WorldWideScience

Sample records for saab 9-5 aero

  1. Fuel Economy and Emissions of the Ethanol-Optimized Saab 9-5 Biopower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, Brian H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lopez, Alberto J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Theiss, Timothy J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Graves, Ronald L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Storey, John M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lewis, Samuel A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Owing to renewed and growing interest in increased ethanol utilization in the U.S., a European-specification 2007 Saab 9-5 Biopower 2.0t was acquired by the Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for benchmark evaluations. This report details the results of these evaluations.

  2. 78 FR 33010 - Airworthiness Directives; Saab AB, Saab Aerosystems Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ...; telephone +46 13 18 5591; fax +46 13 18 4874; email [email protected] ; Internet http://www... report of the findings to: Saab AB, Business Area Support and Services, Air Division, Technical Support email: [email protected] Fax: +46 (0) 13 18 48 74 at the applicable time specified in...

  3. Kõik saab korda / Tamara Luuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Luuk, Tamara, 1952-

    2010-01-01

    Rahvusvaheline videokunsti näitus "Kõik saab korda" Kumu Kunstimuuseumis 2. jaanuarini 2011. Kuraator Maria-Kristiina Soomre, kujundaja Berit Teeäär. Osalevad Marina Abramović (Serbia/USA), Eija-Liisa Ahtila (Soome), Kai Kaljo, Mike Marshall (Inglismaa), Ene-Liis Semper, Santeri Tuori (Soome), Guido van der Werve (Holland)

  4. Eestist saab politseiriik / Roy Strider

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Strider, Roy, 1974-

    2007-01-01

    Autori väitel ei ole politsei pärast kavandatavat avaliku koosoleku seaduse muutmist enam kohustatud inimestele teatama, kui nende eraelu puutumatust on jälitustoiminguga riivatud. Autori sõnul tähendab see, et Eestist saab politseiriik

  5. Mis saab Potterist? / Jaanus Noormets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Noormets, Jaanus

    2007-01-01

    Eestis esilinastub 20. juulil Harry Potteri viies film "Harry Potter ja Fööniksi ordu" ("Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix"), režissöör David Yates : Ameerika Ühendriigid-Suurbritannia 2007. Alates 21. juulist saab raamatupoodidest osta seitsmendat ja ühtlasi viimast J. K. Rowlingu Potteri-sarja raamatut "Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows"

  6. President saab uue kullast ametiketi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Uue riiklike teenetemärkide seaduse järgi saab Eesti kõrgeimaks ordeniks Riigivapi ketiklassi teenetemärk, mida on õigus kanda vaid Vabariigi Presidendil. Teenetemärk koosneb kullast ketist, kaheksaharulisest kuldtähest ja erisuurpaelast. Eelnõu järgi saavad Riigivapi ketiklassi teenetemärgi kavalerideks nii Toomas Hendrik Ilves kui ka Arnold Rüütel ja postuumselt Lennart Meri. Kullast keti, mida kandis president Konstantin Päts, röövisid 1940. a. Nõukogude okupandid ning praegu asub see Moskvas Relvapalatis

  7. Meltsiveski Konsumist saab korteritega supermarket / Nils Niitra

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Niitra, Nils, 1975-

    2005-01-01

    Meltsiveski Konsumi kõrvale ehitatakse uus hoone, kus saab olema 30 korterit ja supermarket ning viimase katusel mängu- ja puhkeala. Juurdeehituse projekteeris arhitektuuribüroo Pluss arhitekt Indrek Allmann

  8. Keskkriminaalpolitsei juhiks saab Elmar Vaher / Rasmus Kagge

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kagge, Rasmus, 1977-

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke Ajal. Postimees : na russkom jazõke lüh. 30. nov., lk 2. Keskkriminaalpolitsei juhi kandidaadid on Keskkriminaalpolitsei menetlusosakonna direktor Rene Berting ja Põhja-Eesti kriminaalpolitsei direktor Elmar Vaher. Postimehe andmetel saab tõenäoliselt keskkriminaalpolitsei uueks juhiks Elmar Vaher. Lisa: Elmar Vaher

  9. Admiral Cowan saab selga troopikavormid / Raul Vinni

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vinni, Raul

    2008-01-01

    Vahemerele suunduva miinijahtija "Admiral Cowan" meeskond saab esmakordselt Eestis valge troopikavormi. Miinijahtija osaleb NATO kiirreageerimisüksuse NRF-11 mereväekomponendis ja kuulub NATO miinitõrjeeskaadri SNMCMG1 koosseisu. 25. juulist kuni novembrini on miinijahtija Põhja regioonide miinitõrjeüksuse koosseisus

  10. 10 CFR 9.5 - Interpretations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 9.5 Section 9.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PUBLIC RECORDS § 9.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the meaning of the regulations in this part by an officer or employee of the...

  11. [New aero-allergens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Blay, F; Bessot, J C; Pauli, G

    1996-01-01

    As the number of proteins recognized as causing allergic respiratory diseases increases, new aero allergens have appeared in the animal and vegetable realms, both in home and professional environments. Lepidoglyphus destructor and Blomia tropicalis, two mites found in storage areas, are particularly important in agricultural areas and in homes. Over the last ten years, the frequency of reactions to cockroaches has also increased in several countries. The allergenicity of non-biting insects is a frequent cause of allergy in certain countries including Japan. Chironomides cause respiratory diseases in professional and outdoor environments. The important role of Alternaria, a mold, in producing severe asthma has also been demonstrated. The pathophysiology of pollen-induced asthma has been shown to result from pollen allergens carried by particles less than 5 microns in diameter. Cyprus and ash tree pollen also cause an increasing number of pollinoses and flowers can cause rhinitis and asthma. Respiratory allergy to Ficus benjamina inaugurated a new type of allergies caused airborne allergens from non-pollinating plants. Allergy to latex raises a particular problem for health care workers. The immunochemical structures of the major and minor airborne allergens are now better known and the homologous structures of different allergens largely explains certain cross-reactions. In the future, recombinant allergens will probably be used to better understand the role of allergens in inducing and maintaining the allergic reaction and should help in our approach to diagnosis and therapy.

  12. AeroDyn Theory Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriarty, P. J.; Hansen, A. C.

    2005-01-01

    AeroDyn is a set of routines used in conjunction with an aeroelastic simulation code to predict the aerodynamics of horizontal axis wind turbines. These subroutines provide several different models whose theoretical bases are described in this manual. AeroDyn contains two models for calculating the effect of wind turbine wakes: the blade element momentum theory and the generalized dynamic-wake theory. Blade element momentum theory is the classical standard used by many wind turbine designers and generalized dynamic wake theory is a more recent model useful for modeling skewed and unsteady wake dynamics. When using the blade element momentum theory, various corrections are available for the user, such as incorporating the aerodynamic effects of tip losses, hub losses, and skewed wakes. With the generalized dynamic wake, all of these effects are automatically included. Both of these methods are used to calculate the axial induced velocities from the wake in the rotor plane. The user also has the option of calculating the rotational induced velocity. In addition, AeroDyn contains an important model for dynamic stall based on the semi-empirical Beddoes-Leishman model. This model is particularly important for yawed wind turbines. Another aerodynamic model in AeroDyn is a tower shadow model based on potential flow around a cylinder and an expanding wake. Finally, AeroDyn has the ability to read several different formats of wind input, including single-point hub-height wind files or multiple-point turbulent winds.

  13. Mobiiliga saab hakata andma digitaalallkirja / Toivo Tänavsuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tänavsuu, Toivo

    2007-01-01

    EMT hakkab väljastama mobiiltelefoni SIM-kaarte, mis võimaldavad anda digitaalset allkirja. EMT lisateenuste ärijuhi Indrek Östermani selgitus. Lisad: Mobiiliga saab internetipanka minna ja digitaalallkirja anda; Keskkond muutub turvalisemaks

  14. 36 CFR 9.5 - Recordation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Mining and Mining Claims § 9.5 Recordation. (a) Any unpatented mining claim in a unit in existence... mining claim in a unit established after September 28, 1976, or in an area added to an existing unit after that date, shall be recorded with the Bureau of Land Management in accordance with the provisions...

  15. Aero Fighter - 2D Gaming

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Zeeshan

    2010-01-01

    Designing and developing quality based computer game is always a challenging task for developers. In this paper I briefly discuss aero fighting war game based on simple 2D gaming concepts and developed in C & C++ programming languages, using old bitmapping concepts. Going into the details of the game development, I discuss the designed strategies, flow of game and implemented prototype version of game, especially for beginners of game programming.

  16. Evelin Ilves saab sama nimega firmalt tasuta uisutrikoosid / Kadri Jakobson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jakobson, Kadri, 1970-

    2008-01-01

    Proua Evelin Ilves saab rulluisutrikood tootjafirmalt Ilves-Extra tasuta. Presidendi kantselei sõnul testib Rulluisuliidu president E. Ilves uisutrikood, mida Ilves-Extra alles kavatseb tootmisse võtta. Arvamust avaldavad Ilves-Extra juht Arvo Kivikas ja suhtekorraldusekspert Ivo Rull

  17. Näha saab improvisatsioonilist filmietendus-kontserti

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Eesti Ajaloomuuseumi ja Eesti Film 100 poolt Suurgildi hoones korraldatud koostöönäitust "Elavad ja laulvad pildid" täiendab filmietenduste-kontsertide sari "Kas kino ka saab?", kus täna näeb Charles Chaplini varaseid komöödiaid koos Jaan Ruusi kommenteeriva sõnavõtuga ning muusikute saatega

  18. Improvisatsioonilised filmietendus-kontserdid "Kas kino ka saab?"

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Eesti Ajaloomuuseumi ja Eesti Film 100 poolt Suurgildi hoones korraldatud koostöönäitust "Elavad ja laulvad pildid" täiendab filmietenduste-kontsertide sari "Kas kino ka saab?", kus täna on kinoklassiku Georges Meliesi (1861-1938) filmiprogramm Jaak Lõhmuse kommenteeriva sõnavõtuga

  19. Taanlastest saab Türgi trump / Kaarel Tarand

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tarand, Kaarel, 1966-

    2006-01-01

    Türgi pakub end lääne ja islamimaailma peavahendajaks tsivilisatsioonide kokkupõrke ärahoidmiseks. Kui Türgi diplomaatial õnnestub pingeid leevendada, on Euroopal tema ees tänuvõlg, mida saab tasuda ainult EL-i liikmeks vastuvõtmisega, ütleb autor. Muhamedi karikatuuride avaldamise käsitlemisest Eestis

  20. Piirivalve saab 147 miljoni eest uhke helikopteri / Sigrid Laev

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laev, Sigrid

    2005-01-01

    Eesti piirivalve saab helikopteri Agusta Bell, kopteri soetamine täidab Schnegen Facility programmi eesmärki, mille kohaselt tuleb EL-i välispiiride valve viia vastavusse Schengeni õigusruumi nõuetega. Raha ostmiseks annab abiprogramm Schengen Facility

  1. Saab 900S Turbon muunnos RE85-polttoaineelle sopivaksi

    OpenAIRE

    Kuorikoski, Petri

    2016-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoitus oli muuttaa vuosimallin 1990 Saab 900 S ahdettu matalapaineottomoottori toimimaan RE85-polttoaineella. Ottomoottorin puristussuhdetta muutettiin RE85-polttoaineelle sopivaksi. Vaihdelaatikon ensiövälitystä muutettiin, jotta saatiin ottomoottorin kierrosluku alemmaksi. Näin saatiin polttoaineen kulutus matalammaksi. Suuttimet oli vaihdettava paremmin virtaavammaksi, jolloin ilmaseossuhde on sopivampi RE85-polttoaineelle. Sytytyspuola vaihdettiin paremman kipinän a...

