Juan Fernando Sellés
Full Text Available In this work we distinguish between freedom in the human manifestations (intelligence, will,actions and personal freedom in the personal intimacy. This second is beyond the freedom reached bythe classic and modern thought, since it takes root in the personnel act of being. Because of it, it is not possible to characterize this freedom like the classic description as ‘domain over the own acts’, becauseit is a description of ‘categorial’ order; neither like present day ‘autonomy’ or ‘independence’, becausethe existence of one person alone is impossible, since ‘person’ means relation, personal free openingto other persons, description of the ‘transcendental’ order and, therefore, to the margin of limits.
Friedman, Lissy C; Cheyne, Andrew; Givelber, Daniel; Gottlieb, Mark A; Daynard, Richard A
We examined the tobacco industry's rhetoric to frame personal responsibility arguments. The industry rarely uses the phrase "personal responsibility" explicitly, but rather "freedom of choice." When freedom of choice is used in the context of litigation, the industry means that those who choose to smoke are solely to blame for their injuries. When used in the industry's public relations messages, it grounds its meaning in the concept of liberty and the right to smoke. The courtroom "blame rhetoric" has influenced the industry's larger public relations message to shift responsibility away from the tobacco companies and onto their customers. Understanding the rhetoric and framing that the industry employs is essential to combating this tactic, and we apply this comprehension to other industries that act as disease vectors.
Viridiana Molinares Hassan
Full Text Available In this paper we present the results of an investigation about judicial protection of freedom and personal security granted by the Constitutional Court (cc of Colombia, with a comparative analysis between the period 1992-2001, to which governments have appointed period of postconstitucionales, which coincides with the issuance of the 1991 Constitution, and the creation of constitutional jurisdiction, and the period 2002-2010, during which it ran the Democratic Security Policy (dsp as a government policy proposal by former president Álvaro Uribe, whose aim was to achieve peace through the declaration of war to the guerrilla group Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (farc. Our interest is to show that the protection of freedom and personal security as the basis of the Constitutional (ec finds in the cc his greatest guarantor, even against closing courts in other jurisdictions that are still rooted in the failed legal positivist paradigm, ignoring the postulates of neoconstitutionalism dc sufficiently developed from a process of creative interpretation and decision-making. This coupled with the importance for the branches of power and knowledge associated scope of freedom and personal security developed by the cc in the difficult context of irregular warfare that exists in Colombia, yet it is, for universal constitutionalism, an example of the development of legal guarantor in the context of current constitutionalism.
Full Text Available The freedom of the judge to express his personal opinions and convictions is limited by his special position. The question arises where these limits lie: what are the possibilities for judges to express their personal views on religious, political or other subjects, whether it is through speech, writing, wearing religious symbols or membership of an association or church? In this article the limits of the freedom of the judge will be studied as they appear from the case law of the ECtHR. Two types of cases from this case law are relevant for this subject: cases based on complaints from judges about a violation of their rights under Article 9-11 ECHR and cases based on complaints from litigants and suspects about a violation of their right to a fair trial under Article 6(1 ECHR. The question is asked how the limits of judicial freedom are defined in the case law of the ECtHR and where these limits lie.
Chen, Xinguang; Elliott, Amy L; Wang, Shuang
Human behaviors are affected by attitudes and beliefs, which in turn are shaped by higher-level values to which we have ascribed. In this study, we explore the relationship between two higher-level values, press freedom and LGBT freedom, and HIV infection with national data at the population level. Data were the number of persons living with HIV (PLWH, n = 35,468,911) for 148 countries during 2011-15, press freedom index (PFI) determined by the Reporters Without Borders, and LGBT freedom index (LGBT-FI) based on laws regulating same-sex relationships and expression. PLWH prevalence (1/1000), PFI and LGBT-FI were mapped first. Multiple regression was thus used to associate the logarithm of PLWH prevalence with PFI, LGBT-FI and PFI × LGBT-FI interaction, controlling for per capita GDP and weighted by population size. Global prevalence of PLWH during 2011-15 was 0.51 per 1000 population. The prevalence showed a geographic pattern moving from high at the south and west ends of the world map to low at the north and east. Both PFI and LGBT-FI were positively associated with PLWH prevalence with a negative interaction between the two. More people are infected with HIV in countries with higher press freedom and higher LGBT freedom. Furthermore, press freedom can attenuate the positive association between levels of LGBT freedom and risk of HIV infection. This study demonstrated the urgency for and provided data supporting further research to investigate potential cultural and socioecological mechanisms underpinning the complex relationship among press freedom, LGBT freedom and HIV infection, with data collected at the individual level.
Ackerson, Leland K; Subramanian, S V
Personal freedoms have been characterized as "positive" (freedom to pursue opportunities) and "negative" (freedom from external constraints on decision making). An ecological analysis of US data revealed a strong positive association (r = 0.41; P = .003) between state-level negative personal freedom (defined in terms of regulation of personal behavior) and state-level age-adjusted rates of unintentional injury. A conceptual emphasis on positive freedom construed as freedom to pursue a life without risk of unintentional injury could help motivate a conversation to improve public health.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Dimension analysis (diameter at breast high, tree height, depth of crown), estimated leaf area, and total aboveground biomass for sacrificed spruce and aspens in...
Gu, Chuanhua; Hu, Bi Ying; Ngwira, Flemmings Fishani; Jing, Zhi; Zhou, Zongkui
This study investigated the effect of general creative personality and freedom of task choice on the social creativity of adolescents. The results indicated, first, that senior high school students scored higher than junior high school students. Second, girls scored higher than boys on originality, fluency, flexibility, appropriateness, and…
Ks. Artur Aleksiejuk
Full Text Available We live in times that are particularly sensitive to issues such as freedom and are differentiated by strong aspirations for personal and societal freedom. One speaks of political-societal freedom, freedom of religion, artistic freedom and freedom to choose one’s own lifestyle. It would be possible to make a long list of the various kinds or manifestations of freedom, which modern individuals indentify in their lives. My essay considers the ways the law functions in regards to religious freedom in the context of the currently prevailing and implemented political visions in United Europe. Strictly speaking, this paper concerns the definition of place, which was assigned for religious convictions of citizens of the European Union and their role in shaping their personal and societal lives.
Yurii Y. Semchuk
Full Text Available The Purpose is to analyse problems of individual freedom in mystical currents of Hesychasm and Sufism comprehensively in the territory of Ukraine. It deals with issues of Hesychasm and Sufism origin, mystical practices features and their overflowing borrowing on the way to Truth by God finding. Methodology. With a view to the reconstruction of a holistic world view of the desert in their deification of personal freedom, the author uses methodology of humanitarian analysis (analysis and synthesis, comparison, abstraction, generalization, and the phenomenological method – the study specifics of the mystical way of knowing reality and comparative method − the study and comparison of different types of mystical-religious movements in the synthesis of the history of philosophy, philosophy of religion, psychology, phenomenology and the history of religion. Scientific novelty. Watching the life of the monks Optina Pustyn can trace the genesis hesychast tradition from the time of Paisius Velichkovsky. The influence and the use of spiritual advisors fundamental hesychast texts "Philokalia" in secular name and in the empyreal world alike are researched. It is proved that in the spiritual practices of Hesychasm and Sufism Set the true path to God. The mystics’ efforts in aspiration of perception of the Truth were reconstructed, as in Christian practices of an unexpected irradiation of cognition Omnipresent and in the knowledge of Jehovah in Sufism through «gentle-hearted message» which is opened to receiving spiritual vision and the gift of God without volitional intentions of the observer. Conclusions. The author concludes that despite the existence of schools and practices, personal manifestation of union with God through the freedom of own will devoted in listening of spiritual life – own heart, is dominant in Hesychasm and Sufism mystical currents. The main secret of mystics was not a transfer of theoretical knowledge through the
Is freedom a plausible political value for animals? If so, does this imply that animals are owed legal personhood rights or can animals be free but remain human property? Drawing on different conceptions of freedom, I will argue that while positive freedom, libertarian self-ownership, and republican
Silvia Susana TOSCANO
Full Text Available The Inter-American System of Protection of Human Rights is composed of microsystems, like the freedom of expression, the right to information and the protection of privacy and of personal data, among others. These rights interrelate and form the standards of the Inter-American system, in accordance with the UN system, to develop these liberties, and to keep the constant balance of these rights in conflict. All of this enhanced by a dynamic and growing massiveness, like the internet and by a new paradigm in which the freedom of expression and the right to information is included: a postmodern society characterized by a “democratization” of connectivity, a multidirectional transmission of the information and a dichotomy between what is public or private. Freedom of expression is developed in both of its two dimensions: individual or collective. When we talk about its individual dimension, we mean the right of each person to express his ideas, thoughts and beliefs aiming at unidirectional, bidirectional or multidirectional communication. The collective or social dimension refers to the right of a person to receive any type of information, to know the thoughts, ideas and information of others and have free access to them. Both dimensions are equally important and are interdependent, thus it is important to protect them simultaneously. New communication technologies have altered the previous system, and the individual dimension of freedom of expression breaks into public debate on the democratization of internet access and its social dimension due to the feasibility a multidirectional communication impossible to conceive in any other technological paradigm entails. The protection scheme of freedom of expression of the Inter-American System is particularly strong as it specifically prohibits prior censorship and rules sanctions and very strict restrictions in relation to discrimination, advocacy of war, violence and hatred. This characteristic
Full Text Available One of the most important questions of the religious-philosophical anthropological concept of S.L. Franck are questions about the close relationship between man and God, about sin and suﬀering, and about the definition of the boundaries of his freedom. In the definition of freedom and its main points, it proceeds not only from Western philosophical thought, but also from the anthropological views and ideas of F. M. Dostoevsky. According to Frank, as in Dostoevsky, the disclosure of the fullness of freedom in man is interconnected with the doctrine of human freedom as self-determination in good and in God, accepting sufering as an indispensable component in his salvation. The article is devoted to the comparison of the basic anthropological and personality concepts, as well as the idea of freedom and its characteristics in the works and works of both thinkers, in order to trace the continuity of Dostoevsky’s tradition with Frank in the framework of his anthropology and personalism in order to prove that for him human freedom and self-Man is an absolute value, his anthropology can be viewed in the context of his philosophy of unity and not contradict it.
acknowledged church dogma or religious belief, and is of such a nature that it passes the test of a nuanced and context-sensitive form of balancing of these freedoms and the right to human dignity and equality of persons affected by them. 1. BACKGROUND. Religious freedom (s 15(1)) and freedom of religious communities ...
possible, give effect to the desires of the deceased testator as stated in his will. .... personality in ways which may not have been possible in life. ... Testamentary Freedom to Testamentary Duty: Finding the Balance,” The ...... would work hardship on such family member or dependant, such person should be reasonably.
in his salvation. The article is devoted to the comparison of the basic anthropological and personality concepts, as well as the idea of freedom and its characteristics in the works and works of both thinkers, in order to trace the continuity of Dostoevsky’s tradition with Frank in the framework of his anthropology and personalism in order to prove that for him human freedom and self-Man is an absolute value, his anthropology can be viewed in the context of his philosophy of unity and not contradict it.
Full Text Available The article focuses on the need to modernize the education sector as an area of freedom. That educational space of freedom is a necessary condition for the development of creativity. This space, which grows with its context through acts of creativity, creates a new context. Methodological guidance in considering this problem is to understand the phenomenon of freedom as a special be-ing a person that opposes the principle of necessity as being of nature. Freedom is an opportunity and the ability to be a human and to be an open to changes in various modes of social and personal realization. The learning process is not perceived as the cultivation of a certain abstract image, under which definite personality “is shaping “, but as a process of discovering its inner creative original building. In such circumstances, the creative process is focused on cultural transformation rather than social adaptation of educational interaction participants.
Full Text Available The article substantiates the urgency of countering the spread of attacks on freedom of the individual; analyzes the provisions of the Russian legislation on the declaration, and securing the rights to freedom of the individual; a classification of the investigated legal acts; substantiates the content structure of each of the listed groups of regulations;the content of the right to freedom of movement and the prohibition of forced labor in the legislation of Russia, analyzes the limits of jurisdiction of the Russian Federation and its members in matters of freedom of the individual; The problems of the existing mechanisms for the implementation of the provisions of the investigated legal acts; the features of the current state of the legal regulation of the right to individual freedom and draws conclusions on the content of the article.
Ruperto P. Alonzo
The economic freedom index (EFI) is one of several cross-country yardsticks that incorporate dimensions of progress and well-being that go beyond what conventional economic indicators tell us. It is a composite of 21 indicators that include “personal choice, protection of private property, and freedom of exchange.” It is one of the few measures where the Philippines ranks higher than most of its neighbors; the Philippines was in fact 29th among 123 countries rated for 1999, while neighboring ...
van Hees, Martin
Freedom is among the most important values in political life, yet there has always been a great deal of disagreement about what this value demands from us. Libertarians argue that it requires that we protect each person's right to own and exchange private property. Liberals argue that it requires
Michael Nnamdi Konye
Full Text Available The author points out that dignity, equality, and freedom are leading themes of the European Union policy and should be respected and upheld if understood personalistically. He agrues that the subjectivity of the individual person, rather than that of the public state, underlines the context of interpreting those themes which are the liberal values the Western society purports to cultivate. Therefore, he claims that dignity is grounded on the understanding of man as imago Dei, equality is doubly grounded in both the unique identity and incommunicability of each human person, and freedom is doubly grounded in the dual responsibility of each human person for his or her actions as well as the responsibility we share for each human life from conception to natural death.
Full Text Available Infractionality or criminality in minor rank, even if it is a component of a general infractional phenomenon, it shows some particularities determined by biological, psychological and social characteristics of minor persons which Romanian legislature had in mind when it had foreseen their criminal liability. For this, The New riminal Code, stipulates some regulations on the educational measures regarding non privacy of freedom - three conditions from the file - Recommandations R nr. 16/1992 of the European Committee. Measures regarding the non privacy of freedom are sanctions applied by the court and the young defendant is still in the society with some obligations on his side or institution which was bound by the court in the name of the law. The issue of this measure is to educate and reeducate the minor person who commited a crime, to ensure a change in his conscience to respect social values.
, despised or labeled by academics and other students due to their own opinions, stances, attitudes and differences. No student should be subjected to discrimination due to his or her worldviews. Assessment and evaluation of the students must be based solely on the content and the subject of the lectures. Students have the right to object if they think the evaluations or assessments are unfair. 8. Every person in the university has academic freedom. Just as academics and students, guests invited to the university also possess the right of freedom of expression. The guests who visit the university for academic, cultural and sportive events or activities should be welcomed appropriately, should not be deprived of their freedom of expression due to their political thoughts or identities, and should not be prevented by the academics or students because of their different views. The freedom of expression is also valid for the people with opposite views. People with opposite views can express themselves in various ways as long as they do not violate the guests' rights to express themselves and others' rights to listen to them. 9. Both students and academics have the right to criticize and protest when there is a subject they disapprove or reject. However, this right cannot interrupt the operation of academic activities and the organization of the university. Any action, occupying and protesting that restricts the students' freedom of learning, academics' freedom of teaching, and freedom of expressing an opinion in the university setting is a violation of academic freedom. Freedom of expression is a necessary condition of pluralism, tolerance, and open-mindness as well as of democratic society; but it is not absolute. Any discourse ignoring the individual rights and freedoms; including insult, slander, contempt or abuse and prompting rebellion and pointing the individuals and groups as a target in order to harm them overtly due to their difference can never comply with the freedom
Free as in Freedom interweaves biographical snapshots of GNU project founder Richard Stallman with the political, social and economic history of the free software movement. It examines Stallman's unique personality and how that personality has been at turns a driving force and a drawback in terms of the movement's overall success. Free as in Freedom examines one man's 20-year attempt to codify and communicate the ethics of 1970s era "hacking" culture in such a way that later generations might easily share and build upon the knowledge of their computing forebears. The book documents Stallman'
. The paper further develops such a social and relational approach by arguing that freedom is also based on emotional energy and not merely on priveleges and power (cf. Bauman). Agency cannot be taken for granted as a generic feature of humans beings (cf. Layder, Bauman, Campbell) founded in consciousnes...... and intentionality (Fuchs). In a differential and generative sense freedom/agency is based on emotional energy. For example, to act personally, cooperately with others or on behalf on institutions individuals need feeling self-confidence, trust or loyalty (Barbalet). Such emotions are resources inmplicated...
Hinojosa, Ramon; Hinojosa, Melanie Sberna
Social relationships are important to health out comes. The postdeployment family reintegration literature focuses on the role of the civilian family in facilitating the transition from Active Duty military deployment to civilian society. The focus on the civilian family relationship may miss other important personal connections in veterans' lives. One such connection is the relationship many veterans have with former military unit members who served with them when deployed. Drawing on interviews with male Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom veterans conducted from 2008 to 2009, we argue that the members of a military unit, especially during armed conflict, should be considered a resource to help the "family" reintegration process rather than impede it. This research has implications for current reintegration policy and how best to assist veterans transitioning into civilian society.
Pahlavan, Farzaneh; Amirrezvani, Ali
Our commentary is focused on the idea that "freedom" takes on its full significance whenever its relativistic nature, in the short- and long terms, is taken into account. Given the transformations brought about by "globalization," application of a general model of freedom based on ecological-economic factors clearly seems to be rather untimely. We examine this idea through egocentric and ethnocentric views of the social and environmental analyses of "freedom."
Bocchi, Silvia Cristina Mangini; Cano, Karen Cristina Urtado; Baltieri, Lilian; Godoy, Daniele Cristina; Spiri, Wilza Carla; Juliani, Carmen Maria Casquel Monti
This study aimed at understanding the interactional experience between family caregivers and disabled elderly persons supported in a Day Care Center according to the caregiver's perspective. It also aimed at developing a representative theoretical model for the events experienced by such caregiver. The Grounded Theory was used as methodological framework whereas Interactional Symbolism served as the theoretical framework. Observation and interviews were used for data collection. The following phenomenon arose from the results: feeling of support by the Day Care Center, by the strength of the bond with the elderly and by spirituality in order to continue playing the challenging role of a family caregiver for a disabled elderly person. The study made possible to understand that, among these three supporting cornerstones for coping with the burden generated by the family caregiver role, the care model promoted by the Day Care Center was the intervenient variable in the process of improving the quality of life of the family caregiver-disabled elderly person binomial. This allowed the identification of the main category--moving from reclusion to partial freedom: the experience of family caregivers for disabled elderly persons assisted in a Day Care Center.
Newman, David J.
The Freedom of Information Act( FOIA), 5 U.S.C. § 552, as amended, generally provides that any person has a right to request access to Federal agency records. The USGS proactively promotes information disclosure as inherent to its mission of providing objective science to inform decisionmakers and the general public. USGS scientists disseminate up-to-date and historical scientific data that are critical to addressing national and global priorities.
Lau, Stephan; Hiemisch, Anette
The freedom of a decision is not yet sufficiently described as a psychological variable. We present a model of functional decision freedom that aims to fill that role. The model conceptualizes functional freedom as a capacity of people that varies depending on certain conditions of a decision episode. It denotes an inner capability to consciously shape complex decisions according to one's own values and needs. Functional freedom depends on three compensatory dimensions: it is greatest when the decision-maker is highly rational, when the structure of the decision is highly underdetermined, and when the decision process is strongly based on conscious thought and reflection. We outline possible research questions, argue for psychological benefits of functional decision freedom, and explicate the model's implications on current knowledge and research. In conclusion, we show that functional freedom is a scientific variable, permitting an additional psychological foothold in research on freedom, and that is compatible with a deterministic worldview.
Lau, Stephan; Hiemisch, Anette
The freedom of a decision is not yet sufficiently described as a psychological variable. We present a model of functional decision freedom that aims to fill that role. The model conceptualizes functional freedom as a capacity of people that varies depending on certain conditions of a decision episode. It denotes an inner capability to consciously shape complex decisions according to one’s own values and needs. Functional freedom depends on three compensatory dimensions: it is greatest when the decision-maker is highly rational, when the structure of the decision is highly underdetermined, and when the decision process is strongly based on conscious thought and reflection. We outline possible research questions, argue for psychological benefits of functional decision freedom, and explicate the model’s implications on current knowledge and research. In conclusion, we show that functional freedom is a scientific variable, permitting an additional psychological foothold in research on freedom, and that is compatible with a deterministic worldview. PMID:28678165
... (Operation Enduring Freedom/ Operation Iraqi Freedom Seriously Injured/Ill Service Member Veteran Worksheet... solicits comments on information provided to Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans... information technology. Title: Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Seriously Injured/Ill...
... (Operation Enduring Freedom/ Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans Health Needs Assessment) Activity; Comment... Operation Enduring Freedom/ Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans and their families. DATES: Written comments and...: Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans Health Needs Assessment, VA Form 10-21091. OMB...
Full Text Available We have a very strong intuition and a very strong feeling that we, as human beings, generally have freedom of the will and freedom of the action. It seems that in most situations we can do this or that; namely, we can do action A or we can refrain from doing action A under the same conditions. The view which argues that this is not an illusion and that we have genuine freedom is the libertarian view. I would like to examine could that view be plausible under scientific understanding of the world. It seems that physical sciences strongly support determinism. Chaos theory and indeterminism in quantum mechanics could not save freedom because chaos is a deterministic theory and indeterminate events in quantum mechanics happen by pure chance. Pure chance is not something we want as freedom. But, perhaps, we can have freedom reconciled (although maybe in a restricted form if actions or decisions can be described by equations which allow more than one solution and if these solutions can be interpreted as refering to different contents of the will or to different actions.
Rostbøll, Christian Fogh
for freedom of expression in terms of its relationship to different dimensions of autonomy. In response to the objection that Enlightenment theories pose a threat to cultures that reject autonomy, it is argued that autonomy-based democracy is not only compatible with but necessary for respect for cultural......The strongest versions of the democracy argument for freedom of expression rely on the deliberative conception of democracy. Deliberative democracy entails both an ideal of political autonomy and of autonomous preference formation. This paper elaborates the deliberative democracy argument...... diversity. On the basis of an intersubjective epistemology, I argue that citizens cannot know how to live on mutually respectful terms without engaging in public deliberation. Moreover, to be successful deliberation must foster some degree of personal autonomy, at least the ability to distinguish what...
Treball Final de Màster Universitari Internacional en Estudis de Pau, Conflictes i Desenvolupament. Codi: SAA074. Curs: 2013/2014 Freedom of speech and press freedom are key foundations of all human rights as stipulated in human rights declaration of 1948. Denying people the right to free speech is keeping them away from what is happening in this world, thus, hindering them from participating in decision making. While speech freedom and press freedom are key tools to measure if a country ...
... (Operation Enduring Freedom/ Operation Iraqi Freedom Seriously Injured/Ill Service Member Veteran Worksheet... No. 2900-0720.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom... used VA Form 21-0773 as a checklist to ensure they provided Operation Enduring Freedom or Operation...
To sustain growth requires changes in the Chinese economy and society. The Asian financial crisis shows that independent institutions and individual freedoms are necessary to stimulate entrepreneurship and innovation. Conservative social values often promoted by the education and training system could hinder economic growth. (SK)
Luis Eduardo Hoyos
Full Text Available In the article it is pretended to prepare the conceptual field for the correct use of the attribution of freedom. It is defended the importance to consider the complementarity of freedom of action and freedom of the will and it is argued for a non-metaphysical conception of adscription of freedom. The adequate use of the attribution of freedom is social and normative. This means additionally that the freedom is not a presupposition of the moral responsibility and the authorship, but on the contrary the moral responsibility and the authorship are presuppositions of the attribution of freedom.
Full Text Available It is often argued that Islam is not compatible with modernity. This can be seen for instance in the fact of the problem that Islam faces to the challenge of universal values of human rights. Built on this supposition, the present article discusses on the great extent the question of religious freedom in Islam. As freedom of religion in the framework of universal declaration of human rights can mean as freedom to change religion, this contradicts to Islamic prohibition of apostasy, punishable with death penalty. The author argues that Islam in fact guarantees religious freedom. This is clear from the Quranic injunctions assuring the freedom of choice whether to embrace Islam or not. Such a freedom is however often contradicted to one prophetic tradition sanctioning death penalty for apostasy. In her view, the author believes that the hadith more in attunes to the political strategy of the prophet to safe Muslim community from any acts of treason or sedition. Death penalty for apostasy is thus not related to the mere personal crime of changing religion but more that of public law related to war or crimes against state. More relying on the modern interpretation of the Quranic verses as well as the prophetic traditions, the author concludes that Islam is in conjunction with the modern values of religious freedom in which personal choice of religion or belief is the backbone of human rights.
Murphy, Sean; Genuis, Stephen J
The widespread emergence of innumerable technologies within health care has complicated the choices facing caregivers and their patients. The escalation of knowledge and technical innovation has been accompanied by an erosion of moral and ethical consensus among health providers that is reflected in the abandonment of the Hippocratic Oath as the immutable bedrock of medical ethics. Ethical conflicts arise when the values of health professionals collide with the expressed wishes of patients or the dictates of regulatory bodies and administrators. Increasing attempts by groups outside of the medical profession to limit freedom of conscience for health providers has raised concern and consternation among some health professionals. The personal and professional impact of health professionals surrendering freedom of conscience and participating in actions they deem malevolent or unethical has not been adequately studied and may not be inconsequential when considering the recognized impact of other circumstances of coerced complicity. We argue that the distinction between the two ways that freedom of conscience is exercised (avoiding a perceived evil and seeking a perceived good) provides a rational basis for a principled limitation of this fundamental freedom.
Laurin, Kristin; Kay, Aaron C; Fitzsimons, Gavan J
How do people respond to government policies and work environments that place restrictions on their personal freedoms? The psychological literature offers two contradictory answers to this question. Here, we attempt to resolve this apparent discrepancy. Specifically, we identify the absoluteness of a restriction as one factor that determines how people respond to it. Across two studies, participants responded to absolute restrictions (i.e., restrictions that were sure to come into effect) with rationalization: They viewed the restrictions more favorably, and valued the restricted freedoms less, compared with control participants. Participants responded in the opposite way to identical restrictions that were described as nonabsolute (i.e., as having a small chance of not coming into effect): In this case, participants displayed reactance, viewing the restrictions less favorably, and valuing the restricted freedoms more, compared with control participants. We end by discussing future research directions.
Rostbøll, Christian F.
This paper elaborates on the deliberative democracy argument for freedom of expression in terms of its relationship to different dimensions of autonomy. It engages the objection that Enlightenment theories pose a threat to cultures that reject autonomy and argues that autonomy-based democracy...... is not only compatible with but necessary for respect for cultural diversity. On the basis of an intersubjective epistemology, it argues that people cannot know how to live on mutually respectful terms without engaging in public deliberation and develop some degree of personal autonomy. While freedom...... of expression is indispensable for deliberation and autonomy, this does not mean that people have no obligations regarding how they speak to each other. The moral insights provided by deliberation depend on the participants in the process treating one another with respect. The argument is related to the Danish...
... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-0728] Proposed Information Collection (Operation Enduring Freedom/ Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans Health Needs Assessment) Activities Under OMB....'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans Health Needs...
Since its inclusion in Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the right to freedom of opinion and expression has been protected in all of the relevant international human rights treaties. In international law, freedom to express opinions and ideas is considered essential at both an individual level, insofar as it contributes to the full development of a person, and being a foundation stone of democratic society. Free speech is a necessary precondition to the enjoyment of other rights, such as the right to vote, free assembly and freedom of association, and is essential to ensure press freedom. However, there is a clear and worrying global trend, including in western democracies, of governments limiting vibrant discussion and debate within civil society and among civil society, political leaders and government. Two examples illustrate this trend. First, anti-protest laws in Australia and the United States threaten the ability of people to stand together and express views on issues they care deeply about. Secondly, metadata retention laws jeopardise press freedom by undermining the confidentiality of journalists' sources and dissuading people from speaking freely on matters of public importance.
Full Text Available This paper examines the direct connection between the development of human society and progress in the realization of and respect for human rights and freedoms, as well as a number of problems that stand in the way for their full realization. The Company to its characteristics should allow the free development of man to protect his rights, freedom and autonomy. On the other hand, an individual has an active role in building a society whose form is: economic development, permanent democratization of social relations, development and dissemination of human rights and freedoms, the existence of the rule of law and so on. Degree of respect for human rights and freedoms measured level of development achieved and the characteristics of democracy in a society. The main causes of their violations and neglect, as well as the social climate and miles of contributing to this are: domination of one ideology, cultural closeness, economic underdevelopment and the like. As an example, of vulnerable groups in the realization of human rights can be given: the poor, women, children, immigrants, same-sex oriented persons, etc. The paper presents the view Alain Touraine in the development of human society and, related to it, the development of human rights, who was going in the direction of the transformation of rights from abstract to concrete rights, with particular emphasis on cultural rights.
Reysa, R.; Edwards, J.
The Space Station Freedom (SSF) must recover water from various waste water sources to reduce 90 day water resupply demands for a four/eight person crew. The water recovery system options considered are summarized together with system configuration merits and demerits, resource advantages and disadvantages, and water quality considerations used to select the SSF water recovery system.
Sri Ayu Astuti
Full Text Available Freedom of expression and press freedom is the embodiment of the recognition of human rights. Freedom of expression is also the existence of press to disclose the news with honesty and do not get a pressure to deliver the news to the public space, which in news production is known as a work of journalism. Now the press has gained freedom of expression in the news production process which is guaranteed in the state constitution. Although Article 28 of the Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia 1945 does not point directly at the press, However, Article 28 F emphasis on processing and storage as well as ownership, excavations to information. It also contains provisions on the freedom of expression of others, which should be valued and respected. It shows equality for everyone in his position before the law in accordance with Article 27 1945 Constitution, which emphasizes the recognition of constitutional rights that belong to every person in the state of law in the Republic of Indonesia. Thus the press, which have freedom of expression in the writings of journalistic works are required to be responsible for the published news. So as not to face the legal issues and criminalization, then press should perform tasks and functions to enforce ethics as the precautionary principle when processing the news and broadcast it to the public space, as well as upholding human rights. How To Cite: Astuti, S. (2014. Freedom of the Press In the Scope of Human Rights. Rechtsidee, 1(1, 101-118. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.21070/jihr.v1i1.96
This paper takes as its starting point Kant's analysis of freedom in the Critique of Pure Reason. From this analysis, two different types of freedom are discerned, formative and instrumental freedom. The paper suggests that much of what passes for the pedagogy of learning in UK universities takes the form of an instrumental freedom. This, however,…
Full Text Available Freedom Project trains prisoners in nonviolent communication and meditation. Two complementary studies of its effects are reported in this article. The first study is correlational; we found decreased recidivism rates among prisoners trained by Freedom Project compared with recidivism rates in Washington state. The second study compared trained prisoners with a matched-pair control group and found improvement in self-reported anger, self-compassion, and certain forms of mindfulness among the trained group. Ratings of role-plays simulating difficult interactions show increased social skills among the group trained by Freedom Project than in the matched controls.
Susin, Luiz Carlos
Full Text Available Há uma relação entre religião e violência que consiste basicamente em sacralização da violência através da sublimação da mesma como sacrifício. Ora, o sacrifício está no coração de toda religião, de forma descarada nas religiões arcaicas e de forma metamorfoseada e mascarada na evolução histórica da religião. A Escritura testemunha as ambiguidades do sacrifício e o choque profético entre o sacrifício e a misericórdia. O Cristianismo, em sua fonte, é a superação radical do sacrifício, mas, ao longo da história, novas metamorfoses do sacrifício surgem no Cristianismo. É a volta às fontes e a renovação de sua experiência na confraternização universal, testada pelos excluídos, que legitimam a originalidade do Cristianismo e um sentido realmente cristão para a palavra sacrifício. There is a relation between religion and violence that consists basically in making violence sacred through its sublimation as a sacrifice. Therefore, sacrifice is at the heart of all religion, in a blatant way in archaic religions and in a metamorphosed and masked way in the historical evolution of religion. The Scriptures witness the ambiguities of sacrifice and the prophetic shock between sacrifice and mercy. Christianity, in its origin, is the radical overcoming of sacrifice, but throughout history new ways sacrifice has metamorphosed appear in Christianity. It’s the return to the sources and the renewal of this experience in universal fellowship, tested by those excluded, who legitimate the uniqueness of Christianity and a true Christian meaning to the word sacrifice.
Megan E. Welsh
Full Text Available Objective – Professional librarians have varying values relating to the topic of intellectual freedom that may or may not align with the American Library Association’s (ALA policies defining professional expectations on the topic. The personally held values and beliefs of Roman Catholic librarians and those working in libraries affiliated with Roman Catholicism are worthy of study to determine how personal religious values may translate into professional practice. The objective of this paper is to ascertain how frequently and in what context the topics of intellectual freedom and censorship were expressed in articles published in Catholic Library World (CLW, the professional journal of the Catholic Library Association (CLA from 1980 to 2015. Published content on these topics can be used as evidence to determine how this population discusses the concept of intellectual freedom. Methods – Articles relevant to these topics were retrieved from the American Theological Library Association Catholic Periodical and Literature Index (ATLA CPLI and Library, Information Science & Technology Abstracts (LISTA databases by conducting keyword searches using the terms “intellectual freedom” and censorship. Each retrieved publication was analyzed by counting the number of times the phrase “intellectual freedom” and the root censor* occurred. Through a deep reading of each publication, statements containing these search terms were then coded as positive, negative, or neutral, establishing a context for each occurrence. Results – The majority of published content supported intellectual freedom and opposed censorship. Negative content typically occurred in publications about children or school libraries. Additionally, CLW contributors did express a certain level of conflict between personally held religious values and professional values. Conclusions – This study adds to the limited research available on the intersection of personally held
Full Text Available Abstract: In this paper I present and analyze the classical libertarian thesis according to which there is an intimate connection between humans‟ right to self-ownership and their freedom, and I provide some reasons for preserving this traditional connection against its egalitarian contesters, represented by Gerald Allan Cohen. The principle states that humans have a right of property over their persons and powers, and any interference with this right is equivalent to a violation of their freedom. This is the reason why an egalitarian thinker like Cohen tries to reject the principle and its connection with freedom in order to legitimate redistribution of property in the benefit of the underprivileged: he argues that the principle itself (and particularly Robert Nozick‟s version of it has no special relation with freedom and lacks any real significance for political philosophy. I will reject his argumentation and evidentiate that the traditional connection still stands and the principle is indeed useful. In the last section I will formulate what I believe to be a more robust justification of it and offer some suggestions about the central role it could play in a general explanation of social and political legitimacy and normativity.
Rietzschel, Eric; Reiter-Palmon, Roni; Kaufman, James
Creativity is commonly thought to depend on freedom and a lack of constraints. While this is true to a large extent, it neglects the creative potential of structure and constraints. In this chapter, I will address the relation between freedom, structure, and creativity. I will explain that freedom,
Richard A. Hughes
Full Text Available The author portrays Russian philosopher Nikolai Berdyaev as a pioneer in Eastern Orthodox theology with his ideas of freedom and personality. After his deportation from the Soviet Union in 1922, Berdyaev expounded persona-lism in opposition to Western individualism and Marxist collecti-vism. Personality exists in the image and likeness of God, and it culminates in deification. He drew upon the Sobornost’ tradition of Russia and interpreted personality as a communion of love in contrast to reflective self-consciousness of the Augustinian tradition of Western theology.
