manufacture steel with desired properties. Austenite is the face center cubic (fcc) phase of iron that exists between 912 and 1394 C. When hot steel is rapidly quenched in a medium (typically oil or water), austenite transforms into martensite. The goal of the study is to determine the effect of applying a magnetic field on the amount of retained austenite present at room temperature after quenching. Samples of SAE 52100 steel were heat treated then subjected to a magnetic field of varying strength and time, while samples of SAE 1045 steel were heat treated then subjected to a magnetic field of varying strength for a fixed time while being tempered. X-ray diffraction was used to collect quantitative data corresponding to the amount of each phase present post processing. The percentage of retained austenite was then calculated using the American Society of Testing and Materials standard for determining the amount of retained austenite for randomly oriented samples and was plotted as a function of magnetic field intensity, magnetic field apply time, and magnetic field wait time after quenching to determine what relationships exist with the amount of retained austenite present. In the SAE 52100 steel samples, stronger field strengths resulted in lower percentages of retained austenite for fixed apply times. The results were inconclusive when applying a fixed magnetic field strength for varying amounts of time. When applying a magnetic field after waiting a specific amount of time after quenching, the analyses indicate that shorter wait times result in less retained austenite. The SAE 1045 results were inconclusive. The samples showed no retained austenite regardless of magnetic field strength, indicating that tempering removed the retained austenite. It is apparent
Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to explore a potential regional branding strategy for the northern part of Portugal, emphasizing the regional tourism potential. Furthermore, it aims to clarify the answers of the following research questions: i is tourism a strategic domain with the potential to integrate a branding strategy at the regional level? ii is a regional branding strategy an engine by which to enable economic and social transformation in the region, thus responding to the contemporary challenges such as weak economic confidence and unemployment? To answer these questions, a content analysis on the policy documents: i Northern Portugal Strategic Guidelines 2014-2020 and ii National Strategic Plan for Tourism 2013-2015 has been performed. In addition, the article details the results of in-depth interviews conducted with two regional entities: i Tourism of Porto and the North of Portugal (TPNP, in charge of national tourism planning and promotion and ii North Regional Coordination and Development Commission (CCDRN, involved in regional planning and development. The findings reinforce the importance of tourism as a strategic domain to boost the economy and create momentum in Northern Portugal. Moreover, tourism is seen by the respondents as a key objective in a regional branding strategy.
Full Text Available The tourism industry is one of the largest industries in the world, and despite recent events that have made its operating environment more complex, the industry continues to grow [Theobald, 2005, Global Tourism, 3rdedn., Butterworth-Heinemann/Elsevier]. Commensurate to the size of the industry is a growth in the number of students pursuing degree courses in tourism around the world. Despite an increasingly sophisticated literature, the relative recency of the industry and its study has meant little attention has been paid in the ethics literature to the dilemmas facing tourism managers and its students. Based on interviews with senior members of the tourism industry six scenarios are developed with pertinence to the challenges faced by industry practitioners today.
Andreu, Rosario; Claver, Enrique; Quer, Diego
The growth of China’s outbound tourism is a source of both threats and opportunities for European countries. Therefore, European tourism institutions and companies should focus their attention on this emerging market. The objective of this paper is to analyze the consequences that the boom in Chinese tourism could have for European tourism. A critical analysis provides the basis for actions and measures that the main European tourism institutions and companies should adopt i...
Perrottet, John; Garcia, Andres F.
This is a background paper to the Pacific Possible report. For many Pacific Island countries, tourism is the main economic opportunity to generate incomes and jobs. This report suggests that increasing tourism demand in four areas could drive growth of tourism arrivals in the Pacific: Increasing demand from Chinese tourists, retired persons, high income individuals, and cruise ship operato...
Klien, J.E.; Wermer, J.R.
Glove box clean-up experiments were conducted in a nitrogen glove box using palladium deposited on zeolite (Pd/z) and a SAES St 198 trademark getter as tritium stripping materials. Protium/deuterium samples spiked with tritium were released into a 620 liter glove box to simulate tritium releases in a 10,500 liter glove box. The Pd/z and the SAES St 198 trademark stripper beds produced a reduction in tritium activity of approximately two to three orders of magnitude and glove box clean-up was limited by a persistent background tritium activity level. Attempts to significantly reduce the glove box activity to lower levels without purging were unsuccessful
Full Text Available Within the most recent European Policy for Tourism, the competitiveness of the European tourism industry is directly linked to the image of Europe and to its perception, as a collection of sustainable and high-quality tourist destinations. In such context, improving the profile of the European tourist destinations has become a main target. During the last years, the European Commission focused on the sustainable development of tourist destinations. Several projects were developed, the most recent one introducing a practical tool - the European Tourism Indicators System (ETIS for the sustainable development of destinations. The present paper advances the idea that such tool can be successfully used in order to achieve the goal of improving the profile of the European tourist destinations.
Dredge, Dianne; Gyimóthy, Szilvia; Birkbak, Andreas
This paper has been commissioned by the European Commission’s DG GROWTH to examine the impact of regulatory approaches targeting collaborative economy in the tourism accommodation sector in the cities of Barcelona, Berlin, Amsterdam and Paris. In relation to tourism, the growth of the collaborative...... economy peer-to-peer accommodation sector has significant impacts for traditional tourism industry structures and relationships. The growth of the collaborative economy peer-to-peer accommodation market has led to a diversification of accommodation stock, it has led to increased competition, and it has...... governments and host communities are also raising concerns over the impact of unregulated tourist accommodation within residential neighbourhoods and the conflicts that are emerging due to the changing commercial nature of traditional residential areas close to city centres. In many cities across Europe...
Full Text Available In this paper we will try to analyse the cultural tourism. We will start by referring to the complex concepts of tourism and culture and to the synergies existing between them. We will define cultural tourism and present its appearance and evolution as well as its importance as a modern form of tourism. We will present the various types of cultural tourism with their characteristics and the specific features of cultural tourists according to their interests. We will also mention that there are advantages and disadvantages for any kind of tourism depending on the position – local communities, companies or tourists. For the future we will refer to the new partnership between UNWTO and UNESCO.
This thesis is focused on the variability of the demand and the development of new trends in the fields of the tourism industry. Special attention is devoted to a new arising trend of the Dark Tourism. This trend has appeared in the end of the 20th century and it has gained the attraction of media, tourists, tourism specialists and other stakeholders. First part of the thesis is concerned with the variety of the tourism industry and the ethic question of the tourism development. The other par...
Ren, Carina Bregnholm; Chimirri, Daniela
In Greenland, politicians and businesses are hoping and planning for substantial growth in tourism. As the construction of three transatlantic airports draws closer, a broader societal discussion of how (much) tourism should be developed, in what ways, and by whom, is lacking. In this article, we...... show how tourism practitioners in Greenland perceive the challenges and potential posed by tourism and discuss how its development could be linked to other spheres of society—turning tourism from an industry into a potential catalyst for social change....
... removed from, motor vehicle air-conditioning systems. 1. Scope The purpose of this SAE Standard is to... 700 Standard or allow for recycling of the recovered refrigerant to SAE J2788 specifications by using... (R-134a) Recovery/Recycling Equipment and Recovery/Recycling/Recharging for Mobile Air-Conditioning...
Rabontu Cecilia Irina; Vasile Madalina Cristina
It is discussing,increasingly more often, in contemporary tourism, about new elements that enhances the appearance and development of new forms of tourism, including dark tourism which is based on the increasingly desire of modern tourist to achieve spiritual journeys, which have as attractions- deaths, disasters, atrocities, torture methods and other such issues. This subject has awoke our interest because we can find in Romania demand for this form of tourism but also various po...
Tourism policy matters in cultural tourism. The starting point of this paper is the observation that many tourism policy studies draw three inter-related conclusions. One, tourism policy must be inclusive and require the support of different stakeholders (Baker 2009; Bernhard Jørgensen and Munar...... 2009). Two, a balanced approach to tourism policy is needed to harness the benefits of tourism while mitigating negative effects (Budeanu 2009; Chang 1997; Jenkins 1997; Leheny 1995, Newby 1994; Teo and Yeoh, 1997). Three, tourism policies should accentuate and maintain the cultural uniqueness...... and authenticity of the destination (Morgan et al. 2011). It seems that many tourism authorities are ignorant of local interests, unaware of the touristification of local cultures and uninterested in promoting local cultures. But local cultures and communities are what that constitute cultural tourism....
Full Text Available Tourism is one of the main pillars of economy for many countries in the world. It influences the economy and offers more employment possibilities every year. Mediterranean countries have a favorable, geographical position and climate to develop tourism. Most of these countries, have obtained higher incomes from this industry, and as a result, more prosperity and economic development. Today, about 30 % of the world’s tourists spend their vacations in the Mediterranean Region. Albania is one of these countries and it has great possibilities for the future.The nature of Albania, it’s geographical position and its panorama, the climatic and physical diversity of its territory, represent some of its rich resources and strengthness. Previously, Albania’s economy depended in agriculture and small industries. After the 90-s, when many citizens left the country, the situation changed and even that source of income became inconsiderable. Heavy or textile industry, were hardly developed. Tourism was hardly developed too. Only few investments were made in this sector. In October 2012, EU Commission recommended Albania to be granted the EU candidate status. Therefore, Albania’s economy has to be developed according to EU standards. In this paper we would like to assess, which may be some important and effective innovative management strategies for Albania’s tourism. What are some of the steps to follow in this direction? The article aims to make a comparison with Greece and Montenegro, as reference points, in order to understand these countries’ touristic strategies and try to adapt some of them or think about new effective ones. It aims to provide a profile that shows; strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. The study will be based in official statistics and scientific literature. The study concludes that the economic benefits of tourism are considerable, immediate and there are many new ways to activate the natural sources of Albania.
Suárez Ognio, María del Carmen Leonor; Chumacero Guzmán, Enrique Eloy
Este trabajo busca identificar el problema que impide la consecución de logros en términos de valor público y trabajar en una de sus causas: la desarticulación de los principales Sistemas Administrativos del Estado (SAE). Este estudio sirve para explicar cómo la teoría de la agencia ha sido usada, consciente o inconscientemente, en el diseño de los SAE, haciendo que actúen como sistemas de control en lugar de ser sistemas para la gestión orientados a generar valor público. Con esto se ha afec...
Full Text Available The development of sustainable tourism is facing the difficulty of applying a contradictory discourse, especially when this occurs in the context of higher tourist concentrations and where the tourist flows are becoming increasingly intense. One of the ways to approach sustainable tourism and its context is to consider tourism practices. Moreover, one of the ways to reach its objectives is to encourage an attitude of reflection among tourists within the context of so-called reflective tourism.
Full Text Available The natural and anthropic tourism resources of a certain area generate specific tourism forms, which complete each other within the different destination categories.The rural area in Dobrudja has diversified tourism potential, provided by the contrast of natural environment factors, ranging from the oldest and to the youngest relief units, natural protected areas, spa resources and cultural, historical, religious sites, as well as multicultural local customs and traditions of the rural area. This potential can be used under various kinds in the rural area: cultural tourism, historical tourism, religious tourism, ecotourism, fishing tourism or bird-watching tourism, and other kinds of rural tourism. By linking these tourism resources and tourism forms, tourism routes can result, which together with the local customs, traditions and cuisine may contribute to the social and economic development of Dobrudja's rural area, through sustainable tourism as alternative to seasonal seashore tourism.
C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); H-K. Hsu (Hui-Kuang); M.J. McAleer (Michael)
textabstractThe paper uses monthly data on tourism related factors from April 2005 - June 2016 for Taiwan that applies factor analysis and Chang’s (2015) novel approach for constructing a tourism financial indicator, namely the Tourism Financial Conditions Index (TFCI). The TFCI is an adaptation
Blichfeldt, Bodil Stilling; Nielsen, Niels Christian; Just, Flemming
This paper draws on a study of one specific type of small tourism enterprises (i.e. farm tourism enterprises) and argues that these enterprises differ from other enterprises in relation to a series of issues other than merely size. The analysis shows that enterprises such as these are characterized......, our study suggests that it is problematic to threat farm tourism enterprises as if they have much in common with both larger corporations and other types of SMTEs. Farm tourism enterprises seem to differ significantly from other enterprises as the hosts are not in the tourism business because...
Lehr, I.L.; Saidman, S.B.
In this study polypyrrole (PPy) bilayers films were electrodeposited onto SAE 4140 steel. The inner layer was electropolymerized in the presence of molibdate and nitrate and the outer layer in a solution containing sodium bis (2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT). The electrosynthesis was done under potentiostatic conditions. The corrosion protection properties of the films were examined in sodium chloride solution by open circuit measurements, linear polarization and electrochemical impedance ...
Full Text Available The tourism industry in recent years has become an important sector in the European economy, especially dating its multiplier effect on the adjacent economic sectors, especially contributing to the increased rate of job creation, which exceeded the industry average EU overview. For these reasons it is considered that tourism industry plays an important role in achieving the aims set by the European Commission under Agenda 2020. But global economic downturn has affected most structures economy from the monetary sector with visible effects on the real economy: increased financing costs, rising unemployment and lower levels of economic activity have affected the income, corporate profits have fallen significantly, many falimentând.
Frantál, B. (Bohumil)
The chapter provides a general definition of energy and resume the role and environmental impacts of tourism as one of the largest global industries and energy consumers.Then the energy tourism nexus is conceptualized from three perspectives: The first is energy as a driver of tourism. The second is energy as a constraint of tourism. The third is energy as an attraction and object of tourists´interests.
PAUL ALEXANDRU BRUMARU
Full Text Available La sociologie du tourisme. Le tourisme, en tant que phénomène de masse, n’apparaît qu’au début du 19e siècle. Bien que sa période moderne de développement soit courte, le tourisme a connu beaucoup de transformations allant du tourisme balnéaire au tourisme culturel et industriel. À présent, le tourisme se définit sous trois aspects interdépendants : comme ressource, élément de dangerosité et phénomène social. En tant que ressource durable ayant une valeur de marché, le tourisme représente une opportunité de développement régional. En outre, l’impact du tourisme sur la société peut se transformer en un élément de dangerosité dont les effets seront ressentis à long terme. En tant que phénomène social, le tourisme peut devenir un prétexte de socialisation, une alternative au quotidien, un moyen d’éducation. Sous aspect ethnique, le tourisme peut perpétuer ou aggraver les conflits interculturels. Au niveau de chaque individu le tourisme est perçu de manière subjective.
Falk, Lars; Justenlund, Anders
This encyclopedia is the most comprehensive and updated source of reference in tourism research and practice. It covers both traditional and emerging concepts and terms and is fully international in its scope. More than 800 contributions of over 200 internationally renowned experts provide...... a definitive access to the knowledge in the field of tourism, hospitality, recreation and related fields. All actors in this field will find reliable and up to date definitions and explanations of the key terms of tourism in this reference work. Tourism is the largest industry worldwide and is the main source...... of income for many countries. With both, this practical impact of tourism and a rapidly developing academic field, with a growing number of university courses and degrees in tourism, and a flourishing research, this encyclopedia is the epicenter of this emerging and developing discipline....
Full Text Available The industry of tourism contributes mainly to the social and economic development of a destination. However this development has to be made in a sustainable manner, with an emphasis on preserving the area where it is practiced. In order to evaluate the sustainable development of a destination, the European Commission developed an Indicators System that measures and monitors, at a local level, the processes of sustainable development and communicates to the interested parties its progress and its future performances. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to identify the set of indicators from European Tourism Indicators System that are relevant in evaluating the sustainable development of tourism in Braşov. In order to achieve this objective 3 focus Groups were conducted among 30 specialists in this field. The results can serve as a guid
Arkan, Irfan; Unsever, Ilker; Halioui, Salma
When looking at the increase of tourism in a destination, it can be said that tourism is a valuable part of the economy. The proposal offered by today’s competitive paradigm: that higher the number of tourists visiting a city, the higher the income, sounds good at first. The increased number of tourist arrivals gives the appearance of increasing desirability of the city. Parallel with the increased tourism activities, new buildings, new lifestyles, foreign capital and new socio-economi...
Parton, Angela; Forest, David; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Dowell, Lori; Bayne, Christopher; Barnes, David
Cartilaginous fish, primarily sharks, rays and skates (elasmobranchs), appeared 450 million years ago. They are the most primitive vertebrates, exhibiting jaws and teeth, adaptive immunity, a pressurized circulatory system, thymus, spleen, and a liver comparable to that of humans. The most used elasmobranch in biomedical research is the spiny dogfish shark, Squalus acanthias. Comparative genomic analysis of the dogfish shark, the little skate (Leucoraja erincea), and other elasmobranchs have yielded insights into conserved functional domains of genes associated with human liver function, multidrug resistance, cystic fibrosis, and other biomedically relevant processes. While genomic information from these animals is informative in an evolutionary framework, experimental verification of functions of genomic sequences depends heavily on cell culture approaches. We have derived the first multipassage, continuously proliferating cell line of a cartilaginous fish. The line was initiated from embryos of the spiny dogfish shark. The cells were maintained in a medium modified for fish species and supplemented with cell type-specific hormones, other proteins and sera, and plated on a collagen substrate. SAE cells have been cultured continuously for three years. These cells can be transfected by plasmids and have been cryopreserved. Expressed Sequence Tags generated from a normalized SAE cDNA library included a number of markers for cartilage and muscle, as well as proteins influencing tissue differentiation and development, suggesting that SAE cells may be of mesenchymal stem cell origin. Examination of SAE EST sequences also revealed a cartilaginous fish-specific repetitive sequence that may be evidence of an ancient mobile genetic element that most likely was introduced into the cartilaginous fish lineage after divergence from the lineage leading to teleosts.
STOICA Ana-Maria; CRETOIU Raluca Ionela
The latest trends in tourism emphasize the power of the globalized tourist-consumer, in the context of mondialisation of the market and of the diversity of tourism services, the tourism organizations must answer to a range of different tourism motivations meant to meet the needs and wishes of the tourism consumers over the period they travel for. Tourism marketing is a result of globalization, since, just like the globalization process, it creates links between the states of the world, the au...
Nemec Rudež, Helena; Vodeb, Ksenija
The paper investigates residents’ perceptions of tourism impacts in Koper and Piran municipality which are located on the Slovenian coast. The two municipalities have different tourism concentration defined as the ratio between the number of tourists and the number of residents. Specifically, the study attempts to explore differences between tourism impacts in the two municipalities. For the purpose of this study, tourism impacts are divided into economic, socio-cultural and environmental. Pr...
Medina F, A.; Naquid G, C.
It was micro structurally characterized an AISI-SAE 4140 steel before and after of nitridation through the nitridation process by plasma post-unloading microwaves through Optical microscopy (OM), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) by means of secondary electrons and retrodispersed, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Energy dispersion spectra (EDS) and mapping of elements. (Author)
Full Text Available Medical tourism is considered as one of the tourism dimensions and it can contribute to the stabilized and dynamic development of a country's economy. Since it is cost-effective industry, most developing countries have focused on this industry and they are planning to develop this industry. Not only does Zanjan province, as the central region in medicine services, enjoy different kinds of variety and acceptable medical specialties but also it has historical, natural, and religious tourism potentials. In this survey, the researcher investigated the existing potentials of Zanjan province based on descriptive - analytical tourism in offering and providing medical services and accommodation. The survey reports that offered services in tourism were not acceptable and satisfactory.
Search skip specific nav links Home arrow Heritage Tourism Heritage Tourism ACHP Reports Partnering to Promote Heritage Tourism in Local Communities: Guidance for Federal Agencies Federal Programs that Can Support Heritage Tourism Web-Available Studies of the Economic Impacts of Historic Preservation Heritage
Tourism is promoted by policy makers and international organizations as a tool for advancing conservation agendas, while contributing to poverty alleviation and human development, under the banner of ecotourism or sustainable tourism. However, the indiscriminating use of complex and ambiguous...... concepts such as “poverty” and “sustainability” hide important nuances with regards to the variety of processes and subsequent effects that are triggered when tourism and conservation are being adjoined. Experiences with tourism developments show that destinations that are weak economically find it harder...... to draw benefits from tourism developments or to decline participation in tourism with only little or no losses of sources of income and wealth. If tourism should fulfil sustainability goals related to conservation, poverty, and human development, it needs consistent governmental intervention...
This chapter discusses tourism education for sustainability with a particular focus on the challenges and opportunities associated with preparing students to work within complex tourism governance settings. It takes the position that the development of tourism within a sustainability framework...... requires that tourism professionals effectively engage in dynamic social discourses where difficult trade-offs are made between competing demands. The challenge for tourism education is therefore to prepare graduates to work in these complex, value-laden, socio-political environments where they can...... proactively and positively contribute to developing forms of tourism that progress the objectives of sustainable development. This chapter explores this challenge in terms of a philosophic tourism practitioner education, and in doing so, discusses three key dimensions of this education: historical antecedents...
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The SCREAMER simulation code is widely used at Sandia National Laboratories for designing and simulating pulsed power accelerator experiments on super power accelerators. A preliminary parameter study of Z with a magnetic switching retrofit illustrates the utility of the automating script for optimizing pulsed power designs. SCREAMER is a circuit based code commonly used in pulsed-power design and requires numerous iterations to find optimal configurations. System optimization using simulations like SCREAMER is by nature inefficient and incomplete when done manually. This is especially the case when the system has many interactive elements whose emergent effects may be unforeseeable and complicated. For increased completeness, efficiency and robustness, investigators should probe a suitably confined parameter space using deterministic, genetic, cultural, ant-colony algorithms or other computational intelligence methods. I have developed SAE2 - a user-friendly, deterministic script that automates the search for optima of pulsed-power designs with SCREAMER. This manual demonstrates how to make input decks for SAE2 and optimize any pulsed-power design that can be modeled using SCREAMER. Application of SAE2 to magnetic switching on model of a potential Z refurbishment illustrates the power of SAE2. With respect to the manual optimization, the automated optimization resulted in 5% greater peak current (10% greater energy) and a 25% increase in safety factor for the most highly stressed element.
Proposes that tourism should be part of the environmental education curriculum. Discusses the significance of tourism, the impacts of tourism on the environment, the concept of sustainable tourism, and tourism in education in the United Kingdom. (MDH)
Howard, Dennis, Ed.; And Others
Eleven articles explore a broad range of issues relating to tourism and the leisure profession, including: (1) need for social science research on tourism; (2) economic and population trends; (3) federal legislation and programs to encourage tourism from abroad; (4) tourism education; (5) marketing aproaches and strategies; and (6) studies of…
Petrus Jerry Pardomuan
Full Text Available Many studies have been conducted with the aim at investigating the relationship between the tourism performance and macroeconomic variables. However, only few studies investigated the regional tourism performance based on a specific origin country. This study investigated the relationship between ASEAN-5 international tourism receipts as the dependent variable and macroeconomic variables as the independent variables namely the exchange rates to Australian Dollar, Australia GDP per capita, international tourism expenditure, and transportation costs. The method used to investigate this study is panel data regression model to determine the influence among the explanatory variables to the dependent variable. The results denote that the exchange rates, GDP per capita, and the transportation cost are significant to the tourism receipts. Meanwhile, the international tourism expenditure variable shows an insignificant result to the tourism receipts.
North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education.
This document contains teacher materials for a 6-unit, 1-year distributive education course in marketing tourism offered in grades 11 and 12 in North Carolina. Although in general the material presented concerns marketing tourism anywhere, some of it is specifically related to tourism within North Carolina. A purpose statement explains the…
These days, in the developed world, sport tourism fast becoming a lleisure experience. As much as it is popular, it has also become a very important economic activity as well as a marketing tool to boost a destination’s tourism potentials. Current research has proven that sport and tourism contributes about 1 to 2% of the gross domestic products of industrialized economies. Thus from the above statistics, it is no doubt that sport and tourism has great impact on a destination, it can altogeth...
Full Text Available Tourism development requires the roles of both regional and central government. The roles of those governments in the economic development belong to the aspects of planning, policy, regulation, and public facilities development to support the tourism industry. Kulonprogo Regency has several nature-based tourism destinations that can actually be developed, but it has not been optimal yet. This study aims in determining the roles of the Government of Kulonprogo Regency in developing the tourism economy to be optimal in their area by concerning the environmental issues. This study uses the triangulation in both the data and the methods used. The theoretical approach used is the institutional economics based on the model of Williamson. The results of this study indicate that the roles of the all elements of government of Kulonprogo in the field of tourism economy development are the construction and the development of tourism destinations facilities, tourism marketing, tourism industry, and integrated related institutions. The determination of the prior destinations by the central government in 2017 was followed by the adoption of 5 zoning destinations/tourism strategic areas (KSPD in Kulonprogo. Policies in the tourism sector is also followed by the policies on investment, particularly for infrastructure investment since the rapid growth of the investment climate and the development of mega projects in Kulonprogo (central-provincial government to ignite the economic and the tourism development. Programs that are conducted by Kulonrogo Government through the Department of Tourism, Youth, and Sports in tourism are expected to affect the behavior/mindset of the tourism actors to concern and be more aware of tourism issues in anticipating the livelihood changes of most people in Kulonprogo (non-tourism changes into the tourism. The government should monitor and control the tourism destination development by concerning the issues of capacity
Full Text Available To encourage a community’s role in the field of tourism, the local government of Central Java, Indonesia promotes a Community Based Tourism (CBT as a tourism development for the sustainable economy. It involves the community in decision-making processes, especially related to the acquisition of income, employment, and the preservation of the environment, and culture of the indigenous people. This research aimed to determine communication activities in the implementation of CBT. The theory used was tourism communication using Attention, Interest, Desire, Action (AIDA model. Then, the method was a case study by choosing Dieng as a tourist destination, and the tourism communication activities were undertaken in Dieng’s society, especially in the activities of Dieng Culture Festival (DCF. The results show that the tourism communication activities involving the community, POKDARWIS (Kelompok Sadar Wisata - Tourism Awareness Group, tourism advocates, and local governments should pay attention to the cultural and natural tourism potentials, and empower the local communities.
Scott, D; Jones, B. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Faculty of Environmental Studies; Khaled, H.A. [National Capital Commission, Ottawa, ON (Canada)
The potential impact of climate change on recreation and tourism in Canada's National Capital Region was assessed. The objectives of the study were to examine two important issues, including how climate change will influence the seasonality of major recreation and tourism segments in the winter and summer months. The study analysed the disparate vulnerability of recreation and tourism segments to climate variability and change, explored risks and opportunities for recreation and tourism in the region, and examined management adaptation strategies. The study was conducted in several phases involving consultation meetings with National Capital Commission staff, data compilation and development of climate change scenarios. This was followed by a climate change impact assessment. The report also provided information on the methodology used for the study and on climate change impact indicators. It was concluded that as a result of climate change, the Winterlude season would become shorter and that the timeframe for skating on the Rideau Canal was projected to be shortened. 61 refs., 23 tabs., 20 figs., 2 appendices.
Frenzel, F.; Koens, K.
This paper introduces the Special Issue on slum tourism with a reflection on the state of the art on this new area of tourism research. After a review of the literature we discuss the breadth of research that was presented at the conference 'Destination Slum', the first international conference on slum tourism. Identifying various dimensions, as well as similarities and differences, in slum tourism in different parts of the world, we contest that slum tourism has evolved from being practised ...
Alina Badulescu; Olimpia Ban
The first part of the paper presents the past and present of the religious tourism in the world and in Romania and its implications on traveling. The second part describes the regions with religious tourism potential in Romania and the activities that could enhance and help the development of this kind of tourism in our country.
Macià Serra i Serra
Full Text Available This article argues that while cycle tourism remains only a small sector within sustainable tourism, it has great growth potential and attractive characteristics for the communities that engage in it. Based on this thesis, first, a description is given of cycle tourism, its characteristics, evolution and impacts. Second, its implementation through public policies over the past two decades is analysed. Third, the way cycle tourism has developed in various countries is examined, along with what “rail trails” are, comparing two successful case studies (Girona’s Vies Verdes and La Loire à Vélo. Finally, the conclusions highlight the importance of this sustainable means of tourism, the implementation of which requires cooperation and networking between various public and private actors, and raises the question of whether this type of tourism is replicable in medium-developed countries.
Full Text Available The Caribbean is challenged to remain competitive in a dynamic global tourism arena. Tourism education plays a critical role in preparing individuals to effectively manage this industry in order to gain that competitive edge. The focus of this study is the determination of the essential management competencies of tourism graduates. The findings reveal that the focus of the tourism programme should be on producing graduates that are flexible, ethical and knowledgeable. The onus is on tourism educators to establish close collaboration among key stakeholders to ensure that there is understanding as to what is of critical importance in preparing future Caribbean leaders.
Aynar G. Kogoniya; Marina G. Kvitsiniya
Tourism competition growth in the world arena demands Abkhazia to improve the quality of the rendered services, as well as to increase the number of tour routes and diversify the types of tourism, for instance, equine tourism, hunting tourism, speleological tourism and ethnotourism, rapidly developing in recent years.
Ernawati, N. M.; Sudarmini, N. M.; Sukmawati, N. M. R.
The impact of tourism is vital to be assessed to measure the results of the development, in order to maximize the benefits gained from tourism. Academics are encouraged to conduct research on this field. This study aims to identify the impact of tourism in Ubud tourist destination, Bali, Indonesia. It is a quantitative method, study using survey method, and Factor analysis, Frequency and Mean analyses as analytical tools. The impact of tourism is assessed against impact measurement instrument developed by Koster and Randall. The study used a sample of 170 respondents consisting of teenagers, productive age population, and senior citizens of Ubud. The result of the Average analysis shows that the impact of tourism in Ubud in general lies at 1.9 which indicates that the people are agreed that the impact of tourism in Ubud is positive. Factor analysis classified the impacts of tourism based on the positive or negative influences inflicted on society. Further, the four Factors extracted show: Factor 1 indicates areas of the most obvious positive impact, Factor 4 lies the issues, wherein the community members disagree that tourism effects Ubud positively. It is expected that the analysis of tourism impacts at Ubud could be used as an input by tourism stakeholders in developing a plan for future tourism in Ubud tourist destination, and to anticipate and mitigate the undesirable impacts that may occur and in order to maximise the positive results from tourism.
Macià Serra i Serra
This article argues that while cycle tourism remains only a small sector within sustainable tourism, it has great growth potential and attractive characteristics for the communities that engage in it. Based on this thesis, first, a description is given of cycle tourism, its characteristics, evolution and impacts. Second, its implementation through public policies over the past two decades is analysed. Third, the way cycle tourism has developed in various countries is examined, along with w...
Robert S. Bristow; Wen-Tsann Yang; Mei-Tsen Lu
Tourism is an important element of the global economy. Yet for the tourism industry to grow and prosper, there is a need to protect local environmental and social well-being. Sustainable tourism seeks a compromise between growth and protection. Today, health tourism is a multi-billion dollar industry tied to individuals' travel overseas for inexpensive and timely...
Full Text Available In recent decades, tourism has grown to become a major economic activity in some areas in Romania. Contributors to this growth were the changes in travel consumer in terms of their motivations and how to spend holidays and vacations. West Development Region, in general, and county of Arad, in particular, is one of the areas where tourism is growing more and more. The region is one of the most specific in Romania, because this county there is at the border with Hungary, so is a gate for exit to West of Europe. This county has a special charm to the cultural heritage of the popular ethnographic areas in this part of Romania. Impact or implications of rural tourism refers to tourist industry effects on the local community, the area and the tourists. The impact of tourism can be positive or negative, depending on the effect they induce on the community or area. To study the impact of rural tourism, as emphasized in the literature, we have to analyze all government and local administration, entrepreneurs, residents and tourists. In this paper we want to present the main economic implications of rural tourism on the government and local administration, entrepreneurs, residents and tourists
Full Text Available According to number of participants in the international tourism from 922 million in 2008, the tourism represents the biggest migratory phenomenon in the history of mankind, and according to the income from the international tourism, 944 billion dollars in 2008, it is one of the most significant economy branches. The income from the international tourism for many countries in the world, especially for the countries in development represents an important factor for the development not only for the tourism economy but the overall economy. Therefore every country insists on increasing the tourism income from the international tourism, and decreasing the outflow of foreign currency for the tourism travel abroad as much as possible. The Republic of Macedonia despite the favorable possibilities for the tourism development is still outgoing tourism country, i.e. the outflow of foreign currency from the stay of our citizens abroad is higher than the inflow of foreign currency from the international tourism. In this paper an attempt has been made to realize the overall number of citizens from our country that stay abroad, and the possibility via optimalization of the structure of the tourism offer of the tourist destinations to increase the number of the foreign tourists, and decrease the volume of travel of our citizens abroad.
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At present, Regional tourism has become the focus of all walks of life. It marks a new stage of China’s tourism development and makes a profound change in development strategy. Regional tourism will lead China’s tourism industry to a new level, open up a new world of the overall strategy. Hainan was identified as the country’s first “regional tourism to create demonstration province”, for the exploration experience, making a demonstration, It’s not only the trend, but also the inevitable result of experience in the construction of Hainan International Tourism Island, which has the overall strategic significance
Shen, Cen; Li, Jin
A new trend is developing in the tourism market nowadays – dark tourism. The main purpose of the study was to explore the marketing strategies of dark tourism sites in Budapest based on the theoretical overview of dark tourism and data gathering of quantitative research. The study started with a theoretical overview of dark tourism in Budapest. Then, the authors focused on the case study of House of Terror, one of the most important dark tourism sites in Budapest. Last, the research has ...
