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Sample records for sabin live poliovirus

  1. Decay of Sabin inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV)-boosted poliovirus antibodies.

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    Resik, Sonia; Tejeda, Alina; Fonseca, Magile; Sein, Carolyn; Hung, Lai Heng; Martinez, Yenisleidys; Diaz, Manuel; Okayasu, Hiromasa; Sutter, Roland W

    We conducted a follow-on study to a phase I randomized, controlled trial conducted in Cuba, 2012, to assess the persistence of poliovirus antibodies at 21-22 months following booster dose of Sabin-IPV compared to Salk-IPV in adults who had received multiple doses of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) during childhood. In 2012, 60 healthy adult males aged 19-23 were randomized to receive one booster dose, of either Sabin-inactivated poliovirus vaccine (Sabin-IPV), adjuvanted Sabin-IPV (aSabin-IPV), or conventional Salk-IPV. In the original study, blood was collected at days 0 (before) and 28 (after vaccination), respectively. In this study, an additional blood sample was collected 21-22 months after vaccination, and tested for neutralizing antibodies to Sabin poliovirus types 1, 2 and 3. We collected sera from 59/60 (98.3%) subjects; 59/59 (100%) remained seropositive to all poliovirus types, 21-22 months after vaccination. The decay curves were very similar among the study groups. Between day 28 and 21-22 months, there was a reduction of ⩾87.4% in median antibody levels for all poliovirus types in all study groups, with no significant differences between the study groups. The decay of poliovirus antibodies over a 21-22-month period was similar regardless of the type of booster vaccine used, suggesting the scientific data of Salk IPV long-term persistence and decay may be broadly applicable to Sabin IPV.

  2. Decay of Sabin inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV-boosted poliovirus antibodies

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    Sonia Resik

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: The decay of poliovirus antibodies over a 21–22-month period was similar regardless of the type of booster vaccine used, suggesting the scientific data of Salk IPV long-term persistence and decay may be broadly applicable to Sabin IPV.

  3. A novel multiplex poliovirus binding inhibition assay applicable for large serosurveillance and vaccine studies, without the use of live poliovirus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepp, Rutger M; Berbers, Guy A M; Ferreira, José A; Reimerink, Johan H; van der Klis, Fiona R

    2017-01-01

    Large-scale serosurveillance or vaccine studies for poliovirus using the "gold standard" WHO neutralisation test (NT) are very laborious and time consuming. With the polio eradication at hand and with the removal of live attenuated Sabin strains from the oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV), starting with

  4. Sabin and wild type polioviruses from children who presented with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    polioviruses will continue to increase in importance. Objective: Isolating and identifying poliovirus strains from children of pediatrics age in Nigeria. Methods: A total of 120 fecal samples were randomly collected from children under the age of five who ...

  5. Antigenic modification of attenuated Sabin type 1 poliovirus by in vitro passages at supraoptimal temperatures.

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    Crainic, R; Blondel, B; Candréa, A; Dufraisse, G; Horaud, F

    1985-01-01

    Mutants were selected from Sabin type 1 attenuated poliovirus (LSc2ab strain), capable of growing at a high temperature (39.5 degrees C). They proved to be neurovirulent for monkeys. No correlation was found between neurovirulence and antigenic structure in Sabin type 1 virus as demonstrated by the analysis of the neutralization epitope formulae of thermo-resistant, neurovirulent mutants derived from LSs2ab strain. The lack of correlation between the antigenic pattern of the virus and the virulence was also confirmed by a mutant resistant to neutralization with monoclonal antibodies derived from the wild Mahoney parent of the Sabin type 1 virus. This mutant continued to be neurovirulent in spite of the complete conversion of its neutralization epitope formula to the Sabin virus pattern.

  6. Innovative IPV from attenuated Sabin poliovirus or newly designed alternative seed strains.

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    Hamidi, Ahd; Bakker, Wilfried A M

    2012-11-01

    This article gives an overview of the patent literature related to innovative inactivated polio vaccine (i-IPV) based on using Sabin poliovirus strains and newly developed alternative recombinant poliovirus strains. This innovative approach for IPV manufacturing is considered to attribute to the requirement for affordable IPV in the post-polio-eradication era, which is on the horizon. Although IPV is a well-established vaccine, the number of patent applications in this field was seen to have significantly increased in the past decade. Currently, regular IPV appears to be too expensive for universal use. Future affordability may be achieved by using alternative cell lines, alternative virus seed strains, improved and optimized processes, dose sparing, or the use of adjuvants. A relatively short-term option to achieve cost-price reduction is to work on regular IPV, using wild-type poliovirus strains, or on Sabin-IPV, based on using attenuated poliovirus strains. This price reduction can be achieved by introducing efficiency in processing. There are also multiple opportunities to work on dose sparing, for example, by using adjuvants or fractional doses. Renewed interest in this field was clearly reflected in the number and diversity of patent applications. In a later stage, several innovative approaches may become even more attractive, for example the use of recombinant virus strains or even a totally synthetic vaccine. Currently, such work is mainly carried out by research institutes and universities and therefore clinical data are not available.

  7. A RT-PCR method for selective amplification and phenotypic characterization of all three serotypes of Sabin-related polioviruses from viral mixtures

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    Eliane Veiga da Costa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Outbreaks caused by vaccine-derived polioviruses are challenging the final eradication of paralytic poliomyelitis. Therefore, the surveillance of the acute flaccid paralysis cases based on poliovirus isolation and characterization remains an essential activity. Due to the use of trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV, mixtures containing more than one serotype of Sabin-related polioviruses are frequently isolated from clinical samples. Because each poliovirus isolate needs to be individually analyzed, we designed polymerase chain reaction primers that can selectively distinguish and amplify a genomic segment of the three Sabin-related poliovirus serotypes present in mixtures, thus, optimizing the diagnosis and providing prompt information to support epidemiologic actions.

  8. Sporadic isolation of sabin-like polioviruses and high-level detection of non-polio enteroviruses during sewage surveillance in seven Italian cities, after several years of inactivated poliovirus vaccination.

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    Battistone, A; Buttinelli, G; Fiore, S; Amato, C; Bonomo, P; Patti, A M; Vulcano, A; Barbi, M; Binda, S; Pellegrinelli, L; Tanzi, M L; Affanni, P; Castiglia, P; Germinario, C; Mercurio, P; Cicala, A; Triassi, M; Pennino, F; Fiore, L

    2014-08-01

    Sewage surveillance in seven Italian cities between 2005 and 2008, after the introduction of inactivated poliovirus vaccination (IPV) in 2002, showed rare polioviruses, none that were wild-type or circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV), and many other enteroviruses among 1,392 samples analyzed. Two of five polioviruses (PV) detected were Sabin-like PV2 and three PV3, based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and PCR results. Neurovirulence-related mutations were found in the 5'noncoding region (5'NCR) of all strains and, for a PV2, also in VP1 region 143 (Ile>Thr). Intertypic recombination in the 3D region was detected in a second PV2 (Sabin 2/Sabin 1) and a PV3 (Sabin 3/Sabin 2). The low mutation rate in VP1 for all PVs suggests limited interhuman virus passages, consistent with efficient polio immunization in Italy. Nonetheless, these findings highlight the risk of wild or Sabin poliovirus reintroduction from abroad. Non-polio enteroviruses (NPEVs) were detected, 448 of which were coxsackievirus B (CVB) and 294 of which were echoviruses (Echo). Fifty-six NPEVs failing serological typing were characterized by sequencing the VP1 region (nucleotides [nt] 2628 to 2976). A total of 448 CVB and 294 Echo strains were identified; among those strains, CVB2, CVB5, and Echo 11 predominated. Environmental CVB5 and CVB2 strains from this study showed high sequence identity with GenBank global strains. The high similarity between environmental NPEVs and clinical strains from the same areas of Italy and the same periods indicates that environmental strains reflect the viruses circulating in the population and highlights the potential risk of inefficient wastewater treatments. This study confirmed that sewage surveillance can be more sensitive than acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance in monitoring silent poliovirus circulation in the population as well as the suitability of molecular approaches to enterovirus typing.

  9. Inactivated polio vaccine development for technology transfer using attenuated Sabin poliovirus strains to shift from Salk-IPV to Sabin-IPV.

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    Bakker, Wilfried A M; Thomassen, Yvonne E; van't Oever, Aart G; Westdijk, Janny; van Oijen, Monique G C T; Sundermann, Lars C; van't Veld, Peter; Sleeman, Eelco; van Nimwegen, Fred W; Hamidi, Ahd; Kersten, Gideon F A; van den Heuvel, Nico; Hendriks, Jan T; van der Pol, Leo A

    2011-09-22

    Industrial-scale inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) production dates back to the 1960s when at the Rijks Instituut voor de Volksgezondheid (RIV) in Bilthoven a process was developed based on micro-carrier technology and primary monkey kidney cells. This technology was freely shared with several pharmaceutical companies and institutes worldwide. In this contribution, the history of one of the first cell-culture based large-scale biological production processes is summarized. Also, recent developments and the anticipated upcoming shift from regular IPV to Sabin-IPV are presented. Responding to a call by the World Health Organization (WHO) for new polio vaccines, the development of Sabin-IPV was continued, after demonstrating proof of principle in the 1990s, at the Netherlands Vaccine Institute (NVI). Development of Sabin-IPV plays an important role in the WHO polio eradication strategy as biocontainment will be critical in the post-OPV cessation period. The use of attenuated Sabin strains instead of wild-type Salk polio strains will provide additional safety during vaccine production. Initially, the Sabin-IPV production process will be based on the scale-down model of the current, and well-established, Salk-IPV process. In parallel to clinical trial material production, process development, optimization and formulation research is being carried out to further optimize the process and reduce cost per dose. Also, results will be shown from large-scale (to prepare for future technology transfer) generation of Master- and Working virus seedlots, and clinical trial material (for phase I studies) production. Finally, the planned technology transfer to vaccine manufacturers in low and middle-income countries is discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Concomitant administration of diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis and inactivated poliovirus vaccine derived from Sabin strains (DTaP-sIPV) with pentavalent rotavirus vaccine in Japanese infants.

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    Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Yokokawa, Ruriko; Rong, Han Shi; Kishino, Hiroyuki; Stek, Jon E; Nelson, Margaret; Lawrence, Jody

    2017-06-03

    Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe acute gastroenteritis in infants and young children. Most children are infected with rotavirus, and the health and economic burdens of rotavirus gastroenteritis on healthcare systems and families are considerable. In 2012 pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5) and diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis and inactivated poliovirus vaccine derived from Sabin strains (DTaP-sIPV) were licensed in Japan. We examined the immunogenicity and safety of DTaP-sIPV when administrated concomitantly with RV5 in Japanese infants. A total of 192 infants 6 to 11 weeks of age randomized to Group 1 (N = 96) received DTaP-sIPV and RV5 concomitantly, and Group 2 (N = 96) received DTaP-sIPV and RV5 separately. Antibody titer to diphtheria toxin, pertussis antigens (PT and FHA), tetanus toxin, and poliovirus type 1, 2, and 3 were measured at 4 to 6 weeks following 3-doses of DTaP-sIPV. Seroprotection rates for all components of DTaP-sIPV were 100% in both groups, and the geometric mean titers for DTaP-sIPV in Group 1 were comparable to Group 2. Incidence of systemic AEs (including diarrhea, vomiting, fever, and nasopharyngitis) were lower in Group 1 than in Group 2. All vaccine-related AEs were mild or moderate in intensity. There were no vaccine-related serious AEs, no deaths, and no cases of intussusception during the study. Concomitant administration of DTaP-sIPV and RV5 induced satisfactory immune responses to DTaP-sIPV and acceptable safety profile. The administration of DTaP-sIPV given concomitantly with RV5 is expected to facilitate compliance with the vaccination schedule and improve vaccine coverage in Japanese infants.

  11. Isolamento e identificação intratípica de cêpas de poliovirus associadas com a administração de vacina Sabin Isolation and intratypical identification on poliovirus strains following the administration of Sabin vaccine

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    José Alberto Neves Candeias

    1969-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a taxa de excreção de enterovírus em dois grupos de crianças de 1 a 4 anos de idade, que receberam várias doses de vacina Sabin. No primeiro grupo a colheita de fezes foi feita 60 dias após a administração da última dose de vacina e no segundo grupo, passados somente 15 dias. No primeiro grupo as porcentagens de isolamento de poliovírus e outros enterovírus foram, respectivamente, de 12,12% e 13,63%. já no segundo, estas porcentagens foram de 37,61% e 9,17%. Em ambos os grupos foram isolados os três tipos sorológicos de poliovírus. As taxas de isolamentos de poliovírus e outros enterovírus não se mostraram estatìsticamente diferentes, em ambos os grupos, quando relacionadas com o número de doses de vacina recebidas - duas ou menos doses e três ou mais doses. A identificação intratípica das cêpas de poliovirus isoladas foi feita pelos "marcadores" RCT40 e ds. Das 8 cêpas isoladas do primeiro grupo, 6 foram identificadas como intermediárias e 2 como cêpas naturais. Estas 2 cêpas foram isoladas das duas únicas crianças que não tinham sido vacinadas contra a poliomielite. Das 41 cêpas isoladas do segundo grupo, 8 foram caracterizadas como intermediárias e 33 como ceêpas tipicamente vacinais.The author studied the incidence of enterovirus excretion in 2 groups of children aged between 1 and 4 years, who had been given varying doses of Sabin polio vaccine. In the first group faeces were collected 60 days and in the second group 15 days after the last dose of vaccine had been given. In the first group 12,12% yielded poliovirus and 13,63% yielded "other enteroviruses"; in the second group the percentages were 37,61% and 9,17%. In both groups all three serological types of poliovirus were isolated. The previous vaccination status of the children in both groups, whether vaccinated with two or less or three or more doses, did not have a statistically significant effect on the subsequent virus isolations. The

  12. PER.C6(®) cells as a serum-free suspension cell platform for the production of high titer poliovirus: a potential low cost of goods option for world supply of inactivated poliovirus vaccine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, Barbara P.; Edo-Matas, Diana; Custers, Jerome H. H. V.; Koldijk, Martin H.; Klaren, Vincent; Turk, Marije; Luitjens, Alfred; Bakker, Wilfried A. M.; Uytdehaag, Fons; Goudsmit, Jaap; Lewis, John A.; Schuitemaker, Hanneke

    2013-01-01

    There are two highly efficacious poliovirus vaccines: Sabin's live-attenuated oral polio vaccine (OPV) and Salk's inactivated polio vaccine (IPV). OPV can be made at low costs per dose and is easily administrated. However, the major drawback is the frequent reversion of the OPV vaccine strains to

  13. [History of development of the live poliomyelitis vaccine from Sabin attenuated strains in 1959 and idea of poliomyelitis eradication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashkevich, V A

    2013-01-01

    In 1958 Poliomyelitis Institute in Moscow and Institute of Experimental Medicine in St. Petersburg received from A. Sabin the attenuated strains of poliomyelitis virus. The characteristics of the strains were thoroughly studied by A. A. Smorodintsev and coworkers. They found that the virulence of the strains fluctuated slightly in 10 consecutive passages through the intestine of the non-immune children. A part of the Sabin material was used by A. A. Smorodintsev and M. P. Chumakov in the beginning of 1959 for immunizing approximately 40000 children in Estonia, Lithuania, and Latvia. Epidemic poliomyelitis rate in these republics decreased from approximately 1000 cases yearly before vaccination to less than 20 in the third quarter of 1959. This was a convincing proof of the efficacy and safety of the vaccine from the attenuated Sabin strains. In 1959, according to A. Sabin's recommendation, a technology of live vaccine production was developed at the Poliomyelitis Institute, and several experimental lots of vaccine were prepared. In the second part of 1959, 13.5 million children in USSR were immunized. The epidemic poliomyelitis rate decreased 3-5 times in different regions without paralytic cases, which could be attributed to the vaccination. These results were the final proof of high efficiency and safety of live poliomyelitis vaccine from the attenuated Sabin strains. Based on these results, A. Sabin and M. P. Chumakov suggested in 1960 the idea of poliomyelitis eradication using mass immunization of children with live vaccine. 72 million persons up to 20 years old were vaccinated in USSR in 1960 with a 5 times drop in the paralytic rate. 50-year-long use of live vaccine results in poliomyelitis eradication in almost all countries worldwide. More than 10 million children were rescued from the death and palsy. Poliomyelitis eradication in a few countries where it still exists depends not on medical services but is defined by the attitude of their leaders to fight

  14. Modeling undetected live poliovirus circulation after apparent interruption of transmission : Implications for surveillance and vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalkowska, D.A.; Duintjer Tebbens, R.J.; Pallansch, M.A.; Cochi, S.L.; Wassilak, S.G.F.; Thompson, K.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Most poliovirus infections occur with no symptoms and this leads to the possibility of silent circulation, which complicates the confirmation of global goals to permanently end poliovirus transmission. Previous simple models based on hypothetical populations assumed perfect detection of

  15. Sabine Kacunko

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kacunko, Slavko

    This book appears on the occasion of the project INVINCIBLE – a Big Bacteria project for Colosseum, Rome (17.–19.09.2015), which is being granted UNESCO-patronage in the context of the International Year of Light and Light-Based Technologies 2015. With Sabine Kacunko’s bacteria art in mind, alleged...... contradictions between the cultural and natural heritage- and health-issues are set in the focus of attention. The volume follows the major tracks of Sabine Kacunko´s artistic development. It includes a comprehensive catalogue of works 1990–2015 (280 images) and an introductory essay by Slavko Kacunko....

  16. Rare adverse events associated with oral poliovirus vaccine in Brazil

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    Friedrich F.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV developed by A. Sabin has been effectively used to control poliomyelitis in Brazil, and the last case with the isolation of a wild poliovirus strain occurred in March 1989. Although the vaccine controlled the circulation of wild strains and poliomyelitis cases associated with these strains were not detected during the last eight years, rare cases classified as vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP have been detected. Molecular characterization studies of poliovirus strains isolated from VAPP cases and from healthy contacts have confirmed that the isolates are derived from the Sabin vaccine strains and also detected genomic modifications known or suspected to increase neurovirulence such as mutations and recombination. The molecular characterization of polioviruses isolated during the last eight years from paralysis cases classified as Guillain-Barré (GBS syndrome and transverse myelitits (TM, and from facial paralysis (FP cases also confirmed the vaccine origin of the strains and demonstrated mutations known to increase neurovirulence. Analysis of the epidemiologic data of these GBS, TM and FP cases demonstrated that in most of them the last OPV dose was given months or years before the onset of the disease and the isolation of the polioviruses. The temporal association between the isolation of these strains and the GBS, TM and FP suggested that the Sabin vaccine-derived poliovirus strains could also rarely trigger the diseases.

  17. Immunity status of adults and children against poliomyelitis virus type 1 strains CHAT and Sabin (LSc-2ab) in Germany.

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    Eggers, Maren; Terletskaia-Ladwig, Elena; Rabenau, Holger F; Doerr, Hans W; Diedrich, Sabine; Enders, Gisela; Enders, Martin

    2010-12-09

    In October 2007, the working group CEN/TC 216 of the European Committee for standardisation suggested that the Sabin oral poliovirus vaccine type 1 strain (LSc-2ab) presently used for virucidal tests should be replaced by another attenuated vaccine poliovirus type 1 strain, CHAT. Both strains were historically used as oral vaccines, but the Sabin type 1 strain was acknowledged to be more attenuated. In Germany, vaccination against poliomyelitis was introduced in 1962 using the oral polio vaccine (OPV) containing Sabin strain LSc-2ab. The vaccination schedule was changed from OPV to an inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) containing wild polio virus type 1 strain Mahoney in 1998. In the present study, we assessed potential differences in neutralising antibody titres to Sabin and CHAT in persons with a history of either OPV, IPV, or OPV with IPV booster. Neutralisation poliovirus antibodies against CHAT and Sabin 1 were measured in sera of 41 adults vaccinated with OPV. Additionally, sera from 28 children less than 10 years of age and immunised with IPV only were analysed. The neutralisation assay against poliovirus was performed according to WHO guidelines. The neutralisation activity against CHAT in adults with OPV vaccination history was significantly lower than against Sabin poliovirus type 1 strains (Wilcoxon signed-rank test P CHAT were less than 8, although the titre against Sabin 1 varied between 8 and 64. Following IPV booster, anti-CHAT antibodies increased rapidly in sera of CHAT-negative adults with OPV history. Sera from children with IPV history neutralised CHAT and Sabin 1 strains equally. The lack of neutralising antibodies against the CHAT strain in persons vaccinated with OPV might be associated with an increased risk of reinfection with the CHAT polio virus type 1, and this implies a putative risk of transmission of the virus to polio-free communities. We strongly suggest that laboratory workers who were immunised with OPV receive a booster vaccination

  18. Wild Poliovirus List

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Polio + Prevention The Virus Vaccine-Derived Polioviruses The Vaccines IPV OPV The Communities History of Polio Polio Now This Week Wild poliovirus list Public Health Emergency status Circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus Surveillance Indicators The Global Polio Laboratory ...

  19. Neutralization epitope patterns of poliovirus strains isolated from paralytic cases.

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    Crainic, R; Blondel, B; Aubert-Combiescu, A; Beytout, D; Couillin, P; Candrea, A; Boué, A; Horaud, F

    1984-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies were used in previous work to define neutralization epitopes (NE) of poliovirus during its natural variation upon interhuman passages. Two kind of NE were found: constant (K) epitopes, present on practically all poliovirus strains of the same serotype, and variable (V) epitopes, which were strain-specific either for wild-laboratory strains (Mahoney, MEF1, and Saukett) (VW epitopes), or for attenuated Sabin strains (VS epitopes), or for attenuated Sabin strains (VS epitopes). In the present paper we analyzed the NE formulae of poliovirus strains of each of the three serotypes isolated from paralytic cases that have occurred after mass vaccination with oral poliovaccine (Sabin). Type 1 isolates from both the central nervous system and stools showed the existence of the four VW epitopes characteristic for Mahoney virus. However, in some cases, variation of the K epitope formula was noticed. As concerns the paralytic cases where type 2 poliovirus was isolated, the situation was more complex due to the existence of three different VS epitopes. Various patterns of VS epitopes were encountered, making difficult the definition of the strains origin. Most of the type 3 strains isolated from paralytic cases contained one or both VS epitopes, some of them having an identical NE formula to the Sabin type 3 vaccine virus. These data showed that the use of strain-specific neutralizing monoclonal antibodies for the characterization of strain origin is more complex than generally agreed. The multitude of NE coexisting on the same virus particle and their variation during viral replication in the human intestine call for cautious interpretation of the results obtained in poliovirus intratypic differentiation by neutralizing monoclonal antibodies.

  20. Different virucidal activities of hyperbranched quaternary ammonium coatings on poliovirus and influenza virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuladhar, E.; Koning, de M.C.; Fundeanu, I.; Beumer, R.R.; Duizer, E.

    2012-01-01

    Virucidal activity of immobilized quaternary ammonium compounds (IQACs) coated onto glass and plastic surfaces was tested against enveloped influenza A (H1N1) virus and nonenveloped poliovirus Sabin1. The IQACs tested were virucidal against the influenza virus within 2 min, but no virucidal effect

  1. Detection of vaccine-derived polioviruses in Mexico using environmental surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves-Jaramillo, Alejandra; Estívariz, Concepción F; Peñaranda, Silvia; Richardson, Vesta L; Reyna, Jesús; Coronel, Diana L; Carrión, Veronica; Landaverde, Jose M; Wassilak, Steven G F; Pérez-Sánchez, Elda E; López-Martínez, Irma; Burns, Cara C; Pallansch, Mark A

    2014-11-01

    Early detection and control of vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) emergences are essential to secure the gains of polio eradication. Serial sewage samples were collected in 4 towns of Mexico before, throughout, and after the May 2010 oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) mass immunization campaign. Isolation and molecular analysis of polioviruses from sewage specimens monitored the duration of vaccine-related strains in the environment and emergence of vaccine-derived polioviruses in a population partially immunized with inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV). Sabin strains were identified up to 5-8 weeks after the campaign in all towns; in Aguascalientes, 1 Sabin 3 was isolated 16 weeks after the campaign, following 7 weeks with no Sabin strains detected. In Tuxtla Gutiérrez, type 2 VDPV was isolated from 4 samples collected before and during the campaign, and type 1 VDPV from 1 sample collected 19 weeks afterward. During 2009-2010, coverage in 4 OPV campaigns conducted averaged only 57% and surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) was suboptimal (AFP rate<1 per 100,000 population<15 years of age) in Tuxtla Gutierrez. VDPVs may emerge and spread in settings with inadequate coverage with IPV/OPV vaccination. Environmental surveillance can facilitate early detection in these settings. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  2. Serological survey on immunity status against polioviruses in children and adolescents living in a border region, Apulia (Southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafuri, Silvio; Prato, Rosa; Martinelli, Domenico; Calvario, Agata; Bozzi, Anna; Labianca, Michele; Patti, Annamaria; Lopalco, Pietro Luigi; Germinario, Cinzia

    2008-10-30

    In 1988 the World Health Assembly adopted the goal to eradicate poliomyelitis by routine immunization using Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV). On 21 June 2002 the WHO European Region was declared polio-free. In 2008 poliomyelitis is still endemic in 4 countries (Nigeria, India, Pakistan, and Afghanistan), where 1201 new cases were registered in 2007; 107 sporadic cases were also notified in countries where poliovirus is not endemic. The aim of this work was to verify the level of antipoliomyelitis immunity status in children and adolescents in the Apulia region (south of Italy), which may be considered a border region due to its position. 704 blood specimens from a convenience sample were collected in six laboratories. The age of subjects enrolled was 0-15 years. The immunity against poliomyelitis was evaluated by neutralizing antibody titration in tissue culture microplates. Seropositivity (neutralising antibodies titre > or = 8) for polioviruses 1, 2 and 3 was detected in 100%, 99.8% and 99.4% of collected sera. Antibody titres were not lower in subjects who received either four doses of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) or a sequential schedule consisting of two doses of IPV and two of oral polio vaccine than in subjects who received four doses of OPV. These results confirmed current data of vaccine coverage for poliomyelitis: during the last ten years in Apulia, the coverage in 24 months old children was more than 90%. The high level of immunization found confirms the effectiveness both of the sequential schedule IPV-OPV and of the schedule all-IPV. Apulia region has to face daily arrivals of refugees and remains subject to the risk of the importation of poliovirus from endemic areas. Surveys aimed at determining anti-polio immunity in subpopulations as well as in the general population should be carried out.

  3. Production of high titer attenuated poliovirus strains on the serum-free PER.C6(®) cell culture platform for the generation of safe and affordable next generation IPV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Barbara P; Oakes, Isabel de los Rios; van Hoek, Vladimir; Liu, Ying; Marissen, Wilfred; Minor, Philip D; Wimmer, Eckard; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Custers, Jerome H H V; Macadam, Andrew; Cello, Jeronimo; Edo-Matas, Diana

    2015-11-27

    As poliovirus eradication draws closer, alternative Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccines (IPV) are needed to overcome the risks associated with continued use of the Oral Poliovirus Vaccine and of neurovirulent strains used during manufacture of conventional (c) IPV. We have previously demonstrated the susceptibility of the PER.C6(®) cell line to cIPV strains; here we investigated the suspension cell culture platform for growth of attenuated poliovirus strains. We examined attenuated Sabin strain productivity on the PER.C6(®) cell platform compared to the conventional Vero cell platform. The suitability of the suspension cell platform for propagation of rationally-attenuated poliovirus strains (stabilized Sabin type 3 S19 derivatives and genetically attenuated and stabilized MonoCre(X) strains), was also assessed. Yields were quantified by infectious titer determination and D-antigen ELISA using either serotype-specific polyclonal rabbit sera for Sabin strains or monoclonal cIPV-strain-specific antibodies for cIPV, S19 and MonoCre(X) strains. PER.C6(®) cells supported the replication of Sabin strains to yields of infectious titers that were in the range of cIPV strains at 32.5°C. Sabin strains achieved 30-fold higher yields (pIPV vaccines needed for achieving and maintaining poliovirus eradication. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. An Introduction to Poliovirus: Pathogenesis, Vaccination, and the Endgame for Global Eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Philip D

    2016-01-01

    Poliomyelitis is caused by poliovirus, which is a positive strand non-enveloped virus that occurs in three distinct serotypes (1, 2, and 3). Infection is mainly by the fecal-oral route and can be confined to the gut by antibodies induced either by vaccine, previous infection or maternally acquired. Vaccines include the live attenuated strains developed by Sabin and the inactivated vaccines developed by Salk; the live attenuated vaccine (Oral Polio Vaccine or OPV) has been the main tool in the Global Program of Polio eradication of the World Health Organisation. Wild type 2 virus has not caused a case since 1999 and type 3 since 2012 and eradication seems near. However most infections are entirely silent so that sophisticated environmental surveillance may be needed to ensure that the virus has been eradicated, and the live vaccine can sometimes revert to virulent circulating forms under conditions that are not wholly understood. Cessation of vaccination is therefore an increasingly important issue and inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) is playing a larger part in the end game.

  5. Neurovirulent vaccine-derived polioviruses in sewage from highly immune populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lester M Shulman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs have caused poliomyelitis outbreaks in communities with sub-optimal vaccination. Israeli environmental surveillance of sewage from populations with high (>95% documented vaccine coverage of confirmed efficacy identified two separate evolutionary clusters of VDPVs: Group 1 (1998-2005, one system, population 1.6x10(6 and Group 2 (2006, 2 systems, populations 0.7x10(6 and 5x10(4. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Molecular analyses support evolution of nine Group 1 VDPVs along five different lineages, starting from a common ancestral type 2 vaccine-derived Sabin-2/Sabin-1 recombinant strain, and independent evolution of three Group 2 VDPVs along one lineage starting from a different recombinant strain. The primary evidence for two independent origins was based on comparison of unique recombination fingerprints, the number and distribution of identical substitutions, and evolutionary rates. Geometric mean titers of neutralizing antibodies against Group 1 VDPVs were significantly lower than against vaccine strains in all age-group cohorts tested. All individuals had neutralizing titers >1:8 against these VDPVs except 7% of the 20-50 year cohort. Group 1 VDPVs were highly neurovirulent in a transgenic mouse model. Intermediate levels of protective immunity against Group 2 VDPVs correlated with fewer (5.0+1.0 amino acid substitutions in neutralizing antigenic sites than in Group 1 VDPV's (12.1+/-1.5. SIGNIFICANCE: VDPVs that revert from live oral attenuated vaccines and reacquire characteristics of wild-type polioviruses not only threaten populations with poor immune coverage, but are also a potential source for re-introduction of poliomyelitis into highly immune populations through older individuals with waning immunity. The presence of two independently evolved groups of VDPVs in Israel and the growing number of reports of environmental VDPV elsewhere make it imperative to determine the global frequency of

  6. Three-dimensional structure of poliovirus serotype 1 neutralizing determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, G S; Mosser, A G; Hogle, J M; Filman, D J; Rueckert, R R; Chow, M

    1988-01-01

    Antigenic mutants of poliovirus (Sabin strain, serotype 1) were isolated by the resistance of the virus to anti-Sabin neutralizing monoclonal antibodies. The amino acid replacements within the capsid protein sequence causing the altered antigenicity were identified for each of 63 isolates. The mutations cluster into distinct nonoverlapping peptide segments that group into three general immunological phenotypes on the basis of cross-neutralization analyses with 15 neutralizing anti-Sabin monoclonal antibodies. Location of the mutated amino acid residues within the three-dimensional structure of the virion indicates that the majority of these amino acid residues are highly exposed and located within prominent structural features of the viral surface. Those mutated amino acid residues that are less accessible to antibody interaction are often involved in hydrogen bonds or salt bridges that would stabilize the local tertiary structure of the antigenic site. The interactions of the peptide segments that form these neutralizing sites suggest specific models for the generation of neutralization-resistant variants and for the interaction between the viral surface and antibody. Images PMID:2451757

  7. Natural type 3/type 2 intertypic vaccine-related poliovirus recombinants with the first crossover sites within the VP1 capsid coding region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ten uncommon natural type 3/type 2 intertypic poliovirus recombinants were isolated from stool specimens from nine acute flaccid paralysis case patients and one healthy vaccinee in China from 2001 to 2008. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Complete genomic sequences revealed their vaccine-related genomic features and showed that their first crossover sites were randomly distributed in the 3' end of the VP1 coding region. The length of donor Sabin 2 sequences ranged from 55 to 136 nucleotides, which is the longest donor sequence reported in the literature for this type of poliovirus recombination. The recombination resulted in the introduction of Sabin 2 neutralizing antigenic site 3a (NAg3a into a Sabin 3 genomic background in the VP1 coding region, which may have been altered by some of the type 3-specific antigenic properties, but had not acquired any type 2-specific characterizations. NAg3a of the Sabin 3 strain seems atypical; other wild-type poliovirus isolates that have circulated in recent years have sequences of NAg3a more like the Sabin 2 strain. CONCLUSIONS: 10 natural type 3/type 2 intertypic VP1 capsid-recombinant polioviruses, in which the first crossover sites were found to be in the VP1 coding region, were isolated and characterized. In spite of the complete replacement of NAg3a by type 2-specific amino acids, the serotypes of the recombinants were not altered, and they were totally neutralized by polyclonal type 3 antisera but not at all by type 2 antisera. It is possible that recent type 3 wild poliovirus isolates may be a recombinant having NAg3a sequences derived from another strain during between 1967 and 1980, and the type 3/type 2 recombination events in the 3' end of the VP1 coding region may result in a higher fitness.

  8. Poliovirus vaccination during the endgame: insights from integrated modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duintjer Tebbens, Radboud J; Thompson, Kimberly M

    2017-06-01

    Managing the polio endgame requires access to sufficient quantities of poliovirus vaccines. After oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) cessation, outbreaks may occur that require outbreak response using monovalent OPV (mOPV) and/or inactivated poliovirus vaccine. Areas covered: We review the experience and challenges with managing vaccine supplies in the context of the polio endgame. Building on models that explored polio endgame risks and the potential mOPV needs to stop outbreaks from live poliovirus reintroductions, we conceptually explore the potential demands for finished and bulk mOPV doses from a stockpile in the context of limited shelf-life of finished vaccine and time delays to convert bulk to finished vaccine. Our analysis suggests that the required size of the mOPV stockpile varies by serotype, with the highest expected needs for serotype 1 mOPV. Based on realizations of poliovirus risks after OPV cessation, the stockpile required to eliminate the chance of a stock-out appears considerably larger than the currently planned mOPV stockpiles. Expert commentary: The total required stockpile size depends on the acceptable probability of a stock-out, and increases with longer times to finish bulk doses and shorter shelf-lives of finished doses. Successful polio endgame management will require careful attention to poliovirus vaccine supplies.

  9. Immune responses to oral poliovirus vaccine in HIV-exposed uninfected Zimbabwean infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, James A.; Rukobo, Sandra; Govha, Margaret; Carmolli, Marya P.; Diehl, Sean A.; Chasekwa, Bernard; Ntozini, Robert; Mutasa, Kuda; Humphrey, Jean H.; Kirkpatrick, Beth D.; Prendergast, Andrew J.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT It remains uncertain whether HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants have impaired responses to oral vaccines. We performed a cross-sectional study of 6-month-old infants recruited at birth to the ZVITAMBO trial in Zimbabwe between 1997–2001, before introduction of prevention of mother-to-child transmission interventions. We measured poliovirus-specific IgA to type 1–3 polio strains by semi-quantitative capture ELISA in cryopreserved serum samples collected from 85 HEU and 101 HIV-unexposed infants at 6 months of age, one month after their last immunisation with trivalent OPV. Almost all infants were breastfed, with the majority in both groups mixed breastfed (70.6% HEU versus 71.3% HIV-unexposed). Median (IQR) vaccine titers for HEU and HIV-unexposed infants were 1592 (618–4896) vs. 1774 (711–5431) for Sabin 1 (P = 0.46); 1895 (810–4398) vs. 2308 (1081–4283) for Sabin 2 (P = 0.52); and 1798 (774–4192) vs. 2260 (996–5723) for Sabin 3 (P = 0.18). There were no significant differences in vaccine titers between HEU and HIV-unexposed infants, suggesting that vertical HIV exposure does not impact oral poliovirus vaccine immunogenicity. PMID:28857649

  10. Structural factors that control conformational transitions and serotype specificity in type 3 poliovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filman, D J; Syed, R; Chow, M; Macadam, A J; Minor, P D; Hogle, J M

    1989-01-01

    The three-dimensional structure of the Sabin strain of type 3 poliovirus has been determined at 2.4 A resolution. Significant structural differences with the Mahoney strain of type 1 poliovirus are confined to loops and terminal extensions of the capsid proteins, occur in all of the major antigenic sites of the virion and typically involve insertions, deletions or the replacement of prolines. Several newly identified components of the structure participate in assembly-dependent interactions which are relevant to the biologically important processes of viral assembly and uncoating. These include two sites of lipid substitution, two putative nucleotides and a beta sheet formed by the N-termini of capsid proteins VP4 and VP1. The structure provides an explanation for the temperature sensitive phenotype of the P3/Sabin strain. Amino acids that regulate temperature sensitivity in type 3 poliovirus are located in the interfaces between promoters, in the binding site for a lipid substituent and in an assembly-dependent extended beta sheet that stabilizes the association of pentamers. Several lines of evidence indicate that these structural components also control conformational transitions at various stages of the viral life cycle. Images PMID:2548847

  11. World Health Organization Guidelines for Containment of Poliovirus Following Type-Specific Polio Eradication - Worldwide, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previsani, Nicoletta; Tangermann, Rudolph H; Tallis, Graham; Jafari, Hamid S

    2015-08-28

    In 1988, the World Health Assembly of the World Health Organization (WHO) resolved to eradicate polio worldwide. Among the three wild poliovirus (WPV) types (type 1, type 2, and type 3), WPV type 2 (WPV2) has been eliminated in the wild since 1999, and WPV type 3 (WPV3) has not been reported since 2012. In 2015, only Afghanistan and Pakistan have reported WPV transmission. On May 25, 2015, all WHO Member States endorsed World Health Assembly resolution 68.3 on full implementation of the Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-2018 (the Endgame Plan), and with it, the third Global Action Plan to minimize poliovirus facility-associated risk (GAPIII). All WHO Member States have committed to implementing appropriate containment of WPV2 in essential laboratory and vaccine production facilities* by the end of 2015 and of type 2 oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV2) within 3 months of global withdrawal of OPV2, which is planned for April 2016. This report summarizes critical steps for essential laboratory and vaccine production facilities that intend to retain materials confirmed to contain or potentially containing type-specific WPV, vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV), or OPV/Sabin viruses, and steps for nonessential facilities† that process specimens that contain or might contain polioviruses. National authorities will need to certify that the essential facilities they host meet the containment requirements described in GAPIII. After certification of WPV eradication, the use of all OPV will cease; final containment of all polioviruses after polio eradication and OPV cessation will minimize the risk for reintroduction of poliovirus into a polio-free world.

  12. Investigation of an outbreak of type 3 wild poliovirus in Cote d'Ivoire ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This can occur when routine immunization coverage is low, polio supplementary immunization activities are done with only the poliovirus vaccine against the circulating poliovirus, people live in precarious socio-economic conditions and AFP surveillance is poorly performed. Côte d'Ivoire experienced this outbreak as many ...

  13. Ausencia de circulación de poliovirus en departamentos colombianos con coberturas vacunales inferiores a 80%

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Mercedes González

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio se propuso explorar la posible circulación silente de poliovirus salvajes y derivados de la vacuna (VDPV, por sus siglas en inglés, en departamentos de Colombia con cobertura de vacunación para polio (OPV, por sus siglas en inglés menor de 80%. Se colectaron 52 muestras de aguas residuales que se concentraron mediante precipitación con polietilenglicol y cloruro de sodio. La detección viral se realizó mediante aislamiento y la identificación por neutralización del efecto citopático, así como mediante reacción en cadena de la polimerasa convencional y en tiempo real, posterior a la transcripción reversa (TR-RCP y rTR-RCP. Los poliovirus aislados se caracterizaron por secuenciación del gen VP1. En dos de las 52 muestras hubo presencia de poliovirus Sabin 2 con más de 99% de similitud de secuencia con la cepa OPV Sabin 2. Se detectó circulación de enterovirus no polio en 17,3% de las muestras. Los serotipos identificados correspondieron a coxsackievirus B1, echovirus 30 y echovirus 11. No se detectaron evidencias de circulación de VDPV ni poliovirus salvaje en los departamentos de Colombia con coberturas de OPV inferiores a 80%.

  14. Mathematical model of adherent Vero cell growth and poliovirus production in animal component free medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursache, Ramona V; Thomassen, Yvonne E; van Eikenhorst, Gerco; Verheijen, Peter J T; Bakker, Wilfried A M

    2015-03-01

    Sabin-IPV (or sIPV, inactivated polio vaccine based on attenuated Sabin strains) is anticipated to replace the oral polio vaccine for the endgame in polio eradication. Optimization of sIPV production will lead to a better economically feasible vaccine. To assist process optimization, we studied Sabin type 1 poliovirus (PV) infection kinetics on Vero cells in controlled bioreactor vessels. The aim of our study was to develop a descriptive mathematical model able to capture the dynamics of adherent Vero cell growth and PV infection kinetics in animal component free medium. The model predicts the cell density, metabolites profiles, and viral yields in time. We found that the multiplicity of infection (MOI) and the time of infection (TOI) within the investigated range did not affect maximal PV yields, but they did affect the process time. The latter may be reduced by selecting a low TOI and a high MOI. Additionally, we present a correlation between viral titers and D-antigen, a measure for immunogenicity, of Sabin type 1 PV. The developed model is adequate for further studies of the cell metabolism and infection kinetics and may be used to identify control strategies to increase viral productivity. Increased viral yields reduce costs of polio vaccines with large implications on public health.

  15. Sorveglianza della circolazione ambientale dei poliovirus nel Lazio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Patti

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Ancora oggi in tutto il mondo il vaccino antipolio più utilizzato è l’OPV costituito da virus viventi attenuati che vengono eliminati per un periodo di tempo variabile dal soggetto vaccinato. L’immissione di virus vaccinali nell’ambiente è stata in passato, e lo è tuttora nelle zone endemiche, estremamente importante per assicurare e la competizione con il poliovirus selvaggio e una immunità di gregge. Nei paesi polio-free, ed in futuro in tutto il mondo, la circolazione di virus vaccinali potrebbe viceversa diventare un punto critico in grado di inficiare i risultati dell’eradicazione. Infatti i virus vaccino derivati, replicando, retromutano verso la neurovirulenza e/o accumulano mutazioni che alla fine conferiscono loro caratteristiche del tutto diverse dai ceppi parentali; inoltre possono anche ricombinarsi con il selvaggio o con altri enterovirus assumendo caratteristiche di virulenza e di trasmissibilità interumana che emergono con lo scoppio di focolai epidemici. Obiettivo del presente progetto è stata la valutazione della circolazione dei poliovirus e degli eventuali virus vaccino derivati in matrici ambientali nella regione Lazio nel periodo 1996-2002. Metodo: sono stati analizzati 26 campioni di liquami e 36 campioni di acque superficiali contaminate da liquami. Le particelle virali sono state concentrate mediante ultra filtrazione tangenziale (10.000 NMWR – Millipore. I concentrati sono stati seminati su cellule BGM ed L20B. I virus isolati sono stati identificati con antisieri specifici (RIUM e sui poliovirus, presso l’ISS, sono stati effettuati la differenziazione intratipica, il sequenziamento della regione VPI/2A, il sequenziamento della regione 5’ NCR e la regione codificante la polimerasi virale. Risultati e conclusioni: sono stati isolati complessivamente 6 poliovirus di cui 4 da acque superficiali. I virus erano tutti Sabin-kike e retromutati ma non ricombinanti. I dati ottenuti sottolineano l

  16. An economic analysis of poliovirus risk management policy options for 2013-2052.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duintjer Tebbens, Radboud J; Pallansch, Mark A; Cochi, Stephen L; Wassilak, Steven G F; Thompson, Kimberly M

    2015-09-24

    positive net benefits of OPV cessation. Important uncertainties will require more research, including characterizing immunodeficient long-term poliovirus excretor risks, containment risks, and the kinetics of outbreaks and response in an unprecedented world without widespread live poliovirus exposure.

  17. Characteristics of an environmentally monitored prolonged type 2 vaccine derived poliovirus shedding episode that stopped without intervention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapani Hovi

    Full Text Available Vaccine derived poliovirus (VDPV type 2 strains strongly divergent from the corresponding vaccine strain, Sabin 2, were repeatedly isolated from sewage in Slovakia over a period of 22 months in 2003-2005. Cell cultures of stool specimens from known immune deficient patients and from an identified putative source population of 500 people failed to identify the potential excretor(s of the virus. The occurrence of VDPV in sewage stopped without any intervention. No paralytic cases were reported in Slovakia during the episode. According to a GenBank search and similarity plotting-analysis, the closest known relative of the first isolate PV2/03/SVK/E783 through all main sections of the genome was the type 2 poliovirus Sabin strain, with nucleotide identities in 5'UTR, P1, P2, P3, and 3'UTR parts of the genome of 88.6, 85.9, 87.3, 88.5, and 94.0 percent, respectively. Phenotypic properties of selected Slovakian aVDPV strains resembled those of VDPV strains isolated from immune deficient individuals with prolonged PV infection (iVDPV, including antigenic changes and moderate neurovirulence in the transgenic mouse model. One hundred and two unique VP1 coding sequences were determined from VDPV strains isolated from 34 sewage specimens. Nucleotide differences from Sabin 2 in the VP1 coding region ranged from 12.5 to 15.6 percent, and reached a maximum of 9.6 percent between the VDPV strains under study. Most of the nucleotide substitutions were synonymous but as many as 93 amino acid positions out of 301 in VP1 showed substitutions. We conclude that (1 individuals with prolonged poliovirus infection are not as rare as suggested by the studies on immune deficient patients known to the health care systems and (2 genetic divergence of VDPV strains may remain extensive during years long replication in humans.

  18. 75 FR 55968 - Special Local Regulations, Sabine River; Orange, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations, Sabine River; Orange, TX... temporary Special Local Regulation in the Port Arthur Captain of the Port Zone on the Sabine River, Orange... (NPRM) entitled Special Local Regulations; Sabine River, Orange, TX in the Federal Register (75 FR 41119...

  19. 76 FR 52563 - Special Local Regulations; Sabine River, Orange, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Sabine River, Orange, TX...) entitled Special Local Regulations; Sabine River, Orange, TX in the Federal Register (76 FR 103). We... Events; Sabine River, Orange, TX. (a) Definitions. As used in this section ``Participant Vessel'' means...

  20. Multiple Independent Emergences of Type 2 Vaccine-Derived Polioviruses during a Large Outbreak in Northern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jing; Jorba, Jaume; Bukbuk, David; Adu, Festus; Gumede, Nicksy; Pate, Muhammed Ali; Abanida, Emmanuel Ade; Gasasira, Alex; Iber, Jane; Chen, Qi; Vincent, Annelet; Chenoweth, Paul; Henderson, Elizabeth; Wannemuehler, Kathleen; Naeem, Asif; Umami, Rifqiyah Nur; Nishimura, Yorihiro; Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Baba, Marycelin; Adeniji, Adekunle; Williams, A. J.; Kilpatrick, David R.; Oberste, M. Steven; Wassilak, Steven G.; Tomori, Oyewale; Pallansch, Mark A.; Kew, Olen

    2013-01-01

    Since 2005, a large poliomyelitis outbreak associated with type 2 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV2) has occurred in northern Nigeria, where immunization coverage with trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (tOPV) has been low. Phylogenetic analysis of P1/capsid region sequences of isolates from each of the 403 cases reported in 2005 to 2011 resolved the outbreak into 23 independent type 2 vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV2) emergences, at least 7 of which established circulating lineage groups. Virus from one emergence (lineage group 2005-8; 361 isolates) was estimated to have circulated for over 6 years. The population of the major cVDPV2 lineage group expanded rapidly in early 2009, fell sharply after two tOPV rounds in mid-2009, and gradually expanded again through 2011. The two major determinants of attenuation of the Sabin 2 oral poliovirus vaccine strain (A481 in the 5′-untranslated region [5′-UTR] and VP1-Ile143) had been replaced in all VDPV2 isolates; most A481 5′-UTR replacements occurred by recombination with other enteroviruses. cVDPV2 isolates representing different lineage groups had biological properties indistinguishable from those of wild polioviruses, including efficient growth in neuron-derived HEK293 cells, the capacity to cause paralytic disease in both humans and PVR-Tg21 transgenic mice, loss of the temperature-sensitive phenotype, and the capacity for sustained person-to-person transmission. We estimate from the poliomyelitis case count and the paralytic case-to-infection ratio for type 2 wild poliovirus infections that ∼700,000 cVDPV2 infections have occurred during the outbreak. The detection of multiple concurrent cVDPV2 outbreaks in northern Nigeria highlights the risks of cVDPV emergence accompanying tOPV use at low rates of coverage in developing countries. PMID:23408630

  1. Bcgitis and vaccine-derived poliovirus infection in a patient with a novel deletion in RAG1 binding site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canessa, C; Romano, F; Lippi, F; Bianchi, L; Kashef, S; Rezaei, N; Moriondo, M; Nieddu, F; Martini, M; Azzari, C

    2013-01-01

    A girl who developed severe BCGitis and vaccine-derived poliovirus infection was discovered to have a novel deletion of RAG1. A neonatal screening program for SCID would identify affected infants at birth, before live vaccines are administered.

  2. Three-dimensional structure of poliovirus receptor bound to poliovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belnap, David M.; McDermott, Brian M.; Filman, David J.; Cheng, Naiqian; Trus, Benes L.; Zuccola, Harmon J.; Racaniello, Vincent R.; Hogle, James M.; Steven, Alasdair C.

    2000-01-01

    Poliovirus initiates infection by binding to its cellular receptor (Pvr). We have studied this interaction by using cryoelectron microscopy to determine the structure, at 21-Å resolution, of poliovirus complexed with a soluble form of its receptor (sPvr). This density map aided construction of a homology-based model of sPvr and, in conjunction with the known crystal structure of the virus, allowed delineation of the binding site. The virion does not change significantly in structure on binding sPvr in short incubations at 4°C. We infer that the binding configuration visualized represents the initial interaction that is followed by structural changes in the virion as infection proceeds. sPvr is segmented into three well-defined Ig-like domains. The two domains closest to the virion (domains 1 and 2) are aligned and rigidly connected, whereas domain 3 diverges at an angle of ≈60°. Two nodules of density on domain 2 are identified as glycosylation sites. Domain 1 penetrates the “canyon” that surrounds the 5-fold protrusion on the capsid surface, and its binding site involves all three major capsid proteins. The inferred pattern of virus–sPvr interactions accounts for most mutations that affect the binding of Pvr to poliovirus. PMID:10618373

  3. Effect of substituting IPV for tOPV on immunity to poliovirus in Bangladeshi infants: An open-label randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mychaleckyj, Josyf C; Haque, Rashidul; Carmolli, Marya; Zhang, Dadong; Colgate, E Ross; Nayak, Uma; Taniuchi, Mami; Dickson, Dorothy; Weldon, William C; Oberste, M Steven; Zaman, K; Houpt, Eric R; Alam, Masud; Kirkpatrick, Beth D; Petri, William A

    2016-01-12

    The Polio Endgame strategy includes phased withdrawal of oral poliovirus vaccines (OPV) coordinated with introduction of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) to ensure population immunity. The impact of IPV introduction into a primary OPV series of immunizations in a developing country is uncertain. Between May 2011 and November 2012, we enrolled 700 Bangladeshi infant-mother dyads from Dhaka slums into an open-label randomized controlled trial to test whether substituting an injected IPV dose for the standard Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) fourth tOPV dose at infant age 39 weeks would reduce fecal shedding and enhance systemic immunity. The primary endpoint was mucosal immunity to poliovirus at age one year, measured by fecal excretion of any Sabin virus at five time points up to 25 days post-52 week tOPV challenge, analyzed by the intention to treat principle. We randomized 350 families to the tOPV and IPV vaccination arms. Neither study arm resulted in superior intestinal protection at 52 weeks measured by the prevalence of infants shedding any of three poliovirus serotypes, but the IPV dose induced significantly higher seroprevalence and seroconversion rates. This result was identical for poliovirus detection by cell culture or RT-qPCR. The non-significant estimated culture-based shedding risk difference was -3% favoring IPV, and the two vaccination schedules were inferred to be equivalent within a 95% confidence margin of -10% to +4%. Results for shedding analyses stratified by poliovirus type were similar. Neither of the vaccination regimens is superior to the other in enhancing intestinal immunity as measured by poliovirus shedding at 52 weeks of age and the IPV regimen provides similar intestinal immunity to the four tOPV series, although the IPV regimen strongly enhances humoral immunity. The IPV-modified regimen may be considered for vaccination programs without loss of intestinal protection. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier

  4. Reproducibility of The Random Incidence Absorption Coefficient Converted From the Sabine Absorption Coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Chang, Ji-ho

    2015-01-01

    Absorption coefficients measured in reverberation chambers, Sabine absorption coefficients, suffer from two major problems. Firstly, they sometimes exceed unity. Secondly, the reproducibility of the Sabine absorption coefficients is quite poor, meaning that the Sabine absorption coefficients vary...

  5. Immunity to poliovirus after infection and vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herremans, Martina Maria Petronella Theresia

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was defined as the study of the contribution of IPV vaccination to the induction of a) protection against poliovirus infection and b) mucosal immunity.We have described the development of new immunological tools for the rapid detection of poliovirus-specific antibodies and

  6. Strain differentiation of polioviruses with monoclonal antibodies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); A.L. van Wezel; A.J.H. Stegmann; J.A.A.M. van Asten (Jack)

    1984-01-01

    textabstractPanels of monoclonal antibodies raised against different poliovirus type 1, 2 and 3 strains, were tested in a micro-neutralization test and in a micro-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay against a large number of poliovirus strains. The results were compared with those obtained with the

  7. Evolution of type 2 vaccine derived poliovirus lineages. Evidence for codon-specific positive selection at three distinct locations on capsid wall.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapani Hovi

    Full Text Available Partial sequences of 110 type 2 poliovirus strains isolated from sewage in Slovakia in 2003-2005, and most probably originating from a single dose of oral poliovirus vaccine, were subjected to a detailed genetic analysis. Evolutionary patterns of these vaccine derived poliovirus strains (SVK-aVDPV2 were compared to those of type 1 and type 3 wild poliovirus (WPV lineages considered to have a single seed strain origin, respectively. The 102 unique SVK-aVDPV VP1 sequences were monophyletic differing from that of the most likely parental poliovirus type 2/Sabin (PV2 Sabin by 12.5-15.6%. Judging from this difference and from the rate of accumulation of synonymous transversions during the 22 month observation period, the relevant oral poliovirus vaccine dose had been administered to an unknown recipient more than 12 years earlier. The patterns of nucleotide substitution during the observation period differed from those found in the studied lineages of WPV1 or 3, including a lower transition/transversion (Ts/Tv bias and strikingly lower Ts/Tv rate ratios at the 2(nd codon position for both purines and pyrimidines. A relatively low preference of transitions at the 2(nd codon position was also found in the large set of VP1 sequences of Nigerian circulating (cVDPV2, as well as in the smaller sets from the Hispaniola cVDPV1 and Egypt cVDPV2 outbreaks, and among aVDPV1and aVDPV2 strains recently isolated from sewage in Finland. Codon-wise analysis of synonymous versus non-synonymous substitution rates in the VP1 sequences suggested that in five codons, those coding for amino acids at sites 24, 144, 147, 221 and 222, there may have been positive selection during the observation period. We conclude that pattern of poliovirus VP1 evolution in prolonged infection may differ from that found in WPV epidemics. Further studies on sufficiently large independent datasets are needed to confirm this suggestion and to reveal its potential significance.

  8. 75 FR 41119 - Special Local Regulations; Sabine River, Orange, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Sabine River, Orange, TX... River, Orange, Texas. This Special Local Regulation is intended to restrict vessels from portions of the..., testing and race in conjunction with the Orange, TX, Thunder on the Sabine boat races. The powerboat race...

  9. Community transmission of type 2 poliovirus after cessation of trivalent oral polio vaccine in Bangladesh: an open-label cluster-randomised trial and modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniuchi, Mami; Famulare, Michael; Zaman, Khalequ; Uddin, Md Jashim; Upfill-Brown, Alexander M; Ahmed, Tahmina; Saha, Parimalendu; Haque, Rashidul; Bandyopadhyay, Ananda S; Modlin, John F; Platts-Mills, James A; Houpt, Eric R; Yunus, Mohammed; Petri, William A

    2017-10-01

    Trivalent oral polio vaccine (tOPV) was replaced worldwide from April, 2016, by bivalent types 1 and 3 oral polio vaccine (bOPV) and one dose of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) where available. The risk of transmission of type 2 poliovirus or Sabin 2 virus on re-introduction or resurgence of type 2 poliovirus after this switch is not understood completely. We aimed to assess the risk of Sabin 2 transmission after a polio vaccination campaign with a monovalent type 2 oral polio vaccine (mOPV2). We did an open-label cluster-randomised trial in villages in the Matlab region of Bangladesh. We randomly allocated villages (clusters) to either: tOPV at age 6 weeks, 10 weeks, and 14 weeks; or bOPV at age 6 weeks, 10 weeks, and 14 weeks and either one dose of IPV at age 14 weeks or two doses of IPV at age 14 weeks and 18 weeks. After completion of enrolment, we implemented an mOPV2 vaccination campaign that targeted 40% of children younger than 5 years, regardless of enrolment status. The primary outcome was Sabin 2 incidence in the 10 weeks after the campaign in per-protocol infants who did not receive mOPV2, as assessed by faecal shedding of Sabin 2 by reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). The effect of previous immunity on incidence was also investigated with a dynamical model of poliovirus transmission to observe prevalence and incidence of Sabin 2 virus. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02477046. Between April 30, 2015, and Jan 14, 2016, individuals from 67 villages were enrolled to the study. 22 villages (300 infants) were randomly assigned tOPV, 23 villages (310 infants) were allocated bOPV and one dose of IPV, and 22 villages (329 infants) were assigned bOPV and two doses of IPV. Faecal shedding of Sabin 2 in infants who did not receive the mOPV2 challenge did not differ between children immunised with bOPV and one or two doses of IPV and those who received tOPV (15 of 252 [6%] vs six of 122 [4%]; odds ratio [OR] 1·29, 95% CI 0

  10. The postpolio syndrome: no evidence for poliovirus persistence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melchers, W.; de Visser, M.; Jongen, P.; van Loon, A.; Nibbeling, R.; Oostvogel, P.; Willemse, D.; Galama, J.