Rostbøll, Christian Fogh
with harmony in one's entire volitional system, Frankfurt may solve the infi nite regress objection but he does so at the cost of ending up with a description of freedom, which comes very close to being identical to his own description of the wanton. Frankfurt's account leaves open the question of whether......This article is a critical assessment of Harry Frankfurt's hierarchical theory of freedom. It spells out and distinguishes several different and irreconcilable conceptions of freedom present in Frankfurt's work. I argue that Frankfurt is ambiguous in his early formulation as to what conception...... of freedom of the will the hierarchical theory builds on, an avoidability or a satisfaction conception. This ambiguity causes problems in his later attempts to respond to the objections of wantonness of second-order desires and of infi nite regress. With his more recent idea of freedom as being satisfi ed...
Full Text Available This article intends to rectify three popular beliefs related to press freedom: (1 that the idea of a free marketplace of ideas with a self-righting truth belongs to original liberalism, (2 that UNESCO’s primary mission is to promote freedom of information, and (3 that the Universal Declaration of Human Rights provides legal safeguards for the media. These beliefs are shown, on the basis of the legacy of liberalism and documents of the international community, to be misleading myths. Instead of accurate readings of the idea of freedom, they serve as ideological positions which are harmful to democracy. The Millennium Declaration provides further proof that the international community has a much more balanced view of freedom of information than that typically held by media professionals. Therefore it is important to liberate the concept of press freedom from its ideological baggage.
Regina Linden Ruaro
Full Text Available This article reviews fundamental rights of freedom of research and protection of personal data in the field of human genetics, it proposes the application of the precautionary principle of prevention. Evaluates the Brazilian legislation on the subject matter of research as to guarantee privacy measure of personal data and information collected in scientific research, a situation that worsens in the middle in digital and virtual world because it is a space virtually rapid development. Focuses on the limitation of fundamental rights, based on the conception that are not absolute. It proposes the principles of precaution and prevention among virtual environment. The deductive and dialectical methods are adopted, having premised most fundamental rights related and under Brazilian law; the dialectical method was used because the issue is the subject of constant debate is necessary confrontation of doctrinal currents and the Brazilian legislation.
Moore, Mary Elizabeth Mullino
True freedom and true peace are cousins, but they can only work together if the freedom of one people is seen in relation to the freedom of another. Struggles for freedom and peace can only enhance each other if the peace people seek is a robust harmony in which conflict is embraced and people are encouraged to imagine a far stronger freedom and…
Freedom of the will is a never-ending source of puzzlement for academic philosophers. At the same time, it is something deeply familiar to everyone. For the relevant concept of freedom underlies much, if not all, of our ordinary discourse and thinking about ourselves and others. However, our attempt
Bruni, Luis Emilio
), but stress also their necessity in the study of any given biological and cognitive system. I draw a distinction between horizontal and vertical emergence in order to arrive at a notion of ‘second order emergence' that affords us a more viable definition of semiotic freedom. I will then attempt to show......The emergence of organic, metabolic, cognitive and cultural codes points us to the need for a new kind of explanatory causality, and a different kind of bio-logic - one dependent on, but different from, the deterministic logic derived from mechanical causality, and one which can account...... for the increase in semiotic freedom which is evident in the biological hierarchy. Building upon previous work (Bruni 2003), in this article I provide a stipulative definition of semiotic freedom and its relation to causality in biological and cognitive systems. To do so, I will first discuss the close relation...
Education lies at the heart of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR): "Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms". However, when education is mentioned in the philosophical literature on human rights, or even within…
Heilinger, Jan-Christoph; Crone, Katja
Ideas about freedom and related concepts like autonomy and self-determination play a prominent role in the moral debate about human enhancement interventions. However, there is not a single understanding of freedom available, and arguments referring to freedom are simultaneously used to argue both for and against enhancement interventions. This gives rise to misunderstandings and polemical arguments. The paper attempts to disentangle the different distinguishable concepts, classifies them and shows how they relate to one another in order to allow for a more structured and clearer debate. It concludes in identifying the individual underpinnings and the social conditions of choice and decision-making as particularly salient dimensions of freedom in the ethical debate about human enhancement.
Full Text Available In this paper, we argue, grounded on empirical evidence, that enactivism is a promising philosophical stance with great potential to address challenges brought by our rapidly changing world. We then propose Freedom Education, a new form of teaching and learning founded on the enactivist theory. After discussing what constitutes Freedom Education and what it is not, we recommend several principles to establish a learning world of free-dom education.
Holtze, Terri L.; Rader, Hannelore B.
Focuses on intellectual freedom, discussing the role of libraries, the Berlin Wall and banned books as attempts to restrict intellectual freedom, and controversies surrounding filtering software. Contains an annotated bibliography of intellectual freedom resources, presented in five categories: general; government and legal issues; access and…
Traditionally, academic freedom has been understood as an individual right and a negative liberty. As William Tierney and Vincente Lechuga explain, "Academic freedom, although an institutional concept, was vested in the individual professor." The touchstone document on academic freedom, the American Association of University Professor's (AAUP)…
Edley, Christopher Jr.
Journalists and college professors deserve certain privileges, including freedom of speech and academic freedom, but they must adapt their work to increasingly diverse populations. They must confront public mistrust, convince people that these freedoms are worthwhile, and protect essential public rights through what they study and teach and to…
Hopson, George D.; Aaron, John; Grant, Richard L.
The process used to develop the on-orbit working and living environment of the Space Station Freedom has some very unique constraints and conditions to satisfy. The goal is to provide maximum efficiency and utilization of the available space, in on-orbit, zero G conditions that establishes a comfortable, productive, and safe working environment for the crew. The Space Station Freedom on-orbit living and working space can be divided into support for three major functions: (1) operations, maintenance, and management of the station; (2) conduct of experiments, both directly in the laboratories and remotely for experiments outside the pressurized environment; and (3) crew related functions for food preparation, housekeeping, storage, personal hygiene, health maintenance, zero G environment conditioning, and individual privacy, and rest. The process used to implement these functions, the major requirements driving the design, unique considerations and constraints that influence the design, and summaries of the analysis performed to establish the current configurations are described. Sketches and pictures showing the layout and internal arrangement of the Nodes, U.S. Laboratory and Habitation modules identify the current design relationships of the common and unique station housekeeping subsystems. The crew facilities, work stations, food preparation and eating areas (galley and wardroom), and exercise/health maintenance configurations, waste management and personal hygiene area configuration are shown. U.S. Laboratory experiment facilities and maintenance work areas planned to support the wide variety and mixtures of life science and materials processing payloads are described.
Discussions about freedom of speech and academic freedom today are about the limits to those freedoms. However, these discussions take place mostly in the higher education trade press and do not receive any serious attention from academics and educationalists. In this paper several key arguments for limiting academic freedom are identified,…
Jørgensen, Kenneth Mølbjerg
Based upon the work of Arendt’s notion of action as freedom and Butler’s rework of this notion into a collective, embodied and material performance, this paper proposes an ethics of freedom, which is discussed as a politics of storytelling in organizations. Freedom, it is argued, is closely related...
Mikkelsen, Marie V.; Cohen, Scott A.
Freedom is a widely discussed and highly elusive concept, and has long been represented in exoticised, masculinised and individualised discourses. Freedom is often exemplified through the image of a solitary male explorer leaving the female space of home and familiarity and going to remote places...... of the world. Through in-situ interviews with families caravanning in Denmark, the primary aim of this study is to challenge existing dominant discourses surrounding the subject of freedom within leisure and tourism studies. Second, we shed further light on an under-researched medium of mobility......, that of domestic caravanning. This serves to not only disrupt representations of freedom as occurring through exoticised, masculinised and individualised practices, but to give attention to the domestic, banal contexts where the everyday and tourism intersect, which are often overlooked. This novel repositioning...
Jovanović Đokica R.
Full Text Available One of the initial points of departure is actually an idea by Branko Lazarević, an almost forgotten writer and critic, who stated that 'sacrifice and the only pure self-denial', adding that we are witness to two types of sacrifice: 'Bearing a cross signifies to a victim that one still remains on the other (non-spiritual, author's note side'. Sacrificing therefore means that one has entered this (spiritual, author's note side. In this paper the author is discussing the phenomenon of the so-called transparent, visible sacrifice, i.e. those sacrifices that are on 'this side', which, as such, is the only one detectable in sociological investigations. The basic premise of the paper claims that the basis of the phenomenon of sacrifice there is a need for co-participation, submissiveness towerds authority (be it military, religious, political… which is a condition for coexistence in a community. Survival is possible only as an extension of physical existence or as a participating part of a commemorative culture. The paper also analyses the assumption that the culture of sacrifice, among other things, constitutes itself under a set of possible punitive measures (physical or moral. Among others, some ideas by Russian authors stating that the institution of a sacrifice develops in a state of fear caused by ritual murder of a state's subjects, smerds, before the dead body of their supreme leader. The Russian writers naturally do not rule out a practice of ritual killing of subjects in different and older cultures other than that of Proto-Slavic ones.
... commitments to ensure that every person on Earth can enjoy these basic human rights. NOW, THEREFORE, I, GEORGE... celebrate the first liberties enshrined in our Constitution’s Bill of Rights, which guarantee the free... practice their faith peacefully. Freedom is not a grant of government or a right for Americans alone; it is...
Full Text Available Arrest in flagrante delicto is one of the cases in which the international and national legal framework allows the restriction of the right to freedom. Currently, the individual and his fundamental rights are in the focus of human society. Some of them are absolute and some others have a relative character. The right to freedom, notwithstanding its importance, is a right of relative character but with cases of its restriction exhaustively defined. The protection of this right is extended both in horizontal perspective versus the actions of other persons, providing a legal-criminal defense and in vertical context, in the face of repressive power of the state, which adopted the most significant position in the case of someone’s arrest or detention. The latter constitute an indicator of an incomparable relation between the force of state power and a person’s vulnerability. The exact meaning of arrest in flagrante delicto and its application only in the conditions and criteria set out by the criminal procedural legislation prevents arbitrary restriction of the right to freedom. A key importance in the analysis of this institute is attached to ECtHR jurisprudence that is consolidated and detailed in addressing the right to freedom. The respect and application of standards affirmed by this court on part of the state institutions directly affects the consolidation of rule of law. The criminal procedural legislation has consented to the general principle according to which “only the judge has the power to apply a security measure restricting personal liberty, a measure that has continuous effects over time, although such measures have a specific maximum duration”. According to this approach, the arrest in flagrante delicto is qualified due to its character, as a temporary measure applied in situations of emergency when the procedure for security measure cannot be effectively applied. As already known, it is linked with the power of judicial
The paper investigates arguments for the idea in recent American Supreme Court jurisprudence that freedom of religion should not simply be understood as an ordinary legal right within the framework of liberal constitutionalism but as an expression of deference by the state and its legal system...... to religion as a separate and independent jurisdiction with its own system of law over which religious groups are sovereign. I discuss the relationship between, on the one hand, ordinary rights of freedom of association and freedom of religion and, on the other hand, this idea of corporate freedom of religion...
Rytter, Jens Elo
The article surveys the historical and current meaning of "Freedom of the Press" in constitutional and human rights law. Two different conceptions exist, the narrow one defining freedom of the press as the freedom of every one to publish without prior restraint, the broader one defining it as a...... privileged freedom of the organised press to gather and report on information of public interest. These two conceptions have very different answers to the question of whether the press should enjoy some privilege to be exempt from ordinary legislation when such legislation restricts the access of the press to inform...
The concept of freedom is often thought of as antithetical to sociology. The discipline is more prone to detect and unveil forms of unfreedom, as Zygmunt Bauman (1988) has pointed out. The question remains if any academic discipline, however, including sociology can do away with the concept...... of freedom al together! In matters of science, the problem of determinism vs. chance and spontaneity is essential. Hence, freedom, in one sense or the other, is necessarily at bottom also of sociological discourse. This text is an attempt to map the predominant forms of freedom found in sociological...... discourses. While starting out with the classic liberal concept informing theories of modernity followed by the various critiques directed against liberalism, not the least the most recently occurring (Lyotard, Agamben), the aim here is to spot possible trajectories in our comprehension of freedom, also...
Discussion of means to ensure freedom of expression by college students. Areas of expression noted are student newspapers, lectures by off-campus speakers, freedom to assemble peaceably and freedom to associate. (EK)
Academic freedom does not refer to freedom to engage in any speech act, but to freedom to hold any belief and espouse it in an appropriately academic manner. This freedom belongs to certain institutions, rather than to individuals, because of their academic nature. Academic freedom should be absolute, regardless of any offence it may on occasion…
This paper employs a panel data set to estimate the effect of globalization on four measures of economic freedom. Contrary to previous studies, the paper distinguishes between three separate types of globalization: economic, social and political. It also separates effects for poor and rich...... countries, and autocracies and democracies. The results show that economic globalization is negatively associated with government size and positively with regulatory freedom in rich countries; social globalization is positively associated with legal quality in autocracies and with the access to sound money...... in democracies. Political globalization is not associated with economic freedom...
Cebula, Richard; Ekstrom, Marcus
This exploratory study examines the impact of various forms of economic freedom and various dimensions of governance, as well as a number of economic factors, on economic growth among OECD nations. Empirical estimation finds that the natural log of per capita purchasing-power-parity adjusted real GDP in OECD nations is positively impacted by business freedom, monetary freedom, trade freedom, and property rights security. Economic growth is found to be negatively affected by perceived governme...
Hanna, Fred J.
Freedom is presented as an overarching paradigm that may align and bring together the counseling profession's diverse counseling theories and open a doorway to a new generation of counseling techniques. Freedom is defined and discussed in terms of its 4 modalities: freedom from, freedom to, freedom with, and freedom for. The long-standing problem…
This paper is primarily about the personal and public responsibilities of ethics and of ethicists in speaking, writing and commenting publicly about issues of ethical, political and social significance. The paper argues that any such interventions are 'willy-nilly', actually or potentially, in the public domain in ways that make any self-conscious decision about intended publics or audiences problematic. In it is argued that a famous, and hitherto useful, distinction relating to the ethical limitations on freedom of speech which we owe to John Stuart Mill may, because of the emergence of 'the cloud' have become redundant or inoperable.
Full Text Available The freedoms of expression and of the press are basic pillars of the western democracies. The contemporary theoretical framework which gives support to these rights was generated in the wake of the liberal revolutions which took place in Western Europe and in North America starting from the second half of the 1600s. Our purpose in this text is to present the current scene regarding this topic, focusing whenever pertinent on the Brazilian case, and seeking to question the unconditional defense of the freedoms of expression and of the press made by the thinkers who founded these principles vis-á-vis contemporary issues of the communicational universe. Going beyond theoretical-conceptual reﬂ ections, we present and analyze the results of a content analysis showing how 53 Brazilian newspapers and 4 magazines with nationwide circulation report (or not topics relating to freedom of expression and of the press.
Albuquerque, M A
The author, in a historical and philosophical approach, analyses the concept of freedom as opposed to slavery. He also refers to the legal and social restrictions and studies the determinism and free will as the causes of human behaviour. Quoting Spinoza, the author states that man accepts the idea of freedom because he realizes the "how" of his options but ignores "why". Without the hypothesis of causality and determinism, there seems to have no science. Without freedom, there seems to be no anthropos man (Jimeno Valdez). The principles of anticausality, of nonreproducibility and of differentiation characterize the human freedom, but are contrary to the way science works. According to the social and political point of view, it was established that the State has the right to oblige and to violently limit freedom. Practically speaking, though, the State is violent just for being the State; the dominant groups are the government because they are and they have been violent. There is a need to limit and to discipline this right of the State of being violent within the dilemma of safety and freedom. By working, the slave avoided the whip. And by doing this, he encouraged the behaviour of the one who whipped him. The non-aversive attitudes limit the freedom in the modern world more and more for they also enchain our will, a rebellion becoming impossible. One is not granted the freedom; it shall be conquered and kept. Freedom, either as a concept or a phenomenon, is always relative. The concept of toxicomania or pharmacodependance is analysed according to the same perspective. The conclusion is that this is always more a problem of the society than of the individual, and this is how it has to be understood and treated. The present world is described as a millenial human culture specifically characterized by eight groups of phenomena: 1. Transport increased human mobility, reduced the relative dimensions of the earth, mixed peoples, compared cultures and created
As part of her ongoing work monitoring issues at the intersection of science and human rights, Ms. Munoz has highlighted violations of academic freedom in Serbia and Iran, the denial of visas and travel licenses to U.S. and Cuban scientists, interference with scientific freedom in Brazil, Mexico, Russia, and the Ukraine, the use of organs from executed prisoners in China, legislation jeopardizing women's health in Iran, and the closure of centers for the treatment of torture survivors in Turkey. Such violations contravene international human rights principles listed in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other international human rights covenants. Ms. Munoz will describe current violations of scientific freedom and the relevant international principles on which these freedoms rest.
... protect our freedom of religion, including the freedom to practice none at all. Many faiths are now..., declaring freedom of religion as the natural right of all humanity--not a privilege for any government to... Religious Freedom Day, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Long before our...
First of all, I define the concept of epistemic freedom in the light of the changing nature of educational practice that prioritise over-prescriptive conceptions of learning. I defend the 'reality' of this freedom against possible determinist-related criticisms. I do this by stressing the concept of agency as characterised by 'becoming'. I also…
Condon, Barbara Backer
Freedom as a concept has been much debated. Is freedom an innate part of being, or does freedom even truly exists? These are questions that have gleaned countless hours of discourse over the years. Two components of freedom that can influence nurse higher education are freedom of speech, in the form of media, and academic freedom. The author of this column first introduces three views of freedom to demonstrate the differences surrounding it. A discussion of the media's use or misuse of freedom of speech and its influence on nursing education is then presented, followed by an examination of current threats to academic freedom in today's institutes of higher learning and specifically in the nursing education arena. The author concludes with suggestions on being a nurse educator through living as a humanbecoming professional while navigating issues surrounding nursing education.
Hategan Camelia - Daniela
Full Text Available The European Single Market implies not only the free movement of goods and services, but also the free movement of production factors (the capital and the labor force.The liberalization of goods and services and of production factors movement has determined, on the short term, the appearance of some structural and specialization adjustment processes within the member countries, and on the long term a more efficient allocation of the production factors, an improvement of labor productivity and positive effects in the field of labor force employment. According to the neoclassical theory, the labor force migrates from regions with low wages and low profit rates, to regions having high wages and high profit rate. Thus, the production factors are used in a more productive way. According to this theory, the factors mobility contributes to the equalization of the wages and to a better factors allocation. Issues such as structural funds, persons freedom of movement, convergence could be turned into advantages by any member state, and especially by a new member state. From an economic perspective, the causes of labor force mobility, as a production factor, are: the price differences (wage differences, profit rates differences, interest rates differences according to neoclassical theory; income difference, meaning saving excess or insufficiency for the capital, according to Keynes approach; differences in the level of economic development, determining unequal changes, according to the monetarists. Romania has become a European Union member at January, the 1st, 2007. The accession road has been a long one, full of challenges, issues, but also satisfactions. The 1st of January has not been the end of a process, but the beginning of a new period for Romania's present history. The author will try to emphasize the freedoms of movement of the Single Market. The humanitarian reasons also determine the migration of the population; these are the refugees, the
Full Text Available Contemporary societies are currently subjected to very rapid and radical social changes and, as a consequence, struggle with their outcomes. The results range from the unforeseen repercussions of globally shifting political powers, through rising nationalisms, to prolonged economic, environmental, political and humanitarian crises. Critical analysis of the theories focused on the phenomena of authoritarianism, escapism, political myth, and conformity allows for outlining a comprehensive picture of the universally recognized opposition between freedom and security. From the distinction between the positive and negative freedom to the ambiguity surrounding the concept of “freedom from fear”, the fundamental dilemma is viewed from a historical perspective and illustrated with modern examples, emphasizing its current validity, insightfulness and potential in analyzing contemporary global problems. This approach allows for in-depth analyses of diversified social and political issues, such as the North African-European refugee crisis, rising nationalisms in the Western world, or a marked shift in political and social perspectives worldwide, from modern escapism to the birth of new myths of state.
[EN] The paper aims at defining in particular the concept of academic freedom within the context of the European legal sources. Even though the idea of a special corporative status for professors was born during the Middle Ages, it was only during the second half of the twentieth century that the Constitutions recognised academic freedom as an individual’s legal right.. Such an individual right is regulated within the category of the freedom of expression, even if it is characteri...
Goulia, Panagiota; Voulgari, Paraskevi V; Tsifetaki, Niki; Andreoulakis, Elias; Drosos, Alexandros A; Carvalho, André F; Hyphantis, Thomas
Individual differences in adjustment during a disease's course determine psychological response and outcome. This study aimed to investigate prospectively whether coping with health stressors and self-sacrificing defense style could predict psychological adjustment and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Seventy-four consecutive RA patients attending a rheumatology clinic were assessed for psychological distress (SCL-90-R), sense of coherence (SOC scale), self-sacrificing defense style (Defense Style Questionnaire-88), disease activity (DAS-28), pain, disability (Health Assessment Questionnaire) and HRQoL (World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument, Short Form) at baseline and 5 years later. Multiple regression and moderator analyses were carried out. The results showed that disease activity (p psychological distress (p = .031), social relations HRQoL (p = .042) and environment HRQoL (p = .020) significantly improved over time. SOC was found an independent predictor of improvement in psychological distress (p = .003), overall general health (p = .002) and social relations HRQoL (p = .004); self-sacrificing independently predicted environment HRQoL (p = .042). The self-sacrificing defense style moderated the relationships between improvement in pain and improvement in overall general health (p = .024) and between improvement in pain and improvement in social relations HRQoL (p = .006). These findings indicate that, in RA, SOC predicts improvement in psychological distress and HRQoL over time, while a self-sacrificing defense style moderates the relationship of pain with HRQoL in the long term. These variables may partly explain inter-individual differences in adaptation to RA. Therefore, the design of psychotherapeutic trials targeting the patients' defensive profiles and coping with health stressors capacities is an important research perspective.
Pinar IRMAK VURAL
Full Text Available Emotional Freedom Technique (EFT is a kind of practice of energy psychotherapy consisting of cognitive and somatic components that are used to improve personal negative emotions and related emotional and physical disorders. Stress hormones are secreted in the brain when a person is stressed, the amygdala and other responsive cerebral segments are activated. If the stress can not be effectively coped with, the physical and psychological consequences that will become chronic in course of time. There are essential steps to follow in EFT; firstly person create a setup sentence for sending a message to the emotional body (subconscious and then twelve meridians of energy end point (acupressure points is tapped on. There are different protocols for application purposes. EFT can be performed in psychological and physical areas, which are very common in children and adults, and there is not reported of any adverse effects in randomized controlled trials. In this review, PubMed, Google's Academic and related literature sources were examined and it was determined that the EFT had research results in a variety of subjects. Emotions can be recognized, accepted and transformed with the EFT application.
One hundred people who were accused either of murder (70 persons) or of attempted murder (30 persons) in Queensland were personally examined by the writer. The methods, motives, and ways of prevention of homicide are discussed. A considerable preportion of murderers in this series were either mentally ill or severely emotionally disturbed at the time the crime was committed, and at least one in 10 of these murders could have been prevented. It is recommended that the treatment and assessment of potentially violent psychotic patients should be undertaken more carefully, and that the antipsychiatrist campaigns for the freedom of the individual should be tempered with a consideration for public safety.
Adam J. Fenton
Full Text Available Religious intolerance and bigotry indeed is a contributing factor in social and political conflict including manifestations of terrorist violence. While freedom of religion is enshrined in Indonesia’s Constitution, social practices and governmental regulations fall short of constitutional and international law guarantees, allowing institutionalised bias in the treatment of religious minorities. Such bias inhibits Indonesia’s transition to a fully-functioning pluralistic democracy and sacrifices democratic ideals of personal liberty and freedom of expression for the stated goals of religious and social harmony. The Ahok case precisely confirms that. The paper examines the constitutional bases of freedom of religion, Indonesia’s Blasphemy Law and takes account of the history and tenets of Pancasila which dictate a belief in God as the first principle of state ideology. The paper argues that the Indonesian state’s failure to recognise the legitimacy of alternate theological positions is a major obstacle to Indonesia recognising the ultimate ideal, enshrined in the national motto, of unity in diversity.
A. C. MANEA
Full Text Available Starting from the freedom of expression of the person as a fundamental principle laid down in the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, the fundamental principle of the Internet law is unequivocally defined: the principle of the freedom of the Internet, together with other principles such as the principle of privacy protection, the principle of territorial jurisdiction or the principle of interstate cooperation. The Internet and the information society in general also involve the processing of users' personal data, systems processing current data in various fields from education to health, from public administration to on-line trade, placing the individual above the general interest of the economic operator, thus respecting the individual's right to privacy in a global society.
D.R. Gasper (Des); I.P. van Staveren (Irene)
markdownabstractAbstract To what extent can Amartya Sen’s ideas on freedom, especially his conceptualization of development as freedom, enrich feminist economics? Sen’s notion of freedom (as the capability to achieve valued ends) has many attractions and provides important opportunities to
Debates about science and, more specifically, about scientific research quickly bring up the question about its freedom. Science is readily blamed for technological disasters or criticized for nursing fantasies of omnipotence and commercial gain. This prompts the call for a restriction of its freedom. At the same time, society's demands on science are enormous, to the effect that science and technology have acquired the status of a deus-ex-machina: they are expected to furnish short-term, affordable, and convenient solutions to a wide range of problems, including issues of health, transportation, food and, more generally, a comfortable life. What kind of freedom is required to meet these expectations? Who is in a position to grant it? What does freedom for science mean and how is it linked to responsibility? The paper examines the current situation of freedom in scientific research and of its restrictions, many of which are mentally or economically conditioned. It calls for the involvement of an informed, self-confident bourgeoisie in research decisions and for the educational measures this necessitates. Finally, it demands a greater appreciation of education (rather than training) as the basis of social trust, and the recognition of continuous education as a productive investment of time and a crucial element in the employment of social goods.
In this paper, the public debate following the re-ligion-motivated assassination of Dutch filmmaker Theo van Gogh in November 2004 is examined. The paper aims at describ-ing religious as well as secular positions in the Danish debate about freedom of speech and press in relation to religious issues....... Historically, the concept of press freedom was linked to a fight for religious freedom in London, as described by Siebert....
Full Text Available The concept of freedom constitutes the relationship between ethics and politics in Hegel’s thought. Contrary to Kantian understanding of the concept of freedom in which the concept is autonomous from nature and society, Hegel attempts to reconcile the social and individual existence of human being. The first condition of freedom for individual is to have a self-consciousness, that is being aware of himself. But freedom that could not being comprimized with being social is not the real freedom. Hegel also examines freedom in its historal manner. Freedom, in its historical manner, has reached its completed meaning only in Western societies. Hegel thinks that freedom becomes concrete in practical and political manner in Prussian State, in other words, in modern state. According to Hegel the modern state is a state in which justice and power is united. That is, the state has a both political and ethical existence. Hegel suggests that social institutions are legitimized only by realization of freedom. State is also the supreme normative insitution which concretize ethical life. The aim of this study is to understand Hegel’s attempt of synthesizing individual and society by using ethical and political concepts.
Staveren, I.P. van; Gasper, D.
To what extent can Amartya Sen’s ideas on freedom, especially his conceptualization of development as freedom, enrich feminist economics? Sen’s notion of freedom (as the capability to achieve valued ends) has many attractions and provides important opportunities to analyze gender inequalities. At
Gasper, D.; Staveren, I.P. van
To what extent can Amartya Sen’s ideas on freedom, especially his conceptualization of development as freedom, enrich feminist economics? Sen’s notion of freedom (as the capability to achieve valued ends) has many attractions and provides important opportunities to analyze gender inequalities. At
Gasper, D.; Staveren, I.P. van
To what extent can Amartya Sen’s ideas on freedom, especially his conceptualization of development as freedom, enrich feminist economics? Sen’s notion of freedom (as the capability to achieve valued ends) has many attractions and provides important opportunities to analyze gender inequalities. At
Inevitably, there are times in a nation’s history when its hopes, fears and conﬁdence in its own destiny appear to hinge on the fate of a single person. One of these pivotal moments occurred on the early morning of May 5, 1961, when a 37-year-old test pilot squeezed himself into the conﬁnes of the tiny Mercury spacecraft that he had named Freedom 7. On that historic day, U.S. Navy Commander Alan Shepard carried with him the hopes, prayers, and anxieties of a nation as his Redstone rocket blasted free of the launch pad at Cape Canaveral, hurling him upwards on a 15-minute suborbital ﬂight that also propelled the United States into the bold new frontier of human space exploration. This book tells the enthralling story of that pioeering ﬂight as recalled by many of the participants in the Freedom 7 story, including Shepard himself, with anecdotal details and tales never before revealed in print. Although beaten into space just three weeks earlier by the Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin, Alan Shepard’s h...
ALA Editions, 2010
Updated for the first time since 2005, this indispensable volume includes revised interpretations of the Library Bill of Rights along with key intellectual freedom guidelines and policies, including: (1) A new chapter, "Interactivity and the Internet," and other fresh material on intellectual freedom and privacy in online social…
The use of novel structural designs and the Energia launch system of the Commonwealth of Independent States for the Space Station Freedom (SSF) program is evaluated by means of a concept analysis. The analysis assumes that: (1) Energia is used for all cargo and logistics resupply missions; (2) the shuttles are launched from the U.S.; and (3) an eight-person assured crew return vehicle is available. This launch/supply scenario reduces the deployment risk from 30 launches to a total of only eight launches reducing the cost by about 15 billion U.S. dollars. The scenario also significantly increases the expected habitable and storage volumes and decreases the deployment time by three years over previous scenarios. The specific payloads are given for Energia launches emphasizing a proposed design for the common module cluster that incorporates direct structural attachment to the truss at midspan. The design is shown to facilitate the accommodation of additional service hangars and to provide a more efficient program for spacecraft habitable space.
Full Text Available In this study, the concept ‘academic freedom’ is discussed, its implications and value for the academics, institutions of higher education, and the society are focused, and a few suggestions for the Turkish higher education are made. Academic freedom is defined as the freedom of the academic staff to look for and to find the truth in their scientific field, to publish the findings, and to teach these findings to their students without any external intervention. The concept has gained a further definition with inclusion of research activities into academic freedom as part of the reform attempts started in the German higher education in the 19th century. Therefore, academic freedom is at the very core of the missions of the institutions of higher education; that is, teaching-learning and research. On the point of academic staff and their academic activities of the academic freedom, the subjects such as the aim of the course, choosing the teaching materials and textbooks, the lecturer, and the criteria for the measurement and evaluation of the course take place. And he point of research covers the aim of the study, academicians can’t be imposed the involve in an academic and artistic studies that conflict their values and beliefs; researchers should comply with codes of ethical principles and practices during the process of researching; and research outputs should be reported accurately and honestly without any misleading manipulation. Academic freedom does not provide any exemption from accountability in academic activities of the faculty, nor does it provide any right to act against the well-being of the society, current laws and regulations, and codes of ethical principles and practices.
Full Text Available In Axel Honneth’s Freedom’s Right (FR personal relations, among which Honneth includes not only family and partner relationships but friendship as well, enable the realization of one ‘specific form of freedom, which is difficult to specify’ (FR 233. This assertion constitutes one of the main thesis of Freedom’s Right. Accordingly, ‘freedom in the sense of individual autonomy’ should, among countless different ‘conceptions of freedom’ be understood as the only one that has the power to shape modern society, while all other values effective within modernity should be understood as ‘aspects of the constitutive idea of individual autonomy’ (FR 35. In this paper we argue that Honneth’s discussion of the value of friendship does not accomplish its aim for three reasons: first, Honneth is compelled by his argument to postulate one radical cleavage internal to the concept of friendship, by way of an exaggerated contrast between ancient and modern forms of friendship. Second, in his discussion Honneth marginalizes other existing axiologies of friendship, which attribute some other important instrumental, constitutive and final values to this term. Third, even a weaker thesis, one that treats the value of friendship as the precondition of individual freedom as a primus inter pares, seems to lose sight of the central importance that friendship has for us.” Honneth’s key thesis about the unique value of friendship in our society is thereby challenged.
In this article I explore Amartya Sen's contention that individual freedom represents both the objective of development and the means through which development is to take place. Examining the conceptualisation of freedom central to Sen's capability approach, I distinguish between two notions of freedom, autonomy and agency, where the former…
Williams, Jeffrey J.
Discussion of academic freedom usually focuses on faculty, and it usually refers to speech. That is the gist of the 1915 "General Report of the Committee on Academic Freedom and Academic Tenure," appearing in the inaugural AAUP "Bulletin" as a kind of mission statement. Given the conditions of the American system of higher education--decentralized…
Tierney, William G.; Lechuga, Vicente M.
Throughout the 20th century, academic freedom was a foundational value for the academy in the United States. The concept of academic freedom pertains to the right of faculty to enjoy considerable autonomy in their research and teaching. The assumption that drives academic freedom is that the country benefits when faculty are able to search for…
矢野, 智昭; Tomoaki, YANO; 産業技術総合研究所
The advantages, problems and the recent developments of the actuator with multi degrees of freedom are presented. At first, the advantages of the actuator with multi degrees of freedom are described. Next, the problems needed to solve for practical use are presented. The recent applications of the actuator with multi degrees of freedom are also reviewed.
Murphy, Timothy; Olsen, Kristina; Andersen, Christopher; Reichhardt, Line
The first objective of the project is to show how freedom of speech and democracy are dependent on one another in Denmark. The project’s next focal point is to look at how freedom of speech was framed in relation to the Mohammed publications in 2005. To do this, it identifies how freedom of speech was used by many Danish and European newspapers to justify the publications. Arguments against the publications by both the Danish media and the Muslim community (within Denmark and abroad) are also...
Full Text Available The author discusses a S. N. Bulgakov’s unique approach to the problem of time, consisting of an eﬀort to resolve the problem basing on corollaries from Kant’s antinomy of nature and freedom, as well as on ideas of Schelling. Bulgakov views the time antinomically. It was his reﬂection on the meaning of Kant’s antinomism which led him to posing the problem of time. For the ﬁrst time we ﬁnd him treating this problem in his article Apocalypticism and Socialism, which dealt with antinomy of eschatology and chiliasm. Here also he starts to consider relation of time and eternity through antinomy of nature and freedom. In his Philosophy of Economy the same problem is solved by means of the concept of Sophia as the ontological basis of personality, which unites freedom and nature, the eternal and the temporal. But in his Unfading Light the antinomy of nature and freedom is discussed through diﬀerentiation between negative and positive theology. Bulgakov uses as a synthesizing concept Schelling’s idea of «eternal time» as unity of eternity and time. Thus, despite Bulgakov’s repeated statements about their clear distinction, time and eternity are drawn together. Such an attempt to solve the problem of time raises doubts about the very possibility of freedom.
The Heritage Foundation and the Fraser Institute measure economic freedom in nations using indices with ten and five indicators respectively. Eight of the Heritage indicators and four of the Fraser-indicators are about specific types of institutional quality, like rule of law, the protection of property, and the provision of sound money. More of these is considered to denote more economic freedom. Both indices also involve indicators of 'big government', or levels of government activities. More of that is seen to denote less economic freedom. Yet, levels of government spending, consumption, and transfers and subsidies appear to correlate positively with the other indicators related to institutional quality, while this correlation is close to zero for the level of taxation as a percentage of GDP. Using government spending, consumption transfers and subsidies as positive indicators is no alternative, because these levels stand for very different government activities, liberal or less liberal. This means that levels of government activities can better be left out as negative or positive indicators. Thus shortened variants of the indices create a better convergent validity in the measurement of economic freedom, and create higher correlations between economic freedom and alternative types of freedom, and between economic freedom and happiness. The higher correlations indicate a better predictive validity, since they are predictable in view of the findings of previous research and theoretical considerations about the relations between types of freedom, and between freedom and happiness.
