Funase, Arao; Kuno, Yoshiaki; Okuma, Shigeru; Yagi, Tohru
Our final goal is to establish the model for saccadic eye movement that connects the saccade and the electroencephalogram(EEG). As the first step toward this goal, we recorded and analyzed the saccade-related EEG. In the study recorded in this paper, we tried detecting a certain EEG that is peculiar to the eye movement. In these experiments, each subject was instructed to point their eyes toward visual targets (LEDs) or the direction of the sound sources (buzzers). In the control cases, the EEG was recorded in the case of no eye movemens. As results, in the visual experiments, we found that the potential of EEG changed sharply on the occipital lobe just before eye movement. Furthermore, in the case of the auditory experiments, similar results were observed. In the case of the visual experiments and auditory experiments without eye movement, we could not observed the EEG changed sharply. Moreover, when the subject moved his/her eyes toward a right-side target, a change in EEG potential was found on the right occipital lobe. On the contrary, when the subject moved his/her eyes toward a left-side target, a sharp change in EEG potential was found on the left occipital lobe.
Jüttner, M; Röhler, R
Our perception of the visual world remains stable and continuous despite the disruptions caused by retinal image displacements during saccadic eye movements. The problem of visual stability is closely related to the question of whether information is transferred across such eye movements--and if so, what sort of information is transferred. We report experiments carried out to investigate how presaccadic signals at the location of the saccade goal influence the visibility of postsaccadic test signals presented at the fovea. The signals were Landolt rings of different orientations. If the orientations of pre- and postsaccadic Landolt rings were different, the thresholds of the test signals were elevated by about 20%-25% relative to those at the static control condition. When the orientations were identical, no such elevation occurred. This selective threshold elevation effect proved to be a phenomenon different from ordinary saccadic suppression, although it was closely related to the execution of the saccadic eye movement. The consequences for visual stability are discussed.
Med/Medline, ISI Web of Knowledge, Cochrane, and SciELO databases were reviewed. Results: Saccadic eye movement appears to be heavily involved in psychiatric diseases covered in this review via a direct mechanism. The changes seen in the execution of eye movement tasks in patients with psychopathologies of various studies confirm that eye movement is associated with the cognitive and motor system. Conclusion: Saccadic eye movement changes appear to be heavily involved in the psychiatric disorders covered in this review and may be considered a possible marker of some disorders. The few existing studies that approach the topic demonstrate a need to improve the experimental paradigms, as well as the methods of analysis. Most of them report behavioral variables (latency/reaction time, though electrophysiological measures are absent. Keywords: depression, bipolar disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, schizophrenia, anxiety disorder
Camors, Damien; Trotter, Yves; Pouget, Pierre; Gilardeau, Sophie; Durand, Jean-Baptiste
Ocular saccades bringing the gaze toward the straight-ahead direction (centripetal) exhibit higher dynamics than those steering the gaze away (centrifugal). This is generally explained by oculomotor determinants: centripetal saccades are more efficient because they pull the eyes back toward their primary orbital position. However, visual determinants might also be invoked: elements located straight-ahead trigger saccades more efficiently because they receive a privileged visual processing. Here, we addressed this issue by using both pro- and anti-saccade tasks in order to dissociate the centripetal/centrifugal directions of the saccades, from the straight-ahead/eccentric locations of the visual elements triggering those saccades. Twenty participants underwent alternating blocks of pro- and anti-saccades during which eye movements were recorded binocularly at 1 kHz. The results confirm that centripetal saccades are always executed faster than centrifugal ones, irrespective of whether the visual elements have straight-ahead or eccentric locations. However, by contrast, saccades triggered by elements located straight-ahead are consistently initiated more rapidly than those evoked by eccentric elements, irrespective of their centripetal or centrifugal direction. Importantly, this double dissociation reveals that the higher dynamics of centripetal pro-saccades stem from both oculomotor and visual determinants, which act respectively on the execution and initiation of ocular saccades.
Lamirel, Cédric; Milea, Dan; Cochereau, Isabelle
PURPOSE:: Our study aimed at investigating the extent to which saccadic eye movements are disrupted in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). This approach followed upon the discovery of differences in the eye-movement behavior of POAG patients during the exploration of complex visual...
Full Text Available Lack of awareness of a stimulus briefly presented during saccadic eye movement is known as saccadic omission. Studying the reduced visibility of visual stimuli around the time of saccade—known as saccadic suppression—is a key step to investigate saccadic omission. To date, almost all studies have been focused on the reduced visibility of simple stimuli such as flashes and bars. The extension of the results from simple stimuli to more complex objects has been neglected. In two experimental tasks, we measured the subjective and objective awareness of a briefly presented face stimuli during saccadic eye movement. In the first task, we measured the subjective awareness of the visual stimuli and showed that in most of the trials there is no conscious awareness of the faces. In the second task, we measured objective sensitivity in a two-alternative forced choice (2AFC face detection task, which demonstrated chance-level performance. Here, we provide the first evidence of complete suppression of complex visual stimuli during the saccadic eye movement.
Behrens, F; Mackeben, M; Schröder-Preikschat, W
This analysis of time series of eye movements is a saccade-detection algorithm that is based on an earlier algorithm. It achieves substantial improvements by using an adaptive-threshold model instead of fixed thresholds and using the eye-movement acceleration signal. This has four advantages: (1) Adaptive thresholds are calculated automatically from the preceding acceleration data for detecting the beginning of a saccade, and thresholds are modified during the saccade. (2) The monotonicity of the position signal during the saccade, together with the acceleration with respect to the thresholds, is used to reliably determine the end of the saccade. (3) This allows differentiation between saccades following the main-sequence and non-main-sequence saccades. (4) Artifacts of various kinds can be detected and eliminated. The algorithm is demonstrated by applying it to human eye movement data (obtained by EOG) recorded during driving a car. A second demonstration of the algorithm detects microsleep episodes in eye movement data.
Christian H. Poth
Full Text Available Visual perception is based on information processing during periods of eye fixations that are interrupted by fast saccadic eye movements. The ability to sample and relate information on task-relevant objects across fixations implies that correspondence between presaccadic and postsaccadic objects is established. Postsaccadic object information usually updates and overwrites information on the corresponding presaccadic object. The presaccadic object representation is then lost. In contrast, the presaccadic object is conserved when object correspondence is broken. This helps transsaccadic memory but it may impose attentional costs on object recognition. Therefore, we investigated how breaking object correspondence across the saccade affects postsaccadic object recognition. In Experiment 1, object correspondence was broken by a brief postsaccadic blank screen. Observers made a saccade to a peripheral object which was displaced during the saccade. This object reappeared either immediately after the saccade or after the blank screen. Within the postsaccadic object, a letter was briefly presented (terminated by a mask. Observers reported displacement direction and letter identity in different blocks. Breaking object correspondence by blanking improved displacement identification but deteriorated postsaccadic letter recognition. In Experiment 2, object correspondence was broken by changing the object’s contrast-polarity. There were no object displacements and observers only reported letter identity. Again, breaking object correspondence deteriorated postsaccadic letter recognition. These findings identify transsaccadic object correspondence as a key determinant of object recognition across the saccade. This is in line with the recent hypothesis that breaking object correspondence results in separate representations of presaccadic and postsaccadic objects which then compete for limited attentional processing resources (Schneider, 2013. Postsaccadic
Parker, Andrew; Parkin, Adam; Dagnall, Neil
Performing a sequence of fast saccadic horizontal eye movements has been shown to facilitate performance on a range of cognitive tasks, including the retrieval of episodic memories. One explanation for these effects is based on the hypothesis that saccadic eye movements increase hemispheric interaction, and that such interactions are important for particular types of memory. The aim of the current research was to assess the effect of horizontal saccadic eye movements on the retrieval of both ...
Miki, Atsushi; Takagi, Mineo; Abe, Haruki; Nakajima, Takashi; Miyauchi, Satoru.
We evaluated activity-induced signal intensity changes in the human cerebral cortex during horizontal saccadic eye movements using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) based on the blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) contrast method. Compared with central fixation, significant signal increases were observed bilaterally in the middle frontal gyrus (Brodmann area 8) during saccadic conditions. The location of the activated area was consistent with that of previously reported frontal eye fields (FEF). These results suggest that fMRI has potential merit for the study of cortical control of eye movements in humans. (author)
Inaba, Naoko; Kawano, Kenji
Perception of a stable visual world despite eye motion requires integration of visual information across saccadic eye movements. To investigate how the visual system deals with localization of moving visual stimuli across saccades, we observed spatiotemporal changes of receptive fields (RFs) of motion-sensitive neurons across periods of saccades in the middle temporal (MT) and medial superior temporal (MST) areas. We found that the location of the RFs moved with shifts of eye position due to saccades, indicating that motion-sensitive neurons in both areas have retinotopic RFs across saccades. Different characteristic responses emerged when the moving visual stimulus was turned off before the saccades. For MT neurons, virtually no response was observed after the saccade, suggesting that the responses of these neurons simply reflect the reafferent visual information. In contrast, most MST neurons increased their firing rates when a saccade brought the location of the visual stimulus into their RFs, where the visual stimulus itself no longer existed. These findings suggest that the responses of such MST neurons after saccades were evoked by a memory of the stimulus that had preexisted in the postsaccadic RFs ("memory remapping"). A delayed-saccade paradigm further revealed that memory remapping in MST was linked to the saccade itself, rather than to a shift in attention. Thus, the visual motion information across saccades was integrated in spatiotopic coordinates and represented in the activity of MST neurons. This is likely to contribute to the perception of a stable visual world in the presence of eye movements.
Parker, Andrew; Parkin, Adam; Dagnall, Neil
Performing a sequence of fast saccadic horizontal eye movements has been shown to facilitate performance on a range of cognitive tasks, including the retrieval of episodic memories. One explanation for these effects is based on the hypothesis that saccadic eye movements increase hemispheric interaction, and that such interactions are important for particular types of memory. The aim of the current research was to assess the effect of horizontal saccadic eye movements on the retrieval of both episodic autobiographical memory (event/incident based memory) and semantic autobiographical memory (fact based memory) over recent and more distant time periods. It was found that saccadic eye movements facilitated the retrieval of episodic autobiographical memories (over all time periods) but not semantic autobiographical memories. In addition, eye movements did not enhance the retrieval of non-autobiographical semantic memory. This finding illustrates a dissociation between the episodic and semantic characteristics of personal memory and is considered within the context of hemispheric contributions to episodic memory performance.
Full Text Available On average our eyes make 3-5 saccadic movements per second when we read, although their neural mechanism is still unclear. It is generally thought that saccades help redirect the retinal fovea to specific characters and words but that actual discrimination of information only occurs during periods of fixation. Indeed, it has been proposed that there is active and selective suppression of information processing during saccades to avoid experience of blurring due to the high-speed movement. Here, using a paradigm where a string of either lexical (Chinese or non-lexical (alphabetic characters are triggered by saccadic eye movements, we show that subjects can discriminate both while making saccadic eye movement. Moreover, discrimination accuracy is significantly better for characters scanned during the saccadic movement to a fixation point than those not scanned beyond it. Our results showed that character information can be processed during the saccade, therefore saccades during reading not only function to redirect the fovea to fixate the next character or word but allow pre-processing of information from the ones adjacent to the fixation locations to help target the next most salient one. In this way saccades can not only promote continuity in reading words but also actively facilitate reading comprehension.
Zangemeister, W H; Canavan, A G; Hoemberg, V
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of human motor cortex typically evoked motor responses. TMS has failed to elicit eye movements in humans, whereas prolongations of saccadic latency have been reported with TMS. In previous studied we demonstrated that saccades can be abolished or saccadic trajectories can be changed through TMS in the 100 msec before saccade onset. This effect was especially marked when TMS was applied parietally. TMS never influenced a saccade in flight. Simulations of predictive experimental saccades that were impaired through TMS of the frontal or parietal cortex demonstrated especially that the dynamics of small saccades were markedly influenced, resulting in a significant decrease in acceleration and amplitude, or an almost complete inhibition. The impact of inhibition through TMS was critically dependent on timing: early TMS (-70 msec) had a much larger inhibitory effect than late TMS (-20 msec) on experimental saccades. Differential timing of TMS in influencing the cortical control signal is demonstrated through simulations of a reciprocally innervated eye movement model that paralleled empirically determined changes in eye movement dynamics after real TMS. There is a reasonable match between the model and the experimental data. We conclude that the inhibitory action of a presaccadic disturbance, such as a TMS pulse, on saccadic programming is inversely related to timing and amplitude of the predicted saccade.
Schut, Martijn J; Van der Stoep, Nathan; Postma, Albert; Van der Stigchel, Stefan
To facilitate visual continuity across eye movements, the visual system must presaccadically acquire information about the future foveal image. Previous studies have indicated that visual working memory (VWM) affects saccade execution. However, the reverse relation, the effect of saccade execution
Broerse, A; Crawford, TJ; den Boer, JA
Eye movements provide a behavioural measure of sensorimotor processing and higher cognitive functions of the brain. With the development of novel paradigms that can be used for the study of various cognitive operations, saccadic eye movements in particular. have become increasingly popular. Patients
Nieuwenhuis, S.; Elzinga, B.M.; Ras, P.H.; Berends, F.; Duijs, P.; Samara, Z.; Slagter, H.A.
Recent research has shown superior memory retrieval when participants make a series of horizontal saccadic eye movements between the memory encoding phase and the retrieval phase compared to participants who do not move their eyes or move their eyes vertically. It has been hypothesized that the
Nieuwenhuis, Sander; Elzinga, Bernet M.; Ras, Priscilla H.; Berends, Floris; Duijs, Peter; Samara, Zoe; Slagter, Heleen A.
Recent research has shown superior memory retrieval when participants make a series of horizontal saccadic eye movements between the memory encoding phase and the retrieval phase compared to participants who do not move their eyes or move their eyes vertically. It has been hypothesized that the rapidly alternating activation of the two hemispheres…
Alahyane, Nadia; Lemoine-Lardennois, Christelle; Tailhefer, Coline; Collins, Thérèse; Fagard, Jacqueline; Doré-Mazars, Karine
From birth, infants move their eyes to explore their environment, interact with it, and progressively develop a multitude of motor and cognitive abilities. The characteristics and development of oculomotor control in early childhood remain poorly understood today. Here, we examined reaction time and amplitude of saccadic eye movements in 93 7- to 42-month-old children while they oriented toward visual animated cartoon characters appearing at unpredictable locations on a computer screen over 140 trials. Results revealed that saccade performance is immature in children compared to a group of adults: Saccade reaction times were longer, and saccade amplitude relative to target location (10° eccentricity) was shorter. Results also indicated that performance is flexible in children. Although saccade reaction time decreased as age increased, suggesting developmental improvements in saccade control, saccade amplitude gradually improved over trials. Moreover, similar to adults, children were able to modify saccade amplitude based on the visual error made in the previous trial. This second set of results suggests that short visual experience and/or rapid sensorimotor learning are functional in children and can also affect saccade performance.
Wu, Esther X W; Gilani, Syed Omer; van Boxtel, Jeroen J A; Amihai, Ido; Chua, Fook Kee; Yen, Shih-Cheng
Previous studies have shown that saccade plans during natural scene viewing can be programmed in parallel. This evidence comes mainly from temporal indicators, i.e., fixation durations and latencies. In the current study, we asked whether eye movement positions recorded during scene viewing also reflect parallel programming of saccades. As participants viewed scenes in preparation for a memory task, their inspection of the scene was suddenly disrupted by a transition to another scene. We examined whether saccades after the transition were invariably directed immediately toward the center or were contingent on saccade onset times relative to the transition. The results, which showed a dissociation in eye movement behavior between two groups of saccades after the scene transition, supported the parallel programming account. Saccades with relatively long onset times (>100 ms) after the transition were directed immediately toward the center of the scene, probably to restart scene exploration. Saccades with short onset times (programming of saccades during scene viewing. Additionally, results from the analyses of intersaccadic intervals were also consistent with the parallel programming hypothesis.
Ohl, Sven; Rolfs, Martin
Visual short-term memory (VSTM) is a crucial repository of information when events unfold rapidly before our eyes, yet it maintains only a fraction of the sensory information encoded by the visual system. Here, we tested the hypothesis that saccadic eye movements provide a natural bottleneck for the transition of fragile content in sensory memory…
Full Text Available Performing a sequence of fast saccadic horizontal eye movements has been shown to facilitate performance on a range of cognitive tasks, including the retrieval of episodic memories. One explanation for these effects is based on the hypothesis that saccadic eye movements increase hemispheric interaction, and that such interactions are important for particular types of memory. The aim of the current research was to assess the effect of horizontal saccadic eye movements on the retrieval of both episodic autobiographical memory (event/incident based memory and semantic autobiographical memory (fact based memory over recent and more distant time periods. It was found that saccadic eye movements facilitated the retrieval of episodic autobiographical memories (over all time periods but not semantic autobiographical memories. In addition, eye movements did not enhance the retrieval of non-autobiographical semantic memory. This finding illustrates a dissociation between the episodic and semantic characteristics of personal memory and is considered within the context of hemispheric contributions to episodic memory performance.
Hammond, Tracy [Texas A& M University, College Station; Tourassi, Georgia [ORNL; Yoon, Hong-Jun [ORNL; Alamudun, Folami T. [ORNL
In this study, we present a novel application of sketch gesture recognition on eye-movement for biometric identification and estimating task expertise. The study was performed for the task of mammographic screening with simultaneous viewing of four coordinated breast views as typically done in clinical practice. Eye-tracking data and diagnostic decisions collected for 100 mammographic cases (25 normal, 25 benign, 50 malignant) and 10 readers (three board certified radiologists and seven radiology residents), formed the corpus for this study. Sketch gesture recognition techniques were employed to extract geometric and gesture-based features from saccadic eye-movements. Our results show that saccadic eye-movement, characterized using sketch-based features, result in more accurate models for predicting individual identity and level of expertise than more traditional eye-tracking features.
Niechwiej-Szwedo, Ewa; Chandrakumar, Manokaraananthan; Goltz, Herbert C; Wong, Agnes M F
It has previously been shown that anisometropic amblyopia affects the programming and execution of saccades. The aim of the current study was to investigate the impact of strabismic amblyopia on saccade performance. Fourteen adults with strabismic amblyopia, 13 adults with strabismus without amblyopia, and 14 visually normal adults performed saccades and reach-to-touch movements to targets presented at ± 5° and ± 10° eccentricity during binocular and monocular viewing. Latency, amplitude, and peak velocity of primary and secondary saccades were measured. In contrast to visually normal participants who had shorter primary saccade latency during binocular viewing, no binocular advantage was found in patients with strabismus with or without amblyopia. Patients with amblyopia had longer saccade latency during amblyopic eye viewing (P amblyopia and no stereopsis (n = 4) exhibited longer latency (which was more pronounced for more central targets; P amblyopia (n = 5) and no stereopsis had normal latency and reduced precision during amblyopic eye viewing (P amblyopia were found. These findings were in contrast to those in anisometropic amblyopia in which the altered saccade performance was independent of the extent of visual acuity or stereoscopic deficits. These results were most likely due to different long-term sensory suppression mechanisms in strabismic versus anisometropic amblyopia.
Spering, Miriam; Montagnini, Anna; Gegenfurtner, Karl R
Visual processing of color and luminance for smooth pursuit and saccadic eye movements was investigated using a target selection paradigm. In two experiments, stimuli were varied along the dimensions color and luminance, and selection of the more salient target was compared in pursuit and saccades. Initial pursuit was biased in the direction of the luminance component whereas saccades showed a relative preference for color. An early pursuit response toward luminance was often reversed to color by a later saccade. Observers' perceptual judgments of stimulus salience, obtained in two control experiments, were clearly biased toward luminance. This choice bias in perceptual data implies that the initial short-latency pursuit response agrees with perceptual judgments. In contrast, saccades, which have a longer latency than pursuit, do not seem to follow the perceptual judgment of salience but instead show a stronger relative preference for color. These substantial differences in target selection imply that target selection processes for pursuit and saccadic eye movements use distinctly different weights for color and luminance stimuli.
Schut, Martijn J; Van der Stoep, Nathan; Postma, Albert; Van der Stigchel, Stefan
To facilitate visual continuity across eye movements, the visual system must presaccadically acquire information about the future foveal image. Previous studies have indicated that visual working memory (VWM) affects saccade execution. However, the reverse relation, the effect of saccade execution on VWM load is less clear. To investigate the causal link between saccade execution and VWM, we combined a VWM task and a saccade task. Participants were instructed to remember one, two, or three shapes and performed either a No Saccade-, a Single Saccade- or a Dual (corrective) Saccade-task. The results indicate that items stored in VWM are reported less accurately if a single saccade-or a dual saccade-task is performed next to retaining items in VWM. Importantly, the loss of response accuracy for items retained in VWM by performing a saccade was similar to committing an extra item to VWM. In a second experiment, we observed no cost of executing a saccade for auditory working memory performance, indicating that executing a saccade exclusively taxes the VWM system. Our results suggest that the visual system presaccadically stores the upcoming retinal image, which has a similar VWM load as committing one extra item to memory and interferes with stored VWM content. After the saccade, the visual system can retrieve this item from VWM to evaluate saccade accuracy. Our results support the idea that VWM is a system which is directly linked to saccade execution and promotes visual continuity across saccades.
Parker, Andrew; Dagnall, Neil
The effects of handedness and saccadic bilateral eye movements on autobiographical recollection were investigated. Recall of autobiographical memories was cued by the use of neutral and emotional words. Autobiographical recollection was assessed by the autobiographical memory questionnaire. Experiment 1 found that mixed-handed (vs. right handed)…
Lester, Benjamin D; Vecera, Shaun P
Successful goal-directed visual behavior depends on efficient disengagement of attention. Attention must be withdrawn from its current focus before being redeployed to a new object or internal process. Previous research has demonstrated that occupying cognitive processes with a secondary cellular phone conversation impairs attentional functioning and driving behavior. For example, attentional processing is significantly impacted by concurrent cell phone use, resulting in decreased explicit memory for on-road information. Here, we examined the impact of a critical component of cell-phone use-active listening-on the effectiveness of attentional disengagement. In the gap task-a saccadic manipulation of attentional disengagement-we measured saccade latencies while participants performed a secondary active listening task. Saccadic latencies significantly increased under an active listening load only when attention needed to be disengaged, indicating that active listening delays a disengagement operation. Simple dual-task interference did not account for the observed results. Rather, active cognitive engagement is required for measurable disengagement slowing to be observed. These results have implications for investigations of attention, gaze behavior, and distracted driving. Secondary tasks such as active listening or cell-phone conversations can have wide-ranging impacts on cognitive functioning, potentially impairing relatively elementary operations of attentional function, including disengagement.
Braun, Doris I; Schütz, Alexander C; Gegenfurtner, Karl R
Visual sensitivity is dynamically modulated by eye movements. During saccadic eye movements, sensitivity is reduced selectively for low-spatial frequency luminance stimuli and largely unaffected for high-spatial frequency luminance and chromatic stimuli (Nature 371 (1994), 511-513). During smooth pursuit eye movements, sensitivity for low-spatial frequency luminance stimuli is moderately reduced while sensitivity for chromatic and high-spatial frequency luminance stimuli is even increased (Nature Neuroscience, 11 (2008), 1211-1216). Since these effects are at least partly of different polarity, we investigated the combined effects of saccades and smooth pursuit on visual sensitivity. For the time course of chromatic sensitivity, we found that detection rates increased slightly around pursuit onset. During saccades to static and moving targets, detection rates dropped briefly before the saccade and reached a minimum at saccade onset. This reduction of chromatic sensitivity was present whenever a saccade was executed and it was not modified by subsequent pursuit. We also measured contrast sensitivity for flashed high- and low-spatial frequency luminance and chromatic stimuli during saccades and pursuit. During saccades, the reduction of contrast sensitivity was strongest for low-spatial frequency luminance stimuli (about 90%). However, a significant reduction was also present for chromatic stimuli (about 58%). Chromatic sensitivity was increased during smooth pursuit (about 12%). These results suggest that the modulation of visual sensitivity during saccades and smooth pursuit is more complex than previously assumed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kimmig, H.; Greenlee, M.W.; Gondan, Matthias
comprised the frontal and supplementary eye fields, parietal as well as striate cortex, and the motion sensitive area of the parieto-occipital cortex. All these regions showed saccade-related BOLD responses. The responses in these regions were highly correlated with saccade frequency, indicating...... comparing provs anti-saccades we found higher BOLD activation in the "anti" task than in the "pro" task. A comparison of saccade parameters revealed that saccade frequency and cumulative amplitude were comparable between the two tasks, whereas reaction times were longer in the "anti" task than the pro task...
Bucci, Maria Pia; Pouvreau, Nathalie; Yang, Qing; Kapoula, Zoï
The latency of eye movements is influenced by the fixation task; when the fixation stimulus is switched off before the target presentation (gap paradigm) the latency becomes short and express movements occur. In contrast, when the fixation stimulus remains on when the target appears (overlap paradigm), eye movement latency is longer. Several previous studies have shown increased rates of express saccades in children; however the presence of an express type of latency for vergence and combined movements in children has never been explored. The present study examines the effects of the gap and the overlap paradigms on horizontal saccades at far (150 cm) and at close (20 cm) viewing distances, on vergence along the median plane, and on saccades combined with convergence or divergence in 15 normal seven-year-old children. The results show that the gap paradigm produced shorter latency for all eye movements than the overlap paradigm, but the difference was only significant for saccades at close viewing distances, for divergence (pure and combined), and for saccades combined with vergence. The gap paradigm produced significantly higher rates of express latencies for saccades at close viewing distances, for divergence, and for saccades combined with divergence; in contrast, the frequencies of express latencies for saccades at far viewing distances and for convergence (pure or combined) were similar in the gap and the overlap paradigms. Interestingly, the rate of anticipatory latencies (gap paradigm. Our collective findings suggest that the initiation of saccades at close viewing distances and of divergence is more reflexive, particularly in the gap paradigm. The finding of frequent anticipatory divergence that occurs at similar rates for seven-year-old children (this study) and for adults (Coubard et al., 2004, Exp Brain Res 154:368-381) indicates that predictive initiation of divergence is dominant.
Vision, proprioception and plantar sensation contribute to the control of postural balance (PB). Reduced plantar sensation alters postural response and is at an increased risk of fall, and eye movements reduce the postural sway. Therefore, the aim of this study was to study the improvement of plantar sensation and PB after saccadic eye movement (SEM) and pursuit eye movement (PEM) in community-dwelling elderly women. Participants (104 females; 75.11 ± 6.25 years) were randomly allocated into the SEM group (n = 52) and PEM groups (n = 52). The SEM group performed eye fixation and SEM for 5 minutes, and the PEM group performed eye fixation and PEM for 5 minutes. The plantar sensation was measured according to the plantar surface area of the feet in contact with the floor surface before and after the intervention. Before and after SEM and PEM with the eyes open and closed, PB was measured as the area (mm(2)), length (cm), and velocity (cm/s) of the fluctuation of the center of pressure (COP). The plantar sensation of both feet improved in both groups (p eye open and close in both groups (p < 0.01). The length and velocity of the COP significantly decreased in the SEM group compared to the PEM group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, SEM and PEM are effective interventions for improving plantar sensation and PB in elderly women, with greater PB improvement after SEM.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The anti-saccade task, when people must respond in the direction opposite to a visual stimulus, has been used as a marker of operation of the frontal cortical oculomotor area. However, early development of oculomotor control has been little studied with the infant anti-saccade paradigm, and a few studies did not recognize anti-saccades in infants in light of the results of adult anti-saccade. Since the characteristics of infant eye movements are little known, applying the criteria used in adult study is by no means the best way to study infant anti-saccade. As it is indicated that coordinated eye and head movements often enable infants to control the direction of their gaze, head movements should be examined as an infant orienting response. The aim of this study was to address how infants used eye and head movements during the anti-saccade paradigm. To distinguish infants' responses, we also investigated eye and head movements during a task for an inhibition of return. Inhibition of return, in which delayed responses occur in the direction to which attention had previously been oriented, has been thought to mark activity of the superior colliculus. Since the superior colliculus is thought to develop much earlier in life than the frontal lobes, we thought it useful to compare these task performances during infancy. Methods Infants were divided into three groups according to age. Anti-saccade and inhibition-of-return tasks were given. Their eye and head movements during tasks were independently recorded by the corneal reflection method in the head-free condition. Results Younger infants tended to initiate eye movement less than older ones in both tasks. In the anti-saccade task, responses opposite to the cue tended to show longer latency than responses to the cue. Infants made faster responses toward the side opposite the cue when it was to the right than when it was left of fixation. Regarding the comparison of responses
McSorley, Eugene; McCloy, Rachel
One of the most common decisions we make is the one about where to move our eyes next. Here we examine the impact that processing the evidence supporting competing options has on saccade programming. Participants were asked to saccade to one of two possible visual targets indicated by a cloud of moving dots. We varied the evidence which supported saccade target choice by manipulating the proportion of dots moving towards one target or the other. The task was found to become easier as the evidence supporting target choice increased. This was reflected in an increase in percent correct and a decrease in saccade latency. The trajectory and landing position of saccades were found to deviate away from the non-selected target reflecting the choice of the target and the inhibition of the non-target. The extent of the deviation was found to increase with amount of sensory evidence supporting target choice. This shows that decision-making processes involved in saccade target choice have an impact on the spatial control of a saccade. This would seem to extend the notion of the processes involved in the control of saccade metrics beyond a competition between visual stimuli to one also reflecting a competition between options.
Parker, Andrew; Parkin, Adam; Dagnall, Neil
The present research investigated the effects of personal handedness and saccadic eye movements on the specificity of past autobiographical memory and episodic future thinking. Handedness and saccadic eye movements have been hypothesised to share a common functional basis in that both influence cognition through hemispheric interaction. The technique used to elicit autobiographical memory and episodic future thought involved a cued sentence completion procedure that allowed for the production of memories spanning the highly specific to the very general. Experiment 1 found that mixed-handed (vs. right handed) individuals generated more specific past autobiographical memories, but equivalent numbers of specific future predictions. Experiment 2 demonstrated that following 30s of bilateral (horizontal) saccades, more specific cognitions about both the past and future were generated. These findings extend previous research by showing that more distinct and episodic-like information pertaining to the self can be elicited by either mixed-handedness or eye movements. The results are discussed in relation to hemispheric interaction and top-down influences in the control of memory retrieval. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nam, M. H.; Winters, J. M.; Stark, L.
Voluntary active head rotations produced vestibulo-ocular reflex eye movements (VOR) with the subject viewing a fixation target. When this target jumped, the size of the refixation saccades were a function of the ongoing initial velocity of the eye. Saccades made against the VOR were larger in magnitude. Simulation of a reciprocally innervated model eye movement provided results comparable to the experimental data. Most of the experimental effect appeared to be due to linear summation for saccades of 5 and 10 degree magnitude. For small saccades of 2.5 degrees, peripheral nonlinear interaction of state variables in the neuromuscular plant also played a role as proven by comparable behavior in the simulated model with known controller signals.
Full Text Available Traditionally, language processing has been attributed to a separate system in the brain, which supposedly works in an abstract propositional manner. However, there is increasing evidence suggesting that language processing is strongly interrelated with sensorimotor processing. Evidence for such an interrelation is typically drawn from interactions between language and perception or action. In the current study, the effect of words that refer to entities in the world with a typical location (e.g., sun, worm on the planning of saccadic eye movements was investigated. Participants had to perform a lexical decision task on visually presented words and non-words. They responded by moving their eyes to a target in an upper (lower screen position for a word (non-word or vice versa. Eye movements were faster to locations compatible with the word's referent in the real world. These results provide evidence for the importance of linguistic stimuli in directing eye movements, even if the words do not directly transfer directional information.
Full Text Available The lateral habenula (LHb is a brain structure which represents negative motivational value. Neurons in the LHb are excited by unpleasant events such as reward omission and aversive stimuli, and transmit these signals to midbrain dopamine neurons which are involved in learning and motivation. However, it remains unclear whether these phasic changes in LHb neuronal activity actually influence animal behavior. To answer this question, we artificially activated the LHb by electrical stimulation while monkeys were performing a visually guided saccade task. In one block of trials, saccades to one fixed direction (e.g., right direction were followed by electrical stimulation of the LHb while saccades to the other direction (e.g., left direction were not. The direction-stimulation contingency was reversed in the next block. We found that the post-saccadic stimulation of the LHb increased the latencies of saccades in subsequent trials. Notably, the increase of the latency occurred gradually as the saccade was repeatedly followed by the stimulation, suggesting that the effect of the post-saccadic stimulation was accumulated across trials. LHb stimulation starting before saccades, on the other hand, had no effect on saccade latency. Together with previous studies showing LHb activation by reward omission and aversive stimuli, the present stimulation experiment suggests that LHb activity contributes to learning to suppress actions which lead to unpleasant events.
Mack, David J; Ilg, Uwe J
Video game play has become a common leisure activity all around the world. To reveal possible effects of playing video games, we measured saccades elicited by video game players (VGPs) and non-players (NVGPs) in two oculomotor tasks. First, our subjects performed a double-step task. Second, we asked our subjects to move their gaze opposite to the appearance of a visual target, i.e. to perform anti-saccades. As expected on the basis of previous studies, VGPs had significantly shorter saccadic reaction times (SRTs) than NVGPs for all saccade types. However, the error rates in the anti-saccade task did not reveal any significant differences. In fact, the error rates of VGPs were actually slightly lower compared to NVGPs (34% versus 40%, respectively). In addition, VGPs showed significantly higher saccadic peak velocities in every saccade type compared to NVGP. Our results suggest that faster SRTs in VGPs were associated with a more efficient motor drive for saccades. Taken together, our results are in excellent agreement with earlier reports of beneficial video game effects through the general reduction in SRTs. Our data clearly provides additional experimental evidence for an higher efficiency of the VGPs on the one hand and refutes the notion of a reduced impulse control in VGPs on the other. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zalla, Tiziana; Seassau, Magali; Cazalis, Fabienne; Gras, Doriane; Leboyer, Marion
In this study, we examined the accuracy and dynamics of visually guided saccades in 20 adults with autism spectrum disorder, as compared to 20 typically developed adults using the Step/Overlap/Gap paradigms. Performances in participants with autistic spectrum disorder were characterized by preserved Gap/Overlap effect, but reduced gain and peak…
Aasef G. Shaikh
Full Text Available Whipple’s disease, a rare systemic infectious disorder, is complicated by the involvement of the central nervous system in about 5% of cases. Oscillations of the eyes and the jaw, called oculo-masticatory myorhythmia, are pathognomonic of the central nervous system involvement but are often absent. Typical manifestations of the central nervous system Whipple’s disease are cognitive impairment, parkinsonism mimicking progressive supranuclear palsy with vertical saccade slowing, and up-gaze range limitation. We describe a unique patient with the central nervous system Whipple’s disease who had typical features, including parkinsonism, cognitive impairment, and up-gaze limitation; but also had diplopia, esotropia with mild horizontal (abduction more than adduction limitation, and vertigo. The patient also had gaze-evoked nystagmus and staircase horizontal saccades. Latter were thought to be due to mal-programmed small saccades followed by a series of corrective saccades. The saccades were disconjugate due to the concurrent strabismus. Also, we noted disconjugacy in the slow phase of gaze-evoked nystagmus. The disconjugacy of the slow phase of gaze-evoked nystagmus was larger during monocular viewing condition. We propose that interaction of the strabismic drifts of the covered eyes and the nystagmus drift, putatively at the final common pathway might lead to such disconjugacy.
Raghavan, Ramanujan T; Lisberger, Stephen G
We recorded the responses of Purkinje cells in the oculomotor vermis during smooth pursuit and saccadic eye movements. Our goal was to characterize the responses in the vermis using approaches that would allow direct comparisons with responses of Purkinje cells in another cerebellar area for pursuit, the floccular complex. Simple-spike firing of vermis Purkinje cells is direction selective during both pursuit and saccades, but the preferred directions are sufficiently independent so that downstream circuits could decode signals to drive pursuit and saccades separately. Complex spikes also were direction selective during pursuit, and almost all Purkinje cells showed a peak in the probability of complex spikes during the initiation of pursuit in at least one direction. Unlike the floccular complex, the preferred directions for simple spikes and complex spikes were not opposite. The kinematics of smooth eye movement described the simple-spike responses of vermis Purkinje cells well. Sensitivities were similar to those in the floccular complex for eye position and considerably lower for eye velocity and acceleration. The kinematic relations were quite different for saccades vs. pursuit, supporting the idea that the contributions from the vermis to each kind of movement could contribute independently in downstream areas. Finally, neither the complex-spike nor the simple-spike responses of vermis Purkinje cells were appropriate to support direction learning in pursuit. Complex spikes were not triggered reliably by an instructive change in target direction; simple-spike responses showed very small amounts of learning. We conclude that the vermis plays a different role in pursuit eye movements compared with the floccular complex. NEW & NOTEWORTHY The midline oculomotor cerebellum plays a different role in smooth pursuit eye movements compared with the lateral, floccular complex and appears to be much less involved in direction learning in pursuit. The output from the
van Tricht, M. J.; Nieman, D. H.; Bour, L. J.; Boeree, T.; Koelman, J. H. T. M.; de Haan, L.; Linszen, D. H.
Abnormalities in eye tracking are consistently observed in schizophrenia patients and their relatives and have been proposed as an endophenotype of the disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of patients at Ultra High Risk (UHR) for developing psychosis on a task of smooth pursuit eye movement (SPEM). Forty-six UHR…
Zhang, Youming; Juhola, Martti
Eye movements are a relatively novel data source for biometric identification. When video cameras applied to eye tracking become smaller and more efficient, this data source could offer interesting opportunities for the development of eye movement biometrics. In this paper, we study primarily biometric identification as seen as a classification task of multiple classes, and secondarily biometric verification considered as binary classification. Our research is based on the saccadic eye movement signal measurements from 109 young subjects. In order to test the data measured, we use a procedure of biometric identification according to the one-versus-one (subject) principle. In a development from our previous research, which also involved biometric verification based on saccadic eye movements, we now apply another eye movement tracker device with a higher sampling frequency of 250 Hz. The results obtained are good, with correct identification rates at 80-90% at their best.
Sanfim, Antonio; Velasques, Bruna; Machado, Sergio; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Paes, Flávia; Teixeira, Silmar; Santos, Joana Luz; Bittencourt, Juliana; Basile, Luis F; Cagy, Mauricio; Piedade, Roberto; Sack, Alexander T; Nardi, Antonio Egídio; Ribeiro, Pedro
This study aimed at analyzing the relationship between slow- and fast-alpha asymmetry within frontal cortex and the planning, execution and voluntary control of saccadic eye movements (SEM), and quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG) was recorded using a 20-channel EEG system in 12 healthy participants performing a fixed (i.e., memory-driven) and a random SEM (i.e., stimulus-driven) condition. We find main effects for SEM condition in slow- and fast-alpha asymmetry at electrodes F3-F4, which are located over premotor cortex, specifically a negative asymmetry between conditions. When analyzing electrodes F7-F8, which are located over prefrontal cortex, we found a main effect for condition in slow-alpha asymmetry, particularly a positive asymmetry between conditions. In conclusion, the present approach supports the association of slow- and fast-alpha bands with the planning and preparation of SEM, and the specific role of these sub-bands for both, the attention network and the coordination and integration of sensory information with a (oculo)-motor response. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The term amblyopia is used to describe reduced visual function in one eye (or both eyes, though not so often which cannot be fully improved by refractive correction and explained by the organic cause observed during regular eye examination. This developmental disorder of spatial vision affects about 2-5% of the population and is associated with abnormal visual experience (e.g. anisometropia, strabismus during infancy or early childhood. Several studies have shown prolongation of saccadic latency time in amblyopic eye. In our opinion, study of saccadic latency in the context of central vision deficits assessment, should be based on central retina stimulation. For this reason, we proposed saccade delayed task. It requires inhibitory processing for maintaining fixation on the central target until it disappears – what constitutes the GO signal for saccade. The experiment consisted of 100 trials for each eye and was performed under two viewing conditions: monocular amblyopic / non-dominant eye and monocular dominant eye. We examined saccadic latency in 16 subjects (mean age 30±11 years with anisometropic amblyopia (two subjects had also microtropia and in 17 control subjects (mean age 28±8 years. Participants were instructed to look at central (fixation target and when it disappears, to make the saccade toward the periphery (10 deg as fast as possible, either left or the right target. The study results have proved the significant difference in saccadic latency between the amblyopic (mean 262±48 ms and dominant (mean 237±45 ms eye, in anisometropic group. In the control group, the saccadic latency for dominant (mean 226±32ms and non-dominant (mean 230±29 ms eye was not significantly different.By the use of LATER (Linear Approach to the Threshold with Ergodic Rate decision model we interpret our findings as a decrease in accumulation of visual information acquired by means of central (affected retina in subjects with anisometropic amblyopia.
El Haj, Mohamad; Nandrino, Jean-Louis; Antoine, Pascal; Boucart, Muriel; Lenoble, Quentin
This study assessed whether specific eye movement patterns are observed during emotional autobiographical retrieval. Participants were asked to retrieve positive, negative and neutral memories while their scan path was recorded by an eye-tracker. Results showed that positive and negative emotional memories triggered more fixations and saccades but shorter fixation duration than neutral memories. No significant differences were observed between emotional and neutral memories for duration and amplitude of saccades. Positive and negative retrieval triggered similar eye movement (i.e., similar number of fixations and saccades, fixation duration, duration of saccades, and amplitude of saccades). Interestingly, the participants reported higher visual imagery for emotional memories than for neutral memories. The findings demonstrate similarities and differences in eye movement during retrieval of neutral and emotional memories. Eye movement during autobiographical retrieval seems to be triggered by the creation of visual mental images as the latter are indexed by autobiographical reconstruction. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Li, Yu; Xu, Yangyang; Xia, Mengqing; Zhang, Tianhong; Wang, Junjie; Liu, Xu; He, Yongguang; Wang, Jijun
Impaired cognition is one of the most common core symptoms of depressive disorder. Eye movement testing mainly reflects patients' cognitive functions, such as cognition, memory, attention, recognition, and recall. This type of testing has great potential to improve theories related to cognitive functioning in depressive episodes as well as potential in its clinical application. This study investigated whether eye movement indices of patients with unmedicated depressive disorder were abnormal or not, as well as the relationship between these indices and mental symptoms. Sixty patients with depressive disorder and sixty healthy controls (who were matched by gender, age and years of education) were recruited, and completed eye movement tests including three tasks: fixation task, saccade task and free-view task. The EyeLink desktop eye tracking system was employed to collect eye movement information, and analyze the eye movement indices of the three tasks between the two groups. (1) In the fixation task, compared to healthy controls, patients with depressive disorder showed more fixations, shorter fixation durations, more saccades and longer saccadic lengths; (2) In the saccade task, patients with depressive disorder showed longer anti-saccade latencies and smaller anti-saccade peak velocities; (3) In the free-view task, patients with depressive disorder showed fewer saccades and longer mean fixation durations; (4) Correlation analysis showed that there was a negative correlation between the pro-saccade amplitude and anxiety symptoms, and a positive correlation between the anti-saccade latency and anxiety symptoms. The depression symptoms were negatively correlated with fixation times, saccades, and saccadic paths respectively in the free-view task; while the mean fixation duration and depression symptoms showed a positive correlation. Compared to healthy controls, patients with depressive disorder showed significantly abnormal eye movement indices. In addition
Full Text Available In this selective review, we examine key findings on eye movements when viewing advertisements. We begin with a brief, general introduction to the properties and neural underpinnings of saccadic eye movements. Next, we provide an overview of eye movement behavior during reading, scene perception, and visual search, since each of these activities is, at various times, involved in viewing ads. We then review the literature on eye movements when viewing print ads and warning labels (of the kind that appear on alcohol and tobacco ads, before turning to a consideration of advertisements in dynamic media (television and the Internet. Finally, we propose topics and methodological approaches that may prove to be useful in future research.
... work properly. There are many kinds of eye movement disorders. Two common ones are Strabismus - a disorder ... in "crossed eyes" or "walleye." Nystagmus - fast, uncontrollable movements of the eyes, sometimes called "dancing eyes" Some ...
El Haj, Mohamad; Lenoble, Quentin
We investigated eye movement during past and future thinking. Participants were invited to retrieve past events and to imagine future events while their scan path was recorded by an eye-tracker. Past thinking triggered more fixation (p thinking. Past and future thinking triggered a similar duration of fixations and saccades, as well as a similar amplitude of saccades. Interestingly, participants rated past thinking as more vivid than future thinking (p thinking seems to be accompanied by an increased number of fixations and saccades. Fixations and saccades in past thinking can be interpreted as an attempt by the visual system to find (through saccades) and activate (through fixations) stored memory representations. The same interpretation can be applied to future thinking as this ability requires activation of past experiences. However, future thinking triggers fewer fixations and saccades than past thinking: this may be due to its decreased demand on visual imagery, but could also be related to a potentially deleterious effect of eye movements on spatial imagery required for future thinking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Munuera, Jérôme; Morel, Pierre; Duhamel, Jean-René; Deneve, Sophie
Fast and accurate motor behavior requires combining noisy and delayed sensory information with knowledge of self-generated body motion; much evidence indicates that humans do this in a near-optimal manner during arm movements. However, it is unclear whether this principle applies to eye movements. We measured the relative contributions of visual sensory feedback and the motor efference copy (and/or proprioceptive feedback) when humans perform two saccades in rapid succession, the first saccade to a visual target and the second to a memorized target. Unbeknownst to the subject, we introduced an artificial motor error by randomly "jumping" the visual target during the first saccade. The correction of the memory-guided saccade allowed us to measure the relative contributions of visual feedback and efferent copy (and/or proprioceptive feedback) to motor-plan updating. In a control experiment, we extinguished the target during the saccade rather than changing its location to measure the relative contribution of motor noise and target localization error to saccade variability without any visual feedback. The motor noise contribution increased with saccade amplitude, but remained <30% of the total variability. Subjects adjusted the gain of their visual feedback for different saccade amplitudes as a function of its reliability. Even during trials where subjects performed a corrective saccade to compensate for the target-jump, the correction by the visual feedback, while stronger, remained far below 100%. In all conditions, an optimal controller predicted the visual feedback gain well, suggesting that humans combine optimally their efferent copy and sensory feedback when performing eye movements.
Marcos T. Mercadante
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To verify differences in the visual scanning strategies between pervasive developmental disorders (PDD and controls when they are observing social and non-social pictures. METHOD: PDD group (PDDG comprised by 10 non-retarded subjects (age from 4 to 41 and age-matched control group (CG. Nine social pictures with human beings (including two pictures of cat mask, and 3 nonsocial pictures of objects were presented for 5 seconds. Saccadic movements and fixation were recorded with equipment EyeGaze® (LC Technologies Inc.. RESULTS: PDDG (mean=292.73, SE=67.62 presented longer duration of saccadic movements for social pictures compared to CG (mean=136.06, SE=14.01 (p=0.04. The CG showed a higher number of fixations in the picture 7 (a women using a cat mask, with the eyes erased (CG: mean=3.40; PDDG: mean=1.80; p=0.007. CONCLUSION: The results suggest differences in strategies that PDD explore human picture. Moreover, these strategies seem not to be affected by the lack of expected part of the face (the eyes.OBJETIVO: Verificar diferenças nas estratégias de varredura visual de indivíduos com transtorno invasivo do desenvolvimento (TID comparados a controles normais na observação de figuras sociais e não sociais. MÉTODO: Estudo caso-controle. Grupo TID: dez sujeitos com TID, inteligência normal e idade entre 4 e 41 anos; Grupo Controle: dez sujeitos pareados por idade. Os sujeitos observaram por 5 segundos 9 figuras de seres humanos e 3 figuras de objetos. Os movimentos sacádicos e o número de fixações foram gravados em equipamento EyeGaze® (LC Technologies Inc.. RESULTADOS: O grupo TID apresentou maior duração dos movimentos sacádicos na observação de figuras humanas [TID=292,73 (EP=67,62; controle= 136,06 (EP=14,01; p=0,04]. O grupo controle apresentou maior número de fixações na figura 7 (mulher com máscara de gato sem os olhos (TID=1,8; controle=3,4; p=0,007. CONCLUSÃO: Indivíduos com TID parecem utilizar estrat
Yoshida, Masaki; Kawai, Kazushige; Kitahara, Kenji [Jikei Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine; Soulie, D.; Cordoliani, Y.S.; Iba-Zizen, M.T.; Cabanis, E.A.
Cortical activity during eye movement was examined with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Horizontal saccadic eye movements and smooth pursuit eye movements were elicited in normal subjects. Activity in the frontal eye field was found during both saccadic and smooth pursuit eye movements at the posterior margin of the middle frontal gyrus and in parts of the precentral sulcus and precentral gyrus bordering the middle frontal gyrus (Brodmann`s areas 8, 6, and 9). In addition, activity in the parietal eye field was found in the deep, upper margin of the angular gyrus and of the supramarginal gyrus (Brodmann`s areas 39 and 40) during saccadic eye movement. Activity of V5 was found at the intersection of the ascending limb of the inferior temporal sulcus and the lateral occipital sulcus during smooth pursuit eye movement. Our results suggest that functional magnetic resonance imaging is useful for detecting cortical activity during eye movement. (author)
Yoshida, Masaki; Kawai, Kazushige; Kitahara, Kenji; Soulie, D.; Cordoliani, Y.S.; Iba-Zizen, M.T.; Cabanis, E.A.
Cortical activity during eye movement was examined with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Horizontal saccadic eye movements and smooth pursuit eye movements were elicited in normal subjects. Activity in the frontal eye field was found during both saccadic and smooth pursuit eye movements at the posterior margin of the middle frontal gyrus and in parts of the precentral sulcus and precentral gyrus bordering the middle frontal gyrus (Brodmann's areas 8, 6, and 9). In addition, activity in the parietal eye field was found in the deep, upper margin of the angular gyrus and of the supramarginal gyrus (Brodmann's areas 39 and 40) during saccadic eye movement. Activity of V5 was found at the intersection of the ascending limb of the inferior temporal sulcus and the lateral occipital sulcus during smooth pursuit eye movement. Our results suggest that functional magnetic resonance imaging is useful for detecting cortical activity during eye movement. (author)
Helmer, Desiree; Geurten, Bart R H; Dehnhardt, Guido; Hanke, Frederike D
Most moving animals segregate their locomotion trajectories in short burst like rotations and prolonged translations, to enhance distance information from optic flow, as only translational, but not rotational optic flow holds distance information. Underwater, optic flow is a valuable source of information as it is in the terrestrial habitat, however, so far, it has gained only little attention. To extend the knowledge on underwater optic flow perception and use, we filmed the movement pattern of six common cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) with a high speed camera in this study. In the subsequent analysis, the center of mass of the cuttlefish body was manually traced to gain thrust, slip, and yaw of the cuttlefish movements over time. Cuttlefish indeed performed short rotations, saccades, with rotational velocities up to 343°/s. They clearly separated rotations from translations in line with the saccadic movement strategy documented for animals inhabiting the terrestrial habitat as well as for the semiaquatic harbor seals before. However, this separation only occurred during fin motion. In contrast, during jet propelled swimming, the separation between rotational and translational movements and thus probably distance estimation on the basis of the optic flow field is abolished in favor of high movement velocities. In conclusion, this study provides first evidence that an aquatic invertebrate, the cuttlefish, adopts a saccadic movement strategy depending on the behavioral context that could enhance the information gained from optic flow.
Full Text Available The study assumed that the antisaccade (AS task is a relevant psychophysical tool to assess (i short-term neuromodulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC induced by intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS and (ii mood change occurring during the course of the treatment. Saccadic inhibition is known to strongly involve the DLPFC, whose neuromodulation with iTBS requires less stimulation time and lower stimulation intensity, as well as results in longer aftereffects than the conventional repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS. Active or sham iTBS was applied every day for three weeks over the left DLPFC of 12 drug-resistant bipolar depressed patients. To assess the iTBS-induced short-term neuromodulation, the saccadic task was performed just before (S1 and just after (S2 the iTBS session, the first day of each week. Mood was evaluated through MADRS scores and the difference in scores between the beginning and the end of treatment was correlated with AS performance change between these two periods. As expected, only patients from the active group improved their performance from S1 to S2 and mood improvement was significantly correlated with AS performance improvement. In addition, the AS task also discriminated depressive bipolar patients from healthy control subjects. Therefore, the AS task could be a relevant and useful tool for clinicians to assess if the TMS-induced short-term neuromodulation of the DLPFC occurs as well as a ‘trait vs. state’ objective marker of depressive mood disorder.
Beynel, Lysianne; Chauvin, Alan; Guyader, Nathalie; Harquel, Sylvain; Szekely, David; Bougerol, Thierry; Marendaz, Christian
The study assumed that the antisaccade (AS) task is a relevant psychophysical tool to assess (i) short-term neuromodulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) induced by intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS); and (ii) mood change occurring during the course of the treatment. Saccadic inhibition is known to strongly involve the DLPFC, whose neuromodulation with iTBS requires less stimulation time and lower stimulation intensity, as well as results in longer aftereffects than the conventional repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Active or sham iTBS was applied every day for 3 weeks over the left DLPFC of 12 drug-resistant bipolar depressed patients. To assess the iTBS-induced short-term neuromodulation, the saccadic task was performed just before (S1) and just after (S2) the iTBS session, the first day of each week. Mood was evaluated through Montgomery and Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) scores and the difference in scores between the beginning and the end of treatment was correlated with AS performance change between these two periods. As expected, only patients from the active group improved their performance from S1 to S2 and mood improvement was significantly correlated with AS performance improvement. In addition, the AS task also discriminated depressive bipolar patients from healthy control subjects. Therefore, the AS task could be a relevant and useful tool for clinicians to assess if the Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-induced short-term neuromodulation of the DLPFC occurs as well as a "trait vs. state" objective marker of depressive mood disorder.
Blackmon, Theodore T.; Ho, Yeuk F.; Chernyak, Dimitri A.; Azzariti, Michela; Stark, Lawrence W.
An eye movements sequence, or scanpath, during viewing of a stationary stimulus has been described as a set of fixations onto regions-of-interest, ROIs, and the saccades or transitions between them. Such scanpaths have high similarity for the same subject and stimulus both in the spatial loci of the ROIs and their sequence; scanpaths also take place during recollection of a previously viewed stimulus, suggesting that they play a similar role in visual memory and recall.
van der Lubbe, Robert Henricus Johannes; Wauschkuhn, Bernd; Wascher, Edmund; Niehoff, Torsten; Kömpf, Detlef; Verleger, Rolf
During preparation of horizontal saccades in humans, several lateralized (relative to saccade direction), event-related EEG components occur that have been interpreted as reflecting activity of frontal and parietal eye fields. We investigated to what degree these components are specific to saccade
Palidis, Dimitrios J; Wyder-Hodge, Pearson A; Fooken, Jolande; Spering, Miriam
Dynamic visual acuity (DVA) is the ability to resolve fine spatial detail in dynamic objects during head fixation, or in static objects during head or body rotation. This ability is important for many activities such as ball sports, and a close relation has been shown between DVA and sports expertise. DVA tasks involve eye movements, yet, it is unclear which aspects of eye movements contribute to successful performance. Here we examined the relation between DVA and the kinematics of smooth pursuit and saccadic eye movements in a cohort of 23 varsity baseball players. In a computerized dynamic-object DVA test, observers reported the location of the gap in a small Landolt-C ring moving at various speeds while eye movements were recorded. Smooth pursuit kinematics-eye latency, acceleration, velocity gain, position error-and the direction and amplitude of saccadic eye movements were linked to perceptual performance. Results reveal that distinct eye movement patterns-minimizing eye position error, tracking smoothly, and inhibiting reverse saccades-were related to dynamic visual acuity. The close link between eye movement quality and DVA performance has important implications for the development of perceptual training programs to improve DVA.