Gyimóthy, Szilvia; Munar, Ana María
This paper advocates the need for a critical and cross-disciplinary research agenda on the field of digital technologies and tourism. The changing virtual landscape of tourism has received increased attention by tourism scholars. However, contemporary studies on information technologies (IT......) are approached mostly from a business administration perspective and informed by conceptual frameworks developed in management and marketing. IT studies in tourism are still at a stage similar to the first advocacy phase of tourism research in general (Jafari, 1990) and are seldom inspired by relevant...... to studying digital socio-technical systems and virtual mediation in tourism. Critical Digital Tourism Studies opens a new cross-disciplinary field where the sociality of virtual tourism interactions is examined (entailing the study of structures, social rules, ideologies, power relations, sustainability...
ÇEKEN, Hüseyin; DALGIN, Taner; ÇAKIR, Neşe
New tourism trends in the world are developing in the direction of history, health, trekking, cultural and rural tourism depending on the demand. The importance of rural tourism is increasing day by day both in developed and developing countries as being alternative to or complimentary to existing tourism types. There is a great effort in the world to reinforce economies of rural areas by using touristic supply sources for rural tourism purposes. The achievements in the rural tourism applicat...
Full Text Available Anthropological research of tourism in Serbia has usually followed a somewhat simplified concept according to which theory translates into application or practice; that is, anthropology offers conclusions to be later applied in tourism development. The domain of anthropological expertise in this matter was traditionally considered to be "popular" or folk culture, or rather its use in tourism. However, I claim that anthropology of tourism offers a greater number of research opportunities, especially in view of development of tourism as part of transitional processes. In this paper, I present the preliminary results of research on concepts of tourism development in Knjaževac, conducted in 2003 and 2005, and point to how attitudes that people have towards tourism reflect their perception and conceptualization of wider social and economical processes such as transition and globalization. Finally, I discuss some of the implications of these concepts for the future application of anthropology in tourism research.
Full Text Available Academics perceive a great potential of virtual worlds in various areas, including tourism and education. Efforts adapting the virtual worlds in practice are, however, still marginal. There is no clear definition of the virtual world. Therefore the author of this article attempts to provide one. The paper also focuses on the barriers of a wider exploitation of the virtual worlds and discusses the principles that might help to increase their potential in tourism area. One of the principles – gamification – favours a wider adaptation of the virtual worlds in tourism. Applying gamification principles provides visitors with some unique experiences while serving as a powerful marketing tool for institutions. The benefits of implementing tourism education activities based on cooperative principles set in an immersive environment of the virtual worlds are depicted afterwards. Finally, this paper includes successful case studies, which show advantages and drawbacks of some approaches in exploiting the virtual worlds in tourism and tourism education.
Full Text Available From an economic and socialpoint of view, hunting tourism has two sub-categories: resident hunting andtourism hunting (for the travellers who travel long distances to participate inhunting. Tourism hunting covers six types of tourism: subsistence indigenoushunting, traditional hunting, commercial hunting, recreational-sport hunting,integrated hunting, and optimum level game maintenance hunting. Huntingtourists should be classified into three distinct categories: large gamehunting tourists (for whom what matters is adventure and trophies, small gamehunting tourists (interested in the hunting experience, and experiencedhunting tourists (characterised by the use of frontal charge guns or arrowshooting. Hunting tourism can be considered a sub-category of nature tourismbecause it contributes to the preservation of area biodiversity, of culturaltourism as educational, cultural activity, and of sustainable tourism inprotected areas (ecotourism whose hunting tourism sub-category is trophyhunting
Cioca, L. I.; Giurea, R.; Precazzini, I.; Ragazzi, M.; Achim, M. I.; Schiavon, M.; Rada, E. C.
Nowadays the global tourism growth has caused a significant interest in research focused on the impact of the tourism on environment and community. The purpose of this study is to introduce a new ranking for the classification of tourist accommodation establishments with the functions of agro-tourism boarding house type by examining the sector of agro-tourism based on a research aimed to improve the economic, socio-cultural and environmental performance of agrotourism structures. This paper links the criteria for the classification of agro-tourism boarding houses (ABHs) to the impact of agro-tourism activities on the environment, enhancing an eco-friendly approach on agro-tourism activities by increasing the quality reputation of the agro-tourism products and services. Taking into account the impact on the environment, agrotourism can play an important role by protecting and conserving it.
Rani, Faisyal; Oktavia, Raesa
This research explain about the efforts of United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) in dealing with sex tourism in Thailand. This research focused explaining about the role of UNWTO to fix sex tourism problem in Thailand, because sex tourism is one of the most favorite tourism in the world. UNWTO focused to protect the children because they are the biggest victim on sex tourism. This research intended to show the role of United Nations World Tourism Organization to handle the sex tou...
Full Text Available In this article I have tried to highlight the many criteria according to which tourism is classified and what are its main forms. Tourism is considered to be the most developed industry at the European level with a strong economic impact and the highest annual growth rate. Because of its scale and its various elements , but also because of the value and originality of these elements, tourism is the main motivation of all that is tourist traffic . A particular area or landmark is an interest to travel as far as that can provide tourist activity. The tourism potential of an area can be defined as all the elements that make up the sights with facilities to receive tourists representative. The main types of tourism that will be detailed in this article are: tourism, recreation and leisure, healthcare tourism, tourism or curative spa, cultural tourism, educational, social, or complex-type shopping tourism. The criteria according to which can be classified tourism are: distance, length of stay, geographic origin of tourists, type of transport used, how to organize your stay, the conduct of the stay, peculiarities destination, interaction travelers with the destination, the price paid, tourist`s age, the number of tourists. Depending on the area of origin, tourism and domestic tourism are classified in international tourism. Such, international tourism is classified in inbound tourism and outbound tourism. Any travel between these two forms is particular between which there is no definite boundary but some interdependence that helps promote tourism activities. Depending on the degree of mobility of tourists, tourism classified in tourism accommodation and tourism traffic. Tourism residence has three forms, namely long-stay tourism, tourism stay average stay lasting tourism and stay for a brief stay. Seasonality is another factor that affects tourist flows. This tourism classified into 3 types: winter tourism, summer and circumstance. Depending on the
The thesis determined the prospects for using media channels in attracting Russian tourists. This research was meant to find advertising channels among the Russian tourists (targeting North-West region of Russia). The results of this research can be used to promote local tourism services for customers from Russian westbound. This thesis was commissioned by the Savonlinna Travel Agency, which is the majour tour agency in the region. The idea for the thesis project rests on the fact that c...
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to research the development of tourism, taking into consideration the growing competition and new consumer intentions. The aim of this research is to analyze the alternative forms of tourism as a crucial factor for long term sustainability. As a basic research method used is an interview with tourist providers in Macedonia (travel agencies – DMC companies and tourist guides, regarding their experience for alternative tourism forms. Results are showing growing trend of alternative forms of tourism considering different tourist nationalities. These results are valuable for further scientific research in consumer analyzes, and presents an input for the national tourism in this region.
Full Text Available Seen as a new form of manifestation of the behavior of the consumer of tourism products and services, culinary tourism has recorded an ascending trending the last years, with a positive forecast for the following years. A possible explanation for this phenomenon is the orientation and encouragement of the tourist services providers to adopt regional development strategies that harness traditional local resources and products in a context where the contemporary consumer no longer only pursues the acquisition of products and services to meet their needs, but also looks forward to new experiences that are a delight for the senses. Against this background, the present paper aims to highlight some of the characteristics of culinary tourism and to customize some of the dimensions of consumer behavior oriented towards this form of tourism, in an economy where the tertiary sector, and specifically the tourism sector, play a leading role both in Europe and worldwide.
Full Text Available Tourism is an industry of the future, having the potential to provide significant revenues, and an industry of 'beauty', because it will protect, preserve and contribute to arranging the environment affected by other human activities. This is why it is very important to know the evolution of this underdeveloped field in our country. This paper is intended as a study on current trends in Romanian tourism without any claim of being an exhaustive research on the industry, describing the main indices of tourist traffic and their influence on Romanian tourism. Nowadays, we witness three main trends in Romanian tourism: sustainability, ecotourism and the increasing presence of cultural tourism. Ecotourism, as a form of tourism, has emerged from people's need to withdraw in nature, to visit and learn about the natural areas which have or have not a national or international protection status. Cultural tourism appears as a type of tourism clearly differentiated from other forms or types of tourism, particularly through motivation. It can be defined as a form of tourist mobility whose primary goal is broadening the horizon of knowledge by uncovering its architectural and artistic heritage and the areas in which it originates. Sustainability for tourism, as for other industries, has three independent aspects: economic, socio-cultural and environmental. Sustainability implies permanence, which means that sustainable tourism requires the optimal use of resources, minimizing the negative economic, socio-cultural and ecological impact, maximizing the benefits upon local communities, national economies and conservation of nature. Regarding statistical data, in what quantity is concerned, there is an increase in Romanian tourism, but in what quality is concerned there is a setback for tourism in the last years. This aspect should make public authorities take concern in improving the infrastructure and the quality of the touristical activity and in diversifying
Full Text Available This article is concerned with cross-border tourism. It enhances the importance of cross-border cooperation in tourism. Cross-border cooperation is a form of international cooperation, along with interregional, transitional and trans-frontier cooperation. Cross-border regions often share the same historical and cultural traditions and attractive natural landscapes, such is the case of the Republic of Moldova and Romania. In both cases, cross-border regions can benefit from cooperation – cooperation can help create greater diversity and differentiation of the range of tourism and environmental products; create economies of scale and make promotion more effective, and can help better address specific problems or issues for tourism development.
Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel scheme based on simplified advanced encryption standard (S-AES for image encryption. Modified Arnold Map applied as diffusion technique for an image, and the key and dynamic S-box of encryption is generated by PWLCM. The goal is to balance rapidity and security of encryption. Experimental implementation has been done. This light encryption scheme shows resistance against chosen-plaintext attack and is suitable for sensor networks and IoT.
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Full Text Available The dark tourism is a form of tourism that is not unanimously accepted by the whole society, but in spite of this fact, the practitioners of dark tourism is a viable segment. Indeed the concept that defines dark tourism is none other than death, and perhaps this is why it will always be a segment that will not be attracted by this form of tourism. Many questions about dark tourism arise. Among them: (1 is dark tourism an area of science attractive for researches? (2 which is the typology of dark tourism? (3 what are the motivating factors that determine practicing dark tourism? This paper provides a detailed analysis of publication behaviour in the field of dark tourism. The article also includes the main results obtained by achieving a quantitative marketing research among students of Sfantu Gheorghe University Extension in order to know their opinion, attitude towards dark tourism.
Simon Chiutsi; Boycen Kumira Mudzengi
Zimbabwe tourism development has suffered the pitfalls of uneven development often producing disproportionate distribution of returns. While tourism has been promulgated as a panacea to the socio-economic development challenges Zimbabwe is facing, local and often marginalized rural communities have not meaningfully reaped the benefits through tourism income. In this paper community tourism entrepreneurship is suggested as a viable option to promote sustainable tourism as it places the local c...
Full Text Available This paper tends to study tourism attitudes among the youth. It argues that in studying tourism among the youth, it is necessary to consider youth’s other behavioral factors in addition to the youth subculture. Therefore, we should study the youth culture from the view point of “Consumption”. In this view, youth tourism is equal to consumption of time, space and signs. Using ongoing theoretical debates and division, we would attempt to explore various factors of youth tourism. This article shows that youth tourism and youth culture are so mutually interconnected that we should comprehend youth tourism based on youth culture and vise versa. In conclusion, analyzing the youth subculture which is rooted in their consumption attitudes, the study attempts to understand youth tourism.
Abbas Ghanbari; Khadijeh Zirak Moradlu; Morteza Ramazani
Medical tourism is considered as one of the tourism dimensions and it can contribute to the stabilized and dynamic development of a country's economy. Since it is cost-effective industry, most developing countries have focused on this industry and they are planning to develop this industry. Not only does Zanjan province, as the central region in medicine services, enjoy different kinds of variety and acceptable medical specialties but also it has historical, natural, and religious tourism pot...
Uhlenbrock, D.; Sehlen, S.
The aim of the study was to define reliable criteria for the differentiation of MR imaging between patients with MS and with 'vascular' white matter lesions/SAE. We examined 35 patients with proven MS according to the Poser criteria and 35 patients with other white matter lesions and/or SAE. The result is that with MR a differentiation can be achieved provided that T1-weighted spin-echo sequences are included and the different pattern of distribution is considered. MS plaques are predominantly located in the subependymal region, vascular white matter lesions are mainly located in the water-shed of the superficial middle cerebral branches and the deep perforating long medullary vessels in the centrum semiovale. Infratentorial lesions are more often seen in MS. Confluence at the lateral ventricles is frequently accompanied by confluent abnormalities around the third ventricle, Sylvian aqueduct, and fourth ventricle, which is uncommon in SAE. In MS many lesions visible on T2-weighted images have a cellular or intracellular composition that renders them visible also on T1-weighted ones as regions with low signal intensity and more or less distinct boundary. 'Vascular' white matter lesions and SAE mainly represent demyelination and can therefore be seen on T2-weighted images, but corresponding low signal intensity lesions on T1-weighted images are uncommon. In some exceptions there are such lesions with low signal representing lacunar infarcts or widened Virchow-Robin-spaces. (orig.).
Candela Guido; Castellani Massimiliano; Mussoni Maurizio
In this paper we investigate the effects of a Keynesian policy in tourists destinations where tourism products are mainly sold through «direct sales» (decentralized solution) and the tourism market equilibrium is characterized by sticky prices and unemployment (coordination failure). A Keynesian demand policy is a Pareto improving solution with respect to the organization of sales by Tour operators or Destination managers (centralized solution), since tourism firms are not worse-off in terms ...
Full Text Available Development of tourism as part of the service activity contributes to the development ofnational economy and hence to the development of European tourism. If tourist industry can cover asignificant share of GDP, can cover and reduce unemployment by providing jobs in this field.Economic and financial crisis influences tourism and consumer behavior of tourism services. Thedynamics of Romanian tourism in European tourism in the global crisis - facts and perspectivesprovide a comparative image of tourism in Romania among other European countries, giving anoverview of the indicators analyzed in the perspective of marketing research. Tourism activity shouldbe followed not only in terms of existing realities, but also in terms of real opportunities that canprovide an insight into the field. To know our direction we need to know our coordinates and ourpotentials. Policies and strategies applied may also determine the future development of tourism.
Rodrigo de Azeredo Grünewald
Full Text Available One of the most significant issues confronting studies in the anthropology of tourism is that of cultural change precipitated in host societies as a result of an influx of tourists. Many times those changes are accompanied by a reorganization of the host population along ethnic lines, that is, by the creation of tourism- oriented-ethnicities. This article's purpose is to examine the relationship between tourism and ethnicity in theoretical terms and to contribute to a better academic understanding of ethnic tourism.
Sony Manggala Putra
Full Text Available The tourism sector as one of the leading sectors in Pasuruan still faces many obstacles. The constraints associated with conditions that require improvement on tourist destination related to the presence of infrastructure, zoning, the gap between the tourism destination in the West and the East area, up to the level of visitation which has decreased from year to year. The aims of the studi were to describe and analyze Tourism Destination Management conducted by Department of Culture and Tourism Pasuruan at Banyu Biru and Ranu Grati object to become competitive and sustainable tourism destination. This study used a qualitative approach with a case study method locus in the Department of Culture and Tourism Pasuruan. The results of this study indicate that the tourism destination management of Banyu Biru and Ranu Grati when reviewed in terms of competitiveness, still needs a lot of improvement related to the presence of tourism facilities and the quality of employees as service providers. In terms of sustainability, it shows that the synergy between the regional government and tourism stakeholders need to be improved. The need for the establishment of cooperation with third parties in management of tourism destination in Banyu Biru and Ranu Grati, can be used to optimize the carrying capacity and tourist destination marketing system at Banyu Biru and Ranu Grati in order to compete in a competitive and sustainable way Keywords: tourism destination management, competitiveness, sustainability
Jensen, Martin Trandberg
• Audio methods enriches sensuous tourism ethnographies. • The note suggests five research avenues for future auditory scholarship. • Sensuous tourism research has neglected the role of sounds in embodied tourism experiences.......• Audio methods enriches sensuous tourism ethnographies. • The note suggests five research avenues for future auditory scholarship. • Sensuous tourism research has neglected the role of sounds in embodied tourism experiences....
This work concentrates on Internet and its influence on tourism. It describes history of Internet, tourism and interactions among them. Next this work deals with the newest trends of Internet and their influence on tourism. Last but not least, it analyzes the influence of Internet on demand in tourism in Czech Republic.
Boesen, Morten; Sundbo, Donna; Sundbo, Jon
This article investigates the question: Why local food networks succeed or fail in collaborating with local tourism actors to create more tourism based on local food? The article focuses on entrepreneurial local food networks and their collaboration with local tourism actors. Emphasis...... is on the actions and attitude logics of local food networks and tourism actors, and whether their respective logics fit as a factor to explain why or why not development of local food concepts lead to increased local tourism. Six local food networks and their collaboration with local tourism actors are studied...... by using observation supplemented with other qualitative methods. Analysis of these networks reveals that successful collaboration is characterised by the food networks and tourism actors having at least one logic in common. The fitting logics that lead to success are primarily celebrity and civic logics...
Pasgaard, Jens Christian
This article is rooted in theories presented in the PhD dissertation Tourism and Strategic Planning (Pasgaard 2012) and features a number of much discussed concepts related to the complicated phenomenon of tourism and to the discipline of strategic urban planning. It is beyond the scope...... of this article to enter a detailed discussion of all mentioned concepts; however, it is important to set the stage by providing a few compressed notes on the overall approach to the phenomenon of tourism. Corresponding to the fluid transition between chores of everyday life and tourism behavior, the tourist...... space is not an unequivocal spatial specification. Rather, tourist space is a temporary condition, which depends on tourism activity and the mode of the observer. It is essential to understand and accept the liquidity of the tourism phenomenon and remember that tourism behavior and tourist space...
Full Text Available Integration and globalisation processes are unavoidable in all fields of business economy, including tourism. Potential success of wine tourism in Sremski Karlovci should be based on diversification of products that entails an influx of tourism and winemaking into other fields of economy. During the development of wine tourism offer, it would be advisable to consult the experiences of the developed wine region and to use their models, which is done in this paper, via benchmark analysis of offers of Sremski Karlovci wineries with those of the Ontario region (Canada and the place of Villány (Hungary. The goal of this paper is to establish the possible directions of development of the integral product of wine tourism of Sremski Karlovci as a prerequisite for integration into the regional tourism offer. The research indicates that wine tourism offer of Sremski Karlovci is underdeveloped. A large number of product diversification fields are not recognised. The future development of Sremski Karlovci wineries should be based on conquering of those very fields. Such a tourism product could more easily be integrated into the regional wine tourism offer.
Erika KULCSÁR; PhD Rozalina Zsófia SIMON
The dark tourism is a form of tourism that is not unanimously accepted by the whole society, but in spite of this fact, the practitioners of dark tourism is a viable segment. Indeed the concept that defines dark tourism is none other than death, and perhaps this is why it will always be a segment that will not be attracted by this form of tourism. Many questions about dark tourism arise. Among them: (1) is dark tourism an area of science attractive for researches? (2) which is the typology of...
Full Text Available Yacht tourism has become an important asset for the countries which consider tourism as a means of development due to its environment awareness, national and international investments, the volume of business, employment opportunities, foreign exchange income, socio-economic and socio-cultural impact, and an increasing number of investments and incentives for yacht tourism have made and used in a number of countries. In the presence of such rapid developments, the environmental damage caused by yacht tourism has been of importance for coastal countries, and action plans and special projects involving many countries have been developed in order to enhance the awareness of the sustainability of yacht tourism. Given that environment is not a limited source, it is blatant that national or international sustainable tourism practices have been essential for coastal countries and environmental threats are now so severe that they cannot be overlooked. The purpose of the study is to discuss sustainable tourism practices as a part of the measures to eliminate the negative impacts of yacht tourism and provide relevant suggestions.
The author attempts to define the term ‘tourism landscape’. It is treated as an important attribute of tourism space therefore, apart from its definition, the author presents its characteristic features and various types of such spaces with differing tourism landscapes. The landscapes of tourism space are treated not only as tourism assets or attractions, but also as the consequences of tourism activity on the natural and cultural environment.
Full Text Available The peculiarities of tourism in Khmelnytskyi region, its priority areas, types, including cultural-educational, environmental, sportrecreative and others have been revealed in the article. The basic tasks of tourism development in the region, aimed at the formation and protection of the tourism-recreational sector, market of competitive services, attraction of maximum number of tourists to the region, etc. have been cleared out. The attention is focused on the main tourist potential of Khmelnytskyi region, including National Nature Park «Podilski Tovtry», National historical-cultural nature reserve «Kamianets», «Samchyky», Medzhybizh regional historical-ethnographic museum-fortress, sanatorium-resort facilities based on mineral waters and others. The attention is paid to the increase in income from tourism. Traditional hospitality of the population of the region, especially in rural areas, provides the possibility to combine tourists’ accommodation with the study of rural customs and traditions directly in the villages. Tourism in Khmelnytskyi region will be attractive to all tourists who want to eat healthy food, to stay outdoors and enjoy the beauty of the region. Also the article tells us about the development of other directions and familiarizes tourists with other enticements of Khmelnytskyi region using the positive brand of Kamianets-Podilskyi. All three potential areas of tourism development (historical tourism in Kamianets-Podilskyi, recreational tourism on rivers, lakes and in the forests, as well as rural tourism can be combined within the global promotion of nature and traditions of the region. It is indicated that Khmelnytskyi is a promising tourist region of Ukraine. The main problems of the region are inadequate tourism infrastructure, accommodation facilities, food and roads. The experience of the tourism cluster «Oberih» (Protective Charm proves the perspectives of agritourism. Developing these two areas together, we
Lin, Tun; De Guzman, Franklin
Despite the increasing importance of tourism in economic development and the rise of “pro-poor” tourism development strategies, properly designing and implementing tourism projects remain generally a difficult process. There are both theoretical and practical challenges in justifying public sector investments in tourism and properly measuring the projects’ benefits and sustainability. There is a need to come up with an analytical framework that would address these challenges and help ev...
Smed, Karina Madsen
" and the "others". The author discusses to which extent tourism discourse is global as the reception of it has been different depending on the context. Moreover, she reflects on the impact upon this global narrative that the new economic world order will have. The new and emergent economies lead to a flow......Tales of Tourism - Global Changes and tourism discourse by Karina Smed presents us with what has been the dominant discourse of tourism, i.e. a discourse which has had its roots in the West's economic and cultural hegemony and the problem of the formation of identity from the dichotomy "self...... of tourists in the opposite direction: from China, India and Russia to western countries and worldwide and this will probably change the concept of tourism and our idea of identities....
Full Text Available Abstract: Times are changing and so are the demands and expectations of the 'new' traveller, the search for different experiences, different adventures, different lifestyles has paved the way for this concept called the 'new tourism' Attention is being turned to exploring new frontiers or daring to go where traditional thought did not allow. "New" tourists however, are increasingly being seen to be environmentally sensitive, displaying respect for the culture of host nations and looking to experience and learn rather than merely stand back and gaze. "New" tourists are participators not spectators. Things that would never appear on the list of the "mass" tourist such as adventure, getting of the beaten track and mingling with the locals are now the foundations of the new tourist experiences. Responding to the shift in market dynamics towards a "New" style of tourist, a number of initiatives have or are likely to fuel the growth of experiential tourism, these include: network tourism initiatives; the development of interpretive highways; the explosion of interpretive centers;the latest trend towards regional base camps. A new era has arrived, and a new kind of tourism is emerging, sustainable, environmentally and socially responsible, and characterized by flexibility and choice. A new type of tourist is driving it: more educated, experienced, independent, conservation-minded, respectful of cultures, and insistent on value for money. Typically these tourists are turning away from travel and prefer to have a high level of involvement in the organisation of their trip.
Full Text Available Christian tourism is asub-type of tourism where pilgrims travel alone or in group as missionaries orpilgrims or to spend their free time to recollect; it attracts a large numberof travellers. Christian tourism can be practiced by religious young people,missionaries, participants to religious convents, amateurs of religiouscruises, religious camps, visitors of religious attractions, religiousadventurers. Christian tourism can be considered a sub-type of religioustourism because of the large number of people involved in this type of tourismworldwide. Christian tourism as a sub-category of religious tourism coversthree main sub-types: traditional pilgrimage practiced by most world religions,missionary travel to different areas in the world, and confessional voyage. Thestructure of hospitality industry is common to all types of tourism but, fortraditional pilgrimage, there must be special places for the pilgrims to sleep,eat and pray, because they belong, in most cases, to the medium-income touristcategory.
Although tourism attractions are a basic resource for long term tourism developments, they are not given the proper attention, both, theoretical and practical. Therefore, rare studies of tourism attractions, especially those with the ambition of creating a functional system of tourism attractions, attract special attention. The aim of this paper is to present a new system of tourism attractions. This new system is based on the review of published research on tourism attractions, particularly ...
Full Text Available The phenomenon of mass tourism development in recent years has undergone certain transformations, in particular, with the appearance of small forms of tourism, having significant prospects for development in the future. Although mass tourism development has represented, for a long time, a successful example of the concept of development of various tourist destinations around the world, in time, it was getting more exposed to criticism. Numerous authors and tourism scholars emphasize negative impact of mass tourism, whereas World Tourism Organization's forecast is in favor of reducing the mass as opposed to small forms of tourism. The small forms of tourism are primarily characterized by individual tours or traveling within small groups, usually consisting of educated, experienced and responsible participants with greater purchasing power when compared to typical tourists, participants of mass tourism. This case study entails prospects for the development of small forms of tourism in Surčin, the youngest of seventeen Belgrade municipalities. Due to its favorable traffic and tourist position, natural resources, cultural heritage and built infrastructure, in recent years, Surčin has become more attractive for individuals and small groups of tourists, positioning itself as a tourist destination for excursions in the market capital. This paper investigated the possibilities for tourism development of small forms of tourism based on the natural environment, cultural heritage, events; adventure, sport and recreation; authentic offer and local tradition as well as the parts of a short city break tour and cruising programs in the area of the Surčin municipality.
Full Text Available The subject of analysis in the paper is economic impact of cultural tourism and identification of the main factors which directly affect cultural tourism revenues. Most countries do not have a statistical system of monitoring and analysing individual factors of cultural tourism such as the number of arrivals of cultural tourists and consumption of cultural tourists. Therefore, it is hard to assess the economic impact of cultural tourism. In cultural tourism, cultural assets are prepared and placed on the tourist market, i.e. cultural resources are transformed into cultural tourism products. The main objective is fulfilling tourists' needs, and achieving positive effects which includes economic effects. Identification of the economic impact of cultural tourism is important because cultural resources have an inestimable value for the local community. Tourism valorisation should be used in order to achieve the necessary maximum effects with minimum negative impacts which tourism may leave on cultural resources. The objective of the paper is to identify the economic contribution of cultural tourism in the Republic of Croatia and to propose a model of identification of economic impact of cultural tourism.
This thesis deals with religious tourism. The objectives of this study are firstly to understand what religious tourism is, who the tourists attracted to religious tourism are, what the destinations and motives for religious holidays are and what the future of religious tourism looks like. This study is limited to dealing with Christian religious tourism. There is a survey made to find out firstly how religious tourism is understood and what the important destinations for religious touri...
Andreatta, Francesco; Matesanz, Laura; Akita, Adriano H.; Paussa, Luca; Fedrizzi, Lorenzo; Fugivara, Cecilio S.; Gomez de Salazar, Jose M.; Benedetti, Assis V.
Corrosion of SAE 1045 steel/WC-Co/Ni-Cu-Ni/SAE 1045 steel interfaces was investigated in 0.6 M NaCl solution using an electrochemical microcell, which enables local electrochemical characterization at the micrometer scale. Two pieces of steel, one with a WC-Co coating covered with Ni (12 μm) and Cu (5 μm) layers, and the other with a Ni (15 μm) layer, were welded by dynamic diffusion bonding. A WC-Co coating was applied to the steel by the high velocity oxygen-fuel process, and Ni-Cu and Ni layers by electroplating. Polarization curves were recorded using an electrochemical microcell. Different regions of welded samples were investigated, including steel, cermet coating, and steel/cermet and steel/Ni-Cu-Ni/cermet interfaces. Optical and electronic microscopes were employed to study the corroded regions. Potentiodynamic polarization curves obtained using the microcell revealed that the base metal was more susceptible to corrosion than the cermet. In addition, cermet steel/cermet and steel/Ni-Cu-Ni/cermet joints exhibited different breakdown potentials. Steel was strongly corroded in the regions adjacent to the interfaces, while the cermet was less corroded. Iron oxides/hydroxides and chloride salts were the main corrosion products of steel. After removal of the superficial layer of corrosion products, iron oxides were mainly observed. Chloride ions were detected mainly on a copper-enriched layer placed between two Ni-enriched layers.
In a rapidly changing tourism industry, the international competition is strong and the well-travelled tourists have high expectations. This has led to an increasing emphasis on the development of new services and experiences to attract tourists’ attention. Innovation has become a “buzz-word”, seen...... as essential for survival and growth. With cases from Norway and NZ this thesis examines what innovation means in the context of adventure tourism businesses, and explore relations between such change processes and the available knowledge resources of the business. Several factors influence the knowledge...... resources of a given business, and this study looks specifically at how the size of the business, its location, and the maturity of the specific adventure tourism activity shapes processes of knowledge development and innovation. The study takes it starting point in research on small businesses and tourism...
COSMIN CIPRIAN CARABA
Full Text Available The second part of the 20th century has been marked by the competition between capitalism and communism. The “Autumn of Nations” put an end to the Eastern Bloc, but each former communist country in Central and Eastern Europe still possesses heritage sites reminding of the communist period. These heritage sites are turning into major tourist attractions, being sought by western tourists. Halfway around the world the Chinese Communist Party is trying to develop Red Tourism, a specific type of cultural tourism, based on heritage sites of the Chinese communist revolution. While the two tourism types use communist heritage as primary resource there are several differences between them. The study compares European communist heritage tourism with Chinese “Red Tourism”, analyzing their emergence, development and the problems they face, especially regarding heritage interpretation. This paper will try to provide a theoretical base for studying communist heritage tourism in former communist countries of Central and Eastern Europe.
Heike A. Schänzel
Full Text Available Purpose – Families represent a large and growing market for the tourism industry. Family tourism is driven by the increasing importance placed on promoting family togetherness, keeping family bonds alive and creating family memories. Predictions for the future of family travel are shaped by changes in demography and social structures. With global mobility families are increasingly geographically dispersed and new family markets are emerging. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the trends that shape the understanding of families and family tourism. Design/methodology/approach – This paper examines ten trends that the authors as experts in the field identify of importance and significance for the future of family tourism. Findings – What emerges is that the future of family tourism lies in capturing the increasing heterogeneity, fluidity and mobility of the family market. Originality/value – The paper contributes to the understanding about the changes taking place in family tourism and what it means to the tourism industry in the future.
Ren, Carina Bregnholm
of qualitative research has meant a need to question and redefine criteria and research standards otherwise used in tourism research, as qualitative approach does not (seek to) conform to ideals such as truth, objectivity, and validity retrieved in the positivist sciences. In order to develop new ways by which......, the understanding of qualitative research as unable (or rather unwilling) to deliver the types of outcome which “explain and predict” tourism, has impacted upon its ability to gain general acceptance. Only slowly has tourism research made room for the changes in social and cultural sciences, which since the 1960s......Qualitative research, tourism Qualitative research refers to research applying a range of qualitative methods in order to inductively explore, interpret, and understand a given field or object under study. Qualitative research in tourism takes its inspiration primarily from the cultural and social...
Ueda, M.; Mello, C.B.; Beloto, A.F.; Rossi, J.O.; Reuther, H.
SAE 1020 steel is commonly used as concrete reinforcement and small machine parts, but despite its good mechanical properties, as ductility, hardness and wear resistance, it is susceptible to severe corrosion. It is well known that chromium content above 12% in Fe alloys increases their corrosion resistance. In order to obtain this improvement, we studied the introduction of chromium atoms into the matrix of SAE 1020 steel by recoil implantation process using a plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) system. Potentiodynamic scans showed that the presence of Cr film leads to a gain in the corrosion potential, from -650 mV to -400 mV. After PIII treatment, the corrosion potential increased further to -340 mV, but the corrosion current density presented no significant change. Vickers microhardness tests showed surface hardness increase of up to about 27% for the treated samples. Auger electron spectroscopy showed that, for a 30 nm film, Cr was introduced for about 20 nm into the steel matrix. Tribology tests, of pin-on-disk type, showed that friction coefficient of treated samples was reduced by about 50% and a change in wear mechanism, from adhesive to abrasive mode, occurred
Klumpp, S.; Eifler, D.; Macherauch, E.
Cyclic deformation behaviour of a normalized steel SAE 4140 in shear strain-controlled torsion is characterized by cyclic softening and cyclic hardening. If mean shear stresses are superimposed to an alternating shear stress, cycle-dependent creep occurs, and the number of cycles to failure decreases. In shear strain-controlled torsional loading, mean stresses are observed to relax nearly to zero within a few cycles. Fatigue life is not influenced by mean shear strains. (orig.) [de
Cultural tourism is seen as a major growth market in Europe, although empirical evidence is still relatively sparse. An analysis is presented of the ATLAS survey data for 2002 as well as research conducted at the Rotterdam Cultural Capital Event in 2001. These data indicate that cultural tourism
Among others, tourism marketing has the purpose to facilitate the process of conceiving and developing those specific tourism products, which better corresponding to different tourists categories' needs. These products are created going from utilization of some natural and human resources, considered as tourism attraction. In the sustainable development spirit, marketers must conceive harmonious tourism product policies; as to satisfy the actual tourists' needs and future tourists generation'...