Rostbøll, Christian F.
While the influence of Kant’s practical philosophy on contemporary political theory has been profound, it has its source in Kant’s autonomy-based moral philosophy rather than in his freedom-based philosophy of Right. Kant scholars have increasingly turned their attention to Kant’s Rechtslehre......, but they have largely ignored its potential contribution to discussions of democracy. However, Kant’s approach to political philosophy can supply unique insights to the latter. His notion that freedom and the public legal order are co-constitutive can be developed into a freedom argument for constitutional...
It instructs us that we have to understand the word not as a freedom ... Produced by SUN MeDIA Bloemfontein .... mouth of the governor of Alabama, George Wallace, who fought resolutely ..... The right freedom is essentially a social freedom.
Debates over how to conceptualize the nursing role were prominent in the nursing literature during the latter part of the twentieth century. There were, broadly, two schools of thought. Writers like Henderson and Orem used the idea of a self-care deficit to understand the nurse as doing for the patient what he or she could not do alone. Later writers found this paternalistic and emphasized the importance of the patient's free will. This essay uses the ideas of positive and negative freedom to explore the differing conceptions of autonomy which are implicit in this debate. The notion of positive freedom has often been criticized as paternalistic, and the criticisms of self-care in the nursing literature echo criticisms from political philosophy. Recent work on relational autonomy and on the relationship between autonomy and identity are used to address these objections. This essay argues for a more nuanced conception of the obligation to support autonomy that includes both positive (freedom to) and negative (freedom from) dimensions. This conception of autonomy provides a moral foundation for conceptualizing nursing in something like Henderson's terms: as involving the duty to expand the patient's capacities. The essay concludes by generalizing the lesson. Respect for autonomy on the part of any health care provider requires both respect for the patient's choices and a commitment to expand the patient's ability to actualize their choices. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
A review is presented of the successes and shortcomings of the theory of meson degrees of freedom in nuclei with special emphasis on recent progress and on the necessity to bridge the gap with the degrees of freedom of QCD theory. (orig.)
oxygenmask held in proximity to the dog’s face or taped to a basket-style muzzle ) during evacuation to the VTF. None of the WIA dogs received IV crystalloid...military working dogs in Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom: 29 cases (2003–2009) Janice L. Baker, DVM; Karyn A. Havas, DVM; Laura A...received on the battlefield, and ultimate outcome of U.S. military working dogs that incurred gunshot wound (GSW) injury in Operation Enduring Freedom
COLISÃO DE DIREITOS: A LIBERDADE DE IMPRENSA E OS DIREITOS DA PERSONALIDADE DE CRIANÇAS E ADOLESCENTES / COLLISION OF RIGHTS: FREEDOM OF THE PRESS AND RIGHTS OF PERSONALITY OF CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS
Rômulo Magalhães Fernandes
Full Text Available This paper discusses the recurring theme of the collision of fundamental rights, in particular the rights of the personality of people in development and press freedom. In the current Brazilian scenario, where the mass media gains centrality in shaping and dissemination of information in the country, it is perceived by some mass media, the daily practice of exploring the use of the image of children and adolescents, in which they are exposed to vexatious and embarrassing situations. With no claim to suppress freedom of the press for the rights of children and adolescents, or vice versa, this article aims to deepen the solution of conflicts between those rights guaranteed in the Constitution of 1988. For this purpose, it is adopted as a method to resolve this conflict the weighting of property and assets from the application of the principle of proportionality in this case. In this sense, there are the doctrinal contributions of Robert Alexy and Ronald Dworkin and the study of decisions of the Supreme Court (STF.
Bunkers, Sandra Schmidt
The idea of freedom as a promise of possibility is explored in this column. The core concepts from a research study on considering tomorrow (Bunkers, 1998) coupled with humanbecoming community change processes (Parse, 2003) are used to illuminate this notion. The importance of intentionality in human freedom is discussed from both a human science and a natural science perspective. © The Author(s) 2015.
... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Office of the Secretary 43 CFR Part 2 RIN 1093-AA15 Freedom of... regulation revises the Department's Freedom of Information Act regulations. DATES: Effective January 30, 2013... 31, 2012, revising the Department of the Interior Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) regulations. This...
The 2007 film "Freedom Writers" portrays the real-life experiences of Erin Gruwell, a teacher at an inner-city high school in Long Beach, California. This article discusses the educational theories underpinning Gruwell's pedagogical practice, as seen in "Freedom Writers", and identifies four themes--rewriting curriculum,…
Dole, Mark J; Kissane, Jonathan M
Medical Logistics (MEDLOG) is a function of the Army's integrated System for Health that provides the medical products and specialized logistics services required to deliver health protection and care under all operational conditions. In unified land operations, MEDLOG is an inherent function of Health Service Support (HSS), which also includes casualty care and medical evacuation. This paper focuses on a few key lessons observed during Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom with direct implications for the support of HSS in future operations as envisioned in the Army Operating Concept and the Joint Concept for Health Services. It also examines a few key enablers that helped mitigate these challenges that are not yet fully acknowledged in Army Medical Department doctrine, policy, and planning.
The scholarly debate about academic freedom focuses almost exclusively on the rights of academic faculty. Student academic freedom is rarely discussed and is normally confined to debates connected with the politicisation of the curriculum. Concerns about (student) freedom of speech reflect the dominant role of negative rights in the analysis of…
Many existing defenses of group rights seem to rely on the notion of group freedom. To date, however, no adequate analysis of this notion has been offered. Group freedom is best understood in terms of processes of social categorization that are embedded in social mechanisms. Such processes often
van Hees, M.V.B.P.M
In their game-theoretic formulations, the liberal paradoxes of Amartya Sm and Alan Gibbard show a tension between freedom on the one hand, and Pareto optimality and stability on the other. This article examines what happens to the liberal paradoxes if a negative conception of freedom is used. Given
Full Text Available In 1644 the debate for freedom of expression started in modern times thanks to John Milton’s Areopagitica, where he still argued about God in order to justify his quest for freedom. With the enlightenment God lost his unifying role for society and could no longer serve as justification. Two arguments were brought then forward to justify freedom of the press: One by the continental movement of the enlightenment; the other from within the movement of utilitarianism, and most influentially by John Stuart Mill. Both underlined the importance of truth; however, they differed in their understanding on what truth was good for. This difference in their arguments had a lasting impact on the debate on the limits of freedom of the press.
Support for intellectual freedom, a concept codified in the American Library Association's Library Bill of Rights and Code of Ethics, is one of the core tenets of modern librarianship. According to the most recent interpretation of the Library Bill of Rights, academic librarians are encouraged to incorporate the principles of intellectual freedom…
Academic freedom is best understood not as an abstract universal principle or an ideal state of being but as concrete university practices nested in specific relational environments. As such, practices of academic freedom vary across the world, according to variations in political cultures, educational cultures and state-university relations. The…
Manaouil, C; Gignon, M; Werbrouck, A; Jarde, O
In France, the French National File Automated with Genetic fingerprints (FNAEG) is a bank automated by genetic data which is used in penal domain. It facilitates search of the authors of malpractices, or the missing people. Since 1998, it has enabled to resolve numerous criminal cases. An extension of the field of application has been observed. It is a confidential register which is subjected to numerous controls. Nevertheless, private character of the data and its functioning (criminal character of the refusal of taking, periods of answer, and problem of data's conservation) explain the important contesting of associations worried about the respect of personal freedoms.
Alcebíades Diniz Miguel
Full Text Available A paradigmática narrativa bíblica escolhida por Auerbach – que é contrastada ao episódio homérico da descoberta da cicatriz na coxa de Ulisses, na Odisséia – é, justamente, aquela do sacrifício de Abraão. A trama prototípica pela própria obscuridade deixa vislumbrar os significantes manifestos em estranho conflito com o que não pode ser expresso. A voz de Deus, como demonstra Auerbach, surge de algum lugar obscuro, recebendo mesmo assim a pronta resposta de Abraão que, apesar de tudo, estava preparado para responder imediata e obedientemente ao chamado misterioso e que sequer é deslocado, uma vez que o espaço de sua manifestação não é esboçado na curta narrativa do episódio.
Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl
This paper reconstructs the argument of Axel Honneth's recent book Das Recht der Freiheit as a theory of the institutionalization of freedom in modern society. In particular, it looks at Honneth's argument for the realization of freedom in law and morality that is proposed as a contemporary re......-interpretation of Hegel's Philosophy of Right. Then I discuss Honneth's argument for the reality of freedom in the ethical spheres of civil society, in particular in the family, the market and in democracy. Finally, the paper proposes some critical remarks to Honneth's theory....
Jacob Dahl Rendtorff
Full Text Available This paper reconstructs the argument of Axel Honneth's recent book Das Recht der Freiheit as a theory of the institutionalization of freedom in modern society. In particular, it looks at Honneth's argument for the realization of freedom in law and morality that is proposed as a contemporary re-interpretation of Hegel's Philosophy of Right. Then I discuss Honneth's argument for the reality of freedom in the ethical spheres of civil society, in particular in the family, the market and in democracy. Finally, the paper proposes some critical remarks to Honneth's theory.
Rostbøll, Christian F.
This paper is an intervention in two debates, one concerning the instrumental vs noninstrumental value of democracy, the other concerning the relationship between freedom and democracy. I reject the purely instrumental justification of democracy and defend the idea that democracy has noninstrumen......This paper is an intervention in two debates, one concerning the instrumental vs noninstrumental value of democracy, the other concerning the relationship between freedom and democracy. I reject the purely instrumental justification of democracy and defend the idea that democracy has...... noninstrumental value. I see the noninstrumental value of democracy in terms of freedom rather than the now more common reference to equality or fairness. The freedom argument can better show the noninstrumenal value of democracy and can better respond to some core objections to democratic noninstrumentalism than...... the equality argument. A main aim of this paper is to show that freedom and democracy are not merely instrumentally linked but, rather, intrinsically related. I argue this mainly via a critical engagement with Philip Pettit’s conception of freedom as nondomination. My defense of the noninstrumental value...
The recent confirmation of the constitutionality of the Obama administration's Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) by the US Supreme Court has brought to the fore long-standing debates over individual liberty and religious freedom. Advocates of personal liberty are often critical, particularly in the USA, of public health measures which they deem to be overly restrictive of personal choice. In addition to the alleged restrictions of individual freedom of choice when it comes to the question of whether or not to purchase health insurance, opponents to the PPACA also argue that certain requirements of the Act violate the right to freedom of conscience by mandating support for services deemed immoral by religious groups. These issues continue the long running debate surrounding the demands of religious groups for special consideration in the realm of health care provision. In this paper I examine the requirements of the PPACA, and the impacts that religious, and other ideological, exemptions can have on public health, and argue that the exemptions provided for by the PPACA do not in fact impose unreasonable restrictions on religious freedom, but rather concede too much and in so doing endanger public health and some important individual liberties.
Віта Олександрівна Сліпенчук
we believe, an opportunity to analyze the formation of the ideal of legal personality. Paper objective. Thus, the purpose of this article is analysis and systematization of philosophical views on the issue of forming the ideal of legal personality in Russian philosophy of law, limited by the late 19th - early 20th century During this period, leading philosophers and jurists come to the conclusion that the existence and development of the law governed state should be based on a legal personality. Taking into account the diversity of interpretations of liberal concepts, we begin with a brief description of the charms of liberal ideas, find out the core values that inspire these concepts and focus on the source of political programs and core values - individual autonomy. Paper main body. As it is known, liberalism is a dynamic system that responds to changes in social life and is transformed according to the new reality. Liberal concepts of the thinkers of that time give us the opportunity to realize what freedom, equality and human rights are inviolable condition for the individual existence of human being, laying the values and guidance in the legal consciousness of a person and promoting an individual’s recognition of law as the main regulator of social relations, aimed at protecting and strengthening the autonomy (which directly is an ideal basis for development of a legal personality. Conclusions of the research. Thus, the abovementioned allows us to understand the significance of liberal ideas for building a modern ideal model of legal personality, formed on a combination of the spiritual and legal ideals and values. The importance of the concepts of representatives of Russian liberalism is determined by existence of: 1 the idea of equality, which in turn becomes a conceptual basis in shaping of legal personality (after all, the basic values help to reveal the inner depth (essence of the personality, thereby reducing it to the level of subject, on whose
Allen, Winfred G., Jr., Ed.
The Freedom of Speech Newsletter is the communication medium for the Freedom of Speech Interest Group of the Western Speech Communication Association. The newsletter contains such features as a statement of concern by the National Ad Hoc Committee Against Censorship; Reticence and Free Speech, an article by James F. Vickrey discussing the subtle…
Intellectual freedom has long been a desirable ideal and a foundational value for supporting democratic governance. Since 1948, it has been a universal human right. Given the unique nature of education in democratic societies, schools serve as a crucible for helping children understand and practise the rudiments of intellectual freedom. Drawing on…
Donlevy, J. K.; Gereluk, D.; Patterson, P.; Brandon, J.
This paper's purpose is to extensively review the historical understanding of conscience and the current juridical interpretation of freedom of conscience under section 2(a) of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms (1982). It then briefly notes that given the challenge faced by Ontario's Catholic schools in providing for inclusionary…
Harrington Lamorie, Jill
Military deaths are often sudden, unanticipated, traumatic, and/or violent in nature and involve the death of a young adult. More than 5,500 service members have died as a result of their service in the wars in Afghanistan (2001) and Iraq (2003) in combat- or non-combat- related incidences. As the death toll continues to rise, service members and their families struggle with the visible and invisible wounds of war. This article explores wartime death, trauma, and bereavement experienced by those survivors affected by service members who have died as a result of their military service in Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF). It recognizes the circumstantial and cultural factors of the death as well as the grief and trauma experiences of survivors. Resources and suggested interventions of support are highlighted.
O'Donnell, Roy C.
Since freedom of thought and expression is essential in a democracy, censorship of language is rightly regarded as a threat to all other freedoms. Still, it is inevitable that certain restrictions will occasionally be imposed on language in America and in other societies. Restrictions on language date back to the Ten Commandments, which condemned…
This review of academic freedom in U.S. universities focuses on the role of the American Association of University Professors, which originally linked academic freedom and tenure but now views equality of genders, races, and cultures and the normality of homosexuality as the only real values, whereas truth is seen as illusory, even exploitative.…
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show, contra the right-libertarian critique of social justice, that there are good reasons for defending policies of social justice within a free society. In the first part of the paper, we will present two influential right-libertarian critiques of social justice, found in Friedrich Hayek’s Law, Legislation and Liberty and Robert Nozick’s Anarchy, State and Utopia. Based on their approach, policies of social justice are seen as an unjustified infringement on freedoms of individual members of a society. In response to this critique, we will introduce the distincion between formal and factual freedom and argue that the formal principle of freedom defended by Hayek and Nozick does not suffice for the protection of factual freedom of members of a society, because it does not recognize (1 the moral obligation to help those who, without their fault, lack factual freedom to a significant degree, and (2 the legal obligation of the state to protect civic dignity of all members of a society. In the second part of the paper, we offer an interpretation of Kant’s argument on taxation, according to which civic dignity presupposes factual freedom, in order to argue that Kant’s justification of taxation offers good reasons for claiming that the state has the legal obligation to protect factual freedom via the policies of social justice.
Full Text Available The issue of freedom is one of the fundamental issues of the philosophical thought. In theEuropean cultural area, there is a strong tradition in this respect, starting from the Greek antiquity andreaching to the philosophies of the 20th century. Existentialism, as an exemplary philosophical trendof the last century, is founded in the horizon of freedom. Freedom is an element which allows us toclassify the political regimes in democratic and non-democratic. The democratic regimes are definedas forms of government which allow for the manifestation of freedom, while the non-democratic onesare defined as governments which forbid individual freedoms. The concept of freedom is theoreticallyshaped in the philosophical thought. We distinguish between the individual’s inner freedom and hisouter freedom. According to the philosophical doctrines, each individual’s inner freedom may bealmost immune to any type of constraint, while our outer freedom is problematic. Constraints areexerted in the horizon of the individuals’ outer freedoms. This outer freedom makes itself felt in thepublic space and it is the only form of freedom which can manifest concretely, visibly. The concept offreedom is related to the concepts of communication, policy, and politics. These elementstheoretically shape the issue of the freedom of speech. The truth and correctness of the informationpresented to the public opinion will be correlated with the issue of the freedom of communication andthe issue of the freedom of speech in the public arena. In order to highlight this aspect even better, wehave presented a case concerning the freedom of speech in recounting the facts in the Gaza Strip. Atan international level, the public opinion is informed that in that area of eternal conflict there are“good characters”, namely the Jews, and “bad characters”, namely the Palestinians. But things are farfrom being that simple. To conclude, the issue of the freedom of speech in the
Wang Sheng; Xie Xi; Liu Chunliang
An expert system by Arity Prolog is developed for accelerator single-freedom nonlinear components. It automatically yields any order approximate analytical solutions for various accelerator single-freedom nonlinear components. As an example, the eighth order approximate analytical solution is derived by this expert system for a general accelerator single-freedom nonlinear component, showing that the design of the expert system is successful
Simon Halberstadt; Matthias G. Raith; Thomas Zomack
The fascination of venture creation is associated with an entrepreneur’s opportunity of achieving personal fulfillment. In reality, however, many nascent entrepreneurs discover that much of their original vision is sacrificed in the process of creating a startup. In this paper we address the conflict between the entrepreneur’s fulfillment and the startup’s competitiveness from a negotiationanalytic perspective. We show how the nature of this conflict is transformed in the process of business ...
Full Text Available The main aim of the study is to identify factors that promote or hinder the fulfilment of tasks by people working in Polish prisons in positions of educators. Correction officers plan, organize and implement corrective actions towards persons deprived of their freedom. The question whether they have the relevant skills and abilities to use existing resources is important from the point of view of the prison rehabilitation tasks. The results of a survey conducted on 97 officers have shown that they have personality and professional competence, but they do not fully apply its potential in working with persons deprived of their freedom. The correction officers do not accept regulations for the treatment of convicts and evaluate these regulations as too mild. On the other hand, they perceive many external factors as reducing the motivation to engage in the process of resocialization.
... Memoranda on ``The Freedom of Information Act'' and ``Transparency and Open Government,'' as well as... OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY 32 CFR Part 2403 Implementing the Freedom of Information... Policy (OSTP) is proposing to issue regulations implementing the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA). The...
Cordts, Paul R; Brosch, Laura A; Holcomb, John B
Between December 2004 and June 2007, 13 key Operation Iraqi Freedom/ Operation Enduring Freedom combat casualty care policies were published to inform medical practice in the combat theater of operations...
Vos, Maren A.; Raassens, Néomie; Van der Borgh, Michel
that modularity reflects knowledge specialisation and solution space freedom reflects knowledge variety. Both of these dimensions affect organisational learning and, in turn, sustainable innovation. Second, we argue that the relationship between customisation and organisational learning is affected by supplier...... theory to provide insights into how TI firms can achieve ‘win-win’ situations where sustainable innovation is increased through customisation. First, we argue that customisation should be viewed two-dimensionally and identify both modularity and solution space freedom as important dimensions. We argue...... characteristics, specifically supplier sophistication. Survey data from 166 managers were used to empirically test the conceptual model and hypotheses. Polynomial response surface analysis confirms that customising by balancing high degrees of both modularity and solution space freedom results in superior...
Full Text Available Seen as a logical continuation of the author’s preoccupations for comparative literature, the travel journal becomes a journal of ideas in Adrian Marino’s case, by trying not only to explain the formation of a certain type of personality, but also to transcribe/redact a chronicle of social and political history. Adrian Marino’s journal of ideas firstly emphasizes an „individual” reality, but also bears deeper „universal” signification, as it militates for humanism and liberal democracy, for actual convergence of world cultures. The present study (Adrian Marino and the intellectual travel journal as an expression of revolutionary freedom proposes an investigation attempting to prove that Adrian Marino eventually suggests a personal dialogue with the world and especially with Europe, audaciously trying to concur at substantiating a modern Romanian conscience.
L. A. Solovova
The article is devoted to the model of freedom franchising and to its comparison with the classic franchising model. The aim of the article is to systemize and enrich the knowledge in the sphere of the franchising model evolution. The author’s task was to identify the key features of the freedom franchising model, to compare the freedom franchising with classic franchising and to formulate the conditions under which the freedom franchising model can be developed. To achieve this the analysis,...
Using a specific case as an example, the article argues that the Internet allows dissemination of academic ideas to the general public in ways that can sometimes pose a threat to academic freedom. Since academic freedom is a fundamental element of academia and since it benefits society at large, it is important to safeguard it. Among measures that can be taken in order to achieve this goal, the publication of anonymous research seems to be a good option. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Reel, Jordan; Block, Walter E.
Milton Friedman is famous for his book title: “Free to Choose.” He also favors educational vouchers, which denies the freedom to choose to people who do not wish to subsidize the education of other people’s children. Thus, he is guilty of a logical contradiction. Why is it important to assess whether Friedman’s views on educational vouchers are logically consistent with his widespread reputation as an advocate of free enterprise, and, thus, freedom to chose? It is important to assess all figu...
Full Text Available In this paper, we use Günther Wallraff’s authorship as an illustrative case in order to discuss whistleblowing understood as employees’ freedom of speech. We define the phenomenon according to significant democratic values; the public, fallible search for a deeper truth. When it comes to the sources, our point of departure is based on several of the most significant books published by Wallraff during a period from the end of the 1960-ties to the end of the 1980-ties. We trace some of the personal motivation behind his whistleblowing-project in Marxism and focus that he applies the undercover methods of journalism on the profession of journalists themselves. We argue that the Wallraff-case deals with three important issues; 1 investigative journalism linked to the discussion of the legitimacy of lying, 2 freedom of speech as an active choice of publically disclosing unethical behavior and different types of repression in organizations, and 3 Wallraff’s whistle-blowing in organizations as related to analogues modern types of freedom of speech. In the end, we use different social theories to explain why the type of whistleblowing Wallraff is famous for was necessary.
Taylor, Gary; Hawley, Helen
This article considers the extent to which health promotion strategies pose a threat to individual freedom. It begins by taking a look at health promotion strategies and at the historical development of health promotion in Britain. A theoretical context is then developed in which Berlin's distinction between negative and positive liberty is used alongside the ideas of John Stuart Mill, Charles Taylor and T.H. Green to discuss the politics of health promotion and to identify the implications of conflicting perspectives on freedom. The final section looks at current health promotion policy in Britain and beyond and argues that, if freedom is seen in terms of empowerment, health promotion can enhance individual freedom.
Full Text Available The paper is concerned with the restriction of access to knowledge/books in the contemporary digitalized global world, in which the access to knowledge has to be paid for, and wherein definitions of modes of payment control who has or doesn’t have the right to knowledge. The second part of the article deals with the struggle for the freedom of words/knowledge, and actions through which the authors/producers of knowledge and art fight the restrictions not only to the freedom of speech, but also creativity and innovation, which should be the aim of all copyright and intellectual right laws, the contemporary application of which has become its own opposite.
Carbone, Peter F.
Examines the social philosophy of John Stuart Mill, emphasizing his views on freedom, education, and social reform. Considers Mill's individualism and reformism, the conflict between freedom and control that characterizes his work, and the importance of freedom and education. Suggests caution in drawing educational implications from his work. (DAB)
Jeffrey E. Stake
Full Text Available Haskell (1997 argued that the administrative practice of student evaluation of faculty is a threat to academic freedom. However, before that claim can be substantiated, several prior questions must be addressed: To whom does academic freedom belong? Individual faculty? The academy? Whose actions can violate the right? Can any lines be drawn based on whether the substance or form of classroom behavior is influenced? And still another crucial point is whether a body can violate academic freedom without any intent to interfere with or control the substance of what is said to students.
Dowding, Martin; Murray, Frederic; Saunders, Jeremiah
At the request of the BC Freedom of Information and Privacy Association (FIPA), Dr. Martin Dowding, Assistant Professor at the School of Library, Archival and Information Studies (SLAIS), University of British Columbia recruited and supervised Jeremiah Saunders and Frederic Murray, MLIS candidates, to design and conduct a survey in 2005-2006 that would measure the process of and satisfaction with making a freedom of information request for public information through British Columbia's Freedom...
Payne, Ellen K.; Berry, David C.; Lowry, John E.
Academic freedom is defined as the "freedom of the individual scholar to pursue truth wherever it leads, without fear of punishment or of termination of employment for having offended some political, methodological, religious, or social orthodoxy." Currently there is paucity of literature addressing the issue of academic freedom specific to…
Whitehurst, Troy N., Jr.; Bourland, Charles T.
This paper summarizes the specification requirements for the Space Station Food System, and describes the system that is being designed and developed to meet those requirements. Space Station Freedom will provide a mix of frozen, refrigerated, rehydratable, and shelf stable foods. The crew will pre-select preferred foods from an approved list, to the extent that proper nutrition balance is maintained. A galley with freezers, refrigerators, trash compactor, and combination microwave and convection ovens will improve crew efficiency and productivity during the long Space Station Freedom (SSF) missions.
Teresa K. NAAB
Full Text Available The article outlines arguments for the relevance of people’s attitudes towards freedom of expression: It is a fundamental principle of democracy that if a virtue does not receive support from the population, it will not be anchored in law and its foundation is endangered in the medium term. People’s support for free speech is becoming even more influential because authoritative control of internet communication is faced with difficulties. Furthermore, with the development of social media users gain new opportunities to publicly express their opinions attaching even more importance to normative self-regulation. As a matter of fact, these increased opportunities of self-regulation may either enhance or decrease the exercise of expression rights. Thus, citizen’s endorsement of free expression is a valuable indicator of the status of freedom of expression in a country. To approach to the subject empirically, the paper systematizes findings on people’s attitudes towards free speech: Most people believe in freedom of expression in the abstract. Willingness to apply the right to opposing groups, however, is lower. Perceived threats, confidence in democratic principles, mode of communication, and personality variables influence tolerance of expressions. Finally, a research agenda is put forward to examine appreciation of free expression, its antecedence, and implications.
Joshua C. Hall; Robert A. Lawson; Saurav Roychoudhury
In this paper we argue that the ability of people to freely trade, enter into contracts, and start businesses in a system of private property and the rule of law is crucial for productive entrepreneurship. One measure of how freely individuals can engage in economic activity is the Economic Freedom of the World (EFW) index. After examining the economic policies that harm economic freedom and possibly entrepreneurship, we highlight the correspondence between economic freedom and a number of me...
abridging the freedom of speech .” Speech is construed broadly and includes both oral and written speech, as well as expressive conduct and displays when...intended to convey a message that is likely to be understood.7 Religious speech is certainly included. As a bedrock constitutional right, freedom of speech has...to good order and discipline or of a nature to bring discredit upon the armed forces)—the First Amendment’s freedom of speech will not provide them
This paper examines the compliance of universities in the European Union with the UNESCO Recommendation concerning the Status of Higher-Education Teaching Personnel, which deals primarily with protection for academic freedom. The paper briefly surveys the European genesis of the modern research university and academic freedom, before evaluating…
Freedom of speech is a fundamental liberty that imposes a stringent duty of tolerance. Tolerance is limited by direct incitements to violence. False notions and bad laws on speech have obscured our view of this freedom. Hence, perhaps, the self-righteous intolerance, incitements and threats in response to Giubilini and Minerva. Those who disagree have the right to argue back but their attempts to shut us up are morally wrong.
Full Text Available This text is on freedom deprivation punishment in Serbia during the first half of 19th century, i.e. since the beginning of the First Serbian uprising in 1804 and till passing the Criminal law in 1860. Author first emphasises that the freedom deprivation punishment doesn't have long tradition, although in medieval Serbia and under Turkish rule existed imprisonment in dungeon, but it was foremost some form of custody before a trial, and subsequently as keeping a prisoner after the verdict until its effectuation. It wasn't a freedom deprivation punishment in modern sense. During 1804 - 1813 there was so called 'haps' i.e. apprehension, though Uprising authorities built also 'real' prisons for punishment purpose. Imprisonment of culprits was a condition for compulsory labour, which could be very useful utilized under given circumstances. Since the beginning 1820-ties when first Serbian courts were established, beside 'haps' appears also imprisonment in heavy shackles. However there was no substantial difference between apprehension and imprisonment. In this time the sentence to imprisonment was combined with the punishment with beating (or sometimes with the flogging at the end of imprisonment. The Regulation of County courts from January 26th 1840 mentions several forms of freedom deprivation punishment, but in praxis freedom deprivation was reduced on either 'eternal' imprisonment or time-sentenced imprisonment. Since the beginning of 1840-ties freedom deprivation was more frequently used as punishment and its implementation was continually spreading. For heaviest crimes was instead death penalty and running gauntlet sentenced freedom deprivation, either from courts or from supreme authority in the amnesty process. Imprisonment was effectuated either at police reformatories (for shorter penalties or at the penitentiary institutions (for longer imprisonment. By the end of 1830-ties an issue of imprisonment of female perpetrators emerged, together
Олег Степанович Ткачук
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problems of alternative civil dispute resolution and understanding of this phenomenon in western legal tradition and through the national paradigm of forms of protection of civil rights, freedoms and interests. The conception of “alternative dispute resolution” was analyzed by foreign and national scholars, such as M. Cappelletti, B. Garth, F. Sander, E. I. Nosyreva, O. M. Spektor, V. V. Komarov and others. The main objective of the paper is to analyse the essence of alternative dispute resolution as an order of protection and as a form of protection of civil rights. The author delimits such categories as order of protection and form of protection. From this point of view alternative dispute resolution is considered to be an independent form of protection of civil rights, freedoms and interests as well as judicial, administrative, notarial forms of protection and the protection in European court of human rights. As a result alternative dispute resolution can be understood as a form of protection of civil rights, freedoms and interests which consists of quasi-judicial and consensual methods of resolving civil disputes, based on voluntariness of treatment of persons, who was a participators of dispute, and voluntariness of enforcement of final decision of such procedure, which thought can be enforced coercively in a simplified procedure
Full Text Available Paulo Freire’s approach to the question of ‘authority and freedom’ in education and teaching (as well as in the political sphere, takes its cue from his early and radical approach to literacy education in Brazil in the 1960s. However, the radical democratic thrust of this educational vision meets very significant political resistance in Brazil and Freire spends 30 years in exile. This essay explores how this Freirean approach needs to be contextualised in the specifically Brazilian context. However, it also explores his original contribution to the wider problematic of authority and freedom in the Philosophy of Education. In Freire, there is a simultaneous critique of traditionalism and progressivism (not dissimilar to Dewey’s in Experience and Education and this allows Freire to reconceptualise the relation between authority and freedom in education. We explore how Freire’s 1968 text Pedagogy of the Oppressed articulates this understanding very clearly and from a very strong conceptual-philosophical perspective. In the latter part of the essay, we look at how Freire’s later work, in for example Pedagogy of Hope: Reliving Pedagogy of the Oppressed, represents a return to a more experiential analysis of the question of authority and freedom in education. Nonetheless, while recognising the need for a philosophy of education to develop «in a manner in keeping with the times», there is also a very strong continuity between the early and later work in this understanding. In brief, in both his earlier and later work, Freire develops an understanding of an «authority through freedom», a co-dependent relationship between these two variables in pedagogy, as also in political life.
Self-renewal, personal development, and change create an inexorable link. Change management processes include the following: (1) internal locus of control; (2) freedom from institutional crutches; (3) flexible teaching; (4) recognition of emotional reactions to change; and (5) identification of the causes of indecisiveness and insecurities. (JOW)
Das, Saurya; Shankaranarayanan, S
Understanding the area proportionality of black-hole entropy (the 'area law') from an underlying fundamental theory has been one of the goals of all models of quantum gravity. A key question that one asks is: where are the degrees of freedom giving rise to black-hole entropy located? Taking the point of view that entanglement between field degrees of freedom inside and outside the horizon can be a source of this entropy, we show that when the field is in its ground state, the degrees of freedom near the horizon contribute most to the entropy, and the area law is obeyed. However, when it is in an excited state, degrees of freedom far from the horizon contribute more significantly, and deviations from the area law are observed. In other words, we demonstrate that horizon degrees of freedom are responsible for the area law
Cooper, Jessica L.
The article gives a brief description of intellectual freedom and censorship in order to set a foundation for looking into the library community's role in advocating for intellectual freedom and combating censorship. Focus is given to the unique challenges of school libraries in fulfilling the larger library community's expectations in these two…
Ostovary, Fariba; Dapprich, Janet
This article presents issues related to disabled military servicemen and women who are transitioning to civilian life. The emphasis is on the experience of veterans serving in the Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) as they reintegrate into civilian workplace and learning environments. The authors begin with an…
Full Text Available Your True Freedom is about my journey teaching inmates the fundamental truths of self worth, self acceptance and self love--through writing, mindfulness meditation and emotional healing. It is a journey that continues to enlighten me and to heal and free the inmates with whom I work.
Why is freedom of speech so seldom raised as an issue in philosophy of education? In assessing this question, it is important to distinguish (i) between a freedom and its exercise, and (ii) between different philosophies of education. Western philosophies of education may be broadly divided into classes derived from theories of knowledge first…
Full Text Available In this article we investigate the linkage between economic freedom and happiness (subjective well-being. We attempt to understand which economic institutions (rule of law, limited government, regulatory efficiency, open markets have influence on subjective well-being. For this purpose we use a panel dataset and analyze the effect of economic freedom on subjective well-being while using various control variables such as government expenditures as percentage of GDP, human development, social support, freedom of choice and generosity. Our pooled FGLS estimations indicate that all pillars of economic freedom have a strong influence on the average subjective well-being in society. Three of these pillars, namely rule of law, regulatory efficiency and open markets, positively affect subjective well-being. To our surprise we have found a negative relationship between limited government and subjective wellbeing. This might be due to the situation that reducing the size of government possibly leads to lower government expenditures and higher unemployment, which in turn results in lower subjective well-being.
Like any academic institution, CERN celebrates freedom: freedom of expression, freedom of thought and freedom of movement. Occasionally, however, circumstances beyond our control oblige us to impose certain restrictions. Friday, 26 June was just such an occasion. On that day, terrorists chose to commit unfathomable atrocities in France, near Lyon, as well as in Kuwait and Tunisia. The brutality exhibited in all three attacks is beyond comprehension, and I am sure that we all feel for the victims and all those touched by these hideous acts. At times such as this, and on the basis of information that I receive from external agencies, it is my responsibility as Director-General to decide whether measures are needed at CERN, and to apply them at an appropriate level if I deem it necessary. On Friday, based on the information I had at my disposal, I decided that the situation merited extra vigilance at the entrances to CERN for the sake of ensuring the safety and security of everyone on site. I...
Georgiana STĂNESCU; Ionuț SUCIU
This study analyses the way journalists’ freedom of expression is protected in current socio/political context. It has started from the fact that Mass Media is the guarantee of any modern democracy, and respect for freedom of expression is essential in the current European environment. We have shown that Romania guarantees through the Constitution, but also through other international treaties to which it is a signatory, the freedom of expression of every citizen, and, implicitly, the freedom...
Carney, John J., Jr.
The exercise of freedom of speech within our nation has deteriorated. A practical value in teaching free speech is the possibility of restoring a commitment to its principles by educators. What must be taught is why freedom of speech is important, why it has been compromised, and the extent to which it has been compromised. Every technological…
Kobierecki, M.W.; Rienecker, F. Jr.