Khayat, Paul S.; Spekreijse, Henk; Roelfsema, Pieter R.
During normal viewing, the eyes move from one location to another in order to sample the visual environment. Information acquired before the eye movement facilitates post-saccadic processing. This "preview effect" indicates that some information is maintained in transsaccadic memory and combined
Full Text Available The eye changes gaze continuously from one visual stimulus to another. Using a high speed camera to record eye and lens movements we demonstrate how the crystalline lens sustains an inertial oscillatory decay movement immediately after every change of gaze. This behavior fit precisely with the movement of a classical damped harmonic oscillator. The time course of the oscillations range from 50 to 60 msec with an oscillation frequency of around 20 Hz. That has dramatic implications on the image quality at the retina on the very short times (∼50 msec that follow the movement. However, it is well known that our vision is nearly suppressed on those periods (post-saccadic suppression. Both phenomenon follow similar time courses and therefore might be synchronized to avoid the visual impairment.
Lin, Chiuhsiang Joe; Chang, Chi-Chan; Lee, Yung-Hui
This study investigates the characteristics of eye movements during a camouflaged target search task. Camouflaged targets were randomly presented on two natural landscapes. The performance of each camouflage design was assessed by target detection hit rate, detection time, number of fixations on display, first saccade amplitude to target, number of fixations on target, fixation duration on target, and subjective ratings of search task difficulty. The results showed that the camouflage patterns could significantly affect the eye-movement behavior, especially first saccade amplitude and fixation duration, and the findings could be used to increase the sensitivity of the camouflage assessment. We hypothesized that the assessment could be made with regard to the differences in detectability and discriminability of the camouflage patterns. These could explain less efficient search behavior in eye movements. Overall, data obtained from eye movements can be used to significantly enhance the interpretation of the effects of different camouflage design. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.
Palidis, Dimitrios J.; Wyder-Hodge, Pearson A.; Fooken, Jolande; Spering, Miriam
Dynamic visual acuity (DVA) is the ability to resolve fine spatial detail in dynamic objects during head fixation, or in static objects during head or body rotation. This ability is important for many activities such as ball sports, and a close relation has been shown between DVA and sports expertise. DVA tasks involve eye movements, yet, it is unclear which aspects of eye movements contribute to successful performance. Here we examined the relation between DVA and the kinematics of smooth pursuit and saccadic eye movements in a cohort of 23 varsity baseball players. In a computerized dynamic-object DVA test, observers reported the location of the gap in a small Landolt-C ring moving at various speeds while eye movements were recorded. Smooth pursuit kinematics—eye latency, acceleration, velocity gain, position error—and the direction and amplitude of saccadic eye movements were linked to perceptual performance. Results reveal that distinct eye movement patterns—minimizing eye position error, tracking smoothly, and inhibiting reverse saccades—were related to dynamic visual acuity. The close link between eye movement quality and DVA performance has important implications for the development of perceptual training programs to improve DVA. PMID:28187157
Guo, Baobao; Wu, Qiang; Sun, Jiande; Yan, Hua
Eye movement is a new kind of feature for biometrical recognition, it has many advantages compared with other features such as fingerprint, face, and iris. It is not only a sort of static characteristics, but also a combination of brain activity and muscle behavior, which makes it effective to prevent spoofing attack. In addition, eye movements can be incorporated with faces, iris and other features recorded from the face region into multimode systems. In this paper, we do an exploring study on eye movement identification based on the eye movement datasets provided by Komogortsev et al. in 2011 with different classification methods. The time of saccade and fixation are extracted from the eye movement data as the eye movement features. Furthermore, the performance analysis was conducted on different classification methods such as the BP, RBF, ELMAN and SVM in order to provide a reference to the future research in this field.
Pure vergence movements are the eye movements that we make when we change our binocular fixation between targets differing in distance but not in direction relative to the head. Pure vergence is slow and controlled by visual feedback. Saccades are the rapid eye movements that we make between targets
Moehler, Tobias; Fiehler, Katja
Saccade curvature represents a sensitive measure of oculomotor inhibition with saccades curving away from covertly attended locations. Here we investigated whether and how saccade curvature depends on movement preparation time when a perceptual task is performed during or before saccade preparation. Participants performed a dual-task including a visual discrimination task at a cued location and a saccade task to the same location (congruent) or to a different location (incongruent). Additionally, we varied saccade preparation time (time between saccade cue and Go-signal) and the occurrence of the discrimination task (during saccade preparation=simultaneous vs. before saccade preparation=sequential). We found deteriorated perceptual performance in incongruent trials during simultaneous task performance while perceptual performance was unaffected during sequential task performance. Saccade accuracy and precision were deteriorated in incongruent trials during simultaneous and, to a lesser extent, also during sequential task performance. Saccades consistently curved away from covertly attended non-saccade locations. Saccade curvature was unaffected by movement preparation time during simultaneous task performance but decreased and finally vanished with increasing movement preparation time during sequential task performance. Our results indicate that the competing saccade plan to the covertly attended non-saccade location is maintained during simultaneous task performance until the perceptual task is solved while in the sequential condition, in which the discrimination task is solved prior to the saccade task, oculomotor inhibition decays gradually with movement preparation time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ranzini, Mariagrazia; Lisi, Matteo; Zorzi, Marco
Growing evidence suggests that orienting visual attention in space can influence the processing of numerical magnitude, with leftward orienting speeding up the processing of small numbers relative to larger ones and the converse for rightward orienting. The manipulation of eye movements is a convenient way to direct visuospatial attention, but several aspects of the complex relationship between eye movements, attention orienting and number processing remain unexplored. In a previous study, we observed that inducing involuntary, reflexive eye movements by means of optokinetic stimulation affected number processing only when numerical magnitude was task relevant (i.e., during magnitude comparison, but not during parity judgment; Ranzini et al., in J Cogn Psychol 27, 459-470, (2015). Here, we investigated whether processing of task-irrelevant numerical magnitude can be modulated by voluntary eye movements, and whether the type of eye movements (smooth pursuit vs. saccades) would influence this interaction. Participants tracked with their gaze a dot while listening to a digit. The numerical task was to indicate whether the digit was odd or even through non-spatial, verbal responses. The dot could move leftward or rightward either continuously, allowing tracking by smooth pursuit eye movements, or in discrete steps across a series of adjacent locations, triggering a sequence of saccades. Both smooth pursuit and saccadic eye movements similarly affected number processing and modulated response times for large numbers as a function of direction of motion. These findings suggest that voluntary eye movements redirect attention in mental number space and highlight that eye movements should play a key factor in the investigation of number-space interactions.
Lenoir, M.; Crevits, L.; Goethals, M.; Wildenbeest, J.; Musch, E.
The aim of this study was to compare prosaccadic and antisaccadic eye movements of experts in ball sports and controls. In the prosaccadic and antisaccadic task, subjects made saccades respectively towards and away from a suddenly appearing stimulus. By means of infrared-oculography, we compared
Full Text Available Associating movement directions or endpoints with monetary rewards or costs influences movement parameters in humans, and associating movement directions or endpoints with food reward influences movement parameters in non-human primates. Rewarded movements are facilitated relative to non-rewarded movements. The present study examined to what extent successful foveation facilitated saccadic eye movement behavior, with the hypothesis that foveation may constitute an informational reward. Human adults performed saccades to peripheral targets that either remained visible after saccade completion or were extinguished, preventing visual feedback. Saccades to targets that were systematically extinguished were slower and easier to inhibit than saccades to targets that afforded successful foveation, and this effect was modulated by the probability of successful foveation. These results suggest that successful foveation facilitates behavior, and that obtaining the expected sensory consequences of a saccadic eye movement may serve as a reward for the oculomotor system.
Selen, L.P.J.; Medendorp, W.P.
Reach and grasp movements are a fundamental part of our daily interactions with the environment. This spatially-guided behavior is often directed to memorized objects because of intervening eye movements that caused them to disappear from sight. How does the brain store and maintain the spatial
Huang, Xu; Jing, Jin; Zou, Xiao-Bing; Wang, Meng-Long; Li, Xiu-Hong; Lin, Ai-Hua
Reading Chinese, a kind of ideogram, relies more on visual cognition. The visuospatial cognitive deficit of Chinese dyslexia is an interesting topic that has received much attention. The purpose of current research was to explore the visuopatial cognitive characteristics of Chinese dyslexic children by studying their eye movements via a picture searching test. According to the diagnostic criteria defined by ICD-10, twenty-eight dyslexic children (mean age (10.12 +/- 1.42) years) were enrolled from the Clinic of Children Behavioral Disorder in the third affiliated hospital of Sun Yat-sen University. And 28 normally reading children (mean age (10.06 +/- 1.29) years), 1:1 matched by age, sex, grade and family condition were chosen from an elementary school in Guangzhou as a control group. Four groups of pictures (cock, accident, canyon, meditate) from Picture Vocabulary Test were chosen as eye movement experiment targets. All the subjects carried out the picture searching task and their eye movement data were recorded by an Eyelink II High-Speed Eye Tracker. The duration time, average fixation duration, average saccade amplitude, fixation counts and saccade counts were compared between the two groups of children. The dyslexic children had longer total fixation duration and average fixation duration (F = 7.711, P < 0.01; F = 4.520, P < 0.05), more fixation counts and saccade counts (F = 7.498, P < 0.01; F = 11.040, P < 0.01), and a smaller average saccade amplitude (F = 29.743, P < 0.01) compared with controls. But their performance in the picture vocabulary test was the same as those of the control group. The eye movement indexes were affected by the difficulty of the pictures and words, all eye movement indexes, except saccade amplitude, had a significant difference within groups (P < 0.05). Chinese dyslexic children have abnormal eye movements in picture searching, applying slow fixations, more fixations and small and frequent saccades. Their abnormal eye movement
Fooken, Jolande; Yeo, Sang-Hoon; Pai, Dinesh K; Spering, Miriam
Eye movements aid visual perception and guide actions such as reaching or grasping. Most previous work on eye-hand coordination has focused on saccadic eye movements. Here we show that smooth pursuit eye movement accuracy strongly predicts both interception accuracy and the strategy used to intercept a moving object. We developed a naturalistic task in which participants (n = 42 varsity baseball players) intercepted a moving dot (a "2D fly ball") with their index finger in a designated "hit zone." Participants were instructed to track the ball with their eyes, but were only shown its initial launch (100-300 ms). Better smooth pursuit resulted in more accurate interceptions and determined the strategy used for interception, i.e., whether interception was early or late in the hit zone. Even though early and late interceptors showed equally accurate interceptions, they may have relied on distinct tactics: early interceptors used cognitive heuristics, whereas late interceptors' performance was best predicted by pursuit accuracy. Late interception may be beneficial in real-world tasks as it provides more time for decision and adjustment. Supporting this view, baseball players who were more senior were more likely to be late interceptors. Our findings suggest that interception strategies are optimally adapted to the proficiency of the pursuit system.
Baranes, Adrien; Oudeyer, Pierre-Yves; Gottlieb, Jacqueline
Saccadic (rapid) eye movements are primary means by which humans and non-human primates sample visual information. However, while saccadic decisions are intensively investigated in instrumental contexts where saccades guide subsequent actions, it is largely unknown how they may be influenced by curiosity - the intrinsic desire to learn. While saccades are sensitive to visual novelty and visual surprise, no study has examined their relation to epistemic curiosity - interest in symbolic, semantic information. To investigate this question, we tracked the eye movements of human observers while they read trivia questions and, after a brief delay, were visually given the answer. We show that higher curiosity was associated with earlier anticipatory orienting of gaze toward the answer location without changes in other metrics of saccades or fixations, and that these influences were distinct from those produced by variations in confidence and surprise. Across subjects, the enhancement of anticipatory gaze was correlated with measures of trait curiosity from personality questionnaires. Finally, a machine learning algorithm could predict curiosity in a cross-subject manner, relying primarily on statistical features of the gaze position before the answer onset and independently of covariations in confidence or surprise, suggesting potential practical applications for educational technologies, recommender systems and research in cognitive sciences. With this article, we provide full access to the annotated database allowing readers to reproduce the results. Epistemic curiosity produces specific effects on oculomotor anticipation that can be used to read out curiosity states. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Sammaknejad, Negar; Pouretemad, Hamidreza; Eslahchi, Changiz; Salahirad, Alireza; Alinejad, Ashkan
Studies have revealed superior face recognition skills in females, partially due to their different eye movement strategies when encoding faces. In the current study, we utilized these slight but important differences and proposed a model that estimates the gender of the viewers and classifies them into two subgroups, males and females. An eye tracker recorded participant's eye movements while they viewed images of faces. Regions of interest (ROIs) were defined for each face. Results showed that the gender dissimilarity in eye movements was not due to differences in frequency of fixations in the ROI s per se. Instead, it was caused by dissimilarity in saccade paths between the ROIs. The difference enhanced when saccades were towards the eyes. Females showed significant increase in transitions from other ROI s to the eyes. Consequently, the extraction of temporal transient information of saccade paths through a transition probability matrix, similar to a first order Markov chain model, significantly improved the accuracy of the gender classification results.
Full Text Available Patients with ephedrone parkinsonism (EP show a complex, rapidly progressive, irreversible, and levodopa non-responsive parkinsonian and dystonic syndrome due to manganese intoxication. Eye movements may help to differentiate parkinsonian syndromes providing insights into which brain networks are affected in the underlying disease, but they have never been systematically studied in EP. Horizontal and vertical eye movements were recorded in 28 EP and compared to 21 Parkinson's disease (PD patients, and 27 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects using standardized oculomotor tasks with infrared videooculography. EP patients showed slow and hypometric horizontal saccades, an increased occurrence of square wave jerks, long latencies of vertical antisaccades, a high error rate in the horizontal antisaccade task, and made more errors than controls when pro- and antisaccades were mixed. Based on oculomotor performance, a direct differentiation between EP and PD was possible only by the velocity of horizontal saccades. All remaining metrics were similar between both patient groups. EP patients present extensive oculomotor disturbances probably due to manganese-induced damage to the basal ganglia, reflecting their role in oculomotor system.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Frequent oulomotricity problems with orthoptic testing were reported in patients with tinnitus. This study examines with objective recordings vergence eye movements in patients with somatic tinnitus patients with ability to modify their subjective tinnitus percept by various movements, such as jaw, neck, eye movements or skin pressure. METHODS: Vergence eye movements were recorded with the Eyelink II video system in 15 (23-63 years control adults and 19 (36-62 years subjects with somatic tinnitus. FINDINGS: 1 Accuracy of divergence but not of convergence was lower in subjects with somatic tinnitus than in control subjects. 2 Vergence duration was longer and peak velocity was lower in subjects with somatic tinnitus than in control subjects. 3 The number of embedded saccades and the amplitude of saccades coinciding with the peak velocity of vergence were higher for tinnitus subjects. Yet, saccades did not increase peak velocity of vergence for tinnitus subjects, but they did so for controls. 4 In contrast, there was no significant difference of vergence latency between these two groups. INTERPRETATION: The results suggest dysfunction of vergence areas involving cortical-brainstem-cerebellar circuits. We hypothesize that central auditory dysfunction related to tinnitus percept could trigger mild cerebellar-brainstem dysfunction or that tinnitus and vergence dysfunction could both be manifestations of mild cortical-brainstem-cerebellar syndrome reflecting abnormal cross-modality interactions between vergence eye movements and auditory signals.
Lance M. Optican
Full Text Available Eye and body oscillations are shared features of several neurological diseases, yet their pathophysiology remains unclear. Recently, we published a report on two tennis players with a novel presentation of eye and body oscillations following self-administration of performance-enhancing substances. Opsoclonus/flutter and limb tremor were diagnosed in both patients. Common causes of opsoclonus/flutter were excluded. High-resolution eye movement recordings from one patient showed novel spindle-shaped, asymmetric saccadic oscillations (at ~3.6 Hz and ocular tremor (~40–60 Hz. Based on these findings, we proposed that the oscillations are the result of increased GABAA receptor sensitivity in a circuit involving the cerebellum (vermis and fastigial nuclei, the inferior olives, and the brainstem saccade premotor neurons (excitatory and inhibitory burst neurons, and omnipause neurons. We present a mathematical model of the saccadic system, showing that the proposed dysfunction in the network can reproduce the types of saccadic oscillations seen in these patients.
Wedel, Michel; Pieters, Rik; Liechty, John
Eye movements across advertisements express a temporal pattern of bursts of respectively relatively short and long saccades, and this pattern is systematically influenced by activated scene perception goals. This was revealed by a continuous-time hidden Markov model applied to eye movements of 220 participants exposed to 17 ads under a…
Two sisters, presenting the same genotype (R353G/R353G, were diagnosed as suffering from GD; one of them later developed neurological alterations identified by quantitative saccadic eye movements analysis. The aim of the study was to quantitatively measure the miglustat effects in this GD neurological patient. Eye movement analysis during subsequent controls was performed by estimating the characteristic parameters of saccadic main sequence. The study demonstrates that the SRT alone can be effective in GD3. Moreover, it confirms that quantitative eye movement analysis is able to precociously identify also slight neurological alterations, permitting more accurate GD classification.
Trope, G E; Eizenman, M; Coyle, E
Present-day computerized perimetry is often inaccurate and unreliable owing to the need to maintain central fixation over long periods while repressing the normal response to presentation of peripheral stimuli. We tested a new method of perimetry that does not require prolonged central fixation. During this test eye movements were encouraged on presentation of a peripheral target. Twenty-three eyes were studied with an Octopus perimeter, with a technician monitoring eye movements. The sensitivity was 100% and the specificity 23%. The low specificity was due to the technician's inability to accurately monitor small eye movements in the central 6 degrees field. If small eye movements are monitored accurately with an eye tracker, eye movement perimetry could become an alternative method to standard perimetry.
Møllenbach, Emilie; Hansen, John Paulin; Lillholm, Martin
Gaze as a sole input modality must support complex navigation and selection tasks. Gaze interaction combines specific eye movements and graphic display objects (GDOs). This paper suggests a unifying taxonomy of gaze interaction principles. The taxonomy deals with three types of eye movements...
A.M. van Alphen (Arjan)
textabstractThis thesis will address the generation of compensatory eye movements in naturally mutated or genetically modified mice. The reason for generating compensatory eye movements is solely related to the requirements for good vision. In a subject moving through its environment the projection
Lin, Hai; Rizak, Joshua D; Ma, Yuan-ye; Yang, Shang-chuan; Chen, Lin; Hu, Xin-tian
Face perception is integral to human perception system as it underlies social interactions. Saccadic eye movements are frequently made to bring interesting visual information, such as faces, onto the fovea for detailed processing. Just before eye movement onset, the processing of some basic features, such as the orientation, of an object improves at the saccade landing point. Interestingly, there is also evidence that indicates faces are processed in early visual processing stages similar to basic features. However, it is not known whether this early enhancement of processing includes face recognition. In this study, three experiments were performed to map the timing of face presentation to the beginning of the eye movement in order to evaluate pre-saccadic face recognition. Faces were found to be similarly processed as simple objects immediately prior to saccadic movements. Starting ∼ 120 ms before a saccade to a target face, independent of whether or not the face was surrounded by other faces, the face recognition gradually improved and the critical spacing of the crowding decreased as saccade onset was approaching. These results suggest that an upcoming saccade prepares the visual system for new information about faces at the saccade landing site and may reduce the background in a crowd to target the intended face. This indicates an important role of pre-saccadic eye movement signals in human face recognition.
Charles Leek, E; Patterson, Candy; Paul, Matthew A; Rafal, Robert; Cristino, Filipe
This paper reports the first ever detailed study about eye movement patterns during single object recognition in visual agnosia. Eye movements were recorded in a patient with an integrative agnosic deficit during two recognition tasks: common object naming and novel object recognition memory. The patient showed normal directional biases in saccades and fixation dwell times in both tasks and was as likely as controls to fixate within object bounding contour regardless of recognition accuracy. In contrast, following initial saccades of similar amplitude to controls, the patient showed a bias for short saccades. In object naming, but not in recognition memory, the similarity of the spatial distributions of patient and control fixations was modulated by recognition accuracy. The study provides new evidence about how eye movements can be used to elucidate the functional impairments underlying object recognition deficits. We argue that the results reflect a breakdown in normal functional processes involved in the integration of shape information across object structure during the visual perception of shape. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Xiao, JiangWei; Qiu, Jian; Luo, Kaiqin; Peng, Li; Han, Peng
Human eyes are never completely static even when they are fixing a stationary point. These irregular, small movements, which consist of micro-tremors, micro-saccades and drifts, can prevent the fading of the images that enter our eyes. The importance of researching the fixational eye movements has been experimentally demonstrated recently. However, the characteristics of fixational eye movements and their roles in visual process have not been explained clearly, because these signals can hardly be completely extracted by now. In this paper, we developed a new eye movement detection device with a high-speed camera. This device includes a beam splitter mirror, an infrared light source and a high-speed digital video camera with a frame rate of 200Hz. To avoid the influence of head shaking, we made the device wearable by fixing the camera on a safety helmet. Using this device, the experiments of pupil tracking were conducted. By localizing the pupil center and spectrum analysis, the envelope frequency spectrum of micro-saccades, micro-tremors and drifts are shown obviously. The experimental results show that the device is feasible and effective, so that the device can be applied in further characteristic analysis.
Full Text Available The oculomotor role of the basal ganglia has been supported by extensive evidence, although their role in scanning eye movements is poorly understood. Nineteen Parkinsońs disease patients, which underwent implantation of deep brain stimulation electrodes, were investigated with simultaneous intraoperative microelectrode recordings and single channel electrooculography in a scanning eye movement task by viewing a series of colored pictures selected from the International Affective Picture System. Four patients additionally underwent a visually guided saccade task. Microelectrode recordings were analyzed selectively from the subthalamic nucleus, substantia nigra pars reticulata and from the globus pallidus by the WaveClus program which allowed for detection and sorting of individual neurons. The relationship between neuronal firing rate and eye movements was studied by crosscorrelation analysis. Out of 183 neurons that were detected, 130 were found in the subthalamic nucleus, 30 in the substantia nigra and 23 in the globus pallidus. Twenty percent of the neurons in each of these structures showed eye movement-related activity. Neurons related to scanning eye movements were mostly unrelated to the visually guided saccades. We conclude that a relatively large number of basal ganglia neurons are involved in eye motion control. Surprisingly, neurons related to scanning eye movements differed from neurons activated during saccades suggesting functional specialization and segregation of both systems for eye movement control.
Sieger, Tomáš; Bonnet, Cecilia; Serranová, Tereza; Wild, Jiří; Novák, Daniel; Růžička, Filip; Urgošík, Dušan; Růžička, Evžen; Gaymard, Bertrand; Jech, Robert
The oculomotor role of the basal ganglia has been supported by extensive evidence, although their role in scanning eye movements is poorly understood. Nineteen Parkinsońs disease patients, which underwent implantation of deep brain stimulation electrodes, were investigated with simultaneous intraoperative microelectrode recordings and single channel electrooculography in a scanning eye movement task by viewing a series of colored pictures selected from the International Affective Picture System. Four patients additionally underwent a visually guided saccade task. Microelectrode recordings were analyzed selectively from the subthalamic nucleus, substantia nigra pars reticulata and from the globus pallidus by the WaveClus program which allowed for detection and sorting of individual neurons. The relationship between neuronal firing rate and eye movements was studied by crosscorrelation analysis. Out of 183 neurons that were detected, 130 were found in the subthalamic nucleus, 30 in the substantia nigra and 23 in the globus pallidus. Twenty percent of the neurons in each of these structures showed eye movement-related activity. Neurons related to scanning eye movements were mostly unrelated to the visually guided saccades. We conclude that a relatively large number of basal ganglia neurons are involved in eye motion control. Surprisingly, neurons related to scanning eye movements differed from neurons activated during saccades suggesting functional specialization and segregation of both systems for eye movement control.
Paeye, Céline; Schütz, Alexander C; Gegenfurtner, Karl R
We use eye movements to gain information about our visual environment; this information can indirectly be used to affect the environment. Whereas eye movements are affected by explicit rewards such as points or money, it is not clear whether the information gained by finding a hidden target has a similar reward value. Here we tested whether finding a visual target can reinforce eye movements in visual search performed in a noise background, which conforms to natural scene statistics and contains a large number of possible target locations. First we tested whether presenting the target more often in one specific quadrant would modify eye movement search behavior. Surprisingly, participants did not learn to search for the target more often in high probability areas. Presumably, participants could not learn the reward structure of the environment. In two subsequent experiments we used a gaze-contingent display to gain full control over the reinforcement schedule. The target was presented more often after saccades into a specific quadrant or a specific direction. The proportions of saccades meeting the reinforcement criteria increased considerably, and participants matched their search behavior to the relative reinforcement rates of targets. Reinforcement learning seems to serve as the mechanism to optimize search behavior with respect to the statistics of the task.
Full Text Available Saccades were assessed in 21 adults (age 24 years, SD = 4 and 15 children (age 11 years, SD = 1, using combined functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and eye-tracking. Subjects visually tracked a point on a horizontal line in four conditions: time and position predictable task (PRED, position predictable (pPRED, time predictable (tPRED and visually guided saccades (SAC. Both groups in the PRED but not in pPRED, tPRED and SAC produced predictive saccades with latency below 80 ms. In task versus group comparisons, children's showed less efficient learning compared to adults for predictive saccades (adults = 48%, children = 34%, p = 0.05. In adults brain activation was found in the frontal and occipital regions in the PRED, in the intraparietal sulcus in pPRED and in the frontal eye field, posterior intraparietal sulcus and medial regions in the tPRED task. Group-task interaction was found in the supplementary eye field and visual cortex in the PRED task, and the frontal cortex including the right frontal eye field and left frontal pole, in the pPRED condition. These results indicate that, the basic visuomotor circuitry is present in both adults and children, but fine-tuning of the activation according to the task temporal and spatial demand mature late in child development.
Schäfer, Thomas; Fachner, Jörg
Listening to music can change the way that people visually experience the environment, probably as a result of an inwardly directed shift of attention. We investigated whether this attentional shift can be demonstrated by reduced eye movement activity, and if so, whether that reduction depends on absorption. Participants listened to their preferred music, to unknown neutral music, or to no music while viewing a visual stimulus (a picture or a film clip). Preference and absorption were significantly higher for the preferred music than for the unknown music. Participants exhibited longer fixations, fewer saccades, and more blinks when they listened to music than when they sat in silence. However, no differences emerged between the preferred music condition and the neutral music condition. Thus, music significantly reduces eye movement activity, but an attentional shift from the outer to the inner world (i.e., to the emotions and memories evoked by the music) emerged as only one potential explanation. Other explanations, such as a shift of attention from visual to auditory input, are discussed.
Nyström, Marcus; Andersson, Richard; Magnusson, Måns; Pansell, Tony; Hooge, Ignace; Hooge, Ignace
It is well known that the crystalline lens (henceforth lens) can oscillate (or 'wobble') relative to the eyeball at the end of saccades. Recent research has proposed that such wobbling of the lens is a source of post-saccadic oscillations (PSOs) seen in data recorded by eye trackers that estimate
Thomas, Neil M; Bampouras, Theodoros M; Donovan, Tim; Dewhurst, Susan
Visual information is used for postural stabilization in humans. However, little is known about how eye movements prevalent in everyday life interact with the postural control system in older individuals. Therefore, the present study assessed the effects of stationary gaze fixations, smooth pursuits, and saccadic eye movements, with combinations of absent, fixed and oscillating large-field visual backgrounds to generate different forms of retinal flow, on postural control in healthy young and older females. Participants were presented with computer generated visual stimuli, whilst postural sway and gaze fixations were simultaneously assessed with a force platform and eye tracking equipment, respectively. The results showed that fixed backgrounds and stationary gaze fixations attenuated postural sway. In contrast, oscillating backgrounds and smooth pursuits increased postural sway. There were no differences regarding saccades. There were also no differences in postural sway or gaze errors between age groups in any visual condition. The stabilizing effect of the fixed visual stimuli show how retinal flow and extraocular factors guide postural adjustments. The destabilizing effect of oscillating visual backgrounds and smooth pursuits may be related to more challenging conditions for determining body shifts from retinal flow, and more complex extraocular signals, respectively. Because the older participants matched the young group's performance in all conditions, decreases of posture and gaze control during stance may not be a direct consequence of healthy aging. Further research examining extraocular and retinal mechanisms of balance control and the effects of eye movements, during locomotion, is needed to better inform fall prevention interventions.
Thompson, Aidan A; Henriques, Denise Y P
Remembered object locations are stored in an eye-fixed reference frame, so that every time the eyes move, spatial representations must be updated for the arm-motor system to reflect the target's new relative position. To date, studies have not investigated how the brain updates these spatial representations during other types of eye movements, such as smooth-pursuit. Further, it is unclear what information is used in spatial updating. To address these questions we investigated whether remembered locations of pointing targets are updated following smooth-pursuit eye movements, as they are following saccades, and also investigated the role of visual information in estimating eye-movement amplitude for updating spatial memory. Misestimates of eye-movement amplitude were induced when participants visually tracked stimuli presented with a background that moved in either the same or opposite direction of the eye before pointing or looking back to the remembered target location. We found that gaze-dependent pointing errors were similar following saccades and smooth-pursuit and that incongruent background motion did result in a misestimate of eye-movement amplitude. However, the background motion had no effect on spatial updating for pointing, but did when subjects made a return saccade, suggesting that the oculomotor and arm-motor systems may rely on different sources of information for spatial updating.
Kimmig, H; Greenlee, M W; Huethe, F; Mergner, T
We present a method for recording saccadic and pursuit eye movements in the magnetic resonance tomograph designed for visual functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments. To reliably classify brain areas as pursuit or saccade related it is important to carefully measure the actual eye movements. For this purpose, infrared light, created outside the scanner by light-emitting diodes (LEDs), is guided via optic fibers into the head coil and onto the eye of the subject. Two additional fiber optical cables pick up the light reflected by the iris. The illuminating and detecting cables are mounted in a plastic eyepiece that is manually lowered to the level of the eye. By means of differential amplification, we obtain a signal that covaries with the horizontal position of the eye. Calibration of eye position within the scanner yields an estimate of eye position with a resolution of 0.2 degrees at a sampling rate of 1000 Hz. Experiments are presented that employ echoplanar imaging with 12 image planes through visual, parietal and frontal cortex while subjects performed saccadic and pursuit eye movements. The distribution of BOLD (blood oxygen level dependent) responses is shown to depend on the type of eye movement performed. Our method yields high temporal and spatial resolution of the horizontal component of eye movements during fMRI scanning. Since the signal is purely optical, there is no interaction between the eye movement signals and the echoplanar images. This reasonably priced eye tracker can be used to control eye position and monitor eye movements during fMRI.
Benjamin W Tatler
Full Text Available The impact of Yarbus's research on eye movements was enormous following the translation of his book Eye Movements and Vision into English in 1967. In stark contrast, the published material in English concerning his life is scant. We provide a brief biography of Yarbus and assess his impact on contemporary approaches to research on eye movements. While early interest in his work focused on his study of stabilised retinal images, more recently this has been replaced with interest in his work on the cognitive influences on scanning patterns. We extended his experiment on the effect of instructions on viewing a picture using a portrait of Yarbus rather than a painting. The results obtained broadly supported those found by Yarbus.
Grant, Michael P.; Cohen, Mark; Petersen, Robert B.; Halmagyi, G. Michael; McDougall, Alan; Tusa, Ronald J.; Leigh, R. John
We report 3 patients with autopsy-proven Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease who, early in their course, developed abnormal eye movements that included periodic alternating nystagmus and slow vertical saccades. These findings suggested involvement of the cerebellar nodulus and uvula, and the brainstem reticular formation, respectively. Cerebellar ataxia was also an early manifestation and, in one patient, a frontal lobe brain biopsy was normal at a time when ocular motor and cerebellar signs were conspicuous. As the disease progressed, all saccades and quick phases of nystagmus were lost, but periodic alternating gaze deviation persisted. At autopsy, 2 of the 3 patients had pronounced involvement of the cerebellum, especially of the midline structures. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease should be considered in patients with subacute progressive neurological disease when cognitive changes are overshadowed by ocular motor findings or ataxia.
Gersch, Timothy M; Kowler, Eileen; Schnitzer, Brian S; Dosher, Barbara A
Selective attention is closely linked to eye movements. Prior to a saccade, attention shifts to the saccadic goal at the expense of surrounding locations. Such a constricted attentional field, while useful to ensure accurate saccades, constrains the spatial range of high-quality perceptual analysis. The present study showed that attention could be allocated to locations other than the saccadic goal without disrupting the ongoing pattern of saccades. Saccades were made sequentially along a color-cued path. Attention was assessed by a visual memory task presented during a random pause between successive saccades. Saccadic planning had several effects on memory: (1) fewer letters were remembered during intersaccadic pauses than during maintained fixation; (2) letters appearing on the saccadic path, including locations previously examined, could be remembered; off-path performance was near chance; (3) memory was better at the saccadic target than at all other locations, including the currently fixated location. These results show that the distribution of attention during intersaccadic pauses results from a combination of top-down enhancement at the saccadic target coupled with a more automatic allocation of attention to selected display locations. This suggests that the visual system has mechanisms to control the distribution of attention without interfering with ongoing saccadic programming.
Shaun L Cloherty
Full Text Available Primates use saccadic eye movements to make gaze changes. In many visual areas, including the dorsal medial superior temporal area (MSTd of macaques, neural responses to visual stimuli are reduced during saccades but enhanced afterwards. How does this enhancement arise – from an internal mechanism associated with saccade generation or through visual mechanisms activated by the saccade sweeping the image of the visual scene across the retina? Spontaneous activity in MSTd is elevated even after saccades made in darkness, suggesting a central mechanism for post-saccadic enhancement. However, based on the timing of this effect, it may arise from a different mechanism than occurs in normal vision. Like neural responses in MSTd, initial ocular following eye speed is enhanced after saccades, with evidence suggesting both internal and visually mediated mechanisms. Here we recorded from visual neurons in MSTd and measured responses to motion stimuli presented soon after saccades and soon after simulated saccades – saccade-like displacements of the background image during fixation. We found that neural responses in MSTd were enhanced when preceded by real saccades but not when preceded by simulated saccades. Furthermore, we also observed enhancement following real saccades made across a blank screen that generated no motion signal within the recorded neurons’ receptive fields. We conclude that in MSTd the mechanism leading to post-saccadic enhancement has internal origins.
Alexandra Lloyd-Smith Sequeira
Full Text Available Failure of brainstem supranuclear centers for saccadic eye movements results in the clinical presence of a brainstem-mediated supranuclear saccadic gaze palsy (SGP, which is manifested as slowing of saccades with or without range of motion limitation of eye movements and as loss of quick phases of optokinetic nystagmus. Limitation in the range of motion of eye movements is typically worse with saccades than with smooth pursuit and is overcome with vestibular–ocular reflexive eye movements. The differential diagnosis of SGPs is broad, although acute-onset SGP is most often from brainstem infarction and chronic vertical SGP is most commonly caused by the neurodegenerative condition progressive supranuclear palsy. In this review, we discuss the brainstem anatomy and physiology of the brainstem saccade-generating network; we discuss the clinical features of SGPs, with an emphasis on insights from quantitative ocular motor recordings; and we consider the broad differential diagnosis of SGPs.
Heinzle, Jakob; Hepp, Klaus; Martin, Kevan A. C.
Reading is a highly complex task involving a precise integration of vision, attention, saccadic eye movements, and high-level language processing. Although there is a long history of psychological research in reading, it is only recently that imaging studies have identified some neural correlates of reading. Thus, the underlying neural mechanisms…
Full Text Available Purpose. To determine how different grades of cataract affect sensitivity threshold and saccadic reaction time (SRT in eye movement perimetry (EMP. Methods. In EMP, the visual field is tested by assessing the saccades that a subject makes towards peripheral stimuli using an eye tracker. Forty-eight cataract patients underwent pre- and postoperative EMP examination in both eyes. The subjects had to fix a central stimulus presented on the eye tracker monitor and to look at any detected peripheral stimulus upon its appearance. A multilevel mixed model was used to determine the factors that affected the sensitivity threshold and the SRT as a function of cataract grade. Results. We found no effect of cataract severity (LOCS III grades I through IV on SRT and the sensitivity thresholds. In cataract of LOCS III grade V, however, we found an increase by 27% and 21% (p<0.001, respectively, compared to the SRT and the sensitivity threshold in LOCS III grade I. Eyes that underwent cataract surgery showed no change in mean SRTs and sensitivity thresholds after surgery in LOCS III grade IV and lower. Conclusion. The present study shows that EMP can be readily used in patients with cataract with LOCS III grade IV and below.
Full Text Available Our objective was to characterize the saccadic eye movements in patients with type 3 Gaucher disease (chronic neuronopathic in relationship to neurological and neurophysiological abnormalities. For approximately 4 years, we prospectively followed a cohort of 15 patients with Gaucher type 3, ages 8-28 years, by measuring saccadic eye movements using the scleral search coil method. We found that patients with type 3 Gaucher disease had a significantly higher regression slope of duration vs amplitude and peak duration vs amplitude compared to healthy controls for both horizontal and vertical saccades. Saccadic latency was significantly increased for horizontal saccades only. Downward saccades were more affected than upward saccades. Saccade abnormalities increased over time in some patients reflecting the slowly progressive nature of the disease. Phase plane plots showed individually characteristic patterns of abnormal saccade trajectories. Oculo-manual dexterity scores on the Purdue Pegboard test were low in virtually all patients, even in those with normal cognitive function. Vertical saccade peak duration vs amplitude slope significantly correlated with IQ and with the performance on the Purdue Pegboard but not with the brainstem and somatosensory evoked potentials. We conclude that, in patients with Gaucher disease type 3, saccadic eye movements and oculo-manual dexterity are representative neurological functions for longitudinal studies and can probably be used as endpoints for therapeutic clinical trials.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00001289.
This study evaluates the effects of muscle axis shifts on the performance of a vector velocity-position integrator in the CNS. Earlier models of the oculomotor plant assumed that the muscle axes remained fixed relative to the head as the eye rotated into secondary and tertiary eye positions. Under this assumption, the vector integrator model generates torsional transients as the eye moves from secondary to tertiary positions of fixation. The torsional transient represents an eye movement response to a spatial mismatch between the torque axes that remain fixed in the head and the displacement plane that changes by half the angle of the change in eye orientation. When muscle axis shifts were incorporated into the model, the torque axes were closer to the displacement plane at each eye orientation throughout the trajectory, and torsional transients were reduced dramatically. Their size and dynamics were close to reported data. It was also shown that when the muscle torque axes were rotated by 50% of the eye rotation, there was no torsional transient and Listing's law was perfectly obeyed. When muscle torque axes rotated >50%, torsional transients reversed direction compared with what occurred for muscle axis shifts of law is implemented by the oculomotor plant subject to a two-dimensional command signal that is confined to the pitch-yaw plane, having zero torsion. Saccades that bring the eye to orientations outside Listing's plane could easily be corrected by a roll pulse that resets the roll state of the velocity-position integrator to zero. This would be a simple implementation of the corrective controller suggested by Van Opstal and colleagues. The model further indicates that muscle axis shifts together with the torque orientation relationship for tissue surrounding the eye and Newton's laws of motion form a sufficient plant model to explain saccadic trajectories and periods of fixation when driven by a vector command confined to the pitch-yaw plane. This implies
Ivanov, Iliya V; Mackeben, Manfred; Vollmer, Annika; Martus, Peter; Nguyen, Nhung X; Trauzettel-Klosinski, Susanne
Degenerative retinal diseases, especially retinitis pigmentosa (RP), lead to severe peripheral visual field loss (tunnel vision), which impairs mobility. The lack of peripheral information leads to fewer horizontal eye movements and, thus, diminished scanning in RP patients in a natural environment walking task. This randomized controlled study aimed to improve mobility and the dynamic visual field by applying a compensatory Exploratory Saccadic Training (EST). Oculomotor responses during walking and avoiding obstacles in a controlled environment were studied before and after saccade or reading training in 25 RP patients. Eye movements were recorded using a mobile infrared eye tracker (Tobii glasses) that measured a range of spatial and temporal variables. Patients were randomly assigned to two training conditions: Saccade (experimental) and reading (control) training. All subjects who first performed reading training underwent experimental training later (waiting list control group). To assess the effect of training on subjects, we measured performance in the training task and the following outcome variables related to daily life: Response Time (RT) during exploratory saccade training, Percent Preferred Walking Speed (PPWS), the number of collisions with obstacles, eye position variability, fixation duration, and the total number of fixations including the ones in the subjects' blind area of the visual field. In the saccade training group, RTs on average decreased, while the PPWS significantly increased. The improvement persisted, as tested 6 weeks after the end of the training. On average, the eye movement range of RP patients before and after training was similar to that of healthy observers. In both, the experimental and reading training groups, we found many fixations outside the subjects' seeing visual field before and after training. The average fixation duration was significantly shorter after the training, but only in the experimental training condition
Burke, David T; Meleger, Alec; Schneider, Jeffrey C; Snyder, Jim; Dorvlo, Atsu S S; Al-Adawi, Samir
This study tests the relation between eye-movements and thought processing. Subjects were given specific modality tasks (visual, gustatory, kinesthetic) and assessed on whether they responded with distinct eye-movements. Some subjects' eye-movements reflected ongoing thought processing. Instead of a universal pattern, as suggested by the neurolinguistic programming hypothesis, this study yielded subject-specific idiosyncratic eye-movements across all modalities. Included is a discussion of the neurolinguistic programming hypothesis regarding eye-movements and its implications for the eye-movement desensitization and reprocessing theory.
Ke, Sally R; Lam, Jessica; Pai, Dinesh K; Spering, Miriam
Humans make smooth pursuit eye movements to bring the image of a moving object onto the fovea. Although pursuit accuracy is critical to prevent motion blur, the eye often falls behind the target. Previous studies suggest that pursuit accuracy differs between motion directions. Here, we systematically assess asymmetries in smooth pursuit. In experiment 1, binocular eye movements were recorded while observers (n = 20) tracked a small spot of light moving along one of four cardinal or diagonal axes across a featureless background. We analyzed pursuit latency, acceleration, peak velocity, gain, and catch-up saccade latency, number, and amplitude. In experiment 2 (n = 22), we examined the effects of spatial location and constrained stimulus motion within the upper or lower visual field. Pursuit was significantly faster (higher acceleration, peak velocity, and gain) and smoother (fewer and later catch-up saccades) in response to downward versus upward motion in both the upper and the lower visual fields. Pursuit was also more accurate and smoother in response to horizontal versus vertical motion. CONCLUSIONS. Our study is the first to report a consistent up-down asymmetry in human adults, regardless of visual field. Our findings suggest that pursuit asymmetries are adaptive responses to the requirements of the visual context: preferred motion directions (horizontal and downward) are more critical to our survival than nonpreferred ones.
Bulling, Andreas; Ward, Jamie A; Gellersen, Hans; Tröster, Gerhard
In this work, we investigate eye movement analysis as a new sensing modality for activity recognition. Eye movement data were recorded using an electrooculography (EOG) system. We first describe and evaluate algorithms for detecting three eye movement characteristics from EOG signals-saccades, fixations, and blinks-and propose a method for assessing repetitive patterns of eye movements. We then devise 90 different features based on these characteristics and select a subset of them using minimum redundancy maximum relevance (mRMR) feature selection. We validate the method using an eight participant study in an office environment using an example set of five activity classes: copying a text, reading a printed paper, taking handwritten notes, watching a video, and browsing the Web. We also include periods with no specific activity (the NULL class). Using a support vector machine (SVM) classifier and person-independent (leave-one-person-out) training, we obtain an average precision of 76.1 percent and recall of 70.5 percent over all classes and participants. The work demonstrates the promise of eye-based activity recognition (EAR) and opens up discussion on the wider applicability of EAR to other activities that are difficult, or even impossible, to detect using common sensing modalities.
Prime, Steven L.; Vesia, Michael; Crawford, J. Douglas
Constructing an internal representation of the world from successive visual fixations, i.e. separated by saccadic eye movements, is known as trans-saccadic perception. Research on trans-saccadic perception (TSP) has been traditionally aimed at resolving the problems of memory capacity and visual integration across saccades. In this paper, we review this literature on TSP with a focus on research showing that egocentric measures of the saccadic eye movement can be used to integrate simple object features across saccades, and that the memory capacity for items retained across saccades, like visual working memory, is restricted to about three to four items. We also review recent transcranial magnetic stimulation experiments which suggest that the right parietal eye field and frontal eye fields play a key functional role in spatial updating of objects in TSP. We conclude by speculating on possible cortical mechanisms for governing egocentric spatial updating of multiple objects in TSP. PMID:21242142
Full Text Available Impulsivity is the tendency to act without forethought. It is a personality trait commonly used in the diagnosis of many psychiatric diseases. In clinical practice, impulsivity is estimated using written questionnaires. However, answers to questions might be subject to personal biases and misinterpretations. In order to alleviate this problem, eye movements could be used to study differences in decision processes related to impulsivity. Therefore, we investigated correlations between impulsivity scores obtained with a questionnaire in healthy subjects and characteristics of their anticipatory eye movements in a simple smooth pursuit task. Healthy subjects were asked to answer the UPPS questionnaire (Urgency Premeditation Perseverance and Sensation seeking Impulsive Behavior scale, which distinguishes four independent dimensions of impulsivity: Urgency, lack of Premeditation, lack of Perseverance, and Sensation seeking. The same subjects took part in an oculomotor task that consisted of pursuing a target that moved in a predictable direction. This task reliably evoked anticipatory saccades and smooth eye movements. We found that eye movement characteristics such as latency and velocity were significantly correlated with UPPS scores. The specific correlations between distinct UPPS factors and oculomotor anticipation parameters support the validity of the UPPS construct and corroborate neurobiological explanations for impulsivity. We suggest that the oculomotor approach of impulsivity put forth in the present study could help bridge the gap between psychiatry and physiology.
Jonikaitis, Donatas; Klapetek, Anna; Deubel, Heiner
Behavioral measures of decision making are usually limited to observations of decision outcomes. In the present study, we made use of the fact that oculomotor and sensory selection are closely linked to track oculomotor decision making before oculomotor responses are made. We asked participants to make a saccadic eye movement to one of two memorized target locations and observed that visual sensitivity increased at both the chosen and the nonchosen saccade target locations, with a clear bias toward the chosen target. The time course of changes in visual sensitivity was related to saccadic latency, with the competition between the chosen and nonchosen targets resolved faster before short-latency saccades. On error trials, we observed an increased competition between the chosen and nonchosen targets. Moreover, oculomotor selection and visual sensitivity were influenced by top-down and bottom-up factors as well as by selection history and predicted the direction of saccades. Our findings demonstrate that saccade decisions have direct visual consequences and show that decision making can be traced in the human oculomotor system well before choices are made. Our results also indicate a strong association between decision making, saccade target selection, and visual sensitivity. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We show that saccadic decisions can be tracked by measuring spatial attention. Spatial attention is allocated in parallel to the two competing saccade targets, and the time course of spatial attention differs for fast-slow and for correct-erroneous decisions. Saccade decisions take the form of a competition between potential saccade goals, which is associated with spatial attention allocation to those locations. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.
Wierts, Roel; Janssen, Maurice J A; Kingma, Herman
During the last decades, small head-mounted video eye trackers have been developed in order to record eye movements. Real-time systems-with a low sampling frequency of 50/60 Hz-are used for clinical vestibular practice, but are generally considered not to be suited for measuring fast eye movements. In this paper, it is shown that saccadic eye movements, having an amplitude of at least 5 degrees, can, in good approximation, be considered to be bandwidth limited up to a frequency of 25-30 Hz. Using the Nyquist theorem to reconstruct saccadic eye movement signals at higher temporal resolutions, it is shown that accurate values for saccade peak velocities, recorded at 50 Hz, can be obtained, but saccade peak accelerations and decelerations cannot. In conclusion, video eye trackers sampling at 50/60 Hz are appropriate for detecting the clinical relevant saccade peak velocities in contrast to what has been stated up till now.
Wu, Shu-Chieh; Remington, Roger W.; Lewis, Richard
Common tasks in daily life are often accomplished by a sequence of actions that interleave information acquisition through the eyes and action execution by the hands. How are eye movements coordinated with the release of manual responses and how may their coordination be represented at the level of component mental operations? We have previously presented data from a typing-like task requiring separate choice responses to a series of five stimuli. We found a consistent pattern of results in both motor and ocular timing, and hypothesized possible relationships among underlying components. Here we report a model of that task, which demonstrates how the observed timing of eye movements to successive stimuli could be accounted for by assuming systems: an open-loop system generating saccades at a periodic rate, and a closed-loop system commanding a saccade based on stimulus processing. We relate this model to models of reading and discuss the motivation for dual control.
Casarotti, Marco; Lisi, Matteo; Umiltà, Carlo; Zorzi, Marco
Growing evidence indicates that planning eye movements and orienting visuospatial attention share overlapping brain mechanisms. A tight link between endogenous attention and eye movements is maintained by the premotor theory, in contrast to other accounts that postulate the existence of specific attention mechanisms that modulate the activity of information processing systems. The strong assumption of equivalence between attention and eye movements, however, is challenged by demonstrations that human observers are able to keep attention on a specific location while moving the eyes elsewhere. Here we investigate whether a recurrent model of saccadic planning can account for attentional effects without requiring additional or specific mechanisms separate from the circuits that perform sensorimotor transformations for eye movements. The model builds on the basis function approach and includes a circuit that performs spatial remapping using an "internal forward model" of how visual inputs are modified as a result of saccadic movements. Simulations show that the latter circuit is crucial to account for dissociations between attention and eye movements that may be invoked to disprove the premotor theory. The model provides new insights into how spatial remapping may be implemented in parietal cortex and offers a computational framework for recent proposals that link visual stability with remapping of attention pointers.
Kanonidou, Evgenia; Proudlock, Frank A; Gottlob, Irene
PURPOSE. To investigate oculomotor strategies in strabismic amblyopia and evaluate abnormalities during monocular and binocular reading. METHODS. Eye movements were recorded with a head-mounted infrared video eye-tracker (250 Hz, amblyopia, reading is impaired, not only during monocular viewing with the amblyopic eye, but also with the nonamblyopic eye and binocularly, even though normal visual acuity pertains to the latter two conditions. The impaired reading performance is associated with differences in both the saccadic and fixational patterns, most likely as adaptation strategies to abnormal sensory experiences such as crowding and suppression.
Ohl, Sven; Kuper, Clara; Rolfs, Martin
Saccadic eye movements cause a rapid sweep of the visual image across the retina and bring the saccade's target into high-acuity foveal vision. Even before saccade onset, visual processing is selectively prioritized at the saccade target. To determine how this presaccadic attention shift exerts its influence on visual selection, we compare the dynamics of perceptual tuning curves before movement onset at the saccade target and in the opposite hemifield. Participants monitored a 30-Hz sequence of randomly oriented gratings for a target orientation. Combining a reverse correlation technique previously used to study orientation tuning in neurons and general additive mixed modeling, we found that perceptual reports were tuned to the target orientation. The gain of orientation tuning increased markedly within the last 100 ms before saccade onset. In addition, we observed finer orientation tuning right before saccade onset. This increase in gain and tuning occurred at the saccade target location and was not observed at the incongruent location in the opposite hemifield. The present findings suggest, therefore, that presaccadic attention exerts its influence on vision in a spatially and feature-selective manner, enhancing performance and sharpening feature tuning at the future gaze location before the eyes start moving.
Oostwoud Wijdenes, L.; Marshall, L.; Bays, P.M.
We explore the visual world through saccadic eye movements, but saccades also present a challenge to visual processing by shifting externally stable objects from one retinal location to another. The brain could solve this problem in two ways: by overwriting preceding input and starting afresh with
Oostwoud Wijdenes, L.; Marshall, L.; Bays, P.M.
We explore the visual world through saccadic eye movements, but saccades also present a challenge to visual processing, by shifting externally-stable objects from one retinal location to another. The brain could solve this problem in two ways: by overwriting preceding input and starting afresh with
Ghasia, Fatema F.; Shaikh, Aasef G.; Jacobs, Jonathan; Walker, Mark F.
Purpose. Pattern strabismus describes vertically incomitant horizontal strabismus. Conventional theories emphasized the role of orbital etiologies, such as abnormal fundus torsion and misaligned orbital pulleys as a cause of the pattern strabismus. Experiments in animal models, however, suggested the role of abnormal cross-connections between the neural circuits. We quantitatively assessed eye movements in patients with pattern strabismus with a goal to delineate the role of neural circuits versus orbital etiologies. Methods. We measured saccadic eye movements with high-precision video-oculography in 14 subjects with pattern strabismus, 5 with comitant strabismus, and 15 healthy controls. We assessed change in eye position in the direction orthogonal to that of the desired eye movement (cross-coupled responses). We used fundus photography to quantify the fundus torsion. Results. We found cross-coupling of saccades in all patients with pattern strabismus. The cross-coupled responses were in the same direction in both eyes, but larger in the nonviewing eye. All patients had clinically apparent inferior oblique overaction with abnormal excylotorsion. There was no correlation between the amount of the fundus torsion or the grade of oblique overaction and the severity of cross-coupling. The disconjugacy in the saccade direction and amplitude in pattern strabismics did not have characteristics predicted by clinically apparent inferior oblique overaction. Conclusions. Our results validated primate models of pattern strabismus in human patients. We found no correlation between ocular torsion or oblique overaction and cross-coupling. Therefore, we could not ascribe cross-coupling exclusively to the orbital etiology. Patients with pattern strabismus could have abnormalities in the saccade generators. PMID:26024072
Huette, Stephanie; Winter, Bodo; Matlock, Teenie; Ardell, David H; Spivey, Michael
Recent research using eye-tracking typically relies on constrained visual contexts in particular goal-oriented contexts, viewing a small array of objects on a computer screen and performing some overt decision or identification. Eyetracking paradigms that use pictures as a measure of word or sentence comprehension are sometimes touted as ecologically invalid because pictures and explicit tasks are not always present during language comprehension. This study compared the comprehension of sentences with two different grammatical forms: the past progressive (e.g., was walking), which emphasizes the ongoing nature of actions, and the simple past (e.g., walked), which emphasizes the end-state of an action. The results showed that the distribution and timing of eye movements mirrors the underlying conceptual structure of this linguistic difference in the absence of any visual stimuli or task constraint: Fixations were shorter and saccades were more dispersed across the screen, as if thinking about more dynamic events when listening to the past progressive stories. Thus, eye movement data suggest that visual inputs or an explicit task are unnecessary to solicit analog representations of features such as movement, that could be a key perceptual component to grammatical comprehension.
Full Text Available Recent research using eye-tracking typically relies on constrained visual contexts in particular goal-oriented contexts, viewing a small array of objects on a computer screen and performing some overt decision or identification. Eyetracking paradigms that use pictures as a measure of word or sentence comprehension are sometimes touted as ecologically invalid because pictures and explicit tasks are not always present during language comprehension. This study compared the comprehension of sentences with two different grammatical forms: the past progressive (e.g., was walking, which emphasizes the ongoing nature of actions, and the simple past (e.g., walked, which emphasizes the end-state of an action. The results showed that the distribution and timing of eye movements mirrors the underlying conceptual structure of this linguistic difference in the absence of any visual stimuli or task constraint: Fixations were shorter and saccades were more dispersed across the screen, as if thinking about more dynamic events when listening to the past progressive stories. Thus, eye movement data suggest that visual inputs or an explicit task are unnecessary to solicit analogue representations of features such as movement, that could be a key perceptual component to grammatical comprehension.