  2. 47 CFR 9.5 - E911 Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false E911 Service. 9.5 Section 9.5 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL INTERCONNECTED VOICE OVER INTERNET PROTOCOL SERVICES § 9.5 E911 Service. (a) Scope of Section. The following requirements are only applicable to providers of...

  3. Method of making an aero-derivative gas turbine engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiebe, David J.

    2018-02-06

    A method of making an aero-derivative gas turbine engine (100) is provided. A combustor outer casing (68) is removed from an existing aero gas turbine engine (60). An annular combustor (84) is removed from the existing aero gas turbine engine. A first row of turbine vanes (38) is removed from the existing aero gas turbine engine. A can annular combustor assembly (122) is installed within the existing aero gas turbine engine. The can annular combustor assembly is configured to accelerate and orient combustion gasses directly onto a first row of turbine blades of the existing aero gas turbine engine. A can annular combustor assembly outer casing (108) is installed to produce the aero-derivative gas turbine engine (100). The can annular combustor assembly is installed within an axial span (85) of the existing aero gas turbine engine vacated by the annular combustor and the first row of turbine vanes.

  4. The DAN-AERO MW Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Bak, Christian; Schmidt Paulsen, Uwe

    This report describes the DAN-AERO MW experiments carried out within a collaborative, three years research project between Risø DTU and the industrial partners LM Glasfiber, Siemens Wind Power, Vestas Wind Systems A/S and the utility company DONG Energy. The main objective of the project was to e......This report describes the DAN-AERO MW experiments carried out within a collaborative, three years research project between Risø DTU and the industrial partners LM Glasfiber, Siemens Wind Power, Vestas Wind Systems A/S and the utility company DONG Energy. The main objective of the project...

  5. EVPde aeg saab otsa / Uku Hänni

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hänni, Uku, 1943-

    2006-01-01

    Erastamisväärtpaberite kehtivusaeg saab käesoleva aastaga läbi. Sama ka Vooremaa 25. nov. 2006, lk. 4 ; Vooremaa : Palamuse Valla Teataja 25. nov. 2006, lk. 3 ; Kuulutaja 24. nov. 2006, lk. 4 ; Harjumaa 24. nov. 2006, lk. 2 ; Võrumaa Teataja 23. nov. 2006, lk. 2 ; Vali Uudised 29. nov. 2006, lk. 4 ; Vooremaa : Jõgeva Valla Teataja 2. Dets. 2006, lk. 3 ; Koit 2. Dets. 2006, lk. 6 ; Pärnu Postimees 7. Dets. 2006, lk. 15 ; Sakala 28. Dets. 2006, lk. 2

  6. 42 CFR 9.5 - Chimpanzee ownership, fees, and studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Chimpanzee ownership, fees, and studies. 9.5... PROVISIONS STANDARDS OF CARE FOR CHIMPANZEES HELD IN THE FEDERALLY SUPPORTED SANCTUARY SYSTEM § 9.5 Chimpanzee ownership, fees, and studies. (a) Who owns the chimpanzees in the federally supported sanctuary...

  7. Electric Shocks Resulting in Seismic Animal Anomalous Behaviors (SAABs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeya, Motoji; Takaki, Shunji; Takashimizu, Dan

    1996-03-01

    Electric field effects on fish and worms have been studied assuming that the seismic animal anomalous behaviors (SAABs) witnessed prior to the Hansin Earthquake were caused by seismic electric current. Japanese minnows, guppies and loaches responded to the current and aligned perpendicular to the field direction and earthworms swarmed, which are forms of SAABs, at a current density of J=0.1˜1 A/m2 presumably to reduce the effects of the field, F. A mathematical model of a fault was used to express the seismic stress, σ(t) corresponding to a fault displacement, D(t). An electromagnetic model of a fault, where a bound charge density, q which compensate the piezoelectric polarization, appears due to the release of seismic stress is used to derive dq/dt=-α(dσ/dt)-q/ɛρ, F=q/ɛ and J=F/ρ'. Using the piezoelectric coefficient, α, dielectric constant, ɛ and the resistivity, ρ of bedrock granite and ρ' of water gives J=1 A/m2 in concordance with the experiments.

  8. Uudised : Konkursiedu. Laulva revolutsiooni meenutuseks. Vanemuise kontserdimaja saab juurdeehituse / Alo Põldmäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Põldmäe, Alo, 1945-

    2001-01-01

    Eesti-taani duo saavutas 2.-4. juunini Prantsusmaal Poitiers's toimunud Euroopa Improvisatsiooniturniiril III koha. 20. juunil Teatri- ja Muusikamuuseumis toimuvast õhtust "Lauldes vabaks", kus meenutatakse Laulvat Revolutsiooni. Vanemuise kontserdimaja saab juurdeehituse

  9. E- Maksuametis saab tulusid deklareerida alates 15. veebruarist / Hannes Udde

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Udde, Hannes

    2006-01-01

    Info 2005. aasta tulude (elektroonilise) deklareerimise kohta. Sama ka Võrumaa Teataja 28. jaan. 2006, lk. 6 ; Vooremaa 28. jaan. 2006, lk. 3, artiklis pealkiri kujul: Kuidas tuleb oma tulusid deklareerida ; Sõnumitooja 1. veeb. 2006, lk. 6 ; Meie Maa 1. veeb. 2006, lk. 4 ; Sakala 2. veeb. 2006, lk. 5, pealkiri kujul: Deklareerimine läheb lahti. ; Virumaa Teataja 2. veeb. 2006, lk. 9, pealkiri kujul: Maksumaksjad valmistuvad tulude deklareerimiseks. ; Vali Uudised 1. veeb. 2006, lk. 7 ; Valgamaalane 2. veeb. 2006, lk. 4, pealkiri kujul: E-maksuametis saab tulusid deklareerida ; Kuulutaja 3. veeb. 2006, lk. 11 ; Lääne Elu 7. veeb. 2006, lk. 2 ; Virumaa Nädalaleht 3. veeb. 2006, lk. 3 ; Hiiu Leht 10. veeb. 2006, lk. 5, pealkiri kujul: Maksumaksjad valmistuvad tulude deklareerimiseks ; Järva Teataja 16. veeb. 2006, lk. 2, pealkiri kujul: E-maksuamet alustas taas

  10. AeroValve Experimental Test Data Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noakes, Mark W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This report documents the collection of experimental test data and presents performance characteristics for the AeroValve brand prototype pneumatic bidirectional solenoid valves tested at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in July/August 2014 as part of a validation of AeroValve energy efficiency claims. The test stand and control programs were provided by AeroValve. All raw data and processing are included in the report attachments.

  11. Common indoor and outdoor aero-allergens in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aero-allergens in South Africa that are also encountered around the world are listed in Table I. In addition to this wide range of common aero-allergens, South Africans are also exposed to a full range of food allergens, some of which, e.g. perlemoen (Haliotis midae) and other seafood allergens, are unique to this region.

  12. Advanced technology for aero gas turbine components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-09-01

    The Symposium is aimed at highlighting the development of advanced components for new aero gas turbine propulsion systems in order to provide engineers and scientists with a forum to discuss recent progress in these technologies and to identify requirements for future research. Axial flow compressors, the operation of gas turbine engines in dust laden atmospheres, turbine engine design, blade cooling, unsteady gas flow through the stator and rotor of a turbomachine, gear systems for advanced turboprops, transonic blade design and the development of a plenum chamber burner system for an advanced VTOL engine are among the topics discussed.

  13. Aero-Assisted Pre-Stage for Ballistic and Aero-Assisted Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustinov, Eugene A.

    2012-01-01

    A concept of an aero-assisted pre-stage is proposed, which enables launch of both ballistic and aero-assisted launch vehicles from conventional runways. The pre-stage can be implemented as a delta-wing with a suitable undercarriage, which is mated with the launch vehicle, so that their flight directions are coaligned. The ample wing area of the pre-stage combined with the thrust of the launch vehicle ensure prompt roll-out and take-off of the stack at airspeeds typical for a conventional jet airliner. The launch vehicle is separated from the pre-stage as soon as safe altitude is achieved, and the desired ascent trajectory is reached. Nominally, the pre-stage is non-powered. As an option, to save the propellant of the launch vehicle, the pre-stage may have its own short-burn propulsion system, whereas the propulsion system of the launch vehicle is activated at the separation point. A general non-dimensional analysis of performance of the pre-stage from roll-out to separation is carried out and applications to existing ballistic launch vehicle and hypothetical aero-assisted vehicles (spaceplanes) are considered.

  14. Aero and vibroacoustics of automotive turbochargers

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen-Schäfer, Hung

    2013-01-01

    Aero and Vibroacoustics of Automotive Turbochargers is a topic involving aspects from the working fields of thermodynamics of turbomachinery, aerodynamics, rotordynamics, and noise propagation computation.   In this broadly interdisciplinary subject, thermodynamics of turbomachinery is used to design the turbocharger and to determine its operating conditions.  Aerodynamics is needed to study the compressor flow dynamics and flow instabilities of rotating stall and surge, which can produce growling and whining-type noises. Rotordynamics is necessary to study rotor unbalance and self-excited oil-whirl instabilities, which lead to whistling and constant tone-type noises in rotating floating oil-film type bearings. For the special case of turbochargers using ball bearings, some high-order harmonic and wear noises also manifest in the rotor operating range. Lastly, noise propagation computation, based on Lighthill’s analogy, is required to investigate airborne noises produced by turbochargers in passenger vehi...