A device for positioning lenses precisely with five degrees of freedom (three translations and two angular rotations). The unique features of the device are its compact design, large clear aperture, and high degree of positioning accuracy combined with five degrees of freedom in axis motion. Thus, the device provides precision and flexibility in positioning of optical components
Full Text Available With the independence of Republic of Macedonia and the adoption of the Constitution of Macedonia, the country went through a substantial socio-political transition. The concept of human rights and freedoms, such as religious freedoms in the Macedonian Constitution is based on liberal democratic values. The Macedonian Constitution connects the fundamental human rights and freedoms with the concept of the individual and citizen, but also with the collective rights of ethnic minorities, respecting the international standards and responsibilities taken under numerous international human rights conventions and treaties, of which the country is a party. Republic of Macedonia has ratified all the so called “core human right treaties” and now the real challenge lies in the implementation of the international standards. Some of these international conventions and treaties of the United Nations and of the Council of Europe are inherited by succession from the former Yugoslavian federation. Religious freedoms are guaranteed by the Universal Declaration of human rights (1948, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1966, the European Convention on Human Rights (1953, the Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Intolerance and of Discrimination Based on Religion or Belief (1981 (all documents ratified by the Republic of Macedonia. According to the Constitution of the Republic of Macedonia “The freedom of religious confession is guaranteed. The right to express one's faith freely and publicly, individually or with others, is guaranteed„. After the conflict of 2001 the Ohrid Framework Agreement secured group rights for ethnicities that are not in majority in the Republic of Macedonia. The present Law on the legal status of the church, religious communities and religious groups of 2007, repealed the Law on religion and religious groups of 1997.
Update on Law-Related Education, 1988
Presents an activity which uses hypothetical situations to explore the proper boundaries of freedom of expression and the role of the U.S. Supreme Court in interpreting its limits. Appropriate for grades 4-12, the lesson includes such topics as the "clear and present danger" clause, student expression, obscenity, and defamation. (GEA)
This lecture argues that the politicisation and instrumentalisation of the university caused by neoliberal frames has as a result the depoliticisation of knowledge and of the academic as individual. This depoliticisation has turned academic freedom into a right to disengage not only from the political fight around these issues but also from the…
Hinojosa, Ramon; Hinojosa, Melanie Sberna; Högnäs, Robin S
Twenty Reserve component (Army and Marines) and Army National Guard male veterans of Operational Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom discuss their deployment and postdeployment family reintegration experiences. A Grounded Theory approach is used to highlight some of the ways in which family miscommunication during deployment can occur. Communication with civilian family members is affected by the needs of operational security, technical problems with communication tools, miscommunication between family members, or because veterans have "nothing new to say" to family back home. These communication difficulties may lead to an initial gulf of understanding between veterans and family members that can cause family strain during postdeployment family reintegration. We end with a discussion of veteran family reintegration difficulties.
Outlines the history of censorship and intellectual and expressive freedom in American libraries; discusses the two main types of ethical theory, utilitarianism and deontology; and maintains that libraries have a special role to play in promoting unconditional intellectual freedom. (Author/LRW)
Van de Vliert, Evert
This paper examines why fundamental freedoms are so unevenly distributed across the earth. Climato-economic theorizing proposes that humans adapt needs, stresses, and choices of goals, means, and outcomes to the livability of their habitat. The evolutionary process at work is one of collectively meeting climatic demands of cold winters or hot summers by using monetary resources. Freedom is expected to be lowest in poor populations threatened by demanding thermal climates, intermediate in populations comforted by undemanding temperate climates irrespective of income per head, and highest in rich populations challenged by demanding thermal climates. This core hypothesis is supported with new survey data across 85 countries and 15 Chinese provinces and with a reinterpretative review of results of prior studies comprising 174 countries and the 50 states in the United States. Empirical support covers freedom from want, freedom from fear, freedom of expression and participation, freedom from discrimination, and freedom to develop and realize one's human potential. Applying the theory to projections of temperature and income for 104 countries by 2112 forecasts that (a) poor populations in Asia, perhaps except Afghans and Pakistanis, will move up the international ladder of freedom, (b) poor populations in Africa will lose, rather than gain, relative levels of freedom unless climate protection and poverty reduction prevent this from happening, and (c) several rich populations will be challenged to defend current levels of freedom against worsening climato-economic livability.
Snelling, Paul C; Lipscomb, Martin
Despite nursing's move into higher education, academic freedom has received little attention within the literature. After discussing the concept of academic freedom, this paper argues that there is a potential tension between academic freedom and the requirement to educate student nurses who are fit for practice. One way in which this tension might be revealed is in the marking of student assignments. We ask the question--how should nurse educators mark an essay which is sufficiently analytical but reaches moral conclusions that lie outside the Code of Professional Conduct? We argue that despite an understandable temptation to penalise such an essay, invoking the Code of Professional Conduct to do so, no penalty should be applied, and academic freedom for students within higher education should be encouraged. This is because first, academic freedom is a good in itself especially as it allows unconventional and unpalatable conclusions to be discussed and rebutted, and second, applying a penalty on these grounds is necessarily inconsistent.
Oltmann, Shannon M.
In this study, deans and directors of academic libraries were surveyed about intellectual freedom. The survey found that most respondents said they rarely think about intellectual freedom yet said it was "somewhat" or "very" important in their libraries. Most did not have formal intellectual freedom policies; they often relied…
Slović, Srđan Ž.
Hegel's philosophy of state and law is based on ethical principles. Pursuant to these principles, the man realises himself through activity. The activity is not to be the category coming from outside, but it is immanent to human nature. By explaining human activity, Hegel ignores particularism and completely pleads for universalism, by which he is tracking the road to human freedom. Freedom is for Hegel only possible while acting as a rational being. The subject of our activity should be in a...
Busha, Charles H.
This bibliography contains citations for 94 books and unpublished library science doctoral dissertations, the majority of which pertain to problems in the United States dealing with censorship, intellectual freedom, legal aspects of freedom of expression, and problems associated with obscenity and pornography. (EJS)
In this paper, the author contends that the ability to create a political realm is dependent upon one's state of freedom. She questions what it means to be free and whether assumptions of the definitions of this concept are always good or beneficial. After discussing some of the known theories about freedom, she states that schools are some…
Sonia Inez Fernandez
Full Text Available Within the plethora of reading possibilities of Mário de Andrade’s works and the analysis of his artistic persona, seeking knowledge about him, about the other, about Brazil, and about art, sounds richer, since it challenges the researcher to face some issues of philosophy, such as will power, consciousness, freedom, subjectivity. In order to support our ideas, we refer to Hegel, mainly his article Aesthetics delimitation and refutation of some objections against Art Philosophy (Aesthetics Course I, 2001 from which we have taken the concept of formalizing freedom, since it can be considered adequate to understand Mário de Andrade’s artistic trajectory. Besides, the concepts of thinking freedom and thinking knowledge freedom, also dealt with in the same article, are pertinent to the present essay since, they are related to issues concerning autonomy, judgment and consciousness regarding art.
de Boer, N.J.
This article assesses whether the EU Treaty freedoms - the free movement of goods, persons, services and capital - should be considered as fundamental rights which are hierarchically equal to other fundamental rights. It uses the political philosophy of John Rawls to assess why we should attach
Boileau, Don M.
Presents annotations of 21 documents in the ERIC system on the following subjects: (1) theory of freedom of speech; (2) theorists; (3) research on freedom of speech; (4) broadcasting and freedom of speech; and (5) international questions of freedom of speech. (PD)
... FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 4 Freedom of Information Act; Correction AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission. ACTION: Final rule; correction. SUMMARY: The Federal Trade Commission published a... instruction in our final rule entitled ``Freedom of Information Act'' published February 28, 2013 (78 FR 13472...
... the text shows the context in which we have to understand “freedom”. It instructs us that we have to understand the word not as a freedom “from” and, therefore, not as freedom only for myself, but as freedom “for” a life with others. The reason for this is that real freedom is founded in the gift of the divine liberator, who loves ...
The notion of asymptotic freedom in quantum chromodynamics is explained on general physical grounds, without invoking the formal arguments of renormalizable quantum field theory. The related concept of quark confinement is also discussed along the same line. 5 references
Full Text Available Much has been written and said about Saami mythology and pre-Christian religion. There is, however, considerably less documentation of concrete cultural elements in scholarly descriptions. These investigations are considered important not only because they aim to provide documentation that can be used for studies of Saami mythology and pre-Christian religion. They also provide material that can throw light on the function of the holy places in a social context through analysis of their origin, their connections with certain families and persons, their associations with the siidas, their location within the areas where the Saamis from these siidas gained their livelihood, etc. The materials collected about the sacrificial sites also play an important role in studying the course of events leading up to the differentiation of Saami hunting and gathering culture. A question that has frequently arisen in the course of this work is with what powers or deities the different sacrificial sites were associated. This is naturally connected with their origin and their form. This, in turn, is reflected in the traditions and legends recounted concerning them. It is also reflected in their location in the physical environment and in the kinds of offerings that have been found. In the materials so far collected it is possible to distinguish between about eight different types of sacrificial site and holy mountain or fell according to their form and location: holy fells, rock formations, stone boulders, holes, cracks in fells, springs, lakes, ring-shaped sacrificial sites. Missionaries were urged to destroy the offering sites.
dropdown arrow Site Map A-Z Index Menu Synopsis H. David Politzer, Asymptotic Freedom, and Strong Interaction Resources with Additional Information H. David Politzer Photo Credit: California Institute of Technology H. David Politzer has won the 2004 Nobel Prize in Physics 'for the discovery of asymptotic freedom
... PEACE CORPS 22 CFR Part 303 RIN 0420-AA29 Freedom of Information Act Administration AGENCY: Peace Corps. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The proposed rule updates Peace Corps regulations on the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) to implement guidance given by the President and the Attorney General...
Esteban Jorge Vernik
Full Text Available From his first sociological book, On social differentiation of 1890, to his posthumous book of 1918, The view of life. Four metaphysical essays, George Simmel speaks at length about the notion of freedom. This topic is recurring also in his main works. However, throughout his production, the author develops different meanings and dimensions of the concept of freedom, in relation to the trends toward differentiation and individualization characteristic of modern societies, in which the main symbol is money. This article reconstructs and analyzed such different meanings of freedom, with special emphasis in its sociological usages. Finally, a suggestion is made to consider the concept of freedom as the main topic and guiding thread of the totality of Simmel’s work.
After having established the renormalization group equations and the possibilities of fixed points for the effective coupling constants the non abelian gauge theories are shown to have the property of asymptotic freedom. These results are applied to the colour gauge group of the strong interactions of quarks and gluons. The behavior of the moments of the structure functions of the deep inelastic scattering of leptons on nucleons (scaling and its logarithmic violations) is then deduced with using the Wilson's operator product expansion [fr
Full Text Available The study aims to examine the role that local government plays in ensuring the economic freedom. It briefly examines the status of local authorities, deliberative and executive, and also the powers that they have to create the conditions for the exercise of economic freedom. The study also examines the constitutional regime of this fundamental freedom which is part of the rights and freedoms of the first generation. The purpose of the research aimed both identifying the role of local government in ensuring this basic freedom but also to determine possible means of action to be considered by the government within the territory.
The author describes the events surrounding his attempts to lecture on the subject of euthanasia in West Germany in June 1989. Singer, who defends the view that active euthanasia for some newborns with handicaps may be ethically permissible, had been invited to speak to professional and academic groups. Strong public protests against Singer and his topic led to the cancellation of some of his engagements, disruptions during others, and harrassment of the German academics who had invited him to speak. These incidents and the subject of euthanasia became matters of intense national debate in West Germany, but there was little public or academic support for Singer's right to be heard. Singer argues that bioethics and bioethicists must have the freedom to challenge conventional moral beliefs, and that the events in West Germany illustrate the grave danger to that freedom from religious and political intolerance.
Full Text Available The term conditioned freedom of contracts appeared in our legal theory before the adoption of the Obligations Relations Act, whereas the term directed freedom of contracts occurred after the Act's entry into force. Both terms were used to signify transformation of freedom of con tracts within the legal system based on ideology of socialism, social ownership of the means of production and government ruled economy and, afterwards, 'coordinated economy'. Conditioned freedom of contracts originated from the right to use the means of production in social ownership. This right, which belonged to social (state-owned companies, consisted of two components. The first, public-law component conditioned the second, private law component, by means of norms in individual administrative acts and administrative regulations. As these norms were an expression of state power, they make the contract subordinate: individual administrative act is a condition for the conclusion of contract, and administrative regulations for its validity. Directed freedom of contracts is freedom of making contracts directed by economic order established by the Constitution, systemic laws, and partially by the norms of the basic principles of the Obligations Relations Act which are related to social companies. As regards freedom of contracts it can be said that even today it is directed by legal principles and norms of economic-legal public policy through which the state interferes in business enterprises.
... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Freedom from pests. 319.69-2 Section 319.69-2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... § 319.69-2 Freedom from pests. All packing materials allowed entry under restriction shall be free from...
Dennis, Everette E.
Discusses the University of Oregon's long and proud tradition of protecting freedom of speech in light of the current controversy over freedom of expression on U.S. campuses and in the community at large. Discusses multiculturalism and political correctness on campus, and advocates more dispute resolution through public discussion. (SR)
A state of the art artcle on academic work on religion, politics, and religious freedom in Burma......A state of the art artcle on academic work on religion, politics, and religious freedom in Burma...
The Muslim population of South Africa follows a practice which may be referred to as Muslim personal law. Although section 15 of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa 108 of 1996 recognises religious freedom and makes provision for the future recognition of other personal law systems, Muslim personal law is, at this stage, not formally recognised in terms of South African law. Since Muslim personal law receives no constitutional recognition the question may be asked whether the 199...
Full Text Available [First paragraph] Empire and Antislavery: Spain, Cuba, and Puerto Rico, 1833-1874. CHRISTOPHER SCHMIDT-NOWARA. Pittsburgh PA: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1999. xv + 239 pp. (Cloth US$ 50.00, Paper US$ 22.95 Beyond Slavery: Explorations of Race, Labor, and Citizenship in Postemancipation Societies. FREDERICK COOPER, THOMAS C. HOLT & REBECCA J. SCOTT. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2000. xiii + 198 pp. (Cloth US$ 34.95, Paper US$ 15.95 From Slavery to Freedom: Comparative Studies in the Rise andFall of Atlantic Slavery. SEYMOUR DRESCHER. New York: New York University Press, 1999. xxv + 454 pp. (Cloth US$ 45.00 Terms of Labor: Slavery, Serfdom, and Free Labor. STANLEY L. ENGERMAN (ed.. Stanford CA: Stanford University Press, 1999. vi + 350 pp. (Cloth US$ 55.00 These four books explore antislavery movements in the Atlantic world, and consider some of the consequences of abolition in postemancipation societies. They are immensely rich studies which engage one of the liveliest areas of enquiry in modern historiography - the transition from slavery to freedom in New World societies - and which represent U.S. historical scholarship at its finest. Each falls into a different category of academic publication.
Mrelashvili, Anna; Witte, Robert J; Wirrell, Elaine C; Nickels, Katherine C; Wong-Kisiel, Lily C
We evaluated the temporal course of seizure outcome in children with pathology-confirmed focal cortical dysplasia and explored predictors of sustained seizure freedom. We performed a single-center retrospective study of children ≤ 18 years who underwent resective surgery from January 1, 2000 through December 31, 2012 and had pathology-proven focal cortical dysplasia. Surgical outcome was classified as seizure freedom (Engel class I) or seizure recurrence (Engel classes II-IV). Fisher exact and nonparametric Wilcoxon ranksum tests were used, as appropriate. Survival analysis was based on seizure-free outcome. Patients were censored at the time of seizure recurrence or seizure freedom at last follow-up. Thirty-eight patients were identified (median age at surgery, 6.5 years; median duration of epilepsy, 3.3 years). Median time to last follow-up was 13.5 months (interquartile range, 7-41 months). Twenty patients (53%) were seizure free and 26 patients (68%) attained seizure freedom for a minimum of 3 months. Median time to seizure recurrence was 38 months (95% confidence interval, 6-109 months), and the cumulative seizure-free rate was 60% at 12 months (95% confidence interval, 43%-77%). Clinical features associated with seizure freedom at last follow-up included older age at seizure onset (P = .02), older age at surgery (P = .04), absent to mild intellectual disability before surgery (P = .05), and seizure freedom for a minimum of 3 months (P freedom included older age at seizure onset, older age at surgery, absent or mild intellectual disability at baseline, and seizure freedom for a minimum of 3 months. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Some legal cases on the freedom of speech in adolescent public school students are discussed. It is suggested that schools, social scientists and psychologists should build a social consensus on the extent to which the freedom of speech for abusive students can be allowed so as not to affect development of other students.
Murchadha, N. o
More than 50 years ago it was realized that General Relativity could be expressed in Hamiltonian form. Unfortunately, just like electromagnetism and Yang-Mills theory, the Einstein equations split into evolution equations and constraints which complicates matters. The 4 constraints are expressions of the gauge freedom of the theory, general covariance. One can cleanly pose initial data for the gravitational field, but this data has to satisfy the constraints. To find the independent degrees of freedom, one needs to factor the initial data by the constraints. There are many ways of doing this. I can do so in such a way as to implement the model suggested by Poincare for a well-posed dynamical system: Pick a configuration space and give the free initial data as a point of the configuration space and a tangent vector at the same point. Now, the evolution equations should give a unique curve in the same configuration space. This gives a natural definition of what I call the true gravitational degrees of freedom. (author)
Sturm, JE; De Haan, J
Using various indicators for economic freedom, it is shown that increases in economic freedom are robustly related to economic growth. This conclusion holds even if the impact of outlying observations is taken into account. The level of economic freedom is not related to growth.
... Freedom of Information Act and Privacy Act Procedures AGENCY: Special Inspector General for Afghanistan... Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) and the Privacy Act of 1974. These procedures will facilitate public..., Freedom of information, Privacy. Authority and Issuance For the reasons set forth above, SIGAR establishes...
basic elements of life,” while an official NATO documentary video on the contribution of Afghan security forces to FoM declared, “Freedom of...narrowly—some people walk or use donkeys , horse-drawn carts, bicycles, and other conveyances to travel. 27 Locals who are intent on selling such equipment...Organization, “NATO in Afghanistan—Freedom of Movement,” video , November 12, 2008. As of September 16, 2011: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v
Full Text Available Purpose: The research on masculinity in education has mainly been focused on analyze the organization of schools and the attention given to the students. This analysis has confirmed the existence of gender inequalities in schools, within them gender violence. This article will start from this background but has as objective to provide new knowledge about the pedagogy of freedom in the promotion of new alternative masculinities. Design/methodology: From a communicative-oriented qualitative methodology the voices of young boys and adult men that have been involved in educational actions, based on a pedagogy of freedom which have contributed to foster new alternative masculinities, have been collected. Findings: The results explain why the pedagogy of freedom can contribute to foster new alternative masculinities. Special attention is paid in the evolution of oppressed traditional masculinities (OTM to new alternative masculinities (NAM. In this regard, it is highlighted how OTM, that not contributes to gender violence but overcome neither, are walking to become NAM thanks to the organizational approach of the pedagogy of freedom. Practical implications: To provide scientific knowledge which could be used as a basis of the educational practices addressed to prevent gender violence. Social implications: The social impact refers to the effect of scientific knowledge in the educational quality and in the socialization of alternative masculinities which overcome harassment and gender violence. Originality/value: The article provides of new knowledge on the coeducational field which allows overcoming the double standards and the attraction against the violence reproduced in the traditional masculinity models.
Lawson, R A; Murphy, R H; Williamson, C R
What explains increases in BMI (and obesity) over time and across countries? Although many microeconomic forces are likely explanations, increasingly scholars are arguing that macroeconomic forces such as market liberalism and globalization are root causes of the obesity epidemic. The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of economic freedom on obesity conditional on the level of income and other factors. We use an unbalanced pooled cross section of up to 135 countries for 1995 and 2000-2009. Our statistical model specifications include pooled OLS and fixed effects. First, we find that controlling for fixed effects siphons off much of the relationship previously documented between economic freedom and BMI. Second, economic freedom is associated with slightly higher BMIs but only for men in developing nations. Lastly, we show that economic freedom increases life expectancy for both men and women in developing countries. Therefore, policies aimed at reducing obesity that limit economic liberalism may come at the expense of life expectancy in the developing world. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
de Bruin, Boudewijn
This paper offers a new view of doxastic voluntarism, epistemic agency and doxastic responsibility. It assumes the perspective of political freedom and uses the stit-theoretic framework from modal logic to investigate the obstacles that other individuals could place in the way of the adoption of
Nadezhda A. Igonina; Tatyana V. Ashitkova; Vladimir G. Bessarabov
In the present article the notion of "priorities of the prosecution" are defined, its value for the sphere of human rights and freedoms of man and citizen are stated. The classification of priorities, which is based on the provisions of the Russian Constitution and international law are stated. According to the authors, under the primary protection are the personal rights, which are derived from a natural person's status, inherent from birth. Next in order of priority are political rights, en...
И. В. Комадорова
Full Text Available Personality-oriented concepts of the theory of anarchism are raised to life by the exponential growth of social problems in the structure of civil engineering at the present stage of Russian history. The theory of anarchism as a relevant part of actual social Russian reality performs the function of civil education in order to promote the expansion of democratic rights and freedoms of citizens and enhance their impact on the shaping of socio-significant state innovations.Purchase on Elibrary.ru > Buy now
Straume, Ingerid S.
Full Text Available Since Isaiah Berlin’s epitomizing Cold War-essay, "Two Concepts of Liberty, " thinkers who emphasize collective concepts of social life have carried the burden of proof against charges of totalitarian tendencies. The background is a ground figure in contemporary political thought that sets notions of collectivity against individual freedom, in a zero sum game: Either one is in favour of the individual, or one is in favour of the collective, and hence, so the bias has it, willing to sacrifice the rights and liberties of individuals. Since it is impossible to favour the latter position and remain liberal, in the wide sense of the term, this dichotomy serves to rob contemporary political thought of both its classical and revolutionary connotations, leaving only individual initiatives like lobbying and voting. Cornelius Castoriadis offers a way around this – arguably false – dichotomy, by regarding individual and collective freedom as two sides of the same coin.
This article presents some of the current challenges facing academic freedom and the humanities in South Africa as well as across the world. It focuses first on the shifting fortunes of academic freedom in South Africa, contrasting the pride of place given to it in the pre-1994 social imaginary with its current undermining in ...
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Freedom to present views. 1218.6 Section 1218.6 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE VISTA VOLUNTEERS-HEARING OPPORTUNITY § 1218.6 Freedom to present views. The expression by a volunteer of his views with respect to the...
Wollersheim, Laurens W; Li, Wilson W; van der Meulen, Jan; de Mol, Bas A
We describe a case of a 76-year old male who presented with progressive dyspnoea. He underwent an aortic valve replacement with a Freedom SOLO bioprosthesis 6 years ago. Transthoracic echocardiography showed a moderate-to-severe leakage of the Freedom SOLO bioprosthesis. During surgical reintervention, a partial tear of the left coronary cusp was seen from the commissure of the right coronary cusp to its base. After radiographic and microscopic examination, no clear cause was found for the failure of this Freedom SOLO bioprosthesis. To our knowledge, this is the third failure of a Freedom SOLO bioprosthesis reported in the literature. When the long-term follow-up of the Freedom SOLO bioprosthesis is available, it has to be compared with other bioprosthesis for long-term durability.
Courtney C. RADSCH
Full Text Available The present article discusses how the new category of “citizen journalist” fits into the overall media environment and how the Freedom House Freedom of the Press methodology has been changed to incorporate this category.
Georgia Kate Chapman
This paper focuses on the arguments around restriction on freedom of the press in the Strong States of Singapore and Malaysia. It assesses the presence of constraints on press freedoms in democratic western countries imposed by corporation rather than state and the similar effects that these constraints may have on bias present in publicly accessible news reporting. It argues that independence of the press does not just require protection from legal and executive regulation, but also protecti...
Mario Orozco Guzmán
Full Text Available El presente trabajo discierne un semblante maldito del sacrificio. En nombre del amor se ha idealizado el sacrificio como paradigma de su audacia y heroísmo, mientras la cultura se ha encargado de enaltecer la proeza sacrificial como puesta en acto del amor. El destinatario de esta inmolación suprema inscribe la producción del goce divino en calidad de objeto “a”, tal como lo revelan sacrificios paradigmáticos presentes en la historia y la literatura. // The current work discerns a cursed countenance from the sacrifice. The sacrifice has been idealized in love's name, as paradigm of its courage and heroism, meanwhile the culture has taken charge of dignifying the sacrificed feat as event in the love act. The addressee of this supreme immolation registers the production of the divine enjoyment as “a” object, just as it is revealed by paradigmatic sacrifices present on history and literature.
Venkatraman, Anand; Garg, Neetika; Kumar, Nilay
It is suspected that Web 2.0 web sites, with a lot of user-generated content, often support viewpoints that link autism to vaccines. We assessed the prevalence of the views supporting a link between vaccines and autism online by comparing YouTube, Google and Wikipedia with PubMed. Freedom of speech is highest on YouTube and progressively decreases for the others. Support for a link between vaccines and autism is most prominent on YouTube, followed by Google search results. It is far lower on Wikipedia and PubMed. Anti-vaccine activists use scientific arguments, certified physicians and official-sounding titles to gain credibility, while also leaning on celebrity endorsement and personalized stories. Online communities with greater freedom of speech lead to a dominance of anti-vaccine voices. Moderation of content by editors can offer balance between free expression and factual accuracy. Health communicators and medical institutions need to step up their activity on the Internet. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
van der Sloot, B.
Privacy and data protection rules are usually said to protect the individual against intrusive governments and nosy companies. These rights guarantee the individual's freedom, personal autonomy and human dignity, among others. More and more, however, legal persons are also allowed to invoke the
Full Text Available We explore the effective degrees of freedom in the early Universe, from before the electroweak scale at a few femtoseconds after the Big Bang until the last positrons disappeared a few minutes later. We look at the established concepts of effective degrees of freedom for energy density, pressure, and entropy density, and introduce effective degrees of freedom for number density as well. We discuss what happens with particle species as their temperature cools down from relativistic to semi- and non-relativistic temperatures, and then annihilates completely. This will affect the pressure and the entropy per particle. We also look at the transition from a quark-gluon plasma to a hadron gas. Using a list a known hadrons, we use a “cross-over” temperature of 214 MeV, where the effective degrees of freedom for a quark-gluon plasma equals that of a hadron gas.
MONGGILO, ZAINUDDIN MUDA
Internet can develop the communication and information freedom on society but unfortunately in some nations, especially in Asia, it cannot be fully accessed because of government censorship. This report explains the relationship between the practice of Internet censorship imposed by the Chinese government and the freedom of its citizens (in the internet surfing experience) as the realization of human rights in the freedom of expression and opinion (seek, receive-use, and communicate informati...
Fazel Asadi Amjad
Full Text Available With the recent inclination toward reading for ideological aspects of his works, Nabokov, who had been pervasively regarded as a mere ingenious aesthete, both during his life and for a long time after his death, has proved more puzzling in interpretation than what scholars believed. In this research, in order to understand what concept of freedom Nabokov has developed in his Bend Sinister, we focus on the two of his salient concerns: reality and individuality. Consequently, our narratological reading of Bend Sinister is concentrated first on the interpretation of the whatness of reality and its contribution to realize freedom, and second on analyzing the significance of retaining individuality to procure freedom; ultimately, out of delving into these two issues, the concept of freedom that the narrative techniques of the novel render, in correspondence to the peculiarities of the mid-twentieth century, is found out. Regarding the notion of the reality, in this novel, the unremitting propaganda of the totalitarian system presented the materialistic world as the ultimate truth, confining citizens in the prison of a fake world and not permitting them to gain the slightest awareness of the endless freedom possible in eternity. As to the individuality, Krug’s attempts not to succumb to the desired system of padograph lead him to maintain his individuality and partly realize his freedom of mind. And finally, it is shown how totalitarianism has reached such absolute power that no thorough freedom of mind is now conceivable for humanity.
Turner, David A.
Professor Roy Harris (2009) criticises me for ignoring freedom of speech in order to focus on "soft" issues, such as game theory, decision theory and chaos theory. In this response, I accept most of his arguments relating to freedom of speech, but argue that, in order to develop better systems of education, we need to pay more attention to the…
Iyer, Ravi; Motyl, Matt; Graham, Jesse
The target article's climato-economic theory will benefit by allowing for bidirectional effects and the heterogeneity of types of freedom, in order to more fully capture the coevolution of societal wealth and freedom. We also suggest alternative methods of testing climato-economic theory, such as longitudinal analyses of these countries' histories and micro-level experiments of each of the theory's hypotheses.
Bjørnskov, Christian; Foss, Nicolai Juul
While much attention has been devoted to analyzing how the institutional framework and entrepreneurship impact growth, how economic policy and institutional design affect entrepreneurship appears to be much less analyzed. We try to explain cross-country differences in the level of entrepreneurship...... by differences in economic policy and institutional design. Specifically, we use the measures of economic freedom to ask which elements of economic policy making and the institutional framework that are responsible for the supply of entrepreneurship (our data on entrepreneurship are derived from the Global...... Entrepreneurship Monitor). The combination of these two datasets is unique in the literature. We find that the size of government is negatively correlated with entrepreneurial activity but that sound money is positively correlated with entrepreneurial activity. Other measures of economic freedom...
Full Text Available This paper proposes the following question: Is it possible to transfer human rights like the freedom of expression – or at least to preserve the formal protections guarding speech acts from arbitrary suppression – in a post-national setting? The question arises as an urgent matter in the context of our global system of connected markets and distributed telecommunications networks – the Internet – since, as many academics and policy makers have noted, the two tend to undermine nationals boundaries, putting into question the power of individual states to continue function as the traditional legal and identity-generating entities of last resort. If this analysis is reliable the dialectical union between the autonomous individual citizen and the legally regulated nation state is broken. In this paper I will draw the consequences of that supposed break, exploring the question of the extent to which it makes sense to accord “rights” – freedom of expression – to entities that are not classical autonomous humans, and to confer them by entities that no longer bear the marks of nation-state sovereignty. The question thus is: Is it possible to transfer the normative approach of the classic liberal nation states into a global system? The paper explores this question through an elaboration of problems for the preservation of the human right to freedom of expression: On the one hand communication on the Internet is regulated by an immense legal body, but on the other hand, the machinery for enforcement controlled by this legal body is dependent on various agencies that don’t necessarily recognize its legitimacy. I will then explore whether a more technologically oriented approach could be a more fruitful approach in defining the actual limitations to freedom of expression in the new global system. My answer is that ultimately the control paradigm fails, because it is too clumsy at incorporating self-correcting measures. Thirdly, I
Universities UK, 2011
This report considers the role of universities in promoting academic freedom and freedom of speech, and some of the constraints surrounding these freedoms. These issues are not straightforward and are often contested. The report does not offer easy solutions or absolute rules but seeks to map out the different considerations that might need to be…
Haan, Jakob de; Sturm, Jan-Egbert
Often it is maintained that economic freedom may further high levels of economic growth. This paper compares various indicators for economic freedom. It is concluded that although these measures differ somewhat in their coverage, they show similar rankings for the countries covered. Some elements in
Full Text Available In a civilized society, free and equal access to information resources is every citizen's basic constitutional rights. Although the library is not the sole means to guarantee citizens’ right to freedom of knowledge, it undoubtedly plays a very important role. In recent years, provincial public libraries in China have made great efforts in guaranteeing citizens’ intellectual freedom. This article describes Nanjing Library’s progress and achievements in improving public service, convenience, equality, and free and easy access.
Cabanis, Emmanuel-Alain; Le Gall, Jean-Yves; Ardaillou, Raymond
The need for personal identification is growing in many avenues of society. To "identify" a person is to establish a link between his or her observed characteristics and those previously stored in a database. To "authenticate" is to decide whether or not someone is the person he or she claims to be. These two objectives can now be achieved by analysing biometric data and genetic prints. All biometric techniques proceed in several stages: acquisition of an image or physical parameters, encoding them with a mathematical model, comparing the results of this model with those contained in the database, and calculating the error risk. These techniques must be usable worldwide and must examine specific and permanent personal data. The most widely used are facial recognition, digital prints (flexion folds and dermatoglyphs, that offer the advantage of leaving marks), and the surface and texture of the iris. Other biometric techniques analyse behaviours such as walking, signing, typing, or speaking. Implanted radio-transmitters are another means of identification. All these systems are evaluated on the basis of the same parameters, namely the false rejection rate, the false acceptance rate, and the failure-to-enrol rate. The uses of biometrics are increasing and diversifying, and now include national and international identification systems, control of access to protected sites, criminal and victim identification, and transaction security. Genetic methods can identify individuals almost infallibly, based on short tandem repeats of 2-5 nucleotides, or microsatellites. The most recent kits analyze 11-16 independent autosomal markers. Mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosome DNA can also be analyzed. These genetic tests are currently used to identify suspected criminals or their victims from biological samples, and to establish paternity. Personal identification raises many ethical questions, however, such as when to create and how to use a database while preserving personal freedom
Academic freedom is generally regarded as being of critical importance to the development, improved understanding, and dissemination of new knowledge in a field. Although of obvious importance to the discipline of nursing, the nature, extent and value of academic freedom and the controversies surrounding it have rarely been considered in the nursing literature. It is a key aim of this paper to redress this oversight by providing a brief examination of: (i) the principle of academic freedom; (ii) the distinction between academic freedom, freedom of speech, and the academic freedom to publish; (iii) the problem of ideological judgments being dressed up as scientific or discipline judgments to supports 'bad' conclusions; and (iv) the standards that might otherwise be appealed to for determining whether maverick manuscripts supporting morally abhorrent conclusions should be accepted for publication. It is suggested that the tenets of academic freedom require robust international debate, with due attention being given to such issues as the development of an international declaration on academic freedom to publish in nursing, how to ensure a robust rebuttal system in nursing journals to counter specious scholarship, and how to better promote the letters pages of nursing journals as a venue for facilitating debate on controversial issues. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Johnson, Calvin W.
The central focus of this research was the interplay between three generic classes of degrees of freedom relevant to nuclear structure theory: single-particle degrees of freedom, collective degrees of freedom, and statistical degrees of freedom, which can be thought of as an incoherent mean field or a thermal bath
Wang Sheng; Xie Xi
The Volterra's integral equation equivalent to the dynamic equation of accelerator single-freedom nonlinear components is given, starting from which the transport operator of accelerator single-freedom nonlinear components and its inverse transport operator are obtained. Therefore, another algorithm for the expert system of the beam transport operator of accelerator single-freedom nonlinear components is developed
The university is promoted as "a place from where to speak". Academic freedom is examined as a crucial value in an increasingly uncertain age which resonates with Barnett's concern to encourage students to overcome their "fear of freedom". My concern is that the putative university space of freedom and autonomy may well become constricted by those…
This paper will firstly examine the International framework of human rights law and its guidelines for safeguarding the right to freedom of speech in the press. Secondly, it will describe the constitutional and other legal rights protecting freedom of speech in Indonesia and assess their compatibility with the right to freedom of speech under the International human rights law framework. Thirdly it will consider the impact of Indonesia's constitutional law and criminal and civil law, includin...