Stefan eVan Der Stigchel
Full Text Available Patients with a scotoma in their central vision (e.g. due to macular degeneration, MD commonly adopt a strategy to direct the eyes such that the image falls onto a peripheral location on the retina. This location is referred to as the preferred retinal locus (PRL. Although previous research has investigated the characteristics of this PRL, it is unclear whether eye movement metrics are modulated by peripheral viewing with a PRL as measured during a visual search paradigm. To this end, we tested four MD patients in a visual search paradigm and contrasted their performance with a healthy control group and a healthy control group performing the same experiment with a simulated scotoma. The experiment contained two conditions. In the first condition the target was an unfilled circle hidden among c-shaped distractors (serial condition and in the second condition the target was a filled circle (pop-out condition. Saccadic search latencies for the MD group were significantly longer in both conditions compared to both control groups. Results of a subsequent experiment indicated that this difference between the MD and the control groups could not be explained by a difference in target selection sensitivity. Furthermore, search behaviour of MD patients was associated with saccades with smaller amplitudes towards the scotoma, an increased intersaccadic interval and an increased number of eye movements necessary to locate the target. Some of these characteristics, such as the increased intersaccadic interval, were also observed in the simulation group, which indicate that these characteristics are related to the peripheral viewing itself. We suggest that the combination of the central scotoma and peripheral viewing can explain the altered search behaviour and no behavioural evidence was found for a possible reorganization of the visual system associated with the use of a PRL. Thus the switch from a fovea-based to a PRL-based reference frame impairs search
Woitek, Ramona; Kasprian, Gregor; Lindner, Christian; Stuhr, Fritz; Weber, Michael; Schöpf, Veronika; Brugger, Peter C.; Asenbaum, Ulrika; Furtner, Julia; Bettelheim, Dieter; Seidl, Rainer; Prayer, Daniela
Objectives Eye movements are the physical expression of upper fetal brainstem function. Our aim was to identify and differentiate specific types of fetal eye movement patterns using dynamic MRI sequences. Their occurrence as well as the presence of conjugated eyeball motion and consistently parallel eyeball position was systematically analyzed. Methods Dynamic SSFP sequences were acquired in 72 singleton fetuses (17–40 GW, three age groups [17–23 GW, 24–32 GW, 33–40 GW]). Fetal eye movements were evaluated according to a modified classification originally published by Birnholz (1981): Type 0: no eye movements; Type I: single transient deviations; Type Ia: fast deviation, slower reposition; Type Ib: fast deviation, fast reposition; Type II: single prolonged eye movements; Type III: complex sequences; and Type IV: nystagmoid. Results In 95.8% of fetuses, the evaluation of eye movements was possible using MRI, with a mean acquisition time of 70 seconds. Due to head motion, 4.2% of the fetuses and 20.1% of all dynamic SSFP sequences were excluded. Eye movements were observed in 45 fetuses (65.2%). Significant differences between the age groups were found for Type I (p = 0.03), Type Ia (p = 0.031), and Type IV eye movements (p = 0.033). Consistently parallel bulbs were found in 27.3–45%. Conclusions In human fetuses, different eye movement patterns can be identified and described by MRI in utero. In addition to the originally classified eye movement patterns, a novel subtype has been observed, which apparently characterizes an important step in fetal brainstem development. We evaluated, for the first time, eyeball position in fetuses. Ultimately, the assessment of fetal eye movements by MRI yields the potential to identify early signs of brainstem dysfunction, as encountered in brain malformations such as Chiari II or molar tooth malformations. PMID:24194885
Woitek, Ramona; Kasprian, Gregor; Lindner, Christian; Stuhr, Fritz; Weber, Michael; Schöpf, Veronika; Brugger, Peter C; Asenbaum, Ulrika; Furtner, Julia; Bettelheim, Dieter; Seidl, Rainer; Prayer, Daniela
Eye movements are the physical expression of upper fetal brainstem function. Our aim was to identify and differentiate specific types of fetal eye movement patterns using dynamic MRI sequences. Their occurrence as well as the presence of conjugated eyeball motion and consistently parallel eyeball position was systematically analyzed. Dynamic SSFP sequences were acquired in 72 singleton fetuses (17-40 GW, three age groups [17-23 GW, 24-32 GW, 33-40 GW]). Fetal eye movements were evaluated according to a modified classification originally published by Birnholz (1981): Type 0: no eye movements; Type I: single transient deviations; Type Ia: fast deviation, slower reposition; Type Ib: fast deviation, fast reposition; Type II: single prolonged eye movements; Type III: complex sequences; and Type IV: nystagmoid. In 95.8% of fetuses, the evaluation of eye movements was possible using MRI, with a mean acquisition time of 70 seconds. Due to head motion, 4.2% of the fetuses and 20.1% of all dynamic SSFP sequences were excluded. Eye movements were observed in 45 fetuses (65.2%). Significant differences between the age groups were found for Type I (p = 0.03), Type Ia (p = 0.031), and Type IV eye movements (p = 0.033). Consistently parallel bulbs were found in 27.3-45%. In human fetuses, different eye movement patterns can be identified and described by MRI in utero. In addition to the originally classified eye movement patterns, a novel subtype has been observed, which apparently characterizes an important step in fetal brainstem development. We evaluated, for the first time, eyeball position in fetuses. Ultimately, the assessment of fetal eye movements by MRI yields the potential to identify early signs of brainstem dysfunction, as encountered in brain malformations such as Chiari II or molar tooth malformations.
McKenna, Dillon; Peever, John
During healthy rapid eye movement sleep, skeletal muscles are actively forced into a state of motor paralysis. However, in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder-a relatively common neurological disorder-this natural process is lost. A lack of motor paralysis (atonia) in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder allows individuals to actively move, which at times can be excessive and violent. At first glance this may sound harmless, but it is not because rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder patients frequently injure themselves or the person they sleep with. It is hypothesized that the degeneration or dysfunction of the brain stem circuits that control rapid eye movement sleep paralysis is an underlying cause of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. The link between brain stem degeneration and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder stems from the fact that rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder precedes, in the majority (∼80%) of cases, the development of synucleinopathies such as Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and multiple system atrophy, which are known to initially cause degeneration in the caudal brain stem structures where rapid eye movement sleep circuits are located. Furthermore, basic science and clinical evidence demonstrate that lesions within the rapid eye movement sleep circuits can induce rapid eye movement sleep-specific motor deficits that are virtually identical to those observed in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. This review examines the evidence that rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder is caused by synucleinopathic neurodegeneration of the core brain stem circuits that control healthy rapid eye movement sleep and concludes that rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder is not a separate clinical entity from synucleinopathies but, rather, it is the earliest symptom of these disorders. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2017 International Parkinson and
Kierkels, J.J.M.; Riani, J.; Bergmans, J.W.M.; Boxtel, van G.J.M.
We present a new method to correct eye movement artifacts in electroencephalogram (EEG) data. By using an eye tracker, whose data cannot be corrupted by any electrophysiological signals, an accurate method for correction is developed. The eye-tracker data is used in a Kalman filter to estimate which
Ostendorf, Florian; Liebermann, Daniela; Ploner, Christoph J
Internal monitoring of oculomotor commands may help to anticipate and keep track of changes in perceptual input imposed by our eye movements. Neurophysiological studies in non-human primates identified corollary discharge (CD) signals of oculomotor commands that are conveyed via thalamus to frontal cortices. We tested whether disruption of these monitoring pathways on the thalamic level impairs the perceptual matching of visual input before and after an eye movement in human subjects. Fourteen patients with focal thalamic stroke and 20 healthy control subjects performed a task requiring a perceptual judgment across eye movements. Subjects reported the apparent displacement of a target cue that jumped unpredictably in sync with a saccadic eye movement. In a critical condition of this task, six patients exhibited clearly asymmetric perceptual performance for rightward vs. leftward saccade direction. Furthermore, perceptual judgments in seven patients systematically depended on oculomotor targeting errors, with self-generated targeting errors erroneously attributed to external stimulus jumps. Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping identified an area in right central thalamus as critical for the perceptual matching of visual space across eye movements. Our findings suggest that trans-thalamic CD transmission decisively contributes to a correct prediction of the perceptual consequences of oculomotor actions.
Full Text Available Internal monitoring of oculomotor commands may help to anticipate and keep track of changes in perceptual input imposed by our eye movements. Neurophysiological studies in non-human primates identified corollary discharge signals of oculomotor commands that are conveyed via thalamus to frontal cortices. We tested whether disruption of these monitoring pathways on the thalamic level impairs the perceptual matching of visual input before and after an eye movement in human subjects. Fourteen patients with focal thalamic stroke and twenty healthy control subjects performed a task requiring a perceptual judgment across eye movements. Subjects reported the apparent displacement of a target cue that jumped unpredictably in sync with a saccadic eye movement. In a critical condition of this task, six patients exhibited clearly asymmetric perceptual performance for rightward versus leftward saccade direction. Furthermore, perceptual judgments in seven patients systematically depended on oculomotor targeting errors, with self-generated targeting errors erroneously attributed to external stimulus jumps. Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping identified an area in right central thalamus as critical for the perceptual matching of visual space across eye movements. Our findings suggest that trans-thalamic corollary discharge transmission decisively contributes to a correct prediction of the perceptual consequences of oculomotor actions.
Mohsenzadeh, Yalda; Dash, Suryadeep; Crawford, J Douglas
In the oculomotor system, spatial updating is the ability to aim a saccade toward a remembered visual target position despite intervening eye movements. Although this has been the subject of extensive experimental investigation, there is still no unifying theoretical framework to explain the neural mechanism for this phenomenon, and how it influences visual signals in the brain. Here, we propose a unified state-space model (SSM) to account for the dynamics of spatial updating during two types of eye movement; saccades and smooth pursuit. Our proposed model is a non-linear SSM and implemented through a recurrent radial-basis-function neural network in a dual Extended Kalman filter (EKF) structure. The model parameters and internal states (remembered target position) are estimated sequentially using the EKF method. The proposed model replicates two fundamental experimental observations: continuous gaze-centered updating of visual memory-related activity during smooth pursuit, and predictive remapping of visual memory activity before and during saccades. Moreover, our model makes the new prediction that, when uncertainty of input signals is incorporated in the model, neural population activity and receptive fields expand just before and during saccades. These results suggest that visual remapping and motor updating are part of a common visuomotor mechanism, and that subjective perceptual constancy arises in part from training the visual system on motor tasks.
Luo, Gang; Vargas-Martin, Fernando; Peli, Eli
Both visually salient and top-down information are important in eye movement control, but their relative roles in the planning of daily saccades are unclear. We investigated the effect of peripheral vision loss on saccadic behaviors in patients with tunnel vision (visual field diameters 7 degrees-16 degrees) in visual search and real-world walking experiments. The patients made up to two saccades per second to their pre-saccadic blind areas, about half of which had no overlap between the post- and pre-saccadic views. In the visual search experiment, visual field size and the background (blank or picture) did not affect the saccade sizes and direction of patients (n = 9). In the walking experiment, the patients (n = 5) and normal controls (n = 3) had similar distributions of saccade sizes and directions. These findings might provide a clue about the large extent of the top-down mechanism influence on eye movement control.
Kunimatsu, Jun; Suzuki, Tomoki W; Tanaka, Masaki
Although several lines of evidence establish the involvement of the medial and vestibular parts of the cerebellum in the adaptive control of eye movements, the role of the lateral hemisphere of the cerebellum in eye movements remains unclear. Ascending projections from the lateral cerebellum to the frontal and parietal association cortices via the thalamus are consistent with a role of these pathways in higher-order oculomotor control. In support of this, previous functional imaging studies and recent analyses in subjects with cerebellar lesions have indicated a role for the lateral cerebellum in volitional eye movements such as anti-saccades. To elucidate the underlying mechanisms, we recorded from single neurons in the dentate nucleus of the cerebellum in monkeys performing anti-saccade/pro-saccade tasks. We found that neurons in the posterior part of the dentate nucleus showed higher firing rates during the preparation of anti-saccades compared with pro-saccades. When the animals made erroneous saccades to the visual stimuli in the anti-saccade trials, the firing rate during the preparatory period decreased. Furthermore, local inactivation of the recording sites with muscimol moderately increased the proportion of error trials, while successful anti-saccades were more variable and often had shorter latency during inactivation. Thus, our results show that neuronal activity in the cerebellar dentate nucleus causally regulates anti-saccade performance. Neuronal signals from the lateral cerebellum to the frontal cortex might modulate the proactive control signals in the corticobasal ganglia circuitry that inhibit early reactive responses and possibly optimize the speed and accuracy of anti-saccades. Although the lateral cerebellum is interconnected with the cortical eye fields via the thalamus and the pons, its role in eye movements remains unclear. We found that neurons in the caudal part of the lateral (dentate) nucleus of the cerebellum showed the increased
Schenck, C H; Montplaisir, J Y; Frauscher, B
We aimed to provide a consensus statement by the International Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder Study Group (IRBD-SG) on devising controlled active treatment studies in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and devising studies of neuroprotection against Parkinson disease (PD...
Gruart, A; Delgado-García, J M
1. The spike activity of deep cerebellar nuclear neurons was recorded in the alert cat during spontaneous and during vestibularly and visually induced eye movements. 2. Neurons were classified according to their location in the nuclei, their antidromic activation from projection sites, their sensitivity to eye position and velocity during spontaneous eye movements, and their responses to vestibular and optokinetic stimuli. 3. Type I EPV (eye position and velocity) neurons were located mainly in the posterior part of the fastigial nucleus and activated antidromically almost exclusively from the medial longitudinal fasciculus close to the oculomotor complex. These neurons, reported here for the first time, increased their firing rate during saccades and eye fixations towards the contralateral hemifield. Their position sensitivity to eye fixations in the horizontal plane was 5.3 +/- 2.6 spikes s-1 deg-1 (mean +/- S.D.). Eye velocity sensitivity during horizontal saccades was 0.71 +/- 0.52 spikes s-1 deg-1 s-1. Variability of their firing rate during a given eye fixation was higher than that shown by abducens motoneurons. 4. Type I EPV neurons increased their firing rate during ipsilateral head rotations at 0.5 Hz with a mean phase lead over eye position of 95.3 +/- 9.5 deg. They were also activated by contralateral optokinetic stimulation at 30 deg s-1. Their sensitivity to eye position and velocity in the horizontal plane during vestibular and optokinetic stimuli yielded values similar to those obtained for spontaneous eye movements. 5. Type II neurons were located in both fastigial and dentate nuclei and were activated antidromically from the restiform body, the medial longitudinal fasciculus close to the oculomotor complex, the red nucleus and the pontine nuclei. Type II neurons were not related to spontaneous eye movements. These neurons increased their firing rate in response to contralateral head rotation and during ipsilateral optokinetic stimulation, and
Liu, Na; Yu, Ruifeng
This study employed an eye-tracking technique to investigate the influence of social presence on eye movements in visual search tasks. A total of 20 male subjects performed visual search tasks in a 2 (target presence: present vs. absent) × 2 (task complexity: complex vs. simple) × 2 (social presence: alone vs. a human audience) within-subject experiment. Results indicated that the presence of an audience could evoke a social facilitation effect on response time in visual search tasks. Compared with working alone, the participants made fewer and shorter fixations, larger saccades and shorter scan path in simple search tasks and more and longer fixations, smaller saccades and longer scan path in complex search tasks when working with an audience. The saccade velocity and pupil diameter in the audience-present condition were larger than those in the working-alone condition. No significant change in target fixation number was observed between two social presence conditions. Practitioner Summary: This study employed an eye-tracking technique to examine the influence of social presence on eye movements in visual search tasks. Results clarified the variation mechanism and characteristics of oculomotor scanning induced by social presence in visual search.
Wood, Scott; Clement, Gilles
This purpose of this study was to examine the spatial coding of eye movements during roll tilt relative to perceived orientations while free-floating during the microgravity phase of parabolic flight or during head tilt in normal gravity. Binocular videographic recordings obtained in darkness from six subjects allowed us to quantify the mean deviations in gaze trajectories along both horizontal and vertical coordinates relative to the aircraft and head orientations. Both variability and curvature of gaze trajectories increased during roll tilt compared to the upright position. The saccades were less accurate during parabolic flight compared to measurements obtained in normal gravity. The trajectories of saccades along perceived horizontal orientations tended to deviate in the same direction as the head tilt, while the deviations in gaze trajectories along the perceived vertical orientations deviated in the opposite direction relative to the head tilt. Although subjects were instructed to look off in the distance while performing the eye movements, fixation distance varied with vertical gaze direction independent of whether the saccades were made along perceived aircraft or head orientations. This coupling of horizontal vergence with vertical gaze is in a consistent direction with the vertical slant of the horopter. The increased errors in gaze trajectories along both perceived orientations during microgravity can be attributed to the otolith's role in spatial coding of eye movements.
Adler, Scott A; Gallego, Pamela
Search asymmetry is characterized by the detection of a feature-present target amidst feature-absent distractors being efficient and unaffected by the number of distractors, whereas detection of a feature-absent target amidst feature-present distractors is typically inefficient and affected by the number of distractors. Although studies have attempted to investigate this phenomenon with infants (e.g., Adler, Inslicht, Rovee-Collier, & Gerhardstein in Infant Behavioral Development, 21, 253-272, 1998; Colombo, Mitchell, Coldren, & Atwater in Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 19, 98-109, 1990), due to methodological limitations, their findings have been unable to definitively establish the development of visual search mechanisms in infants. The present study assessed eye movements as a means to examine an asymmetry in responding to feature-present versus feature-absent targets in 3-month-olds, relative to adults. Saccade latencies to localize a target (or a distractor, as in the homogeneous conditions) were measured as infants and adults randomly viewed feature-present (R among Ps), feature-absent (P among Rs), and homogeneous (either all Rs or all Ps) arrays at set sizes of 1, 3, 5, and 8. Results indicated that neither infants' nor adults' saccade latencies to localize the target in the feature-present arrays were affected by increasing set sizes, suggesting that localization of the target was efficient. In contrast, saccade latencies to localize the target in the feature-absent arrays increased with increasing set sizes for both infants and adults, suggesting an inefficient localization. These findings indicate that infants exhibit an asymmetry consistent with that found with adults, providing support for functional bottom-up selective attention mechanisms in early infancy.
Full Text Available The eye movement system is sensitive to reward. However, whilst the eye movement system is extremely flexible, the extent to which changes to oculomotor behaviour induced by reward paradigms persist beyond the training period or transfer to other oculomotor tasks is unclear. To address these issues we examined the effects of presenting feedback that represented small monetary rewards to spatial locations on the latency of saccadic eye movements, the time-course of learning and extinction of the effects of rewarding saccades on exogenous spatial attention and oculomotor IOR. Reward feedback produced a relative facilitation of saccadic latency in a stimulus driven saccade task which persisted for 3 blocks of extinction trials. However this hemifield-specific effect failed to transfer to peripheral cueing tasks. We conclude that rewarding specific spatial locations is unlikely to induce long-term, systemic changes to the human oculomotor or attention systems.
Dunne, Stephen; Ellison, Amanda; Smith, Daniel T
The eye movement system is sensitive to reward. However, whilst the eye movement system is extremely flexible, the extent to which changes to oculomotor behavior induced by reward paradigms persist beyond the training period or transfer to other oculomotor tasks is unclear. To address these issues we examined the effects of presenting feedback that represented small monetary rewards to spatial locations on the latency of saccadic eye movements, the time-course of learning and extinction of the effects of rewarding saccades on exogenous spatial attention and oculomotor inhibition of return. Reward feedback produced a relative facilitation of saccadic latency in a stimulus driven saccade task which persisted for three blocks of extinction trials. However, this hemifield-specific effect failed to transfer to peripheral cueing tasks. We conclude that rewarding specific spatial locations is unlikely to induce long-term, systemic changes to the human oculomotor or attention systems.
Iliya V Ivanov
Full Text Available Degenerative retinal diseases, especially retinitis pigmentosa (RP, lead to severe peripheral visual field loss (tunnel vision, which impairs mobility. The lack of peripheral information leads to fewer horizontal eye movements and, thus, diminished scanning in RP patients in a natural environment walking task. This randomized controlled study aimed to improve mobility and the dynamic visual field by applying a compensatory Exploratory Saccadic Training (EST.Oculomotor responses during walking and avoiding obstacles in a controlled environment were studied before and after saccade or reading training in 25 RP patients. Eye movements were recorded using a mobile infrared eye tracker (Tobii glasses that measured a range of spatial and temporal variables. Patients were randomly assigned to two training conditions: Saccade (experimental and reading (control training. All subjects who first performed reading training underwent experimental training later (waiting list control group. To assess the effect of training on subjects, we measured performance in the training task and the following outcome variables related to daily life: Response Time (RT during exploratory saccade training, Percent Preferred Walking Speed (PPWS, the number of collisions with obstacles, eye position variability, fixation duration, and the total number of fixations including the ones in the subjects' blind area of the visual field.In the saccade training group, RTs on average decreased, while the PPWS significantly increased. The improvement persisted, as tested 6 weeks after the end of the training. On average, the eye movement range of RP patients before and after training was similar to that of healthy observers. In both, the experimental and reading training groups, we found many fixations outside the subjects' seeing visual field before and after training. The average fixation duration was significantly shorter after the training, but only in the experimental training
Iskander, J; Hossny, M; Nahavandi, S; Del Porto, L
Simulating and analysing eye movement is useful for assessing visual system contribution to discomfort with respect to body movements, especially in virtual environments where simulation sickness might occur. It can also be used in the design of eye prosthesis or humanoid robot eye. In this paper, we present two biomechanic ocular models that are easily integrated into the available musculoskeletal models. The model was previously used to simulate eye-head coordination. The models are used to simulate and analyse eye movements. The proposed models are based on physiological and kinematic properties of the human eye. They incorporate an eye-globe, orbital suspension tissues and six muscles with their connective tissues (pulleys). Pulleys were incorporated in rectus and inferior oblique muscles. The two proposed models are the passive pulleys and the active pulleys models. Dynamic simulations of different eye movements, including fixation, saccade and smooth pursuit, are performed to validate both models. The resultant force-length curves of the models were similar to the experimental data. The simulation results show that the proposed models are suitable to generate eye movement simulations with results comparable to other musculoskeletal models. The maximum kinematic root mean square error (RMSE) is 5.68° and 4.35° for the passive and active pulley models, respectively. The analysis of the muscle forces showed realistic muscle activation with increased muscle synergy in the active pulley model. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Parker, Andrew; Relph, Sarah; Dagnall, Neil
Two experiments are reported that investigate the effects of saccadic bilateral eye movements on the retrieval of item, associative, and contextual information. Experiment 1 compared the effects of bilateral versus vertical versus no eye movements on tests of item recognition, followed by remember-know responses and associative recognition. Supporting previous research, bilateral eye movements enhanced item recognition by increasing the hit rate and decreasing the false alarm rate. Analysis of remember-know responses indicated that eye movement effects were accompanied by increases in remember responses. The test of associative recognition found that bilateral eye movements increased correct responses to intact pairs and decreased false alarms to rearranged pairs. Experiment 2 assessed the effects of eye movements on the recall of intrinsic (color) and extrinsic (spatial location) context. Bilateral eye movements increased correct recall for both types of context. The results are discussed within the framework of dual-process models of memory and the possible neural underpinnings of these effects are considered.
Full Text Available It is not sure if persons with dyslexia have ocular motor deficits in addition to their deficits in rapid visual information processing. A 15-year-old boy afflicted by severe dyslexia was submitted to saccadic eye movement recording. Neurological and ophthalmic examinations were normal apart from the presence of an esophoria for near and slightly longer latencies of pattern visual evoked potentials. Subclinical saccadic alterations were present, which could be at the basis of the reading pathology: (1 low velocities (and larger durations of the adducting saccades of the left eye with undershooting and long-lasting postsaccadic onward drift, typical of the internuclear ophthalmoplegia; (2 saccades interrupted in mid-flight and fixation instability, which are present in cases of brainstem premotor disturbances.
Connell, Charlotte J W; Thompson, Benjamin; Turuwhenua, Jason; Hess, Robert F; Gant, Nicholas
Caffeine is a widely used dietary stimulant that can reverse the effects of fatigue on cognitive, motor and oculomotor function. However, few studies have examined the effect of caffeine on the oculomotor system when homeostasis has not been disrupted by physical fatigue. This study examined the influence of a moderate dose of caffeine on oculomotor control and visual perception in participants who were not fatigued. Within a placebo-controlled crossover design, 13 healthy adults ingested caffeine (5 mg·kg -1 body mass) and were tested over 3 h. Eye movements, including saccades, smooth pursuit and optokinetic nystagmus, were measured using infrared oculography. Caffeine was associated with higher peak saccade velocities (472 ± 60° s -1 ) compared to placebo (455 ± 62° s -1 ). Quick phases of optokinetic nystagmus were also significantly faster with caffeine, whereas pursuit eye movements were unchanged. Non-oculomotor perceptual tasks (global motion and global orientation processing) were unaffected by caffeine. These results show that oculomotor control is modulated by a moderate dose of caffeine in unfatigued humans. These effects are detectable in the kinematics of rapid eye movements, whereas pursuit eye movements and visual perception are unaffected. Oculomotor functions may be sensitive to changes in central catecholamines mediated via caffeine's action as an adenosine antagonist, even when participants are not fatigued.
Goffart, Laurent; Bourrelly, Clara; Quinet, Julie
In primates, the appearance of an object moving in the peripheral visual field elicits an interceptive saccade that brings the target image onto the foveae. This foveation is then maintained more or less efficiently by slow pursuit eye movements and subsequent catch-up saccades. Sometimes, the tracking is such that the gaze direction looks spatiotemporally locked onto the moving object. Such a spatial synchronism is quite spectacular when one considers that the target-related signals are transmitted to the motor neurons through multiple parallel channels connecting separate neural populations with different conduction speeds and delays. Because of the delays between the changes of retinal activity and the changes of extraocular muscle tension, the maintenance of the target image onto the fovea cannot be driven by the current retinal signals as they correspond to past positions of the target. Yet, the spatiotemporal coincidence observed during pursuit suggests that the oculomotor system is driven by a command estimating continuously the current location of the target, i.e., where it is here and now. This inference is also supported by experimental perturbation studies: when the trajectory of an interceptive saccade is experimentally perturbed, a correction saccade is produced in flight or after a short delay, and brings the gaze next to the location where unperturbed saccades would have landed at about the same time, in the absence of visual feedback. In this chapter, we explain how such correction can be supported by previous visual signals without assuming "predictive" signals encoding future target locations. We also describe the basic neural processes which gradually yield the synchronization of eye movements with the target motion. When the process fails, the gaze is driven by signals related to past locations of the target, not by estimates to its upcoming locations, and a catch-up is made to reinitiate the synchronization. © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights
Silvis, J D; Van der Stigchel, S
Investigating eye movements has been a promising approach to uncover the role of visual working memory in early attentional processes. Prior research has already demonstrated that eye movements in search tasks are more easily drawn toward stimuli that show similarities to working memory content, as compared with neutral stimuli. Previous saccade tasks, however, have always required a selection process, thereby automatically recruiting working memory. The present study was an attempt to confirm the role of working memory in oculomotor selection in an unbiased saccade task that rendered memory mechanisms irrelevant. Participants executed a saccade in a display with two elements, without any instruction to aim for one particular element. The results show that when two objects appear simultaneously, a working memory match attracts the first saccade more profoundly than do mismatch objects, an effect that was present throughout the saccade latency distribution. These findings demonstrate that memory plays a fundamental biasing role in the earliest competitive processes in the selection of visual objects, even when working memory is not recruited during selection.
Friedman, Lee; Rigas, Ioannis; Abdulin, Evgeny; Komogortsev, Oleg V
Nystrӧm and Holmqvist have published a method for the classification of eye movements during reading (ONH) (Nyström & Holmqvist, 2010). When we applied this algorithm to our data, the results were not satisfactory, so we modified the algorithm (now the MNH) to better classify our data. The changes included: (1) reducing the amount of signal filtering, (2) excluding a new type of noise, (3) removing several adaptive thresholds and replacing them with fixed thresholds, (4) changing the way that the start and end of each saccade was determined, (5) employing a new algorithm for detecting PSOs, and (6) allowing a fixation period to either begin or end with noise. A new method for the evaluation of classification algorithms is presented. It was designed to provide comprehensive feedback to an algorithm developer, in a time-efficient manner, about the types and numbers of classification errors that an algorithm produces. This evaluation was conducted by three expert raters independently, across 20 randomly chosen recordings, each classified by both algorithms. The MNH made many fewer errors in determining when saccades start and end, and it also detected some fixations and saccades that the ONH did not. The MNH fails to detect very small saccades. We also evaluated two additional algorithms: the EyeLink Parser and a more current, machine-learning-based algorithm. The EyeLink Parser tended to find more saccades that ended too early than did the other methods, and we found numerous problems with the output of the machine-learning-based algorithm.
Kolar, Radim; Tornow, Ralf P; Odstrcilik, Jan
This paper describes a novel methodology for eye fixation measurement using a unique videoophthalmoscope setup and advanced image registration approach. The representation of the eye movements via Poincare plot is also introduced. The properties, limitations and perspective of this methodology are finally discussed.
Spering, Miriam; Gegenfurtner, Karl R.; Kerzel, Dirk
When 2 targets for pursuit eye movements move in different directions, the eye velocity follows the vector average (S. G. Lisberger & V. P. Ferrera, 1997). The present study investigates the mechanisms of target selection when observers are instructed to follow a predefined horizontal target and to ignore a moving distractor stimulus. Results show…
Lee, Kyoung-Min; Ahn, Kyung-Ha; Keller, Edward L
The frontal eye fields (FEF), originally identified as an oculomotor cortex, have also been implicated in perceptual functions, such as constructing a visual saliency map and shifting visual attention. Further dissecting the area's role in the transformation from visual input to oculomotor command has been difficult because of spatial confounding between stimuli and responses and consequently between intermediate cognitive processes, such as attention shift and saccade preparation. Here we developed two tasks in which the visual stimulus and the saccade response were dissociated in space (the extended memory-guided saccade task), and bottom-up attention shift and saccade target selection were independent (the four-alternative delayed saccade task). Reversible inactivation of the FEF in rhesus monkeys disrupted, as expected, contralateral memory-guided saccades, but visual detection was demonstrated to be intact at the same field. Moreover, saccade behavior was impaired when a bottom-up shift of attention was not a prerequisite for saccade target selection, indicating that the inactivation effect was independent of the previously reported dysfunctions in bottom-up attention control. These findings underscore the motor aspect of the area's functions, especially in situations where saccades are generated by internal cognitive processes, including visual short-term memory and long-term associative memory.
Full Text Available The frontal eye fields (FEF, originally identified as an oculomotor cortex, have also been implicated in perceptual functions, such as constructing a visual saliency map and shifting visual attention. Further dissecting the area's role in the transformation from visual input to oculomotor command has been difficult because of spatial confounding between stimuli and responses and consequently between intermediate cognitive processes, such as attention shift and saccade preparation. Here we developed two tasks in which the visual stimulus and the saccade response were dissociated in space (the extended memory-guided saccade task, and bottom-up attention shift and saccade target selection were independent (the four-alternative delayed saccade task. Reversible inactivation of the FEF in rhesus monkeys disrupted, as expected, contralateral memory-guided saccades, but visual detection was demonstrated to be intact at the same field. Moreover, saccade behavior was impaired when a bottom-up shift of attention was not a prerequisite for saccade target selection, indicating that the inactivation effect was independent of the previously reported dysfunctions in bottom-up attention control. These findings underscore the motor aspect of the area's functions, especially in situations where saccades are generated by internal cognitive processes, including visual short-term memory and long-term associative memory.
Gilaie-Dotan, Sharon; Doron, Ravid
Visual categories are associated with eccentricity biases in high-order visual cortex: Faces and reading with foveally-biased regions, while common objects and space with mid- and peripherally-biased regions. As face perception and reading are among the most challenging human visual skills, and are often regarded as the peak achievements of a distributed neural network supporting common objects perception, it is unclear why objects, which also rely on foveal vision to be processed, are associated with mid-peripheral rather than with a foveal bias. Here, we studied BN, a 9 y.o. boy who has normal basic-level vision, abnormal (limited) oculomotor pursuit and saccades, and shows developmental object and contour integration deficits but with no indication of prosopagnosia. Although we cannot infer causation from the data presented here, we suggest that normal pursuit and saccades could be critical for the development of contour integration and object perception. While faces and perhaps reading, when fixated upon, take up a small portion of central visual field and require only small eye movements to be properly processed, common objects typically prevail in mid-peripheral visual field and rely on longer-distance voluntary eye movements as saccades to be brought to fixation. While retinal information feeds into early visual cortex in an eccentricity orderly manner, we hypothesize that propagation of non-foveal information to mid and high-order visual cortex critically relies on circuitry involving eye movements. Limited or atypical eye movements, as in the case of BN, may hinder normal information flow to mid-eccentricity biased high-order visual cortex, adversely affecting its development and consequently inducing visual perceptual deficits predominantly for categories associated with these regions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Sakoi, Tomonori; Kolencíková, Sona
The impact of direction, oscillation and temperature of isothermal room air movement on eye discomfort and tear film quality was studied. Twenty-four male subjects participated in the experiment. Horizontal air movement against the face and chest was generated by a large desk fan – LDF and a small...... when the airflow was directed against the face and when against the chest, LDF with and without oscillation and PV. Eye tear film samples were taken and analyzed at the beginning and the end of the exposures. Eye irritation and dryness were reported by the subjects. The air movement under individual...... control did not change significantly the tear film quality though tendency for improvement was observed. Eye dryness increased much when the airflow was blowing constantly against the face compared to oscillating airflow, airflow directed against the chest and upward airflow against the face....
Yao, Tao; Treue, Stefan; Krishna, B Suresh
While making saccadic eye-movements to scan a visual scene, humans and monkeys are able to keep track of relevant visual stimuli by maintaining spatial attention on them. This ability requires a shift of attentional modulation from the neuronal population representing the relevant stimulus pre-saccadically to the one representing it post-saccadically. For optimal performance, this trans-saccadic attention shift should be rapid and saccade-synchronized. Whether this is so is not known. We trained two rhesus monkeys to make saccades while maintaining covert attention at a fixed spatial location. We show that the trans-saccadic attention shift in cortical visual medial temporal (MT) area is well synchronized to saccades. Attentional modulation crosses over from the pre-saccadic to the post-saccadic neuronal representation by about 50 ms after a saccade. Taking response latency into account, the trans-saccadic attention shift is well timed to maintain spatial attention on relevant stimuli, so that they can be optimally tracked and processed across saccades.
de Brouwer, S; Missal, M; Lefèvre, P
Visual tracking of moving targets requires the combination of smooth pursuit eye movements with catch-up saccades. In primates, catch-up saccades usually take place only during pursuit initiation because pursuit gain is close to unity. This contrasts with the lower and more variable gain of smooth pursuit in cats, where smooth eye movements are intermingled with catch-up saccades during steady-state pursuit. In this paper, we studied in detail the role of retinal slip in the prediction of target motion during smooth and saccadic pursuit in the cat. We found that the typical pattern of pursuit in the cat was a combination of smooth eye movements with saccades. During smooth pursuit initiation, there was a correlation between peak eye acceleration and target velocity. During pursuit maintenance, eye velocity oscillated at approximately 3 Hz around a steady-state value. The average gain of smooth pursuit was approximately 0.5. Trained cats were able to continue pursuing in the absence of a visible target, suggesting a role of the prediction of future target motion in this species. The analysis of catch-up saccades showed that the smooth-pursuit motor command is added to the saccadic command during catch-up saccades and that both position error and retinal slip are taken into account in their programming. The influence of retinal slip on catch-up saccades showed that prediction about future target motion is used in the programming of catch-up saccades. Altogether, these results suggest that pursuit systems in primates and cats are qualitatively similar, with a lower average gain in the cat and that prediction affects both saccades and smooth eye movements during pursuit.
Benson, Valerie; Piper, Jenna; Fletcher-Watson, Sue
Saccadic scanning was examined for typically developing (TD) adults and those with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) during inspection of the "Repin" picture (Yarbus, A. (1967). "Eye movements and vision". New York: Plenum) under two different viewing instructions: (A) material instructions ("Estimate the material circumstances of the family"); and…
Full Text Available Over the past decades, the relation between reading skills and eye movement behavior has been well documented in English-speaking cohorts. As English and German differ substantially with regard to orthographic complexity (i.e. grapheme-phoneme correspondence, we aimed to delineate specific characteristics of how reading speed and reading comprehension interact with eye movements in typically developing German-speaking (Austrian adolescents. Eye movements of 22 participants (14 females; mean age = 13;6 years;months were tracked while they were performing three tasks, namely silently reading words, texts, and pseudowords. Their reading skills were determined by means of a standardized German reading speed and reading comprehension assessment (Lesegeschwindigkeits- und -verständnistest für Klassen 6-12. We found that (a reading skills were associated with various eye movement parameters in each of the three reading tasks; (b better reading skills were associated with an increased efficiency of eye movements, but were primarily linked to spatial reading parameters, such as the number of fixations per word, the total number of saccades and saccadic amplitudes; (c reading speed was a more reliable predictor for eye movement parameters than reading comprehension; (d eye movements were highly correlated across reading tasks, which indicates consistent reading performances. Contrary to findings in English-speaking cohorts, the reading skills neither consistently correlated with temporal eye movement parameters nor with the number or percentage of regressions made while performing any of the three reading tasks. These results indicate that, although reading skills are associated with eye movement patterns irrespective of language, the temporal and spatial characteristics of this association may vary with orthographic consistency.
Vendetti, Michael S; Starr, Ariel; Johnson, Elizabeth L; Modavi, Kiana; Bunge, Silvia A
Analogical reasoning refers to the process of drawing inferences on the basis of the relational similarity between two domains. Although this complex cognitive ability has been the focus of inquiry for many years, most models rely on measures that cannot capture individuals' thought processes moment by moment. In the present study, we used participants' eye movements to investigate reasoning strategies in real time while solving visual propositional analogy problems (A:B::C:D). We included both a semantic and a perceptual lure on every trial to determine how these types of distracting information influence reasoning strategies. Participants spent more time fixating the analogy terms and the target relative to the other response choices, and made more saccades between the A and B items than between any other items. Participants' eyes were initially drawn to perceptual lures when looking at response choices, but they nonetheless performed the task accurately. We used participants' gaze sequences to classify each trial as representing one of three classic analogy problem solving strategies and related strategy usage to analogical reasoning performance. A project-first strategy, in which participants first extrapolate the relation between the AB pair and then generalize that relation for the C item, was both the most commonly used strategy as well as the optimal strategy for solving visual analogy problems. These findings provide new insight into the role of strategic processing in analogical problem solving.
Michael S. Vendetti
Full Text Available Analogical reasoning refers to the process of drawing inferences on the basis of the relational similarity between two domains. Although this complex cognitive ability has been the focus of inquiry for many years, most models rely on measures that cannot capture individuals' thought processes moment by moment. In the present study, we used participants' eye movements to investigate reasoning strategies in real time while solving visual propositional analogy problems (A:B::C:D. We included both a semantic and a perceptual lure on every trial to determine how these types of distracting information influence reasoning strategies. Participants spent more time fixating the analogy terms and the target relative to the other response choices, and made more saccades between the A and B items than between any other items. Participants' eyes were initially drawn to perceptual lures when looking at response choices, but they nonetheless performed the task accurately. We used participants' gaze sequences to classify each trial as representing one of three classic analogy problem solving strategies and related strategy usage to analogical reasoning performance. A project-first strategy, in which participants first extrapolate the relation between the AB pair and then generalize that relation for the C item, was both the most commonly used strategy as well as the optimal strategy for solving visual analogy problems. These findings provide new insight into the role of strategic processing in analogical problem solving.
Renninger, Laura Walker; Coughlan, James; Verghese, Preeti; Malik, Jitendra
We propose a sequential information maximization model as a general strategy for programming eye movements. The model reconstructs high-resolution visual information from a sequence of fixations, taking into account the fall-off in resolution from the fovea to the periphery. From this framework we get a simple rule for predicting fixation sequences: after each fixation, fixate next at the location that minimizes uncertainty (maximizes information) about the stimulus. By comparing our model performance to human eye movement data and to predictions from a saliency and random model, we demonstrate that our model is best at predicting fixation locations. Modeling additional biological constraints will improve the prediction of fixation sequences. Our results suggest that information maximization is a useful principle for programming eye movements.
Balling, Laura Winther
texts as well as both eye-tracking and keylogging data. Based on this database, I present a large-scale analysis of gaze on the source text based on 91 translators' translations of six different texts from English into four different target languages. I use mixed-effects modelling to compare from......, and variables indexing the alignment between the source and target texts. The results are related to current models of translation processes and reading and compared to a parallel analysis of production time....
We examined age-dependent changes in voluntary eye movements in normal subjects (age : 5-76) using a visually guided saccade (V-saccade) task and a memory guided saccade (M-saccade) task. Changes were more evident in M-saccades. The latencies were long in children (people (> 50 y.o.). Both young children and elderly people tended to break fixation by making a saccade to the cue stimulus that indicated the future target position. On the other hand, both young children and elderly people tended to be slow in making M-saccade promptly after the central fixation point went off. Thus, they had difficulties both in suppressing unnecessary saccades and in initiating saccades based on memory. Interestingly, similar difficulties were observed, in exaggerated forms, in patients in basal ganglia disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, juvenile parkinsonism, dopa-responsive dystonia, and hereditary progressive dystonia with marked diurnal fluctuation. These findings were consistent with the known functions of the basal ganglia which have been revealed by physiological studies using trained monkeys. The substantia nigra pars reticulata exerts tonic inhibitory influences over the superior colliculus, thereby preventing excitatory inputs from triggering unnecessary saccades. The tonic inhibition, however, is removed by a phasic inhibition largely originating in the caudate nucleus. Thus, inhibition and disinhibition are key mechanisms of the basal ganglia. In fact, experimental manipulations of these serial inhibitory pathway in the basal ganglia led either to the difficulty in initiation of saccades, especially M-saccades, or to the difficulty in suppressing unnecessary saccades. These comparisons suggest that the functions of the basal ganglia are immature in young children while they become deteriorated in elderly people.
Koene, Ansgar Roald
The topic of this thesis is the investigation of the mechanical properties of the oculomotor system and the implications of these properties for eye movement control. The investigation was conducted by means of computer models and simulations. This allowed us to combine data from anatomy, physiology
Kapoula, Zoï; Lang, Alexandre; Vernet, Marine; Locher, Paul
Op Art generates illusory visual motion. It has been proposed that eye movements participate in such illusion. This study examined the effect of eye movement instructions (fixation vs. free exploration) on the sensation of motion as well as the body sway of subjects viewing Op Art paintings. Twenty-eight healthy adults in orthostatic stance were successively exposed to three visual stimuli consisting of one figure representing a cross (baseline condition) and two Op Art paintings providing sense of motion in depth-Bridget Riley's Movements in Squares and Akiyoshi Kitaoka's Rollers. Before their exposure to the Op Art images, participants were instructed either to fixate at the center of the image (fixation condition) or to explore the artwork (free viewing condition). Posture was measured for 30 s per condition using a body fixed sensor (accelerometer). The major finding of this study is that the two Op Art paintings induced a larger antero-posterior body sway both in terms of speed and displacement and an increased motion illusion in the free viewing condition as compared to the fixation condition. For body sway, this effect was significant for the Riley painting, while for motion illusion this effect was significant for Kitaoka's image. These results are attributed to macro-saccades presumably occurring under free viewing instructions, and most likely to the small vergence drifts during fixations following the saccades; such movements in interaction with visual properties of each image would increase either the illusory motion sensation or the antero-posterior body sway.
Full Text Available Primates perform saccadic eye movements in order to bring the image of an interesting target onto the fovea. Compared to stationary targets, saccades towards moving targets are computationally more demanding since the oculomotor system must use speed and direction information about the target as well as knowledge about its own processing latency to program an adequate, predictive saccade vector. In monkeys, different brain regions have been implicated in the control of voluntary saccades, among them the lateral intraparietal area (LIP. Here we asked, if activity in area LIP reflects the distance between fovea and saccade target, or the amplitude of an upcoming saccade, or both. We recorded single unit activity in area LIP of two macaque monkeys. First, we determined for each neuron its preferred saccade direction. Then, monkeys performed visually guided saccades along the preferred direction towards either stationary or moving targets in pseudo-randomized order. LIP population activity allowed to decode both, the distance between fovea and saccade target as well as the size of an upcoming saccade. Previous work has shown comparable results for saccade direction (Graf and Andersen, 2014a, b. Hence, LIP population activity allows to predict any two-dimensional saccade vector. Functional equivalents of macaque area LIP have been identified in humans. Accordingly, our results provide further support for the concept of activity from area LIP as neural basis for the control of an oculomotor brain-machine interface.
Bremmer, Frank; Kaminiarz, Andre; Klingenhoefer, Steffen; Churan, Jan
Primates perform saccadic eye movements in order to bring the image of an interesting target onto the fovea. Compared to stationary targets, saccades toward moving targets are computationally more demanding since the oculomotor system must use speed and direction information about the target as well as knowledge about its own processing latency to program an adequate, predictive saccade vector. In monkeys, different brain regions have been implicated in the control of voluntary saccades, among them the lateral intraparietal area (LIP). Here we asked, if activity in area LIP reflects the distance between fovea and saccade target, or the amplitude of an upcoming saccade, or both. We recorded single unit activity in area LIP of two macaque monkeys. First, we determined for each neuron its preferred saccade direction. Then, monkeys performed visually guided saccades along the preferred direction toward either stationary or moving targets in pseudo-randomized order. LIP population activity allowed to decode both, the distance between fovea and saccade target as well as the size of an upcoming saccade. Previous work has shown comparable results for saccade direction (Graf and Andersen, 2014a,b). Hence, LIP population activity allows to predict any two-dimensional saccade vector. Functional equivalents of macaque area LIP have been identified in humans. Accordingly, our results provide further support for the concept of activity from area LIP as neural basis for the control of an oculomotor brain-machine interface. PMID:27630547
Zoetmulder, Marielle; Jennum, Poul
Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) is characterized by loss of REM sleep and related electromyographic atonia with marked muscular activity and dream enactment behaviour. RBD is seen in 0.5% of the population. It occurs in an idiopathic form and secondarily to medical...
Hoppe, David; Rothkopf, Constantin A
During active behavior humans redirect their gaze several times every second within the visual environment. Where we look within static images is highly efficient, as quantified by computational models of human gaze shifts in visual search and face recognition tasks. However, when we shift gaze is mostly unknown despite its fundamental importance for survival in a dynamic world. It has been suggested that during naturalistic visuomotor behavior gaze deployment is coordinated with task-relevant events, often predictive of future events, and studies in sportsmen suggest that timing of eye movements is learned. Here we establish that humans efficiently learn to adjust the timing of eye movements in response to environmental regularities when monitoring locations in the visual scene to detect probabilistically occurring events. To detect the events humans adopt strategies that can be understood through a computational model that includes perceptual and acting uncertainties, a minimal processing time, and, crucially, the intrinsic costs of gaze behavior. Thus, subjects traded off event detection rate with behavioral costs of carrying out eye movements. Remarkably, based on this rational bounded actor model the time course of learning the gaze strategies is fully explained by an optimal Bayesian learner with humans' characteristic uncertainty in time estimation, the well-known scalar law of biological timing. Taken together, these findings establish that the human visual system is highly efficient in learning temporal regularities in the environment and that it can use these regularities to control the timing of eye movements to detect behaviorally relevant events.
duration and velocity. Neurology, 1975, 25, 1065-1070. EYM, SAC 40 Bard, C.; Fleury, M.; Carriere, L.; Halle, M. Analysis of Gymnastics Judges’ Visual...Nodine, C.F.; Carmody, D.P.; Herman, E. Eye Movements During Search for Artistically Embedded Targets. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 1979, 13
Full Text Available Eye movement behavior in reading can reflect on-line cognitive process. Through the on-line measure of eye movement, under relatively natural reading condition, data of the reader’ s eye movement in the text can be obtained in processing information, and thus help to reveal the internal cognitive mechanisms in reading. With the development of intelligentization, serialization and portable direction in eye tracker, there exist great number of studies on eye movement tracking, but studies on eye movement features in ESL reading are rare. In such circumstances, this paper mainly illustrates eye movement patterns, the relationship between eye movement and perceptual processing, and eye movement control in ESL reading.
Huang, Jinglin; Gharib, Morteza
Drug injection is an important technique in certain treatments of eye diseases. The efficacy of chemical mixing plays an important role in determining pharmacokinetics of injected drugs. In this study, we build a device to study the chemical mixing behavior in a spherical structure. The mixing process is visualized and analyzed qualitatively. We hope to understand the chemical convection and diffusion behaviors in correlation with controlled rapid mechanical movements. The results will have potential applications in treatment of eye diseases. Resnick Institute at Caltech.
Voudouris, Dimitris; Goettker, Alexander; Mueller, Stefanie; Fiehler, Katja
Saccades to somatosensory targets have longer latencies and are less accurate and precise than saccades to visual targets. Here we examined how different somatosensory information influences the planning and control of saccadic eye movements. Participants fixated a central cross and initiated a saccade as fast as possible in response to a tactile stimulus that was presented to either the index or the middle fingertip of their unseen left hand. In a static condition, the hand remained at a target location for the entire block of trials and the stimulus was presented at a fixed time after an auditory tone. Therefore, the target location was derived only from proprioceptive and tactile information. In a moving condition, the hand was first actively moved to the same target location and the stimulus was then presented immediately. Thus, in the moving condition additional kinesthetic information about the target location was available. We found shorter saccade latencies in the moving compared to the static condition, but no differences in accuracy or precision of saccadic endpoints. In a second experiment, we introduced variable delays after the auditory tone (static condition) or after the end of the hand movement (moving condition) in order to reduce the predictability of the moment of the stimulation and to allow more time to process the kinesthetic information. Again, we found shorter latencies in the moving compared to the static condition but no improvement in saccade accuracy or precision. In a third experiment, we showed that the shorter saccade latencies in the moving condition cannot be explained by the temporal proximity between the relevant event (auditory tone or end of hand movement) and the moment of the stimulation. Our findings suggest that kinesthetic information facilitates planning, but not control, of saccadic eye movements to proprioceptive-tactile targets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Calkins, Monica E; Iacono, William G; Ones, Deniz S
Several forms of eye movement dysfunction (EMD) are regarded as promising candidate endophenotypes of schizophrenia. Discrepancies in individual study results have led to inconsistent conclusions regarding particular aspects of EMD in relatives of schizophrenia patients. To quantitatively evaluate and compare the candidacy of smooth pursuit, saccade and fixation deficits in first-degree biological relatives, we conducted a set of meta-analytic investigations. Among 18 measures of EMD, memory-guided saccade accuracy and error rate, global smooth pursuit dysfunction, intrusive saccades during fixation, antisaccade error rate and smooth pursuit closed-loop gain emerged as best differentiating relatives from controls (standardized mean differences ranged from .46 to .66), with no significant differences among these measures. Anticipatory saccades, but no other smooth pursuit component measures were also increased in relatives. Visually-guided reflexive saccades were largely normal. Moderator analyses examining design characteristics revealed few variables affecting the magnitude of the meta-analytically observed effects. Moderate effect sizes of relatives v. controls in selective aspects of EMD supports their endophenotype potential. Future work should focus on facilitating endophenotype utility through attention to heterogeneity of EMD performance, relationships among forms of EMD, and application in molecular genetics studies.
David P Crabb
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glaucoma is a progressive eye disease and a leading cause of visual disability. Automated assessment of the visual field determines the different stages in the disease process: it would be desirable to link these measurements taken in the clinic with patient's actual function, or establish if patients compensate for their restricted field of view when performing everyday tasks. Hence, this study investigated eye movements in glaucomatous patients when viewing driving scenes in a hazard perception test (HPT. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The HPT is a component of the UK driving licence test consisting of a series of short film clips of various traffic scenes viewed from the driver's perspective each containing hazardous situations that require the camera car to change direction or slow down. Data from nine glaucomatous patients with binocular visual field defects and ten age-matched control subjects were considered (all experienced drivers. Each subject viewed 26 different films with eye movements simultaneously monitored by an eye tracker. Computer software was purpose written to pre-process the data, co-register it to the film clips and to quantify eye movements and point-of-regard (using a dynamic bivariate contour ellipse analysis. On average, and across all HPT films, patients exhibited different eye movement characteristics to controls making, for example, significantly more saccades (P<0.001; 95% confidence interval for mean increase: 9.2 to 22.4%. Whilst the average region of 'point-of-regard' of the patients did not differ significantly from the controls, there were revealing cases where patients failed to see a hazard in relation to their binocular visual field defect. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Characteristics of eye movement patterns in patients with bilateral glaucoma can differ significantly from age-matched controls when viewing a traffic scene. Further studies of eye movements made by glaucomatous patients could
Crabb, David P; Smith, Nicholas D; Rauscher, Franziska G; Chisholm, Catharine M; Barbur, John L; Edgar, David F; Garway-Heath, David F
Glaucoma is a progressive eye disease and a leading cause of visual disability. Automated assessment of the visual field determines the different stages in the disease process: it would be desirable to link these measurements taken in the clinic with patient's actual function, or establish if patients compensate for their restricted field of view when performing everyday tasks. Hence, this study investigated eye movements in glaucomatous patients when viewing driving scenes in a hazard perception test (HPT). The HPT is a component of the UK driving licence test consisting of a series of short film clips of various traffic scenes viewed from the driver's perspective each containing hazardous situations that require the camera car to change direction or slow down. Data from nine glaucomatous patients with binocular visual field defects and ten age-matched control subjects were considered (all experienced drivers). Each subject viewed 26 different films with eye movements simultaneously monitored by an eye tracker. Computer software was purpose written to pre-process the data, co-register it to the film clips and to quantify eye movements and point-of-regard (using a dynamic bivariate contour ellipse analysis). On average, and across all HPT films, patients exhibited different eye movement characteristics to controls making, for example, significantly more saccades (P<0.001; 95% confidence interval for mean increase: 9.2 to 22.4%). Whilst the average region of 'point-of-regard' of the patients did not differ significantly from the controls, there were revealing cases where patients failed to see a hazard in relation to their binocular visual field defect. Characteristics of eye movement patterns in patients with bilateral glaucoma can differ significantly from age-matched controls when viewing a traffic scene. Further studies of eye movements made by glaucomatous patients could provide useful information about the definition of the visual field component required for
Full Text Available Hypnosis has had a long and controversial history in psychology, psychiatry and neurology, but the basic nature of hypnotic phenomena still remains unclear. Different theoretical approaches disagree as to whether or not hypnosis may involve an altered mental state. So far, a hypnotic state has never been convincingly demonstrated, if the criteria for the state are that it involves some objectively measurable and replicable behavioural or physiological phenomena that cannot be faked or simulated by non-hypnotized control subjects. We present a detailed case study of a highly hypnotizable subject who reliably shows a range of changes in both automatic and volitional eye movements when given a hypnotic induction. These changes correspond well with the phenomenon referred to as the "trance stare" in the hypnosis literature. Our results show that this 'trance stare' is associated with large and objective changes in the optokinetic reflex, the pupillary reflex and programming a saccade to a single target. Control subjects could not imitate these changes voluntarily. For the majority of people, hypnotic induction brings about states resembling normal focused attention or mental imagery. Our data nevertheless highlight that in some cases hypnosis may involve a special state, which qualitatively differs from the normal state of consciousness.