Full Text Available Introduction. If activity related to tourism is planned effectively and performed in a responsible way, it can satisfy many human needs. In order to make it possible for members of modern society to fully benefit from tourism, however, it is necessary to undertake action aimed at promoting tourism, fostering its development, stimulating the need to travel, and helping tourists adopt certain habits. The aim of the study was to collect information concerning the impact of family, school, and community organisations on the tourism activity of students of tourism and recreation.
Bødker, Mads; Browning, David
Proposing new design opportunities, this paper challenges received notions of tourism, arguing that tourism is fundamentally social and concerned with making place. This turn makes tourism not only a convenient testing ground for technology concepts, but increasingly also for more sensitive...... renderings of, and interventions in, tourism as a relational and social practice. Using examples from commercial, arts, and design projects, and providing excerpts from our own fieldwork and design workshops with tourists and locals, this paper outlines three challenges through a conceptual lens that we see...... as productive for appropriate interaction design of tourism technologies....
Full Text Available In order to establish an adequate balance between tourists' welfare, the needs of the natural and cultural environment, as well as to develop tourist destinations and organizations' competitiveness, it is necessary to carry out a global and integrated approach, where all interested parties share the same goals regarding the durability of tourism and the approached challenges. The purpose of this work is to identify the factors of reduced risk having a major impact over the sustainability of the tourist region under analysis and to highlight the risk factors' connections and impact in order to minimize and eliminate them, with direct effects over the awareness of tourist industry's values. The identification of lasting development's indicators will take into account all these three aspects of the durable development of tourism, namely ecological, economical and social factors, that play a part in highlighting the real performance of a tourist destination. All these aspects are absolutely necessary for the promotion of the Danube's tourist potential, achievable through the emphasis of the relevant values from the tourist patrimony of the county of Galati. The promotion of the Danube' tourist potential presupposes a series of objectives that are subordinated to the general direction that is marked at the national level, respectively Romania's transformation into a qualitative tourist destination based on its natural and cultural patrimony, in order to correspond to the European Union standards. The new policy regarding tourism proposed by the European Commission aims at offering constant support for this industry to be able to face different challenges, by promoting also competitiveness in general.
Jørgensen, Matias Thuen
This thesis adopts a novel qualitative approach that provides a deeper understanding of the tourism distribution phenomenon and of China outbound tourism to Scandinavia. Gaps in existing knowledge have been revealed through an extensive review of the literature on tourism distribution and on China...... outbound tourism. The reviews show that there has been little research, which provides deep understandings of the distribution process for China outbound tourists. Most studies of China outbound tourism focused on tourists in isolation and deployed quantitative methods to understand discrete elements...... such as motivations or image. These studies often ignored actors other than the tourists themselves and did not consider other influencing relationships and factors. This thesis questions such approaches and proposes that tourism distribution is also affected by enactments, relations and factors, which have little...
Full Text Available Rural tourism is now determined by limited economic opportunities, poor infrastructure, low motivation to possible offers, lack of proper service guarantees. Nearly 500 Romanian villages are already tourist locations, with certain characteristics determined by a heritage item, or complex ones when multiple components lead to various activities. This paper includes a typology of tourist villages in Romania according to the types of practiced tourist activities, insisting on the use of a more comprehensive terminology: tourism in rural environment, participative and creative tourism in rural areas. Tourism becomes a system accepted in the rural environment as a real opportunity for economic development with multiple social consequences. By multiplying tourism potential to meet tourists’ demands, many villages will get tourism valences with various activities in this filed, including environment protection.
Ni Ketut Supasti Dharmawan
Full Text Available Tourism activities in era globalization bring positive and negative impacts especially for the host countries destination. To minimize the negative impacts it is very important to always promote the sustainable development of tourism including from a human rights perspective. This paper will discuss concerning who have responsibility to promote a human rights related with sustainable development of tourism. To explore the topic in this article, Author will study both international human rights instruments and environmental convention as well as the soft law regarding the tourism sector such as the UN WTO Global Code Of Ethics. The Law No. 10 Year 2009 concerning Indonesia Tourism Law is also part of legal material studied in this paper. There are national, international legal instruments of the human rights as well as UNWTO Global Codes of Ethics which can be utilized to promote sustainable tourism through human rights perspective. It is considered that all stakeholders have responsibility to promote sustainable development of tourism.
Full Text Available When tourists travel to another country for Medical treatment as well as for sightseeing, the practice is called medical tourism. In the last few years this trend has increased. This emergent global trend of increased medical tourism is expected to gain momentum in the coming decades as travelers seek destinations abroad that are associated with wellness and affordable medical care. How countries are marketing medical tourism destinations and the choices of consumers in this regard are important aspects for the South African tourism market to consider. Additionally, the economic impact of medical tourism on countries such as India, where it is virtually a routine practice, and how tourism may be affected by the development of medical pharmaceuticals, medical equipment, and medical industry job creation, are aspects worthy of consideration as South Africa seeks to obtain an important part of the market. Medical tourists cannot make an informed choice about treatment when comparing different hospitals in different countries and at best make a partially informed choice. The strategy is to get them to come to South Africa because we are a preferred option with a good reputation in healthcare. This article seeks to address these issues and make suggestions on how medical tourism offerings can be improved in South Africa so as to make medical tourism increase in volume.
Full Text Available Increased global concern about sustainability has placed pressure on businesses to justify the value of their products and services beyond personal profit and to take responsibility for the negative impacts of their activities. Tourism is particularly susceptible to this pressure, given its generally poor track record in terms of negative social, cultural and environmental impacts, and the lack of compelling evidence of benefits for either the individual tourist or destination communities. While the management of tourism impacts and the relationship between tourism and sustainability have been paid considerable attention by tourism academics, there is little evidence of any significant change in tourism practice. This paper will argue that this lack of change reflects problems in the way tourism academics have conceptualized sustainable tourism. After reviewing these problems with sustainable tourism, this paper will offer an alternative framework for sustainable tourism that focuses on the concept of quality-of-life, recognizes the complexity of tourism within local and global systems, adheres to the principles of responsible tourism, and explicitly assesses the value of tourism as one tool, amongst many, for sustainability. One potential application of the framework will be demonstrated with a case study of tourism development on Magnetic Island in Australia.
Full Text Available In this paper we introduce sustainability dimensions of creative tourism and develop a model of sustainable creative tourism. The concepts of culture-based creativity and sustainability as tools for a value-adding impact on cultural tourism and local culture are discussed in the theoretical part of the paper. Our empirical analysis reveals that higher GDP per capita does not necessary correlate with higher competitiveness of an economy: a comparison analysis of Slovenian and Estonian international competitive positions in various domains shows several weaknesses of Slovenian competitiveness and offers an explanation for indispensable systemic view on tourism competitiveness. Our world wide web analysis of the steps made in creative tourism development in both countries indicates Estonian advantage, which could be taken as an example of good practice. Some suggestions for Slovenian policymaking with regard to institutional support for culture-based creativity and creative tourism development are made in the final part of the paper.
Green Tourism Marketing Model research as efforts to develop environmentally friendly tourism destination, the synergy of government, business and community participation become the driving force of tourism product development with highly competitive. In the long term, this research aims to provide the marketing concept of green tourism as economic development efforts and strengthen the environment (eco-growth) through the development of green tourism marketing models. The ...
Liburd, Janne J.; Nielsen, Tanja K.; Heape, Chris
Emerging theories of smart tourism are chiefly concerned with how Internet Communication Technology and Big Data can influence marketing, product and destination development. The risk being that an overt focus on formal outcomes, namely technology, products and services, diverts attention from how...... things and operations are actually achieved. This paper challenges the notions of smart and value co-creation by introducing tourism co-design as a learning and experiment driven development process. Tourism co-design leverages the communicative interaction between people and enables tourism operators...... to change their practices. Based on fieldwork in the northern part of Denmark we explore how smart tourism can become smarter through tourism co-design processes. We argue that a shift is needed from: How can we efficiently achieve a more or less known goal? To: How can we effectively explore and give sense...
Jensen, Camilla; Zhang, Jie
The article addresses two questions related with tourism as a service trade. Can tourism be explained as other export activities? Does service liberalisation have a positive or negative impact on tourism receipts in destination countries? Previous research has either focused on the demand side...... factors (i.e. factors of demand in the origin countries) or on tourism as a long-run factor of economic growth. The research shows that a complementary perspective such as that offered by trade in a supply side perspective can render additional insights towards understanding tourism. This approach can...... explain why countries have absolute and comparative advantage. Another finding is that tourism as an export can be explained by some of the same destination factors that explain other service exports. Using different panel estimators the importance of supply side factors that are to some extent exclusive...
Arnt Nielsen, Peter
Libel tourism, which is much related to the UK, is caused by a mixture of factors, such as the law applicable, national and European rules of jurisdiction, national choice of law rules, and case law of the CJEU. These issues as well as aspects of recognition and enforcement of libel judgments...... in the US and EU are examined. Proposals for reform and legislative action in the EU are made. The effect of the Defamation Act 2013 on libel tourism, in which the UK attempts to strike a better balance between freedom of expression and privacy and to deal with libel tourism, is examined....
Xu, Shi; Martinez, Larry R.; Hubert, Van Hoof; Tews, Michael; Torres, Leonardo; Farfán, Karina
Ram (2015 Ram, Y. (2015). Hostility or hospitality? A review on violence, bullying and sexual harassment in the tourism and hospitality industry. Current Issues in Tourism. doi:10.1080/13683500.2015.1064364 [Taylor & Francis Online], [Google Scholar] . Hostility or hospitality? A review on violence, bullying and sexual harassment in the tourism and hospitality industry. Current Issues in Tourism. doi:10.1080/13683500.2015.1064364) posits that violence and harassment are areas of concern...
This paper analyses the impact of internet on the organization of industry and the marketdynamics in the tourism activities, focusing in the European scene. Tourism incorporates many features ofthe contemporaneous information and communication economy. Even if e-tourism still stands for a smallshare of the whole tourism activity, the paper establishes that the internet basically explains theorganization of the activities and markets that emerge today. A relevant analytical framework able toap...
Kurniasih; Nihayah, Dyah Maya; Sudibyo, Syafitri Amalia; Winda, Fajri Nur
Officially, Nongkosawit Village has become a tourism village since 2012. However, the economic impact has not been received by the society yet because of inappropriate tourism village model. Therefore, this study aims to find out the best model for the development of Nongkosawit Tourism Village. This research used Analytical Hierarchy Process method. The results of this research shows that the model of tourism village which was suitable to the local indigenous of Nongkosawit Tourism Village was the cultural based tourism village with the percentage of 58%. Therefore, it is necessary to do re-orientation from the natural-based village model into the cultural-based village model by raising and exploring the existing culture through unique and different tourism products.
Full Text Available The increase of Sino-African interactions in trade, aid and investments has attracted Chinese tourists to Africa. The Beijing Action Plan of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC outlines China’s cultural diplomacy in Africa, delineating a number of areas of cultural cooperation: education; press, publishing and media; and tourism and people-to-people exchange programs in academia and think tanks among young people, women and athletes. Though scholars of International relations (IR have detected that tourism is one way of manifesting soft power, they do not feel comfortable nor ready to place the promotion of tourism into standard IR discourse. This is in contrast to scholars of tourism studies who have recognized the political nature of China's outbound tourism, particularly to less-developed areas such as Africa. In this paper, we have argued that the Chinese government uses outbound tourism to perform its perceived relationship with African countries; that is, Beijing aspires to be seen as a benign rising power willing to help weaker countries develop and establish harmonious ties. It is hard to separate the economic and cultural functions of outbound tourism, each of which reinforces the other, although not without limits. We find that not all African countries’ national tourism policies are capable of, or willing to prioritize, attracting Chinese tourists. Moreover, we find that South Africa is most active in working with public relations companies in China to promote South Africa as a tourist destination.
Volkova Tatiana Aleksandrovna; Karpova Julia Igorevna; Minenkova Vera Vladimirovna; Khodykina Anna Fedorovna
Social tourism is one of the most important types of tourism in the system of tourism industry, and a serious impulse is needed for its development and getting attention of the state and business to it. Currently the means of federal and regional budgets decrease by sanatorium treatment of citizens entitled to benefits from year to year. Development of social tourism is absolutely necessary, economically justified and profitable. At current reproduction of human resources is impor...
Mohammad Mohebi; Khalid A. Rahim
Problem statement: A review of the tourism history shows that tourism as an industry was virtually unknown in Malaysia until the late 1960s. Since then, it has developed and grown into a major industry, making an important contribution to the country's economy. By allocating substantial funds to the promotion of tourism and the provision of the necessary infrastructure, the government has played an important role in the impressive progress of the Malaysian tourism industry. One of the importa...
Tourism is a growing rapidly sector and the impacts on the environment are more and more significant. In this framework a study has been realized on the following three topics: the spatial and temporal concentrations bounded to the tourism and the environmental impacts; the greenhouse gases, the wastes and the noise generated by the increase of the transportation sector bounded to the tourism; a sectoral analysis of the environmental impacts function of the area (sea, mountain, country). (A.L.B.)
The chapter presents a review of the conceptions of cultural and creative tourism, their resources, objectives and their benefit and damage to the nature and the society. It is very important in the postmodern society to not only develop cultural tourism that is one of the most rapidly growing branches of economy, but also to employ cultural heritage and does not always develop the common heritage and tourism industry. This is an especially sore point because the common cultural heritage and ...
The growth of the tourism product development, alternative and special interest developed nowdays for example religious, sport tourism, and is rapidly growing these days is voluntourism.It is a form of tourism product interest the tourist especially from the wealth countries which have the awareness to support quality development in countries that are developing that made sustainable tourism development benefit and a real advantage for the local community.Bali as a growing tourism...
Full Text Available This paper presents a sociological view of possibilities for the development of sustainable rural tourism in Koprivnica-Krizevci county, which is located in the north-western part of Croatia. The possibilities for developing rural tourism within the concept of sustainable development have been researched through qualitative empirical research interview method. Research subjects were the owners of tourist farms, decision makers, experts and other stakeholders in the tourism development. Rural tourism represents an alternative to maritime tourism and is relatively undeveloped but important in terms of development of rural areas and family farms. This paper enables an insight into an integrated sustainability of rural tourism which consists of four dimensions: biologicalecological, economic, socio-cultural and political sustainability. In conclusion, integral sustainability in rural tourism is not achieved in all dimensions. Therefore, rural tourism could be a strategy for sustainable development for rural areas and also could be a tool for product differentiation for area that are at stagnation stage.
Full Text Available Over the past two decades, river cruise tourism has witnessed a strong development, being preferred by more tourists each year, to the detriment of other forms of tourism. The presence of a plethora of attractive resources, concentrated along the inland waterways represents a particular offer for tourism development, through proper planning. However, in Romania, river cruise tourism is still incipient, even though cruises on the Danube are available, on a regular basis, since the 1970s. This research focuses on cruise ship tourism on the Danube, in particularly on the deltaic sector; with the Romanian ship MS Delta Star as a case study. Following, a brief presentation of the evolution of this type of tourism on the Danube River and its peculiarities on the Romanian sector, especially in the Danube Delta, was made. The assessment framework of the tourism potential of the Danube Delta at the level of administrative-territorial units was developed by applying the methodology from the National Spatial Plan. After correlating the results of the assessment with the current capitalization of tourism potential of the delta by the cruise ship included in the study, it is highlighted the need for optimizing the structure of the offer for this tourism sector. Identifying the most valuable elements of the Danube Delta, in terms of touristical attractions and including them to future itineraries for tourists on cruise ships guarantees a better capitalization of the tourism potential attracting therefore, a greater number of tourists.
Full Text Available Most tourism activities excluding the e-tourism activities as matter of their nature (service taker and provider take place face to face between people. In addition tourism activities encourage bonding people both for tourists and the tourism services providers. Tourism creates cohesion for many different cultural groups. One of the cities in Turkey, Izmir is a good example with including too many culturally oriented groups such as Levantines, Greek, Jewish, rarely Armenians. In this paper there are two research questions are hold; how is being the other (ethnic minority as tourism entrepreneurs in tourism industry in Izmir and their involvement in sustainable tourism development is investigated and if tourism activities help connecting different cultural groups together and closer is investigated. So regarding these research questions, the research methodology in this paper is qualitative. For that reason, semi structured interview technique is applied to people are belong to different cultural groups and identities whom entrepreneurs in tourism industry. Semi structured interview technique is a commonly used an interview method depending on providing deep understanding of participants` perceptions, thoughts and behaviors. In general, understanding of the other brings feeling respect to others` cultural beliefs and lifestyle and this will make peace and harmony to where they live together. As a result, with the light of these research questions being the other entrepreneurship in sustainable tourism development in Izmir is evaluated. Furthermore, in this research is tried to indicate the advantageous and disadvantageous and importance of different cultural groups for sustainable tourism development
Full Text Available The tourism footprint family comprises the tourism ecological footprint (TEF, the tourism carbon footprint (TCF and the tourism water footprint (TWF. The tourism footprint represents an important tool for quantitatively assessing the impact of tourism activities on the ecosystem of a tourist destination. This paper systematically reviews the relevant literature on TEF, TCF and TWF, analyses and summarizes the main progress and failures in the analytical frameworks, research methods, measurement results, environmental impacts and reductions in the tourism footprint. This paper also proposes areas for further developing the tourism footprint research, including unifying the analytical frameworks and boundaries of the tourism footprint, distinguishing the geographical scope of the tourism footprint effectively, improving the process of analyzing the environmental impact of the tourism footprint, measuring the tourism footprint scientifically and roundly, performing space-time calculations of the tourism footprint, and expanding the tourism footprint family by introducing new members. Accordingly, this paper is devoted to the continued study of the tourism footprint.
Full Text Available Many Croatian scientists indicate that there are significant opportunities in tourism that can beneficially influence the overall socio-economic development of Croatia. It is recognised that Croatia has to follow more closely the contemporary tourism trends, in which much greater attention is given to ecology, the cultural identity of the destination, active vacations, service quality and selective forms of tourism development. There is also agreement that the clean sea, the coast, and the abundance of natural and cultural beauty are the advantages of Croatia’s tourism supply in the maritime part of the country. However, there are some discussions that the Continental part of Croatia is also abundant in natural beauty, cultural wealth, and gastronomy, and that it has many other underutilised tourism potentials. Different viewpoints on tourism in Croatia are based on statistical indicators, such as the level of development of tourist regions expressed through investments in infrastructure, the number of employed and the direct benefit of tourism to the economy. Despite the fact that the Continental part of Croatia abounds in tourism potential, what is offered is recognised only locally. This problem has negative impacts at the strategic level, as project planning and financing need to have a regional dimension. Some authors (Kušen, 1999; Koščak, 1998; Krippendorf, 1986; Müller, 1994; Stabler, 1996; Travis et al., 1994 have developed a cadastre of tourism potential, which has never been implemented. Therefore, this paper aims to map the tourism potentials of Continental Croatia by using the triple helix model, based on which regional tourism can be developed and future project funding ensured.
Jere Jakulin Tadeja
Full Text Available Background and Purpose: The complexity of the tourism system, as well as modelling in a frame of system dynamics, will be discussed in this paper. The phaenomenon of tourism, which possesses the typical properties of global and local organisations, will be presented as an open complex system with all its elements, and an optimal methodology to explain the relations among them. The approach we want to present is due to its transparency an excellent tool for searching systems solutions and serves also as a strategic decision-making assessment. We will present systems complexity and develop three models of a complex tourism system: the first one will present tourism as an open complex system with its elements, which operate inside of a tourism market area. The elements of this system present subsystems, which relations and interdependencies will be explained with two models: causal-loop diagram and a simulation model in frame of systems dynamics.
The basis of sustainable development is formed by sustaining environmental resources and values without losing their characteristics. In addition to production processes, tourism activity is the phenomenon that spoils ecological balances. The factors that form tourism sector are natural resources and socio-cultural and historical accumulations. The sustainability of tourism sector and development depends on the protection of all types of environmental values. In order to protect environmental...
Zadel, Zrinka; Bogdan, Sinisa
The subject of analysis in the paper is economic impact of cultural tourism and identification of the main factors which directly affect cultural tourism revenues. Most countries do not have a statistical system of monitoring and analysing individual factors of cultural tourism such as the number of arrivals of cultural tourists and consumption of cultural tourists. Therefore, it is hard to assess the economic impact of cultural tourism. In cultural tourism, cultural assets are prepared and p...
Blake, Adam; Arbache, Jorge Saba; Sinclair, Thea; Teles, Vladimir Kühl
This paper examines the issue of how tourism affects poverty in the context of the effects of tourism on an economy as a whole and on particular sectors within it. A framework for analysing the channels through which tourism affects different households is developed, and a computable general equilibrium model of the Brazilian economy is used to examine the economic impact and distributional effects of tourism in Brazil. It is shown that the effects on all income groups are posi...
BOUCHET, Patrick; BOUHAOUALA, Malek
Le tourisme sportif ne peut se prévaloir d’un héritage et d’une tradition dans l’histoire des vacances, du tourisme ou du sport. Il semble être un produit aux contours flous et aux limites en cours d’identification, caractérisé par la variété des métiers et des produits qui le constituent. En France, comme dans la plupart des pays occidentaux, l’intérêt porté au tourisme sportif est né d’un double mouvement. L’un décrit l’association et l’intégration croissante de pratiques et représentations...
Londo, Amwewa; Londo, Amwewa
In the third World Countries there is a need to develop and promote Tourism industry. Tourism Sector needs to be promoted to push economic development and increase the number of employments This research aims to find out whether eco-tourism sector at Ngorongoro Conservation area generates suistanable profit to local people. Qualitative reasearch was used to analyze eco-tourism value that leads to better understanding of different supports methods being used by government to local peopl...
Full Text Available Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the comprehension of the importance of “Accessible Tourism” for the specialized travel agencies by proposing suggestions and key factors to improve the supply of accessible tourism offers. Design/methodology/approach – The paper adopts specialized travel agencies on the accessible tourism perspective of disabled tourist flows. Also, this paper describes the circumstances, social, politic, economic consequences and key decisions that thereby Turkey would be recognized, preferring, establishing on the intention of purchased and suggested positive word of mouth among people. Findings – According to European Commission (EU (2013 more than half of the individuals with disabilities in the EU made approximately 170 million day trips and a similar number of overnight trips within the EU during the 12 months between mid-2012 and mid-2013. Despite the developments in tourism, lack of product/service appropriate to the travel rights of the individuals with accessibility needs is one of the obstacles should be overcome. Accessible tourism is one of the keys for the survival of the specialized travel agencies in the future. Providing appropriate product/service by targeting the individuals with accessibility needs together with a correct approach and strategy, the specialized travel agencies will be able to have a competitive advantage and continue their activities. Also this market segment will create having sustainable activity and a golden opportunity for the specialized travel agencies in the future. Originality/value – Little research has been done on accessible tourism, future development and on the impact that disabled tourists have on tourism. The paper presents suggestions on what the specialized travel agencies should do with regards to making Turkey be preferred in the future by the individuals having accessibility needs.
Hjalager, Anne Mette
Over the past couple of years, the term "innovation" has increasingly been used to described the development behaviour of tourism enterprises, destinations and the tourism sector. This article discusses various definitions. Examples of major changes in the tourism sector are given within the fram......Over the past couple of years, the term "innovation" has increasingly been used to described the development behaviour of tourism enterprises, destinations and the tourism sector. This article discusses various definitions. Examples of major changes in the tourism sector are given within...... on the industry itself, but take into account the driving forces of other business sectors and the public sector....
Full Text Available Economic crisis -is an intensively mediated concept during the past years- it issues with the situation when the business medium confronts with the perspective of a fundamental change, usually sudden and unexpected, that threatens to significantly disturb the present socio-economic perceptions and the daily practice.Even if the emergent markets are the most vulnerable in crisis, they still adapt the easiest to the actual context, counting on economic flexible domains as the tourism industry or IT.The persistence of global economic crisis, but especially the touristy market fragility make it impossible to estimate the evolution of hospitality industry for the next two years. Crisis effects seem to be inevitable in the context where great tourism actors talk about consequences similar to the ones following the terrorists attacks in SUA, in September 2001.It is very important to understand the stress factors that prevent the optimum development of tourism discouraging the touristy flow towards once well-known destinations.Romania is not a touristy destination with a worldwide notoriety, not even European, but some issues like the localization outside those more and more unsafe touristy areas, the peacefulness regarding the terrorism implications and the special natural and anthropic potential, all these, create the necessary premises for promoting a specific tourism, able to induce tourists the idea of security.Among the difficulties that Romania confronts itself with, we mention: unfavourable international image, precarious touristy infrastructure estate and seldom application of quality standards. If these deficiencies are assumed and controlled in the immediate future, then the interest for Romanian tourism will continuously increase and safe tourism could become a tourism relaunching factor after the wrong start for the rural tourism, business tourism or balnear tourism.
Patrichi Ioana Cristiana
In the last decades dark tourism has become a significant niche segment of world tourism. Locations marked by the occurrence of catastrophic natural events have attracted a large number of tourists, as well as different sites related to the production of mass massacres or genocide. The human mind is complex. Why tourists are attracted to these places is still a subject of intense discussion by experts in the field of tourism. It may be a feature of the current period or it might have reasons ...
Full Text Available If the tourism organizations in our country want to survive in the newly created economic conditions they should introduce the changes in the method of operation. The changes refer to the method of creating the tourism product, the segmentation of the market and the choice of target markets and the method that the management of the tourism organizations will use to organize the stay of the tourisms in the hospitality facilities and the tourism destinations wider. This means that the perspective development of the tourism in our country will depend on the managerial team of the tourism organizations.From the methodological aspect the significance and the role of the modern manager in the development of tourism organizations is emphasized in this paper. In the process of realizing the role of the modern manager in tourism, experiences from foreign research organizations and personal research are used. This way it has come to the perceptions about the activities of the managers in our tourism organizations and the way the modern manager should be in tourism.
Tourism in rural Alaska is an education curriculum with worldwide relevance. Students have started small businesses, obtained employment in the tourism industry and gotten in touch with their people. The Developing Alaska Rural Tourism collaborative project has resulted in student scholarships, workshops on website development, marketing, small...
Klein, J. E.; Sessions, H. T.
Pilot scale (0.5 kg) SAES St 909 methane cracking tests were conducted for potential tritium process applications. Up to 1400 hours tests were done at 700 deg.C, 202.7 kPa (1520 torr) with a 0.03 sLPM feed of methane plus impurities, in a 20 vol% hydrogen, balance helium, stream. Carbon dioxide gettered by St 909 can be equated to an equivalent amount of methane gettered, but equating nitrogen to an equivalent amount of methane was nitrogen feed composition dependent. A decreased hydrogen feed increased methane getter rates while a 30 deg.C drop in one furnace zone increased methane emissions by over a factor of 30. The impact of gettered nitrogen can be somewhat minimized if nitrogen feed to the bed has been stopped and sufficient time given to recover the methane cracking rate. (authors)
Full Text Available Serbia has a long tradition in thermal baths tourism development. In the second half of the twentieth century, this branch of tourism attracted a significant segment of tourist demand, both domestic and foreign. However, due to difficult business conditions in the nineties, its infrastructure became outdated. This resulted in negative trends in tourism development and a negative image appeared in the tourism market. On the other hand, rural tourism is a relatively new form of tourism. In Serbia, it started developing from the 1970ies. A significant interim in this form of tourism was also noticed during the nineties. Today, these two forms of tourism are emphasized as the development chance of Serbian tourism and economy in diverse development-strategic documents by the Government and the departmental ministry. The conceptual approach to these forms of tourism is used in this work, in order to scope the possibilities of their complementary development. What is primarily borne in mind is the resource basis that Serbia possesses for their development, but also the newer tendencies and trends on the tourism market. Expectations are that a synergic cooperation of these forms of tourism would ensure better results, and Serbia would position itself higher on the international tourism market.
Ashley, Caroline; Boyd, Charlotte; Goodwin, Harold
This paper examines how tourism affects the livelihoods of the poor and how positive impacts can be enhanced. In doing so, it assesses the relevance of tourism to the poverty agenda, and the factors that encourage or constrain economic participation of the poor in the industry. In conclusion it outlines strategies for promoting pro-poor tourism.
Sinji Yang; Lori Pennington-Gray; Donald F. Holecek
Proponents of Alternative Tourism overwhelmingly believe that alternative forms of tourism development need to be small in scale. Inasmuch as tourists' demand has great power to shape the market, the issues surrounding the tourism development scale deserve further consideration. This paper discusses the implications and effects of the tourism development scale on...
This thesis is about the dark tourism and destination marketing. The aim of the thesis is to display how these two terms can be combined. The term dark tourism is a relatively new research area; therefore the thesis will provide an outlook of the current situation of dark tourism. It starts with the beginning of dark tourism and continuous to the managerial aspects of dark tourism sites. The second part of the theoretical background is about destination marketing. It provides an overvie...
Full Text Available Modern world tourism has become an information-dependent industry. At the moment, there is a rapid trend in the transformation of the society into developed information society. Therefore, the logical goal of the work is to research innovative trends in the development of intelligent web services to create and formulate recommendations for the further development of the tourism industry. The methodological part of the article is based on the use of modern information technologies in the field of tourism, focused on the basis of eРlatforms of the tourism industry. As a result, in many tourist enterprises of the 21st century, significant adaptations must be made to remain solvent and profitable. The effectiveness of the research can be traced to the bright trend of transformation in the world, and in particular in Ukraine, the traditional tourism industry, the e-tourism industry. Scientific novelty consists of conceptual improvement of the manifestation of the dominant criterion of modern tourism operating and its derivatives: e-tourism can be defined as the analysis, development, formation, implementation and application of IT solutions and e-commerce in the world and national tourism industry. Practical significance of the research results is relevant: the need for perfect managers able to manage the tourism business, integrate information and communication technologies (ICT within the company, to anticipate and promote ICT developments to better meet the needs of the tourism business. The article is written in the form of an analytical review of innovative IT in the field of tourism. The authors present a number of important characteristics of research.
A.S. Teletov; V.I. Karpets
The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to clarify the concept of «sport tourism marketing», to examine the state of its objects and to determine prospects for development of sport tourism in Ukraine. The paper singles out the role of sport in life; compares different types of cities in terms of provision the infrastructure for tourism development in the field of sports. Authors show the example of the campaign. The results of the analysis. The article deals with sport tourism as...
Rayviscic Mutinda NDIVO
Full Text Available A number of constraints continue to limit participation of the local people to tourism and travel activities in the less and developing countries. Addressing such constraints has over time formed the focus of development paradigms in these countries. This paper uses analytical literature review for identifying the appropriate strategies promoting host community participation and the benefits of tourism development by giving particular emphasis on less and developing countries. Specifically, the paper critiques pro-poor tourism (PPT and tourism value chain (TVC approaches, in view of their feasibility for ensuring that tourism benefits the poor within the host community. By demonstrating their inherent limitations and strengths as models for empowering poor communities, the paper proposes an integrated model -Pro-Poor Tourism Value Chain- that integrates the strengths of both PPT and TVC approaches into a single framework. This framework would find important policy and practical application in enhancing economic participation of host communities in tourism. To realise this goal, the paper recommends mapping of appropriate TVC nodes, identification of intervention strategies for increasing benefits arising to those already participating in the TVC, and developing capacity of those not involved through pro-poor affirmative initiatives.
Across the world an increasing number of communities are embracing cultural tourism as a means to strengthen or build local economies, to revitalize cultural traditions, and also to complement the management of local and cultural resources. The potential for cultural tourism to build cross cultural understanding and the importance of considering the human context of tourism is explored in this presentation by Lena Mortensen (Assistant Professor of Anthropology at the University of Toronto) an...
Tourism industry is closely linked with the natural environment but with a highly indivisibility of symbiotic relationship. Green tourism and green tourism hotel are not only the spindle stage of development industry. The environmental protection is also an environmental conservation and sustainable development of substantive liability demonstration. The study is also belong to the substance RDF itself, so we can call “clean energy”. The raw materials came from agricultural waste through prop...
Full Text Available This article provides a rationale for the significance and explores the characteristics of international tourism. The author establishes that this sector of the global economy has been developing in quite a sustainable fashion, without being affected by substantial differences between various regions around the world. The author discusses groups of stimulating factors and major trends in the development of international tourism at the current stage, including major changes in the tourism product and the operation of the global market of tourism services. The article defines the imperatives of modernizing the tourism industry at the national level.
Zhang, Jie; Jensen, Camilla
The original research article is reprinted in this volume from Edward Elgar on the Economics and Management of Tourism: ‘Ritchie and Crouch’s book The Competitive Destination: A Sustainable Tourism Perspective (CABI, 2003) has become one of the seminal works in tourism destination research and ma...... a required reader for tourism educators, graduate students and destination managers. I anticipate it will lead to yet another surge in excellent, important research.’ – Richard Perdue, Virginia Tech, US......The original research article is reprinted in this volume from Edward Elgar on the Economics and Management of Tourism: ‘Ritchie and Crouch’s book The Competitive Destination: A Sustainable Tourism Perspective (CABI, 2003) has become one of the seminal works in tourism destination research...... and management. It engendered a number of major research papers; many of which I was pleased to publish in the Journal of Travel Research. I am excited to see Geoff and Brent continuing their work with the publication of this edited book. The list of chapter authors is a “who’s who” of tourism researchers...
Özen Kırant Yozcu
Full Text Available Congress tourism has a great importance for the extension of the tourism season, enhancement of employment opportunities and tourism revenues, promotion and efficient use of the facilities in the area. Creative Tourism provides an authentic feel for a local culture through informal, hands-on workshops and creative experiences. Ensuring that the attendants of congress tourism take part in creative tourism activities may be an example of the synergy to be achieved by including creative tourism in thecongress marketing mix. In this study the tourism marketing mix, programming, packaging, partnership, people, product, price, promotion, place, are adapted for congress tourism and a model which illustrates how to use the creative tourism experiences and activities within the marketing mix is proposed.