Christopher C. Taylor
Full Text Available Em contraste com as análises do genocídio ruandês de 1994, que privilegiam o político, este artigo sustenta que o poder e a política durante o tempo que precedeu o genocídio foram afetadas por noções ruandesas específicas de cosmologia e ontologia. Para entender esse componente "imaginário" da violência, precisamos examinar atentamente as crenças e práticas relacionadas com a instituição da realeza sagrada em Ruanda. Embora essas crenças e práticas foram oficialmente encerradas em 1931, quando o último rei de Ruanda sagrado foi deposto e substituído por seu filho educado por missionários, a sua matriz cosmológica manteve-se em tempos recentes. Isto pode ser visto na literatura popular de rua Ruandesa, que circulou amplamente nos dias que antecederam o genocídio. Nessa literatura, o então presidente Juvenal Habyarimana era comparado explicitamente a um rei ruandês. Mais importante ainda para os objetivos deste artigo, foi a comparação mais difusa, implícita, e simbólica entre Habyarimana e um rei sagrado. Em particular, alguns dos elementos-chave neste simbolismo iluminam (e mostram a importância da persistência da imagem de como um rei (ou presidente deveria se comportar. Como havia muitos jornalistas ruandeses reacionários (e racistas que tinham começado a duvidar da capacidade do presidente Habyarimana de ser um "bom rei", seu "sacrifício"'subseqüente estava, em um sentido simbólico, fortemente predestinado.
Lyudmila V. Butko
Full Text Available The article presents the genesis of the origins of forming the legal mechanisms to protect the personal dignity in the European legal culture. It is noted that the legal content of dignity is predetermined by the moral aspect of consideration. In addition, the definition of "dignity" was transformed under the influence of the development of legal norms, doctrine and practice of protecting a person's rights and freedoms, the foundations of civil society and legal awareness. The chronological period of research was limited to the XIII-XIX centuries, within which the authors, using a comparative legal method, defined the directions of conceptualization and formalization of the personal dignity by scientists and legislation in the European countries. As a conclusion, it is shown that the observance of the right to personal dignity by the state will not only promote the exaltation of human dignity, but also simultaneously initiate the expansion of public law compensated by increasing the subjective rights.
Interracial Books for Children Bulletin, 1977
This issue of the "Interracial Books for Children Bulletin" contains a special section focusing on the film called, "The Speaker". This film purports to deal with an assault on the First Amendment and with the necessity for eternal vigilance in defense of U.S. Constitutional freedom. The setting is an integrated high school…
Record management in the Nigerian public sector and freedom of ... government relies upon policy documents, budget papers, procurement records, property ... play in administrative efficiency and success of Freedom of Information Act 2011.
L. A. Solovova
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the model of freedom franchising and to its comparison with the classic franchising model. The aim of the article is to systemize and enrich the knowledge in the sphere of the franchising model evolution. The author’s task was to identify the key features of the freedom franchising model, to compare the freedom franchising with classic franchising and to formulate the conditions under which the freedom franchising model can be developed. To achieve this the analysis, synthesis, comparison and longitude methods were used. Classic franchising model includes the transfer of both visible (design, brand style and invisible to the customers (business processes, know-how elements from the franchisor to the franchisee. Such a business model enables the franchise to preserve the high quality of products and services and to grow the net at high rate. The drawback of the classic model is the complexity of bringing up innovations by the franchisee – new ideas are strictly chosen by the franchisor and then implemented within the network only after the successful experience in control points of contact. Nevertheless, there is the franchising business model in which franchisees can experiment with front-of-house (visible elements of the system (such as point’s of contact design on the one hand, and on the other – in which new ideas and initiatives from the franchisee are welcomed by the franchisor. The model is called “freedom franchising”. It is important to point out that key system elements are standardized in both models as standardized production processes help preserve high quality within the franchising net. Freedom franchising model is not applicable in the spheres where full business standardization is needed as well as in the business that is focusing on fast growth. But it helps franchisees to implement new ideas within the whole network. The article would be of interest to franchisors for creating franchise
The g-boson degree of freedom in the vibrational regions is discussed in term of the energies and the electromagnetic transitions. Several closed expressions for the rates of M1, E2 transitions and the E2, M1 mixing ratios are obtained. Some survey is made and it reveals it is meaningful to investigate the g-boson degree of freedom in those regions
Full Text Available This paper will firstly examine the international framework of human rights law and its guidelines for safeguarding the right to freedom of speech in the press. Secondly, it will describe the constitutional and other legal rights protecting freedom of speech in Indonesia and assess their compatibility with the right to freedom of speech under the international human rights law framework. Thirdly it will consider the impact of Indonesia’s constitutional law and criminal and civil law, including sedition and defamation laws, and finally media ownership, on the interpretation and scope of the right to freedom of speech in the press. Consideration of these laws will be integrated with a discussion of judicial processes. This discussion will be used to determine how and in what circumstances the constitutional right to freedom of speech in the press may be facilitated or enabled, or on the other hand, limited, overridden or curtailed in Indonesia. Conclusions will then be drawn regarding the strengths and weaknesses of Indonesian laws in safeguarding the right to freedom of speech in the press and the democratic implications from an international human rights perspective. This inquiry will be restricted to Indonesian laws in existence during the post-New Order period of 1998 to the present, and to the information and analysis provided by English-language sources.
Nadezhda A. Igonina
Full Text Available In the present article the notion of "priorities of the prosecution" are defined, its value for the sphere of human rights and freedoms of man and citizen are stated. The classification of priorities, which is based on the provisions of the Russian Constitution and international law are stated. According to the authors, under the primary protection are the personal rights, which are derived from a natural person's status, inherent from birth. Next in order of priority are political rights, ensuring the full participation of citizens in the political life of the country, and finally - human rights in the socio-economic and cultural spheres, to guarantee the freedom of personal development and decent standards of living. Due to the authors` opinion, prosecutors in the allocation of the most important goals and objectives of its activities are guided by objective factors such as the analysis of the state of law, connection of the situation in this sphere of legal relations with the maintenance of stability and balance in the society, human rights functions, country's leadership and guidance of the General Prosecutor of the Russian Federation. The article shows, that the choice of priorities in the public prosecutor's activity, including the field of human rights and freedoms of man and citizen is a complex multi-faceted process, which affects the international situation, the internal processes, occurring in the country, including natural and man-made emergencies and a number of other factors. Authors identify issues that, in their opinion, should be addressed to improve the effectiveness of prosecutorial activities. That is the further development of the law about the Prosecutor's Office and the consolidation of its legal position, including constitutional status. Conclusions and suggestions are based on the authors' theoretical positions, made by the Russian jurists, as well as according their own empirical researches.
Lev S. Voronkov
Full Text Available The author analyzes the evolution of human rights and fundamental freedoms in domestic political life of individual states and in international relations as well over the latest two centuries. The article traces the role of struggle for liberal political human rights and civilian freedoms in the dismantling of the feudal-absolutist regimes as well as the challenges of radical left-wing (communist and far right-wing (national-socialistic threats to be met by the supporters of liberal political rights and civil freedoms in the interwar period. The list of human rights and fundamental freedoms had constantly been updating in the postwar period, including by the efforts of the UNO and other international organizations, and fixing in different international documents. The author emphasizes the import role of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE in transforming the issues of human rights and fundamental freedoms into the essential element of public diplomacy of contemporary states. He traces the process of the increasing utilization of liberal political rights and civilian freedoms, which are usually the effective tools for domestic democratic transformation, within the framework of diplomatic practice of European and North-American states, aimed at ensuring their political and economic interests on the world stage. In this regard the author addresses the attempts of Western countries to legalize "humanitarian"interventions in circumvention of the UN Security Council. The article emphasizes the necessity to replenish the understanding of universal human rights and freedoms by the values, developed both by the international community within the framework of implementing the Millennium Development Goals and by various countries and peoples, which in sum constitute the modern international civilizational baggage.
Nik J. de Boer
Full Text Available This article assesses whether the EU Treaty freedoms - the free movement of goods, persons, services and capital - should be considered as fundamental rights which are hierarchically equal to other fundamental rights. It uses the political philosophy of John Rawls to assess why we should attach priority to certain rights and which rights should therefore be considered fundamental rights. On this basis it is argued that we should recognise two main types of fundamental rights, namely basic rights and liberties associated with Rawls' first principle of justice and the rights associated with the principle of fair equality of opportunity. This is followed by an analysis of the interpretation that the European Court of Justice (CJEU gives to the Treaty freedoms. On the basis of the normative framework, it is argued that the Treaty freedoms can be seen as fundamental rights insofar as they embody the value of equality of opportunity. Nonetheless, the CJEU increasingly seems to rely on a broader market access approach rather than an equal treatment approach in interpreting the Treaty freedoms. It is argued that where equal treatment is not at stake, the Treaty freedoms should not be seen as fundamental rights. Therefore, in cases where there is a conflict between a fundamental right and a Treaty freedom the CJEU should carefully distinguish between these two different interpretations of the Treaty freedoms. In cases where it is merely market access that is at stake, the CJEU should regard the protection of fundamental rights as more important, and be very careful in allowing a restriction of fundamental rights in order to protect the exercise of the Treaty freedom. On the other hand, in cases where the Treaty freedoms can be seen as protecting equality of opportunity and where they conflict with other fundamental rights, the Court is justified in construing the conflict as a right-right conflict in which a fair balance has to be sought.
Issues and recent events concerning censorship of the arts in the United States are examined, and the threat to artistic freedom posed by recent Supreme Court decisions is examined. Focus is on erosion of the actual or imminent harm requirement of the law and on the court's class-based approach to free speech. (MSE)
This follow-on paper describes the principal methods of implementing, and documents the results of exercising, a set of six-degree-of-freedom rigid-body equations of motion and planetary geodetic, gravitation and atmospheric models for simple vehicles in a variety of endo- and exo-atmospheric conditions with various NASA, and one popular open-source, engineering simulation tools. This effort is intended to provide an additional means of verification of flight simulations. The models used in this comparison, as well as the resulting time-history trajectory data, are available electronically for persons and organizations wishing to compare their flight simulation implementations of the same models.
... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [ Project No. 14421-000--ME] Freedom... from licensing for the Freedom Falls Hydroelectric Project, to be located on Sandy Stream, in the Town of Freedom, Waldo County, Maine, and has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA). In the EA...
Full Text Available This study aims to present the vision of the Romanian Civil Code about the freedom of contracting. The Romanian legislator has restated in terminis that the principle of contractual freedom is a fundament of the conventions but has also established its restraints: the law, the public order and the moral values. In order to attain the stated goal of this research, the effort was directed toward: presenting the freedom to contract as a principle of the private law, evoking the autonomy of the will theory as a fundament for the freedom to contract and toward systemically enunciating the competing theories and the decline of the actual autonomy of the will theory. The effort was also directed toward presenting the restraints of the freedom to contract, as they are stated in the Civic Code and the different categories of contracts which are the consequence of those restraints.
Full Text Available The relationship between economic freedom and pro-poor growth is examined in Pakistan from 1995-2010. The concept of pro-poor growth is derived from the literature of Kakwani and Pernia (2000 and Kakwani and Son (2003. The domino effect shows that there is a strong link between economic freedom indicators and pro-poor growth. Econometric analysis proves a strong relationship between economic freedom, poverty reduction and income inequality. Results reveal that larger the business freedom and / or trade freedom, greater the economic growth. This will ultimately reduce poverty in the country.
Kort introduktion til et europæisk forskningsprojekt "The History of Human Freedom and Dignity in Western Civilisation'......Kort introduktion til et europæisk forskningsprojekt "The History of Human Freedom and Dignity in Western Civilisation'...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Freedom of Information Act requests by... GENERAL MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION ACCESS TO RECORDS Release of Information Freedom of Information Act Requests for Information § 513.62 Freedom of Information Act requests by former inmates. Former federal...
Social Education, 2005
Thomas Crawford, an American Sculptor, created the full-size figure of Freedom in clay. Molds were made, from which a full-size positive plaster model was cast in five main sections. This model is on view today in the basement rotunda of the Russell Senate Office Building. Clark Mills was a self-taught American sculptor with experience in casting…
Academic freedom can be defined as immunity against adverse reactions from the general public, designed to keep scholars unintimidated and productive even after they have published controversial ideas. Francesca Minerva claims that this notion of strict instrumental academic freedom is supported by Ronald Dworkin, and that anonymity would effectively defend the sphere of immunity implied by it. Against this, I argue that the idea defended by Minerva finds no support in the work by Dworkin referred to; that anonymity would not in most cases effectively protect the kind of immunity sought after; and that in some cases it would not even be desirable to protect scholars from public reactions to their controversial claims. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Although the capability approach has had a tremendous impact on the development debate, it has had little to say about sustainable development. As several Human Development Reports have maintained, the last twenty years' gains in human development are not sustainable. The failure to include...... Index should be combined with the Ecological Footprint to reflect sustainability, and that the Human Development Reports should give way to Sustainable Development Reports...... an integrate sustainability into the Human Development Index would thus give the wrong policy message. Drawing on the works of Amartya Sen and Thomas Scanlon, this article argues that sustainable development can be seen as a process of increasing legitimate freedoms, the freedoms that others cannot reasonably...
Dunham, Scott D.
A set of burn profiles was developed to provide bounding jet firing histories for a +vbar breakout during approaches to Space Station Freedom. The delta-v sequences were designed to place the Orbiter on a safe trajectory under worst case conditions and to try to minimize plume impingement on Space Station Freedom structure.
This paper explores the conceptual history of academic freedom and its emergence as a substantive right that pertains to either the academic or the university. It is suggested that historical reconceptualisations necessitated by contingent circumstance may have led to academic freedom being seen as a form of protection for those working within…
Neitzke, Alex B
I argue that the use of heritable modifications for psychology, personality, and behavior should be limited to the reversal or prevention of relatively unambiguous instances of pathology or likely harm (e.g. sociopathy). Most of the likely modifications of psychological personality would not be of this nature, however, and parents therefore should not have the freedom to make such modifications to future children. I argue by examining the viewpoints of both the individual and society. For individuals, modifications would interfere with their capacity for self-determination in a way that undermines the very concept of self-determination. I argue that modification of psychology and personality is unlike present parenting in morally significant ways. For society, modification offers a medium for power to manipulate the makeup of persons and populations, possibly causing biological harm to the species and altering our conceptions of social responsibility.
.... Can a law-abiding nation, conceived in liberty and dedicated to individual freedoms, effectively protect itself and its citizens against terrorism without infringing on these fundamental principles...
Full Text Available Vivid debates were encountered in recent years on the subject of religious freedom ethics. The politic correctness attitude became many times a coercion instrument for suppressing the communitarian interests by promoting individual interests, instituting the minority tyranny that reduced to silence the communitarian interests. This might also create a disproportional representation in society for communitarian religious interests. The question is: whose religious interests should prevail? Should there be more guarantees given by the governments for the long existing, larger, and traditional religious groups, compare with the guarantees provided for the newer and smaller religious groups? Those questions provide a glimpse of the existing tension in the society on the subject of religious freedom. The present paper should answer these types of questions, explaining the tension and giving possible answers from a religious freedom normative approach.
Full Text Available In this paper, we will present the results of our survey on economic freedom and entrepreneurial activity. We have conducted our analysis on EU 11countries (Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and United Kingdom for the time period 2000- 2014. To measure the entrepreneurial activity we have used data from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, and to measure economic freedom, we have used data from Fraiser Institute. Our results suggest strong positive and statistically significant, long term impact of economic freedom on entrepreneurial activity.
... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of the Secretary 31 CFR Part 1 Freedom of Information Act... Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) and its regulations concerning the Privacy Act of 1974 (Privacy Act). It... correct those errors. List of Subjects in 31 CFR Part 1 Freedom of Information; Privacy. 0 Accordingly...
There have been various shapes of opinions shared on the concept of academic freedom. This concept means different things to many and different people. Those outside the University view academic freedom with some level of suspicion. Even among the academia, academic freedom is rarely understood. To foster the growth of knowledge and its…
Jensen, Dwight Wm.
In considering the possibility of a normative theory of freedom of the press, this paper examines arguments about such freedom in the Third World and elsewhere. Some of the arguments discussed in the paper are derived from the theories of John Locke and Karl Marx; others are drawn from the concepts of divine rights, elitism, liberal democracy, and…
O presente artigo interpreta uma fonte iconográfica ainda sem estudos acadêmicos detalhados, a runestone Viking de Hammar I, originária da ilha de Gotland (Suécia). Um importante documento sobre a mentalidade religiosa dos escandinavos, suas concepções mitológicas sobre as divindades, sacrifícios humanos, vida após a morte e alguns símbolos importantes para o culto ao deus Óðinn. Outro fundamental aspecto de nossa interpretação é a possibilidade de compararmos as clássicas fontes islandesas, ...
Ren, Kai; Li, Jun
This article reflects upon three seminal articles published in "Higher Education Policy" ("HEP") on academic freedom and university autonomy. The reflections indicate that "HEP" research contributes to a sophisticated and systematic understanding of the complexity of academic freedom, addressing both the original…
Darling, Richard L.
Reviews attitudes toward censorship in the United States throughout its history in relation to the nation and its institutions. The library is recognized as an institution in which censorship has no place, due to its creed of information access and intellectual freedom for all. (MBR)
Luetz, E.F.; Vasconcellos, C.A.Z.
When Dirac derived the special relativistic quantum equation which brings his name, it became evident that the spin is a consequence of the space-time geometry. However, taking gravity into account (as for, instance, in the study of neutron stars), most authors do not take into account the relation between hyperbolic geometry and spin and derive an Einstein equation which implicitly takes into account only boson degrees of freedom. In this work we introduce a consistent quantum general relativistic formalism which allows us to study the effects of the existence of fermion degrees of freedom. (author)
Luetz, E.F.; Vasconcellos, C.A.Z. [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica
When Dirac derived the special relativistic quantum equation which brings his name, it became evident that the spin is a consequence of the space-time geometry. However, taking gravity into account (as for, instance, in the study of neutron stars), most authors do not take into account the relation between hyperbolic geometry and spin and derive an Einstein equation which implicitly takes into account only boson degrees of freedom. In this work we introduce a consistent quantum general relativistic formalism which allows us to study the effects of the existence of fermion degrees of freedom. (author)
Scheidl, Thomas; Ursin, Rupert; Kofler, Johannes; Ramelow, Sven; Ma, Xiao-Song; Herbst, Thomas; Ratschbacher, Lothar; Fedrizzi, Alessandro; Langford, Nathan K; Jennewein, Thomas; Zeilinger, Anton
Bell's theorem shows that local realistic theories place strong restrictions on observable correlations between different systems, giving rise to Bell's inequality which can be violated in experiments using entangled quantum states. Bell's theorem is based on the assumptions of realism, locality, and the freedom to choose between measurement settings. In experimental tests, "loopholes" arise which allow observed violations to still be explained by local realistic theories. Violating Bell's inequality while simultaneously closing all such loopholes is one of the most significant still open challenges in fundamental physics today. In this paper, we present an experiment that violates Bell's inequality while simultaneously closing the locality loophole and addressing the freedom-of-choice loophole, also closing the latter within a reasonable set of assumptions. We also explain that the locality and freedom-of-choice loopholes can be closed only within nondeterminism, i.e., in the context of stochastic local realism.
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李崗 Kang Lee
Full Text Available 本研究旨在分析Montessori（1870-1952）的人格教育思想，主要運用詮釋學的研究方法：一方面聚焦於《吸收性心智》（The Absorbent Mind）、《童年的秘密》（The Secret of Childhood）、《發現兒童》（The Discovery of Child）及 《了解你的孩子》（What You Should Know about Your Child）等文本的理解，二方面來回於個人經驗與文本脈絡之間的對話與省思。結果發現，可歸納為以下四點：一、人格是精神生命肉身化的結果，人格統整的關鍵是意志發展。二、人格教育的目標在於建立紀律，人格教育的原則是給予自由，人格教育的方法是透過工作。三、人格教育的歷程始於兒童的自由選擇，繼之以專注地自發性工作，透過意志發展逐漸樂於服從，最後形成內在紀律，表現出寧靜的心境。四、人格教育的實施，關鍵時期為零至三歲，可以運用靜默遊戲、走線練習、穿脫衣服、準備茶會、舉辦生日會等方式進行。最後，本文更針對其思想內涵，提出10點評析，以供參考。 This study aims to analyze Maria Montessori’s theory of personality education. The author adopts interpretative methodology to focus on the following texts: The Absorbent Mind, The Secret of Childhood, The Discovery of the Child, and What You Should Know about Your Child. In this paper, the conclusion can be summarized into four points: First, personality is formed in the development of body and spirit, and the will is the key to integrate the whole system of personality. Second, the goal of personality education is to establish the discipline of life, and the method is to let children work spontaneously with the sense of duty in a free situation. Third, children must have the freedom to choose, then they can learn how to exercise their will to obey the inner discipline. Fourth, there are five examples provided for the implementation of
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Relativistic heavy-ion collisions at AGS energies are studied by using an new developed hadronic cascade model, HANDEL which includes a few hadronic degrees of freedom. The spectra of hadron-hadron, hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus reactions at AGS energies are well reproduced by HANDEL. It is confirmed that the infinite matter described by HANDEL has particle fractions which are expected from grand canonical ensemble. When we compare the thermal evolution of Au+Au collision from HANDEL with the result from JAM which has larger hadronic degree of freedoms, we find both models give similar evolution of temperature, against naive expectation. We argue that this results can be interpretated if the particles in formation time works as the additional effective hadronic degrees of freedom. (author)
Willem Johannes van Vollenhoven
Full Text Available This paper explores student-teachers' understanding of the right to freedom of expression in education. Analyses of case law and legal principles affirm that the right to freedom of expression is an essential prerequisite to protect and promote democracy. Based on qualitative research, the empirical evidence indicates that although student-teachers are aware of the fact that the right to freedom of expression is not absolute and may be limited, they have a superficial knowledge of the application of this right. Student-teachers have a sense of the importance of the right to freedom of expression in a democracy, but they have not yet internalised the mechanism or process of balancing the right in praxis. This does not bode well as the school system will fail to be a market place of ideas. In order to enable learners to reach their full potential as critical thinkers and autonomous citizens in a developing democracy, it is imperative that teachers should understand and master the application of the right to freedom of expression in schools.
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Office of Personnel Management — Executive Order (E.O.) 13,392 mandates that each federal agency shall have a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) working plan with established goals and time frames to...
The threat of a non-peaceful use of atomic energy is not a fixed quantity. The hazard may increase depending on the social situation and the insentity of social crises emerging. In view of the damage potential involved with atomic energy, the principle of 'dynamic protection of civil rights' requires security measures to be intensified according to growing threat. The restrictions of freedom connected with enhanced security measures are to be felt already today. The pressure for security of nuclear installations or material creates a dilemma: any security step-up will be done at the expense of freedom, and conserving freedom will mean reducing security. The pressure for security which is achieved by the instruments of balancing the objects of legal protection and following the principle of reasonablenesse, will eventually lead to a de facto decline of the civil rights by way of a clandestine and gradual change of legal terms and definitions. We even then would be living in a constitutional state. But what will freedom then mean? The civil rights would still be incorporated in our Basic Law, but protection in practical life will have been decreased. (orig./HSCH) [de
Full Text Available Usually associated with a view of freedom as absolute, Sartre’s philosophy seems particularly able to account for the indeterminacy that we experience today in most areas of human experience that have a normative dimension. Without denying that this is a plausible reading, it will be argued here that it is nevertheless a problematic interpretation. On this reading, existentialism seems unable to account for the fact that we are powerfully conditioned by a significant number of factors, which limit our freedom and, in certain situations, make emancipation a normative requirement. It is held here that this problem can be addressed and a less problematic interpretation of Sartre can be defended, once we start to acknowledge that in Sartre we have a variety of notions of freedom that can provide a robust account of our freedom, of authentic choice and of responsibility. Habitualmente asociada a una visión de la libertad como un concepto absoluto, la filosofía de Sartre parece especialmente capaz de representar la indeterminación que experimentamos hoy en día en la mayoría de las áreas de la experiencia humana que tienen una dimensión normativa. Sin negar que ésta es una lectura convincente, no obstante, se va a argumentar que es una interpretación problemática. Con esta lectura parece que el existencialismo es incapaz de representar el hecho de que estamos fuertemente condicionados por un número importante de factores que limitan nuestra libertad y, en algunas situaciones, hacen de la emancipación una necesidad normativa. En este artículo se defiende que se puede abordar este problema, y se puede defender una interpretación de Sartre menos problemática, una vez empecemos a reconocer que en Sartre se pueden encontrar una variedad de nociones de libertad que permiten ofrecer una explicación sólida de nuestra libertad, de elección auténtica y de responsabilidad. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2622045
Arlegi, R.; Dimitrov, D.A.
Numerous works in the last decade have analyzed the question of how to compare opportunity sets as a way to measure and evaluate individual freedom of choice.This paper defends that, in many contexts, external procedural aspects that are associated to an opportunity set should be taken into account
Freedom of Information Center, Columbia, MO.
This bibliography lists and annotates almost 400 information reports, opinion papers, and summary papers dealing with freedom of information. Topics covered include the nature of press freedom and increased press efforts toward more open access to information; the press situation in many foreign countries, including France, Sweden, Communist…
There are two rival images often offered of the state. In one the state serves like a nanny to provide for the welfare of its members; in the other it requires people to look after themselves, providing only the service of a night-watchman. But this dichotomy, which is routinely invoked in debates about public health and welfare provision in general, is misleading. What the rival images turn on is not competing pictures of how the state should function in people's lives but competing pictures of what it is to guard the freedom of its people. On the neo-liberal theory, which has been dominant over the last century or so, providing for people's freedom means leaving them to their own devices and fortunes. On the neo-republican theory, which answers to a much longer tradition, it means democratically identifying a common set of basic liberties in the exercise of which everyone should be protected by law and, if necessary, resourced. This older way of thinking about freedom has important merits missing in the newer and argues strongly against the nightwatchman state. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Discusses aspects of Foucault's philosophy that demonstrate the intensity of his concern for freedom. The paper examines the significance of freedom regarding teacher agency and suggests that Foucault's project of freedom can inform current discussion about educational reform and school restructuring, particularly regarding teachers' roles as…
Anderson, E; Barbour, J; Foster, B Z; Kelleher, B; Murchadha, N O
When constructing general relativity (GR), Einstein required 4D general covariance. In contrast, we derive GR (in the compact, without boundary case) as a theory of evolving three-dimensional conformal Riemannian geometries obtained by imposing two general principles: (1) time is derived from change; (2) motion and size are relative. We write down an explicit action based on them. We obtain not only GR in the CMC gauge, in its Hamiltonian 3 + 1 reformulation, but also all the equations used in York's conformal technique for solving the initial-value problem. This shows that the independent gravitational degrees of freedom obtained by York do not arise from a gauge fixing but from hitherto unrecognized fundamental symmetry principles. They can therefore be identified as the long-sought Hamiltonian physical gravitational degrees of freedom
Lau, Stephan; Hiemisch, Anette; Baumeister, Roy F
Six experiments tested two competing models of subjective freedom during decision-making. The process model is mainly based on philosophical conceptions of free will and assumes that features of the process of choosing affect subjective feelings of freedom. In contrast, the outcome model predicts that subjective freedom is due to positive outcomes that can be expected or are achieved by a decision. Results heavily favored the outcome model over the process model. For example, participants felt freer when choosing between two equally good than two equally bad options. Process features including number of options, complexity of decision, uncertainty, having the option to defer the decision, conflict among reasons, and investing high effort in choosing generally had no or even negative effects on subjective freedom. In contrast, participants reported high freedom with good outcomes and low freedom with bad outcomes, and ease of deciding increased subjective freedom, consistent with the outcome model. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 14421-000] Freedom Falls... 1, 2012. d. Applicant: Freedom Falls, LLC. e. Name of Project: Freedom Falls Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: On Sandy Stream, in the Town of Freedom, Waldo County, Maine. The project would not...
The Constitution of the Republic of Slovenia includes two statutes: (a) the freedom to decide about the birth of one's own child (freedom of birth-decision), and (b) the right of conscientious objection, including the right to abortion. This discussion focuses on the principles of "free choice and womens'reproductive freedom". The right of conscientious objection in relation to the right to abortion is also discussed.
This article analyses, from a bioethics journal editor's perspective, the threats to academic freedom and freedom of expression that academic bioethicists and academic bioethics journals are subjected to by political activists applying pressure from outside of the academy. I defend bioethicists' academic freedom to reach and defend conclusions many find offensive and 'wrong'. However, I also support the view that academics arguing controversial matters such as, for instance, the moral legitimacy of infanticide should take clear responsibility for the views they defend and should not try to hide behind analytical philosophers' rationales such as wanting to test an argument for the sake of testing an argument. This article proposes that bioethics journals establish higher-quality requirements and more stringent mechanisms of peer review than usual for iconoclastic articles.
From confinement to the philosophy of care in the community, the history of psychiatry testifies to the evolution of practices in the matter of the restriction of freedom. The French National Health Authority still too often recommends practices based on restraint. Caregivers, in relation to the clinical aspect of the patients, need clearly identified therapeutic projects. While training can be vital for them, risk management policies can prove to be a hindrance to patients' freedom. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
The interrelation between an inverted hierarchy mechanism and asymptotic freedom in supersymmetric theories is analyzed in two models for which we performed a detailed analysis of the effective potentials and effective couplings. We find it difficult to accommodate an inverted hierarchy together with asymptotic freedom for the matter-Yukawa couplings. (orig.)
Perley, James E.
Tenure itself is not the central issue in the debate over faculty tenure; honest faculty evaluation, adequate faculty development, and termination when appropriate are the real issues as are fears that abandonment of the tenure principle would amount to abandonment of the principles of academic freedom and shared governance. (MSE)
Steffansson, Marina; Pulliainen, Marjo; Kettunen, Aija; Linnosmaa, Ismo; Halonen, Miikka
The aim of this paper is to study home care clients' freedom to choose their services, as well the association between the effectiveness of home care services and freedom of choice, among other factors. A structured postal survey was conducted among regular home care clients (n = 2096) aged 65 or older in three towns in Finland. Freedom of choice was studied based on clients' subjective experiences. The effectiveness of the services was evaluated by means of changes in the social-care-related quality of life. Regression analyses were used to test associations. As much as 62% of home care recipients reported having some choice regarding their services. Choosing meals and visiting times for the care worker were associated with better effectiveness. The basic model, which included needs and other factors expected to have an impact on quality of life, explained 15.4% of the changes in quality of life, while the extended model, which included the freedom-of-choice variables, explained 17.4%. The inclusion of freedom-of-choice variables increased the adjusted coefficient of determination by 2%. There was a significant positive association between freedom of choice and the effectiveness of public home care services. Freedom of choice does not exist for all clients of home care who desire it. By changing social welfare activities and structures, it is possible to show respect for clients' opinions and to thereby improve the effectiveness of home care services.
This policy establishes EPA requirements for complying with the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) as amended, EPA FOIA regulations, and guidance issued by the U. S. Department of Justice and the National Archives and Records Administration.
Marcos Luiz da Silva
Full Text Available This article deals with Axel Honneth's theory about the right to freedom and the spheres of social ethics, particularly in regard to legal freedom, in which he highlights its reasons, limits and pathologies. In this sense, he sought to analyze his concept of juridification of social relations in private and family environments, in order to identify the applicability of legal pathologies in contemporary Brazilian society.
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Ivanitsky, A M
The problem is considered whether the brain response is completely determined by the stimulus and the personal experience or in some cases the brain is free to choose its behavioral response to achieve the desired goal. The attempt is made to approach to this important philosophical problem basing on modern knowledge about the brain. The paper consists of four parts. In the first part the theoretical views about the free choice problem solving are considered, including views about the freedom of choice as a useful illusion, the hypothesis on appliance of quantum mechanics laws to the brain functioning and the theory of mentalism. In other tree parts consequently the more complicated brain functions such as choice reaction, thinking and creation are analyzed. The general conclusion is that the possibility of quite unpredictable, but sometimes very effective decisions increases when the brain functions are more and more complicated. This fact can be explained with two factors: increasing stochasticity of the brain processes and the role of top-down determinations from mental to neural levels, according to the theory of mentalism.
Full Text Available This paper focuses on the social theory of freedom proposed by Norbert Elias, as opposed to classic philosophical views. Firstly, it analyses the basic features of the metaphysical theories of freedom which Elias rejects. Then the key points on which Norbert Elias?s social theory of freedom is based are developed. Finally, two Eliasian classic empirical examples are briefl y discussed: the cases of Louis XIV and Mozart. The above is intended to show that Elias has a legitimate voice in the current scientifi c debate about freedom, especially within Neuroscience.
Academic freedom is central to ideas of higher education, yet in the United Kingdom it is facing challenges from changing managerial approaches within some universities and changing governmental expectations. Universities are increasingly expected to focus upon knowledge which can be shown to have value and to exploit the results of academic…
Gostin, L O
It is not necessary to recount the numerous charters and declarations ... to understand human rights.... All persons are born free and equal in dignity and rights. Everyone ... is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in the international human rights instruments without discrimination, such as the rights to life, liberty, security of the person, privacy, health, education, work, social security, and to marry and found a family. Yet, violations of human rights are a reality to be found in every corner of the globe.
Machan, Tibor R.
Argues that the sort of liberty associated with a capitalist economic system is of particular value because it ensures moral self-responsibility. Two conceptions of freedom are developed and related to private property and public virtue. (Author/JDH)
Discusses the concept of freedom in a global context, focusing on the Asian perspectives of three spokespersons: Zhuangzi or Chuang Tzu, a Daoist (Taoist) poet-philosopher in 4th-century-BCE China; Indian-born Nobel economist Amartya Sen, whose work on poverty links development with freedom; and Aung San Suu Kyi, Burmese democratic leader and…
This paper analyzes the entanglement of the modern concepts of freedom, autonomy, and the modern notion of the subject and how a passion for and insistence on freedom has undermined the reconstruction of human subjectivity in Heidegger and Foucault, and how such passion has also limited the educational effort at addressing the problems brought to…
This paper presents the use of personal computers in performing a dynamic frequency analysis of a large (2,801 degrees of freedom) finite-element model. Large model linear time history dynamic evaluations of safety related structures were previously restricted to mainframe computers using direct integration analysis methods. This restriction was a result of the limited memory and speed of personal computers. With the advances in memory capacity and speed of the personal computers, large finite-element problems now can be solved in the office in a timely and cost effective manner. Presented in three sections, this paper describes the procedure used to perform the dynamic frequency analysis of the large (2,801 degrees of freedom) finite-element model on a personal computer. Section 2.0 describes the structure and the finite-element model that was developed to represent the structure for use in the dynamic evaluation. Section 3.0 addresses the hardware and software used to perform the evaluation and the optimization of the hardware and software operating configuration to minimize the time required to perform the analysis. Section 4.0 explains the analysis techniques used to reduce the problem to a size compatible with the hardware and software memory capacity and configuration
A report is given on some recent investigations of the influence of isobar degrees of freedom on the ground state properties of finite nuclei like e.g. 16 O. The nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction is constructed in the freamework of an extended one-boson-exchange (OBE) model using non-covariant, time-dependent perturbation theory. The explicit consideration of fourth-order iterative diagrams involving NΔ and ΔΔ intermediate states gives an effective NN interaction in the nuclear many-body system which is less attractive than those which are obtained treating these terms phenomenologically. Therefore the binding energy calculated in the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approximation is smaller if these effects of isobar degrees of freedom are taken into account. This repulsive effect of isobar configurations is partly counterbalanced by the attraction obtained for three-nucleon terms with intermediate NNΔ states. (Auth.)