    1992-01-01

    To investigate the possibility of poliovirus persistence in patients with the postpolio syndrome, we examined skeletal muscle biopsy specimens, cerebrospinal fluid specimens, and sera for the presence of poliovirus RNA by the polymerase chain reaction, and for IgM antibodies by a poliovirus

  11. National Status and Trends: Bioeffects Program - Sabine Lake, Texas Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The toxicity of sediments in Sabine Lake, Texas, and adjoining Intracoastal Waterway canals was determined as part of bioeffects assessment studies managed by NOAA's...

  12. Quarterly report (period ending January 31, 1940): Sabine Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Sabine NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from November, 1939 through January, 1940. Topics include equipment, Civilian Conservation Corps...

  13. Poliovirus Laboratory Based Surveillance: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Syed Sohail Zahoor; Asghar, Humayun; Sharif, Salmaan; Alam, Muhammad Masroor

    2016-01-01

    World Health Assembly (WHA) in 1988 encouraged the member states to launch Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) (resolution WHA41.28) against "the Crippler" called poliovirus, through strong routine immunization program and intensified surveillance systems. Since its launch, global incidence of poliomyelitis has been reduced by more than 99 % and the disease squeezed to only three endemic countries (Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Nigeria) out of 125. Today, poliomyelitis is on the verge of eradication, and their etiological agents, the three poliovirus serotypes, are on the brink of extinction from the natural environment. The last case of poliomyelitis due to wild type 2 strain occurred in 1999 in Uttar Pradesh, India whereas the last paralytic case due to wild poliovirus type 3 (WPV3) was seen in November, 2012 in Yobe, Nigeria. Despite this progress, undetected circulation cannot fully rule out the eradication as most of the poliovirus infections are entirely subclinical; hence sophisticated environmental surveillance is needed to ensure the complete eradication of virus. Moreover, the vaccine virus in under-immunized communities can sometimes revert and attain wild type characteristics posing a big challenge to the program.

  14. Recombinant Poliovirus circulation among healthy children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recombinant Poliovirus circulation among healthy children immunized with oral polio vaccine in Abidjan. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... In order to assess the level of polio virus with natural recombinant genome and wild polio virus circulating in the environment of healthy children aged 0 to 5 years in Abidjan, 130 ...

  15. North American Breeding Bird Survey Summary Report for Sabine National Wildlife Refuge 1989-2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a summary report of the results of breeding bird surveys conducted on Sabine NWR (Sabine1 and Sabine2 Routes) from 1989 to 2016. The data can be accessed...

  16. Seroepidemiology of Polioviruses among University Students in Northern Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Baldo, Vincenzo; Baldovin, Tatjana; Cocchio, Silvia; Lazzari, Roberta; Saracino, Elena; Bertoncello, Chiara; Buja, Alessandra; Trevisan, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    The widespread use of poliovirus vaccination schemes has led to a marked decline in the incidence of paralytic poliomyelitis worldwide, but wild poliovirus is still endemic in some developing countries, and in 2009 a total of 23 countries reported at least 1 case of poliomyelitis caused by wild-strain polio viruses. A serological survey was thus conducted on the immunological status against polioviruses of 318 young adults, classified by their country of origin. Immunity to poliomyelitis was ...

  17. Genetic analysis and characterization of wild poliovirus type 1 during sustained transmission in a population with >95% vaccine coverage, Israel 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, Lester M; Martin, Javier; Sofer, Danit; Burns, Cara C; Manor, Yossi; Hindiyeh, Musa; Gavrilin, Eugene; Wilton, Thomas; Moran-Gilad, Jacob; Gamzo, Ronni; Mendelson, Ella; Grotto, Itamar

    2015-04-01

    Israel has >95% polio vaccine coverage with the last 9 birth cohorts immunized exclusively with inactivated polio vaccine (IPV). Using acute flaccid paralysis and routine, monthly countrywide environmental surveillance, no wild poliovirus circulation was detected between 1989 and February 2013, after which wild type 1 polioviruses South Asia genotype (WPV1-SOAS) have persistently circulated in southern Israel and intermittently in other areas without any paralytic cases as determined by intensified surveillance of environmental and human samples. We aimed to characterize antigenic and neurovirulence properties of WPV1-SOAS silently circulating in a highly vaccinated population. WPV1-SOAS capsid genes from environmental and stool surveillance isolates were sequenced, their neurovirulence was determined using transgenic mouse expressing the human poliovirus receptor (Tg21-PVR) mice, and their antigenicity was characterized by in vitro neutralization using human sera, epitope-specific monoclonal murine anti-oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) antibodies, and sera from IPV-immunized rats and mice. WPV1 amino acid sequences in neutralizing epitopes varied from Sabin 1 and Mahoney, with little variation among WPV1 isolates. Neutralization by monoclonal antibodies against 3 of 4 OPV epitopes was lost. Three-fold lower geometric mean titers (Z = -4.018; P SOAS isolates were neurovirulent (50% intramuscular paralytic dose in Tg21-PVR mice: log10(7.0)). IPV-immunized mice were protected against WPV1-induced paralysis. Phenotypic and antigenic profile changes of WPV1-SOAS may have contributed to the intense silent transmission, whereas the reduced neurovirulence may have contributed to the absence of paralytic cases in the background of high population immunity. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Sabine absorption coefficients to random incidence absorption coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2014-01-01

    into random incidence absorption coefficients for porous absorbers are investigated. Two optimization-based conversion methods are suggested: the surface impedance estimation for locally reacting absorbers and the flow resistivity estimation for extendedly reacting absorbers. The suggested conversion methods......Absorption coefficients measured by the chamber method are referred to as Sabine absorption coefficients, which sometimes exceed unity due to the finite size of a specimen and non-uniform intensity in the test chamber. In this study, several methods that convert Sabine absorption coefficients...

  19. Inactivation of poliovirus by chloramine-T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowda, N M; Trieff, N M; Stanton, G J

    1981-01-01

    Since concern has recently been expressed about the presence of genotoxic substances due to chlorination of water and wastewater, chloramine-T (CAT) is proposed as an alternative disinfectant to chlorine. The viricidal properties of chlorine and CAT were compared. Kinetics of inactivation of poliovirus type 2 by chlorine and CAT in chlorine demand-free water were investigated by using a kinetic apparatus. Inactivation of the virus by chlorine and CAT occurred in two steps. The initial linear part of the inactivation curve followed a pseudo-first-order reaction with the virus. An obvious dose-response relationship was demonstrated with CAT. The rate of inactivation of the virus by CAT was faster in acid medium than in alkaline medium. Inactivation kinetic studies were performed at different temperatures, and the kinetic, Arrhenius, and thermodynamic parameters were evaluated. The rate of inactivation of poliovirus type 2 by chlorine was faster than that by CAT under identical conditions. A mechanism for the viral inactivation in acid conditions was proposed which led to a rate equation consistent with the experimental results. The results indicate that CAT may be an effective viricide against poliovirus type 2 in an acid medium. PMID:6271058

  20. 76 FR 30890 - Special Local Regulations; Sabine River, Orange, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Sabine River, Orange, TX... River, Orange, Texas on September 24-25, 2011. This Special Local Regulation is intended to restrict... race in conjunction with the Orange, TX S.P.O.R.T. boat races. The powerboat race and associated...

  1. Plaque And Growth Characteristics Of Different Polioviruses Isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine some virulent trait-related properties of poliovirus isolates from children with acute flaccid paralysis following vaccination with oral polio vaccine (OPV). Design: Six polioviruses earlier characterised into wild, vaccine-derived and OPV-like were studied using the plaque morphology and growth ...

  2. original article evaluation of immunity against poliovirus serotypes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Oboro VO

    spread of the virus (13). CONCLUSION. The present study demonstrates 81% herd immunity for the three-poliovirus serotypes among children in five riverine communities in two local government areas of Delta state of Nigeria. Identification of some children without detectable antibodies to one or more poliovirus serotypes, ...

  3. Kinetics of Poliovirus Shedding following Oral Vaccination as Measured by Quantitative Reverse Transcription-PCR versus Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Sharmin; Uddin, Md Jashim; Platts-Mills, James A.; Liu, Jie; Kirkpatrick, Beth D.; Chowdhury, Anwarul H.; Jamil, Khondoker M.; Haque, Rashidul; Petri, William A.; Houpt, Eric R.

    2014-01-01

    Amid polio eradication efforts, detection of oral polio vaccine (OPV) virus in stool samples can provide information about rates of mucosal immunity and allow estimation of the poliovirus reservoir. We developed a multiplex one-step quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) assay for detection of OPV Sabin strains 1, 2, and 3 directly in stool samples with an external control to normalize samples for viral quantity and compared its performance with that of viral culture. We applied the assay to samples from infants in Dhaka, Bangladesh, after the administration of trivalent OPV (tOPV) at weeks 14 and 52 of life (on days 0 [pre-OPV], +4, +11, +18, and +25 relative to vaccination). When 1,350 stool samples were tested, the sensitivity and specificity of the quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay were 89 and 91% compared with culture. A quantitative relationship between culture+/qPCR+ and culture−/qPCR+ stool samples was observed. The kinetics of shedding revealed by qPCR and culture were similar. qPCR quantitative cutoffs based on the day +11 or +18 stool samples could be used to identify the culture-positive shedders, as well as the long-duration or high-frequency shedders. Interestingly, qPCR revealed that a small minority (7%) of infants contributed the vast majority (93 to 100%) of the total estimated viral excretion across all subtypes at each time point. This qPCR assay for OPV can simply and quantitatively detect all three Sabin strains directly in stool samples to approximate shedding both qualitatively and quantitatively. PMID:25378579

  4. Analysis of Sabine river flow data using semiparametric spline modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Soutir; Maity, Arnab

    2011-03-01

    SummaryIn this article, a modeling approach for the mean annual flow in different segments of Sabine river, as released in the NHDPlus data in 2007, as a function of five predictor variables is described. Modeling flow is extremely complex and the deterministic flow models are widely used for that purpose. The justification for using these deterministic models comes from the fact that the flow is governed by some explicitly stated physical laws. In contrast, in this article, this complex issue is addressed from a completely statistical point of view. A semiparametric model is proposed to analyze the spatial distribution of the mean annual flow of Sabine river. Semiparametric additive models allow explicit consideration of the linear and nonlinear relations with relevant explanatory variables. We use a conditionally specified Gaussian model for the estimation of the univariate conditional distributions of flow to incorporate auxiliary information and this formulation does not require the target variable to be independent.

  5. Managing the risk of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus during the endgame: oral poliovirus vaccine needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duintjer Tebbens, Radboud J; Thompson, Kimberly M

    2015-09-24

    The Global Polio Eradication Initiative plans for coordinated cessation of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) use, beginning with serotype 2-containing OPV (i.e., OPV2 cessation) followed by the remaining two OPV serotypes (i.e., OPV13 cessation). The risk of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV) outbreaks after OPV cessation of any serotype depends on the serotype-specific population immunity to transmission prior to its cessation. Based on an existing integrated global model of poliovirus risk management policies, we estimate the serotype-specific OPV doses required to manage population immunity for a strategy of intensive supplemental immunization activities (SIAs) shortly before OPV cessation of each serotype. The strategy seeks to prevent any cVDPV outbreaks after OPV cessation, although actual events remain stochastic. Managing the risks of OPV cessation of any serotype depends on achieving sufficient population immunity to transmission to transmission at OPV cessation. This will require that countries with sub-optimal routine immunization coverage and/or conditions that favor poliovirus transmission conduct SIAs with homotypic OPV shortly before its planned coordinated cessation. The model suggests the need to increase trivalent OPV use in SIAs by approximately 40 % or more during the year before OPV2 cessation and to continue bOPV SIAs between the time of OPV2 cessation and OPV13 cessation. Managing the risks of cVDPVs in the polio endgame will require serotype-specific OPV SIAs in some areas prior to OPV cessation and lead to demands for additional doses of the vaccine in the short term that will affect managers and manufacturers.

  6. Poliovirus protease 3C(pro) kills cells by apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barco, A; Feduchi, E; Carrasco, L

    2000-01-20

    The tetracycline-based Tet-Off expression system has been used to analyze the effects of poliovirus protease 3C(pro) on human cells. Stable HeLa cell clones that express this poliovirus protease under the control of an inducible, tightly regulated promoter were obtained. Tetracycline removal induces synthesis of 3C protease, followed by drastic morphological alterations and cellular death. Degradation of cellular DNA in nucleosomes and generation of apoptotic bodies are observed from the second day after 3C(pro) induction. The cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, an enzyme involved in DNA repair, occurs after induction of 3C(pro), indicating caspase activation by this poliovirus protease. The 3C(pro)-induced apoptosis is blocked by the caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk. Our findings suggest that the protease 3C is responsible for triggering apoptosis in poliovirus-infected cells by a mechanism that involves caspase activation. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  7. Poliovirus persistence in human cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbère-Garapin, F; Jacques, S; Drillet, A S; Pavio, N; Couderc, T; Blondel, B; Pelletier, I

    2001-01-01

    Poliovirus (PV) can persist in vivo in the intestine of immunocompromised hosts for years. Moreover, immunocompetent individuals who have survived paralytic poliomyelitis sometimes develop the post-poliomyelitis syndrome (PPS), consisting of a variety of symptoms including new muscular atrophies. PPS may be due to PV persistence. We have developed models of PV persistence in neural cells and epidermoid cells. Cell determinants are of crucial importance for the establishment of persistent infections in human neuronal cells, whereas viral determinants play the primary role in human epidermoid HEp-2 cells. The results obtained with these in vitro models show the capacity of PV to persist and reveal a virus and cell co-evolution involving PV-receptor interactions. In addition, they suggest that several mechanisms are used by PV to establish and maintain persistent infections.

  8. Persistent poliovirus infection in mouse motoneurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destombes, J; Couderc, T; Thiesson, D; Girard, S; Wilt, S G; Blondel, B

    1997-01-01

    Poliovirus (PV) is the causal agent of paralytic poliomyelitis. Many survivors of the acute disease, after decades of clinical stability, develop new muscular symptoms called postpolio syndrome. It has been hypothesized that the persistence of PV in the spinal cord is involved in the etiology of this syndrome. To investigate the ability of PV to persist in the spinal cord after the onset of paralysis, we exploited a mouse model in which most animals inoculated with a mouse-adapted mutant survived after the onset of paralysis. Light microscopy and ultrastructural immunohistochemical studies and reverse transcription followed by nested PCR performed on spinal cord from paralyzed mice demonstrated that PV persisted in the mouse spinal cord for at least 12 months after the onset of paralysis. This mouse model provides a new tool for studying poliomyelitis evolution after the onset of paralysis. PMID:8995689

  9. Preventing Vaccine-Derived Poliovirus Emergence during the Polio Endgame.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Pons-Salort

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Reversion and spread of vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV to cause outbreaks of poliomyelitis is a rare outcome resulting from immunisation with the live-attenuated oral poliovirus vaccines (OPVs. Global withdrawal of all three OPV serotypes is therefore a key objective of the polio endgame strategic plan, starting with serotype 2 (OPV2 in April 2016. Supplementary immunisation activities (SIAs with trivalent OPV (tOPV in advance of this date could mitigate the risks of OPV2 withdrawal by increasing serotype-2 immunity, but may also create new serotype-2 VDPV (VDPV2. Here, we examine the risk factors for VDPV2 emergence and implications for the strategy of tOPV SIAs prior to OPV2 withdrawal. We first developed mathematical models of VDPV2 emergence and spread. We found that in settings with low routine immunisation coverage, the implementation of a single SIA increases the risk of VDPV2 emergence. If routine coverage is 20%, at least 3 SIAs are needed to bring that risk close to zero, and if SIA coverage is low or there are persistently "missed" groups, the risk remains high despite the implementation of multiple SIAs. We then analysed data from Nigeria on the 29 VDPV2 emergences that occurred during 2004-2014. Districts reporting the first case of poliomyelitis associated with a VDPV2 emergence were compared to districts with no VDPV2 emergence in the same 6-month period using conditional logistic regression. In agreement with the model results, the odds of VDPV2 emergence decreased with higher routine immunisation coverage (odds ratio 0.67 for a 10% absolute increase in coverage [95% confidence interval 0.55-0.82]. We also found that the probability of a VDPV2 emergence resulting in poliomyelitis in >1 child was significantly higher in districts with low serotype-2 population immunity. Our results support a strategy of focused tOPV SIAs before OPV2 withdrawal in areas at risk of VDPV2 emergence and in sufficient number to raise population

  10. Preventing Vaccine-Derived Poliovirus Emergence during the Polio Endgame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons-Salort, Margarita; Burns, Cara C; Lyons, Hil; Blake, Isobel M; Jafari, Hamid; Oberste, M Steven; Kew, Olen M; Grassly, Nicholas C

    2016-07-01

    Reversion and spread of vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) to cause outbreaks of poliomyelitis is a rare outcome resulting from immunisation with the live-attenuated oral poliovirus vaccines (OPVs). Global withdrawal of all three OPV serotypes is therefore a key objective of the polio endgame strategic plan, starting with serotype 2 (OPV2) in April 2016. Supplementary immunisation activities (SIAs) with trivalent OPV (tOPV) in advance of this date could mitigate the risks of OPV2 withdrawal by increasing serotype-2 immunity, but may also create new serotype-2 VDPV (VDPV2). Here, we examine the risk factors for VDPV2 emergence and implications for the strategy of tOPV SIAs prior to OPV2 withdrawal. We first developed mathematical models of VDPV2 emergence and spread. We found that in settings with low routine immunisation coverage, the implementation of a single SIA increases the risk of VDPV2 emergence. If routine coverage is 20%, at least 3 SIAs are needed to bring that risk close to zero, and if SIA coverage is low or there are persistently "missed" groups, the risk remains high despite the implementation of multiple SIAs. We then analysed data from Nigeria on the 29 VDPV2 emergences that occurred during 2004-2014. Districts reporting the first case of poliomyelitis associated with a VDPV2 emergence were compared to districts with no VDPV2 emergence in the same 6-month period using conditional logistic regression. In agreement with the model results, the odds of VDPV2 emergence decreased with higher routine immunisation coverage (odds ratio 0.67 for a 10% absolute increase in coverage [95% confidence interval 0.55-0.82]). We also found that the probability of a VDPV2 emergence resulting in poliomyelitis in >1 child was significantly higher in districts with low serotype-2 population immunity. Our results support a strategy of focused tOPV SIAs before OPV2 withdrawal in areas at risk of VDPV2 emergence and in sufficient number to raise population immunity above the

  11. Eficácia da vacina Sabin em crianças subnutridas da Amazônia The efficacy of oral polio vaccine in malnourished Amazonian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus E. Stewien

    1985-02-01

    Full Text Available A eficácia da vacina Sabin foi determinada em 106 crianças normais e subnutridas da Amazônia, após a administração de uma e duas doses de vacina oral (trivalente. Após a aplicação de uma dose de vacina, verificou-se que apenas 9% das crianças com subnutrição pregressa (crônica e 43% das crianças normais formaram anticorpos neutralizantes (protetores contra dois ou três tipos de poliovírus (p = 0,04. Após duas doses de vacina, os níveis de imunidade dos dois grupos de crianças estudadas acusaram, respectivamente, 32% e 75% (p = 0,001. Estes resultados mostram que a resposta imunitária à vacina Sabin foi sensivelmente inferior no grupo das crianças subnutridas, do que no das crianças normais. Em decorrência disto, será necessário administrar um número maior de doses de vacina oral àquelas crianças, a fim de que níveis satisfatórios de imunidade contra a poliomielite sejam atingidos em toda a população infantil.Various hypotheses have been proposed to explain the diminished efficacy of the oral polio vaccine in underdeveloped tropical regions. In this study, the influence of mild to moderate chronic malnutrition on the development of antibodies to the 3 types of polioviruses was investigated in Brazilian Amazonian children. Vaccines were administered to 106 normal and stunted children, between 5 to 14 months of age, who were not suffering from acute malnutrition (wasting, in poor peri-urban slum areas of Manaus (AM and São Luis (MA during the National Poliomyelitis Vaccination Campaigns of 1981 and 1982. Two weeks after vaccination, blood was collected by digital puncture and the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies for the 3 types of polioviruses was determined in serum at a dilution of 1:8. In children who had received one dose of the vaccine, 43% of normal children had antibodies to 2 or 3 types of polioviruses, against only 9% of stunted children (p = .04. In children who had received 2 doses of vaccine, 75

  12. Systematic review of mucosal immunity induced by oral and inactivated poliovirus vaccines against virus shedding following oral poliovirus challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R Hird

    Full Text Available Inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV may be used in mass vaccination campaigns during the final stages of polio eradication. It is also likely to be adopted by many countries following the coordinated global cessation of vaccination with oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV after eradication. The success of IPV in the control of poliomyelitis outbreaks will depend on the degree of nasopharyngeal and intestinal mucosal immunity induced against poliovirus infection. We performed a systematic review of studies published through May 2011 that recorded the prevalence of poliovirus shedding in stool samples or nasopharyngeal secretions collected 5-30 days after a "challenge" dose of OPV. Studies were combined in a meta-analysis of the odds of shedding among children vaccinated according to IPV, OPV, and combination schedules. We identified 31 studies of shedding in stool and four in nasopharyngeal samples that met the inclusion criteria. Individuals vaccinated with OPV were protected against infection and shedding of poliovirus in stool samples collected after challenge compared with unvaccinated individuals (summary odds ratio [OR] for shedding 0.13 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.08-0.24. In contrast, IPV provided no protection against shedding compared with unvaccinated individuals (summary OR 0.81 [95% CI 0.59-1.11] or when given in addition to OPV, compared with individuals given OPV alone (summary OR 1.14 [95% CI 0.82-1.58]. There were insufficient studies of nasopharyngeal shedding to draw a conclusion. IPV does not induce sufficient intestinal mucosal immunity to reduce the prevalence of fecal poliovirus shedding after challenge, although there was some evidence that it can reduce the quantity of virus shed. The impact of IPV on poliovirus transmission in countries where fecal-oral spread is common is unknown but is likely to be limited compared with OPV.

  13. Seroepidemiology of polioviruses among university students in northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldo, Vincenzo; Baldovin, Tatjana; Cocchio, Silvia; Lazzari, Roberta; Saracino, Elena; Bertoncello, Chiara; Buja, Alessandra; Trevisan, Andrea

    2012-08-01

    The widespread use of poliovirus vaccination schemes has led to a marked decline in the incidence of paralytic poliomyelitis worldwide, but wild poliovirus is still endemic in some developing countries, and in 2009 a total of 23 countries reported at least 1 case of poliomyelitis caused by wild-strain polio viruses. A serological survey was thus conducted on the immunological status against polioviruses of 318 young adults, classified by their country of origin. Immunity to poliomyelitis was assessed by neutralizing antibody titration in tissues cultured on microplates. The rate of seronegativity (≤ 1:8) in the study population was 26.7% for poliovirus type 1, 7.2% for type 2, and 22.6% for type 3. In our sample of 318 individuals, 219 (68.9%) were Italian and 99 (31.1%) were from outside the European Union (EU). The proportion of cases found seropositive to polioviruses 1 and 3 decreased significantly with older age; this age-related decrease was more evident in the Italian group than among the non-EU subjects. Any risk of the wild virus recurring and causing paralytic poliomyelitis must be prevented, keeping Europe polio free by means of appropriate immunological protection, until polio has been conclusively eradicated all over the world. Judging from our findings, it may be worth considering administering a fifth dose of polio vaccine to adolescents.

  14. Poliovirus and echovirus survival in Tetrahymena pyriformis culture in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danes, L; Cerva, L

    1984-01-01

    Axenic cultures of Tetrahymena pyriformis, strain I MT IV, grown in a defined medium at room temperature, were used to study interactions of these protozoa with vaccination strain L Sc 2ab of poliovirus type 1, vaccination strain P 712 of poliovirus type 2 and with type 30 echovirus, strain 480/78. T. pyriformis cultures in media containing 10(3.0) TCD50/1 ml of type poliovirus, 10(3.0) TCD50/1 ml of type 2 poliovirus or 10(2.5) TCD50/1 ml echovirus 30 and in virus-free medium did not differ one from another in their growth and die-away kinetics during the 21 days of observation. Two-day T. pyriformis cultures were infected with poliovirus 1 (initial concentration 10(3.2) TCD50/1 ml), and poliovirus 2 and echovirus 30 (initial concentrations 10(3.0) TCD50/1 ml). Viruses were titrated in test tube cultures of BGM cells. The supernatant fluid, standardized sediment and samples of control virus suspension free of protozoa were titrated after 0, 2, 6, 10, 13, 18, 28 and 30 days. Most of the virus in culture was found associated with the sediment, both in the period of active growth and during the die-away phase of T. pyriformis protozoa. The virus in sediment was present at higher titres and its survival time was longer than in virus in liquid phase. Thirteen days after the first contact between T. pyriformis and virus the sediment and supernatant fluid of the old protozoan culture and the T. pyriformis-free control viral suspension were taken and used as inocula for new two-day T. pyriformis cultures.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Update on Vaccine-Derived Polioviruses - Worldwide, January 2016-June 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorba, Jaume; Diop, Ousmane M; Iber, Jane; Henderson, Elizabeth; Sutter, Roland W; Wassilak, Steven G F; Burns, Cara C

    2017-11-03

    In 1988, the World Health Assembly launched the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) (1). Among the three wild poliovirus (WPV) serotypes, only type 1 (WPV1) has been detected since 2012. Since 2014, detection of WPV1 has been limited to three countries, with 37 cases in 2016 and 11 cases in 2017 as of September 27. The >99.99% decline worldwide in polio cases since the launch of the GPEI is attributable to the extensive use of the live, attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) in mass vaccination campaigns and comprehensive national routine immunization programs. Despite its well-established safety record, OPV use can be associated with rare emergence of genetically divergent vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs) whose genetic drift from the parental OPV strains indicates prolonged replication or circulation (2). VDPVs can also emerge among persons with primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs). Immunodeficiency-associated VDPVs (iVDPVs) can replicate for years in some persons with PIDs. In addition, circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs) can emerge very rarely among immunologically normal vaccine recipients and their contacts in areas with inadequate OPV coverage and can cause outbreaks of paralytic polio. This report updates previous summaries regarding VDPVs (3). During January 2016-June 2017, new cVDPV outbreaks were identified, including two in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) (eight cases), and another in Syria (35 cases), whereas the circulation of cVDPV type 2 (cVDPV2) in Nigeria resulted in cVDPV2 detection linked to a previous emergence. The last confirmed case from the 2015-2016 cVDPV type 1 (cVDPV1) outbreak in Laos occurred in January 2016. Fourteen newly identified persons in 10 countries were found to excrete iVDPVs, and three previously reported patients in the United Kingdom and Iran (3) were still excreting type 2 iVDPV (iVDPV2) during the reporting period. Ambiguous VDPVs (aVDPVs), isolates that cannot be classified

  16. 100 years poliovirus: from discovery to eradication. A meeting report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skern, Tim

    2010-09-01

    Just over hundred years ago, Karl Landsteiner and Erwin Popper identified a virus, later termed poliovirus, as the causative agent of poliomyelitis. This groundbreaking discovery simultaneously provided the basis for the measures that today prevent the outbreaks of the terrible epidemics caused by poliovirus. In 1988, the WHO started its eradication program to eliminate the virus from the planet. The symposium celebrated the discovery of poliovirus and discussed our current state of knowledge of poliovirus biology. Prospects for the eradication program were evaluated, with particular emphasis being placed on why certain countries still have not succeeding in interrupting wild-type transmission of poliovirus. Discussion also centred on the role of inactivated poliovirus vaccines in the eradication program and the maintenance of a poliovirus-free world, whenever this goal should be achieved.

  17. Sabine National Wildlife Refuge: Southwest Louisiana National Wildlife Refuge Complex: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Sabine NWR and Southwest Louisiana NWR Complex for the next 15 years. This plan...

  18. Sabine National Wildlife Refuge : Quarterly Narrative Report : August, September and October 1940

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Sabine NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from August to October 1940. Topics include equipment, Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)...

  19. Sabine National Wildlife Refuge : Quarterly Narrative Report : November, December 1940 - January 1941

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Sabine NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from November, 1940 through January, 1941. Topics include equipment, Civilian Conservation Corps...

  20. Cryo-electron Microscopy Structures of Expanded Poliovirus with VHHs Sample the Conformational Repertoire of the Expanded State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Mike; Schotte, Lise; Karunatilaka, Krishanthi S; Filman, David J; Hogle, James M

    2017-02-01

    By using cryo-electron microscopy, expanded 80S-like poliovirus virions (poliovirions) were visualized in complexes with four 80S-specific camelid VHHs (Nanobodies). In all four complexes, the VHHs bind to a site on the top surface of the capsid protein VP3, which is hidden in the native virus. Interestingly, although the four VHHs bind to the same site, the structures of the expanded virus differ in detail in each complex, suggesting that each of the Nanobodies has sampled a range of low-energy structures available to the expanded virion. By stabilizing unique structures of expanded virions, VHH binding permitted a more detailed view of the virus structure than was previously possible, leading to a better understanding of the expansion process that is a critical step in infection. It is now clear which polypeptide chains become disordered and which become rearranged. The higher resolution of these structures also revealed well-ordered conformations for the EF loop of VP2, the GH loop of VP3, and the N-terminal extensions of VP1 and VP2, which, in retrospect, were present in lower-resolution structures but not recognized. These structural observations help to explain preexisting mutational data and provide insights into several other stages of the poliovirus life cycle, including the mechanism of receptor-triggered virus expansion. When poliovirus infects a cell, it undergoes a change in its structure in order to pass RNA through its protein coat, but this altered state is short-lived and thus poorly understood. The structures of poliovirus bound to single-domain antibodies presented here capture the altered virus in what appear to be intermediate states. A careful analysis of these structures lets us better understand the molecular mechanism of infection and how these changes in the virus lead to productive-infection events. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  1. Cryo-electron Microscopy Structures of Expanded Poliovirus with VHHs Sample the Conformational Repertoire of the Expanded State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Mike; Schotte, Lise; Karunatilaka, Krishanthi S.; Filman, David J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT By using cryo-electron microscopy, expanded 80S-like poliovirus virions (poliovirions) were visualized in complexes with four 80S-specific camelid VHHs (Nanobodies). In all four complexes, the VHHs bind to a site on the top surface of the capsid protein VP3, which is hidden in the native virus. Interestingly, although the four VHHs bind to the same site, the structures of the expanded virus differ in detail in each complex, suggesting that each of the Nanobodies has sampled a range of low-energy structures available to the expanded virion. By stabilizing unique structures of expanded virions, VHH binding permitted a more detailed view of the virus structure than was previously possible, leading to a better understanding of the expansion process that is a critical step in infection. It is now clear which polypeptide chains become disordered and which become rearranged. The higher resolution of these structures also revealed well-ordered conformations for the EF loop of VP2, the GH loop of VP3, and the N-terminal extensions of VP1 and VP2, which, in retrospect, were present in lower-resolution structures but not recognized. These structural observations help to explain preexisting mutational data and provide insights into several other stages of the poliovirus life cycle, including the mechanism of receptor-triggered virus expansion. IMPORTANCE When poliovirus infects a cell, it undergoes a change in its structure in order to pass RNA through its protein coat, but this altered state is short-lived and thus poorly understood. The structures of poliovirus bound to single-domain antibodies presented here capture the altered virus in what appear to be intermediate states. A careful analysis of these structures lets us better understand the molecular mechanism of infection and how these changes in the virus lead to productive-infection events. PMID:27852863

  2. Sit Down with Sabin: Venkat Srinivasan: The Future of Batteries (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Sabin; Srinivasan, Venkat

    2011-06-29

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory battery scientist Venkat Srinivasan appears June 29, 2011 on "Sit Down with Sabin," a weekly conversation in which former reporter Sabin Russell chats with Berkeley Lab staff about innovative science. Over the course of several conversations held at noon in the Building 50 auditorium, Russell and Lab staff will explore the ups and downs of pioneering science — all without the aid of PowerPoints. Brought to you by Berkeley Lab Public Affairs.

  3. Analysis of Sabine and Eyring equations and their application to concert hall audience and chair absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beranek, Leo L

    2006-09-01

    Historically, two equations have been used for predicting reverberation times, Sabine and Eyring. A precise means is presented for determining Eyring absorption coefficients alpha(eyring) when the Sabine coefficients alpha(sabine) are known, and vice versa. Thus, either formula can be used provided the absorption coefficients for the Sabine formula are allowed to exceed 1.0. The Sabine formula is not an approximation to the Eyring equation and is not a shortcoming. Given low reverberation times, the ratio of alpha(sabine) to alpha(eyring) may become greater than 2.0. It is vital that, for correct prediction of reverberation times, the absorption coefficients used in either formula must have been determined in spaces similar in size and shape, with similar locations of high absorption (audience) areas, and with similar reverberation times. For concert halls, it is found that, when the audience area (fully occupied) and midfrequency reverberation time are postulated, the hall volume is directly proportional to the audience absorption coefficient. Approximately 6% greater room volumes are needed when choosing nonrectangular versus classical-rectangular shaped halls and approximately 10% greater volumes when choosing heavily upholstered versus medium upholstered chairs. Determinations of audience sound absorption coefficients are presented, based on published acoustical and architectural data for 20 halls.

  4. Health facility-based survey of poliovirus antibody prevalence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: High level of Poliovirus protective antibodies, must at all times be sustained in a community if poliomyelitis eradication is to be achieved. For some time now children have been vaccinated against poliomyelitis through various means in Northern Nigeria without authorities taking steps to evaluate the ...

  5. original article evaluation of immunity against poliovirus serotypes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Oboro VO

    polioviruses to block the infection. This study was therefore conducted to determine the proportion of infants with protective levels of serum neutralizing antibodies after at least two doses of OPV among children within the age at greatest risk of poliomyelitis in the riverine areas. (known as hard-to-reach areas because of the.

  6. Circulating Vaccine Derived Poliovirus and the polio eradication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No Abstract. Key words: Polio, polio eradication, vaccine derived poliovirus, Oral polio vaccine, inactivated polio vaccine, surveillance. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Article Metrics. Metrics Loading ... Metrics powered by PLOS ALM.

  7. Development of novel inactivated poliovirus vaccines: Breaking away from convention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, B.P.

    2015-01-01

    Infection with poliovirus (a small, non-enveloped Picornavirus) can result in poliomyelitis, hallmarked by symptoms of paralysis which is caused by viral destruction of motor neurons. Circulating humoral neutralizing antibodies can effectively protect against the disease, an immune response which

  8. Immunity to poliovirus serotypes in children population of selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Poliovirus outbreaks are still reported in Nigeria despite renewed efforts to improve vaccine coverage, thus suggesting the existence of susceptible hosts. Also, there is anecdotal evidence of variation in vaccine coverage by region and specifically between urban and rural communities. Consequently, this study ...

  9. Monoclonal antibodies to polioviruses; comparison of intratypic strain differentiation of poliovirus type 1 using monoclonal antibodies versus cross-absorbed antisera.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); A.L. van Wezel; T.G. Hazendonk; F.G.C.M. Uytdehaag (Fons); J.A.A.M. van Asten (Jack); G. van Steenis (Bert)

    1983-01-01

    textabstractA panel of 10 monoclonal antibodies raised to 3 different poliovirus type 1 strains was tested in a micro-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and in a micro-neutralization test against 87 poliovirus type 1 strains. The results, evaluated in a newly developed system for intratypic strain

  10. National choices related to inactivated poliovirus vaccine, innovation and the endgame of global polio eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kimberly M; Duintjer Tebbens, Radboud J

    2014-02-01

    Achieving the goal of a world free of poliomyelitis still requires significant effort. Although polio immunization represents a mature area, the polio endgame will require new tools and strategies, particularly as national and global health leaders coordinate the cessation of all three serotypes of oral poliovirus vaccine and increasingly adopt inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV). Poliovirus epidemiology and the global options for managing polioviruses continue to evolve, along with our understanding and appreciation of the resources needed and the risks that require management. Based on insights from modeling, we offer some perspective on the current status of plans and opportunities to achieve and maintain a world free of wild polioviruses and to successfully implement oral poliovirus vaccine cessation. IPV costs and potential wastage will represent an important consideration for national policy makers. Innovations may reduce future IPV costs, but the world urgently needs lower-cost IPV options.

  11. Poliovirus trafficking toward central nervous system via human poliovirus receptor-dependent and -independent pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seii eOHKA

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In humans, paralytic poliomyelitis results from the invasion of the central nervous system by circulating poliovirus (PV via the blood-brain barrier (BBB. After the virus enters the central nervous system (CNS, it replicates in neurons, especially in motor neurons (MNs, inducing the cell death that causes paralytic poliomyelitis. Along with this route of dissemination, neural pathway has been reported in humans, monkeys, and PV-sensitive human PV receptor (hPVR/CD155-transgenic (Tg mice. We demonstrated that a fast retrograde axonal transport process is required for PV dissemination through the sciatic nerve of hPVR-Tg mice and that intramuscularly inoculated PV causes paralysis in a hPVR-dependent manner. We also showed that hPVR-independent axonal transport of PV exists in hPVR-Tg and non-Tg mice, indicating that several different pathways for PV axonal transport exist in these mice. Circulating PV after intravenous inoculation in mice cross the BBB at a high rate in a hPVR-independent manner. Recently, we identified transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1 of mouse brain capillary endothelial cells as a binding protein to PV, implicating that TfR1 is a possible receptor for PV to permeate the BBB.

  12. Bayesian inference of the flow resistivity of a sound absorber and the room's influence on the Sabine absorption coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Choi, Sang-Hyeon; Lee, Ikjin

    2017-01-01

    A Bayesian analysis is applied to determine the flow resistivity of a porous sample and the influence of the test chamber based on measured Sabine absorption coefficient data. The Sabine absorption coefficient measured in a reverberation chamber according to ISO 354 is influenced by the test cham...

  13. 75 FR 67086 - Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC; Opinion and Order Denying Request for Review Under Section 3(c) of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC; Opinion and Order Denying Request for Review Under Section 3(c) of the... opinion and order pursuant to section 3 of the Natural Gas Act (NGA), that Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC's...

  14. Estimating the extent of vaccine-derived poliovirus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Wringe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Eight outbreaks of paralytic polio attributable to circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV have highlighted the risks associated with oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV use in areas of low vaccination coverage and poor hygiene. As the Polio Eradication Initiative enters its final stages, it is important to consider the extent to which these viruses spread under different conditions, so that appropriate strategies can be devised to prevent or respond to future cVDPV outbreaks. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This paper examines epidemiological (temporal, geographic, age, vaccine history, social group, ascertainment, and virological (type, genetic diversity, virulence parameters in order to infer the numbers of individuals likely to have been infected in each of these cVDPV outbreaks, and in association with single acute flaccid paralysis (AFP cases attributable to VDPVs. Although only 114 virologically-confirmed paralytic cases were identified in the eight cVDPV outbreaks, it is likely that a minimum of hundreds of thousands, and more likely several million individuals were infected during these events, and that many thousands more have been infected by VDPV lineages within outbreaks which have escaped detection. CONCLUSIONS: Our estimates of the extent of cVDPV circulation suggest widespread transmission in some countries, as might be expected from endemic wild poliovirus transmission in these same settings. These methods for inferring extent of infection will be useful in the context of identifying future surveillance needs, planning for OPV cessation and preparing outbreak response plans.

  15. Bayesian inversion from sabine absorption coefficients to flow resistivity values for porous absorbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2015-01-01

    The Sabine absorption coefficient, as the equivalent absorption coefficient of a test specimen in a reverberation chamber based on two reverberation time sets with and without an absorber specimen according to ISO 354, has several problems. The most prominent problem is that the Sabine absorption...... coefficient of an identical specimen varies largely with the test reverberation chamber where it is measured. Therefore, the measured quantity is regarded as a combination of the true absorption characteristic of the specimen and a factor exclusively added by the room. In this study, a Bayesian framework...... to determine the flow resistivity of a porous material from the Sabine absorption coefficient was investigated through a reliable model. The model for the flow resistivity estimation is based on an equivalent fluid model, i.e., Miki’s model, together with the most advanced model that accounts for edge...

  16. Modelling Atmospheric Rivers and the Potential for Southeast Texas Flooding: A Case Study of the Maya Express and the March 2016 Sabine River Flood

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, J.; Lander, K.

    2016-12-01

    For three days in March of 2016, southeast Texas was inundated with up to 19 inches of rainfall, swelling the Sabine River to record flood stages. This event was attributed to an atmospheric river (AR), regionally known as the "Maya Express," which carried moisture from the Gulf of Mexico into the Sabine River Basin. Studies by the NOAA/NWS Climate Prediction Center have shown that ARs are occurring more frequently due to the intensification of El Niño that increases the available moisture in the atmosphere. In this study, we analyzed the hydrological and meteorological setup of the event on the Sabine River to characterize the flood threat associated with AR rainfall and simulated how an equivalent AR event would impact an urban basin in Houston, Texas. Our primary data sources included WSR-88D radar-based rainfall estimates and observed data at USGS river gauges. Furthermore, the land surface parameters evaluated included land cover, soil types, basin topology, model-derived soil moisture states, and topography. The spatial distribution of precipitation from the storm was then translated west over the Houston and used to force a hydrologic model to assess the impact of an event comparable to the March 2016 event on Houston's San Jacinto River Basin. The results indicate that AR precipitation poses a flood risk to urbanized areas in southeast Texas because of the low lying topography, impervious pavement, and limited flood control. Due to this hydrologic setup, intense AR rainfall can yield a rapid urban runoff response that overwhelms the river system, potentially endangering the lives and property of millions of people in the Houston area. Ultimately, if the frequency of AR development increases, regional flood potential may increase. Given the consequences established in this study, more research should be conducted in order to better predict the rate of recurrence and effects of Maya Express generated precipitation.

  17. Hypersensitivity reactions to the Sabin vaccine in children with cow's milk allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, C A S; Smaldini, P L; Gervasoni, M E; Maspero, J F; Docena, G H

    2013-02-01

    The Sabin vaccine is used world-wide, and most children with food allergies receive it without incident. However, in the 2009 vaccination campaign conducted in Argentina, four children experienced immediate-type hypersensitivity reactions following vaccination. We aimed to review the medical history of the affected children, study their allergic condition after the episodes and analyse the presence of allergenic vaccine components. Patients were selected based on their immediate allergic reactions following vaccination. They were assessed for allergies to cow's milk and hen's egg. The presence of cow's milk proteins in the vaccine was tested by various immunoassays involving cow's milk- or α-lactalbumin-specific polyclonal rabbit antiserum and patient sera. All of the patients had a history of milk allergy, and no history or current evidence of egg hypersensitivity was found. Levels of cow's milk- and Sabin vaccine-specific IgE were increased, and the result of a skin prick test with cow's milk proteins or the Sabin vaccine was positive in each patient. In addition, an ELISA using specific rabbit antiserum detected α-lactalbumin in the Sabin vaccine. When α-lactalbumin was employed as a soluble inhibitor in a competitive ELISA, binding to vaccine-coated plates by cow's milk- or α-lactalbumin-specific rabbit antiserum or by patient serum containing IgE was inhibited. We have demonstrated that these patients were allergic to cow's milk, and had circulating and mast cell-bound IgE antibodies specific to cow's milk proteins. We found that the Sabin vaccine contained α-lactalbumin, which may have been responsible for the reactions elicited following vaccination with the Sabin and dual viral vaccines in combination. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Sit Down with Sabin: David Schlegel: Hunting Dark Energy (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Sabin; Schlegel, David

    2011-06-22

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory physicist and dark energy hunter David Schlegel chats with Sabin Russell, former San Francisco Chronicle reporter turned Berkeley Lab science writer, June 22, 2011. Their conversation is the first installment of "Sit Down With Sabin," a weekly conversation hosted by Russell. Over the course of five conversations with Berkeley Lab staff this summer, Russell will explore the ups and downs of innovative science — all without the aid of PowerPoint slides. Brought to you by Berkeley Lab Public Affairs.

  19. Anti-poliovirus activity of medicinal plants selected from the Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evuel

    results support the traditional use of S. siamea and Z. candida as antiviral agents and suggest that they could provide a possible source for anti-poliovirus drug discovery and development. Key words: Anti-poliovirus activity, traditional medicine, MTT colorimetric assay. INTRODUCTION. From the early times, plants have ...

  20. Poliovirus-specific memory immunity in seronegative elderly people does not protect against virus excretion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, Frithjofna; Buisman, Anne M; Doornbos, Gerda; Woldman, Jan; Kimman, Tjeerd G; Conyn- van Spaendonck, Marina A E

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dutch people born between 1925 and 1945 were ineligible for vaccination with the inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) introduced in 1957 and may have escaped natural infection because of reduced poliovirus circulation. We examined whether people with low or undetectable antibody levels

  1. „Der“ Feminismus – „die“ Wissenschaft. Sabine Hark stellt metafeministische Fragen Feminism-Science: Sabine Hark Poses Meta-Feminist Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Gehring

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Ein Anlauf zu einem großen Thema: Wie veränderte sich der Feminismus im Zuge des „akademisch Werdens“ der feministischen Theorie? Sabine Hark mischt Theoriekritik mit Wissens- und Universitätssoziologie. Heraus kommen im Ergebnis allerdings eher vorsichtige, ambivalente Einschätzungen – aus einer Perspektive von irgendwo oberhalb des feministischen Diskurses, einem schwer bestimmbaren Ort. Immerhin: Kapitel 5 enthält eine handfeste und wichtige These.A preliminary approach to a considerable theme: How does feminism change in relation to the “academic development” of feminist theory? Sabine Hark mixes critique of theory with sociology of knowledge and university sociology. Her results are ultimately rather careful, ambivalent assessments occurring from a perspective somewhere above feminist discourse, which is a very difficult place to pinpoint. Chapter five does contain a sound and important thesis.

  2. Evidence of presence of poliovirus genomic sequences in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with postpolio syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leparc-Goffart, I; Julien, J; Fuchs, F; Janatova, I; Aymard, M; Kopecka, H

    1996-01-01

    The postpolio syndrome (PPS) is characterized by new neuromuscular symptoms occurring 30 to 40 years after the acute episode of poliomyelitis paralysis. The presence of the poliovirus RNA genome in the cerebrospinal fluid from 10 patients with PPS and from 23 control patients was sought by using reverse transcription and a PCR specific for polioviruses and/or other enteroviruses. Poliovirus-specific genomic sequences in the 5' untranslated region and in the capsid region (VP1) were detected by reverse transcription PCR in 5 of 10 patients with PPS but in none of the control patients. Sequencing confirmed the presence of mutated poliovirus sequences. This finding suggests persistent viral infection in the central nervous system related to the presence of poliovirus genomes. PMID:8818905

  3. Impact of inactivated poliovirus vaccine on mucosal immunity: implications for the polio eradication endgame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Edward Pk; Molodecky, Natalie A; Pons-Salort, Margarita; O'Reilly, Kathleen M; Grassly, Nicholas C

    2015-01-01

    The polio eradication endgame aims to bring transmission of all polioviruses to a halt. To achieve this aim, it is essential to block viral replication in individuals via induction of a robust mucosal immune response. Although it has long been recognized that inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) is incapable of inducing a strong mucosal response on its own, it has recently become clear that IPV may boost immunity in the intestinal mucosa among individuals previously immunized with oral poliovirus vaccine. Indeed, mucosal protection appears to be stronger following a booster dose of IPV than oral poliovirus vaccine, especially in older children. Here, we review the available evidence regarding the impact of IPV on mucosal immunity, and consider the implications of this evidence for the polio eradication endgame. We conclude that the implementation of IPV in both routine and supplementary immunization activities has the potential to play a key role in halting poliovirus transmission, and thereby hasten the eradication of polio.

  4. STUDY OF IMMUNITY TO POLIOVIRUSES ON CERTAIN "SILENT" TERRITORIES OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Romanenkova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The degree of immunity to polioviruses of three serotypes among children of different ages was analysed on certain "controlled" and "silent" territories of Russia in different periods of Polio Eradication Initiative. It was shown that the levels of immunity of children’s population to polioviruses on "controlled" and "silent" territories had no significant difference. It was stated that on the phase which preceded the certification for the absence of circulation of wild polioviruses, when the National Immunisation Days were conducted in the country, the percentage of eronegative children to polioviruses of different serotypes was low on all the territories of Russia. After Russia as a part of the WHO European region was certified as a polio free country and mass immunisation was stopped thepercentage of seronegative children increased, especially to poliovirus of serotype 3, both on the "controlled" and on the "silent" territories.

  5. Studies on Lyophilization of Sabin Vaccine. 2. Investigation on Long Time Incubation at High and Low Temperatures of Lyophilized Sabin Vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    塩見, 洋; 浦沢, 价子; 浦沢, 正三

    1998-01-01

    Lyophilization of vaccine is one of the possible options for the development of a heat-stable poliovaccine. In our previous study in which conditions affecting the lyophilization of Sabin poliovaccine were investigated, it was found that infectivity titration of lyophilized viruses was under at least three kind of variabilities i. e., i) the variability among different lyophilization experi-ments, ii) the variability within the same lyophilization experiment and iii) the variability inherent ...

  6. Patients with Primary Immunodeficiencies Are a Reservoir of Poliovirus and a Risk to Polio Eradication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Aghamohammadi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Immunodeficiency-associated vaccine-derived polioviruses (iVDPVs have been isolated from primary immunodeficiency (PID patients exposed to oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV. Patients may excrete poliovirus strains for months or years; the excreted viruses are frequently highly divergent from the parental OPV and have been shown to be as neurovirulent as wild virus. Thus, these patients represent a potential reservoir for transmission of neurovirulent polioviruses in the post-eradication era. In support of WHO recommendations to better estimate the prevalence of poliovirus excreters among PIDs and characterize genetic evolution of these strains, 635 patients including 570 with primary antibody deficiencies and 65 combined immunodeficiencies were studied from 13 OPV-using countries. Two stool samples were collected over 4 days, tested for enterovirus, and the poliovirus positive samples were sequenced. Thirteen patients (2% excreted polioviruses, most for less than 2 months following identification of infection. Five (0.8% were classified as iVDPVs (only in combined immunodeficiencies and mostly poliovirus serotype 2. Non-polio enteroviruses were detected in 30 patients (4.7%. Patients with combined immunodeficiencies had increased risk of delayed poliovirus clearance compared to primary antibody deficiencies. Usually, iVDPV was detected in subjects with combined immunodeficiencies in a short period of time after OPV exposure, most for less than 6 months. Surveillance for poliovirus excretion among PID patients should be reinforced until polio eradication is certified and the use of OPV is stopped. Survival rates among PID patients are improving in lower and middle income countries, and iVDPV excreters are identified more frequently. Antivirals or enhanced immunotherapies presently in development represent the only potential means to manage the treatment of prolonged excreters and the risk they present to the polio endgame.

  7. Elevation Data Collected in 2010 from Sabine National Wildlife Refuge, Louisiana

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Data release doi:10.5066/F7BR8QBH associated with this metadata record serves as an archive of elevation data collected in August 2010 from Sabine National Wildlife...

  8. Deficiency of immunity to poliovirus type 3: a lurking danger?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinheimer, Claudia; Friedrichs, Imke; Rabenau, Holger F; Doerr, Hans W

    2012-01-26

    Europe was certified to be polio-free in 2002 by the WHO. However, wild polioviruses remain endemic in India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Nigeria, occasionally causing polio outbreaks, as in Tajikistan in 2010. Therefore, effective surveillance measures and vaccination campaigns remain important. To determine the poliovirus immune status of a German study population, we retrospectively evaluated the seroprevalence of neutralizing antibodies (NA) to the poliovirus types 1, 2 and 3 (PV1, 2, 3) in serum samples collected from 1,632 patients admitted the University Hospital of Frankfurt am Main, Germany, in 2001, 2005 and 2010. Testing was done by using a standardized microneutralization assay. Level of immunity to PV1 ranged between 84.2% (95%CI: 80.3-87.5), 90.4% (88.3-92.3) and 87.5% (85.4-88.8) in 2001, 2005 and 2010. For PV2, we found 90.8% (87.5-90.6), 91.3% (89.3-93.1) and 89.8% (88.7-90.9), in the same period. Seroprevalence to PV3 was 76.6% (72.2-80.6), 69.8% (66.6-72.8) and 72.9% (67.8-77.5) in 2001 and 2005 and 2010, respectively. In 2005 and 2010 significant lower levels of immunity to PV3 in comparison to PV1 and 2 were observed. Since 2001, immunity to PV3 is gradually, but not significantly decreasing. Immunity to PV3 is insufficient in our cohort. Due to increasing globalization and worldwide tourism, the danger of polio-outbreaks is not averted - even not in developed countries, such as Germany. Therefore, vaccination remains necessary.

  9. Deficiency of immunity to poliovirus type 3: a lurking danger?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinheimer Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Europe was certified to be polio-free in 2002 by the WHO. However, wild polioviruses remain endemic in India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Nigeria, occasionally causing polio outbreaks, as in Tajikistan in 2010. Therefore, effective surveillance measures and vaccination campaigns remain important. To determine the poliovirus immune status of a German study population, we retrospectively evaluated the seroprevalence of neutralizing antibodies (NA to the poliovirus types 1, 2 and 3 (PV1, 2, 3 in serum samples collected from 1,632 patients admitted the University Hospital of Frankfurt am Main, Germany, in 2001, 2005 and 2010. Methods Testing was done by using a standardized microneutralization assay. Results Level of immunity to PV1 ranged between 84.2% (95%CI: 80.3-87.5, 90.4% (88.3-92.3 and 87.5% (85.4-88.8 in 2001, 2005 and 2010. For PV2, we found 90.8% (87.5-90.6, 91.3% (89.3-93.1 and 89.8% (88.7-90.9, in the same period. Seroprevalence to PV3 was 76.6% (72.2-80.6, 69.8% (66.6-72.8 and 72.9% (67.8-77.5 in 2001 and 2005 and 2010, respectively. In 2005 and 2010 significant lower levels of immunity to PV3 in comparison to PV1 and 2 were observed. Since 2001, immunity to PV3 is gradually, but not significantly decreasing. Conclusion Immunity to PV3 is insufficient in our cohort. Due to increasing globalization and worldwide tourism, the danger of polio-outbreaks is not averted - even not in developed countries, such as Germany. Therefore, vaccination remains necessary.

  10. Dasineura gigantea sp.n. (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae associada a Psidium cattleianum Sabine (Myrtaceae no Brasil Dasineura gigantea sp.n. (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae associated with Psidium cattleianum Sabine (Myrtaceae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro C. Angelo

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Dasineura Rondani, 1840 (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae which causes galls on Psidium cattleianum Sabine, 1821 is described and illustrated (larva, pupa, male, female. The gall is characterized and some biological notes are given.

  11. Achieving high seroprevalence against polioviruses in Sri Lanka--results from a serological survey, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamage, Deepa; Palihawadana, Paba; Mach, Ondrej; Weldon, William C; Oberste, Steven M; Sutter, Roland W

    2015-12-01

    The immunization program in Sri Lanka consistently reaches >90% coverage with oral poliovirus vaccines (OPV), and no polio supplementary vaccination campaigns have been conducted since 2003. We evaluated serological protection against polioviruses in children. A cross-sectional community-based survey was performed in three districts of Sri Lanka (Colombo, Badulla, and Killinochi). Randomly selected children in four age groups (9-11 months, 3-4 years, 7-9 years, and 15 years) were tested for poliovirus neutralizing antibodies. All 400 enrolled children completed the study. The proportion of seropositive children for poliovirus Type 1 and Type 2 was >95% for all age groups; for poliovirus Type 3 it was 95%, 90%, 77%, and 75% in the respective age groups. The vaccination coverage in our sample based on vaccination cards or parental recall was >90% in all age groups. Most Sri Lankan children are serologically protected against polioviruses through routine immunization only. This seroprevalence survey provided baseline data prior to the anticipated addition of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) into the Sri Lankan immunization program and the switch from trivalent OPV (tOPV) to bivalent OPV (bOPV). Copyright © 2015 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sit Down With Sabin: Merrian Fuller: Efficiency for sale. Who's buying? (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, Merrian; Russell, Sabin

    2011-07-26

    Merrian Fuller from the Environmental Energy Technologies Division appeared on July 26th, 2011 for this installment of "Sit Down with Sabin," a conversation in which former reporter Sabin Russell chats with Lab staff about innovative science. They will discuss "Efficiency for Sale. Who's Buying?" During this series of conversations, Russell and Lab staff will explore the ups and downs of pioneering science, all without the aid of PowerPoints.

  13. Antibodies to poliovirus detected by immunoradiometric assay with a monoclonal antibody

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spitz, M.; Fossati, C.A.; Schild, G.C.; Spitz, L.; Brasher, M. (National Inst. for Biological Standards and Control, London (UK))

    1982-10-01

    An immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) for the assay of antibodies to poliovirus antigens is described. Dilutions of the test sera or whole (finger prick) blood samples were incubated with the poliovirus antigen bound to a solid phase and the specific antibody was detected by the addition of a mouse anti-human IgG monoclonal antibody (McAb), which was itself revealed by iodinated sheep IgG antimouse F(ab). The authors have shown that this technique is suitable for the estimation of IgG anti-poliovirus antibodies induced in children following polio vaccine. The present study shows that SPRIA provides a simple and inexpensive method for serological studies with poliovirus particularly for use in large-scale surveys.