Kokkranikal, Jithendran; Chettiparamb, Angelique
Responsible tourism is a concept that overlaps significantly with concepts of sustainable tourism, ethical tourism, pro-poor tourism and integrated tourism (Chettiparamb and Kokkranikal, 2012). Responsible tourism emphasises the role of businesses in achieving sustainability and can be seen as yet another concept within the sustainable tourism genre, which comprises many forms of tourism such as ecotourism, ethical tourism, alternative tourism, green tourism, soft tourism, etc. Responsible to...
The island nation of Madagascar has a treasure trove of tourism assets, ranging from wildlife viewing to beach tourism to cultural encounters. Yet despite its undeniable tourism potential, its growth has been severely stunted by years of political instability and lack of action on necessary policy reforms and initiatives. While there is much that needs to be done for Madagascar to fulfill ...
Andersen, Ida Marie Visbech; Blichfeldt, Bodil Stilling; Liburd, Janne J.
explicitly requested nominations for sustainable tourism projects. A comparison between academic sustainability discourse and the approved projects suggests that tourism actors do not address sustainable tourism development as a holistic concept. Long-term perspectives are largely absent, whereas economic...... benefits are emphasized. Key findings also indicate weak political leadership in the envisaged transfer towards sustainable tourism development....
Fu, Xiaobin; Wang, Baoyu; Tang, Xuefeng
With the development of net-shape forming technology, hot forming process is widely applied to manufacturing gear parts, during which, materials suffer severe plastic distortion and microstructure changes continually. In this paper, to understand and model the flow behavior and microstructure evolution, SAE 8620H, a widely used gear steel, is selected as the object and the flow behavior and microstructure evolution are observed by an isothermal hot compression tests at 1273-1373 K with a strain rate of 0.1-10 s-1. Depending on the results of the compression test, a set of internal-state-variable based unified constitutive equations is put forward to describe the flow behavior and microstructure evaluation of SAE 8620H. Moreover, the evaluation of the dislocation density and the fraction of dynamic recrystallization based on the theory of thermal activation is modeled and reincorporated into the constitutive law. The material parameters in the constitutive model are calculated based on the measured flow stress and dynamic recrystallization fraction. The predicted flow stress under different deformation conditions has a good agreement with the measured results.
White, Richard; Greenwood, Justine
Sydney has been shaped by tourism but in a large metropolis, where tourist experiences so often overlap with everyday activity, its impact often escapes attention. Urban tourism involves not just international visitors, but people from interstate and regional NSW and even day trippers, who all see and use the city differently. Tourist Sydney has never been the same as workaday Sydney – the harbour, beaches, city centre, the Blue Mountains and national parks to the north and south loomed dispr...
Full Text Available Youth tourism differentiated itself from the concept of traditional tourism by the distinctive profile of its participants. In the last 10 years this branch had a very rapid growth, contributingsignificantly to any countries’ economy due to the amount of money that was spent by young people on different types of tourism. The aim of this paper is to present the most practiced forms of youth tourism, and their development worldwide and also in Romania. The conclusions show the most practiced types on a European and on Romanian level.
Dridea Catrinel Raluca
The negative effects of the economic crises have also affected the international tourism activity. As a result, many destinations have chosen to underline the importance of tourism components like: food and beverage, accommodation, transport and nevertheless leisure. The leisure services have dramatically changed the notoriety and competitivity degree of destinations by enlarging the touristic offer, by diversifying it and creating new forms of tourism. The mountain tourism infrastructure and...
Jelincić, Daniela Angelina
Within the concept of cultural tourism, this article defines relatively new concepts of creative and hobby tourism, which are detected as recent niche markets. Cultural tourism is a narrow specialized market, while creative and hobby tourism relate to even more specialized segments. Even these specialized forms of tourism have their market whose growth is very probable taking into account changes in everyday work as well as changes in the values of human activity in general. These changes reflect also the sector of tourism, which is obvious in the ever growing splintering of tourism market as well as of tourism forms. The article reviews theoretical concepts of cultural, creative and hobby tourism as to prepare the basis for applied tourist programmes. It looks into the history of cultural tourism as to see what changes occurred and brought it to life. Changes that have taken place in everyday lives of people and the impact of everyday free time activities on tourism are also analysed. Further splintering of the cultural tourism sector is noticed and cultural tourism sub-forms are detected by analysing some of the leading home style and creativity magazines. The article also proposes possible application of push/pull factors to creative/hobby tourism.
Full Text Available [First paragraph] What’s Love Got To Do with It? Transnational Desires and Sex Tourism in the Dominican Republic. Denise Brennan. Durham NC: Duke University Press, 2004. ix + 280 pp. (Paper US$ 21.95 Behind the Smile: The Working Lives of Caribbean Tourism. George Gmelch. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2003. x + 212 pp. (Paper US$ 19.95 New research on Caribbean tourism solidly locates it within the regional shift from “incentive-induced exports” like bananas to “service-based exports” like data processing, offshore finance, and novel forms of mass tourism (Mullings 2004:294; Duval 2004. Earlier studies may have made mention of the similarities between plantation economies and tourism development, but new models like the all-inclusive resort demonstrate a near identity of form and structure with plantation systems: foreign dominance over ownership and profit leaves little multiplier effect for the Caribbean islands playing host to enclaved resorts. Agricultural exports have been in free fall since the end of preferential trade protocols, and export manufacturing after the North American Free Trade Agreement is in steep decline. If new service economies seemed to offer a solution to economic and social disorder, the reaction to the events of September 11, 2001 demonstrated the fragility of service-based exports and, in particular, of new kinds of tourism. It took four years for international tourism to rebound to pre-9/11 levels;1 with the perceived threat of SARS and avian flu, as well as the Iraq war and the weak U.S. dollar, official projections of the industry’s near future are “cautiously optimistic.”2
Mc Intyre, Maria Kleivan
ABSTRACT This project explores the phenomenon of North American and Western European women, who travel to the Global South and engage in sexual encounters with the local men. This project has positioned itself as a postcolonial critique, arguing that female sex tourism is a form of neocolonialism. It has also investigated the term romance tourism, where it has found that as a result of essentialist gender stereotyping, the female version of sex tourism has been titled ‘romance tourism’. The p...
Full Text Available Practicing tourism in Bucovina is a way to counteract the problems and restore them by finding solutions for economic, social, moral and political issues by natural and anthropogenic tourism potential. Promoting the area of Bucovina has various economic implications, and the increased volume and complexity of the supply of tourism generated the development of a true industry of tourism trips, which implies treating tourism phenomenon as a distinct branch of the national economy, a component of the tertiary sector . We want to make an analysis on identifying the position makers to promote tourism and their level of information on the promotion, strategies, tourism and tourists. Through this analysis we want to find information on the position of those involved in tourism for the practice of tourism, whether they are aware of the benefits that will be brought to the locality where they operate tourism, the benefits to the local mayoralty and then the whole tourist areas if they have information on the many tourist services available to tourists.
Astawa, I. P.; Triyuni, N. N.; Santosa, I. D. M. C.
The research aims to analyze an event model of Culture and Tourism International Camp (Cultic) from two aspects, harmonious culture and sustainable tourism. Currently, Indonesian government promotes village tourism by involving more villagers to achieve village independence in its development. The program has faced various obstacles, such as the eroded local cultures due to the development of a massive and money-oriented tourism with less attention on the environmental damage. One of the offered programs is a green tourism model for an event named Culture and Tourism International Camps - Cultic. The research is conducted in several stages. The first stage is the development of model based on the theoretical study. The second stage is the implementation of the model with 85 participants. The third stage is the evaluation of the model through harmonious culture and sustainable tourism approaches. The data is collected through a direct observation and a questionnaire. The result of qualitative analysis indicates that the developed event model supports the harmonious culture, especially the natural environment. Whereas, the result of quantitative analysis indicates that the participants enjoy the activities, such as green food, material natural, waste management, and ecosystem. Another finding is that the community strongly supports the concept of sustainable tourism.
Full Text Available Urban Exploration (U.E., the activity of exploring hidden parts of the city, is increasingly discussed in a range of academic papers, yet the aspects of this activity which are associated with travel and consumption have not been explored. However, there have been a number of related calls for research. This paper identifies that U.E. requires greater critical inquiry. It is noted that U.E. draws common themes with heritage tourism, adventure tourism, otherness, authenticity and risk, yet is a contradiction to the homogenised tourist experience. It is suggested that U.E. can thus be interpreted as a form of tourism which is outside of accepted norms of behaviour, decision making and typologies and which has significant meaning for future research. Thus, the paper proposes a model which identifies opportunities for further research beyond the current spectrum of tourism academia.
Co-creation has become a buzzword in many social science disciplines, in business and in tourism studies. Given the prominence of co-creation, surprisingly little discussion has evolved around its implications for research practices and knowledge production as well as what challenges there are fo......Co-creation has become a buzzword in many social science disciplines, in business and in tourism studies. Given the prominence of co-creation, surprisingly little discussion has evolved around its implications for research practices and knowledge production as well as what challenges...... there are for fulfilling the promise of co-creation in tourism research. This book aims to contribute to this discussion by addressing how tourism research comes together as a collaborative achievement and by exploring different ways of collaborative knowledge production in tourism research. It is structured to offer......, on one hand, an introduction to the ontological basis for collaborative research and, on the other hand, a set of empirical examples of how collaborative knowledge creation can inform tourism design, management, policy and education. The theoretical accounts and empirical cases of this book display how...
Full Text Available The indicators, precisely describing the linkages between tourism and the environment, social and cultural base, are not easily available. How ever, some relevant organizations (WTO, EU, OECD, etc., institutions and experts, have been hardly working to create the indicators of sustainable tourism. Whereas the economic objectives are easily defined by the use of the traditional indicators used in national and business economics, it is very difficult to identify widely applicable environmental, social and cultural indicators. In order to stimulate and alleviate the process of sustainable tourism development, EU created the list of comparative indicators of sustainable tourism. In preparing this list, special attention is paid to identification of valid indicators of real tourism impacts on the social and cultural environment (the entire set of traditions, customs, history, hospitality and culture that characterize a given area, that is a very complex task. Assuming the fact that the related indicators have been analyzed in many European countries, this paper is focused on applying the related indicators in research of tourism development in villages of the Kosjerić community. .
Full Text Available This paper presents and highlights the role and importance of spa and wellness tourism in Hungary. Ever since tourism has played an important role in the social-economic processes of the country the leading tourism product proved to be health tourism (spa and wellness thanks to the advantageous physical geographical and social-political background. After the presentation of the country-specific theoretical system of spa and wellness, the paper examines the supply and the demand side together with competitor analysis and recent trends in spa and wellness in Hungary.
Patrichi Ioana Cristiana; Firoiu Daniela; Dodu Silvia Patricia
Health tourism has always been the main type of tourism in our country, due to the large number and variety of natural resources. Economic, political and social context in our country after 1990, decreased income, wear and tear reception capabilities and of the equipment used in spa cure, low foreign investment in Romanian tourism, led to a reduction efficiency of health tourism. This was reflected in the tourism statistics for the health tourism. In this paper the authors make a brief descri...
C. M. DE SILVA
Full Text Available Formula SAE vehicles, over the program’s history have showcased a myriad of aerodynamic packages, each claiming specific quantitative and qualitative features. This paper attempts to critique differing aerodynamic sidepod designs and their effect upon radiator heat management. Various features from inlet size, sidepod shape and size, presence of an undertray, suspension cover, gills and chimneys are analysed for their effects. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD analyses are performed in the FLUENT environment, with the aid of GAMBIT meshing software and SolidWorks modelling.
Full Text Available Rural non-farm economy is seriously considered for using the full capacity of rural economy in developing countries. Rural tourism is a part of the tourism industry; it can play an important role in rural development, diversification of the national economy and national development through the potential identification. The main purpose of this study was investigation and evaluation of rural tourism attractions. In order to prevent from generalization as well as to achieve exact and applicable results, villages with tourist attractions in East Azarbaijan has been chosen as the area of study. The Analytic Hierarchy Process is used to prioritize the rural areas. This technique is based on a comparison of test and reviews the various options to managers and planners. The population of the study was experts who have knowledge and experience in the field of rural tourism. The findings of this study indicated that studied villages are three levels of development priorities, the levels can be considered as a basis for planning and decision-making of managers in East Azarbaijan Province.
Full Text Available This paper analyses indicators to study the sustainability of tourism in inland Istria, which comprises 24 municipalities and towns belonging to Istria County. Taking into account the criteria of availability, reliability, predictability, clarity and feasibility, the following quantitative indicators were used: the Indicator of Tourist Operation (ITO, the Modified Importance Index of major tourism centres (Im, the Specific Overnights Threshold (SOT, tourism-related taxes in the budgets of municipalities and towns, company investments into tourism and hospitality, and the number of employees in tourism and hospitality. According to the ITO indicator, Predominant Tourism Activity was recorded only in Oprtalj Municipality. Being a measure of the spatial distribution of a specific economic activity, the Modified Importance Index established that in all municipalities and towns of inland Istria tourism is either poorly developed or in its incipient stage. The SOT indicator suggests that tourism has no negative effects on local economies and that tourism-related taxes make a minor contribution to the revenue side of municipal and town budgets. Company investment in tourism and hospitality and the number of employees in these industries are indicators that reveal that inland Istria is only beginning to develop into a tourism region. The quantitative indicators were confirmed by the results of qualitative indicators obtained through problem-focused interviews with the representatives of municipalities, towns and local tourist boards. The singular conclusion derived from the interviews was that tourism is a desirable activity, is in its initial stage of development, and is not a threat to local economies. The results of the study confirm the hypothesis that inland Istria is a region of sustainable tourism currently in the involvement stage of the destination lifecycle.
Full Text Available Third year PhD candidate at the University of Oradea, under the guidance of Professor Mrs. Alina BÃ„Æ’dulescu in the doctoral research project entitled: "Doctoral studies and Ph.D. candidates for competitive research on a knowledge based society", a co-financed project by the European Social Fund through the Sectoral Operational Program for Human Resources Development 2007 - 2013, Priority Axis 1. "Education and training in support for growth and development of a knowledge based society" I chose to present this subject in order to demonstrate the connection that exists between tourism and development. Having as research topic "Tourism and development in the Euro regional contextÃ¢â‚¬Â I dedicated a subchapter of this thesis in presenting tourism as a development strategy. Thus we have analysed a series of specialised papers encountered at national and international level in order to achieve a synthesis about the addressed topic. Authors like Sharpley and Telfer (2002 found that the specialised literature in the tourism domain contains few articles on the relationship between tourism and development despite the fact that tourism remains an important area of the economic policy regarding development in most regions of the world. Writings on tourism, that debate development, are often written in terms of the impact of tourism on the environment in which it unfolds. Following statistical data collected on Faits saillants OMT du tourisme, 2011 Edition I found that indeed tourism is an important element in the development strategies. The research methodology that was used consisted in documentation from the specialised literature and the site http://mkt.unwto.org/sites/all/files/docpdf/unwtohighlights11frhr.pdf in order to gather representative data on the evolution of international tourism for the 1950-2010 period, also highlighting the potential success of tourism in the economic development. For this study to be more representative I
João Lopes, Maria; Dredge, Dianne
Very complex yet highly integrated business logics characterise cruise tourism with shore excursions frequently identified as a key source of value. This paper presents a case study of cruise tourism and shore excursion planning in Copenhagen, Denmark. The aim of this paper is to investigate...... the characteristics of cruise tourism, itinerary and shore excursion planning with a view to understanding the value generated from cruise tourism shore excursions. We argue that economic value is a blunt measure, and there are other types of value, positive and negative, that are also generated. This research...... reveals that a range of local conditions and structural characteristics create barriers and opportunities for generating different types of value. Using a case study of shore excursions in Copenhagen, the Baltic’s most important port, this paper explains the dynamics between cruise tourism and shore...
Anna Sergeevna Matveevskaya
Full Text Available International tourism in the 21st century is an important factor in the world politics’ development. The growth of tourist flows and the worldwide scale of travels define tourism as part of the overall internationalization process of socio-economic relations. The tourism industry is developing quite stably and efficiently in many countries. National policies should be focused on obtaining the maximum benefit from international cooperation. The importance of international tourism in political discourse emphasizes the creation of international legal acts regulating the tourism industry, as well as different levels of tourist organizations. International tourism in world politics has a special advantage in resolving disagreements between states. The role of tourism in shaping the image and prestige of the country is noted. Russia’s participation in international tourism projects is a source of cultural, social and economic development. Interstate tours contribute to the development of cultural tourism into the sustainable development policies of countries and regions. A positive trend is the consent of the foreign partners on the inclusion of Russian tourist destinations in the perspective of cultural routes. Purpose. Determination of the political role of tourism in interstate relations. Methodology in article theoretical analysis and descriptive method were used. Results: international tourism in the XXI century is one of the most important factor in world politics. Practical implications. The results of the research can serve as a basis for the further development and improvement of interstate relations by means of tourism.
themes and fields which are usually addressed separately within tourism research: consumption and production; travel and the everyday; governance and policy; technology and the social. The book critically engages with practices as a fruitful approach to tourism research as well as how the particularities......Tourism research that is inspired by theories of practice is currently gaining in prominence. This book provides a much-needed introduction to the potential applications of theories of practice in tourism studies. It brings together a variety of approaches exploring how theories of practice bridge...... of tourism might inform our understanding of practice theories. This book contributes to conceptual and methodological debates providing insights from authors who have engaged with practice theory as an entry point to researching tourism. It offers a solid starting point for researchers and students alike...
This project explored the link between transportation and tourism in Texas. A session on transit and tourism was organized and conducted as part of the 2012 Texas Transit Conference. Speakers at the session described public transit services oriented ...
Full Text Available Tourism is a sector with a significant share in the economies of many countries. There are nations whose GDP consists of 40% of the total contribution of tourism to this indicator. One such segment requires permanent research of its economic, social and sustainability dimensions and their importance. This study outlines an overview of the main aspects related to economic and social importance of tourism and how tourism relates to the concept of sustainable development. The total contribution and the direct contribution of tourism to GDP are elements studied within this research. It is also studied the direct contribution of tourism to employment, and the main positive and negative effects of tourism on social life.
Application of digital image processing to determine the causes of failures in SAE 1018 carbon steel; Aplicacion del procesamiento digital de imagenes para la determinacion de las causas que provocan fallas en el acero al carbono SAE 1018
Bolanos-Rodriguez, E [Escuela Superior de Tizayuca, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Tizayuca, Hidalgo (Mexico)]. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Gonzalez-Islas, J.C. [Universidad Tecnologica de Tulancingo, Tulancingo, Hidalgo (Mexico)]. E-mail: email@example.com; Felipe-Riveron, E.M. [Centro de Investigacion en Computacion, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
The research is focused on determining the causes of failures in the SAE 1018 carbon steel that is used in pipes carrying drinking water. Digital processing of images captured by photomicrographs by scanning electron microscopy coupled with the technique of X-ray microanalysis. The results demonstrate that the low quality of the raw materials and the manufacturing process of steel are the reasons for the occurrence of cracks observed in the material. [Spanish] La investigacion se centra en determinar las causas que provocan fallas en el acero al carbono SAE 1018 que es utilizado en tuberias que transportan agua potable. Se emplea el procesamiento digital de imagenes de las microfotografias captadas por medio de microscopia electronica de barrido, unido a la tecnica de microanalisis de rayos X. Los resultados obtenidos demuestran que la baja calidad de las materias primas y el proceso de manufactura del acero son las razones de la ocurrencia de fisuras observadas en el material.
Carla Glenda Souza da Silva
Full Text Available O trabalho visa a discutir o processo de implantação e operacionalização de um serviço de assistência especializada (SAE, que objetiva vincular o usuário portador do vírus HIV/Aids à equipe multiprofissional através da descrição de experiência profissional. Alcançou-se a implantação e operacionalização do SAE com a implementação de uma política de assistência voltada para o bem-estar, a humanização e a qualidade de vida do usuário. A implantação do serviço permitiu garantir a resolutividade, a eqüidade e a integralidade dos serviços no Município de Cabedelo, bem como a ampliação do processo de descentralização da atenção, conforme orienta a política institucional do SUS no Brasil, mesmo enfrentando dificuldades de ordem política, econômica e estrutural local. A cidade possui uma população de 47.076 habitantes. Há oitenta e seis casos de Aids notificados no período de jun./85 a fev./05. É um Município predominantemente urbano, litorâneo, portuário, é rota de caminhoneiros, possui um ferry boat, e apresenta elevado índice de prostituição.
Mejía González, David Santiago
En este trabajo de investigación se describe y aplica el proceso genérico de desarrollo de nuevos productos para el diseño de las manguetas delanteras y posteriores para un vehículo de competencia F-SAE. Que cumpla con las características de funcionamiento y las normas técnicas que dicta el reglamento emitido por los organizadores de la competencia F-SAE 2014. This research describes and applies the generic process of developing new products for the design of the front and rear uprights fo...
Seaside tourism has become one of the popular tourism destinations to the tourists. It is necessary for manager to study the strategy marketing of seaside tourism destination to promote the seaside tourism. This paper examines the characteristics of seaside tourism and uses the SWOT to analyze the strengths, weakness, opportunities and treats of seaside tourism. Then, the challenges of seaside tourism destination are introduced and should be noticed by the marketing managers.
Full Text Available In tourism studies, it has been widely recognized that resort-oriented tourism development creates challenges for regional development, mainly due to its enclave nature and lack of regional economic linkages. However, there have been relatively few studies on the destination-scale cooperative networks, although, they are vital in increasing the positive regional economic impacts of tourism development. This paper is an empirical qualitative study exploring the connections between resort-oriented tourism development and tourism business cooperation in the case study area of the Ruka-Kuusamo tourism destination in Northeast Finland. The interest is on how the local cooperative networks of the Ruka tourist resort are spatially constructed within the Ruka-Kuusamo tourism destination. The research data consists of semi-structured interviews conducted for ten tourism actors located in the Ruka resort. The results show that the businesses located in the Ruka resort cooperate at the regional scale mainly in marketing, while their partners in production cooperation are located mostly within the resort, particularly in its very core area. The resort appears to function as a basis for spatial identification for tourism actors, which, in turn, affects entrepreneurs’ motivation to cooperate at the local and regional scale. Tourism entrepreneurs operating in the very core of the resort perceive the area as the principal area for their operations, and therefore, they do not particularly engage with the surrounding areas and businesses or with other actors located there. Thus, for smaller enterprises outside the core, it can be difficult to benefit from the resort’s core’s growth via network relations. This contributes mainly to the development of the core areas alone, creates challenges for sustainable regional economic development in the destination region, and hinders the resort’s tourism growth in the long run.
Purbasari, Novia; Manaf, Asnawi
Community-based tourism is one of the tourism development models that effectively used as a tool to alleviate poverty through empowerment strategy of the local community. Nevertheless, many people do not have adequate understanding on the characteristics of community-based tourism, which are used as a determinant in the tourism development. This article describes the comparison on characteristics of community-based tourism between Pentingsari and Nglanggeran. These villages were chosen because Pentingsari was a tourism village that able to apply the principles ethical codes of world tourism, shown by an award from the World Committee on Tourism Ethics Code and Nglanggeran was awarded as Best Tourism Village award in Indonesia from ASEAN Community Based Tourism Award 2017.The objectives of this study is to explore the characteristics of community-based tourism applied in the Pentingsari and Nglanggeran, and to identify any indicators that could be used to indicate those characteristics. The research achieves through in-depth interviews, observation, and review of documents. There were 17 persons as informants. Further, the observation was reached by directly observing in the both study cases. In addition, the data obtained through the review of secondary data from the local manager of tourism village. Generally, Pentingsari has characteristics as a community-based rural tourism, while Nglanggeran has characteristics as community-based ecotourism.
Full Text Available In this paper, it is argued that there is a variety of products and accordingly a diversity of types of tourism in the municipality of Sofia, Bulgaria: urban and "non-urban", mass and specialized, tourism based on natural and anthropogenic, on tangible and intangible resources. In this regard, diverse tourism products of the destination may be offered to its visitors, which to a greater extent meets their various needs and contributes to the sustainable tourism development. Thus, the aim of the paper is to reveal whether tourism professionals in Sofia are aware of the possibilities for combining various types of tourism and promoting the diversified destination tourism product among local and foreign visitors.
Full Text Available Local residents play an important role in the process of sustainable development in tourism. Resident support for tourism development contributes to the health of tourism industry and successful community development. Therefore, it is in the best interest of local residents, the tourism industry, and tourists, that residents have a positive outlook on and positive experiences with tourism development. In order to understand resident support for tourism development from tourism impacts and community quality of life perspective within the rural communities of Orange County, Indiana, USA, this study has examined a proposed structural model which incorporates eight latent variables: (a six types of positive and negative tourism impacts serve as exogenous latent variables; (b tourism-related community quality of life (TCQOL is proposed as the mediating variable; and (c resident support for tourism development is the ultimate dependent variable. The results show that both sociocultural and environmental benefits contribute to the host community’s living experience. Economic and sociocultural benefits, negative sociocultural and environmental impacts, and TCQOL influence resident support for tourism development. This study identified specific tourism impacts that affect TCQOL and resident support for local tourism development. This study affirms that community quality of life (QOL serves an effective predictor of support for tourism development.
Ile Florența Larisa; Țigu Gabriela
Medical tourism is a modern concept, but not a new tourism practice. Even there is still no international consent on the definitions and measurement of this trend, its importance in the development of a tourism destination started to be taken into consideration. In accordance with tourism segment classification depending on journey reasons recommended by World Tourism Organization, one of the main groups is for “medical treatment/health”. Being part of health tourism, medical tourism is often...
Chia-Pin Yu; Shu Tian Cole; Charles Chancellor
Local residents play an important role in the process of sustainable development in tourism. Resident support for tourism development contributes to the health of tourism industry and successful community development. Therefore, it is in the best interest of local residents, the tourism industry, and tourists, that residents have a positive outlook on and positive experiences with tourism development. In order to understand resident support for tourism development from tourism impacts and com...
Chang, Chia Lun; Kim, Joo Young; Deguchi, Sayaka
Tourism has a power to realize the more sustainable world. New types of tourism, rather than conventional types of tourism (e.g. mass tourism), can contribute to making the world more sustainable. For example, new types of tourism, such as pro-poor tourism, community-based tourism, volunteer tourism, cross-cultural tourism and eco-tourism, can be tools to reduce poverty and tensions among different nations and cultures and also to protect natural environment and traditions. However, there has...
Graburn, Nelson H. H.
Explains the organization and objectives of a college level anthropology course devoted to various aspects of tourism. Topics discussed include course content, graduate students and contemporary research on tourism, and the role of tourism in the anthropology curriculum. (DB)
Kuska, Michalina; Augustyńska, Beata; Mikołajewska, Emilia; Mikołajewski, Dariusz
Mobile solutions (smartphones, tablet computers, smartwatches, smartbands, gps locallzators, and associated software) become normal part of our daily activities. Thus novel part of e-commerce named m-tourism is developing rapidly. It may maximise profitability across national boundaries and make tourism easier, quicker and cheaper than before. We should be prepared to associated changes and novel economics. Aim of the article is to investigate factors associated with m-tourism experiences, and the association between use of e-services and tourism experiences and subsequent satisfaction.
... namely Rugby, Cricket and Soccer, and numerous other sporting, cultural and business events have successfully been hosted in the country. Macro policies governing tourism at the national level have been introduced to stimulate and guide tourism growth in such a way that the public at large can benefit. Furthermore ...
The Scientific Tourism is relatively new direction in the world, however it already has managed to gain great popularity. As it is, it has arisen in 1980s, but its ideological basis comes from the earliest periods of the human history. In Armenia, it is a completely new phenomenon and still not-understandable for many people. At global level, the Scientific Tourism has several definitions: for example, as explains the member of the scientific tourist centre of Zlovlen Mrs. Pichelerova "The essence of the scientific tourism is based on the provision of the educational, cultural and entertainment needs of a group of people of people who are interested in the same thing", which in our opinion is a very comprehensive and discreet definition. We also have our own views on this type of tourism. Our philosophy is that by keeping the total principles, we put the emphasis on the strengthening of science-individual ties. Our main emphasis is on the scientific-experimental tourism. But this does not mean that we do not take steps to other forms of tourism. Studying the global experience and combining it with our resources, we are trying to get a new interdisciplinary science, which will bring together a number of different professionals as well as individuals, and as a result will have a new lore. It is in this way that an astronomer will become an archaeologist, an archaeologist will become an astrophysicist, etc. Speaking on interdisciplinary sciences, it's worth mentioning that in recent years, the role of interdisciplinary sciences at global level every day is being considered more and more important. In these terms, tourism is an excellent platform for the creation of interdisciplinary sciences and, therefore, the preparation of corresponding scholars. Nevertheless, scientific tourism is very important for the revelation, appreciation and promotion of the country's historical-cultural heritage and scientific potential. Let us not forget either that tourism in all its
Full Text Available Since 2004, local governments in Taiwan have aggressively initiated the so-called film tourism policy, setting up such agencies as film commissions and filmmaking assistance center and heavily funding media production, in order to promote tourist sites in the counties or municipalities. This article adopts the approach of critical studies in communication and proposes the concept of “place placement” to analyze why such policy is an emergent form of product placement, how it is institutionalized and what impacts it has on the content and production of subsidized films. The findings show that film tourism policy, aiming at city marketing rather than developing the media industries, is a paid form of product placement. It has influenced the shooting locations, scenes, plots and characters presented in media products. Despite the benefits of financial support, it also limits free expression of artistic creativity and cultural specification of films. However, such form of product placement is disguised with government funding and assistance.
Chabanjuk Oleg Vasil'evich
Full Text Available The article considers a number of factors specific to the tourism industry: a multiplier effect, a kind of method of generating working capital, specific "invisible exports", the factor most risky activities, the principle of direct and inverse transformation, and others. The data of experts of the World Tourism Organization (UNWTO on tourism as an indicator of welfare. It is emphasized along with the economic function of tourism on the social dimension of tourism in its mass phenomenon. The paper highlights the main problems and shortcomings of tourism as a complex socio-economic system; analysis of theoretical approaches to periodization of tourism that reflects the genesis of approaches regarding the nature of tourism; The factors of external and internal tourism development, made their ranking to measure the relationship between the measurement periods allocated for tourism development using the Spearman rank correlation coefficient.
Dr. Sanjeevani Kailas Rahane; Mr. Roshen Raju
Worldwide Tourism is now recognized as an accelerator of growth. Tourism has great capacity to generate large scale employment and additional income source to the various skilled and unskilled. Several countries have transformed their economics by developing their tourism potential. But in this current era there is a change in the concept of traditional tourism. The Wellness and Medical Tourism which is one of the numerous categories of tourism has gained high popularity. In the recent years,...
Rossouw, Riaan; Saayman, Melville
Historically, tourism policy analysis in South Africa has posed challenges to accurate measurement. The primary reason for this is that tourism is not designated as an 'industry' in standard economic accounts. This paper therefore demonstrates the relevance and need for applied general equilibrium (AGE) models to be completed and extended through an integration with tourism satellite accounts (TSAs) as a tool for policy makers (especially tourism policy makers) in South Africa. The paper sets...
Senija Causevic; Dr Paul Lynch
Dark tourism is defined as “visitation to places where tragedies or historically noteworthy death has occurred and that continue to impact our lives” Tarlow, 2005:48). Inherently, dark tourism conceptualises the consequence of a long-term conflict. This paper addresses the area of dark tourism in this context, an area which has received relatively little attention by scholars so far, focusing on its relevance to social reconciliation and urban regeneration in a re-emerging tourism economy ......
Filiposki, Oliver; Ackovska, Marija; Petroska Angelovska, Neda; Metodijeski, Dejan
Tourism is a global phenomenon in which different cultures, nations and races intertwines, in order to satisfy the tourist as a content consumer. Tourism sector contributes a lot to the overall world economy, and society. Tourism is the economic division that continually evolves in any national economy, the statistical data represent that 2010-2014 it was developed by over 3% annually. Tourism is also a branch that does not absorb the benefits of the national economy, but it...
In the article there is made a systemic characterization and is clarified the nature of tourism policy. A more specific object of attention are some issues connected with the following: the interpretation of the interrelation „policy - tourism”; the clarific ation of the notion of „policy” in the context of tourism; theoretical overview and analysis of specialized literature; systemic characterization of policy in tourism and definition of the notion of „tourism policy”. There are defined and...
Budeanu, Adriana; Miller, Graham; Moscardo, Gianna
The term sustainable tourism emerged in the late 1980s and has become firmly established in both tourism policies and strategies and tourism research (Hall, 2011). After more than 25 years of attention it is timely to consider the state of research and practice in sustainable tourism. This special...... volume was established with exactly that goal in mind and this introduction seeks to set the context for this critical examination and reflection on sustainable tourism. Another objective of this introduction was to briefly describe the range of contributions selected for this SV. The articles...... are organised into four thematic areas of research: community stakeholders' perspectives and business approaches to sustainability in tourism, cultural responses, and methodological challenges related to sustainability. The articles shine a light on issues of importance within sustainable tourism, and in so...
Ren, Carina Bregnholm; Petersen, Morten Krogh; Nielsen, Tanja Knoblauch
by technology and data, but must be understood as a socio-technical and collaborative accomplishment. This entails seeing seemingly mundane issues as central to developing Smart Tourism and to link the development of Smart Tourism to transformations in the practices of everyday organizational life.......In this chapter, we explore how a Smart Destination is imagined and grappled with at an organizational level in its first and tentative stages of development. Drawing on practice theory and research in the North Denmark Region, we show how the idea of Smart Tourism is embraced by almost all...... of the stakeholders in the area, while the full potentials of this new phenomenon are experienced as difficult to realize. Abstaining from seeing Smart Tourism as a unilinear technological or digital evolution, we present four situated configurations of Smart Tourism. We argue that Smart Tourism is not made up solely...