  15. Development of aero-engines, part I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehn, K.

    1943-01-01

    In the first part of a two-part paper on aero-engine development, Dehn gives an overview of engine types and configurations. The information includes graphic illustrations on performance and pictures of engines. Various configurations of engines depicted were radial, V, in-line, in-line opposed and an inverted V design. Pointing out steps which could be taken to increase engine efficiency, the author explains that by using faired, air-cooled power plants, a full 20% increase in power could be gained as compared to using a similar, water-cooled engine. More horsepower could be derived from engines operating at higher temperatures, but this presented heat problems on overheating at high rev's just before take-off and during climb-out to cruising altitude. Developments in fuel-injected and turbo-charged engines were much superior to carbureted systems in that service ceilings could be increased effectively. Also, described is a rather unusual aircraft power plant. This was the Junkers Jumo 205 aero-diesel which actually saw service. Each engine had six chambers, and each chamber contained two pistons, one suspended above the other. Real and theoretical heat loss in Otto motors as related to pressure and engine displacement was also subject to investigation. In his discussion, Dehn continually uses examples of both British and American aircraft engines as technological comparisons with German engines. At the end of this section it is mentioned that work on jet motors and newer developments had intentionally been excluded from the paper, apparently since details were not readily available.

  16. Generic methods for aero-engine exhaust emission prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shakariyants, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    In the thesis, generic methods have been developed for aero-engine combustor performance, combustion chemistry, as well as airplane aerodynamics, airplane and engine performance. These methods specifically aim to support diverse emission prediction studies coupled with airplane and engine

  17. High speed machining of aero-engine alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Ezugwu, E. O.

    2004-01-01

    Materials used in the manufacture of aero-engine components generally comprise of nickel and titanium base alloys. Advanced materials such as aero-engine alloys, structural ceramic and hardened steels provide serious challenges for cutting tool materials during machining due to their unique combinations of properties such as high temperature strength, hardness and chemical wear resistance. These materials are referred to as difficult-to-cut since they pose a greater challenge to manufacturing...

  18. President Ilves saab uue luksus-Audi peenraha eest / Kadri Paas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paas, Kadri, 1982-

    2007-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilves saab 2007. a. oktoobris uue ametiauto Audi A8 autofirmalt ülisuure allahindlusega. Presidendi kantselei korraldatud hanke võitis Reval Auto. Uus Audi maksab presidendi avalike suhete nõuniku Toomas Sildami sõnul 1 278 951 krooni. Igakuine liisingumakse on 5362 krooni.

  19. SMS-kampaaniast saadud tuluga saab katta hinnalise auhinnalaua / Eda-Liis Kann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kann, Eda-Liis, 1979-

    2006-01-01

    Suur osa Eestis läbi viidavatest kampaaniatest on SMS-kampaaniad, mille viiekrooniselt sõnumihinnalt teenib ettevõte endale 2-2,5 krooni, millega saab kompenseerida pea kogu auhinnalaua. Skeem: SMS-kampaania ja postikampaania võrdlus

  20. Suur päästmisoperatsioon: Volvo päästetud, Saab mitte / Raivo Murde

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Murde, Raivo

    2011-01-01

    2010. a. sai Volvo uueks omanikuks Hiina firma Geely, sel aastal loodetakse Volvosid müüa 20% rohkem kui mullu. Volvot juhitakse nagu eraldiseisvat firmat, juhatus koosneb peamiselt rootslastest. Saab loodab, et Hiina valitsus kiidab heaks lepingu kahe Hiina firmaga, et müüa ja kohapeal kokku panna autosid sealse turu jaoks

  1. 32. keskkoolis saab jälle teatriharidust / Liisa-Indra Kärt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kärt, Liisa-Indra

    2003-01-01

    Alates sügisest saab 32. keskkoolis jälle õppida teatrieriala, 29.03 toimunud vastuvõtukatsetel osales 50 teatrihuvilist noort. Konkurss treatriklassi oli ootamatult tihe, teatriklass tegutses 32. koolis alates selle loomisest aastal 1971-1980

  2. Osa Pärnu poliitikuid saab ärimeestelt igakuist tasu / Teet Roosaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Roosaar, Teet, 1963-

    2005-01-01

    Kuigi Pärnu uus linnavalitsus kärpis volikogu liikmete äriühingute nõukogudest makstavat tasu poole väiksemaks, saab osa poliitikuid endiselt lisasissetulekut, teiste seas linnakassast doteeritavalt Pärnu ATP-lt

  3. Iga tööotsija saab isikliku tegutsemiskava / Eva Kübar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kübar, Eva

    2006-01-01

    Alates 2006. aastast saab iga töötu isikliku tööotsimiskava, mille täitmist hakkab jälgima tööturuamet. Lisa: Individuaalne tööotsimiskava. Ilmunud ka: ; Postimees : na russkom jazõke 4. jaan. lk. 3

  4. 75 FR 19673 - Petition for Exemption From the Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; Saab

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ... immobilizer control module and a user identification device (UID). Activation of the immobilization device... specific content requirements of Sec. 543.6. Saab stated that before the vehicle can operate, driver... generated 32-bit challenge and identifier. If the data matches the command and response values...

  5. Aero-Assisted Spacecraft Missions Using Hypersonic Waverider Aeroshells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knittel, Jeremy

    This work examines the use of high-lift, low drag vehicles which perform orbital transfers within a planet's atmosphere to reduce propulsive requirements. For the foreseeable future, spacecraft mission design will include the objective of limiting the mass of fuel required. One means of accomplishing this is using aerodynamics as a supplemental force, with what is termed an aero-assist maneuver. Further, the use of a lifting body enables a mission designer to explore candidate trajectory types wholly unavailable to non-lifting analogs. Examples include missions to outer planets by way of an aero-gravity assist, aero-assisted plane change, aero-capture, and steady atmospheric periapsis probing missions. Engineering level models are created in order to simulate both atmospheric and extra-atmospheric space flight. Each mission is parameterized using discrete variables which control multiple areas of design. This work combines the areas of hypersonic aerodynamics, re-entry aerothermodynamics, spacecraft orbital mechanics, and vehicle shape optimization. In particular, emphasis is given to the parametric design of vehicles known as "waveriders" which are inversely designed from known shock flowfields. An entirely novel means of generating a class of waveriders known as "starbodies" is presented. A complete analysis is performed of asymmetric starbody forms and compared to a better understood parameterization, "osculating cone" waveriders. This analysis includes characterization of stability behavior, a critical discipline within hypersonic flight. It is shown that asymmetric starbodies have significant stability improvement with only a 10% reduction in the lift-to-drag ratio. By combining the optimization of both the shape of the vehicle and the trajectory it flies, much is learned about the benefit that can be expected from lifting aero-assist missions. While previous studies have conceptually proven the viability, this work provides thorough quantification of the

  6. Aero-Optic Evaluation Center (AOEC), Large Energy National Shock (LENS) Tunnels I & II

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The AOEC facility provides world class capability for aero-thermo-chemical, aerooptics and aero-propulsion testing in the Mach number range from 2.5 to 15 using the...

  7. SIERRA/Aero Theory Manual Version 4.44

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra Thermal/Fluid Team

    2017-04-01

    SIERRA/Aero is a two and three dimensional, node-centered, edge-based finite volume code that approximates the compressible Navier-Stokes equations on unstructured meshes. It is applicable to inviscid and high Reynolds number laminar and turbulent flows. Currently, two classes of turbulence models are provided: Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) and hybrid methods such as Detached Eddy Simulation (DES). Large Eddy Simulation (LES) models are currently under development. The gas may be modeled either as ideal, or as a non-equilibrium, chemically reacting mixture of ideal gases. This document describes the mathematical models contained in the code, as well as certain implementation details. First, the governing equations are presented, followed by a description of the spatial discretization. Next, the time discretization is described, and finally the boundary conditions. Throughout the document, SIERRA/ Aero is referred to simply as Aero for brevity.

  8. SIERRA/Aero User Manual Version 4.46.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra Thermal/Fluid Team

    2017-09-01

    SIERRA/Aero is a compressible fluid dynamics program intended to solve a wide variety compressible fluid flows including transonic and hypersonic problems. This document describes the commands for assembling a fluid model for analysis with this module, henceforth referred to simply as Aero for brevity. Aero is an application developed using the SIERRA Toolkit (STK). The intent of STK is to provide a set of tools for handling common tasks that programmers encounter when developing a code for numerical simulation. For example, components of STK provide field allocation and management, and parallel input/output of field and mesh data. These services also allow the development of coupled mechanics analysis software for a massively parallel computing environment. In the definitions of the commands that follow, the term Real_Max denotes the largest floating point value that can be represented on a given computer. Int_Max is the largest such integer value.

  9. SIERRA/Aero Theory Manual Version 4.46.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra Thermal/Fluid Team

    2017-09-01

    SIERRA/Aero is a two and three dimensional, node-centered, edge-based finite volume code that approximates the compressible Navier-Stokes equations on unstructured meshes. It is applicable to inviscid and high Reynolds number laminar and turbulent flows. Currently, two classes of turbulence models are provided: Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) and hybrid methods such as Detached Eddy Simulation (DES). Large Eddy Simulation (LES) models are currently under development. The gas may be modeled either as ideal, or as a non-equilibrium, chemically reacting mixture of ideal gases. This document describes the mathematical models contained in the code, as well as certain implementation details. First, the governing equations are presented, followed by a description of the spatial discretization. Next, the time discretization is described, and finally the boundary conditions. Throughout the document, SIERRA/ Aero is referred to simply as Aero for brevity.

  10. SIERRA/Aero User Manual Version 4.44

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra Thermal/Fluid Team

    2017-04-01

    SIERRA/Aero is a compressible fluid dynamics program intended to solve a wide variety compressible fluid flows including transonic and hypersonic problems. This document describes the commands for assembling a fluid model for analysis with this module, henceforth referred to simply as Aero for brevity. Aero is an application developed using the SIERRA Toolkit (STK). The intent of STK is to provide a set of tools for handling common tasks that programmers encounter when developing a code for numerical simulation. For example, components of STK provide field allocation and management, and parallel input/output of field and mesh data. These services also allow the development of coupled mechanics analysis software for a massively parallel computing environment. In the definitions of the commands that follow, the term Real_Max denotes the largest floating point value that can be represented on a given computer. Int_Max is the largest such integer value.