  14. Poliovirus immunity in newly resettled adult refugees in Idaho, United States of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscoe, Clay; Gilles, Ryan; Reed, Alex J; Messerschmidt, Matt; Kinney, Rebecca

    2015-06-12

    In the United States, vaccines have eliminated wild poliovirus (WPV) infection, though resettling refugees may lack immunity and importation of WPV remains a concern. A cross-sectional survey was performed to determine the prevalence of poliovirus immunity in adult refugees resettling in Boise, Idaho, U.S.A.; immunity was evaluated using two definitions: serotypes 1, 2 and 3 positive, or serotypes 1 and 3 positive. This survey evaluated 795 adult refugees between August 2010 and November 2012. Poliovirus immunity in adults >18 years was 55.3% for serotypes 1, 2 and 3 combined, and 60% for serotypes 1 and 3 only. This study demonstrated a WPV immunity rate of refugee population in the United States, reinforcing the need to ensure poliovirus immunity in all newly arrived adult refugees, either by expanding pre-departure immunization or by screening for immunity at resettlement and vaccinating when indicated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Postpolio syndrome: poliovirus persistence is involved in the pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julien, J; Leparc-Goffart, I; Lina, B; Fuchs, F; Foray, S; Janatova, I; Aymard, M; Kopecka, H

    1999-06-01

    The pathogenesis of the postpolio syndrome (PPS) remains unclear. In this study we looked for poliovirus (PV) persistence in the CSF of 20 patients with PPS, in a control group including 20 patients with unrelated neurological diseases, and in 7 patients with stable poliomyelitis sequelae. CSF samples and sera were examined using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the detection of PV or other enterovirus genomes; this assay allows the detection from as little as 1 fg viral RNA. Sequencing of amplified products from 5 patients was performed. PV genomic sequences were detected in the CSF of 11 of 20 patients with PPS and in none of the control group. Sequencing in the 5' untranslated region confirmed the presence of mutated PV sequences. These findings suggest that PPS is related to the persistence of PV in the central nervous system.

  16. Use of Doehlert matrices for study of poliovirus-1 adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quignon, F; Huyard, A; Schwartzbrod, L; Thomas, F

    1997-10-01

    Experiments designed according to Doehlert matrices were carried out to study poliovirus-1 adsorption to Na-montmorillonite in a complex aqueous environment. Salt concentration and valence, virus load, clay concentration, and organic matter concentration were included in the design as selected parameters for possible or known involvement in viral adsorption in environmental waters. Use of this experimental design not only allowed to detect and quantify direct influence of the tested parameters upon the viral response, but also to reveal the influence of interactions between these tested factors. Thus, beyond the reassessment of the higher efficiency of multivalent cations on virus adsorption, as opposed to monovalent ones, detection was enabled of a tannic acid/aluminium specific interaction that seemed to be responsible for the nonavailability of these elements for interaction with viruses. Such a statistical tool allows for a gain in experimental accuracy beyond technical improvements and is particularly suited for low-cost study of multifactorial phenomena.

  17. Poliovirus Studies during the Endgame of the Polio Eradication Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arita, Minetaro

    2017-01-24

    Since the beginning of Global Polio Eradication Initiative in 1988, poliomyelitis cases caused by wild poliovirus (PV) have been drastically reduced, with only 74 cases reported in 2 endemic countries in 2015. The current limited PV transmission suggests that we are in the endgame of the polio eradication program. However, specific challenges have emerged in the endgame, including tight budget, switching of the vaccines, and changes in biorisk management of PV. To overcome these challenges, several PV studies have been implemented in the eradication program. Some of the responses to the emerging challenges in the polio endgame might be valuable in other infectious diseases eradication programs. Here, I will review challenges that confront the polio eradication program and current research to address these challenges.

  18. Poliovirus proteinase 2A induces cleavage of eucaryotic initiation factor 4F polypeptide p220.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kräusslich, H G; Nicklin, M J; Toyoda, H; Etchison, D; Wimmer, E

    1987-01-01

    Poliovirus infection of HeLa cells induces rapid shutoff of host protein synthesis, whereas translation of poliovirus RNA is not inhibited. It is presumed that shutoff is the result of proteolytic cleavage of component p220 of eucaryotic initiation factor 4F. To study whether poliovirus proteinase 2A is involved in this cleavage, we translated synthetic RNAs that contained the coding region for poliovirus-specific polypeptides P1 and 2A in vitro and assayed for cleavage of p220. We report here that cleavage of p220 occurred in all cases when active proteinase 2A was translated and that disruption of the coding sequence of 2A by linker insertion or deletion prevented processing of p220 in vitro. Activity of 2A was determined by its ability to cleave at the P1-P2 site of a segment of the poliovirus polyprotein. We also constructed a plasmid in which the 3'-most 500 nucleotides of the nontranslated region of encephalomyocarditis virus were linked to the coding sequence for poliovirus polypeptide 2A. Translation of the RNA transcript of this clone was very efficient and yielded a fusion protein that included 2A; this polypeptide also induced cleavage of p220. In vitro translation in the presence of antibodies against 2A specifically inhibited processing of p220, whereas incubation of in vitro translation products with antibodies against 2A after translation was completed did not prevent proteolysis of p220. Images PMID:3039165

  19. Serologic response to inactivated poliovirus vaccine: a randomized clinical trial comparing 2 vaccination schedules in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayan, Gustavo H; Thorley, Margaret; Yamamura, Yasuhiro; Rodríguez, Nayra; McLaughlin, Steve; Torres, Lourdes M; Seda, Antonio; Carbia, Marcia; Alexander, Lorraine N; Caceres, Victor; Pallansch, Mark A

    2007-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the discontinuation of oral poliovirus vaccine after eradication of wild poliovirus. Studies assessing inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) immunogenicity in tropical countries, using the WHO Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) schedule, have been limited. We conducted a randomized clinical trial in Ponce, Puerto Rico. Infants were assigned to 1 of 2 study arms: those in the EPI arm received IPV at 6, 10, and 14 weeks of age, and those in the US arm received IPV at 2, 4, and 6 months of age. Neutralizing antibody titers against poliovirus types 1, 2, and 3 were tested on serum specimens obtained before administration of the first dose of IPV and 28-45 days after administration of the last dose of IPV. Seroconversion rates for the EPI (n=225) and US (n=230) arms, respectively, were 85.8% and 99.6% for poliovirus type 1 (P<.001), 86.2% and 100% for poliovirus type 2 (P<.001), and 96.9% and 99.1% for poliovirus type 3 (P=.08). Seroconversion rates were lower among infants in the EPI arm who had high maternal antibody levels for all 3 poliovirus types (P<.001). The EPI schedule resulted in lower seroconversion rates for poliovirus types 1 and 2. These results are relevant for tropical countries planning to use IPV in a posteradication environment.

  20. Seroprevalencia de anticuerpos contra el poliovirus 1 en niños mexicanos Seroprevalence of antibodies against poliovirus type 1 in Mexican children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ruiz-Gómez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analizar la frecuencia y distribución de la prevalencia de anticuerpos contra el virus de la poliomielitis tipo 1 en niños menores de 10 años en México, además de contribuir a la evaluación del programa de vacunación. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se estudió la presencia de anticuerpos contra el poliovirus tipo 1 en una muestra de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud 2000. Los sueros se recolectaron entre noviembre de 1999 y junio de 2000 a nivel nacional. La muestra constó de 6 270 niños de uno a nueve años de edad y se utilizó la técnica de neutralización. RESULTADOS: La seropositividad fue de 99.3% (IC95%99.1-99.7. Se identificaron como factores de riesgo de susceptibilidad el analfabetismo (RM= 1.5, p= 0.002 y el bajo ingreso familiar (RM= 1.4, p= 0.0487 y como factor protector el acceso a la seguridad social (RM= 0.41, p=0.04. CONCLUSIONES: Las actividades del programa de vacunación que han llevado a cabo las instituciones de salud han dado resultados en el control y eliminación de la enfermedad. Sin embargo, los programas de vacunación no deben interrumpirse, incluso si se ha registrado 99.3% de seropositividad; no puede soslayarse que al convertir el 0.7% restante, se calcula que hay 190 000 niños susceptibles de contraer la enfermedad. Estos niños se localizan sobre todo en el sur del país.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the frequency and distribution of the prevalence of antibodies against the poliomyelitis type 1 virus in children 1-9 years old in Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Antibodies against poliovirus type 1 (neutralization method were studied in 6 270 sera selected from the 24 232 sera from children one to nine years old, collected by the 2000 National Health Survey (ENSA 2000 that was conducted from November 1999 to June 2000. RESULTS: Overall seroprevalence was 99.3% (95%CI: 99.1-99.7. Using bivariate analysis, absence of antibodies was shown to be associated with illiteracy (OR= 1.5, p=0.002 and low household income (OR= 1

  1. 33 CFR 334.790 - Sabine River at Orange, Tex.; restricted area in vicinity of the Naval and Marine Corps Reserve...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sabine River at Orange, Tex... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.790 Sabine River at Orange, Tex.; restricted area in vicinity of the Naval.... Government or those duly authorized by the Commanding Officer, Naval and Marine Corps Reserve Center, Orange...

  2. Sit Down with Sabin: Margaret Torn: The Carbon Cycle Like You've Never Seen It (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Sabin; Torn, Margaret

    2011-07-06

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory soil scientist Margaret Torn appears July 6, 2011 on "Sit Down with Sabin," a weekly conversation in which former reporter Sabin Russell chats with Berkeley Lab staff about innovative science. Torn discusses how she travels the world to learn more about soil's huge role in the global carbon cycle. Brought to you by Berkeley Lab Public Affairs.

  3. Development of an enzyme immunoassay for poliovirus antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Hashimoto

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An indirect solid-phase enzyme immunoassay (EIA was developed for the detection of poliovirus antigen. Virus antigen was obtained in LLC-MK2 cell cultures and used to prepare antibodies in rabbit and guinea pig. Antibodies were evaluated by double immunodiffusion and neutralization test. Optimal concentrations of guinea pig and rabbit immunoglobulins were determined by checkerboard titration. Microtitre plates were coated with 15.0 µg/ml guinea pig anti-polio immunoglobulin and rabbit anti-polio immunoglobulin at the concentration of 7.94 µg/ml was used as detecting antibody. The standard curve with eight different antigen concentrations in eight replicates resulted in a coefficient of variation (CV between 2.1% to 7.8%. The dose-response relationship was determined by simple linear regression with a coefficient of correlation (R² equal to 96.4%. The assay detected a minimum of 2.3 µg/ml poliovirus antigen.O trabalho apresenta o desenvolvimento de um ensaio imunoenzimático indireto para a detecção de antígeno de poliovírus. O antígeno viral foi obtido em cultura de células LLC-MK2 e usado para imunização de coelho e cobaia. Os soros hiperimunes foram avaliados por imunodifusão dupla e teste de neutralização. Após padronização, o soro de captura, produzido em cobaia, foi usado na concentração protéica de 15.0 µg/ml para sensibilizar microplacas de poliestireno e o soro de coelho (detector foi usado na concentração de 7.94 µg/ml. A curva padrão resultante da utilização de oito diferentes concentrações do antígeno padrão definiu um coeficiente de variação de 2.1% a 7.8%. A relação dose-resposta foi determinada por regressão linear simples com o estabelecimento do coeficiente de correlação (R² igual a 96.4%. O ensaio possibilitou a detecção mínima de 2.3 µg/ml de antígeno de poliovírus.

  4. Potency Studies of live- Attenuated Viral Vaccines Administered in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We critically carried out a potency study in 1992 and 1997 on measles and poliovirus vaccines administered at five different vaccination centers in the metropolitan Lagos, Nigeria. using WHO guidelines on titration of live- viral vaccines, our results revealed that only 6 (16.7%) of 36 measles vaccine (MV) vials and 11 ...

  5. Different effect of proteasome inhibition on vesicular stomatitis virus and poliovirus replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nickolay Neznanov

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Proteasome activity is an important part of viral replication. In this study, we examined the effect of proteasome inhibitors on the replication of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV and poliovirus. We found that the proteasome inhibitors significantly suppressed VSV protein synthesis, virus accumulation, and protected infected cells from toxic effect of VSV replication. In contrast, poliovirus replication was delayed, but not diminished in the presence of the proteasome inhibitors MG132 and Bortezomib. We also found that inhibition of proteasomes stimulated stress-related processes, such as accumulation of chaperone hsp70, phosphorylation of eIF2alpha, and overall inhibition of translation. VSV replication was sensitive to this stress with significant decline in replication process. Poliovirus growth was less sensitive with only delay in replication. Inhibition of proteasome activity suppressed cellular and VSV protein synthesis, but did not reduce poliovirus protein synthesis. Protein kinase GCN2 supported the ability of proteasome inhibitors to attenuate general translation and to suppress VSV replication. We propose that different mechanisms of translational initiation by VSV and poliovirus determine their sensitivity to stress induced by the inhibition of proteasomes. To our knowledge, this is the first study that connects the effect of stress induced by proteasome inhibition with the efficiency of viral infection.

  6. Estimated Effect of Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine Campaigns, Nigeria and Pakistan, January 2014-April 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirreff, George; Wadood, Mufti Zubair; Vaz, Rui Gama; Sutter, Roland W; Grassly, Nicholas C

    2017-02-01

    In 2014, inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) campaigns were implemented in Nigeria and Pakistan after clinical trials showed that IPV boosts intestinal immunity in children previously given oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). We estimated the effect of these campaigns by using surveillance data collected during January 2014-April 2016. In Nigeria, campaigns with IPV and trivalent OPV (tOPV) substantially reduced the incidence of poliomyelitis caused by circulating serotype-2 vaccine-derived poliovirus (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 0.17 for 90 days after vs. 90 days before campaigns, 95% CI 0.04-0.78) and the prevalence of virus in environmental samples (prevalence ratio [PR] 0.16, 95% CI 0.02-1.33). Campaigns with tOPV alone resulted in similar reductions (IRR 0.59, 95% CI 0.18-1.97; PR 0.45, 95% CI 0.21-0.95). In Pakistan, the effect of IPV+tOPV campaigns on wild-type poliovirus was not significant. Results suggest that administration of IPV alongside OPV can decrease poliovirus transmission if high vaccine coverage is achieved.

  7. Radiation sensitivity of poliovirus, a model for norovirus, inoculated in oyster ( Crassostrea gigas) and culture broth under different conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Pil-Mun; Park, Jae Seok; Park, Jin-Gyu; Park, Jae-Nam; Han, In-Jun; Song, Beom-Seok; Choi, Jong-il; Kim, Jae-Hun; Byun, Myung-Woo; Baek, Min; Chung, Young-Jin; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2009-07-01

    Poliovirus is a recognized surrogate for norovirus, pathogen in water and food, due to the structural and genetic similarity. Although radiation sensitivity of poliovirus in water or media had been reported, there has been no research in food model such as shellfish. In this study, oyster ( Crassostrea gigas) was incubated in artificial seawater contaminated with poliovirus, and thus radiation sensitivity of poliovirus was determined in inoculated oyster. The effects of ionizing radiation on the sensitivity of poliovirus were also evaluated under different conditions such as pH (4-7) and salt concentration (1-15%) in culture broth, and temperature during irradiation. The D10 value of poliovirus in PBS buffer, virus culture broth and oyster was determined to 0.46, 2.84 and 2.94 kGy, respectively. The initial plaque forming unit (PFU) of poliovirus in culture broth was slightly decreased as the decrease of pH and the increase of salt concentration, but radiation sensitivity was not affected by pH and salt contents. However, radiation resistance of poliovirus was increased at frozen state. These results provide the basic information for the inactivation of pathogenic virus in foods by using irradiation.

  8. Radiation sensitivity of poliovirus, a model for norovirus, inoculated in oyster (Crassostrea gigas) and culture broth under different conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Pil-Mun [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jae Seok [Korea Food and Drug Administration, Seoul 122-704 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin-Gyu; Park, Jae-Nam; Han, In-Jun; Song, Beom-Seok; Choi, Jong-il; Kim, Jae-Hun; Byun, Myung-Woo [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Min [Atomic Energy Policy Division, Ministry of Education, Science and Technology, Gwacheon 427-715 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Young-Jin [Department of Food and Nutrition, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju-Woon [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: sjwlee@kaeri.re.kr

    2009-07-15

    Poliovirus is a recognized surrogate for norovirus, pathogen in water and food, due to the structural and genetic similarity. Although radiation sensitivity of poliovirus in water or media had been reported, there has been no research in food model such as shellfish. In this study, oyster (Crassostrea gigas) was incubated in artificial seawater contaminated with poliovirus, and thus radiation sensitivity of poliovirus was determined in inoculated oyster. The effects of ionizing radiation on the sensitivity of poliovirus were also evaluated under different conditions such as pH (4-7) and salt concentration (1-15%) in culture broth, and temperature during irradiation. The D{sub 10} value of poliovirus in PBS buffer, virus culture broth and oyster was determined to 0.46, 2.84 and 2.94 kGy, respectively. The initial plaque forming unit (PFU) of poliovirus in culture broth was slightly decreased as the decrease of pH and the increase of salt concentration, but radiation sensitivity was not affected by pH and salt contents. However, radiation resistance of poliovirus was increased at frozen state. These results provide the basic information for the inactivation of pathogenic virus in foods by using irradiation.

  9. TFpredict and SABINE: sequence-based prediction of structural and functional characteristics of transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichner, Johannes; Topf, Florian; Dräger, Andreas; Wrzodek, Clemens; Wanke, Dierk; Zell, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    One of the key mechanisms of transcriptional control are the specific connections between transcription factors (TF) and cis-regulatory elements in gene promoters. The elucidation of these specific protein-DNA interactions is crucial to gain insights into the complex regulatory mechanisms and networks underlying the adaptation of organisms to dynamically changing environmental conditions. As experimental techniques for determining TF binding sites are expensive and mostly performed for selected TFs only, accurate computational approaches are needed to analyze transcriptional regulation in eukaryotes on a genome-wide level. We implemented a four-step classification workflow which for a given protein sequence (1) discriminates TFs from other proteins, (2) determines the structural superclass of TFs, (3) identifies the DNA-binding domains of TFs and (4) predicts their cis-acting DNA motif. While existing tools were extended and adapted for performing the latter two prediction steps, the first two steps are based on a novel numeric sequence representation which allows for combining existing knowledge from a BLAST scan with robust machine learning-based classification. By evaluation on a set of experimentally confirmed TFs and non-TFs, we demonstrate that our new protein sequence representation facilitates more reliable identification and structural classification of TFs than previously proposed sequence-derived features. The algorithms underlying our proposed methodology are implemented in the two complementary tools TFpredict and SABINE. The online and stand-alone versions of TFpredict and SABINE are freely available to academics at http://www.cogsys.cs.uni-tuebingen.de/software/TFpredict/ and http://www.cogsys.cs.uni-tuebingen.de/software/SABINE/.

  10. TFpredict and SABINE: sequence-based prediction of structural and functional characteristics of transcription factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Eichner

    Full Text Available One of the key mechanisms of transcriptional control are the specific connections between transcription factors (TF and cis-regulatory elements in gene promoters. The elucidation of these specific protein-DNA interactions is crucial to gain insights into the complex regulatory mechanisms and networks underlying the adaptation of organisms to dynamically changing environmental conditions. As experimental techniques for determining TF binding sites are expensive and mostly performed for selected TFs only, accurate computational approaches are needed to analyze transcriptional regulation in eukaryotes on a genome-wide level. We implemented a four-step classification workflow which for a given protein sequence (1 discriminates TFs from other proteins, (2 determines the structural superclass of TFs, (3 identifies the DNA-binding domains of TFs and (4 predicts their cis-acting DNA motif. While existing tools were extended and adapted for performing the latter two prediction steps, the first two steps are based on a novel numeric sequence representation which allows for combining existing knowledge from a BLAST scan with robust machine learning-based classification. By evaluation on a set of experimentally confirmed TFs and non-TFs, we demonstrate that our new protein sequence representation facilitates more reliable identification and structural classification of TFs than previously proposed sequence-derived features. The algorithms underlying our proposed methodology are implemented in the two complementary tools TFpredict and SABINE. The online and stand-alone versions of TFpredict and SABINE are freely available to academics at http://www.cogsys.cs.uni-tuebingen.de/software/TFpredict/ and http://www.cogsys.cs.uni-tuebingen.de/software/SABINE/.

  11. Localization of norovirus and poliovirus in Pacific oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, C; Hay, B; Grant, C; Greening, G; Day, D

    2009-04-01

    To examine the uptake and tissue distribution of norovirus (NoV) and poliovirus (PV) experimentally bioaccumulated in feeding Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas). Pacific oysters were allowed to bioaccumulated either PV or NoV under tidally synchronized feeding conditions in laboratory tanks. Oysters were then either fixed and paraffin wax embedded prior to localizing virus within tissues by immunohistochemistry (IHC), or they were dissected into digestive tract (stomach, intestine and digestive diverticula), gill and labial palp tissues, and the viral load determined by quantitative RT-PCR. Both PV and NoV immunoreactivities were predominantly found in the lumen and within cells of the digestive tract tissues; however, PV was also found within cells of nondigestive tract tissues, and in the gills and labial palp. Quantitative RT-PCR of tissue extracts corroborate the immunohistochemical data in that the major site for virus localization is the gut, but significant amounts of viral RNA were identified in the gills and labial palp. The human enteric viruses, PV and NoV, are readily bioaccumulated by feeding Pacific oysters and that some of the virus is internalized within cells of both digestive and nondigestive tissues. Oysters that have been virally contaminated even after depuration (cleaning) in uncontaminated seawater could pose a human health risk if consumed.

  12. Iris wigger and sabine ritter, editors. racism and modernity. festschrift for wulf d. hund

    OpenAIRE

    Pulido Londoño, Hernán Andrés

    2013-01-01

    Este volumen, editado por Iris Wigger y Sabine Ritter, reúne diecisiete ensayos hermanados por la reflexión conceptual e historiográfica sobre las prácticas y discursos racistas que apuntalaron la emergencia de las sociedades modernas. La colección honra los aportes académicos de Wulf D. Hund (1946), destacado investigador alemán, quien ha desarrollado fructíferos análisis críticos dedicados —como señalan las editoras— a una disección histórico-sociológica de los discursos raciales en el pens...

  13. Modulation of gene expression in a human cell line caused by poliovirus, vaccinia virus and interferon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoddevik Gunnar

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The project was initiated to describe the response of a human embryonic fibroblast cell line to the replication of two different viruses, and, more specifically, to look for candidate genes involved in viral defense. For this purpose, the cells were synchronously infected with poliovirus in the absence or presence of interferon-alpha, or with vaccinia virus, a virus that is not inhibited by interferon. By comparing the changes in transcriptosome due to these different challenges, it should be possible to suggest genes that might be involved in defense. Results The viral titers were sufficient to yield productive infection in a majority of the cells. The cells were harvested in triplicate at various time-points, and the transcriptosome compared with mock infected cells using oligo-based, global 35 k microarrays. While there was very limited similarities in the response to the different viruses, a large proportion of the genes up-regulated by interferon-alpha were also up-regulated by poliovirus. Interferon-alpha inhibited poliovirus replication, but there were no signs of any interferons being induced by poliovirus. The observations suggest that the cells do launch an antiviral response to poliovirus in the absence of interferon. Analyses of the data led to a list of candidate antiviral genes. Functional information was limited, or absent, for most of the candidate genes. Conclusion The data are relevant for our understanding of how the cells respond to poliovirus and vaccinia virus infection. More annotations, and more microarray studies with related viruses, are required in order to narrow the list of putative defence-related genes.

  14. Cold-Adapted Viral Attenuation (CAVA: Highly Temperature Sensitive Polioviruses as Novel Vaccine Strains for a Next Generation Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine.

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    Barbara P Sanders

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The poliovirus vaccine field is moving towards novel vaccination strategies. Withdrawal of the Oral Poliovirus Vaccine and implementation of the conventional Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine (cIPV is imminent. Moreover, replacement of the virulent poliovirus strains currently used for cIPV with attenuated strains is preferred. We generated Cold-Adapted Viral Attenuation (CAVA poliovirus strains by serial passage at low temperature and subsequent genetic engineering, which contain the capsid sequences of cIPV strains combined with a set of mutations identified during cold-adaptation. These viruses displayed a highly temperature sensitive phenotype with no signs of productive infection at 37°C as visualized by electron microscopy. Furthermore, decreases in infectious titers, viral RNA, and protein levels were measured during infection at 37°C, suggesting a block in the viral replication cycle at RNA replication, protein translation, or earlier. However, at 30°C, they could be propagated to high titers (9.4-9.9 Log10TCID50/ml on the PER.C6 cell culture platform. We identified 14 mutations in the IRES and non-structural regions, which in combination induced the temperature sensitive phenotype, also when transferred to the genomes of other wild-type and attenuated polioviruses. The temperature sensitivity translated to complete absence of neurovirulence in CD155 transgenic mice. Attenuation was also confirmed after extended in vitro passage at small scale using conditions (MOI, cell density, temperature anticipated for vaccine production. The inability of CAVA strains to replicate at 37°C makes reversion to a neurovirulent phenotype in vivo highly unlikely, therefore, these strains can be considered safe for the manufacture of IPV. The CAVA strains were immunogenic in the Wistar rat potency model for cIPV, inducing high neutralizing antibody titers in a dose-dependent manner in response to D-antigen doses used for cIPV. In combination with the

  15. Hybrid proteins between Pseudomonas exotoxin A and poliovirus protease 2Apro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoa, I; Feduchi, E; Carrasco, L

    1994-11-21

    Two hybrid proteins between Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A (PE) and poliovirus protease 2Apro have been generated. One hybrid protein contains the poliovirus 2Apro sequence replacing the region of PE corresponding to amino acids 413-607. The other hybrid contains in addition the transforming growth factor sequence. The two hybrid proteins were efficiently synthesized in E. coli cells using the inducible pET vectors. Both hybrid toxins cleaved p220 (eIF-4 gamma) when the recombinant plasmids were transfected in COS cells infected with recombinant vaccinia virus bearing the T7 RNA polymerase gene.

  16. Antioxidant Properties of Crude Extract, Partition Extract, and Fermented Medium of Dendrobium sabin Flower

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    Farahziela Abu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant properties of crude extract, partition extract, and fermented medium from Dendrobium sabin (DS flower were investigated. The oven-dried DS flower was extracted using 100% methanol (w/v, 100% ethanol (w/v, and 100% water (w/v. The 100% methanolic crude extract showed the highest total phenolic content (40.33 ± mg GAE/g extract and the best antioxidant properties as shown by DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays. A correlation relationship between antioxidant activity and total phenolic content showed that phenolic compounds were the dominant antioxidant components in this flower extract. The microbial fermentation on DS flower medium showed a potential in increasing the phenolic content and DPPH scavenging activity. The TPC of final fermented medium showed approximately 18% increment, while the DPPH of fermented medium increased significantly to approximately 80% at the end of the fermentation. Dendrobium sabin (DS flower showed very good potential properties of antioxidant in crude extract and partition extract as well as better antioxidant activity in the flower fermented medium.

  17. Antioxidant Properties of Crude Extract, Partition Extract, and Fermented Medium of Dendrobium sabin Flower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu, Farahziela; Mohd Akhir, Sobri

    2017-01-01

    Antioxidant properties of crude extract, partition extract, and fermented medium from Dendrobium sabin (DS) flower were investigated. The oven-dried DS flower was extracted using 100% methanol (w/v), 100% ethanol (w/v), and 100% water (w/v). The 100% methanolic crude extract showed the highest total phenolic content (40.33 ± mg GAE/g extract) and the best antioxidant properties as shown by DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays. A correlation relationship between antioxidant activity and total phenolic content showed that phenolic compounds were the dominant antioxidant components in this flower extract. The microbial fermentation on DS flower medium showed a potential in increasing the phenolic content and DPPH scavenging activity. The TPC of final fermented medium showed approximately 18% increment, while the DPPH of fermented medium increased significantly to approximately 80% at the end of the fermentation. Dendrobium sabin (DS) flower showed very good potential properties of antioxidant in crude extract and partition extract as well as better antioxidant activity in the flower fermented medium. PMID:28761496

  18. Hydrologic modeling as a tool for land management and contingency planning in the Calcasieu Sabine Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, J. [Chevron Energy Technology Co., Houston, TX (United States); Meselhe, E.; Kheiashy, K.; Miller, R. [C.H. Fenstermaker and Associates Inc., Lafayette, LA (United States); Douglas, C. [Chevron Environmental Management Co., New Orleans, LA (United States)

    2007-07-01

    The Calcasieu-Sabine Basin in southwest Louisiana contains approximately 126,518 hectares of wetlands, consisting of fresh marsh, intermediate marsh, brackish marsh and saline marsh. The hydrodynamics of the basin involves a combination of estuarine processes such as saltwater intrusion, response to water level fluctuations at an open boundary and lake dynamics. The basin is also affected by deep ship channels. As such, a robust, flexible and efficient numerical model is needed to incorporate all of these processes in an operational program. This study developed a hydrodynamic and salinity model for a portion of the basin that includes the lakes and marshes for the purpose of land management and contingency planning. The newly developed finite-difference hydrodynamic and salinity model is a combination of 1 and 2 dimensional computations and is intended for land, wildlife and habitat management. It can be used as a coastal restoration tool to evaluate the effectiveness of future and ongoing coastal restoration projects. The model was calibrated and validated against field measurements. It was shown to produce accurate simulations of the complex flow patterns of the Calcasieu-Sabine Basin along with information on salinity, water level fluctuations, velocities and discharges throughout the main channels and open water bodies within the area. It was concluded that the model provides a very useful planning and adaptive management tool to improve the understanding of the complex hydrology and salinity circulation pattern within the system. 5 refs., 4 tabs., 9 figs.

  19. Galicismos en un dialecto español de Luisiana (Parroquias de Sabine y Natchitoches

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    Armistead, Samuel G.

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The Spanish-American dialect still spoken around certain hamlets in Sabine and Natchitoches Parishes in Northwestern Louisiana has, until recently, been neglected by dialectologists. This is an archaic and isolated Mexican dialect, in danger of immediate extinction. After outlining the history of these communities, which go back to the first third of the 18th century, the limited number of French loan words (a total of 15 absorbed by the dialect are studied. The semantic categories represented give us a glimpse of the contacts between French and Spanish-speakers on the 18th-century frontier between Louisiana and Texas.El dialecto hispanoamericano que se habla en las cercanías de varios pueblos de Sabine Parish y en la aldea de Spanish Lake o La Laguna Española (Natchitoches Parish, en el noroeste del estado de Luisiana, ha sido desatendido hasta hace poco por los estudiosos de la dialectología hispánica. Tratese de un arcaico y aislado dialecto mejicano, que está a punto de extinguirse. Tras señalar el trasfondo histórico de aquellas comunidades, que se remontan al primer tercio del siglo XVIII, se estudia el limitado repertorio de galicismos (15 en total absorbidos por el dialecto. Las categorías semánticas permiten vislumbrar la naturaleza de los contactos entre hispanohablantes y franceses en la frontera de Luisiana y Tejas durante el siglo XVIII.

  20. Erwachsenenbildung im Spannungsfeld von Wissenschaft, Politik und Praxis: Heide von Felden, Christiane Hof und Sabine Schmidt-Lauff (Hrsg.). [Rezension

    OpenAIRE

    Filla, Wilhelm

    2016-01-01

    Rezension von: Felden, Heide von/Hof, Christiane/Schmidt-Lauff, Sabine (Hrsg.) (2013): Erwachsenenbildung im Spannungsfeld von Wissenschaft, Politik und Praxis. Dokumentation der Jahrestagung der Sektion Erwachsenenbildung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Erziehungswissenschaften vom 27. bis 29. September 2012. Baltmannsweiler: Schneider Verlag Hohengehren.

  1. Relaxation of continental lithosphere: An explanation for Late Cretaceous reactivation of the Sabine Uplift of Louisiana-Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, Jeffrey A.

    1990-04-01

    With few unconstrained assumptions, a simple quantitative model for flexural isostasy between two crustal blocks of different thickness that subsequently undergoes partial relaxation of accumulated stress can explain reactivation of the Sabine Uplift in the mid-Cretaceous. Thin salt over the Sabine Uplift indicates that it was a positive area in the Middle Jurassic but began to subside during the Late Jurassic. During the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous, the Sabine Uplift had no topographic expression and was the center of a large, flat bottomed basin covering most of east Texas and north Louisiana. Reactivation of the Sabine Uplift in the mid-Cretaceous caused a minimum of 150 m of uplift and extensive erosion of Lower Cretaceous rocks. During the Late Cretaceous and Tertiary, the Sabine Uplift resumed subsiding but at a slower rate than the adjacent basins. Since the mid-Cretaceous, the Sabine Uplift has risen more than 1 km relative to the East Texas Basin. We suggest that this structural history is consistent with the following simple quantitative model for flexural isostasy. During formation of the Gulf of Mexico in the Late Triassic-Early Jurassic by rifting and extension of the lithosphere, brittle deformation of the crust created small-scale wavelength of tens of kilometers, lateral variations in crustal thickness. Initially, the newly formed margin was in point-wise Airy isostatic equilibrium. Thus synrift and/or early postrift subsidence was characterized by a series of rift valleys or half grabens separated by uplifts. However, as the margin cooled and contracted, the lithosphere became stronger, and subsequent loading was regionally compensated. Thus postrift subsidence was characterized by a broad regional downwarp. If, at some later point in time, the rigid portion of the lithosphere was weakened or relaxed, then lateral density variations would have been recompensated at shorter wavelengths. Thus areas of little or no crustal extension would have

  2. Poliovirus infection and expression of the poliovirus protein 2B provoke the disassembly of the Golgi complex, the organelle target for the antipoliovirus drug Ro-090179.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, I V; Carrasco, L

    1997-06-01

    Infection of Vero cells with poliovirus results in complete disassembly of the Golgi complex. Milestones of the process of disassembly are the release to the cytosol of the beta-COP bound to Golgi membranes, the disruption of the cis-Golgi network into fragments scattered throughout the cytoplasm, and the disassembly of the stacked cisternae by a process mediated by long tubular structures. Transient expression of the viral protein 2B in COS-7 cells also causes the disassembly of the Golgi complex by a process preceded by the accumulation of the protein in the Golgi area. Vero cells infected for 3 h show no recognizable Golgi complexes at the ultrastructural level and display an enormously swollen endoplasmic reticulum (ER) with extensive areas of its surface heavily coated. Ro-090179 (Ro), a flavonoid isolated from the herb Agastache rugosa, provokes the specific swelling and disruption of the Golgi complex and strongly inhibits poliovirus infection. Ro provokes the swelling and the disruption of the stacked cisternae and trans-Golgi elements without affecting the cis-most Golgi cisternae much. Moreover, Ro inhibits the fusion of the Golgi complex with the ER in cells treated with brefeldin A and provokes the accumulation of the intermediate compartment membrane protein p58 into ERD2-positive Golgi elements but has no effect on the anterograde transport involved in protein secretion. Our results indicate that the secretory pathway and specifically the Golgi complex are preferential targets of poliovirus.

  3. Prevention of rhinovirus and poliovirus uncoating by WIN 51711, a new antiviral drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, M P; Otto, M J; McKinlay, M A

    1986-07-01

    WIN 51711, a potent new antipicornavirus drug, has been shown to inhibit an early event in the replication cycle of human poliovirus type 2 and human rhinovirus type 2. WIN 51711 was not virucidal and had no measurable effect on the adsorption of [3H]uridine-labeled virions to cells. When virion penetration of the plasma membrane was determined through loss of sensitivity to neutralizing antisera, WIN 51711 had no effect on poliovirus penetration, but inhibited rhinovirus penetration by 40%. In the presence of WIN 51711, exposure of neutral red-encapsidated virus-infected cells to light at 3 h postinfection resulted in a 3-log reduction in the number of infectious centers, indicating that WIN 51711 maintained the viral RNA in the encapsidated state after penetrating the cell membrane. The inhibition of uncoating by WIN 51711 in the neutral red assay was found to be concentration dependent, with a concentration of 0.03 micrograms/ml resulting in a 90% inhibition of uncoating. Sucrose gradient sedimentation of lysates from whole cells infected with [3H]uridine-labeled poliovirus showed that poliovirions remained intact in the presence of WIN 51711, but were uncoated in the absence of drug. WIN 51711 also prevented thermal inactivation of poliovirus infectivity, indicating a direct stabilizing effect of this compound on virion capsid conformation.

  4. Solar disinfection of poliovirus and Acanthamoeba polyphaga cysts in water - a laboratory study using simulated sunlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaselgrave, W; Patel, N; Kilvington, S; Kehoe, S C; McGuigan, K G

    2006-08-01

    To determine the efficacy of solar disinfection (SODIS) in disinfecting water contaminated with poliovirus and Acanthamoeba polyphaga cysts. Organisms were subjected to a simulated global solar irradiance of 850 Wm(-2) in water temperatures between 25 and 55 degrees C. SODIS at 25 degrees C totally inactivated poliovirus after 6-h exposure (reduction of 4.4 log units). No SODIS-induced reduction in A. polyphaga cyst viability was observed for sample temperatures below 45 degrees C. Total cyst inactivation was only observed after 6-h SODIS exposure at 50 degrees C (3.6 log unit reduction) and after 4 h at 55 degrees C (3.3 log unit reduction). SODIS is an effective means of disinfecting water contaminated with poliovirus and A. polyphaga cysts, provided water temperatures of 50-55 degrees C are attained in the latter case. This research presents the first SODIS inactivation curve for poliovirus and provides further evidence that batch SODIS provides effective protection against waterborne protozoan cysts.

  5. [Poliovirus immunology: vaccines, problems for the prevention/eradication and future interventions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Cruz Pérez, Eduardo; Rodríguez-Sainz, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Polio is a contagious disease that is caused by the poliovirus, an enterovirus in the family Picornaviridae. The virus enters through the oral mucosa and multiplies in epithelial cells of both the oropharynx as the gastrointestinal tract, releasing virus in oropharyngeal secretions and through the stool. The mode of transmission is fecal-oral and/or oral-oral. The virus preferentially infects children under 5 years. Most infections are asymptomatic and self-limiting gastrointestinal tract. Eventually it spreads to the central nervous system and affects the anterior horn motor neurons of the spinal cord causing paralysis and even death. We will describe host-virus interaction and the natural history of infection which depends on many factors, including the type of viral inoculum (serotypes VP1, 2 and 3) and host factors, such as nutritional status, concurrent infections and the ability to induce protective immune responses, such as, humoral anti-viral antibody responses with neutralizing antibodies, mucosal immunity and systemic adaptative immune responses. We will discuss the relevant aspects of the immuno-pathogenesis of the infection by poliovirus and the problems related to the host-virus interactions in the subjects vaccinated, with the latest advances in the strategies to develop optimal protection with the different poliovirus vaccines that could allow the development of a more effective immunization with induction of the effect or mechanisms that would prevent development of the disease, transmission of the virus, out-breaks and eventually the poliovirus eradication.

  6. Alternative splicing, a new target to block cellular gene expression by poliovirus 2A protease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, Enrique, E-mail: ealvarez@cbm.uam.es [Centro de Biologia Molecular Severo Ochoa (CSIC-UAM), Nicolas Cabrera, 1 Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Castello, Alfredo; Carrasco, Luis; Izquierdo, Jose M. [Centro de Biologia Molecular Severo Ochoa (CSIC-UAM), Nicolas Cabrera, 1 Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-10-14

    Highlights: {yields} Novel role for poliovirus 2A protease as splicing modulator. {yields} Poliovirus 2A protease inhibits the alternative splicing of pre-mRNAs. {yields} Poliovirus 2A protease blocks the second catalytic step of splicing. -- Abstract: Viruses have developed multiple strategies to interfere with the gene expression of host cells at different stages to ensure their own survival. Here we report a new role for poliovirus 2A{sup pro} modulating the alternative splicing of pre-mRNAs. Expression of 2A{sup pro} potently inhibits splicing of reporter genes in HeLa cells. Low amounts of 2A{sup pro} abrogate Fas exon 6 skipping, whereas higher levels of protease fully abolish Fas and FGFR2 splicing. In vitro splicing of MINX mRNA using nuclear extracts is also strongly inhibited by 2A{sup pro}, leading to accumulation of the first exon and the lariat product containing the unspliced second exon. These findings reveal that the mechanism of action of 2A{sup pro} on splicing is to selectively block the second catalytic step.

  7. Intratypic differentiation of polioviruses isolated from suspected cases of poliomyelitis in Brazil during the period of 1990 to 1993

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. B. de Filippis

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed 3129 fecal samples derived from 1626 patients with sudden onset acute flaccid paralysis clinically compatible with poliomyelitis. The samples were collected in the period ranging from January 1990 to September 1993 in all regions of Brazil. Among the 1626 cases studied, 196 had isolation of poliovirus. Nevertheless, it was observed that some factors influenced the isolation rate and the intratypic characterization of these polioviruses. No cases of acute flaccid paralysis has been found to be etiologically related with wild polioviruses.

  8. Five of Five VHHs Neutralizing Poliovirus Bind the Receptor-Binding Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Mike; Schotte, Lise; Thys, Bert; Filman, David J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Nanobodies, or VHHs, that recognize poliovirus type 1 have previously been selected and characterized as candidates for antiviral agents or reagents for standardization of vaccine quality control. In this study, we present high-resolution cryo-electron microscopy reconstructions of poliovirus with five neutralizing VHHs. All VHHs bind the capsid in the canyon at sites that extensively overlap the poliovirus receptor-binding site. In contrast, the interaction involves a unique (and surprisingly extensive) surface for each of the five VHHs. Five regions of the capsid were found to participate in binding with all five VHHs. Four of these five regions are known to alter during the expansion of the capsid associated with viral entry. Interestingly, binding of one of the VHHs, PVSS21E, resulted in significant changes of the capsid structure and thus seems to trap the virus in an early stage of expansion. IMPORTANCE We describe the cryo-electron microscopy structures of complexes of five neutralizing VHHs with the Mahoney strain of type 1 poliovirus at resolutions ranging from 3.8 to 6.3Å. All five VHHs bind deep in the virus canyon at similar sites that overlap extensively with the binding site for the receptor (CD155). The binding surfaces on the VHHs are surprisingly extensive, but despite the use of similar binding surfaces on the virus, the binding surface on the VHHs is unique for each VHH. In four of the five complexes, the virus remains essentially unchanged, but for the fifth there are significant changes reminiscent of but smaller in magnitude than the changes associated with cell entry, suggesting that this VHH traps the virus in a previously undescribed early intermediate state. The neutralizing mechanisms of the VHHs and their potential use as quality control agents for the end game of poliovirus eradication are discussed. PMID:26764003

  9. Effects of poliovirus 2A(pro) on vaccinia virus gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feduchi, E; Aldabe, R; Novoa, I; Carrasco, L

    1995-12-15

    The effects of transient expression of poliovirus 2A(pro) on p220 cleavage in COS cells have been analyzed. When 2A(pro) was cloned in plasmid pTM1 and transiently expressed in COS cells, efficient cleavage of p220 occurred after infection of these cells with a recombinant vaccinia virus bearing phage T7 RNA polymerase. High numbers of COS cells were transfected with pTM1-2A, as judged by p220 cleavage, thereby allowing an analysis of the effects of poliovirus 2A(pro) on vaccinia virus gene expression. A 40-50% cleavage of p220 by transfected poliovirus 2A(pro) was observed ten hours post infection and cleavage was almost complete (80-90%) 20-25 hours post infection with vaccinia virus. Profound inhibition of vaccinia virus protein synthesis was detectable ten hours post infection and was maximal 20-25 hours post infection. This inhibition resulted from neither a blockade of transcription of vaccinia virus nor a lack of translatability of the mRNAs present in cells that synthesize poliovirus 2A(pro). Addition of ara-C inhibited the replication of vaccinia virus and allowed the continued synthesis of cellular proteins. Under these conditions, 2A(pro) is expressed and blocks cellular translation. Finally, p220 cleavage by 2A(pro) did not inhibit the translation of a mRNA encoding poliovirus protein 2C, as directed by the 5' leader sequences of encephalomiocarditis virus. Therefore, these findings show a correlation between p220 cleavage and inhibition of translation from newly made mRNAs. Our results are discussed in the light of present knowledge of p220 function, and new approaches are considered that might provide further insights into the function(s) of initiation factor eIF-4F.

  10. Iris Wigger and Sabine Ritter, editors. Racism and Modernity. Festschrift for Wulf D. Hund

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Andrés Pulido Londoño

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Este volumen, editado por Iris Wigger y Sabine Ritter, reúne diecisiete ensayos hermanados por la reflexión conceptual e historiográfica sobre las prácticas y discursos racistas que apuntalaron la emergencia de las sociedades modernas. La colección honra los aportes académicos de Wulf D. Hund (1946, destacado investigador alemán, quien ha desarrollado fructíferos análisis críticos dedicados —como señalan las editoras— a una disección histórico-sociológica de los discursos raciales en el pensamiento europeo y la historia global. En efecto, esta colección está estrechamente relacionada con una de las propuestas centrales de Hund: el examen de los racismos como parte de procesos de socialización negativa consustanciales a la modernidad.

  11. Trends and causes of historical wetland loss, Sabine National Wildlife Refuge, southwest Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Julie C.; Morton, Robert A.; Kelso, Kyle W.

    2011-01-01

    Prior U.S. Geological Survey studies (Open-File Reports 2005-1216 and 2009-1158) examined historical land- and water-area changes and estimated magnitudes of land subsidence and erosion at 10 wetland sites in the Mississippi River delta plain. The present study extends that work by analyzing interior wetland loss and relative magnitudes of subsidence and erosion at five additional wetland sites in Sabine National Wildlife Refuge (SNWR) in the western chenier plain. The study sites were selected because their geologic setting differed from that of the delta plain; also, although the refuge marshes had been managed partly to minimize wetland loss, interior wetland losses there were extensive. Historical aerial photography, datum-corrected marsh elevations and water depths, and sediment cores were integrated to evaluate historical land- and water-area changes at SNWR.

  12. Connaissance indigène des procédés de production du beurre de Pentadesma butyracea Sabine au Bénin

    OpenAIRE

    Aïssi, MV.; Sogbégnon, RA.; Natta, AK.; Soumanou, MM.

    2015-01-01

    Indigenous Knowledge on Production Processes of Pentadesma butyracea Sabine Butter in Benin. Pentadesma butyracea Sabine is a tree that produces fruits containing oleaginous seeds from which butter, similar to shea butter, is extracted. This butter, so far insufficiently known, is obtained traditionally by a poorly documented process. Based on a technological investigation in the rural area and a factorial correspondences analysis (FCA), this study contributes to a better knowledge of the tra...

  13. Radioimmunological detection of type-specific antibodies against polioviruses 1, 2 and 3 as well as the B4 Coxsackie virus. Radioimmunologischer Nachweis typenspezifischer Antikoerper gegen Poliovirus 1, 2 und 3 und gegen Coxsackievirus B4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartung Goetze, C.F.

    1985-06-27

    A simple radioimmunological procedure is described in which the qualitative and quantitative determination of serum antibodies against polioviruses 1, 2 and 3 and against the B4 Coxsackie virus is based on adsorption chromatography. It is comparable to the neutralisation test as regards sensitivity and specifity and has the additional advantage of being the faster, simplier and cheaper of those two methods. The radioactive labelling of the virsuses was achieved with types of 32 P or 3 H that had favourable half-lives and would thus permit the labelled compounds to be stored for prolonged periods of time. The immunological statuses and antibody titres of sera obtained from 45 female volunteers, where the vaccinations against polymyelitis had mostly been carried out by the oral route, showed remarkably little changes, which was evident from the fact that the proportion of study participants found to have antibodies against all three serological types was 91% in 1970 and still as large at 89% in 1983. When a total of 1016 sera were screened for Coxsackie virus B4, no age dependency could be determined for the age range between 5 and 35 years, nor were there any differences seen between the individual residential areas. (TRV).

  14. Imunidade relativa à poliomielite em crianças de zero a dez anos, após o "Quarto Dia Nacional de Vacinação Contra a Poliomielite" com a vacinação oral trivalente, tipo Sabin, em área da Região da Grande São Paulo, SP (Brasil, 1982 Relative immunity to poliomyelitis in children up to ten years of age, after the "4th National Antipoliomyelitis Vaccination Day" with trivalent oral Sabin vaccine, in Greater S. Paulo (Brazil, 1982

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victório Barbosa

    1984-02-01

    Full Text Available Efetuou-se um levantamento soro-epidemiológico, abrangendo 898 crianças, para a verificação da imunidade aos poliovírus 1, 2 e 3 por meio da determinação dos títulos de anticorpos neutralizantes. De 522 crianças, ou seja, de 58,1% da população estudada, foi possível a obtenção de informações referentes à situação vacinal a partir de anotações existentes nas próprias Cadernetas de Vacinação. Neste último sub-grupo foi estudado o estado imunitário em relação ao número de doses de vacina oral tipo Sabin recebidas. Os resultados mostraram alta proporção de imunes para os três tipos de poliovírus entre as crianças estudadas, porém também revelaram a existência de lacuna imunitária nos menores de um ano, especialmente no primeiro semestre de vida. Não foram observadas diferenças importantes na proporção de imunes segundo o sorotipo considerado. Salientou-se a necessidade de um alerta constante e permanente em relação à ocorrência de possíveis surtos epidêmicos em segmentos mais vulneráveis da população, particularmente entre crianças menores de 1 ano.An epidemiological analysis was carried out on 898 children, in order to study the immune response to polioviruses 1, 2 and 3 by means of the measurement of neutralising antibodies. Information was obtained from 522 (58.1% of the children with regard to their vaccinal position by examination of the observations recorded on the individual vaccination certificates. In this subgroup the immune status in relation to number of Sabin type oral vaccine doses was analysed. The analysis demonstrated a high proportion of protected children for three types of polivirus, but also an immune response failure among the children of less than one year old, mainly during the first semester after birth. There were no relevant differences in relation to the proportion of protected individuals according to the considered serotype. The need for persistent and continuous

  15. Prolonged Excretion of Poliovirus among Individuals with Primary Immunodeficiency Disorder: An Analysis of the World Health Organization Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Macklin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with primary immunodeficiency disorder may excrete poliovirus for extended periods and will constitute the only remaining reservoir of virus after eradication and withdrawal of oral poliovirus vaccine. Here, we analyzed the epidemiology of prolonged and chronic immunodeficiency-related vaccine-derived poliovirus cases in a registry maintained by the World Health Organization, to identify risk factors and determine the length of excretion. Between 1962 and 2016, there were 101 cases, with 94/101 (93% prolonged excretors and 7/101 (7% chronic excretors. We documented an increase in incidence in recent decades, with a shift toward middle-income countries, and a predominance of poliovirus type 2 in 73/101 (72% cases. The median length of excretion was 1.3 years (95% confidence interval: 1.0, 1.4 and 90% of individuals stopped excreting after 3.7 years. Common variable immunodeficiency syndrome and residence in high-income countries were risk factors for long-term excretion. The changing epidemiology of cases, manifested by the greater incidence in recent decades and a shift to from high- to middle-income countries, highlights the expanding risk of poliovirus transmission after oral poliovirus vaccine cessation. To better quantify and reduce this risk, more sensitive surveillance and effective antiviral therapies are needed.

  16. Effect of buffer on the immune response to trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine in Bangladesh: a community based randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandir, Subhash; Ahamed, Kabir U; Baqui, Abdullah H; Sutter, Roland W; Okayasu, Hiromasa; Pallansch, Mark A; Oberste, Mark S; Moulton, Lawrence H; Halsey, Neal A

    2014-11-01

    Polio eradication efforts have been hampered by low responses to trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (tOPV) in some developing countries. Since stomach acidity may neutralize vaccine viruses, we assessed whether administration of a buffer solution could improve the immunogenicity of tOPV. Healthy infants 4-6 weeks old in Sylhet, Bangladesh, were randomized to receive tOPV with or without a sodium bicarbonate and sodium citrate buffer at age 6, 10, and 14 weeks. Levels of serum neutralizing antibodies for poliovirus types 1, 2, and 3 were measured before and after vaccination, at 6 and 18 weeks of age, respectively. Serologic response rates following 3 doses of tOPV for buffer recipients and control infants were 95% and 88% (P=.065), respectively, for type 1 poliovirus; 95% and 97% (P=.543), respectively, for type 2 poliovirus; and 90% and 89% (P=.79), respectively, for type 3 poliovirus. Administration of a buffer solution prior to vaccination was not associated with statistically significant increases in the immune response to tOPV; however, a marginal 7% increase (P=.065) in serologic response to poliovirus type 1 was observed. NCT01579825. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Nectin-like interactions between poliovirus and its receptor trigger conformational changes associated with cell entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Mike; Filman, David J; Belnap, David M; Cheng, Naiqian; Noel, Roane T; Hogle, James M

    2015-04-01

    Poliovirus infection is initiated by attachment to a receptor on the cell surface called Pvr or CD155. At physiological temperatures, the receptor catalyzes an irreversible expansion of the virus to form an expanded form of the capsid called the 135S particle. This expansion results in the externalization of the myristoylated capsid protein VP4 and the N-terminal extension of the capsid protein VP1, both of which become inserted into the cell membrane. Structures of the expanded forms of poliovirus and of several related viruses have recently been reported. However, until now, it has been unclear how receptor binding triggers viral expansion at physiological temperature. Here, we report poliovirus in complex with an enzymatically partially deglycosylated form of the 3-domain ectodomain of Pvr at a 4-Å resolution, as determined by cryo-electron microscopy. The interaction of the receptor with the virus in this structure is reminiscent of the interactions of Pvr with its natural ligands. At a low temperature, the receptor induces very few changes in the structure of the virus, with the largest changes occurring within the footprint of the receptor, and in a loop of the internal protein VP4. Changes in the vicinity of the receptor include the displacement of a natural lipid ligand (called "pocket factor"), demonstrating that the loss of this ligand, alone, is not sufficient to induce particle expansion. Finally, analogies with naturally occurring ligand binding in the nectin family suggest which specific structural rearrangements in the virus-receptor complex could help to trigger the irreversible expansion of the capsid. The cell-surface receptor (Pvr) catalyzes a large structural change in the virus that exposes membrane-binding protein chains. We fitted known atomic models of the virus and Pvr into three-dimensional experimental maps of the receptor-virus complex. The molecular interactions we see between poliovirus and its receptor are reminiscent of the nectin

  18. Survey of poliovirus antibodies in Borno and Yobe States, North-Eastern Nigeria.

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    Mustapha Modu Gofama

    Full Text Available Nigeria remains one of only three polio-endemic countries in the world. In 2016, after an absence of 2 years, wild poliovirus serotype 1 was again detected in North-Eastern Nigeria. To better guide programmatic action, we assessed the immunity status of infants and children in Borno and Yobe states, and evaluated the impact of recently introduced inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV on antibody seroprevalence.We conducted a facility-based study of seroprevalence to poliovirus serotypes 1, 2 and 3 among health-seeking patients in two sites each of Borno and Yobe States. Enrolment was conducted amongst children 6-9 and 36-47 months of age attending the paediatrics outpatient department of the selected hospitals in the two states between 11 January and 5 February 2016. Detailed demographic and immunization history of the child was taken and an assessment of the child's health and nutritional state was conducted via physical examination. Blood was collected to test for levels of neutralizing antibody titres against the three poliovirus serotypes. The seroprevalence in the two age groups, potential determinants of seropositivity and the impact of one dose of IPV on humoral immunity were assessed. A total of 583 subjects were enrolled and provided sufficient quantities of serum for testing. Among 6-9-month-old infants, the seroprevalence was 81% (74-87%, 86% (79-91%, and 72% (65-79% in Borno State, and 75% (67-81%, 74% (66-81% and 69% (61-76% in Yobe States, for serotypes-1, 2 and 3, respectively. Among children aged 36-47 months, the seroprevalence was >90% in both states for all three serotypes, with the exception of type 3 seroprevalence in Borno [87% (80-91%]. Median reciprocal anti-polio neutralizing antibody titers were consistently >900 for serotypes 1 and 2 across age groups and states; with lower estimates for serotype 3, particularly in Borno. IPV received in routine immunization was found to be a significant determinant of seropositivity and

  19. Nectin-Like Interactions between Poliovirus and Its Receptor Trigger Conformational Changes Associated with Cell Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Mike; Filman, David J.; Belnap, David M.; Cheng, Naiqian; Noel, Roane T.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Poliovirus infection is initiated by attachment to a receptor on the cell surface called Pvr or CD155. At physiological temperatures, the receptor catalyzes an irreversible expansion of the virus to form an expanded form of the capsid called the 135S particle. This expansion results in the externalization of the myristoylated capsid protein VP4 and the N-terminal extension of the capsid protein VP1, both of which become inserted into the cell membrane. Structures of the expanded forms of poliovirus and of several related viruses have recently been reported. However, until now, it has been unclear how receptor binding triggers viral expansion at physiological temperature. Here, we report poliovirus in complex with an enzymatically partially deglycosylated form of the 3-domain ectodomain of Pvr at a 4-Å resolution, as determined by cryo-electron microscopy. The interaction of the receptor with the virus in this structure is reminiscent of the interactions of Pvr with its natural ligands. At a low temperature, the receptor induces very few changes in the structure of the virus, with the largest changes occurring within the footprint of the receptor, and in a loop of the internal protein VP4. Changes in the vicinity of the receptor include the displacement of a natural lipid ligand (called “pocket factor”), demonstrating that the loss of this ligand, alone, is not sufficient to induce particle expansion. Finally, analogies with naturally occurring ligand binding in the nectin family suggest which specific structural rearrangements in the virus-receptor complex could help to trigger the irreversible expansion of the capsid. IMPORTANCE The cell-surface receptor (Pvr) catalyzes a large structural change in the virus that exposes membrane-binding protein chains. We fitted known atomic models of the virus and Pvr into three-dimensional experimental maps of the receptor-virus complex. The molecular interactions we see between poliovirus and its receptor are

  20. The probability of undetected wild poliovirus circulation: Can we do better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houy, Nicolas

    2015-10-07

    Acute flaccid paralysis surveillance actively detects new paralytic infections caused by wild poliovirus (WPV). However, most WPV infections occur with no symptom. This complicates determining when WPV is eradicated in the context of stopping oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). Previous studies have used the time since the last paralytic infection as a variable of interest to construct this probability. In this study, we show that more freely available information can be used. In particular, we focus on enriching the computation of the probability of WPV silent circulation with the date of occurrence of the last paralytic infection. We show that this information can for at least one set of conditions have crucial importance for an accurate estimation of the risk of false positive when declaring WPV eradicated. We also look at the importance of this information for optimal dynamic vaccination strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cryo-electron microscopy reconstruction of a poliovirus-receptor-membrane complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubeck, Doryen; Filman, David J; Hogle, James M

    2006-01-01

    To study non-enveloped virus cell entry, a versatile in vitro model system was developed in which liposomes containing nickel- chelating lipids were decorated with His-tagged poliovirus receptors and bound to virus. This system provides an exciting opportunity for structural characterization of the early steps in cell entry in the context of a membrane. Here we report the three-dimensional structure of a poliovirus-receptor-membrane complex solved by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) at a resolution of 32Å. Methods were developed to establish the symmetry of the complex objectively. This reconstruction demonstrates that receptor binding brings a viral five-fold axis close to the membrane. Density is clearly defined for the icosahedral virus, for receptors (including known glycosylation sites) and for the membrane bilayer. Apparent perturbations of the bilayer close to the viral five-fold axis may function in subsequent steps of cell entry. PMID:15965485

  2. L'infection persistante de cellules nerveuses humaines par le poliovirus

    OpenAIRE

    Colbère-Garapin, Florence; Pelletier, Isabelle; Pavio, N.; Duncan, G

    1997-01-01

    L'infection persistante de cellules nerveuses humaines par le poliovirus Virologie. Volume 1, Numéro 3, 237-47, Mai - Juin 1997, Revues Résumé Summary Auteur(s) : F. Colbère-Garapin, I. Pelletier, N. Pavio, G. Duncan, Groupe de génétique virale, Unité de neurovirologie et régénération du système nerveux, Institut Pasteur, 25, rue du Dr-Roux, 75724 Paris Cedex 15. Résumé : La poliomyélite paralytique est une maladie en voie d'éradication, mais le poliovirus (PV), son agent étiologique, continu...