This paper discusses several topics. The first one is the importance of a consistent treatment of extended nucleons and the subsequent requirement of accounting for quark antisymmetrization. It will probably be possible to account for these effects through quark exchange currents in much of the same way as meson exchange currents at lower values of Q 2 . In order to obtain more definite answers on intrinsic properties of nucleons and other hadronic degrees of freedom in nuclei it is important to establish to which extent hadronic degrees of freedom behaving like quasi-free nuclear constituents can be used to describe the nuclear response in inclusive and semi-inclusive electron scattering at intermediate energies
Amendment of the U.S. Bill of Rights ensuring freedom of speech , assembly, and religion. Secretary Clinton argued that these principles were reaffirmed in...Act or VOICE Act (Sec. 1242) Expresses the sense of the Senate in support of the universal values of freedom of speech , the press, and expression... freedom of speech , expression, and assembly. Authorizes appropriations to the Fund. (Sec. 1246) Directs the President to report annually to Congress on
Several field theoretic models are presented which allow exact expressions of the renormalization constants and renormalized coupling constants. These models are analyzed as to their content of asymptotic free field behavior through the use of the Callan-Symanzik renormalization group equation. It is found that none of these models possesses asymptotic freedom in four dimensions
Gilbertson, Eric R.
During the past 150 years U.S. courts have demonstrated a special protectiveness toward academics and academic institutions. Academic freedom was not a concern when the U.S. Constitution and the First Amendment were drafted and is not mentioned in the "Federalist Papers." However, decisions by a series of Supreme Court justices led to…
Liu, Hong-Hui; Zhang, Hong-Ling; Xu, Hong-Bin; Lou, Tai-Ping; Sui, Zhi-Tong; Zhang, Yi
Vanadium nitride and graphene have been widely used as pseudo-capacitive and electric double-layer capacitor electrode materials for electrochemical capacitors, respectively. However, the poor cycling stability of vanadium nitride and the low capacitance of graphene impeded their practical applications. Herein, we demonstrated an in situ self-sacrificed template method for the synthesis of vanadium nitride/nitrogen-doped graphene (VN/NGr) nanocomposites by the pyrolysis of a mixture of dicyandiamide, glucose, and NH 4 VO 3 . Vanadium nitride nanoparticles of the size in the range of 2 to 7 nm were uniformly embedded into the nitrogen-doped graphene skeleton. Furthermore, the VN/NGr nanocomposites with a high specific surface area and pore volume showed a high specific capacitance of 255 F g -1 at 10 mV s -1 , and an excellent cycling stability (94% capacitance retention after 2000 cycles). The excellent capacitive properties were ascribed to the excellent conductivity of nitrogen-doped graphene, high surface area, high pore volume, and the synergistic effect between vanadium nitride and nitrogen-doped graphene.
Harrington, Jesse R; Boski, Pawel; Gelfand, Michele J
Throughout history and within numerous disciplines, there exists a perennial debate about how societies should best be organized. Should they emphasize individual freedom and autonomy or security and constraint? Contrary to proponents who tout the benefits of one over the other, we demonstrate across 32 nations that both freedom and constraint exhibit a curvilinear relationship with many indicators of societal well-being. Relative to moderate nations, very permissive and very constrained nations exhibit worse psychosocial outcomes (lower happiness, greater dysthymia, higher suicide rates), worse health outcomes (lower life expectancy, greater mortality rates from cardiovascular disease and diabetes) and poorer economic and political outcomes (lower gross domestic product per capita, greater risk for political instability). This supports the notion that a balance between freedom and constraint results in the best national outcomes. Accordingly, it is time to shift the debate away from either constraint or freedom and focus on both in moderation.
freedom of expression as provided under the FDRE Constitution. Then, some ... M (CEU); Addis Ababa University School of Law, Currently on .... The other line of reasoning that is adopted to justify the protection of speech is one that makes ...
Felthous, Alan R
Free will is regarded by some as the most and by others as the least relevant concept for criminal responsibility. Contributions from religious and philosophical thinkers over the classical and medieval Christian eras demonstrate that, despite the passionate and historically consequential debates over the meaning of "freedom," the unifying theme that joined the will with the intellect remained persistent and pervasive. Leading historical jurists in England eventually dropped the descriptor "free," but retained the central importance of the will to criminal responsibility and emphasized its dependence on the intellect to function properly. Modern rationalist philosophers denied the will's metaphysical freedom, but not its existence. Today the neurosciences reveal more and more about how the will functions, even as lawyers and psychiatrists hesitate to utter the word. In properly avoiding metaphysical freedom within forensic inquiry and discourse, it is a grave conceptual mistake to overlook the will itself. Once greater conceptual clarity on the empirical nature of the will is achieved and accepted, the law itself could rediscover the core mental faculty behind human agency, the will.
A study is made in 16 O of the effects of mesonic and isobar degrees of freedom. Taking these degrees of freedom explicitly into account causes a change of the bare nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction going from the description of the two-nucleon system (NN-scattering, deuteron) to the many-body system of complex nuclei. Three main effects are discussed: First, the mesonic degrees of freedom, taken into account in a noncovariant perturbation theory, introduce and additional density dependence into the NN interaction. In a Brueckner-Hartree-Fock calculation for 16 O this leads to an improvement of the radius with a small change of the energy. Second, fourth-order iterative diagrams involving NΔ-and ΔΔ-intermediate states give less medium range attraction in complex nuclei than a NN-potential which is also fitted to the NN-data but does not treat these terms explicitly. Third, effective three-N forces, caused by excitation of isobars, give rise to a small amount of attraction only. For 16 O the additional binding energy is only about 0.5 MeV per particle. (author)
Brownell, Kelly D; Kersh, Rogan; Ludwig, David S; Post, Robert C; Puhl, Rebecca M; Schwartz, Marlene B; Willett, Walter C
The concept of personal responsibility has been central to social, legal, and political approaches to obesity. It evokes language of blame, weakness, and vice and is a leading basis for inadequate government efforts, given the importance of environmental conditions in explaining high rates of obesity. These environmental conditions can override individual physical and psychological regulatory systems that might otherwise stand in the way of weight gain and obesity, hence undermining personal responsibility, narrowing choices, and eroding personal freedoms. Personal responsibility can be embraced as a value by placing priority on legislative and regulatory actions such as improving school nutrition, menu labeling, altering industry marketing practices, and even such controversial measures as the use of food taxes that create healthier defaults, thus supporting responsible behavior and bridging the divide between views based on individualistic versus collective responsibility.
Jepsen, Kim Sune Karrasch; Bertilsson, Margareta
dimension of life science through a notion of public politics adopted from the political theory of John Dewey. We show how cochlear implantation engages different social imaginaries on the collective and individual levels and we suggest that users share an imaginary of being “wired to freedom” that involves...... new access to social life, continuous communicative challenges, common practices, and experiences. In looking at their lives as “wired to freedom,” we hope to promote a wider spectrum of civic participation in the benefit of future life science developments within and beyond the field of Cochlear...
Broadcasting Board of Governors — The Broadcasting Board of Governors' annual Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) report includes detailed statistics on the number and disposition of FOIA requests,...
Broadcasting Board of Governors — The Broadcasting Board of Governors' annual Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) report includes detailed statistics on the number and disposition of FOIA requests,...
Williamson, Lisa Ann
"You are the hope of the future." That's the message Marian Wright Edelman, executive director of the Children's Defense Fund (CDF), gave more than 1,500 excited college students and recent graduates as they began a week-long training for the CDF's Freedom Schools. She was preparing them for a daunting task--that of transforming the…
Wollersheim, Laurens W.; Li, Wilson W.; van der Meulen, Jan; de Mol, Bas A.
We describe a case of a 76-year old male who presented with progressive dyspnoea. He underwent an aortic valve replacement with a Freedom SOLO bioprosthesis 6 years ago. Transthoracic echocardiography showed a moderate-to-severe leakage of the Freedom SOLO bioprosthesis. During surgical
De Haan, J; Siermann, CLJ
Often it is maintained that economic freedom may further high levels of economic growth. Using various measures of economic freedom constructed by Scully and Slottje, the robustness of this relationship is examined. Both direct and indirect effects of lack of liberties are analysed. Our main
The theoretical and phenomenological importance of asymptotic freedom beyond the leading order is discussed. The two main topics are (1) the determination of the fundamental scale Λ, and (2) ambiguities in parton model definitions when using the higher order effects of asymptotic freedom. (author)
Nayara Gallieta Borges
Full Text Available The right to freedom of expression is constitutionally guaranteed in the Brazilian democratic polity. However, this right is not absolute: it finds limits of ethics and law. The limits of freedom of expression are evident when we apply the principle of proportionality and balance with other rights provided for in our legal system in the light of the case. The relativization of freedom of expression in the judgment of HC 82,424 / RS has been a major paradigm shift in the jurisprudence of the Supreme Court and a case of great symbolic importance in the fundamental rights field.
Meyer, H.; Miller, W.H.
It is shown how a formally exact classical analog can be defined for a finite dimensional (in Hilbert space) quantum mechanical system. This approach is then used to obtain a classical model for the electronic degrees of freedom in a molecular collision system, and the combination of this with the usual classical description of the heavy particle (i.e., nuclear) motion provides a completely classical model for the electronic and heavy particle degrees of freedom. The resulting equations of motion are shown to be equivalent to describing the electronic degrees of freedom by the time-dependent Schroedinger equation, the time dependence arising from the classical motion of the nuclei, the trajectory of which is determined by the quantum mechanical average (i.e., Ehrenfest) force on the nuclei. Quantizing the system via classical S-matrix theory is shown to provide a dynamically consistent description of nonadiabatic collision processes; i.e., different electronic transitions have different heavy particle trajectories and, for example, the total energy of the electronic and heavy particle degrees of freedom is conserved. Application of this classical model for the electronic degrees of freedom (plus classical S-matrix theory) to the two-state model problem shows that the approach provides a good description of the electronic dynamics
Phillip Luke Sinitiere
Full Text Available This essay presents the idea of James Baldwin as a freedom writer, the organizing idea of my biography in progress. As a freedom writer, Baldwin was a revolutionary intellectual, an essayist and novelist committed unfailingly to the realization of racial justice, interracial political equality, and economic democracy. While the book is still in process, this short essay narrates autobiographically how I came to meet and know Baldwin’s work, explains in critical fashion my work in relation to existing biographies, and reflects interpretively my thoughts-in- progress on this fascinating and captivating figure of immense historical and social consequence.
Santini, Paolo; Amoretti, Giuseppe
We discuss the role of degrees of freedom different from the magnetic dipole in NpO 2 . Electric-quadrupole degrees of freedom appear to produce a large splitting of the main crystal-field (CEF) transition, due to the formation of mixed CEF-phonon states. A phase transition occurs at 25 K, and its phenomenology is inconsistent with a magnetic-dipole or an electric-quadrupole order parameter (OP). A magnetic-octupole of Γ 2 symmetry appears to be the best candidate OP. Such quantity can be detected in principle in a neutron diffraction experiment. The corresponding form factor is discussed. (author)
Jesse R Harrington
Full Text Available Throughout history and within numerous disciplines, there exists a perennial debate about how societies should best be organized. Should they emphasize individual freedom and autonomy or security and constraint? Contrary to proponents who tout the benefits of one over the other, we demonstrate across 32 nations that both freedom and constraint exhibit a curvilinear relationship with many indicators of societal well-being. Relative to moderate nations, very permissive and very constrained nations exhibit worse psychosocial outcomes (lower happiness, greater dysthymia, higher suicide rates, worse health outcomes (lower life expectancy, greater mortality rates from cardiovascular disease and diabetes and poorer economic and political outcomes (lower gross domestic product per capita, greater risk for political instability. This supports the notion that a balance between freedom and constraint results in the best national outcomes. Accordingly, it is time to shift the debate away from either constraint or freedom and focus on both in moderation.
Karen Debbie C. Magallon
Full Text Available One of the determinants of the well-being of people across the world is economic freedom. It is the freedom to choose the ways to produce, sell, and use your private resources, while respecting rights of the other to practice the same. The primordial intention of the study was to investigate the factors affecting economic freedom in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN Economic Community. Human Development Index (HDI, Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI and GDP per capita are dimensions considered to characterize the level of a country’s economic freedom. Trend performance of AEC in these indexes was also determined. The empirical estimate was based on a panel dataset covering 6 member-countries of the ASEAN Economic Community from 2001 to 2010. The model was estimated through Ordinary Least Squares (OLS multiple linear regression analysis. For the trend performance of the indexes, Singapore found to have a remarkable performance. The empirical result strongly suggests that CPI and GDP per capita foster economic freedom. For every 1% decrease in CPI would lead to an increase in economic freedom index by.121 % and for every 1% increase in GDP per capita, EFI will increase by .019%.
The writing attemps to explore the philosophical meaning of the theological messages of Islam on religious freedom. The article do not study the empirical facts of religious freedom practiced by muslims today, but it scrutinizes the theological messages as written in the Qur'an and as showed by the real examples of the God's Messenger. Through understanding some Qur'anic verses, we will find that Islam strongly encourages the life of different religious people based on the value of freedom. F...
I. M. Malykha
The adoption of the Law of Ukraine «On protection of rights and freedoms of internally displaced persons» was a positive solution, however, it requires further work on implementation of the stated rules.
Office of Personnel Management — Tracking system which allows for the input of the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request date, compiles the due date, information pertaining to the request, name...
Lammers, J.; Stoker, J.I.; Stapel, D.A.
How does power affect behavior? We posit that this depends on the type of power. We distinguish between social power (power over other people) and personal power (freedom from other people) and argue that these two types of power have opposite associations with independence and interdependence. We
Parker, Stephen, Ed.; Freathy, Rob, Ed.; Francis, Leslie J., Ed.
What opportunities and challenges are presented to religious education across the globe by the basic human right of freedom of religion and belief? To what extent does religious education facilitate or inhibit "freedom of religion" in schools? What contribution can religious education make to freedom in the modern world? This volume…
van Dalen, H.P.; Henkens, K.
Reforms in private pension plans across the world are opening up more options for pension participants to make choices to suit their preferences. Freedom of choice is however not a unidimensional concept as it is commonly perceived by policy makers. People can value both the freedom to choose as well as the freedom not to choose This observation can have far-reaching implications for pension policy design. By using a unique panel survey among Dutch employees we are able to offer a more refine...
Full Text Available This paper offers an interpretation of the role of freedom in Spinoza’s Ethics. Given that Spinoza is usually thought of as a thinker of determinism (or better: necessity, I explain how his thinking of freedom only makes sense insofar as one recognizes the importance of what he describes as the three kinds of knowing, in relation to the affects. The difference between freedom and slavery lies in how one receives and interprets the affects, i.e. the force of the external world. To affirm the necessity of your disposition and thrownness is to take part in the free necessity that Spinoza describes.
Full Text Available AbstractEven if freedom of expression is one of the most disputed topics in the last few years, it’s also true that a democratic society cannot be conceived without respecting this fundamental right. Its regulation was in hands of the doctrine but also of the legal practice and the recent international bodies have given sustained attention through the European Convention on Human Rights: the Treaty of Establishment of a Constitution for Europe; the Constitutions of the democratic countries and of Romania, the special laws: the Civil Code, the Criminal Code or the Press Law No. 9/1996 but also the article 30 of the Constitution. Freedom of speech does not include the excess of journalists too, that is why there are also limits in the disclosures made under this right that has to provide legitimate interest, the pronouncement of a court, the right of a sanctioned journalist to appeal to a higher court. Key words: law, freedom, Europe, expression
Boenink, Marianne; van der Burg, Simone
Since its advent, predictive DNA testing has been perceived as a technology that may have considerable impact on the quality of people's life. The decision whether or not to use this technology is up to the individual client. However, to enable well considered decision making both the negative as well as the positive freedom of the individual should be supported. In this paper, we argue that current professional and public discourse on predictive DNA-testing is lacking when it comes to supporting positive freedom, because it is usually framed in terms of risk and risk management. We show how this 'risk discourse' steers thinking on the good life in a particular way. We go on to argue that empirical research into the actual deliberation and decision making processes of individuals and families may be used to enrich the environment of personal deliberation in three ways: (1) it points at a richer set of values that deliberators can take into account, (2) it acknowledges the shared nature of genes, and (3) it shows how one might frame decisions in a non-binary way. We argue that the public sharing and discussing of stories about personal deliberations offers valuable input for others who face similar choices: it fosters their positive freedom to shape their view of the good life in relation to DNA-diagnostics. We conclude by offering some suggestions as to how to realize such public sharing of personal stories.
Hogan, Barry E.; Trotter, Lane D.
There has been substantial discussion, research, and debate about the role of academic freedom within higher education, primarily centered on the university model. Not as well documented or understood is the issue of academic freedom within colleges and institutes in Canada. In this paper, we examine the current state of academic freedom in…
SA CRIME QUARTERLY NO. 50 • DECEMBER 2014. 'Freedom from all forms of violence'. Using Zimbabwe's new. Constitution to encourage rape law reform ... Zimbabwean law that present potential obstacles to achieving justice for rape survivors: the definition of the crime of ...... compiled by Fungayi Jessie Majome MP.
Zirkel, Perry A.
Uses question and answer format to discuss scope of elementary students' First Amendment freedom of expression rights. For example, does the First Amendment prevent the disciplining of a sixth grader for writing a sexually inappropriate remark in another student's notebook? Answer: No. (Contains 13 references.) (PKP)
Brey, Philip A.E.
This paper analyzes ethical aspects of the new paradigm of Ambient Intelligence, which is a combination of Ubiquitous Computing and Intelligent User Interfaces (IUI’s). After an introduction to the approach, two key ethical dimensions will be analyzed: freedom and privacy. It is argued that Ambient
... Statute for Religious Freedom, in which Thomas Jefferson wrote that ``all men shall be free to profess... country that is tolerant, just, and strong. My Administration continues to defend the cause of religious...
... centuries, men and women have immigrated to America's shores in pursuit of religious freedom. Hailing from... discrimination because of their beliefs. My Administration continues to stand with all who are denied the ability...
A growing body of evidence has linked consumption of trans fatty acids to cardiovascular disease. To promote public health, numerous state and local governments in the United States have banned the use of artificial trans fats in restaurant foods, and additional bans may follow. Although these policies may have a positive impact on human health, they open the door to excessive government control over food, which could restrict dietary choices, interfere with cultural, ethnic, and religious traditions, and exacerbate socioeconomic inequalities. These slippery slope concerns cannot be dismissed as far-fetched, because the social and political pressures are place to induce additional food regulations. To protect human freedom and other values, policies that significantly restrict food choices, such as bans on types of food, should be adopted only when they are supported by substantial scientific evidence, and when policies that impose fewer restrictions on freedom, such as educational campaigns and product labeling, are likely to be ineffective. PMID:20229412
choices. We cannot consume anything if we want to be or become someone! Thus consumption of goods may be described as an arena, where freedom of choice is enacted alongside self-control over what and how to consume. This paper provides examples of how self-control and freedom is exercised in the context...
Locher, Holley M.
Academic freedom is a cornerstone principle to the U. S. system of higher education and is intended to exist for all faculty. Thus, the dominant discourse is that academic freedom is neutral. Utilizing the framework of critical race theory, this research demonstrates that faculty of color can differentially experience and perceive their academic…
Sacristán, J A; Avendaño-Solá, C
Three decades ago, John R Hampton announced the death of clinical freedom. Since then, evidence-based medicine has been the predominant paradigm in clinical research. By applying a population-based approach, the randomised controlled trial has become the cornerstone for demonstrating the overall effect of a treatment and for developing guidelines. The new patient-centred medicine movement is rediscovering the important implications of heterogeneity of treatment effects for clinical practice and that a better understanding of such variability can contribute to improve health outcomes for individual patients through practicing a science-based clinical freedom. © 2015 The Authors. International Journal of Clinical Practice Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
We reconsider the options for cosmological holography. We suggest that a global and time-symmetric version of the Fischler-Susskind bound is the most natural generalization of the holographic bound encountered in AdS and De Sitter space. A consistent discussion of cosmological holography seems to imply an understanding of the notion of ''number of degrees of freedom'' that deviates from its simple definition as the entropy of the current state. The introduction of a more adequate notion of degree of freedom makes the suggested variation of the Fischler-Susskind bound look like a stringent and viable bound in all 4-dimensional cosmologies without a cosmological constant
Bjørnskov, Christian; Potrafke, Niklas
This paper examines how political ideology influenced economic freedom in the Canadian provinces. We analyze the dataset of economic freedom indicators compiled by the Fraser Institute in 10 Canadian provinces over the 1981-2005 period and introduce two different indices of political ideology......: government and parliament ideology. The results suggest that government ideology influenced labor market reforms: market-oriented governments promoted liberalization of the labor market. Parliamentary ideology did not influence economic liberalization at all. This finding (1) identifies differences between...... leftist and rightwing governments concerning the role of government in the economy and (2) indicates that ideological polarization concerns governments but less parliamentary fractions in the Canadian provinces. ...
Gryphon, Marie; Meyer, Emily A.
This paper examines the American tradition of educational freedom, following its ebb and flow at various points in history. America's ethos of educational freedom has always been strong, tied to its values of pluralism, tolerance, and free inquiry. However, its legacy of freedom has suffered repeated assaults by individuals and groups who wish to…
Miguel A. Granada
Full Text Available Helisaeus Röslin does not figure significantly in historical surveys of religious tolerance. Nevertheless, Carlos Gilly has shown in several works that the Swabian-Alsatian physician tirelessly defended throughout his life the need to uphold the freedom of religion and of conscience, both as a religious postulate and as a factor for economic progress and social peace. This article focuses on Röslin’s concept of religious freedom in relation to his concept of history, his work on chronology and his interpretation of the celestial novelties of the period, particularly the nova of 1604 and Galileo’s discovery of the Medicean planets in 1610, just as they appear in two of Röslin’s later works: Mitternächtige Schiffarth (1611 and the Tabella des Welt Spiegels (1612.
Vucina, Naja; Drejer, Claus Munch; Triantafillou, Peter
This paper compares the ways in which Michel Foucault and Quentin Skinner’s historical analyses seek to unsettle the limits on present forms of freedom. We do so by comparing their ways of analyzing discourse, rationality and agency. The two authors differ significantly in the ways they deal...
Describes an activity called the "Freedom Train": a simulation for eighth grade students that enables them to gain an understanding of the importance and dangers of the Underground Railroad. Explains that the project encourages students to work cooperatively while also reinforcing their research and map skills. Provides follow-up…
This paper examines conflicts and collaboration between industry and universities regarding sponsored research and freedom of publication, particularly in the United Kingdom. An opening section notes that the values of the market and the university are in fundamental conflict which presents problems for institutions attempting to work in…
The aim of the present thesis is to study the possible influence of subnuclear degrees of freedom as the Δ 33 -resonance and relativistic effects on the structure of nuclear excited states. (orig./HSI) [de
This work presents a simple way of incorporating quark degrees of freedom (spin, charge and colour) into the classical string model. We introduce the model and derive from it the classical equations of motion. (author)
Full Text Available This study analyses the way journalists’ freedom of expression is protected in current socio/political context. It has started from the fact that Mass Media is the guarantee of any modern democracy, and respect for freedom of expression is essential in the current European environment. We have shown that Romania guarantees through the Constitution, but also through other international treaties to which it is a signatory, the freedom of expression of every citizen, and, implicitly, the freedom of press. But in laws and treaties things seem simple, while in reality in the courts, the situation is completely different and, above all, extremely complicated. The study highlights the case of a journalist from Constanţa, who was sued by the former mayor of the city on the grounds that his image was damaged in a TV show on a local television station. Thus, the views of the Romanian institutions, on the one hand, and the one of the European Court of Human Rights on the other, were analyzed. The ECHR ruled for the journalist in the case against the former mayor of Constanţa (Ghiulfer vs. Romania, instead, two Romanian courts forced the journalist to pay moral damages and make him publicly apologize in a large circulation newspaper.
Wollersheim, Laurens W.; Li, Wilson W.; Bouma, Berto J.; Repossini, Alberto; van der Meulen, Jan; de Mol, Bas A.
This systematic review examined the clinical and hemodynamic performance of the stentless Freedom SOLO (Sorin Group, Milan, Italy) aortic bioprosthesis. The occurrence of postoperative thrombocytopenia was also analyzed. The Freedom SOLO is safe to use in everyday practice, with short cross-clamp
Rindermann, Heiner; Coyle, Thomas R.
Conclusions- Country IQs strongly predict productivity (r = .50 to .80)- Effects slightly stronger for intellectual classes (95%)- Freedom magnified IQ effects on STEM (both groups)- Virtuous cycle? High freedom may increase innovation by attracting STEM talent and stimulating investment
General features of the EMC effect are discussed within the framework of quantum chromodynamics as expressed via the operator product expansion and asymptotic freedom. These techniques are reviewed with emphasis on the target dependence. 22 references
Maria Carmen Aguilar Del Castillo
Full Text Available The aim of the article is, on the one hand, to analyze the content and scope of fundamental right to the protection of personal data, provided by art. 18.4 of the Spanish Constitution; on the other, to decline this right in the context of the employment relationship starting from the interpretation given by the Spanish Constitutional Court in judgment no. 39/2016. The contrast between this right and the freedom of enterprise, which is realized in the power of organization, control and supervision of work performance, is resolved by the Constitutional Court in the light of the principles of proportionality, suitability and necessity. The outcome of the balancing leads the Constitutional Court to establish the prevalence of the entrepreneurial freedom on the right to privacy of the employee.
Rabow, Michael W; Evans, Carrie N; Remen, Rachel N
During medical training, students gain professional competence but may lose elements of personal humanity. Little is known about what personal qualities or values students themselves experience to be at risk or surrendered during medical school. Medical students participating in the Healer's Art elective in the United States and internationally during 2008--2009 were asked to reflect, identify, and draw a part of themselves that they were wary about revealing, not comfortable showing, or felt may be diminished in medical school and label this part with a word. Using a team-based qualitative approach, these words were categorized into common themes and the themes analyzed using descriptive and chi-square statistics. Words from 673 students from 31 medical schools were analyzed. Most students were female (58.7%) and in their first year (86.3%). Eleven themes were identified: spirituality, emotional engagement, identity/self-expression, freedom/spontaneity, relationships, self-care, creativity, negative emotions, values, other, and joy/happiness. The most common individual words used were creativity, family, balance, freedom, love, peace, compassion, relationships, and reflection. There were only rare differences in distributions of themes across gender, year in school, school size, or school nationality. An international cadre of Healer's Art students identified core personal qualities and values that they may not reveal or feel may be diminished in medical school. Medical training involves not only professional formation but exposure to professional deformation as well. Educators must attend to both gains in professional competence and the personal qualities and values that are at risk in the course of professional development.
The spiritual well-being of children is often thought to be an important goal and outcome of education. Such spiritual well-being is also implicitly assumed by the Human Rights Act, which includes the right to "freedom of thought, conscience and religion" [Article 18]. I argue that such freedom requires an education that fosters development of…
This paper considers prominent forms of discourse in educational research, the nature of their appeal and the force of the idea of freedom within that appeal. For this, two different aspects of research are juxtaposed, aspects in which the value of freedom is articulated in contrasting ways. First, evidence-based education (EBE) is considered as a…
Karen Debbie C. Magallon
One of the determinants of the well-being of people across the world is economic freedom. It is the freedom to choose the ways to produce, sell, and use your private resources, while respecting rights of the other to practice the same. The primordial intention of the study was to investigate the factors affecting economic freedom in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Economic Community. Human Development Index (HDI), Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) and GDP per capita are...
... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 14421-000] Freedom Falls.... c. Date filed: June 1, 2012. d. Applicant: Freedom Falls, LLC. e. Name of Project: Freedom Falls Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: On Sandy Stream, in the Town of Freedom, Waldo County, [[Page 36525
Hadasz, L. [Jagiellonian Univ., Inst. of Physics, Cracow (Poland)
This work presents a simple way of incorporating quark degrees of freedom (spin, charge and colour) into the classical string model. We introduce the model and derive from it the classical equations of motion. (author). 7 refs.
finds that, although more feasible within secular states, religious freedom and human rights are possibilities ... and values, nor uses its powers and offices to persecute religion.” According to ... Secularism is in fact an expression of humanism.
... FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 4 Freedom of Information Act (FOIA); Miscellaneous Rules... redelegate his or her authority to determine appeals related to the Freedom of Information Act (``FOIA... in 16 CFR Part 4 Administrative practice and procedure, Freedom of Information Act. For the reasons...
Helwig, Charles C
This study examined children's, adolescents', and college students' judgments of the rights of child and adult agents to freedom of speech and religion in 3 social contexts: the general level of society, the school, and the family. Two hundred forty participants, evenly divided into 5 grade levels (mean ages 6,6, 8,5,10,6,12,4, and 22,7) made judgments of the legitimacy of authority prohibition, rule evaluation, generalizability, and rule violation for all freedom/social context/agent combinations. Concepts of freedom of speech and religion were found to emerge in the early elementary school years, and endorsements of freedoms were increasingly affected by social context and agent with age. College students were less likely than any other age group to affirm children's freedom of religion in the family context. Considerations of the mental competence and maturity of agents and the potential for harm to ensue from acting on freedoms played an important part in the decisions of older, but not younger, participants.
Geng, Zheng; Haynes, Leonard S.
The design and control problems of a class of multidegree-of-freedom vibration isolation systems (VISs) based on a Stewart platform mechanism are studied. A prototype of a six-degree-of-freedom VIS for precision control of a wide range of space-based structures implemented in Intelligent Automation, Inc. is described. The feasibility of using a Stewart platform to achieve 6-degree-of-freedom vibration control in space applications is shown. A new Terfenol-D actuator characterized by significantly longer stroke than any commercially available Terfenol-D actuator and direct flux and strain sensors integral to the actuator is described.
Razza, Sergio; Albanese, Greta; Ermoli, Lucilla; Zaccone, Monica; Cristofari, Eliana
To compare speech recognition in noise for the Nucleus Freedom and CP810 sound processors using different directional settings among those available in the SmartSound portfolio. Single-subject, repeated measures study. Tertiary care referral center. Thirty-one monoaurally and binaurally implanted subjects (24 children and 7 adults) were enrolled. They were all experienced Nucleus Freedom sound processor users and achieved a 100% open set word recognition score in quiet listening conditions. Each patient was fitted with the Freedom and the CP810 processor. The program setting incorporated Adaptive Dynamic Range Optimization (ADRO) and adopted the directional algorithm BEAM (both devices) and ZOOM (only on CP810). Speech reception threshold (SRT) was assessed in a free-field layout, with disyllabic word list and interfering multilevel babble noise in the 3 different pre-processing configurations. On average, CP810 improved significantly patients' SRTs as compared to Freedom SP after 1 hour of use. Instead, no significant difference was observed in patients' SRT between the BEAM and the ZOOM algorithm fitted in the CP810 processor. The results suggest that hardware developments achieved in the design of CP810 allow an immediate and relevant directional advantage as compared to the previous-generation Freedom device.
Full Text Available The process of understanding the concept of freedom of expression is very complex and it implies thorough knowledge of the constitutional values and the analysis of the constitutional tradition of different legal systems. At the same time, a balancing operation is necessary between the value of freedom of speech and other fundamental rights, process that establishes limits of the expression such as criminalizing hate speech or other actions which affect the individual dignity. The human dignity has become a constant component of the constitutional case law of many States that share the same characteristics due to the promotion of fundamental rights. In the absence of a hierarchy of rights and fundamental freedom, freedom of expression is analyzed in many cases as a primary right (Kentridge, 1996, p. 254 that prevails over other fundamental rights. This study aims to analyze the landmarks of the German constitutional interpretation of the concept of freedom of expression, to identify its scope and types of speech excluded from the constitutional protection. The choice of this constitutional legal order was justified by the complexity of this topic and the specificity of the German history and tradition, elements that have contributed to an interesting vision in the matter of conflict between different fundamental rights.
Bart van der Sloot
Full Text Available Article 8 ECHR was adopted as a classic negative right, which provides the citizen protection from unlawful and arbitrary interference by the state with his private and family life, home and communication. The ECtHR, however, has gradually broadened its scope so that the right to privacy encroaches upon other provisions embodied in the Convention, includes rights and freedoms explicitly left out of the ECHR by the drafters of the Convention and functions as the main pillar on which the Court has built its practice of opening up the Convention for new rights and freedoms. Consequently, Article 8 ECHR has been transformed from a classic privacy right to a personality right, providing protection to the personal development of individuals. Apart from its theoretical significance, this shift might prove indispensable in the age of Big Data, as personality rights protect a different type of interest, which is far more easy to substantiate in the new technological paradigm than those associated with the right to privacy.
... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 14421-000] Freedom Falls.... Project No.: 14421-000. c. Date filed: June 1, 2012. d. Applicant: Freedom Falls, LLC. e. Name of Project: Freedom Falls Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: On Sandy Stream, in the Town of Freedom, Waldo County...
Slipushenko, S. V.; Tur, A. V.; Yanovsky, V. V.
The scattering of particles with a small number of internal degrees of freedom is considered. Billiard formalism is used to study the scattering of two such structurally complex particles. The main scattering characteristics are found. Various types of scattering modes are revealed. In particular, a mode is detected when the velocity of motion of such particles away from each other is higher than their approach velocity before the collision. The scattering of such particles is shown to occur after a finite number of collisions. A generalized Newton law is proposed for the collision of particles with a small number of degrees of freedom, and the form of the effective coefficient of restitution is found
The thesis analyzes and comments on the two main characters in The Adventure of Huckleberry Finn so as to reveal the truth that to win both physical and psychological freedom in the society, we must learn to stand on ourselves. It begins with a brief introduction to the author, the novel and the paper thesis. Then, the author discloses the freedom-fighting process of the two main characters and the functions of Mississippi River and the raft in The Adventure of Huckleberry Finn: On the hegira, Huck realizes the cruelty, greed, murder, trickery, hypocrisy, racism, and a general lack of morality of the society;Jim, with his in-telligence and compassion, wins his freedom;the Mississippi River and the raft are symbols of freedom. Finally, the author reveals that to win both physical and psychological freedom, one must rely on his or her own efforts.
Full Text Available The freedom of expression is one of the most important human civil and political rights which is guaranteed with many international and regional legal instruments established by UN, European Council, EU and etc. That is basic precondition for the development of one country. The freedom of expression includes not only the freedom to express one's opinion or ideas but it also includes freedom to search information or ideas, receive informations or ideas and to pass the informations or ideas. In many countries in the world, as well in Macedonia, the freedom of expression is not absolute but limited and the border is the respect of the freedom and the rights of other people, more specifically their reputation and honour. Reporters often deliberately or unintentionally, while doing their job, violate the right of freedom of speech by insulting or defaming others, most common public function holder (politicians. The politicians with their political power significantly influenced on the judicial organs so that they reach a verdict in their favor. Therefore the reporters were exposed to great pressure and very often they were punished by jail sentences. Setting the judicial system this way it became limiting factor in the normal development of the reporters job. Until 2012 the insult and the defamation in Republic of Macedonian were considered criminal act and they were subjected to jail punishment. Since the law of civil liability for insult and defamation in 2012, the insult and the defamation don't belong to corpus delicti that are in the sphere of the criminal right. Since then to this day the insult and the defamation are treated as violation.