  11. Vehicle Health Management Communications Requirements for AeroMACS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Clements, Donna J.; Apaza, Rafael D.

    2012-01-01

    As the development of standards for the aeronautical mobile airport communications system (AeroMACS) progresses, the process of identifying and quantifying appropriate uses for the system is progressing. In addition to defining important elements of AeroMACS standards, indentifying the systems uses impacts AeroMACS bandwidth requirements. Although an initial 59 MHz spectrum allocation for AeroMACS was established in 2007, the allocation may be inadequate; studies have indicated that 100 MHz or more of spectrum may be required to support airport surface communications. Hence additional spectrum allocations have been proposed. Vehicle health management (VHM) systems, which can produce large volumes of vehicle health data, were not considered in the original bandwidth requirements analyses, and are therefore of interest in supporting proposals for additional AeroMACS spectrum. VHM systems are an emerging development in air vehicle safety, and preliminary estimates of the amount of data that will be produced and transmitted off an aircraft, both in flight and on the ground, have been prepared based on estimates of data produced by on-board vehicle health sensors and initial concepts of data processing approaches. This allowed an initial estimate of VHM data transmission requirements for the airport surface. More recently, vehicle-level systems designed to process and analyze VHM data and draw conclusions on the current state of vehicle health have been undergoing testing and evaluation. These systems make use of vehicle system data that is mostly different from VHM data considered previously for airport surface transmission, and produce processed system outputs that will be also need to be archived, thus generating additional data load for AeroMACS. This paper provides an analysis of airport surface data transmission requirements resulting from the vehicle level reasoning systems, within the context of overall VHM data requirements.

  12. A comparison between acoustic mode measurements and acoustic finite element analysis performed for SAAB SF 340

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goeransson, P.; Green, I.

    1986-03-01

    In order to verify an acoustic finite element package, measured and calculated eigenmodes and eigenfrequencies for Saab SF 340 cabin acoustics were compared. The measurements were performed in an acoustic mockup. For the analysis, a two dimensional model of the cross section of the fuselage was used. The comparison shows quite good agreement, the discrepancies being due to the representation of the flexible wall of the fuselage as rigid in the analysis.

  13. Assessment of Aero-radiometric Data of Southern Anambra Basin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    JASEM https://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jasem.v21i4.15. Key Words: Aero-radiometric; Radiogenic Heat; Anambra Basin; Geothermal. Anambra basin has not really been subjected to detailed radiogenic heat production despite the geological features that suggest that the area has prospect for geothermal energy production. This.

  14. Aero-disaster in Port Harcourt, Nigeria: A case study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    autopsy in that order of frequency. Conclusion: Aero-disaster, though rare in Port Harcourt, is posing a serious problem in Nigeria in recent times. Various agencies should be established to adequately control mass disasters in Nigeria. Adequate maintenance of aircraft and strict observation and enforcement of aviation laws ...

  15. 76 FR 77108 - Airworthiness Directives; International Aero Engines Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... Engines Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for International Aero Engines (IAE) V2500-A1... engines. This AD was prompted by three reports of high- pressure turbine (HPT) case burn-through events...

  16. Assessment of Aero-radiometric Data of Southern Anambra Basin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... value up to 5.43 μWm-3. The highest value of the radiogenic heat production in this basin has a value of 5.43 μWm-3 around Aimeke and Ogobia. The airborne total radiometric count of radio-elements and radiogenic heat maps were produced. Key Words: Aero-radiometric; Radiogenic Heat; Anambra Basin; Geothermal ...

  17. 26 CFR 1.501(c)(9)-5 - Voluntary employees' beneficiary associations; recordkeeping requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Voluntary employees' beneficiary associations; recordkeeping requirements. 1.501(c)(9)-5 Section 1.501(c)(9)-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... § 1.501(c)(9)-5 Voluntary employees' beneficiary associations; recordkeeping requirements. (a) Records...

  18. Integrated evaluation of the geology, aero gamma spectrometry and aero magnetometry of the Sul-Riograndense Shield, southernmost Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, Leo A.; Savian, Jairo F., E-mail: leo.hartmann@ufrgs.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Instituto de Geociencias; Lopes, William R. [Servico Geologico do Brasil (CPRM), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Gerencia de Geologia e Mineracao

    2016-03-15

    An integrated evaluation of geology, aero gamma spectrometry and aero magnetometry of the Sul-Riograndense Shield is permitted by the advanced stage of understanding of the geology and geochronology of the southern Brazilian Shield and a 2010 airborne geophysical survey. Gamma rays are registered from the rocks near the surface and thus describe the distribution of major units in the shield, such as the Pelotas batholith, the juvenile São Gabriel terrane, the granulite-amphibolite facies Taquarembo terrane and the numerous granite intrusions in the foreland. Major structures are also observed, e.g., the Dorsal de Cangucu shear. Magnetic signals register near surface crustal compositions (analytic signal) and total crust composition (total magnetic signal), so their variation as measured indicates either shallow or whole crustal structures. The Cacapava shear is outstanding on the images as is the magnetic low along the N-S central portion of the shield. These integrated observations lead to the deepening of the understanding of the largest and even detailed structures of the Sul-Riograndense Shield, some to be correlated to field geology in future studies. Most significant is the presence of different provinces and their limits depending on the method used for data acquisition - geology, aero gamma spectrometry or aero magnetometry. (author)

  19. Varssavi börs saab tänavu enam kui poolsada uustulnukat / Annika Matson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Matson, Annika, 1976-

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 16. märts lk. 29. Hollandi panga ING Securities Varssavi analüütik Piotr Palenik on kindel et sealsetesse börsifirmadesse voolab hetkel suurel hulgal välisinvestorite raha ning seetõttu on börsile tulemas rekordarv firmasid. Tabel: Suuremad Poola ettevõtted, mis tulevad tänavu börsile. Vt. samas: Välismaale investeerimise piirang; Eesti investor saab osta kõiki Varssavi börsi aktsiaid

  20. One Company as Corporate Strategy : A Case Study at Saab AB

    OpenAIRE

    Lindeberg, Jessica; Malmlöv, Per

    2011-01-01

    This research project explores the increasingly popular phenomena of companies striving to harmonize and align their business which is called a “One Company”-vision. The project is carried out on behalf of the global IT and management consultancy company, Logica. It is a case study at Saab AB, the Swedish aerospace-and defense-company, regarding corporate strategy. In this research project, the concept of parenting style is related as one important ingredient of One Company and it is consider...

  1. Tallinna volikogu saab sünnipäevaks 100 000 krooni maksva seinavaiba / Kadri Paas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paas, Kadri, 1982-

    2007-01-01

    Tallinna volikogu saab 130. sünnipäevaks istungitesaali seinale linna heraldilise vapilipu motiividel gobelääni. Vaiba autor Merike-Viivi Männi. Käsitöögobeläänil on kolm sinist lõvi kollasel taustal, Tallinna heraldilise vapilipu motiivid. Vt. samas: Volikogu sai mullu 32 000-kroonise lühtri; President Ilves eelistas Türgi vaipu. Presidendi kantselei sõlmis 5. aprillil 2007 osaühinguga ISP Factum vaibaostulepingu, et muretseda presidendi töö- ja esindusruumidesse ning ametikorterisse 12 türgi villast käsitöövaipa

  2. Aero-acoustic modeling using large eddy simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Wen Zhong; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2007-01-01

    The splitting technique for aero-acoustic computations is extended to simulate three-dimensional flow and acoustic waves from airfoils. The aero-acoustic model is coupled to a sub-grid-scale turbulence model for Large-Eddy Simulations. In the first test case, the model is applied to compute laminar...... flow past a NACA 0015 airfoil at a Reynolds number of 800, a Mach number of 0.2 and an angle of attack of 20 degrees. The model is then applied to compute turbulent flow past a NACA 0015 airfoil at a Reynolds number of 100 000, a Mach number of 0.2 and an angle of attack of 20 degrees. The predicted...

  3. Sensor fault diagnosis of aero-engine based on divided flight status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhen; Zhang, Jun; Sun, Yigang; Liu, Zhexu

    2017-11-01

    Fault diagnosis and safety analysis of an aero-engine have attracted more and more attention in modern society, whose safety directly affects the flight safety of an aircraft. In this paper, the problem concerning sensor fault diagnosis is investigated for an aero-engine during the whole flight process. Considering that the aero-engine is always working in different status through the whole flight process, a flight status division-based sensor fault diagnosis method is presented to improve fault diagnosis precision for the aero-engine. First, aero-engine status is partitioned according to normal sensor data during the whole flight process through the clustering algorithm. Based on that, a diagnosis model is built for each status using the principal component analysis algorithm. Finally, the sensors are monitored using the built diagnosis models by identifying the aero-engine status. The simulation result illustrates the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  4. Sensor fault diagnosis of aero-engine based on divided flight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhen; Zhang, Jun; Sun, Yigang; Liu, Zhexu

    2017-11-01

    Fault diagnosis and safety analysis of an aero-engine have attracted more and more attention in modern society, whose safety directly affects the flight safety of an aircraft. In this paper, the problem concerning sensor fault diagnosis is investigated for an aero-engine during the whole flight process. Considering that the aero-engine is always working in different status through the whole flight process, a flight status division-based sensor fault diagnosis method is presented to improve fault diagnosis precision for the aero-engine. First, aero-engine status is partitioned according to normal sensor data during the whole flight process through the clustering algorithm. Based on that, a diagnosis model is built for each status using the principal component analysis algorithm. Finally, the sensors are monitored using the built diagnosis models by identifying the aero-engine status. The simulation result illustrates the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  5. Maintenance Decision Based on Data Fusion of Aero Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huawei Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance has gained a great importance as a support function for ensuring aero engine reliability and availability. Cost-effectiveness and risk control are two basic criteria for accurate maintenance. Given that aero engines have much condition monitoring data, this paper presents a new condition-based maintenance decision system that employs data fusion for improving accuracy of reliability evaluation. Bayesian linear model has been applied, so that the performance degradation evaluation of aero engines could be realized. A reliability evaluation model has been presented based on gamma process, which achieves the accurate evaluation by information fusion. In reliability evaluation model, the shape parameter is estimated by the performance degradation evaluation result, and the scale parameter is estimated by failure, inspection, and repair information. What is more, with such reliability evaluation as input variables and by using particle swarm optimization (PSO, a stochastic optimization of maintenance decision for aircraft engines has been presented, in which the effectiveness and the accuracy are demonstrated by a numerical example.