  3. A monoclonal antibody that neutralizes poliovirus by cross-linking virions.

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, A A; Brioen, P; Boeyé, A

    1985-01-01

    The neutralization of type 1 poliovirus by monoclonal antibody 35-1f4 was studied. The virions were rapidly linked by antibody into oligomers and larger aggregates, followed by slow redistribution of antibody between the immune complexes. The antibody content and infectivity of immune complexes were determined. Remaining single virions were fully infectious and free of antibody. The oligomers and larger aggregates did not significantly contribute to the residual infectivity, which therefore c...

  4. Survival of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), HIV-infected lymphocytes, and poliovirus in water.

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, B E

    1993-01-01

    The potential for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to enter domestic sewers via contaminated body fluids such as blood has spurred interest in the survival of this virus in water and wastewater. This study focused on establishing the inactivation of HIV and productively infected lymphocytes in dechlorinated tap water. In addition, HIV survival was compared with that of poliovirus. Results indicated that either free HIV or cell-associated HIV was rapidly inactivated, with a 90% loss of infec...

  5. Molecular epidemiology of silent introduction and sustained transmission of wild poliovirus type 1, Israel, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, L M; Gavrilin, E; Jorba, J; Martin, J; Burns, C C; Manor, Y; Moran-Gilad, J; Sofer, D; Hindiyeh, M Y; Gamzu, R; Mendelson, E; Grotto, I

    2014-02-20

    Poliovirus vaccine coverage in Israel is over 90%. The last nine birth cohorts have been vaccinated exclusively with inactivated polio vaccine (IPV). However, between February and July 2013 type 1 wild poliovirus (WPV1) was detected persistently in 10 and intermittently in 8 of 47 environmental surveillance sites in southern and central Israel and in 30 stool samples collected during July from healthy individuals in southern Israel. We report results of sequence and phylogenetic analyses of genes encoding capsid proteins to determine the source and transmission mode of the virus. WPV1 capsid protein 1 nucleotide sequences were most closely related to South Asia (SOAS) cluster R3A polioviruses circulating in Pakistan in 2012 and isolated from Egyptian sewage in December 2012. There was no noticeable geographical clustering within WPV1-positive sites. Uniform codon usage among isolates from Pakistan, Egypt and Israel showed no signs of optimisation or deoptimisation. Bayesian phylogenetic time clock analysis of the entire capsid coding region (2,643 nt) with a 1.1% evolutionary rate indicated that Israeli and Egyptian WPV1-SOAS lineages diverged in September 2012, while Israeli isolates split into two sub-branches after January 2013. This suggests one or more introduction events into Israel with subsequent silent circulation despite high population immunity.

  6. Three-dimensional structure of a mouse-adapted type 2/type 1 poliovirus chimera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeates, T O; Jacobson, D H; Martin, A; Wychowski, C; Girard, M; Filman, D J; Hogle, J M

    1991-01-01

    The crystal structure of V510, a chimeric type 2/type 1 poliovirus, has been determined at 2.6 A resolution. Unlike the parental Mahoney strain of type 1 poliovirus, V510 is able to replicate in the mouse central nervous system, due entirely to the replacement of six amino acids in the exposed BC loop of capsid protein VP1. Significant structural differences between the two strains cluster in a major antigenic site of the virus, located at the apex of the radial projection which surrounds the viral five-fold axis. Residues implicated in the mouse-virulence of poliovirus by genetic studies are located in this area, and include the residues which are responsible for stabilizing the conformation of the BC loop in V510. Despite evidence that this area is not involved in receptor binding in cultured primate cells, the genetic and structural observations suggest that this area plays a critical role in receptor interactions in the mouse central nervous system. These results provide a structural framework for further investigation of the molecular determinants of host and tissue tropism in viruses. Images PMID:1651227

  7. Simian virus 40, poliovirus vaccines, and human cancer: research progress versus media and public interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butel, J. S.

    2000-01-01

    From 1955 through early 1963, millions of people were inadvertently exposed to simian virus 40 (SV40) as a contaminant of poliovirus vaccines; the virus had been present in the monkey kidney cultures used to prepare the vaccines and had escaped detection. SV40 was discovered in 1960 and subsequently eliminated from poliovirus vaccines. This article reviews current knowledge about SV40 and considers public responses to reports in the media. SV40 is a potent tumour virus with broad tissue tropism that induces tumours in rodents and transforms cultured cells from many species. It is also an important laboratory model for basic studies of molecular processes in eukaryotic cells and mechanisms of neoplastic transformation. SV40 neutralizing antibodies have been detected in individuals not exposed to contaminated poliovirus vaccines. There have been many reports of detection of SV40 DNA in human tumours, especially mesotheliomas, brain tumours and osteosarcomas; and DNA sequence analyses have ruled out the possibility that the viral DNA in tumours was due to laboratory contamination or that the virus had been misidentified. However, additional studies are necessary to prove that SV40 is the cause of certain human cancers. A recently published review article evaluated the status of the field and received much media attention. The public response emphasized that there is great interest in the possibility of health risks today from vaccinations received in the past.

  8. The efficacy of simulated solar disinfection (SODIS) against coxsackievirus, poliovirus and hepatitis A virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaselgrave, Wayne; Kilvington, Simon

    2012-12-01

    The antimicrobial activity of simulated solar disinfection (SODIS) against enteric waterborne viruses including coxsackievirus-B5, poliovirus-2 and hepatitis A virus was investigated in this study. Assays were conducted in transparent 12-well polystyrene microtitre plates containing the appropriate viral test suspension. Plates were exposed to simulated sunlight at an optical irradiance of 550 Wm(-2) (watts per square metre) delivered from a SUNTEST™ CPS+ solar simulator for 6 hours. Aliquots of the viral test suspensions were taken at set time points and the level of inactivation of the viruses was determined by either culture on a HeLa cell monolayer for coxsackievirus-B5 and poliovirus-2 or by utilising a chromogenic antibody-based approach for hepatitis A virus. With coxsackievirus-B5, poliovirus-2 and hepatitis A virus, exposure to SODIS at an optical irradiance of 550 Wm(-2) for 1-2 hours resulted in complete inactivation of each virus. The findings from this study suggest that under appropriate conditions SODIS may be an effective technique for the inactivation of enteric viruses in drinking water. However, further verification studies need to be performed using natural sunlight in the region where the SODIS technology is to be employed to validate our results.

  9. Expression of poliovirus 2Apro in mammalian cells: effects on translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldabe, R; Feduchi, E; Novoa, I; Carrasco, L

    1995-12-11

    Poliovirus protease 2Apro has been efficiently expressed in HeLa and COS cells upon transfection with vector pTM1-2A and infection with the recombinant vaccinia virus bearing the T7 RNA polymerase. The expressed poliovirus protease localizes to the cytoplasm of the transfected cells, both in the endoplasmic reticulum and in vesicles scattered in the cytoplasm. Cleavage of p220, a component of initiation factor eIF-4F, selectively occurs from 5 h post-infection in transfected cells infected with the recombinant virus. This cleavage correlates in time with the profound inhibition observed in the synthesis of vaccinia virus proteins. A similar blockade of vesicular stomatitis virus translation takes place upon 2Apro expression. Finally, the synthesis of poliovirus protein 2C from a recombinant vaccinia virus that expresses this protein under the EMC untranslated leader region is not affected by the synthesis of 2Apro. These findings lend support to the idea that translation of capped mRNAs requires the integrity of p220, while this requirement is not observed when translation of a mRNA bearing a picornavirus leader region is assayed.

  10. A Stable HeLa Cell Line That Inducibly Expresses Poliovirus 2Apro: Effects on Cellular and Viral Gene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barco, Angel; Feduchi, Elena; Carrasco, Luis

    2000-01-01

    A HeLa cell clone (2A7d) that inducibly expresses the gene for poliovirus protease 2A (2Apro) under the control of tetracycline has been obtained. Synthesis of 2Apro induces severe morphological changes in 2A7d cells. One day after tetracycline removal, cells round up and a few hours later die. Poliovirus 2Apro cleaves both forms of initiation factor eIF4G, causing extensive inhibition of capped-mRNA translation a few hours after protease induction. Methoxysuccinyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Val-chloromethylketone, a selective inhibitor of 2Apro, prevents both eIF4G cleavage and inhibition of translation but not cellular death. Expression of 2Apro still allows both the replication of poliovirus and the translation of mRNAs containing a picornavirus leader sequence, while vaccinia virus replication is drastically inhibited. Translation of transfected capped mRNA is blocked in 2A7d-On cells, while luciferase synthesis from a mRNA bearing a picornavirus internal ribosome entry site (IRES) sequence is enhanced by the presence of 2Apro. Moreover, synthesis of 2Apro in 2A7d cells complements the translational defect of a poliovirus 2Apro-defective variant. These results show that poliovirus 2Apro expression mimics some phenotypical characteristics of poliovirus-infected cells, such as cell rounding, inhibition of protein synthesis and enhancement of IRES-driven translation. This cell line constitutes a useful tool to further analyze 2Apro functions, to complement poliovirus 2Apro mutants, and to test antiviral compounds. PMID:10666269

  11. Atividade Antinociceptiva e Antimicrobiana da Casca do Caule de Psidium Cattleyanum Sabine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.Q. ALVARENDA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Psidium cattleyanum Sabine, conhecida como “araçá”, é espécie nativa do Bioma Cerrado brasileiro comumente utilizado, segundo levantamento etnobotânico, como planta medicinal para tratar várias doenças tais como: patologias hepáticas, gástricas, lesões teciduais incluindo processos dolorosos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar a triagem fitoquímica com propósito exploratório, investigar a atividade analgésica e antimicrobiana do extrato hidroalcoólico da casca do caule de Psidium cattleyanum Sabine (ECPCS para apoiar o uso dessa espécie como planta medicinal. Para isso, foram obtidos extratos e frações com solventes orgânicos de polaridade crescente (hexano, diclorometano, acetato de etila e isobutanol avaliando-se o perfil fitoquímico para determinar as principais classes de metabólitos secundários presentes na espécie. Investigou-se a atividade analgésica pelo teste de contorções abdominais em camundongos induzidas pelo ácido acético (0,6%. A Concentração Inibitória Mínina (CIM e Concentração Bactericida Mínima (CBM foram avaliadas através da técnica de microdiluição em caldo contra micro-organismos da microbiota oral. A triagem fitoquímica identificou a presença de taninos, saponinas, flavonoides e terpenos e/ou esteroides. O ECPCS exibiu atividade analgésica periférica nas doses de 200 e 400 mg/kg. O EAC (extrato acetato de casca o EDC (extrato diclorometânico de casca desempenharam melhor ação inibitória sobre o crescimento bacteriano de Estafilococos oralis com CIM 100 e 150 respectivamente. O ECPCS desempenhou ação inibitória sobre o crescimento bacteriano. Os resultados dos estudos experimentais comprovaram a presença de compostos secundários tais como, taninos e flavonoides, o que, provavelmente, pode ser associado à atividade analgésica e ao efeito inibitório sobre os micro-organismos testados com o ECPCS, o que justifica o uso medicinal planta.

  12. Comparative analysis of aroma compounds and sensorial features of strawberry and lemon guavas (Psidium cattleianum Sabine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egea, Mariana Buranelo; Pereira-Netto, Adaucto Bellarmino; Cacho, Juan; Ferreira, Vicente; Lopez, Ricardo

    2014-12-01

    The aroma of strawberry and lemon guava fruits (Psidium cattleianum Sabine) was studied by sensory analysis, gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and quantitative analysis. Volatiles released from the pulps were collected in a trapping system consisting of LiChrolut EN resins and eluted with dichloromethane/methanol. In total, 23 odour zones were detected by GC-O, of which 16 were found in the extract from the strawberry guava pulp and 17 in the extract from the lemon guava pulp. Among the compounds identified, only 10 were common to both strawberry and lemon guavas. The descriptive sensorial analysis differentiated between the aroma profiles of the strawberry guava pulp with the descriptor "tomato" and the lemon guava pulp with the descriptor "tropical fruit". The typical aroma of the guava fruits was dominated by the presence of numerous aldehydes and ketones among which (Z)-3-hexenal was the most intense odorant, while 1,8-cineole and linalool were also revealed as important aroma constituents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of essential oil and different plant extracts of Psidium cattleianum Sabine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scur, M C; Pinto, F G S; Pandini, J A; Costa, W F; Leite, C W; Temponi, L G

    2016-02-01

    The goals of the study were to determinethe antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of essential oil and plant extracts aqueous and ethanolic of Psidium cattleianum Sabine; the chemical composition of the essential oil of P. cattleianum; and the phytochemical screening of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the same plant. Regarding the antimicrobial activity, the ethanolic extract exhibited moderate antimicrobial activity with respect to bacteria K. pneumoniae and S. epidermidis, whereas, regarding other microorganisms, it showed activity considered weak. The aqueous extract and the essential oil showed activity considered weak, although they inhibited the growth of microorganisms. About the antioxidant potential, the ethanolic and aqueous extracts exhibited a scavenging index exceeding 90%, while the essential oil didn´t show significant antioxidant activity. Regarding the phytochemical composition, the largest class of volatile compounds identified in the essential oil of P. cattleianum included the following terpenic hydrocarbons: α-copaene (22%); eucalyptol (15%), δ-cadinene (9.63%) and α-selinene (6.5%). The phytochemical screening of extracts showed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, and triterpenoids for aqueous and ethanolic extracts. The extracts and essential oils inhibit the growth of microrganisms and plant extracts showed significant antioxidant activity. Also, the phytochemical characterization of the essential oil showed the presence of compounds interest commercial, as well as extracts showed the presence of important classes and compounds with biological activities.

  14. Elevation data collected in 2010 from Sabine National Wildlife Refuge, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Julie C.

    2017-01-01

    This data release serves as an archive of elevation data collected in August 2010 from Sabine National Wildlife Refuge (SNWR), Louisiana. Point (xyz) elevations were collected from historically formed open-water bodies and the surrounding emergent marsh using a combination of stop-and-go (semi-kinematic) and kinematic differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) surveying techniques. These data were collected as part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) Gulf Coast Subsidence project and provide more extensive spatial coverage than water depths and marsh-surface elevations collected along coring transects in 2008 (USGS Open-File Report 2011-1169). The elevation data were used to estimate magnitudes of one-dimensional (vertical) and three-dimensional (volume) accommodation that formed as a result of extensive historical wetland loss in the western chenier plain of coastal Louisiana. All elevation data use the projected coordinate system North American Datum of 1983 (NAD83), Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) Zone 15 North (15N) and all elevations are North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD88) orthometric heights, derived using the GEOID09 geoid model.

  15. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of essential oil and different plant extracts of Psidium cattleianum Sabine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Scur

    Full Text Available Abstract The goals of the study were to determinethe antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of essential oil and plant extracts aqueous and ethanolic of Psidium cattleianum Sabine; the chemical composition of the essential oil of P. cattleianum; and the phytochemical screening of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the same plant. Regarding the antimicrobial activity, the ethanolic extract exhibited moderate antimicrobial activity with respect to bacteria K. pneumoniae and S. epidermidis, whereas, regarding other microorganisms, it showed activity considered weak. The aqueous extract and the essential oil showed activity considered weak, although they inhibited the growth of microorganisms. About the antioxidant potential, the ethanolic and aqueous extracts exhibited a scavenging index exceeding 90%, while the essential oil didn´t show significant antioxidant activity. Regarding the phytochemical composition, the largest class of volatile compounds identified in the essential oil of P. cattleianum included the following terpenic hydrocarbons: α-copaene (22%; eucalyptol (15%, δ-cadinene (9.63% and α-selinene (6.5%. The phytochemical screening of extracts showed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, and triterpenoids for aqueous and ethanolic extracts. The extracts and essential oils inhibit the growth of microrganisms and plant extracts showed significant antioxidant activity. Also, the phytochemical characterization of the essential oil showed the presence of compounds interest commercial, as well as extracts showed the presence of important classes and compounds with biological activities.

  16. Cambios en la Actividad Antioxidante Durante el Desarrollo de Frutos de Psidium cattleianum Sabine (Myrtaceae / Changes in the Antioxidant Activity During the Development in Fruits of Psidium cattleianum Sabine (Myrtaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villacorta Lozano Verónica

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. Psidium cattleianum Sabine, conocida como casdulce, guayaba japonesa, guayaba peruana y guayaba fresa, es un árbol originario de América del Sur. Estudios preliminares en esta especie han sugerido una elevada actividad antioxidante, un alto contenido fenólico y un gran potencial nutricional y funcional. En esta investigación se analizó la evolución de varios componentes del sistema de defensa antioxidante no enzimático, durante el crecimiento y maduración de los frutos de Psidium cattleianum Sabine. El periodo de crecimiento de los frutos presentó la actividad antioxidante más elevada, medida a través de las técnicas TEAC-DPPH y TEAC-ABTS (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, FRAP (Ferric reducing/antioxidant powery ORAC (Oxigen Radical Absorbance Capacity, así como elcontenido máximo de fenoles totales, entre los que destacaron los ácidos clorogénico, cafeico y p-coumárico, y de sustancias no polifenólicas como el ácido ascórbico. Durante el periodo de maduración, se observó una disminución de la actividad antioxidante, posiblemente promovida por la pérdida gradual de algunos compuestos polifenólicos, así como también, debido a la aparición de otros compuestos como las antocianinas. Los resultados mostraron que estos frutos contienen un alto contenido de sustancias con actividad antioxidante, lo cual soporta el desarrollo de esta especie como nueva alternativa productiva / Abstract. Psidium cattleianum Sabine, known as cas sweet, japanese guava, peruvian guava and strawberry guava, is a tree native to South America. Preliminary studies in this specieshave suggested a high antioxidant activity, a high phenoliccontent and great nutritional and functional potential. In thisstudy, the evolution of some components of the non-enzimatic antioxidant defense system was analized during growth and ripening of fruit of Psidium cattleianum Sabine. The growing period of the fruits presented the highest antioxidant

  17. Efficient cleavage of p220 by poliovirus 2Apro expression in mammalian cells: effects on vaccinia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldabe, R; Feduchi, E; Novoa, I; Carrasco, L

    1995-10-24

    Poliovirus protease 2A cleaves p220, a component of initiation factor eIF-4F. Polyclonal antibodies that recognize p220 and the cleaved products from different species have been raised. Transfection of several cell lines with poliovirus 2Apro cloned in different plasmids leads to efficient cleavage of p220 upon infection with VT7, a recombinant vaccinia virus that expresses the T7 RNA polymerase. Under these conditions vaccinia virus protein synthesis is severely inhibited, while expression of poliovirus protein 2C from a similar plasmid has no effect. These results show by the first time the effects of p220 cleavage on vaccinia virus translation in the infected cells.

  18. The role of supplementary environmental surveillance to complement acute flaccid paralysis surveillance for wild poliovirus in Pakistan - 2011-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowger, Tori L; Burns, Cara C; Sharif, Salmaan; Gary, Howard E; Iber, Jane; Henderson, Elizabeth; Malik, Farzana; Zahoor Zaidi, Syed Sohail; Shaukat, Shahzad; Rehman, Lubna; Pallansch, Mark A; Orenstein, Walter A

    2017-01-01

    More than 99% of poliovirus infections are non-paralytic and therefore, not detected by acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance. Environmental surveillance (ES) can detect circulating polioviruses from sewage without relying on clinical presentation. With extensive ES and continued circulation of polioviruses, Pakistan presents a unique opportunity to quantify the impact of ES as a supplement to AFP surveillance on overall completeness and timeliness of poliovirus detection. Genetic, geographic and temporal data were obtained for all wild poliovirus (WPV) isolates detected in Pakistan from January 2011 through December 2013. We used viral genetics to assess gaps in AFP surveillance and ES as measured by detection of 'orphan viruses' (≥1.5% different in VP1 capsid nucleotide sequence). We compared preceding detection of closely related circulating isolates (≥99% identity) detected by AFP surveillance or ES to determine which surveillance system first detected circulation before the presentation of each polio case. A total of 1,127 WPV isolates were detected by AFP surveillance and ES in Pakistan from 2011-2013. AFP surveillance and ES combined exhibited fewer gaps (i.e., % orphan viruses) in detection than AFP surveillance alone (3.3% vs. 7.7%, respectively). ES detected circulation before AFP surveillance in nearly 60% of polio cases (200 of 346). For polio cases reported from provinces conducting ES, ES detected circulation nearly four months sooner on average (117.6 days) than did AFP surveillance. Our findings suggest ES in Pakistan is providing earlier, more sensitive detection of wild polioviruses than AFP surveillance alone. Overall, targeted ES through strategic selection of sites has important implications in the eradication endgame strategy.

  19. Antibodies against the chemically synthesized genome-linked protein of poliovirus react with native virus-specific proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, M H; Baltimore, D

    1982-02-01

    The genome-linked protein (VPg) of poliovirus has been chemically synthesized, coupled to bovine serum albumin carrier and injected into rabbits. An antibody response was elicited not only by the full-length synthetic VPg peptide, but also by a synthetic 14-amino acid carboxy-terminal peptide. All antisera reacted with virus-specific proteins from HeLa cells infected with poliovirus. Three of these proteins have previously been implicated by others as precursors of VPg. No free cytoplasmic VPg could be detected, and the antibodies did not react with radiolabeled proteins from uninfected cells.

  20. The Mock-up of the "Ratto Delle Sabine" by Giambologna: Making and Utilization of a 3D Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia Tucci

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Within a project for the knowledge and preservation of the mock-up of Giambologna's Ratto delle Sabine housed in the Galleria dell'Accademia in Florence, the GeCO laboratory has made laser scanner acquisitions to create surface models at different resolutions for structural analysis, on which to check the coverage of the photographic campaign and to create a three-dimensional thematic mapping of data relating to investigations and restoration works. The PDF3D file format has been used to easily manage data on a platform immediately available to all operators.

  1. Limits of variation, specific infectivity, and genome packaging of massively recoded poliovirus genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yutong; Liu, Ying; Mugavero, JoAnn; Shen, Sam H.; Ward, Charles B.; Asare, Emmanuel; Jiang, Ping; Paul, Aniko V.; Mueller, Steffen; Wimmer, Eckard

    2017-01-01

    Computer design and chemical synthesis generated viable variants of poliovirus type 1 (PV1), whose ORF (6,189 nucleotides) carried up to 1,297 “Max” mutations (excess of overrepresented synonymous codon pairs) or up to 2,104 “SD” mutations (randomly scrambled synonymous codons). “Min” variants (excess of underrepresented synonymous codon pairs) are nonviable except for P2Min, a variant temperature-sensitive at 33 and 39.5 °C. Compared with WT PV1, P2Min displayed a vastly reduced specific infectivity (si) (WT, 1 PFU/118 particles vs. P2Min, 1 PFU/35,000 particles), a phenotype that will be discussed broadly. Si of haploid PV presents cellular infectivity of a single genotype. We performed a comprehensive analysis of sequence and structures of the PV genome to determine if evolutionary conserved cis-acting packaging signal(s) were preserved after recoding. We showed that conserved synonymous sites and/or local secondary structures that might play a role in determining packaging specificity do not survive codon pair recoding. This makes it unlikely that numerous “cryptic, sequence-degenerate, dispersed RNA packaging signals mapping along the entire viral genome” [Patel N, et al. (2017) Nat Microbiol 2:17098] play the critical role in poliovirus packaging specificity. Considering all available evidence, we propose a two-step assembly strategy for +ssRNA viruses: step I, acquisition of packaging specificity, either (a) by specific recognition between capsid protein(s) and replication proteins (poliovirus), or (b) by the high affinity interaction of a single RNA packaging signal (PS) with capsid protein(s) (most +ssRNA viruses so far studied); step II, cocondensation of genome/capsid precursors in which an array of hairpin structures plays a role in virion formation. PMID:28973853

  2. Mutational analysis of poliovirus 2Apro. Distinct inhibitory functions of 2apro on translation and transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventoso, I; Barco, A; Carrasco, L

    1998-10-23

    Transient expression of poliovirus 2Apro in mammalian cells by means of the recombinant vaccinia virus vT7 expression system leads to drastic inhibition of both cellular and vaccinia virus gene expression (Aldabe, R., Feduchi, E., Novoa, I., and Carrasco, L. (1995) FEBS Lett. 377, 1-5; Aldabe, R., Feduchi, E., Novoa, I., and Carrasco, L. (1995) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 215, 928-936). To obtain further insights into the molecular basis of this inhibition, a number of 2Apro variants were generated and expressed in COS-1 cells. The effect of these variants on cellular translation, on vaccinia virus-specific translation, and on transcription of the reporter gene luciferase was analyzed. The ability of the different 2Apro variants to block cellular translation depends on their capacities to cleave eIF-4G. The blockade exerted by 2Apro on transcription of the luciferase gene reinforces the notion that this protease is a potent inhibitor of RNA polymerase II-mediated transcription. Some of the 2Apro variants tested failed to block luciferase transcription, despite the fact that eIF-4G cleavage and inhibition of translation were observed. Two reconstituted polioviruses mutated in 2Apro were defective in inhibiting luciferase transcription, yet were still able to cleave eIF-4G and block translation. These findings indicate that 2Apro interferes with cellular gene expression at both the transcriptional and translational levels. Moreover, these two effects probably reflect the inactivation of different host proteins by poliovirus 2Apro.

  3. Separation of native and truncated forms of poliovirus protease 3C produced in Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Polgár, L; ERDÉLYI, F.; Hajnal, E; Löw, M.; Gráf, L; Korant, B D

    1993-01-01

    Poliovirus protease 3C is a cysteine enzyme that is essential for the processing of the viral precursor polyprotein containing structural proteins and enzymes, including the protease itself. We have constructed the plasmid pSD/PV3C which produced protease 3C as inclusion bodies when expressed in Escherichia coli. In addition to the full-length protease, a truncated form was also generated, starting from an internal initiation site (Met-27). The enzyme was renatured by dilution of a 6 M guanid...

  4. Hydrologic modeling as a tool for land management and contingency planning in the Calcasieu Sabine Basin. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, J. [Chevron Energy Technology Co., Houston, TX (United States); Meselhe, E.; Kheiashy, K.; Miller, R. [C.H. Fenstermaker and Associates Inc., Lafayette, LA (United States); Douglas, C. [Chevron Environmental Management Co., New Orleans, LA (United States)

    2007-07-01

    The Calcasieu-Sabine Basin in southwest Louisiana contains approximately 126,518 hectares of wetlands, consisting of fresh marsh, intermediate marsh, brackish marsh and saline marsh. The hydrodynamics of the basin involves a combination of estuarine processes such as saltwater intrusion, response to water level fluctuations at an open boundary and lake dynamics. The basin is also affected by deep ship channels. As such, a robust, flexible and efficient numerical model is needed to incorporate all of these processes in an operational program. This study developed a hydrodynamic and salinity model for a portion of the basin that includes the lakes and marshes for the purpose of land management and contingency planning. The newly developed finite-difference hydrodynamic and salinity model is a combination of 1 and 2 dimensional computations and is intended for land, wildlife and habitat management. It can be used as a coastal restoration tool to evaluate the effectiveness of future and ongoing coastal restoration projects. The model was calibrated and validated against field measurements. It was shown to produce accurate simulations of the complex flow patterns of the Calcasieu-Sabine Basin along with information on salinity, water level fluctuations, velocities and discharges throughout the main channels and open water bodies within the area. It was concluded that the model provides a very useful planning and adaptive management tool to improve the understanding of the complex hydrology and salinity circulation pattern within the system. 5 refs., 4 tabs., 9 figs.

  5. Satellite-derived temperature data for monitoring water status in a floodplain forest of the Upper Sabine River, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemon, Mary Grace T.; Allen, Scott T.; Edwards, Brandon L.; King, Sammy L.; Keim, Richard F.

    2016-01-01

    Decreased water availability due to hydrologic modifications, groundwater withdrawal, and climate change threaten bottomland hardwood (BLH) forest communities. We used satellite-derived (MODIS) land-surface temperature (LST) data to investigate spatial heterogeneity of canopy temperature (an indicator of plant-water status) in a floodplain forest of the upper Sabine River for 2008–2014. High LST pixels were generally further from the river and at higher topographic locations, indicating lower water-availability. Increasing rainfall-derived soil moisture corresponded with decreased heterogeneity of LST between pixels but there was weaker association between Sabine River stage and heterogeneity. Stronger dependence of LST convergence on rainfall rather than river flow suggests that some regions are less hydrologically connected to the river, and vegetation may rely on local precipitation and other contributions to the riparian aquifer to replenish soil moisture. Observed LST variations associated with hydrology encourage further investigation of the utility of this approach for monitoring forest stress, especially with considerations of climate change and continued river management.

  6. An assessment of the reasons for oral poliovirus vaccine refusals in northern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Charles A; Ogbuanu, Ikechukwu U; Storms, Aaron D; Ohuabunwo, Chima J; Corkum, Melissa; Ashenafi, Samra; Achari, Panchanan; Biya, Oladayo; Nguku, Patrick; Mahoney, Frank

    2014-11-01

    Accumulation of susceptible children whose caregivers refuse to accept oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) contributes to the spread of poliovirus in Nigeria. During and immediately following the OPV campaign in October 2012, polio eradication partners conducted a study among households in which the vaccine was refused, using semistructured questionnaires. The selected study districts had a history of persistent OPV refusals in previous campaigns. Polio risk perception was low among study participants. The majority (59%) of participants believed that vaccination was either not necessary or would not be helpful, and 30% thought it might be harmful. Religious beliefs were an important driver in the way people understood disease. Fifty-two percent of 48 respondents reported that illnesses were due to God's will and/or destiny and that only God could protect them against illnesses. Only a minority (14%) of respondents indicated that polio was a significant problem in their community. Caregivers refuse OPV largely because of poor polio risk perception and religious beliefs. Communication strategies should, therefore, aim to increase awareness of polio as a real health threat and educate communities about the safety of the vaccine. In addition, polio eradication partners should collaborate with other agencies and ministries to improve total primary healthcare packages to address identified unmet health and social needs. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. World Health Organization regional assessments of the risks of poliovirus outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowther, Sara A; Roesel, Sigrun; O'Connor, Patrick; Landaverde, Mauricio; Oblapenko, George; Deshevoi, Sergei; Ajay, Goel; Buff, Ann; Safwat, Hala; Salla, Mbaye; Tangermann, Rudi; Khetsuriani, Nino; Martin, Rebecca; Wassilak, Steven

    2013-04-01

    While global polio eradication requires tremendous efforts in countries where wild polioviruses (WPVs) circulate, numerous outbreaks have occurred following WPV importation into previously polio-free countries. Countries that have interrupted endemic WPV transmission should continue to conduct routine risk assessments and implement mitigation activities to maintain their polio-free status as long as wild poliovirus circulates anywhere in the world. This article reviews the methods used by World Health Organization (WHO) regional offices to qualitatively assess risk of WPV outbreaks following an importation. We describe the strengths and weaknesses of various risk assessment approaches, and opportunities to harmonize approaches. These qualitative assessments broadly categorize risk as high, medium, or low using available national information related to susceptibility, the ability to rapidly detect WPV, and other population or program factors that influence transmission, which the regions characterize using polio vaccination coverage, surveillance data, and other indicators (e.g., sanitation), respectively. Data quality and adequacy represent a challenge in all regions. WHO regions differ with respect to the methods, processes, cut-off values, and weighting used, which limits comparisons of risk assessment results among regions. Ongoing evaluation of indicators within regions and further harmonization of methods between regions are needed to effectively plan risk mitigation activities in a setting of finite resources for funding and continued WPV circulation. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  8. [Immunoreactivity of chimeric proteins carrying poliovirus epitopes on the VP6 of rotavirus as a vector].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, X-X; Zhao, B-X; Teng, Y-M; Xia, W-Y; Wang, J; Li, X-F; Liao, G-Y; Yang, С; Chen, Y-D

    2016-01-01

    Rotavirus and poliovirus continue to present significant risks and burden of disease to children in developing countries. Developing a combined vaccine may effectively prevent both illnesses and may be advantageous in terms of maximizing compliance and vaccine coverage at the same visit. Recently, we sought to generate a vaccine vector by incorporating multiple epitopes into the rotavirus group antigenic protein, VP6. In the present study, a foreign epitope presenting a system using VP6 as a vector was created with six sites on the outer surface of the vector that could be used for insertion of foreign epitopes, and three VP6-based PV1 epitope chimeric proteins were constructed. The chimeric proteins were confirmed by immunoblot, immunofluorescence assay, and injected into guinea pigs to analyze the epitope-specific humoral response. Results showed that these chimeric proteins reacted with anti-VP6F and -PV1 antibodies, and elicited antibodies against both proteins in guinea pigs. Antibodies against the chimeric proteins carrying PV1 epitopes neutralized rotavirus Wa and PV1 infection in vitro. Our study contributes to a better understanding of the use of VP6-based vectors as multiple-epitope delivery vehicles and the epitopes displayed in this form could be considered for development of epitope-based vaccines against rotavirus and poliovirus.

  9. All-atom molecular dynamics calculation study of entire poliovirus empty capsids in solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andoh, Y.; Yoshii, N.; Yamada, A.; Kojima, H.; Mizutani, K.; Okazaki, S., E-mail: okazaki@apchem.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Applied Chemistry, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Fujimoto, K. [Department of Pharmacy, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ritsumeikan University, Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Nakagawa, A. [Institute for Protein Research, Osaka University, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Nomoto, A. [Institute of Microbial Chemistry, Kamiosaki, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 141-0021 (Japan)

    2014-10-28

    Small viruses that belong, for example, to the Picornaviridae, such as poliovirus and foot-and-mouth disease virus, consist simply of capsid proteins and a single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) genome. The capsids are quite stable in solution to protect the genome from the environment. Here, based on long-time and large-scale 6.5 × 10{sup 6} all-atom molecular dynamics calculations for the Mahoney strain of poliovirus, we show microscopic properties of the viral capsids at a molecular level. First, we found equilibrium rapid exchange of water molecules across the capsid. The exchange rate is so high that all water molecules inside the capsid (about 200 000) can leave the capsid and be replaced by water molecules from the outside in about 25 μs. This explains the capsid's tolerance to high pressures and deactivation by exsiccation. In contrast, the capsid did not exchange ions, at least within the present simulation time of 200 ns. This implies that the capsid can function, in principle, as a semipermeable membrane. We also found that, similar to the xylem of trees, the pressure of the solution inside the capsid without the genome was negative. This is caused by coulombic interaction of the solution inside the capsid with the capsid excess charges. The negative pressure may be compensated by positive osmotic pressure by the solution-soluble ssRNA and the counter ions introduced into it.

  10. Effect of booster doses of poliovirus vaccine in previously vaccinated children, Clinical Trial Results 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Muhammad Atif; Soofi, Sajid; Mach, Ondrej; Samejo, Tariq; Alam, Didar; Bhatti, Zaid; Weldon, William C; Oberste, Steven M; Sutter, Roland; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2016-07-19

    Considering the current polio situation Pakistan needs vaccine combinations to reach maximum population level immunity. The trial assessed whether inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) can be used to rapidly boost immunity among children in Pakistan. A five-arm randomized clinical trial was conducted among children (6-24months, 5-6years and 10-11years). Children were randomized in four intervention arms as per the vaccines they received (bOPV, IPV, bOPV+vitamin A, and bOPV+IPV) and a control arm which did not receive any vaccine. Baseline seroprevalence of poliovirus antibodies and serological immune response 28days after intervention were assessed. The baseline seroprevalence was high for all serotypes and the three age groups [PV1: 97%, 100%, 96%, PV2: 86%, 100%, 99%, PV3: 83%, 95%, 87% for the three age groups respectively]. There was significantly higher rate of immune response observed in the study arms which included IPV (95-99%) compared with bOPV only arms (11-43%), [p0.5]. IPV has shown the ability to efficiently close existing immunity gaps in a vulnerable population of children in rural Pakistan. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Introduction of Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine in National Immunization Program and Polio Endgame Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashishtha, Vipin M; Choudhary, Jaydeep; Yadav, Sangeeta; Unni, Jeeson C; Jog, Pramod; Kamath, Sachidanand S; Sachdeva, Anupam; Srirampur, Sanjay; Prajapati, Baldev; Parekh, Bakul J

    2016-08-08

    The World Health Organization declared India among other 10 countries in South East Region - as 'polio-free' in 2014. Since then, the Government of India (GoI) has scaled up its initiatives against polio endgame which targets virus eradication and sequential withdrawal of type 2 virus from oral polio vaccine (OPV). However, prior to choosing the switch from trivalent OPV (t-OPV) to bivalent OPV (b-OPV), it was suggested to include inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) in the national immunization schedule to protect vaccine naïve population against type 2 poliovirus. The GoI declared introduction of single dose of intramuscular IPV at 14 weeks since October 2015. In addition, anticipating the scarcity of IPV at present in India, GoI also recommended two intradermal doses of IPV in few states since April 2016. This review discusses the programmatic implications of these strategies along with recommendations by the Advisory Committee on Vaccines and Immunization Practices of Indian Academy of Pediatrics (IAP-ACVIP) on polio endgame strategy.

  12. Lessons Learned From the Introduction of Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estivariz, Concepcion F; Snider, Cynthia J; Anand, Abhijeet; Hampton, Lee M; Bari, Tajul I; Billah, Mallick M; Chai, Shua J; Wassilak, Steven G; Heffelfinger, James D; Zaman, K

    2017-07-01

    We assessed programmatic adaptations and infants' uptake of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) after its introduction into the routine immunization schedule in Bangladesh. Using convenience and probability sampling, we selected 23 health facilities, 36 vaccinators, and 336 caregivers, within 5 districts and 3 city corporations. We collected data during August-October 2015 by conducting interviews, reviewing vaccination records, and observing activities. Knowledge about IPV was high among vaccinators (94%). No problems with IPV storage, transport, or waste disposal were detected, but shortages were reported in 20 health facilities (87%). Wastage per 5-dose vaccine vial was above the recommended 30% in 20 health facilities (87%); all were related to providing <5 doses per open vial. Among eligible infants, 87% and 86% received the third dose of pentavalent and oral poliovirus vaccine, respectively, but only 65% received IPV at the same visit. Among 73 infants not vaccinated with IPV, 58% of caregivers reported that vaccine was unavailable. Bangladesh successfully introduced IPV, but shortages related to insufficient global supply and high vaccine wastage in small outreach immunization sessions might reduce its impact on population immunity. Minimizing wastage and use of a 2-dose fractional-IPV schedule could extend IPV immunization to more children.

  13. Studies towards the potential of poliovirus as a vector for the expression of HPV 16 virus-like-particles.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuppeveld, F.J.M. van; Jong, A.S. de; Dijkman, H.B.P.M.; Andino, R.; Melchers, W.J.G.

    2002-01-01

    Development of human cervical carcinomas is associated with infection by certain human papillomavirus (HPV) types. Thus, protection against HPV infection through vaccination may prevent development of cervical cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of using a poliovirus

  14. Estudio virológico de casos mortales de poliomelitis paralítica II. Aislamiento de Poliovirus de Líquido Cefalorraquídeo (post Mortem)

    OpenAIRE

    Célis G., Eduardo; Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú; Nicho N., Nelly; Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú

    2014-01-01

    6 samples of cerebrospinal fluid was subjected to virological study post-mortem, from 6 cases of Paralytic Poliomiellitis occurred in the Children's Hospital (Lima), having obtained the following results: In case 1, poliovirus type II was isolated; in case 3, poliovirus type III asisló; in case 4, Poliovirus Type I, and the cases 2, 5 and 6 were negative was isolated. Se sometió al estudio virológico 6 muestras de líquido cefalorraquídeo post-mortem, proveniente de 6 casos de Poliomielliti...

  15. Dynamic profiles of neutralizing antibody responses elicited in rhesus monkeys immunized with a combined tetravalent DTaP-Sabin IPV candidate vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mingbo; Ma, Yan; Xu, Yinhua; Yang, Huijuan; Shi, Li; Che, Yanchun; Liao, Guoyang; Jiang, Shude; Zhang, Shumin; Li, Qihan

    2014-02-19

    The World Health Organization has recommended that a Sabin inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) should gradually and synchronously replace oral polio vaccines for routine immunizations because its benefits in eliminating vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis have been reported in different phases of clinical trials. It is also considered important to explore new tetravalent diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis-Sabin IPV (DTaP-sIPV) candidate vaccines for possible use in developing countries. In this study, the immunogenicity of a combined tetravalent DTaP-sIPV candidate vaccine was investigated in primates by evaluating the neutralizing antibody responses it induced. The dynamic profiles of the antibody responses to each of the separate antigenic components and serotypes of Sabin IPV were determined and their corresponding geometric mean titers were similar to those generated by the tetravalent diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis-conventional IPV (DTaP-cIPV), the tetravalent diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis (DTaP), and Sabin IPV vaccines in the control groups. This implies that protective immunogenic effects are conferred by this combined tetravalent formulation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Sabine Dullin. La frontière épaisse: Aux origines des politiques soviétiques (1920-1940

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Chandler

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sabine Dullin. La frontière épaisse: Aux origines des politiques soviétiques (1920-1940. En temps & lieux 55. Paris: Éditions de l'École des hautes études en sciences sociales, 2014. 356 pp. Illustrations. Maps. Tables. Bibliography. Index of places. Index of names. Paper.

  17. Natural Type 3/Type 2 Intertypic Vaccine-Related Poliovirus Recombinants with the First Crossover Sites within the VP1 Capsid Coding Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yong; Zhu, Shuangli; Yan, Dongmei

    2010-01-01

    Ten uncommon natural type 3/type 2 intertypic poliovirus recombinants were isolated from stool specimens from nine acute flaccid paralysis case patients and one healthy vaccinee in China from 2001 to 2008....

  18. Integration of vitamin A supplementation with the expanded program on immunization does not affect seroconversion to oral poliovirus vaccine in infants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.D. Semba; M. Muhilal; N.E. Mohgaddam (Nasrin); Z. Munasir; A. Akib; D. Permaesih; M.S. Muherdiyantiningsih; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractChildhood immunization programs may provide infrastructure for delivering vitamin A supplements to infants in developing countries. The effect of giving vitamin A, an immune enhancer, on antibody responses to trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (TOPV) is unknown. A

  19. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic relationship of wild type 1 poliovirus strains circulating across Pakistan and Afghanistan bordering areas during 2010-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahzad Shaukat

    Full Text Available Pakistan and Afghanistan share a long uncontrolled border with extensive population movement on both sides. Wild poliovirus transmission has never been interrupted in this block due to war against terrorism, poor public health infrastructure, misconceptions about polio vaccines and inadequate immunization activities. All these issues complicate the eradication operations and reinforce the complexity of wiping out poliomyelitis from this region. This study illustrates the origins and routes of cross-border wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1 transmission during 2010-2012 between Pakistan and Afghanistan. Sequence analyses were conducted based on complete VP1 capsid protein sequences for WPV1 study strains to determine the origin of poliovirus genetic lineages and their evolutionary relationships. Phylogenetic tree was constructed from VP1 gene sequences applying Maximum Likelihood method using Kimura 2- parameter model in MEGA program v 5.0. A total of 72 (14.3% out of 502 wild-type 1 polioviruses were found circulating in border areas of both countries during 2010-2012. Molecular phylogenetic analysis classified these strains in to two sub-genotypes with four clusters and 18 lineages. Genetic data confirmed that the most of WPV1 lineages (12; 66.6% were transmitted from Pakistan to Afghanistan. However, the genetic diversity was significantly reduced during 2012 as most of the lineages were completely eliminated. In conclusion, Pakistan-Afghanistan block has emerged as a single poliovirus reservoir sharing the multiple poliovirus lineages due to uncontrolled movement of people across the borders between two countries. If it is neglected, it can jeopardize the extensive global efforts done so-far to eradicate the poliovirus infection. Our data will be helpful to devise the preventive strategies for effective control of wild poliovirus transmission in this region.

  20. Structure of the Fab-Labeled “Breathing” State of Native Poliovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jun; Lee, Lily Y.; Roivainen, Merja; Filman, David J.; Hogle, James M.

    2012-01-01

    At 37°C, the structure of poliovirus is dynamic, and internal polypeptides VP4 and N terminus of VP1 (residues 1 to 53) externalize reversibly. An Fab fragment of a monospecific antibody, which binds to residues 39 to 55 of VP1, was utilized to locate the N termini of VP1 in native (160S) particles in this “breathing” state. Fab and virus were mixed and imaged via cryogenic electron microscopy. The resulting reconstruction showed the capsid expands similarly to the irreversibly altered cell entry intermediate (135S) particle, but the N terminus of VP1 is located near the 2-fold axes, instead of the “propeller tip” as in 135S particles. PMID:22398295

  1. Survival of polioviruses and echoviruses in Acanthamoeba castellanii cultivated in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danes, L; Cerva, L

    1981-01-01

    Cultures of Acanthamoeba castellanii, kept at room temperature in sterile Bacto-Casitone (Difco) medium, were artificially infected with vaccination poliovirus strains type 1 and type 3 and with echovirus type 4 and echovirus type 30. No remarkable virus cumulation was observed on the surface or inside amoeba cells during the observation period of 21 days. Amoeba-adsorbed viruses were impossible to remove by repeated washings. Virus neutralization with specific antisera showed that enteroviruses were most probably present only on amoeba surfaces. In contrast to amoeba-free virus suspension, echoviruses bound to amoebae and their cell pulp persisted even after 52 to 75 days. However, the tested amoeba species played only the role of a solids-like carrier in this survival of echoviruses.

  2. Molecular epidemiology of wild poliovirus type 1 circulation in West and Central Africa, from 1997 to 1999, using genotyping with a restriction fragment length polymorphism assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouandjika-Vasilache, Ionela; Burns, Cara C; Gumede, Nicksy; Guillot, Sophie; Ménard, Didier; Dosseh, Annick; Akoua-Koffi, Chantal; Pallansch, Mark A; Kew, Olen M; Delpeyroux, Francis

    2008-01-01

    Virological surveillance is an important element in the Polio Eradication Initiative to provide information rapidly about circulating wild polioviruses. Molecular tools have been developed to identify the serotype of the poliovirus strains and whether they are of vaccine or wild origin (intratypic differentiation) and to perform the molecular epidemiology of wild strains. The main objective of this study was to show that restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) is a tool that can be used for molecular epidemiology of wild polioviruses. This is retrospective study of poliovirus type 1 strains received at the Institut Pasteur of Bangui (IPB), a WHO Regional Reference Laboratory for Africa, since 1994. We describe our experience with isolates from Western and Central Africa and show a positive correlation between the genotypes as determined by sequencing the gene for the VP1 capsid protein and the RFLP patterns. Although genomic sequencing is the gold standard method for detailed molecular epidemiology analysis of poliovirus isolates, these results show that RFLP is a potentially valuable tool for molecular epidemiological analysis of poliovirus type 1 strains: it could be used by many laboratories as a rapid method for ITD and genotype screening where sequencing capacity is not readily available.

  3. AT-21FINAL RESULTS OF A PHASE 1 TRIAL OF AN ONCOLYTIC POLIO/RHINOVIRUS RECOMBINANT (PVSRIPO) AGAINST RECURRENT GLIOBLASTOMA (GBM)

    OpenAIRE

    Desjardins, Annick; Sampson, John; Peters, Katherine; Vlahovic, Gordana; Threatt, Stevie; Herndon, James; Boulton, Susan; Lally-Goss, Denise; McSherry, Frances; Lipp, Eric; Friedman, Allan; Friedman, Henry; Bigner, Darell; Gromeier, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: PVSRIPO is the live attenuated, oral (SABIN) serotype 1 poliovirus vaccine containing a heterologous internal ribosomal entry site stemming from human rhinovirus type 2. PVSRIPO recognizes nectin-like molecule-5, an oncofetal cell adhesion molecule and tumor antigen widely expressed ectopically in malignancy. We report results of a phase 1 trial evaluating PVSRIPO delivered intratumorally by convection-enhanced delivery (CED). METHODS: Eligible patients were adults with recurrent ...

  4. Characterization of Poliovirus Neutralization Escape Mutants of Single-Domain Antibody Fragments (VHHs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schotte, Lise; Thys, Bert; Strauss, Mike; Filman, David J.; Rombaut, Bart

    2015-01-01

    To complete the eradication of poliovirus and to protect unvaccinated people subsequently, the development of one or more antiviral drugs will be necessary. A set of five single-domain antibody fragments (variable parts of the heavy chain of a heavy-chain antibody [VHHs]) with an in vitro neutralizing activity against poliovirus type 1 was developed previously (B. Thys, L. Schotte, S. Muyldermans, U. Wernery, G. Hassanzadeh-Ghassabeh, and B. Rombaut, Antiviral Res 87:257–264, 2010, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2010.05.012), and their mechanisms of action have been studied (L. Schotte, M. Strauss, B. Thys, H. Halewyck, D. J. Filman, M. Bostina, J. M. Hogle, and B. Rombaut, J Virol 88:4403–4413, 2014, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.03402-13). In this study, neutralization escape mutants were selected for each VHH. Sequencing of the P1 region of the genome showed that amino acid substitutions are found in the four viral proteins of the capsid and that they are located both in proximity to the binding sites of the VHHs and in regions further away from the canyon and hidden beneath the surface. Characterization of the mutants demonstrated that they have single-cycle replication kinetics that are similar to those of their parental strain and that they are all drug (VHH) independent. Their resistant phenotypes are stable, as they do not regain full susceptibility to the VHH after passage over HeLa cells in the absence of VHH. They are all at least as stable as the parental strain against heat inactivation at 44°C, and three of them are even significantly (P < 0.05) more resistant to heat inactivation. The resistant variants all still can be neutralized by at least two other VHHs and retain full susceptibility to pirodavir and 35-1F4. PMID:26014941

  5. RNA Transfer from Poliovirus 135S Particles across Membranes Is Mediated by Long Umbilical Connectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Mike; Levy, Hazel C.; Bostina, Mihnea; Filman, David J.

    2013-01-01

    During infection, the binding of poliovirus to its cell surface receptor at 37°C triggers an expansion of the virus in which internal polypeptides that bind to membranes are externalized. Subsequently, in a poorly understood process, the viral RNA genome is transferred directly across an endosomal membrane, and into the host cell cytoplasm, to initiate infection. Here, cryoelectron tomography demonstrates the results of 37°C warming of a poliovirus-receptor-liposome model complex that was produced using Ni-nitrilotriacetic acid lipids and His-tagged receptor ectodomains. In total, 651 subtomographic volumes were aligned, classified, and averaged to obtain detailed pictures, showing both the conversion of virus into its expanded form and the passage of RNA into intact liposomes. Unexpectedly, the virus and membrane surfaces were located ∼50 Å apart, with the 5-fold axis tilted away from the perpendicular, and the solvent spaces between them were spanned by either one or two long “umbilical” density features that lie at an angle to the virus and membrane. The thinner connector, which sometimes appears alone, is 28 to 30 Å in diameter and has a footprint on the virus surface located close to either a 5-fold or a 3-fold axis. The broader connector has a footprint near the quasi-3-fold hole that opens upon virus expansion and is hypothesized to include RNA, shielded from enzymatic degradation by polypeptides that include the N-terminal extension of VP1 and capsid protein VP4. The implications of these observations for the mechanism of RNase-protected RNA transfer in picornaviruses are discussed. PMID:23365424

  6. Poliovirus RNA Is Released from the Capsid near a Twofold Symmetry Axis ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostina, Mihnea; Levy, Hazel; Filman, David J.; Hogle, James M.

    2011-01-01

    After recognizing and binding to its host cell, poliovirus (like other nonenveloped viruses) faces the challenge of translocating its genome across a cellular membrane and into the cytoplasm. To avoid entanglement with the capsid, the RNA must exit via a single site on the virion surface. However, the mechanism by which a single site is selected (from among 60 equivalents) is unknown; and until now, even its location on the virion surface has been controversial. To help to elucidate the mechanism of infection, we have used single-particle cryo-electron microscopy and tomography to reconstruct conformationally altered intermediates that are formed by the poliovirion at various stages of the poliovirus infection process. Recently, we reported icosahedrally symmetric structures for two forms of the end-state 80S empty capsid particle. Surprisingly, RNA was frequently visible near the capsid; and in a subset of the virions, RNA was seen on both the inside and outside of the capsid, caught in the act of exiting. To visualize RNA exiting, we have now determined asymmetric reconstructions from that subset, using both single-particle cryo-electron microscopy and cryo-electron tomographic methods, producing independent reconstructions at ∼50-Å resolution. Contrary to predictions in the literature, the footprint of RNA on the capsid surface is located close to a viral 2-fold axis, covering a slot-shaped area of reduced density that is present in both of the symmetrized 80S reconstructions and which extends by about 20 Å away from the 2-fold axis toward each neighboring 5-fold axis. PMID:20980499

  7. An Externalized Polypeptide Partitions between Two Distinct Sites on Genome-Released Poliovirus Particles ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jun; Cheng, Naiqian; Chow, Marie; Filman, David J.; Steven, Alasdair C.; Hogle, James M.; Belnap, David M.

    2011-01-01

    During cell entry, native poliovirus (160S) converts to a cell-entry intermediate (135S) particle, resulting in the externalization of capsid proteins VP4 and the amino terminus of VP1 (residues 1 to 53). Externalization of these entities is followed by release of the RNA genome (uncoating), leaving an empty (80S) particle. The antigen-binding fragment (Fab) of a monospecific peptide 1 (P1) antibody, which was raised against a peptide corresponding to amino-terminal residues 24 to 40 of VP1, was utilized to track the location of the amino terminus of VP1 in the 135S and 80S states of poliovirus particles via cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and three-dimensional image reconstruction. On 135S, P1 Fabs bind to a prominent feature on the external surface known as the “propeller tip.” In contrast, our initial 80S-P1 reconstruction showed P1 Fabs also binding to a second site, at least 50 Å distant, at the icosahedral 2-fold axes. Further analysis showed that the overall population of 80S-P1 particles consisted of three kinds of capsids: those with P1 Fabs bound only at the propeller tips, P1 Fabs bound only at the 2-fold axes, or P1 Fabs simultaneously bound at both positions. Our results indicate that, in 80S particles, a significant fraction of VP1 can deviate from icosahedral symmetry. Hence, this portion of VP1 does not change conformation synchronously when switching from the 135S state. These conclusions are compatible with previous observations of multiple conformations of the 80S state and suggest that movement of the amino terminus of VP1 has a role in uncoating. Similar deviations from icosahedral symmetry may be biologically significant during other viral transitions. PMID:21775460

  8. Inactivation of Ascaris suum and poliovirus in biosolids under thermophilic anaerobic digestion conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, Michael D; Sobsey, Mark D; Blauth, Kimberly E; Shehee, Mina; Crunk, Phillip L; Walters, Glenn W

    2005-08-01

    There is considerable interest in the United States in production of Class A (low pathogen content) biosolids from the treatment of municipal wastewater sludge. Current requirements imposed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency make it difficult for thermophilic anaerobic digestion, in its simplest process configurations, to achieve Class A status. In particular, the time-temperature requirements necessitate long batch treatment times at temperatures associated with thermophilic anaerobic digestion. The time-temperature requirements are meant to ensure extensive inactivation of helminth eggs and enteric viruses, considered to be the most heat-resistant of the relevant pathogen classes. However, data on inactivation kinetics of these pathogens at precisely controlled and well-characterized temperatures are scarce. We measured inactivation of vaccine-strain poliovirus and eggs from the helminth Ascaris suum at temperatures from 49 to 55 degrees C in a lab-scale batch reactor containing biosolids from a continuous-flow thermophilic anaerobic digester. Both microbes were inactivated rapidly, with Ascaris more resistant to inactivation than poliovirus, and the relationships between inactivation rate and temperature were steep. The Arrhenius correlation between inactivation rate and temperature over the range 49-53 degrees C is consistent with protein denaturation as the inactivation mechanism for both microbes. The least stringent of the EPA time-temperature equations for thermal processes requires batch treatment times more than 2 orders of magnitude greater than would be required for three-log reduction of Ascaris at the rates we measured, suggesting an overly conservative regulatory approach. Such a grossly conservative approach can hinder full-scale implementation of thermophilic anaerobic digestion.