Nyström, Marcus; Andersson, Richard; Magnusson, Måns; Pansell, Tony; Hooge, Ignace
It is well known that the crystalline lens (henceforth lens) can oscillate (or 'wobble') relative to the eyeball at the end of saccades. Recent research has proposed that such wobbling of the lens is a source of post-saccadic oscillations (PSOs) seen in data recorded by eye trackers that estimate gaze direction from the location of the pupil. Since the size of the lens wobbles increases with accommodative effort, one would predict a similar increase of PSO-amplitude in data recorded with a pupil based eye tracker. In four experiments, we investigated the role of lens accommodation on PSOs in a video-based eye tracker. In Experiment 1, we replicated previous results showing that PSO-amplitudes increase at near viewing distances (large vergence angles), when the lens is highly accommodated. In Experiment 2a, we manipulated the accommodative state of the lens pharmacologically using eye drops at a fixed viewing distance and found, in contrast to Experiment 1, no significant difference in PSO-amplitude related to the accommodative state of the lens. Finally, in Experiment 2b, the effect of vergence angle was investigated by comparing PSO-amplitudes at near and far while maintaining a fixed lens accommodation. Despite the pharmacologically fixed degree of accommodation, PSO-amplitudes were systematically larger in the near condition. In summary, PSOs cannot exhaustively be explained by lens wobbles. Possible confounds related to pupil size and eye-camera angle are investigated in Experiments 3 and 4, and alternative mechanisms behind PSOs are probed in the discussion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vuori, Tero; Olkkonen, Maria
The aim of the study is to test both customer image quality rating (subjective image quality) and physical measurement of user behavior (eye movements tracking) to find customer satisfaction differences in imaging technologies. Methodological aim is to find out whether eye movements could be quantitatively used in image quality preference studies. In general, we want to map objective or physically measurable image quality to subjective evaluations and eye movement data. We conducted a series of image quality tests, in which the test subjects evaluated image quality while we recorded their eye movements. Results show that eye movement parameters consistently change according to the instructions given to the user, and according to physical image quality, e.g. saccade duration increased with increasing blur. Results indicate that eye movement tracking could be used to differentiate image quality evaluation strategies that the users have. Results also show that eye movements would help mapping between technological and subjective image quality. Furthermore, these results give some empirical emphasis to top-down perception processes in image quality perception and evaluation by showing differences between perceptual processes in situations when cognitive task varies.
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Eye movement monitor. 886.1510 Section 886.1510...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1510 Eye movement monitor. (a) Identification. An eye movement monitor is an AC-powered device with an electrode intended to measure and record...
Szpiro, Sarit F. A.; Spering, Miriam; Carrasco, Marisa
Perceptual learning improves detection and discrimination of relevant visual information in mature humans, revealing sensory plasticity. Whether visual perceptual learning affects motor responses is unknown. Here we implemented a protocol that enabled us to address this question. We tested a perceptual response (motion direction estimation, in which observers overestimate motion direction away from a reference) and a motor response (voluntary smooth pursuit eye movements). Perceptual training...
Kapoor, Neera; Ciuffreda, Kenneth Joseph
This pilot study sought to determine the efficacy of using the Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) test in the adult, acquired brain injury (ABI) population to quantify clinically the effects of controlled, laboratory-performed, oculomotor-based vision therapy/vision rehabilitation. Nine adult subjects with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and five with stroke were assessed before and after an eight-week, computer-based, versional oculomotor (fixation, saccades, pursuit, and simulated reading) training program (9.6h total). The protocol incorporated a cross-over, interventional design with and without the addition of auditory feedback regarding two-dimensional eye position. The clinical outcome measure was the Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) test score (ratio, errors) taken before, midway, and immediately following training. For the DEM ratio parameter, improvements were found in 80-89% of the subjects. For the DEM error parameter, improvements were found in 100% of the subjects. Incorporation of the auditory feedback component revealed a trend toward enhanced performance. The findings were similar for both DEM parameters, as well as for incorporation of the auditory feedback, in both diagnostic groups. The results of the present study demonstrated considerable improvements in the DEM test scores following the oculomotor-based training, thus reflecting more time-optimal and accurate saccadic tracking after the training. The DEM test should be considered as another clinical test of global saccadic tracking performance in the ABI population. Copyright © 2017 Spanish General Council of Optometry. All rights reserved.
de Brouwer, Sophie; Yuksel, Demet; Blohm, Gunnar; Missal, Marcus; Lefèvre, Philippe
When tracking moving visual stimuli, primates orient their visual axis by combining two kinds of eye movements, smooth pursuit and saccades, that have very different dynamics. Yet, the mechanisms that govern the decision to switch from one type of eye movement to the other are still poorly understood, even though they could bring a significant contribution to the understanding of how the CNS combines different kinds of control strategies to achieve a common motor and sensory goal. In this study, we investigated the oculomotor responses to a large range of different combinations of position error and velocity error during visual tracking of moving stimuli in humans. We found that the oculomotor system uses a prediction of the time at which the eye trajectory will cross the target, defined as the "eye crossing time" (T(XE)). The eye crossing time, which depends on both position error and velocity error, is the criterion used to switch between smooth and saccadic pursuit, i.e., to trigger catch-up saccades. On average, for T(XE) between 40 and 180 ms, no saccade is triggered and target tracking remains purely smooth. Conversely, when T(XE) becomes smaller than 40 ms or larger than 180 ms, a saccade is triggered after a short latency (around 125 ms).
Wedel, Michel; Pieters, Rik; Liechty, John
Eye movements across advertisements express a temporal pattern of bursts of respectively relatively short and long saccades, and this pattern is systematically influenced by activated scene perception goals. This was revealed by a continuous-time hidden Markov model applied to eye movements of 220 participants exposed to 17 ads under a free-viewing condition, and a scene-learning goal (ad memorization), a scene-evaluation goal (ad appreciation), a target-learning goal (product learning), or a target-evaluation goal (product evaluation). The model reflects how attention switches between two states--local and global--expressed in saccades of shorter and longer amplitude on a spatial grid with 48 cells overlaid on the ads. During the 5- to 6-s duration of self-controlled exposure to ads in the magazine context, attention predominantly started in the local state and ended in the global state, and rapidly switched about 5 times between states. The duration of the local attention state was much longer than the duration of the global state. Goals affected the frequency of switching between attention states and the duration of the local, but not of the global, state. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved
Paul C Knox
Full Text Available Differences in behaviour and cognition have been observed in different human populations. It has been reported that in various types of complex visual task, eye movement patterns differ systematically between Chinese and non-Chinese participants, an observation that has been related to differences in culture between groups. However, we confirm here that, in healthy, naïve adult Chinese participants, a far higher proportion (22% than expected (1-5% exhibit a pattern of reflexive eye movement behaviour (high numbers of low latency express saccades in circumstances designed to inhibit such responses (prosaccade overlap tasks. These participants are defined as "express saccade makers" (ESMs. We then show using the antisaccade paradigm, which requires the inhibition of reflexive responses and the programming and execution of voluntary saccades, that the performance of ESMs is compromised; they have higher antisaccade directional error rates, and the latency distributions of their error saccades again exhibit a higher proportion of low latency express saccade errors consistent with a reduced ability to inhibit reflexive responses. These results are difficult to reconcile with a cultural explanation as they relate to important and specific performance differences within a particular population. They suggest a potential unexpected confound relevant to those studies of Chinese versus other groups which have investigated group differences using oculomotor measures, and explained them in terms of culture. The confirmation of higher numbers of ESMs among Chinese participants provides new opportunities for examining oculomotor control.
Full Text Available The study of cognitive development hinges, largely, on the analysis of infant looking. But analyses of eye gaze data require the adoption of linking hypotheses: assumptions about the relationship between observed eye movements and underlying cognitive processes. We develop a general framework for constructing, testing, and comparing these hypotheses, and thus for producing new insights into early cognitive development. We first introduce the general framework--applicable to any infant gaze experiment--and then demonstrate its utility by analyzing data from a set of experiments investigating the role of attentional cues in infant learning. The new analysis uncovers significantly more structure in these data, finding evidence of learning that was not found in standard analyses and showing an unexpected relationship between cue use and learning rate. Finally, we discuss general implications for the construction and testing of quantitative linking hypotheses. MATLAB code for sample linking hypotheses can be found on the first author's website.
Paul; Barnes; Varju
The compound eyes, the canal organs of the statocysts and proprioceptors in the legs all generate compensatory eye movements in the horizontal plane in the land crab Cardisoma guanhumi. Frequency analyses of the compensatory eye reflexes elicited by each of these inputs show that visual (V) and proprioceptive (P) reflexes respond best below 0.1 Hz, while statocyst (S) reflexes only achieve a high gain above this frequency. They thus increase the range of frequencies over which compensation can occur. Eye and body movements were recorded in an arena under all possible combinations of crabs seeing or blind (V+ or V-), with or without statocysts (S+ or S-) and freely walking or passively transported on a trolley (P+ or P-). Intact crabs (V+S+P+) show good stabilisation of the eyes in space, the only movements with respect to external coordinates being saccadic resetting movements (fast phases of nystagmus). The eyes thus compensate well for body turns, but are unaffected by translatory movements of the body and turns that are not accompanied by a change in the orientation of the long axis of the body in space. In the absence of any one sense, compensation for rotation is significantly impaired, whether measured by the increase in the width of the histograms of changes in the angular positions of the eyes in space ( capdelta &phgr; E), by the mean angular velocity of the eyes (slope of regression line, mE) with respect to the angular velocity of the body (mB) or by response gain plotted against angular acceleration of body turn (a). The absence of two senses reduces the crab's ability to compensate still further, with the statocyst-only condition (V-S+P-) being little better than the condition when all three senses are absent (V-S-P-).Such multisensory control of eye compensation for body rotation is discussed both in terms of making use of every available cue for reducing retinal slip and in making available the information content of the optic flow field.
Pettorossi, V E; Panichi, R; Bambagioni, D; Grassi, S; Botti, F M
To investigate the influence of gaze eccentricity on movement perception during asymmetric vestibular stimulation. Subjects (n = 10) were placed on a rotating platform and oscillated asymmetrically in the dark. Subjects were asked to reproduce with a pointer the location in space of a light spot that was turned off at the beginning of the oscillation. The target was presented in centric and eccentric (0 degrees, 20 degrees and 40 degrees) positions. In the centric position a large shift from the real position of the target was observed in the opposite direction to that of the faster vestibular stimulation. The shift increased when the target was placed eccentrically toward the slower vestibular stimulation side and decreased when it was placed in the opposite direction. The dependence of rotation perception on the target position suggests that the eye deviation, imposed by the eccentricity of the target, is able to influence the perception of body movement and may modulate the internal reference frame.
Lisi, Matteo; Cavanagh, Patrick; Zorzi, Marco
Recent studies have shown that attentional facilitation lingers at the retinotopic coordinates of a previously attended position after an eye movement. These results are intriguing, because the retinotopic location becomes behaviorally irrelevant once the eyes have moved. Critically, in these studies participants were asked to maintain attention on a blank location of the screen. In the present study, we examined whether the continuing presence of a visual object at the cued location could affect the allocation of attention across eye movements. We used a trans-saccadic cueing paradigm in which the relevant positions could be defined or not by visual objects (simple square outlines). We find an attentional benefit at the spatiotopic location of the cue only when the object (the placeholder) has been continuously present at that location. We conclude that the presence of an object at the attended location is a critical factor for the maintenance of spatial constancy of attention across eye movements, a finding that helps to reconcile previous conflicting results.
Diaz, Gabriel; Cooper, Joseph; Kit, Dmitry; Hayhoe, Mary
Despite the growing popularity of virtual reality environments, few laboratories are equipped to investigate eye movements within these environments. This primer is intended to reduce the time and effort required to incorporate eye-tracking equipment into a virtual reality environment. We discuss issues related to the initial startup and provide algorithms necessary for basic analysis. Algorithms are provided for the calculation of gaze angle within a virtual world using a monocular eye-tracker in a three-dimensional environment. In addition, we provide algorithms for the calculation of the angular distance between the gaze and a relevant virtual object and for the identification of fixations, saccades, and pursuit eye movements. Finally, we provide tools that temporally synchronize gaze data and the visual stimulus and enable real-time assembly of a video-based record of the experiment using the Quicktime MOV format, available at http://sourceforge.net/p/utdvrlibraries/. This record contains the visual stimulus, the gaze cursor, and associated numerical data and can be used for data exportation, visual inspection, and validation of calculated gaze movements.
Van Herwegen J
Full Text Available Jo Van Herwegen Department of Psychology, Kingston University London, Surrey, UK Abstract: People with Williams syndrome (WS, a rare neurodevelopmental disorder that is caused by a deletion on the long arm of chromosome 7, often show an uneven cognitive profile with participants performing better on language and face recognition tasks, in contrast to visuospatial and number tasks. Recent studies have shown that this specific cognitive profile in WS is a result of atypical developmental processes that interact with and affect brain development from infancy onward. Using examples from language, face processing, number, and visuospatial studies, this review evaluates current evidence from eye-tracking and developmental studies and argues that domain general processes, such as the ability to plan or execute saccades, influence the development of these domain-specific outcomes. Although more research on eye movements in WS is required, the importance of eye movements for cognitive development suggests a possible intervention pathway to improve cognitive abilities in this population. Keywords: Williams syndrome, eye movements, face processing, language, number, visuospatial abilities
Felßberg, Anna-Maria; Dombrowe, Isabel
It is commonly assumed that saccades in the dark are slower than saccades in a lit room. Early studies that investigated this issue using electrooculography (EOG) often compared memory guided saccades in darkness to visually guided saccades in an illuminated room. However, later studies showed that memory guided saccades are generally slower than visually guided saccades. Research on this topic is further complicated by the fact that the different existing eyetracking methods do not necessarily lead to consistent measurements. In the present study, we independently manipulated task (memory guided/visually guided) and screen brightness (dark, medium and light) in an otherwise completely dark room, and measured the peak velocity and the duration of the participant's saccades using a popular pupil-cornea reflection (p-cr) eyetracker (Eyelink 1000). Based on a critical reading of the literature, including a recent study using cornea-reflection (cr) eye tracking, we did not expect any velocity or duration differences between the three brightness conditions. We found that memory guided saccades were generally slower than visually guided saccades. In both tasks, eye movements on a medium and light background were equally fast and had similar durations. However, saccades on the dark background were slower and had shorter durations, even after we corrected for the effect of pupil size changes. This means that this is most likely an artifact of current pupil-based eye tracking. We conclude that the common assumption that saccades in the dark are slower than in the light is probably not true, however pupil-based eyetrackers tend to underestimate the peak velocity of saccades on very dark backgrounds, creating the impression that this might be the case. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Meeter, M.; van der Stigchel, S.; Theeuwes, J.
We present a model of the eye movement system in which the programming of an eye movement is the result of the competitive integration of information in the superior colliculi (SC). This brain area receives input from occipital cortex, the frontal eye fields, and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex,
Delle Monache, Sergio; Lacquaniti, Francesco; Bosco, Gianfranco
Manual interceptions are known to depend critically on integration of visual feedback information and experience-based predictions of the interceptive event. Within this framework, coupling between gaze and limb movements might also contribute to the interceptive outcome, since eye movements afford acquisition of high-resolution visual information. We investigated this issue by analyzing subjects' head-fixed oculomotor behavior during manual interceptions. Subjects moved a mouse cursor to intercept computer-generated ballistic trajectories either congruent with Earth's gravity or perturbed with weightlessness (0 g) or hypergravity (2 g) effects. In separate sessions, trajectories were either fully visible or occluded before interception to enforce visual prediction. Subjects' oculomotor behavior was classified in terms of amounts of time they gazed at different visual targets and of overall number of saccades. Then, by way of multivariate analyses, we assessed the following: (1) whether eye movement patterns depended on targets' laws of motion and occlusions; and (2) whether interceptive performance was related to the oculomotor behavior. First, we found that eye movement patterns depended significantly on targets' laws of motion and occlusion, suggesting predictive mechanisms. Second, subjects coupled differently oculomotor and interceptive behavior depending on whether targets were visible or occluded. With visible targets, subjects made smaller interceptive errors if they gazed longer at the mouse cursor. Instead, with occluded targets, they achieved better performance by increasing the target's tracking accuracy and by avoiding gaze shifts near interception, suggesting that precise ocular tracking provided better trajectory predictions for the interceptive response.
Full Text Available The understanding of the subjective experience of a visually stable world despite the occurrence of an observer's eye movements has been the focus of extensive research for over 20 years. These studies have revealed fundamental mechanisms such as anticipatory receptive field shifts and the saccadic suppression of stimulus displacements, yet there currently exists no single explanatory framework for these observations. We show that a previously presented neuro-computational model of peri-saccadic mislocalization accounts for the phenomenon of predictive remapping and for the observation of saccadic suppression of displacement (SSD. This converging evidence allows us to identify the potential ingredients of perceptual stability that generalize beyond different data sets in a formal physiology-based model. In particular we propose that predictive remapping stabilizes the visual world across saccades by introducing a feedback loop and, as an emergent result, small displacements of stimuli are not noticed by the visual system. The model provides a link from neural dynamics, to neural mechanism and finally to behavior, and thus offers a testable comprehensive framework of visual stability.
Ohya, Takashi; Morita, Kiichiro; Yamashita, Yushiro; Egami, Chiyomi; Ishii, Youhei; Nagamitsu, Shinichiro; Matsuishi, Toyojiro
Previous eye-tracking studies using an eye mark recorder have reported that disturbances in exploratory eye movements in adult schizophrenic patients are associated with social functioning. The current study sought to determine whether exploratory eye-movement disturbances are present in children with Asperger's syndrome (AS) compared with typically developing (TD) children. MATERIALS/PARTICIPANTS: The participants were 23 children with AS and 23 age-matched TD children. We measured exploratory eye movements using an EMR-8B eye mark recorder and an exploratory eye movement-measuring device. Eye movements were recorded while participants freely observed a geometric figure (free viewing task), and while they complied with the instructions of an experimenter (repeat-comparison task). We assessed eye fixation points (EFPs) and total eye scanning length (TESL) in all tasks, and measured the responsive search score (RSS) in the repeat-comparison task. In the free viewing task, children with AS exhibited significantly shorter TESL compared with TD children. In the repeat-comparison task, children with AS exhibited significantly lower RSS. Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire scores were negatively correlated with both EFP and TESL, but not RSS. The current results revealed that children with AS exhibited dysfunction in exploratory eye movements. Thus, assessing exploratory eye movements in a repeat-comparison task may be useful for detecting social impairment among children with AS. Copyright © 2013 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Belopolsky, Artem V; Theeuwes, Jan
There is an ongoing controversy regarding the relationship between covert attention and saccadic eye movements. While there is quite some evidence that the preparation of a saccade is obligatory preceded by a shift of covert attention, the reverse is not clear: Is allocation of attention always accompanied by saccade preparation? Recently, a shifting and maintenance account was proposed suggesting that shifting and maintenance components of covert attention differ in their relation to the oculomotor system. Specifically, it was argued that a shift of covert attention is always accompanied by activation of the oculomotor program, while maintaining covert attention at a location can be accompanied either by activation or suppression of oculomotor program, depending on the probability of executing an eye movement to the attended location. In the present study we tested whether there is such an obligatory coupling between shifting of attention and saccade preparation and how quickly saccade preparation gets suppressed. The results showed that attention shifting was always accompanied by saccade preparation whenever covert attention had to be shifted during visual search, as well as in response to exogenous or endogenous cues. However, for the endogenous cues the saccade program to the attended location was suppressed very soon after the attention shift was completed. The current findings support the shifting and maintenance account and indicate that the premotor theory needs to be updated to include a shifting and maintenance component for the cases in which covert shifts of attention are made without the intention to execute a saccade. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.
Pollock, A.; Hazelton, C.; Henderson, C.A.; Angilley, J.; Dhillon, B.; Langhorne, P.; Livingstone, K.; Munro, F.A.; Orr, H.; Rowe, F.J.; Shahani, U.
Background Eye movement disorders may affect over 70% of stroke patients. These eye movement disorders can result in difficulty maintaining the normal ocular position and difficulty moving the eyes appropriately. The resulting functional disabilities include a loss of depth perception, reduced hand-to-eye co-ordination, marked difficulties with near tasks and reading and reduced ability to scan the visual environment. They can also impact on the effectiveness of rehabilitation therapy. There ...
Kumar, Arjun; Nagaraj, Disha; Louzardo, Joel; Hegde, Rajeshwari
Modern automotive systems are rapidly becoming highly of transportation, but can be a web integrated media centre. This paper explains the implementation of a vehicle control defined and characterized by embedded electronics and software. With new technologies, the vehicle industry is facing new opportunities and also new challenges. Electronics have improved the performance of vehicles and at the same time, new more complex applications are introduced. Examples of high level applications include adaptive cruise control and electronic stability programs (ESP). Further, a modern vehicle does not have to be merely a means using only eye movements. The EyeWriter's native hardware and software work to return the co-ordinates of where the user is looking. These co-ordinates are then used to control the car. A centre-point is defined on the screen. The higher on the screen the user's gaze is, the faster the car will accelerate. Braking is done by looking below centre. Steering is done by looking left and right on the screen.
Pietrzyk, Mariusz W.; McEntee, Mark F.; Evanoff, Michael E.; Brennan, Patrick C.; Mello-Thoms, Claudia R.
Purpose: To evaluate the role of radiographic details in global impression of chest x-ray images viewed by experts in thoracic and non-thoracic domains. Materials and Methods: The study was approved by IRB. Five thoracic and five non-thoracic radiologists participated in two tachistoscopic (one low pass and one with the entire frequency spectrum, each lasting 270 ms) each containing 50 PA chest radiographs with 50% prevalence of pulmonary nodule. Eye movements were monitored in order to evaluate a pre-saccade shift of visual attention, saccade latency, decision time and the time to first fixation on a pulmonary nodule. Results: Thoracic radiologists showed significantly higher pre-saccadic shift of visual attention towards pulmonary nodules once using the full frequency spectrum (p chest radiograph by allocating pre-saccade attention towards pulmonary nodules. This behavior correlated with a higher number of correct decisions, followed by higher confidence in the decisions made, and briefer reaction times.
Fred H Hamker
Full Text Available Eye movements affect object localization and object recognition. Around saccade onset, briefly flashed stimuli appear compressed towards the saccade target, receptive fields dynamically change position, and the recognition of objects near the saccade target is improved. These effects have been attributed to different mechanisms. We provide a unifying account of peri-saccadic perception explaining all three phenomena by a quantitative computational approach simulating cortical cell responses on the population level. Contrary to the common view of spatial attention as a spotlight, our model suggests that oculomotor feedback alters the receptive field structure in multiple visual areas at an intermediate level of the cortical hierarchy to dynamically recruit cells for processing a relevant part of the visual field. The compression of visual space occurs at the expense of this locally enhanced processing capacity.
Yorzinski, Jessica L; Patricelli, Gail L; Platt, Michael L; Land, Michael F
Animals selectively direct their visual attention toward relevant aspects of their environments. They can shift their attention using a combination of eye, head and body movements. While we have a growing understanding of eye and head movements in mammals, we know little about these processes in birds. We therefore measured the eye and head movements of freely behaving Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus) using a telemetric eye-tracker. Both eye and head movements contributed to gaze changes in peafowl. When gaze shifts were smaller, eye movements played a larger role than when gaze shifts were larger. The duration and velocity of eye and head movements were positively related to the size of the eye and head movements, respectively. In addition, the coordination of eye and head movements in peafowl differed from that in mammals; peafowl exhibited a near-absence of the vestibulo-ocular reflex, which may partly result from the peafowl's ability to move their heads as quickly as their eyes. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Feldon, S.E.; Unsoeld, R.
Thirteen patients with varying degrees of Graves' ophthalmopathy were examined using high-resolution infrared oculography to determine peak velocities for horizontal eye movements between 3 degrees and 30 degrees. As severity of the orbital disease increased, peak velocities became substantially lower. Vertical-muscle surgery failed to have any effect on peak velocity of horizontal eye movements. In contrast, orbital decompression caused notable improvement in peak velocity of eye movements. Eye-movement recordings, which provide a measure of extraocular muscle function rather than structure, may provide a safe, sensitive, and accurate method for classifying and following up patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy
J. J. Gu; M. Meng; A. Cook; P. X. Liu
Loss of an eye is a tragedy for a person, who may suffer psychologically and physically. This paper is concerned with the design, sensing and control of a robotic prosthetic eye that moves horizontally in synchronization with the movement of the natural eye. Two generations of robotic prosthetic eye models have been developed. The first generation model uses an external infrared sensor array mounted on the frame of a pair of eyeglasses to detect the natural eye movement and to feed the contro...
Kanayama, R.; Nakamura, T.; Ohki, M.; Kimura, Y.; Koike, Y.; Kato, I.
Eighteen patients with Wallenberg's syndrome were investigated concerning visually induced eye movements. All results were analysed quantitatively using a computer. In 16 out of 18 patients, OKN slow-phase velocities were impaired, in the remaining 2 patients they were normal. All patients showed reduced visual suppression of caloric nystagmus during the slow-phase of nystagmus toward the lesion side, except 3 patients who showed normal visual suppression in both directions. CT scan failed to detect either the brainstem or the cerebellar lesions in any cases, but MRI performed on the most recent cases demonstrated the infractions clearly. These findings suggest that infractions are localized in the medulla in the patients of group A, but extend to the cerebellum as well as to the medulla in patients of group B. (au)
Szpiro, Sarit F A; Spering, Miriam; Carrasco, Marisa
Perceptual learning improves detection and discrimination of relevant visual information in mature humans, revealing sensory plasticity. Whether visual perceptual learning affects motor responses is unknown. Here we implemented a protocol that enabled us to address this question. We tested a perceptual response (motion direction estimation, in which observers overestimate motion direction away from a reference) and a motor response (voluntary smooth pursuit eye movements). Perceptual training led to greater overestimation and, remarkably, it modified untrained smooth pursuit. In contrast, pursuit training did not affect overestimation in either pursuit or perception, even though observers in both training groups were exposed to the same stimuli for the same time period. A second experiment revealed that estimation training also improved discrimination, indicating that overestimation may optimize perceptual sensitivity. Hence, active perceptual training is necessary to alter perceptual responses, and an acquired change in perception suffices to modify pursuit, a motor response. © 2014 ARVO.
Mulvey, Fiona Bríd
movements can be controlled either by bottom up stimulus properties or by top down cognitive control, studies have compared eye movements in real world tasks and searched for indicators of cognitive load or level of attention when task demands increase. Extracting the effects of cognitive processing on eye......The aim of this research is to investigate the explication of levels of attention through eye movement parameters. Previous research from disparate fields have suggested that eye movements are related to cognitive processing, however, the exact nature of the relationship is unclear. Since eye...... to investigate individual differences in levels of processing within the normal population using existing constructs and tests of cognitive style. Study 4 investigates these stimuli and the eye movements of a clinical group with known interruption to the dorsal stream of processing, and subsequent isolated...
Mahamed, Safraaz; Garrison, Tiffany J.; Shires, Joel
In the absence of sensory information, we rely on past experience or memories to guide our actions. Because previous experimental and clinical reports implicate basal ganglia nuclei in the generation of movement in the absence of sensory stimuli, we ask here whether one output nucleus of the basal ganglia, the substantia nigra pars reticulata (nigra), influences the specification of an eye movement in the absence of sensory information to guide the movement. We manipulated the level of activity of neurons in the nigra by introducing electrical stimulation to the nigra at different time intervals while monkeys made saccades to different locations in two conditions: one in which the target location remained visible and a second in which the target location appeared only briefly, requiring information stored in memory to specify the movement. Electrical manipulation of the nigra occurring during the delay period of the task, when information about the target was maintained in memory, altered the direction and the occurrence of subsequent saccades. Stimulation during other intervals of the memory task or during the delay period of the visually guided saccade task had less effect on eye movements. On stimulated trials, and only when the visual stimulus was absent, monkeys occasionally (∼20% of the time) failed to make saccades. When monkeys made saccades in the absence of a visual stimulus, stimulation of the nigra resulted in a rotation of the endpoints ipsilaterally (∼2°) and increased the reaction time of contralaterally directed saccades. When the visual stimulus was present, stimulation of the nigra resulted in no significant rotation and decreased the reaction time of contralaterally directed saccades slightly. Based on these measurements, stimulation during the delay period of the memory-guided saccade task influenced the metrics of saccades much more than did stimulation during the same period of the visually guided saccade task. Because these effects
Sommer, M A; Wurtz, R H
Many neurons within prefrontal cortex exhibit a tonic discharge between visual stimulation and motor response. This delay activity may contribute to movement, memory, and vision. We studied delay activity sent from the frontal eye field (FEF) in prefrontal cortex to the superior colliculus (SC). We evaluated whether this efferent delay activity was related to movement, memory, or vision, to establish its possible functions. Using antidromic stimulation, we identified 66 FEF neurons projecting to the SC and we recorded from them while monkeys performed a Go/Nogo task. Early in every trial, a monkey was instructed as to whether it would have to make a saccade (Go) or not (Nogo) to a target location, which permitted identification of delay activity related to movement. In half of the trials (memory trials), the target disappeared, which permitted identification of delay activity related to memory. In the remaining trials (visual trials), the target remained visible, which permitted identification of delay activity related to vision. We found that 77% (51/66) of the FEF output neurons had delay activity. In 53% (27/51) of these neurons, delay activity was modulated by Go/Nogo instructions. The modulation preceded saccades made into only part of the visual field, indicating that the modulation was movement-related. In some neurons, delay activity was modulated by Go/Nogo instructions in both memory and visual trials and seemed to represent where to move in general. In other neurons, delay activity was modulated by Go/Nogo instructions only in memory trials, which suggested that it was a correlate of working memory, or only in visual trials, which suggested that it was a correlate of visual attention. In 47% (24/51) of FEF output neurons, delay activity was unaffected by Go/Nogo instructions, which indicated that the activity was related to the visual stimulus. In some of these neurons, delay activity occurred in both memory and visual trials and seemed to represent a
van den Hout, M.; Muris, P.; Salemink, E.; Kindt, M.
Tested whether eye movements during retrieval of emotional memories are followed by less vividness and less emotionality of future recollections; whether this effect is stronger than the effects of a control activity; whether the alleged effects of tapping and eye movements are stronger than a
Haraldsson, H.M.; Ettinger, U.; Magnusdottir, B.B.
Neuregulin-1 (NRG-1) is a putative susceptibility gene for schizophrenia but the neurocognitive processes that may involve NRG-1 in schizophrenia are unknown. Deficits in antisaccade (AS) and smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEM) are promising endophenotypes, which may be associated with brain...... findings of impaired AS and SPEM performance in schizophrenia patients (all P eye movement variables...
Peters, M.J.; Dunajski, Z.; Meijzssen, T.E.M.; Breukink, E.W.; Wevers-Henke, J.J.
A new technique to measure small eye movements is reported. The precise recording of human eye movements is necessary for research on visual fatigue induced by visual display units.1 So far all methods used have disadvantages: especially those which are sensitive or are rather painful.2,3 Our method
Spering, Miriam; Carrasco, Marisa
Visual perception and eye movements are considered to be tightly linked. Diverse fields, ranging from developmental psychology to computer science, utilize eye tracking to measure visual perception. However, this prevailing view has been challenged by recent behavioral studies. Here, we review converging evidence revealing dissociations between the contents of perceptual awareness and different types of eye movement. Such dissociations reveal situations in which eye movements are sensitive to particular visual features that fail to modulate perceptual reports. We also discuss neurophysiological, neuroimaging, and clinical studies supporting the role of subcortical pathways for visual processing without awareness. Our review links awareness to perceptual-eye movement dissociations and furthers our understanding of the brain pathways underlying vision and movement with and without awareness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This study was designed to gain insight into the influence of performing different types of secondary task while driving on driver eye movements and to build a safety evaluation model for secondary task driving. Eighteen young drivers were selected and completed the driving experiment on a driving simulator. Measures of fixations, saccades, and blinks were analyzed. Based on measures which had significant difference between the baseline and secondary tasks driving conditions, the evaluation index system was built. Method of principal component analysis (PCA was applied to analyze evaluation indexes data in order to obtain the coefficient weights of indexes and build the safety evaluation model. Based on evaluation scores, the driving safety was grouped into five levels (very high, high, average, low, and very low using K-means clustering algorithm. Results showed that secondary task driving severely distracts the driver and the evaluation model built in this study could estimate driving safety effectively under different driving conditions.
Yamamoto, Naohide; Philbeck, John W
The loss of peripheral vision impairs spatial learning and navigation. However, the mechanisms underlying these impairments remain poorly understood. One advantage of having peripheral vision is that objects in an environment are easily detected and readily foveated via eye movements. The present study examined this potential benefit of peripheral vision by investigating whether competent performance in spatial learning requires effective eye movements. In Experiment 1, participants learned room-sized spatial layouts with or without restriction on direct eye movements to objects. Eye movements were restricted by having participants view the objects through small apertures in front of their eyes. Results showed that impeding effective eye movements made subsequent retrieval of spatial memory slower and less accurate. The small apertures also occluded much of the environmental surroundings, but the importance of this kind of occlusion was ruled out in Experiment 2 by showing that participants exhibited intact learning of the same spatial layouts when luminescent objects were viewed in an otherwise dark room. Together, these findings suggest that one of the roles of peripheral vision in spatial learning is to guide eye movements, highlighting the importance of spatial information derived from eye movements for learning environmental layouts.
Full Text Available In two experiments we explored eye movements that people make when looking at texts with an atypical spatial layout. In the first experiment, participants repeatedly viewed the same piece of text, containing sections in different languages and printed using different fonts and reading directions, while they answered different questions about what they saw. In agreement with earlier studies showing significant differences in gaze patterns across different tasks, we found that reading was strongly influenced by the questions that participants tried to answer. In the second experiment, we examined gaze patterns for different types of poems while participants performed a single task: To rate their appreciation of the poem. Poems were either in the typical form, with short lines all aligned to the left, or they were in an atypical form (“graphical poem”, with the text dispersed across the page, in different fonts, reading directions, and size. Half of the poems were from an artist known for his graphical poems, the other half were from different authors who posted their poems on a webpage. All these poems were presented in a typical and an atypical form. Participants rated the poems from the web more highly, but took less time to inspect them. Whether the poem was in a typical or an atypical layout did not influence the ratings, even though longer inspection times were found for the atypical forms. Eye movement parameters, such as fixation duration and saccade amplitude, were relatively unaffected by the layout of the poems, although some additional larger amplitude saccades could be observed for the atypical forms.
Pinkhardt Elmar H
Full Text Available Abstract Background The basal ganglia (BG are thought to play an important role in the control of eye movements. Accordingly, the broad variety of subtle oculomotor alterations that has been described in Parkinson's disease (PD are generally attributed to the dysfunction of the BG dopaminergic system. However, the present study suggest that dopamine substitution is much less effective in improving oculomotor performance than it is in restoring skeletomotor abilities. Methods We investigated reactive, visually guided saccades (RS, smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEM, and rapidly left-right alternating voluntary gaze shifts (AVGS by video-oculography in 34 PD patients receiving oral dopaminergic medication (PD-DA, 14 patients with deep brain stimulation of the nucleus subthalamicus (DBS-STN, and 23 control subjects (CTL;In addition, we performed a thorough review of recent literature according therapeuthic effects on oculomotor performance in PD by switching deep brain stimulation off and on in the PD-DBS patients, we achieved swift changes between their therapeutic states without the delays of dopamine withdrawal. In addition, participants underwent neuropsychological testing. Results Patients exhibited the well known deficits such as increased saccade latency, reduced SPEM gain, and reduced frequency and amplitude of AVGS. Across patients none of the investigated oculomotor parameters correlated with UPDRS III whereas there was a negative correlation between SPEM gain and susceptibility to interference (Stroop score. Of the observed deficiencies, DBS-STN slightly improved AVGS frequency but neither AVGS amplitude nor SPEM or RS performance. Conclusions We conclude that the impairment of SPEM in PD results from a cortical, conceivably non-dopaminergic dysfunction, whereas patients' difficulty to rapidly execute AVGS might be related to their BG dysfunction.
Shakespeare, Timothy J; Kaski, Diego; Yong, Keir X X; Paterson, Ross W; Slattery, Catherine F; Ryan, Natalie S; Schott, Jonathan M; Crutch, Sebastian J
The clinico-neuroradiological syndrome posterior cortical atrophy is the cardinal 'visual dementia' and most common atypical Alzheimer's disease phenotype, offering insights into mechanisms underlying clinical heterogeneity, pathological propagation and basic visual phenomena (e.g. visual crowding). Given the extensive attention paid to patients' (higher order) perceptual function, it is surprising that there have been no systematic analyses of basic oculomotor function in this population. Here 20 patients with posterior cortical atrophy, 17 patients with typical Alzheimer's disease and 22 healthy controls completed tests of fixation, saccade (including fixation/target gap and overlap conditions) and smooth pursuit eye movements using an infrared pupil-tracking system. Participants underwent detailed neuropsychological and neurological examinations, with a proportion also undertaking brain imaging and analysis of molecular pathology. In contrast to informal clinical evaluations of oculomotor dysfunction frequency (previous studies: 38%, current clinical examination: 33%), detailed eyetracking investigations revealed eye movement abnormalities in 80% of patients with posterior cortical atrophy (compared to 17% typical Alzheimer's disease, 5% controls). The greatest differences between posterior cortical atrophy and typical Alzheimer's disease were seen in saccadic performance. Patients with posterior cortical atrophy made significantly shorter saccades especially for distant targets. They also exhibited a significant exacerbation of the normal gap/overlap effect, consistent with 'sticky fixation'. Time to reach saccadic targets was significantly associated with parietal and occipital cortical thickness measures. On fixation stability tasks, patients with typical Alzheimer's disease showed more square wave jerks whose frequency was associated with lower cerebellar grey matter volume, while patients with posterior cortical atrophy showed large saccadic intrusions
Pouw, Wim T J L; Mavilidi, Myrto-Foteini; van Gog, Tamara; Paas, Fred
Non-communicative hand gestures have been found to benefit problem-solving performance. These gestures seem to compensate for limited internal cognitive capacities, such as visual working memory capacity. Yet, it is not clear how gestures might perform this cognitive function. One hypothesis is that gesturing is a means to spatially index mental simulations, thereby reducing the need for visually projecting the mental simulation onto the visual presentation of the task. If that hypothesis is correct, less eye movements should be made when participants gesture during problem solving than when they do not gesture. We therefore used mobile eye tracking to investigate the effect of co-thought gesturing and visual working memory capacity on eye movements during mental solving of the Tower of Hanoi problem. Results revealed that gesturing indeed reduced the number of eye movements (lower saccade counts), especially for participants with a relatively lower visual working memory capacity. Subsequent problem-solving performance was not affected by having (not) gestured during the mental solving phase. The current findings suggest that our understanding of gestures in problem solving could be improved by taking into account eye movements during gesturing.
Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS commonly causes eye movement abnormalities that may have a significant impact on patients’ disability. Inflammatory demyelinating lesions, especially occurring in the posterior fossa, result in a wide range of disorders, spanning from acquired pendular nystagmus (APN to internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO, among the most common. As the control of eye movements is well understood in terms of anatomical substrate and underlying physiological network, studying ocular motor abnormalities in MS provides a unique opportunity to gain insights into mechanisms of disease. Quantitative measurement and modeling of eye movement disorders, such as INO, may lead to a better understanding of common symptoms encountered in MS, such as Uhthoff’s phenomenon and fatigue. In turn, the pathophysiology of a range of eye movement abnormalities, such as APN, has been clarified based on correlation of experimental model with lesion localization by neuroimaging in MS. Eye movement disorders have the potential of being utilized as structural and functional biomarkers of early cognitive deficit, and possibly help in assessing disease status and progression, and to serve as platform and functional outcome to test novel therapeutic agents for MS. Knowledge of neuropharmacology applied to eye movement dysfunction has guided testing and use of a number of pharmacological agents to treat some eye movement disorders found in MS, such as APN and other forms of central nystagmus.
Hoppe, Sabrina; Loetscher, Tobias; Morey, Stephanie A; Bulling, Andreas
Besides allowing us to perceive our surroundings, eye movements are also a window into our mind and a rich source of information on who we are, how we feel, and what we do. Here we show that eye movements during an everyday task predict aspects of our personality. We tracked eye movements of 42 participants while they ran an errand on a university campus and subsequently assessed their personality traits using well-established questionnaires. Using a state-of-the-art machine learning method and a rich set of features encoding different eye movement characteristics, we were able to reliably predict four of the Big Five personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness) as well as perceptual curiosity only from eye movements. Further analysis revealed new relations between previously neglected eye movement characteristics and personality. Our findings demonstrate a considerable influence of personality on everyday eye movement control, thereby complementing earlier studies in laboratory settings. Improving automatic recognition and interpretation of human social signals is an important endeavor, enabling innovative design of human-computer systems capable of sensing spontaneous natural user behavior to facilitate efficient interaction and personalization.
Full Text Available Besides allowing us to perceive our surroundings, eye movements are also a window into our mind and a rich source of information on who we are, how we feel, and what we do. Here we show that eye movements during an everyday task predict aspects of our personality. We tracked eye movements of 42 participants while they ran an errand on a university campus and subsequently assessed their personality traits using well-established questionnaires. Using a state-of-the-art machine learning method and a rich set of features encoding different eye movement characteristics, we were able to reliably predict four of the Big Five personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness as well as perceptual curiosity only from eye movements. Further analysis revealed new relations between previously neglected eye movement characteristics and personality. Our findings demonstrate a considerable influence of personality on everyday eye movement control, thereby complementing earlier studies in laboratory settings. Improving automatic recognition and interpretation of human social signals is an important endeavor, enabling innovative design of human–computer systems capable of sensing spontaneous natural user behavior to facilitate efficient interaction and personalization.
Full Text Available Some theoretical and practical considerations about eye movements in visual field are presented in the first part of this paper. These movements are developed into human body to be synergistic and are allowed to obtain the visual perception in 3D space. The theoretical background of the eye movements’ analysis is founded on the establishment of movement equations of the eyeball, as they consider it a solid body with a fixed point. The exterior actions, the order and execution of the movements are ensured by the neural and muscular external system and thus the position, stability and movements of the eye can be quantified through the method of reverse kinematic. The purpose of these researches is the development of a simulation model of human binocular visual system, an acquisition methodology and an experimental setup for data processing and recording regarding the eye movements, presented in the second part of the paper. The modeling system of ocular movements aims to establish the binocular synergy and limits of visual field changes in condition of ocular motor dysfunctions. By biomechanical movements of eyeball is established a modeling strategy for different sort of processes parameters like convergence, fixation and eye lens accommodation to obtain responses from binocular balance. The results of modelling processes and the positions of eye ball and axis in visual field are presented in the final part of the paper.
Spering, Miriam; Gegenfurtner, Karl R
Smooth pursuit eye movements are continuous, slow rotations of the eyes that allow us to follow the motion of a visual object of interest. These movements are closely related to sensory inputs from the visual motion processing system. To track a moving object in the natural environment, its motion first has to be segregated from the motion signals provided by surrounding stimuli. Here, we review experiments on the effect of the visual context on motion processing with a focus on the relationship between motion perception and smooth pursuit eye movements. While perception and pursuit are closely linked, we show that they can behave quite distinctly when required by the visual context.
Bellocchi, Stephanie; Muneaux, Mathilde; Bastien-Toniazzo, Mireille; Ducrot, Stephanie
Most studies today agree about the link between visual-attention and oculomotor control during reading: attention seems to affect saccadic programming, that is, the position where the eyes land in a word. Moreover, recent studies show that visuo-attentional processes are strictly linked to normal and impaired reading. In particular, a large body…
Clemens, Ivar Adrianus H; Selen, Luc P J; Pomante, Antonella; MacNeilage, Paul R; Medendorp, W Pieter
During self-motion, humans typically move the eyes to maintain fixation on the stationary environment around them. These eye movements could in principle be used to estimate self-motion, but their impact on perception is unknown. We had participants judge self-motion during different eye-movement conditions in the absence of full-field optic flow. In a two-alternative forced choice task, participants indicated whether the second of two successive passive lateral whole-body translations was longer or shorter than the first. This task was used in two experiments. In the first ( n = 8), eye movements were constrained differently in the two translation intervals by presenting either a world-fixed or body-fixed fixation point or no fixation point at all (allowing free gaze). Results show that perceived translations were shorter with a body-fixed than a world-fixed fixation point. A linear model indicated that eye-movement signals received a weight of ∼25% for the self-motion percept. This model was independently validated in the trials without a fixation point (free gaze). In the second experiment ( n = 10), gaze was free during both translation intervals. Results show that the translation with the larger eye-movement excursion was judged more often to be larger than chance, based on an oculomotor choice probability analysis. We conclude that eye-movement signals influence self-motion perception, even in the absence of visual stimulation.
Daniel A. Sierra
Full Text Available A 3D dynamic computer model for the movement of the head-neck complex is presented. It incorporates anatomically correct information about the diverse elements forming the system. The skeleton is considered as a set of interconnected rigid 3D bodies following the Newton-Euler laws of movement. The muscles are modeled using Enderle's linear model, which shows equivalent dynamic characteristics to Loeb's virtual muscle model. The soft tissues, namely, the ligaments, intervertebral disks, and facet joints, are modeled considering their physiological roles and dynamics. In contrast with other head and neck models developed for safety research, the model is aimed to study the neural control of the complex during fast eye and head movements, such as saccades and gaze shifts. In particular, the time-optimal hypothesis and the feedback control ones are discussed.
Chuk, Tim; Chan, Antoni B; Hsiao, Janet H
We use a hidden Markov model (HMM) based approach to analyze eye movement data in face recognition. HMMs are statistical models that are specialized in handling time-series data. We conducted a face recognition task with Asian participants, and model each participant's eye movement pattern with an HMM, which summarized the participant's scan paths in face recognition with both regions of interest and the transition probabilities among them. By clustering these HMMs, we showed that participants' eye movements could be categorized into holistic or analytic patterns, demonstrating significant individual differences even within the same culture. Participants with the analytic pattern had longer response times, but did not differ significantly in recognition accuracy from those with the holistic pattern. We also found that correct and wrong recognitions were associated with distinctive eye movement patterns; the difference between the two patterns lies in the transitions rather than locations of the fixations alone. © 2014 ARVO.
Full Text Available Previous studies have focused on the differences in the art appreciation process between individuals, and indicated that novice viewers of artworks, in comparison to experts, rarely consider the creation process of the artwork or how this may relate to style. However, behavioral changes in individuals after educational interventions have not been examined. Art education researchers claim that technical knowledge and creation experiences help novice viewers to pay attention to technical features of artwork. Therefore, an artistic photo creation course was designed and conducted to help students acquire techniques and procedural knowledge of photo creation. The present study verified whether students’ viewing strategies during appreciation of photographs changed after the course. Twenty-one students participated in two sessions, viewing the same 12 photographs before and after the course. Based on the analysis of recorded eye movements, the results indicated that the students’ perceptual exploration became more active with photographs containing recognizable subjects (i.e., humans and objects, and their global saccades increased when they viewed classic photography, one of the categories of photography covered in the course. Interview data after the course indicated that students became aware of the technical effects in photographs. These results suggest that students’ viewing strategies may change following a course, as assessed by behavioral measures of eye movements. Further examination is needed to validate this approach to educational effect measurement.
Moving one's eyes while reading is one of the most complex everyday tasks humans face. To perform efficiently, readers must make decisions about when and where to move their eyes every 200-300ms. Over the past decades, it has been demonstrated that these fine-grained decisions are influenced by a range of linguistic properties of the text, and…
Angelaki, Dora E.; Dickman, J. David
Responses to horizontal and vertical ocular pursuit and head and body rotation in multiple planes were recorded in eye movement-sensitive neurons in the rostral vestibular nuclei (VN) of two rhesus monkeys. When tested during pursuit through primary eye position, the majority of the cells preferred either horizontal or vertical target motion. During pursuit of targets that moved horizontally at different vertical eccentricities or vertically at different horizontal eccentricities, eye angular velocity has been shown to include a torsional component the amplitude of which is proportional to half the gaze angle ("half-angle rule" of Listing's law). Approximately half of the neurons, the majority of which were characterized as "vertical" during pursuit through primary position, exhibited significant changes in their response gain and/or phase as a function of gaze eccentricity during pursuit, as if they were also sensitive to torsional eye velocity. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed a significant contribution of torsional eye movement sensitivity to the responsiveness of the cells. These findings suggest that many VN neurons encode three-dimensional angular velocity, rather than the two-dimensional derivative of eye position, during smooth-pursuit eye movements. Although no clear clustering of pursuit preferred-direction vectors along the semicircular canal axes was observed, the sensitivity of VN neurons to torsional eye movements might reflect a preservation of similar premotor coding of visual and vestibular-driven slow eye movements for both lateral-eyed and foveate species.
Schultz, K. P.
Saccadic eye movements are rapid transfers of gaze between objects of interest. Their duration is too short for the visual system to be able to follow their progress in time. Adaptive mechanisms constantly recalibrate the saccadic responses by detecting how close the landings are to the selected targets. The double-step saccadic paradigm is a common method to simulate alterations in saccadic gain. While the subject is responding to a first target shift, a second shift is introduced in the middle of this movement, which masks it from visual detection. The error in landing introduced by the second shift is interpreted by the brain as an error in the programming of the initial response, with gradual gain changes aimed at compensating the apparent sensorimotor mismatch. A second shift applied dichoptically to only one eye introduces disconjugate landing errors between the two eyes. A monocular adaptive system would independently modify only the gain of the eye exposed to the second shift in order to reestablish binocular alignment. Our results support a binocular mechanism. A version-based saccadic adaptive process detects postsaccadic version errors and generates compensatory conjugate gain alterations. A vergence-based saccadic adaptive process detects postsaccadic disparity errors and generates corrective nonvisual disparity signals that are sent to the vergence system to regain binocularity. This results in striking dynamical similarities between visually driven combined saccade-vergence gaze transfers, where the disparity is given by the visual targets, and the double-step adaptive disconjugate responses, where an adaptive disparity signal is generated internally by the saccadic system. PMID:23076111
Fleuriet, Jérome; Goffart, Laurent
Animals can make saccadic eye movements to intercept a moving object at the right place and time. Such interceptive saccades indicate that, despite variable sensorimotor delays, the brain is able to estimate the current spatiotemporal (hic et nunc) coordinates of a target at saccade end. The present work further tests the robustness of this estimate in the monkey when a change in eye position and a delay are experimentally added before the onset of the saccade and in the absence of visual feedback. These perturbations are induced by brief microstimulation in the deep superior colliculus (dSC). When the microstimulation moves the eyes in the direction opposite to the target motion, a correction saccade brings gaze back on the target path or very near. When it moves the eye in the same direction, the performance is more variable and depends on the stimulated sites. Saccades fall ahead of the target with an error that increases when the stimulation is applied more caudally in the dSC. The numerous cases of compensation indicate that the brain is able to maintain an accurate and robust estimate of the location of the moving target. The inaccuracies observed when stimulating the dSC that encodes the visual field traversed by the target indicate that dSC microstimulation can interfere with signals encoding the target motion path. The results are discussed within the framework of the dual-drive and the remapping hypotheses.
Holly, Jan E.; Davis, Saralin M.; Sullivan, Kelly E.
During passive whole-body motion in the dark, the motion perceived by subjects may or may not be veridical. Either way, reflexive eye movements are typically compensatory for the perceived motion. However, studies are discovering that for certain motions, the perceived motion and eye movements are incompatible. The incompatibility has not been explained by basic differences in gain or time constants of decay. This paper uses three-dimensional modeling to investigate gondola centrifugation (with a tilting carriage) and off-vertical axis rotation. The first goal was to determine whether known differences between perceived motions and eye movements are true differences when all three-dimensional combinations of angular and linear components are considered. The second goal was to identify the likely areas of processing in which perceived motions match or differ from eye movements, whether in angular components, linear components and/or dynamics. The results were that perceived motions are more compatible with eye movements in three dimensions than the one-dimensional components indicate, and that they differ more in their linear than their angular components. In addition, while eye movements are consistent with linear filtering processes, perceived motion has dynamics that cannot be explained by basic differences in time constants, filtering, or standard GIF-resolution processes. PMID:21846952
J. J. Gu
Full Text Available Loss of an eye is a tragedy for a person, who may suffer psychologically and physically. This paper is concerned with the design, sensing and control of a robotic prosthetic eye that moves horizontally in synchronization with the movement of the natural eye. Two generations of robotic prosthetic eye models have been developed. The first generation model uses an external infrared sensor array mounted on the frame of a pair of eyeglasses to detect the natural eye movement and to feed the control system to drive the artificial eye to move with the natural eye. The second generation model removes the impractical usage of the eye glass frame and uses the human brain EOG (electro-ocular-graph signal picked up by electrodes placed on the sides of a person's temple to carry out the same eye movement detection and control tasks as mentioned above. Theoretical issues on sensor failure detection and recovery, and signal processing techniques used in sensor data fusion, are studied using statistical methods and artificial neural network based techniques. In addition, practical control system design and implementation using micro-controllers are studied and implemented to carry out the natural eye movement detection and artificial robotic eye control tasks. Simulation and experimental studies are performed, and the results are included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the research project reported in this paper.
Marino, Robert A; Levy, Ron; Munoz, Douglas P
Express saccades represent the fastest possible eye movements to visual targets with reaction times that approach minimum sensory-motor conduction delays. Previous work in monkeys has identified two specific neural signals in the superior colliculus (SC: a midbrain sensorimotor integration structure involved in gaze control) that are required to execute express saccades: 1) previsual activity consisting of a low-frequency increase in action potentials in sensory-motor neurons immediately before the arrival of a visual response; and 2) a transient visual-sensory response consisting of a high-frequency burst of action potentials in visually responsive neurons resulting from the appearance of a visual target stimulus. To better understand how these two neural signals interact to produce express saccades, we manipulated the arrival time and magnitude of visual responses in the SC by altering target luminance and we examined the corresponding influences on SC activity and express saccade generation. We recorded from saccade neurons with visual-, motor-, and previsual-related activity in the SC of monkeys performing the gap saccade task while target luminance was systematically varied between 0.001 and 42.5 cd/m(2) against a black background (∼0.0001 cd/m(2)). Our results demonstrated that 1) express saccade latencies were linked directly to the arrival time in the SC of visual responses produced by abruptly appearing visual stimuli; 2) express saccades were generated toward both dim and bright targets whenever sufficient previsual activity was present; and 3) target luminance altered the likelihood of producing an express saccade. When an express saccade was generated, visuomotor neurons increased their activity immediately before the arrival of the visual response in the SC and saccade initiation. Furthermore, the visual and motor responses of visuomotor neurons merged into a single burst of action potentials, while the visual response of visual-only neurons was
Levy, Ron; Munoz, Douglas P.
Express saccades represent the fastest possible eye movements to visual targets with reaction times that approach minimum sensory-motor conduction delays. Previous work in monkeys has identified two specific neural signals in the superior colliculus (SC: a midbrain sensorimotor integration structure involved in gaze control) that are required to execute express saccades: 1) previsual activity consisting of a low-frequency increase in action potentials in sensory-motor neurons immediately before the arrival of a visual response; and 2) a transient visual-sensory response consisting of a high-frequency burst of action potentials in visually responsive neurons resulting from the appearance of a visual target stimulus. To better understand how these two neural signals interact to produce express saccades, we manipulated the arrival time and magnitude of visual responses in the SC by altering target luminance and we examined the corresponding influences on SC activity and express saccade generation. We recorded from saccade neurons with visual-, motor-, and previsual-related activity in the SC of monkeys performing the gap saccade task while target luminance was systematically varied between 0.001 and 42.5 cd/m2 against a black background (∼0.0001 cd/m2). Our results demonstrated that 1) express saccade latencies were linked directly to the arrival time in the SC of visual responses produced by abruptly appearing visual stimuli; 2) express saccades were generated toward both dim and bright targets whenever sufficient previsual activity was present; and 3) target luminance altered the likelihood of producing an express saccade. When an express saccade was generated, visuomotor neurons increased their activity immediately before the arrival of the visual response in the SC and saccade initiation. Furthermore, the visual and motor responses of visuomotor neurons merged into a single burst of action potentials, while the visual response of visual-only neurons was
Yang, Qing; Kapoula, Zoi
The initiation of memory guided saccades is known to be controlled by the frontal eye field (FEF). Recent physiological studies showed the existence of an area close to FEF that controls also vergence initiation and execution. This study is to explore the effect of transcranial magnetic simulation (TMS) over FEF on the control of memory-guided saccade-vergence eye movements. Subjects had to make an eye movement in dark towards a target flashed 1 sec earlier (memory delay); the location of the target relative to fixation point was such as to require either a vergence along the median plane, or a saccade, or a saccade with vergence; trials were interleaved. Single pulse TMS was applied on the left or right FEF; it was delivered at 100 ms after the end of memory delay, i.e. extinction of fixation LED that was the "go" signal. Twelve healthy subjects participated in the study. TMS of left or right FEF prolonged the latency of all types of eye movements; the increase varied from 21 to 56 ms and was particularly strong for the divergence movements. This indicates that FEF is involved in the initiation of all types of memory guided movement in the 3D space. TMS of the FEF also altered the accuracy but only for leftward saccades combined with either convergence or divergence; intrasaccadic vergence also increased after TMS of the FEF. The results suggest anisotropy in the quality of space memory and are discussed in the context of other known perceptual motor anisotropies.