  6. Rüütel saab poehinnast kolm korda odavama Audi / Küllike Rooväli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rooväli, Küllike, 1969-

    2002-01-01

    Presidendi uueks ametiautoks saab Audi A8 4,2 Lang quattro. Audi tehas alandas presidendidele pakutava auto hinda ligi kolm korda. Pressinõunik Ester Šanki, Reval Auto juhi Aivar Toompere ja Silberauto pressiesindaja Üllar Borni kommentaarid

  7. Role of offending out-door aero-allergen and CD14 C(-159)T ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: Objective: Present study involved identification of offending out-door aero-allergens and associated genetic pathway in nas- so-bronchial asthma among Kolkata population. Methods: Skin-prick test was done among 950 asthmatic patients against 11 common aero-allergens and total serum IgE con- centration was ...

  8. Future NASA Power Technologies for Space and Aero Propulsion Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeder, James F.

    2015-01-01

    To achieve the ambitious goals that NASA has outlined for the next decades considerable development of power technology will be necessary. This presentation outlines the development objectives for both space and aero applications. It further looks at the various power technologies that support these objectives and examines drivers that will be a driving force for future development. Finally, the presentation examines what type of non-traditional learning areas should be emphasized in student curriculum so that the engineering needs of the third decade of the 21st Century are met.

  9. The Physics of Boundary-Layer Aero-Optic Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Mach-number-dependent function, )(1 ∞ MF for the modified model Eq. (23) and [ ] 2/3 222 2 )/(12 11)( − ∞∞∞∞       − − += UUrMMMF c γ for the...model Eq. (20). To calculate )(1 ∞ MF from (24), experimentally-measured velocity profiles for a M = 0.5 boundary layer were used; Figure 17 shows the...Optical Engineering: The Design of Optical Systems, McGraw- Hill, NY, 1966, Chap. 3, pp. 49-71. [16] S. Gordeyev, E. Jumper, T. Ng and A. Cain , "Aero

  10. Aero-acoustic noise of wind turbines. Noise prediction models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maribo Pedersen, B. [ed.

    1997-12-31

    Semi-empirical and CAA (Computational AeroAcoustics) noise prediction techniques are the subject of this expert meeting. The meeting presents and discusses models and methods. The meeting may provide answers to the following questions: What Noise sources are the most important? How are the sources best modeled? What needs to be done to do better predictions? Does it boil down to correct prediction of the unsteady aerodynamics around the rotor? Or is the difficult part to convert the aerodynamics into acoustics? (LN)

  11. Computation and analysis of backward ray-tracing in aero-optics flow fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liang; Xue, Deting; Lv, Xiaoyi

    2018-01-08

    A backward ray-tracing method is proposed for aero-optics simulation. Different from forward tracing, the backward tracing direction is from the internal sensor to the distant target. Along this direction, the tracing in turn goes through the internal gas region, the aero-optics flow field, and the freestream. The coordinate value, the density, and the refractive index are calculated at each tracing step. A stopping criterion is developed to ensure the tracing stops at the outer edge of the aero-optics flow field. As a demonstration, the analysis is carried out for a typical blunt nosed vehicle. The backward tracing method and stopping criterion greatly simplify the ray-tracing computations in the aero-optics flow field, and they can be extended to our active laser illumination aero-optics study because of the reciprocity principle.

  12. Optimization of Heat Exchangers for Intercooled Recuperated Aero Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Misirlis

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the European research project LEMCOTEC, a section was devoted to the further optimization of the recuperation system of the Intercooled Recuperated Aero engine (IRA engine concept, of MTU Aero Engines AG. This concept is based on an advanced thermodynamic cycle combining both intercooling and recuperation. The present work is focused only on the recuperation process. This is carried out through a system of heat exchangers mounted inside the hot-gas exhaust nozzle, providing fuel economy and reduced pollutant emissions. The optimization of the recuperation system was performed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD computations, experimental measurements and thermodynamic cycle analysis for a wide range of engine operating conditions. A customized numerical tool was developed based on an advanced porosity model approach. The heat exchangers were modeled as porous media of predefined heat transfer and pressure loss behaviour and could also incorporate major and critical heat exchanger design decisions in the CFD computations. The optimization resulted in two completely new innovative heat exchanger concepts, named as CORN (COnical Recuperative Nozzle and STARTREC (STraight AnnulaR Thermal RECuperator, which provided significant benefits in terms of fuel consumption, pollutants emission and weight reduction compared to more conventional heat exchanger designs, thus proving that further optimization potential for this technology exists.

  13. Overview of additive manufacturing activities at MTU aero engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamberg, Joachim; Dusel, Karl-Heinz; Satzger, Wilhelm

    2015-03-01

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) is a promising technology to produce parts easily and effectively, just by using metallic powder or wire as starting material and a sophisticated melting process. In contrast to milling or turning technologies complex shaped and hollow parts can be built up in one step. That reduces the production costs and allows the implementation of complete new 3D designs. Therefore AM is also of great interest for aerospace and aero engine industry. MTU Aero Engines has focused its AM activities to the selective laser melting technique (SLM). This technique uses metallic powder and a laser for melting and building up the part layer by layer. It is shown which lead part was selected for AM and how the first production line was established. A special focus is set on the quality assurance of the selective laser melting process. In addition to standard non-destructive inspection techniques a new online monitoring tool was developed and integrated into the SLM machines. The basics of this technique is presented.

  14. Eesti vetesse trügiv Gazprom saab suure relvastatud üksuse / Lauri Linnamäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Linnamäe, Lauri

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke, 17. apr. 2007, lk. 5. Vene gaasimonopol Gazprom saab Vene riigilt ilmselt volitused Läänemerre plaanitava gaasijuhtme kaitsmiseks tuhandeist võitlejaist koosneva hästirelvastatud eraarmee loomiseks, riigiduumas algatatud vastavast seaduseelnõust. Parlamendiliikmete Igor Gräzini ja Marko Mihkelsoni arvamused sõjalis-poliitilistest ohtudest. Skeem: Gazprom võib tuua eraarmee Vene-Saksa gaasijuhet kaitsma

  15. The Deterioration Mechanism of Diester Aero Lubricating Oil at High Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Yao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The deterioration of aero lubricating oil at high temperatures was accelerated by using a specific device simulating the operating conditions of engines, where the deterioration mechanism was obtained. Structures of the deteriorated lubricating oils were analyzed by gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer. From the results, it can be concluded that deterioration of aero lubricating oil at high temperatures was composed of thermal pyrolysis, oxidation, and polymerization, with the generation of a variety of products, such as alcohols, aldehydes, acids, and esters, which caused the deterioration of physicochemical properties of the aero lubricating oil.

  16. Predicting Cavitation on Marine and Hydrokinetic Turbine Blades with AeroDyn V15.04

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, Robynne [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-14

    Cavitation is an important consideration in the design of marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) turbines. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's AeroDyn performance code was originally developed for horizontal-axis wind turbines and did not have the capability to predict cavitation inception. Therefore, AeroDyn has been updated to include the ability to predict cavitation on MHK turbines based on user-specified vapor pressure and submerged depth. This report outlines a verification of the AeroDyn V15.04 performance code for MHK turbines through a comparison to publicly available performance data.

  17. 28 CFR 9.5 - Criteria governing administrative and judicial remission and mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... illegal activity, knowledge of the criminal record of a user of the property, or failure to take... REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE REMISSION OR MITIGATION OF CIVIL AND CRIMINAL FORFEITURES § 9.5 Criteria governing..., and legally cognizable interest in the seized property as owner or lienholder as defined in this part...

  18. Aero-acoustics of Drag Generating Swirling Exhaust Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, P. N.; Mobed, D.; Spakovszky, Z. S.; Brooks, T. F.; Humphreys, W. M. Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Aircraft on approach in high-drag and high-lift configuration create unsteady flow structures which inherently generate noise. For devices such as flaps, spoilers and the undercarriage there is a strong correlation between overall noise and drag such that, in the quest for quieter aircraft, one challenge is to generate drag at low noise levels. This paper presents a rigorous aero-acoustic assessment of a novel drag concept. The idea is that a swirling exhaust flow can yield a steady, and thus relatively quiet, streamwise vortex which is supported by a radial pressure gradient responsible for pressure drag. Flows with swirl are naturally limited by instabilities such as vortex breakdown. The paper presents a first aero-acoustic assessment of ram pressure driven swirling exhaust flows and their associated instabilities. The technical approach combines an in-depth aerodynamic analysis, plausibility arguments to qualitatively describe the nature of acoustic sources, and detailed, quantitative acoustic measurements using a medium aperture directional microphone array in combination with a previously established Deconvolution Approach for Mapping of Acoustic Sources (DAMAS). A model scale engine nacelle with stationary swirl vanes was designed and tested in the NASA Langley Quiet Flow Facility at a full-scale approach Mach number of 0.17. The analysis shows that the acoustic signature is comprised of quadrupole-type turbulent mixing noise of the swirling core flow and scattering noise from vane boundary layers and turbulent eddies of the burst vortex structure near sharp edges. The exposed edges are the nacelle and pylon trailing edge and the centerbody supporting the vanes. For the highest stable swirl angle setting a nacelle area based drag coefficient of 0.8 was achieved with a full-scale Overall Sound Pressure Level (OASPL) of about 40dBA at the ICAO approach certification point.

  19. AERO-BACTERIOLOGICAL STUDY OF VEGETABLES MARKET AT JABALPUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Pathak ، K. S. Verma

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Urban and rural vegetable markets of India characterized by mass activity with a little sanitary measure are responsible for generation of higher quantity of aerosols containing biotic and abiotic components. The aerosols generated in due course of mechanical disturbance, contain many organic compounds enable to sensitize vital respiratory organs of local inhabitants. Inhalation of airborne microorganisms can expose workers to risks from infection, toxicosis and allergy. The presence of non-spore forming gram-negative bacteria in air due to the mechanical areosolization indicates higher rate of dissemination of pollutants in these occupation associated areas. The present aero-bacteriological investigation included enumeration, identification and numerical analysis of different types of culturable airborne bacteria with inhalable fraction of gram-negative bacteria in the vegetable market of the city of Jabalpur, in order to measure the degree of aerobiopollution for this environment. The aero-bacteriological sampling has been done fortnightly for a period of one year. Samples were cultured based on standard methods. The survey revealed that in this type of atmosphere, environmental factors were responsible for the persistence of airborne bacteria with variable effects. The major contributors for aerosol generation were other mechanical activities, since this site is classified under human activity-enriched and highly trafficked site. The bioload of this atmosphere was recorded as high as 2.9 x 103 bacterial carrying particles per cubic meter during winter, dominated by both inhalable and non inhalable fractions of gram-negative bacteria. In summer, soil-borne bacteria were reported dominant in the air. High humidity and low temperature were the major factors for dissemination and distribution of gram-negative bacilli. A regression model with upto 43% variance was prepared in order to predict the bioload for this atmosphere in relation to

  20. Integrated Reconfigurable Aero and Propulsion Control for Improved Flight Safety of Commercial Aircraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The main objective of this project is to develop and test a novel innovative Integrated Reconfigurable Aero & Propulsion Control (IRAP) system that achieves...