  9. Structures of coxsackievirus, rhinovirus, and poliovirus polymerase elongation complexes solved by engineering RNA mediated crystal contacts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Gong

    Full Text Available RNA-dependent RNA polymerases play a vital role in the growth of RNA viruses where they are responsible for genome replication, but do so with rather low fidelity that allows for the rapid adaptation to different host cell environments. These polymerases are also a target for antiviral drug development. However, both drug discovery efforts and our understanding of fidelity determinants have been hampered by a lack of detailed structural information about functional polymerase-RNA complexes and the structural changes that take place during the elongation cycle. Many of the molecular details associated with nucleotide selection and catalysis were revealed in our recent structure of the poliovirus polymerase-RNA complex solved by first purifying and then crystallizing stalled elongation complexes. In the work presented here we extend that basic methodology to determine nine new structures of poliovirus, coxsackievirus, and rhinovirus elongation complexes at 2.2-2.9 Å resolution. The structures highlight conserved features of picornaviral polymerases and the interactions they make with the template and product RNA strands, including a tight grip on eight basepairs of the nascent duplex, a fully pre-positioned templating nucleotide, and a conserved binding pocket for the +2 position template strand base. At the active site we see a pre-bound magnesium ion and there is conservation of a non-standard backbone conformation of the template strand in an interaction that may aid in triggering RNA translocation via contact with the conserved polymerase motif B. Moreover, by engineering plasticity into RNA-RNA contacts, we obtain crystal forms that are capable of multiple rounds of in-crystal catalysis and RNA translocation. Together, the data demonstrate that engineering flexible RNA contacts to promote crystal lattice formation is a versatile platform that can be used to solve the structures of viral RdRP elongation complexes and their catalytic cycle

  10. Comparative study of the volatile oil content and antimicrobial activity of Psidium guajava L. and Psidium cattleianum Sabine leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathy M. Soliman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the hydrodistilled oils of the leaves of Psidium guajava L. (guava leaf and Psidium cattleianum Sabine (strawberry guava was determined by GC/MS analysis to identify their chemotypes. Moreover, in vitro antimicrobial activity of these volatile oils against selected bacteria, yeast, and mycelia fungi was studied. The yield of the volatile oil hydrodistilled from the leaves of P. guajava L. and P. cattleianum Sabine was 1.6 and 2.69 g/kg on fresh weight basis, respectively. Limonene was the major identified hydrocarbon in P. guava leaves’ oil (54.70%, whereas, 1, 8-cineole was the major identified oxygenated monoterpenoid (32.14% in common guava leaves. The foliar oil of P. cattleianum was predominated by the sesquiterpene hydrocarbon; β-caryophyllene representing 28.83% of the total oil make-up. The antibacterial activity of guava leaf oil was more pronounced against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa than that of strawberry guava leaves, while P. cattleianum showed a higher activity against ess. The MIC of the volatile oil of the leaves of P. guajava against S. aureus was 6.75 μg/ml, while that of P. cattleianum exhibited MIC value of 13.01 μg/ml against Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Results demonstrated that the volatile oil of both Psidium species showed different chemotypes. Moreover, the volatile oils of guava and strawberry guava leaves might be good candidates as antimicrobial agents.

  11. Level and specificity of antibodies evoked by crude and purified antigens of poliovirus I and echovirus 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frommhagen, L H

    1965-11-01

    Preparations of poliovirus I and echovirus 7, purified by density gradient centrifugation, liquid-phase partition, and anion exchange (diethylaminoethyl) chromatography, have been shown to evoke high antibody levels of substantial specificity in the complement-fixation assay. Certain practical aspects of the three purification methods are discussed. These results argue for the use of purified viral antigens, particularly in view of the simplicity of the purification methods now available.

  12. Cross-border collaboration between China and Myanmar for emergency response to imported vaccine derived poliovirus case

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hai-Bo; Zhang, Li-Fen; Yu, Wen-Zhou; Wen, Ning; Yan, Dong-Mei; Tang, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Yong; Fan, Chun-Xiang; Reilly, Kathleen H.; Xu, Wen-Bo; Li, Li; Ding, Zheng-Rong; Luo, Hui-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Background This report describes emergency response following an imported vaccine derived poliovirus (VDPV) case from Myanmar to Yunnan Province, China and the cross-border collaboration between China and Myanmar. Immediately after confirmation of the VDPV case, China disseminated related information to Myanmar with the assistance of the World Health Organization. Methods A series of epidemiological investigations were conducted, both in China and Myanmar, including retrospective searches of ...

  13. Combined use of inactivated and oral poliovirus vaccines in refugee camps and surrounding communities - Kenya, December 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Mohamed A; Makokha, Frederick; Hussein, Abdullahi M; Mohamed, Gedi; Mach, Ondrej; Humayun, Kabir; Okiror, Samuel; Abrar, Leila; Nasibov, Orkhan; Burton, John; Unshur, Ahmed; Wannemuehler, Kathleen; Estivariz, Concepcion F

    2014-03-21

    Since the launch of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) in 1988, circulation of indigenous wild poliovirus (WPV) has continued without interruption in only three countries: Afghanistan, Nigeria, and Pakistan. During April-December 2013, a polio outbreak caused by WPV type 1 (WPV1) of Nigerian origin resulted in 217 cases in or near the Horn of Africa, including 194 cases in Somalia, 14 cases in Kenya, and nine cases in Ethiopia (all cases were reported as of March 10, 2014). During December 14-18, 2013, Kenya conducted the first-ever campaign providing inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) together with oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) as part of its outbreak response. The campaign targeted 126,000 children aged ≤59 months who resided in Somali refugee camps and surrounding communities near the Kenya-Somalia border, where most WPV1 cases had been reported, with the aim of increasing population immunity levels to ensure interruption of any residual WPV transmission and prevent spread from potential new importations. A campaign evaluation and vaccination coverage survey demonstrated that combined administration of IPV and OPV in a mass campaign is feasible and can achieve coverage >90%, although combined IPV and OPV campaigns come at a higher cost than OPV-only campaigns and require particular attention to vaccinator training and supervision. Future operational studies could assess the impact on population immunity and the cost-effectiveness of combined IPV and OPV campaigns to accelerate interruption of poliovirus transmission during polio outbreaks and in certain areas in which WPV circulation is endemic.

  14. A stable HeLa cell line that inducibly expresses poliovirus 2A(pro): effects on cellular and viral gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barco, A; Feduchi, E; Carrasco, L

    2000-03-01

    A HeLa cell clone (2A7d) that inducibly expresses the gene for poliovirus protease 2A (2A(pro)) under the control of tetracycline has been obtained. Synthesis of 2A(pro) induces severe morphological changes in 2A7d cells. One day after tetracycline removal, cells round up and a few hours later die. Poliovirus 2A(pro) cleaves both forms of initiation factor eIF4G, causing extensive inhibition of capped-mRNA translation a few hours after protease induction. Methoxysuccinyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Val-chloromethylketone, a selective inhibitor of 2A(pro), prevents both eIF4G cleavage and inhibition of translation but not cellular death. Expression of 2A(pro) still allows both the replication of poliovirus and the translation of mRNAs containing a picornavirus leader sequence, while vaccinia virus replication is drastically inhibited. Translation of transfected capped mRNA is blocked in 2A7d-On cells, while luciferase synthesis from a mRNA bearing a picornavirus internal ribosome entry site (IRES) sequence is enhanced by the presence of 2A(pro). Moreover, synthesis of 2A(pro) in 2A7d cells complements the translational defect of a poliovirus 2A(pro)-defective variant. These results show that poliovirus 2A(pro) expression mimics some phenotypical characteristics of poliovirus-infected cells, such as cell rounding, inhibition of protein synthesis and enhancement of IRES-driven translation. This cell line constitutes a useful tool to further analyze 2A(pro) functions, to complement poliovirus 2A(pro) mutants, and to test antiviral compounds.

  15. Intensified environmental surveillance supporting the response to wild poliovirus type 1 silent circulation in Israel, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manor, Y; Shulman, L M; Kaliner, E; Hindiyeh, M; Ram, D; Sofer, D; Moran-Gilad, J; Lev, B; Grotto, I; Gamzu, R; Mendelson, E

    2014-02-20

    An emergency response was triggered by recovery of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) of the South Asia (SOAS) lineage from sewage in southern Israel in April 2013 during routine environmental surveillance. Public health risk assessment necessitated intensification of environmental surveillance in order to facilitate countrywide monitoring of WPV1-SOAS circulation. This involved increasing sampling frequency and broadening the geographical area, for better coverage of the population at risk, as well as modifying sewage testing algorithms to accommodate a newly developed WPV1-SOAS-specific quantitative real-time RT-PCR assay for screening of RNA extracted directly from sewage concentrates, in addition to standard virus isolation. Intensified surveillance in 74 sites across Israel between 1 February and 31 August 2013 documented a sustained high viral load of WPV1-SOAS in sewage samples from six Bedouin settlements and two cities with Jewish and Arab populations in the South district. Lower viral loads and intermittent detection were documented in sampling sites representing 14 mixed communities in three of the five health districts in central and northern Israel. Environmental surveillance plays a fundamental role in routine monitoring of WPV circulation in polio-free countries. The rapid assay specific for the circulating strain facilitated implementation of intensified surveillance and informed the public health response and decision-making.

  16. Molecular Tectonic Model of Virus Structural Transitions: the Putative Cell Entry States of Poliovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belnap, David M.; Filman, David J.; Trus, Benes L.; Cheng, Naiqian; Booy, Frank P.; Conway, James F.; Curry, Stephen; Hiremath, Chaitanya N.; Tsang, Simon K.; Steven, Alasdair C.; Hogle, James M.

    2000-01-01

    Upon interacting with its receptor, poliovirus undergoes conformational changes that are implicated in cell entry, including the externalization of the viral protein VP4 and the N terminus of VP1. We have determined the structures of native virions and of two putative cell entry intermediates, the 135S and 80S particles, at ∼22-Å resolution by cryo-electron microscopy. The 135S and 80S particles are both ∼4% larger than the virion. Pseudoatomic models were constructed by adjusting the beta-barrel domains of the three capsid proteins VP1, VP2, and VP3 from their known positions in the virion to fit the 135S and 80S reconstructions. Domain movements of up to 9 Å were detected, analogous to the shifting of tectonic plates. These movements create gaps between adjacent subunits. The gaps at the sites where VP1, VP2, and VP3 subunits meet are plausible candidates for the emergence of VP4 and the N terminus of VP1. The implications of these observations are discussed for models in which the externalized components form a transmembrane pore through which viral RNA enters the infected cell. PMID:10627545

  17. Frequency of isolation of polioviruses and non polio enteroviruses from patients with acute flaccid paralysis, enterovirus infection and children from groups at risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Romanenkova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the frequency of isolation of polioviruses and non polio enteroviruses from different categories of the investigated children. The percentage of detection of polioviruses from the patients with acute flaccid paralysis was lower than that from the children from groups at risk. Among the patients with the enterovirus infection the polioviruses were rarely revealed. The frequency of isolation of non polio enteroviruses from these patients was significantly higher than that from the other categories of investigated persons. The improvement of poliomyelitis surveillance and the reinforcement of virological surveillance of children from groups at risk and those with enterovirus infection will provide the important data for Global Polio Eradication Initiative and the maintenance of polio free status of the Russian Federation.

  18. Immunogenicity and safety of combined adsorbed low-dose diphtheria, tetanus and inactivated poliovirus vaccine (REVAXIS®) versus combined diphtheria, tetanus and inactivated poliovirus vaccine (DT Polio®) given as a booster dose at 6 years of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajdos, Vincent; Soubeyrand, Benoit; Vidor, Emmanuel; Richard, Patrick; Boyer, Julie; Sadorge, Christine

    2011-01-01

    This randomized, comparative, phase-IIIb study conducted in France aimed to demonstrate whether seroprotection against diphtheria, tetanus and poliomyelitis 1 month after a single dose of REVAXIS (low-dose diphtheria) is non-inferior to seroprotection 1 month after a single dose of DT Polio (standard-dose diphtheria), both vaccines being given as a second booster to healthy children at 6 years of age. Children were randomly assigned to receive a single intramuscular dose of REVAXIS or DT Polio. Primary endpoints were the 1-month post-booster seroprotection rates for diphtheria, tetanus and poliovirus type-1, -2 and -3 antigens. Secondary endpoints were immunogenicity and safety observations. Of 788 children screened, 760 were randomized: REVAXIS group, 384 children; DT Polio group, 376 children. No relevant difference in demographic characteristics at baseline was observed between REVAXIS and DT Polio groups. Noninferiority of REVAXIS compared with DT Polio for seroprotection was demonstrated against diphtheria (respectively 98.6% and 99.3%), tetanus (respectively 99.6% and 100%) and poliovirus antigens (100% for each types in both groups). No allergic reactions to REVAXIS were reported. A benefit/risk ratio in favor of REVAXIS was suggested by the trend towards a better tolerability of REVAXIS compared with DT Polio regarding the rate of severe solicited injection-site reactions. The results support the use of REVAXIS as a booster at 6 years of age in infants who previously received a three-dose primary series within the first 6 months of life and a first booster including diphtheria, tetanus and poliovirus vaccine(s) given before 2 years of age. PMID:21441781

  19. The role of supplementary environmental surveillance to complement acute flaccid paralysis surveillance for wild poliovirus in Pakistan – 2011–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Cara C.; Sharif, Salmaan; Gary, Howard E.; Iber, Jane; Henderson, Elizabeth; Malik, Farzana; Zahoor Zaidi, Syed Sohail; Shaukat, Shahzad; Rehman, Lubna; Pallansch, Mark A.; Orenstein, Walter A.

    2017-01-01

    Background More than 99% of poliovirus infections are non-paralytic and therefore, not detected by acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance. Environmental surveillance (ES) can detect circulating polioviruses from sewage without relying on clinical presentation. With extensive ES and continued circulation of polioviruses, Pakistan presents a unique opportunity to quantify the impact of ES as a supplement to AFP surveillance on overall completeness and timeliness of poliovirus detection. Methods Genetic, geographic and temporal data were obtained for all wild poliovirus (WPV) isolates detected in Pakistan from January 2011 through December 2013. We used viral genetics to assess gaps in AFP surveillance and ES as measured by detection of ‘orphan viruses’ (≥1.5% different in VP1 capsid nucleotide sequence). We compared preceding detection of closely related circulating isolates (≥99% identity) detected by AFP surveillance or ES to determine which surveillance system first detected circulation before the presentation of each polio case. Findings A total of 1,127 WPV isolates were detected by AFP surveillance and ES in Pakistan from 2011–2013. AFP surveillance and ES combined exhibited fewer gaps (i.e., % orphan viruses) in detection than AFP surveillance alone (3.3% vs. 7.7%, respectively). ES detected circulation before AFP surveillance in nearly 60% of polio cases (200 of 346). For polio cases reported from provinces conducting ES, ES detected circulation nearly four months sooner on average (117.6 days) than did AFP surveillance. Interpretation Our findings suggest ES in Pakistan is providing earlier, more sensitive detection of wild polioviruses than AFP surveillance alone. Overall, targeted ES through strategic selection of sites has important implications in the eradication endgame strategy. PMID:28742803

  20. A second gene for the African green monkey poliovirus receptor that has no putative N-glycosylation site in the functional N-terminal immunoglobulin-like domain.

    OpenAIRE

    Koike, S.; Ise, I; Sato, Y; Yonekawa, H; Gotoh, O; Nomoto, A

    1992-01-01

    Using cDNA of the human poliovirus receptor (PVR) as a probe, two types of cDNA clones of the monkey homologs were isolated from a cDNA library prepared from an African green monkey kidney cell line. Either type of cDNA clone rendered mouse L cells permissive for poliovirus infection. Homologies of the amino acid sequences deduced from these cDNA sequences with that of human PVR were 90.2 and 86.4%, respectively. These two monkey PVRs were found to be encoded in two different loci of the geno...

  1. Implementation of coordinated global serotype 2 oral poliovirus vaccine cessation: risks of potential non-synchronous cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duintjer Tebbens, Radboud J; Hampton, Lee M; Thompson, Kimberly M

    2016-05-26

    The endgame for polio eradication involves coordinated global cessation of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) with cessation of serotype 2 OPV (OPV2 cessation) implemented in late April and early May 2016 and cessation of serotypes 1 and 3 OPV (OPV13 cessation) currently planned for after 2018. The logistics associated with globally switching all use of trivalent OPV (tOPV) to bivalent OPV (bOPV) represent a significant undertaking, which may cause some complications, including delays that lead to different timing of the switch across shared borders. Building on an integrated global model for long-term poliovirus risk management, we consider the expected vulnerability of different populations to transmission of OPV2-related polioviruses as a function of time following the switch. We explore the relationship between the net reproduction number (Rn) of OPV2 at the time of the switch and the time until OPV2-related viruses imported from countries still using OPV2 can establish transmission. We also analyze some specific situations modeled after populations at high potential risk of circulating serotype 2 vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV2) outbreaks in the event of a non-synchronous switch. Well-implemented tOPV immunization activities prior to the tOPV to bOPV switch (i.e., tOPV intensification sufficient to prevent the creation of indigenous cVDPV2 outbreaks) lead to sufficient population immunity to transmission to cause die-out of any imported OPV2-related viruses for over 6 months after the switch in all populations in the global model. Higher Rn of OPV2 at the time of the switch reduces the time until imported OPV2-related viruses can establish transmission and increases the time during which indigenous OPV2-related viruses circulate. Modeling specific connected populations suggests a relatively low vulnerability to importations of OPV2-related viruses that could establish transmission in the context of a non-synchronous switch from tOPV to bOPV, unless the gap

  2. The in vitro antiviral property of Azadirachta indica polysaccharides for poliovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faccin-Galhardi, Ligia Carla; Yamamoto, Kristie Aimi; Ray, Sayani; Ray, Bimalendu; Carvalho Linhares, Rosa Elisa; Nozawa, Carlos

    2012-06-26

    Azadirachta indica A. Juss, popularly known as neem, has been extensively used in Ayurvedic medicine by Indian population for over 2000 years. It is used traditionally for the healing of various diseases. Natural products and their derivatives provide an excellent source for new anti-viral drugs. The present study aims at evaluating the activity of two polysaccharides (P1 and P2) isolated from the leaves of Azadirachta indica and their chemical sulfated derivatives (P1S and P2S) against poliovirus type 1 (PV-1). The cytotoxicity of the compounds was analyzed by MTT and the antiviral effect was determined by plaque reduction assay in different protocols. The polysaccharides did not show any cytotoxic effects on HEp-2 cells at the highest tested concentration (200 μg/ml) and exhibited significant antiviral activity with inhibitory concentrations (IC₅₀) of 80 μg/ml, 37.5 μg/ml, 77.5 μg/ml, and 12.1 μg/ml for P1, P1S, P2 and P2S, respectively, and the selectivity indexes (SI) ranged from 18 to 131.9. The compounds demonstrated better inhibitory effect when added concomitantly with the virus infection with a dose-dependent curve inhibition. Lesser effect was observed when the compounds were added after viral infection and the least effect at pre-treatment. We suggested that the polysaccharides obtained from Azadirachta indica act against PV-1 by inhibiting the initial stage of viral replication. Importantly, original polysaccharides showed better virucidal effect than their sulfated derivatives at all tested concentrations. This study provides a scientific basis for the past and present ethnomedical uses of this plant.

  3. Safety of diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis and inactivated poliovirus (DTaP-IPV) vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Matthew F; Yih, W Katherine; Glanz, Jason M; Hambidge, Simon J; Narwaney, Komal J; Yin, Ruihua; Li, Lingling; Nelson, Jennifer C; Nordin, James D; Klein, Nicola P; Jacobsen, Steven J; Weintraub, Eric

    2014-05-23

    In 2008, a diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, and inactivated poliovirus combined vaccine (DTaP-IPV) was licensed for use in children 4 through 6 years of age. While pre-licensure studies did not demonstrate significant safety concerns, the number vaccinated in these studies was not sufficient to examine the risk of uncommon but serious adverse events. To assess the risk of serious adverse events following DTaP-IPV vaccination. The study was conducted from January 2009 through September 2012 in the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) project. In the VSD, electronic vaccination and encounter data are updated and aggregated weekly as part of ongoing surveillance activities. Based on previous reports and biologic plausibility, eight potential adverse events were monitored: meningitis/encephalitis; seizures; stroke; Guillain-Barré syndrome; Stevens-Johnson syndrome; anaphylaxis; serious allergic reactions other than anaphylaxis; and serious local reactions. Adverse event rates in DTaP-IPV recipients were compared to historical incidence rates in the VSD population prior to 2009. Sequential probability ratio testing was used to analyze the data on a weekly basis. During the study period, 201,116 children received DTaP-IPV vaccine. Ninety-seven percent of DTaP-IPV recipients also received other vaccines on the same day, typically measles-mumps-rubella and varicella vaccines. There was no statistically significant increased risk of any of the eight pre-specified adverse events among DTaP-IPV recipients when compared to historical incidence rates. In this safety surveillance study of more than 200,000 DTaP-IPV vaccine recipients, there was no evidence of increased risk for any of the pre-specified adverse events monitored. Continued surveillance of DTaP-IPV vaccine safety may be warranted to monitor for rare adverse events, such as Guillain-Barré syndrome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Transferrin Receptor 1 Facilitates Poliovirus Permeation of Mouse Brain Capillary Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Taketoshi; Ishizaka, Aya; Nihei, Coh-Ichi

    2016-02-05

    As a possible route for invasion of the CNS, circulating poliovirus (PV) in the blood is believed to traverse the blood-brain barrier (BBB), resulting in paralytic poliomyelitis. However, the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrated that mouse transferrin receptor 1 (mTfR1) is responsible for PV attachment to the cell surface, allowing invasion into the CNS via the BBB. PV interacts with the apical domain of mTfR1 on mouse brain capillary endothelial cells (MBEC4) in a dose-dependent manner via its capsid protein (VP1). We found that F-G, G-H, and H-I loops in VP1 are important for this binding. However, C-D, D-E, and E-F loops in VP1-fused Venus proteins efficiently penetrate MBEC4 cells. These results imply that the VP1 functional domain responsible for cell attachment is different from that involved in viral permeation of the brain capillary endothelium. We observed that co-treatment of MBEC4 cells with excess PV particles but not dextran resulted in blockage of transferrin transport into cells. Using the Transwell in vitro BBB model, transferrin co-treatment inhibited permeation of PV into MBEC4 cells and delayed further viral permeation via mTfR1 knockdown. With mTfR1 as a positive mediator of PV-host cell attachment and PV permeation of MBEC4 cells, our results indicate a novel role of TfR1 as a cellular receptor for human PV receptor/CD155-independent PV invasion of the CNS. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Improved poliovirus D-antigen yields by application of different Vero cell cultivation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomassen, Yvonne E; Rubingh, Olaf; Wijffels, René H; van der Pol, Leo A; Bakker, Wilfried A M

    2014-05-19

    Vero cells were grown adherent to microcarriers (Cytodex 1; 3 g L(-1)) using animal component free media in stirred-tank type bioreactors. Different strategies for media refreshment, daily media replacement (semi-batch), continuous media replacement (perfusion) and recirculation of media, were compared with batch cultivation. Cell densities increased using a feed strategy from 1×10(6) cells mL(-1) during batch cultivation to 1.8, 2.7 and 5.0×10(6) cells mL(-1) during semi-batch, perfusion and recirculation, respectively. The effects of these different cell culture strategies on subsequent poliovirus production were investigated. Increased cell densities allowed up to 3 times higher D-antigen levels when compared with that obtained from batch-wise Vero cell culture. However, the cell specific D-antigen production was lower when cells were infected at higher cell densities. This cell density effect is in good agreement with observations for different cell lines and virus types. From the evaluated alternative culture methods, application of a semi-batch mode of operations allowed the highest cell specific D-antigen production. The increased product yields that can easily be reached using these higher cell density cultivation methods, showed the possibility for better use of bioreactor capacity for the manufacturing of polio vaccines to ultimately reduce vaccine cost per dose. Further, the use of animal-component-free cell- and virus culture media shows opportunities for modernization of human viral vaccine manufacturing. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Adsorption characteristics of an enteric virus-binding protein to norovirus, rotavirus and poliovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imai Takahiro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Water contamination with human enteric viruses has posed human health risks all over the world. Reasonable and facile methodologies for recovering and quantifying infectious enteric viruses in environmental samples are needed to address the issues of waterborne viral infectious diseases. In this study, a bacterial protein that has a binding capability with several enteric viruses is discovered, and its binding characteristics were investigated for utilizing it as a viral adsorbent in virus recovery and detection technologies. Results A gene of an enteric virus-binding protein (EVBP, derived from a monomer of a bacterial chaperon protein GroEL, was successfully acquired from a genomic DNA library of activated sludge microorganisms with nested PCR. Equilibrium dissociation constants between EVBP and norovirus-like particles (NoVLPs of genotypes GI.7 and GII.4, estimated with quartz crystal microbalance method, were 240 and 210 nM, respectively. These values of equilibrium dissociation constant imply that the binding affinity between EVBP and NoVLPs is 1 to 3-log weaker than that in general antigen-antibody interactions, but about 2-log stronger than that in weak specific interactions of proteins with cations and organic polymers. The adsorptions of EVBP to norovirus, group A rotavirus and poliovirus type 1 were found to be significant in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Meanwhile, the binding of native GroEL tetradecamer to viral particles was weaker than that of EVBP, presumably because of a steric hindrance. The small molecule of EVBP could have an advantage in the access to the surface of viral particles with rugged structure. Conclusions EVBP that has a broad binding spectrum to enteric viruses was newly discovered. The broad binding characteristic of EVBP would allow us to utilize it as a novel adsorbent for detecting diverse enteric viruses in clinical and environmental samples.

  7. Polio and Measles Down the Drain: Environmental Enterovirus Surveillance in the Netherlands, 2005 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benschop, Kimberley S M; van der Avoort, Harrie G; Jusic, Edin; Vennema, Harry; van Binnendijk, Rob; Duizer, Erwin

    2017-07-01

    Polioviruses (PVs) are members of the genus Enterovirus In the Netherlands, the exclusion of PV circulation is based on clinical enterovirus (EV) surveillance (CEVS) of EV-positive cases and routine environmental EV surveillance (EEVS) conducted on sewage samples collected in the region of the Netherlands where vaccination coverage is low due to religious reasons. We compared the EEVS data to those of the CEVS to gain insight into the relevance of EEVS for poliovirus and nonpolio enterovirus surveillance. Following the polio outbreak in Syria, EEVS was performed at the primary refugee center in Ter Apel in the Netherlands, and data were compared to those of CEVS and EEVS. Furthermore, we assessed the feasibility of poliovirus detection by EEVS using measles virus detection in sewage during a measles outbreak as a proxy. Two Sabin-like PVs were found in routine EEVS, 11 Sabin-like PVs were detected in the CEVS, and one Sabin-like PV was found in the Ter Apel sewage. We observed significant differences between the three programs regarding which EVs were found. In 6 sewage samples collected during the measles outbreak in 2013, measles virus RNA was detected in regions where measles cases were identified. In conclusion, we detected PVs, nonpolio EVs, and measles virus in sewage and showed that environmental surveillance is useful for poliovirus detection in the Netherlands, where live oral poliovirus vaccine is not used and communities with lower vaccination coverage exist. EEVS led to the detection of EV types not seen in the CEVS, showing that EEVS is complementary to CEVS.IMPORTANCE We show that environmental enterovirus surveillance complements clinical enterovirus surveillance for poliovirus detection, or exclusion, and for nonpolio enterovirus surveillance. Even in the presence of adequate surveillance, only a very limited number of Sabin-like poliovirus strains were detected in a 10-year period, and no signs of transmission of oral polio vaccine (OPV) strains

  8. T he“ Virology of the Polio Virus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    poliovirus and in the history of poliomyelitis was the introduction of polio vaccines by Salk and Sabin. [7,8]. ' In 1981, poliovirus became the first RNA virus genome to be molecularly cloned and se— quenced. Recent development has included the clon- ing and sequencing of several strains of the three types of poliovirus [9 ...

  9. Demonstration in vitro that eucaryotic initiation factor 3 is active but that a cap-binding protein complex is inactive in poliovirus-infected HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etchison, D; Hansen, J; Ehrenfeld, E; Edery, I; Sonenberg, N; Milburn, S; Hershey, J W

    1984-01-01

    Protein synthesis initiation factor preparations from poliovirus-infected HeLa cells have reduced ability to initiate translation on capped mRNA. The defect in initiation factors has been variously attributed to inactivation of eucaryotic initiation factor 3 (eIF3), eIF4B, or a cap-binding protein (CBP) complex. We have developed a series of in vitro protein synthesis assays to show that eIF3 is active but a CBP complex activity is inactivated after poliovirus infection. eIF3 activity, when determined in the presence of purified CBP complex, is present in sucrose gradients of factors from both infected and uninfected cells. CBP complex activity, determined in the presence of eIF3 from poliovirus-infected cells, is present in uninfected cells only and comigrates on sucrose gradient with an activity which restores the ability of crude initiation factors from infected cells to translate capped globin mRNA. This is the first demonstration by a fractionated translation system that an activity which is attributable to CBP complex is inactivated in poliovirus-infected cells. The results also indicate that eIF3 is undetectable or has greatly reduced activity in the absence of CBP complex. Images PMID:6088805

  10. Primary vaccination of adults with reduced antigen-content diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis or dTpa-inactivated poliovirus vaccines compared to diphtheria-tetanus-toxoid vaccines.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theeten, H.; Rumke, H.C.; Hoppener, F.J.; Vilatimo, R.; Narejos, S.; Damme, P. van; Hoet, B.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate immunogenicity and reactogenicity of primary vaccination with reduced-antigen-content diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (dTpa) or dTpa-inactivated poliovirus (dTpa-IPV) vaccine compared to diphtheria-tetanus-toxoid vaccines (Td) in adults > or = 40 years of age without

  11. Differences in female-male mortality after high-titre measles vaccine and association with subsequent vaccination with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis and inactivated poliovirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Jensen, Henrik; Samb, Badara

    2003-01-01

    Females given high-titre measles vaccine (HTMV) have high mortality; diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccination might be associated with increased female mortality. We aimed to assess whether DTP or inactivated poliovirus (IPV) administered after HTMV was associated with increased female...

  12. The evaluation of a physical method for the quantification of inactivated poliovirus particles and its relationship to D-antigenicity and potency testing in rats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.R. Doel; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); A.L. van Wezel; G. van Steenis (Bert)

    1984-01-01

    textabstractThe use of a density gradient procedure for the quantification of intact, inactivated poliovirus particles in vaccine preparations is described. The procedure is both sensitive and highly reproducible and the results correlate with those of potency tests in rats and with D-antigen

  13. Connaissance indigène des procédés de production du beurre de Pentadesma butyracea Sabine au Bénin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aïssi, MV.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous Knowledge on Production Processes of Pentadesma butyracea Sabine Butter in Benin. Pentadesma butyracea Sabine is a tree that produces fruits containing oleaginous seeds from which butter, similar to shea butter, is extracted. This butter, so far insufficiently known, is obtained traditionally by a poorly documented process. Based on a technological investigation in the rural area and a factorial correspondences analysis (FCA, this study contributes to a better knowledge of the traditional technology of the P. butyracea butter production in Benin. P. butyracea butter is extracted by twelve main successive unit operations. The transformers involved in the butter production belong to eight different ethnic groups. Two types of thermal pretreatments, namely cooking with water and roasting in a traditional furnace are applied to P. butyracea seeds. The influence of the ethnic group was reported, especially on the type of the thermal pretreatment applied to the seeds as well as the various unit operations of transformation implemented from fruit picking up to obtaining butter. This better knowledge will allow improving the traditional processes of the P. butyracea butter production in rural environment.

  14. Combinations of Quality and Frequency of Immunization Activities to Stop and Prevent Poliovirus Transmission in the High-Risk Area of Northwest Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radboud J Duintjer Tebbens

    Full Text Available Frequent supplemental immunization activities (SIAs with the oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV represent the primary strategy to interrupt poliovirus transmission in the last endemic areas.Using a differential-equation based poliovirus transmission model tailored to high-risk areas in Nigeria, we perform one-way and multi-way sensitivity analyses to demonstrate the impact of different assumptions about routine immunization (RI and the frequency and quality of SIAs on population immunity to transmission and persistence or emergence of circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs after OPV cessation.More trivalent OPV use remains critical to avoid serotype 2 cVDPVs. RI schedules with or without inactivated polio vaccine (IPV could significantly improve population immunity if coverage increases well above current levels in under-vaccinated subpopulations. Similarly, the impact of SIAs on overall population immunity and cVDPV risks depends on their ability to reach under-vaccinated groups (i.e., SIA quality. Lower SIA coverage in the under-vaccinated subpopulation results in a higher frequency of SIAs needed to maintain high enough population immunity to avoid cVDPVs after OPV cessation.National immunization program managers in northwest Nigeria should recognize the benefits of increasing RI and SIA quality. Sufficiently improving RI coverage and improving SIA quality will reduce the frequency of SIAs required to stop and prevent future poliovirus transmission. Better information about the incremental costs to identify and reach under-vaccinated children would help determine the optimal balance between spending to increase SIA and RI quality and spending to increase SIA frequency.

  15. Recombination between Poliovirus and Coxsackie A Viruses of Species C: A Model of Viral Genetic Plasticity and Emergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Delpeyroux

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Genetic recombination in RNA viruses was discovered many years ago for poliovirus (PV, an enterovirus of the Picornaviridae family, and studied using PV or other picornaviruses as models. Recently, recombination was shown to be a general phenomenon between different types of enteroviruses of the same species. In particular, the interest for this mechanism of genetic plasticity was renewed with the emergence of pathogenic recombinant circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs, which were implicated in poliomyelitis outbreaks in several regions of the world with insufficient vaccination coverage. Most of these cVDPVs had mosaic genomes constituted of mutated poliovaccine capsid sequences and part or all of the non-structural sequences from other human enteroviruses of species C (HEV-C, in particular coxsackie A viruses. A study in Madagascar showed that recombinant cVDPVs had been co-circulating in a small population of children with many different HEV-C types. This viral ecosystem showed a surprising and extensive biodiversity associated to several types and recombinant genotypes, indicating that intertypic genetic recombination was not only a mechanism of evolution for HEV-C, but an usual mode of genetic plasticity shaping viral diversity. Results suggested that recombination may be, in conjunction with mutations, implicated in the phenotypic diversity of enterovirus strains and in the emergence of new pathogenic strains. Nevertheless, little is known about the rules and mechanisms which govern genetic exchanges between HEV-C types, as well as about the importance of intertypic recombination in generating phenotypic variation. This review summarizes our current knowledge of the mechanisms of evolution of PV, in particular recombination events leading to the emergence of recombinant cVDPVs.

  16. Historical Channel Adjustment and Estimates of Selected Hydraulic Values in the Lower Sabine River and Lower Brazos River Basins, Texas and Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitmuller, Franklin T.; Greene, Lauren E.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas Water Development Board, evaluated historical channel adjustment and estimated selected hydraulic values at U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations in the lower Sabine River Basin in Texas and Louisiana and lower Brazos River Basin in Texas to support geomorphic assessments of the Texas Instream Flow Program. Channel attributes including cross-section geometry, slope, and planform change were evaluated to learn how each river's morphology changed over the years in response to natural and anthropogenic disturbances. Historical and contemporary cross-sectional channel geometries at several gaging stations on each river were compared, planform changes were assessed, and hydraulic values were estimated including mean flow velocity, bed shear stress, Froude numbers, and hydraulic depth. The primary sources of historical channel morphology information were U.S. Geological Survey hard-copy discharge-measurement field notes. Additional analyses were done using computations of selected flow hydraulics, comparisons of historical and contemporary aerial photographs, comparisons of historical and contemporary ground photographs, evaluations of how frequently stage-discharge rating curves were updated, reviews of stage-discharge relations for field measurements, and considerations of bridge and reservoir construction activities. Based on historical cross sections at three gaging stations downstream from Toledo Bend Reservoir, the lower Sabine River is relatively stable, but is subject to substantial temporary scour-and-fill processes during floods. Exceptions to this characterization of relative stability include an episode of channel aggradation at the Sabine River near Bon Wier, Texas, during the 1930s, and about 2 to 3 feet of channel incision at the Sabine River near Burkeville, Texas, since the late 1950s. The Brazos River, at gaging stations downstream from Waco, Texas, has adjusted to a combination of

  17. Delineation of marsh types of the Texas coast from Corpus Christi Bay to the Sabine River in 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enwright, Nicholas M.; Hartley, Stephen B.; Brasher, Michael G.; Visser, Jenneke M.; Mitchell, Michael K.; Ballard, Bart M.; Parr, Mark W.; Couvillion, Brady R.; Wilson, Barry C.

    2014-01-01

    Coastal zone managers and researchers often require detailed information regarding emergent marsh vegetation types for modeling habitat capacities and needs of marsh-reliant wildlife (such as waterfowl and alligator). Detailed information on the extent and distribution of marsh vegetation zones throughout the Texas coast has been historically unavailable. In response, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation and collaboration with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service via the Gulf Coast Joint Venture, Texas A&M University-Kingsville, the University of Louisiana-Lafayette, and Ducks Unlimited, Inc., has produced a classification of marsh vegetation types along the middle and upper Texas coast from Corpus Christi Bay to the Sabine River. This study incorporates approximately 1,000 ground reference locations collected via helicopter surveys in coastal marsh areas and about 2,000 supplemental locations from fresh marsh, water, and “other” (that is, nonmarsh) areas. About two-thirds of these data were used for training, and about one-third were used for assessing accuracy. Decision-tree analyses using Rulequest See5 were used to classify emergent marsh vegetation types by using these data, multitemporal satellite-based multispectral imagery from 2009 to 2011, a bare-earth digital elevation model (DEM) based on airborne light detection and ranging (lidar), alternative contemporary land cover classifications, and other spatially explicit variables believed to be important for delineating the extent and distribution of marsh vegetation communities. Image objects were generated from segmentation of high-resolution airborne imagery acquired in 2010 and were used to refine the classification. The classification is dated 2010 because the year is both the midpoint of the multitemporal satellite-based imagery (2009–11) classified and the date of the high-resolution airborne imagery that was used to develop image objects. Overall accuracy corrected for bias (accuracy

  18. Sabine Gries: Eigentlich ganz normal? Lesbische Mädchen und Frauen in zeitgenössischer Kinder- und Jugendliteratur. Münster u.a.: LIT Verlag 2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Fritz Heiderich

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In a study based on a broad range of material, Sabine Gries examines the types of images of lesbian girls and women that are transmitted primarily by contemporary children’s and youth advice literature as well as by trendy magazines. The author suggests that old clichés, prejudices, and non-scientific contentions are communicated below the surface of such supposedly educational impulses. The examination can be located in the tradition of text-immanent and socio-historical approaches, though it does not directly say as such, nor does it provide justification for or align the approach with the objects studied; Gender and Queer Studies are not taken into consideration. Moreover, the author’s retelling of content is often too detailed.Sabine Gries geht in ihrer auf einer breiten Materialbasis fußenden Studie der Frage nach, welches Bild von lesbischen Mädchen und Frauen die vornehmlich zeitgenössische Kinder-, Jugend- und Ratgeberliteratur sowie Trendmagazine vermitteln. Unter der Oberfläche eines vermeintlich aufklärerischen Impetus werden der Verfasserin zufolge alte Klischees, Vorurteile und unwissenschaftliche Behauptungen verbreitet. Die Untersuchung steht in der Tradition textimmanenter und sozio-historischer Ansätze, ohne dass selbige expressis verbis reflektiert, begründet und mit der Auswahl der untersuchten Gegenstände abgestimmt würden; Gender- und Queer-Studies finden keine Berücksichtigung. Außerdem geraten Inhaltswiedergaben zum Teil zu ausführlich.

  19. Association of cap-binding protein with eucaryotic initiation factor 3 in initiation factor preparations from uninfected and poliovirus-infected HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, J; Etchison, D; Hershey, J W; Ehrenfeld, E

    1982-04-01

    Extracts from poliovirus-infected HeLa cells are unable to translate vesicular stomatitis virus or cellular mRNAs in vitro, probably reflecting the poliovirus-induced inhibition of host cell protein synthesis which occurs in vivo. Crude initiation factors from uninfected HeLa cells are able to restore translation of vesicular stomatitis virus mRNA in infected cell lysates. This restoring activity separates into the 0 to 40% ammonium sulfate fractional precipitate of ribosomal salt wash. Restoring activity is completely lacking in the analogous fractions prepared from poliovirus-infected cells. The 0 to 40% ammonium sulfate precipitates from both uninfected and infected cells contain eucaryotic initiation factor 3 (eIF-3), eIf-4B, and the cap-binding protein (CBP), which is detected by means of a cross-linking assay, as well as other proteins. The association of eIF-3 and cap binding protein was examined. The 0 to 40% ammonium sulfate precipitate of ribosomal salt wash from uninfected and infected cells was sedimented in sucrose gradients. Each fraction was examined for the presence of eIF-3 antigens by an antibody blot technique and for the presence of the CBP by cross-linking to cap-labeled mRNAs. From uninfected cells, a major proportion of the CBP cosedimented with eIF-3; however, none of the CBP from infected cells sedimented with eIF-3. The results suggest that the association of the CBP with eIF-3 into a functional complex may have been disrupted during the course of poliovirus infection.

  20. Assisted Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in other supported-living environments. Adult Foster Care Foster care homes generally provide room, board, and some help with activities of daily living. This is provided by the sponsoring family or other paid caregivers, who usually live on ...

  1. LIVE ATTENUATED VACCINES FOR THE IMMUNOPROPHYLAXIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Shamsutdinova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The review focuses on the history of the production of live antiviral vaccines and their use for the prevention of infectious diseases. It was noted that before the beginning of the 20th century, only three live vaccines were developed and put into practice — against smallpox, rabies, plague. The discovery of D. Enders, T.H. Weller and F.Ch. Robins of the ability of the polio virus, and then of a number of other viruses, to reproduce in vitro in cell cultures of various types, greatly expanded the studies on the production of attenuated strains of viruses for live vaccines. The historical stages of obtaining and introducing live vaccines for the prevention of smallpox, poliomyelitis, measles, rubella, and mumps are highlighted. Arguments in favor of the use of associated vaccine preparations for the prevention of viral infections are presented. Various variants of the strategy and tactics of using live vaccines, which are used for specific prevention of viral infections in different countries, are described. The review provides information on technological methods for obtaining antiviral vaccines. The publications testifying to the development of specific reactions in immunized vaccine strains of measles, mumps, poliomyelitis and rubella viruses, such as aseptic meningitis (vaccine strains of mumps virus, acute arthritis (vaccine rubella virus strains, temperature reactions, rash (vaccine strains of the virus Measles, vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP vaccine vaccine poliovirus. It is particularly noted that the long experience of vaccine prevention both in Russia and abroad convincingly shows that the risk of developing post-vaccination complications is incommensurably lower than the risk of causing harm to health from the corresponding infections. It is concluded that despite introduction of new third and fourth generation vaccines into practice, live attenuated vaccines do not lose their significance and are used in vaccine

  2. PAPEL DEL LABORATORIO NACIONAL DE POLIOVIRUS EN EL PROGRAMA DE ERRADICACIÖN Y VIGILANCIA DE LA POLIOMIELITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Trallero

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El Laboratorio Nacional de Poliovirus (LNP coordina la Red Española de Vigilancia de Parálisis Flácida Aguda desde 1998 y caracteriza los poliovirus (PV y otros enterovirus detectados, utilizando métodos de cultivo celular y moleculares. Durante 1998-2012 se estudiaron por la Red un total de 110.725 (70.046+40.679 muestras clínicas, resultando positivas para enterovirus 8.804 (8%, entre las que 241 se caracterizaron como PV. La caracterización intratípica demostró que todos los PV eran vacunales excep- to las muestras correspondientes a un caso importado de poliomielitis postvacunal y sus contactos, que fueron caracterizados como PV2 derivado de vacuna. En el LNP se ha realizado el serotipado y la caracterización intratípica de todos los PV aislados en España de cualquier síndrome. Con ello se ha demostrado que el PV salvaje no ha circulado en nuestro país durante los 15 años que recoge este trabajo y eso condujo a la firma del Acta de la “Erradicación de la Poliomielitis en España” por parte de la OMS en 2001 y a la “Certificación de la Erradicación Europea como libre de circulación de PV salvaje”el 21 de junio de 2002 . En la actualidad sólo 3 países presentan transmisión endémica de PV salvaje (Pakistán, Afganistán y Nigeria y hasta que no se haya conseguido la erradicación a nivel mundial, España debe mantener la infraestructura creada en el Plan de Erradicación de la Poliomielitis y continuar con la vigilancia e inmunización. También el Programa de Contención de los PV salvajes en los laboratorios debe seguir en activo para evitar reintroducciones accidentales.

  3. Introduction of inactivated poliovirus vaccine leading into the polio eradication endgame strategic plan; Hangzhou, China, 2010-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Wang, Jun; Liu, Shijun; Du, Jian; Wang, Liang; Gu, Wenwen; Xu, Yuyang; Zuo, Shuyan; Xu, Erping; An, Zhijie

    2017-03-01

    China's Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) has provided 4 doses of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) since the 1970s. Inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) became available in 2010 in Hangzhou as a private-sector, parent-chosen alternative to OPV. In 2015, WHO recommended that countries with all-OPV vaccination schedules introduce at least one dose of IPV, to mitigate risk associated with the withdrawal of type 2 OPV. We analyzed polio vaccine coverage and utilization in Hangzhou to determine patterns of IPV use and the occurrence of vaccine-associated paralytic polio (VAPP) in the various patterns identified. Children born between 2010 and 2014 and registered in Hangzhou's Immunization Information System (HZIIS) were included. VAPP cases were detected through the acute flaccid paralysis surveillance system. We used descriptive epidemiological methods to determine IPV and OPV usage patterns and VAPP occurrence. HZIIS data from 566,894 children were analyzed. Coverage levels of polio vaccine were greater than 92% for each birth cohort. Percentages of children using OPV-only, IPV-only, and IPV/OPV sequential schedules were 70.57%, 27.01% and 2.41%, respectively. IPV-only schedule utilization increased by birth cohort regardless of geographical area or whether the child was locally-born. The highest use of an all-IPV schedule (79.85%) was among urban, locally-born children in the 2014 birth cohort. Five VAPP cases were identified during the study years; all cases occurred following the first polio vaccine dose, which was always OPV for the cases. Type 2 vaccine virus was isolated from 2 VAPP cases, and type 2 and type 3 vaccine virus was isolated from one VAPP case. The incidence of VAPP in the 2010-2014 birth cohorts was 3.76 per 1million doses of OPV. Children in Hangzhou had high polio vaccination coverage. IPV-only schedule use increased by year, and was highest in urban areas among locally-born children. All cases of VAPP were associated with the first dose of OPV

  4. A statistical model of the international spread of wild poliovirus in Africa used to predict and prevent outbreaks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen M O'Reilly

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Outbreaks of poliomyelitis in African countries that were previously free of wild-type poliovirus cost the Global Polio Eradication Initiative US$850 million during 2003-2009, and have limited the ability of the program to focus on endemic countries. A quantitative understanding of the factors that predict the distribution and timing of outbreaks will enable their prevention and facilitate the completion of global eradication.Children with poliomyelitis in Africa from 1 January 2003 to 31 December 2010 were identified through routine surveillance of cases of acute flaccid paralysis, and separate outbreaks associated with importation of wild-type poliovirus were defined using the genetic relatedness of these viruses in the VP1/2A region. Potential explanatory variables were examined for their association with the number, size, and duration of poliomyelitis outbreaks in 6-mo periods using multivariable regression analysis. The predictive ability of 6-mo-ahead forecasts of poliomyelitis outbreaks in each country based on the regression model was assessed. A total of 142 genetically distinct outbreaks of poliomyelitis were recorded in 25 African countries, resulting in 1-228 cases (median of two cases. The estimated number of people arriving from infected countries and <5-y childhood mortality were independently associated with the number of outbreaks. Immunisation coverage based on the reported vaccination history of children with non-polio acute flaccid paralysis was associated with the duration and size of each outbreak, as well as the number of outbreaks. Six-month-ahead forecasts of the number of outbreaks in a country or region changed over time and had a predictive ability of 82%.Outbreaks of poliomyelitis resulted primarily from continued transmission in Nigeria and the poor immunisation status of populations in neighbouring countries. From 1 January 2010 to 30 June 2011, reduced transmission in Nigeria and increased incidence in reinfected

  5. 78 FR 35637 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Modulation of Poliovirus Replicative Fitness by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    .... Technology Infections by intracellular pathogens such as viruses, bacteria and parasites, are cleared in most... administration of whole live attenuated or inactivated microorganisms. Although research has been performed using... that replacement of one or more natural (or native) codons in a pathogen with synonymous non-preferred...

  6. The recent outbreaks and reemergence of poliovirus in war and conflict-affected areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luma Akil

    2016-08-01

    Conclusion: Polio was shown to be high in areas with increased conflict and instability. Displaced populations living in hard-to-reach areas may lack access to proper vaccination and health care. Wars and conflict have also resulted in the reemergence of polio in otherwise polio-free countries.

  7. Anti-poliovirus activity of Baccharis dracunculifolia and propolis by cell viability determination and real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Búfalo, M C; Figueiredo, A S; de Sousa, J P B; Candeias, J M G; Bastos, J K; Sforcin, J M

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the antiviral activities of Baccharis dracunculifolia (extract and essential oil), propolis and some isolated compounds (caffeic and cinnamic acids) against poliovirus type 1 (PV1) replication in HEp-2 cells. Three different protocols (pre-, simultaneous and post-treatments) were used to verify the effect of addition time of the variables on PV1 replication by crystal violet method and relative viral RNA quantification by real-time PCR for analysing in which step of virus replication the variables could interfere. Data revealed that the B. dracunculifolia showed the best antiviral activity percentage in the simultaneous treatment, as well as lower relative viral quantification by real-time PCR. Variables might block partially the viral entry within cells, affect the steps of viral cycle replication into cells, or lead to RNA degradation before the virus entry into cells or after their release to the supernatant. Baccharis dracunculifolia is the most important botanical source of the south-eastern Brazilian propolis, and its potential for the development of new phytotherapeutic medicines has been investigated. Propolis is commonly used for its antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activities. Nevertheless, B. dracunculifolia and propolis effects on PV1 have not been investigated yet.

  8. Intradermal Administration of Fractional Doses of Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine: A Dose-Sparing Option for Polio Immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okayasu, Hiromasa; Sein, Carolyn; Chang Blanc, Diana; Gonzalez, Alejandro Ramirez; Zehrung, Darin; Jarrahian, Courtney; Macklin, Grace; Sutter, Roland W

    2017-07-01

    A fractional dose of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (fIPV) administered by the intradermal route delivers one fifth of the full vaccine dose administered by the intramuscular route and offers a potential dose-sparing strategy to stretch the limited global IPV supply while further improving population immunity. Multiple studies have assessed immunogenicity of intradermal fIPV compared with the full intramuscular dose and demonstrated encouraging results. Novel intradermal devices, including intradermal adapters and disposable-syringe jet injectors, have also been developed and evaluated as alternatives to traditional Bacillus Calmette-Guérin needles and syringes for the administration of fIPV. Initial experience in India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka suggests that it is operationally feasible to implement fIPV vaccination on a large scale. Given the available scientific data and operational feasibility shown in early-adopter countries, countries are encouraged to consider introducing a fIPV strategy into their routine immunization and supplementary immunization activities. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  9. Crystal Structure of Poliovirus 3CD Protein: Virally Encoded Protease and Precursor to the RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcotte,L.; Wass, A.; Gohara, D.; Pathak, H.; Arnold, J.; Filman, D.; Cameron, C.; Hogle, J.

    2007-01-01

    Poliovirus 3CD is a multifunctional protein that serves as a precursor to the protease 3Cpro and the viral polymerase 3Dpol and also plays a role in the control of viral replication. Although 3CD is a fully functional protease, it lacks polymerase activity. We have solved the crystal structures of 3CD at a 3.4- Angstroms resolution and the G64S fidelity mutant of 3Dpol at a 3.0- Angstroms resolution. In the 3CD structure, the 3C and 3D domains are joined by a poorly ordered polypeptide linker, possibly to facilitate its cleavage, in an arrangement that precludes intramolecular proteolysis. The polymerase active site is intact in both the 3CD and the 3Dpol G64S structures, despite the disruption of a network proposed to position key residues in the active site. Therefore, changes in molecular flexibility may be responsible for the differences in fidelity and polymerase activities. Extensive packing contacts between symmetry-related 3CD molecules and the approach of the 3C domain's N terminus to the VPg binding site suggest how 3Dpol makes biologically relevant interactions with the 3C, 3CD, and 3BCD proteins that control the uridylylation of VPg during the initiation of viral replication. Indeed, mutations designed to disrupt these interfaces have pronounced effects on the uridylylation reaction in vitro.

  10. Cryo-Electron Microscopy Reconstruction Shows Poliovirus 135S Particles Poised for Membrane Interaction and RNA Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butan, Carmen; Filman, David J.

    2014-01-01

    During infection, binding of mature poliovirus to cell surface receptors induces an irreversible expansion of the capsid, to form an infectious cell-entry intermediate particle that sediments at 135S. In these expanded virions, the major capsid proteins (VP1 to VP3) adopt an altered icosahedral arrangement to open holes in the capsid at 2-fold and quasi-3-fold axes, and internal polypeptides VP4 and the N terminus of VP1, which can bind membranes, become externalized. Cryo-electron microscopy images for 117,330 particles were collected using Leginon and reconstructed using FREALIGN. Improved rigid-body positioning of major capsid proteins established reliably which polypeptide segments become disordered or rearranged. The virus-to-135S transition includes expansion of 4%, rearrangements of the GH loops of VP3 and VP1, and disordering of C-terminal extensions of VP1 and VP2. The N terminus of VP1 rearranges to become externalized near its quasi-3-fold exit, binds to rearranged GH loops of VP3 and VP1, and attaches to the top surface of VP2. These details improve our understanding of subsequent stages of infection, including endocytosis and RNA transfer into the cytoplasm. PMID:24257617

  11. Crystal Structure of Poliovirus 3CD Protein: Virally Encoded Protease and Precursor to the RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcotte, Laura L.; Wass, Amanda B.; Gohara, David W.; Pathak, Harsh B.; Arnold, Jamie J.; Filman, David J.; Cameron, Craig E.; Hogle, James M.

    2007-01-01

    Poliovirus 3CD is a multifunctional protein that serves as a precursor to the protease 3Cpro and the viral polymerase 3Dpol and also plays a role in the control of viral replication. Although 3CD is a fully functional protease, it lacks polymerase activity. We have solved the crystal structures of 3CD at a 3.4-Å resolution and the G64S fidelity mutant of 3Dpol at a 3.0-Å resolution. In the 3CD structure, the 3C and 3D domains are joined by a poorly ordered polypeptide linker, possibly to facilitate its cleavage, in an arrangement that precludes intramolecular proteolysis. The polymerase active site is intact in both the 3CD and the 3Dpol G64S structures, despite the disruption of a network proposed to position key residues in the active site. Therefore, changes in molecular flexibility may be responsible for the differences in fidelity and polymerase activities. Extensive packing contacts between symmetry-related 3CD molecules and the approach of the 3C domain's N terminus to the VPg binding site suggest how 3Dpol makes biologically relevant interactions with the 3C, 3CD, and 3BCD proteins that control the uridylylation of VPg during the initiation of viral replication. Indeed, mutations designed to disrupt these interfaces have pronounced effects on the uridylylation reaction in vitro. PMID:17251299

  12. Living Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    This book is aimed at anyone who is interested in learning more about living technology, whether coming from business, the government, policy centers, academia, or anywhere else. Its purpose is to help people to learn what living technology is, what it might develop into, and how it might impact...... our lives. The phrase 'living technology' was coined to refer to technology that is alive as well as technology that is useful because it shares the fundamental properties of living systems. In particular, the invention of this phrase was called for to describe the trend of our technology becoming...... increasingly life-like or literally alive. Still, the phrase has different interpretations depending on how one views what life is. This book presents nineteen perspectives on living technology. Taken together, the interviews convey the collective wisdom on living technology's power and promise, as well as its...