Heimler, Benedetta; Pavani, Francesco; Donk, Mieke; van Zoest, Wieske
Action videogame players (AVGPs) have been shown to outperform nongamers (NVGPs) in covert visual attention tasks. These advantages have been attributed to improved top-down control in this population. The time course of visual selection, which permits researchers to highlight when top-down strategies start to control performance, has rarely been investigated in AVGPs. Here, we addressed specifically this issue through an oculomotor additional-singleton paradigm. Participants were instructed to make a saccadic eye movement to a unique orientation singleton. The target was presented among homogeneous nontargets and one additional orientation singleton that was more, equally, or less salient than the target. Saliency was manipulated in the color dimension. Our results showed similar patterns of performance for both AVGPs and NVGPs: Fast-initiated saccades were saliency-driven, whereas later-initiated saccades were more goal-driven. However, although AVGPs were faster than NVGPs, they were also less accurate. Importantly, a multinomial model applied to the data revealed comparable underlying saliency-driven and goal-driven functions for the two groups. Taken together, the observed differences in performance are compatible with the presence of a lower decision bound for releasing saccades in AVGPs than in NVGPs, in the context of comparable temporal interplay between the underlying attentional mechanisms. In sum, the present findings show that in both AVGPs and NVGPs, the implementation of top-down control in visual selection takes time to come about, and they argue against the idea of a general enhancement of top-down control in AVGPs.
Hwang, Alex D.; Wang, Hsueh-Cheng; Pomplun, Marc
The perception of objects in our visual world is influenced by not only their low-level visual features such as shape and color, but also their high-level features such as meaning and semantic relations among them. While it has been shown that low-level features in real-world scenes guide eye movements during scene inspection and search, the influence of semantic similarity among scene objects on eye movements in such situations has not been investigated. Here we study guidance of eye movemen...
Farmer, A; Rooney, R; Cunningham, J R
Neurolinguistic programming's hypothesized eye-movements were measured independently from videotapes of 30 subjects, aged 15 to 76 yr., who were asked to recall visual pictures, recorded audio sounds, and textural objects. chi 2 indicated that subjects' responses were significantly different from those predicted. When chi 2 comparisons were weighted by number of eye positions assigned to each modality (3 visual, 3 auditory, 1 kinesthetic), subjects' responses did not differ significantly from the expected pattern. These data indicate that the eye-movement hypothesis may represent randomly occurring rather than sensory-modality-related positions.
Dauvilliers, Yves; Jennum, Poul; Plazzi, Giuseppe
Narcolepsy is a rare disabling hypersomnia disorder that may include cataplexy, sleep paralysis, hypnagogic hallucinations, and sleep-onset rapid eye movement (REM) periods, but also disrupted nighttime sleep by nocturnal awakenings, and REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD). RBD is characterized...... by dream-enacting behavior and impaired motor inhibition during REM sleep (REM sleep without atonia, RSWA). RBD is commonly associated with neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinsonisms, but is also reported in narcolepsy in up to 60% of patients. RBD in patients with narcolepsy is, however...... with narcolepsy often present dissociated sleep features including RSWA, increased density of phasic chin EMG and frequent shift from REM to NREM sleep, with or without associated clinical RBD. Most patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy lack the hypocretin neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. Tonic and phasic...
Colnaghi, Silvia; Ramat, Stefano; D'Angelo, Egidio; Cortese, Andrea; Beltrami, Giorgio; Moglia, Arrigo; Versino, Maurizio
Continuous theta-burst stimulation (cTBS) applied over the cerebellum exerts long-lasting effects by modulating long-term synaptic plasticity, which is thought to be the basis of learning and behavioral adaptation. To investigate the impact of cTBS over the cerebellum on short-term sensory-motor memory, we recorded in two groups of eight healthy subject each the visually guided saccades (VGSs), the memory-guided saccades (MGSs), and the multiple memory-guided saccades (MMGSs), before and after cTBS (cTBS group) or simulated cTBS (control group). In the cTBS group, cTBS determined hypometria of contralateral centrifugal VGSs and worsened the accuracy of MMGS bilaterally. In the control group, no significant differences were found between the two recording sessions. These results indicate that cTBS over the cerebellum causes eye movement effects that last longer than the stimulus duration. The VGS contralateral hypometria suggested that we eventually inhibited the fastigial nucleus on the stimulated side. MMGSs in normal subjects have a better final accuracy with respect to MGSs. Such improvement is due to the availability in MMGSs of the efference copy of the initial reflexive saccade directed toward the same peripheral target, which provides a sensory-motor information that is memorized and then used to improve the accuracy of the subsequent volitional memory-guided saccade. Thus, we hypothesize that cTBS disrupted the capability of the cerebellum to make an internal representation of the memorized sensory-motor information to be used after a short interval for forward control of saccades.
van Schie, Kevin; van Veen, Suzanne C; Engelhard, Iris M; Klugkist, Irene; van den Hout, Marcel A
In eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), patients make eye movements (EM) while recalling traumatic memories. Making EM taxes working memory (WM), which leaves less resources available for imagery of the memory. This reduces memory vividness and emotionality during future recalls. WM theory predicts that individuals with small working memory capacities (WMCs) benefit more from low levels of taxing (i.e., slow EM) whereas individuals with large WMC benefit more from high levels of taxing (i.e., fast EM). We experimentally examined and tested four prespecified hypotheses regarding the role of WMC and EM speed in reducing emotionality and vividness ratings: 1) EM-regardless of WMC and EM speed-are more effective compared to no dual task, 2) increasing EM speed only affects the decrease in memory ratings irrespective of WMC, 3) low-WMC individuals-compared to high-WMC individuals-benefit more from making either type of EM, 4) the EM intervention is most effective when-as predicted by WM theory-EM are adjusted to WMC. Undergraduates with low (n=31) or high (n=35) WMC recalled three emotional memories and rated vividness and emotionality before and after each condition (recall only, recall + slow EM, and recall + fast EM). Contrary to the theory, the data do not support the hypothesis that EM speed should be adjusted to WMC (hypothesis 4). However, the data show that a dual task in general is more effective in reducing memory ratings than no dual task (hypothesis 1), and that a more cognitively demanding dual task increases the intervention's effectiveness (hypothesis 2). Although adjusting EM speed to an individual's WMC seems a straightforward clinical implication, the data do not show any indication that such a titration is helpful.
Kevin van Schie
Full Text Available Background: In eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR, patients make eye movements (EM while recalling traumatic memories. Making EM taxes working memory (WM, which leaves less resources available for imagery of the memory. This reduces memory vividness and emotionality during future recalls. WM theory predicts that individuals with small working memory capacities (WMCs benefit more from low levels of taxing (i.e., slow EM whereas individuals with large WMC benefit more from high levels of taxing (i.e., fast EM. Objective: We experimentally examined and tested four prespecified hypotheses regarding the role of WMC and EM speed in reducing emotionality and vividness ratings: 1 EM—regardless of WMC and EM speed—are more effective compared to no dual task, 2 increasing EM speed only affects the decrease in memory ratings irrespective of WMC, 3 low-WMC individuals—compared to high-WMC individuals—benefit more from making either type of EM, 4 the EM intervention is most effective when—as predicted by WM theory—EM are adjusted to WMC. Method: Undergraduates with low (n=31 or high (n=35 WMC recalled three emotional memories and rated vividness and emotionality before and after each condition (recall only, recall + slow EM, and recall + fast EM. Results: Contrary to the theory, the data do not support the hypothesis that EM speed should be adjusted to WMC (hypothesis 4. However, the data show that a dual task in general is more effective in reducing memory ratings than no dual task (hypothesis 1, and that a more cognitively demanding dual task increases the intervention's effectiveness (hypothesis 2. Conclusions: Although adjusting EM speed to an individual's WMC seems a straightforward clinical implication, the data do not show any indication that such a titration is helpful.
Full Text Available For an establishment of a skill evaluation method for human support systems, development of an estimating equation of the machine operational skill is presented. Factors of the eye movement such as frequency, velocity, and moving distance of saccade were computed using the developed eye gaze measurement system, and the eye movement features were determined from these factors. The estimating equation was derived through an outlier test (to eliminate nonstandard data and a principal component analysis (to find dominant components. Using a cooperative carrying task (cc-task simulator, the eye movement and operational data of the machine operators were recorded, and effectiveness of the derived estimating equation was investigated. As a result, it was confirmed that the estimating equation was effective strongly against actual simple skill levels (r=0.56–0.84. In addition, effects of internal condition such as fatigue and stress on the estimating equation were analyzed. Using heart rate (HR and coefficient of variation of R-R interval (Cvrri. Correlation analysis between these biosignal indexes and the estimating equation of operational skill found that the equation reflected effects of stress and fatigue, although the equation could estimate the skill level adequately.
Full Text Available A variety of nervous system components such as medulla, pons, midbrain, cerebellum, basal ganglia, parietal, frontal and occipital lobes have role in Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR processes. The eye movement is done simultaneously for attracting client's attention to an external stimulus while concentrating on a certain internal subject. Eye movement guided by therapist is the most common attention stimulus. The role of eye movement has been documented previously in relation with cognitive processing mechanisms. A series of systemic experiments have shown that the eyes’ spontaneous movement is associated with emotional and cognitive changes and results in decreased excitement, flexibility in attention, memory processing, and enhanced semantic recalling. Eye movement also decreases the memory's image clarity and the accompanying excitement. By using EMDR, we can reach some parts of memory which were inaccessible before and also emotionally intolerable. Various researches emphasize on the effectiveness of EMDR in treating and curing phobias, pains, and dependent personality disorders. Consequently, due to the involvement of multiple neural system components, this palliative method of treatment can also help to rehabilitate the neuro-cognitive system.
Franco, J G; de Pablo, J; Gaviria, A M; Sepúlveda, E; Vilella, E
To review the scientific literature about the relationship between impairment on smooth pursuit eye movements and schizophrenia. Narrative review that includes historical articles, reports about basic and clinical investigation, systematic reviews, and meta-analysis on the topic. Up to 80% of schizophrenic patients have impairment of smooth pursuit eye movements. Despite the diversity of test protocols, 65% of patients and controls are correctly classified by their overall performance during this pursuit. The smooth pursuit eye movements depend on the ability to anticipate the target's velocity and the visual feedback, as well as on learning and attention. The neuroanatomy implicated in smooth pursuit overlaps to some extent with certain frontal cortex zones associated with some clinical and neuropsychological characteristics of the schizophrenia, therefore some specific components of smooth pursuit anomalies could serve as biomarkers of the disease. Due to their sedative effect, antipsychotics have a deleterious effect on smooth pursuit eye movements, thus these movements cannot be used to evaluate the efficacy of the currently available treatments. Standardized evaluation of smooth pursuit eye movements on schizophrenia will allow to use specific aspects of that pursuit as biomarkers for the study of its genetics, psychopathology, or neuropsychology. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Vestibular reflexes coordinate movements or sensory input with changes in body or head position. Vestibular-evoked responses that involve the extraocular muscles include the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR, a compensatory eye movement to stabilize retinal images. Although an angular VOR attributable to semicircular canal stimulation was reported to be absent in free-swimming zebrafish larvae, recent studies reveal that vestibular-induced eye movements can be evoked in zebrafish larvae by both static tilts and dynamic rotations that tilt the head with respect to gravity. Results We have determined herein the basis of sensitivity of the larval eye movements with respect to vestibular stimulus, developmental stage, and sensory receptors of the inner ear. For our experiments, video recordings of larvae rotated sinusoidally at 0.25 Hz were analyzed to quantitate eye movements under infrared illumination. We observed a robust response that appeared as early as 72 hours post fertilization (hpf, which increased in amplitude over time. Unlike rotation about an earth horizontal axis, rotation about an earth vertical axis at 0.25 Hz did not evoke eye movements. Moreover, vestibular-induced responses were absent in mutant cdh23 larvae and larvae lacking anterior otoliths. Conclusions Our results provide evidence for a functional vestibulo-oculomotor circuit in 72 hpf zebrafish larvae that relies upon sensory input from anterior/utricular otolith organs.
Full Text Available Aims: We investigated the performance in scene categorization of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD using a saccadic choice task. Method: 24 patients with mild AD, 28 age-matched controls and 26 young people participated in the study. The participants were presented pairs of coloured photographs and were asked to make a saccadic eye movement to the picture corresponding to the target scene (natural vs. urban, indoor vs. outdoor. Results: The patients' performance did not differ from chance for natural scenes. Differences between young and older controls and patients with AD were found in accuracy but not saccadic latency. Conclusions: The results are interpreted in terms of cerebral reorganization in the prefrontal and temporo-occipital cortex of patients with AD, but also in terms of impaired processing of visual global properties of scenes.
Full Text Available In the current study, we assessed whether visuospatial sequence knowledge is retained over 24 hours and whether this retention is dependent on the occurrence of eye movements. Participants performed two sessions of a serial reaction time (SRT task in which they had to manually react to the identity of a target letter pair presented in one of four locations around a fixation cross. When the letter pair 'XO' was presented, a left response had to be given, when the letter pair 'OX' was presented, a right response was required. In the Eye Movements (EM condition, eye movements were necessary to perform the task since the fixation cross and the target were separated by at least 9° visual angle. In the No Eye Movements (NEM condition, on the other hand, eye movements were minimized by keeping the distance from the fixation cross to the target below 1° visual angle and by limiting the stimulus presentation to 100 ms. Since the target identity changed randomly in both conditions, no manual response sequence was present in the task. However, target location was structured according to a deterministic sequence in both the EM and NEM condition. Learning of the target location sequence was determined at the end of the first session and 24 hours after initial learning. Results indicated that the sequence learning effect in the SRT task diminished, yet remained significant, over the 24 hour interval in both conditions. Importantly, the difference in eye movements had no impact on the transfer of sequence knowledge. These results suggest that the retention of visuospatial sequence knowledge occurs alike, irrespective of whether this knowledge is supported by eye movements or not.
Full Text Available Integrating shape contours in the visual periphery is vital to our ability to locate objects and thus make targeted saccadic eye movements to efficiently explore our surroundings. We tested whether global shape symmetry facilitates peripheral contour integration and saccade targeting in three experiments, in which observers responded to a successful peripheral contour detection by making a saccade towards the target shape. The target contours were horizontally (Experiment 1 or vertically (Experiments 2 and 3 mirror symmetric. Observers responded by making a horizontal (Experiments 1 and 2 or vertical (Experiment 3 eye movement. Based on an analysis of the saccadic latency and accuracy, we conclude that the figure-ground cue of global mirror symmetry in the periphery has little effect on contour integration or on the speed and precision with which saccades are targeted towards objects. The role of mirror symmetry may be more apparent under natural viewing conditions with multiple objects competing for attention, where symmetric regions in the visual field can pre-attentively signal the presence of objects, and thus attract eye movements.
Full Text Available Systematic differences in circadian rhythmicity are thought to be a substantial factor determining inter-individual differences in fatigue and cognitive performance. The synchronicity effect (when time of testing coincides with the respective circadian peak period seems to play an important role. Eye movements have been shown to be a reliable indicator of fatigue due to sleep deprivation or time spent on cognitive tasks. However, eye movements have not been used so far to investigate the circadian synchronicity effect and the resulting differences in fatigue. The aim of the present study was to assess how different oculomotor parameters in a free visual exploration task are influenced by: a fatigue due to chronotypical factors (being a 'morning type' or an 'evening type'; b fatigue due to the time spent on task. Eighteen healthy participants performed a free visual exploration task of naturalistic pictures while their eye movements were recorded. The task was performed twice, once at their optimal and once at their non-optimal time of the day. Moreover, participants rated their subjective fatigue. The non-optimal time of the day triggered a significant and stable increase in the mean visual fixation duration during the free visual exploration task for both chronotypes. The increase in the mean visual fixation duration correlated with the difference in subjectively perceived fatigue at optimal and non-optimal times of the day. Conversely, the mean saccadic speed significantly and progressively decreased throughout the duration of the task, but was not influenced by the optimal or non-optimal time of the day for both chronotypes. The results suggest that different oculomotor parameters are discriminative for fatigue due to different sources. A decrease in saccadic speed seems to reflect fatigue due to time spent on task, whereas an increase in mean fixation duration a lack of synchronicity between chronotype and time of the day.
Hwang, Alex D; Wang, Hsueh-Cheng; Pomplun, Marc
The perception of objects in our visual world is influenced by not only their low-level visual features such as shape and color, but also their high-level features such as meaning and semantic relations among them. While it has been shown that low-level features in real-world scenes guide eye movements during scene inspection and search, the influence of semantic similarity among scene objects on eye movements in such situations has not been investigated. Here we study guidance of eye movements by semantic similarity among objects during real-world scene inspection and search. By selecting scenes from the LabelMe object-annotated image database and applying latent semantic analysis (LSA) to the object labels, we generated semantic saliency maps of real-world scenes based on the semantic similarity of scene objects to the currently fixated object or the search target. An ROC analysis of these maps as predictors of subjects' gaze transitions between objects during scene inspection revealed a preference for transitions to objects that were semantically similar to the currently inspected one. Furthermore, during the course of a scene search, subjects' eye movements were progressively guided toward objects that were semantically similar to the search target. These findings demonstrate substantial semantic guidance of eye movements in real-world scenes and show its importance for understanding real-world attentional control. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available To compare the cortical dynamics of different oculomotor tasks, EEG and eye movements were recorded in 21 volunteers. Using a comprehensive approach, subjects were asked to perform saccadic tasks, which included a saccadic eye movement to a peripheral target (prosaccadic, a movement to the opposite side (antisaccadic, or maintain the gaze fixed (no-go. In mixed trials, prosaccadic, antisaccadic and no-go tasks were indicated by a color square (S1 present for 1900-2500 ms (instructive period. S1 disappeared for 370 ms (gap and a black dot at 8 deg at right or left indicated the beginning of the task. Reaction times, amplitude of eye movements and number of errors were greatest in antisaccadic tasks, suggesting a greater difficulty. The EEG showed a contingent negativity variation (CNV that increased progressively along the instructive period and suddenly during the gap: higher in antisaccadic, followed by prosaccadic and no-go tasks. Principal component analysis (PCA disentangled fronto-central and occipital CNV-related and fronto-central gap-related components. The instructive period was characterized by fronto-central and occipital beta desynchronization (ERD higher in antisaccadic than in no-go and parieto-occipital alpha synchronization higher in no-go than in antisaccadic tasks. During the gap, parieto-occipital beta and alpha ERD were higher in antisaccadic compared to no-go. The gap was further characterized by a fronto-central increase of inter-trial coherence in theta: highest during antisaccadic, followed by prosaccadic and no-go tasks. This phase locking in theta was also accompanied by theta ERS, which was significantly higher in antisaccadic than in the other two tasks. In PCA of spectral power two main components had dynamics similar to those extracted from voltage data, suggesting cross-frequency coupling. These results suggest that the more difficult saccadic tasks are associated with top-down control mediated by frontal cortex
Paul, Jacob M; Reeve, Robert A; Forte, Jason D
We habitually move our eyes when we enumerate sets of objects. It remains unclear whether saccades are directed for numerosity processing as distinct from object-oriented visual processing (e.g., object saliency, scanning heuristics). Here we investigated the extent to which enumeration eye movements are contingent upon the location of objects in an array, and whether fixation patterns vary with enumeration demands. Twenty adults enumerated random dot arrays twice: first to report the set cardinality and second to judge the perceived number of subsets. We manipulated the spatial location of dots by presenting arrays at 0°, 90°, 180°, and 270° orientations. Participants required a similar time to enumerate the set or the perceived number of subsets in the same array. Fixation patterns were systematically shifted in the direction of array rotation, and distributed across similar locations when the same array was shown on multiple occasions. We modeled fixation patterns and dot saliency using a simple filtering model and show participants judged groups of dots in close proximity (2°-2.5° visual angle) as distinct subsets. Modeling results are consistent with the suggestion that enumeration involves visual grouping mechanisms based on object saliency, and specific enumeration demands affect spatial distribution of fixations. Our findings highlight the importance of set computation, rather than object processing per se, for models of numerosity processing.
Colleen T O'Rourke
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Different strategies to search and detect prey may place specific demands on sensory modalities. We studied visual field configuration, degree of eye movement, and orbit orientation in three diurnal raptors belonging to the Accipitridae and Falconidae families. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used an ophthalmoscopic reflex technique and an integrated 3D digitizer system. We found inter-specific variation in visual field configuration and degree of eye movement, but not in orbit orientation. Red-tailed Hawks have relatively small binocular areas (∼33° and wide blind areas (∼82°, but intermediate degree of eye movement (∼5°, which underscores the importance of lateral vision rather than binocular vision to scan for distant prey in open areas. Cooper's Hawks' have relatively wide binocular fields (∼36°, small blind areas (∼60°, and high degree of eye movement (∼8°, which may increase visual coverage and enhance prey detection in closed habitats. Additionally, we found that Cooper's Hawks can visually inspect the items held in the tip of the bill, which may facilitate food handling. American Kestrels have intermediate-sized binocular and lateral areas that may be used in prey detection at different distances through stereopsis and motion parallax; whereas the low degree eye movement (∼1° may help stabilize the image when hovering above prey before an attack. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that: (a there are between-species differences in visual field configuration in these diurnal raptors; (b these differences are consistent with prey searching strategies and degree of visual obstruction in the environment (e.g., open and closed habitats; (c variations in the degree of eye movement between species appear associated with foraging strategies; and (d the size of the binocular and blind areas in hawks can vary substantially due to eye movements. Inter-specific variation in visual fields and eye movements can influence
O'Rourke, Colleen T; Hall, Margaret I; Pitlik, Todd; Fernández-Juricic, Esteban
Different strategies to search and detect prey may place specific demands on sensory modalities. We studied visual field configuration, degree of eye movement, and orbit orientation in three diurnal raptors belonging to the Accipitridae and Falconidae families. We used an ophthalmoscopic reflex technique and an integrated 3D digitizer system. We found inter-specific variation in visual field configuration and degree of eye movement, but not in orbit orientation. Red-tailed Hawks have relatively small binocular areas (∼33°) and wide blind areas (∼82°), but intermediate degree of eye movement (∼5°), which underscores the importance of lateral vision rather than binocular vision to scan for distant prey in open areas. Cooper's Hawks' have relatively wide binocular fields (∼36°), small blind areas (∼60°), and high degree of eye movement (∼8°), which may increase visual coverage and enhance prey detection in closed habitats. Additionally, we found that Cooper's Hawks can visually inspect the items held in the tip of the bill, which may facilitate food handling. American Kestrels have intermediate-sized binocular and lateral areas that may be used in prey detection at different distances through stereopsis and motion parallax; whereas the low degree eye movement (∼1°) may help stabilize the image when hovering above prey before an attack. We conclude that: (a) there are between-species differences in visual field configuration in these diurnal raptors; (b) these differences are consistent with prey searching strategies and degree of visual obstruction in the environment (e.g., open and closed habitats); (c) variations in the degree of eye movement between species appear associated with foraging strategies; and (d) the size of the binocular and blind areas in hawks can vary substantially due to eye movements. Inter-specific variation in visual fields and eye movements can influence behavioral strategies to visually search for and track prey while
Johnston, Kevin; Everling, Stefan
A multitude of cognitive functions can easily be tested by a number of relatively simple saccadic eye movement tasks. This approach has been employed extensively with patient populations to investigate the functional deficits associated with psychiatric disorders. Neurophysiological studies in non-human primates performing the same tasks have…
Irie, Kenji; Wilson, Bruce A; Jones, Richard D; Bones, Philip J; Anderson, Tim J
This paper reports on the development of a new eye-tracking system for noninvasive recording of eye movements. The eye tracker uses a flying-spot laser to selectively image landmarks on the eye and, subsequently, measure horizontal, vertical, and torsional eye movements. Considerable work was required to overcome the adverse effects of specular reflection of the flying-spot from the surface of the eye onto the sensing elements of the eye tracker. These effects have been largely overcome, and the eye-tracker has been used to document eye movement abnormalities, such as abnormal torsional pulsion of saccades, in the clinical setting.
Full Text Available The pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTN has been thought to be involved in the control of behavioral state. Projections to the entire thalamus and reciprocal connections with the basal ganglia nuclei suggest a potential role for the PPTN in the control of various rhythmic behaviors, including waking/sleeping and locomotion. Recently, rhythmic activity in the local field potentials was recorded from the PPTN of patients with Parkinson's disease who were treated with levodopa, suggesting that rhythmic firing is a feature of the functioning PPTN and might change with the behaving conditions even within waking. However, it remains unclear whether and how single PPTN neurons exhibit rhythmic firing patterns during various behaving conditions, including executing conditioned eye movement behaviors, seeking reward, or during resting. We previously recorded from PPTN neurons in healthy monkeys during visually guided saccade tasks and reported task-related changes in firing rate, and in this paper, we reanalyzed these data and focused on their firing patterns. A population of PPTN neurons demonstrated a regular firing pattern in that the coefficient of variation of interspike intervals was lower than what would be expected of theoretical random and irregular spike trains. Furthermore, a group of PPTN neurons exhibited a clear periodic single spike firing that changed with the context of the behavioral task. Many of these neurons exhibited a periodic firing pattern during highly active conditions, either the fixation condition during the saccade task or the free-viewing condition during the intertrial interval. We speculate that these task context-related changes in rhythmic firing of PPTN neurons might regulate the monkey's attentional and vigilance state to perform the task.
Daniel S Pages
Full Text Available A general problem in learning is how the brain determines what lesson to learn (and what lessons not to learn. For example, sound localization is a behavior that is partially learned with the aid of vision. This process requires correctly matching a visual location to that of a sound. This is an intrinsically circular problem when sound location is itself uncertain and the visual scene is rife with possible visual matches. Here, we develop a simple paradigm using visual guidance of sound localization to gain insight into how the brain confronts this type of circularity. We tested two competing hypotheses. 1: The brain guides sound location learning based on the synchrony or simultaneity of auditory-visual stimuli, potentially involving a Hebbian associative mechanism. 2: The brain uses a 'guess and check' heuristic in which visual feedback that is obtained after an eye movement to a sound alters future performance, perhaps by recruiting the brain's reward-related circuitry. We assessed the effects of exposure to visual stimuli spatially mismatched from sounds on performance of an interleaved auditory-only saccade task. We found that when humans and monkeys were provided the visual stimulus asynchronously with the sound but as feedback to an auditory-guided saccade, they shifted their subsequent auditory-only performance toward the direction of the visual cue by 1.3-1.7 degrees, or 22-28% of the original 6 degree visual-auditory mismatch. In contrast when the visual stimulus was presented synchronously with the sound but extinguished too quickly to provide this feedback, there was little change in subsequent auditory-only performance. Our results suggest that the outcome of our own actions is vital to localizing sounds correctly. Contrary to previous expectations, visual calibration of auditory space does not appear to require visual-auditory associations based on synchrony/simultaneity.
Full Text Available The cognitive overload not only affects the physical and mental diseases, but also affects the work efficiency and safety. Hence, the research of measuring cognitive load has been an important part of cognitive load theory. In this paper, we proposed a method to identify the state of cognitive load by using eye movement data in a noncontact manner. We designed a visual experiment to elicit human’s cognitive load as high and low state in two light intense environments and recorded the eye movement data in this whole process. Twelve salient features of the eye movement were selected by using statistic test. Algorithms for processing some features are proposed for increasing the recognition rate. Finally we used the support vector machine (SVM to classify high and low cognitive load. The experimental results show that the method can achieve 90.25% accuracy in light controlled condition.
Xu, Yi; Li, Shiwu; Gao, Song; Tan, Derong; Guo, Dong; Wang, Yuqiong
Drivers eye movement data in simulated construction conflicts at different speeds were collected and analyzed to find the relationship between the drivers' eye movement and the construction conflict. On the basis of the relationship between the drivers' eye movement and the construction conflict, the peak point of wavelet processed pupil diameter, the first point on the left side of the peak point and the first blink point after the peak point are selected as key points for locating construction conflict periods. On the basis of the key points and the GSA, a construction conflict recognition method so called the CCFRM is proposed. And the construction conflict recognition speed and location accuracy of the CCFRM are verified. The good performance of the CCFRM verified the feasibility of proposed key points in construction conflict recognition. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Edlin, James M.; Lyle, Keith B.
The simple act of repeatedly looking left and right can enhance subsequent cognition, including divergent thinking, detection of matching letters from visual arrays, and memory retrieval. One hypothesis is that saccade execution enhances subsequent cognition by altering attentional control. To test this hypothesis, we compared performance…
Wang, Xiao; Wu, Yan; Zhang, Mingsha; Wu, Si
Our eyes move constantly at a frequency of 3-5 times per second. These movements, called saccades, induce the sweeping of visual images on the retina, yet we perceive the world as stable. It has been suggested that the brain achieves this visual stability via predictive remapping of neuronal receptive field (RF). A recent experimental study disclosed details of this remapping process in the lateral intraparietal area (LIP), that is, about the time of the saccade, the neuronal RF expands along the saccadic trajectory temporally, covering the current RF (CRF), the future RF (FRF), and the region the eye will sweep through during the saccade. A cortical wave (CW) model was also proposed, which attributes the RF remapping as a consequence of neural activity propagating in the cortex, triggered jointly by a visual stimulus and the corollary discharge (CD) signal responsible for the saccade. In this study, we investigate how this CW model is learned naturally from visual experiences at the development of the brain. We build a two-layer network, with one layer consisting of LIP neurons and the other superior colliculus (SC) neurons. Initially, neuronal connections are random and non-selective. A saccade will cause a static visual image to sweep through the retina passively, creating the effect of the visual stimulus moving in the opposite direction of the saccade. According to the spiking-time-dependent-plasticity rule, the connection path in the opposite direction of the saccade between LIP neurons and the connection path from SC to LIP are enhanced. Over many such visual experiences, the CW model is developed, which generates the peri-saccadic RF remapping in LIP as observed in the experiment.
Full Text Available Our eyes move constantly at a frequency of 3–5 times per second. These movements, called saccades, induce the sweeping of visual images on the retina, yet we perceive the world as stable. It has been suggested that the brain achieves this visual stability via predictive remapping of neuronal receptive field (RF. A recent experimental study disclosed details of this remapping process in the lateral intraparietal area (LIP, that is, about the time of the saccade, the neuronal RF expands along the saccadic trajectory temporally, covering the current RF (CRF, the future RF (FRF, and the region the eye will sweep through during the saccade. A cortical wave (CW model was also proposed, which attributes the RF remapping as a consequence of neural activity propagating in the cortex, triggered jointly by a visual stimulus and the corollary discharge (CD signal responsible for the saccade. In this study, we investigate how this CW model is learned naturally from visual experiences at the development of the brain. We build a two-layer network, with one layer consisting of LIP neurons and the other superior colliculus (SC neurons. Initially, neuronal connections are random and non-selective. A saccade will cause a static visual image to sweep through the retina passively, creating the effect of the visual stimulus moving in the opposite direction of the saccade. According to the spiking-time-dependent-plasticity rule, the connection path in the opposite direction of the saccade between LIP neurons and the connection path from SC to LIP are enhanced. Over many such visual experiences, the CW model is developed, which generates the peri-saccadic RF remapping in LIP as observed in the experiment.
Postle, Bradley R; Idzikowski, Christopher; Sala, Sergio Della; Logie, Robert H; Baddeley, Alan D
In the late 1970s/early 1980s, Baddeley and colleagues conducted a series of experiments investigating the role of eye movements in visual working memory. Although only described briefly in a book, these studies have influenced a remarkable number of empirical and theoretical developments in fields ranging from experimental psychology to human neuropsychology to nonhuman primate electrophysiology. This paper presents, in full detail, three critical studies from this series, together with a recently performed study that includes a level of eye movement measurement and control that was not available for the older studies. Together, the results demonstrate several facts about the sensitivity of visuospatial working memory to eye movements. First, it is eye movement control, not movement per se, that produces the disruptive effects. Second, these effects are limited to working memory for locations and do not generalize to visual working memory for shapes. Third, they can be isolated to the storage/maintenance components of working memory (e.g., to the delay period of the delayed-recognition task). These facts have important implications for models of visual working memory.
Jalaliniya, Shahram; Mardanbeigi, Diako; Pederson, Thomas
examined using head and eye movements to point on a graphical user interface of a wearable computer. The performance of users in head and eye pointing has been compared with mouse pointing as a baseline method. The result of our experiment showed that the eye pointing is significantly faster than head......While the new generation of eyewear computers have increased expectations of a wearable computer, providing input to these devices is still challenging. Hand-held devices, voice commands, and hand gestures have already been explored to provide input to the wearable devices. In this paper, we...
Full Text Available Response inhibition is the ability to suppress irrelevant impulses to enable goal-directed behavior. The underlying neural mechanisms of inhibition deficits are not clearly understood, but may be related to white matter connectivity, which can be assessed using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI. The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between response inhibition during the performance of saccadic eye movement tasks and DTI measures of the corpus callosum in children with or without Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD. Participants included 43 children with an FASD diagnosis (12.3 ± 3.1 years old and 35 typically developing children (12.5 ± 3.0 years old both aged 7–18, assessed at three sites across Canada. Response inhibition was measured by direction errors in an antisaccade task and timing errors in a delayed memory-guided saccade task. Manual deterministic tractography was used to delineate six regions of the corpus callosum and calculate fractional anisotropy (FA, mean diffusivity (MD, parallel diffusivity, and perpendicular diffusivity. Group differences in saccade measures were assessed using t-tests, followed by partial correlations between eye movement inhibition scores and corpus callosum FA and MD, controlling for age. Children with FASD made more saccade direction errors and more timing errors, which indicates a deficit in response inhibition. The only group difference in DTI metrics was significantly higher MD of the splenium in FASD compared to controls. Notably, direction errors in the antisaccade task were correlated negatively to FA and positively to MD of the splenium in the control, but not the FASD group, which suggests that alterations in connectivity between the two hemispheres of the brain may contribute to inhibition deficits in children with FASD.
Reschke, M. F.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.; Sayenko, D. G.; Sayenko, I.; Somers, J. T.; Paloski, W. H.
Russian investigators have reported changes in pursuit tracking of a vertically moving point stimulus during space flight. Early in microgravity, changes were manifested by decreased eye movement amplitude (undershooting) and the appearance of correction saccades. As the flight progressed, pursuit of the moving point stimulus deteriorated while associated saccadic movements were unchanged. Immediately postflight there was an improved execution of active head movements indicating that the deficiencies in pursuit function noted in microgravity may be of central origin. In contrast, tests of two cosmonauts showed that horizontal and vertical smooth pursuit were unchanged inflight. However, results of corresponding saccadic tasks showed a tendency toward the overshooting of a horizontal target early inflight with high accuracy developing later inflight, accompanied by an increased saccade velocity and a trend toward decreased saccade latency. Based on these equivocal results, we have further investigated the effects of space flight on the smooth pursuit mechanism during and after short duration flight, and postflight on returning MIR crewmembers. Sinusoidal target movement was presented horizontally at frequencies of 0.33 and 1.0 Hz. Subjects were asked to perform two trials for each stimulus combination: (1) moving eyes-only (EO) and (2) moving eyes and head (EH) with the target motion. Peak amplitude was 30 deg for 0.33 Hz trials and 15 deg for the 1.0 Hz trials. The relationship between saccade amplitude and peak velocity were plotted as a main sequence for each phase of flight, and linear regression analysis allowed us to determine the slope of each main sequence plot. The linear slopes were then combined for each flight phase for each individual subject. The main sequence for both EO and EH trials at both the 0.33 and 1.0 Hz frequencies during flight for the short duration flyers showed a reduction in saccade velocity and amplitude when compared to the preflight
Spering, Miriam; Gegenfurtner, Karl R
Segregating a moving object from its visual context is particularly relevant for the control of smooth-pursuit eye movements. We examined the interaction between a moving object and a stationary or moving visual context to determine the role of the context motion signal in driving pursuit. Eye movements were recorded from human observers to a medium-contrast Gaussian dot that moved horizontally at constant velocity. A peripheral context consisted of two vertically oriented sinusoidal gratings, one above and one below the stimulus trajectory, that were either stationary or drifted into the same or opposite direction as that of the target at different velocities. We found that a stationary context impaired pursuit acceleration and velocity and prolonged pursuit latency. A drifting context enhanced pursuit performance, irrespective of its motion direction. This effect was modulated by context contrast and orientation. When a context was briefly perturbed to move faster or slower eye velocity changed accordingly, but only when the context was drifting along with the target. Perturbing a context into the direction orthogonal to target motion evoked a deviation of the eye opposite to the perturbation direction. We therefore provide evidence for the use of absolute and relative motion cues, or motion assimilation and motion contrast, for the control of smooth-pursuit eye movements.
Sheridan, Heather; Reingold, Eyal M.
The present experiments examined perceptual specificity effects using a rereading paradigm. Eye movements were monitored while participants read the same target word twice, in two different low-constraint sentence frames. The congruency of perceptual processing was manipulated by either presenting the target word in the same distortion typography…
Young, Angela H.; Hulleman, Johan
In two experiments we investigated the relationship between eye movements and performance in visual search tasks of varying difficulty. Experiment 1 provided evidence that a single process is used for search among static and moving items. Moreover, we estimated the functional visual field (FVF) from the gaze coordinates and found that its size…
should be filtered if only the relevant information input is to be inveatigated. -13- The analysis of eye movements bahavior should be consi- dered... volunt rvtlv switch hi , attent on From one eve to the other (e.q. LACK, 19"’). The accomodation of the eve at a greater distance in car Jriving
David J Kelly
Full Text Available Adults from Eastern (e.g., China and Western (e.g., USA cultural groups display pronounced differences in a range of visual processing tasks. For example, the eye movement strategies used for information extraction during a variety of face processing tasks (e.g., identification and facial expressions of emotion categorization differs across cultural groups. Currently, many of the differences reported in previous studies have asserted that culture itself is responsible for shaping the way we process visual information, yet this has never been directly investigated. In the current study, we assessed the relative contribution of genetic and cultural factors by testing face processing in a population of British Born Chinese (BBC adults using face recognition and expression classification tasks. Contrary to predictions made by the cultural differences framework, the majority of BBC adults deployed ‘Eastern’ eye movement strategies, while approximately 25% of participants displayed ‘Western’ strategies. Furthermore, the cultural eye movement strategies used by individuals were consistent across recognition and expression tasks. These findings suggest that ‘culture’ alone cannot straightforwardly account for diversity in eye movement patterns. Instead a more complex understanding of how the environment and individual experiences can influence the mechanisms that govern visual processing is required.
Geiselman, Ralph E.; Bellezza, Francis S.
Rates of overt rehearsal and eye movement were compared to each other, and were also compared as predictors of immediate and delayed recall. Concludes that total looking time was the best predictor of long-term retention and that recall performance following overt rehearsal was different from recall performance following silent study. (Editor/RK)
Theeuwes, J.; Belopolsky, A.V.; Olivers, C.N.L.
This paper reviews the recent findings on working memory, attention and eye movements. We discuss the research that shows that many phenomena related to visual attention taking place when selecting relevant information from the environment are similar to processes needed to keep information active
Vigneau, Francois; Caissie, Andre F.; Bors, Douglas A.
Taking into account various models and findings pertaining to the nature of analogical reasoning, this study explored quantitative and qualitative individual differences in intelligence using latency and eye-movement data. Fifty-five university students were administered 14 selected items of the Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices test. Results…
Dillon, Ronna F.
Undergraduates were given complex figural analogies items, and eye movements were observed under three types of feedback: (1) elaborate feedback; (2) subjects verbalized their thinking and application of rules; and (3) no feedback. Both feedback conditions enhanced the rule-governed information processing during inductive reasoning. (Author/GDC)
Gur, Raquel E.; Gur, Ruben C.
Subjects were classified into left movers, right movers, and bidirectionals according to the characteristic direction of their eye movements in response to questions. The three groups were compared on their preferential use of defense mechanisms and on the number of psychosomatic complaints. (Author)
Jincho, Nobuyuki; Feng, Gary; Mazuka, Reiko
This study examined age-group differences in eye movements among third-grade, fifth-grade, and adult Japanese readers. In Experiment 1, Japanese children, but not adults, showed a longer fixation time on logographic kanji words than on phonologically transparent hiragana words. Further, an age-group difference was found in the first fixation…
Mecê, Pedro; Jarosz, Jessica; Conan, Jean-Marc; Petit, Cyril; Grieve, Kate; Paques, Michel; Meimon, Serge
To evaluate the contribution of fixational eye movements to dynamic aberration, 50 healthy eyes were examined with an original custom-built Shack-Hartmann aberrometer, running at a temporal frequency of 236Hz, with 22 lenslets across a 5mm pupil, synchronized with a 236Hz pupil tracker. A comparison of the dynamic behavior of the first 21 Zernike modes (starting from defocus) with and without digital pupil stabilization, on a 3.4s sequence between blinks, showed that the contribution of fixational eye movements to dynamic aberration is negligible. Therefore we highlighted the fact that a pupil tracker coupled to an Adaptive Optics Ophthalmoscope is not essential to achieve diffraction-limited resolution.
Full Text Available Hand pointing to objects under visual guidance is one of the most common motor behaviors in everyday life. In natural conditions, gaze and arm movements are commonly aimed at the same target and the accuracy of both systems is considerably enhanced if eye and hand move together. Evidence supports the viewpoint that gaze and limb control systems are not independent but at least partially share a common neural controller. The aim of the present study was to verify whether a saccade execution induces excitability changes in the upper-limb corticospinal system (CSS, even in the absence of a manual response. This effect would provide evidence for the existence of a common drive for ocular and arm motor systems during fast aiming movements. Single-pulse TMS was applied to the left motor cortex of 19 subjects during a task involving visually guided saccades, and motor evoked potentials (MEPs induced in hand and wrist muscles of the contralateral relaxed arm were recorded. Subjects had to make visually guided saccades to one of 6 positions along the horizontal meridian (±5°, ±10° or ±15°. During each trial, TMS was randomly delivered at one of 3 different time delays: shortly after the end of the saccade or 300 ms or 540 ms after saccade onset. Fast eye movements towards a peripheral target were accompanied by changes in upper-limb CSS excitability. MEP amplitude was highest immediately after the end of the saccade and gradually decreased at longer TMS delays. In addition to the change in overall CSS excitability, MEPs were specifically modulated in different muscles, depending on the target position and the TMS delay. By applying a simple model of a manual pointing movement, we demonstrated that the observed changes in CSS excitability are compatible with the facilitation of an arm motor program for a movement aimed at the same target of the gaze. These results provide evidence in favor of the existence of a common drive for both eye and arm
Full Text Available Research shows that memory for emotional aspects of an event may be enhanced at the cost of impaired memory for surrounding peripheral details. However, this has only been assessed directly via verbal reports which reveal the outcome of a long stream of processing but cannot shed light on how/when emotion may affect the retrieval process. In the present experiment, eye movement monitoring was used as an indirect measure of memory as it can reveal aspects of online memory processing. For example, do emotions modulate the nature of memory representations or the speed with which such memories can be accessed? Participants viewed central negative and neutral scenes surrounded by three neutral objects and after a brief delay, memory was assessed indirectly via eye movement monitoring and then directly via verbal reports. Consistent with the previous literature, emotion enhanced central and impaired peripheral memory as indexed by eye movement scanning and verbal reports. This suggests that eye movement scanning may contribute and/or is related to conscious access of memory. However, the central/peripheral tradeoff effect was not observed in an early measure of eye movement behavior, i.e. participants were faster to orient to a critical region of change in the periphery irrespective of whether it was previously studied in a negative or neutral context. These findings demonstrate emotion’s differential influences on different aspects of retrieval. In particular, emotion appears to affect the detail within, and/or the evaluation of, stored memory representations, but it may not affect the initial access to those representations.
Full Text Available The planning, control and execution of eye movements in 3D space relies on a distributed system of cortical and subcortical brain regions. Within this network, the Eye Fields have been described in animals as cortical regions in which electrical stimulation is able to trigger eye movements and influence their latency or accuracy. This review will focus on the Frontal Eye Field (FEF a hub region located in Humans in the vicinity of the pre-central sulcus and the dorsal-most portion of the superior frontal sulcus. The straightforward localization of the FEF through electrical stimulation in animals is difficult to translate to the healthy human brain, particularly with non-invasive neuroimaging techniques. Hence, in the first part of this review, we will describe attempts made to characterize the anatomical localization of this area in the human brain. The outcome of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI, Magneto-encephalography (MEG and particularly, non-invasive mapping methods such a Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS will be described and the variability of FEF localization across individuals and mapping techniques will be discussed. In the second part of this review, we will address the role of the FEF. We will explore its involvement both in the physiology of fixation, saccade, pursuit and vergence movements and in associated cognitive processes such as attentional orienting, visual awareness and perceptual modulation. Finally in the third part, we will review recent evidence suggesting the high level of malleability and plasticity of these regions and associated networks to non-invasive stimulation. The exploratory, diagnostic and therapeutic interest of such interventions for the modulation and improvement of perception in 3D space will be discussed.
Belopolsky, A.V.; Theeuwes, J.
Inhibition of return (IOR) refers to a bias against overt and covert attentional orienting toward previously attended locations. According to the reorienting hypothesis, IOR is generated when attention is withdrawn from the attended location and is prevented from "returning" to it. The present study
Tomilovskaya, E S; Kirenskaya, A V; Novototski-Vlasov, V Yu; Kozlovskaya, I B
Objectives of this work were to quantify antisaccade characteristics, presaccadic slow negative EEG-potentials, and event-related EEG frequency band power (theta, alpha1, alpha2, beta1, beta2 and beta3) changes (ERD) in healthy volunteers before and after 6-day simulated weightlessness (dry immersion).
Komogortsev, Oleg V.; Holland, Corey D.; Karpov, Alex
This paper presents a template aging study of eye movement biometrics, considering three distinct biometric techniques on multiple stimuli and eye tracking systems. Short-to-midterm aging effects are examined over two-weeks, on a highresolution eye tracking system, and seven-months, on a low-resolution eye tracking system. We find that, in all cases, aging effects are evident as early as two weeks after initial template collection, with an average 28% (±19%) increase in equal error rates and 34% (±12%) reduction in rank-1 identification rates. At seven months, we observe an average 18% (±8%) increase in equal error rates and 44% (±20%) reduction in rank-1 identification rates. The comparative results at two-weeks and seven-months suggests that there is little difference in aging effects between the two intervals; however, whether the rate of decay increases more drastically in the long-term remains to be seen.
Full Text Available During natural viewing, the eyes are never still. Even during fixation, miniature movements of the eyes move the retinal image across tens of foveal photoreceptors. Most theories of vision implicitly assume that the visual system ignores these movements and somehow overcomes the resulting smearing. However, evidence has accumulated to indicate that fixational eye movements cannot be ignored by the visual system if fine spatial details are to be resolved. We argue that the only way the visual system can achieve its high resolution given its fixational movements is by seeing via these movements. Seeing via eye movements also eliminates the instability of the image, which would be induced by them otherwise. Here we present a hypothesis for vision, in which coarse details are spatially-encoded in gaze-related coordinates, and fine spatial details are temporally-encoded in relative retinal coordinates. The temporal encoding presented here achieves its highest resolution by encoding along the elongated axes of simple cell receptive fields and not across these axes as suggested by spatial models of vision. According to our hypothesis, fine details of shape are encoded by inter-receptor temporal phases, texture by instantaneous intra-burst rates of individual receptors, and motion by inter-burst temporal frequencies. We further describe the ability of the visual system to readout the encoded information and recode it internally. We show how reading out of retinal signals can be facilitated by neuronal phase-locked loops (NPLLs, which lock to the retinal jitter; this locking enables recoding of motion information and temporal framing of shape and texture processing. A possible implementation of this locking-and-recoding process by specific thalamocortical loops is suggested. Overall it is suggested that high-acuity vision is based primarily on temporal mechanisms of the sort presented here and low-acuity vision is based primarily on spatial mechanisms.
Komogortsev, Oleg V.; Karpov, Alexey; Holland, Corey D.
The widespread use of computers throughout modern society introduces the necessity for usable and counterfeit-resistant authentication methods to ensure secure access to personal resources such as bank accounts, e-mail, and social media. Current authentication methods require tedious memorization of lengthy pass phrases, are often prone to shouldersurfing, and may be easily replicated (either by counterfeiting parts of the human body or by guessing an authentication token based on readily available information). This paper describes preliminary work toward a counterfeit-resistant usable eye movement-based (CUE) authentication method. CUE does not require any passwords (improving the memorability aspect of the authentication system), and aims to provide high resistance to spoofing and shoulder-surfing by employing the combined biometric capabilities of two behavioral biometric traits: 1) oculomotor plant characteristics (OPC) which represent the internal, non-visible, anatomical structure of the eye; 2) complex eye movement patterns (CEM) which represent the strategies employed by the brain to guide visual attention. Both OPC and CEM are extracted from the eye movement signal provided by an eye tracking system. Preliminary results indicate that the fusion of OPC and CEM traits is capable of providing a 30% reduction in authentication error when compared to the authentication accuracy of individual traits.
Jehangir, Naz; Yu, Caroline Yizhu; Song, Jeehey; Shariati, Mohammad Ali; Binder, Steven; Beyer, Jill; Santini, Veronica; Poston, Kathleen; Liao, Yaping Joyce
Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease (PD) is characterized by degeneration of dopaminergic and other neurons, leading to motor and non-motor deficits. Abnormal eye movements in PD, including fixations, saccades, and convergence, are well described. However, saccadic reading, which requires serial and alternating saccades and fixations, is not well studied, despite its obvious impact on the quality of life. In this study, we assessed saccadic reading using variations of the King-Devick (KD) test, a rapid single digit number naming test, as a way to assess the ability to make serial left-to-right ocular motor movements necessary for reading. We recruited 42 treated PD patients and 80 age-matched controls and compared their reading times with a variety of measures, including age, duration of disease, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), the National Eye Institute 25-Item Visual Functioning Questionnaire 25 (VFQ-25), and Montreal Cognitive assessment (MoCA) test. The subjects performed 4 trials of reading 120 single digit numbers aloud as fast as possible without making errors. In each trial, they read 3 pages (KD1, KD2, and KD3), and each page contained 40 numbers per page in 8 lines with 5 numbers/line. We found that PD patients read about 20% slower than controls on all tests (KD1, 2, and 3 tests) (p < 0.02), and both groups read irregularly spaced numbers slower than regularly spaced numbers. Having lines between numbers to guide reading (KD1 tests) did not impact reading time in both PD and controls, but increased visual crowding as a result of decreased spacing between numbers (KD3 tests) was associated with significantly slower reading times in both PD and control groups. Our study revealed that saccadic reading is slower in PD, but controls and PD patients are both impacted by visuospatial planning challenges posed by increased visual crowding and irregularity of number spacing. Reading time did not correlate with UPDRS or MoCA scores in PD patients but
Full Text Available The neuropathological process underlying amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS can be traced as a four-stage progression scheme of sequential corticofugal axonal spread. The examination of eye movement control gains deep insights into brain network pathology and provides the opportunity to detect both disturbance of the brainstem oculomotor circuitry as well as executive deficits of oculomotor function associated with higher brain networks.To study systematically oculomotor characteristics in ALS and its underlying network pathology in order to determine whether eye movement deterioration can be categorized within a staging system of oculomotor decline that corresponds to the neuropathological model.Sixty-eight ALS patients and 31 controls underwent video-oculographic, clinical and neuropsychological assessments.Oculomotor examinations revealed increased anti- and delayed saccades' errors, gaze-palsy and a cerebellary type of smooth pursuit disturbance. The oculomotor disturbances occurred in a sequential manner: Stage 1, only executive control of eye movements was affected. Stage 2 indicates disturbed executive control plus 'genuine' oculomotor dysfunctions such as gaze-paly. We found high correlations (p<0.001 between the oculomotor stages and both, the clinical presentation as assessed by the ALS Functional Rating Scale (ALSFRS score, and cognitive scores from the Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioral ALS Screen (ECAS.Dysfunction of eye movement control in ALS can be characterized by a two-staged sequential pattern comprising executive deficits in Stage 1 and additional impaired infratentorial oculomotor control pathways in Stage 2. This pattern parallels the neuropathological staging of ALS and may serve as a technical marker of the neuropathological spreading.
Anisimov, V A; Fedorova, O V; Latanov, A V
We studied the eye movement parameters during reading of syntactically ambiguous sentences with feminine relative clause in Russian language. A priori difficulties of sentence structural analysis results in increase of time spent on reading as opposed to reading control sentences (unambiguous). Such a delay is caused by an increase of frequency of regressions (backward saccades) which are executed for rereading an ambiguous fragment ofsentence. This fact in turn leads to an increase in number of fixations and their duration. The total reading time for particular words composing the ambiguous fragment of sentence depended on disambiguation result (relative clause attachment, early/late closure). In case of early closure (when the subject attached relative clause to first noun) the total reading time for this noun exceeded one for second noun. In case of late closure (when the subject attached relative clause to second noun) the total reading time for both nouns didn't differ. Our results indicate that early closure domination in Russian language determines the greater total reading time for first noun of nominal group associated with relative clause.
Full Text Available Most naturally-occurring physical phenomena are examples of nonlinear dynamic systems, the functioning of which attracts many researchers seeking to unveil their nature. The research presented in this paper is aimed at exploring eye movement dynamic features in terms of the existence of chaotic nature. Nonlinear time series analysis methods were used for this purpose. Two time series features were studied: fractal dimension and entropy, by utilising the embedding theory. The methods were applied to the data collected during the experiment with “jumping point” stimulus. Eye movements were registered by means of the Jazz-novo eye tracker. One thousand three hundred and ninety two (1392 time series were defined, based on the horizontal velocity of eye movements registered during imposed, prolonged fixations. In order to conduct detailed analysis of the signal and identify differences contributing to the observed patterns of behaviour in time scale, fractal dimension and entropy were evaluated in various time series intervals. The influence of the noise contained in the data and the impact of the utilized filter on the obtained results were also studied. The low pass filter was used for the purpose of noise reduction with a 50 Hz cut-off frequency, estimated by means of the Fourier transform and all concerned methods were applied to time series before and after noise reduction. These studies provided some premises, which allow perceiving eye movements as observed chaotic data: characteristic of a space-time separation plot, low and non-integer time series dimension, and the time series entropy characteristic for chaotic systems.