Recently, a link between rural tourism and poverty alleviation ..... intellectual springboard for development of goods and services, crafts, local foods, music, dance, ..... established tourism market as well as the positive attitude of the respondents ... improve the congruence between the rural destination image and the visitor.
Giacomo Corna Pellegrini
Full Text Available The paper suggests that Tourism and Geography are closely intertwined, because tourists are in search of experience and geographer has as its main purpose the pursuit of knowledge. Models and hypotheses need always to be verified in theterritorial context of daily fieldwork, geographical interpretation and travel experience, were Geography and Tourism entwined in reciprocal relationship of personal attitude, nature, and field research. Environmental responsibility is another and common field were Geography can change and develop Tourism in the same mutual support in a continuous and mutual way. The case studies support it fully.
Full Text Available Tourism is a phenomenon that has seen a rapid multi fold increase and growth since the middle of the twentieth century. For host communities and countries, the development of tourism has offered numerous advantages, as well as some significant challenges and difficulties. In recent decades, the awareness has been strengthened that tourism needs to be developed following the sustainable development concept. This approach eliminates or significantly decreases the negative impacts of tourism growth and sets the basis for long-term enjoyment of benefits. In the field of tourism, sustainable development translates in two important categories of considerations: conserving natural environment and resources and the biodiversity and conserving the living cultural heritage and traditions. Designing sustainable tourism development strategies should be done in cooperative efforts by the state, businesses and local communities. The strategies need to focus on maximizing the potential positive and eliminating or minimizing potential negative impacts. Impact monitoring and evaluation mechanisms need to be set up, including identification of performance indicators. When tourism growth emerges from a carefully designed and implemented strategy, tourism is documented to contribute to generating foreign exchange earnings, creating employment and income, and stimulating domestic consumption. It also brings about social and cultural development of the host communities. Researches have shown that smaller and developing countries specialized in tourism experience higher economic growth compared to countries without significant tourism industry. Contemporary economic and statistical methods ensure that the contribution of tourism in national economies can be precisely and easily measured, which in itself can be used as an indicator in assessing the impact and effects of tourism growth.
Keller, M.; Banfi, S.; Haan, P. de
This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made of the extent of so-called 'tank tourism' in Switzerland. The report attempts to how much motor fuel is purchased in border-near filling stations by persons from the other side of the border as a result of price differences in the different countries. The two methods used to estimate the extent of tank tourism, an ex-post analysis and the analysis of filling station turnover, are explained. Only road-traffic is considered; tank tourism in the aviation area is not looked at in this study. The extent of tank tourism is estimated for petrol and diesel fuels. The individual figures produced by the two methods are compared and the difference between them discussed. The report also investigates the effect of changing prices on tank tourism and discusses the problem of estimating the figures for 'off-road' consumers such as tractors and construction machines.
Adriana Anca Cristea; Mihaela Simona Apostol; Tatiana Corina Dosescu
Tourism is considered to be an important branch of the Romanian economy. However, its contribution to the GDP is extremely low. Inbound tourism is reduced, the sole indicator which is constanly increasing being the number of Romanian tourists who travel abroad. We assume that a good way of increasing domestic tourism in Romania would be to get the young population practise various forms of tourism. Conducting a market survey in consumer behaviour towards tourism products among pupils and stud...
Practicing tourism in Bucovina is a way to counteract the problems and restore them by finding solutions for economic, social, moral and political issues by natural and anthropogenic tourism potential. Promoting the area of Bucovina has various economic implications, and the increased volume and complexity of the supply of tourism generated the development of a true industry of tourism trips, which implies treating tourism phenomenon as a distinct branch of the national economy, a component o...
Sevil, Güven; Yüncü, Hilmi Rafet
Wine tourism has generated tremendous interest over the last two decades from both, both, industrial and academic circles. Wine tourism is a hybrid activity that integrates wine and tourism industries. Many wine regions and wine producers promote their wine through visitations of wineries. Wine, wine region and wine producers are main elements of wine tourism product. A successful wine tourism experience depends on point of view of producers on visitation to wineries as well as quality of win...
The nature, extent, and implications of innovation in tourism are increasingly investigated in academic research, but the policies that affect these transformations in the industry and at tourism destinations are not equally well conceptualised theoretically or analysed empirically. The purpose...... framework of policy instruments for innovation in tourism. New generations of policies instigate a mainstreaming of the innovation agenda in ways that proceed beyond the traditional policy concepts....
Ile Florența Larisa
Full Text Available Medical tourism is a modern concept, but not a new tourism practice. Even there is still no international consent on the definitions and measurement of this trend, its importance in the development of a tourism destination started to be taken into consideration. In accordance with tourism segment classification depending on journey reasons recommended by World Tourism Organization, one of the main groups is for “medical treatment/health”. Being part of health tourism, medical tourism is often called medical travel because it includes the act of travelling to different countries for medical reasons. An increasing significant element in medical service trade is patient circulation at cross-border level with a view to obtaining necessary health services; this circulation generated a new phenomenon, namely medical tourism. Studying the scientific literature we find new medical tourism trends in connection with globalization and liberalization. The countries that decided to promote this niche tourism are aware of the huge economic benefits brought by this. Analyzing published data by tourism medical organizations associated to indicators of economic development, we find two aspects: the success of a medical tourism destination is influenced by the economical level of the receiving countries, but, at the same time, it is also a growth factor for developing economies if it is included in their national strategy. We intend to find the answer of several questions: trends in medical tourism development are involving only medical service trade, or a combination of specific activities of many sectors? Is the medical tourism acting in favor of developing economies? This study aims to notice the development trends of the medical tourism based on the published figures and on the experience of major destinations and to highlight the importance of the medical tourism for the developing economies.
Wijk, van J.J.; Lamers, M.A.J.; Duim, van der V.R.
This chapter examines the organizational form of tourism conservation enterprises, which has been developed and promoted by the African Wildlife Foundation (AWF) since the late 1990s. By deploying commercial tourism as a mechanism to attain conservation and livelihood goals, tourism conservation
Full Text Available Dark tourism is defined as “visitation to places where tragedies or historically noteworthy death has occurred and that continue to impact our lives” Tarlow, 2005:48. Inherently, dark tourism conceptualises the consequence of a long-term conflict. This paper addresses the area of dark tourism in this context, an area which has received relatively little attention by scholars so far, focusing on its relevance to social reconciliation and urban regeneration in a re-emerging tourism economy ...
Full Text Available Since the 1980s, the World Tourism Organization (UNWTO has been developing and spreading a discourse that takes tourism to be a right. This paper critically analyses the basis of this idea in order to attempt to scrutinise the aim behind it. The study reaches the conclusion that considering tourism a right helps to legitimise the presence of the UNWTO within the United Nations structure and to defend the interests of tourism capital, to which the organisation has close links.
Picón Mejía, Jaime Andrés
En este proyecto técnico se presenta una metodología para el diseño y construcción de un prototipo de volante de dirección para un vehículo tipo formula SAE, aplicando técnicas de optimización estructural considerando procesos de manufactura aditiva. In this technical project, a methodology is presented for the design and construction of a prototype steering wheel for a Formula SAE vehicle, using structural optimization techniques considering additive manufacturing processes.
In Turkey, the basic and vocational education levels of the staff who are employed in tourism sector are quite low and insufficent. This situation stems from not giving the necessary importance to the tourism education and the varied chain of problems that are on each level. However; providing the best profit from the tourism industry can only be possible with the effective and quality basic and vocational tourism education. In this study; why education in tourism is required together with ba...
K, Srinivasan; Anand, V Nath
In Kerala, the revenue generated by tourism i assessed as 6.29% of GDP and the employment in tourism is estimated as 7 lakhs. Total investments worth over Rs.500 Cr. has come into Kerala on account of the State's prioritizing the creation of basic infrastructure to support tourism and adopting a policy that i eco-friendly and environmentally sustainable says Kerala's Tourism's ministrer in 2003. The importance of information technology in increasing in all the sectors. Tourism one of the larg...
Full Text Available In a changing world, the development of eco-sustainable tourism is manifested in the form of interaction of elements compatible with each other in various dimensions: economic, environmental, human, technological, environmental, ethical, etc. Through eco-sustainable tourism aims to satisfy the present needs of tourists in favor and not in detrimental to the interests of future generations, along with educating them in the spirit of reducing negative environmental impacts. This paper provides a brief overview of the tourism - ecology - sustainable development relationship, by highlighting the evolutionary theoretical considerations regarding the concept of tourism, the need for sustainable tourism development, the ecology as a priority in the development and integration of tourism activities within the coordinates the eco-sustainable development. It also discusses the main indicators used to characterize the tourism activities in Romania in the context of eco-sustainable development.
MONICA PAULA RAŢIU
Full Text Available Romania, as tourism destination with its component micro-destinations (Muntenia, Oltenia, Banat - Crişana, Transylvania, Bucovina, Maramureş, Moldavia and Dobrogea, possesses many tourism attractions and at the same time has a real tourism potential. The fact that it is not included among the Europe’s „valuable” destinations represents a loss both for its inhabitants and for Europeans in general, too. One of the reasons is the lack of an image consolidated by identity elements or / and simply the lack of image that would represent the starting point for development of appropriate tourism products (developing a strategy. This paper proposes, starting from the image perceived by the inhabitants about their own destination – based on the example of Transylvania – to emphasize the importance and also the role of the destination image in developing the main directions of actions and, especially, in developing the strategy for the specific tourism products.
Adventure tourism is one of the key factors of the Nepalese tourism industry. The main aim of this bachelor’s thesis was to clarify the current situation and challenges for developing adventure tourism in Nepal and to evaluate the importance of appropriate marketing strategies. The thesis also focuses on promoting adventure tourism activities and rural tourism destinations. The objective of the thesis was to explore Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve as an adventure tourism destination at internationa...
The natural and anthropic tourism resources of a certain area generate specific tourism forms, which complete each other within the different destination categories.The rural area in Dobrudja has diversified tourism potential, provided by the contrast of natural environment factors, ranging from the oldest and to the youngest relief units, natural protected areas, spa resources and cultural, historical, religious sites, as well as multicultural local customs and traditions of the rural area. ...
Nuno Carlos LEITÃO
Full Text Available This study considers the relationship between immigration and Portuguese tourism demand for the period 1995-2008, using a dynamic panel data approach. The findings indicate that Portuguese tourism increased significantly during the period in accordance with the values expected for a developed country. The regression results show that income, shock of immigration, population, and geographical distance between Portugal and countries of origin are the main determinants of Portuguese tourism.
Full Text Available Statistical data certifies that tourism is one of the most profitable and dynamic sectors of the economy, occupying the second position in international trade, after oil. By extrapolation results that rural tourism also has major implications for the economic, social and cultural development of the villages. This study presents an analysis of the factors contributing to the practice of rural tourism in Romania during 2000-2015. Using data provided by the National Statistics Institute was possible to analyze the number of employees and number of units specific to rural tourism. In the structure of this study, the methods of improving and developing rural tourism are defined by the concept of volunteer tourism by developing national portals presenting the vacant jobs in tourism and developing human capital by attracting European Funds 2014-2010. The importance of these methods have as a starting point the alignment with the current requirements of tourists and human resources due to the fact that workers in tourism are the main connection point between services and tourist.
Full Text Available This study aims to empirically compare the adoption of business sustainability amongst 291 randomly-selected tourism and non-tourism businesses in New South Wales, Australia. Tourism businesses were found to be more committed to environmentally-sustainable practices than other types of businesses with there being a clear correlation with their ability to learn and adapt. This contradicts criticisms in the literature that tourism businesses are slow adopters of sustainability. This study highlights the need for further research into why tourism businesses in New South Wales, Australia, are reporting higher levels of performance in terms of adopting environmental values than other businesses in contradiction to the general perception of tourism businesses in the literature.
of facility is instrumentality, and (c schemes of norm are in the form of interpretation and interaction norms, (3 facework, namely: (a communication practices in the form of expressive speech acts, directive, representative, and commissive, (b the exercise of power in the form of face threatening acts, (c the practice of sanctions in the form of face-saving or redressive actions. Empirically, facework is realized in the entity to be free (negative face and received (positive face. Based on the results of the study can be suggested(1 the structure of the hospitality language can be used by the tourism practitioners in increasing competence and performance language, (3 the system of hospitality language can be used tourism practitioners to understand modalities of language, and (3 facework in the concepts of positive and negative hospitality, can be used as strategy of tourism practices for local community, government, and investors.
Goessling, Stefan [Department of Service Management, Lund University, Box 882, 251 08 Helsingborg (Sweden); Peeters, Paul [NHTV Breda University, Centre for Sustainable Tourism and Transport, P.O. Box 3917, 4800 DX Breda (Netherlands); Ceron, Jean-Paul [Centre de Recherche en Droit de l' Environnement, de l' Amenagement et de l' Urbanisme (CRIDEAU), Universite de Limoges, 34 Rue Dupleix, 87000 Limoges (France); Dubois, Ghislain [Tourisme Environnement Consultants (TEC), 89 Rue de la Republique, 13002 Marseille (France); Patterson, Trista [University of Siena, Department of Science and Technology for Physical Chemistry in Biosystems, Via Della Diana 2A, 53100 Siena (Italy); Richardson, Robert B. [1024 Philip Street, New Orleans, LA 70130 (United States)
The use of fossil energy is one of the major environmental problems associated with tourism and travel. Consequently, the need to limit fossil energy use has been highlighted as a precondition for achieving sustainable tourism development. However, tourism is also one of the most important sectors of the world economy, and fears have thus been expressed by the tourist industry and its organisations that increasing energy prices (for example, as a result of eco-taxes) could substantially decrease the economic welfare of countries and destinations. In this article, the interplay of environmental damage and economic gains is thus analysed within the context of tourism. Carbon dioxide-equivalent emissions are assessed in relation to the revenues generated, allowing for conclusions about the eco-efficiency of tourism.
Goessling, Stefan; Peeters, Paul; Ceron, Jean-Paul; Dubois, Ghislain; Patterson, Trista; Richardson, Robert B.
The use of fossil energy is one of the major environmental problems associated with tourism and travel. Consequently, the need to limit fossil energy use has been highlighted as a precondition for achieving sustainable tourism development. However, tourism is also one of the most important sectors of the world economy, and fears have thus been expressed by the tourist industry and its organisations that increasing energy prices (for example, as a result of eco-taxes) could substantially decrease the economic welfare of countries and destinations. In this article, the interplay of environmental damage and economic gains is thus analysed within the context of tourism. Carbon dioxide-equivalent emissions are assessed in relation to the revenues generated, allowing for conclusions about the eco-efficiency of tourism
Sustainable tourism is a new concept for tourism sector; it is tourism that reduces negative tourism impacts and brings benefits instead. The current problem of sustainable tourism is lack of attractive tourism products. Their development is crucial since customers seek for experiences at a destination. Russians are an important segment for Finnish tourism, therefore their consumer behaviours has to be studied. The aim of this research is to find how to develop a tourism product for susta...
Despite the active development of rural tourism in Ukraine, this phenomenon is still under scientific study nowadays, which has been manifested by the uncertainty of the key terms; by the lack of clear boundaries, which can separate this type of tourism from other types of tourism activities; by debates about the essence and types of rural tourism. After analyzing the available information the author offers own generalized definition of rural tourism. Rural tourism is a specific entertaining ...
This volume offers methodological discussions within the multidisciplinary field of tourism and shows how tourism researchers develop and apply new tourism methodologies. The book is presented as an anthology, giving voice to many diverse researchers who reflect on tourism methodology in differen...... codings and analysis, and tapping into the global network of social media.......This volume offers methodological discussions within the multidisciplinary field of tourism and shows how tourism researchers develop and apply new tourism methodologies. The book is presented as an anthology, giving voice to many diverse researchers who reflect on tourism methodology in different...... in interview and field work situations, and how do we engage with the performative aspects of tourism as a field of study? The book acknowledges that research is also performance and that it constitutes an aspect of intervention in the situations and contexts it is trying to explore. This is an issue dealt...
Full Text Available Tourism industry has become one of important contributors of foreign exchange for Indonesia. In order to develop it, the central government has issued several policies, one of which is by assigning national tourism strategic areas across the country that also have a role to encourage other factors, such as economy, social-security, etc. This paper is an exploratory study on the existing tourism market in one of the national strategic areas, namely Sambas Regency in West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Besides, this study also observed the synchronization of this area with other attractions and other strategic areas (borderlands. After the tourism market was identified, the relation among the visitors’ origins, the places they visited, and their next trips were explored to identify the dominant characters of the movement and places. This study used survey technique and network analysis. The findings conclude that the main tourism market in tourism strategic area was still dominated by domestic market with their specific characters. The visitors did not only visit the tourism attractions in Sambas, but also pass the border to go to the neighbouring country, either directly or through Sambas. This market niche can be “exploited” by Sambas regency by rearranging their attraction hierarchy, placing attractions around Sambas palace as the centre, and making the border either as an entrance or continued attractions
Unathi Sonwabile Henama
Full Text Available The tourism industry is one industry that has grown in leaps and bound since the watershed moment in 1994. Mining and manufacturing have declined their share of gross domestic product contribution, whilst tourism has been a perennial growth sector. The growth of tourism has resulted in tourism becoming a priority sector by government and the private sector. Tourism creates jobs, attracts investment, foreign exchange and diversifies the economy. Health tourism can be regarded within the definition of special interest tourism, which is regarded as ‘’new tourism’’. The private healthcare system in South Africa is world class, and the growth of tourism has led to synergies being formed for the development of medical tourism in South Africa. The paper reviews health and medical tourism secondary literature to present an argument for the development of the industry, and the identification of obstacles to the growth of health tourism. There is paucity of academic gaze on medical tourism and the secondary research will present certain findings that will be of benefit to the health tourism industry in South Africa.
Full Text Available The development of new types of tourism (stand-alone, connected or components, from marketing experience, implies a broad spectrum of challenges, which, placed in a planned background, has the purpose the creation and then, the development of tourism products that correspond, at least, to consumers’ expectations. In order to optimize the new type of tourism, it is necessary to be correlated with the relevant resources of the destination, which, harmonized, can lead to the elaboration of destination marketing strategies, in this situation being the medical tourism, component of health tourism.
Dark tourism eli synkkä matkailu on matkustamista kohteisiin, jotka liittyvät jollain tavalla kuolemaan, kauhuun, kärsimykseen tai katastrofeihin. Dark tourism on ilmiönä suhteellisen tuore, mutta sen historia juontaa juurensa jo antiikin ajan gladiaattoritaisteluihin. Ilmiötä on tutkittu jonkin verran ja siitä on tehty muutamia opinnäytetöitä. Yksi tunnetuimmista ja eniten vierailluista dark tourism -kohteista on Auschwitzin keskitysleiri. Auschwitz aloitti toimintansa vuonna 1940 ja le...
Tourism can be a challenging subject for students because it is both dynamic and susceptible to economic turbulence and shifts in trends. Tourism: A Modern Synthesis is an essential textbook for tourism students looking for a clear and comprehensive introduction to their studies which helps overcome these challenges. The authors apply a strong business approach to the subject reflecting developments in the teaching and content of modern courses and the text covers both key principles and cont...
Atanazio Filho, Nelson do Nascimento; Mansur, Tanius Rodrigues; Rabello, Emerson Giovani
The influence of an aggressive environment (NaCl 3.5% aerated solution) on fatigue crack initiation and crack growth behavior were studied. This study comprised corrosion fatigue tests using specimens of SAE 8620 steel. The decreasing cyclic frequency (60 Hz to 11.7 Hz) effect on corrosion fatigue crack initiation behavior was examined. The tests carried out under rotating-bending loading conditions at 11.7 Hz (700 rpm), showed that pitting corrosion caused by anodic attack was responsible for corrosion fatigue crack initiation (author)
Mustafa, Mairna Hussein
This paper aims at exploring the reasons behind the contradiction between the outputs of tourism educational programs in Jordanian universities and expectations of tourism employers from the perception of tourism private businesses (travel agents and hotels), also to make an evaluation of universities' educational outcomes. Seventy-nine tourism…
Romance tourism is a discussed quite a lot in media both in Finland and abroad. The media has create a certain kind of image of women`s romance tourism. The main aim of this study was to study how Finnish women perceive the romance tourism. The research questions were: does women travel to abroad to seek for holiday romance and why do they travel to abroad to seek for the romance. To find out women’s mental images of romance tourism was also one aim of the research. The phenomenon of women’s ...
Full Text Available Tourism or geriatric-medical and wellness tourism are market segments that lately have registered significant increases. The need to define, organize, and promote these sectors. This item is intended to synthesize developments and challenges market growth wellness and medical tourism. For the industry spa these developments may represent an opportunity to take full advantage of wellness and medical tourism.
Steele, Jessica; Dredge, Dianne
Drawing from developments in sociology and organizational studies, this paper argues for a new understanding of volunteer tourism as liquid organization. It aims to explore the organization of volunteer tourism using a liquid organization perspective and to better understand the potential...... implications of this liquidity on the responsibility of volunteer tourism organizations to host com- munities. The analysis is based on data collected from 80 volunteer tourism organizations. The findings reveal that the volunteer tourism organizations show characteristics of liquid organiza- tion to varying...... degrees. The significance of the research is to problematize the way in which the institutional characteristics of volunteer tourism are (not) conceptualized in current literature and to introduce liquid organization as a means of reinvigorating debate about responsibility....
Steele, Jessica; Dredge, Dianne
Drawing from developments in sociology and organizational studies, this paper argues for a new understanding of volunteer tourism as liquid organization. It aims to explore the organization of volunteer tourism using a liquid organization perspective and to better understand the potential...... implications of this liquidity on the responsibility of volunteer tourism organizations to host com- munities. The analysis is based on data collected from 80 volunteer tourism organizations. The findings reveal that the volunteer tourism organizations show characteristics of liquid organiza- tion to varying...... degrees. The significance of the research is to problematize the way in which the institutional characteristics of volunteer tourism are (not) conceptualized in current literature and to introduce liquid organization as a means of reinvigorating debate about responsibility....
Although tourism marketing has made great progress in recent years, researches on it are far from enough. Current re⁃searches on tourism marketing at home and abroad lack pertinence and mostly provide theoretical basis for tourism development within a wide range. The researches on tourism marketing of Penglai are few and far between. Based on previous studies and the status quo of tourism marketing strategy, the below statements tries to find out existing problems of Penglai’s tourism, put for⁃ward countermeasures and propose feasible marketing patterns suitable for its tourism development. It subsequently concludes that it can make contribution to the sustainable development of Penglai's tourism and provide other county-level tourism cities with reference for marketing tourism marketing strategies.
Assaf, A.George; Josiassen, Alexander
, their tourism industries, and tourism businesses seek to improve the performance of the tourism industry and its constituents by vigorously promoting themselves to international tourists, cutting costs, and identifying synergies in their tourism endeavors. In seeking to improve the tourism industry......, the determinants that affect tourism performance are of key interest to the stakeholders. A key obstacle toward improving performance is the multitude of determinants that can affect tourism performance. The literature has yet to provide concrete insights into the determinants of tourism performance...... and their relative importance. The present study addresses this important gap. We identify and rank the determinants of tourism performance. We also provide performance measures of international tourism destinations. The results are derived using the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and bootstrap truncated regression...
Seen as a new form of manifestation of the behavior of the consumer of tourism products and services, culinary tourism has recorded an ascending trending the last years, with a positive forecast for the following years. A possible explanation for this phenomenon is the orientation and encouragement of the tourist services providers to adopt regional development strategies that harness traditional local resources and products in a context where the contemporary consumer no longer only pursues ...
Barrena, M.I.; Castro, A.
The present work shows the behaviour of low carbon alloyed steels as AISI-SAE 8615, after a ferritic nitrocarburizing process. Nitrocarburizing takes place at 570 degree centigree for 3 h in an atmosphere by combustion of methanol and urea under different flow rates. Metallographic studies were performed by optical microscopy. Harness profiles were measured and carbon percentages were also analyzed by emission spectrometry in order to determine the extension of the nitrocarburizing process. Optimal flow conditions have been found. The influence of the flow rate on the nitrocarburizing layer thickness has been also studied. (Author) 12 refs
This chapter explores the characteristics and functions of tourism networks as a first step in understanding how networks facilitate and reproduce knowledge. A framework to progress understandings of knowledge dynamics in tourism networks is presented that includes four key dimensions: context......, network agents, network boundaries and network resources. A case study of the development of the Next Generation Tourism Handbook (Queensland, Australia), a policy initiative that sought to bring tourism and land use planning knowledge closer together is presented. The case study illustrates...... that the tourism policy and land use planning networks operate in very different spheres and that context, network agents, network boundaries and network resources have a significant influence not only on knowledge dynamics but also on the capacity of network agents to overcome barriers to learning and to innovate....
Lenzen, Manfred; Sun, Ya-Yen; Faturay, Futu; Ting, Yuan-Peng; Geschke, Arne; Malik, Arunima
Tourism contributes significantly to global gross domestic product, and is forecast to grow at an annual 4%, thus outpacing many other economic sectors. However, global carbon emissions related to tourism are currently not well quantified. Here, we quantify tourism-related global carbon flows between 160 countries, and their carbon footprints under origin and destination accounting perspectives. We find that, between 2009 and 2013, tourism's global carbon footprint has increased from 3.9 to 4.5 GtCO2e, four times more than previously estimated, accounting for about 8% of global greenhouse gas emissions. Transport, shopping and food are significant contributors. The majority of this footprint is exerted by and in high-income countries. The rapid increase in tourism demand is effectively outstripping the decarbonization of tourism-related technology. We project that, due to its high carbon intensity and continuing growth, tourism will constitute a growing part of the world's greenhouse gas emissions.
Egmond, van A.N.F.
This study analyses 'Western' tourists who travel in developing countries for holiday purposes. The focus is on tourists who originate from the historically Protestant countries of Europe and who are the biggest spenders per capita in international tourism, including Third World tourism. Evaluation
Yang, Mingyu; Hens, Luc; Ou, XiaoKun; De Wulf, Robert
In the last decade, tourism has developed rapidly in the mountainous areas of northwest Yunnan. This growth has led to substantial economic and social changes, with resulting environmental consequences. This article uses a case study to illustrate how local farmers involved in tourism changed their agricultural practices as a result of the transformations that took place in the area. The aim was to examine tourism's expected benefits of poverty alleviation and conservation incentives. Tourism...
Qiu, Zhicheng R; Shuman, Stewart; Schwer, Beate
Tgs1 is the enzyme that converts m(7)G RNA caps to the 2,2,7-trimethylguanosine (TMG) caps characteristic of spliceosomal snRNAs. Fungi grow vegetatively without TMG caps, thereby raising the question of what cellular transactions, if any, are TMG cap-dependent. Here, we report that Saccharomyces cerevisiae Tgs1 methyltransferase activity is essential for meiosis. tgs1Δ cells are specifically defective in splicing PCH2 and SAE3 meiotic pre-mRNAs. The TMG requirement for SAE3 splicing is alleviated by two intron mutations: a UAUUAAC to UACUAAC change that restores a consensus branchpoint and disruption of a stem-loop encompassing the branchpoint. The TMG requirement for PCH2 splicing is alleviated by a CACUAAC to UACUAAC change restoring a consensus branchpoint and by shortening the PCH2 5' exon. Placing the SAE3 and PCH2 introns within a HIS3 reporter confers Tgs1-dependent histidine prototrophy, signifying that the respective introns are portable determinants of TMG-dependent gene expression. Analysis of in vitro splicing in extracts of TGS1 versus tgs1Δ cells showed that SAE3 intron removal was enfeebled without TMG caps, whereas splicing of ACT1 was unaffected. Our findings illuminate a new mode of tunable splicing, a reliance on TMG caps for an essential developmental RNA transaction, and three genetically distinct meiotic splicing regulons in budding yeast.
Zoltán Bujdosó; Csaba Szûcs
Due to the interest in the development of gastronomy and the food and beverage culture of different countries and regions, culinary travel is gaining in popularity all over the world and gastronomic tourism has become an independent product on its own within tourism. Beer tourism has become an integrated part of gastronomic tourism. The purpose of this paper is to place beer tourism, which attracts a growing number of visitors, as a product into the system of tourism as well as to review its ...
Full Text Available The marine zone tourism is growing attracting more tourists. Pramuka Island is marine conservation area enriched with marine biodiversity in coral reefs and other natural resources. To develop this potential tourist destination, a customer-based marketing program is required to attract domestic and foreign tourists. The main vision is to understand tourist preferences for marine tourism activities and facilities. A research was conducted on Pramuka Island as a well-known marine tourism zone. The objective was to determine the key tourist preferences for marine tourism destination. Research methods utilized Cochran Q test and Conjoint analysis where the primary data were obtained from tourist respondents. The result showed that there was a tourist preference based on the five attributes considered most important, namely tourism activities, tourist attractions, types of accommodation, food and souvenirs types. This study provided marine tourism destination management with useful guidance for broader implications of the implementation of marketing programs and tourism attraction. Moreover, the results of this study consolidated the learning of a variety of academic and industrial research papers in particular for the measurement of customer preferences towards marine tourism destination.
This paper reviews academic research into dark tourism and thanatourism over the 1996–2016 period. The aims of this paper are threefold. First, it reviews the evolution of the concepts of dark tourism and thanatourism, highlighting similarities and differences between them. Second it evaluates progress in 6 key themes and debates. These are: issues of the definition and scope of the concepts; ethical issues associated with such forms of tourism; the political and ideological dimensions of dar...
Full Text Available The paper focuses on the development of „dark“ tourism as a type of special interest tourism. The study included analysis of the definition of „dark“ tourism, tourist motivations for this type of tourism, Stone' s typology of dark destination offers, and a portion is devoted to the role of „dark“ tourism in contemporary society. Also there are important „dark“ tourism destinations in the world as an example of this type of tourism development. The work includes a reference to the promotion of dark tourism in Romania, as a destination that has largely failed to impose itself on the world tourism market because this form of tourism promotion. In the first part special attention is paid to the special interest tourism, which is a new development that drives modern society. Modern tourists have a different kind of motivation when they are planning travel and tour operators need to focus on current trends. One of the trends relating to the development of „dark“ tourism and some of the countries at the national level is positioned as a destination which are distinguished by this kind of tourism. There is the space for this type of tourism development, but they require specific solutions that are distinctive to each country.
Khamdevi, M.; Bott, H.
Bali is famous as the tourist destination in the world. Ironically, most of the people of Bali thought that tourism in Bali is a failure. The negative impact showed on modernization in South Bali, including Denpasar, Kuta, and Ubud. Cultural imperialism has shifted local culture in many aspects, especially the traditional houses and buildings. The climax of this problem is the development of Benoa Bay Reclamation, where the sacred location for the traditional ceremony will be built for new tourism development that offers pleasure and leisure. This raised hard protest from the people of Bali. They are also afraid that the Balinese cultural and natural environment will vanish. On the other hand, some movement of sustainable tourism in North Bali, that ran by the local community has also arisen. What is tourism? Is it only for pleasure and leisure only? This research will discuss the rethinking of tourism definition with Bali as a reflection case. The purpose of this paper is to find its right definition with qualitative methodology. A more sustainable tourism that more on local context would be a research result.
Full Text Available Tourism industry in the Philippines has been identified as one of the powerful engines for a strong and sustained economic growth. To determine whether the Philippine tourism industry is moving towards sustainable development, this paper explores the evolution of the tourism industry in the Philippines by tracing its historical transformations and determining its typology. Four major periods has been recognized, namely: 1] pre-martial law era (years before 1972; 2] martial law era (1972-1986; 3] post-martial law era (1986-2000; and 4] 21st century era (2001-present. The eras are based on the country’s major political regimes. Corresponding events and numerous initiatives undertaken by the government agencies, non-government organizations and private sectors that significantly affect the tourism industry are described and analyzed. It is concluded that tourism is a well established industry in the Philippines that contributes to an inclusive economic growth of the country. The continued concerted efforts of all the stakeholders of the industry in the implementation of all these initiatives will surely lead to a sustainable Philippine tourism.
Sentongo, Samuel; Carter, Austin; Cecil, Christopher; Feier, Ioan
This paper identifies and evaluates the design characteristics of a novel airfoil that harnesses the Magnus Effect, applying a moving-surface boundary-layer control (MSBC) method to a Formula SAE Vehicle. The MSBC minimizes adverse pressure gradient and delays boundary layer separation through the use of a conveyor belt that interacts with the airfoil boundary layer. The MSBC allows dynamic control of the aerodynamic coefficients by variation of the belt speed, minimizing drag in high speed straights and maximizing downforce during vehicle cornering. A conveyer belt wing measuring approximately 0.9 x 0.9m in planform was designed and built to test the mechanical setup for such a MSBC wing. This study follows the relationship between inputted power and outputted surface velocity, with the goal being to maximize speed output vs. power input. The greatest hindrance to maximizing speed output is friction among belts, rollers, and stationary members. The maximum belt speed achieved during testing was 5.9 m/s with a power input of 48.8 W, which corresponds to 45.8 N of downforce based on 2D CFD results. Ongoing progress on this project is presented. United States Air Force Academy.
Miedzińska, Magdalena; Tanaś, Sławoj
The aim of the article is to draw the reader's attention to the tourism attractiveness of renowned Polish libraries. These have attained a tourism function due to tourism exploration and penetration, but remain in the shadow of other Polish cultural assets. The article outlines the historical geography of Polish libraries, an analysis of tourism assets and an attempt to classify and catalogue libraries in Poland.