Georgia Kate Chapman
Full Text Available This paper focuses on the arguments around restriction on freedom of the press in the Strong States of Singapore and Malaysia. It assesses the presence of constraints on press freedoms in democratic western countries imposed by corporation rather than state and the similar effects that these constraints may have on bias present in publicly accessible news reporting. It argues that independence of the press does not just require protection from legal and executive regulation, but also protection from large media corporations and their political alignments. This report will assess the bias of reporting and news media publication that exists in Malaysia and Singapore due to legislative and regulatory constraints as opposed to bias that exist in the western liberal democratic nations of the United Kingdom (UK and the United States of America (USA due to Media Organisation control.
Smirne, Andrea; Vacchini, Bassano
We address the microscopic derivation of a quantum master equation in Lindblad form for the dynamics of a massive test particle with internal degrees of freedom, interacting through collisions with a background ideal gas. When either internal or center-of-mass degrees of freedom can be treated classically, previously established equations are obtained as special cases. If in an interferometric setup the internal degrees of freedom are not detected at the output, the equation can be recast in the form of a generalized Lindblad structure, which describes non-Markovian effects. The effect of internal degrees of freedom on center-of-mass decoherence is considered in this framework.
Lisete S. Mendes Mónico
Full Text Available This article aims to contribute with a reflection about religious pluralism and religious freedom into Lusophony. Reviving pieces of history since the 15th century to the current post-colonial Portuguese society, Lusophony is analyzed in two complementary perspectives: That of the colonizing people and that of the colonized nations. Evangelization, colonization and Lusophony are, and always will be, inseparable. In addition to linguistic uniformity, Lusophony gave its distinctiveness in acculturation, miscegenation, plasticity, and Christianization policy. Using the census data in the 90’s, 2000’s, and 2010’s, with a documentary approach, it is established a general overview of religious affiliation in Lusophony. Moving from a faith of obligation to a faith of conviction, Lusophony is nowadays characterized by a pluralist position in religious matters. The current situation of religious freedom is analyzed from the AIS report and the GRI (Government restriction index and SHI (social hostilities involving religion indexes. From multiculturalism to acculturation, the plasticity, eclecticism, and religious syncretism acted as moderators towards the imposition of a new belief. The article ends by appealing to the inclusion of religious freedom in the political agenda, in order to defend human rights and peace in the world.
Ejigu, M. [Partnership for African Environmental Sustainability (PAES)]|[Foundation for Environmental Security and Sustainability (FESS)
We are gathered here to explore the potential of modern bioenergy and discuss ways and means of promoting its wider production and investment. Our primary goal is the attainment of human development - development that is sustainable and balances economic growth, social equity and environmental protection. Well, Amartya Sen, the Nobel Laureate in Economics, defines development as ''the process of expanding real freedoms people can enjoy.'' Where development has taken place, people have more freedoms. People living in well developed countries enjoy freedoms at the individual and community levels. They can move from place to place, own property, receive education and health services, work at night if they choose to, etc. without any fear or threat. Energy is critical to the survival of human society. It is a means to achieve development, hence freedoms. Higher level of electrification, for example, has always been a vital indicator of industrial development. (orig.)
Kazeem Bello Ajide
Full Text Available The controversies that trailed whether direct impact of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI on growth are conditional on a certain intermediating links or not, has made an inquiry into the likely mediating links in the FDI growth space a recurring subject of discourse.While the importance of institution has prominently featured as playing a vital role on the one hand, economic freedom (a key institutional component has consistently been elected, as a good candidate surrogate on the other hand. It is against this backdrop this study examines the effect of FDI inflow on economic performance in the SSA region giving prominence to economic freedom. The results support the view that economic freedom is germane in influencing the economic-wide performance in the region but have insignificant effects on the different sector performances. It is recommended that economic freedom be given priority in the region and FDI should be attracted to other sectors other than the primary sector, as it is the case.
Full Text Available This paper presents the secrecy capacity and the secure degrees of freedom of Gaussian Z channel with single antenna and confidential information. Firstly, we analysis the secrecy capacity and the upper bound of secure degrees of freedom of this channel in theory. Then, we respectively discuss the security pre-coding scheme for real Gaussian channel model and frequency selection channel model. Under the first model, through real interference alignment and cooperative jamming, we obtain the secrecy capacity and secure degrees of freedom, proving that it can reach the upper bound of secure degrees of freedom in theory. While, under the second one, a strong security pre-coding algorithm is proposed, which is based on the fact that sparse matrix has strong hash property. Next, we arrange interference with interference alignment and the receivers process their received signal through zero forcing algorithm. At last, the messages are reconstructed with maximum likelihood decoding, where it shows that the algorithm can asymptotically achieve the optimal secrecy capacity.
Full Text Available The rise of stability preservation to dominance in the political order coincided with a highly charged debate over “universal values” and a closely related discussion of a “China Model”. This paper analyses the critique of universal values as a “wedge issue” that is used to pre-empt criticism of the party-state by appealing to nationalism and cultural essentialism. Taking freedom as a case in point of a universal value, it shows that, while more developed in the West, freedom has an authentic Chinese history with key watersheds in the late Qing reception of popular sovereignty and the ending of the Maoist era. The work of Wang Ruoshui, Qin Hui and Xu Jilin display some of the resources liberals now bring to “de-wedging” universal values, not least freedom. They share a refusal to regard “Western” values as essentially hostile to Chinese.
Amzat, Jimoh; Grandi, Giovanni
Personalism is one of the philosophical perspectives which hold that the reality in person and the human person has the highest intrinsic value. This paper makes reference to Louis Janssens' eight criteria in adequate consideration of the human person but further argues that there is need to consider people as situated agents especially within gender relational perspectives. The paper identifies gender as an important social construction that shapes the consideration of the human persons within socio-spatial spheres. The main crux of the paper is that there is a gender context of personalism and this has profound implications for bioethical agendas. Gender is part of the human condition, especially when we philosophically or sociologically engage the notion of equity and equality within the social system, because social realities in the relational perspective are not impartial, impersonal and equal. Gender does not determine morality but it plays a role in morality and expectations from moral agents. Women have been categorised as a sociological group because their integrity, freedom/autonomy and dignity (which are basic concerns of bioethics) are capable of being threatened. A gender perspective provides important incentives for moral theory which searches for possible conceptual imbalances or blind spots in ethical reflections. The paper refers to Sen's faces of gender inequality and expands on the notion that natality inequality is one of the fundamental levels of gender inequality, which in turn is the primary starting agenda in bioethics. The paper avers that the recognition of the fundamental importance of gender to the organization of social reality and the development of personal identities have important practical implications for bioethics. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Sergey I. Kudinov
Full Text Available Background. Our empirical research and analysis revealed characteristics of the axiological orientation of students’ personalities. Objective.We identified the principal types of orientation, dominant values, and attitudes of the personality in the motivational-needs sphere through a variety of validated and reliable techniques and methods. Design We understand the axiological orientation of the personality as a relatively stable set of values, motivations, needs, and moral structures produced through the lens of actions, in and through various spheres of social life, which describes complex system of a person’s perception of him-/herself, his or her perceptions of others, and his or her attitude towards work and other activities. Results. The results of the empirical research demonstrate that a set of axiological, motivational, and need characteristics form pragmatic-professional, social-communicative, or individual-egoistic types of axiological orientation of the personality, which in turn describe the subject’s attitude to the surrounding external reality and to him/herself. The pragmatic-professional type of person is dominated by values such as work, results, money, and process. The least attractive value to this type appears to be power. Respondents with a social-communicative type of axiological orientation have altruism, result and money as their main personal values. Values such as egocentrism, power, money, and freedom are a distinguishing mark of those with the individual-egoistic axiological orientation. Conclusion. This study also addresses how and through what patterns and mechanisms the axiological orientation of students’ personalities is expressed, which could enable professionals to develop educational programs aimed at harmonizing and aligning societal values and the individual’s attitudes.
Caston, Christine J
... addressed by the Combatant and Joint Force Commanders. The lack of an occupation plan had a major impact on how the Combatant Commander carried out Phases IV and V of Operation Iraqi Freedom and provides relevant lessons for future operations.
van Dalen, H.P.; Henkens, K.
Reforms in private pension plans across the world are opening up more options for pension participants to make choices to suit their preferences. Freedom of choice is however not a unidimensional concept as it is commonly perceived by policy makers. People can value both the freedom to choose as
Experimental facts which can not be interpreted in terms of nucleonic degrees of freedom are reviewed. Attempts to explain these observations by the help of the notions of quark physics are indicated. Some predicted exotic states are enumerated. The most promising models of the nucleon-nucleon interactions in terms of quarks are briefly discussed. (author)
Allen, Winfred G., Jr., Ed.
This issue of the "Freedom of Speech Newsletter" contains three articles. "Big Brother, 1976--Judges and the Gag Order" by Miles Clark examines constitutional censorship of the media and government secrecy. "Democratic Rights: A Socialist View" by Kipp Dawson argues that "the rulers of the United States have never granted the American people any…
Goswami, Umananda Dev; Deka, Kabita
The models of f(R) gravity belong to an important class of modified gravity models where the late time cosmic accelerated expansion is considered as the manifestation of the large scale modification of the force of gravity. f(R) gravity models can be expressed in terms of a scalar degree of freedom by explicit redefinition of model's variable. Here we report about the study of the features of cosmological parameters and hence the cosmological evolution using the scalar degree of freedom of the f(R) = ξR n gravity model in the Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) background
ZAINUDDIN MUDA Z. MONGGILO
Full Text Available Internet can develop the communication and information freedom on society but unfortunately in some nations, especially in Asia, it cannot be fully accessed because of government censorship. This report explains the relationship between the practice of Internet censorship imposed by the Chinese government and the freedom of its citizens (in the internet surfing experience as the realization of human rights in the freedom of expression and opinion (seek, receive-use, and communicate information which is traced through the relevant literature study. China is a unique case since the internet censorship regulation contributes to its status as the country with the least internet freedom yet at the same time it is credited as having the most internet users globally. In addition, China known as the communist country that began opening up to globalization and information of technology, but the government’s control over it is still so tight and binding, not only in the press, or the traditional media, but also in new media with the internet censorship. The control over this information may have a clear objective to maintain a climate of information in the community, but on the other hand, such control is tantamount to restricting the right of citizens to make, use, and distribute information, and more fatal as a violation of human rights.
Nojiri, Shin'ichi; Odintsov, Sergei D.; Sugamoto, Akio
There exists a freedom in a class of four-dimensional electroweak theories proposed by Arkani-Hamed et al. relying on deconstruction and Coleman-Weinberg mechanism. The freedom comes from the winding modes of the link variable (Wilson operator) connecting non-nearest neighbours in the discrete fifth dimension. Using this freedom, dynamical breaking of SU(2) gauge symmetry, mass hierarchy patterns of fermions and Cabbibo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix may be obtained
Zheng, Leilei; Chai, Hao; Chen, Wanzhen; Yu, Rongrong; He, Wei; Jiang, Zhengyan; Yu, Shaohua; Li, Huichun; Wang, Wei
Early parental bonding experiences play a role in emotion recognition and expression in later adulthood, and patients with personality disorder frequently experience inappropriate parental bonding styles, therefore the aim of the present study was to explore whether parental bonding style is correlated with recognition of facial emotion in personality disorder patients. The Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) and the Matsumoto and Ekman Japanese and Caucasian Facial Expressions of Emotion (JACFEE) photo set tests were carried out in 289 participants. Patients scored lower on parental Care but higher on parental Freedom Control and Autonomy Denial subscales, and they displayed less accuracy when recognizing contempt, disgust and happiness than the healthy volunteers. In healthy volunteers, maternal Autonomy Denial significantly predicted accuracy when recognizing fear, and maternal Care predicted the accuracy of recognizing sadness. In patients, paternal Care negatively predicted the accuracy of recognizing anger, paternal Freedom Control predicted the perceived intensity of contempt, maternal Care predicted the accuracy of recognizing sadness, and the intensity of disgust. Parenting bonding styles have an impact on the decoding process and sensitivity when recognizing facial emotions, especially in personality disorder patients. © 2011 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2011 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.
Lammers, Joris; Stoker, Janka I; Stapel, Diederik A
How does power affect behavior? We posit that this depends on the type of power. We distinguish between social power (power over other people) and personal power (freedom from other people) and argue that these two types of power have opposite associations with independence and interdependence. We propose that when the distinction between independence and interdependence is relevant, social power and personal power will have opposite effects; however, they will have parallel effects when the distinction is irrelevant. In two studies (an experimental study and a large field study), we demonstrate this by showing that social power and personal power have opposite effects on stereotyping, but parallel effects on behavioral approach.
Adams, Helen R.
The American Association of School Librarians and its members have always been champions of intellectual freedom. It is a core value of school librarians and has been--and remains--an integral part of AASL's culture. Intellectual freedom is deeply embedded in AASL's standards, position statements, member-focused publications, conferences, award…
Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the actual issue of the robust two-degree-of-freedom controller design. The statement of the problem for the robust optimization of the two-degree-of-freedom controller by the method of mixed sensitivity is represented. The expression for the cost function of the mixed sensitivity method for the system with the two-degree-of-freedom controller, taking into consideration the influence of disturbances, is obtained. The components of the generalized system with the two-degree-of-freedom controller and principles of the weighting transfer functions introduction are defined. The transformation of the formulated problem to the - optimization which may be implemented by the MATLAB software is carried out.
Zirak, Masoumeh; Mehrara, Mohsen
In this paper we’ve ranked developing countries based on the Economic Freedom index. Therefore we are trying to do the analysis how this ranking is done using numerical taxonomic methodology. To do this, by estimating the effects of the determinants of FDI in 123 developing countries from 1997 to 2010, results showed that with regard to the degree of economic freedom or Economic openness, attract foreign direct investment in each country is different. In this study china, Equator, Liberia, Az...
Kaur, Sukhjit; Swati
We study the effect of isospin degree of freedom, incident energy as well as system mass on the behavior of transverse momentum spectra, dN/p t dp t , of neutrons and protons. We find that most of the nucleons suffer soft collisions. The effect of isospin degree of freedom on transverse spectra diminishes with the increase in the incident energy. In Fermi energy region, transverse momentum spectra of both protons and neutrons show sensitivity toward the density dependence of symmetry energy. (author)
De Leon, N.; Heller, E.J.
Semiclassical quantization of the quasiperiodic vibrational motion of molecules is usually based on Einstein--Brillouin--Keller (EBK) conditions for the quantization of the classical actions. Explicit use of the EBK conditions for molecular systems of K degrees of freedom requires K quantization conditions. Therefore, explicit use of the EBK conditions becomes increasingly difficult if not impossible for polyatomic systems of three or more degrees of freedom. In this paper we propose a semiclassical quantization method which makes explicit use of phase coherence of the de Broglie wave associated with the trajectory rather than the EBK conditions. We show that taking advantage of phase coherence reduces the K quantization conditions to a single quantum condition: regardless of the number of degrees of freedom. For reasons that will become obvious we call this method ''spectral quantization.'' Polyatomic vibrational wave functions and energy eigenvalues are generated from quasiperiodic classical trajectories. The spectral method is applied to an ABA linear triatomic molecule with two degrees of freedom and to an anharmonic model of the molecule cyanoacetylene. The usefulness of the technique is demonstrated in this latter calculation since the cyanoacetylene model will have four coupled vibrational degrees of freedom
In spite of recent tendencies of secularisation and religious pluralism, most Belgian schools are Catholic schools, where Roman Catholic religious education is a compulsory subject. As we will argue, this can lead to a "de facto" undermining of the freedom of religion and education and a shift in the system is therefore required. In the…
Catarina Antunes Gomes
Full Text Available In spite of an extreme diversity in terms of institutional designs, political environment and economic predicaments, the global landscape of higher education systems nowadays faces common trends that raise a number of perplexities and reframe the idea and the practice of the university. Those same trends compel us to analyse the university's contemporary challenges and conundrums, especially in terms of its social function and the core issue of its existence: critical thinking and intellectual freedom. Thus, central to this endeavour is questioning what critical thinking and intellectual freedom are, as well as what both imply in terms of educational practices and knowledge production. Quite beyond their market-oriented usefulness, the exercise of critical thinking and intellectual freedom might be best understood as the founda-tional condition for avoiding coercive normalisation, that is, the tools through which individuals and communities can sustain democratic control over institutions and exercise critical and conscious choices around identity matters and what futures to build. In this sense it is argued that critical thinking - itself an experience of freedom - should be translated into forms of transcendence through which historical limits imposed on individuals and communities can be challenged. The conundrum is to assess, in present-day conditions, how the university can pursue and defend critical thinking and intellectual freedom.
Dutch right-wing politician Geert Wilders has already been prosecuted once for incitement to hatred and group defamation over remarks and a film criticising Islam and comparing the Quran to Hitler’s Mein Kampf. He was acquitted, but now faces another criminal trial on the same charges concerning remarks he made in March 2014 about ‘fewer Moroccans’. This Article examines Wilders’ expressions which led to both prosecutions. The case law of the European Court of Human Rights on freedom of expre...
Buffin-Bélanger, Thomas; Biron, Pascale M.; Larocque, Marie; Demers, Sylvio; Olsen, Taylor; Choné, Guénolé; Ouellet, Marie-Audray; Cloutier, Claude-André; Desjarlais, Claude; Eyquem, Joanna
The freedom space concept applies hydrogeomorphic principles to delineate zones that are either frequently flooded or actively eroding, or that include riparian wetlands. Freedom space limits mapped for three rivers in southern Quebec (Canada) were assessed to determine whether they would still be valid under a future climate using a sensitivity analysis approach with numerical models predicting mobility of meanders (RVRMeander) and flood stage (HEC-RAS). The freedom space limits were also used in a cost-benefit analysis over a 50-year period where costs consist of loss or limitations to the right of farming and construction in this zone, whereas benefits are avoided costs for existing or future bank stabilization structures and avoided costs of flooding in agricultural areas. The economic value of ecosystem services provided by riparian wetlands and increased buffer zones within the freedom space were also included in the analysis. Results show that freedom space limits would be robust in future climate, and show net present values ranging from CDN0.7 to 3.7 million for the three rivers, with ratios of benefits over costs ranging between 1.5:1 and 4.8:1. River management based on freedom space is thus beneficial for society over a 50-year period.
Full Text Available The purpose of the essay is to put light on the expansion of social media in news broadcasting in Greece, highlighting their impact on press freedom and freedom of expression. Taken for granted that the media in Greece (television, radio and print press have created, except from their “traditional version”, social media profiles (facebook profile, twitter etc. in order to disseminate the news, the essay investigates the interconnection between the aforementioned use of social media and press freedom. In addition, special focus is given to the challenges that appear from the emergence of social media as news platforms and to the debate that has occurred “for” and “against” this new role of them. Moreover, the essay puts light to some crucial questions that arise:Do social media in Greece, as news platforms, extend freedom of expression and how do they accomplish that? Does the fact that social media empower journalists to provide journalism in more ways than one through tweets, postings, and video and photo uploads, enhance journalists’ freedom of expression and, in a wider sense, the freedom of the press? Has the invasion of social media in the news flow and coverage changed the media landscape in Greece?
Myers, W. D.; ŚwiaŢecki, W. J.
The response of the nuclear energy to changes in neutron and proton surface diffusenesses is investigated using the Thomas-Fermi model. Algebraic expressions are provided for the energy cost of changing the two diffusenesses away from their equilibrium values. This will make it possible to generalize the macroscopic-microscopic calculations of nuclear masses and deformation energies by the inclusion of the neutron and proton diffusenesses as degrees of freedom (to be varied along with the shape degrees of freedom). One result, which is suggested by the relatively low cost in macroscopic energy of increasing the diffuseness of a heavy nucleus by 10% (about 4 MeV), is that superheavy nuclei near Z=126, N=184 may have a fair chance of becoming stabilized by shell effects. An appendix introduces an improved measure of surface diffuseness, with certain advantages over the conventional Süssmann width b.
Myers, W.D.; Swiatecki, W.J.
The response of the nuclear energy to changes in neutron and proton surface diffusenesses is investigated using the Thomas-Fermi model. Algebraic expressions are provided for the energy cost of changing the two diffusenesses away from their equilibrium values. This will make it possible to generalize the macroscopic-microscopic calculations of nuclear masses and deformation energies by the inclusion of the neutron and proton diffusenesses as degrees of freedom (to be varied along with the shape degrees of freedom). One result, which is suggested by the relatively low cost in macroscopic energy of increasing the diffuseness of a heavy nucleus by 10% (about 4 MeV), is that superheavy nuclei near Z=126, N=184 may have a fair chance of becoming stabilized by shell effects. An appendix introduces an improved measure of surface diffuseness, with certain advantages over the conventional Suessmann width b. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society
Article Five of the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Germany states: 'Art and science, research and teaching shall be free.' It is the intent of the Constitution that this guarantee of freedom be unconditional. But in practice, a number of problems arise. Freedom of research has to be reconciled with other constitutional rights and liberties, such as human dignity. This essay deals with three sets of problems: 1. Are restrictions in the form of government directives permissible, if carrying out certain research, or the objective of the research, will conflict with other legal rights. 2. Responsability of the researcher for possible consequences which may arise from irresponsible applications of research results. 3. Government influence on research by means of the granting of funds. (orig.) [de
Full Text Available In Istria, as a part of the Austrian legal system, jury trial was initially introduced in the revolutionary year of 1848 only for press offenses, in the framework of aspirations for freedom of thought and expression through the press, which represented the most appropriate medium for the dissemination of new ideas and mobilization of the political masses. Trial by jury was supposed to secure impartial and objective trials, which could not be expected of professional judges due to insufficient guarantees of their impartiality. This paper examines the press-related orders and laws passed during 1848 and 1849 which regulated the freedom of press and jury jurisdiction. On the basis of an analysis of the legislative framework, jurisprudence, and the Istrian press during the examined time period, the author has decided that the introduction of the freedom of the press and jury trials for press offenses in 1848/1849 on the territory of Istria didn’t have a large practical significance.
de Jong, B.R.
This thesis reports about a six degrees of freedom (DOF) precision manipulator in MEMS, concerning concept generation for the manipulator followed by design and fabrication (of parts) of the proposed manipulation concept in MEMS. Researching the abilities of 6 DOF precision manipulation in MEMS is
Cabaret, Jacques; Chylinski, Caroline; Vaarst, Mette
Organic farming promotes animal husbandry practices that consider the welfare of the animals on the farm. The concept of animal welfare and the standards that should encompass this concept have in many cases been largely generalised in practice, which leaves relevant aspects of animal freedom...
Past researches are of the opinion that education for sustainable development and academic freedom could assist in solving these ethical menaces. Education for sustainable development allows every human being to acquire knowledge, skills, attitudes and values necessary to shape a sustainable future to make ...
Warrior Resilience Training (WRT) is an educational class designed to enhance Warrior resilience, thriving, and posttraumatic growth for Soldiers deployed in Operation Iraqi Freedom. Warrior Resilience Training uses rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT), Army leadership principles, and positive psychology as a vehicle for students to apply resilient philosophies derived from Army Warrior Ethos, Stoic philosophy, and the survivor and resiliency literature. Students in WRT are trained to focus upon virtue, character, and emotional self-regulation by constructing and maintaining a personal resiliency philosophy that emphasizes critical thinking, rationality, virtue, and Warrior Ethos. The author, an Army licensed clinical social worker, executive coach, REBT doctoral fellow, and former Special Forces noncommissioned officer, describes his initial experience teaching WRT during Operation Iraqi Freedom to combat medics and Soldiers from 2005 to 2006, and his experience as a leader of a combat stress control prevention team currently in Iraq offering mobile WRT classes in-theater. Warrior Resilience Training rationale, curriculum, variants (like Warrior Family Resilience Training), and feedback are included, with suggestions as to how behavioral health providers and combat stress control teams might better integrate their services with leaders, chaplains, and commands to better market combat stress resiliency, reduce barriers to care, and promote force preservation. Informal analysis of class feedback from 1168 respondents regarding WRT reception and utilization is examined.
This essay deals with questions of responsibility concerning technology, in particular, gene technology and the special problem of research on embryos. I raise issues concerning the extent of humans' authority to act and the limits of human freedom. In what way is that freedom given, and what kind of responsibility results from it? By discussing various concepts of human freedom in the tradition of European philosophy, as juxtaposed to the Protestant understanding of freedom, this essay discusses the restricting limits, and the obligation to take responsibility. It will turn out that the question concerning freedom cannot be answered without understanding what being human involves. From a Christian perspective, this implies that the foundational relationship between human freedom and sin will be central to an assessment of the human ability to take responsibility. By obliterating the limits of human freedom, sin jeopardizes the very essence of that freedom. The project of taking into account the sinful state of the human condition thus aims at developing a realistic picture of the authority of humans in action, even in view of the human tasks of promoting science and research.
Aug 2, 2011 ... freedom due to censorship, multiple power centres and volatile political institutions (Agbaje ... implications for socio-economic development in Nigeria. ..... two weeks, while four US documentary filmmakers and their Nigerian.
Betta, Michela; Swedberg, Richard
This article starts out with a summary of Weber's views on value freedom, by emphasizing: (1) that value freedom constitutes a special constellation of values; and (2) that value freedom makes it possible for the social scientist to theorize on the basis of new and more extensive knowledge than if she had simply stated her own values and focused the analysis around these. The latter point emerges most clearly in Weber's instructions for how a social scientist should proceed when carrying out an analysis of her own preferred social policy. After the section on Weber's views on value freedom, an attempt is made to update his views. This is done by arguing that the impact of values (and value freedom) differs, depending on where these can be found: on paper, in the head of the social scientist, or in her actions. "Actions," in the context of value freedom, refer to the research process and especially to the element of theorizing. Value freedom helps to guide the research into new and fruitful directions and to steer it clear of propaganda. © 2017 Canadian Sociological Association/La Société canadienne de sociologie.
Piccardo, Alessandro; Rusinaru, Dan; Petitprez, Benoit; Marticho, Paul; Vaida, Ioana; Tribouilloy, Christophe; Caus, Thierry
The incidence of postoperative thrombocytopenia after aortic valve replacement with the Freedom Solo bioprosthesis remains unclear. This propensity-matched study was carried out to evaluate the incidence and clinical impact of thrombocytopenia in patients receiving the Freedom Solo bioprosthesis. Patients who underwent aortic valve replacement with a Freedom Solo or Carpentier-Edwards Perimount pericardial prosthesis at our institution between 2006 and 2008 were screened retrospectively. Exclusion criteria included double valve replacement, redo surgery, and active endocarditis. Two hundred six patients were considered eligible for this analysis. Using propensity scores 36 matched pairs of patients with a Freedom Solo or Perimount bioprosthesis were obtained. The primary end point was the occurrence of postoperative thrombocytopenia. Secondary end points were postoperative thromboembolic or hemorrhagic events and 30-day mortality. Before matching, severe thrombocytopenia (Solo bioprosthesis and 1% with a Perimount bioprosthesis (p Solo (p Solo and Perimount bioprostheses, respectively (p Solo implantation. However, this complication was not related to any deleterious events in our study population. Copyright (c) 2010 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Managemen 15.6.6 Results Related t 15.6.7 NCOs and Multiple-Deployments 15.6.8 Validated Trainin 15.6.9 Theater Suicide Prevention Program and Suicide...include mental health providers who have deployed to the IT0 and are experienced using AHLTA- T . As noted above, as the operational theater matures in...Mental Health Advisory Team (MHAT) V Operation Iraqi Freedom 06-08 14 February 2008 Office of the Surgeon Multi-National Force-Iraq and Office
Graafland, J.J.; Compen, B.
Several researches have shown that economic freedom is positively related to life satisfaction. Only a few studies, however, have examined which aspects of economic freedom (small government size, quality of the legal system, sound money, trade openness or no regulation) drive this relationship.
In the summer of 2014, the European Court of Human Rights ruled that the French 2010 law banning face-covering clothing in public spaces, the so-called burqa ban, did not violate the right to freedom of religion. Due to the ‘wide margin of appreciation’, the Court deemed the ban proportionate...... to the French state’s legitimate aim with the ban of preserving the conditions of ‘living together’. The paper analyses and provides an internal criticism of the Court’s justification for this judgement focusing on the aim of living together and the right to freedom of religion. The Court’s justification...
Briegel, Hans J.
We discuss the possibility of free behavior in embodied systems that are, with no exception and at all scales of their body, subject to physical law. We relate the discussion to a model of an artificial agent that exhibits a primitive notion of creativity and freedom in dealing with its environment, which is part of a recently introduced scheme of information processing called projective simulation. This provides an explicit proposal on how we can reconcile our understanding of universal physical law with the idea that higher biological entities can acquire a notion of freedom that allows them to increasingly detach themselves from a strict dependence on the surrounding world. PMID:22822427
Barducci, A.; Casalbuoni, R.; Lusanna, L.
In this paper we show that is possible to give a real physical meaning to theories in which internal degrees of freedom are described by Grassmann variables. The physical theory is defined by means of an averaging procedure in terms of a distribution function in the Grassmann restricted space satisfying all the physical requirements. If we use this result for a scalar particle with inner degrees of freedom (electric charge, colour, ...) interacting with Yang-Mills gauge fields, it turns out that we can define two different classical theories. Taking the average of the coupled particle-field equations of motion, we recover the usual classical theory. Taking instead the average of the solution of such equations we get a theory which is free from all the classical infinities (and so of the causal defects, like runaway solution or pre-acceleration) but also of all the effects of the same order in the charges (like radiation). The main point is that the processes of averaging and integrating the equations of motion do not commute. Then for the case of colour degrees of freedom we study the quantization of the theory by the path-integral method and we show that the functional integration can be done for an arbitrary gluon field simply by using the classical solution. As a result we obtain an expression for the Wilson loop as a functional integral for the internal fermionic degrees of freedom. (orig.)
Full Text Available Although the philosophy (as well as the whole movement of Enlightenment was born in the Netherlands and England in the late 17th and early 18th century, there were considerable problems in defying the freedom. By the mid 18th century, under the influence of „national mercantilism“ (Max Weber, the freedom was perceived in more and more collective terms, giving bith to the political option of national liberalism. That is why in the second half of 18th century this two countries have been progresively loosing importance for the movement of Enlightenment and two new countries emerged at its leading position, striving for democratic liberalism: United States of America and France. However, individual freedom faced not one, but two dangers during its philosophical and institutional development in the Age of Enlightenment: on the one hand, the danger of wanishing in the national freedom, and, on the other hand, the danger of becoming unbound and (selfdestructive. The emerging (national liberalism in England in the 18th century witnessed the first danger, while the second danger appeared in the wake of the Franch revolution. The French were the first in the Modern epohe to realise that the light of freedom is to powerful to be used without considerable precaussions in the establishement of liberal civil society. Therefore, some moderation hat to be taken into consideration. The idea of humanity, i.e. human rights, was at the end found as most helpful in solving the task of preserving individual freedom, without sacrifying social bonds between free individuals.
Gersak, Borut; Gartner, Urska; Antonic, Miha
Stentless biological valves have proven advantages in hemodynamic performance and left ventricular function compared to stented biological valves. Following a marked postoperative fall in the platelet count of patients after implantation of the Freedom SOLO valve, the study aim was to confirm clinical observations that this effect was more severe in patients receiving Freedom SOLO valves than in those receiving St. Jude Medical (SJM) mechanical aortic valves. Preoperative and postoperative platelet counts were compared in two groups of patients who underwent aortic valve replacement (AVR) without any concomitant procedures between January and December 2007. Patients received either a Freedom SOLO valve (n = 28) or a SJM mechanical valve (n = 41). Mean values of platelet counts were compared using three multiple linear regression models. Platelet counts were significantly lower in the Freedom SOLO group than in the SJM group from the first postoperative day (POD 1) up to POD 6 (p SOLO group the platelet count fell below 30x10(9)/l, while the lowest level in the SJM group was 75x10(9)/l. Based on multiple linear regression models, the type of valve implanted had a statistically significant influence on postoperative platelet counts on POD 1, POD 3, and POD 5 (p SOLO group.
Learners' right to freedom of written expression. W.J. van Vollenhoven. Department of Education Management and Policy Studies, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, 0002 South Africa email@example.com. Charles I. Glenn. Training and Policy Studies of the University Professors' Program, University of Boston. Although ...
Sullivan, Daniel F.
The author discusses the content in John Milton's "Areopagitica: A Speech for the Liberty of Unlicensed Printing to the Parliament of England" (1985) and provides parallelism to censorship practiced in higher education. Originally published in 1644, "Areopagitica" makes a powerful--and precocious--argument for freedom of speech…
Full Text Available Inequality, discrimination and transformation remain the key challenges which most employers are faced with in the South African labour market. Key among such challenges has also been employers' ability to ensure that persons with disabilities access the labour market. In this paper I highlight employment discrimination experienced by persons with disabilities in South African workplaces, which often prohibits them from accessing employment opportunities. I argue that employers need to consider employing persons with disabilities and also reasonably to accommodate them within South African workplaces. I further illustrate efforts by the legislature to eradicate forms of unjustified discrimination against persons with disabilities through the enactment of the Employment Equity Act 55 of 1998. I argue that all of us need to understand how cultural, social, physical and other barriers continue to prevent persons with disabilities in South Africa from enjoying their constitutional rights to equality, freedom and human dignity, and further, that it is desirable that society at large and government work together towards eradicating barriers which prevent persons with disabilities from accessing the labour market.
V. K. Banga; R. Kumar; Y. Singh
In this paper, we present optimal control for movement and trajectory planning for four degrees-of-freedom robot using Fuzzy Logic (FL) and Genetic Algorithms (GAs). We have evaluated using Fuzzy Logic (FL) and Genetic Algorithms (GAs) for four degree-of-freedom (4 DOF) robotics arm, Uncertainties like; Movement, Friction and Settling Time in robotic arm movement have been compensated using Fuzzy logic and Genetic Algorithms. The development of a fuzzy genetic optimizatio...
Mei Shuli; Du Chengjin; Zhang Senwen
Homotopy perturbation method (HPM) proposed by Ji-Huan He is very effective and convenient for single-degree-of-freedom systems. In this paper a coupling technique of He's method and precise integration method (PIM) is suggested to solve multi-degree-of-freedom nonlinear dynamic systems. The new technique keeps the merits of the two methods. Some examples are given to illustrate its effectiveness and convenience. Furthermore the obtained solution is of high accuracy
Foing, Bernard H.; Schelfhout, Ronald; Gelfand, Dmitry; Van der Heide, Edwin; Preusterink, Jolanda; Domnitch, Evelina
ArtScience ESTEC: Space science in the arts. Since the earliest scientific preparations for extra-terrestrial travel at the beginning of the 20th century, the exploration of outer space has become a quintessential framework of the human condition and its creative manifestations. Although the artistic pursuit of space science is still in its infancy, an accelerated evolution is currently underway. Perspective: With the current state of the planet and the development of technology, humankind has the ability to look from a greater distance to the damage that has been done. This offers potential in the form of early detection and prevention of disasters. Meanwhile our aim seems to be directed away from the earth into the universe. In the Space science in the arts project I tried to encapsulate these two viewpoints that tend to avoid each other. We are still earthbound and that is our basis. A tree cannot grow tall without strong roots. Space, a promise of freedom. Line of thought: Space sounds like freedom but to actually send people out there they have to be strapped tightly on top of a giant missile to reach a habitat of interconnecting tubes with very little space. It is impossible to escape protocol with- out risking your life and the lives of astronauts have been fixed years in advance. This is the human predicament which does not apply to the telescopes and other devices used to reach far into the universe. Providing information instantly the various forms of light allow us to travel without moving. Description of the installation: The research on freedom in space and science led to the development of an installation that reflects the dualistic aspect which clings to the exploration of the universe. The installation is a model on multiple scales. You can look at the material or the feeling it evokes as well as at the constantly changing projections. The image is light. Inside this glass circle there is a broken dome placed over a dark and reflective surface on
Lara-Cantu, Maria Asuncion
Describes the development of a new sex role inventory, the Masculine-Feminine Personality Traits Scale, based on Bem's Sex Role Inventory and using Mexican sex role stereotypes. The instrument includes scales measuring assertive masculinity, affective femininity, aggressive masculinity, and submissive femininity. Results show expected response…
Full Text Available This paper studies the macroeconomic impact of economic freedom on foreign direct investments inflows in both global and regional panel analyses involving 156 countries through the period of 1995-2016. Unlike to prior literature, it includes often neglected nations such as Fragile and Conflict-Affected states, Sub-Saharan, Oceanian, and Post-Soviet countries. The paper finds a positive impact of economic freedom on FDI under fixed-effects model in global case where a unit change in economic freedom scales FDI inflows up to 1.15 units. More specifically, all 9 regions also refer to positive and significant impact of economic freedom on FDI. The highest impact is recorded in European countries, whereas the lowest ones are documented in Fragile-Conflict affected states, Sub-Saharan zone, and Oceanian countries.