Thomaes, Kathleen; Engelhard, Iris M; Sijbrandij, Marit; Cath, Danielle C; Van den Heuvel, Odile A
BACKGROUND: Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). During EMDR, the patient recalls traumatic memories while making eye movements (EMs). Making EMs during recall is associated with decreased vividness and emotionality
Laidlaw, Kaitlin E W; Zhu, Mona J H; Kingstone, Alan
Successful target selection often occurs concurrently with distractor inhibition. A better understanding of the former thus requires a thorough study of the competition that arises between target and distractor representations. In the present study, we explore whether the presence of a distractor influences saccade processing via interfering with visual target and/or saccade goal representations. To do this, we asked participants to make either pro- or antisaccade eye movements to a target and measured the change in their saccade trajectory and landing position (collectively referred to as deviation) in response to distractors placed near or far from the saccade goal. The use of an antisaccade paradigm may help to distinguish between stimulus- and goal-related distractor interference, as unlike with prosaccades, these two features are dissociated in space when making a goal-directed antisaccade response away from a visual target stimulus. The present results demonstrate that for both pro- and antisaccades, distractors near the saccade goal elicited the strongest competition, as indicated by greater saccade trajectory deviation and landing position error. Though distractors far from the saccade goal elicited, on average, greater deviation away in antisaccades than in prosaccades, a time-course analysis revealed a significant effect of far-from-goal distractors in prosaccades as well. Considered together, the present findings support the view that goal-related representations most strongly influence the saccade metrics tested, though stimulus-related representations may play a smaller role in determining distractor-based interference effects on saccade execution under certain circumstances. Further, the results highlight the advantage of considering temporal changes in distractor-based interference.
Wong, Jason H; Peterson, Matthew S
Relationships between visual attention, saccade programming, and visual working memory have been hypothesized for over a decade. Awh, Jonides, and Reuter-Lorenz (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 24(3):780-90, 1998) and Awh et al. (Psychological Science 10(5):433-437, 1999) proposed that rehearsing a location in memory also leads to enhanced attentional processing at that location. In regard to eye movements, Belopolsky and Theeuwes (Attention, Perception & Psychophysics 71(3):620-631, 2009) found that holding a location in working memory affects saccade programming, albeit negatively. In three experiments, we attempted to replicate the findings of Belopolsky and Theeuwes (Attention, Perception & Psychophysics 71(3):620-631, 2009) and determine whether the spatial memory effect can occur in other saccade-cuing paradigms, including endogenous central arrow cues and exogenous irrelevant singletons. In the first experiment, our results were the opposite of those in Belopolsky and Theeuwes (Attention, Perception & Psychophysics 71(3):620-631, 2009), in that we found facilitation (shorter saccade latencies) instead of inhibition when the saccade target matched the region in spatial working memory. In Experiment 2, we sought to determine whether the spatial working memory effect would generalize to other endogenous cuing tasks, such as a central arrow that pointed to one of six possible peripheral locations. As in Experiment 1, we found that saccade programming was facilitated when the cued location coincided with the saccade target. In Experiment 3, we explored how spatial memory interacts with other types of cues, such as a peripheral color singleton target or irrelevant onset. In both cases, the eyes were more likely to go to either singleton when it coincided with the location held in spatial working memory. On the basis of these results, we conclude that spatial working memory and saccade programming are likely to share common
Full Text Available The goal of the current study was to investigate how salience-driven and goal-driven processes unfold during visual search over multiple eye movements. Eye movements were recorded while observers searched for a target, which was located on (Experiment 1 or defined as (Experiment 2 a specific orientation singleton. This singleton could either be the most, medium, or least salient element in the display. Results were analyzed as a function of response time separately for initial and second eye movements. Irrespective of the search task, initial saccades elicited shortly after the onset of the search display were primarily salience-driven whereas initial saccades elicited after approximately 250 ms were completely unaffected by salience. Initial saccades were increasingly guided in line with task requirements with increasing response times. Second saccades were completely unaffected by salience and were consistently goal-driven, irrespective of response time. These results suggest that stimulus-salience affects the visual system only briefly after a visual image enters the brain and has no effect thereafter.
Full Text Available Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR has led to a great number of studies since its appearance in 1989. The aim of this article is to describe EMDR development and evolution to the present day. With this purpose a search was carried out on MEDLINE and PsycINFO with the entry "eye movement desensitization". After revising the resulting 797 articles, those that because of their relevance explained best the development and evolution of the technique were chosen and shaped into a lifeline graphically representing the history of EMDR. Despite the fact that during the first years the focus of research was on the validation of the technique for post-traumatic disorder (PTSD, it was soon applied to other areas. Only 14% of the articles found account for controlled studies. Up to date, in spite of the effectiveness of EMDR for the treatment of PTSD that has been proven, many different explanatory hypotheses are still up for discussion.
Rayner, Keith; Li, Xingshan; Pollatsek, Alexander
Chinese readers' eye movements were simulated in the context of the E-Z Reader model, which was developed to account for the eye movements of readers of English. Despite obvious differences between English and Chinese, the model did a fairly good job of simulating the eye movements of Chinese readers. The successful simulation suggests that the…
Děchtěrenko, F.; Lukavský, Jiří
Roč. 42, Suppl (2013), s. 42-42 ISSN 0301-0066. [36th European Conference on Visual Perception. 25.08.2013.-29.08.2013, Brémy] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-28709S Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : eye movements * symmetry * consistency Subject RIV: AN - Psychology http://www.ecvp.uni-bremen.de/~ecvpprog/abstract164.html
Pinggera, Jakob; Furtner, Marco; Martini, Markus; Sachse, Pierre; Reiter, Katharina; Zugal, Stefan; Weber, Barbara
Research on quality issues of business process models has recently begun to explore the process of creating process models by analyzing the modeler's interactions with the modeling environment. In this paper we aim to complement previous insights on the modeler's modeling behavior with data gathered by tracking the modeler's eye movements when engaged in the act of modeling. We present preliminary results and outline directions for future research to triangulate toward a more comprehensive un...
Postle, Bradley R.; Idzikowski, Christopher; Sala, Sergio Della; Logie, Robert H.; Baddeley, Alan D.
In the late 1970s/early 1980s, Baddeley and colleagues conducted a series of experiments investigating the role of eye movements in visual working memory. Although only described briefly in a book (Baddeley, 1986), these studies have influenced a remarkable number of empirical and theoretical developments in fields ranging from experimental psychology to human neuropsychology to nonhuman primate electrophysiology. This paper presents, in full detail, three critical studies from this series, t...
Jennum, Poul; Mayer, Geert; Ju, Yo-El
Idiopathic rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (iRBD, RBD without any obvious comorbid major neurological disease), is strongly associated with numerous comorbid conditions. The most prominent is that with neurodegenerative disorders, especially synuclein-mediated disorders, above all...... function, neuropsychiatric manifestations and sleep complaints. Furthermore, patients with PD and RBD may have worse prognosis in terms of impaired cognitive function and overall morbidity/mortality; in dementia, the presence of RBD is strongly associated with clinical hallmarks and pathological findings...
Full Text Available We present four movies demonstrating the effect of flicker and blur on the magnitude and speed of adaptation for foveal and peripheral vision along the three color axes that isolate retinal ganglion cells projecting to magno, parvo, and konio layers of the LGN. The demonstrations support the eye movement hypothesis for Troxler fading for brightness and color, and demonstrate the effects of flicker and blur on adaptation of each class of retinal ganglion cells.
Plummer, Patrick; Perea, Manuel; Rayner, Keith
Recent research has shown contextual diversity (i.e., the number of passages in which a given word appears) to be a reliable predictor of word processing difficulty. It has also been demonstrated that word-frequency has little or no effect on word recognition speed when accounting for contextual diversity in isolated word processing tasks. An eye-movement experiment was conducted wherein the effects of word-frequency and contextual diversity were directly contrasted in a normal sentence readi...
Bae, Hwallip; Kim, Daeho; Park, Yong Chon
While cognitive behavior therapy is considered to be the first-line therapy for adolescent depression, there are limited data on whether other psychotherapeutic techniques are also effective in treating adolescents with depression. This report suggests the potential application of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) for treatment of depressive disorder related, not to trauma, but to stressful life events. At present, EMDR has only been empirically validated for only trauma-re...
Burke, MR; Allen, RJ; Gonzalez, C
© 2012 a Pion publication Recent behavioural and biological evidence indicates common mechanisms serving working memory and attention (e.g., Awh et al, 2006 Neuroscience 139 201-208). This study explored the role of spatial attention and visual search in an adapted Corsi spatial memory task. Eye movements and touch responses were recorded from participants who recalled locations (signalled by colour or shape change) from an array presented either simultaneously or sequentially. The time de...
Melanie Rose Burke; Richard Allen; Matilda Webster; Claudia Gonzalez
Recent behavioural and biological evidence indicates common mechanisms serving working memory and attention (eg, Awh et al 2006, Trends in Cognitive Sciences 10, 124–130). This study explored the role of spatial attention and visual search in an adapted Corsi spatial memory task. Eye movements and touch responses were recorded from participants who recalled locations (signalled by colour or shape change) from an array presented either simultaneously or sequentially. The time delay between tar...
Eichert, Nicole; Peeters, David; Hagoort, Peter
Predictive language processing is often studied by measuring eye movements as participants look at objects on a computer screen while they listen to spoken sentences. This variant of the visual-world paradigm has revealed that information encountered by a listener at a spoken verb can give rise to anticipatory eye movements to a target object, which is taken to indicate that people predict upcoming words. The ecological validity of such findings remains questionable, however, because these computer experiments used two-dimensional stimuli that were mere abstractions of real-world objects. Here we present a visual-world paradigm study in a three-dimensional (3-D) immersive virtual reality environment. Despite significant changes in the stimulus materials and the different mode of stimulus presentation, language-mediated anticipatory eye movements were still observed. These findings thus indicate that people do predict upcoming words during language comprehension in a more naturalistic setting where natural depth cues are preserved. Moreover, the results confirm the feasibility of using eyetracking in rich and multimodal 3-D virtual environments.
Cámara, Clara; de la Malla, Cristina; López-Moliner, Joan; Brenner, Eli
The increased reliance on electronic devices such as smartphones in our everyday life exposes us to various delays between our actions and their consequences. Whereas it is known that people can adapt to such delays, the mechanisms underlying such adaptation remain unclear. To better understand these mechanisms, the current study explored the role of eye movements in interception with delayed visual feedback. In two experiments, eye movements were recorded as participants tried to intercept a moving target with their unseen finger while receiving delayed visual feedback about their own movement. In Experiment 1, the target randomly moved in one of two different directions at one of two different velocities. The delay between the participant's finger movement and movement of the cursor that provided feedback about the finger movements was gradually increased. Despite the delay, participants followed the target with their gaze. They were quite successful at hitting the target with the cursor. Thus, they moved their finger to a position that was ahead of where they were looking. Removing the feedback showed that participants had adapted to the delay. In Experiment 2, the target always moved in the same direction and at the same velocity, while the cursor's delay varied across trials. Participants still always directed their gaze at the target. They adjusted their movement to the delay on each trial, often succeeding to intercept the target with the cursor. Since their gaze was always directed at the target, and they could not know the delay until the cursor started moving, participants must have been using peripheral vision of the delayed cursor to guide it to the target. Thus, people deal with delays by directing their gaze at the target and using both experience from previous trials (Experiment 1) and peripheral visual information (Experiment 2) to guide their finger in a way that will make the cursor hit the target.
Vargas-Martín, Fernando; Peli, Eli
To determine how severe peripheral field loss (PFL) affects the dispersion of eye movements relative to the head in patients walking in real environments. This information should help to define the visual field and clearance requirements for head-mounted mobility visual aids. Eye positions relative to the head were recorded in five patients with retinitis pigmentosa who had less than 15 degrees of visual field and in three normally sighted people, each walking in varied environments for more than 30 minutes. The eye-position recorder was made portable by modifying a head-mounted system (ISCAN, Burlington, MA). Custom data processing was implemented, to reject unreliable data. Sample standard deviations of eye position (dispersion) were compared across subject groups and environments. The patients with PFL exhibited narrower horizontal eye-position dispersions than did the normally sighted subjects (9.4 degrees vs. 14.2 degrees , P vision information. Their horizontal scanning was actually reduced, possibly because of lack of peripheral stimulation. The results suggest that a field of view as wide as 40 degrees may be needed for closed (immersive) head-mounted mobility aids, whereas a much narrower display, perhaps as narrow as 20 degrees , may be sufficient with an open design.
Arnulf, I.; Nielsen, J.; Lohmann, E.
and shortened rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and increased periodic leg movements. Three HD patients (12%) had REM sleep behavior disorders. No sleep abnormality correlated with CAG repeat length. Reduced REM sleep duration (but not REM sleep behavior disorders) was present in premanifest carriers and patients...... with very mild HD and worsened with disease severity. In contrast to narcoleptic patients, HD patients had no cataplexy, hypnagogic hallucinations, or sleep paralysis. Four HD patients had abnormally low (sleep latencies, but none had multiple sleep-onset REM periods. Conclusions......: The sleep phenotype of HD includes insomnia, advanced sleep phase, periodic leg movements, REM sleep behavior disorders, and reduced REM sleep but not narcolepsy. Reduced REM sleep may precede chorea. Mutant huntingtin may exert an effect on REM sleep and motor control during sleep Udgivelsesdato: 2008/4...
Full Text Available Eye tracking (ET is a technique that has been progressively employed to study the influence of visual stimuli on attentional processes and consumer behavior. The goals of the present theoretical article are fourfold and are based on an extensive literature revision. First, a brief historical review of ET methodology is introduced, presenting the evolution of ET techniques from the ancient proto-eye trackers to the “fresh” state-of-theart eye ET devices. Second, the basics of ET are clarified through a simplified technical and mathematical explanation. Third, the triad eye movement-attention-consumer behavior is made clear, grounded on attention, interest, desire, and action (AIDA theoretical model. Fourth, the most used oculometrics in marketing studies are explained and distinguished The present article addresses a number of technical and methodological issues by discussing challenges involved in ET systems and giving some guidelines for those who intend to apply ET to infer cognitive and emotional processes.
Hamish Gavin MacDougall
Full Text Available This paper is focussed on one major aspect of compensation: the recent behavioural findings concerning oculomotor responses in human vestibular compensation and their possible implications for recovery after unilateral vestibular loss (UVL. New measurement techniques have provided new insights into how patients recover after UVL and have given clues for vestibular rehabilitation. Prior to this it has not been possible to quantify the level of function of all the peripheral vestibular sense organs. Now it is. By using vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials to measure utricular and saccular function and by new video head impulse testing to measure semicircular canal function to natural values of head accelerations. With these new video procedures it is now possible to measure both slow phase eye velocity and also saccades during natural head movements. The present evidence is that there is little or no recovery of slow phase eye velocity responses to natural head accelerations. It is doubtful as to whether the modest changes in slow phase eye velocity to small angular accelerations are functionally effective during compensation. On the other hand it is now clear that saccades can play a very important role in helping patients compensate and return to a normal lifestyle. Preliminary evidence suggests that different patterns of saccadic response may predict how well patients recover. It may be possible to train patients to produce more effective saccadic patterns in the first days after their unilateral loss. Some patients do learn new strategies, new behaviours, to conceal their inadequate VOR but when those strategies are prevented from operating by using passive, unpredictable, high acceleration natural head movements, as in the head impulse test, their vestibular loss can be demonstrated. It is those very strategies which the tests exclude, which may be the cause of their successful compensation.
Smith, Daniel T; Casteau, Soazig
Salient peripheral events trigger fast, "exogenous" covert orienting. The influential premotor theory of attention argues that covert orienting of attention depends upon planned but unexecuted eye-movements. One problem with this theory is that salient peripheral events, such as offsets, appear to summon attention when used to measure covert attention (e.g., the Posner cueing task) but appear not to elicit oculomotor preparation in tasks that require overt orienting (e.g., the remote distractor paradigm). Here, we examined the effects of peripheral offsets on covert attention and saccade preparation. Experiment 1 suggested that transient offsets summoned attention in a manual detection task without triggering motor preparation planning in a saccadic localisation task, although there were a high proportion of saccadic capture errors on "no-target" trials, where a cue was presented but no target appeared. In Experiment 2, "no-target" trials were removed. Here, transient offsets produced both attentional facilitation and faster saccadic responses on valid cue trials. A third experiment showed that the permanent disappearance of an object also elicited attentional facilitation and faster saccadic reaction times. These experiments demonstrate that offsets trigger both saccade programming and covert attentional orienting, consistent with the idea that exogenous, covert orienting is tightly coupled with oculomotor activation. The finding that no-go trials attenuates oculomotor priming effects offers a way to reconcile the current findings with previous claims of a dissociation between covert attention and oculomotor control in paradigms that utilise a high proportion of catch trials.
The purpose of the work on this project was to provide support for ground-based studies on the effects of gravity on eye movements. The effects of microgravity on the optokinetic eye movements of humans are investigated. OKN was induced by having subjects watch 3.3 deg stripes moving at 35 deg/s for 45 s in a binocular, head-fixed apparatus. The field (hor., 88 deg; vert., 72 deg), was rotated about axes that were upright or tilted 45 deg or 90 deg. The head was upright or tilted 45 deg on the body. Head-horizontal (yaw axis) and head-vertical (pitch axis) components of OKN were recorded with electro-oculography (EOG). Slow phase velocity vectors were determined relative to gravity. With the head upright, the axis of eye rotation during yaw axis OKN was coincident with the stimulus axis and the spatial vertical. With the head tilted 45 deg on the body, a persistent vertical component of eye velocity developed during yaw axis stimulation, and there was an average shift of the axis of eye rotation toward the spatial vertical of approximately 18 deg in six subjects. During oblique optokinetic stimulation with the head upright, the axis of eye rotation shifted 12 deg toward the spatial vertical. When the head was tilted, the axis of eye rotation rotated to the other side of the spatial vertical by 5.4 deg during the same oblique stimulation. This counter-rotation of the axis of eye rotation is similar to the 'Muller (E) effect', in which the perception of the upright counter-rotates to the opposite side of the spatial vertical when subjects are tilted in darkness. The data were simulated by a model of OKN. Despite the short OKAN time constants, strong horizontal to vertical cross-coupling was produced if the horizontal and vertical time constants were in proper ratio, and there was no suppression of nystagmus orthogonal to the stimulus direction. This shows that the spatial orientation of OKN can be due to a restructuring of the system matrix of velocity storage as a
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A growing body of evidence suggests that meditative training enhances perception and cognition. In Japan, the Park-Sasaki method of speed-reading involves organized visual training while forming both a relaxed and concentrated state of mind, as in meditation. The present study examined relationships between reading speed, sentence comprehension, and eye movements while reading short Japanese novels. In addition to normal untrained readers, three middle-level trainees and one high-level expert on this method were included for the two case studies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In Study 1, three of 17 participants were middle-level trainees on the speed-reading method. Immediately after reading each story once on a computer monitor, participants answered true or false questions regarding the content of the novel. Eye movements while reading were recorded using an eye-tracking system. Results revealed higher reading speed and lower comprehension scores in the trainees than in the untrained participants. Furthermore, eye-tracking data by untrained participants revealed multiple correlations between reading speed, accuracy and eye-movement measures, with faster readers showing shorter fixation durations and larger saccades in X than slower readers. In Study 2, participants included a high-level expert and 14 untrained students. The expert showed higher reading speed and statistically comparable, although numerically lower, comprehension scores compared with the untrained participants. During test sessions this expert moved her eyes along a nearly straight horizontal line as a first pass, without moving her eyes over the whole sentence display as did the untrained students. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In addition to revealing correlations between speed, comprehension and eye movements in reading Japanese contemporary novels by untrained readers, we describe cases of speed-reading trainees regarding relationships between these variables
Nicholas Mansel Wilkinson
Full Text Available Visual scan paths exhibit complex, stochastic dynamics. Even during visual fixation, the eye is in constant motion. Fixational drift and tremor are thought to reflect fluctuations in the persistent neural activity of neural integrators in the oculomotor brainstem, which integrate sequences of transient saccadic velocity signals into a short term memory of eye position. Despite intensive research and much progress, the precise mechanisms by which oculomotor posture is maintained remain elusive. Drift exhibits a stochastic statistical profile which has been modelled using random walk formalisms. Tremor is widely dismissed as noise. Here we focus on the dynamical profile of fixational tremor, and argue that tremor may be a signal which usefully reflects the workings of the oculomotor postural control. We identify signatures reminiscent of a certain flavour of transient neurodynamics; toric travelling waves which rotate around a central phase singularity. Spiral waves play an organisational role in dynamical systems at many scales throughout nature, though their potential functional role in brain activity remains a matter of educated speculation. Spiral waves have a repertoire of functionally interesting dynamical properties, including persistence, which suggest that they could in theory contribute to persistent neural activity in the oculomotor postural control system. Whilst speculative, the singularity hypothesis of oculomotor postural control implies testable predictions, and could provide the beginnings of an integrated dynamical framework for eye movements across scales.
van der Steen, Johannes; Dits, Joyce
We investigated under what conditions humans can make independent slow phase eye movements. The ability to make independent movements of the two eyes generally is attributed to few specialized lateral eyed animal species, for example chameleons. In our study, we showed that humans also can move the eyes in different directions. To maintain binocular retinal correspondence independent slow phase movements of each eye are produced. We used the scleral search coil method to measure binocular eye movements in response to dichoptically viewed visual stimuli oscillating in orthogonal direction. Correlated stimuli led to orthogonal slow eye movements, while the binocularly perceived motion was the vector sum of the motion presented to each eye. The importance of binocular fusion on independency of the movements of the two eyes was investigated with anti-correlated stimuli. The perceived global motion pattern of anti-correlated dichoptic stimuli was perceived as an oblique oscillatory motion, as well as resulted in a conjugate oblique motion of the eyes. We propose that the ability to make independent slow phase eye movements in humans is used to maintain binocular retinal correspondence. Eye-of-origin and binocular information are used during the processing of binocular visual information, and it is decided at an early stage whether binocular or monocular motion information and independent slow phase eye movements of each eye are produced during binocular tracking.
Full Text Available Background: The decreased ability to carry out vertical saccades is a key symptom of Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP. Objective measurement devices can help to reliably detect subtle eye-movement disturbances to improve sensitivity and specificity of the clinical diagnosis. The present study aims at transferring findings from restricted stationary video-oculography to a wearable head-mounted device, which can be readily applied in clinical practice.Methods: We investigated the eye movements in 10 possible or probable PSP patients, 11 Parkinson’s disease (PD patients and 10 age-matched healthy controls (HC using a mobile, gaze-driven video camera setup (EyeSeeCam. Ocular movements were analyzed during a standardized fixation protocol and in an unrestricted real-life scenario while walking along a corridor.Results: The EyeSeeCam detected prominent impairment of both saccade velocity and amplitude in PSP patients, differentiating them from PD and HCs. Differences were particularly evident for saccades in the vertical plane, and stronger for saccades than for other eye movements. Differences were more pronounced during the standardized protocol than in the real-life scenario. Conclusions: Combined analysis of saccade velocity and saccade amplitude during the fixation protocol with the EyeSeeCam provides a simple, rapid (< 20s and reliable tool to differentiate clinically established PSP patients from PD and HCs. As such, our findings prepare the ground for using wearable eye-tracking in patients with uncertain diagnoses.
Zelinsky, Gregory J; Todor, Andrei
We hypothesize that our ability to track objects through occlusions is mediated by timely assistance from gaze in the form of "rescue saccades"-eye movements to tracked objects that are in danger of being lost due to impending occlusion. Observers tracked 2-4 target sharks (out of 9) for 20 s as they swam through a rendered 3D underwater scene. Targets were either allowed to enter into occlusions (occlusion trials) or not (no occlusion trials). Tracking accuracy with 2-3 targets was ≥ 92% regardless of target occlusion but dropped to 74% on occlusion trials with four targets (no occlusion trials remained accurate; 83%). This pattern was mirrored in the frequency of rescue saccades. Rescue saccades accompanied approximatlely 50% of the Track 2-3 target occlusions, but only 34% of the Track 4 occlusions. Their frequency also decreased with increasing distance between a target and the nearest other object, suggesting that it is the potential for target confusion that summons a rescue saccade, not occlusion itself. These findings provide evidence for a tracking system that monitors for events that might cause track loss (e.g., occlusions) and requests help from the oculomotor system to resolve these momentary crises. As the number of crises increase with the number of targets, some requests for help go unsatisfied, resulting in degraded tracking.
Knudsen, Stine; Gammeltoft, Steen; Jennum, Poul J
Rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder is characterized by dream-enacting behaviour and impaired motor inhibition during rapid eye movement sleep. Rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder is commonly associated with neurodegenerative disorders, but also reported in narcolepsy with cataplexy....... Most narcolepsy with cataplexy patients lack the sleep-wake, and rapid eye movement sleep, motor-regulating hypocretin neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. In contrast, rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder and hypocretin deficiency are rare in narcolepsy without cataplexy. We hypothesized...... that rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder coexists with cataplexy in narcolepsy due to hypocretin deficiency. In our study, rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder was diagnosed by the International Classification of Sleep Disorders (2nd edition) criteria in 63 narcolepsy patients with or without...
Full Text Available Electrooculography (EOG signal is widely and successfully used to detect activities of human eye. The advantages of the EOG-based interface over other conventional interfaces have been presented in the last two decades; however, due to a lot of information in EOG signals, the extraction of useful features should be done before the classification task. In this study, an efficient feature extracted from two directional EOG signals: vertical and horizontal signals has been presented and evaluated. There are the maximum peak and valley amplitude values, the maximum peak and valley position values, and slope, which are derived from both vertical and horizontal signals. In the experiments, EOG signals obtained from five healthy subjects with ten directional eye movements were employed: up, down, right, left, up-right, up-left, down-right down-left clockwise and counterclockwise. The mean feature values and their standard deviations have been reported. The difference between the mean values of the proposed feature from different eye movements can be clearly seen. Using the scatter plot, the differences in features can be also clearly observed. Results show that classification accuracy can approach 100% with a simple distinction feature rule. The proposed features can be useful for various advanced human-computer interface applications in future researches.
Lauren S Hopkins
Full Text Available The role of contingency awareness in simple associative learning experiments with human participants is currently debated. Since prior work suggests that eye movements can index mnemonic processes that occur without awareness, we used eye tracking to better understand the role of awareness in learning aversive Pavlovian conditioning. A complex real-world scene containing four embedded household items was presented to participants while skin conductance, eye movements, and pupil size were recorded. One item embedded in the scene served as the conditional stimulus (CS. One exemplar of that item (e.g. a white pot was paired with shock 100 percent of the time (CS+ while a second exemplar (e.g. a gray pot was never paired with shock (CS-. The remaining items were paired with shock on half of the trials. Participants rated their expectation of receiving a shock during each trial, and these expectancy ratings were used to identify when (i.e. on what trial each participant became aware of the programmed contingencies. Disproportionate viewing of the CS was found both before and after explicit contingency awareness, and patterns of viewing distinguished the CS+ from the CS-. These observations are consistent with "dual process" models of fear conditioning, as they indicate that learning can be expressed in patterns of viewing prior to explicit contingency awareness.
Burke, Melanie R; Allen, Richard J; Gonzalez, Claudia
Recent behavioural and biological evidence indicates common mechanisms serving working memory and attention (e.g., Awh et al, 2006 Neuroscience 139 201-208). This study explored the role of spatial attention and visual search in an adapted Corsi spatial memory task. Eye movements and touch responses were recorded from participants who recalled locations (signalled by colour or shape change) from an array presented either simultaneously or sequentially. The time delay between target presentation and recall (0, 5, or 10 s) and the number of locations to be remembered (2-5) were also manipulated. Analysis of the response phase revealed subjects were less accurate (touch data) and fixated longer (eye data) when responding to sequentially presented targets suggesting higher cognitive effort. Fixation duration on target at recall was also influenced by whether spatial location was initially signalled by colour or shape change. Finally, we found that the sequence tasks encouraged longer fixations on the signalled targets than simultaneous viewing during encoding, but no difference was observed during recall. We conclude that the attentional manipulations (colour/shape) mainly affected the eye movement parameters, whereas the memory manipulation (sequential versus simultaneous, number of items) mainly affected the performance of the hand during recall, and thus the latter is more important for ascertaining if an item is remembered or forgotten. In summary, the nature of the stimuli that is used and how it is presented play key roles in determining subject performance and behaviour during spatial memory tasks.
Clarke, Alasdair D F; Stainer, Matthew J; Tatler, Benjamin W; Hunt, Amelia R
Much effort has been made to explain eye guidance during natural scene viewing. However, a substantial component of fixation placement appears to be a set of consistent biases in eye movement behavior. We introduce the concept of saccadic flow, a generalization of the central bias that describes the image-independent conditional probability of making a saccade to (xi+1, yi+1), given a fixation at (xi, yi). We suggest that saccadic flow can be a useful prior when carrying out analyses of fixation locations, and can be used as a submodule in models of eye movements during scene viewing. We demonstrate the utility of this idea by presenting bias-weighted gaze landscapes, and show that there is a link between the likelihood of a saccade under the flow model, and the salience of the following fixation. We also present a minor improvement to our central bias model (based on using a multivariate truncated Gaussian), and investigate the leftwards and coarse-to-fine biases in scene viewing.
Spering, Miriam; Carrasco, Marisa
Visual perception and eye movements are considered to be tightly linked. Diverse fields, ranging from developmental psychology to computer science, utilize eye tracking to measure visual perception. However, this prevailing view has been challenged by recent behavioral studies. We review converging evidence revealing dissociations between the contents of perceptual awareness and different types of eye movements. Such dissociations reveal situations in which eye movements are sensitive to part...
Knox, Paul C; Wolohan, Felicity D A
A central claim of cultural neuroscience is that the culture to which an individual belongs plays a key role in shaping basic cognitive processes and behaviours, including eye movement behaviour. We previously reported a robust difference in saccade behaviour between Chinese and Caucasian participants; Chinese participants are much more likely to execute low latency express saccades, in circumstances in which these are normally discouraged. To assess the extent to which this is the product of culture we compared a group of 70 Chinese overseas students (whose primary cultural exposure was that of mainland China), a group of 45 participants whose parents were Chinese but who themselves were brought up in the UK (whose primary cultural exposure was western European) and a group of 70 Caucasian participants. Results from the Schwartz Value Survey confirmed that the UK-Chinese group were culturally similar to the Caucasian group. However, their patterns of saccade latency were identical to the mainland Chinese group, and different to the Caucasian group. We conclude that at least for the relatively simple reflexive saccade behaviour we have investigated, culture cannot explain the observed differences in behaviour.
Spering, Miriam; Kerzel, Dirk; Braun, Doris I; Hawken, Michael J; Gegenfurtner, Karl R
It is well known that moving stimuli can appear to move more slowly when contrast is reduced (P. Thompson, 1982). Here we address the question whether changes in stimulus contrast also affect smooth pursuit eye movements. Subjects were asked to smoothly track a moving Gabor patch. Targets varied in velocity (1, 8, and 15 deg/s), spatial frequency (0.1, 1, 4, and 8 c/deg), and contrast, ranging from just below individual thresholds to maximum contrast. Results show that smooth pursuit eye velocity gain rose significantly with increasing contrast. Below a contrast level of two to three times threshold, pursuit gain, acceleration, latency, and positional accuracy were severely impaired. Therefore, the smooth pursuit motor response shows the same kind of slowing at low contrast that was demonstrated in previous studies on perception.
POSMONTIER, BOBBIE; DOVYDAITIS, TIFFANY; LIPMAN, KENNETH
Sexual violence, which affects one in three women worldwide, can result in significant psychiatric morbidity and suicide. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) offers health care providers the option of a brief psychiatric intervention that can result in psychiatric healing in as few as four sessions. Because health care providers often hear stories of sexual violence from their patients, they are in an ideal position to make recommendations for treatment. The purpose of this article is to introduce health care providers to the technique of EMDR, review safety and appropriateness, and discuss clinical and research implications. PMID:20623397
van Asselen, Marieke; Sampaio, Joana; Pina, Ana; Castelo-Branco, Miguel
Implicit contextual cueing refers to a top-down mechanism in which visual search is facilitated by learned contextual features. In the current study we aimed to investigate the mechanism underlying implicit contextual learning using object information as a contextual cue. Therefore, we measured eye movements during an object-based contextual cueing task. We demonstrated that visual search is facilitated by repeated object information and that this reduction in response times is associated with shorter fixation durations. This indicates that by memorizing associations between objects in our environment we can recognize objects faster, thereby facilitating visual search.
Haraldsson, H.M.; Ettinger, U.; Magnusdottir, B.B.
Neuregulin-1 (NRG-1) is a putative susceptibility gene for schizophrenia but the neurocognitive processes that may involve NRG-1 in schizophrenia are unknown. Deficits in antisaccade (AS) and smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEM) are promising endophenotypes, which may be associated with brain...... dysfunctions underlying the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations of NRG-1 genotypes with AS and SPEM in schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. Patients (N = 113) and controls (N = 106) were genotyped for two NRG-1 single nucleotide polymorphisms...... findings of impaired AS and SPEM performance in schizophrenia patients (all P
Joshua, Mati; Lisberger, Stephen G.
Reward has a powerful influence on motor behavior. To probe how and where reward systems alter motor behavior, we studied smooth pursuit eye movements in monkeys trained to associate the color of a visual cue with the size of the reward to be issued at the end of the target motion. When the tracking task presented two different colored targets that moved orthogonally, monkeys biased the initiation of pursuit towards the direction of motion of the target that led to larger reward. The bias was...
Jennum, Poul Jørgen; Frandsen, Rune Asger Vestergaard; Knudsen, Stine
Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is characterized by dream-enacting behavior and impaired motor inhibition during REM sleep (REM sleep without atonia, RSWA). RBD is commonly associated with Parkinsonian disorders, but is also reported in narcolepsy. Most patients...... of hypocretin deﬁciency. Thus, hypocretin deﬁciency is linked to the two major disturbances of REM sleep motor regulation in narcolepsy: RBD and cataplexy. Moreover, it is likely that hypocretin deﬁciency independently predicts periodic limb movements in REM and NREM sleep, probably via involvement...... of the dopaminergic system. This supports the hypothesis that an impaired hypocretin system causes general instability of motor regulation during wakefulness, REM and NREM sleep in human narcolepsy. We propose that hypocretin neurons are centrally involved in motor tone control during wakefulness and sleep in humans...
Vibrations, movements, strains - nothing escapes the eagle eyes of CERN's Mechanical Measurements Laboratory, which helps groups needing mechanical testing and delicate transport operations. Graphical representation of the natural mode shape of one of the end-caps of the ATLAS inner detector, determined through experimentation.After installation of sensors on one of the end-caps of the ATLAS inner detector, CERN's Mechanical Measurements team performs remote checks to ensure the sensors are working properly before transport. They are on the look-out for anything that moves, shakes or changes shape. The slightest movement, however minute, will attract their attention. The Mechanical Measurements team, which is part of the Installation Coordination Group (TS-IC), specialises in all kinds of vibration studies, for design projects as well as for the transport of fragile objects. The Mechanical Measurements Laboratory was created in 1973 and, after a lull at the end of the century, was given a new lease of life ...
Hermann, R; Pelisson, D; Dumas, O; Urquizar, Ch; Truy, E; Tilikete, C
The vestibulo-ocular reflex maintains gaze stabilization during angular or linear head accelerations, allowing adequate dynamic visual acuity. In case of bilateral vestibular hypofunction, patients use saccades to compensate for the reduced vestibulo-ocular reflex function, with covert saccades occurring even during the head displacement. In this study, we questioned whether covert saccades help maintain dynamic visual acuity, and evaluated which characteristic of these saccades are the most relevant to improve visual function. We prospectively included 18 patients with chronic bilateral vestibular hypofunction. Subjects underwent evaluation of dynamic visual acuity in the horizontal plane as well as video recording of their head and eye positions during horizontal head impulse tests in both directions (36 ears tested). Frequency, latency, consistency of covert saccade initiation, and gain of covert saccades as well as residual vestibulo-ocular reflex gain were calculated. We found no correlation between residual vestibulo-ocular reflex gain and dynamic visual acuity. Dynamic visual acuity performance was however positively correlated with the frequency and gain of covert saccades and negatively correlated with covert saccade latency. There was no correlation between consistency of covert saccade initiation and dynamic visual acuity. Even though gaze stabilization in space during covert saccades might be of very short duration, these refixation saccades seem to improve vision in patients with bilateral vestibular hypofunction during angular head impulses. These findings emphasize the need for specific rehabilitation technics that favor the triggering of covert saccades. The physiological origin of covert saccades is discussed.
Eye movements change the retinal image motion of objects in the visual field. When we make an eye movement, the image of a stationary object will move across the retinae, while the retinal image of an object that we follow with the eyes is approximately stationary. To enable us to perceive motion in
J. van der Steen (Hans); J. Dits (Joyce)
textabstractPURPOSE. We investigated under what conditions humans can make independent slow phase eye movements. The ability to make independent movements of the two eyes generally is attributed to few specialized lateral eyed animal species, for example chameleons. In our study, we showed that
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The initiation of memory guided saccades is known to be controlled by the frontal eye field (FEF. Recent physiological studies showed the existence of an area close to FEF that controls also vergence initiation and execution. This study is to explore the effect of transcranial magnetic simulation (TMS over FEF on the control of memory-guided saccade-vergence eye movements. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Subjects had to make an eye movement in dark towards a target flashed 1 sec earlier (memory delay; the location of the target relative to fixation point was such as to require either a vergence along the median plane, or a saccade, or a saccade with vergence; trials were interleaved. Single pulse TMS was applied on the left or right FEF; it was delivered at 100 ms after the end of memory delay, i.e. extinction of fixation LED that was the "go" signal. Twelve healthy subjects participated in the study. TMS of left or right FEF prolonged the latency of all types of eye movements; the increase varied from 21 to 56 ms and was particularly strong for the divergence movements. This indicates that FEF is involved in the initiation of all types of memory guided movement in the 3D space. TMS of the FEF also altered the accuracy but only for leftward saccades combined with either convergence or divergence; intrasaccadic vergence also increased after TMS of the FEF. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results suggest anisotropy in the quality of space memory and are discussed in the context of other known perceptual motor anisotropies.
Liversedge, Simon P; Drieghe, Denis; Li, Xin; Yan, Guoli; Bai, Xuejun; Hyönä, Jukka
Universality in language has been a core issue in the fields of linguistics and psycholinguistics for many years (e.g., Chomsky, 1965). Recently, Frost (2012) has argued that establishing universals of process is critical to the development of meaningful, theoretically motivated, cross-linguistic models of reading. In contrast, other researchers argue that there is no such thing as universals of reading (e.g., Coltheart & Crain, 2012). Reading is a complex, visually mediated psychological process, and eye movements are the behavioural means by which we encode the visual information required for linguistic processing. To investigate universality of representation and process across languages we examined eye movement behaviour during reading of very comparable stimuli in three languages, Chinese, English and Finnish. These languages differ in numerous respects (character based vs. alphabetic, visual density, informational density, word spacing, orthographic depth, agglutination, etc.). We used linear mixed modelling techniques to identify variables that captured common variance across languages. Despite fundamental visual and linguistic differences in the orthographies, statistical models of reading behaviour were strikingly similar in a number of respects, and thus, we argue that their composition might reflect universality of representation and process in reading. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Laura F. Mega
Full Text Available Non-verbal signals such as facial expressions are of paramount importance for social encounters. Their perception predominantly occurs without conscious awareness and is effortlessly integrated into social interactions. In other words, face perception is intuitive. Contrary to classical intuition tasks, this work investigates intuitive processes in the realm of every-day type social judgments. Two differently instructed groups of participants judged the authenticity of emotional facial expressions, while their eye movements were recorded: an ‘intuitive group,’ instructed to rely on their “gut feeling” for the authenticity judgments, and a ‘deliberative group,’ instructed to make their judgments after careful analysis of the face. Pixel-wise statistical maps of the resulting eye movements revealed a differential viewing pattern, wherein the intuitive judgments relied on fewer, longer and more centrally located fixations. These markers have been associated with a global/holistic viewing strategy. The holistic pattern of intuitive face judgments is in line with evidence showing that intuition is related to processing the “gestalt” of an object, rather than focusing on details. Our work thereby provides further evidence that intuitive processes are characterized by holistic perception, in an understudied and real world domain of intuition research.
Mega, Laura F; Volz, Kirsten G
Non-verbal signals such as facial expressions are of paramount importance for social encounters. Their perception predominantly occurs without conscious awareness and is effortlessly integrated into social interactions. In other words, face perception is intuitive. Contrary to classical intuition tasks, this work investigates intuitive processes in the realm of every-day type social judgments. Two differently instructed groups of participants judged the authenticity of emotional facial expressions, while their eye movements were recorded: an 'intuitive group,' instructed to rely on their "gut feeling" for the authenticity judgments, and a 'deliberative group,' instructed to make their judgments after careful analysis of the face. Pixel-wise statistical maps of the resulting eye movements revealed a differential viewing pattern, wherein the intuitive judgments relied on fewer, longer and more centrally located fixations. These markers have been associated with a global/holistic viewing strategy. The holistic pattern of intuitive face judgments is in line with evidence showing that intuition is related to processing the "gestalt" of an object, rather than focusing on details. Our work thereby provides further evidence that intuitive processes are characterized by holistic perception, in an understudied and real world domain of intuition research.
Perea, Manuel; Marcet, Ana; Uixera, Beatriz; Vergara-Martínez, Marta
The examination of how we read handwritten words (i.e., the original form of writing) has typically been disregarded in the literature on reading. Previous research using word recognition tasks has shown that lexical effects (e.g., the word-frequency effect) are magnified when reading difficult handwritten words. To examine this issue in a more ecological scenario, we registered the participants' eye movements when reading handwritten sentences that varied in the degree of legibility (i.e., sentences composed of words in easy vs. difficult handwritten style). For comparison purposes, we included a condition with printed sentences. Results showed a larger reading cost for sentences with difficult handwritten words than for sentences with easy handwritten words, which in turn showed a reading cost relative to the sentences with printed words. Critically, the effect of word frequency was greater for difficult handwritten words than for easy handwritten words or printed words in the total times on a target word, but not on first-fixation durations or gaze durations. We examine the implications of these findings for models of eye movement control in reading.
Debono, Kurt; Schütz, Alexander C; Spering, Miriam; Gegenfurtner, Karl R
Humans use smooth pursuit eye movements to track moving objects of interest. In order to track an object accurately, motion signals from the target have to be integrated and segmented from motion signals in the visual context. Most studies on pursuit eye movements used small visual targets against a featureless background, disregarding the requirements of our natural visual environment. Here, we tested the ability of the pursuit and the perceptual system to integrate motion signals across larger areas of the visual field. Stimuli were random-dot kinematograms containing a horizontal motion signal, which was perturbed by a spatially localized, peripheral motion signal. Perturbations appeared in a gaze-contingent coordinate system and had a different direction than the main motion including a vertical component. We measured pursuit and perceptual direction discrimination decisions and found that both steady-state pursuit and perception were influenced most by perturbation angles close to that of the main motion signal and only in regions close to the center of gaze. The narrow direction bandwidth (26 angular degrees full width at half height) and small spatial extent (8 degrees of visual angle standard deviation) correspond closely to tuning parameters of neurons in the middle temporal area (MT). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Spering, Miriam; Dias, Elisa C; Sanchez, Jamie L; Schütz, Alexander C; Javitt, Daniel C
Abnormal smooth pursuit eye movements in patients with schizophrenia are often considered a consequence of impaired motion perception. Here we used a novel motion prediction task to assess the effects of abnormal pursuit on perception in human patients. Schizophrenia patients (n = 15) and healthy controls (n = 16) judged whether a briefly presented moving target ("ball") would hit/miss a stationary vertical line segment ("goal"). To relate prediction performance and pursuit directly, we manipulated eye movements: in half of the trials, observers smoothly tracked the ball; in the other half, they fixated on the goal. Strict quality criteria ensured that pursuit was initiated and that fixation was maintained. Controls were significantly better in trajectory prediction during pursuit than during fixation, their performance increased with presentation duration, and their pursuit gain and perceptual judgments were correlated. Such perceptual benefits during pursuit may be due to the use of extraretinal motion information estimated from an efference copy signal. With an overall lower performance in pursuit and perception, patients showed no such pursuit advantage and no correlation between pursuit gain and perception. Although patients' pursuit showed normal improvement with longer duration, their prediction performance failed to benefit from duration increases. This dissociation indicates relatively intact early visual motion processing, but a failure to use efference copy information. Impaired efference function in the sensory system may represent a general deficit in schizophrenia and thus contribute to symptoms and functional outcome impairments associated with the disorder.
De Cock, Valérie Cochen; Debs, Rachel; Oudiette, Delphine; Leu, Smaranda; Radji, Fatai; Tiberge, Michel; Yu, Huan; Bayard, Sophie; Roze, Emmanuel; Vidailhet, Marie; Dauvilliers, Yves; Rascol, Olivier; Arnulf, Isabelle
Multiple system atrophy is an atypical parkinsonism characterized by severe motor disabilities that are poorly levodopa responsive. Most patients develop rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. Because parkinsonism is absent during rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder in patients with Parkinson's disease, we studied the movements of patients with multiple system atrophy during rapid eye movement sleep. Forty-nine non-demented patients with multiple system atrophy and 49 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease were interviewed along with their 98 bed partners using a structured questionnaire. They rated the quality of movements, vocal and facial expressions during rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder as better than, equal to or worse than the same activities in an awake state. Sleep and movements were monitored using video-polysomnography in 22/49 patients with multiple system atrophy and in 19/49 patients with Parkinson's disease. These recordings were analysed for the presence of parkinsonism and cerebellar syndrome during rapid eye movement sleep movements. Clinical rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder was observed in 43/49 (88%) patients with multiple system atrophy. Reports from the 31/43 bed partners who were able to evaluate movements during sleep indicate that 81% of the patients showed some form of improvement during rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. These included improved movement (73% of patients: faster, 67%; stronger, 52%; and smoother, 26%), improved speech (59% of patients: louder, 55%; more intelligible, 17%; and better articulated, 36%) and normalized facial expression (50% of patients). The rate of improvement was higher in Parkinson's disease than in multiple system atrophy, but no further difference was observed between the two forms of multiple system atrophy (predominant parkinsonism versus cerebellar syndrome). Video-monitored movements during rapid eye movement sleep in patients with multiple system
Ha, Jun Su; Seong, Poong Hyun
Correct situation awareness (SA) has been considered a crucial key to improving performance and reducing error in NPPs. There are a lot of information sources that should be monitored in nuclear power plants (NPPs), but operators have only limited capacity of attention and memory. Operators in NPPs selectively attend to important information sources to effectively develop SA when an abnormal or accidental situation occurs. Selective attention to important information sources is continued while maintaining SA as well. The authors have developed measures of attentional resource effectiveness in information searching such as FIR (Fixation to Importance Ratio) and SAE (Selective Attention Effectiveness) which represent how effectively an operator attends to important information sources. The FIR is the ratio of attentional resources (i.e. the number and the duration of eye fixations) spent on an information source to the importance of the information source as follows: Theoretically, the SAE should approach to zero for the best effectiveness. The underlying principle of the measures is that information sources should be selectively attended to according to their informational importance. The importance of information sources depends on the state of a NPP. For example, the importance of the pressurizer level for loss of coolant accident (LOCA) is different from that for steam line break (SLB). Hence, sets of importance for information sources should be evaluated for all possible events. The FIR and the SAE have also been used as performance measures in a HMI evaluation method named 'DEMIS (Difficulty Evaluation Method in Information Searching). In this study, Operator's thought is inferred with the eye movement data during complex diagnostic tasks in NPPs. SAEs are calculated with the eye movement data for all possible events (e.g., accident, incident, or transient) in NPPs. Inference of operator thought is made by analyzing the calculated SAEs. Theoretically, the event
Mayer, Geert; Bitterlich, Marion; Kuwert, Torsten; Ritt, Philipp; Stefan, Hermann
Rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder is a rapid eye movement parasomnia clinically characterized by acting out dreams due to disinhibition of muscle tone in rapid eye movement sleep. Up to 80-90% of the patients with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder develop neurodegenerative disorders within 10-15 years after symptom onset. The disorder is reported in 45-60% of all narcoleptic patients. Whether rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder is also a predictor for neurodegeneration in narcolepsy is not known. Although the pathophysiology causing the disinhibition of muscle tone in rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder has been studied extensively in animals, little is known about the mechanisms in humans. Most of the human data are from imaging or post-mortem studies. Recent studies show altered functional connectivity between substantia nigra and striatum in patients with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. We were interested to study which regions are activated in rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder during actual episodes by performing ictal single photon emission tomography. We studied one patient with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, one with Parkinson's disease and rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, and two patients with narcolepsy and rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. All patients underwent extended video polysomnography. The tracer was injected after at least 10 s of consecutive rapid eye movement sleep and 10 s of disinhibited muscle tone accompanied by movements registered by an experienced sleep technician. Ictal single photon emission tomography displayed the same activation in the bilateral premotor areas, the interhemispheric cleft, the periaqueductal area, the dorsal and ventral pons and the anterior lobe of the cerebellum in all patients. Our study shows that in patients with Parkinson's disease and rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder-in contrast to wakefulness
Fooken, Jolande; Lalonde, Kathryn M; Mann, Gurkiran K; Spering, Miriam
Eye and hand movements are closely linked when performing everyday actions. We conducted a perceptual-motor training study to investigate mutually beneficial effects of eye and hand movements, asking whether training in one modality benefits performance in the other. Observers had to predict the future trajectory of a briefly presented moving object, and intercept it at its assumed location as accurately as possible with their finger. Eye and hand movements were recorded simultaneously. Different training protocols either included eye movements or a combination of eye and hand movements with or without external performance feedback. Eye movement training did not transfer across modalities: Irrespective of feedback, finger interception accuracy and precision improved after training that involved the hand, but not after isolated eye movement training. Conversely, eye movements benefited from hand movement training or when external performance feedback was given, thus improving only when an active interceptive task component was involved. These findings indicate only limited transfer across modalities. However, they reveal the importance of creating a training task with an active sensorimotor decision to improve the accuracy and precision of eye and hand movements.
Eric O. Boyer
Full Text Available As eye movements are mostly automatic and overtly generated to attain visual goals, individuals have a poor metacognitive knowledge of their own eye movements. We present an exploratory study on the effects of real-time continuous auditory feedback generated by eye movements. We considered both a tracking task and a production task where smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEM can be endogenously generated. In particular, we used a visual paradigm which enables to generate and control SPEM in the absence of a moving visual target. We investigated whether real-time auditory feedback of eye movement dynamics might improve learning in both tasks, through a training protocol over 8 days. The results indicate that real-time sonification of eye movements can actually modify the oculomotor behavior, and reinforce intrinsic oculomotor perception. Nevertheless, large inter-individual differences were observed preventing us from reaching a strong conclusion on sensorimotor learning improvements.
Eye movements are now widely used to investigate cognitive processes during reading, scene perception, and visual search. In this article, research on the following topics is reviewed with respect to reading: (a) the perceptual span (or span of effective vision), (b) preview benefit, (c) eye movement control, and (d) models of eye movements. Related issues with respect to eye movements during scene perception and visual search are also reviewed. It is argued that research on eye movements during reading has been somewhat advanced over research on eye movements in scene perception and visual search and that some of the paradigms developed to study reading should be more widely adopted in the study of scene perception and visual search. Research dealing with "real-world" tasks and research utilizing the visual-world paradigm are also briefly discussed.
Knudsen, Stine; Gammeltoft, Steen; Jennum, Poul J
variables were analysed in relation to cataplexy and hypocretin deficiency with uni- and multivariate logistic/linear regression models, controlling for possible rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder biasing factors (age, gender, disease duration, previous anti-cataplexy medication). Only hypocretin......Rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder is characterized by dream-enacting behaviour and impaired motor inhibition during rapid eye movement sleep. Rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder is commonly associated with neurodegenerative disorders, but also reported in narcolepsy with cataplexy....... Most narcolepsy with cataplexy patients lack the sleep-wake, and rapid eye movement sleep, motor-regulating hypocretin neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. In contrast, rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder and hypocretin deficiency are rare in narcolepsy without cataplexy. We hypothesized...
Dai, Weiwei; Selesnick, Ivan; Rizzo, John-Ross; Rucker, Janet; Hudson, Todd
The Savitzky-Golay (SG) filter is widely used to smooth and differentiate time series, especially biomedical data. However, time series that exhibit abrupt departures from their typical trends, such as sharp waves or steps, which are of physiological interest, tend to be oversmoothed by the SG filter. Hence, the SG filter tends to systematically underestimate physiological parameters in certain situations. This article proposes a generalization of the SG filter to more accurately track abrupt deviations in time series, leading to more accurate parameter estimates (e.g., peak velocity of saccadic eye movements). The proposed filtering methodology models a time series as the sum of two component time series: a low-frequency time series for which the conventional SG filter is well suited, and a second time series that exhibits instantaneous deviations (e.g., sharp waves, steps, or more generally, discontinuities in a higher order derivative). The generalized SG filter is then applied to the quantitative analysis of saccadic eye movements. It is demonstrated that (a) the conventional SG filter underestimates the peak velocity of saccades, especially those of small amplitude, and (b) the generalized SG filter estimates peak saccadic velocity more accurately than the conventional filter.
Carniglia, Elena; Caputi, Marcella; Manfredi, Valentina; Zambarbieri, Daniela; Pessa, Eliano
In picture viewing, emotional vs. neutral stimuli could play a different role in eye movement parameters and in the spatial progression of the scanpath. The aim of this paper is to investigate exploratory behaviour of normal subjects during the vision of emotional vs. non-emotional stimuli, by considering to what extent the thematic content (animate vs. inanimate) is likely to influence the observer’s eye movements. Sixty-five subjects’ eye movement patterns were measured while looking to emo...
Ischebeck, B.; Vries, Jurryt; Geest, Jos; Janssen, Malou; Wingerden, Jan-Paul; Kleinrensink, Gert Jan; Frens, Maarten
textabstractBackground: Many people with Whiplash Associated Disorders (WAD) report problems with vision, some of which may be due to impaired eye movements. Better understanding of such impaired eye movements could improve diagnostics and treatment strategies. This systematic review surveys the current evidence on changes in eye movements of patients with WAD and explains how the oculomotor system is tested. Methods: Nine electronic data bases were searched for relevant articles from incepti...
Ferreira, Marisa; Pereira, Paulo A; Parreira, Marta; Sousa, Inês; Figueiredo, José; Cerqueira, João J; Macedo, Antonio F
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is likely to cause dysfunction of neural circuits between brain regions increasing brain working load or a subjective overestimation of such working load leading to fatigue symptoms. The aim of this study was to investigate if saccades can reveal the effect of fatigue in patients with MS. Patients diagnosed with MS (EDSSendogenous generated saccade paradigm (valid and invalid trials). The fatigue severity scale (FSS) was used to assess the severity of fatigue. FSS scores were used to define two subgroups, the MS fatigue group (score above normal range) and the MS non-fatigue. Differences between groups were tested using linear mixed models. Thirty-one MS patients and equal number of controls participated in this study. FSS scores were above the normal range in 11 patients. Differences in saccade latency were found according to group (p<0.001) and trial validity (p=0.023). Differences were 16.9ms, between MS fatigue and MS non-fatigue, 15.5ms between MS fatigue and control. The mean difference between valid and invalid trials was 7.5ms. Differences in saccade peak velocity were found according to group (p<0.001), the difference between MS fatigue and control was 22.3°/s and between MS fatigue and non-fatigue was 12.3°/s. Group was a statistically significant predictor for amplitude (p<0.001). FSS scores were correlated with peak velocity (p=0.028) and amplitude (p=0.019). Consistent with the initial hypothesis, our study revealed altered saccade latency, peak velocity and amplitude in patients with fatigue symptoms. Eye movement testing can complement the standard inventories when investigating fatigue because they do not share similar limitations. Our findings contribute to the understanding of functional changes induced by MS and might be useful for clinical trials and treatment decisions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Spering, Miriam; Schütz, Alexander C; Braun, Doris I; Gegenfurtner, Karl R
Success of motor behavior often depends on the ability to predict the path of moving objects. Here we asked whether tracking a visual object with smooth pursuit eye movements helps to predict its motion direction. We developed a paradigm, "eye soccer," in which observers had to either track or fixate a visual target (ball) and judge whether it would have hit or missed a stationary vertical line segment (goal). Ball and goal were presented briefly for 100-500 ms and disappeared from the screen together before the perceptual judgment was prompted. In pursuit conditions, the ball moved towards the goal; in fixation conditions, the goal moved towards the stationary ball, resulting in similar retinal stimulation during pursuit and fixation. We also tested the condition in which the goal was fixated and the ball moved. Motion direction prediction was significantly better in pursuit than in fixation trials, regardless of whether ball or goal served as fixation target. In both fixation and pursuit trials, prediction performance was better when eye movements were accurate. Performance also increased with shorter ball-goal distance and longer presentation duration. A longer trajectory did not affect performance. During pursuit, an efference copy signal might provide additional motion information, leading to the advantage in motion prediction.