  1. Aero-Structural Wing Design Optimization Using High-Fidelity Sensitivity Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martins, Joaquim R; Alonso, Juan J; Reuther, James

    2001-01-01

    This paper develops and implements a framework for the computation of coupled aero-structural sensitivities which are required for the design of aircraft where aeroelastic interactions are significant...

  2. Role of offending out-door aero-allergen and CD14 C(-159)T ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    allergens and associated genetic pathway in nasso-bronchial asthma among Kolkata population. Methods: Skin-prick test was done among 950 asthmatic patients against 11 common aero-allergens and total serum IgE concentration was measured.

  3. Correcting the aero-optical aberration of the supersonic mixing layer with adaptive optics: concept validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qiong; Jiang, Zongfu; Yi, Shihe; Xie, Wenke; Liao, Tianhe

    2012-06-10

    We describe an adaptive optics (AO) system for correcting the aero-optical aberration of the supersonic mixing layer and test its performance with numerical simulations. The AO system is based on the measurement of distributed Strehl ratios and the stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD) algorithm. The aero-optical aberration is computed by the direct numerical simulation of a two-dimensional supersonic mixing layer. When the SPGD algorithm is applied directly, the AO cannot give effective corrections. This paper suggests two strategies to improve the performance of the SPGD algorithm for use in aero-optics. The first one is using an iteration process keeping finite memory, and the second is based on the frozen hypothesis. With these modifications, the performance of AO is improved and the aero-optical aberration can be corrected to some noticeable extent. The possibility of experimental implementation is also discussed.

  4. Advanced High Temperature Adhesives for Thermally Stable Aero-assist Technologies Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aero-assist technologies are used to control the velocity of exploration vehicles (EV) when entering earth or other planetary atmospheres. Since entry of EVs in...

  5. Aero-Thermal Calibration of the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (2012 Tests)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor-Barsi, Christine; Allen, Arrington E.

    2013-01-01

    A full aero-thermal calibration of the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) was completed in 2012 following the major modifications to the facility that included replacement of the refrigeration plant and heat exchanger. The calibration test provided data used to fully document the aero-thermal flow quality in the IRT test section and to construct calibration curves for the operation of the IRT.

  6. A SERIES OF UNCOMMON FOREIGN BODIES PRESENTING IN THE AERO-DIGESTIVE TRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Singh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Foreign body impacted in the aero-digestive tract is one of the earliest reported problems. Coins, buttons, marbles, crayons, parts of toys etc. are the most commonly ingested foreign bodies in children. Fish, meat and chicken bones, dentures, nails etc.the most common foreign bodies ingested by adultsWe report a series of unusual foreign body ingestion in aero-digestive tract and their management by endoscopic retrieval.

  7. The DAN-AERO MW experiments. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aagaard Madsen, H.; Bak, C.; Schmidt Paulsen, U.; Gaunaa, M. (Risoe DTU, Roskilde (Denmark)); Fuglsang, P. (LM Glasfiber, Kolding (Denmark)); Romblad, J.; Olesen, N.A. (Vestas Wind Systems, Ringkoebing (Denmark)); Enevoldsen, P.; Laursen, J. (Siemens Wind Power, Ballerup (Denmark)); Jensen, Leo (DONG Energy, Fredericia (Denmark))

    2010-09-15

    This report describes the DAN-AERO MW experiments carried out within a collaborative, three years research project between Risoe DTU and the industrial partners LM Glasfiber, Siemens Wind Power, Vestas Wind Systems A/S and the utility company DONG Energy. The main objective of the project was to establish an experimental data base which can provide new insight into a number of fundamental aerodynamic and aero-acoustic issues, important for the design and operation of MW size turbines. The most important issue is the difference between airfoil characteristics measured under 2D, steady conditions in a wind tunnel and the unsteady 3D flow conditions on a rotor. The different transition characteristics might explain some of the differences between the 2D and 3D airfoil data and the experiments have been set up to provide data on this subject. The overall experimental approach has been to carry out a number of coordinated, innovative measurements on full scale MW size rotors as well as on airfoils for MW size turbines in wind tunnels. Shear and turbulence inflow characteristics were measured on a Siemens 3.6 MW turbine with a five hole pitot tube. Pressure and turbulent inflow characteristics were measured on a 2MW NM80 turbine with an 80 m rotor. One of the LM38.8 m blades on the rotor was replaced with a new LM38.8 m blade where instruments for surface pressure measurements at four radial sections were build into the blade during the blade production process. Additionally, the outmost section on the blade was further instrumented with around 50 microphones for high frequency surface pressure measurements. The surface pressure measurements have been correlated with inflow measurements from four five hole pitot tubes and two sensors for measuring the high frequency (50 Hz to10 kHz) contents of the inflow turbulence. In parallel, 2D wind tunnel measurements on common airfoils for wind turbine applications have been conducted in three different wind tunnels at Delft

  8. Experimental investigation on aero-optics of supersonic turbulent boundary layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Haolin; Yi, Shihe; Zhu, Yangzhu; He, Lin

    2017-09-20

    Nanoparticle-based planar laser scattering was used to measure the density distribution of the supersonic (Ma=3.0) turbulent boundary layer and the optical path difference (OPD), which is quite crucial for aero-optics study. Results were obtained using ray tracing. The influences of different layers in the boundary layer, turbulence scales, and light incident angle on aero-optics were examined, and the underlying flow physics were analyzed. The inner layer plays a dominant role, followed by the outer layer. One hundred OPD rms of the outer layer at different times satisfy the normal distribution better than that of the inner layer. Aero-optics induced by the outer layer is sensitive to the filter scale. When induced by the inner layer, it is not sensitive to the filter scale. The vortices with scales less than the Kolmogorov scale (=46.0  μm) have little influence on the aero-optics and could be ignored; the validity of the smallest optically active scale (=88.1  μm) proposed by Mani is verified, and vortices with scales less than that are ignored, resulting in a 1.62% decay of aero-optics; the filter with a width of 16-grid spacing (=182.4  μm) decreases OPD rms by 7.04%. With the increase of the angle between the wall-normal direction and the light-incident direction, the aero-optics becomes more serious, and the difference between the distribution of the OPD rms and the normal distribution increases. The difficulty of aero-optics correction is increased. Light tilted toward downstream experiences more distortions than when tilted toward upstream at the same angle relative to the wall-normal direction.

  9. Parametric Dependencies in Aero-Elastic, Articulated, Flapping Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, D. J.; Persson, P.; Peraire, J.; Breuer, K. S.

    2006-11-01

    Aero-elastic coupling and wing articulation both play a vital role in the generation of lift and propulsion in birds, bats and fish. We present results from a computational study that employs several tools of varying fidelity to explore the role of flexible structures on the performance and efficiency of bird and bat flight mechanics. The tools (both 2-D and 3-D) include a Wake only ``Betz'' analysis following the work of Hall, Pigott and Hall (J. Aircaft, 1998), a potential flow model coupled to a free-vortex wake (Willis, Peraire & White, AIAA 2005-0854), and lastly, a discontinuous Galerkin solver (Persson & Peraire, AIAA 2006-0113) for the full Navier-Stokes equations. Structural models include springs, beams and membranes to represent compliant biological structures. The results demonstrate the changes in efficiency that can be achieved by different parametric variations in the flight behavior, including the effects of increasing kinematic degrees of freedom (e.g. articulated wings) and the effect of compliance in wing and skeletal structures.

  10. Fault Diagnosis of Demountable Disk-Drum Aero-Engine Rotor Using Customized Multiwavelet Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinglong; Wang, Yu; He, Zhengjia; Wang, Xiaodong

    2015-10-23

    The demountable disk-drum aero-engine rotor is an important piece of equipment that greatly impacts the safe operation of aircraft. However, assembly looseness or crack fault has led to several unscheduled breakdowns and serious accidents. Thus, condition monitoring and fault diagnosis technique are required for identifying abnormal conditions. Customized ensemble multiwavelet method for aero-engine rotor condition identification, using measured vibration data, is developed in this paper. First, customized multiwavelet basis function with strong adaptivity is constructed via symmetric multiwavelet lifting scheme. Then vibration signal is processed by customized ensemble multiwavelet transform. Next, normalized information entropy of multiwavelet decomposition coefficients is computed to directly reflect and evaluate the condition. The proposed approach is first applied to fault detection of an experimental aero-engine rotor. Finally, the proposed approach is used in an engineering application, where it successfully identified the crack fault of a demountable disk-drum aero-engine rotor. The results show that the proposed method possesses excellent performance in fault detection of aero-engine rotor. Moreover, the robustness of the multiwavelet method against noise is also tested and verified by simulation and field experiments.

  11. Spatial-temporal-covariance-based modeling, analysis, and simulation of aero-optics wavefront aberrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Curtis R; Tyler, Glenn A; Wittich, Donald J

    2014-07-01

    We introduce a framework for modeling, analysis, and simulation of aero-optics wavefront aberrations that is based on spatial-temporal covariance matrices extracted from wavefront sensor measurements. Within this framework, we present a quasi-homogeneous structure function to analyze nonhomogeneous, mildly anisotropic spatial random processes, and we use this structure function to show that phase aberrations arising in aero-optics are, for an important range of operating parameters, locally Kolmogorov. This strongly suggests that the d5/3 power law for adaptive optics (AO) deformable mirror fitting error, where d denotes actuator separation, holds for certain important aero-optics scenarios. This framework also allows us to compute bounds on AO servo lag error and predictive control error. In addition, it provides us with the means to accurately simulate AO systems for the mitigation of aero-effects, and it may provide insight into underlying physical processes associated with turbulent flow. The techniques introduced here are demonstrated using data obtained from the Airborne Aero-Optics Laboratory.