  13. Early priming with inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) and intradermal fractional dose IPV administered by a microneedle device: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Abhijeet; Zaman, K; Estívariz, Concepción F; Yunus, Mohammad; Gary, Howard E; Weldon, William C; Bari, Tajul I; Steven Oberste, M; Wassilak, Steven G; Luby, Stephen P; Heffelfinger, James D; Pallansch, Mark A

    2015-11-27

    Inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) introduction and phased oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) cessation are essential for eradication of polio. Healthy 6-week old infants in Bangladesh were randomized to one of five study arms: receipt of trivalent OPV (tOPV) or bivalent OPV (bOPV) at ages 6, 10 and 14 weeks, intramuscular IPV or intradermal one-fifth fractional dose IPV (f-IPV) at ages 6 and 14 weeks, or f-IPV at ages 6 and 14 weeks with bOPV at age 10 weeks (f-IPV/bOPV). All participants received tOPV at age 18 weeks. Of 975 infants randomized, 95% (922) completed follow-up. Type 1 seroconversion after 3 doses at 6, 10 and 14 weeks was higher with bOPV compared with tOPV (99% vs 94%, p=0.019). Seroconversions to types 1 and 3 after 2 IPV doses at ages 6 and 14 weeks were no different than after 3 doses of tOPV or bOPV at ages 6, 10 and 14 weeks. A priming response, seroconversion 1 week after IPV at 14 weeks among those who did not seroconvert after IPV at 6 weeks, was observed against poliovirus types 1, 2 and 3 in 91%, 84% and 97%, respectively. Compared with IPV, f-IPV failed non-inferiority tests for seroconversion with 1 or 2 doses and priming after 1 dose. The findings demonstrate considerable priming with IPV at age 6 weeks, comparable immunogenicity of tOPV and bOPV, and inferior immunogenicity of one-fifth f-IPV compared with IPV. If IPV induced priming at age 6 weeks is similar to that at age 14 weeks, IPV could be administered at a younger age and possibly with a higher coverage. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Quality of Life and Utility in Patients with Metastatic Soft Tissue and Bone Sarcoma: The Sarcoma Treatment and Burden of Illness in North America and Europe (SABINE) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichardt, Peter; Leahy, Michael; Garcia del Muro, Xavier; Ferrari, Stefano; Martin, Javier; Gelderblom, Hans; Wang, Jingshu; Krishna, Arun; Eriksson, Jennifer; Staddon, Arthur; Blay, Jean-Yves

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among metastatic soft tissue (mSTS) or bone sarcoma (mBS) patients who had attained a favourable response to chemotherapy. We employed the EORTC QLQ-C30, the 3-item Cancer-Related Symptoms Questionnaire, and the EQ-5D instrument. HRQoL was evaluated overall and by health state in 120 mSTS/mBS patients enrolled in the SABINE study across nine countries in Europe and North America. Utility was estimated from responses to the EQ-5D instrument using UK population-based weights. The mean EQ-5D utility score was 0.69 for the pooled patient sample with little variation across health states. However, patients with progressive disease reported a clinically significant lower utility (0.56). Among disease symptoms, pain and respiratory symptoms are common. This study showed that mSTS/mBS is associated with reduced HRQoL and utility among patients with metastatic disease. PMID:22550425

  15. Quality of Life and Utility in Patients with Metastatic Soft Tissue and Bone Sarcoma: The Sarcoma Treatment and Burden of Illness in North America and Europe (SABINE Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Reichardt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess health-related quality of life (HRQoL among metastatic soft tissue (mSTS or bone sarcoma (mBS patients who had attained a favourable response to chemotherapy. We employed the EORTC QLQ-C30, the 3-item Cancer-Related Symptoms Questionnaire, and the EQ-5D instrument. HRQoL was evaluated overall and by health state in 120 mSTS/mBS patients enrolled in the SABINE study across nine countries in Europe and North America. Utility was estimated from responses to the EQ-5D instrument using UK population-based weights. The mean EQ-5D utility score was 0.69 for the pooled patient sample with little variation across health states. However, patients with progressive disease reported a clinically significant lower utility (0.56. Among disease symptoms, pain and respiratory symptoms are common. This study showed that mSTS/mBS is associated with reduced HRQoL and utility among patients with metastatic disease.

  16. Interference of Monovalent, Bivalent, and Trivalent Oral Poliovirus Vaccines on Monovalent Rotavirus Vaccine Immunogenicity in Rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emperador, Devy M; Velasquez, Daniel E; Estivariz, Concepcion F; Lopman, Ben; Jiang, Baoming; Parashar, Umesh; Anand, Abhijeet; Zaman, Khalequ

    2016-01-15

    Trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) is known to interfere with monovalent rotavirus vaccine (RV1) immunogenicity. The interference caused by bivalent and monovalent OPV formulations, which will be increasingly used globally in coming years, has not been examined. We conducted a post hoc analysis to assess the effect of coadministration of different OPV formulations on RV1 immunogenicity. Healthy infants in Matlab, Bangladesh, were randomized to receive 3 doses of monovalent OPV type 1 or bivalent OPV types 1 and 3 at either 6, 8, and 10 or 6, 10, and 14 weeks of age or trivalent OPV at 6, 10, and 14 weeks of age. All infants received 2 doses of RV1 at about 6 and 10 weeks of age. Concomitant administration was defined as RV1 and OPV given on the same day; staggered administration as RV1 and OPV given ≥1 day apart. Rotavirus seroconversion was defined as a 4-fold rise in immunoglobulin A titer from before the first RV1 dose to ≥3 weeks after the second RV1 dose. There were no significant differences in baseline RV1 immunogenicity among the 409 infants included in the final analysis. Infants who received RV1 and OPV concomitantly, regardless of OPV formulation, were less likely to seroconvert (47%; 95% confidence interval, 39%-54%) than those who received both vaccines staggered ≥1 day (63%; 57%-70%; P < .001). For staggered administration, we found no evidence that the interval between RV1 and OPV administration affected RV1 immunogenicity. Coadministration of monovalent, bivalent, or trivalent OPV seems to lower RV1 immunogenicity. NCT01633216. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  17. Living lab

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mieke Veerman; Tineke Kingma; Jacqueline van Alphen; Carolien Smits; Jan Jukema

    2017-01-01

    In Zwolle werken studenten en ouderen in co-creatie samen met andere partijen aan het ontwikkelen en implementeren van authentieke leeftijdsvriendelijke diensten. Daartoe heeft de opleiding Toegepaste Gerontologie van Hogeschool Windesheim samen met ouderen een living lab ontwikkeld. Het Living

  18. Population Immunity against Serotype-2 Poliomyelitis Leading up to the Global Withdrawal of the Oral Poliovirus Vaccine: Spatio-temporal Modelling of Surveillance Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Pons-Salort

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Global withdrawal of serotype-2 oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV2 took place in April 2016. This marked a milestone in global polio eradication and was a public health intervention of unprecedented scale, affecting 155 countries. Achieving high levels of serotype-2 population immunity before OPV2 withdrawal was critical to avoid subsequent outbreaks of serotype-2 vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPV2s.In August 2015, we estimated vaccine-induced population immunity against serotype-2 poliomyelitis for 1 January 2004-30 June 2015 and produced forecasts for April 2016 by district in Nigeria and Pakistan. Population immunity was estimated from the vaccination histories of children 70% population immunity among children <36 mo old. Districts with lower immunity were clustered in northeastern Nigeria and northwestern Pakistan. The accuracy of immunity estimates was limited by the small numbers of non-polio AFP cases in some districts, which was reflected by large uncertainty intervals. Forecasted improvements in immunity for April 2016 were robust to the uncertainty in estimates of baseline immunity (January-June 2015, vaccine coverage, and vaccine efficacy.Immunity against serotype-2 poliomyelitis was forecasted to improve in April 2016 compared to the first half of 2015 in Nigeria and Pakistan. These analyses informed the endorsement of OPV2 withdrawal in April 2016 by the WHO Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization.

  19. The Structure of the Poliovirus 135S Cell Entry Intermediate at 10-Angstrom Resolution Reveals the Location of an Externalized Polypeptide That Binds to Membranes†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubeck, Doryen; Filman, David J.; Cheng, Naiqian; Steven, Alasdair C.; Hogle, James M.; Belnap, David M.

    2005-01-01

    Poliovirus provides a well-characterized system for understanding how nonenveloped viruses enter and infect cells. Upon binding its receptor, poliovirus undergoes an irreversible conformational change to the 135S cell entry intermediate. This transition involves shifts of the capsid protein β barrels, accompanied by the externalization of VP4 and the N terminus of VP1. Both polypeptides associate with membranes and are postulated to facilitate entry by forming a translocation pore for the viral RNA. We have calculated cryo-electron microscopic reconstructions of 135S particles that permit accurate placement of the β barrels, loops, and terminal extensions of the capsid proteins. The reconstructions and resulting models indicate that each N terminus of VP1 exits the capsid though an opening in the interface between VP1 and VP3 at the base of the canyon that surrounds the fivefold axis. Comparison with reconstructions of 135S particles in which the first 31 residues of VP1 were proteolytically removed revealed that the externalized N terminus is located near the tips of propeller-like features surrounding the threefold axes rather than at the fivefold axes, as had been proposed in previous models. These observations have forced a reexamination of current models for the role of the 135S particle in transmembrane pore formation and suggest testable alternatives. PMID:15919927

  20. Catching a Virus in the Act of RNA Release: a Novel Poliovirus Uncoating Intermediate Characterized by Cryo-Electron Microscopy▿ §

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Hazel C.; Bostina, Mihnea; Filman, David J.; Hogle, James M.

    2010-01-01

    Poliovirus infection requires that the particle undergo a series of conformational transitions that lead to cell entry and genome release. In an effort to understand the conformational changes associated with the release of the RNA genome, we have used cryo-electron microscopy to characterize the structure of the 80S “empty” particles of poliovirus that are thought to represent the final product of the cell entry pathway. Using two-dimensional classification methods, we show that preparations of 80S particles contain at least two structures, which might represent snapshots from a continuous series of conformers. Using three-dimensional reconstruction methods, we have solved the structure of two distinct forms at subnanometric resolution, and we have built and refined pseudoatomic models into the reconstructions. The reconstructions and the derived models demonstrate that the two structural forms are both slightly expanded, resulting in partial disruption of interprotomer interfaces near their particle 2-fold axes, which may represent the site where RNA is released. The models demonstrate that each of the two 80S structures has undergone a unique set of movements of the capsid proteins, associated with rearrangement of flexible loops and amino-terminal extensions that participate in contacts between protomers, between pentamers, and with the viral RNA. PMID:20181687

  1. Single particle cryoelectron tomography characterization of the structure and structural variability of poliovirus-receptor-membrane complex at 30-Angstroms resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostina, Mihnea; Bubeck, Doryen; Schwartz, Cindi; Nicastro, Daniela; Filman, David J.; Hogle, James M.

    2007-01-01

    As a long-term goal we want to use cryoelectron tomography to understand how non-enveloped viruses, such as picornaviruses, enter cells and translocate their genomes across membranes. To this end, we developed new image-processing tools using an in vitro system to model viral interactions with membranes. The complex of poliovirus with its membrane-bound receptors was reconstructed by averaging multiple sub-tomograms, thereby producing three-dimensional maps of surprisingly high resolution (30Å). Recognizable images of the complex could be produced by averaging as few as 20 copies. Additionally, model-free reconstructions of free poliovirus particles, clearly showing the major surface features, could be calculated from 60 virions. All calculations were designed to avoid artifacts caused by missing information typical for tomographic data (“missing wedge”). To investigate structural and conformational variability we applied a principal component analysis classification to specific regions. We show that the missing wedge causes a bias in classification, and that this bias can be minimized by supplementation with data from the Fourier transform of the averaged structure. After classifying images of the receptor into groups with high similarity, we were able to see differences in receptor density consistent with the known variability in receptor glycosylation. PMID:17897840

  2. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2012-07-16

    Jul 16, 2012 ... Conclusion: This study showed the absence of wild or vaccine-derived poliovirus circulation in the country. However, the detection of three non-polio enteroviruses and one Sabin-like poliovirus with residual paralysis call for continuous surveillance even in the post polio eradication era. Pan African Medical ...

  3. Immunotherapy of metastatic melanoma by reversal of immune suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biggs, M.W.; Eiselein, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    Beginning with the observation that the human enteorvirus, Poliovirus Sabin 1, will lyse human melanoma cells in culture, clinical trials involving two patients with advance melanoma were performed. Parenteral injection of the viable Poliovirus into cutaneous melanoma metastases followed in 24 hours by oral administration of cyclophosphamide. The results of these two trials are described.

  4. Human Enteroviruses isolated during acute flaccid paralysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All 28 isolates from L20B were characterized by rRT-PCR as Sabin-like polioviruses. No wild poliovirus or VDPV was found. However from the microneutralisation assay, six different enteroviruses were characterized. Among these, Coxsackie B viruses were most predominant followed by Echovirus. Three children from ...

  5. Activation of double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase in HeLa cells after poliovirus infection does not result in increased phosphorylation of eucaryotic initiation factor-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransone, L J; Dasgupta, A

    1987-01-01

    Protein kinase activity in general is stimulated at least 5- to 10-fold in ribosomal salt wash preparations from poliovirus-infected HeLa cells compared with those from mock-infected cells. The stimulation of kinase activity is manifested by increased phosphorylation of ribosome-associated polypeptides having approximate molecular weights of 135,000, 120,000, 85,000, 68,000, 65,000, 40,000, 28,000, 25,000, and 21,000. The Mr 68,000 phosphoprotein is structurally identical to the interferon-induced, double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (P1) which phosphorylates the alpha subunit of eucaryotic initiation factor-2 (eIF-2). A similar protein of Mr 68,000 is more phosphorylated in poliovirus-infected cells than in mock-infected cells. Increased phosphorylation of P1 protein in poliovirus-infected cells, however, does not result in an increased phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of endogenous or exogenously added eIF-2, both in vitro and in vivo. These results suggest that a mechanism must exist in poliovirus-infected HeLa cells which prevents further phosphorylation of eIF-2 by the activated kinase. Images PMID:3033310

  6. Atividade antimicrobiana in vitro das folhas de araçá (Psidium cattleianum Sabine contra micro-organismos da mucosa oral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Queiroz ALVARENGA

    Full Text Available Resumo Introdução A espécie Psidium cattleianum Sabine tem despertado o interesse dos pesquisadores por apresentar, além de atividade cicatrizante, analgésica e antioxidante, propriedades antimicrobianas frente a micro-organismos da mucosa oral que podem atuar como agentes cariogênicos. Objetivo Foi avaliada, neste trabalho, a atividade antimicrobiana de extratos bruto e fracionados das folhas do araçá, além do seu perfil cromatográfico. Material e método Para avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana, foi utilizada a técnica de microdiluição, para determinação da Concentração Inibitória Mínima (CIM, e repique do inóculo em Ágar Muller Hinton (Himedia, para averiguação da Concentração Bactericida Mínima (CBM. O extrato foi testado nas concentrações entre 10 e 500 µg/mL. O perfil cromatográfico foi realizado pelo método de Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Eficiência (CLAE. Resultado Os resultados obtidos foram submetidos a uma análise descritiva e foi possível observar a atividade inibitória dos extratos do P. cattleianum contra S. mutans e S. oralis. Conclusão A atividade antimicrobiana dos extratos de P. cattleianum contra micro-organismos orais justifica maiores estudos para a utilização medicinal dessa espécie, como, por exemplo, sua utilização em enxaguantes bucais.

  7. Receptors for hyaluronic acid and poliovirus: a combinatorial role in glioma invasion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaynah Maherally

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: CD44 has long been associated with glioma invasion while, more recently, CD155 has been implicated in playing a similar role. Notably, these two receptors have been shown closely positioned on monocytes. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In this study, an up-regulation of CD44 and CD155 was demonstrated in established and early-passage cultures of glioblastoma. Total internal reflected fluorescence (TIRF microscopy revealed close proximity of CD44 and CD155. CD44 antibody blocking and gene silencing (via siRNA resulted in greater inhibition of invasion than that for CD155. Combined interference resulted in 86% inhibition of invasion, although in these investigations no obvious evidence of synergy between CD44 and CD155 in curbing invasion was shown. Both siRNA-CD44 and siRNA-CD155 treated cells lacked processes and were rounder, while live cell imaging showed reduced motility rate compared to wild type cells. Adhesion assay demonstrated that wild type cells adhered most efficiently to laminin, whereas siRNA-treated cells (p<0.0001 for both CD44 and CD155 expression showed decreased adhesion on several ECMs investigated. BrdU assay showed a higher proliferation of siRNA-CD44 and siRNA-CD155 cells, inversely correlated with reduced invasion. Confocal microscopy revealed overlapping of CD155 and integrins (β(1, α(vβ(1 and α(vβ(3 on glioblastoma cell processes whereas siRNA-transfected cells showed consequent reduction in integrin expression with no specific staining patterns. Reduced expression of Rho GTPases, Cdc42, Rac1/2/3, RhoA and RhoB, was seen in siRNA-CD44 and siRNA-CD155 cells. In contrast to CD44-knockdown and 'double'-knockdown cells, no obvious decrease in RhoC expression was observed in CD155-knockdown cells. CONCLUSIONS: This investigation has enhanced our understanding of cell invasion and confirmed CD44 to play a more significant role in this biological process than CD155. Joint CD44/CD155 approaches may, however, merit further

  8. Live Well

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... status, healthy eating is good for your overall health. If you are living with HIV, following a healthy diet offers several benefits. Physical Activity - Exercise offers benefits that can help you maintain ...

  9. Healthy Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... changes to your lifestyle. By taking steps toward healthy living, you can help reduce your risk of ... Get the screening tests you need Maintain a healthy weight Eat a variety of healthy foods, and ...

  10. Vial usage, device dead space, vaccine wastage, and dose accuracy of intradermal delivery devices for inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrahian, Courtney; Rein-Weston, Annie; Saxon, Gene; Creelman, Ben; Kachmarik, Greg; Anand, Abhijeet; Zehrung, Darin

    2017-03-27

    Intradermal delivery of a fractional dose of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) offers potential benefits compared to intramuscular (IM) delivery, including possible cost reductions and easing of IPV supply shortages. Objectives of this study were to assess intradermal delivery devices for dead space, wastage generated by the filling process, dose accuracy, and total number of doses that can be delivered per vial. Devices tested included syringes with staked (fixed) needles (autodisable syringes and syringes used with intradermal adapters), a luer-slip needle and syringe, a mini-needle syringe, a hollow microneedle device, and disposable-syringe jet injectors with their associated filling adapters. Each device was used to withdraw 0.1-mL fractional doses from single-dose IM glass vials which were then ejected into a beaker. Both vial and device were weighed before and after filling and again after expulsion of liquid to record change in volume at each stage of the process. Data were used to calculate the number of doses that could potentially be obtained from multidose vials. Results show wide variability in dead space, dose accuracy, overall wastage, and total number of doses that can be obtained per vial among intradermal delivery devices. Syringes with staked needles had relatively low dead space and low overall wastage, and could achieve a greater number of doses per vial compared to syringes with a detachable luer-slip needle. Of the disposable-syringe jet injectors tested, one was comparable to syringes with staked needles. If intradermal delivery of IPV is introduced, selection of an intradermal delivery device can have a substantial impact on vaccine wasted during administration, and thus on the required quantity of vaccine that needs to be purchased. An ideal intradermal delivery device should be not only safe, reliable, accurate, and acceptable to users and vaccine recipients, but should also have low dead space, high dose accuracy, and low overall

  11. Lived Lives: A Pavee Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Kevin M; McGuinness, Seamus G; Cleary, Eimear; Jefferies, Janis; Owens, Christabel; Kelleher, Cecily C

    2017-04-13

    Background: Suicide is a significant public health concern, which impacts on health outcomes. Few suicide research studies have been interdisciplinary. We combined a psychobiographical autopsy with a visual arts autopsy, in which families donated stories, images and objects associated with the lived life of a loved one lost to suicide. From this interdisciplinary research platform, a mediated exhibition was created ( Lived Lives ) with artist, scientist and families, co-curated by communities, facilitating dialogue, response and public action around suicide prevention. Indigenous ethnic minorities (IEMs) bear a significant increased risk for suicide. Irish Travellers are an IEM with social and cultural parallels with IEMs internationally, experiencing racism, discrimination, and poor health outcomes including elevated suicide rates (SMR 6.6). Methods: An adjusted Lived Lives exhibition, Lived Lives: A Pavee Perspective manifested in Pavee Point, the national Traveller and Roma Centre. The project was evaluated by the Travelling Community as to how it related to suicide in their community, how it has shaped their understanding of suicide and its impacts, and its relevance to other socio-cultural contexts, nationally and internationally. The project also obtained feedback from all relevant stakeholders. Evaluation was carried out by an international visual arts research advisor and an independent observer from the field of suicide research. Results: Outputs included an arts-science mediated exhibition with reference to elevated Irish Traveller suicide rates. Digital online learning materials about suicide and its aftermath among Irish Travellers were also produced. The project reached its target audience, with a high level of engagement from members of the Travelling Community. Discussion: The Lived Lives methodology navigated the societal barriers of stigma and silence to foster communication and engagement, working with cultural values, consistent with an adapted

  12. Coverage estimates and patterns of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) use prior to and during the polio eradication endgame, Jinan City, China, 2010–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Caiyun; Zhang, Ji; Zhou, Jingwen; Cao, Ruoming; Song, Kaijun; Liu, Chong; Zhang, Xianhui; Geng, Xingyi; Liu, Xiaoxue; Li, Chuanbin

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Use of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) in Jinan during the polio eradication endgame has not been previously documented. Two IPV-containing vaccines were made available as an option for Jinan parents in 2009. We describe coverage levels and patterns of use of IPV over time using data from the Jinan Childhood Immunization Information Management System (JNCIIMS). Methods: Children born between January 2010 and December 2014 who were registered in JNCIIMS were included in this study. Vaccination records were obtained from JNCIIMS on April 30, 2015. JNCIIMS distinguishes among available poliovirus vaccines; doses administered data were used to describe IPV usage over time. We identified the polio vaccination sequences used by children in the 2012 and 2013 birth cohorts. Coverage estimates were analyzed by birth cohort and migration status. We developed 3 categories for analysis: “resident child,” “migrant child” and “other child” according to migration status. Results: In total, 12,354 (11.7%) IPV, 5,893(5.6%) DTP-IPV-Hib vaccine and 87,054(82.7%) OPV doses were administered to children in the 2010 to 2014 birth cohorts. The proportion of children using an IPV-only schedule increased each year, consistent with the introduction of IPV that is called for by the Polio Eradication Endgame Strategic Plan 2013–2018. During this time, 4.7% children used a schedule containing both IPV and oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). In the 2012 to 2013 birth cohorts, 14.4% children used an IPV-only schedule; 5.7% children used a sequential schedule, and 79.9% used OPV-only schedule. Use of IPV only schedules was higher among migrant children than among resident children. Among those sequential schedule using both IPV and OPV, 87.2% children used IPV for the first dose and 12.8% used OPV for the first dose. Conclusions: JNCIIMS provided a mechanism for tracking IPV and OPV vaccination patterns, and showed areas in need of improvement. Ensuring

  13. Coverage estimates and patterns of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) use prior to and during the polio eradication endgame, Jinan City, China, 2010-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Caiyun; Zhang, Ji; Zhou, Jingwen; Cao, Ruoming; Song, Kaijun; Liu, Chong; Zhang, Xianhui; Geng, Xingyi; Liu, Xiaoxue; Li, Chuanbin

    2016-11-01

    Use of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) in Jinan during the polio eradication endgame has not been previously documented. Two IPV-containing vaccines were made available as an option for Jinan parents in 2009. We describe coverage levels and patterns of use of IPV over time using data from the Jinan Childhood Immunization Information Management System (JNCIIMS). Children born between January 2010 and December 2014 who were registered in JNCIIMS were included in this study. Vaccination records were obtained from JNCIIMS on April 30, 2015. JNCIIMS distinguishes among available poliovirus vaccines; doses administered data were used to describe IPV usage over time. We identified the polio vaccination sequences used by children in the 2012 and 2013 birth cohorts. Coverage estimates were analyzed by birth cohort and migration status. We developed 3 categories for analysis: "resident child," "migrant child" and "other child" according to migration status. In total, 12,354 (11.7%) IPV, 5,893(5.6%) DTP-IPV-Hib vaccine and 87,054(82.7%) OPV doses were administered to children in the 2010 to 2014 birth cohorts. The proportion of children using an IPV-only schedule increased each year, consistent with the introduction of IPV that is called for by the Polio Eradication Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-2018. During this time, 4.7% children used a schedule containing both IPV and oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). In the 2012 to 2013 birth cohorts, 14.4% children used an IPV-only schedule; 5.7% children used a sequential schedule, and 79.9% used OPV-only schedule. Use of IPV only schedules was higher among migrant children than among resident children. Among those sequential schedule using both IPV and OPV, 87.2% children used IPV for the first dose and 12.8% used OPV for the first dose. JNCIIMS provided a mechanism for tracking IPV and OPV vaccination patterns, and showed areas in need of improvement. Ensuring appropriately sequenced IPV and OPV supports reduction of risk of vaccine

  14. Countryside Live!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Andrew; Richardson, Gary

    2006-01-01

    The "Countryside Live!" events, organised by the Countryside Foundation for Education (CFE), provide a unique opportunity for urban children to explore a whole new area of possibilities and learning, through becoming aware at first-hand of what goes on in the countryside. The event at Staunton Country Park, Havant, Hampshire, which took…

  15. Inhibition of translation in cells infected with a poliovirus 2Apro mutant correlates with phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of eucaryotic initiation factor 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, R E; Racaniello, V R

    1989-01-01

    A poliovirus type 2 Lansing mutant was constructed by inserting 6 base pairs into the 2Apro region of an infectious cDNA clone, resulting in the addition of a leucine and threonine into the polypeptide sequence. The resulting small-plaque mutant, 2A-2, had a reduced viral yield in HeLa cells and synthesized viral proteins inefficiently. Infection with the mutant did not lead to specific inhibition of host cell protein synthesis early in infection, and this defect was attributed to a failure to induce cleavage of the cap-binding complex protein p220. At late times after infection with the mutant virus, both cellular and viral protein syntheses were severely inhibited. To explain this global inhibition of protein synthesis, the phosphorylation state of the alpha subunit of eucaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF-2 alpha) was examined. eIF-2 alpha was phosphorylated in both R2-2A-2- and wild-type-virus-infected cells, indicating that poliovirus does not encode a function that blocks phosphorylation of eIF-2 alpha. The kinetics and extent of eIF-2 alpha phosphorylation correlated with the production of double-stranded RNA in infected cells, suggesting that eIF-2 alpha is phosphorylated by P1/eIF-2 alpha kinase. When HeLa cells were infected with R2-2A-2 in the presence of 2-aminopurine, a protein kinase inhibitor, much higher virus titers were produced, cleavage of p220 occurred, and host cell protein synthesis was specifically inhibited. Since phosphorylation of eIF-2 alpha was not inhibited by 2-aminopurine, we propose that 2-aminopurine rescues the ability of R2-2A-2 to induce cleavage of p220 by inhibition of a second as yet unidentified kinase. Images PMID:2555543

  16. Risk of febrile seizures and epilepsy after vaccination with diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, inactivated poliovirus, and Haemophilus influenzae type B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuelian; Christensen, Jakob; Hviid, Anders; Li, Jiong; Vedsted, Peter; Olsen, Jørn; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2012-02-22

    Vaccination with whole-cell pertussis vaccine carries an increased risk of febrile seizures, but whether this risk applies to the acellular pertussis vaccine is not known. In Denmark, acellular pertussis vaccine has been included in the combined diphtheria-tetanus toxoids-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus-Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTaP-IPV-Hib) vaccine since September 2002. To estimate the risk of febrile seizures and epilepsy after DTaP-IPV-Hib vaccination given at 3, 5, and 12 months. A population-based cohort study of 378,834 children who were born in Denmark between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2008, and followed up through December 31, 2009; and a self-controlled case series (SCCS) study based on children with febrile seizures during follow-up of the cohort. Hazard ratio (HR) of febrile seizures within 0 to 7 days (0, 1-3, and 4-7 days) after each vaccination and HR of epilepsy after first vaccination in the cohort study. Relative incidence of febrile seizures within 0 to 7 days (0, 1-3, and 4-7 days) after each vaccination in the SCCS study. A total of 7811 children were diagnosed with febrile seizures before 18 months, of whom 17 were diagnosed within 0 to 7 days after the first (incidence rate, 0.8 per 100,000 person-days), 32 children after the second (1.3 per 100,000 person-days), and 201 children after the third (8.5 per 100,000 person-days) vaccinations. Overall, children did not have higher risks of febrile seizures during the 0 to 7 days after the 3 vaccinations vs a reference cohort of children who were not within 0 to 7 days of vaccination. However, a higher risk of febrile seizures was found on the day of the first (HR, 6.02; 95% CI, 2.86-12.65) and on the day of the second (HR, 3.94; 95% CI, 2.18-7.10), but not on the day of the third vaccination (HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.73-1.57) vs the reference cohort. On the day of vaccination, 9 children were diagnosed with febrile seizures after the first (5.5 per 100,000 person-days), 12

  17. Safety and immunogenicity of inactivated poliovirus vaccine when given with measles-rubella combined vaccine and yellow fever vaccine and when given via different administration routes: a phase 4, randomised, non-inferiority trial in The Gambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Ed; Saidu, Yauba; Adetifa, Jane U; Adigweme, Ikechukwu; Hydara, Mariama Badjie; Bashorun, Adedapo O; Moneke-Anyanwoke, Ngozi; Umesi, Ama; Roberts, Elishia; Cham, Pa Modou; Okoye, Michael E; Brown, Kevin E; Niedrig, Matthias; Chowdhury, Panchali Roy; Clemens, Ralf; Bandyopadhyay, Ananda S; Mueller, Jenny; Jeffries, David J; Kampmann, Beate

    2016-08-01

    The introduction of the inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) represents a crucial step in the polio eradication endgame. This trial examined the safety and immunogenicity of IPV given alongside the measles-rubella and yellow fever vaccines at 9 months and when given as a full or fractional dose using needle and syringe or disposable-syringe jet injector. We did a phase 4, randomised, non-inferiority trial at three periurban government clinics in west Gambia. Infants aged 9-10 months who had already received oral poliovirus vaccine were randomly assigned to receive the IPV, measles-rubella, and yellow fever vaccines, singularly or in combination. Separately, IPV was given as a full intramuscular or fractional intradermal dose by needle and syringe or disposable-syringe jet injector at a second visit. The primary outcomes were seroprevalence rates for poliovirus 4-6 weeks post-vaccination and the rate of seroconversion between baseline and post-vaccination serum samples for measles, rubella, and yellow fever; and the post-vaccination antibody titres generated against each component of the vaccines. We did a per-protocol analysis with a non-inferiority margin of 10% for poliovirus seroprevalence and measles, rubella, and yellow fever seroconversion, and (1/3) log2 for log2-transformed antibody titres. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01847872. Between July 10, 2013, and May 8, 2014, we assessed 1662 infants for eligibility, of whom 1504 were enrolled into one of seven groups for vaccine interference and one of four groups for fractional dosing and alternative route of administration. The rubella and yellow fever antibody titres were reduced by co-administration but the seroconversion rates achieved non-inferiority in both cases (rubella, -4·5% [95% CI -9·5 to -0·1]; yellow fever, 1·2% [-2·9 to 5·5]). Measles and poliovirus responses were unaffected (measles, 6·8% [95% CI -1·4 to 14·9]; poliovirus serotype 1, 1·6% [-6·7 to 4·7

  18. Insufficient Living

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Trine Bernholdt; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe; Moons, Philip

    2015-01-01

    AND METHODS:: Within a phenomenological-hermeneutical framework, a qualitative interview study was conducted that included 6 men and 5 women (aged 29-86 years). Patients were interviewed 3 to 6 months after discharge. Analysis consisted of 3 levels: naive reading, structured analysis, and critical...... interpretation and discussion. FINDINGS:: The overall concept that emerged was "Insufficient Living." Patients all experienced a life after illness, which was perceived as insufficient. The overall concept can be interpreted in terms of the following 3 themes. The first was "an altered life," where participants...

  19. Género y participación de las mujeres en la gestión del agua en las subcuencas Río Sabinal y Cañón del Sumidero, Berriozábal, Chiapas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Gutiérrez Villalpando

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio presenta un enfoque de género sobre participación feme - nina en comités comunitarios de gestión del agua en las subcuencas Río Sabinal y Cañón del Sumidero en Berriozábal, Chiapas. Se encon - tró que la división entre lo público-masculino y lo privado-femenino, limita la participación femenina, siendo ésta posible sólo cuando las actividades en los comités de agua son consideradas de bajo prestigio entre los hombres. A pesar de ello, se plantea que la gestión del agua por las mujeres es una posibilidad para lograr una verdadera equidad de género, así como un desarrollo sustentable en las localidades.

  20. Executing Liveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soon, Winnie

    2018-01-01

    -actions this thesis examines the complexity of our current computational environment as evident in the increasing use of data queries, the instantaneous transmission of data streams and the seamless running of automated agents. By drawing together the methods of reflexive practice, close reading, iterative trials...... implications of the reading, writing, running and execution of code, which I refer to as ‘reflexive coding practice.’ This methodology provides an applied approach to computational processes, invisible architectures and a means to reflect on cultural issues through experimentation and practice. A materialist...... scales. The analysis and discussion contributes to a widening of critical attention to software (art) studies primarily in terms of its distinct focus on the live dimension of code. Furthermore, it expands the debate in media and performance studies, providing technical description and analysis...

  1. Living Lands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Suna Møller

    2015-01-01

    , hunters attended to questions like safe-journeying on ice or the role of natural surroundings in children’s education, in ways revealing a relational perception of ‘nature’ and dissolving culture-nature dualisms. Hunters’ experiences in living the land afforded children a dwelling position from which......In this presentation I draw on fieldtrips on dog sledge in Northern Greenland in 2012 and fieldtrips among caribou hunters in West Greenland in 2010 and 2012. I carried out fieldtrips through snow and ice to explore how these landscapes play a role in the life of modern Greenlanders. Fieldtrips...... to grow with the features of the land. Framed this way, ‘nature’ was regarded as part of the social world. I suggest that learning among Arctic hunters is social and twofold. First, we can learn how human-environment relations influence individual life trajectories. Secondly, ‘nature’ as part...

  2. Sabine National Wildlife Refuge 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Terracing uses existing bottom sediments to form terraces or ridges at marsh elevation and the intertidal zone is planted with marsh vegetation. This study examined...

  3. ISS Live!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Jennifer; Harris, Philip; Hochstetler, Bruce; Guerra, Mark; Mendez, Israel; Healy, Matthew; Khan, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    International Space Station Live! (ISSLive!) is a Web application that uses a proprietary commercial technology called Lightstreamer to push data across the Internet using the standard http port (port 80). ISSLive! uses the push technology to display real-time telemetry and mission timeline data from the space station in any common Web browser or Internet- enabled mobile device. ISSLive! is designed to fill a unique niche in the education and outreach areas by providing access to real-time space station data without a physical presence in the mission control center. The technology conforms to Internet standards, supports the throughput needed for real-time space station data, and is flexible enough to work on a large number of Internet-enabled devices. ISSLive! consists of two custom components: (1) a series of data adapters that resides server-side in the mission control center at Johnson Space Center, and (2) a set of public html that renders the data pushed from the data adapters. A third component, the Lightstreamer server, is commercially available from a third party and acts as an intermediary between custom components (1) and (2). Lightstreamer also provides proprietary software libraries that are required to use the custom components. At the time of this reporting, this is the first usage of Web-based, push streaming technology in the aerospace industry.

  4. Replication of echo virus type 25 JV-4 reference strain and wild type strains in MRC5 cells compared with that of poliovirus type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailly, J L; Chambon, M; Peigue-Lafeuille, H; Charbonné, F

    1994-01-01

    In echo virus type 25/JV-4 the shut off of host cell protein synthesis took significantly longer and the kinetics of the synthesis of viral proteins and viral RNA occurred much later than in the poliovirus. However, these characteristics impaired neither polyprotein processing nor virus production in the JV-4 strain. In contrast the two wild strains M.1262 and Th.222 had a lower virus yield than strain JV-4. The presence of a high Mr protein in the pattern of viral proteins of wild strains suggested that a defect in the polyprotein processing was responsible for the decreased virus yield. The infectious cycle of strain Th.222 differed from that of strains JV-4 and M.1262 in the rapid inhibition of host cell translation and the extent of viral protein synthesis. The sensitivity to actinomycin D was also investigated. Strain M.1262 was found to be insensitive. The virus yield of strains JV-4 and Th.222 was three- and fourfold lower respectively in the presence of actinomycin D. This sensitivity to the antibiotic was observed during viral RNA synthesis in strain JV-4 and during viral protein synthesis in strain Th.222. These results suggest that cellular factors are involved in the replication of echo virus type 25 strains in MRC5 cells.

  5. Living with Parkinson's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are here Home › Living With Parkinson's Living With Parkinson's While living with Parkinson's can be challenging, there ... life and live well with Parkinson's disease. Managing Parkinson's Read More In Your Area Read More Resources & ...

  6. Living with your ileostomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abdominal pouch - living with; End ileostomy - living with; Ostomy - living with; Crohn's disease - living with; Inflammatory bowel ... about it on their own. Attend a local ostomy support group if there is one in your ...

  7. Living Nanomachines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlier, M.-F.; Helfer, E.; Wade, R.; Haraux, F.

    The living cell is a kind of factory on the microscopic scale, in which an assembly of modular machines carries out, in a spatially and temporally coordinated way, a whole range of activities internal to the cell, including the synthesis of substances essential to its survival, intracellular traffic, waste disposal, and cell division, but also activities related to intercellular communication and exchanges with the outside world, i.e., the ability of the cell to change shape, to move within a tissue, or to organise its own defence against attack by pathogens, injury, and so on. These nanomachines are made up of macromolecular assemblies with varying degrees of complexity, forged by evolution, within which work is done as a result of changes in interactions between proteins, or between proteins and nucleic acids, or between proteins and membrane components. All these cell components measure a few nanometers across, so the mechanical activity of these nanomachines all happens on the nanometric scale. The directional nature of the work carried out by biological nanomachines is associated with a dissipation of energy. As examples of protein assemblies, one could mention the proteasome, which is responsible for the degradation of proteins, and linear molecular motors such as actomyosin, responsible for muscle contraction, the dynein-microtubule system, responsible for flagellar motility, and the kinesin-microtubule system, responsible for transport of vesicles, which transform chemical energy into motion. Nucleic acid-protein assemblies include the ribosome, responsible for synthesising proteins, polymerases, helicases, elongation factors, and the machinery of DNA replication and repair; the mitotic spindle is an integrated system involving several of these activities which drive chromosome segregation. The machinery coupling membranes and proteins includes systems involved in the energy metabolism, such as the ATP synthase rotary motor, signalling cascades, endocytosis

  8. Preparation for global introduction of inactivated poliovirus vaccine: safety evidence from the US Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System, 2000-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Shahed; Shi, Jing; Seib, Katherine; Lewis, Paige; Moro, Pedro L; Woo, Emily J; Shimabukuro, Tom; Orenstein, Walter A

    2015-10-01

    Safety data from countries with experience in the use of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) are important for the global polio eradication strategy to introduce IPV into the immunisation schedules of all countries. In the USA, IPV has been included in the routine immunisation schedule since 1997. We aimed to analyse adverse events after IPV administration reported to the US Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS). We analysed all VAERS data associated with IPV submitted between Jan 1, 2000, and Dec 31, 2012, either as individual or as combination vaccines, for all age and sex groups. We analysed the number and event type (non-serious, non-fatal serious, and death reports) of individual reports, and explored the most commonly coded event terms to describe the adverse event. We classified death reports according to previously published body-system categories (respiratory, cardiovascular, neurological, gastrointestinal, other infectious, and other non-infectious) and reviewed death reports to identify the cause of death. We classified sudden infant death syndrome as a separate cause of death considering previous concerns about sudden infant syndrome after vaccines. We used empirical Bayesian data mining methods to identify disproportionate reporting of adverse events for IPV compared with other vaccines. Additional VAERS data from 1991 to 2000 were analysed to compare the safety profiles of IPV and oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). Of the 41,792 adverse event reports submitted, 39,568 (95%) were for children younger than 7 years. 38,381 of the reports for children in this age group (97%) were for simultaneous vaccination with IPV and other vaccines (most commonly pneumococcal and acellular pertussis vaccines), whereas standalone IPV vaccines accounted for 0·5% of all reports. 34,880 reports were for non-serious events (88%), 3905 reports were for non-fatal serious events (10%), and 783 reports were death reports (2%). Injection-site erythema was the most

  9. Alternative inactivated poliovirus vaccines adjuvanted with Quillaja brasiliensis or Quil-a saponins are equally effective in inducing specific immune responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda de Costa

    Full Text Available Inactivated polio vaccines (IPV have an important role at the final stages of poliomyelitis eradication programs, reducing the risks associated with the use of attenuated polio vaccine (OPV. An affordable option to enhance vaccine immunogenicity and reduce costs of IPV may be the use of an effective and renewable adjuvant. In the present study, the adjuvant activity of aqueous extract (AE and saponin fraction QB-90 from Quillaja brasiliensis using poliovirus antigen as model were analyzed and compared to a preparation adjuvanted with Quil-A, a well-known saponin-based commercial adjuvant. Experimental vaccines were prepared with viral antigen plus saline (control, Quil-A (50 µg, AE (400 µg or QB-90 (50 µg. Sera from inoculated mice were collected at days 0, 28, 42 and 56 post-inoculation of the first dose of vaccine. Serum levels of specific IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a were significantly enhanced by AE, QB-90 and Quil-A compared to control group on day 56. The magnitude of enhancement was statistically equivalent for QB-90 and Quil-A. The cellular response was evaluated through DTH and analysis of IFN-γ and IL-2 mRNA levels using in vitro reestimulated splenocytes. Results indicated that AE and QB-90 were capable of stimulating the generation of Th1 cells against the administered antigen to the same extent as Quil-A. Mucosal immune response was enhanced by the vaccine adjuvanted with QB-90 as demonstrated by increases of specific IgA titers in bile, feces and vaginal washings, yielding comparable or higher titers than Quil-A. The results obtained indicate that saponins from Q. brasiliensis are potent adjuvants of specific cellular and humoral immune responses and represent a viable option to Quil-A.

  10. Role and mechanism of the maturation cleavage of VP0 in poliovirus assembly: structure of the empty capsid assembly intermediate at 2.9 A resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basavappa, R.; Syed, R.; Flore, O.; Icenogle, J. P.; Filman, D. J.; Hogle, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    The crystal structure of the P1/Mahoney poliovirus empty capsid has been determined at 2.9 A resolution. The empty capsids differ from mature virions in that they lack the viral RNA and have yet to undergo a stabilizing maturation cleavage of VP0 to yield the mature capsid proteins VP4 and VP2. The outer surface and the bulk of the protein shell are very similar to those of the mature virion. The major differences between the 2 structures are focused in a network formed by the N-terminal extensions of the capsid proteins on the inner surface of the shell. In the empty capsids, the entire N-terminal extension of VP1, as well as portions corresponding to VP4 and the N-terminal extension of VP2, are disordered, and many stabilizing interactions that are present in the mature virion are missing. In the empty capsid, the VP0 scissile bond is located some 20 A away from the positions in the mature virion of the termini generated by VP0 cleavage. The scissile bond is located on the rim of a trefoil-shaped depression in the inner surface of the shell that is highly reminiscent of an RNA binding site in bean pod mottle virus. The structure suggests plausible (and ultimately testable) models for the initiation of encapsidation, for the RNA-dependent autocatalytic cleavage of VP0, and for the role of the cleavage in establishing the ordered N-terminal network and in generating stable virions. PMID:7849583

  11. I Live with Psoriasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Living with Psoriasis I Live with Psoriasis Past Issues / Fall 2013 Table of ... courtesy of Stephen Voss/ National Psoriasis Foundation "I live with the disease," she says, cautious about being ...

  12. Activities of Daily Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... With Parkinson's › Managing Parkinson's › Activities of Daily Living Activities of Daily Living Sometimes Parkinson’s disease (PD) can complicate the basic daily activities a person with living with Parkinson’s once did ...

  13. Living Gluten Free

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Celiac Disease Living Gluten Free Past Issues / Spring 2015 Table of Contents ... Learning to Live Well with Celiac Disease / Living Gluten-Free Spring 2015 Issue: Volume 10 Number 1 ...

  14. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and public health professionals. More > Hand Hygiene Saves Lives (5:10) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Hand Hygiene Saves Lives Hand Hygiene Saves Lives Transcript [28 KB, 2 pages] High resolution [22. ...

  15. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and public health professionals. More > Hand Hygiene Saves Lives (5:10) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Hand Hygiene Saves Lives Hand Hygiene Saves Lives Transcript [28 KB, 2 pages] High resolution [22. ...

  16. Allergy, living and learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chivato, T; Valovirta, E; Dahl, R

    2012-01-01

    Allergy Living and Learning (ALL) is a European initiative designed to increase knowledge and understanding of people living with allergies in order to improve respiratory allergy care.......Allergy Living and Learning (ALL) is a European initiative designed to increase knowledge and understanding of people living with allergies in order to improve respiratory allergy care....

  17. Results of a study of the reactogenic and immunogenic properties of live anti-poliomyelitis vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SMORODINTSEV, A A; DAVIDENKOVA, E F; DROBYSHEVSKA YA, A I; ILYENKO, V I; GOREV, N E; KURNOSOVA, L M; KLYUCHAREVA, T E

    1959-01-01

    The authors have studied the harmlessness and immunogenic properties of live poliomyelitis vaccine made in Leningrad from Sabin strains of low pathogenicity for monkeys. More than 20 000 children of pre-school (6 months to 3 years) and school age (7-14 years) were each given 100 000 tissue-culture infective doses of virus of types 1, 2 and 3, injected either in three stages at monthly intervals in the form of monovaccines, or in two stages, a monovaccine of type 1 being followed after a month's interval by injection of a divalent vaccine of types 2 and 3. The vaccination caused no symptoms of lesions of the central nervous system or other organs. In the blood of the inoculated children there was a regular build-up of virus-neutralizing antibodies to the serotypes mentioned, the intensity of which depended on the antibody level before vaccination and was in a constant relationship to the multiplication of the virus in the intestinal canal. The antibody titre was maintained at high levels for 6-9 months after immunization and fell a little after 12-18 months. The vaccinal virus is easily transferred from vaccinated children to contact groups, which are gradually vaccinated by this natural means.Lengthy and numerous passages of vaccinal strains through the intestinal canal of normal, susceptible children showed that strains may periodically appear which have a higher neurotropic activity for monkeys. This activity, however, did not increase in subsequent passage and returned to the initial level.

  18. A randomized, dose-ranging assessment of the immunogenicity and safety of a booster dose of a combined diphtheria-tetanus-whole cell pertussis-hepatitis B-inactivated poliovirus-Hemophilus influenzae type b (DTPw-HBV-IPV/Hib) vaccine vs. co-administration of DTPw-HBV/Hib and IPV vaccines in 12 to 24 months old Filipino toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiambao, Beatriz; Van Der Meeren, Olivier; Kolhe, Devayani; Gatchalian, Salvacion

    2012-03-01

    As progress toward global poliovirus eradication continues, more and more countries are moving away from use of oral poliovirus vaccines (OPV) to inactivated poliovirus vaccines (IPV) in national vaccination schedules. Reduction of antigen dose in IPV could increase manufacturing capacity and facilitate the change from OPV to IPV. Combination vaccines reduce the number of injections required to complete vaccination, thus playing an important role in maintaining high vaccine coverage with good public acceptability. Three formulations of a combined, candidate hexavalent diphtheria-tetanus-whole cell pertussis-hepatitis B-inactivated poliovirus-Hemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine (DTPw-HBV-IPV/Hib, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals) differing only in IPV antigen content (full-dose, half-dose and one-third dose as compared with available stand-alone IPV vaccines), were evaluated when administered to healthy toddlers. Controls received separately administered licensed DTPw-HBV/Hib and IPV vaccines. Immunogenicity was assessed before and one month after vaccination. Safety and reactogenicity data were assessed for 30 d after vaccination. A total of 312 Filipino children were vaccinated in their second year of life. Each DTPw-HBV-IPV/Hib formulation was non-inferior to control in terms of pre-defined criteria for IPV immunogenicity. Post-vaccination GMTs against each poliovirus type were increased between 4.2- and 37.9-fold over pre-vaccination titers. Non-inferiority to other vaccine antigens was also demonstrated. The safety profile of the 3 DTPw-HBV-IPV/Hib formulations resembled licensed DTPw-HBV/Hib Kft and IPV in terms of the frequency and intensity of adverse reactions after vaccination. Further investigation of DTPw-HBV-IPV/Hib containing reduced quantity of IPV antigen for primary vaccination in infants is warranted. This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT number: NCT01106092.

  19. Immunogenicity and reactogenicity of a decennial booster dose of a combined reduced-antigen-content diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis and inactivated poliovirus booster vaccine (dTpa-IPV) in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovac, Martina; Rathi, Niraj; Kuriyakose, Sherine; Hardt, Karin; Schwarz, Tino F

    2015-05-21

    Pertussis in adults and adolescents could be reduced by replacing traditional tetanus and diphtheria (Td) boosters with reduced-antigen-content diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (dTpa) vaccines. This study evaluated the administration of dTpa-IPV (dTpa-inactivated poliovirus) in adults ten years after they received a booster dose of either dTpa-IPV, dTpa+IPV or Td-IPV in trial NCT01277705. Open multicentre, phase IV study (www.clinicaltrials.govNCT01323959) in which healthy adults, who had received a previous dose of dTpa-IPV, dTpa+IPV or Td-IPV ten years earlier, received a single decennial booster dose of dTpa-IPV (Boostrix-polio, GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines). Blood samples were collected before and one month after booster vaccination. Antibody concentrations against all vaccine antigens were measured and reactogenicity and safety were assessed. A total of 211 subjects (mean age 50.3 years) received vaccination of whom 201 were included in the according-to-protocol cohort for immunogenicity. Before the decennial dTpa-IPV booster, ≥71.0% subjects were seroprotected/seropositive against all vaccine antigens. One month after the booster dose, all subjects were seroprotected against tetanus and poliovirus types 2 and 3; ≥95.7% subjects were seroprotected against diphtheria and ≥98.3% against poliovirus type 1. Anti-pertussis booster responses for the various antigens were observed in ≥76.5% (pertussis toxoid; PT), ≥85.1% (filamentous haemagglutinin; FHA) and ≥63.2% (pertactin; PRN) of subjects. During the 4-day follow-up, the overall incidence of local AEs was 71.6%, 75.0% and 72.2% in dTpa-IPV, dTpa+IPV and Td-IPV groups, respectively. Pain was the most frequent solicited local adverse event (AE; ≥62.7% subjects) and fatigue the most frequent solicited general AE (≥18.5%). No serious AEs were reported during the study. A booster dose of dTpa-IPV was immunogenic and well tolerated in adults who had received a booster dose of either dTpa-IPV, d

  20. Influenza Vaccine, Live Intranasal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... influenza vaccine (RIV). The nasal spray flu vaccine (live attenuated influenza vaccine or LAIV) should NOT be ... What is live, attenuated influenza vaccine-LAIV (nasal spray)?A dose of flu vaccine is recommended every flu season. Children younger ...

  1. ORAL LIVE TULAREMIA VACCINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previously reported data on the pathogenesis and immunogenicity of live vaccine strain LVS have been sufficiently encouraging to warrant an...potential for oral immunization with live tularemia vaccine prepared from strain LVS.

  2. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Lives Wash Your Hands Physical Activity Knees Lifted High Making Health Easier: Active Living in Philadelphia, PA ... Go: Passport To Health (4:17) Vital Signs High Blood Pressure Spanish Diseases & Conditions Hablemos de la ...

  3. Administration for Community Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Public Input Working Together, in Our Communities The Administration for Community Living was created around the fundamental ... Meals on Wheels America - November 16, 2017 The Administration for Community Living recently awarded a three-year ...

  4. Modelling live forensic acquisition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, MM

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the development of a South African model for Live Forensic Acquisition - Liforac. The Liforac model is a comprehensive model that presents a range of aspects related to Live Forensic Acquisition. The model provides forensic...

  5. Living with Alopecia Areata

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Join the Medical Professionals Directory Donate Living with Alopecia Areata Living with alopecia areata Because hair loss and regrowth from alopecia ... the disease say they experience. Common Emotions with Alopecia Areata These include feeling Loneliness, withdrawal and isolation ...

  6. Transforming lives with happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-05

    Can prioritising what makes residents happy transform their lives? Simon Jones, writes in Learning Disability Practice about the use of positive behaviour support (PBS) in managing challenging behaviour. By focusing on one priority: bringing happiness and fun into the lives of the people they support, residents with learning disabilities in supported living accommodation are now living their lives within their community. The team developed PBS plans that prioritised enhancing quality of life with behavioural issues a secondary thought. Consequently, physical intervention was rare. The use of PBS also had a positive impact on staff: whole-team involvement kept retention and motivation high.

  7. Scientific consultation on the safety and containment of new poliovirus strains for vaccine production, clinical/regulatory testing and research. Report of a meeting held at NIBSC, Potters Bar, Hertfordshire, UK, 6/7th July 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Philip D; Lane, Blanche; Mimms, South; Bar, Potters

    2017-07-01

    When poliomyelitis is totally eradicated from the natural world containment will be vital to prevent its re-emergence. The matter has become pressing as type 2 component of oral polio vaccine was completely withdrawn by May 2016 as wild ty[e 2 was declared eradicated. Work on polioviruses must be contained in accordance with GAPIII (the third version of the Global Action Plan of WHO). Some activities will be essential for years after eradication. Vaccine production and control, surveillance and supportive applied and academic research must all continue. Most laboratories do not currently comply with GAPIII and could not do so in the short term without disruption of essential activities including vaccine supply. The development and use of safer strains is raised in GAPIII and the meeting considered the strains available and the uses to which they could be put to facilitate compliance with the aims of GAPIII. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Fluorescence Live Cell Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Ettinger, Andreas; Wittmann, Torsten

    2014-01-01

    Fluorescence microscopy of live cells has become an integral part of modern cell biology. Fluorescent protein (FP) tags, live cell dyes, and other methods to fluorescently label proteins of interest provide a range of tools to investigate virtually any cellular process under the microscope. The two main experimental challenges in collecting meaningful live cell microscopy data are to minimize photodamage while retaining a useful signal-to-noise ratio and to provide a suitable environment for ...

  9. 2. Review of the Oral Polio

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    feasible. It also prevents the re-establishment of poliovirus if it is re-introduced from other countries, through international travelers and migrant populations from conflict areas. INTRODUCTION. The origin of the global eradication of poliomyelitis is conventionally attributed to Albert Sabin and his colleagues in the frequently ...

  10. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adu, FD. Vol 12, No 3 (2012) - Articles Sabin and wild type polioviruses from children who presented with acute flaccid paralysis in Nigeria Abstract PDF · Vol 13, No 4 (2013) - Articles Enteroviruses as a possible cause of hypertension, dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and hypertensive heart failure (HHF) in South western ...

  11. 2017-10-11T16:18:11Z https://www.ajol.info/index.php/all/oai oai:ojs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    article/14871 2017-10-11T16:18:11Z ajb:ART Some genetic characteristics of sabin-like poliovirus isolated from acute flaccid paralysis cases in Nigeria Adu, Festus Doyin; Department of Virology, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria ...

  12. Interventions in everyday lives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreier, Ole

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of psychotherapy is to help clients address and overcome problems troubling them in their everyday lives. Therapy can therefore only work if clients include it in their ongoing lives to deal with their problems. Detailed, systematic research is needed on how clients do so in their eve......The purpose of psychotherapy is to help clients address and overcome problems troubling them in their everyday lives. Therapy can therefore only work if clients include it in their ongoing lives to deal with their problems. Detailed, systematic research is needed on how clients do so...

  13. Our Urban Living Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortshøj, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    Our Urban Living Room is an exhibition and a book, created by Cobe. The theme is based on Cobe’s ten years of practice, grounded in social livability and urban democracy, and our aim to create buildings and spaces that invite Copenhageners to use and define them; as an extended living room, where...... the boundaries between private and public space become fluid. Based on specific Cobe projects, Our Urban Living Room tells stories about the architectural development of Copenhagen, while exploring the progression of the Danish Capital - from an industrial city into an urban living room, known as one...

  14. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Center (EOC) 101 Emergency Operations Center CDC Laboratory Science: Mission Critical Saving Lives, Protecting People Environmental Health CDC Tracking Network Health Begins at Home Smoke- ...

  15. Is It Living?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Page

    2011-01-01

    The word "living" is commonly used throughout elementary science lessons that focus on the biological world. It is a word teachers often take for granted when teaching life science concepts. How similar the constructed meaning of a common word like "living" is to the meaning intended by the teacher or instructional materials depends on how a…

  16. Living the Utopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, John; Warring, Anette Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    This article examines experiments in communal living in Britain and Denmark in the early 1970s, using life-story interviews from seventeen members of two British and two Danish communes. It examines communal living as a fusion of radical political principles with the practice of experimental coll...

  17. The governmentalization of living

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlberg, Ayo; Rose, Nikolas

    2015-01-01

    and scales (e.g. the QALY and DALY) has contributed to a governmentalization of living, in the course of which the social and personal consequences of living with disease come to be an object of political concern, and made knowable, calculable and thereby amenable to various strategies of intervention. We...

  18. Evaluating Living Standard Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birčiaková Naďa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the evaluation of selected available indicators of living standards, divided into three groups, namely economic, environmental, and social. We have selected six countries of the European Union for analysis: Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Luxembourg, France, and Great Britain. The aim of this paper is to evaluate indicators measuring living standards and suggest the most important factors which should be included in the final measurement. We have tried to determine what factors influence each indicator and what factors affect living standards. We have chosen regression analysis as our main method. From the study of factors, we can deduce their impact on living standards, and thus the value of indicators of living standards. Indicators with a high degree of reliability include the following factors: size and density of population, health care and spending on education. Emissions of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere also have a certain lower degree of reliability.