Full Text Available Purpose: This pilot study sought to determine the efficacy of using the Developmental Eye Movement (DEM test in the adult, acquired brain injury (ABI population to quantify clinically the effects of controlled, laboratory-performed, oculomotor-based vision therapy/vision rehabilitation. Methods: Nine adult subjects with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI and five with stroke were assessed before and after an eight-week, computer-based, versional oculomotor (fixation, saccades, pursuit, and simulated reading training program (9.6 h total. The protocol incorporated a cross-over, interventional design with and without the addition of auditory feedback regarding two-dimensional eye position. The clinical outcome measure was the Developmental Eye Movement (DEM test score (ratio, errors taken before, midway, and immediately following training. Results: For the DEM ratio parameter, improvements were found in 80–89% of the subjects. For the DEM error parameter, improvements were found in 100% of the subjects. Incorporation of the auditory feedback component revealed a trend toward enhanced performance. The findings were similar for both DEM parameters, as well as for incorporation of the auditory feedback, in both diagnostic groups. Discussion: The results of the present study demonstrated considerable improvements in the DEM test scores following the oculomotor-based training, thus reflecting more time-optimal and accurate saccadic tracking after the training. The DEM test should be considered as another clinical test of global saccadic tracking performance in the ABI population. Resumen: Objetivo: Este estudio piloto trató de determinar la eficacia del uso de la prueba DEM (Developmental Eye Movement en la población adulta con daño cerebral adquirido (DCA para cuantificar clínicamente los efectos de la rehabilitación/terapia visual controlada, realizada en laboratorio, y de carácter oculomotor. Métodos: Se valoraron nueve sujetos adultos con
Francuz, Piotr; Zaniewski, Iwo; Augustynowicz, Paweł; Kopiś, Natalia; Jankowski, Tomasz
The aim of this study was to search for oculomotor correlates of expertise in visual arts, in particular with regard to paintings. Achieving this goal was possible by gathering data on eye movements of two groups of participants: experts and non-experts in visual arts who viewed and appreciated the aesthetics of paintings. In particular, we were interested in whether visual arts experts more accurately recognize a balanced composition in one of the two paintings being compared simultaneously, and whether people who correctly recognize harmonious paintings are characterized by a different visual scanning strategy than those who do not recognize them. For the purposes of this study, 25 paintings with an almost ideal balanced composition have been chosen. Some of these paintings are masterpieces of the world cultural heritage, and some of them are unknown. Using Photoshop, the artist developed three additional versions of each of these paintings, differing from the original in the degree of destruction of its harmonious composition: slight, moderate, or significant. The task of the participants was to look at all versions of the same painting in pairs (including the original) and decide which of them looked more pleasing. The study involved 23 experts in art, students of art history, art education or the Academy of Fine Arts, and 19 non-experts, students in the social sciences and the humanities. The experimental manipulation of comparing pairs of paintings, whose composition is at different levels of harmony, has proved to be an effective tool for differentiating people because of their ability to distinguish paintings with balanced composition from an unbalanced one. It turned out that this ability only partly coincides with expertise understood as the effect of education in the field of visual arts. We also found that the eye movements of people who more accurately appreciated paintings with balanced composition differ from those who more liked their altered
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to search for oculomotor correlates of expertise in visual arts, in particular with regard to paintings. Achieving this goal was possible by gathering data on eye movements of two groups of participants: experts and non-experts in visual arts who viewed and appreciated the aesthetics of paintings. In particular, we were interested in whether visual arts experts more accurately recognize a balanced composition in one of the two paintings being compared simultaneously, and whether people who correctly recognize harmonious paintings are characterized by a different visual scanning strategy than those who do not recognize them. For the purposes of this study, 25 paintings with an almost ideal balanced composition have been chosen. Some of these paintings are masterpieces of the world cultural heritage, and some of them are unknown. Using Photoshop, the artist developed three additional versions of each of these paintings, differing from the original in the degree of destruction of its harmonious composition: slight, moderate, or significant. The task of the participants was to look at all versions of the same painting in pairs (including the original and decide which of them looked more pleasing. The study involved 23 experts in art, students of art history, art education or the Academy of Fine Arts, and 19 non-experts, students in the social sciences and the humanities. The experimental manipulation of comparing pairs of paintings, whose composition is at different levels of harmony, has proved to be an effective tool for differentiating people because of their ability to distinguish paintings with balanced composition from an unbalanced one. It turned out that this ability only partly coincides with expertise understood as the effect of education in the field of visual arts. We also found that the eye movements of people who more accurately appreciated paintings with balanced composition differ from those who more liked
Samadani, Uzma; Ritlop, Robert; Reyes, Marleen; Nehrbass, Elena; Li, Meng; Lamm, Elizabeth; Schneider, Julia; Shimunov, David; Sava, Maria; Kolecki, Radek; Burris, Paige; Altomare, Lindsey; Mehmood, Talha; Smith, Theodore; Huang, Jason H; McStay, Christopher; Todd, S Rob; Qian, Meng; Kondziolka, Douglas; Wall, Stephen; Huang, Paul
Disconjugate eye movements have been associated with traumatic brain injury since ancient times. Ocular motility dysfunction may be present in up to 90% of patients with concussion or blast injury. We developed an algorithm for eye tracking in which the Cartesian coordinates of the right and left pupils are tracked over 200 sec and compared to each other as a subject watches a short film clip moving inside an aperture on a computer screen. We prospectively eye tracked 64 normal healthy noninjured control subjects and compared findings to 75 trauma subjects with either a positive head computed tomography (CT) scan (n=13), negative head CT (n=39), or nonhead injury (n=23) to determine whether eye tracking would reveal the disconjugate gaze associated with both structural brain injury and concussion. Tracking metrics were then correlated to the clinical concussion measure Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 3 (SCAT3) in trauma patients. Five out of five measures of horizontal disconjugacy were increased in positive and negative head CT patients relative to noninjured control subjects. Only one of five vertical disconjugacy measures was significantly increased in brain-injured patients relative to controls. Linear regression analysis of all 75 trauma patients demonstrated that three metrics for horizontal disconjugacy negatively correlated with SCAT3 symptom severity score and positively correlated with total Standardized Assessment of Concussion score. Abnormal eye-tracking metrics improved over time toward baseline in brain-injured subjects observed in follow-up. Eye tracking may help quantify the severity of ocular motility disruption associated with concussion and structural brain injury.
Cha, Oakyoon; Chong, Sang Chul
Physiological studies have found that neurons prepare for impending eye movements, showing anticipatory responses to stimuli presented at the location of the post-saccadic receptive fields (RFs) (Wurtz in Vis Res 48:2070-2089, 2008). These studies proposed that visual neurons with shifting RFs prepared for the stimuli they would process after an impending saccade. Additionally, psychophysical studies have shown behavioral consequences of those anticipatory responses, including the transfer of aftereffects (Melcher in Nat Neurosci 10:903-907, 2007) and the remapping of attention (Rolfs et al. in Nat Neurosci 14:252-258, 2011). As the physiological studies proposed, the shifting RF mechanism explains the transfer of aftereffects. Recently, a new mechanism based on activation transfer via a saliency map was proposed, which accounted for the remapping of attention (Cavanagh et al. in Trends Cogn Sci 14:147-153, 2010). We hypothesized that there would be different aspects of the remapping corresponding to these different neural mechanisms. This study found that the information in the background was remapped to a similar extent as the figure, provided that the visual context remained stable. We manipulated the status of the figure and the ground in the saliency map and showed that the manipulation modulated the remapping of the figure and the ground in different ways. These results suggest that the visual system has an ability to remap the background as well as the figure, but lacks the ability to modulate the remapping of the background based on the visual context, and that different neural mechanisms might work together to maintain visual stability across saccades.
Bour, L. J.; Aramideh, M.; de Visser, B. W.
The neural relationships between eyelid movements and eye movements during spontaneous, voluntary, and reflex blinking in a group of healthy subjects were examined. Electromyographic (EMG) recording of the orbicularis oculi (OO) muscles was performed using surface electrodes. Concurrently,
Wall, C. 3rd; Petropoulos, A. E.
The vertical eye movements in humans produced in response to head-over-heels constant velocity pitch rotation about a horizontal axis resemble those from other species. At 60 degrees/s these are persistent and tend to have non-reversing slow components that are compensatory to the direction of rotation. In most, but not all subjects, the slow component velocity was well characterized by a rapid build-up followed by an exponential decay to a non-zero baseline. Super-imposed was a cyclic or modulation component whose frequency corresponded to the time for one revolution and whose maximum amplitude occurred during a specific head orientation. All response components (exponential decay, baseline and modulation) were larger during pitch backward compared to pitch forward runs. Decay time constants were shorter during the backward runs, thus, unlike left to right yaw axis rotation, pitch responses display significant asymmetries between paired forward and backward runs.
Hu, Yang; Zhang, Wei
Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is characterized by lack of muscle atonia during REM sleep and enactment of dream content. RBD is associated with Parkinson disease (PD) and has high incidence in PD patients. PD patient with RBD mainly presents rigid type, has longer disease duration, more severe motor and non-motor symptoms and poorer activity of daily living and life quality. The pathophysiological mechanisms of RBD may be related to dysfunctions of pontine tegmentum, locus coeruleus/sub-locus coeruleus complex and related projections. The diagnosis of RBD depends on clinical histories and video-polysomnography (v-PSG). Besides treatment for PD, protective measures have to be taken for patients and their sleep partners. If abnormal behaviors during sleep cause distress and danger,patients should be given drug therapy.
Jennum, Poul; Christensen, Julie Anja Engelhard; Zoetmulder, Marielle
Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia characterized by a history of recurrent nocturnal dream enactment behavior and loss of skeletal muscle atonia and increased phasic muscle activity during REM sleep: REM sleep without atonia. RBD and associated comorbidities have...... recently been identified as one of the most specific and potentially sensitive risk factors for later development of any of the alpha-synucleinopathies: Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and other atypical parkinsonian syndromes. Several other sleep-related abnormalities have recently been...... identified in patients with RBD/Parkinson's disease who experience abnormalities in sleep electroencephalographic frequencies, sleep-wake transitions, wake and sleep stability, occurrence and morphology of sleep spindles, and electrooculography measures. These findings suggest a gradual involvement...
Giuseppe di Pellegrino
Full Text Available Neglect dyslexia is a disturbance in the allocation of spatial attention over a letter string following unilateral brain damage. Patients with this condition may fail to read letters on the contralesional side of an orthographic string. In some of these cases, reading is better with words than with non-words. This word superiority effect has received a variety of explanations that differ, among other things, with regard to the spatial distribution of attention across the letter string during reading. The primary goal of the present study was to explore the interaction between attention and lexical processes by recording eye movements in a patient (F.C. with severe left neglect dyslexia who was required to read isolated word and non-word stimuli of various length.
Kanayama, R.; Nakamura, T.; Ohki, M.; Kimura, Y.; Koike, Y. (Dept. of Otolaryngology, Yamagata Univ. School of Medicine (Japan)); Kato, I. (Dept. of Otolaryngology, St. Marianna Univ. School of Medicine, Kawasaki (Japan))
Eighteen patients with Wallenberg's syndrome were investigated concerning visually induced eye movements. All results were analysed quantitatively using a computer. In 16 out of 18 patients, OKN slow-phase velocities were impaired, in the remaining 2 patients they were normal. All patients showed reduced visual suppression of caloric nystagmus during the slow-phase of nystagmus toward the lesion side, except 3 patients who showed normal visual suppression in both directions. CT scan failed to detect either the brainstem or the cerebellar lesions in any cases, but MRI performed on the most recent cases demonstrated the infractions clearly. These findings suggest that infractions are localized in the medulla in the patients of group A, but extend to the cerebellum as well as to the medulla in patients of group B. (au).
Bucci, Maria Pia; Kapoula, Zoï; Bui-Quoc, Emmanuel; Bouet, Aurelie; Wiener-Vacher, Sylvette
Purpose Early studies reported some abnormalities in saccade and vergence eye movements in children with vertigo and vergence deficiencies. The purpose of this study was to further examine saccade and vergence performance in a population of 44 children (mean age: 12.3±1.6 years) with vertigo symptoms and with different levels of vergence abnormalities, as assessed by static orthoptic examination (near point of convergence, prism bar and cover-uncover test). Methods Three groups were identified on the basis of the orthoptic tests: group 1 (n = 13) with vergence spasms and mildly perturbed orthoptic scores, group 2 (n = 14) with moderately perturbed orthoptic scores, and group 3 (n = 17) with severely perturbed orthoptic scores. Data were compared to those recorded from 28 healthy children of similar ages. Latency, accuracy and peak velocity of saccades and vergence movements were measured in two different conditions: gap (fixation offset 200 ms prior to target onset) and simultaneous paradigms. Binocular horizontal movements were recorded by a photoelectric device. Results Group 2 of children with vergence abnormalities showed significantly longer latency than normal children in several types of eye movements recorded. For all three groups of children with vergence abnormalities, the gain was poor, particularly for vergence movement. The peak velocity values did not differ between the different groups of children examined. Interpretation Eye movement measures together with static orthoptic evaluation allowed us to better identify children with vergence abnormalities based on their slow initiation of eye movements. Overall, these findings support the hypothesis of a central deficit in the programming and triggering of saccades and vergence in these children. PMID:21858007
Maria Pia Bucci
Full Text Available PURPOSE: Early studies reported some abnormalities in saccade and vergence eye movements in children with vertigo and vergence deficiencies. The purpose of this study was to further examine saccade and vergence performance in a population of 44 children (mean age: 12.3±1.6 years with vertigo symptoms and with different levels of vergence abnormalities, as assessed by static orthoptic examination (near point of convergence, prism bar and cover-uncover test. METHODS: Three groups were identified on the basis of the orthoptic tests: group 1 (n = 13 with vergence spasms and mildly perturbed orthoptic scores, group 2 (n = 14 with moderately perturbed orthoptic scores, and group 3 (n = 17 with severely perturbed orthoptic scores. Data were compared to those recorded from 28 healthy children of similar ages. Latency, accuracy and peak velocity of saccades and vergence movements were measured in two different conditions: gap (fixation offset 200 ms prior to target onset and simultaneous paradigms. Binocular horizontal movements were recorded by a photoelectric device. RESULTS: Group 2 of children with vergence abnormalities showed significantly longer latency than normal children in several types of eye movements recorded. For all three groups of children with vergence abnormalities, the gain was poor, particularly for vergence movement. The peak velocity values did not differ between the different groups of children examined. INTERPRETATION: Eye movement measures together with static orthoptic evaluation allowed us to better identify children with vergence abnormalities based on their slow initiation of eye movements. Overall, these findings support the hypothesis of a central deficit in the programming and triggering of saccades and vergence in these children.
Parker, Andrew; Powell, Daniel; Dagnall, Neil
The effects of saccadic horizontal (bilateral) eye movements upon tests of both conceptual and perceptual forms of explicit and implicit memory were investigated. Participants studied a list of words and were then assigned to one of four test conditions: conceptual explicit, conceptual implicit, perceptual explicit, or perceptual implicit. Conceptual tests comprised category labels with either explicit instructions to recall corresponding examples from the study phase (category-cued recall), or implicit instructions to generate any corresponding examples that spontaneously came to mind (category-exemplar generation). Perceptual tests comprised of word-fragments with either explicit instructions to complete these with study items (word-fragment-cued recall), or implicit instructions to complete each fragment with the first word that simply 'popped to mind' (word-fragment completion). Just prior to retrieval, participants were required to engage in 30 s of bilateral vs. no eye movements. Results revealed that saccadic horizontal eye movements enhanced performance in only the conceptual explicit condition, indicating that Saccade-Induced Retrieval Enhancement is a joint function of conceptual and explicit retrieval mechanisms. Findings are discussed from both a cognitive and neuropsychological perspective, in terms of their potential functional and neural underpinnings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Active vision means that visual perception not only depends closely on the subject's own movements, but that these movements actually contribute to the visual perceptual processes. Vertebrates' and invertebrates' eye movements are probably part of an active visual process, but their exact role still remains to be determined. In this paper, studies on the retinal micro-movements occurring in the compound eye of the fly are reviewed. Several authors have located and identified the muscles invo...
Melanie Rose Burke
Full Text Available Recent behavioural and biological evidence indicates common mechanisms serving working memory and attention (eg, Awh et al 2006, Trends in Cognitive Sciences 10, 124–130. This study explored the role of spatial attention and visual search in an adapted Corsi spatial memory task. Eye movements and touch responses were recorded from participants who recalled locations (signalled by colour or shape change from an array presented either simultaneously or sequentially. The time delay between target presentation and recall (0, 5, or 10s and the number of locations to be remembered (2–5 were also manipulated. Analysis of the response phase revealed subjects were less accurate (touch data and fixated longer (eye data when responding to sequentially presented targets. Fixation duration was also influenced by whether spatial location was initially signalled by colour or shape change. We conclude that attention and temporal delays during retention of a target play a minor role in motor behaviour during a corsi spatial memory task. In contrast, the type of memory required (ie, location and/or memory and number of items plays a key role on subject performance and behaviour.
Li, Chunyong; Xue, Jiguo; Quan, Cheng; Yue, Jingwei; Zhang, Chenggang
Biometric recognition technology based on eye-movement dynamics has been in development for more than ten years. Different visual tasks, feature extraction and feature recognition methods are proposed to improve the performance of eye movement biometric system. However, the correct identification and verification rates, especially in long-term experiments, as well as the effects of visual tasks and eye trackers' temporal and spatial resolution are still the foremost considerations in eye movement biometrics. With a focus on these issues, we proposed a new visual searching task for eye movement data collection and a new class of eye movement features for biometric recognition. In order to demonstrate the improvement of this visual searching task being used in eye movement biometrics, three other eye movement feature extraction methods were also tested on our eye movement datasets. Compared with the original results, all three methods yielded better results as expected. In addition, the biometric performance of these four feature extraction methods was also compared using the equal error rate (EER) and Rank-1 identification rate (Rank-1 IR), and the texture features introduced in this paper were ultimately shown to offer some advantages with regard to long-term stability and robustness over time and spatial precision. Finally, the results of different combinations of these methods with a score-level fusion method indicated that multi-biometric methods perform better in most cases.
Azizi, Elham; Abel, Larry A; Stainer, Matthew J
Action game playing has been associated with several improvements in visual attention tasks. However, it is not clear how such changes might influence the way we overtly select information from our visual world (i.e. eye movements). We examined whether action-video-game training changed eye movement behaviour in a series of visual search tasks including conjunctive search (relatively abstracted from natural behaviour), game-related search, and more naturalistic scene search. Forty nongamers were trained in either an action first-person shooter game or a card game (control) for 10 hours. As a further control, we recorded eye movements of 20 experienced action gamers on the same tasks. The results did not show any change in duration of fixations or saccade amplitude either from before to after the training or between all nongamers (pretraining) and experienced action gamers. However, we observed a change in search strategy, reflected by a reduction in the vertical distribution of fixations for the game-related search task in the action-game-trained group. This might suggest learning the likely distribution of targets. In other words, game training only skilled participants to search game images for targets important to the game, with no indication of transfer to the more natural scene search. Taken together, these results suggest no modification in overt allocation of attention. Either the skills that can be trained with action gaming are not powerful enough to influence information selection through eye movements, or action-game-learned skills are not used when deciding where to move the eyes.
Jose Ignacio Egaña
Full Text Available In schizophrenia, patients display dysfunctions during the execution of simple visual tasks such as anti-saccade or smooth pursuit. In more ecological scenarios, such as free viewing of natural images, patients appear to make fewer and longer visual fixations and display shorter scanpaths. It is not clear whether these measurements reflect alterations in their proficiency to perform basic eye movements, such as saccades and fixations, or are related to high-level mechanisms, such as exploration or attention. We utilized free exploration of natural images of different complexities as a model of an ecological context where normally operative mechanisms of visual control can be accurately measured. We quantified visual exploration as Euclidean distance, scanpaths, saccades and visual fixation, using the standard SR-Research eye tracker algorithm (SR. We then compared this result with a computation that includes microsaccades (EM. We evaluated 8 schizophrenia patients and corresponding healthy controls (HC. Next, we tested whether the decrement in the number of saccades and fixations, as well as their increment in duration reported previously in schizophrenia patients, resulted from the increasing occurrence of undetected microsaccades. We found that when utilizing the standard SR algorithm, patients displayed shorter scanpaths as well as fewer and shorter saccades and fixations. When we employed the EM algorithm, the differences in these parameters between patients and HC were no longer significant. On the other hand, we found that image complexity plays an important role in exploratory behaviors, demonstrating that this factor explains most of differences between eye-movement behaviors in schizophrenia patients. These results help elucidate the mechanisms of visual motor control that are affected in schizophrenia and contribute to the finding of adequate markers for diagnosis and treatment for this condition.
Hviid Korsager, Leise Elisabeth; Schmidt, Jesper Hvass; Faber, Christian
. There is a lack of knowledge regarding the reliability of the two parameters. The objective was to investigate the reliability of vHIT by comparing gain values between examiners on the same subjects, and to see how differences affected the occurrence of saccades. SUBJECTS: 25 subjects who had undergone cochlear...... coefficient (ICC) of the gain values between examiners ranged from 0.62 to 0.70. Differences in gain values amongst examiners did not seem to affect the occurrence of saccades in the same patient. The occurrence of saccades, therefore, seems to be more reliable than the gain value in the evaluation......The vHIT (video head impulse test) investigates the vestibular function in two ways: a VOR (vestibulo-ocular reflex) gain value and a head impulse diagram. From the diagram covert and overt saccades can be detected. Evaluation of the vestibular function based on vHIT depends on both parameters...
Chen, Lewis L; Hung, Leroy Y; Quinet, Julie; Kosek, Kevin
It is known that expectation of reward speeds up saccades. Past studies have also shown the presence of a saccadic velocity bias in the orbit, resulting from a biomechanical regulation over varying eccentricities. Nevertheless, whether and how reward expectation interacts with the biomechanical regulation of saccadic velocities over varying eccentricities remains unknown. We addressed this question by conducting a visually guided double-step saccade task. The role of reward expectation was tested in monkeys performing two consecutive horizontal saccades, one associated with reward prospect and the other not. To adequately assess saccadic velocity and avoid adaptation, we systematically varied initial eye positions, saccadic directions and amplitudes. Our results confirmed the existence of a velocity bias in the orbit, i.e., saccadic peak velocity decreased linearly as the initial eye position deviated in the direction of the saccade. The slope of this bias increased as saccadic amplitudes increased. Nevertheless, reward prospect facilitated velocity to a greater extent for saccades away from than for saccades toward the orbital centre, rendering an overall reduction in the velocity bias. The rate (slope) and magnitude (intercept) of reward modulation over this velocity bias were linearly correlated with amplitudes, similar to the amplitude-modulated velocity bias without reward prospect, which presumably resulted from a biomechanical regulation. Small-amplitude (≤ 5°) saccades received little modulation. These findings together suggest that reward expectation modulated saccadic velocity not as an additive signal but as a facilitating mechanism that interacted with the biomechanical regulation. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Active vision means that visual perception not only depends closely on the subject's own movements, but that these movements actually contribute to the visual perceptual processes. Vertebrates' and invertebrates' eye movements are probably part of an active visual process, but their exact role still remains to be determined. In this paper, studies on the retinal micro-movements occurring in the compound eye of the fly are reviewed. Several authors have located and identified the muscles involved in these small retinal movements. Others have established that these retinal micro-movements occur in walking and flying flies, but their exact functional role still remains to be determined. Many robotic studies have been performed in which animals' (flies' and spiders' miniature eye movements have been modelled, simulated and even implemented mechanically. Several robotic platforms have been endowed with artificial visual sensors performing periodic micro-scanning movements. Artificial eyes performing these active retinal micro-movements have some extremely interesting properties, such as hyperacuity and the ability to detect very slow movements (motion hyperacuity. The fundamental role of miniature eye movements still remains to be described in detail, but several studies on natural and artificial eyes have advanced considerably toward this goal.
van Marlen, Tim; van Wermeskerken, Margot; Jarodzka, Halszka; van Gog, Tamara
Eye movement modeling examples (EMME) are demonstrations of a computer-based task by a human model (e.g., a teacher), with the model's eye movements superimposed on the task to guide learners' attention. EMME have been shown to enhance learning of perceptual classification tasks; however, it is an
B.K. Ischebeck (B.); J. de Vries (Jurryt); J.N. van der Geest (Jos); M. Janssen (Malou); J.-P. van Wingerden (Jan-Paul); G.J. Kleinrensink (Gert Jan); M.A. Frens (Maarten)
textabstractBackground: Many people with Whiplash Associated Disorders (WAD) report problems with vision, some of which may be due to impaired eye movements. Better understanding of such impaired eye movements could improve diagnostics and treatment strategies. This systematic review surveys the
Leer, Arne; Engelhard, Iris M.; Lenaert, Bert; Struyf, Dieter; Vervliet, Bram; Hermans, Dirk
Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder involves making eye movements (EMs) during recall of a traumatic image. Experimental studies have shown that the dual task decreases self-reported memory vividness and emotionality. However valuable, these
van Veen, Suzanne; van Schie, Kevin; Wijngaards, Leoniek; Littel, Marianne; Engelhard, Iris; van den Hout, Marcel
Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is an efficacious treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder. In EMDR, patients recall a distressing memory and simultaneously make eye movements (EM). Both tasks are considered to require limited working memory (WM) resources. Because this
Leer, Arne; Engelhard, Iris M.; Van Den Hout, Marcel A.
Background and objectives Eye movements (EM) during recall of an aversive memory is a treatment element unique to Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR). Experimental studies have shown that EM reduce memory vividness and/or emotionality shortly after the intervention. However, it is
Liwanag, Maria Perpetua Socorro U.; Pelatti, Christina Yeager; Martens, Ray; Martens, Prisca
This study incorporated eye movement miscue analysis to investigate two second-graders' oral reading and comprehension of a counterpoint picture book. Findings suggest the second-graders' strategies when reading the written and pictorial text affected their comprehension as opposed to the number and location of their eye movements. Specifically,…
Lin, Dan; Chen, Guangyao; Liu, Yingyi; Liu, Jiaxin; Pan, Jue; Mo, Lei
Storybook reading is the major source of literacy exposure for beginning readers. The present study tracked 4-year-old Chinese children's eye movements while they were reading simulated storybook pages. Their eye-movement patterns were examined in relation to their word learning gains. The same reading list, consisting of 20 two-character Chinese…
Sato, Naoyuki; Yamaguchi, Yoko
Subjects' episodic memory performance is not simply reflected by eye movements. We use a ‘theta phase coding’ model of the hippocampus to predict subjects' memory performance from their eye movements. Results demonstrate the ability of the model to predict subjects' memory performance. These studies provide a novel approach to computational modeling in the human-machine interface.
This study explored differences in eye movement on a Web page between members of two different cultures to provide insight and guidelines for implementation of global Web site development. More specifically, the research examines whether differences of eye movement exist between the two cultures (American vs. Korean) when viewing a Web page, and…
Mason, L.; Scheiter, K.; Tornatora, M. C.
This study used eye movement modeling examples (EMME) to support students' integrative processing of verbal and graphical information during the reading of an illustrated text. EMME consists of a replay of eye movements of a model superimposed onto the materials that are processed for accomplishing the task. Specifically, the study investigated…
Jarodzka, Halszka; van Gog, Tamara; Dorr, Michael; Scheiter, Katharina; Gerjets, Peter
This study investigated how to teach perceptual tasks, that is, classifying fish locomotion, through eye movement modeling examples (EMME). EMME consisted of a replay of eye movements of a didactically behaving domain expert (model), which had been recorded while he executed the task, superimposed onto the video stimulus. Seventy-five students…
Bos, J.E.; Erp, J.B.F. van; Groen, E.L.; Veen, H.J. van
This paper shows that tactile stimulation can override vestibular information regarding spinning sensations and eye movements. However, we conclude that the current data do not support the hypothesis that tactile stimulation controls eye movements directly. To this end, twenty-four subjects were
Hawelka, Stefan; Gagl, Benjamin; Wimmer, Heinz
This study assessed eye movement abnormalities of adolescent dyslexic readers and interpreted the findings by linking the dual-route model of single word reading with the E-Z Reader model of eye movement control during silent sentence reading. A dysfunction of the lexical route was assumed to account for a reduced number of words which received…
Lee, C.W.; Cuijpers, P.
Background and objectives: Eye Movement Desensitisation and Reprocessing (EMDR) is now considered evidence based practice in the treatment of trauma symptoms. Yet in a previous meta-analysis, no significant effect was found for the eye movement component. However methodological issues with this
Nitschke, Kai; Ruh, Nina; Kappler, Sonja; Stahl, Christoph; Kaller, Christoph P.
Understanding the functional neuroanatomy of planning and problem solving may substantially benefit from better insight into the chronology of the cognitive processes involved. Based on the assumption that regularities in cognitive processing are reflected in overtly observable eye-movement patterns, here we recorded eye movements while…
Elich, Matthew; And Others
Tested Bandler and Grinder's proposal that eye movement direction and spoken predicates are indicative of sensory modality of imagery. Subjects reported images in the three modes, but no relation between imagery and eye movements or predicates was found. Visual images were most vivid and often reported. Most subjects rated themselves as visual,…
Bolitho, Samuel J; Naismith, Sharon L; Terpening, Zoe; Grunstein, Ron R; Melehan, Kerri; Yee, Brendon J; Coeytaux, Alessandra; Gilat, Moran; Lewis, Simon J G
Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is frequently observed in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Accurate diagnosis is essential for managing this condition. Furthermore, the emergence of idiopathic RBD in later life can represent a premotor feature, heralding the development of PD. Reliable, accurate methods for identifying RBD may offer a window for early intervention. This study sought to identify whether the RBD screening questionnaire (RBDSQ) and three questionnaires focused on dream enactment were able to correctly identify patients with REM without atonia (RWA), the neurophysiological hallmark of RBD. Forty-six patients with PD underwent neurological and sleep assessment in addition to completing the RBDSQ, the RBD single question (RBD1Q), and the Mayo Sleep Questionnaire (MSQ). The REM atonia index was derived for all participants as an objective measure of RWA. Patients identified to be RBD positive on the RBDSQ did not show increased RWA on polysomnography (80% sensitivity and 55% specificity). However, patients positive for RBD on questionnaires specific to dream enactment correctly identified higher degrees of RWA and improved the diagnostic accuracy of these questionnaires. This study suggests that the RBDSQ does not accurately identify RWA, essential for diagnosing RBD in PD. Furthermore, the results suggest that self-report measures of RBD need to focus questions on dream enactment behavior to better identify RWA and RBD. Further studies are needed to develop accurate determination and quantification of RWA in RBD to improve management of patients with PD in the future. © 2014 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
Erkaymaz, Hande; Ozer, Mahmut; Orak, İlhami Muharrem
The electrooculogram signals are very important at extracting information about detection of directional eye movements. Therefore, in this study, we propose a new intelligent detection model involving an artificial neural network for the eye movements based on the electrooculogram signals. In addition to conventional eye movements, our model also involves the detection of tic and blinking of an eye. We extract only two features from the electrooculogram signals, and use them as inputs for a feed-forwarded artificial neural network. We develop a new approach to compute these two features, which we call it as a movement range. The results suggest that the proposed model have a potential to become a new tool to determine the directional eye movements accurately
Spering, Miriam; Carrasco, Marisa
Visual perception and eye movements are considered to be tightly linked. Diverse fields, ranging from developmental psychology to computer science, utilize eye tracking to measure visual perception. However, this prevailing view has been challenged by recent behavioral studies. We review converging evidence revealing dissociations between the contents of perceptual awareness and different types of eye movements. Such dissociations reveal situations in which eye movements are sensitive to particular visual features that fail to modulate perceptual reports. We also discuss neurophysiological, neuroimaging and clinical studies supporting the role of subcortical pathways for visual processing without awareness. Our review links awareness to perceptual-eye movement dissociations and furthers our understanding of the brain pathways underlying vision and movement with and without awareness. PMID:25765322
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Patients with Parkinson’s disease manifest oculomotor abnormalities. This is the consequence of basal ganglia impairment. The most common abnormalities include increased saccade latency, hypometric saccades and decreased saccade velocity. The purpose of this study was comparison of saccadic parameters using videonystagmography in patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease and normal subjects.Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, saccadic movements were investigated in thirty patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease and thirty age matched subjects were 35-70 years old. Saccade latency, velocity and accuracy were quantitatively analyzed. Results: Results of this study indicated increased saccade latency, reduction of saccade velocity and accuracy in patients with Parkinson’s disease(P<0.001.Conclusion: This study showed that patients with Parkinson’s disease manifest saccadic deficits. This suggests dopaminergic control of these ocular movements.
Takeda, Yuji; Yoshitsugu, Noritoshi; Itoh, Kazuya; Kanamori, Nobuhiro
How do drivers cope with the attentional workload of in-vehicle information technology? In the present study, we propose a new psychophysiological measure for assessing drivers' attention: eye-fixation-related potential (EFRP). EFRP is a kind of event-related brain potential measurable at the eye-movement situation that reflects how closely observers examine visual information at the eye-fixated position. In the experiment, the effects of verbal working memory load and spatial working memory load during simulated driving were examined by measuring the number of saccadic eye-movements and EFRP as the indices of drivers' attention. The results showed that the spatial working memory load affected both the number of saccadic eye-movements and the amplitude of the P100 component of EFRP, whereas the verbal working memory load affected only the number of saccadic eye-movements. This implies that drivers can perform time-sharing processing between driving and the verbal working memory task, but the decline of accuracy of visual processing during driving is inescapable when the spatial working memory load is given. The present study suggests that EFRP can provide a new index of drivers' attention, other than saccadic eye-movements.
Kim, Yu Kyeong; Yoon, In Young; Kim, Jong Min; Jeong, Seok Hoon; Kim, Ji Sun; Lee, Byung Chul; Lee, Won Woo; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
The pathogenesis of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is still unknown. However, involvement of dopaminergic system in RBD has been hypothesized because of frequent association with degenerative movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent and pattern of loss of dopamine transporter in RBD using FP-CIT SPECT. Fourteen patient with idiopathic RBD (mean age:665 yrs, M:F=10:3) participated in this study. Polysonmography confirmed loss of REM atonia and determined RBD severities by amount of tonic/phasic muscle activity during REM sleep in all cases. To compare with RBD, 14 early idiopathic Parkinson's disease rated as Hoehn and Yahr stage 1 (IPD) and 12 healthy controls were also selected. All participants performed single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging 3 hours after injection of [123I]FP-CIT. Regions of interest were drawn on bilateral caudate and putamen, whole striatum and occipital cortex. Specific binding for dopamine transporters (DAT) were calculated using region to occipital uptake ratio based on the transient equilibrium method. Overall mean of DAT density in the striatum was lower in RBD group than controls, and higher than IPD group, However, DAT density in most individual RBD was still within normal range, and total striatal DAT density was not correlated with severity of RBD. Meanwhile, the caudate to putamen uptake ratio (C/P ratio) in RBD group was insignificantly higher than those in healthy controls. Nevertheless, C/P ratio within RBD group was reversely correlated with the RBD severity. Our study suggested that nigrostriatal dopaminergic degeneration could be a part of the pathogenesis of RBD, but not essential for the development of RBD. Further longitudinal evaluation of presynaptic dopaminergic system in idiopathic RBD may guarantee the more understanding for RBD and associated neurodegenerative disease.
Kim, Yu Kyeong; Yoon, In Young; Kim, Jong Min; Jeong, Seok Hoon; Kim, Ji Sun; Lee, Byung Chul; Lee, Won Woo; Kim, Sang Eun
The pathogenesis of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is still unknown. However, involvement of dopaminergic system in RBD has been hypothesized because of frequent association with degenerative movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent and pattern of loss of dopamine transporter in RBD using FP-CIT SPECT. Fourteen patient with idiopathic RBD (mean age:665 yrs, M:F=10:3) participated in this study. Polysonmography confirmed loss of REM atonia and determined RBD severities by amount of tonic/phasic muscle activity during REM sleep in all cases. To compare with RBD, 14 early idiopathic Parkinson's disease rated as Hoehn and Yahr stage 1 (IPD) and 12 healthy controls were also selected. All participants performed single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging 3 hours after injection of [123I]FP-CIT. Regions of interest were drawn on bilateral caudate and putamen, whole striatum and occipital cortex. Specific binding for dopamine transporters (DAT) were calculated using region to occipital uptake ratio based on the transient equilibrium method. Overall mean of DAT density in the striatum was lower in RBD group than controls, and higher than IPD group, However, DAT density in most individual RBD was still within normal range, and total striatal DAT density was not correlated with severity of RBD. Meanwhile, the caudate to putamen uptake ratio (C/P ratio) in RBD group was insignificantly higher than those in healthy controls. Nevertheless, C/P ratio within RBD group was reversely correlated with the RBD severity. Our study suggested that nigrostriatal dopaminergic degeneration could be a part of the pathogenesis of RBD, but not essential for the development of RBD. Further longitudinal evaluation of presynaptic dopaminergic system in idiopathic RBD may guarantee the more understanding for RBD and associated neurodegenerative disease
Nakano, Natsuko; Kinoshita, Fumiya; Takada, Hiroki; Nakayama, Meiho
Polysomnography (PSG), which records physiological phenomena including brain waves, breathing status, and muscle tonus, is useful for the diagnosis of sleep disorders as a gold standard. However, measurement and analysis are complex for several specific sleep disorders, such as rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD). Usually, brain waves during REM sleep indicate an awakening pattern under relaxed conditions of skeletal and antigravity muscles. However, these muscles are activated during REM sleep when patients suffer from RBD. These activated muscle movements during REM, so-called REM without atonia (RWA) recorded by PSG, may be related to a neurodegenerative disease such as Parkinson's disease. Thus, careful analysis of RWA is significant not only physically, but also clinically. Commonly, manual viewing measurement analysis of RWA is time-consuming. Therefore, quantitative studies on RWA are rarely reported. A software program, developed from Microsoft Office Excel ® , was used to semiautomatically analyze the RWA ratio extracted from PSG to compare with manual viewing measurement analysis. In addition, a quantitative muscle tonus study was carried out to evaluate the effect of medication on RBD patients. Using this new software program, we were able to analyze RWA on the same cases in approximately 15 min as compared with 60 min in the manual viewing measurement analysis. This software program can not only quantify RWA easily but also identify RWA waves for either phasic or tonic bursts. We consider that this software program will support physicians and scientists in their future research on RBD. We are planning to offer this software program for free to physicians and scientists.
Jehangir, Naz; Yu, Caroline Yizhu; Song, Jeehey; Shariati, Mohammad Ali; Binder, Steven; Beyer, Jill; Santini, Veronica; Poston, Kathleen
Idiopathic Parkinson’s Disease (PD) is characterized by degeneration of dopaminergic and other neurons, leading to motor and non-motor deficits. Abnormal eye movements in PD, including fixations, saccades, and convergence, are well described. However, saccadic reading, which requires serial and alternating saccades and fixations, is not well studied, despite its obvious impact on the quality of life. In this study, we assessed saccadic reading using variations of the King-Devick (KD) test, a rapid single digit number naming test, as a way to assess the ability to make serial left-to-right ocular motor movements necessary for reading. We recruited 42 treated PD patients and 80 age-matched controls and compared their reading times with a variety of measures, including age, duration of disease, Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), the National Eye Institute 25-Item Visual Functioning Questionnaire 25 (VFQ-25), and Montreal Cognitive assessment (MoCA) test. The subjects performed 4 trials of reading 120 single digit numbers aloud as fast as possible without making errors. In each trial, they read 3 pages (KD1, KD2, and KD3), and each page contained 40 numbers per page in 8 lines with 5 numbers/line. We found that PD patients read about 20% slower than controls on all tests (KD1, 2, and 3 tests) (p read irregularly spaced numbers slower than regularly spaced numbers. Having lines between numbers to guide reading (KD1 tests) did not impact reading time in both PD and controls, but increased visual crowding as a result of decreased spacing between numbers (KD3 tests) was associated with significantly slower reading times in both PD and control groups. Our study revealed that saccadic reading is slower in PD, but controls and PD patients are both impacted by visuospatial planning challenges posed by increased visual crowding and irregularity of number spacing. Reading time did not correlate with UPDRS or MoCA scores in PD patients but significantly
Jaël S. van Bentum
Full Text Available Suicide and suicidal behavior are major public health concerns, and affect 3–9% of the population worldwide. Despite increased efforts for national suicide prevention strategies, there are still few effective interventions available for reducing suicide risk. In this article, we describe various theoretical approaches for suicide ideation and behavior, and propose to examine the possible effectiveness of a new and innovative preventive strategy. A model of suicidal intrusion (mental imagery related to suicide, also referred to as suicidal flash-forwards is presented describing one of the assumed mechanisms in the etiology of suicide and the mechanism of therapeutic change. We provide a brief rationale for an Eye Movement Dual Task (EMDT treatment for suicidal intrusions, describing techniques that can be used to target these suicidal mental images and thoughts to reduce overall behavior. Based on the available empirical evidence for the mechanisms of suicidal intrusions, this approach appears to be a promising new treatment to prevent suicidal behavior as it potentially targets one of the linking pins between suicidal ideation and suicidal actions.
Bae, Hwallip; Kim, Daeho; Park, Yong Chon
While cognitive behavior therapy is considered to be the first-line therapy for adolescent depression, there are limited data on whether other psychotherapeutic techniques are also effective in treating adolescents with depression. This report suggests the potential application of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) for treatment of depressive disorder related, not to trauma, but to stressful life events. At present, EMDR has only been empirically validated for only trauma-related disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder. Two teenagers with major depressive disorder (MDD) underwent three and seven sessions of EMDR aimed at memories of stressful life events. After treatment, their depressive symptoms decreased to the level of full remission, and the therapeutic gains were maintained after two and three months of follow up. The effectiveness of EMDR for depression is explained by the model of adaptive information processing. Given the powerful effects observed within a brief period of time, the authors suggest that further investigation of EMDR for depressive disorders is warranted.
Dooley, K O; Farmer, A
Neurolinguistic programming's hypothesized eye movements were measured independently using videotapes of 10 nonfluent aphasic and 10 control subjects matched for age and sex. Chi-squared analysis indicated that eye-position responses were significantly different for the groups. Although earlier research has not supported the hypothesized eye positions for normal subjects, the present findings support the contention that eye-position responses may differ between neurologically normal and aphasic individuals.
Cao, Rong; Wang, Shuzhen; Rao, Congquan; Fu, Jia
To investigate attentional capture by face's race, the current study recorded saccade latencies of eye movement measurements in an inhibition of return (IOR) task. Compared to Caucasian (other-race) faces, Chinese (own-race) faces elicited longer saccade latency. This phenomenon disappeared when faces were inverted. The results indicated that own-race faces capture attention automatically with high-level configural processing. © 2013 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2013 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.
Littel, M.; van den Hout, M.A.; Engelhard, I.M.
Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder. During this treatment, patients recall traumatic memories while making horizontal eye movements (EM). Studies have shown that EM not only desensitize negative memories but also positive
Yen Ju eLee
Full Text Available Knowledge of how information is sought in the visual world is useful for predicting and simulating human behavior. Taiwanese participants and American participants were instructed to judge the facial expression of a focal face that was flanked horizontally by other faces while their eye movements were monitored. The Taiwanese participants distributed their eye fixations more widely than American participants, started to look away from the focal face earlier than American participants, and spent a higher percentage of time looking at the flanking faces. Eye movement transition matrices also provided evidence that Taiwanese participants continually, and systematically shifted gaze between focal and flanking faces. Eye movement patterns were less systematic and less prevalent in American participants. This suggests that both cultures utilized different attention allocation strategies. The results highlight the importance of determining sequential eye movement statistics in cross-cultural research on the utilization of visual context.
Wang, Hao; Crewther, Sheila Gillard; Yin, Zheng Qin
Strabismic amblyopia "blunt vision" is a developmental anomaly that affects binocular vision and results in lowered visual acuity. Strabismus is a term for a misalignment of the visual axes and is usually characterized by impaired ability of the strabismic eye to take up fixation. Such impaired fixation is usually a function of the temporally and spatially impaired binocular eye movements that normally underlie binocular shifts in visual attention. In this review, we discuss how abnormal eye movement function in children with misaligned eyes influences the development of normal binocular visual attention and results in deficits in visual function such as depth perception. We also discuss how eye movement function deficits in adult amblyopia patients can also lead to other abnormalities in visual perception. Finally, we examine how the nonamblyopic eye of an amblyope is also affected in strabismic amblyopia.
Full Text Available Strabismic amblyopia “blunt vision” is a developmental anomaly that affects binocular vision and results in lowered visual acuity. Strabismus is a term for a misalignment of the visual axes and is usually characterized by impaired ability of the strabismic eye to take up fixation. Such impaired fixation is usually a function of the temporally and spatially impaired binocular eye movements that normally underlie binocular shifts in visual attention. In this review, we discuss how abnormal eye movement function in children with misaligned eyes influences the development of normal binocular visual attention and results in deficits in visual function such as depth perception. We also discuss how eye movement function deficits in adult amblyopia patients can also lead to other abnormalities in visual perception. Finally, we examine how the nonamblyopic eye of an amblyope is also affected in strabismic amblyopia.
Xiao, Naiqi G; Lee, Kang
Current eye movement data analysis methods rely on defining areas of interest (AOIs). Due to the fact that AOIs are created and modified manually, variances in their size, shape, and location are unavoidable. These variances affect not only the consistency of the AOI definitions, but also the validity of the eye movement analyses based on the AOIs. To reduce the variances in AOI creation and modification and achieve a procedure to process eye movement data with high precision and efficiency, we propose a template-based eye movement data analysis method. Using a linear transformation algorithm, this method registers the eye movement data from each individual stimulus to a template. Thus, users only need to create one set of AOIs for the template in order to analyze eye movement data, rather than creating a unique set of AOIs for all individual stimuli. This change greatly reduces the error caused by the variance from manually created AOIs and boosts the efficiency of the data analysis. Furthermore, this method can help researchers prepare eye movement data for some advanced analysis approaches, such as iMap. We have developed software (iTemplate) with a graphic user interface to make this analysis method available to researchers.
Full Text Available Until recently induced high frequency oscillatory activity (gamma-band activity; >30 Hz was considered a neural marker of cortical object representation. However, Yuval-Greenberg et al (2008; Neuron demonstrated that induced gamma-band activity (GBA in the elecetroencephalogram (EEG is susceptible to artifacts caused by miniature eye movements, which account for the major part of the signal in the crucial time window of 200-400 ms after stimulus onset. Is there an underlying cortical-induced gamma-band response that is obscured by ocular artifacts but can still be recorded with EEG? Furthermore, if object-specific modulations of induced GBA in previous studies were caused by ocular artifacts, should we instead study fixational eye movements as a response that can reflect higher-level representational processes in vision? In order to investigate this, we conducted an eye tracking experiment and an EEG experiment using the same design. Participants were asked to classify line drawings of objects or non-objects. To introduce low-level differences, their contours were defined along different directions in cardinal colour space: 1 S-cone-isolating (S, or 2 intermediate isoluminant (S and L-M, or 3 a full-colour stimulus, containing an additional achromatic component (S; L-M; L+M+S. In both experiments, behavioural performance was optimal for full-colour stimuli. In the eye tracking experiment, fixational eye movement rates 200-400 ms after stimulus onset depended on low-level factors, with no difference between objects and non-objects. In the EEG experiment, miniature eye movements were identified and removed using the saccadic filter approach. The artifact-free induced GBA exhibited a lateralised distribution, with enhancements at left and right posterior sites. Activity was higher for full-colour objects on the left, with the opposite effect observed on the right. We conclude that induced GBA can be observed in the EEG. While it showed high
Mallick, Birendra Nath; Singh, Abhishek; Khanday, Mudasir Ahmad
Interactions among REM-ON and REM-OFF neurons form the basic scaffold for rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) regulation; however, precise mechanism of their activation and cessation, respectively, was unclear. Locus coeruleus (LC) noradrenalin (NA)-ergic neurons are REM-OFF type and receive GABA-ergic inputs among others. GABA acts postsynaptically on the NA-ergic REM-OFF neurons in the LC and presynaptically on the latter's projection terminals and modulates NA-release on the REM-ON neurons. Normally during wakefulness and non-REMS continuous release of NA from the REM-OFF neurons, which however, is reduced during the latter phase, inhibits the REM-ON neurons and prevents REMS. At this stage GABA from substantia nigra pars reticulate acting presynaptically on NA-ergic terminals on REM-ON neurons withdraws NA-release causing the REM-ON neurons to escape inhibition and being active, may be even momentarily. A working-model showing neurochemical-map explaining activation of inactivation process, showing contribution of GABA-ergic presynaptic inhibition in withdrawing NA-release and dis-inhibition induced activation of REM-ON neurons, which in turn activates other GABA-ergic neurons and shutting-off REM-OFF neurons for the initiation of REMS-generation has been explained. Our model satisfactorily explains yet unexplained puzzles (i) why normally REMS does not appear during waking, rather, appears following non-REMS; (ii) why cessation of LC-NA-ergic-REM-OFF neurons is essential for REMS-generation; (iii) factor(s) which does not allow cessation of REM-OFF neurons causes REMS-loss; (iv) the association of changes in levels of GABA and NA in the brain during REMS and its deprivation and associated symptoms; v) why often dreams are associated with REMS. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gürel, Elif Ezgi; Ural, Keremcan; Öztürk, Gülnur; Öztürk, Levent
Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation induces hyperalgesia in healthy rats. Here, we evaluated the effects of flurbiprofen, an anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective agent, on the increased thermal responses observed in REM sleep deprived rats. Forty female rats were divided into four groups following 96-hour REM sleep deprivation: intraperitoneal injections of placebo, and flurbiprofen 5 mg/kg, 15 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg were made in CONT (n=10), FBP5, FBP15 and FBP40 groups respectively. Pain threshold measurements were performed three times at baseline (0.hour), at the end of REM sleep deprivation (96.hour) and at 1 h after injections (97.hour) by hot plate and tail-flick tests. REM sleep deprivation induced a significant decrease in pain thresholds of all rats (hotplate: 0.hour vs 96.hour, 9.75±2.85 vs 5.10±2.02, pFlurbiprofen in 15 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg doses significantly improved pain tolerance measured by tail flick test (tail flick in FBP15 and FBP40 groups: 96.hour vs 97.hour, 7.01±4.97 vs 8.34±3.61 and 5.06±1.57 vs 7.04±2.49, pFlurbiprofen was used for the first time in a rat model of REM sleep deprivation, and it provided anti-nociceptive effects in 15 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg doses. Flurbiprofen may have the potential for treatment of painful syndromes accompanying insomnia or sleep loss. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pathman, Thanujeni; Ghetti, Simona
The ability to recognise past events along with the contexts in which they occurred is a hallmark of episodic memory, a critical capacity. Eye movements have been shown to track veridical memory for the associations between events and their contexts (relational binding). Such eye-movement effects emerge several seconds before, or in the absence of, explicit response, and are linked to the integrity and function of the hippocampus. Drawing from research from infancy through late childhood, and by comparing to investigations from typical adults, patient populations, and animal models, it seems increasingly clear that eye movements reflect item-item, item-temporal, and item-spatial associations in developmental populations. We analyse this line of work, identify missing pieces in the literature and outline future avenues of research, in order to help elucidate the development of episodic memory.
Noachtar, Soheyl; Doeller, Christian; Jensen, Ole; Hartl, Elisabeth; Staudigl, Tobias
Efficient sampling of visual information requires a coordination of eye movements and ongoing brain oscillations. Using intracranial and MEG recordings, we show that saccades are locked to the phase of visual alpha oscillations, and that this coordination supports mnemonic encoding of visual scenes. Furthermore, parahippocampal and retrosplenial cortex involvement in this coordination reflects effective vision-to-memory mapping, highlighting the importance of neural oscillations for the inter...
Full Text Available A 59-year-old man with a past medical history significant for hypertension, obesity and depression underwent an overnight polysomnogram for high clinical suspicion for obstructive sleep apnea. His current medications include doxepin, fluoxetine, bupropion, ambien and amlodipine. A snapshot during NREM sleep is shown (Figure 1. Fluoxetine (Prozac® is a potent selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI.“Omnipause” neurons in the brainstem inhibit saccadic eye movements. NREM eye movements result from the potentiation of serotonergic neurons that inhibit these neurons (1. These eye movements occur during all stages of NREM sleep. These atypical eye movements have been reported to be present with a lower incidence with use of other antidepressants, benzodiazepines and neuroleptics and they tend to persist even after discontinuation of the medication (2. The clinical significance of these eye movements is unknown.
Smith, Daniel T; Rorden, Chris; Jackson, Stephen R
Shifts of attention can be made overtly by moving the eyes or covertly with attention being allocated to a region of space that does not correspond to the current direction of gaze. However, the precise relationship between eye movements and the covert orienting of attention remains controversial. The influential premotor theory proposes that the covert orienting of attention is produced by the programming of (unexecuted) eye movements and thus predicts a strong relationship between the ability to execute eye movements and the operation of spatial attention. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that impaired spatial attention is observed in an individual (AI) who is neurologically healthy but who cannot execute eye movements as a result of a congenital impairment in the elasticity of her eye muscles. This finding provides direct support for the role of the eye-movement system in the covert orienting of attention and suggests that whereas intact cortical structures may be necessary for normal attentional reflexes, they are not sufficient. The ability to move our eyes is essential for the development of normal patterns of spatial attention.
Reichle, Erik D.; Pollatsek, Alexander; Rayner, Keith
Nonreading tasks that share some (but not all) of the task demands of reading have often been used to make inferences about how cognition influences when the eyes move during reading. In this article, we use variants of the E-Z Reader model of eye-movement control in reading to simulate eye-movement behavior in several of these tasks, including…
Ellis, Kyle; Schnell, Thomas
Flight decks of the future are being enhanced through improved avionics that adapt to both aircraft and operator state. Eye tracking allows for non-invasive analysis of pilot eye movements, from which a set of metrics can be derived to effectively and reliably characterize workload. This research identifies eye tracking metrics that correlate to aircraft automation conditions, and identifies the correlation of pilot workload to the same automation conditions. Saccade length was used as an indirect index of pilot workload: Pilots in the fully automated condition were observed to have on average, larger saccadic movements in contrast to the guidance and manual flight conditions. The data set itself also provides a general model of human eye movement behavior and so ostensibly visual attention distribution in the cockpit for approach to land tasks with various levels of automation, by means of the same metrics used for workload algorithm development.