Omelan Aneta; Huk-Wieliczuk Elżbieta; Podstawski Robert
Introduction. If activity related to tourism is planned effectively and performed in a responsible way, it can satisfy many human needs. In order to make it possible for members of modern society to fully benefit from tourism, however, it is necessary to undertake action aimed at promoting tourism, fostering its development, stimulating the need to travel, and helping tourists adopt certain habits. The aim of the study was to collect information concerning the impact of family, school, and co...
Full Text Available Nowadays marketing appears to be the result of long efforts of generalization and reflection of economical theory regarding marketing practice that has emerged and developed as a consequence of contemporary social and economic dynamism. Through the implementation of an effective marketing system and modern Romanian tourism, constantly improving quality performance of products or services will be provided towards achieving a performing tourism. The recent ongoing development of tourism, vast global expansion, the development of tourism in tourist reception structures by applying a suitable marketing will increase the tourism potential consumer’s satisfaction. In order to obtain a sustainable position in the tourism market and tourism companies must address complex marketing plan strategies.
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the actual subject - features development of tourism in Ukraine. Tourism in Ukraine legally declared as a priority of national culture and economy. The promotion of Ukraine as a European state requires the development of tourism industry. The modern concept of leisure activities organization leads to increased demand for tourism in those regions, which have the cultural, social, household identity of the nation, local community. These areas are presented in the most regions of Ukraine. Due to the wealth of historical, cultural, recreational, social and economic resources Ukraine has all essential prerequisites for intensive tourism development. Tourism plays an important role in regional development. Currently, most researches are aimed at economic aspects of development, which are usually associated with external (international tourism. However not enough attention were paid to social and environmental aspects of domestic tourism, which may become an important tool for spiritual revival, patriotic education, formation of ecological thinking and future mentality of the Ukrainian society. In the development of tourism in Ukraine there are some features: changing in the ratio of internal and external tourism in favor of external, a small number of foreign tourists, the gradual reduction in the number of citizens covered by domestic tourism. In 2015 the tourist flow was at the level of 2000 and amounted into 2,02 million people. There was a reduction compared to 2013 by almost 40%. Although the highest rates of reduction (30% occurred in 2014, and 10% - in 2015. So the rate of decrease in tourist flow slowed. The number of foreign tourists significantly reduced to a record 0.75% of the total number of travelers. On the contrary, the number of citizens of Ukraine, which travelled abroad remains very high and exceeds 80%. The number of domestic tourists remains at the level of 17%. Unfortunately, the negative trends in
Without governmental regulations emission of greenhouses, caused by tourism, will most likely not be reduced. In particular, reduction of emission is not feasible without decrease of air transport for tourism activities [nl
Full Text Available Globalisation and new information technology are bringing significant changes to tourism. Tourism experiences are now increasingly being co-produced by tourism companies, tourists and local residents. This has significant implications for cities such as Barcelona, where there has been an explosion of new tourism products through new intermediaries such as Airbnb. As a result, tourism is penetrating further into the fabric of the city, and is also being produced by the residents of Barcelona themselves. Perhaps for this reason they complain less about the negative effects of tourism than might be expected.
Full Text Available In sustainable development, tourism plays a vital role, with a high contribution in Romania's economic recovery and relaunch. Raising the tourism product of the values enshrined in the corresponding standards and preferences of foreign tourists involves initiating and promoting actions that include, on one hand, workflows education and training of a mentality appropriate current type of development, and on the other hand , emphasizing sustainable development in regions of tourist’s reception. Based on these considerations, this paper aims to determine how the tourism products must be designed from the point of view of marketing, to comply with the principles of sustainability. To this end we analyzed research on consumption of tourist’s services in Romania, made by INSOMAR, and an analysis of the Romanian tourism seen by strangers.
Full Text Available The urban area covers a high density of structures developed by man compared to the surrounding areas. Cultural tourism includes, on the one hand, cultural tourism in urban areas – particularly historical towns and cities with cultural sites such as museums or theatres – and, on the other hand, cultural tourism in rural areas – where its main goal is to focus on communities, festivals, rituals, and traditions. From the point of view of the practice of urban or rural cultural tourism, tourists are, in most cases, presented what they wish to see: thus, authenticity can turn into inauthenticity and what is promoted is vulgar art or improper beauty, surrogate art or even pseudo-art – kitsch, represented by souvenirs that have nothing to do with true art.
Jensen, Jens Friis; Sørensen, Flemming
This paper discusses how front-line employees can play an important role in innovation processes that lead tourism companies from service production to experience creation. The increasing focus on experiential value by customers in general (Sundbo and Sørensen, 2013) puts pressure on service...... companies to move from functional service production to creating experiences (Pine and Gilmore, 2013). This is also the case in tourism companies. In tourism, most encounters between employees and tourists operate on a service logic (Sørensen and Jensen, 2015). Thus, we suggest there is a value potential...... in developing such encounters into experience encounters focusing on the co-creation of experiential value. While frontline employees are central for service quality they are mostly not included in systematised innovation processes in tourism companies. These companies are often hierarchically organised...
Nordin Aleff Omar Shah
Full Text Available The tourism sector has a huge effect in developing countries by providing immense economic opportunities to the local community. Entrepreneurship has been identified as essential actors for creating job opportunities, generating income, increasing standard of living and generally growing the economy. Using the random sampling approach, the questionnaires were distributed to the tourism entrepreneurs in the tourism attraction area in Langkawi Island. During the survey period, only a total of 263 entrepreneurs completed the questionnaires. The objective of this study is to explore the economic empowerment of the tourism entrepreneurship in contributing to income level, creating job opportunities and increasing standard of living. The findings of the study clearly show that the tourism entrepreneur activities contribute positively to income level, jobs, opportunities and standard of living of the local community.
Full Text Available After the introduction which summarizes the basic guidelines for the development of entrepreneurship in special interest tourism, the author explores the development and application as well as the management of entrepreneurship in religious tourism as a type of special interest tourism. Religious components and motives for visiting shrines as an integral part of human culture and tradition have a strenuous impact on the tourism industry, both on the offering and demanding side. The most visited shrines such as Fatima or Lourdes attract four to eight million visitors per year. Considering the fact that this type of tourism is economically very useful in a particular local environment, many shrines as sites have become centres of religious, commercial and cultural events in certain regions throughout history. Their development was followed by investment in infrastructure, culture, catering and other facilities. The implementation of entrepreneurship is based on various segments that enable the development of religious tourism in a particular area, such as catering industry, hospitality industry, tourist mediation, transportation companies and other complementary activities (agriculture, fishing, wine production, commerce and other services. The author explores the indicators of entrepreneurship development in the field of religious tourism as a type of special interest tourism indicating the possibilities it has on the destination development. The development of special interest tourism should be based on effective investment in tourism offer through entrepreneurial projects (catering and other tourist facilities in accordance with market trends. The investment in tourism offer in the context of religious tourism would result in the growth of religious passengers' consumption as well as the increase in income from religious tourism, and thus the economic development of the sites with religious content. Examples of such shrines in the world are
Thai, Thuy Nga
The objectives of this paper are to identify the shortcomings that have been hindering the development of Vietnam tourism and seeking for the solution for these shortcomings in the aspects of marketing. Vietnam is a country lying in the peninsula of South Asia and holds great potentials of nature, culture and human power for tourism growth. Despite much effort on marketing campaigns, Vietnam tourism is still lagging behind other giant tourism industries in Asia region. The thesis applied ...
Копитко, В. І.; Терещак, Ю. В.
Tendences of improvement the quality of transport tourism by enterprises in the tourism industry in recreational regions of Ukraine using cultural and educational potential of resort are reviewed.It is advisable for tourism industry businesses in resort areas to combine the two models concept of cultural and educational tourism, where the element of knowledge involving natural and cultural values serves as the main purpose of trip by transport, or as an additional service, which is typical fo...
Sandra Dhesitta Putri
Full Text Available The aim of the study is to define the strategic management of nature based tourism in Ijen crater, East Java. From the perspectives of accessibility, problems facing by accessibility are related to the travel distance and forest road quality. Ijen craters have three important aspect in competitiveness tourism aspect, namely something to see (mountain landscape, something to do (trekking, hiking, bird watching, and something to buy (meals. The future development of such attraction should be meets ecotourism principles. This study found that improving tourism facility and infrastructure were important aspects. The development and improvement of tourism facility and infrastructure, however, should be incorporates ecotourism principles. In such a case, the conservation, local people and community development becomes crucial issue. Involvement of stakeholder and local community in facility and infrastructure will increase the quality and sustainability of infrastructure and tourism facility. Keywords: ecotourism strategy, tourism management.
Full Text Available Purpose – The authors identify five driving forces of changes that are shaping the discourses about food tourism. The paper aims to discuss this issue. Design/methodology/approach – The approach used by this paper is a general review. Findings – The five driving forces identified are: food tourism as political capital; food tourism as a visionary state; what it means to be a foodie; the drive for affluence and exclusivity; fluid experiences in a post-modernist world. Originality/value – The five drivers of change are identified as the core of any food tourism strategy for policy makers.
Alberto JonayRodriguez Darias
Full Text Available International tourism has been through major changes, one of them by the 1950s which resulted in conventional forms of tourism. Nevertheless, in the past two decades changes seem to go faster. The upsurge of what was labeled as “new forms of tourism” in the 1990s changed the rules in several ways, turning the planet into a tourist destination and consolidating that “anything can be sold for a tourist”. This paper intends to determine which caused these changes and begin a debate related to those (old new forms of tourism and contemporary new forms of tourism.
Hande AKYURT KURNAZ
Full Text Available In recent years, with the development of tourism, various countries have been competing with each other in order to increase their revenues from tourism. With increased competition, the concept of marketing the regions of countries as destinations has been emerged. From this point, countries are marketing their cities or regions in terms of tourism. With this increase in marketing in terms of tourism, differences among destinations and special interest tourism depending on demand have formed. One type of this interest tourism is dark tourism which is related to concept of death or the feelings such as pain, grief, and etc. The purpose of this study is to determine the dark tourism participants’ travel motivations. Study’s datas were collected by a questionnaire method of data collection. The datas were analyzed by using a suitable statistical program. As a result of this study, travel motivations of the dark tourism participants were examined under four factors and various suggestions were made for future studies on the subject.
The spectacular increase in tourism in the Alps in recent decades has been founded mainly on the boom in skiing, resulting in both strong real estate development and an increasing array of infrastructures and ski runs. Today the ski market seems to have virtually reached saturation point and the winter sports sector needs to diversify its offer through innovation. After a review of the main factors of change in mountain tourism, the paper presents a grid for interpreting the life cycle of alp...
By its geographical location, the rural area from Dobrudgea has a diversified tourism potential, provided by the contrasting natural environmental factors, ranging from the oldest to the youngest relief units, natural protected areas, balneary resources and cultural, historical, religious sites, as well as multicultural local customs and traditions of the rural area. This potential can be used under various forms in the rural area: cultural tourism, historical tourism, religious tourism, ecot...
By its geographical location, the rural area from Dobrudgea has a diversified tourism potential, provided by the contrasting natural environmental factors, ranging from the oldest to the youngest relief units, natural protected areas, balneary resources and cultural, historical, religious sites, as well as multicultural local customs and traditions of the rural area. This potential can be used under various forms in the rural area: cultural tourism, historical tourism, religious tourism, ecot...
Lourenço, Nelson; Jorge, Rosário
Spatial and socio-economic impacts of tourism have been quite significant in some regions, causing changes in the economic structure, stimulating some sectors and displacing others. Tourism creates pressures on different domains—natural resources and environment, the built environment, and hospitality and cultural resources. The tourism infrastructure has impacted on the existing social, economic, and environmental dynamics of Goan society. Some of the tourism-related influences are discu...
Standardisation of a tourism industry offering will be discussed with this article in two different ways First by reviewing previous studies on the topic definitions of standardisation tourism industry and differences between a service and a goods product will be presented Second by interviewing managers from different tourism industry sectors possibility of a tourism product’s standardisation will be outlined Key words: standardisation service product goods product tourism indust...
Tourism can create significant impacts on both the social and natural environment; however, many nations have avoided the negative impacts. Consideration of the effects of tourism should be part of national policy toward the tourist industry. (RE)
Full Text Available In this article the focus is on the role of information technology in tourism, tourism business, electronic payments, software used by tourist companies, new technologies for online advertising and shopping, software for mobile devices.
Full Text Available Tourism globalization requires seeking solutions to the problems that involves sustainable development. Tourism sustainable development should meet the present needs of tourists and regions that receive tourists, leaving open the gates to further development of tourism with the preservation of cultural and natural heritage for future generations.Romania, with an experience of over 2000 years in tourism activities, in present its improves the forms of tourism exercise, tourism infrastructure and is in the stage of adopting a strategy of tourist activities, taking into account the experience of advanced countries, the scientific developments from the large university and academics centres. Romania has universal opportunities, specific, unique in tourism development. Romania cannot (nor should take to a model developed and used in other countries of the world. Romania has its own scientific and practical potential which to substantiate its own strategy, entirely original, which to apply through methods, also, fully specific. Such an orientation cannot be explained only by historical experience or by originality of geographical conditions, climate, traditions, customs, arts, culture, etc.
Zahari Mohd Salehuddin Mohd
Full Text Available This paper reports an empirical investigation on the moderating effects of the tourism by- products in building Sarawak destination image. Using causal research design through a quantitative method, self-reported and self-administered questionnaire, this study surveyed international tourists who had visited Sarawak and experienced the state core tourism products which include purchasing the local tourism by-products. Through the descriptive and inferential statistics, some useful insights about the issue investigated were significantly obtained. It's interesting to note that besides experiencing the tourism core products, the Sarawak Tourism by-products are also catching the international tourist's attention. The moderating effect of tourism by-products on the relationship between tourism core products (culture, adventure, and nature and Sarawak destination image was empirically confirmed. In fact, in addition to the core culture, adventure and nature product, the local tourism by- products undeniably building and strengthening the image of Sarawak as a tourist destination. This promising indication is, therefore, should not be ignored by the state government, tourism authority, tour operators, the local government, hotels and other related local authorities.
Violeta Andreea ANDREIANA
Full Text Available Our argument for this achievement took into account medical recommendations for this tourism product, giving tourists the possibility of treating major medical conditions (e.g. autism, depression, poliomyelitis squeals, encephalitis, neurological disorders, behavioral disorders, stress, etc. and the fact that the first herds of horses in Romania are attested in documents since 1870. Romania holds a recognized potential to develop this tourism product, due to its natural setting that offers multiple equestrian tourism practice opportunities for Romanian and foreign tourists with multiple benefits for them. Admitting the fact that �the touristic space managing cannot be exclusively determined by its natural properties�, our paper aims a tourism marketing strategy portfolio within positive results for the Romanian equestrian tourism promotion and also may increase the local attractiveness of the regions/areas/localities of our country within potential to equestrian tourism development.
Full Text Available Depuis l’avènement des congés payés en Europe avant la Deuxième Guerre mondiale, l’accessibilité pour tous au loisir touristique reste toujours la principale préoccupation du tourisme social. Concept originellement européen, il réfère aujourd’hui à l’ensemble des programmes, mesures d’aide, réalisations et actions visant à rendre effective, dans de nombreux pays sur divers continents, ce qui inclut le Québec, cette accessibilité et à lutter de cette manière contre l’exclusion sociale. Plus récemment, les questions d’équité et de solidarité avec les communautés d’accueil et de durabilité de la ressource ont été officiellement intégrées dans sa mission et constituent d’autres défis importants avec celui du financement. Chapeauté par le Bureau international du tourisme social (BITS, le tourisme social constitue un véritable réseau international de l’économie sociale en tourisme. Ses acteurs reconnaissent le tourisme comme un facteur d’épanouissement individuel et collectif et défendent la mise en place de politiques sociales du tourisme.
The paper focuses on the development of „dark“ tourism as a type of special interest tourism. The study included analysis of the definition of „dark“ tourism, tourist motivations for this type of tourism, Stone' s typology of dark destination offers, and a portion is devoted to the role of „dark“ tourism in contemporary society. Also there are important „dark“ tourism destinations in the world as an example of this type of tourism development. The work includes a reference to the promot...
Hjalager, Anne Mette
Based on the empirical evidence provided by an evaluation study of the EU Objective 5b programme measures* for the expansion of rural tourism, this article discusses the impact of rural tourism on agricultural holdings. It is shown that the financial returns most often do not measure up either...... to the expectations of the politicians or to that of the farmers. In some respects rural tourism contributes positively to the innovation of the tourist product since its small scale, 'green' issues and special facilities differentiate the product from others. But the unleashing of real potential is hampered...... by the fact that farmers tend to give priority to traditional agriculture and by the fact that industrialized agriculture is not easily combined with the commodifying of agricultural traditions for tourism. The community level inter-organizational innovations which are designed to ensure the marketing...
Carlsen, Jack; Edwards, D; Forde, P
Innovation is the key to responding to the future challenges that confront all sectors of society and the economy, and especially in tourism. Within tourism, there are numerous corporations and destinations around the world that are responding to the ecological, social and economic challenges...... for an integrated overview of the drivers, barriers, processes and networks for innovation. The cases have been prepared for use in research and teaching of innovation, and the analysis and case notes are both designed to facilitate discussion and further investigation of innovation, not only in tourism......, but in other economic sectors as well. Being an online publication, it is expected that updates in successive editions of this first book will add further to the description and analysis of innovation for sustainable tourism and hence provide a resource for those seeking to enhance the teaching, research...
The purpose of the scientific research is to suggest the model of national tourism industry competitiveness and determine the main factors that increase national tourism industry competitiveness basing on fundamental national competitiveness theories and national tourism industry competitiveness conceptions.
The article looks at the attractive factors of basic tourism resources and the structure of their attractions. The general term ‘resource’ refers to both natural and anthropogenic resources, while the content of this concept refers to elements used in creating a tourism product. Basic tourism resources are the most important factors of tourism processes, with a vital attribute of direct and indirect tourism resources being their substitutability. Natural (biotropic) resources are consid...
Alina I. Popandopulo
Full Text Available The tourism in Abkhazia is being developed. All spheres of tourism activities including the government bodies and start-up tourist firms are seeking new forms of cooperation. The tourist firms in the republic of Abkhazia still should do a lot of work to enhance the level of services and develop a pricing policy.
Char-lee Moyle; Brent Moyle; Lisa Ruhanen; Alexandra Bec; Betty Weiler
This study aims to empirically compare the adoption of business sustainability amongst 291 randomly-selected tourism and non-tourism businesses in New South Wales, Australia. Tourism businesses were found to be more committed to environmentally-sustainable practices than other types of businesses with there being a clear correlation with their ability to learn and adapt. This contradicts criticisms in the literature that tourism businesses are slow adopters of sustainability. This study highl...
Alberta Tahiri; Idriz Kovaci
Tourism is a phenomenon that has seen a rapid multi fold increase and growth since the middle of the twentieth century. For host communities and countries, the development of tourism has offered numerous advantages, as well as some significant challenges and difficulties. In recent decades, the awareness has been strengthened that tourism needs to be developed following the sustainable development concept. This approach eliminates or significantly decreases the negative impacts of tourism gro...
Tisdell, Clement A.
Different economic methods are being used to estimate the economic benefits generated by nature (wildlife) tourism. The most prominent of these are economic valuation analysis and economic impact analysis. These methods often provide divergent and conflicting estimates of the economic benefits obtained from wildlife tourism, as is demonstrated in this article by the use of a microeconomic model. Tourism Research Australia has estimated the economic benefits to Australia of nature tourism base...
Duim, van der, V.R.; Caalders, J.D.A.D.
This paper analyses a pilot project in Costa Rica aimed to examine and improve the market linkages of 24 small-scale tourism initiatives to tour operators in Costa Rica and the Netherlands. It links pro-poor tourism and the concept of tourism chain to actor-network theory. The analysis shows that the tangible results in terms of pro-poor tourism of the project itself were meagre, as, initially, only three and later only one out of 24 projects was included in the tourism chain. However, the an...
Full Text Available From the second half of the twentieth century, the importance of the tourism industry to the world economy continued to grow, reaching today impressive figures: receipts of almost $ 1,000 billion and direct employment for over 70 million people (WTTC 2012, without taking into account the multiplier effect (according to the same statistics of WTTC, if considering the multiplier effect, the values are: $ 5,990 billion in tourism receipts, and 253.5 million jobs. We can say that tourism: has a higher capacity to generate and distribute incomes compared to other sectors; has a high multiplier effect; determines a high level of consumption of varied products and services. In this context, voices began to emerge, which presented the problems and challenges generated by the tourism activity. Many regions are facing real problems generated by tourism entrepreneurs and tourists who visit the community. Therefore, at the end of the last century, there were authors who sought to define a new form of tourism, which eliminated the negative impacts and increased the positive ones. As a generic term they used alternative tourism, but because of the ambiguity of the term, they tried to find a more precise term, which would define the concept easier. Thus emerged: ecotourism, rural tourism, Pro Poor Tourism etc.. All these forms have been introduced under the umbrella concept of sustainable tourism. In the present paper we will take a theoretical approach, in order to present some forms of sustainable tourism. During our research we covered the ideas and concepts promoted by several authors and academics but also some international organizations with focus on tourism. We considered these forms of tourism, as they respect all the rules of sustainable tourism and some of them have great potential to grow in both developed and emerging countries. The forms of sustainable tourism we identified are: ecotourism, pro-poor tourism, volunteer tourism and slow tourism. In
Anamaria Sidonia RĂVAR
Full Text Available The past decades brought new meanings to creativity as the decline of mass tourism created impetus for the emergence of creative behavior as a major source of competitive advantage in the tourism industry. This led, in turn, to the development of a new type of tourism – creative tourism – which translates into new products and services, new collaboration and partnership structures, new forms of organization and ultimately into new experiences for consumers of tourism services. However, there is still no consensus on how creativity manifests itself in tourism and how it can be encouraged in order to generate value-added for the customers. To this aim, a qualitative research was carried out, based on a structured interview applied to managers of tourism operators from various segments of the tourism value chain. Results reveal the differences in approach to encourage creativity among employees, bring value-added to the customers through creative services, and build a culture based on creative behavior and practices.
Gian Luigi Corinto
The paper analyzes the case study of the Tuscan Region which in 2007 has charged the Sistema Toscana Foundation to strategically control all the territorial marketing activities, even including those of the regional film commission and the promotional tourist web site. The aim is to analyze the specific promotional model for enogastronomy and film tourism, as in the peculiar combination of the Tuscan case. The findings are that enongatronomy and tourism have been promoted in combination but only referring to 'minor' tuscan destinations, different from the crowded regional capital or other cultural sites. This choice has been determined by the strategic market positioning of the entire regional tourism supply, effectively integrating local vocations in the web communications. The task of the Foundation in promoting the whole territory and even the minor destinations must be considered as substantially successful, mainly because it has increased the visibility of the Tuscan region by conveniently using all the old and new media tools.
Özge GÜDÜ DEMİRBULAT
Full Text Available In this study, it has been aimed to determine the bibliometric characteristics of postgraduate theses in tourism literature related with the sustainable tourism between the years of 1987 and 2015 in frames of various parameters. General features of the literature on sustainable tourism and provide convenience to reveal researchers to work in this area constitute a further object of this research. With that purpose, postgraduate theses registered in the website of Directorate of Council of Higher Education were reviewed in terms of some bibliometric characteristics (such as “type of thesis”, “release year”, “university released”, “institute released”, “department released” and “study topic of thesis”. Therefore, 41 postgraduate and 21 doctorate thesis related with the sustainable tourism included in scope of the study. The recorded studies were subjected to statistical analysis, data analysis was conducted of the frequencies and percentages. In result of the study, it was identified that the most postgraduate and doctorate thesis were prepared in Istanbul University.
Jóhannesson, Gunnar Thór; Ren, Carina Bregnholm; van der Duim, René
viable descriptions of the collective condition of humans and more-than-humans in the Anthropocene. Also and moving past a merely descriptive approach, it discusses it as a useful tool to engage with the situated globalities which come into being through the socio-spatial coupling of tourism......In recent years Actor-network theory (ANT) has increasingly been felt in the field of tourism studies (Van der Duim, Ren, & Jóhannesson, 2012). An important implication of the meeting between ANT and tourism studies is the notion of tourism being described as a heterogeneous assemblage of what we...... are used to define as the separate spheres of nature and culture. This paper explores and relates the central tenets of ANT in tourism with regard to the concept of the Anthropocene. It presents the ANT approach as a flat and object-oriented ontology and methodology and explores its potentials to carve out...
This paper has the starting point in the acknowledgement that a closer examination of the operational elements related to holiday packages may reveal advanced opportunities for advanced innovation. The investigation confirms that such opportunities exist in the intangible aspects of tourism...... products and production. Summarizing these findings, the paper proposes a framework that enables better insights into the nature of tourism innovation....
Full Text Available This article offers a contribution to the anthropology of tourism by investigating the tourism encounter in community-based tourism (CBT in Northern Thailand. It does so by discussing MacCannell’s (1992 idea of the Empty Meeting Grounds and Said’s Orientalism (1978, two works that contributed to research on power inequalities between tourists and residents in the developing world. By establishing a relationship between the two and embedding these in the wider literature on the tourism encounter, this article suggests moving away from binaries towards understanding the space of the tourism encounter and its potential for change. Building on empirical research conducted in Ban Mae Kampong, a CBT village in Northern Thailand, findings suggest that CBT shows signs of resident-host interactions that are based on understanding and learning rather than exploitation. While also in CBT friendships and meaning take time to emerge and the ‘Other’ is used as attraction, villagers’ agency and control over tourism are acknowledged. This paper therefore calls for a revisiting of the theoretical grounding that influences our understanding of the tourism encounter and argues for an investigation of community power relations in connection to the tourism encounter and its potential for residents’ empowerment in CBT.
Full Text Available Most research on tourism in Cambodia so far has focused on growth. There is very limited research on indicators for sustainability. A failure to create indicators for sustainable tourism may lead to short-term growth but the country will suffer in the long run. Sustainability really matters in tourism especially in a new destination like Cambodia. Cambodia has no clear indicators determining tourism sustainability. Cambodia’s tourism is remarkably flourishing, but behind this growth some challenges exist: Cultural and environmental impacts, economic leakage, sex tourism, drug trafficking and disease transmission. These concern tourism sustainability. This research intends to fill a significant gap regarding challenges hampering sustainable tourism, particularly creating indicators, by studying the activities of Cambodia’s tourism. The aim is to contribute to developing more comprehensive policies and measures that address problems by drawing on the activities and perspectives of the country’s tourism stakeholders: These include public and private actors, NGOs, local people and tourists.
Sajad Ebrahimi Meimand; Zainab Khalifah; Edmundas Kazimieras Zavadskas; Abbas Mardani; Amir Abbas Najafipour; Ungku Norulkamar Ungku Ahmad
Host population support for tourism development has attracted the attention of researchers in tourism studies. Given the importance of understanding local community support for tourism development, limitations in understanding their priority and lack of a socio-cultural model of support for tourism, this study attempted to model locals’ support for tourism development based on socio-cultural factors in Malaysian Homestay program. Using extensive literature review, a tourism support model was ...
L. V. Martseniuk
Full Text Available Purpose. In the world market of tourist services the extreme tourism is very popular, as it does not require the significant financial costs and enables year on year to increase the offers of holiday packages, associated with active travel. Ukraine has significant potential for the development of extreme kinds of rest, but it is not developed enough. Forms of extreme tourism are unknown for domestic tourists, and therefore, they formed a negative attitude. The aim of the article is the analysis of extreme resort potential of Ukraine and promotion of the development of extreme tourism destinations in the travel market. Theoretical and methodological basis of research is the system analysis of the problems of ensuring the competitiveness of the tourism industry, theoretical principles of economic science in the field of the effectiveness of extreme tourism and management of tourist flows. Methodology. The author offers the directions of tourist flows control, which differ from the current expansion of services to tourists in Ukraine. The development of extreme tourism with the help of co-operation of railways and sport federations was proposed. Findings. During the research the author proved that the implementation of the tasks will be promote: 1 increase in budget revenues at all levels of the inner extreme tourism; 2 raise the image of Ukraine and Ukrainian Railways; 3 increase the share of tourism and resorts in the gross domestic product to the level of developed countries; 4 bringing the number of employees in tourism and resorts to the level of developed countries; 5 the creation of an effective system of monitoring the quality of tourist services; 6 the creation of an attractive investment climate for attracting the investment in the broad development of tourism, engineering and transport and municipal infrastructure; 7 improvement the safety of tourists, ensure the effective protection of their rights and legitimate interests and
Viborg Andersen, Kim; Zinner Henriksen, Helle
Bhutan is in economic terms highly dependent of tourism. E-tourism is in this report assessed as a mean to maintain the current positive development in tourism and as a driver for extending tourism to new markets. Effective use of information, communication, distribution and transactions through the new media, such as the Internet, can lead to an increased level of economic activity in the tourism sector in Bhutan. Also, the indirect economic impacts on transportation, accommodation and the r...
Anamaria Sidonia RĂVAR; Maria-Cristina IORGULESCU
The past decades brought new meanings to creativity as the decline of mass tourism created impetus for the emergence of creative behavior as a major source of competitive advantage in the tourism industry. This led, in turn, to the development of a new type of tourism – creative tourism – which translates into new products and services, new collaboration and partnership structures, new forms of organization and ultimately into new experiences for consumers of tourism services. However, there...
Full Text Available Within the world of tourism development, it is indisputable for strategic planning of tourism, especially for defining and existence of a development strategy for tourism. The implementation of the development strategy for tourism is determined by the functioning of strategic management in tourism.Strategic management is a proactive process of achieving long-term compatibility of the corresponding field in planned tourism environment. This management is a profitable way for implementation of priority development goals in tourism, set by the national economy, which is affected by tourism development. Strategic management basically has all the necessary features that promise efficiency and effectiveness in achieving development goals in tourism.With increasing competition and globalization trends, dynamics and development of tourism is increasingly intensified, and strategic management to ensure efficient and effective business operations (resource management, management information systems, maintaining and developing relations with tourisms, expanding and development of the tourism business, managing to new and innovative tourism projects. Therefore the importance of strategic and operational management without successful parts of operations, threaten the development of the tourism component.
Yolanda Pena-Boquete; Diana Pérez-Dacal
Spain has the highest percentage of temporary workers in the European Union, and this problem is even more severe in the Tourism sector. In fact, tourism is well-known for being a source of low-skilled jobs, specifically for showing a higher percentage of fixed-term contracts. However, the tourism employment pattern is characterized by remarkable differences between Spanish regions. On the one hand, this could be related with the fact that each characteristic tourism industry provides a diffe...
Ștefan-Dragoș CÎRSTEA; Andreea CÎRSTEA
Tourism is a sector with a significant share in the economies of many countries. There are nations whose GDP consists of 40% of the total contribution of tourism to this indicator. One such segment requires permanent research of its economic, social and sustainability dimensions and their importance. This study outlines an overview of the main aspects related to economic and social importance of tourism and how tourism relates to the concept of sustainable development. The total contribution ...
In 2015 the scenario of global tourism has radically changed. The new scenario has shifted from the approach of the foregoing “closed-circuit” international tourism flows and the creation of different development centres of the tourism economy in the world taking over the global business that was previously in the hands of Europe and North America. The globalisation of tourism is unavoidable and, in many respects, positive. The creation of new tourist destinations and new countries generating...
Under what circumstances should a citizen be able to avoid the penalties set by the citizen's home country's criminal law by going abroad to engage in the same activity where it is not criminally prohibited? Should we view the ability to engage in prohibited activities by traveling outside of the nation state as a way of accommodating cultural or political differences within our polity? These are general questions regarding the power and theory of extraterritorial application of domestic criminal law. In this Article, I examine the issues through a close exploration of one setting that urgently presents them: medical tourism. Medical tourism is a term used to describe the travel of patients who are citizens and residents of one country, the "home country," to another country, the "destination country," for medical treatment. This Article is the first to comprehensively examine a subcategory of medical tourism that I call "circumvention tourism," which involves patients who travel abroad for services that are legal in the patient's destination country but illegal in the patient's home country--that is, travel to circumvent domestic prohibitions on accessing certain medical services. The four examples of this phenomenon that I dwell on are circumvention medical tourism for female genital cutting (FGC), abortion, reproductive technology usage, and assisted suicide. I will briefly discuss the "can" question: assuming that a domestic prohibition on access to one of these services is lawful, as a matter of international law, is the home country forbidden, permitted, or mandated to extend its existing criminal prohibition extraterritorially to home country citizens who travel abroad to circumvent the home country's prohibition? Most of the Article, though, is devoted to the "ought" question: assuming that the domestic prohibition is viewed as normatively well-grounded, under what circumstances should the home country extend its existing criminal prohibition
Full Text Available This article examines how Mapuche entrepreneurs are shaping the landscape of tourism in southern Chile in the context of indigenous development. Based on ethnographic research in and around Lican Ray, we looked at the impacts of Mapuche tourism ventures on development and deterritorialisation. Furthermore, we consider Mapuche tourism as a strategy of resistance in response to the deepening displacement of Mapuche population and the loss of traditional cultural values. The first section means to give an overview of the complexity of issues regarding (indigenous tourism and development as well as to introduce Mapuche tourism practices. Next, dealing with notions as territoriality and collectivism, we argue that Mapuche entrepreneurs are reappropriating Mapuche culture for development. Mapuche tourism is mobilising alternative ways for development, being and relating to the profound relationship they have with their territory and environment in accordance to their worldview. Finally, following the theories of anthropologists Charles Hale and James Scott, we show how Mapuche tourism is shaped in globalisation through Chile’s neoliberal policy. However, the Mapuche indigenous people active in tourism demonstrate that they possess the agency to construct strategies of ‘cultural resistance’. This article brings new perspectives to the study of indigenous tourism and development and represents Mapuche tourism as an opportunity for both indigenous development and resistance.
Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to present the fundamental equation in tourism finance that connects tourism research to empirical finance and financial econometrics. The energy industry, which includes, oil, gas and bio-energy fuels, together with the tourism industry, are two of the most important industries in the world today in terms of employment and generating income. The primary purpose in attracting domestic and international tourists to a country, region or city is to maximize tourism expenditure. The paper will concentrate on daily tourism expenditure, regardless of whether such data might be readily available. If such data are not available, a practical method is presented to calculate the appropriate data.
Unathi Sonwabile Henama
The tourism industry is one industry that has grown in leaps and bound since the watershed moment in 1994. Mining and manufacturing have declined their share of gross domestic product contribution, whilst tourism has been a perennial growth sector. The growth of tourism has resulted in tourism becoming a priority sector by government and the private sector. Tourism creates jobs, attracts investment, foreign exchange and diversifies the economy. Health tourism can be regard...
Bolwell, Dain; Weinz, Wolfgang
Outlines the background to poverty reduction approaches and how the ILO is involved within the context of Decent Work and the United Nations Millennium Development Goals. Recent developments in tourism and a vision for an inclusive, pro-poor tourism industry are summarized.
Dietvorst, A.G.J.; Ashworth, G.J.
In order to emphasize the dynamic character of the tourism-recreation product, an overarching concept is presented which integrates both supply and demand. The model shows the continuing transformation of the original tourism-recreation resource (either a landscape, a monument, an urban public
Full Text Available The paper presents analyses of the current condition, trends and opportunities for the apiculture development and its relation to tourism in Bulgaria. Beekeeping is considered as a branch of agriculture since its formation after the liberation to the present day and in its dynamics of development for the last 5 years. Resource base including traditions, state, production and marketing of honey is presented. Data from the National Statistics Institute, Ministry of Agriculture, Food beekeepers' associations, processors and traders of honey and bee products, the Ministry of Tourism and tourism industry organizations is analyzed and discussed. Beekeeping is represented in the relation as a resource for development of apitourism, as untraditional attractive specialized type of tourism, which can support farmers through non-agricultural practices. The paper aimed at assisting companies and individuals in the field of agribusiness and apitourism for the realization of bee products and services.
Pasgaard, Jens Christian
the potential of ‘the extraordinary’ tourism-dominated space. As highlighted in the introduction, this report does not present any systematic analysis of strategic planning processes; neither does it provide any unequivocal conclusions. Rather, the report presents a collection of so-called ‘detours......The main purpose of this report is to explore and unfold the complexity of the tourism phenomenon in order to qualify the general discussion of tourism-related planning challenges. Throughout the report I aim to demonstrate the strategic potential of tourism in a wider sense and more specifically......’ – a collection of theoretical discussions and case studies with the aim to inspire future strategic planning. Due to the complexity and heterogeneity of the phenomenon I use a non-linear and non-chronological report format with the ambition to create a new type of overview. In this regard the report is intended...
Full Text Available Event organization used to function as part of or as a support activity to the overall tourism industry. However, over the last decade, event organisation has grown so much so that it has evolved into an independent activity called event tourism. Event tourism, which includes organisation of festivals, concerts, business meetings, conferences, and exhibitions, has rapidly developed contributing to the overall tourism industry. Considering the long-term nature of global demand and supply, event tourism can be used to increase the attractiveness of the host city, attract visitors, and create new jobs and economic benefits. Although event tourism is expanding, it is difficult to quantify it. This paper includes a theoretical framework needed to understand event tourism, categorisation of events and an example of the Rijeka Carnival as a competitive advantage of the city of Rijeka.
Ford, Adriana; Acott, Timothy
‘Responsible Tourism: a guide for tourism and sustainability in small-scale fisheries and agri-food’ is a product of TourFish, a project funded by the EU INTERREG IVA 2 Seas programme. The aim of TourFish was to explore opportunities for coastal areas through developing responsible tourism that draws together food, small-scale inshore fisheries, regional branding and place-based marketing opportunities.
M. R. Arpentieva
Full Text Available The article is devoted to theoretical analysis of the problems of ecological tourism as a component of the theory and practice of recreational geography (geography, nature. The article reveals the essence and characteristics of ecotourism identifying its issues and determining the direction and tasks of its development. Special attention is paid to types and objects of ecological tourism, main problems and aspects of its development in the context of recreational geography and tourism are highlighted, such as the lack of an overall national concept for the development of rural tourism or the lack of clearly articulated public policies. There are neither standards and regulations applicable to rural tourism nor qualified personnel, knowledge and experience in the service sector of foreign and domestic tourists.There are no regulatory legal acts in the field of rural and ecological tourism which is aggravated by the unwillingness and inability to efficiently use private recreation resources. One of the key problems connected with the development of domestic tourism, including such types as agrotourism (“green tourism”, coupled with the experience of participation in rural works, and rural tourism as a whole, attracting people to rural life. The business problems of development of ecological tourism as an independent tourism industry cannot and should not be addressed to without strategic analysis and forecasting varied (including negative consequences of tourist activity for society, culture and environment as well as without and without the development and implementation of forms of ecological tourism aimed at harmonizing nature and culture of nature management by the population.
Bac Dorin Paul
Full Text Available Sustainable tourism is the result of the melange between tourism and sustainable tourism. The concept has evolved during the last decades of the twentieth century, in international conferences, summits etc. organized by the World Tourism Organization, the United Nations and other international organizations where it was defined, characterized and criticized. Unfortunately, the concept was not able to overcome its theoretical conceptualization and it did not reach practitioners of the tourism industry. Sustainable tourism has several forms which are actually practiced by tourists all over the world: ecotourism, backpacking, rural tourism, nature-based tourism, pro-poor tourism, volunteer tourism etc. In the present paper, we have focused on an area in Apuseni Mountains, Romania. We tried to identify the forms of sustainable tourism most suitable for this area considering: natural resources, socio-economical development, protected areas, gastronomic traditions etc. After considering all these we have selected three forms: ecotourism, volunteer tourism and slow tourism, which could have the highest impact in promoting this area, and actually all the Apuseni Mountains as an important destination for sustainable tourism. The arguments for ecotourism are based on the numerous natural tourism resources> caves, gorges, forests and wildlife. Volunteers are needed especially in conservation and English language course. For slow tourism, there are numerous trails for walking and biking. Also there are several foods, mainly based on milk and wild berries that should be promoted and sold under the slow food brand. The shortcomings of the research are the lack of quantitative and qualitative results, as there is no information regarding the number of tourists which visit the area during each year. Also, it is hard to compare the benefits of sustainable tourism with those of mass tourism, due to the lack of references. So it is harder to argue for sustainable
Brida, J.G.; Disegna, Marta; Osti, L.
The purpose of this paper is to explore residents' perceptions of tourism impacts and how they affect attitudes towards local tourism policies. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of community attachment and employment sector of residents. This study presents the results of a quantitative survey among residing families of a small mountain community located in the North-East of Italy. The findings reveal that residents perceptions on economic, environmental and socio-cultural impacts ...
Bentley , T A; Page, S J; Laird, I S
Injuries and fatalities among participants of adventure tourism activities have the potential to seriously impact on New Zealand's tourism industry. However, the absence of statistics for tourist accidents in New Zealand, and the lack of detailed academic research into adventure tourism safety, means the extent of the problem is unknown. The aims of the present study were to determine the incidence of client injuries across a range of adventure tourism activity sectors, and to identify common accident events and contributory risk factors. A postal questionnaire survey of New Zealand adventure tourism operators was used. Operators were asked to provide information related to their business; the number of recorded client injuries during the preceding 12 month period, January to December 1998; common accident and injury events associated with their activity; and perceived risk factors for accidents in their sector of the adventure tourism industry. The survey was responded to by 142 New Zealand adventure tourism operators. The operators' reported client injury experience suggests the incidence of serious client injuries is very low. Highest client injury incidence rates were found for activities that involved the risk of falling from a moving vehicle or animal (e.g., cycle tours, quad biking, horse riding, and white-water rafting). Slips, trips, and falls on the level were common accident events across most sectors of the industry. Perceived accident/incident causes were most commonly related to the client, and in particular, failure to attend to and follow instructions. The prevalence of client injuries in activity sectors not presently covered by government regulation, suggests policy makers should look again at extending codes of practice to a wider range of adventure tourism activities. Further research considering adventure tourism involvement in overseas visitor hospitalized injuries in New Zealand, is currently in progress. This will provide supporting evidence
"This article offers a contribution to the anthropology of tourism by investigating the tourism encounter in community-based tourism (CBT) in Northern Thailand. It does so by discussing MacCannell's (1992) idea of the Empty Meeting Grounds and Said’s Orientalism (1978), two works that contributed to research on power inequalities between tourists and residents in the developing world. By establishing a relationship between the two and embedding these in the wider literature on the tourism enc...
Törn, A. (Anne)
Abstract Nature-based tourism has increased considerably during recent years, which has raised questions about the tolerance of ecosystems experiencing growing visitor numbers. The present thesis focuses on the ecological and social sustainability of nature-based tourism in protected areas and their surroundings. The objective of the ecological studies was to determine the effects of tourism on vegetation, soils and risk of introduction of alien plant species. The social survey investigate...
This study reviews the current photographic tourism literature to identify what fields within tourism have been studied by researchers, the contexts, the samples used, the sampling methods employed, the photographic methods and supporting methods used, the data analysis techniques applied and the countries studied. A set of 115 relevant academic articles were selected and assessed using content analysis. The findings showed that overall publications in the field of photographic tourism increa...
Angelkova, Tanja; Koteski, Cane; Jakovlev, Zlatko; Mitreva, Elizabeta
Tourism is an activity that can have a really big impact on sustainable development. Sustainability of tourism involves extensive cooperation between tourist companies, tourist destinations and national, regional and local authorities in order to cover a broad group of challenges and at the same time to remain competitive. Opportunities for sustainable tourism development and preservation of its competitiveness, largely influenced by the quality of the environment, preserved and attractive...
Full Text Available Purpose – Tourism 2025 – Growing Value Together/Whakatipu Uara Ngatahi is a framework to unite New Zealand's large and diverse tourism industry and ignite strong, aspirational economic growth. Its goal is to see the tourism industry contribute $41 billion a year to the New Zealand economy by 2025, up from $24 billion now. It provides vital context for some collective actions by big or small industry clusters and for thousands of actions individual businesses will take each year. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach – A wide range of tourism industry stakeholders were consulted over an 18-month period to ensure the project was being developed on a solid, evidence-based foundation. There was strong stakeholder support for a framework which the private sector takes ownership of and responsibility for, but which also recognises that public sector support is vital. The project team developed a "straw-man" growth framework model which resulted in carrying out detailed investigations and consultation to test and, where necessary, adjust that model into its final form. Findings – There were four major forces shaping the global tourism market. There was one positive force for New Zealand countered by three tough challenges. The strawman growth framework comprised five separate yet inter-connected “cycle of growth” themes. These themes are relatively consistent with global national tourism plans that were studied. Used intelligently and in harmony, with the industry fully understanding the inter-relationships and inter-dependencies within the "cycle of growth", the key themes enable the tourism industry to successfully come to grips with the challenges and opportunities ahead. Originality/value – Tourism 2025 is aimed at aligning the industry on a pathway towards aspirational growth.
Hooman Dabidian; Mohammed Wafaa Al-Ani; Christopher Hassaan Francke; Ahmed Redwan
While it will require further political stability and security, tourism in Iraq stands to be a major growth sector. The Iraqi tourism sector is currently underdeveloped and in a state of neglect, due to decades of war, closed regimes and recurrent instability and insecurity. However, as Iraq continues to develop and stabilizes, it can begin to meet its tremendous potential as a global tour...
Zahedpisheh, Nahid; Abu Bakar, Zulqarnain B.; Saffari, Narges
The quick development of the tourism and hospitality industry can straightly influence the English language which is the most widely used and spoken language in international tourism in the twenty-first century. English for tourism has a major role in the delivery of quality service. Employees who work in the tourism and hospitality industry are…
Full Text Available Tourism appeal includes natural places like beaches, eco-parks, lakes, valleys, rivers, islands etc., archeological sites, historic mosques and monuments, resorts, picnic spots, forest and wildlife. Bangladesh is a riverine country having attractive panoramic beauty. There are hills, valley, canals, lake, eco-park and mangrove forests, rivers, so many islands and the longest beach in the world. In this country, the scope of nature based tourism, resource based tourism, culture based tourism and eco-tourism is quite evident. Bangladesh is trying hard to develop its tourism industry. Therefore the whole situation deserves to be seen from right perspectives. Role of government is positive since the last twenty years both private and public organizations have come forwarded to attract the local and foreign tourists. The cracks of problem could not identify accurately because of the paucity number of researches and investigations in our country. Developed and organized tourism industry could change the economic condition and contribute a big share in the GDP of Bangladesh. This study will impede the opportunities of developing tourism industry in the light of existing resources.
C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); H-K. Hsu (Hui-Kuang); M.J. McAleer (Michael)
markdownabstract__Abstract__ This paper uses monthly data from April 2005 to August 2013 for Taiwan to propose a novel tourism indicator, namely the Tourism Conditions Index (TCI). TCI accounts for the spillover weights based on the Granger causality test and estimates of the multivariate BEKK
Sajad Ebrahimi Meimand
Full Text Available Host population support for tourism development has attracted the attention of researchers in tourism studies. Given the importance of understanding local community support for tourism development, limitations in understanding their priority and lack of a socio-cultural model of support for tourism, this study attempted to model locals’ support for tourism development based on socio-cultural factors in Malaysian Homestay program. Using extensive literature review, a tourism support model was proposed including several hypothesized paths. The proposed socio-cultural research framework predicted the impact of Islamic religiosity, locals’ knowledge about tourism, intrinsic motivation factors and community attachment on locals support for tourism development through mediating variables of perceived socio-cultural benefits and costs in Malaysian Homestays. , the model and paths were tested using structural equation modelling and partial least square algorithm (PLS-SEM with the aid of SmartPLS software. Findings reveal that locals’ support for tourism development in Homestay program is a function of perceived socio-cultural benefits and costs perceived by local community and four independent variables of Islamic religiosity, knowledge about tourism, intrinsic motivations, and community attachment.
Full Text Available The crowdfunding system is a collective financing form in which people can contribute with money to projects they consider relevant, receiving or not compensation for this contribution. This paper aimed to analyze Brazilian situated crowdfunding platforms as an alternative to projects in tourism area. The research shows itself actual, faced to the recent growth of these platforms in the country. Also, it is relevant in a lack of resources scenario, once the method could interest by favoring credit access at the same time it promotes the targeted public involvement. By means of a descriptive, the existing platforms were verified: sixteen were found, twelve of which were analyzed, due to errors in the sites during the research period. Then, they were analyzed according to their modus operandi (existence of taxes, commission, “all-or-nothing system”, reward to the contributors, etc. and classified according to which enable the insertion of tourism projects. Half of the platforms contemplate several projects and, of these six, four consider Tourism. The most used model is “all-or-nothing” and the costs of this type of financing can reach more than thirty percent of the contributions, as they are charged management fees, transaction fees and even percentage for sales of the resulting product from crowdfunding. Thus, the system may be interesting to the entrepreneur, although it is necessary to consider operating costs.
Sandor,Leonardo Taborda; Ferreira,Itamar
Este trabalho propõe um modelo para avaliar pontualmente as variações de tenacidade à fratura ao longo da camada cementada de um aço SAE 5115. A pequena espessura dessas camadas impede a retirada de corpos de prova nas dimensões especificadas pelas normas de ensaios de tenacidade à fratura. Assim, para simular uma camada cementada retirou-se corpos-de-prova de tração e de tenacidade à fratura de amostras de aços SAE 5115, 5140, 5160 e 52100 assumindo a influência local apenas da variação do t...
Full Text Available The most widely used thermochemical process for surface hardening of steels is case hardening. Using several different heat treatments, martensitic surface layers were formed on SAE 1020 steel into which carbon had been diffused. Case depths were measured by traditional destructive techniques. Barkhausen noise measurements were made and both the RMS Barkhausen pulse envelope and the fast Fourier transform (FFT were obtained from numerical calculation. The FFT amplitudes, functions of frequency, were associated with distance from the sample surface using the skin depth equation δ = 1/ (πfσµ½ , where f is the frequency of the electromagnetic wave, s is the electrical conductivity, and µ is the magnetic permeability. We define a normalized power index (NPI which can be used to estimate case depths. The NPI is discussed in relation to the sample microstructure and it is shown that the case depth is most easily determined when the magnetic properties of the surface layer and core are substantially different.
Full Text Available Tourism is a very important industry, and it is deeply affected by climate. This article focuses on the role of climate in tourism seasonality and attempts to assess the impacts of climate resources on China’s tourism seasonality by using the Tourism Climate Index (TCI. Seasonal distribution maps of TCI scores indicate that the climates of most regions in China are comfortable for tourists during spring and autumn, while the climate conditions differ greatly in summer and winter, with “excellent”, “good”, “acceptable” and “unfavorable” existing almost by a latitudinal gradation. The number of good months throughout China varies from zero (the Tibetan Plateau area to 10 (Yunnan Province, and most localities have five to eight good months. Moreover, all locations in China can be classified as winter peak, summer peak and bi-modal shoulder peak. The results will provide some useful information for tourist destinations, travel agencies, tourism authorities and tourists.
Full Text Available Tourism has become an important sector that has an impact on development of country economy. The main benefits of tourism are income creation and generation of jobs. For many regions and countries it is the most important source of welfare. The ability of the national economy to benefit from tourism depends on the availability of investment to develop the necessary infrastructure and on its ability to supply the needs of tourists. Albania has a touristic potential for development of seaside tourism and other alternative forms of tourism. The scope of the paper is to present the impact of tourism on economy and especially on income. paper treats why Albania is an attractive country for investors, and which are the possibilities to invest. Through a questioner scattered in different publics and private institution of Albania are presented major problematical of tourism in Albania
Full Text Available Tourism is an important driver of global economic system, playing a leading role both in the economic life andsocial action contributing to the tourism potential of each individual country and economic growth, improvingliving conditions. Romania has a huge tourism potential represented by the natural environment and naturalresources, human resources, customs and traditions, a potential which unfortunately is not used to the wholes value.The paper aimed to analyze the evolution of Romanian tourism receipts in GDP, by share, positioning on the place 151 and by evolution of tourism receipts per capita in Romania compared to World average, positioning Romaniaon the place 103 out from 172 countries during the time 2003-2011, according to the information’s provided by Data World Bank.
Taplin, Jessica; Dredge, Dianne; Scherrer, Pascal
The rapid expansion and commercialisation of the volunteer tourism sector and the potential for negative impacts on host communities have put the sector under increasing scrutiny. Monitoring and evaluation are key aspects of sustainable tourism planning and management, and play important roles...... in the project planning and implementation cycles of volunteer tourism organisations and destination managements. However, they can be both value-laden and politically charged, making an understanding of context, purpose and various approaches to monitoring and evaluation important. Drawing from evaluation...... highlights the important influence of context (the issue the volunteer tourism programme is addressing, the nature of the intervention, the setting, the evaluation context and the decision-making context), and identifies four dimensions of volunteer tourism (stakeholders, organisations, markets...
Sundbo, Jon; Orfila-Sintes, Francina; Sørensen, Flemming
Tourism firms operate in a competitive sector where innovating is often a condition for survival. This article presents a theoretical framework for understanding tourist firms’ innovative behaviour and innovation systems in tourism. The innovativeness of tourism firms and its determinants...... systems. The article suggests that large size, professionalism, but also entrepreneurship among small tourism firms are important determinants of innovation. Varied innovation networks are another determinant as are supportive innovation systems. These determinants favour Spanish firms, which are more...... are investigated by analysing quantitative as well as qualitative data comparing Spain and Denmark. A taxonomy of tourism firms is suggested and the firms’ characteristics which influence their innovativeness are presented. Additionally, the role of innovation networks is discussed, as is the role of innovation...
Anatoly V. Korotkov
Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to research birth tourism issue. The article gives the socio-demographic and statistical aspects of research problems of birth inbound tourism in the Russian Federation. Following the literature analysis, the degree of study for birth tourism lags behind its actual size. Currently, the media has accumulated a significant amount of information on birth tourism in Russia, that requires processing, systematization and understanding that can and should become an independent area of study of sociologists and demographers to develop recommendations for the management of socio-demographic processes in birth tourism in our country. It is necessary to identify the problems that will inevitably arise. At present, this process is almost not regulated.These problems are complex, it requires the joint efforts of sociologists and demographers. However, it is impossible to obtain reliable results and to develop management decisions without attention to the statistical aspect of this problem. It is necessary to create methodological support for collecting and information processing and model development of the birth tourism. At the initial stage it is necessary to identify the direction and objectives of the analysis to determine the factors in the development of this process, to develop a hierarchical system of statistical indicators, to receive the information, needed for calculating of specific indicators.The complex research of the birth tourism issues should be based on the methodology of sociology, demography and statistics, including statistical observation, interviews with residents, structure analysis and birth tourism concentration in the country, the analysis of the dynamics, classification of factors and reasons, the grouping of regions for the development of the studied processes and, of course, the development of economic-statistical indicators.The article reveals the problem of the significant influence of the
Effects of residents' tourism development expectation and tourism impacts perception on their attitude towards tourism in natural tourist destination: A Comparative study between China's Jiuzhaigou and the UK's New Forest National Parks
Cheng, S.; Zhang, J.; Xu, Feifei; Liang, Y.
Local residents' perception of tourism impacts in tourist destinations has been found to affect their attitude towards tourism; however, there have been relatively few studies on the influence of residents' tourism development expectation on their attitude towards tourism. With the utilization of SPSS16.0 software, this paper, taking China's Jiuzhaigou and the UK's New Forest National Parks as case study areas, makes a comparative study on the influence of local residents' tourism development...
Sustainable tourism is a multi-stakeholder issue, whose aim is to stimulate the balanced exploitation of natural resources at the local level and to limit the social and environmental impacts. The businesses operating in the tourism sector mainly consist of SMEs. Their impact, although less significant if considered individually, are significant at the local level, particularly considering the cumulative effects produced by tourism businesses in a specific area and the role such businesses ca...
Caraba, Cosmin Ciprian
"Communist heritage tourism and red tourism: concepts, development and problems. The second part of the 20th century has been marked by the competition between capitalism and communism. The “Autumn of Nations” put an end to the Eastern Bloc, but each former communist country in Central and Eastern Europe still possesses heritage sites reminding of the communist period. These heritage sites are turning into major tourist attractions, being sought by western tourists. Halfway around the worl...
Tourism has been recognized as a significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions sector on a global scale. Yet, only few studies assess tourism's share in national emissions. This paper compares and analyses existing inventories of national emissions from tourism. Studies are difficult to compare, because they use different system boundaries and allocation principles, omitting or including lifecycle emissions and GHG other than CO 2 . By outlining and analysing these differences, the paper estimates the contribution made by tourism to national emissions, and its greenhouse gas intensity in comparison to other economic sectors. Results indicate that while emissions from tourism are significant in all countries studied, they may, in some countries, exceed ‘official' emissions as calculated on the basis of guidelines for national emission inventories under the Kyoto Protocol. This is a result of the fact that bunker fuels are not considered in national GHG inventories, leading to underestimates of the energy- and GHG intensity of tourism economies. While further growth in tourism emissions can be expected in all countries studied, energy-related vulnerabilities are already considerable in many of these. Climate policy for tourism, on the other hand, is largely non-existent, calling for immediate action to consider this sector in national legislation. - Highlights: • Emissions from tourism are equivalent to 5–150% of ’official’ national emissions. • Inconsistent methods are used to calculate national tourism emissions. • Tourism is an energy-intense economic sector compared to other sectors. • Emissions from tourism are growing rapidly. • National policy is not concerned with tourism-related emissions
Full Text Available Contradicting the general belief that the Transylvanian Plain has a poor tourism potential, we bring proof that even in a non-tourist region there are many elements that can provide a generous support for a variety of tourism activities, such as: rural tourism, agro-tourism, recreational tourism, cultural and religious tourism, eco-tourism, and even the critical tourism may occur if the resources are not properly managed. Definitions, examples, two tables, and a map are offering additional information and data, in order to reveal a less known side of the Transylvanian Plain.
Full Text Available The present research aims at contributing to the field of Online Communication for tourism destinations. It provides a study on online communication of Romanian main tourism destinations, focusing on DMOs’ websites completeness in terms of contents and on their capability to respond to users’ needs. The results of the current research show that the Romanian Destination Websites offer a poor online experience for users, in terms of content, functionalities and fail to fully satisfy the needs and wants of potential tourists. This study is important for establishing the strategies for developing the tourism destination management in Romania.
Full Text Available The issue of community participation in tourism development has been brought in front of the sector decision makers and researchers mostly during the last period of time. It could be a source of benefits and it could also create a better relationship between the tourism companies and the community groups. In this paper the author writes a literature review on this subject in order to draw attention on this issue in the Romanian tourism literature and to create an analysis framework for specific cases of tourism development plans.
... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration U.S. Travel and Tourism Advisory Board: Meeting of the U.S. Travel and Tourism Advisory Board AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S... Tourism Advisory Board (Board) will hold a meeting to discuss topics related to the travel and tourism...
Pasgaard, Jens Christian
This article is rooted in theories presented in the PhD dissertation Tourism and Strategic Planning (Pasgaard 2012) and features a number of much discussed concepts related to the complicated phenomenon of tourism and to the discipline of strategic urban planning. It is beyond the scope of this a...
GHEORGHE GABRIEL SANDA
Full Text Available Cultural tourism is not a new form of tourism but a growing niche product; it represents a form of economic development. This concept has emerged as a result of the interaction between tourism and culture and the increasing consumption of culture. Globalization has led to the standardization of culture which implies that it does not benefit all communities and it can affect the local and regional cultures. The article wishes to present notions of culture and tourism and to highlight the main features of the concept of cultural tourism and its evolution over time from a niche market to a booming sector. Also it focuses on the specific features of the tourists that characterize this form of tourism. Cultural tourism is presented everywhere in the world, many destinations being known by tourists due to the cultural image they have. Among these destinations we can mention Paris with Versailles Palace, Notre Dame Cathedral; Rome with Colloseum; Targu Jiu with the ensamble of Constantin Brancusi.
Isabel María Torres Martínez
Full Text Available Cultural tourism has the potential to create multiple positive impacts from the socio-cultural point of view; if properly managed. The strengthening of cultural identity and the rescue of tangible and intangible cultural heritage are some examples. A study by the European Commission and the Council of Europe highlighted the potential of cultural routes for the generation of small businesses, intercultural dialogue and the promotion of the image of Europe in general. In the last decade, numerous projects and, in particular, European funds have been devoted to the creation of themed-tourism products and cultural routes. This is the case of the Umayyad Route, which has been rescued through a project funded by the European Union with the aim of improving Mediterranean territorial cohesion through the creation of the transnational cultural tourism itinerary. It is led by the Public Andalusian Foundation El legado andalusí and it has a network of partners in seven countries in the Mediterranean basin: Spain, Portugal, Italy, Tunisia, Egypt, Lebanon and Jordan. Through interviews with the coordinating entity and the managers of the national routes, this article analyses how the Umayyad Route is contributing to the enhancement of the rich legacy of the Umayyad dynasty in its expansion along the Mediterranean and to being a bridge of collaboration between the East and the West. It also describes the problems and challenges to overcome for the promotion of shared heritage and for the understanding between cultures and territories.
Full Text Available The basic idea of the EU LIFE+ 2011 project MuSAE (“Municipalities Subsidiarity for Actions on Energy”, code LIFE11 ENV/IT/000016 consists of transferring the skills and experience related to energy planning, acquired by the leading beneficiary, the Municipality of Perugia, to three small- or medium-sized Umbrian Municipalities (Marsciano, Umbertide and Lisciano Niccone. This transfer is aimed, among other objectives, at the drafting of the Municipal Energy and Environmental Plan (MEEP and the opening of an energy information office in each partner Municipality, in cooperation with CIRIAF and Umbria Region. The present paper provides a summary of MuSAE activities, analyzing the procedures and modalities of implementation of the various phases of the MEEPs, on the basis of the experience gained over the years through the collaboration with the Municipality of Perugia and adapted to smaller territories such as those represented by the other partner Municipalities. A summary of the dissemination activities and pilot projects is also presented, testifying the first concrete results of the planning activity developed by each administration within the project.
Olsen, Lise Smed
through stakeholder collaboration in Jokkmokk, Sweden and Kautokeino, Norway. The study indicates that collaboration between destination marketing organisations and Sami stakeholders has been initiated and has improved destination marketing. Conflicts relating to indigenous identity and land use are more......Indigenous tourism has become an important component of the tourism industry. Previous indigenous tourism research has indicated three conflict areas that can have an impact on destination development - internal conflicts over indigenous identity, the use of indigenous culture in destination...... marketing, and land-use conflicts. To varying degrees these areas of conflict have been found to impact local and regional destination development in northern Europe. This paper draws on case studies to understand how conflicts in Sami tourism in local and regional destination development are addressed...
Full Text Available This study aims to assess the residents’ support for sustainable tourism development in a destination that is in the initial tourism development stage. Residents’ perception of sustainable tourism development potential, sense of place, perceived tourism impacts, and tourism development support were involved in this study. A total of 331 completed questionnaire surveys were collected in Luozhou, a historical-cultural village in China. The empirical data were analyzed using a structural equation modeling (SEM technique, and the results revealed that perceived collective benefits had a significant positive effect on tourism development support, whereas the other three perceived impacts’ influence were not significant. The relationship between residents’ sense of place and perceived collective and personal benefits, perceived personal costs and tourism development support, were significant. Additionally, residents’ perceptions of tourism development potential had a significant influence on perceived impact and tourism development support except for perceived personal benefits. Some practical implications of those findings for tourism planning and development are also discussed.
The goal of our study was to analyse the impact of Slovenian educations institution culture on the self-assessed tourism relevant skills and competencies. Our study shows that to cope with the rapid changes in the field of tourism new educational approaches for next decades should be developed. Contemporary process is according to our findings strongly result oriented. Organizational culture on the level of the college tourism program does not stimulate the development of relevant skills and ...
González Sánchez, Cynthia; Muñoz Salinas, Francisco; Roset Calzada, Jaime
The Caribbean is a great holiday destination, along with Europe, Asia and South America. But it is one of the regions that depend more economically on the touristic sector. That is why there is a need to innovate and reinvent the touristic offer constantly. Throughout the years, tendencies and tourism types has changed and developed, adapting to the market and clients expectations. Beach hotel, all inclusive hotel offers, mountain tourism, hiking, ecotourism, city tourism, are some of the ...
Camilleri, Mark Anthony
This chapter introduces its readers to the concept of tourism. It sheds light on the rationale for tourism, as it explains the tourists’ inherent motivations to travel. It also describes different aspects that together make up the tourism industry. Tourists travel to destinations that are accessible to them. They require accommodation if they are visiting a place for more than twenty-four hours. Leisure and business travellers may also visit attractions, and engage themselves in recreational ...
Full Text Available Cultural attractions are often linked to unique features of the host population, and are often related to a national minority or a segment of the population that preserved their traditions. Ethnically or religiously varied countries may often have such unique attractions, that seem exotic and appealing to tourists. Multiculturality is often an attraction for tourism, offering generally an authentic experience for visitors of different backgrounds. Besides, an ethnically or linguistically varied population can also provide a linguisticaly more skilful labour force, that is more sensitive to the needs of visitors coming from different cultures, and thus create a more comfortable environment for them. The issue of multicultural societies has recently become a sensitive issue, due to global mass migration. There is a belief that ethnic or cultural fractionalisation would necessarily bring about difficulties of understanding and cooperation, leading to lower economic performance, less stable economic and social processes and, ultimately a slowdown of economic output. The resulting conflicts, difficulties may frighten away tourists and lead to the vulnerability of the tourism sector in very heterogeneous countries. On the other hand, ethnic fractionalisation and the resulting cultural diversity can be welcome as valuable resources as the varied pool of knowledge, traditions, skills, customs, that can enhance innovative ideas and creativity. In the present paper evidence is looked for the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and religious diversity and tourism performance in a cross-country statistical analysis of 155 countries of the world. Statistical analysis of 155 countries show, that although there is a tendency of lower tourism performance with greated fractionalisation of the society, the most popular and successful tourism destinations are often multicultural and multiethnic societies.
The paper examines various aspects of the specificity of the postmodern trend in tourism - food tourism. Basic concepts are defined and classification of its various manifestations is proposed. Analyses are made for opportunities of responsible tourism in this area in order to achieve sustainability. In conclusion is proposed a model that creates opportunities for integrating socially responsible practices in the tourism sector through responsible food tourism.
Full Text Available Transforming mature tourism resorts has evolved toward a greater involvement of public authorities and away from the mere renovation of public spaces. Authorities today are required to lead the reorganization of tourism activities through the development of co-operative networks between all stakeholders involved. In this paper, a participatory integrated approach has been designed and implemented in collaboration with Spanish authorities and the tourism sector to propose a strategy to achieve the renovation of tourism resorts. This methodology was applied to Puerto de la Cruz, the oldest tourism destination in the Canary Islands and a clear paradigm of a consolidated resort. The objective is to define and implement policies to transform Puerto de la Cruz into a more sustainable tourism destination.
Tribe, John; Liburd, Janne J.