  19. Detection of poliovirus type 2 in oysters by using cell culture and RT-PCR Detecção de poliovírus tipo 2 em ostras através de cultura celular e RT-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília E.B. Vinatea

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Shellfish are readily contaminated with viruses present in water containing sewage due to the concentrating effect of filter feeding. Enteroviruses are generally used as a model for the detection of viruses from shellfish due to their public health significance. In the present work, oysters were placed in glass aquaria containing seawater plus unicellular algae. Two experiments were performed: 1 oysters bioaccumulating four different poliovirus type 2 concentrations: 5 x 10(4, 2.5 x 10(4, 5 x 10³ and 5 x 10² PFU/mL during 20h; 2 oyster tissues directly inoculated with 6.0 x 10(5 and 1.0 x 10(5 PFU/mL. After viruses seeding, tissue samples were processed by an adsorption-elution-precipitation method. Positive controls were performed by seeding 6.0 x 10(5 PFU/mL of poliovirus type 2 directly on the final oyster tissue extracts. Oyster extracts were assayed for viruses recovery by plaque assay, RT-PCR and integrated cell culture-PCR methodologies (ICC/PCR. The last one was based on the inoculation of the samples onto VERO cell monolayer followed by RT-PCR analysis of the infected cell fluid. In the first experiment (20h bioaccumulation until 5 x 10³ PFU were detected after 24 and 48h growth on VERO cells. Direct RT-PCR and ICC/PCR were able to detect 3 and 0.04 PFU of poliovirus, respectively, when bioaccumulation assay was used. When direct tissue virus seeding was performed, the plaque assays showed that polioviruses were recovered in all tested concentrations. Based on these results, it is possible to conclude that viable polioviruses can be detected in oysters after bioaccumulation and these techniques can be directly applied for monitoring virus contamination in environmental samples.Devido ao hábito alimentar filtrante, os moluscos bivalves são contaminados por vírus presentes em águas contaminadas por esgoto. Os enterovírus são geralmente usados como modelos para a detecção de vírus em moluscos bivalves devido a sua import

  20. Engineering living functional materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Allen Y; Zhong, Chao; Lu, Timothy K

    2015-01-16

    Natural materials, such as bone, integrate living cells composed of organic molecules together with inorganic components. This enables combinations of functionalities, such as mechanical strength and the ability to regenerate and remodel, which are not present in existing synthetic materials. Taking a cue from nature, we propose that engineered 'living functional materials' and 'living materials synthesis platforms' that incorporate both living systems and inorganic components could transform the performance and the manufacturing of materials. As a proof-of-concept, we recently demonstrated that synthetic gene circuits in Escherichia coli enabled biofilms to be both a functional material in its own right and a materials-synthesis platform. To demonstrate the former, we engineered E. coli biofilms into a chemical-inducer-responsive electrical switch. To demonstrate the latter, we engineered E. coli biofilms to dynamically organize biotic-abiotic materials across multiple length scales, template gold nanorods, gold nanowires, and metal/semiconductor heterostructures, and synthesize semiconductor nanoparticles (Chen, A. Y. et al. (2014) Synthesis and patterning of tunable multiscale materials with engineered cells. Nat. Mater. 13, 515-523.). Thus, tools from synthetic biology, such as those for artificial gene regulation, can be used to engineer the spatiotemporal characteristics of living systems and to interface living systems with inorganic materials. Such hybrids can possess novel properties enabled by living cells while retaining desirable functionalities of inorganic systems. These systems, as living functional materials and as living materials foundries, would provide a radically different paradigm of materials performance and synthesis-materials possessing multifunctional, self-healing, adaptable, and evolvable properties that are created and organized in a distributed, bottom-up, autonomously assembled, and environmentally sustainable manner.

  1. Digital Living at Home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Pernille Viktoria Kathja; Christiansen, Ellen Tove

    2013-01-01

    Does living with digital technology inevitably lead to digital living? Users talking about a digital home control system, they have had in their homes for eight years, indicate that there is more to living with digital technology than a functional-operational grip on regulation. Our analysis...... of these user voices has directed us towards a ‘home-keeping’ design discourse, which opens new horizons for design of digital home control systems by allowing users to perform as self-determined controllers and groomers of their habitat. The paper concludes by outlining the implications of a ‘home...

  2. Writing lives in sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Krogh

    Writing lives in sport is a book of stories about sports-persons. The people concerned include sports stars, sports people who are not quite so famous, and relatively unknown physical education teachers and sports scientists.Writing lives in sport raises questions about writing biographies...... in the academis world of sport studies. It does not set out to be a methodological treatise but through the writing of lives in sports does raise questions of method. Each essay in this collection deals with problems of writing sports-people's lives. These essays could be said to fall along a spectrum from those...... dealing with anonymous individuals, whose anonymity results from the confidentiality requirements of a social scientific research methodology, to those leaning more towards the literary-historical traditions of 'conventional' biographical writing. However, these examples are polar extremes and none...

  3. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... prepared for different audiences including, children, parents, and public health professionals. More > Hand Hygiene Saves Lives (5:10) ... prepared for different audiences including, children, parents, and public health professionals. More > File Formats Help: How do I ...

  4. Healthy Living after Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stories Stroke Heroes Among Us Healthy Living After Stroke Nutrition Good nutrition is one way to reduce ... the hospital. Thank goodness, she did. Subscribe to Stroke Connection Get quarterly digital issues plus our monthly ...

  5. Living with Low Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Life TIPS To Its Fullest LIVING WITH LOW VISION Savings Medical Bills A VARIETY OF EYE CONDITIONS, ... which occupational therapy practitioners help people with low vision to function at the highest possible level. • Prevent ...

  6. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Corner Stores Healthy Snacking in Philadelphia, PA Hidden Sodium Salt Matters Salt Matters: Preserving Choice, Protecting Health ( ... Health Easier: Active Living in Philadelphia, PA Hidden Sodium Me? Have a baby? Preconception Health Me? Have ...

  7. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Multiunit Housing The Quiet Killer Healthy Living Healthy Eating A Grocery Store’s Healthy Options A Plate Full ... 4:17) Vital Signs High Blood Pressure Spanish Diseases & Conditions Hablemos de la Influenza Influenza Influenza (:30) ...

  8. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is not supported by your browser. For this reason, some items on this page will be unavailable. ... CDC Laboratory Science: Mission Critical Saving Lives, Protecting People Environmental Health CDC Tracking Network Health Begins at ...

  9. Living with Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the lives of people with communication disorders. "Human communication research now has more possibilities for productive exploration than at any other time in history," says James F. Battey, Jr., M.D., Ph. ...

  10. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Balance Healthy Corner Stores Healthy Snacking in Philadelphia, PA Hidden Sodium Salt Matters Salt Matters: Preserving Choice, ... High Making Health Easier: Active Living in Philadelphia, PA Preconception Me? Have a baby? Preconception Health Me? ...

  11. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Quiet Killer Healthy Living Healthy Eating A Grocery Store’s Healthy Options A Plate Full of Color Finding a Balance Healthy Corner Stores Healthy Snacking in Philadelphia, PA Hidden Sodium Salt ...

  12. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 101 Emergency Operations Center CDC Laboratory Science: Mission Critical Saving Lives, Protecting People Environmental Health CDC Tracking ... Cultures Are Our Source of Health (:30) Systems Thinking The Value of Systems Thinking (10:09) Systems ...

  13. Living with COPD: Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diseases > Lung Disease Lookup > COPD > Living With COPD Nutrition and COPD Most people are surprised to learn ... asking your doctor or visiting the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics at EatRight.org . Be sure to ...

  14. Living With Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Dental Problems Diabetes & Sexual & Urologic Problems Managing Diabetes You can manage your diabetes and live a ... you have diabetes. How can I manage my diabetes? With the help of your health care team, ...

  15. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health (4:17) Vital Signs High Blood Pressure Spanish Diseases & Conditions Hablemos de la Influenza Influenza Influenza (: ... 2010 Source: Healthcare-associated Infections (HAI) Other versions: Spanish (5:10) Healthy Living Featured Videos Fight Germs. ...

  16. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... public health professionals. More > Hand Hygiene Saves Lives (5:10) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Hand ... High resolution [22.9 MB] Open Captioned [14.5 MB] Request a higher resolution file Copy the ...

  17. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Center (EOC) 101 Emergency Operations Center CDC Laboratory Science: Mission Critical Saving Lives, Protecting People Environmental Health ... Break the Silence: Stop the Violence Injury Prevention Research In the Swim of Things Safe Teen Drivers ...

  18. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Critical Saving Lives, Protecting People Environmental Health CDC Tracking Network Health Begins at Home Smoke-free Multiunit ... The Story of Folic Acid Fortification Through the Eyes of the Eagle Wes Studi: Don’t Get ...

  19. Living with Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Epidemic Larger than Estimated, American Lung Association Continues Tradition of Funding Research to Investigate TB, Save Lives ... Member Center | RSS | Terms Of Use | Privacy Our Family Of Sites nonprofit software Join the fight for ...

  20. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Obesity Epidemic Outbreaks CDC: Protecting Americans through Global Health Ebola and Contact Tracing Global Disease Detectives in ... Science: Mission Critical Saving Lives, Protecting People Environmental Health CDC Tracking Network Health Begins at Home Smoke- ...

  1. Living with Stepparents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sometimes spouses die and husbands or wives are forced to start over. Despite all the pain of ... on this topic for: Kids Kids Talk About: Marriage and Divorce (Video) Living With a Single Parent ...

  2. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... hospital while being treated for something else. The best way to help prevent infection is to practice proper hand hygiene. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives shows how patients can play an active role in reminding healthcare ...

  3. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Please Parents Want To Do What′s Best The Obesity Epidemic Outbreaks CDC: Protecting Americans through Global Health ... best way to help prevent infection is to practice proper hand hygiene. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives shows ...

  4. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Other versions: Spanish (5:10) Healthy Living Featured Videos Fight Germs. Wash Your Hands! Making Health Easier: ... Us Feedback What do you think of our videos? Your feedback about CDC-TV and our videos ...

  5. Living Lab ammattikorkeakoulussa

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Käyttäjälähtöinen Living Lab –toiminta muodostaa avoimen innovaatioympäristön ja pyrkii luomaan vuorovaikutusta tuotteiden ja palveluiden kehittäjien ja käyttäjien välille. Living Lab –toiminta soveltuu erittäin hyvin ammattikorkeakoulujen työelämälähtöiseen ja käytännönläheiseen tutkimus-, kehitys- ja innovaatiotoimintaan. Oman lisänsä Living Lab –tyyppiseen TKI-toimintaan tuokin juuri käyttäjälähtöisyys – Living Lab –toiminnassa korkeakouluvetoiseen kehittämistyöhön osallistuvat tuotteiden ...

  6. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Summary for General Public in Puerto Rico (2:22) Zika Virus Prevention for Puerto Rico (:30) Vaccination ... Lives Transcript [28 KB, 2 pages] High resolution [22.9 MB] Open Captioned [14.5 MB] Request ...

  7. Evaluating Living Standard Indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Birčiaková Naďa; Stávková Jana; Antošová Veronika

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with the evaluation of selected available indicators of living standards, divided into three groups, namely economic, environmental, and social. We have selected six countries of the European Union for analysis: Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Luxembourg, France, and Great Britain. The aim of this paper is to evaluate indicators measuring living standards and suggest the most important factors which should be included in the final measurement. We have tried to determin...

  8. Use of Dedicated Mobile Teams and Polio Volunteer Community Mobilizers to Increase Access to Zero-Dose Oral Poliovirus Vaccine and Routine Childhood Immunizations in Settlements at High Risk for Polio Transmission in Northern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongwae, Kennedy M; Bawa, Samuel B; Shuaib, Faisal; Braka, Fiona; Corkum, Melissa; Isa, Hammanyero K

    2017-07-01

    The Polio Eradication Initiative in Nigeria, which started >20 years ago, faced many challenges, including initial denial, resistance from communities, and prolonged regional safety concerns. These challenges led into the structuring of the response including the development of the National Emergency Action Plan, improved partner coordination and government engagement, and the establishment of a Polio Emergency Operations Centre. Although monthly supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) continued, the targeting of settlements at high risk for polio transmission with routine immunization (RI) and other selected primary healthcare (PHC) services using dedicated mobile teams and volunteer community mobilizers (VCMs) became a key strategy for interrupting polio transmission in the high-risk areas. These efforts could have contributed to the wild poliovirus-free 2-year period between 24 July 2014 and 11 August 2016, when 2 cases of the virus were reported from Borno State, Northern Nigeria. A narrative analysis of polio-related program and other official documents was conducted to identify the relevant human resources and their role in the Polio Eradication Initiative and in RI. The data used in the article was obtained from United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and World Health Organization project reports and a draft evaluation report of the dedicated mobile teams approach in Northern Nigeria. The data from 6 of the states that commenced the provision of polio, RI, and other selected PHC services using the dedicated mobile teams approach in 2014 showed an overall increase in the percentage of children aged 12-23 months in the settlements at high risk for polio transmission with a RI card seen, from 23% to 56%, and an overall increase in fully immunized children aged 12-23 months, from 19% to 55%. The number of newborns given the first dose of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) according to the RI schedule and the number of children given zero-dose OPV with the

  9. 75 FR 29695 - Security Zones; Sabine Bank Channel, Sabine Pass Channel and Sabine-Neches Waterway, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ... highlighted in blue. In the ``Document Type'' drop down menu select ``Proposed Rule'' and insert ``USCG-2009... regime designed to safeguard human life, vessels, and waterfront facilities against sabotage or terrorist... its effects on them and participate in the rulemaking. If the rule would affect your small business...

  10. 78 FR 35625 - Sabine Pass Liquefaction Expansion, LLC; Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC; Sabine Pass LNG, L.P...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    .... The purpose of the pre-filing process is to encourage early involvement of interested stakeholders and... facilities, and temporary contractor/pipe yards for the storage of equipment, materials, and pipe. The EA... review, we have begun to contact some federal and state agencies to discuss their involvement in the...

  11. 78 FR 62344 - Sabine Pass Liquefaction Expansion, LLC, Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC, and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-18

    ... billion cubic feet per day (Bcf/d) of firm reverse flow capacity on the existing Cheniere Creole Trail... http://www.ferc.gov using the ``eLibrary'' link. Enter the docket number excluding the last three... electronic filings of comments, protests and interventions in lieu of paper using the ``eFiling'' link at...

  12. Being a Living Donor: Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to know FAQ Living donation What is living donation? Organs Types Being a living donor First steps Being ... for blood transfusions Medication side effects Abdominal hernia Death Potential long-term organ specific donor complications blank - ...

  13. 2006-IJBCS-Article-Doamba W Sabine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    Les feux de brousse dont les effets dépendent aussi bien de leurs intensités ainsi que de leur saison d'occurrence, sont considérés comme une perturbation écologique majeure des écosystèmes savanicoles. L'objectif général de cette étude est de générer des connaissances sur l'effet de la quantité du combustible et de.

  14. A heat-sensitive inhibitor in poliovirus-infected cells which selectively blocks phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of eucaryotic initiation factor 2 by the double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransone, L J; Dasgupta, A

    1988-10-01

    We partially purified an inhibitor from poliovirus-infected HeLa cells which specifically blocked phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of eucaryotic initiation factor 2 by the double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase. The inhibitory activity eluted from a sizing column with an approximate molecular weight of 80,000 to 100,000 and was sensitive to heat, suggesting a protein nature for the inhibitor. No specific virus-encoded protein purified with the inhibitor. The inhibition of phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of eucaryotic initiation factor 2 was not due to a protein phosphatase associated with the inhibitor. The inhibitor did not seem to prevent phosphorylation of the double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase but inhibited the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of eucaryotic initiation factor 2 by the activated kinase. Double-stranded RNA-induced inhibition of in vitro protein synthesis in reticulocyte lysates could be prevented by the addition of the partially purified inhibitor during preincubation of lysate with double-stranded RNA.

  15. Psychoanalysis and creative living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Jeffrey B

    2003-01-01

    Psychoanalysis is ambivalent about creativity and its own creative potential. On the one hand, psychoanalysis offers enormous resources for elucidating obstacles to creativity, that way of living, making and relating to self and others that is fresh, vital, unpredictable and open to feedback and evolution. On the other hand, when we analysts know too much beforehand about what a work of art really means or the fundamental and singular motives of creativity, then psychoanalysis unconsciously partakes of a perverse scenario in which the work of art serves as merely a means to the author's ends and is psychologically colonized. When psychoanalysis is The Discipline That Knows, then art has nothing new to teach psychoanalysts and our field is impoverished. "Psychoanalysis and Creative Living" attempts to elucidate how psychoanalysis could work through this tension between its creative and perverse possibilities and foster creative living.

  16. Living in the question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flower, J

    1999-01-01

    We live in a fast moving-world. Business has accelerated to breathtaking speeds in the 1990s--and in the last few years the afterburner has really kicked in. The speed of change is overwhelming. Especially in health care, who has time to "live in the question?" We need to decide things quickly, get the decision out of the way, and move on, right? Maybe. Biology shows us that you can't plan ahead very far. New things come along that you don't even have a category for, and therefore you don't even see them. Things are going to happen that you literally have no notion are even possible. The key to succeeding in this environment? Don't plan ahead. Stay curious. Make small bets. Build organizational hothouses. Feed the seedlings that grow. The challenge is to remain curious, to live in the question, both personally and organizationally.

  17. OPV strains circulation in HIV infected infants after National Immunisation Days in Bangui, Central African Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menard Didier

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Humans are the only host of polioviruses, thus the prospects of global polio eradication look reasonable. However, individuals with immunodeficiencies were shown to excrete vaccine derived poliovirus for long periods of time which led to reluctance to prolong the vaccination campaign for fear of this end result. Therefore, we aimed to assess the duration of excretion of poliovirus after the 2001 National Immunization Days according to Human immunodeficiency virus status. Findings Fifty three children were enrolled. Sequential stool samples were collected in between National Immunisation Days rounds and then every month during one year. Children were classified into 2 groups: no immunodepression (n = 38, immunodepression (n = 15 according to CD4+ lymphocytes cells count. Thirteen poliovirus strains were isolated from 11 children: 5 Human immunodeficiency virus positive and 6 Human immunodeficiency virus negative. None of the children excreted poliovirus for more than 4 weeks. The restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis showed that all strains were of Sabin origin including a unique Polio Sabine Vaccine types 2 and 3 (S2/S3 recombinant. Conclusions From these findings we assume that Human immunodeficiency virus positive children are not a high risk population for long term poliovirus excretion. More powerful studies are needed to confirm our findings.

  18. Live and Dead Nodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sune Lehman; Jackson, A. D.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the consequences of a distinction between `live' and `dead' network nodes; `live' nodes are able to acquire new links whereas `dead' nodes are static. We develop an analytically soluble growing network model incorporating this distinction and show that it can provide...... a quantitative description of the empirical network composed of citations and references (in- and out-links) between papers (nodes) in the SPIRES database of scientific papers in high energy physics. We also demonstrate that the death mechanism alone can result in power law degree distributions for the resulting...... network....

  19. Cryopreservation of Living Organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanasawa, Ichiro; Nagata, Shinichi; Kimura, Naohiro

    Cryopreservation is considered to be the most promising way of preserving living organs or tissues for a long period of time without casuing any damage to their biological functions. However, cryopreservation has been succeeded only for simple and small-size tissues such as spermatozoon, ovum, erythrocyte, bone marrow and cornea. Cryopreservation of more complex and large-scale organs are not yet succssful. The authors have attempted to establish a technique for cryopreservation of larger living organs. An experiment was carried out using daphnia (water flea). The optimum rates of freezing and thawing were determined together with the optimum selection of cryoprotectant. High recovery rate was achieved under these conditions.

  20. Learning from Live Theater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Jay P.; Hitt, Collin; Kraybill, Anne; Bogulski, Cari A.

    2015-01-01

    Culturally enriching field trips matter. They produce significant benefits for students on a variety of educational outcomes that schools and communities care about. This experiment on the effects of field trips to see live theater demonstrates that seeing plays is an effective way to teach academic content; increases student tolerance by…

  1. Living with Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stressed by the hepatitis virus. Omit or severely limit alcohol use. Alcohol should not be taken with other ... Live-R Die © educational DVD addresses binge drinking, drug abuse and other liver ... to college age students with information specific to the functions of ...

  2. Live-cell imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Richard

    2014-01-01

    It would be hard to argue that live-cell imaging has not changed our view of biology. The past 10 years have seen an explosion of interest in imaging cellular processes, down to the molecular level. There are now many advanced techniques being applied to live cell imaging. However, cellular health is often under appreciated. For many researchers, if the cell at the end of the experiment has not gone into apoptosis or is blebbed beyond recognition, than all is well. This is simply incorrect. There are many factors that need to be considered when performing live-cell imaging in order to maintain cellular health such as: imaging modality, media, temperature, humidity, PH, osmolality, and photon dose. The wavelength of illuminating light, and the total photon dose that the cells are exposed to, comprise two of the most important and controllable parameters of live-cell imaging. The lowest photon dose that achieves a measureable metric for the experimental question should be used, not the dose that produces cover photo quality images. This is paramount to ensure that the cellular processes being investigated are in their in vitro state and not shifted to an alternate pathway due to environmental stress. The timing of the mitosis is an ideal canary in the gold mine, in that any stress induced from the imaging will result in the increased length of mitosis, thus providing a control model for the current imagining conditions.

  3. Design for Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Todd

    2011-01-01

    Bringing a newborn home from the hospital can come with stress for any parent. Coming home with twins can be double the stress. This article shares the story of a couple faced with this situation 12 years ago with the birth of twins, one was born with complications. They lived in a Colonial until the twins were almost five years old, at which time…

  4. Living with others

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zabiliute, Emilija

    . Drawing on Levinas’ philosophy, which holds that subjects are relational and vulnerable to each other, and on the anthropology of relatedness and kinship, the study shows how ‘living with others’ entails both dependencies and care.In this light, health-seeking practices among the urban poor areorganizedby...

  5. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... than a million infections in the hospital while being treated for something else. The best way to help prevent infection is to practice proper hand hygiene. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives shows how patients can play an active role ...

  6. Readiness for Living Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peronard, Jean-Paul

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a comparative analysis between workers in healthcare with high and low degree of readiness for living technology such as robotics. To explore the differences among workers’ readiness for robotics in healthcare, statistical analysis was conducted in the data set obtained from 200...

  7. The Living Periodic Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahlik, Mary Schrodt

    2005-01-01

    To help make the abstract world of chemistry more concrete eighth-grade students, the author has them create a living periodic table that can be displayed in the classroom or hallway. This display includes information about the elements arranged in the traditional periodic table format, but also includes visual real-world representations of the…

  8. Loneliness and Living Arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancliffe, Roger J.; Lakin, K. Charlie; Doljanac, Robert; Byun, Soo-Yong; Taub, Sarah; Chiri, Giuseppina

    2007-01-01

    Adults with ID/DD live in increasingly small community settings, where the risk of loneliness may be greater. We examined self-reported loneliness among 1,002 individuals with ID/DD from 5 states in relation to community residence size, personal characteristics, social contact, and social climate. One third reported being lonely sometimes and one…

  9. New Lives of Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The work and lives of teachers have always been subject to external influence as those who are nearing the end of their careers will attest, but it is arguable that what is new over the last two decades is the pace, complexity, and intensity of change as governments have responded to the shrinking world of economic competitiveness and social…

  10. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... De Las Manos Salva Vidas Mi Salud, Mi Decisión, Mi Futuro Salud Pregestacional ¿Yo? ¿Tener un Bebé? ¿ ... Living Featured Videos Fight Germs. Wash Your Hands! Making Health Easier: Healthy Snacking in Philadelphia, PA Making ...

  11. Living Systems Energy Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-26

    The Living Systems Energy Module, renamed Voyage from the Sun, is a twenty-lesson curriculum designed to introduce students to the major ways in which energy is important in living systems. Voyage from the Sun tells the story of energy, describing its solar origins, how it is incorporated into living terrestrial systems through photosynthesis, how it flows from plants to herbivorous animals, and from herbivores to carnivores. A significant part of the unit is devoted to examining how humans use energy, and how human impact on natural habitats affects ecosystems. As students proceed through the unit, they read chapters of Voyage from the Sun, a comic book that describes the flow of energy in story form (Appendix A). During the course of the unit, an ``Energy Pyramid`` is erected in the classroom. This three-dimensional structure serves as a classroom exhibit, reminding students daily of the importance of energy and of the fragile nature of our living planet. Interactive activities teach students about adaptations that allow plants and animals to acquire, to use and to conserve energy. A complete list of curricular materials and copies of all activity sheets appear in Appendix B.

  12. Framing the Oscars live

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haastrup, Helle Kannik

    2016-01-01

    How is the global media event of the Oscars localised through the talk show on Danish television? How are both the mediated film star and the special brand of Hollywood celebrity culture addressed by the cultural intermediaries in the Danish framing? These are the questions I propose to answer th...... through a brief analysis of the Academy Awards live broadcast on Danish television....

  13. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Activity Knees Lifted High Making Health Easier: Active Living in Philadelphia, PA Preconception Me? Have a baby? Preconception Health Me? Have another baby? Preconception Health My health, my choice, my future Preconception Health (Full) Injury, Violence & Safety A Time ...

  14. Living with HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV/AIDS Living With HIV Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ...

  15. Gun control saves lives

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    homicides[3-5] and that it coincided with the introduction of stricter gun control legislation. One study estimated that more than 4 500 lives were saved across five SA cities from 2001 to 2005.[5] Pro-gun interest groups seeking to promote gun ownership and diffusion have attacked these findings, suggesting that stricter gun ...

  16. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Please Parents Want To Do What′s Best The Obesity Epidemic Outbreaks CDC: Protecting Americans through Global Health ... Multiunit Housing The Quiet Killer Healthy Living Healthy Eating A Grocery Store’s Healthy Options A Plate Full ...

  17. Old men living alone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristian Frausing; Munk, Karen Pallesgaard

    Background: Even in the Danish welfare state inequality in health proves hard to overcome. According to the literature elderly men living alone seem to be a vulnerable group in several respects: they lead shorter lives; are at increased risk of committing suicide; and some are found to have...... dysfunctional coping patterns in relation to stress, which could indicate difficulties adapting to the challenges of old age. Moreover, as to treatment and prevention men in general do not seem to profit from the offers from the health care system as much as women do. Improving singular elderly men’s health...... and quality of life requires complex action, especially for those in socially marginalized positions whose ways of and attitudes towards life have been thoroughly established, and it raises the interesting question of whether a scarcity of resources leads to a certain notions of health and the good life...

  18. Living in history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Norman R.; Lee, Peter J.; Krslak, Mirna

    2009-01-01

    Foreslår et paradigme - "Living in history" - til undersøgelse af forholdet mellem samtidshistorie og selvbiografisk hukommelse. Metoden spørger ikke direkte og altså ikke til den anknytning, man bevidst ville vælge at fremhæve, men undersøger indirekte, om der spontant associeres til samtidsbegi......Foreslår et paradigme - "Living in history" - til undersøgelse af forholdet mellem samtidshistorie og selvbiografisk hukommelse. Metoden spørger ikke direkte og altså ikke til den anknytning, man bevidst ville vælge at fremhæve, men undersøger indirekte, om der spontant associeres til...

  19. Old men living alone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frausing, Kristian Park

    2014-01-01

    dysfunctional coping patterns in relation to stress, which could indicate difficulties adapting to the challenges of old age. Moreover, as to treatment and prevention men in general do not seem to profit from the offers from the health care system as much as women do. Improving singular elderly men’s health...... that is far from the middle class view of the health care professionals. Methods: The purpose of the study, carried out throughout 2014 and 2015, is to produce knowledge about singular elderly men’s needs, everyday lives and ideas about health, masculinity, and a good aging process. The study is in two phases...... and views on the matters. Results: It is expected that the study will contribute to a nuanced basis of knowledge for the public health care services for elderly men living alone. Also importantly, we wish to focus health care professionals’ attention to the question of realistic and meaningful goals...

  20. Living the (codesign) lab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binder, Thomas; Brandt, Eva; Halse, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Design research environments are becoming visible in many places, in universities, in design schools, in companies and in public organizations. What most of them have in common is a commitment to the exploration of the possible rather than the factual. In this paper we will discuss what define su...... that the laboratories of design research must have a consistent portfolio yet design researchers still have to mobilize and join forces with the many “living labs” of the everyday....

  1. Safety, immunogenicity and persistence of immune response to the combined diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, poliovirus and Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine (DTPa-IPV/Hib) administered in Chinese infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanping; Li, Rong Cheng; Ye, Qiang; Li, Changgui; Liu, You Ping; Ma, Xiao; Li, Yanan; Zhao, Hong; Chen, Xiaoling; Assudani, Deepak; Karkada, Naveen; Han, Htay Htay; Van Der Meeren, Olivier; Mesaros, Narcisa

    2017-03-04

    We conducted 3 phase III, randomized, open-label, clinical trials assessing the safety, reactogenicity (all studies), immunogenicity (Primary vaccination study) and persistence of immune responses (Booster study) to the combined diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, poliomyelitis, and Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine (DTPa-IPV/Hib) in Chinese infants and toddlers. In the Pilot study (NCT00964028), 50 infants (randomized 1:1) received 3 doses of DTPa-IPV/Hib at 2-3-4 (Group A) or 3-4-5 months of age (Group B). In the Primary study (NCT01086423), 984 healthy infants (randomized 1:1:1) received 3 doses of DTPa-IPV/Hib at 2-3-4 (Group A) or 3-4-5 (Group B) months of age, or concomitant DTPa/Hib and poliomyelitis (IPV) vaccination at 2-3-4 months of age (Control group); 825 infants received a booster dose of DTPa/Hib and IPV at 18-24 months of age (Booster study; NCT01449812). In the Pilot study, unsolicited symptoms were more frequent in Group A (16 versus 1 infant; mostly upper respiratory tract infection and pyrexia); this observation was attributed to an epidemic outbreak of viral infections. Non-inferiority of 3-dose primary vaccination with DTPa-IPV/Hib over separately administered DTPa/Hib and IPV was demonstrated for Group A (primary objective). Similar antibody concentrations were observed in all groups, except for anti-polyribosyl-ribitol phosphate and anti-poliovirus types 1-3 which were higher in DTPa-IPV/Hib recipients. Protective antibody levels against all vaccine antigens remained high until booster vaccination. Three-dose vaccination with DTPa-IPV/Hib had a clinically acceptable safety profile.

  2. Development and validation of a real time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay for investigation of wild poliovirus type 1-South Asian (SOAS) strain reintroduced into Israel, 2013 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindiyeh, M Y; Moran-Gilad, J; Manor, Y; Ram, D; Shulman, L M; Sofer, D; Mendelson, E

    2014-02-20

    In February 2013, wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) was reintroduced into southern Israel and resulted in continuous silent circulation in the highly immune population. As a part of the public health emergency response, a novel real time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay was developed, to allow for the sensitive and specific detection of the circulatingWPV1-South Asian (SOAS) strain. Specific primers and probes derived from the VP-1 region were designed, based on sequenced sewage isolates, and used to simultaneously amplify this WPV1-SOAS sequence together with bacteriophage MS-2 as internal control. High titre WPV1-SOAS stock virus was used for assay optimisation and 50 processed sewage samples collected from southern Israel and tested by reference culture based methods were used for analytical validation of the assay’s performance. The limit of detection of the multiplex qRT-PCR (SOAS/MS-2) assay was 0.1 plaque-forming unit (pfu)/reaction (20 pfu/mL) for WPV1-SOAS RNA with 100% sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values when compared to the culture based method. The turnaround time was rapid, providing results for environmental samples within 24 to 48 hours from completion of sewage processing, instead of five to seven days by culture-based analysis. Direct sewage testing by qRT-PCR assay proved to be a useful tool for rapid detection and environmental surveillance of WPV1-SOAS circulating strain during emergency response. Application of the approach for detection of WPV1-SOAS in stool samples obtained during acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance or field surveys should be further evaluated.

  3. Differences in female-male mortality after high-titre measles vaccine and association with subsequent vaccination with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis and inactivated poliovirus: reanalysis of West African studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaby, Peter; Jensen, Henrik; Samb, Badara; Cisse, Badara; Sodemann, Morten; Jakobsen, Marianne; Poulsen, Anja; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Lisse, Ida Maria; Simondon, Francois; Whittle, Hilton

    2003-06-28

    Females given high-titre measles vaccine (HTMV) have high mortality; diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccination might be associated with increased female mortality. We aimed to assess whether DTP or inactivated poliovirus (IPV) administered after HTMV was associated with increased female-male mortality ratio. In three trials from West Africa, 2000 children were randomised to HTMV or control vaccine at 4-5 months of age; a second vaccination was given at age 9-10 months (standard measles vaccine). Children in high-titre groups were given IPV or DTP-IPV. Another 944 children received HTMV as routine vaccination in Senegal. When we compared high-titre and control groups, no difference in mortality between the first and the second vaccination was noted. After the second vaccination, the female-male mortality ratio was 1.84 (95% CI 1.19-2.84) in children in the high-titre groups who received DTP-IPV or IPV, and 0.59 (0.34-1.04) in controls who received standard measles vaccine (p=0.007). Children who received HTMV but no additional DTP-IPV or IPV had a female-male mortality ratio of 0.83 (0.41-1.67). This ratio was 2.22 (1.04-4.71) for children who received DTP-IPV after routine HTMV and 1.00 (0.68-1.47) for those who did not. When we combined the results from all trials, the female-male mortality ratio was 1.93 (1.33-2.81) for those who received DTP or IPV after HTMV, and 0.96 (0.69-1.34) for those who did not (p=0.006). A change in sequence of vaccinations, rather than HTMV itself, may have been the cause of increased female mortality in these trials.

  4. Live from the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnick, W. K.; Haines-Stiles, G.; Warburton, J.; Sunwood, K.

    2003-12-01

    For reasons of geography and geophysics, the poles of our planet, the Arctic and Antarctica, are places where climate change appears first: they are global canaries in the mine shaft. But while Antarctica (its penguins and ozone hole, for example) has been relatively well-documented in recent books, TV programs and journalism, the far North has received somewhat less attention. This project builds on and advances what has been done to date to share the people, places, and stories of the North with all Americans through multiple media, over several years. In a collaborative project between the Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS) and PASSPORT TO KNOWLEDGE, Live from the Arctic will bring the Arctic environment to the public through a series of primetime broadcasts, live and taped programming, interactive virtual field trips, and webcasts. The five-year project will culminate during the 2007-2008 International Polar Year (IPY). Live from the Arctic will: A. Promote global understanding about the value and world -wide significance of the Arctic, B. Bring cutting-edge research to both non-formal and formal education communities, C. Provide opportunities for collaboration between arctic scientists, arctic communities, and the general public. Content will focus on the following four themes. 1. Pan-Arctic Changes and Impacts on Land (i.e. snow cover; permafrost; glaciers; hydrology; species composition, distribution, and abundance; subsistence harvesting) 2. Pan-Arctic Changes and Impacts in the Sea (i.e. salinity, temperature, currents, nutrients, sea ice, marine ecosystems (including people, marine mammals and fisheries) 3. Pan-Arctic Changes and Impacts in the Atmosphere (i.e. precipitation and evaporation; effects on humans and their communities) 4. Global Perspectives (i.e. effects on humans and communities, impacts to rest of the world) In The Earth is Faster Now, a recent collection of comments by members of indigenous arctic peoples, arctic

  5. On The Living Room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Richards

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This text discusses the work The Living Room, directed by the author, and reflects on its meanings and functions. The article confronts problems performance raises in relation to contemporary social life, bringing forward the isolation of life today and the possibilities performance offers to fight it. We problematise the crisis experienced by the author and the consequent creation of the work as a mobile performative device in relation to the staging space. Finally, the work questions the forms of interaction and type of participation possible in performance.

  6. Microencapsulation Of Living Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Manchium; Kendall, James M.; Wang, Taylor G.

    1989-01-01

    In experimental technique, living cells and other biological materials encapsulated within submillimeter-diameter liquid-filled spheres. Sphere material biocompatible, tough, and compliant. Semipermeable, permitting relatively small molecules to move into and out of sphere core but preventing passage of large molecules. New technique promises to make such spherical capsules at high rates and in uniform, controllable sizes. Capsules injected into patient through ordinary hypodermic needle. Promising application for technique in treatment of diabetes. Also used to encapsulate pituitary cells and thyroid hormone adrenocortical cells for treatment of other hormonal disorders, to encapsulate other secreting cells for transplantation, and to package variety of pharmaceutical products and agricultural chemicals for controlled release.

  7. Toimiva sairaala Living Lab

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Teknologiset innovaatiot ja niiden tehokas hyödyntäminen voivat auttaa terveydenhuollon organisaatioita lisäämään toiminnan tuottavuutta, palveluiden laatua sekä kuntalaisten hyvinvointia, johon muun muassa väestön ikääntyminen ne haastaa. Merkittävien tulosten saavuttamiseksi koulutuksen, tutkimuksen ja palvelujärjestelmän rakenteiden tulisi kuitenkin integroitua nykyistä vahvemmaksi kehittämistoiminnan ekosysteemiksi. Living Lab -kehittämisympäristöt ovat syntyneet vastaamaan tähän tarpeese...

  8. Temperature - Live Hauling of Fish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In certain markets, live fish can be sold for substantially higher prices than fresh dressed fish. A significant live-haul industry has developed in the U.S. and...

  9. KLA - Live Hauling of Fish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In certain markets, live fish can be sold for substantially higher prices than fresh dressed fish. A significant live-haul industry has developed in the U.S. and...

  10. Living with Lupus (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney Transplant Vision Facts and Myths Living With Lupus KidsHealth > For Parents > Living With Lupus Print A ... disease for both doctors and their patients. About Lupus A healthy immune system produces proteins called antibodies ...

  11. CERN's live webcasts

    CERN Document Server

    IT Department

    2012-01-01

    You may well have noticed when watching the seminar on 4 July that the CERN webcast site has had a makeover.   The new-look site went live on 26 June and provides a detailed schedule of upcoming webcasts as well as easy access to those of recent events.  It is fully compatible with Smartphones and tablets - which wasn't the case until now – and enables viewers to see both the speaker and the presentation, thanks to two separate video recordings. Another innovation: permanent webcasts. In a single click, you can access and view all the channels run by the ATLAS collaboration, including Public Outreach channel, Technical channel and Public Development channel.   And if you want to add your own event to the schedule and broadcast it live via the web,  just go to this address. You can also restrict access to your webcasts to a pre-defined audience. Behind the scenes, the webcast service has also been busy modernising its infrastructure:...

  12. Exotic Long - Lived Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Jørgensen, Morten Dam

    A search for hadronising long-lived massive particles at the Large Hadron Collider is conducted with the ATLAS detector. No excess events are found. Based on statistical analysis, upper limits on the production cross section are observed to be between $0.01$ pb and $0.006$ pb for colour octet particles (gluinos) with masses ranging from $300 \\ \\mathrm{GeV/c}^2$ to $1400 \\ \\mathrm{GeV/c}^2$, and $0.01$ pb to $0.004$ pb for colour triplet particles (stops and sbottoms) with masses ranging from $200 \\ \\mathrm{GeV/c}^2$ to $900 \\ \\mathrm{GeV/c}^2$. In the context of Supersymmetry with decoupled sfermion and sboson sectors (Split-SUSY), this gives a lower limit on the gluino mass of $989 \\ \\mathrm{GeV/c}^2$, and $683 \\ \\mathrm{GeV/c}^2$ for the stop mass and $618 \\ \\mathrm{GeV/c}^2$ for the sbottom mass. In addition, a new method is presented that improves the speed ($\\beta$) estimation for long-lived particles in the ATLAS tile calorimeter with a factor of $7$ improvement in resolution at low-$\\beta$ and ...

  13. Living with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subasic, Kim

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide an insider's account of what it is like to live with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), a genetic cardiovascular illness that carries the risk for sudden cardiac death. This study aims to reveal how HCM impacts the family and guides the decision whether or not to pursue genetic testing, how the physical limitations associated with HCM alter being-in-the-world, and how HCM alters social relationships. Fifteen adults with HCM were recruited for a longitudinal, phenomenological, qualitative study through purposive sampling and word of mouth. A total of 45 interviews were conducted by the researcher at a time and place designated by the participant between August 2011 and January 2012. The first interview with each participant was conducted in person. While efforts were made to conduct all interviews in person, a total of three interviews were conducted by telephone as requested by three participants due to scheduling conflicts. Through methods of interpretive phenomenology, three audio-recorded, semistructured interviews occurred over the course of 3 months. Detailed narratives were solicited and transcribed verbatim. Methodological and analytical documentation was supported with the identification of key phrases, similar experiences, themes, and documentation of the rationale for decisions throughout the research process. Participation in genetic testing carries a multitude of personal, familial, financial, and emotional implications. The results of a genetic test elicited an emotional response regardless of whether the results were negative, positive, or inconclusive. Living with a potentially life-threatening illness altered identity, disrupted social relationships, and generated chronic fear and uncertainty. A new normal was re-ordered or transformed by the demands and limitations posed by HCM, and by the person's concerns, priorities, and the meaning of the illness. Results from this study underscore the need for healthcare

  14. Toward living radical polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moad, Graeme; Rizzardo, Ezio; Thang, San H

    2008-09-01

    Radical polymerization is one of the most widely used processes for the commercial production of high-molecular-weight polymers. The main factors responsible for the preeminent position of radical polymerization are the ability to polymerize a wide array of monomers, tolerance of unprotected functionality in monomer and solvent, and compatibility with a variety of reaction conditions. Radical polymerization is simple to implement and inexpensive in relation to competitive technologies. However, conventional radical polymerization severely limits the degree of control that researchers can assert over molecular-weight distribution, copolymer composition, and macromolecular architecture. This Account focuses on nitroxide-mediated polymerization (NMP) and polymerization with reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT), two of the more successful approaches for controlling radical polymerization. These processes illustrate two distinct mechanisms for conferring living characteristics on radical polymerization: reversible deactivation (in NMP) and reversible or degenerate chain transfer (in RAFT). We devised NMP in the early 1980s and have exploited this method extensively for the synthesis of styrenic and acrylic polymers. The technique has undergone significant evolution since that time. New nitroxides have led to faster polymerization rates at lower temperatures. However, NMP is only applicable to a restricted range of monomers. RAFT was also developed at CSIRO and has proven both more robust and more versatile. It is applicable to the majority of monomers subject to radical polymerization, but the success of the polymerization depends upon the selection of the RAFT agent for the monomers and reaction conditions. We and other groups have proposed guidelines for selection, and the polymerization of most monomers can be well-controlled to provide minimal retardation and a high fraction of living chains by using one of just two RAFT agents. For example, a

  15. Live-striimauksen toteuttaminen tapahtumassa

    OpenAIRE

    Vataja, Jussi; Varila, Miikka

    2015-01-01

    Tämä opinnäytetyö käsittelee live-striimauksen toteuttamista tapahtumassa Seinäjoen ammattikorkeakoulun tarjoaman kaluston avulla. Toteutimme live-striimauksen FlakeLAN 2014 -verkkopelitapahtumassa ilman rahoitusta. Mediatyönä toimii live-striimauksesta leikkaamamme monikameratuotannon osio. Kirjallisen työn tarkoituksena on arvioida ja käsitellä laadukkaan live-striimauksen toteuttamista tuottajan näkökulmasta kvalitatiivisin keinoin sekä tarjota lukijalle näkökulmia live-striimin toteuk...

  16. Gaia Live in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, N. A.; Barnes, R.; Soubiran, C.; Vogt, S.

    2014-07-01

    Gaia is the European Space Agency's (ESA) next major astronomy telescope mission that was launched December 19, 2013. Gaia will measure accurate distances to about one billion stars across our Milky Way, allowing us to better understand how our galaxy formed and evolved. Gaia will have a profound impact on our understand ing of the Universe and the nature of dark matter, and provide a deeper understanding of how planets form around stars in our local neighbourhood. Gaia scientists and science education advisors are organising a Gaia post-launch event to link approximately forty schools across Europe. The event will include a live stream connection to ESA Gaia Mission Control and local Gaia research students to act as “explainers” and give practical demonstrations in each school. This paper describes the challenges in conducting this Europe-wide event.

  17. Living with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Kirsten Tarri

    2004-01-01

    Living with psoriasis is a considerable burden and quality of life in patients is deeply affected, yet compliance with therapy is a major problem. The literature is abundant in quantitative studies stating the incidence of decrease in quality of life and related, measurable terms, and in efforts...... directed at the improvement of therapies. However, it is sparse concerning the experiences of patients. This study aims to promote an understanding of the daily life of patients with psoriasis with particular regard to how they manage the disease, ultimately to improve nursing care to these patients....... A qualitative, collective case study design was applied. The participants were 4 adult patients with a long and complicated psoriasis history. They were interviewed in depth focusing on their experiences related to psoriasis and its treatment. The patients suffered physically from itch and pain. However...

  18. Live and let die

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næss, Petter

    2004-01-01

    Under a paradigm of unlimited natural resources and recipient capacity for emissions, raising the material standard of the world`s poor did not seem to be seriously in conflict with increasing consumption levels in affluent nations, even with a growing global population. In a finite world......, increased consumption in wealthy countries will reduce the possibility of meeting the needs of a growing population in developing countries within the limits set by the Earth`s ecological carrying capacity. Today, the willingness among the decision makers in rich countries to pursue a sustainable...... article ?Living on a Lifeboat?. Below, Hardin`s ?Lifeboat ethic? is reviewed and critically discussed, focusing on the hidden premises embedded in Hardin`s position. In the final part of the paper, the environmental consequences of economic growth and increasing consumption levels in wealthy nations...

  19. Living hours under pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsøe, Anna; Larsen, Trine Pernille; Felbo-Kolding, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of part-time work on absolute wages. The empirical focus is wages and working hours in three selected sectors within private services in the Danish labour market – industrial cleaning, retail, hotels and restaurants – and their agreem......Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of part-time work on absolute wages. The empirical focus is wages and working hours in three selected sectors within private services in the Danish labour market – industrial cleaning, retail, hotels and restaurants...... in industrial cleaning includes a minimum floor of 15 weekly working hours – this is not the case in retail, hotels and restaurants. This creates a loophole in the latter two sectors that can be exploited by employers to gain wage flexibility through part-time work. Originality/value The living wage literature...

  20. Living in the Present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Barns

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the findings from a qualitative research project exploring eight women’s experiences of living with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Through semistructured interviews, the women provided insights into the physical, emotional, and social impacts of RA and the “work” involved in negotiating its influence in the everyday life. In narrating their experiences of adapting to RA, the women express a common desire for “normalcy,” to return to a time and space before the disruption of RA. The women’s accounts also emphasized the interrelatedness between bodily experience and constructions of self, highlighting the corporeal nature of RA and the constant shaping and reshaping of personal meanings and values.

  1. Living With Semantic Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, Karen; Wilkinson, Ray; Keady, John

    2014-01-01

    Semantic dementia is a variant of frontotemporal dementia and is a recently recognized diagnostic condition. There has been some research quantitatively examining care partner stress and burden in frontotemporal dementia. There are, however, few studies exploring the subjective experiences of family members caring for those with frontotemporal dementia. Increased knowledge of such experiences would allow service providers to tailor intervention, support, and information better. We used a case study design, with thematic narrative analysis applied to interview data, to describe the experiences of a wife and son caring for a husband/father with semantic dementia. Using this approach, we identified four themes: (a) living with routines, (b) policing and protecting, (c) making connections, and (d) being adaptive and flexible. Each of these themes were shared and extended, with the importance of routines in everyday life highlighted. The implications for policy, practice, and research are discussed. PMID:24532121

  2. Living with nuclear weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnesale, A.; Doty, P.; Hoffmann, S.; Huntington, S.P.; Nye, J.S. Jr.; Sagan, S.D.

    1983-01-01

    At Harvard President Derek Bok's request, six Harvard professors explain nuclear arms issues to help citizens understand all sides of the national security debates. The goal is to encourage public participation in policy formulation. The book emphasizes that escapism will not improve security; that idealistic plans to eliminate nuclear weapons are a form of escapism. Learning to live with nuclear weapons, they suggest, requires an understanding of the current nuclear predicament and the implications of alternative weapons and policy choices. After reviewing these matters, they emphasize that informed persons will continue to disagree, but that knowledge will improve understanding and appreciation of their differences and improve the quality of policy debates. 54 references, 5 figures, 2 tables. (DCK)

  3. Living in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke Jakobsen, Arnt

    Exaugural presentation. A retrospect of my personal itinerary from literature, across translation studies to translation process research and a look ahead. In the retrospect, I range over diverse topics, all of which have sprung from my concern with the phenomenon of translation. I reflect on how......, as humans, we generate meaning, interpret meaning, and reformulate or translate meaning. I also reflect on the way computing has influenced research into these phenomena as seen e.g. in my creation of the Translog program and in projects I have been involved in, such as OFT (Translation of Professional...... for global communication purposes, and for improving research into translation, the phenomenon of translation and the world of translation in which we all live....

  4. The living company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Geus, A

    1997-01-01

    What can explain the longevity gap between a company that survives for centuries--the Swedish company Stora, for example, which is more than 700 years old--and the average corporation, which does not last 20 years? A team at Royal Dutch/Shell Group explored that question. Arie de Geus, a retired Shell executive, writes about the team's findings and describes what he calls living companies-organizations that have beaten the high mortality rate of the average corporation. Many companies die young, de Geus argues, because their policies and practices are based too heavily on the thinking and language of economics. Their managers focus on producing goods and services and forget that the organization is a community of human beings that is in business--any business--to stay alive. In contrast, managers of living companies consider themselves to be stewards of a long-standing enterprise. Their priorities reflect their commitment to the organization's long-term survival in an unpredictable world. Like careful gardeners, they encourage growth and renewal without endangering the plant they are tending. They value profits the same way most people value oxygen: as necessary for life but not the purpose of it. They scuttle assets when necessary to make a dramatic change in the business portfolio. And they constantly search for new ideas. These managers also focus on developing people. They create opportunities for employees to learn from one another. Such organizations are suited for survival in a world in which success depends on the ability to learn, to adapt, and to evolve.

  5. Experiencing Liveness in Contemporary Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume brings together dynamic perspectives on the concept of liveness in the performing arts, engaging with the live through the particular analytical focus of audiences and experience. The status and significance of the live in performance has become contested: perceived as variously...... of making. Drawing together contributions from theatre, music, dance, and performance art, it takes an interdisciplinary approach in asking not what liveness is, but how it matters and to whom. The book invites readers to consider how liveness is produced through processes of audiencing - as spectators...... bring qualities of (a)liveness into being through the nature of their attention - and how it becomes materialized in acts of performance, acts of making, acts of archiving, and acts of remembering. Theoretical chapters and practice-based reflections explore liveness, eventness and nowness as key...

  6. Sabine-Neches Waterway, Sabine Pass Jetty System: Past and Future Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    direction) and the jetty composition (stone size/weight, number of armor layers, permeability and depth at the toe of the structure). To a certain extent...Nm = stability number Nz = t/Tm = number of waves at mean period during an event of duration t Tm = mean wave period P = structure permeability ...Chapter. 3. In Estuary and Coastline Dynamics, ed. A. T. Ippen. McGraw-Hill, Inc. Brown, G. L., M. S. Sarruff, R. Vemulakonda, G. H. Nail , J

  7. Viral Aetiology of Acute Flaccid Paralysis Surveillance Cases, before and after Vaccine Policy Change from Oral Polio Vaccine to Inactivated Polio Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Saraswathy Subramaniam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1992, surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP cases was introduced in Malaysia along with the establishment of the National Poliovirus Laboratory at the Institute for Medical Research. In 2008, the Ministry of Health, Malaysia, approved a vaccine policy change from oral polio vaccine to inactivated polio vaccine (IPV. Eight states started using IPV in the Expanded Immunization Programme, followed by the remaining states in January 2010. The objective of this study was to determine the viral aetiology of AFP cases below 15 years of age, before and after vaccine policy change from oral polio vaccine to inactivated polio vaccine. One hundred and seventy-nine enteroviruses were isolated from the 3394 stool specimens investigated between 1992 and December 2012. Fifty-six out of 107 virus isolates were polioviruses and the remaining were non-polio enteroviruses. Since 2009 after the sequential introduction of IPV in the childhood immunization programme, no Sabin polioviruses were isolated from AFP cases. In 2012, the laboratory AFP surveillance was supplemented with environmental surveillance with sewage sampling. Thirteen Sabin polioviruses were also isolated from sewage in the same year, but no vaccine-derived poliovirus was detected during this period.

  8. Live videotransmitteret undervisning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikke Ørngreen

    2013-11-01

    På Bioanalytikeruddannelsen i Aarhus, VIAs sundhedsfaglige højskole, har man i en længere periode haft et kombi-hold, hvor man kombinerer traditionel og live transmitteret undervisning (via et innovativt valg af videokonferencesystem. På de såkaldte netdage er der mulighed for enten at møde op til undervisningen, som man plejer, eller at deltage i undervisningen hjemmefra. Artiklen præsenterer et deltagende aktionsforskningsprojekt mellem projektteamet på udannelsen og forskere fra Aalborg Universitet. Målet var at: afdække potentialer og barrierer ud fra et it-støttet læringsperspektiv; udvikle robuste didaktiske undervisningsscenarier; samt kvalificere underviserne og hermed forankringen af projektet. Forskningsdata blev indsamlet gennem videooptagelser, ”dagens spørgsmål” til de studerende, fokusgruppeinterview med lærerne, og Pædagogisk Dag-workshop. Analysen sætter fokus på erfaringerne under anvendelse af professionshøjskolernes Rektorkollegiums Studieaktivitetsmodel. Slutteligt samles der i artiklen op på de teknologsike, sociale og didaktiske-pædagogiske relationer set i lyset af projektets mål og resultater. Abstract in English At the education for Biomedical Laboratory Scientist at Aarhus, VIA's healthcare college, they have a combi-class, combining traditional and live broadcast teaching (via an innovative choice of video conferencing system. In the so-called net-days, there is the option to either attend the classes as usual, or to attend classes from home. This paper presents a participatory action research project between the project team at VIA and researchers from Aalborg University. The objectives were to: identify potentials and barriers from an IT-supported learning perspective; develop robust didactic teaching scenarios; qualify teachers, and secure the anchoring of the project. Research data were collected through video recordings, "questions of the day" to the students, focus group interviews with teachers and

  9. Living-with Shakespeare?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Broqua

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article studies three interpretations of Sonnet 130 by three American experimental poets. Rereading Bloom’s considerations on Shakespeare in The Anxiety of Influence and comparing them with Jacques Derrida’s Specters of Marx, this article shows that rather than thinking of Shakespeare as a cursing ghost, Harryette Mullen’s, Stephen Ratcliffe’s and Jen Bervin’s texts reveal Shakespeare as a ghost and a host. Their texts are attempts to live with Shakespeare in the present, thus prompting us to look back on the theory of the intertext.Cet article étudie trois réinterpretations du sonnet 130 de Shakespeare par trois poètes expérimentaux des Etats-Unis. Après avoir relu la théorie d’Harold Bloom telle qu’il l’applique à Shakespeare dans The Anxiety of Influence et l’avoir rapidement mise en contraste avec celle de Jacques Derrida dans Spectres de Marx, cet article montre que les textes de Harryette Mullen, Stephen Ratcliffe et Jen Bervin ne font pas de Shakespeare un fantôme de la malédiction. Ils tentent plutôt de vivre-avec Shakespeare dans le présent, nous amenant ainsi à reconsidérer la théorie de l’intertexte.

  10. SOLO: Self Organizing Live Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    1 SOLO: Self Organizing Live Objects Qi Huang1, 2 (contact, tel. +16073519956), Ken Birman2 1School of Computer Science & Technology...levels of performance, relia- bility, or other QoS objectives. Here, we describe SOLO, a new platform we’re constructing as part of Cornell’s Live ...scenarios that would be expected in wide-area environments. Category: Regular paper for the PDS track (5700 words). Keywords: Self-organization, Live

  11. 4Pi live cell imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Sauter, Dorothea

    2009-01-01

    One distinctive advantage of light microscopy over electron microscopy is it ability to selectively image sub-cellular details three-dimensionally in living cells. Live cell imaging is the domain of light microscopy. In this thesis a live cell imaging setup relying on 4Pi fluorescence microscopy is presented. To speed up the imaging process and record cellular processes of the order of a few seconds a new method of multifoci-generation via the stacking of birefringent crystals is implemented....

  12. Vaccine-associated paralytic Poliomyelitis: a case report of domiciliary transmission Poliomielite associada à vacina: descrição de caso por transmissão domiciliar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Paz

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Poliomyelitis associated with live strain vaccine is defined as the paralytic form of the acute anterior poliomyelitis related to the vaccine strain. Since these strains behave similarly to the wild-type virus, we can differentiate, epidemiologically, two types of vaccine-associated poliomyelitis: cases in which the patient was vaccinated and cases in which the patient had had contact with vaccinated individuals. We herein present the case of an unvaccinated child, with a clinical picture of an acute anterior poliomyelitis associated with the live strain vaccine, whose brother received the Sabin vaccine 20 days before the onset of the symptoms. Vaccine strain of the type 3 poliovirus was isolated in fecal culture and a presented mutation in nucleotide 472 (C®U in the 5' non-coding region, which is strongly related to the higher strain virulence.A poliomielite associada à vacina oral é definida como a forma paralítica da poliomielite anterior aguda decorrente da cepa vacinal. Uma vez que o comportamento da cepa vacinal é semelhante ao do vírus selvagem, epidemiologicamente podemos distinguir dois tipos de poliomielite associada à vacina, os casos em que o paciente foi vacinado e os casos em que o paciente teve contato com pessoas que receberam a vacina. Apresentamos o caso de um lactente não vacinado, que apresentou quadro de poliomielite anterior aguda associada à vacina oral, cujo irmão havia recebido a vacina Sabin 20 dias antes do início do quadro clínico. Na cultura de fezes do paciente foi isolado o poliovírus tipo 3, cepa vacinal, que apresentava mutação do nucleotídeo 472 (C®U na região 5' não codificadora, a qual está significativamente relacionada com a maior virulência da cepa.