Basso, Michele A; Liu, Ping
In a series of now classic experiments, an output structure of the basal ganglia (BG)--the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr)--was shown to be involved in the generation of saccades made in particular behavioral contexts, such as when memory was required for guidance. Recent electrophysiological experiments, however, call this original hypothesis into question. Here we test the hypothesis that the SNr is involved preferentially in nonvisually guided saccades using electrical stimulation. Monkeys performed visually guided and memory-guided saccades to locations throughout the visual field. On 50% of the trials, electrical stimulation of the SNr occurred. Stimulation of the SNr altered the direction, amplitude, latency, and probability of saccades. Visually guided saccades tended to be rotated toward the field contralateral to the side of stimulation, whereas memory-guided saccades tended to be rotated toward the hemifield ipsilateral to the side of stimulation. Overall, the changes in saccade vector direction were larger for memory-guided than for visually guided saccades. Both memory- and visually guided saccades were hypometric during stimulation trials, but the stimulation preferentially affected the length of memory-guided saccades. Electrical stimulation of the SNr produced decreases in visually guided saccades bilaterally. In contrast, memory-guided saccades often had increases in saccade latency bilaterally. Finally, we found approximately 10% reduction in the probability of memory-guided saccades bilaterally. Visually guided saccade probability was unaltered. Taken together the results are consistent with the hypothesis that SNr primarily influences nonvisually guided saccades. The pattern of stimulation effects suggests that SNr influence is widespread, altering the pattern of activity bilaterally across the superior colliculus map of saccades.
Bucci, Maria Pia; Nassibi, Naziha; Gerard, Christophe-Loic; Bui-Quoc, Emmanuel; Seassau, Magali
Studies comparing binocular eye movements during reading and visual search in dyslexic children are, at our knowledge, inexistent. In the present study we examined ocular motor characteristics in dyslexic children versus two groups of non dyslexic children with chronological/reading age-matched. Binocular eye movements were recorded by an infrared system (mobileEBT®, e(ye)BRAIN) in twelve dyslexic children (mean age 11 years old) and a group of chronological age-matched (N = 9) and reading age-matched (N = 10) non dyslexic children. Two visual tasks were used: text reading and visual search. Independently of the task, the ocular motor behavior in dyslexic children is similar to those reported in reading age-matched non dyslexic children: many and longer fixations as well as poor quality of binocular coordination during and after the saccades. In contrast, chronological age-matched non dyslexic children showed a small number of fixations and short duration of fixations in reading task with respect to visual search task; furthermore their saccades were well yoked in both tasks. The atypical eye movement's patterns observed in dyslexic children suggest a deficiency in the visual attentional processing as well as an immaturity of the ocular motor saccade and vergence systems interaction. PMID:22438934
Banerjee, Jayeeta; Majumdar, Dhurjati; Majumdar, Deepti; Pal, Madhu Sudan
We are experiencing a shifting of media: from the printed paper to the computer screen. This transition is modifying the process of how we read and understand a text. It is very difficult to conclude on suitability of font characters based upon subjective evaluation method only. Present study evaluates the effect of font type on human cognitive workload during perception of individual alphabets on a computer screen. Twenty six young subjects volunteered for this study. Here, subjects have been shown individual characters of different font types and their eye movements have been recorded. A binocular eye movement recorder was used for eye movement recording. The results showed that different eye movement parameters such as pupil diameter, number of fixations, fixation duration were less for font type Verdana. The present study recommends the use of font type Verdana for presentation of individual alphabets on various electronic displays in order to reduce cognitive workload.
The flow of activation from concepts to phonological forms within the word production system was examined in 3 experiments. In Experiment 1, participants named pictures while ignoring superimposed distractor pictures that were semantically related, phonologically related, or unrelated. Eye movements
van Veen, Suzanne C.; Engelhard, Iris M.; van den Hout, Marcel A.
Background: Eyemovement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder. The workingmemory (WM) theory explains its efficacy: recall of an aversivememory and making eye movements (EM) both produce cognitive load, and competition for the limited WM
Full Text Available Martin Alexander Leitritz, Focke Ziemssen, Karl Ulrich Bartz-Schmidt, Bogomil Voykov Centre for Ophthalmology, University Eye Hospital, Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany Purpose: To evaluate a digital high-speed camera combined with digital morphometry software for dynamic measurements of phakic intraocular lens movements to observe kinetic influences, particularly in fast direction changes and at lateral end points. Materials and methods: A high-speed camera taking 300 frames per second observed movements of eight iris-claw intraocular lenses and two angle-supported intraocular lenses. Standardized saccades were performed by the patients to trigger mass inertia with lens position changes. Freeze images with maximum deviation were used for digital software-based morphometry analysis with ImageJ.Results: Two eyes from each of five patients (median age 32 years, range 28–45 years without findings other than refractive errors were included. The high-speed images showed sufficient usability for further morphometric processing. In the primary eye position, the median decentrations downward and in a lateral direction were -0.32 mm (range -0.69 to 0.024 and 0.175 mm (range -0.37 to 0.45, respectively. Despite the small sample size of asymptomatic patients, we found a considerable amount of lens dislocation. The median distance amplitude during eye movements was 0.158 mm (range 0.02–0.84. There was a slight positive corrlation (r=0.39, P<0.001 between the grade of deviation in the primary position and the distance increase triggered by movements.Conclusion: With the use of a slit lamp-mounted high-speed camera system and morphometry software, observation and objective measurements of iris-claw intraocular lenses and angle-supported intraocular lenses movements seem to be possible. Slight decentration in the primary position might be an indicator of increased lens mobility during kinetic stress during eye movements
Cara, Michel André; Gómez, Gabriela
This study investigates to what extent structural units defined by physical and structural markers elicit different eye movement patterns when reading contrasting stimuli of music and verbal texts. Eye movements were tracked and compared in ten musicians undergoing Bachelor’s degrees as they silently read six texts and six pieces of music for piano: the music was contemporary, in modal style, and the style of the texts was informative and literary. Participants were music students at Universi...
Jin Hwa Jeong
Full Text Available Background and Objective A diagnosis of narcolepsy is defined by less than 8 minutes of mean sleep latency, and two or more sleep onset rapid eye movement periods on the Multiple Sleep Latency Test. This study examined the relationship between the sleep onset rapid eye movement period frequencies during Multiple Sleep Latency Test and narcoleptic symptom severity. Methods From March 2004 to August 2009, 126 patients suffering from excessive daytime sleepiness who visited the Sleep Disorders Clinic of St. Vincent’s Hospital at the Catholic University of Korea were tested by polysomnography and Multiple Sleep Latency Test. Subjects were divided into three groups according to the number of sleep onset rapid eye movement periods that appeared on the Multiple Sleep Latency Test. Symptom severity instruments included the Epworth Sleepiness Scale and the Stanford Center for Narcolepsy Sleep Inventory, and various sleep parameters. In addition, we performed human leukocyte antigen genotyping for human leukocyte antigen-DQB1*0602 on all patients. Results Among the three groups classified by the number of sleep onset rapid eye movement periods during Multiple Sleep Latency Test, we found no significant differences in demographic features, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, and most polysomnographic findings. However, we observed cataplexy, hypnagogic hallucination, sleep paralysis, and human leukocyte antigen-DQB1*0602 positivity more frequently in groups with higher sleep onset rapid eye movement period frequencies. In addition, the proportions of stage II sleep, REM sleep latency from polysomnography, and mean sleep latency and mean REM sleep latency from the Multiple Sleep Latency Test significantly decreased with increasing sleep onset rapid eye movement period frequency. Conclusions In this study, we demonstrated that sleep onset rapid eye movement period frequency during Multiple Sleep Latency Test correlated with sleep architecture, daytime symptom
Full Text Available In this paper a new therapeutic method called EMDR (Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing is described. The method was formed mainly for treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder, but there are also some reports about success with other mental disorders. The theoretical base of EMDR and especially the accelerated information processing model, the concept of memory networks and the explanations of effects of eye movements are presented. The process of EMDR is also described.
Petit, L.; Zago, L.; Vigneau, M.; Crivello, F.; Mazoyer, B.; Mellet, E.; Tzourio-Mazoyer, N. [Centre for Imaging, Neurosciences and Applications to Pathologies, UMR6232 CNRS CEA (France); Mazoyer, B. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Caen (France); Andersson, F. [Institut Federatif de Recherche 135, Imagerie fonctionnelle, Tours (France); Mazoyer, B. [Institut Universitaire de France, Paris (France)
Because eye movements are a fundamental tool for spatial exploration, we hypothesized that the neural bases of these movements in humans should be under right cerebral dominance, as already described for spatial attention. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging in 27 right-handed participants who alternated central fixation with either large or small visually guided saccades (VGS), equally performed in both directions. Hemispheric functional asymmetry was analyzed to identify whether brain regions showing VGS activation elicited hemispheric asymmetries. Hemispheric anatomical asymmetry was also estimated to assess its influence on the VGS functional lateralization. Right asymmetrical activations of a saccadic/attentional system were observed in the lateral frontal eye fields (FEF), the anterior part of the intra-parietal sulcus (aIPS), the posterior third of the superior temporal sulcus (STS), the occipito-temporal junction (MT/V5 area), the middle occipital gyrus, and medially along the calcarine fissure (V1). The present rightward functional asymmetries were not related to differences in gray matter (GM) density/sulci positions between right and left hemispheres in the pre-central, intra-parietal, superior temporal, and extrastriate regions. Only V1 asymmetries were explained for almost 20% of the variance by a difference in the position of the right and left calcarine fissures. Left asymmetrical activations of a saccadic motor system were observed in the medial FEF and in the motor strip eye field along the Rolando sulcus. They were not explained by GM asymmetries. We suggest that the leftward saccadic motor asymmetry is part of a general dominance of the left motor cortex in right-handers, which must include an effect of sighting dominance. Our results demonstrate that, although bilateral by nature, the brain network involved in the execution of VGSs, irrespective of their direction, presented specific right and left asymmetries that were not related to
Petit, L.; Zago, L.; Vigneau, M.; Crivello, F.; Mazoyer, B.; Mellet, E.; Tzourio-Mazoyer, N.; Mazoyer, B.; Andersson, F.; Mazoyer, B.
Because eye movements are a fundamental tool for spatial exploration, we hypothesized that the neural bases of these movements in humans should be under right cerebral dominance, as already described for spatial attention. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging in 27 right-handed participants who alternated central fixation with either large or small visually guided saccades (VGS), equally performed in both directions. Hemispheric functional asymmetry was analyzed to identify whether brain regions showing VGS activation elicited hemispheric asymmetries. Hemispheric anatomical asymmetry was also estimated to assess its influence on the VGS functional lateralization. Right asymmetrical activations of a saccadic/attentional system were observed in the lateral frontal eye fields (FEF), the anterior part of the intra-parietal sulcus (aIPS), the posterior third of the superior temporal sulcus (STS), the occipito-temporal junction (MT/V5 area), the middle occipital gyrus, and medially along the calcarine fissure (V1). The present rightward functional asymmetries were not related to differences in gray matter (GM) density/sulci positions between right and left hemispheres in the pre-central, intra-parietal, superior temporal, and extrastriate regions. Only V1 asymmetries were explained for almost 20% of the variance by a difference in the position of the right and left calcarine fissures. Left asymmetrical activations of a saccadic motor system were observed in the medial FEF and in the motor strip eye field along the Rolando sulcus. They were not explained by GM asymmetries. We suggest that the leftward saccadic motor asymmetry is part of a general dominance of the left motor cortex in right-handers, which must include an effect of sighting dominance. Our results demonstrate that, although bilateral by nature, the brain network involved in the execution of VGSs, irrespective of their direction, presented specific right and left asymmetries that were not related to
Foster, Tori E.; Ardoin, Scott P.; Binder, Katherine S.
Although strong claims have been made regarding the educational utility of eye tracking, such statements seem somewhat unfounded in the absence of clear evidence regarding the technical adequacy of eye movement (EM) data. Past studies have yielded direct and indirect evidence concerning the utility of EMs as measures of reading, but recent…
Wallentin, Mikkel; Kristensen, Line Burholt; Olsen, Jacob Hedeager
The brain's frontal eye fields (FEF), responsible for eye movement control, are known to be involved in spatial working memory (WM). In a previous fMRI experiment (Wallentin, Roepstorff & Burgess, Neuropsychologia, 2008) it was found that FEF activation was primarily related to the formation...
Yu, Chen; Yurovsky, Daniel; Xu, Tian
Infant eye movements are an important behavioral resource to understand early human development and learning. But the complexity and amount of gaze data recorded from state-of-the-art eye-tracking systems also pose a challenge: how does one make sense of such dense data? Toward this goal, this article describes an interactive approach based on…
Full Text Available Recent studies of eye movements in world-situated language comprehension have demonstrated that rapid processing of morphosyntactic information – e.g., grammatical gender and number marking – can produce anticipatory eye movements to referents in the visual scene. We investigated how type of morphosyntactic information and the goals of language users in comprehension affected eye movements, focusing on the processing of grammatical number morphology in English-speaking adults. Participants’ eye movements were recorded as they listened to simple English declarative (There are the lions. and interrogative (Where are the lions? sentences. In Experiment 1, no differences were observed in speed to fixate target referents when grammatical number information was informative relative to when it was not. The same result was obtained in a speeded task (Experiment 2 and in a task using mixed sentence types (Experiment 3. We conclude that grammatical number processing in English and eye movements to potential referents are not tightly coordinated. These results suggest limits on the role of predictive eye movements in concurrent linguistic and scene processing. We discuss how these results can inform and constrain predictive approaches to language processing.
Jalaliniya, Shahram; Mardanbegi, Diako
In this paper we investigate the utility of an eye-based interaction technique (EyeGrip) for seamless interaction with scrolling contents on eyewear computers. EyeGrip uses Optokinetic Nystagmus (OKN) eye movements to detect object of interest among a set of scrolling contents and automatically s...... a well-known input device. Moreover, the accuracy of the EyeGrip method for menu item selection was higher while in the Facebook study participants found keyboard more accurate.......In this paper we investigate the utility of an eye-based interaction technique (EyeGrip) for seamless interaction with scrolling contents on eyewear computers. EyeGrip uses Optokinetic Nystagmus (OKN) eye movements to detect object of interest among a set of scrolling contents and automatically...... stops scrolling for the user. We empirically evaluated the usability of EyeGrip in two different applications for eyewear computers: 1) a menu scroll viewer and 2) a Facebook newsfeed reader. The results of our study showed that the EyeGrip technique performs as good as keyboard which has long been...
Rossit, Stéphanie; Szymanek, Larissa; Butler, Stephen H; Harvey, Monika
According to Milner and Goodale's model (The visual brain in action, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2006) areas in the ventral visual stream mediate visual perception and oV-line actions, whilst regions in the dorsal visual stream mediate the on-line visual control of action. Strong evidence for this model comes from a patient (DF), who suffers from visual form agnosia after bilateral damage to the ventro-lateral occipital region, sparing V1. It has been reported that she is normal in immediate reaching and grasping, yet severely impaired when asked to perform delayed actions. Here we investigated whether this dissociation would extend to saccade execution. Neurophysiological studies and TMS work in humans have shown that the posterior parietal cortex (PPC), on the right in particular (supposedly spared in DF), is involved in the control of memory-guided saccades. Surprisingly though, we found that, just as reported for reaching and grasping, DF's saccadic accuracy was much reduced in the memory compared to the stimulus-guided condition. These data support the idea of a tight coupling of eye and hand movements and further suggest that dorsal stream structures may not be sufficient to drive memory-guided saccadic performance.
Ambati, V N Pradeep; Saucedo, Fabricio; Murray, Nicholas G; Powell, Douglas W; Reed-Jones, Rebecca J
Walking and turning is a movement that places individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) at increased risk for fall-related injury. However, turning is an essential movement in activities of daily living, making up to 45 % of the total steps taken in a given day. Hypotheses regarding how turning is controlled suggest an essential role of anticipatory eye movements to provide feedforward information for body coordination. However, little research has investigated control of turning in individuals with PD with specific consideration for eye movements. The purpose of this study was to examine eye movement behavior and body segment coordination in individuals with PD during walking turns. Three experimental groups, a group of individuals with PD, a group of healthy young adults (YAC), and a group of healthy older adults (OAC), performed walking and turning tasks under two visual conditions: free gaze and fixed gaze. Whole-body motion capture and eye tracking characterized body segment coordination and eye movement behavior during walking trials. Statistical analysis revealed significant main effects of group (PD, YAC, and OAC) and visual condition (free and fixed gaze) on timing of segment rotation and horizontal eye movement. Within group comparisons, revealed timing of eye and head movement was significantly different between the free and fixed gaze conditions for YAC (p 0.05). In addition, while intersegment timings (reflecting segment coordination) were significantly different for YAC and OAC during free gaze (p training programs for those with PD, possibly promoting better coordination during turning and potentially reducing the risk of falls.
Dalewski, Mariusz; Fillon, Maelys; Bivolarova, Maria
environment facially applied individually controlled air movement of room air, with or without local filtering, did not have significant impact on eye blink frequency and tear film quality. The local air movement and air cleaning resulted in increased eye blinking frequency and improvement of tear film......The performance of ductless personalized ventilation (DPV) in conjunction with displacement ventilation (DV) was studied in relation to peoples’ health, comfort and performance. This paper presents results on the impact of room air temperature, using of DPV and local air filtration on eye blink...
Mao, Xia; Li, Zheng
The manner of a person's eye movement conveys much about nonverbal information and emotional intent beyond speech. This paper describes work on expressing emotion through eye behaviors in virtual agents based on the parameters selected from the AU-Coded facial expression database and real-time eye movement data (pupil size, blink rate and saccade). A rule-based approach to generate primary (joyful, sad, angry, afraid, disgusted and surprise) and intermediate emotions (emotions that can be represented as the mixture of two primary emotions) utilized the MPEG4 FAPs (facial animation parameters) is introduced. Meanwhile, based on our research, a scripting tool, named EEMML (Emotional Eye Movement Markup Language) that enables authors to describe and generate emotional eye movement of virtual agents, is proposed.
Full Text Available Eye and hand movement tracking has been proven to be a successful tool and is widely used to figure out characteristics of human cognition in language or visual processing (Just & Carpenter, 1976 Cognitive Psychology 8441–480. Eye movement has proven to be a successful measure to figure out characteristics of human language and visual processing (Rayner, 1998 Psychological Bulletin 124(3 372–422. Recently, mouse tracking was used for social-cognition-like categorization of sex-atypical faces and studying spoken-language processes (Magnuson, 2005 PNAS 102(28 9995–9996; Spivey et al., 2005 PNAS 102 10393–10398. Here, we present a framework that uses both eye gaze and hand movement simultaneously for analyzing the relation of them during memory retrieval. We tracked eye and mouse movements when the subject was watching a drama and playing a multimodal memory game (MMG, a cognitive task designed to investigate the recall memory mechanisms in watching video dramas (Zhang, 2009 AAAI 2009 Spring Symposium: Agents that Learn from Human Teachers 144–149. Experimental results show that eye tracking and mouse tracking provide complementary information about underlying cognitive processes. Also, we found some interesting patterns in eye-hand movement during multimodal memory recall.
Massing, Matthias; Blandin, Yannick; Panzer, Stefan
An experiment investigated the influence of eye movements on learning a simple motor sequence task when the visual display was magnified. The task was to reproduce a 1300 ms spatial-temporal pattern of elbow flexions and extensions. The spatial-temporal pattern was displayed in front of the participants. Participants were randomly assigned to four groups differing on eye movements (free to use their eyes/instructed to fixate) and the visual display (small/magnified). All participants had to perform a pre-test, an acquisition phase, a delayed retention test, and a transfer test. The results indicated that participants in each practice condition increased their performance during acquisition. The participants who were permitted to use their eyes in the magnified visual display outperformed those who were instructed to fixate on the magnified visual display. When a small visual display was used, the instruction to fixate induced no performance decrements compared to participants who were permitted to use their eyes during acquisition. The findings demonstrated that a spatial-temporal pattern can be learned without eye movements, but being permitting to use eye movements facilitates the response production when the visual angle is increased. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Spering, Miriam; Pomplun, Marc; Carrasco, Marisa
Can people react to objects in their visual field that they do not consciously perceive? We investigated how visual perception and motor action respond to moving objects whose visibility is reduced, and we found a dissociation between motion processing for perception and for action. We compared motion perception and eye movements evoked by two orthogonally drifting gratings, each presented separately to a different eye. The strength of each monocular grating was manipulated by inducing adaptation to one grating prior to the presentation of both gratings. Reflexive eye movements tracked the vector average of both gratings (pattern motion) even though perceptual responses followed one motion direction exclusively (component motion). Observers almost never perceived pattern motion. This dissociation implies the existence of visual-motion signals that guide eye movements in the absence of a corresponding conscious percept.
Full Text Available A variety of nervous system components such as medulla, pons, midbrain, cerebellum, basal ganglia, parietal, frontal and occipital lobes have role in Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR processes. The eye movement is done simultaneously for attracting client's attention to an external stimulus while concentrating on a certain internal subject. Eye movement guided by therapist is the most common attention stimulus. The role of eye movement has been documented previously in relation with cognitive processing mechanisms. A series of systemic experiments have shown that the eyes’ spontaneous movement is associated with emotional and cognitive changes and results in decreased excitement, .exibility in attention, memory processing, and enhanced semantic recalling. Eye movement also decreases the memory's image clarity and the accompanying excitement. By using EMDR, we can reach some parts of memory which were inaccessible before and also emotionally intolerable. Various researches emphasize on the effectiveness of EMDR in treating and curing phobias, pains, and dependent personality disorders. Consequently, due to the involvement of multiple neural system components, this palliative method of treatment can also help to rehabilitate the neuro-cognitive system.
Wertheim, E H; Habib, C; Cumming, G
Bandler and Grinder's hypothesis that eye-movements reflect sensory processing was examined. 28 volunteers first memorized and then recalled visual, auditory, and kinesthetic stimuli. Changes in eye-positions during recall were videotaped and categorized by two raters into positions hypothesized by Bandler and Grinder's model to represent visual, auditory, and kinesthetic recall. Planned contrast analyses suggested that visual stimulus items, when recalled, elicited significantly more upward eye-positions and stares than auditory and kinesthetic items. Auditory and kinesthetic items, however, did not elicit more changes in eye-position hypothesized by the model to represent auditory and kinesthetic recall, respectively.
Moster, Stephen; Wilson, James A; Galetta, Steven L; Balcer, Laura J
We investigated the King-Devick (K-D) test of rapid number naming as a visual performance measure in a cohort of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). In this cross-sectional study, 81 patients with MS and 20 disease-free controls from an ongoing study of visual outcomes underwent K-D testing. A test of rapid number naming, K-D requires saccadic eye movements as well as intact vision, attention and concentration. To perform the K-D test, participants are asked to read numbers aloud as quickly as possible from three test cards; the sum of the three test card times in seconds constitutes the summary score. High-contrast visual acuity (VA), low-contrast letter acuity (1.25% and 2.5% levels), retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness by optical coherence tomography (OCT), MS Functional Composite (MSFC) and vision-specific quality of life (QOL) measures (25-Item NEI Visual Functioning Questionnaire [NEI-VFQ-25] and 10-Item Neuro-Ophthalmic Supplement) were also assessed. K-D time scores in the MS cohort (total time to read the three test cards) were significantly higher (worse) compared to those for disease-free controls (P=0.003, linear regression, accounting for age). Within the MS cohort, higher K-D scores were associated with worse scores for the NEI-VFQ-25 composite (Paccounting for age and within-patient, inter-eye correlations). Patients with a history of optic neuritis (ON) had increased (worse) K-D scores. Patients who classified their work disability status as disabled (receiving disability pension) did worse on K-D testing compared to those working full-time (P=0.001, accounting for age). The K-D test, a work disability as well as structural changes as measured by OCT imaging. History of ON and abnormal binocular acuities were associated with worse K-D scores, suggesting that abnormalities detected by K-D may go along with afferent dysfunction in MS patients. A brief test that requires saccadic eye movements, K-D should be considered for future MS trials as
Paeye, Celine; Madelain, Laurent
Saccadic endpoint variability is often viewed as the outcome of neural noise occurring during sensorimotor processing. However, part of this variability might result from operant learning. We tested this hypothesis by reinforcing dispersions of saccadic amplitude distributions, while maintaining constant their medians. In a first experiment we…
Ettenhofer, Mark L; Hershaw, Jamie N; Barry, David M
Computerized cognitive tests measuring manual response time (RT) and errors are often used in the assessment of visual attention. Evidence suggests that saccadic RT and errors may also provide valuable information about attention. This study was conducted to examine a novel approach to multimodal assessment of visual attention incorporating concurrent measurements of saccadic eye movements and manual responses. A computerized cognitive task, the Bethesda Eye & Attention Measure (BEAM) v.34, was designed to evaluate key attention networks through concurrent measurement of saccadic and manual RT and inhibition errors. Results from a community sample of n = 54 adults were analyzed to examine effects of BEAM attention cues on manual and saccadic RT and inhibition errors, internal reliability of BEAM metrics, relationships between parallel saccadic and manual metrics, and relationships of BEAM metrics to demographic characteristics. Effects of BEAM attention cues (alerting, orienting, interference, gap, and no-go signals) were consistent with previous literature examining key attention processes. However, corresponding saccadic and manual measurements were weakly related to each other, and only manual measurements were related to estimated verbal intelligence or years of education. This study provides preliminary support for the feasibility of multimodal assessment of visual attention using the BEAM. Results suggest that BEAM saccadic and manual metrics provide divergent measurements. Additional research will be needed to obtain comprehensive normative data, to cross-validate BEAM measurements with other indicators of neural and cognitive function, and to evaluate the utility of these metrics within clinical populations of interest.
Ito, J.; Nikolaev, A.R.; Luman, M.; Aukes, M.F.; Nakatani, C.; Leeuwen, C.
According to a widely cited finding by Ellis and Stark (1978 Perception 7 575-581), the duration of eye fixations is longer at the instant of perceptual reversal of an ambiguous figure than before or after the reversal. However, long fixations are more likely to include samples of an independent
Brielmann, Aenne A; Spering, Miriam
Reward modulates behavioral choices and biases goal-oriented behavior, such as eye or hand movements, toward locations or stimuli associated with higher rewards. We investigated reward effects on the accuracy and timing of smooth pursuit eye movements in 4 experiments. Eye movements were recorded in participants tracking a moving visual target on a computer monitor. Before target motion onset, a monetary reward cue indicated whether participants could earn money by tracking accurately, or whether the trial was unrewarded (Experiments 1 and 2, n = 11 each). Reward significantly improved eye-movement accuracy across different levels of task difficulty. Improvements were seen even in the earliest phase of the eye movement, within 70 ms of tracking onset, indicating that reward impacts visual-motor processing at an early level. We obtained similar findings when reward was not precued but explicitly associated with the pursuit target (Experiment 3, n = 16); critically, these results were not driven by stimulus prevalence or other factors such as preparation or motivation. Numerical cues (Experiment 4, n = 9) were not effective. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Cardea, Etzel; Nordhjem, Barbara; Marcusson-Clavertz, David; Holmqvist, Kenneth
Responsiveness to hypnotic procedures has been related to unusual eye behaviors for centuries. Kallio and collaborators claimed recently that they had found a reliable index for "the hypnotic state" through eye-tracking methods. Whether or not hypnotic responding involves a special state of
Simonsz, H. J.; Bour, L. J.
In the subjective measurement of fixation disparity (FD), the subject fuses contours presented in the peripheral macular areas of both eyes (fusion lock). The position of the eyes relative to each other is monitored by means of two haploscopically seen vertical lines presented in the central macular
A Cross-sectional Survey and Cross-sectional Clinical Trial to Determine the Prevalence and Management of Eye Movement Disorders and Vestibular Dysfunction in Post-Stroke Patients in the Sub-Acute Phase: Protocol.
van Wyk, Andoret; Eksteen, Carina A; Becker, Piet J; Heinze, Barbara M
Visual impairment, specifically eye movement disorders and vestibular dysfunction may have a negative influence on the functional recovery in post-stroke patients. This type of sensory dysfunction may further be associated with poor functional outcome in patients' post-stroke. In phase 1, a cross-sectional survey ( n = 100) will be conducted to determine the prevalence of eye movement disorders and vestibular dysfunction in patients who sustained a stroke. A cross-sectional clinical trial ( n = 60) will be conducted during phase 2 of the study to determine the effect of the combination of vestibular rehabilitation therapy (VRT) and visual scanning exercises (VSE) (experimental group) integrated with task-specific activities compared with the effect of task-specific activities as an intervention (control group) on patients who present with eye movement impairment and central vestibular dysfunction post-stroke. An audiologist will assess (a) visual acuity (static and dynamic), (b) nystagmus, (c) saccadic eye movements, (d) smooth pursuit eye movements, (e) vestibulo-ocular reflex, and (f) saccular, utricular, and vestibular nerve function. An independent physiotherapist will assess (1) cognitive function, (2) residual oculomotor visual performance, (3) visual-perceptual system, (4) functional balance, (5) gait, (6) functional ability, (7) presence of anxiety and/or depression, and (8) level of participation in physical activity. Ethics approval has been obtained from the Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Health Sciences at the University of Pretoria (UP) (374/2015). The study will be submitted as fulfillment for the PhD degree at UP. Dissemination will include submission to peer-reviewed professional journals and presentation at congresses. Training of rehabilitation team members on the integration of VSE and VRT into task-specific activities in rehabilitation will be done if the outcome of the experimental group's functional performance is clinically and
Phukpattaranont Pornchai; Aungsakul Siriwadee; Phinyomark Angkoon; Limsakul Chusak
Electrooculography (EOG) signal is widely and successfully used to detect activities of human eye. The advantages of the EOG-based interface over other conventional interfaces have been presented in the last two decades; however, due to a lot of information in EOG signals, the extraction of useful features should be done before the classification task. In this study, an efficient feature extracted from two directional EOG signals: vertical and horizontal si...
Churchland, Mark M; Chou, I-Han; Lisberger, Stephen G
We recorded the smooth-pursuit eye movements of monkeys in response to targets that were extinguished (blinked) for 200 ms in mid-trajectory. Eye velocity declined considerably during the target blinks, even when the blinks were completely predictable in time and space. Eye velocity declined whether blinks were presented during steady-state pursuit of a constant-velocity target, during initiation of pursuit before target velocity was reached, or during eye accelerations induced by a change in target velocity. When a physical occluder covered the trajectory of the target during blinks, creating the impression that the target moved behind it, the decline in eye velocity was reduced or abolished. If the target was occluded once the eye had reached target velocity, pursuit was only slightly poorer than normal, uninterrupted pursuit. In contrast, if the target was occluded during the initiation of pursuit, while the eye was accelerating toward target velocity, pursuit during occlusion was very different from normal pursuit. Eye velocity remained relatively stable during target occlusion, showing much less acceleration than normal pursuit and much less of a decline than was produced by a target blink. Anticipatory or predictive eye acceleration was typically observed just prior to the reappearance of the target. Computer simulations show that these results are best understood by assuming that a mechanism of eye-velocity memory remains engaged during target occlusion but is disengaged during target blinks.
Neta, Maital; Dodd, Michael D
Although some facial expressions provide clear information about people's emotions and intentions (happy, angry), others (surprise) are ambiguous because they can signal both positive (e.g., surprise party) and negative outcomes (e.g., witnessing an accident). Without a clarifying context, surprise is interpreted as positive by some and negative by others, and this valence bias is stable across time. When compared to fearful expressions, which are consistently rated as negative, surprise and fear share similar morphological features (e.g., widened eyes) primarily in the upper part of the face. Recently, we demonstrated that the valence bias was associated with a specific pattern of eye movements (positive bias associated with faster fixation to the lower part of the face). In this follow-up, we identified two participants from our previous study who had the most positive and most negative valence bias. We used their eye movements to create a moving window such that new participants viewed faces through the eyes of one our previous participants (subjects saw only the areas of the face that were directly fixated by the original participants in the exact order they were fixated; i.e., Simulated Eye-movement Experience). The input provided by these windows modulated the valence ratings of surprise, but not fear faces. These findings suggest there are meaningful individual differences in how people process faces, and that these differences impact our emotional perceptions. Furthermore, this study is unique in its approach to examining individual differences in emotion by creating a new methodology adapted from those used primarily in the vision/attention domain. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
O'Rielly, Jessica L; Ma-Wyatt, Anna
Goal directed movements are typically accompanied by a saccade to the target location. Online control plays an important part in correction of a reach, especially if the target or goal of the reach moves during the reach. While there are notable changes to visual processing and motor control with healthy ageing, there is limited evidence about how eye-hand coordination during online updating changes with healthy ageing. We sought to quantify differences between older and younger people for eye-hand coordination during online updating. Participants completed a double step reaching task implemented under time pressure. The target perturbation could occur 200, 400 and 600 ms into a reach. We measured eye position and hand position throughout the trials to investigate changes to saccade latency, movement latency, movement time, reach characteristics and eye-hand latency and accuracy. Both groups were able to update their reach in response to a target perturbation that occurred at 200 or 400 ms into the reach. All participants demonstrated incomplete online updating for the 600 ms perturbation time. Saccade latencies, measured from the first target presentation, were generally longer for older participants. Older participants had significantly increased movement times but there was no significant difference between groups for touch accuracy. We speculate that the longer movement times enable the use of new visual information about the target location for online updating towards the end of the movement. Interestingly, older participants also produced a greater proportion of secondary saccades within the target perturbation condition and had generally shorter eye-hand latencies. This is perhaps a compensatory mechanism as there was no significant group effect on final saccade accuracy. Overall, the pattern of results suggests that online control of movements may be qualitatively different in older participants. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V. All
proportional dwell time OTW in order to assess the impact of novel cockpit instruments on situational awareness in nearby airspace (Cote, Krueger, & Simmons...frequency. In particular, Spady (1978) examined eye movements during simulated landing approach under instrument flight rules ( IFR ). Simulated turbulence...al. (2007) found that NNI varied across phases of simulated IFR flight, showing the least random (most clustered) distribution of fixations during
Colas , Francis; Bessière , Pierre; Girard , Benoît
International audience; In this article, we investigate the issue of the selection of eye movements in a free-eye Multiple Object Tracking task. We propose a Bayesian model of retinotopic maps with a complex logarithmic mapping. This model is structured in two parts: a representation of the visual scene, and a decision model based on the representation. We compare different decision models based on different features of the representation and we show that taking into account uncertainty helps...
Spering, Miriam; Pomplun, Marc; Carrasco, Marisa
Can people react to objects in their visual field that they do not consciously perceive? We investigated how visual perception and motor action respond to moving objects whose visibility is reduced, and we found a dissociation between motion processing for perception and for action. We compared motion perception and eye movements evoked by two orthogonally drifting gratings, each presented separately to a different eye. The strength of each monocular grating was manipulated by inducing adapta...
Barton, Ellen J.; Sparks, David L.
Constant frequency microstimulation of the paramedian pontine reticular formation (PPRF) in head-restrained monkeys evokes a constant velocity eye movement. Since the PPRF receives significant projections from structures that control coordinated eye-head movements, we asked whether stimulation of the pontine reticular formation in the head-unrestrained animal generates a combined eye-head movement or only an eye movement. Microstimulation of most sites yielded a constant-velocity gaze shift executed as a coordinated eye-head movement, although eye-only movements were evoked from some sites. The eye and head contributions to the stimulation-evoked movements varied across stimulation sites and were drastically different from the lawful relationship observed for visually-guided gaze shifts. These results indicate that the microstimulation activated elements that issued movement commands to the extraocular and, for most sites, neck motoneurons. In addition, the stimulation-evoked changes in gaze were similar in the head-restrained and head-unrestrained conditions despite the assortment of eye and head contributions, suggesting that the vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) gain must be near unity during the coordinated eye-head movements evoked by stimulation of the PPRF. These findings contrast the attenuation of VOR gain associated with visually-guided gaze shifts and suggest that the vestibulo-ocular pathway processes volitional and PPRF stimulation-evoked gaze shifts differently. PMID:18458891
Coco, Moreno I; Keller, Frank
The role of the task has received special attention in visual-cognition research because it can provide causal explanations of goal-directed eye-movement responses. The dependency between visual attention and task suggests that eye movements can be used to classify the task being performed. A recent study by Greene, Liu, and Wolfe (2012), however, fails to achieve accurate classification of visual tasks based on eye-movement features. In the present study, we hypothesize that tasks can be successfully classified when they differ with respect to the involvement of other cognitive domains, such as language processing. We extract the eye-movement features used by Greene et al. as well as additional features from the data of three different tasks: visual search, object naming, and scene description. First, we demonstrated that eye-movement responses make it possible to characterize the goals of these tasks. Then, we trained three different types of classifiers and predicted the task participants performed with an accuracy well above chance (a maximum of 88% for visual search). An analysis of the relative importance of features for classification accuracy reveals that just one feature, i.e., initiation time, is sufficient for above-chance performance (a maximum of 79% accuracy in object naming). Crucially, this feature is independent of task duration, which differs systematically across the three tasks we investigated. Overall, the best task classification performance was obtained with a set of seven features that included both spatial information (e.g., entropy of attention allocation) and temporal components (e.g., total fixation on objects) of the eye-movement record. This result confirms the task-dependent allocation of visual attention and extends previous work by showing that task classification is possible when tasks differ in the cognitive processes involved (purely visual tasks such as search vs. communicative tasks such as scene description).
Kim, Keun Tae; Motamedi, Gholam K; Cho, Yong Won
There have been few quality of life studies in patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. We compared the quality of life in idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder patients to healthy controls, patients with hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus without complication and idiopathic restless legs syndrome. Sixty patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder (24 female; mean age: 61.43 ± 8.99) were enrolled retrospectively. The diagnosis was established based on sleep history, overnight polysomnography, neurological examination and Mini-Mental State Examination to exclude secondary rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. All subjects completed questionnaires, including the Short Form 36-item Health Survey for quality of life. The total quality of life score in idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder (70.63 ± 20.83) was lower than in the healthy control group (83.38 ± 7.96) but higher than in the hypertension (60.55 ± 24.82), diabetes mellitus (62.42 ± 19.37) and restless legs syndrome (61.77 ± 19.25) groups. The total score of idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder patients had a negative correlation with the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (r = -0.498, P sleep behaviour disorder had a significant negative impact on quality of life, although this effect was less than that of other chronic disorders. This negative effect might be related to a depressive mood associated with the disease. © 2016 European Sleep Research Society.
Chuk, Tim; Crookes, Kate; Hayward, William G; Chan, Antoni B; Hsiao, Janet H
It remains controversial whether culture modulates eye movement behavior in face recognition. Inconsistent results have been reported regarding whether cultural differences in eye movement patterns exist, whether these differences affect recognition performance, and whether participants use similar eye movement patterns when viewing faces from different ethnicities. These inconsistencies may be due to substantial individual differences in eye movement patterns within a cultural group. Here we addressed this issue by conducting individual-level eye movement data analysis using hidden Markov models (HMMs). Each individual's eye movements were modeled with an HMM. We clustered the individual HMMs according to their similarities and discovered three common patterns in both Asian and Caucasian participants: holistic (looking mostly at the face center), left-eye-biased analytic (looking mostly at the two individual eyes in addition to the face center with a slight bias to the left eye), and right-eye-based analytic (looking mostly at the right eye in addition to the face center). The frequency of participants adopting the three patterns did not differ significantly between Asians and Caucasians, suggesting little modulation from culture. Significantly more participants (75%) showed similar eye movement patterns when viewing own- and other-race faces than different patterns. Most importantly, participants with left-eye-biased analytic patterns performed significantly better than those using either holistic or right-eye-biased analytic patterns. These results suggest that active retrieval of facial feature information through an analytic eye movement pattern may be optimal for face recognition regardless of culture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available When we explore a visual scene, our eyes make saccades to jump rapidly from one area to another and fixate regions of interest to extract useful information. While the role of fixation eye movements in vision has been widely studied, their random nature has been a hitherto neglected issue. Here we conducted two experiments to examine the Maxwellian nature of eye movements during fixation. In Experiment 1, eight participants were asked to perform free viewing of natural scenes displayed on a computer screen while their eye movements were recorded. For each participant, the probability density function (PDF of eye movement amplitude during fixation obeyed the law established by Maxwell for describing molecule velocity in gas. Only the mean amplitude of eye movements varied with expertise, which was lower in experts than novice participants. In Experiment 2, two participants underwent fixed time, free viewing of natural scenes and of their scrambled version while their eye movements were recorded. Again, the PDF of eye movement amplitude during fixation obeyed Maxwell’s law for each participant and for each scene condition (normal or scrambled. The results suggest that eye fixation during natural scene perception describes a random motion regardless of top-down or of bottom-up processes.
Duchesne, Jean; Bouvier, Vincent; Guillemé, Julien; Coubard, Olivier A.
When we explore a visual scene, our eyes make saccades to jump rapidly from one area to another and fixate regions of interest to extract useful information. While the role of fixation eye movements in vision has been widely studied, their random nature has been a hitherto neglected issue. Here we conducted two experiments to examine the Maxwellian nature of eye movements during fixation. In Experiment 1, eight participants were asked to perform free viewing of natural scenes displayed on a computer screen while their eye movements were recorded. For each participant, the probability density function (PDF) of eye movement amplitude during fixation obeyed the law established by Maxwell for describing molecule velocity in gas. Only the mean amplitude of eye movements varied with expertise, which was lower in experts than novice participants. In Experiment 2, two participants underwent fixed time, free viewing of natural scenes and of their scrambled version while their eye movements were recorded. Again, the PDF of eye movement amplitude during fixation obeyed Maxwell's law for each participant and for each scene condition (normal or scrambled). The results suggest that eye fixation during natural scene perception describes a random motion regardless of top-down or of bottom-up processes. PMID:23226987
Zambarbieri, Daniela; Carniglia, Elena
To compare eye movements during silent reading of three eBooks and a printed book. The three different eReading tools were a desktop PC, iPad tablet and Kindle eReader. Video-oculographic technology was used for recording eye movements. In the case of reading from the computer display the recordings were made by a video camera placed below the computer screen, whereas for reading from the iPad tablet, eReader and printed book the recording system was worn by the subject and had two cameras: one for recording the movement of the eyes and the other for recording the scene in front of the subject. Data analysis provided quantitative information in terms of number of fixations, their duration, and the direction of the movement, the latter to distinguish between fixations and regressions. Mean fixation duration was different only in reading from the computer display, and was similar for the Tablet, eReader and printed book. The percentage of regressions with respect to the total amount of fixations was comparable for eReading tools and the printed book. The analysis of eye movements during reading an eBook from different eReading tools suggests that subjects' reading behaviour is similar to reading from a printed book. © 2012 The College of Optometrists.
Souza, Felipe Marques Lucas de; Gonçalves, Odair Dias; Cardoso, Simone Coutinho, E-mail: email@example.com [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Batista, Delano V.S. [Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
This study aims to analyze the eye’s movement during radiotherapy treatment for choroidal melanoma, as well as the methodology used in the repositioning of the patient between treatments sessions. For this purpose, the procedures used by the hospital staff were analyzed on site and videos were recorded during the treatments. The methodology for the fixation of the eye is correct in its objective. However, the repositioning needs improvements in its reproducibility. It is recommended the study to fix the eye by the healthy eye and the feasibility study for the development of a software that assists in patient repositioning. (author)
Souza, Felipe Marques Lucas de; Gonçalves, Odair Dias; Cardoso, Simone Coutinho; Batista, Delano V.S.
This study aims to analyze the eye’s movement during radiotherapy treatment for choroidal melanoma, as well as the methodology used in the repositioning of the patient between treatments sessions. For this purpose, the procedures used by the hospital staff were analyzed on site and videos were recorded during the treatments. The methodology for the fixation of the eye is correct in its objective. However, the repositioning needs improvements in its reproducibility. It is recommended the study to fix the eye by the healthy eye and the feasibility study for the development of a software that assists in patient repositioning. (author)
Souza, F. M. L.; Gonçalves, O. D.; Batista, D. V. S.; Cardoso, S. C.
This study aims to analyse the eye’s movement during radiotherapy treatment for choroidal melanoma, as well as the methodology used in the repositioning of the patient between treatments sessions. For this purpose, the procedures used by the hospital staff were analysed on site and videos were recorded during the treatments. The methodology for the fixation of the eye is correct in its objective. However, the repositioning needs improvements in its reproducibility. It is recommended the study to fix the eye by the healthy eye and the feasibility study for the development of a software that assists in patient repositioning.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In humans, rapid eye movements (REM density during REM sleep plays a prominent role in psychiatric diseases. Especially in depression, an increased REM density is a vulnerability marker for depression. In clinical practice and research measurement of REM density is highly standardized. In basic animal research, almost no tools are available to obtain and systematically evaluate eye movement data, although, this would create increased comparability between human and animal sleep studies. Methods We obtained standardized electroencephalographic (EEG, electromyographic (EMG and electrooculographic (EOG signals from freely behaving mice. EOG electrodes were bilaterally and chronically implanted with placement of the electrodes directly between the musculus rectus superior and musculus rectus lateralis. After recovery, EEG, EMG and EOG signals were obtained for four days. Subsequent to the implantation process, we developed and validated an Eye Movement scoring in Mice Algorithm (EMMA to detect REM as singularities of the EOG signal, based on wavelet methodology. Results The distribution of wakefulness, non-REM (NREM sleep and rapid eye movement (REM sleep was typical of nocturnal rodents with small amounts of wakefulness and large amounts of NREM sleep during the light period and reversed proportions during the dark period. REM sleep was distributed correspondingly. REM density was significantly higher during REM sleep than NREM sleep. REM bursts were detected more often at the end of the dark period than the beginning of the light period. During REM sleep REM density showed an ultradian course, and during NREM sleep REM density peaked at the beginning of the dark period. Concerning individual eye movements, REM duration was longer and amplitude was lower during REM sleep than NREM sleep. The majority of single REM and REM bursts were associated with micro-arousals during NREM sleep, but not during REM sleep. Conclusions Sleep
Liu, Ye; Zhu, Xiao-Ying; Zhang, Xiao-Jin; Kuo, Sheng-Han; Ondo, William G.; Wu, Yun-Cheng
Background Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and Parkinson’s disease (PD) are two distinct clinical diseases but they share some common pathological and anatomical characteristics. This study aims to confirm the clinical features of RBD in Chinese PD patients. Methods One hundred fifty PD patients were enrolled from the Parkinson`s disease and Movement Disorders Center in Department of Neurology, Shanghai General Hospital from January 2013 to August 2014. This study examined P...
Nummenmaa, Lauri; Hyönä, Jukka; Calvo, Manuel G
The eye-tracking method was used to assess attentional orienting to and engagement on emotional visual scenes. In Experiment 1, unpleasant, neutral, or pleasant target pictures were presented simultaneously with neutral control pictures in peripheral vision under instruction to compare pleasantness of the pictures. The probability of first fixating an emotional picture, and the frequency of subsequent fixations, were greater than those for neutral pictures. In Experiment 2, participants were instructed to avoid looking at the emotional pictures, but these were still more likely to be fixated first and gazed longer during the first-pass viewing than neutral pictures. Low-level visual features cannot explain the results. It is concluded that overt visual attention is captured by both unpleasant and pleasant emotional content. 2006 APA, all rights reserved
In an experiment to simulate the perception task of a driver, subjects were shown uninterrupted series of colour slides of different kinds of highway scenes. The dependent variables were eye fixations, fixation times and conscious perceptions for the part of the traffic signs and roadside advertisements. Perceptions were achieved mostly as a result of fixation, but partly also by using peripheral vision. On the other hand fixation did not always cause perception. The lengthening of fixation time increased the number of correct perceptions. When the traffic sign and the roadside advertisement were in the same slide, the advertisement disturbed the perception of the sign, but in the daylight conditions this effect was not noticed as an alteration of the fixation of the sign, but as prevention of further information processing. The disturbing influence of the advertisement was increased by its bad information ergonomics which caused a long fixation time.
Abdelkader Nasreddine Belkacem
Full Text Available EEG-controlled gaming applications range widely from strictly medical to completely nonmedical applications. Games can provide not only entertainment but also strong motivation for practicing, thereby achieving better control with rehabilitation system. In this paper we present real-time control of video game with eye movements for asynchronous and noninvasive communication system using two temporal EEG sensors. We used wavelets to detect the instance of eye movement and time-series characteristics to distinguish between six classes of eye movement. A control interface was developed to test the proposed algorithm in real-time experiments with opened and closed eyes. Using visual feedback, a mean classification accuracy of 77.3% was obtained for control with six commands. And a mean classification accuracy of 80.2% was obtained using auditory feedback for control with five commands. The algorithm was then applied for controlling direction and speed of character movement in two-dimensional video game. Results showed that the proposed algorithm had an efficient response speed and timing with a bit rate of 30 bits/min, demonstrating its efficacy and robustness in real-time control.
Bos, J. E.; van der Bles, W.; de Graaf, B.
Background: In the search for parameters to predict motion sickness that can be measured in the laboratory, we performed a longitudinal investigation in aviators. Since the vestibular system is involved in the generation of motion sickness as well as eye movements, vestibuloocular reflex (VOR)
Bos, J.E.; Bles, W.; Graaf, B. de
Background: In the search for parameters to predict motion sickness that can be measured in the laboratory, we performed a longitudinal investigation in aviators. Since the vestibular system is involved in the generation of motion sickness as well as eye movements, vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR)
Sleep and wakefulness are instinctive behaviours that are present across the animal species. Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is a unique biological phenomenon expressed during sleep. It evolved about 300 million years ago and is noticed in the more evolved animal species. Although it has been objectively identified ...
In the framework of an artistic-scientific project on eye-movements during reading, my collaborators from the psychology department at the KU Leuven and I had a close look at the poem "Un coup de dés jamais n'abolira le hasard" ("A throw of the dice will never abolish chance") by Stéphane Mallarmé. The poem is an intriguing example of nonlinear writing, of a typographic game with white and space, and of an interweaving of different reading lines. These specific features evoke multiple reading methods. The animation, Movement in Un coup de dés, created during the still-ongoing collaboration interweaves a horizontal and a vertical reading method, two spontaneous ways of reading that point at the poem's intriguing ambiguity. Not only are we interested in different methods of reading; the scientific representations of eye movements themselves are a rich source of images with much artistic potential. We explore eye movements as "eye drawings" in new images characterized both by a scientific and by an artistic perspective.
Full Text Available In the framework of an artistic–scientific project on eye-movements during reading, my collaborators from the psychology department at the KU Leuven and I had a close look at the poem “Un coup de dés jamais n'abolira le hasard” (“A throw of the dice will never abolish chance” by Stéphane Mallarmé. The poem is an intriguing example of nonlinear writing, of a typographic game with white and space, and of an interweaving of different reading lines. These specific features evoke multiple reading methods. The animation, Movement in Un coup de dés, created during the still-ongoing collaboration interweaves a horizontal and a vertical reading method, two spontaneous ways of reading that point at the poem's intriguing ambiguity. Not only are we interested in different methods of reading; the scientific representations of eye movements themselves are a rich source of images with much artistic potential. We explore eye movements as “eye drawings” in new images characterized both by a scientific and by an artistic perspective.
Stokholm, Morten Gersel; Iranzo, Alex; Østergaard, Karen
BACKGROUND: The majority of patients diagnosed with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder (iRBD) progress over time to a Lewy-type α-synucleinopathy such as Parkinson's disease or dementia with Lewy bodies. This in vivo molecular imaging study aimed to investigate if extrastriatal...
The flow of activation from concepts to phonological forms within the word production system was examined in 3 experiments. In Experiment 1, participants named pictures while ignoring superimposed distractor pictures that were semantically related, phonologically related, or unrelated. Eye movements and naming latencies were recorded. The…
Bosse, Marie-Line; Kandel, Sonia; Prado, Chloé; Valdois, Sylviane
This research investigated whether text reading and copying involve visual attention-processing skills. Children in grades 3 and 5 read and copied the same text. We measured eye movements while reading and the number of gaze lifts (GL) during copying. The children were also administered letter report tasks that constitute an estimation of the…
These findings indicate that the patients exhibited similar eye-movement patterns to that of the controls when processing definitional-gender nouns. However, unlike controls, they failed to use contextual gender information to revise gender stereotypes. These patterns support the LIDH.
Zoetmulder, Marielle; Jennum, Poul Jørgen
Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) is characterized by loss of REM sleep and related electromyographic atonia with marked muscular activity and dream enactment behaviour. RBD is seen in 0.5% of the population. It occurs in an idiopathic form and secondarily to medical and neu...
Evans, Mary Ann; Saint-Aubin, Jean
When preschoolers listen to storybooks, are their eye movements related to their vocabulary acquisition in this context? This study addressed this question with 36 four-year-old French-speaking participants by assessing their general receptive vocabulary knowledge and knowledge of low-frequency words in 3 storybooks. These books were read verbatim…
Barnes, Adrienne E.; Kim, Young-Suk; Tighe, Elizabeth L.; Vorstius, Christian
The present study explored the reading skills of a sample of 48 adults enrolled in a basic education program in northern Florida, United States. Previous research has reported on reading component skills for students in adult education settings, but little is known about eye movement patterns or their relation to reading skills for this…
Loerts, Hanneke; Wieling, Martijn; Schmid, Monika S.
Native speakers of languages with transparent gender systems can use gender cues to anticipate upcoming words. To examine whether this also holds true for a non-transparent two-way gender system, i.e. Dutch, eye movements were monitored as participants followed spoken instructions to click on one of
Zoetmulder, Marielle; Jennum, Poul Jørgen
Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) is characterized by loss of REM sleep and related electromyographic atonia with marked muscular activity and dream enactment behaviour. RBD is seen in 0.5% of the population. It occurs in an idiopathic form and secondarily to medical...
Olkoniemi, Henri; Ranta, Henri; Kaakinen, Johanna K.
The present study examined individual differences in the processing of different forms of figurative language. Sixty participants read sarcastic, metaphorical, and literal sentences embedded in story contexts while their eye movements were recorded, and responded to a text memory and an inference question after each story. Individual differences…
Lin, John Jr-Hung; Lin, Sunny S. J.
The present study investigated (a) whether the perceived cognitive load was different when geometry problems with various levels of configuration comprehension were solved and (b) whether eye movements in comprehending geometry problems showed sources of cognitive loads. In the first investigation, three characteristics of geometry configurations…
Kim, Seong-un; Lim, Sung-man; Kim, Eun-ae; Yang, Il-ho
This study is for the implication of editorial design in science textbooks which are designed for student-centered instruction, when the elements of the editorial design are different, we focus on how the students' eye movement and cognitive load change. For this, we produced a new book for 5th grade students in elementary school that is modified…
Pettorossi, V E; Errico, P; Ferraresi, A; Minciotti, M; Barmack, N H
Researchers investigated how vestibular and optokinetic signals alter the spatial transformation of the coordinate system that governs the spatial orientation of reflexive eye movements. Also examined were the effects of sensory stimulation when vestibular and optokinetic signals act synergistically and when the two signals are in conflict.
Luke, Steven G.; Nuthmann, Antje; Henderson, John M.
The present study used the stimulus onset delay paradigm to investigate eye movement control in reading and in scene viewing in a within-participants design. Short onset delays (0, 25, 50, 200, and 350 ms) were chosen to simulate the type of natural processing difficulty encountered in reading and scene viewing. Fixation duration increased…
Jarodzka, Halszka; Balslev, Thomas; Holmqvist, Kenneth; Nyström, Marcus; Scheiter, Katharina; Gerjets, Peter; Eika, Berit
Jarodzka, H., Balslev, T., Holmqvist, K., Nyström, M., Scheiter, K., Gerjets, P., & Eika, B. (2010). Learning perceptual aspects of diagnosis in medicine via eye movement modeling examples on patient video cases. In S. Ohlsson & R. Catrambone (Eds.), Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Conference of the
Jarodzka, Halszka; Balslev, Thomas; Holmqvist, Kenneth; Nyström, Marcus; Scheiter, Katharina; Gerjets, Peter; Eika, Berit
Jarodzka, H., Balslev, T., Holmqvist, K., Nyström, M., Scheiter, K., Gerjets, P., & Eika, B. (2010, August). Learning perceptual aspects of diagnosis in medicine via eye movement modeling examples on patient video cases. Poster presented at the 32nd Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science
Cornelissen, FW; Bruin, KJ; Kooijman, AC
Purpose. Fixation durations are normally adapted to the difficulty of the foveal analysis task. We examine to what extent artificial central and peripheral visual field defects interfere with this adaptation process. Methods. Subjects performed a visual search task while their eye movements were