  12. Aero-Thermal Calibration of the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (2012 Test)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor-Barsi, Christine; Arrington, E. Allen; VanZante, Judith Foss

    2012-01-01

    A major modification of the refrigeration plant and heat exchanger at the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) occurred in autumn of 2011. It is standard practice at NASA Glenn to perform a full aero-thermal calibration of the test section of a wind tunnel facility upon completion of major modifications. This paper will discuss the tools and techniques used to complete an aero-thermal calibration of the IRT and the results that were acquired. The goal of this test entry was to complete a flow quality survey and aero-thermal calibration measurements in the test section of the IRT. Test hardware that was used includes the 2D Resistive Temperature Detector (RTD) array, 9-ft pressure survey rake, hot wire survey rake, and the quick check survey rake. This test hardware provides a map of the velocity, Mach number, total and static pressure, total temperature, flow angle and turbulence intensity. The data acquired were then reduced to examine pressure, temperature, velocity, flow angle, and turbulence intensity. Reduced data has been evaluated to assess how the facility meets flow quality goals. No icing conditions were tested as part of the aero-thermal calibration. However, the effects of the spray bar air injections on the flow quality and aero-thermal calibration measurements were examined as part of this calibration.

  13. Fault Diagnosis of Demountable Disk-Drum Aero-Engine Rotor Using Customized Multiwavelet Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinglong Chen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The demountable disk-drum aero-engine rotor is an important piece of equipment that greatly impacts the safe operation of aircraft. However, assembly looseness or crack fault has led to several unscheduled breakdowns and serious accidents. Thus, condition monitoring and fault diagnosis technique are required for identifying abnormal conditions. Customized ensemble multiwavelet method for aero-engine rotor condition identification, using measured vibration data, is developed in this paper. First, customized multiwavelet basis function with strong adaptivity is constructed via symmetric multiwavelet lifting scheme. Then vibration signal is processed by customized ensemble multiwavelet transform. Next, normalized information entropy of multiwavelet decomposition coefficients is computed to directly reflect and evaluate the condition. The proposed approach is first applied to fault detection of an experimental aero-engine rotor. Finally, the proposed approach is used in an engineering application, where it successfully identified the crack fault of a demountable disk-drum aero-engine rotor. The results show that the proposed method possesses excellent performance in fault detection of aero-engine rotor. Moreover, the robustness of the multiwavelet method against noise is also tested and verified by simulation and field experiments.

  14. 76 FR 67243 - In the Matter of Accesspoint Corp., Aero Performance Products, Inc., Apex Resources Group, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Accesspoint Corp., Aero Performance Products, Inc., Apex Resources Group, Inc., Aradyme Corp., Bancroft Uranium, Inc., Fightersoft Multimedia Corp., Fortress Financial Group, Inc., and... accurate information concerning the securities of Aero Performance Products, Inc. because it has not filed...

  15. Numerical Investigation on Windback Seals Used in Aero Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Flouros

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Seals are considered one of the most important flow elements in turbomachinery applications. The most traditional and widely known seal is the labyrinth seal but in recent years other types like the brush or carbon seals were introduced since they considerably reduce the sealing air consumption. When seals are used for sealing of aero engine bearing chambers they are subjected to high “bombardment” through oil particles which are present in the bearing chamber. These particles mainly result from the bearings as a consequence of the high rotational speeds. Particularly when carbon or brush seals are used, problems with carbon formation (coking may arise when oil gets trapped in the very tight gap of these seals. In order to prevent oil migration into the turbomachinery, particularly when the pressure difference over a seal is small or even negligible, significant improvement can be achieved through the introduction of so called windback seals. This seal has a row of static helical teeth (thread and below this thread a scalloped or smooth shaft section is rotating. Depending on the application, a windback seal can be used alone or as a combination with another seal (carbon, brush or labyrinth seal. A CFD analysis carried out with ANSYS CFX version 11 is presented in this paper with the aim to investigate this seal type. The simulations were performed by assuming a two-phase flow of air and oil in the bearing compartment. Design parameters like seal clearance, thread size, scallop width, were investigated at different operating conditions.

  16. Frequency-domain Model Matching PID Controller Design for Aero-engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nan; Huang, Jinquan; Lu, Feng

    2014-12-01

    The nonlinear model of aero-engine was linearized at multiple operation points by using frequency response method. The validation results indicate high accuracy of static and dynamic characteristics of the linear models. The improved PID tuning method of frequency-domain model matching was proposed with the system stability condition considered. The proposed method was applied to the design of PID controller of the high pressure rotor speed control in the flight envelope, and the control effects were evaluated by the nonlinear model. Simulation results show that the system had quick dynamic response with zero overshoot and zero steadystate error. Furthermore, a PID-fuzzy switching control scheme for aero-engine was designed, and the fuzzy switching system stability was proved. Simulations were studied to validate the applicability of the multiple PIDs fuzzy switching controller for aero-engine with wide range dynamics.

  17. High-Temperature Adhesives for Thermally Stable Aero-Assist Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberts, Kenneth; Ou, Runqing

    2013-01-01

    Aero-assist technologies are used to control the velocity of exploration vehicles (EVs) when entering Earth or other planetary atmospheres. Since entry of EVs in planetary atmospheres results in significant heating, thermally stable aero-assist technologies are required to avoid the high heating rates while maintaining low mass. Polymer adhesives are used in aero-assist structures because of the need for high flexibility and good bonding between layers of polymer films or fabrics. However, current polymer adhesives cannot withstand temperatures above 400 C. This innovation utilizes nanotechnology capabilities to address this need, leading to the development of high-temperature adhesives that exhibit high thermal conductivity in addition to increased thermal decomposition temperature. Enhanced thermal conductivity will help to dissipate heat quickly and effectively to avoid temperature rising to harmful levels. This, together with increased thermal decomposition temperature, will enable the adhesives to sustain transient high-temperature conditions.

  18. Solar-like oscillations in the G9.5 subgiant β Aquilae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corsaro, E.; Grundahl, F.; Leccia, S.

    2012-01-01

    An interesting asteroseismic target is the G9.5 IV solar-like star beta Aql. This is an ideal target for asteroseismic investigations, because precise astrometric measurements are available from Hipparcos that greatly help in constraining the theoretical interpretation of the results. The star......, where the possibility of detecting time individual p-mode frequencies for the first and deriving their corresponding asymptotic values will be discussed. The time-series analysis carried out from \\sim 800 collected spectra shows the typical p-mode frequency pattern with a maximum centered at 416 \\mu......Hz. In the frequency range 300 - 600 \\muHz we identified for the first time six high S/N (\\gtrsim 3.5) modes with l = 0,2 and 11 star appears to be quite difficult owing to a substantial presence...

  19. MiR-9-5p promotes MSC migration by activating β-catenin signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianyang; He, Lihong; Yue, Qing; Lu, Junhou; Kang, Naixin; Xu, Xiaojing; Wang, Huihui; Zhang, Huanxiang

    2017-07-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the potential to treat various tissue damages, but the very limited number of cells that migrate to the damaged region strongly restricts their therapeutic applications. Full understanding of mechanisms regulating MSC migration will help to improve their migration ability and therapeutic effects. Increasing evidence shows that microRNAs play important roles in the regulation of MSC migration. In the present study, we reported that miR-9-5p was upregulated in hepatocyte growth factor -treated MSCs and in MSCs with high migration ability. Overexpression of miR-9-5p promoted MSC migration, whereas inhibition of endogenous miR-9-5p decreased MSC migration. To elucidate the underlying mechanism, we screened the target genes of miR-9-5p and report for the first time that CK1α and GSK3β, two inhibitors of β-catenin signaling pathway, were direct targets of miR-9-5p in MSCs and that overexpression of miR-9-5p upregulated β-catenin signaling pathway. In line with these data, inhibition of β-catenin signaling pathway by FH535 decreased the miR-9-5p-promoted migration of MSCs, while activation of β-catenin signaling pathway by LiCl rescued the impaired migration of MSCs triggered by miR-9-5p inhibitor. Furthermore, the formation and distribution of focal adhesions as well as the reorganization of F-actin were affected by the expression of miR-9-5p. Collectively, these results demonstrate that miR-9-5p promotes MSC migration by upregulating β-catenin signaling pathway, shedding light on the optimization of MSCs for cell replacement therapy through manipulating the expression level of miR-9-5p. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Aero-MINE (Motionless INtegrated Energy) for Distributed Scalable Wind Power.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houchens, Brent C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Blaylock, Myra L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-06-01

    The proposed Aero-MINE technology will extract energy from wind without any exterior moving parts. Aero-MINEs can be integrated into buildings or function stand-alone, and are scalable. This gives them advantages similar to solar panels, but with the added benefit of operation in cloudy or dark conditions. Furthermore, compared to solar panels, Aero-MINEs can be manufactured at lower cost and with less environmental impact. Power generation is isolated internally by the pneumatic transmission of air and the outlet air-jet nozzles amplify the effectiveness. Multiple units can be connected to one centrally located electric generator. Aero-MINEs are ideal for the built-environment, with numerous possible configurations ranging from architectural integration to modular bolt-on products. Traditional wind turbines suffer from many fundamental challenges. The fast-moving blades produce significant aero-acoustic noise, visual disturbances, light-induced flickering and impose wildlife mortality risks. The conversion of massive mechanical torque to electricity is a challenge for gears, generators and power conversion electronics. In addition, the installation, operation and maintenance of wind turbines is required at significant height. Furthermore, wind farms are often in remote locations far from dense regions of electricity customers. These technical and logistical challenges add significantly to the cost of the electricity produced by utility-scale wind farms. In contrast, distributed wind energy eliminates many of the logistical challenges. However, solutions such as micro-turbines produce relatively small amounts of energy due to the reduction in swept area and still suffer from the motion-related disadvantages of utility-scale turbines. Aero-MINEs combine the best features of distributed generation, while eliminating the disadvantages.