Some theoretical aspects of applying short distance physics (asymptotic freedom) are discussed to prove the correctness of the quantum chromodynamics. Properties of new particles that depend only on short distance physics can be dealt with perturbatively. The new mesons are assumed to be CantiC bound states, where C is a new heavy quark. With this in mind some comments are made on the calculation of total widths for the direct decay of different CantiC states into ordinary hadrons
... brighter horizons; protesters who fought for abolition, women's suffrage, and civil rights. Each generation... America A Proclamation Foremost among the rights Americans hold sacred is the freedom to worship as we choose. Today, we celebrate one of our Nation's first laws to protect that right-- the Virginia Statute...
Williams, Mary Louise
Presents activities for teaching high school students about the freedom of religion. Includes student handouts that explain basic constitutional principles and summarize leading U.S. Supreme Court cases concerning religious liberty. Encourages teachers to invite students to speculate on the future relationship of religion and public education. (SG)
Governments around the world are often praised for good or rebuked for bad governance. This paper argues that good governance is predicated on the adoption of functional records management and the enactment of Freedom of Information (FOI) legislation by governments. Records that are accumulated and used by ...
Full Text Available This study examined the combined influences of national levels of socioeconomic status, social capital, and rights and freedoms on population level physical and mental health outcomes. Indicators of mental health were suicide rates, alcohol consumption and tobacco use. Indicators of physical health included life expectancy, infant mortality rates, and prevalence of HIV. Using pathway analysis on international data from a selected sample of European, North American, South American and South Caucasus countries, similar models for mental health and physical health were developed. In the first model, the positive effects of socioeconomic status and social capital on physical health were completely mediated via rights and freedoms. In the second model, the positive effect of socioeconomic status on mental health was completely mediated, while the impact of social capital was partially mediated through rights and freedoms. We named the models, the rights and freedoms gradient of health in recognition of this latter construct’s crucial role in determining both physical and mental health.
The nucleon is nothing but the fundamental state of a complex object, the Baryon. It has a great number of excited states which are significative of its quark structure. The aim of nuclear physics today is to understand the interaction dynamics in nuclei of particles whose existence is known by high energy physics. This lecture aims at defining the frontier of current comprehension in this field by some examples. First quarks and gluons are presented. Proofs of existence of pinpoint particles inside the nucleus are given. Then a direct proof of the concept validity of the nucleon orbit in the nucleus is given. Mesonic freedom degrees are also studied. Some experience examples in which meson exchange exist clearly are shown. At last, the role of subnucleonic effects in the nuclear reactions is shown [fr
In this paper, I argue that John Dewey's view of human nature entails that culture is a necessary but not sufficient condition for freedom. A surprising corollary of this argument is that, if left to run its natural course, culture in fact tends not to enable but rather to preclude freedom. Hence, there are specific cultural practices--habits…
Saha, Shrabani; Su, Jen-Je; Campbell, Neil
The paper examines the impact of political and economic freedom on inbound tourism for over 110 countries during 1995-2012. Panel country fixed-effects techniques are utilized to examine the relationship after controlling for other factors that contribute to inbound tourism. The results show that civil liberties and economic freedom (among several other freedom measures) are positively and significantly associated with inbound tourism. Examination of the moderation effect revea...
Krieger, Tim; Meierrieks, Daniel
In this contribution we study the relationship between income inequality and economic freedom for a panel of 100 countries for the 1971-2010 period. From a panel causality study we find that income inequality has a negative causal effect on economic freedom, while causation does not run in the opposite direction. We argue that the negative effect of inequality on economic liberty is due to the elite's political power stemming from its disproportionate control over a country's economic resourc...
Full Text Available The changes in the Polish socio-economic system, initiated at the turn of 1989 and 1990, led to a systematic increase in the liberalization of economy and thereby the rise of the level of economic freedom. The aim of this paper is to examine the impact of the economic transition on the development of economic freedom in Poland. The analysis, carried out in the period 1995-2015, was conducted on the basis of the chain-linked Economic Freedom Index by the Fraser Institute and the Index of Economic Freedom of the Heritage Foundation and the Wall Street Journal. The analysis indicates that: (1 Poland cannot be considered as a country that is fully free economically, but the transition of its economic system has resulted in a rapid growth of economic freedom. (2 The impact of transition varies for different areas (sub-indices of the economy. (3 The European economic integration stimulated the increase of EFI, but the economic crisis did not decrease the level of economic freedom.
Del Polito, Carolyn M.
Presents an annotated bibliography of 19 items from ERIC identifying troublesome paradoxes regarding the media and freedom of expression. Items are categorized by issues identified as relevant to radio and television, commercial advertising, and the press. (JMF)
Ishihara, Sumio; Maekawa, Sadamichi
The orbital degree of freedom of electrons and its interplay with spin, charge and lattice degrees of freedom are some of the central issues in colossal magnetoresistive manganites. The orbital degree of freedom has until recently remained hidden, since it does not couple directly to most experimental probes. Development of synchrotron light sources has changed the situation; by the resonant x-ray scattering (RXS) technique the orbital ordering has successfully been observed. In this article, we review progress in the recent studies of RXS in manganites. We start with a detailed review of the RXS experiments applied to the orbital-ordered manganites and other correlated electron systems. We derive the scattering cross section of RXS, where the tensor character of the atomic scattering factor (ASF) with respect to the x-ray polarization is stressed. Microscopic mechanisms of the anisotropic tensor character of the ASF are introduced and numerical results of the ASF and the scattering intensity are presented. The azimuthal angle scan is a unique experimental method to identify RXS from the orbital degree of freedom. A theory of the azimuthal angle and polarization dependence of the RXS intensity is presented. The theoretical results show good agreement with the experiments in manganites. Apart from the microscopic description of the ASF, a theoretical framework of RXS to relate directly to the 3d orbital is presented. The scattering cross section is represented by the correlation function of the pseudo-spin operator for the orbital degree of freedom. A theory is extended to the resonant inelastic x-ray scattering and methods to observe excitations of the orbital degree of freedom are proposed. (author)
Schmidt, Andreas T
Is it a stronger interference with people's freedom to withdraw options they currently have than to withhold similar options they do not have? Drawing on recent theorizing about sociopolitical freedom, this article identifies considerations that often make this the case for public policy. However, when applied to tobacco control, these considerations are shown to give us at best only very weak freedom-based reason to prioritize the status quo. This supports a popular argument for so-called "endgame" tobacco control measures: If we believe that cigarettes would and should be withheld from entering markets in hypothetical scenarios in which they do not yet exist, then we also have reason to seek their abolition in situations, such as ours, in which cigarettes do exist-if necessary by banning their sale. The same considerations are then used to disarm objections that have recently been raised to using nudges in public policy.
Magalhães, Ana Tereza de Matos; Goffi-Gomez, Maria Valéria Schmidt; Hoshino, Ana Cristina; Tsuji, Robinson Koji; Bento, Ricardo Ferreira; Brito, Rubens
New technology in the Freedom® speech processor for cochlear implants was developed to improve how incoming acoustic sound is processed; this applies not only for new users, but also for previous generations of cochlear implants. To identify the contribution of this technology-- the Nucleus 22®--on speech perception tests in silence and in noise, and on audiometric thresholds. A cross-sectional cohort study was undertaken. Seventeen patients were selected. The last map based on the Spectra® was revised and optimized before starting the tests. Troubleshooting was used to identify malfunction. To identify the contribution of the Freedom® technology for the Nucleus22®, auditory thresholds and speech perception tests were performed in free field in sound-proof booths. Recorded monosyllables and sentences in silence and in noise (SNR = 0dB) were presented at 60 dBSPL. The nonparametric Wilcoxon test for paired data was used to compare groups. Freedom® applied for the Nucleus22® showed a statistically significant difference in all speech perception tests and audiometric thresholds. The Freedom® technology improved the performance of speech perception and audiometric thresholds of patients with Nucleus 22®.
The American Library Association's (ALA's) Office for Intellectual Freedom (OIF) strives to educate librarians and the public about the nature and importance of intellectual freedom in libraries, and it will celebrate its fiftieth anniversary in 2017. Libraries are a forum for information and ideas (under the First Amendment), and librarians are…
Jurgen Habermas has argued that carrying out pre-natal germline enhancements would be inimical to the future child's autonomy. In this article, I suggest that many of the objections that have been made against Habermas' arguments by liberals in the enhancement debate misconstrue his claims. To explain why, I begin by explaining how Habermas' view of personal autonomy confers particular importance to the agent's embodiment and social environment. In view of this, I explain that it is possible to draw two arguments against germline enhancements from Habermas' thought. I call these arguments 'the argument from negative freedom' and 'the argument from natality'. Although I argue that many of the common liberal objections to Habermas are not applicable when his arguments are properly understood, I go on to suggest ways in which supporters of enhancement might appropriately respond to Habermas' arguments. © 2014 The Author. Bioethics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Abdel Latif, Muhammad M. M.
Academic freedom is of central importance to higher education and it affects all aspects of work at universities. It symbolizes academics' acceptance of the need for openness and flexibility (Balyer, 2011) and it protects the conditions leading to the creation of good teaching and learning, sound research, and scholarship (Atkinson, 2004).…
Dissatisfied with the Western tradition of political philosophy, Arendt maintained a tension between the political, which she associates primarily with the freedom to act, and the philosophical, which she associates principally with the activity of thinking, throughout her works. Whilst Arendt's work is underpinned by a focus on political action,…
Bhattacharyya, Debankur; Paul, Shibashis; Ghosh, Shyamolina; Ray, Deb Shankar
We consider the Brownian motion of a collection of particles each with an additional degree of freedom. The degree of freedom of a particle (or, in general, a molecule) can assume distinct values corresponding to certain states or conformations. The time evolution of the additional degree of freedom of a particle is guided by those of its neighbors as well as the temperature of the system. We show that the local averaging over these degrees of freedom results in emergence of a collective order in the dynamics in the form of selection or dominance of one of the isomers leading to a symmetry-broken state. Our statistical model captures the basic features of homochirality, e.g., autocatalysis and chiral inhibition.
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Freedom of Information Act requests on..., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION ACCESS TO RECORDS Release of Information Freedom of Information Act Requests for Information § 513.63 Freedom of Information Act requests on behalf of...
... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Release of records under the Freedom of Information Act. 404.6 Section 404.6 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES INFORMATION DISCLOSURE Procedures for Disclosure of Records Under the Freedom of Information Act. § 404.6 Release of...
Carvalho, Edward J., Ed.; Downing, David B.
Academic freedom has been a principle that undergirds the university since 1915. Beyond this, it also protects a spirit of free inquiry essential to a democratic society. But in the post-9/11 present, the basic principles of academic freedom have been deeply challenged. There have been many startling instances where the rhetoric of national…
Wegrowe, J-E; Olive, E
The Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation that describes the dynamics of a macroscopic magnetic moment finds its limit of validity at very short times. The reason for this limit is well understood in terms of separation of the characteristic time scales between slow degrees of freedom (the magnetization) and fast degrees of freedom. The fast degrees of freedom are introduced as the variation of the angular momentum responsible for the inertia. In order to study the effect of the fast degrees of freedom on the precession, we calculate the geometric phase of the magnetization (i.e. the Hannay angle) and the corresponding magnetic monopole. In the case of the pure precession (the slow manifold), a simple expression of the magnetic monopole is given as a function of the slowness parameter, i.e. as a function of the ratio of the slow over the fast characteristic times.
Wegrowe, J-E; Olive, E
The Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert (LLG) equation that describes the dynamics of a macroscopic magnetic moment finds its limit of validity at very short times. The reason for this limit is well understood in terms of separation of the characteristic time scales between slow degrees of freedom (the magnetization) and fast degrees of freedom. The fast degrees of freedom are introduced as the variation of the angular momentum responsible for the inertia. In order to study the effect of the fast degrees of freedom on the precession, we calculate the geometric phase of the magnetization (i.e. the Hannay angle) and the corresponding magnetic monopole. In the case of the pure precession (the slow manifold), a simple expression of the magnetic monopole is given as a function of the slowness parameter, i.e. as a function of the ratio of the slow over the fast characteristic times. (paper)
... A Proclamation The Berlin Wall once stood as a painful barrier between family and friends, a dark... exercise their universal human rights. The 21st anniversary of the fall of the Berlin Wall is an occasion..., Germans from both sides of the wall joined to tear down the hated blockade. World Freedom Day commemorates...
The article reviews some recent attempts to construct satisfactory theories of quantum gravity within the framework of local, continuum field theory. Quantum gravity; the renormalization group and its fixed points; fixed points and dimensional continuation in gravity; and quantum gravity at d=4-the 1/N expansion-asymptotic freedom; are all discussed. (U.K.)
Helwig, C C
This study examined adolescents' and young adults' conceptions of freedom of speech and religion (civil liberties). 48 adolescents and young adults in 3 grade levels (mean ages 12-8, 16-10, and 19-6) were administered a structured interview containing assessments of civil liberties in general, in straightforward (unconflicted) applications, and in conflict with other social and moral concerns, including law, physical and psychological harm, and equality of opportunity. Freedom of speech and religion were conceptualized as universal rights and applied to social events in unconflicted contexts at all ages. A diverse array of rationales, differentiated according to type of freedom, were used at all ages to ground conceptions of universal freedoms. Judgments of civil liberties in conflicts exhibited several sources of variation, including developmental differences, situational or contextual variation determined by the particular types of issues in conflict, and individual differences. Results are consistent with the proposition that judgments of civil liberties reflect age-related patterns of coordination of delimited social and moral concepts rather than general orientations.
Coyle, Thomas R; Rindermann, Heiner; Hancock, Dale
Cognitive ability stimulates economic productivity. However, the effects of cognitive ability may be stronger in free and open economies, where competition rewards merit and achievement. To test this hypothesis, ability levels of intellectual classes (top 5%) and average classes (country averages) were estimated using international student assessments (Programme for International Student Assessment; Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study; and Progress in International Reading Literacy Study) (N = 99 countries). The ability levels were correlated with indicators of economic freedom (Fraser Institute), scientific achievement (patent rates), innovation (Global Innovation Index), competitiveness (Global Competitiveness Index), and wealth (gross domestic product). Ability levels of intellectual and average classes strongly predicted all economic criteria. In addition, economic freedom moderated the effects of cognitive ability (for both classes), with stronger effects at higher levels of freedom. Effects were particularly robust for scientific achievements when the full range of freedom was analyzed. The results support cognitive capitalism theory: cognitive ability stimulates economic productivity, and its effects are enhanced by economic freedom. © The Author(s) 2016.
Henneaux, M.; Universite Libre de Bruxelles; Teitelboim, C.; Texas Univ., Austin; Zanelli, J.; Chile Univ., Santiago. Dept. de Fisica)
The precise relation between the gauge transformations in lagrangian and hamiltonian form is derived for any gauge theory. It is found that in order to define a lagrangian gauge symmetry, the coefficients of the first class constraints in the hamiltonian generator of gauge transformations must obey a set of differential equations. Those equations involve, in general, the Lagrange multipliers. Their solution contains as many arbitrary functions of time as there are primary first class constraints. If n is the number of generations of constraints (primary, secondary, tertiary...), the arbitrary functions appear in the general solution together with their successive time derivatives up to order n-1. The analysis yields as by-products: (i) a systematic way to derive all the gauge symmetries of a given lagrangian; (ii) a precise criterion for counting the physical degrees of freedom of a gauge theory directly from the form of gauge transformations in lagrangian form. This last part is illustrated by means of examples. The BRST analog of the counting of physical degrees of freedom is also discussed. (orig.)
Fitzmaurice, M.; Bruno, R.
This paper describes the design of the Laser Communication Transceiver (LCT) system which was planned to be flight tested as an attached payload on Space Station Freedom. The objective in building and flight-testing the LCT is to perform a broad class of tests addressing the critical aspects of space-based optical communications systems, providing a base of experience for applying laser communications technology toward future communications needs. The LCT's functional and performance requirements and capabilities with respect to acquisition, spatial tracking and pointing, communications, and attitude determination are discussed.
Micaletti, R. C.; Cakmak, A. S.; Nielsen, Søren R. K.
This paper contains an analyses of the error induced by applying the method of the equivalent statistical linearzation (ESL) to randomly-exited multi-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) geometrically nonlinear shear-frame structures as the number of degrees of freedom increases. The quantity that is analyzed...
Full Text Available Jörg Jenatsch, a leading freedom fighter during the Thirty Year's War in Graubünden, Switzerland, was assassinated on carnival 1639. Jenatsch's controversial biography and the unclear circumstances of his death inspired the formation of various legends, novels and films. In 1959, a skeleton discovered in the cathedral of Chur with remains of wealthy baroque clothing was tentatively attributed to Jenatsch. Here, we reassess the skeleton based on a new exhumation. Our multidisciplinary analysis and the head injuries are consistent with reports of the eyewitnesses of the crime, demonstrating that Jenatsch was killed from behind with a semi-sharp implement, supposedly an axe, as well as by a blow with a broad-surfaced object. Moreover, our facial reconstruction closely matches an oil portrait of Jenatsch, and the HIrisPlex system applied to DNA-extracts from the femoral bone reveals brown eye and dark brown hair colour, which coincides well with the portrait, too. Finally, isotope analysis of the femoral bone and a molar support Jenatsch's high social status, luxury diet and a high mobility in the last decade of his life. This multidisciplinary approach thus reinforces personal identification and provides additional insight into the life of this important historic person beyond written resources.
Haeusler, Martin; Haas, Cordula; Lösch, Sandra; Moghaddam, Negahnaz; Villa, Igor M; Walsh, Susan; Kayser, Manfred; Seiler, Roger; Ruehli, Frank; Janosa, Manuel; Papageorgopoulou, Christina
Jörg Jenatsch, a leading freedom fighter during the Thirty Year's War in Graubünden, Switzerland, was assassinated on carnival 1639. Jenatsch's controversial biography and the unclear circumstances of his death inspired the formation of various legends, novels and films. In 1959, a skeleton discovered in the cathedral of Chur with remains of wealthy baroque clothing was tentatively attributed to Jenatsch. Here, we reassess the skeleton based on a new exhumation. Our multidisciplinary analysis and the head injuries are consistent with reports of the eyewitnesses of the crime, demonstrating that Jenatsch was killed from behind with a semi-sharp implement, supposedly an axe, as well as by a blow with a broad-surfaced object. Moreover, our facial reconstruction closely matches an oil portrait of Jenatsch, and the HIrisPlex system applied to DNA-extracts from the femoral bone reveals brown eye and dark brown hair colour, which coincides well with the portrait, too. Finally, isotope analysis of the femoral bone and a molar support Jenatsch's high social status, luxury diet and a high mobility in the last decade of his life. This multidisciplinary approach thus reinforces personal identification and provides additional insight into the life of this important historic person beyond written resources.
Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the problems concerning the existential freedom of the young, black, female, main character. Several concepts are used in the analysis; namely, black women existentialism, existential backlash, power feminism, and black feminism. The analysis is also done in the frame of feminist criticism. The result of the analysis shows that it is not easy for a young, black, female character to construct, keep, and/or perform her critical opinion concerning her own existential freedom. There are various kinds of existential backlashes that have to be faced by the female character. Finally, the female character who insists on keeping her own critical opinion concerning her own existential freedom, after she fails to put it into practice in daily life, still has to face a tragic ending. This paper aims to analyze the problems concerning the existential freedom of the young, black, female, main character. Several concepts are used in the analysis; namely, black women existentialism, existential backlash, power feminism, and black feminism. The analysis is also done in the frame of feminist criticism. The result of the analysis shows that it is not easy for a young, black, female character to construct, keep, and/or perform her critical opinion concerning her own existential freedom. There are various kinds of existential backlashes that have to be faced by the female character. Finally, the female character who insists on keeping her own critical opinion concerning her own existential freedom, after she fails to put it into practice in daily life, still has to face a tragic ending Abstrak: Makalah ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji permasalahan seputar kebebasan eksistensial tokoh utama perempuan muda kulit hitam. Beberapa konsep digunakan dalam kajian; yaitu, eksistensialisme perempuan kulit hitam, lecut balik eksistensial, feminisme yang mengandalkan kekuatan, dan feminisme kulit hitam. Kajian juga dilakukan dalam kerangka kritik
Maria Chiara Locchi
Full Text Available Considered a classic of dystopian literature of the twentieth century, Fahrenheit 451 still reveals a narrative full of questions for jurists, enabling several reading paths. If, by tradition, the burning of books by the Firemen refers to the censorship of authoritarian or totalitarian states, Ray Bradbury’s work is also capable of eliciting legal reflection on the crucial issue of the limits to freedom of expression in the democratic and pluralistic states, highlighting central and highly relevant problems such as freedom of education in public schools and the criminalization of hate speech to protect minorities in western constitutional systems. The question that Fahrenheit 451 seems to direct to law ultimately revolves around the relation between freedom and authority and the determination of the conditions of coexistence in the face of diversity in contemporary plural societies..
Bulgac, A.; Dang, G.D.; Kusnezov, D.
We consider many-body systems which display slow modes and have complex spectra of intrinsic states, as atomic nuclei, atomic clusters, deformable cavities, and so forth. The effects of the coupling between the intrinsic and the slow degrees of freedom is analyzed, by assuming random matrix properties for the intrinsic degrees of freedom and the fact that the time evolution of the slow degree of freedom modifies the intrinsic configuration of the system. By neglecting the reaction of the intrinsic degrees of freedom on the slow modes, we derive evolution equations for intrinsic state population probabilities, the average excitation energy, and their fluctuations. These evolution equations are characterized by strong memory effects, and only in the long time limit does the dynamics become Markovian. Copyright copyright 1995 Academic Press, Inc
Relyea, Harold C
Enacted in 1966 after 11 years of investigation, legislative development, and deliberation in the House and half as many years of such consideration in the Senate, the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA...
Relyea, Harold C
Enacted in 1966 after 11 years of investigation, legislative development, and deliberation in the House and half as many years of such consideration in the Senate, the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA...
Ramsey, Christine; Dziura, James; Justice, Amy C; Altalib, Hamada Hamid; Bathulapalli, Harini; Burg, Matthew; Decker, Suzanne; Driscoll, Mary; Goulet, Joseph; Haskell, Sally; Kulas, Joseph; Wang, Karen H; Mattocks, Kristen; Brandt, Cynthia
To evaluate gender, age, and race/ethnicity as predictors of incident mental health diagnoses among Operations Iraqi Freedom, Enduring Freedom, and New Dawn veterans. We used US Veterans Health Administration (VHA) electronic health records from 2001 to 2014 to examine incidence rates and sociodemographic risk factors for mental health diagnoses among 888 142 veterans. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was the most frequently diagnosed mental health condition across gender and age groups. Incidence rates for all mental health diagnoses were highest at ages 18 to 29 years and declined thereafter, with the exceptions of major depressive disorder (MDD) in both genders, and PTSD among women. Risk of incident bipolar disorder and MDD diagnoses were greater among women; risk of incident schizophrenia, and alcohol- and drug-use disorders diagnoses were greater in men. Compared with Whites, risk incident PTSD, MDD, and alcohol-use disorder diagnoses were lower at ages 18 to 29 years and higher at ages 45 to 64 years for both Hispanics and African Americans. Differentiating high-risk demographic and gender groups can lead to improved diagnosis and treatment of mental health diagnoses among veterans and other high-risk groups.
Bulson, Ryan; Jun, Weon; Hayes, John
Advances in protective armor technology and changes in the "patterns of war" have created a population of Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom (OIF/OEF) veterans with traumatic brain injury (TBI) that provide a unique challenge to Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) healthcare practitioners. The purpose of the study was to determine the frequency of symptomatic ocular and visual sequelae of TBI in OIF/OEF veterans at the Portland VA Medical Center, a Polytrauma Support Clinic Team site. A retrospective analysis of 100 OIF/OEF veterans with TBI was conducted to determine the prevalence of ocular and visual complaints. Referral patterns were also investigated. Visual symptoms were reported in approximately 50% of veterans with TBI. Loss of consciousness, but not number of deployments or number of blast exposures, was found to have a statistically significant association with severity of reported visual symptoms. The most commonly reported symptoms included blurred vision (67%), photosensitivity (50%), and accommodative problems (40%). Visual symptoms of OIF/OEF veterans at the Portland VA Medical Center are reported at slightly lower rates than similar studies conducted at the Palo Alto and Edward Hines Jr VA facilities.
Stahl, C.; Vogler, W.
We revise the accordance preorder in the context of deadlock freedom for asynchronously communicating services. Accordance considers all controllers of a service—that is, all environments that can interact with the service without deadlocking. A service Impl accords with a service Spec if every
The 2004 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to David J. Gross, Frank Wilczek and H. David Politzer for their decisive contributions to the theory of the asymptotic freedom of the strong interaction (a fundamental interaction). The fundamental elements of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and the theory of the strong interaction are briefly reviewed in their historical context. How to achieve asymptotic freedom is introduced and its physical meaning explained. The latest experimental tests of asymptotic freedom are presented, and it is shown that the theoretical prediction agrees excellently with the experimental measurements. Perturbative QCD which is based on the asymptotic freedom is outlined. It is pointed out that the theoretical discovery and experimental proof of the asymptotic freedom are crucial for QCD to be the correct theory of strong interaction. Certain frontier research areas of QCD, such as 'color confinement', are mentioned. The discovery and confirmation of asymptotic freedom has indeed deeply affected particle physics, and has led to QCD becoming a main content of the standard model, and to further development of the so-called grand unification theories of interactions. (author)
On the occasion of receiving the Four Freedoms Reward Dr. Mohamed ElBaradei, the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency, stressed the importance of the freedom of expression, freedom of worship, freedom from want and freedom from fear - unfortunately not enjoyed by everyone. It is therefore no surprise that this is a world not at peace with itself. A world that, too often, resorts to force in trying to settle differences. A world in which human rights abuses or inhumane living conditions are the norm for almost half of our fellow human beings. In addition, it is a world in which we continue to see a reliance on nuclear weapons - with over 27 000 nuclear warheads in existence. This contrasts sharply with Roosevelt's vision of freedom from fear, which he said would mean 'a world-wide reduction of armaments to such a point and in such a thorough fashion that no nation will be in a position to commit an act of physical aggression against any neighbour - anywhere in the world'. we need to change our approach to security - as Roosevelt eloquently put it - we need a perpetual peaceful revolution, a revolution which goes on steadily, quietly adjusting itself to changing conditions . But for that revolution to happen, we need to understand what it is that needs to be changed. Regardless of differences of nationality, ethnicity, culture or faith, it is high time to understand that we are all part of one human family, with shared core values - and what is more important is that we act accordingly. As President Roosevelt aptly put it in 1941, 'Freedom means the supremacy of human rights everywhere'. Clearly, this continues to be a work in progress. The IAEA will continue to work against the proliferation of nuclear weapons, and towards nuclear disarmament - and at the same time to promote the use of science for peace and development
Gabriel, C.; Aiello, A.; Zhong, W.
Quantum systems such as, for example, photons, atoms, or Bose-Einstein condensates, prepared in complex states where entanglement between distinct degrees of freedom is present, may display several intriguing features. In this Letter we introduce the concept of such complex quantum states...... generates entanglement between these two different degrees of freedom. Experimentally we demonstrate amplitude squeezing of an azimuthally polarized mode by exploiting the nonlinear Kerr effect in a specially tailored photonic crystal fiber. These results display that such novel continuous......-variable entangled systems can, in principle, be realized.© 2011 American Physical Society....
... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Open meetings, Freedom of Information, and Privacy of Information. 7.8 Section 7.8 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE THE BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE PUBLIC OBSERVATION (ARTICLE VII) § 7.8 Open meetings, Freedom of Information, and Privacy of Information. The provisions o...
Christ, Torsten; Claus, Benjamin; Zielinski, Christina; Falk, Volkmar; Grubitzsch, Herko
The Sorin Freedom SOLO valve is a third-generation stentless aortic valve which shows beneficial hemodynamic performance compared to stented bioprostheses. Long-term results regarding hemodynamics, the durability of the valve, and patient outcome are scarce, and their acquisition was the aim of this single-center study. Between 2005 and 2006, a total of 68 consecutive patients (30 males, 38 females; mean age at surgery 76.1 ± 6.3 years) underwent aortic valve replacement with a Sorin Freedom SOLO prosthesis. Indications were aortic stenosis (n = 50), aortic regurgitation (n = 1) and mixed lesions (n = 17). Associated procedures were performed in 31 patients (45.6%), most of which were coronary artery bypass grafting (68.8 %). The follow up was performed by telephone interviews, and clinical and echocardiographic examinations. Morbidity, mortality and echocardiographic data were analyzed. The total follow up was 501.1 patient-years, with a mean follow up of 7.4 ± 3.4 years (maximum 11.2 years). The follow up was 100% complete. Hospital mortality was 4.4% (n = 3). Actuarial survival at five and 10 years was 76.5 ± 5.1% and 41.5 ± 6.5%, respectively. Reinterventions were performed in eight patients; these included three reoperations due to endocarditis, four transcatheter aortic valve implantations, and one reoperation due to structural valve deterioration (SVD). The overall freedom from valve reintervention due to SVD at five and 10 years was 97.8 ± 2.2% and 82.9 ± 7.5%, respectively. After eight years, echocardiography demonstrated peak and mean transvalvular gradients of 18 ± 11 and 10 ± 7 mmHg, respectively. The overall effective and indexed aortic valve orifice areas were 1.73 ± 0.58 cm2 and 0.92 ± 0.33 cm2/m2, respectively. At long-term follow up the Sorin Freedom SOLO bioprosthesis was associated with favourable hemodynamic results and survival. Freedom from SVD was not superior to that occurring with stented bioprostheses.
Braams, Olga; Schappin, Renske; Meekes, Joost; van Rijen, Peter C; van Nieuwenhuizen, Onno; Braun, Kees P; Jennekens-Schinkel, Aag
We studied how children with epilepsy (CWE) who are candidates for epilepsy surgery, perceive themselves with respect to overarching personality traits and whether the traits change after surgery. We explored influences of demographic and illness variables. A total of 23 CWE [mean age at inclusion 12.8 (sd 2.3); 12 girls] participated. Using the Dutch Personality Questionnaire Juniors (DPQ-J), we assessed 20 of the CWE shortly before epilepsy surgery and compared the results to those of 39 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Furthermore, we obtained follow-up scores 6, 12 and 24 months after epilepsy surgery from the clinical group. CWE who were candidates for epilepsy surgery scored above average in inadequacy, perseverance, social inadequacy and recalcitrance, whereas healthy peers scored average. Over the two years' period after epilepsy surgery we found no changes, apart from a decrease of social inadequacy. Sporadic illness and demographic variables were related to some personality traits. However, neither post-surgical seizure freedom nor cessation of AEDs did noticeably change the self-evaluations of CWE. Asking CWE to evaluate their personality themselves may offer a shared basis for individually tailored behavior intervention in order to help them adapting to their ameliorated circumstances after surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lewis, J. L.
Viewgraphs on man-systems distributed system for Space Station Freedom are presented. Topics addressed include: description of man-systems (definition, requirements, scope, subsystems, and topologies); implementation (approach, tools); man-systems interfaces (system to element and system to system); prime/supporting development relationship; selected accomplishments; and technical challenges.
I. A. Kadievskaya
Full Text Available Article is dedicated to the comprehension of the problems of the moral selection of personality. It is substantiated, that the moral consciousness is the complex system, because of which in the society are established the specific rules of interrelations between the people. The concepts are analyzed: morals, relativity, moral absolutism, general human values, globalization, manipulation by consciousness, spiritual moral training. The specific character of the moral relativity, which denies absolute nature, i.e., is established universality and compulsion of morals, emphasizing conditionality and situationality of moral n. Moral absolutism is contradicted to moral relativity. Moral absolutism corresponds to persuasion, that there are absolute standards, which can be used for the permission of questions of morals, and that the specific actions can be correct or incorrect by themselves independent of their context. The twodigit (positive and negative axiological understanding of the phenomenon of globalization, which dually influences our consciousness, spiritual peace and moral selection, is represented. Under the conditions for largescale information manipulations the translation of moral values as information, modifies their essence. Is shown the role of spiritual moral training in the formation, which must be variative and voluntary, allow for the possibility of ideological selection. The moral freedom of each person is manifested in the transformation of moral requirements into the internal needs of personality, into its own persuasions.
In my commentary on Francesca Minerva's article 'New Threats to Academic Freedom', I agree with her contention that the existence of the Internet has given rise to new and very serious threats to academic freedom. I think that it is crucial that we confront those threats, and find ways to eliminate them, which I believe can be done. The threats in question involve both authors and editors. In the case of authors, I argue that the best solution is not anonymous publication, but publication using pseudonyms, and I describe how that would work. In the case of editors, my proposal is a website that a number of journals would have access to, where papers that editors judge to be clearly worthy of publication, but whose publication seems likely to set off a firestorm of public and media protest, could be published without any indication of the journal that had accepted the paper for publication. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
A hybrid of professional continuing education and Carl Rogers's humanistic philosophy supporting freedom in learning is proposed, and the five principles of the philosophy are examined for their potential for transfer to professional education. (MSE)
Hale, Jon N.
This article examines the history of the 1964 Mississippi Freedom Schools to illustrate how integrating the Civil Rights Movement into the social studies curriculum refocuses the aims of American education on participatory democracy. Teaching the Civil Rights Movement and employing the teaching strategies used in the Freedom Schools leads to the…
Consuelo Nieto Roales-Nieto
Full Text Available The need of working, intended in its most primitive expression, as a mean for subsistence, is one of the fundamental causes for the increasement of migratory movements. As a result, a peculiar situation arises: there are foreign workers to whom the law that regulates the right to work does not apply.As trade union freedom is one of the fundamental rights related to work, it does not apply either. The article analyses the compatibility of the dispositions about foreigners that, in this respect, condition the exercise of the freedom of syndication, to the authorization of permanence in the country or residence permission with the scope of application of trade union freedom right provided by the Spanish Bill of Rights. The study does not try to establish the practical viability of the possibility for a foreigner to be covered by the right of syndication but the legitimacy of the normative implications when foreigner´s law (Ley de extranjería is applied confronted to the principles stated in the Spanish Constitution and in international treaties.