  13. The power of living things: Living memorials as therapeutic landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather L. McMillen; Lindsay K. Campbell; Erika S. Svendsen

    2017-01-01

    In response to the events of 11 September 2001 (9/11), many communities came together to create living memorials. Many living memorials were established near the crash sites, but others were created across the United States from urban to rural areas, with designs ranging from entire forests to single trees. They were created by surviving family members, supporters of...

  14. Viruses as living processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupré, John; Guttinger, Stephan

    2016-10-01

    The view that life is composed of distinct entities with well-defined boundaries has been undermined in recent years by the realisation of the near omnipresence of symbiosis. What had seemed to be intrinsically stable entities have turned out to be systems stabilised only by the interactions between a complex set of underlying processes (Dupré, 2012). This has not only presented severe problems for our traditional understanding of biological individuality but has also led some to claim that we need to switch to a process ontology to be able adequately to understand biological systems. A large group of biological entities, however, has been excluded from these discussions, namely viruses. Viruses are usually portrayed as stable and distinct individuals that do not fit the more integrated and collaborative picture of nature implied by symbiosis. In this paper we will contest this view. We will first discuss recent findings in virology that show that viruses can be 'nice' and collaborate with their hosts, meaning that they form part of integrated biological systems and processes. We further offer various reasons why viruses should be seen as processes rather than things, or substances. Based on these two claims we will argue that, far from serving as a counterexample to it, viruses actually enable a deeper understanding of the fundamentally interconnected and collaborative nature of nature. We conclude with some reflections on the debate as to whether viruses should be seen as living, and argue that there are good reasons for an affirmative answer to this question. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Probiotics: "living drugs".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, G W

    2001-06-15

    The uses, mechanisms of action, and safety of probiotics are discussed. Probiotics are live microorganisms or microbial mixtures administered to improve the patient's microbial balance, particularly the environment of the gastrointestinal tract and the vagina. The yeast Saccharomyces boulardii and the bacterium Lactobacillus rhamnosus, strain GG, have shown efficacy in clinical trials for the prevention of antimicrobial-associated diarrhea. Other probiotics that have demonstrated at least some promise as prophylaxis for this type of diarrhea are Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, and Enterococcus faecium. The use of S. boulardii as an adjunctive treatment to therapy with metronidazole or vancomycin has been found in controlled studies to decrease further recurrences of Clostridium difficile-associated disease. Other gastrointestinal disorders for which probiotics have been studied include traveler's diarrhea, acute infantile diarrhea, and acute diarrhea in adults. Several Lactobacillus species given in yogurt or in tablet or suppository form have shown clinical efficacy as a treatment for vaginal infections. Lactobacillus strains have also been examined as a treatment for urinary-tract infections. Putative mechanisms of action of probiotics include production of pathogen-inhibitory substances, inhibition of pathogen attachment, inhibition of the action of microbial toxins, stimulation of immunoglobulin A, and trophic effects on intestinal mucosa. The available probiotics are considered nonpathogenic, but even benign microorganisms can be infective when a patient is severely debilitated or immunosuppressed. Probiotics have demonstrated an ability to prevent and treat some infections. Effective use of probiotics could decrease patients' exposure to antimicrobials. Additional controlled studies are needed to clearly define the safety and efficacy of these agents.

  16. Liveness redux: on media and their claim to be live.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Es, Karin

    2017-11-01

    Increasingly media are asserting themselves as live. In television, this has been an important strategy and recently it has been employed by new media platforms such as Facebook, Periscope and Snapchat. This commentary explains the revival of live media by exploring the meaning and operations of the concept and argues the continued relevance of the concept for the study of social media. Traditionally, there have been three main approaches to the live in academic writing (i.e. liveness as ontology, as phenomenology and as rhetoric): each has its particular shortcoming. This paper proposes that it is more productive to understand the live as a construction that assists to secure media a central role in everyday life.

  17. The living publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terwilliger, Thomas C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-04

    Within the ICSTI Insights Series we offer three articles on the 'living publication' that is already available to practitioners in the important field of crystal structure determination and analysis. While the specific examples are drawn from this particular field, we invite readers to draw parallels in their own fields of interest. The first article describes the present state of the crystallographic living publication, already recognized by an ALPSP (Association of Learned and Professional Society Publishers) Award for Publishing Innovation in 2006. The second article describes the potential impact on the record of science as greater post-publication analysis becomes more common within currently accepted data deposition practices, using processed diffraction data as the starting point. The third article outlines a vision for the further improvement of crystallographic structure reports within potentially achievable enhanced data deposition practices, based upon raw (unprocessed) diffraction data. The IUCr in its Commissions and Journals has for many years emphasized the importance of publications being accompanied by data and the interpretation of the data in terms of atomic models. This has been followed as policy by numerous other journals in the field and its cognate disciplines. This practice has been well served by databases and archiving institutions such as the Protein Data Bank (PDB), the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre (CCDC), and the Inorganic Crystal Structure Database (ICSD). Normally the models that are archived are interpretations of the data, consisting of atomic coordinates with their displacement parameters, along with processed diffraction data from X-ray, neutron or electron diffraction studies. In our current online age, a reader can not only consult the printed word, but can display and explore the results with molecular graphics software of exceptional quality. Furthermore, the routine availability of processed diffraction

  18. Living your own life, together

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerling, Allan

    show that 81% of the respondents who lived with a partner in 2014 lived with the same partner in 2003. This paper analyzes this stability in couple relationship. The empirical focus is on social and emotional support, on the character of the social networks as well as gender equality among partners...

  19. [Long live the kidney donor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fijter, Johan W; Meinders, Arend E

    2014-01-01

    Kidney transplantation offers longer life expectancy and improves quality of life in selected patients with end-stage renal failure. The availability of living donors is critical, particularly to meet the increasing demand and potentially pre-emptive transplantation. In addition, living donor transplantation is associated with better outcomes on comparison with dialysis or transplants from deceased donors. The major disadvantage of living donation is that complications may occur both directly perioperatively and in the long-term. Two recent studies confirmed that the risk of renal failure among selected living donors is extremely low. This implies that there is no need to alter the existing positive attitude towards living donation. Finding a comparable long-term control group with relevant genetic and non-genetic risk factors remains a challenge to studies looking at long-term effects.

  20. Living labs design and assessment of sustainable living

    CERN Document Server

    Guerra-Santin, Olivia; Lockton, Dan

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the results of a multi-annual project with sustainable Living Labs in the United Kingdom, Sweden, Germany and the Netherlands. Living Labs – as initiated by the authors – have proved to be very promising research, design, co-creation and communication facilities for the development and implementation of sustainable innovations in the home. The book provides an inspiring introduction to both the methodology and business modelling for the Living Lab facilities. Understanding daily living at home is key to designing products and services that support households in their transition to more sustainable lifestyles. This book not only explores new ways of gaining insights into daily practices, but also discusses developing and testing design methods to create sustainable solutions for households. These new methods and tools are needed because those available are either ineffective or cause rebound-effects. Intended for researchers and designers with an interest in the transition to sustainable...

  1. Dry Live Aerosol Anthrax Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    In preparing the dry live aerosol anthrax vaccine the use of a spore culture of the STI-1 single vaccine strain and culturing of the latter on a...to 10 billion spores in 1 mm of wash. Dry live aerosol anthrax vaccine is suitable for aerosol immunization if the calculated aspiration dose, when...the viable spores in dry live aerosol anthrax vaccine, it is necessary to store it under deep vacuum (in the range of 100-150 microns) and at temperatures not exceeding +10 degrees.

  2. LiveCode mobile development

    CERN Document Server

    Lavieri, Edward D

    2013-01-01

    A practical guide written in a tutorial-style, ""LiveCode Mobile Development Hotshot"" walks you step-by-step through 10 individual projects. Every project is divided into sub tasks to make learning more organized and easy to follow along with explanations, diagrams, screenshots, and downloadable material.This book is great for anyone who wants to develop mobile applications using LiveCode. You should be familiar with LiveCode and have access to a smartphone. You are not expected to know how to create graphics or audio clips.

  3. Fluorescent labelling in living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Anselm Fabian Lowell; Hackenberger, Christian Peter Richard

    2017-12-01

    The labelling of proteins with green fluorescent protein enabled the visualization of proteins in living cells for the first time. Since then, much progress has been made in the field. Modern strategies allow the labelling of proteins in live cells through a range of specialized methods with sophisticated chemical probes that show enhanced photophysical properties compared to fluorescent proteins. This review briefly summarizes recent advances in the field of fluorescent chemical protein labelling inside living cells and illustrates key aspects on the requirements and advantages of each given method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Solo Living - the meaning of home for persons living alone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Toke Haunstrup

    Like in other countries, the number of people living in one-person households is growing in Denmark. The share of Danes living alone has increased from 9.1% in 1981 to 16.1% in 2006, and the increase is particularly marked for persons aged 30 to 60 years (the "middle-aged"). This raises the analy......Like in other countries, the number of people living in one-person households is growing in Denmark. The share of Danes living alone has increased from 9.1% in 1981 to 16.1% in 2006, and the increase is particularly marked for persons aged 30 to 60 years (the "middle-aged"). This raises...... that solo livers to a great extent experience and use their dwellings in ways similar to persons living in multi-person households. However, differences are also observed. Firstly, all interviewed solo livers emphasize independence from others as important. Several of the informants have had negative......, the interviews indicate that solo livers in some cases spend more time outside home (occupied by leisure activities or together with friends) compared with people living in oneperson households. This suggests a different balance between time at home and outside home for some solo livers....

  5. Immunogenicity and safety of a combined diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, and inactivated poliovirus vaccine (DTaP-IPV) compared to separate administration of standalone DTaP and IPV vaccines: a randomized, controlled study in infants in the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo Young; Hwang, Hui Sung; Kim, Jong Hyun; Kim, Hyun Hee; Lee, Hyun Seung; Chung, Eun Hee; Park, Su Eun; Ma, Sang Hyuk; Chang, Jin Keun; Guitton, Fabrice; Ortiz, Esteban; Kang, Jin Han

    2011-02-11

    This randomized trial enrolled 442 infants in the Republic of Korea to assess the immunogenicity and safety of a combined diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, and inactivated poliovirus vaccine (DTaP-IPV; Tetraxim™) for primary vaccination at 2, 4 and 6 months of age compared with DTaP and IPV vaccines given separately. Immunogenicity was high in both groups; seroprotection and seroconversion rates of the combined vaccine (Group A) were non-inferior to the control vaccines (Group B). All subjects were seroprotected against poliovirus types 1, 2 and 3 (≥ 81/dil) and anti-diphtheria (≥ 0.01 IU/mL); 99.0% were seroprotected against tetanus (≥ 0.1 IU/mL). At least 93.6% had anti-diphtheria antibody titers ≥ 0.1 IU/mL. Anti-pertussis toxoid (PT) and anti-filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA) seroconversion (≥ 4-fold increase in antibody titer) rates were 96.6% and 94.4% for Group A, 92.2% and 78.4% for Group B. Most solicited reactions occurred within 4 days of vaccination, resolved within 3 days and were mild. Severe solicited reactions occurred after ≤ 0.5% of doses in Group A and ≤ 0.9% in Group B. No withdrawals occurred because of adverse events. The DTaP-IPV combined vaccine given at 2, 4, and 6 months of age was well tolerated; immunogenicity was similar to the control vaccines. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. ATLAS25: Facebook Live Events

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN

    2017-01-01

    This video is a montage of the 5 Facebook Live events that were broadcast on 2nd October 2017, to celebrate ATLAS25. For more details visit: http://atlas.cern/updates/atlas-news/celebrating-25-years-discovery

  7. National Center for Assisted Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... spread. Looking for more information reguarding Prefered Provider Program Quality Care Book Store ​​ ​ ​​​ ​ ​​​ Featured Video Intergenerational Programming ​ Learn how Golden Oaks, an assisted living ...

  8. Advanced Melanoma Facebook Live Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    In case you missed it, watch this recent Facebook Live event about the current state of research and treatment for advanced stage melanoma. To learn more, see our evidence-based information about skin cancer, including melanoma.

  9. Living With Diabetes: Foot Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Camp Fundraising Events Step Out Walk to Stop Diabetes Tour de Cure Father of the Year Stop Diabetes at School ... Forecast Stop Diabetes Step Out: Walk to Stop Diabetes Tour de Cure Living With Type 2 Diabetes Recipes for Healthy ...

  10. Living with Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Camp Fundraising Events Step Out Walk to Stop Diabetes Tour de Cure Father of the Year Stop Diabetes at School ... Forecast Stop Diabetes Step Out: Walk to Stop Diabetes Tour de Cure Living With Type 2 Diabetes Recipes for Healthy ...

  11. Living with Diabetes: Foot Complications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Camp Fundraising Events Step Out Walk to Stop Diabetes Tour de Cure Father of the Year Stop Diabetes at School ... Forecast Stop Diabetes Step Out: Walk to Stop Diabetes Tour de Cure Living With Type 2 Diabetes Recipes for Healthy ...

  12. Living lab Groningen Airport Eelde

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philip Broeksma

    2015-01-01

    Het Living Lab Groningen Airport Eelde (LLGAE) wil realiseren dat partners uit overheid, onderzoek, onderwijs, ondernemers en omgeving in gezamenlijkheid en gelijkwaardigheid, werken aan innovatieve oplossingen, experimenten en opgaven in de ruimtelijke en economische context van Groningen Airport

  13. Living with HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... serious. But thanks to better treatments, people with HIV/AIDS are now living longer, and have a better ... a health care provider has experience in treating HIV/AIDS If are on any medicines, make sure to ...

  14. Coelacanths as 'almost living fossils’

    OpenAIRE

    Lionel eCavin; Guillaume eGuinot

    2014-01-01

    Since its usage by Darwin in 1859, the concept of ‘living fossil’ has undergone multiple definitions and has been much discussed and criticized. Soon after its discovery in 1938, the coelacanth Latimeria was regarded as the iconic example of a ‘living fossil’. Several morphological studies have shown that the coelacanth lineage (Actinistia) has not displayed critical morphological transformation during its evolutionary history and molecular studies have revealed a low substitution rate for La...

  15. Living antennas on communication satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lumholt, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Crises change the global pattern of communication. The communications problems occur because the satellites are optimized to cover specific geographic areas, and these areas cannot be altered once the satellites are in Earth orbit. An effective solution to the problem is to equip communication...... satellites with "living" antennas that can adjust their radiation coverage areas according to the new demands. The development of living antennas is, therefore, among the focus areas identified and supported by the European Space Agency, ESA....

  16. Walking and Sensing Mobile Lives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Mads; Meinhardt, Nina Dam

    In this position paper, we discuss how mindful walking with people allow us to explore sensory aspects of mobile lives that are typically absent from research. We present an app that aids researchers collect impressions from a walk.......In this position paper, we discuss how mindful walking with people allow us to explore sensory aspects of mobile lives that are typically absent from research. We present an app that aids researchers collect impressions from a walk....

  17. Improving the health and lives of people living in slums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheuya, Shaaban A

    2008-01-01

    Urban poverty, ill health, and living in slums are intrinsically interwoven. Poverty is multidimensional and there is no agreement on a universal definition. UN-HABITAT has introduced an operational definition of slums that is restricted to legal aspects and excludes the more difficult social dimensions. The World Health Organization definition is more comprehensive and uses a health and social determinants approach that is strongly based on the social conditions in which people live and work. Health and improving the lives of people living in slums is at the top of international development agenda. Proactive strategies to contain new urban populations and slum upgrading are the two key approaches. Regarding the latter, participatory upgrading that most often involves the provision of basic infrastructure is currently the most acceptable intervention in developing countries. In urbanization of poverty, participatory slum upgrading is a necessary but not sufficient condition to reduce poverty and improve the lives of slum dwellers. Empowering interventions that target capacity development and skill transfer of both individuals and community groups--as well as meaningful negotiations with institutions, such as municipal governments, which can affect slum dwellers' lives--appear to be the most promising strategies to improve the slum dwellers' asset bases and health. Non-governmental organizations, training institutions, and international development partners are best placed to facilitate horizontal relationships between individuals, community groups, and vertical relationships with more powerful institutions that affect the slum dwellers' lives. The main challenge appears to be lack of commitment from the key stakeholders to upgrade interventions citywide.

  18. [Passive euthanasia and living will].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julesz, Máté

    2014-07-06

    This article deals with the intentional distinction between murder of first degree and passive euthanasia. In Hungary, active euthanasia is considered to be a murder of first degree, whilst the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxemburg and Switzerland have legalized the active form of mercy killing in Europe. The palliative terminal care, when e.g. giving pain-killer morphine to the patient, might result in decreasing the patient's life-span, and thus causing indirect euthanasia. However, the legal institution of living will exists in several counter-euthanasia countries. The living will allows future patients to express their decision in advance to refuse a life-sustaining treatment, e.g. in case of irreversible coma. The institution of living will exists in Germany and in Hungary too. Nevertheless, the formal criteria of living will make it hardly applicable. The patient ought to express his/her will before a notary public in advance, and he/she should hand it over when being hospitalized. If the patient is not able to present his/her living will to his/her doctor in the hospital, then his/her only hope remains that he/she has given a copy of the living will to the family doctor previously, and the family doctor will notify the hospital.

  19. Recombinant Poliovirus circulation among healthy children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    In order to assess the level of polio virus with natural recombinant genome and wild polio virus circulating in the environment of healthy children aged 0 to 5 years in Abidjan, 130 polio viruses made up of 26 polio type 1, 55 type 2 and 49 type 3 were identified by neutralisation test with monoclonal antibodies and restriction ...

  20. Recoding of the vesicular stomatitis virus L gene by computer-aided design provides a live, attenuated vaccine candidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bingyin; Yang, Chen; Tekes, Gergely; Mueller, Steffen; Paul, Aniko; Whelan, Sean P J; Wimmer, Eckard

    2015-03-31

    Codon pair bias (CPB), which has been observed in all organisms, is a neglected genomic phenomenon that affects gene expression. CPB results from synonymous codons that are paired more or less frequently in ORFeomes regardless of codon bias. The effect of an individual codon pair change is usually small, but when it is amplified by large-scale genome recoding, strikingly altered biological phenotypes are observed. The utility of codon pair bias in the development of live attenuated vaccines was recently demonstrated by recodings of poliovirus (a positive-strand RNA virus) and influenza virus (a negative-strand segmented RNA virus). Here, the L gene of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), a nonsegmented negative-sense RNA virus, was partially recoded based on codon pair bias. Totals of 858 and 623 silent mutations were introduced into a 5'-terminal segment of the viral L gene (designated L1) to create sequences containing either overrepresented or underrepresented codon pairs, designated L1(sdmax) and L1(min), respectively. Analysis revealed that recombinant VSV containing the L1(min) sequence could not be recovered, whereas the virus with the sdmax sequence showed a modest level of attenuation in cell culture. More strikingly, in mice the L1(sdmax) virus was almost as immunogenic as the parental strain but highly attenuated. Taken together, these results open a new road to attain a balance between VSV virulence and immunogenicity, which could serve as an example for the attenuation of other negative-strand, nonsegmented RNA viruses. Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is the prototypic rhabdovirus in the order Mononegavirales. A wide range of human pathogens belong to this family. Using a unique computer algorithm and large-scale genome synthesis, we attempted to develop a live attenuated vaccine strain for VSV, which could be used as an antigen delivery platform for humans. Recombinant VSVs with distinct codon pair biases were rationally designed, constructed, and

  1. Women's lived experiences of learning to live with osteoporosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carrinna A; Abrahamsen, Bo; Konradsen, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A vast amount of literature exists concerning pharmaceutical adherence in osteoporosis. However, the process of learning to live with osteoporosis over time remains largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of the continued process of how women learn...... to live with osteoporosis. Our objective was to explore what characterizes women's experiences of living with osteoporosis during the first year after diagnosis, when patients are prescribed anti-osteoporotic treatment, without having experienced an osteoporotic fracture. METHODS: Forty-two narrative...... consisted of two sub-themes "taking the medication", and "discontinuing the medication". 2) "Daily life with osteoporosis", which was characterized by three sub-themes: "interpretation of symptoms", "interpretation of the scan results" and "lifestyle reflections". The results highlighted that learning...

  2. Solo Living - the meaning of home for persons living alone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Toke Haunstrup

    Like in other countries, the number of people living in one-person households is growing in Denmark. Within the last three decades, the share of the Danish population living alone has increased from 16.1% in 1981 to 22.9% in 2006. The increase has been particularly marked for the young adults aged...... 18-29 years and the "mature adults" aged 30-60 years. As Danish housing is generally designed for families rather than one-person households, this raises the analytical  questions of how particularly the 30-60 years-old solo livers experience and shape their dwelling and how they integrate...... it into their everyday practices. The paper discusses these questions on the basis of qualitative interviews with solo livers aged 30-60 years. The study shows that solo livers to a great extent experience and use their dwelling in ways similar to persons living in family households. However, differences are also...

  3. Learning to Live Well with Celiac Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Celiac Disease Learning to Live Well with Celiac Disease Past Issues / Spring 2015 ... Treatment / Four Inches and Seven Pounds… / Learning to Live Well with Celiac Disease / Living Gluten-Free Spring ...

  4. Video fingerprinting for live events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Mehmet; Haitsma, Jaap; Barvinko, Pavlo; Langelaar, Gerhard; Maas, Martijn

    2009-02-01

    Multimedia fingerprinting (robust hashing) as a content identification technology is emerging as an effective tool for preventing unauthorized distribution of commercial content through user generated content (UGC) sites. Research in the field has mainly considered content types with slow distribution cycles, e.g. feature films, for which reference fingerprint ingestion and database indexing can be performed offline. As a result, research focus has been on improving the robustness and search speed. Live events, such as live sports broadcasts, impose new challenges on a fingerprinting system. For instance, highlights from a soccer match are often available-and viewed-on UGC sites well before the end of the match. In this scenario, the fingerprinting system should be able to ingest and index live content online and offer continuous search capability, where new material is identifiable within minutes of broadcast. In this paper, we concentrate on algorithmic and architectural challenges we faced when developing a video fingerprinting solution for live events. In particular, we discuss how to effectively utilize fast sorting algorithms and a master-slave architecture for fast and continuous ingestion of live broadcasts.

  5. Drug: D05544 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D05544 Drug Live oral polimyelitis vaccine (JP17); Poliovirus vaccine live oral; O...rimune (TN) ... Antiviral ... DG01689 ... Live vaccine ... DG01688 ... Oral live vaccine ATC code: J07BF01 ... PubChem: 17398306 ...

  6. Microencapsulation of live probiotic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad Ariful; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Choi, Yun-Jaie; Cho, Chong-Su

    2010-10-01

    Scientific research regarding the use of live bacterial cells for therapeutic purposes has been rapidly growing over the years and has generated considerable interest to scientists and health professionals. Probiotics are defined as essential live microorganisms which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. Due to considerable beneficial health effects, these microorganisms are increasingly incorporated into the dairy products; however, many reports demonstrated their poor survival and stability. Their survival in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is also questionable. To overcome these problems, microencapsulation techniques are currently receiving considerable attention. This review describes the importance of live probiotic bacterial microencapsulation using an alginate microparticulate system and presents the potentiality of various coating polymers such as chitosan and polylysine for improving the stability of this microencapsulation.

  7. Our Lives with Electric Things

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schick, Lea

    2017-01-01

    Our lives with electric things are positively charged with meaning. Our bodies pulse with electrical activity. The electric appliances, devices, and technologies around us bring hope and anxiety, possibility and danger. Some have transformed our possibilities for reproducing, nurturing......, and sustaining life. Some mediate human sociality across time and space, while others knit ecological and interspecies relationships together. Still others create possibilities for controlling, managing, exploiting, and ending life. Against this backdrop any anthropology of electricity seems to require electric...... things. Can we still imagine the possibility of lives without electric things? Can electric things help us to address the possibilities and limits of life with electricity? Can our lives with electricity ever be disentangled from electric things? What are the unique capacities and material politics...

  8. [Health effects of living habits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuori, Ilkka

    2015-01-01

    Single healthy living habits such as non-smoking and regular physical activity decrease the risk of common non-communicable diseases, unsuccessful aging and premature death to a small to moderate degree. Their cumulative effects are, however, large. Only a small minority of people adhere well to all healthy living habits or even the healthiest ones. Consequently, the population attributable fractions of major public health problems due to unhealthy lifestyles are large. Substantial improvement of public health calls for policies and programs to influence the root causes of the lifestyles in the multiple environments and systems where they are developed, maintained, and changed.

  9. Astronomy Cast Live: Live Blogging Today's Science to the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemrose-Fetter, Rebecca; Gay, P. L.; Astronomy Cast LIVE Team

    2008-05-01

    In today's digital, on-demand society, consumers of information both want to know exactly what is happening as it is happening, and to be able to subscribe to content of their choosing. Meeting the needs of these tech savvy individuals are bloggers, podcasters and vodcasters. Using text, audio, and video to reach their respective audiences, these communicators are the new face of public outreach and journalism, but even their communications means are starting to become passé in the face of live blogging. The idea behind live blogging is simple: Take any person - even an undergraduate - with an Internet connected device, put them someplace interesting, and have them report on what they are seeing and experiencing online in real-time. This new tool is bringing astronomy enthusiasts around the world the thrill of live astronomy announcements, attending talks in real, and being "in the room" with astronomers via an Internet connection. These audiences can be anyone, from any nation, with any age. Beyond the public communications benefits of this program, it is also a program that allows the participation of early undergraduate students in science conferences. To date, two undergraduate students and five E/PO professionals have live blogged text, audio, and video content from three science conferences and a shuttle launch. Together, they have produced over 200 hundred stories that have reached tens of thousands of people around the world. In this poster we describe how we have made astronomy live blogging a reality from both the technical and personal standpoint. This project is funded through NSF grant # 0744944.

  10. Are trees long-lived?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith

    2009-01-01

    Trees and tree care can capture the best of people's motivations and intentions. Trees are living memorials that help communities heal at sites of national tragedy, such as Oklahoma City and the World Trade Center. We mark the places of important historical events by the trees that grew nearby even if the original tree, such as the Charter Oak in Connecticut or...

  11. Living with wildfire in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia A. Champ; Nicholas Flores; Hannah Brenkert-Smith

    2010-01-01

    In this presentation, we describe results of a survey to homeowners living in wildfire-prone areas of two counties along the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains in Colorado. The survey was designed to elicit information on homeowners' experience with wildfire, perceptions of wildfire risk on their property and neighboring properties, mitigation efforts undertaken...

  12. Coelacanths as 'almost living fossils’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionel eCavin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Since its usage by Darwin in 1859, the concept of ‘living fossil’ has undergone multiple definitions and has been much discussed and criticized. Soon after its discovery in 1938, the coelacanth Latimeria was regarded as the iconic example of a ‘living fossil’. Several morphological studies have shown that the coelacanth lineage (Actinistia has not displayed critical morphological transformation during its evolutionary history and molecular studies have revealed a low substitution rate for Latimeria, indicating a slow genetic evolution. This statement, however, has been recently questioned by arguing that the low substitution rate was not real, and that the slow morphological evolution of actinistians was not supported by paleontological evidence. The assessment of morphological transformation among three vertebrate lineages during a time interval of circa 400 million years shows that the morphological disparity of coelacanths is much more reduced than the morphological disparity of Actinopterygii and Tetrapoda. These results support the idea that living coelacanths are singular organisms among the living world.

  13. Living History: F. Eugene Yates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquhart, John

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, the American Physiological Society (APS) initiated the Living History of Physiology Archival Program to recognize senior members who have made significant contributions during their career to the advancement of the discipline and the profession of physiology. During 2008, the APS Cardiovascular Section selected Francis Eugene Yates to be…

  14. The Living Rainforest Sustainable Greenhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bot, G.P.A.; Zwart, de H.F.; Hansen, K.; Logan, A.; Witte Groenholland, H.

    2008-01-01

    The Living Rainforest (www.livingrainforest.org) is an educational charity that uses rainforest ecology as a metaphor for communicating general sustainability issues to the public. Its greenhouses and office buildings are to be renovated using the most sustainable methods currently available. This

  15. women living in informal settlements

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    David Ofori-Adjei

    infant and child mortality having outpaced gains in rural areas over the past decades.4 At the same time, urban inequalities have increased, with large populations living in newly formed informal settlements characterized by limited access to water and sanitation infrastructure, and generally referred to as “slums”. According ...

  16. Shakespeare Live! and Character Counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookshire, Cathy A.

    This paper discusses a live production of Shakespeare's "Macbeth" (in full costume but with no sets) for all public middle school and high school students in Harrisonburg and Rockingham, Virginia. The paper states that the "Character Counts" issues that are covered in the play are: decision making, responsibility and…

  17. Resensi Buku: The Living Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayu Chairina Laksmi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Book ReviewJudul buku    : The Living CompanyPenulis    : Arie de GeusPengantar    : Peter M. SengePenerbit    : Harvard Business School PressTahun terbit    : 1997Tebal    : xiv + 214 hal

  18. Senior to Senior: Living Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, Kathy

    2004-01-01

    Senior to Senior: Living Lessons is a program created to provide meaningful horticulture therapy activities for community minority elders (60 years of age and older) and senior college students (20 years of age and older) from an Historically Black University. The program's objectives were to promote positive intergenerational relationships and to…

  19. Live Webinar on video teaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zac Woolfitt

    2016-01-01

    On February 23, 2016, Zac Woolfitt gave a live webinar on video teaching. He was located at Inholland Diemen (where he also teaches Tourism), the broadcast was directly transferred to the Sonic Foundry worldwide users group, based in Madison, Wisconsin, USA.

  20. Ribcage compressibility in living subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M; Hill, S; Scullin, J

    1994-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the responses of normal living subjects to the application of anteroposterior forces to the ribcage. Seventeen subjects aged between 25 and 37 years were tested during slow oscillatory loading while breath-holding at the end of a normal expiration. The mean stiffness coefficient was found to be 9.4 N mm(-1) (SD 2.9) and the mean gradient of the force-strain relation was 1888 N (SD 646). Comparison with previously published cadaver data indicates that the embalmed cadaver ribcage stiffness is in the order of three times stiffer than living subjects, while fresh cadavers showed comparable stiffness to living subjects. A number of studies have used models to predict and understand the behaviour of the thoracic spine. Validation of the behaviour of models which include the thoracic spine and ribcage depends on comparison of model response predictions with observed responses of human subjects. The present study provides data on the anteroposterior compressibility of the ribcage of living subjects which may be suitable for use in model validation studies. Copyright © 1994. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Educating Lives for Christian Wisdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Darin H.; Wadell, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores how educating lives for Christian wisdom might serve as an antidote to the vice of "acedia," a prominent feature of the culture of contemporary higher education. After suggesting that the capital vice of "acedia" seems to capture well various facets of our present age and how the pursuit of wisdom serves…

  2. Where You Live: Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Where you live page shows visitors to the risk assessment website how to contact their local regional office by state. Since these link to pages maintained by the local offices they will have the most up-to-date contact information.

  3. Enhanced living environments from models to technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Dobre, Ciprian; Ganchev, Ivan; Garcia, Nuno; Goleva, Rossitza Ivanova

    2017-01-01

    Enhanced living environments employ information and communications technologies to support true ambient assisted living for people with disabilities. This book provides an overview of today's architectures, techniques, protocols, components, and cloud-based solutions related to ambient assisted living and enhanced living environments.

  4. Piloted ignition of live forest fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. McAllister; I. Grenfell; A. Hadlow; W. M. Jolly; M. Finney; J. Cohen

    2012-01-01

    The most unpredictable and uncontrollable wildfires are those that burn in the crowns of live vegetation. The fuels that feed these crown fires are mostly live, green foliage. Unfortunately, little is known about how live fuels combust. To understand how live fuels burn, piloted ignition experiments were performed with lodgepole pine and Douglas-fir. The thermal...

  5. Parenting experiences of couples living with human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has allowed couples living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to live longer and healthier lives. The reduction in the mother-to-child transmission of HIV has encouraged some people living with HIV (PLWH) to have children. However, little is known about the parenting ...

  6. Living in a Flexible Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canepa, Simona

    2017-10-01

    How long does a space or an object have to last? If in the past an object or a building manufacturing was designed to last as much as possible, nowadays it is designed to have a life related to the time in which it will be used. Flexibility is what characterizes a space, it’s the ability to be variable and adaptable to changes in the lives of users or in relation to the use which these will make over time. The evolution of the labour market, the difficulty of inserting within it and the need to push more and more frequent move today in the trial of living space models increasingly flexible: people, especially young people, are forced to move on territory outlining a new condition to which the flexible nomadic dwellings offer an adequate response, ensuring high functional performance in confined spaces.

  7. Perspectives on Living With Fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Gill Taylor

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Perceptions of people living with chronic illness change over time, contributing to health-related stress that necessitates coping skills. Paterson’s shifting perspectives model provides an explanation of chronically ill people’s variations in attention to their symptoms. In this qualitative study, 20 people with fibromyalgia living in a rural setting were interviewed in 2013 with the aim of gaining insight into their experiences and the meaning-making associated with their chronic condition. Analysis of the interview data categorized five recurrent, or common, themes: experiences of loss, feelings of fear and uncertainty, influence of stress, stigmatization of the disease, and coping through courage. Difficulties attendant to losses, distress, and stigma associated with this chronic condition led the participants to report poor health-related quality of life. The study findings can be useful across clinical settings to nurses and other health care providers in understanding those diagnosed with fibromyalgia and their care needs.

  8. [Living donor transplantation. Surgical complications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Georges

    2008-02-01

    Although nephrectomy by open surgery is the most used technique for the extraction of kidney transplants in the living donor, nephrectomy under laparaoscopy is increasingly practiced. Laparoscopic nephrectomy is less invasive and performed under videoscopy control, after insufflation of the peritoneal cavity. Three to four incisions are done in order to enter the surgical instruments. The kidney is extracted through a horizontal sus-pubic incision. The exposition is either exclusively transperitoneal, retroperitoneal or hand assisted. The advantages of laparoscopy are esthetical, financial due to a shorter hospitalisation and a quicker recovery, as well a confort for the donor. The disadvantages are a longer warm ischemia time and possibly a higher risk of delayed graft function. Randomised studies having compared laparoscopy and open surgery in the living donor have not find any significant difference regarding the per- and perioperative in the complications.

  9. Social Work and Lived Citizenship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warming, Hanne; Fahnøe, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    Warming and Fahnøe offers, through introduction of the sensitising concept of lived citizenship and a socio-spatial perspective, a much needed renewal of the rights and strength based approach to social work practice and research towards an almost anthropological understanding of the social...... situation of vulnerable groups. Indeed, they show how the concept of lived citizenship, and four supporting concepts (disciplinary versus inclusive identity shaping; intimate citizenship; space; community governance) enables contextualized analyses of the complexities of social work as a social space...... of meaning and power as (re-) producing practices through which clients experience and negotiate rights, responsibilities, participation, identity and belonging, and thereby of dynamics of inclusion and exclusion related to social work....

  10. Social work and lived citizenship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warming, Hanne; Fahnøe, Kristian Relsted

    2017-01-01

    Warming and Fahnøe offers, through the introduction of the sensitizing concept of lived citizenship and a socio-spatial perspective, a much needed renewal of the rights and strength-based approach to social work practice and research towards an almost anthropological understanding of the social...... situation of vulnerable groups. Indeed, they show how the concept of lived citizenship, and four supporting concepts (disciplinary versus inclusive identity shaping; intimate citizenship; space; and community governance) enables the contextualized analyses of the complexities of social work as a social...... space of meaning and power as (re-)producing practices through which clients experience and negotiate rights, responsibilities, participation, identity and belonging, and thereby of dynamics of inclusion and exclusion related to social work...

  11. Viruses: are they living entities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennazio, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    The essence (living or nonliving entities) of viruses has today become an aporia, i.e. a difficulty inherent in reasoning because they shared four fundamental characteristics with livings (multiplication, genetic information, mutation and evolution) without having the capacity to have an independent life. For much time, however, they were considered minuscule pathogenetic micro-organisms in observance of Koch and Pasteur's 'germ theory' albeit no microbiologist could show their existence except their filterability and pathogenetic action. Only some voices based on experimental results raised against this dogmatic view, in particular those of Beijerinck, Baur and Mrowka, without dipping effectively into the dominant theory. The discovery relative to their nucleoprotein nature made between 1934 and 1936 (Schlesinger as for the phage, and Bawden and co-operators as for Tobacco mosaic virus; TMV), together with the first demonstrations of their structures thanks to electron microscopy (from 1939 onwards) started on casting a new light on their true identity, which could be more clearly identified when, from 1955 onwards, phage and TMV proved to be decisive factors to understand the strategies of replication of the genetic material. Following the new knowledge, the theoretical view relative to viruses changed rather radically and the current view looks on these pathogenetic agents as nonliving aggregates of macromolecules provided with biological properties. There is, however, a current of thought, made explicitly by Lwoff that places viruses as compromise between living and non living and, perhaps, as primitive forms of life which have had great importance for the evolution of cellular life. At any rate, viruses are peculiar entities whose importance cannot be unacknowledged.

  12. Crime prevention and active living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukaitou-Sideris, Anastasia; Eck, John E

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of whether crime is a barrier to active living and if it is, what can be done about it? The authors introduce a theoretical model that addresses how crime might influence physical activity behavior. The core components of the model are: situational characteristics, crime and disorder, fear of crime or disorder, and physical activity. These variables are thought to be moderated through psychological, demographic, environmental and other factors. Research questions that derive from the model are featured.

  13. Living with HIV: Patients Perspective

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-06-04

    This podcast showcases three people who are living with HIV. The patients share their experiences of being diagnosed with HIV, of the treatments they are undergoing, and on taking responsibility for their health.  Created: 6/4/2009 by Division of HIV and AIDS Prevention (DHAP), National Center for HIV, Hepatitis, STD, and Tuberculosis Prevention ( NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 6/4/2009.

  14. Intergenerational living: An intercultural comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan GRUM

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the factors behind young adults living in shared households with their parents for an extended period of time. We were interested in finding out if they think the state should implement regulatory measures to help them become independent. Our hypothesis is that the young and old living together as an extended family is not an indicator of intergenerational symbiosis and solidarity, but rather a reflection of wider social and cultural processes regulating the life of society as a whole and the lives of individuals. The study was carried out in three different cultural environments: Slovenia, Serbia and Japan. The study showed that, despite the fact that they get along relatively well, young people living in a shared household with their parents still want to “go it alone” and they expect greater help from the state, through regulatory measures and fair distribution of social assistance between the “young” and the “old” generations, to create social and housing policies that are fairer and friendlier to young families. This would reduce the pressure on the family and the potential for conflict within it, as well as the potential for conflict between the state and the family. Japanese participants expressed the highest level of agreement with this, whereas Serbs expressed the lowest. In terms of sources of financing for buying a home, the Slovenian participants express the highest level of agreement when it comes to financing through loans, whereas Serbian and Japanese participants also count on their own financial resources, which we interpret as a typical social phenomenon of the intergenerational transfer of title or a demonstration of high expectations of financial assistance from relatives. However, we established that the significant intercultural difference in the monthly use of funds for housing rental or purchase can be indicative of the participants’ varying expectations and opportunities to enter the

  15. [Kidney transplantation from living donors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laca, L; Grandtnerová, B; Lacková, E

    2000-10-01

    From Jan. 1, 1994 till August 31, 1999 in the Transplantation Centre of the F. D. Roosevelt Hospital and Policlinic 202 transplantations of the kidneys were made, incl. 11 from live donors. The survival of patients and renal grafts in our group is 100%, i.e. all transplanted kidneys are so far functional. In transplantations of kidneys from dead donors the one-year survival of grafts was 85% and the 5-year survival only 70%. During removal of kidneys from live donors we had only one minor complication--a surface infection of the surgical wound. The authors describe their own experience with assessing the indication criteria, criteria for selection of the most suitable donor-recipient pair. Consistently with work of authors from abroad, they consider transplantations of the kidneys from live donors as one of the best alternatives how to increase the number and quality of renal transplantations and to prevent thus an increase of the number of patients on the waiting list.

  16. Diphtheria, tetanus and poliovirus antibody persistence 5 years after vaccination of pre-schoolers with two different diphtheria, tetanus and inactivated poliomyelitis vaccines (Td-IPV or DT-IPV) and immune responses to a booster dose of DTaP-IPV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajdos, Vincent; Vidor, Emmanuel; Richard, Patrick; Tran, Clément; Sadorge, Christine

    2015-07-31

    This follow-up study assessed the 5-year persistence of vaccine-induced antibodies (Td-IPV or DT-IPV) and the immune response to a booster dose of DTaP-IPV. This was an open-label, parallel-group (two arms), multicentre trial performed at 44 study sites in France. Children aged 11-13 years, of either sex, who received Td-IPV (Revaxis(®)) and DT-IPV (DT Polio(®)) vaccines at 6 years of age in one previous open-label trial with no further vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis or poliomyelitis, were enrolled. All participants received a single intramuscular booster dose (0.5mL) of DTaP-IPV vaccine (Tetravac-Acellulaire(®)). Study endpoints were based on antibody persistence and post-booster immune responses. Safety was monitored throughout the study. Descriptive statistics were used for all analyses. Of the 758 children included in the previous study, 274 were included in this follow-up study; 129 had previously been vaccinated with Td-IPV, and 145 had previously received DT-IPV. At least 96.5% of participants in both groups presented an anti-diphtheria and anti-tetanus concentration ≥0.01IU/mL, and anti-poliovirus types 1-3 titres≥8 (1/dilution). Following vaccination with DTaP-IPV, anti-diphtheria and anti-tetanus antibody concentrations ≥0.1IU/mL and anti-poliovirus types 1-3 antibody titres ≥8 (1/dilution) were achieved in all participants. DTaP-IPV was well tolerated in this study. There were no serious adverse events during the study, and no participant withdrew because of adverse events. The present study confirmed the long-term immunity conferred by Td-IPV when given as a booster dose, and supports the use of Td-IPV as a second booster at 6 years of age in children previously vaccinated against diphtheria, tetanus and poliomyelitis types 1-3. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Living Challenges of Ambient Assisted Living - A Literature Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygholm, Ann; Kanstrup, Anne Marie

    2015-01-01

    Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) is a rapidly evolving research and development area propelled by scarcity of health resources caused by an aging workforce and increase of Citizens in need of health care and health assistance on a regular basis. This paper presents a literature review of the current...... state-of-the-art of AAL. The objective is to point towards methodological actions to be taken into account in AAL research on this basis. Searches were conducted in five research databases. The search identified 86 papers. 10 of these papers were review papers chosen for analysis. The analysis presents...

  18. Laparoscopic nephrectomy in live donor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuar I. Mitre

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To present the initial experience of videolaparoscopic nephrectomy in live renal donor. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the period from April 2000 to August 2003, 50 left nephrectomies in live donor were performed by videolaparoscopy for transplantation. Twenty-eight patients were male (56% and 22 female (44%. Mean age was 37.2 years, and the mean body mass index (BMI was 27.1 kg/m². RESULTS: Mean surgical time was 179.5 minutes, and warm ischemia time of the graft was 3.79 minutes. The mean estimated bleeding was 141 mL. There was no need of blood transfusion or conversion to open surgery. In 42 cases (84%, the vascular portion of the graft was considered good by the recipient's surgical team and in all cases, the ureter was considered of proper size, though in one of them (2% its vascularization was considered improper. The transplanted kidneys produced urine still in the surgical room in 46 of the 50 transplantations considered. In only 2 cases opioid was required for analgesia. In average, 3.1 doses of dipyrone were used for each patient during hospital stay, and hospital discharge occurred, in average, after 3.2 days post-operatively. Two patients required re-operations and one of them evolved to death. CONCLUSIONS: The laparoscopic nephrectomy in live donor for renal transplantation is an alternative to conventional open surgery. In relation to the graft, no alteration, either anatomic or functional, was detected. Though there is already a large documentation in the international literature regarding this procedure, in our setting a prospective randomized study with the usual surgical study is still necessary in order to prove the advantages and disadvantages of the method.

  19. Laparoscopic nephrectomy in live donor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitre Anuar I.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To present the initial experience of videolaparoscopic nephrectomy in live renal donor. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the period from April 2000 to August 2003, 50 left nephrectomies in live donor were performed by videolaparoscopy for transplantation. Twenty-eight patients were male (56% and 22 female (44%. Mean age was 37.2 years, and the mean body mass index (BMI was 27.1 kg/m². RESULTS: Mean surgical time was 179.5 minutes, and warm ischemia time of the graft was 3.79 minutes. The mean estimated bleeding was 141 mL. There was no need of blood transfusion or conversion to open surgery. In 42 cases (84%, the vascular portion of the graft was considered good by the recipient's surgical team and in all cases, the ureter was considered of proper size, though in one of them (2% its vascularization was considered improper. The transplanted kidneys produced urine still in the surgical room in 46 of the 50 transplantations considered. In only 2 cases opioid was required for analgesia. In average, 3.1 doses of dipyrone were used for each patient during hospital stay, and hospital discharge occurred, in average, after 3.2 days post-operatively. Two patients required re-operations and one of them evolved to death. CONCLUSIONS: The laparoscopic nephrectomy in live donor for renal transplantation is an alternative to conventional open surgery. In relation to the graft, no alteration, either anatomic or functional, was detected. Though there is already a large documentation in the international literature regarding this procedure, in our setting a prospective randomized study with the usual surgical study is still necessary in order to prove the advantages and disadvantages of the method.

  20. Exact law of live nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azbel‧, Mark Ya.

    2005-08-01

    The exact law of mortality dynamics in changing populations and environment is derived. It includes no explicit characteristics of animal-environment interactions (metabolism, etc.) which are a must for life; it is universal for all animals, from single-cell yeast to humans, with their drastically different biology, evolutionary history, and complexity; it is rapidly (within few percent of life span) reversible. Such a law is unique for live systems with their homeostatic self-adjustment to environment (cf. thermodynamics of liquids and glasses). The law which is valid for all live, and only live, systems is their specific natural law. Mortality is an instrument of natural selection and biological diversity. Its law, which is preserved in evolution of all species, is a conservation law of mortality, selection, evolution, biology. The law implies new kinds of intrinsic mortality and adaptation which dominate in evolutionary unprecedented protected populations and, in contrast to species-specific natural selection, proceed via universal stepwise rungs and reduce to universal cellular mechanism. The law demonstrates that intrinsic mortality and at least certain aspects of aging are disposable evolutionary byproducts, and directed genetic and/or biological changes may yield healthy and vital Methuselah lifespan. This is consistent with experiments. Universality implies that single-cell yeast may provide a master key to the cellular mechanism of universal mortality, aging, selection, evolution, and its regulation in all animals. One may look for its manifestations in animal cells also, e.g., in their replicative senescence and cancer. Evolutionary origin and genetic nature of universality are suggested.

  1. Short-Lived Climate Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierrehumbert, R. T.

    2014-05-01

    Although carbon dioxide emissions are by far the most important mediator of anthropogenic climate disruption, a number of shorter-lived substances with atmospheric lifetimes of under a few decades also contribute significantly to the radiative forcing that drives climate change. In recent years, the argument that early and aggressive mitigation of the emission of these substances or their precursors forms an essential part of any climate protection strategy has gained a considerable following. There is often an implication that such control can in some way make up for the current inaction on carbon dioxide emissions. The prime targets for mitigation, known collectively as short-lived climate pollution (SLCP), are methane, hydrofluo-rocarbons, black carbon, and ozone. A re-examination of the issues shows that the benefits of early SLCP mitigation have been greatly exaggerated, largely because of inadequacies in the methodologies used to compare the climate effects of short-lived substances with those of CO2, which causes nearly irreversible climate change persisting millennia after emissions cease. Eventual mitigation of SLCP can make a useful contribution to climate protection, but there is little to be gained by implementing SLCP mitigation before stringent carbon dioxide controls are in place and have caused annual emissions to approach zero. Any earlier implementation of SLCP mitigation that substitutes to any significant extent for carbon dioxide mitigation will lead to a climate irreversibly warmer than will a strategy with delayed SLCP mitigation. SLCP mitigation does not buy time for implementation of stringent controls on CO2 emissions.

  2. Writing the Live Coding Book

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackwell, Alan; Cox, Geoff; Lee, Sang Wong

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a speculation on the relationship between coding and writing, and the ways in which technical innovations and capabilities enable us to rethink each in terms of the other. As a case study, we draw on recent experiences of preparing a book on live coding, which integrates a wide range...... of personal, historical, technical and critical perspectives. This book project has been both experimental and reflective, in a manner that allows us to draw on critical understanding of both code and writing, and point to the potential for new practices in the future....

  3. Live feed culture - Problems and perspectives

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Royan, J.P.

    The importance of live feed in aquaculture is stressed. Organisms currently cultured as live feed are microalgae, turbellarians, tanaidaceans, annelids, brine shrimps, fairy shrimps, rotifers, cladocerans and copepods. Their culture methods...

  4. Living with Spina Bifida (at different ages)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us Information For… Media Policy Makers Living With Spina Bifida Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... of the website provides information about living with spina bifida at different ages. Meeting the complex needs of ...

  5. Living with a depressed person in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jeppe Oute; Buus, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Strategies for coping with the burdens of living with a depressed person affect a family's psychosocial environment.......Strategies for coping with the burdens of living with a depressed person affect a family's psychosocial environment....

  6. Leveraging Living Lab Innovation Processes through Crowdsourcing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ståhlbröst, Anna; Lassinantti, Josefin

    2015-01-01

    .... In this article, we analyze how crowdsourcing can contribute to the different stages of innovation processes carried out in living labs and thus contribute to living labs by strengthening their core...

  7. Living with Your Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aneurysm More Living With Your Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD) Updated:Dec 21,2016 The American Heart Association ... having it. Learn more about living with your ICD Underlying conditions It is important for you to ...

  8. Dissolved Oxygen - Live Hauling of Fish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In certain markets, live fish can be sold for substantially higher prices than fresh dressed fish. A significant live-haul industry has developed in the U.S. and...

  9. Oxygen Uptake - Live Hauling of Fish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In certain markets, live fish can be sold for substantially higher prices than fresh dressed fish. A significant live-haul industry has developed in the U.S. and...

  10. Living labs an arena for development and testing Ambient Assisted living technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Anna Marie; Bangshaab, Jette

    2016-01-01

    Background: This gives an example of Living labs as an arena for development/testing Ambient Assisted Living technology (AAL-technology). The selected Living lab is part of an EU-supported development project in collaboration with practice and concerns a Living lab that has developed an implement......Background: This gives an example of Living labs as an arena for development/testing Ambient Assisted Living technology (AAL-technology). The selected Living lab is part of an EU-supported development project in collaboration with practice and concerns a Living lab that has developed...

  11. Randomized, controlled, multicenter study of the immunogenicity and safety of a fully liquid combination diphtheria-tetanus toxoid-five-component acellular pertussis (DTaP5), inactivated poliovirus (IPV), and haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine compared with a DTaP3-IPV/Hib vaccine administered at 3, 5, and 12 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesikari, Timo; Silfverdal, Sven Arne; Boisnard, Florence; Thomas, Stéphane; Mwawasi, Grace; Reynolds, Donna

    2013-10-01

    This study compared the levels of immunogenicity and safety of diphtheria-tetanus toxoid-five-component acellular pertussis (DTaP(5)), inactivated poliovirus (IPV), and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) (DTaP(5)-IPV-Hib) and DTaP(3)-IPV/Hib vaccines for study participants 3, 5, and 12 months of age. Post-dose 3 noninferiority criteria comparing DTaP(5)-IPV-Hib to DTaP(3)-IPV/Hib using rates of seroprotection were demonstrated against diphtheria, tetanus, and polio types 1 to 3, but not for polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP). While PRP did not meet noninferiority criteria, the seroprotection rate and geometric mean concentration (GMC) were high, indicating a clinically robust immune response. GMCs or titers for other antigens (including pertussis) and the safety profiles were generally similar between groups. Fully liquid DTaP(5)-IPV-Hib can be administered using the 3-, 5-, and 12-month vaccination schedule. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00287092.).

  12. Live Fire Range Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1993-08-01

    The Central Training Academy (CTA) is a DOE Headquarters Organization located in Albuquerque, New Mexico, with the mission to effectively and efficiently educate and train personnel involved in the protection of vital national security interests of DOE. The CTA Live Fire Range (LFR), where most of the firearms and tactical training occurs, is a complex separate from the main campus. The purpose of the proposed action is to expand the LFR to allow more options of implementing required training. The Department of Energy has prepared this Environmental Assessment (EA) for the proposed construction and operation of an expanded Live Fire Range Facility at the Central Training Academy in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  13. Sustained oscillations in living cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danø, Sune; Sørensen, Preben Graae; Hynne, Finn

    1999-11-01

    Glycolytic oscillations in yeast have been studied for many years simply by adding a glucose pulse to a suspension of cells and measuring the resulting transient oscillations of NADH. Here we show, using a suspension of yeast cells, that living cells can be kept in a well defined oscillating state indefinitely when starved cells, glucose and cyanide are pumped into a cuvette with outflow of surplus liquid. Our results show that the transitions between stationary and oscillatory behaviour are uniquely described mathematically by the Hopf bifurcation. This result characterizes the dynamical properties close to the transition point. Our perturbation experiments show that the cells remain strongly coupled very close to the transition. Therefore, the transition takes place in each of the cells and is not a desynchronization phenomenon. With these two observations, a study of the kinetic details of glycolysis, as it actually takes place in a living cell, is possible using experiments designed in the framework of nonlinear dynamics. Acetaldehyde is known to synchronize the oscillations. Our results show that glucose is another messenger substance, as long as the glucose transporter is not saturated.

  14. Real goods solar living sourcebook your complete guide to living beyond the grid with renewable energy technologies and sustainable living

    CERN Document Server

    Schaeffer, John

    2014-01-01

    What book would you want if you were stranded on a desert island? Widely regarded as the ""bible"" of off-grid living, Real Goods Solar Living Source Book might be your best choice. With over six hundred thousand copies in print worldwide, it is the most comprehensive resource available for anyone interested in lessening their environmental footprint or increasing their energy independence. The Solar Living Sourcebook, Fourteenth Edition is the ultimate guide to renewable energy, sustainable living, natural and green building, off-grid living, and alternative transporta

  15. Live Streaming | Events | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Live Streaming. Watch Academy events live here! There are no live events currently happening. Watch out this space for updates or suscribe to our YouTube channel by clicking here. Info. Shopping. Tap to unmute. If playback doesn't begin shortly, try restarting your device. Your browser does not currently recognize any of ...

  16. Live surgical demonstrations: An endangered species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, David A; Kavoussi, Louis R

    2015-04-01

    Despite the increasing controversy surrounding live surgical demonstrations, they remain an incredibly valuable tool for urologic education. Live surgery is the most effective means to demonstrate certain surgical techniques and intraoperative decision making. The many potential benefits far outweigh the potential concerns when live surgical events are performed in a thoughtful regulatory framework. Appropriate patient and surgeon selection is integral to successful live surgical events. Under these circumstances, live surgery should remain safe for the patient and instructive for the urologist. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Living Experience of Feeling Playful.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Steven L; Tanzi, Donna; Lewis, Tricia A

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the living experience of feeling playful. Parse's research method was used to answer the question: What is the structure of the living experience of feeling playful? The participants were 10 persons, ages 9 to 83, living in the United States. The central finding of the study is the living experience of feeling playful is entertaining amusements amid burdens with uplifting endeavors strengthening affiliations with blissful moments of unfettered unfolding. The living experience of feeling playful is discussed in relation to the principles of the humanbecoming paradigm and in relation to how it can inform further research.

  18. ATLAS Live: Collaborative Information Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, Steven; ATLAS Collaboration

    2011-12-01

    I report on a pilot project launched in 2010 focusing on facilitating communication and information exchange within the ATLAS Collaboration, through the combination of digital signage software and webcasting. The project, called ATLAS Live, implements video streams of information, ranging from detailed detector and data status to educational and outreach material. The content, including text, images, video and audio, is collected, visualised and scheduled using digital signage software. The system is robust and flexible, utilizing scripts to input data from remote sources, such as the CERN Document Server, Indico, or any available URL, and to integrate these sources into professional-quality streams, including text scrolling, transition effects, inter and intra-screen divisibility. Information is published via the encoding and webcasting of standard video streams, viewable on all common platforms, using a web browser or other common video tool. Authorisation is enforced at the level of the streaming and at the web portals, using the CERN SSO system.

  19. ATLAS Live: Collaborative Information Streams

    CERN Document Server

    Goldfarb, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    I report on a pilot project launched in 2010 focusing on facilitating communication and information exchange within the ATLAS Collaboration, through the combination of digital signage software and webcasting. The project, called ATLAS Live, implements video streams of information, ranging from detailed detector and data status to educational and outreach material. The content, including text, images, video and audio, is collected, visualised and scheduled using digital signage software. The system is robust and flexible, utilizing scripts to input data from remote sources, such as the CERN Document Server, Indico, or any available URL, and to integrate these sources into professional-quality streams, including text scrolling, transition effects, inter and intra-screen divisibility. Information is published via the encoding and webcasting of standard video streams, viewable on all common platforms, using a web browser or other common video tool. Authorisation is enforced at the level of the streaming and at th...

  20. ATLAS Live: Collaborative Information Streams

    CERN Document Server

    Goldfarb, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    I report on a pilot project launched in 2010 focusing on facilitating communication and information exchange within the ATLAS Collaboration, through the combination of digital signage software and webcasting. The project, called ATLAS Live, implements video streams of information, ranging from detailed detector and data status to educational and outreach material. The content, including text, images, video and audio, is collected, visualised and scheduled using the SCALA digital signage software system. The system is robust and flexible, allowing for the usage of scripts to input data from remote sources, such as the CERN Document Server, Indico, or any available URL, and to integrate these sources into professional-quality streams, including text scrolling, transition effects, inter and intrascreen divisibility. The video is made available to the collaboration or public through the encoding and webcasting of standard video streams, viewable on all common platforms, using a web browser or other common video t...