This conceptual study addresses the significant need for every mature field of knowledge to understand itself. It builds upon previous studies of the epistemology and ontology of tourism by critiquing, synthesising, discarding, re-ordering and adding material. Its contribution is an original...... reconceptualisation of the structure, systems, processes and outcomes that define the field of tourism. These are explained by the creation of a model and detailed analysis that examines knowledge space, the knowledge force-field, knowledge networks, four key domains in knowledge creation and their interrelationships....... Finally the model is used to examine some of the key challenges and consequences that the knowledge system reveals for tourism and its research....
Full Text Available Christopher Taylor1, Nelson Barber2, Cynthia Deale31School of Business, Eastern New Mexico University, Portales, Roosevelt County, NM, USA; 2Whittemore School of Business, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH, USA; 3Department of Hospitality Management, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC , USAAbstract: Wine tourism marketers frequently seek new ways to promote destinations, often executing ecologically sustainable practices. As consumer environmental knowledge of a wine tourism destination increases, consumer attitudes change, influencing perceptions of the environmental policies of a wine region. In this consumer-driven economy, it is therefore important to search for effective ways to market destinations, and one approach is selective marketing. By focusing on consumers in this manner, it is possible to understand better their concerns and motivations, which should aid in marketing and advertising efforts. This study investigated wine consumers environmental concerns and attitudes about wine regions. Results suggest environmental attitudes differed by demographics regarding the impact of wine tourism, providing ideas on further marketing efforts for those involved in wine tourism.Keywords: sustainable wine tourism, green products, wine marketing, consumers
Zejda Pavel; Zejda David
Academics perceive a great potential of virtual worlds in various areas, including tourism and education. Efforts adapting the virtual worlds in practice are, however, still marginal. There is no clear definition of the virtual world. Therefore the author of this article attempts to provide one. The paper also focuses on the barriers of a wider exploitation of the virtual worlds and discusses the principles that might help to increase their potential in tourism area. One of the principles – g...
Buda, Dorina; d'Hauteserre, Anne-Marie; Johnston, Lynda
Drawing on critical social and spatial theories of emotion and affect this article offers a contribution to the concepts of danger-zone and dark tourism through a focus on feelings. Research findings on tourism in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan and the West Bank (of the river Jordan) in Palestine
Norhafiza Md Sharif
Full Text Available Entrepreneurs play an important role in sustaining rural tourism and formulation of sustainable strategies being the initiators of the tourism business and the engine of the local development. Therefore, it is necessary to stimulate the development of entrepreneurial activities for the recovery of rural tourism potential and regional traditions, maintaining local employment growth and increase living standards in line with identifies needs and priorities of regional human resources development. This article aims to discuss the involvement of local communities in development of rural tourism entrepreneurship as well as addressing the issue of entrepreneurship in rural tourism.
Chambers, Donna; Munar, Ana Maria; Khoo-Lattimore, Catheryn; Biran, Avital
This introductory essay argues for the adoption of feminist epistemologies to unpack the role, nature and effects of gender (in)equality in our tourism academy. Our focus on tourism academia recognizes the importance of tourism to social life and the crucial role that tourism academics play in knowledge production. We therefore argue for a shift in the focus of extant gender research in tourism away from tourism as a phenomenon to ourselves as tourism academics. We provide an overview of the ...
Full Text Available Understanding the spatial dimensions of tourism is one of the core challenges for geographers involved in tourism studies. The aim in this paper is to pursue a geographical analysis of uneven patterns of tourism in South Africa and specifically to unpack the key trends observed in the country's tourism space economy. The analysis is conducted between three groupings of municipalities as destinations or tourism spaces. These three groups are demarcated as the metropolitan areas, the rural spaces of the priority district municipalities, and what is called the intermediate space of the remaining non-priority district municipalities. The findings show the dominance of South Africa's tourism space economy by the metropolitan areas. In addition, the analysis shows these three different tourism spaces exhibit different trajectories in terms of growth performance (numbers of trips, bednights and visitor spend, origin of visitors (domestic versus international and purpose of travel (leisure, business, VFR and other. Interpreting the characteristics of these tourism spaces is an essential first step for improved local tourism planning.
Full Text Available The concept of responsibility is well-known, but its association with tourism and connections with different aspects studied extensively, such as ethics, social responsibility, sustainable development and sustainable tourism, offers multiple research options. The main aim of this article is to define responsible tourism and to characterize responsible tourist. To define responsible tourism were seeking answers to the following questions: What are the main characteristics of responsible tourism? What known concepts can be associated with responsible tourism and with which forms of tourism is more suitable? And who are stakeholders in promotion and development of res ponsible tourism principles? To characterize responsible tourist, research answer to the following questions: What aspects define a responsible tourist? And, in this context, is a responsible attitude to travel and discover your own country? A secondary objective of the research is the statistical testing of correlations between respondents' characteristics and their opinion about the responsibility in tourism. The study is based on quantitative research ‒ a questionnaire applied to Romanian tourists in the period of March-May 2015.
Full Text Available The aim of the article is to assess the effectiveness of the Congress of the Polish Chamber of Tourism 2017 in the elaboration of joint applications regarding the provision of substantive and logistical support to entrepreneurs as well as the pursuit of comprehensive regulation of tourism law; adaptation of Polish law to European standards. Research problems: What is the legal status in the field of tourism law regarding outgoing tourism, incoming tourism and MICE, children and youth tourism, domestic tourism and accommodation facilities, travel agents and air transport? What are the main problems of the industries and what are their solutions proposed? What is the position and conclusions of the Congress? Research methods: study of documents, source materials, study of Congress materials, interviews with participants of the Congress, personal participation in the Congress. The PIT Congress took place on 25.11. - 2.12.2017 in Egypt (Marsa Alam: "Groundbreaking changes in tourism law: challenges and problems". The aim of the Congress was to develop a common position in the field of tourism law on outgoing tourism, incoming tourism and MICE, children and youth tourism, domestic tourism and accommodation facilities, travel agents and air transport. PIT is the largest nationwide organization of the economic self-government of the tourism industry. Polish Chamber of Tourism, which is a full member of the European Union of Travel Agencies of the European Union (ECTAA. From the beginning of its existence (25 years of activity, it has been successfully applying for a new shape of tourist business in Poland. Conclusions: - trainings should be carried out using the latest laws, - substantive and logistical support should be provided to entrepreneurs, - strive for comprehensive regulation of tourism law, - tourism needs a host so that it can be prioritized as an important branch of the economy.
... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board: Meeting of the United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board AGENCY: International Trade... the schedule and agenda for an open meeting of the United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board...
... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board: Meeting of the United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board AGENCY: International Trade... the schedule and agenda for an open meeting of the United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board...
Engelbrecht, Mardine; Spencer, John; van der Bijl, Andre
This article investigates the relevance of the National Certificate Vocational (NCV) tourism programme for the South African tourism industry in terms of skills needed by tourism students to work in the tourism industry after graduating. The NCV programmes were introduced in 2007 at public Further Education and Training Colleges (now Technical,…
Excursion tourism as a mode of travelling to closer destinations has had a long tradition and a cognitive character. Excursions belong to the specific forms of tourism trends and as such, can be viewed in terms of their significant impact on tourist trade within the Serbian tourism market. The demand for this type of tourist travel is constant, thereby highlighting its economic importance. Themed excursions of children in protected areas are developing an interest in nature and are building e...
Dr. Kaushtubh Jain*, Prem Shankar Dwivedi
Tourism is a growing service industry which contributes a substantial amount in many parts of the world. In India, Chhattisgarh is one of the important destinations for the national and international tourists with its unique and enchanting land abounding in scenic beauty, rich in flora and fauna. To make the tourism a great success one has to take advantage of the modern technology to full extent. Many countries are promoting tourism and it has become a source of major income for countries li...
The planners in tourism businesses and medical institutes, the evaluation criteria and dimensions for Medical Tourism Marketing are determined by experts through expert interviews. The weights and correlations among the dimensions and criteria are determined by Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to construct an evaluating indicator model suitable for Medical Tourism Marketing. By organizing the overall weight of the key success factors in Medical Tourism Marketing, the top five indicators conta...
Search skip specific nav links Home arrow Heritage Tourism arrow Federal Programs that Can Support Heritage Tourism Federal Programs that Can Support Heritage Tourism The following is a sampling of federal programs that can help promote and support local or regional heritage tourism initiatives. Historic
Dürr, E.; Jaffe, R.
This Exploration focuses on the emerging field of slum tourism research, which has the poten- tial to connect Latin American and Caribbean studies on tourism and urban inequality. Slum tourism involves transforming poverty, squalor and violence into a tourism product. Drawing on both altruism and
Kamšek, David; Milfelner, Borut; Ogorelc, Anton
Analyzing tourism perceptions of host communities and residents' attitudes toward tourism development has been gaining increasing attention in the tourism research. This paper examines how residents perceive positive and negative economic and socio-cultural impacts of tourism. The authors identify several differences between two groups of respondents: residents employed in tourism and other residents. The study provides tourism planners with useful information concerning specific elements ass...
The topic of the paper is devoted to analysis of socio-cultural impacts of tourism, as effects on the people of host communities resulting from their direct and indirect associations with tourists. The social and cultural impacts of tourism are the ways in which tourism is contributing to changes in value systems, individual behavior, family structure and relationships, collective lifestyles, safety levels, moral conduct, traditional ceremonies and community organizations. Special attention is devoted to considering complexity of tourists/host interrelationships and discussing the techniques for appraisal of quality and quantity of socio-cultural changes which tourism provokes in local communities.
This paper explores the creation and use of a long-term global tourism transport model for private and public sector tourism policy makers. Given that technology is unlikely to reduce tourism transport's impact on climate change sufficiently to avoid serious dangers, behavioural change is necessary.
Yury F. Lukin
Full Text Available In the new book "Arctic tourism in Russia" the basic concepts, resource potential, attractiveness (from Lat. Attrahere: to attract, opportunities and threats of environmental, cruise, international, and other types of tourism in the Arctic are system-based analyzed, for the first time in the literature. The sphere of tourism has becoming an integral sector of the economy, having a multiplicative effect for the development of infrastructure, social services, employment. Reference materials about the tourism products in the Russian Arctic and Far North regions are published, including the Arkhangelsk and Murmansk regions; Republic of Karelia, Komi, Sakha (Yakutia; Nenets, the Yamalo-Nenets, Khanty-Mansiysk, the Chukotka Autonomous Districts; Taimyr Dolgan-Nenets Municipal District, Turukhansk district, the city of Norilsk of the Krasnoyarsk region; Magadan region, Kamchatka region.
The overall project goal of guiding planning and management of transportation to serve the needs of : sustainable tourism focused on three tourism-related transportation contexts. The first context was : selected types of roads important to tourism i...
The overall project goal of guiding planning and management of transportation to serve the needs of : sustainable tourism focused on three tourism-related transportation contexts. The first context was : selected types of roads important to tourism i...
Full Text Available The popularity created the concept of sustainable development has determined the conviction that tourism can develop in compliance with the philosophy of sustainability. For example, if we compare with other activities such as agriculture, forestry or in other sectors of the economy, tourism has a development relatively recent to human evolution. Tourism place in sustainable development is given the role of this economic activity that "sells" the physical and human environment as a product of his own. Tourism is one of the industries that should be involved in sustainable development, as industry resources, dependency on natural and human potential of cultural heritage in an efficient manner. Tourism "sell" these resources as some parts of his product, but at the same time shares certain resources with other users (local communities, the structure of the central administration. It is essential that tourism to be active in issues of sustainable development and to cooperate with other industries in ensuring the quality and longevity of the resources on which rests the whole tourist activity. Sustainable development in tourism is a necessity, and the connection between tourism and environment is much stronger than in the case of other industries. This paper presents the most important aspects of the rural turism and the contribution which it can bring to the wellbeing of a nation. The author like to stress some elements related to the concept of rural tourism which has nowadays become very important around the world. The rural tourism can revitalise the conventional concepts and views on tourism, and bring in a new dim ension to the sustainable development of tourism. It has been realised that tourism can play a major role in many countries economies, especially in developing ones, where it can substantially contribute to the increase of the national income..
Full Text Available In the past 60 years, tourism has become one of the most profitable industries, being in continuous development, which tends, however, to be a risky investment when this activity is dependent on climate, because not all years are successful and not all regions are up to the standards imposed by competition. Petrosani Depression is a territory with a real tourism potential waiting to be exploited, especially now, when the economic constraints are increasingly felt, due to the increasing reduction of activity in the mining field. Thus, we believe that tourism is an economic alternative integrated into the sustainable development of the micro-region. This paper aims to present the fundamental characteristics of tourism in this area, identifying the major problems and propose solutions to overcoming obstacles encountered in the development of sustainable tourism in Petrosani Depression.
Ismail Norhasimah; Masron Tarmiji; Ahmad Azizul
Malaysia is experiencing an incredible pace of tourism development and heritage tourism is one of the tourism branches that have long contributed to appeal the tourist destination and acts as important marketing tool to attract tourist especially with special interests in heritage and arts. Cultural heritage tourism has emerged as a potential form of alternative tourism among both international tourists as well as Malaysian domestic travelers. The difference of ethnics present in Malaysia bro...
Full Text Available The travel and tourism sector has emerged as one of the most important sectors for developing as well as developed countries. Tourism incorporates many of the features of the information society such as globalization, mobility and information richness. People from all nations, social rank, and professions are potential tourists. Tourism links a worldwide supplier community with consumers, equally distributed worldwide. Its physical and virtual networks enable worldwide travelling, bringing together very distant cultures and habits. The industry is diverse; the size of tourism principals varies from micro to global enterprises. While some are fragmented, other parts, like the airlines, are concentrated into an oligopoly of global alliances. Information systems (IS in tourism have been among the pioneers of leading edge technology applications: Computer Reservation Systems (CRS or Global Distribution Systems (GDS have been among the first international inter-organizational systems. Yield management systems are among the most advanced data mining applications. Tourism marketing systems typically represent the forefront of multimedia and virtual-reality applications. The World Wide Web is profoundly changing the production, distribution and consumption of touristic products. Information and communication technology (ICT is probably the strongest driving force for changes within the tourism industry. Both industries are not only growing above average, they will also be among the most important industries in this century. Being closely interrelated and intertwined. The first part of the paper presents a structural view, identifying the different types of players, the nature of the tourism business and tourism product. The second part gives a general introduction to the relationship between ICT and tourism and provides some empirical evidence of importance of tourism in the e-commerce sector. Part three gives a
Full Text Available It should be pointed out that expansion of tourism sector relies on micro, small and medium enterprises exist in various related region. This particular study was conducted in Lenggong Valley, Perak to assess the existing strategies in the attempt to develop sustainable tourism related SMEs. Potential businesses in the area were measured using four traditional SWOT inclusive strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. The results from observation reveal interesting findings in relation to internal and external factors evaluation of tourism related SMEs. Therefore, this study presents the strategies for development of sustainable tourism related SMEs in the Lenggong Valley, which serve the purpose of assessing the potential business of tourism related SMEs and entrepreneurs. In-depth inspection of tourism strategies are critically considered when creating public policy that benefits the area and the local community.
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the evolution of rural tourism since the early '70s, the time of onset, and indicates the discontinuity recorded especially after 1989 until the brink of the preparation for Romania's joining the European Union and the present state, one far behind the countries with extremely high degree of urbanization and industrialization, probably as a result of a lack of strategy for this form of tourism in which the beneficiary is the Ministry of Tourism, as the health tourism and ecotourism have recently had. The location of many villages in areas of outstanding natural landscapes, the richness and variety of cultural heritage that endows them, are issues related to an increased tourism potential that can be capitalized and those unique tourism products that can not be seen, admired and offered by other countries.
Full Text Available Over the past six decades, tourism has experienced continued growth and diversification to become one of the largest and fastest growing economic sectors in the world. Over time, more and more destinations have opened up and invested in tourism development, turning modern tourism into a key driver for socioeconomic progress.According to the European Union’s Statistic Office, the global economic crisis has affected the tourism in Romania.The purpose of this research is to evaluate the economic impact of tourism in the case of Romania, focusing on the effects of Travel & Tourism on the economic impact with the next key factors: Gross domestic product, direct and total contribution; employment, direct and total contribution; by visitor exports and investment, for the year 2012, with estimates and forecast for the years 2013 till 2023.
Carrera, Percivil M; Bridges, John Fp
Faced with long waiting lists, the high cost of elective treatment and fewer barriers to travel, the idea of availing healthcare in another country is gaining greater appeal to many. The objective of this review is to perform a literature review of health and medical tourism, to define health and medical tourism based on the medical literature and to estimate the size of trade in healthcare. The Medline database was used for our literature review. In our initial search for 'health tourism' and 'medical tourism' we found a paucity of formal literature as well as conceptual ambiguity in the literature. Subsequently, we reviewed the literature on 'tourism' in general and in the context of healthcare. On the basis of 149 papers, we then sought to conceptualize health tourism and medical tourism. Based on our definitions, we likewise sought to estimate market capacity internationally. We defined health tourism as "the organized travel outside one's local environment for the maintenance, enhancement or restoration of an individual's wellbeing in mind and body". A subset of this is medical tourism, which is "the organized travel outside one's natural healthcare jurisdiction for the enhancement or restoration of the individual's health through medical intervention". At the international level, health tourism is an industry sustained by 617 million individuals with an annual growth of 3.9% annually and worth US$513 billion. In conclusion, this paper underscored the issue of a severely limited formal literature that is compounded by conceptual ambiguity facing health and medical tourism scholarship. In clarifying the concepts and standardizing definitions, and providing evidence with regard to the scale of trade in healthcare, we hope to assist in furthering fundamental research tasks, including the further development of reliable and comparable data, the push and pull factors for engaging in health and medical tourism, and the impact of health tourism but, more so, medical
Considereda sub-sector of horse raisin units, equestrian tourism is a form of moderntourism very popular among the young people as both an entertainingrecreational and adventure activity and a form of animal therapy in thetreatment and rehabilitation of autistic children; it is also a sub-type ofrural tourism, adventure tourism, or ecological tourism. Equestrian tourismpracticed without management strategies can have both positive and negativeeffects on the environment: it can affect roads by...
This study focused on opportunities related to the professional growth of tourism in Indonesia at this time and in the future. The proportion of workers in the tourism sector, including the fourth largest after agriculture, manufacturing and non-manufacturing, tends to grow very fast, because tourists visiting Indonesia will increase sharply in coming years. The purpose of this study is to provide advice to the government, tourism, and educational institutions in Indonesia's tourism industry ...
Cros, Hilary du
Recent research on achieving sustainable heritage tourism in Macau advocates a greater collaboration between tourism and heritage management authorities and the local community on reaching sustainable tourism goals. A key theme for Macau in the last ten years has been how the tension between the proponents for greater casino development versus those for cultural heritage product development has played out in government policies for heritage management, private sector tourism development and h...
The aim of this paper is to examine contemporary moral controversies about hunting tourism in Serbia in the context of defined value orientations and norms of ethics of hunting tourism, as a branch of applied ethics. On the one hand, this paper summarizes conceptual definitions and specificities of hunting tourism, as a special form of tourism, and the crucial value postulates derived from the assumptions of the concept of sustainable development and biodiv...
Bieger, Thomas; Beritelli, Pietro
Marketing Management of sport and tourism does not just mean marketing of touristic sport products. Marketing management of sport and tourism can be divided into marketing of sport activities, events or infrastructure for people outside the location and marketing of tourism through sport activities, events and sport infrastructure. A system approach is introduced to serve as a model for explaining interrelations between the different elements in the sport and tourism context. As such destinat...
Full Text Available The distinction between ethnic tourism and cultural tourism, though blurry at first sight, can be clarified with the help of two key-elements: ethnic tourism tends to focus on a certain group of people for whom exoticism is, obviously, the main tourism attraction; ethnic tourism turns the natives rather into performers on a special “stage” for tourists than background performers facilitating “exotic experiences”. Instead of looking for historical monuments, for nature wonders, or for a local “cultural environment”, the ethnic tourist needs to see people whose way of life differs considerably from their own way of living. Thus, ethnic tourism depends, mainly, on the relationship between tourists and the natives, an encounter that is mediated by a third party that represents the tourism industry.
The nature, extent, and implications of innovation in tourism are increasingly investigated in academic research, but the policies that affect these transformations in the industry and at tourism destinations are not equally well conceptualised theoretically or analysed empirically. The purpose...... of this article is, in an analysis of the literature, to interpret the rationale behind innovation policy, and to explain the persisting challenges related to acquisition of an informed foundation for policies based upon quantitative and qualitative inquiries. Observed in a historical perspective, innovation...... framework of policy instruments for innovation in tourism. New generations of policies instigate a mainstreaming of the innovation agenda in ways that proceed beyond the traditional policy concepts....
Full Text Available International tourism has grown rapidly nowdays, contributing to the growth of the global economy. The purpose of this essay is to identify and analyze stereotypical factors in the development of strategies concerning the offer for the tourism industry: the image of a tourist destination, brand, country of origin and customer behaviour. Documentary study was the research method used: representative articles were analysed, as recent as possible, to determine the factors mentioned above. Professionals in the industry of tourism need to understand cultural differences between tourists, as well as those of the host country, to be able to create tourist reception offers that live up to the standards expected by clients.
Full Text Available Realising tourism in the context of responsibility is a problem of historical-social and economic time-space continuum; the problem of possibility of temporal unification of these parts. The study aims to emphasize that the essence of problem can only be understood in the depth of a general problematic of tourism, as a question of temporalisation of historical-social space, which, however, leads to a grand question of today: does the human activity which creates temporalised spaces have its own gravitational direction? Ad deliberandum. The study proposes the viewpoint that the context of responsibility requires overcoming the dimension of interpretation where the subject is understood as an ultimate human-singularity and a perfect match of responsibility with a dominant and current form of temporalisation of time suggests a paradigm of participating consciousness, the consciousness of unity, which, in Berdyaev's words, is never logical, but existential. The study, on the basis of a meticulous studying of a new narrative of tourism, primarily due to volume restrictions does not go beyond presenting the key attributes of this ever-expanding understanding of tourism - with a demonstration of a concrete practice - but all this with an emphasis that qualification of the actors' activities is possible only along the lines of a previous consideration of comprehension of structure of space and time - along the revalorisation of a motivational horison (Anzenbacher, A 1987, 264.p. and also the very term of responsibility and freedom. Responsibility can only then become an orientation of tourist activities, if the primary focus is set on re-comprehension (revalorisation of civilisational legacies in a timeless perspective.
Marine reserve design often considers potential benefits to conservation and/or fisheries but typically ignores potential revenues generated through tourism. Since tourism can be the main source of economic benefits for many marine reserves worldwide, ignoring tourism objectives in the design process might lead to sub-optimal outcomes. To incorporate tourism benefits into marine reserve design, we develop a bioeconomic model that tracks tourism and fisheries revenues through time for different management options and location characteristics. Results from the model show that accounting for tourism benefits will ultimately motivate greater ocean protection. Our findings demonstrate that marine reserves are part of the optimal economic solution even in situations with optimal fisheries management and low tourism value relative to fisheries. The extent of optimal protection depends on specific location characteristics, such as tourism potential and other local amenities, and the species recreational divers care about. Additionally, as tourism value increases, optimal reserve area also increases. Finally, we demonstrate how tradeoffs between the two services depend on location attributes and management of the fishery outside marine reserve borders. Understanding when unavoidable tradeoffs will arise helps identify those situations where communities must choose between competing interests. PMID:29267364
Merkel, James Patrick
This thesis focuses on the design, development, and implementation of an active aerodynamics system on 2013 Formula SAE car. The aerodynamics package itself consists of five element front and rear wings as well as an under body diffuser. Five element wings produce significant amounts of drag which is a compromise between the cornering ability of the car and the acceleration capability on straights. The active aerodynamics system allows for the wing angle of attack to dynamically change their configuration on track based on sensory data to optimize the wings for any given scenario. The wings are studied using computational fluid dynamics both in their maximum lift configuration as well as a minimum drag configuration. A control system is then developed using an electro mechanical actuation system to articulate the wings between these two states.
Musayeva, Naila; Silinevica, Irena
The aim of this research is to explore tourism development impact on the economy of Azerbaijan. International tourism as a source of both direct and indirect incomes of the state encourages the development of different sectors not specific to the tourism infrastructure, but through the multiplier effect. In this context, the authors analyze the impact of tourism on employment in Azerbaijan and calculate the indirect impact of tourism on the economy of Azerbaijan due to the multiplier effect. ...
MAZILU Mirela; ISPAS Roxana; MARINESCU Roxana
Business tourism is one of the most dynamic components of tourism activity, and enhancing international relations, especially the economic ones are reflected in the increased demand for business travel. Business tourism is a form of tourism with commercial, government or education purposes, with the leisure side as a secondary motivation. Business tourism requires, in general, moving to another location, at a distance greater than 50 km from the place of origin of the business tourist, travel...
Stilling Blichfeldt, Bodil; Kvistgaard, Hans-Peter; Hird, John
course that is part of a Tourism Master’s program, where a major challenge is not only to teach students about change and change agents, but to teach them how change feels and ho w to become change agents. The c hange management course contains an experiment inspired by experiential teaching literature...... change in tourism in the future....
Full Text Available Tuzla Canton (TC has experienced a certain economic transformation and gradually started turning from an industrial region into a region of tertiary and quaternary activities, also notable in the strategic documents of the Canton. The present research was conducted during the years 2012 and 2013 with the aim of determining the attitudes of employees in the tourism sector of TC regarding the condition, i.e. the prospects of TC tourism. In July of 2012, using a structured questionnaire, persons employed in travel agencies and TC hotels were surveyed in relation to the following issues: what is, in their own opinion, the determining factor for a tourist in choosing a tour package in TC as a destination; how would they assess the tourist’s motives for choosing TC as a destination; how would they characterize (assess the value factors of the TC tourist offer. The conducted research indicates that employees in the tourism industry have formed perceptions of TC as a tourist destination: it is a destination where tourists feel pleasant and happy to stay at; it has outstanding natural attractions, a welcoming environment and solid accommodation and catering potentials. However, elements that need improving and further development are highlighted as well. Methods used for collecting, processing and analyzing data are: historical, descriptive, comparative. Frequency analysis was conducted using the SPSS statistical program (version 20. The research results can help the tourist destination management, in this case TC, but also all segments of the tourism industry of TC, improve their offer and communication with a potential tourism market
Medical tourism is a burgeoning industry in our region. It involves patients travelling outside of their home country for medical treatment. This article provides an outline of the current research around medical tourism, especially its impact on Australians. Patients are increasingly seeking a variety of medical treatments abroad, particularly those involving cosmetic surgery and dental treatment, often in countries in South-East Asia. Adverse events may occur during medical treatment abroad, which raises medico-legal and insurance issues, as well as concerns regarding follow-up of patients. General practitioners need to be prepared to offer advice, including travel health advice, to patients seeking medical treatment abroad.
Full Text Available Rural tourism is both old and new phenomenon. The interest for recreation in the countryside began to grow as early as XIX century, as a reaction to the pressure of growing urbanization and industrialization. Serbia has great potentials for development of rural tourism. Natural beauty in combination with culture, tradition, festivals, gastronomic specialties and music, might become recognizable tourist brand, which could contribute to the significant monetary influx and improve the overall image of the country. However, current level of Serbia's competitiveness in the area of rural tourism is not particularly high, regardless of the fact that all of the natural, cultural and social prerequisites for its development already exist (natural potentials, significant farming land, great number of agriculturally active population, traditional approach to agriculture, lack of ground pollution as well as the possibility of producing 'healthy food', good potential for development of complementary activities such as hiking, recreation, hunting, fishing, riding and participating in everyday activities of the country folk, traditional local gastronomical specialties etc.. The goal of this paper is to show the resources of Serbia in the area of rural tourism as well as the possible development potentials of this form of tourism.
Full Text Available The biggest challenge associated with the concept of sustainable tourism is its operationalisation and perception as a process to be applied through development plans, projects and ongoing activities of tour operators. The traditional approach to marketing, focused on a limited idea of maximising profit businesses, was not able to respond to a number of social and environmental requirements imposed by the concept of sustainable development. This paper discusses the ways in which marketing could play a more important role in the sustainable development of tourism. This refers to the determination of consumer needs and preferences, the formation of certain products and pricing, product information and advertising to consumers of their benefits in a sustainable manner, as well as adequate distribution channels used by businesses to deliver products to consumers. Environmental and social marketing are now being confirmed as important elements of a much broader marketing perspective. In order to develop tourism with sustainable outcomes, responsible marketing can be crucial. The concept of marketing mix for sustainable tourism was used as a starting point to explore the specific role of responsible marketing in tourism.
Full Text Available In the past two decades, companies have been mentioning achievement of sustainability in their activities as a target of companies, governments and non-profit organizations, although measuring the degree to which an organization conducts its activities in a sustainable manner, can be very difficult. Sustainable tourism development requires a process of planning and management that will unite the interests of various stakeholders in a sustainable and strategic way. It requires an understanding of the meaning of sustainable development and guiding values for promoting sustainable tourism. The paper points to the importance of cross-sector partnerships and the roles of different stakeholders in the planning of sustainable tourism projects. Special importance is given to the community of which a willingness to understand the impacts of tourism industry is expected, as well as various procedures of engagement in participatory planning, consensus building and conflict resolution among all stakeholders. The aim of this research is to find an optimal model of planning of sustainable tourism projects that would take into consideration the interests of all stakeholders and reflect the specificities imposed by the acceptance of the concept of sustainable development by all participants in the project.
Chambers, Donna; Munar, Ana Maria; Khoo-Lattimore, Catheryn
This introductory essay argues for the adoption of feminist epistemologies to unpack the role, nature and effects of gender (in) equality in our tourism academy. Our focus on tourism academia recognizes the importance of tourism to social life and the crucial role that tourism academics play...... in knowledge production. We therefore argue for a shift in the focus of extant gender research in tourism away from tourism as a phenomenon to ourselves as tourism academics. We provide an overview of the five papers in this special issue which explore the gendered nature of our academy in diverse contexts...
Kourtit, K.; Nijkamp, P.; van Leeuwen, E.S.; Bruinsma, F.R.
Nowadays, e-services technology has demonstrated a pervasive character in the modern tourism industry. E-services implemented by the tourism industry, e.g., e-tourism, appeared to produce significant cost reductions and market efficiencies. Since online services are continuously accessible, time and
Ormond, M.E.; Mainil, T.
This chapter provides an overview of current government and governance strategies relative to medical tourism development and management around the world. Most studies on medical tourism have privileged national governments as key actors in medical tourism regulation and, in some cases, even
Pappas, Nikolaos; Bregoli, Ilenia
Worldwide, tourism is the third largest economic activity in direct earnings after petroleum and automobile industries, and by far the largest one if indirect earnings are also taken into consideration. Taking into account the profound economic impact the tourism and hospitality industries can have on regions and cities around the world, further research in this area is critical.\\ud \\ud Global Dynamics in Travel, Tourism, and Hospitality takes a holistic approach to tourism and hospitality op...
Over the past six decades, tourism has experienced continued growth and diversification to become one of the largest and fastest growing economic sectors in the world. Over time, more and more destinations have opened up and invested in tourism development, turning modern tourism into a key driver for socioeconomic progress.According to the European Union’s Statistic Office, the global economic crisis has affected the tourism in Romania.The purpose of this research is to evaluate the economic...
Manhas, Parikshat Singh; Ramjit, Monu
The aim of the present research is to carry out the marketing analysis and to determine the potential of the medical tourism, to identify the various challenges to the medical tourism in India and to suggest and recommend the marketing strategies to develop the India as the medical tourism destination. The research is primarily based on the secondary sources by searching the various potential academic journals and reports potential articles, with medical tourism in the title...
Full Text Available Tourist activities motivate tourists to visit a destination. Tourism evaluates motives and protects them largely from harmful influences. Tourism evaluation aims to establish the value of natural tourist attractions and of those created by humans. Along with tourist attractions, destinations are also evaluated in order to find out about their utility. The evaluation of a destination and its particular attractions is expressed by the realized tourist traffic for the observed period. Protection of tourist attractions is a systematic activity against all kinds of pollution. It also includes the sustainability of traffic flows in tourism destination. Management in tourism industry has an irreplaceable role in that.
Full Text Available The nexus between globalization and tourism has been established whereas postmodernism imprints features on the current and future society. Seen as a result of revolutions (technological, behavioural, philosophical, economic in society and civilizations, postmodernism can be perceived as an adjustment to new conditions involving changes in all fields, ultimately triggering changes in the vision of current civilization, individual's mentality, perception and behaviour, management of resources, adaptation to environmental alterations and, last but not least, converting tourism from an economic activity into a social and leisure lifestyle, from a complementary necessity into a basic need associated with the right of free movement. We therefore addressed forms and types of tourism and their placement on the new trend in accordance with the change in mentality, perception, behaviour, taste, needs and expectations of providers and consumers. Since niche tourism has already been developed by expressing the multiple perspectives of postmodernism, the aim of our paper is to explore the many possibilities to develop niche tourism and prove that it is indeed the future of tourism in postmodern times as supple structure particularized on narrow tourist-oriented markets, focusing on the identity, authenticity and uniqueness of place, experiential and active-participative tourism products. Our analysis also results in stating several ground features for the future well-being of niche tourism. Identity and not the extravagance prevails and going back to simple is encouraged. However, if we dare to look beyond postmodernism the concluding remarks highlight the prevalence of inherence than conspicuousness in tourism practice given the continuous movement of population (migration, travelling for work in contrast with the obvious monopoly of digitalization and technology that transform a large share of consumers from active travellers to passive virtual tourists
Duim, van der V.R.; Caalders, J.D.A.D.
This paper analyses a pilot project in Costa Rica aimed to examine and improve the market linkages of 24 small-scale tourism initiatives to tour operators in Costa Rica and the Netherlands. It links pro-poor tourism and the concept of tourism chain to actor-network theory. The analysis shows that