  1. Problems of Aero-optics and Adaptive Optical Systems: Analytical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. I. Shanin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The analytical review gives the basic concepts of the aero-optics problem arising from the radiation propagation in the region of the boundary layers of a laser installation carrier aircraft. Estimates the radiation wave front distortions at its propagation in the near and far field. Presents main calculation approaches and methods to solve the gas-dynamic and optical problems in propagating laser radiation. Conducts a detailed analysis of the flows and their generating optical aberrations introduced by the aircraft turret (a projection platform of the on-board laser. Considers the effect of various factors (shock wave, difference in wall and flow temperatures on the flow pattern and the optical aberrations. Provides research data on the aero-optics obtained in the flying laboratory directly while in flight. Briefly considers the experimental research methods, diagnostic equipment, and synthesis of results while studying the aero-optics problem. Discusses some methods for mitigating the aerodynamic effects on the light propagation under flight conditions. Presents data about the passive, active, and hybrid effects on the flow in the boundary layers in order to reduce aberrations through improving the flow aerodynamics.The paper considers operation of adaptive optical systems under conditions of aero-optical distortions. Presents the study results concerning the reduction of the aero-optics effect on the characteristics of radiation in far field. Gives some research results regarding the effect on the efficiency of the adaptive system of a laser beam jitter and a time delay in the feedback signal transmission, which occur under application conditions. Provides data on adaptive correction of aero-optical wave fronts of radiation. Considers some application aspects in control systems of the on-board adaptive optics of adaptive filtration as a way to improve the efficiency of adaptive optical systems. The project in mind is to use obtained results

  2. Acute damage by naphthalene triggers expression of the neuroendocrine marker PGP9.5 in airway epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, T.T.; Naizhen, X.; Linnoila, R.I.

    2008-01-01

    Protein Gene Product 9.5 (PGP9.5) is highly expressed in nervous tissue. Recently PGP9.5 expression has been found to be upregulated in the pulmonary epithelium of smokers and in non-small cell lung cancer, suggesting that it also plays a role in carcinogen-inflicted lung epithelial injury...... neuroendocrine markers was found in the non-neuroendocrine epithelial cells after naphthalene exposure. In contrast, immunostaining for the cell cycle regulator p27(Kip1), which has previously been associated with PGP9.5 in lung cancer cells, revealed transient downregulation of p27(Kip1) in naphthalene exposed...... and further strengthens the accumulating evidence of PGP9.5 as a central player in lung epithelial damage and early carcinogenesis Udgivelsesdato: 2008/9/26...

  3. System Aero-Accelator for the purification of biodegradable effluents; Sistema aero-accelator para la depuracion de efluentes biodegradables (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosque Hernandez, J. L. del; Martin Sanchez, J. L. [Universidad de Salamanca (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    The contamination of the waters is one of the factors that contributes to the deterioration of our environment and since it is a very limited one its treatment descontaminant it is one of the politic's main objectives and environmental administration at all the levels, being spread to the total purification of the generated residual effluents. To reach this objective, big technological efforts are required that allow next to the creation of new processes, the adaptation of the processes existent depuratives, increasing the effectiveness of the same ones. One of the techniques of purification of possible recovery is the Compact System of active mires Aero-Accelator. Presently work is designed and it builds a plant pilot with Aero-Accelator geometry to study its behavior in the treatment of effluents of urban type with different loads pollutants. (Author) 16 refs.

  4. General catalogue of products and services - geology. AERO data base; 2. ed; Catalogo geral de produtos e servicos - geologia. Base de dados AERO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The catalogue in the second edition aims at presenting to the user a general idea on the aerogeophysical projects of Brazil database (AERO) which belongs to SIGA (Brazilian geological information system). The 151 documents (projects) are listed as follows: 52 projects performed by CPRM/DNPM - Departamento Nacional de Producao Mineral; 33 projects performed by CNEN - Commissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear and NUCLEBRAS; 7 projects executed by State government and private companies; and 59 projects executed for PETROBRAS 159 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Global dust model intercomparison in AeroCom phase I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Huneeus

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the results of a broad intercomparison of a total of 15 global aerosol models within the AeroCom project. Each model is compared to observations related to desert dust aerosols, their direct radiative effect, and their impact on the biogeochemical cycle, i.e., aerosol optical depth (AOD and dust deposition. Additional comparisons to Angström exponent (AE, coarse mode AOD and dust surface concentrations are included to extend the assessment of model performance and to identify common biases present in models. These data comprise a benchmark dataset that is proposed for model inspection and future dust model development. There are large differences among the global models that simulate the dust cycle and its impact on climate. In general, models simulate the climatology of vertically integrated parameters (AOD and AE within a factor of two whereas the total deposition and surface concentration are reproduced within a factor of 10. In addition, smaller mean normalized bias and root mean square errors are obtained for the climatology of AOD and AE than for total deposition and surface concentration. Characteristics of the datasets used and their uncertainties may influence these differences. Large uncertainties still exist with respect to the deposition fluxes in the southern oceans. Further measurements and model studies are necessary to assess the general model performance to reproduce dust deposition in ocean regions sensible to iron contributions. Models overestimate the wet deposition in regions dominated by dry deposition. They generally simulate more realistic surface concentration at stations downwind of the main sources than at remote ones. Most models simulate the gradient in AOD and AE between the different dusty regions. However the seasonality and magnitude of both variables is better simulated at African stations than Middle East ones. The models simulate the offshore transport of West Africa throughout the year

  6. Planeering kui kaasaegne teos par excellence : kas tulevikku saab välja mõelda? = The plan as a contenporary work par excellence : can the future be made up? / Toomas Tammis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tammis, Toomas, 1969-

    2011-01-01

    Tulevikku saab kavandada läbi visioonide, läbi erinevate erialade teadmistest kokku lõimunud loomingulise akti, mis ei saa kunagi olla liiga täpne. Planeering saab olla teatav süsteem, mis suudab lõputult produtseerida väikseid üsna täpselt koha- ja keskkonnatundlikke produkte, jäädes ise pidevasse loomisse ning pooleliolekusse, olles pidevas interaktsioonis ühiskonnaga viimast lõputult monitoorides ja muutes

  7. AeroMTP: A fountain code-based multipath transport protocol for airborne networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jie

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Airborne networks (ANs are special types of ad hoc networks that can be used to enhance situational awareness, flight coordination and flight efficiency in civil and military aviation. Compared to ground networks, ANs have some unique attributes including high node mobility, frequent topology changes, mechanical and aerodynamic constrains, strict safety requirements and harsh communication environment. Thus, the performance of conventional transmission control protocol (TCP will be dramatically degraded in ANs. Aircraft commonly have two or more heterogeneous network interfaces which offer an opportunity to form multiple communication paths between any two nodes in ANs. To satisfy the communication requirements in ANs, we propose aeronautical multipath transport protocol (AeroMTP for ANs, which effectively utilizes the available bandwidth and diversity provided by heterogeneous wireless paths. AeroMTP uses fountain codes as forward error correction (FEC codes to recover from data loss and deploys a TCP-friendly rate-based congestion control mechanism for each path. Moreover, we design a packet allocation algorithm based on optimization to minimize the delivery time of blocks. The performance of AeroMTP is evaluated through OMNeT++ simulations under a variety of test scenarios. Simulations demonstrate that AeroMTP is of great potential to be applied to ANs.

  8. OC3 -- Benchmark Exercise of Aero-Elastic Offshore Wind Turbine Codes: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passon, P.; Kuhn, M.; Butterfield, S.; Jonkman, J.; Camp, T.; Larsen, T. J.

    2007-08-01

    This paper introduces the work content and status of the first international investigation and verification of aero-elastic codes for offshore wind turbines as performed by the "Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration" (OC3) within the "IEA Wind Annex XXIII -- Subtask 2".

  9. The aero optics effect on near space laser communication optical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuan; Fu, Yuegang; Jiang, Huilin

    2013-08-01

    With the developing of the space laser communication link, the performance index including higher transfer speed, extending transfer distance, and environmental adaptability, all ask the system accuracy and indexes improving. Special the developing near space platform, its environmental is extremes, the near space drone and other airplane flight speed is very quickly from the subsonic to supersonic. The aero optics effect caused by high speed will generate a thin turbulent air layer. It affects the performance of laser communication optical system by laser light vibration, deviation and so on, further more affects the performance of laser communication system working performance, even can't communication. Therefore, for achieving optical system indexes, we need do more research in optical system near space aero optics environmental adaptability. In this paper, near space link environmental characteristic are researched. And on the base of the aero optics theory, computer simulating method is applied to analyze the relationship among the altitude, the flight speed and the image dispersion. The result shows that, the aero optics effect cannot be ignored when the terminal is in low altitude or is moving with supersonic speed. The effect must be taken into considered from overall design. The result will provide the basis of research design.

  10. Blades Forced Vibration Under Aero-Elastic Excitation Modeled by Van der Pol

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Půst, Ladislav; Pešek, Luděk

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 11 (2017), č. článku 1750166. ISSN 0218-1274 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-04546S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : ade vibration * aero-elastic force * self-excitation * van der Pol Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 1.329, year: 2016

  11. Numerical investigation of pulverized coal aero mixture combustion at the presence of flow swirling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsov V.A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerical investigation results of burning pulverized coal aero mixture in the presence of swirl flow have been presented. The mathematical model has been chosen allowing describing correctly the pulverized coal combustion processes in the furnace with a swirl burner.

  12. 48 CFR 1852.235-70 - Center for AeroSpace Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... CASI provides a variety of services and products as a NASA repository and database of research... SPACE ADMINISTRATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions... avail itself of the services provided by the NASA Center for AeroSpace Information (CASI) (http://www...

  13. Rocket Engine System Analysis : Vinci Engine Turbines Analysis, Volvo Aero Corp.

    OpenAIRE

    Romanov, Artyom

    2008-01-01

    Major part of the current work describes the development of the update methodology for onedimensional code (TML) currently used at Volvo Aero Corporation during turbine design process. The methodology is then applied and tried out in a general engine analysis (GESTPAN).

  14. Swept Blade Aero-Elastic Model for a Small Wind Turbine (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damiani, R.; Lee, S.; Larwood, S.

    2014-07-01

    A preprocessor for analyzing preswept wind turbines using the in-house aero-elastic tool coupled with a multibody dynamic simulator was developed. A baseline 10-kW small wind turbine with straight blades and various configurations that featured bend-torsion coupling via blade-tip sweep were investigated to study their impact on ultimate loads and fatigue damage equivalent loads.

  15. Large Wind Turbine Rotor Design using an Aero-Elastic / Free-Wake Panel Coupling Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sessarego, Matias; Ramos García, Néstor; Shen, Wen Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Despite the advances in computing resources in the recent years, the majority of large wind-turbine rotor design problems still rely on aero-elastic codes that use blade element momentum (BEM) approaches to model the rotor aerodynamics. The present work describes an approach to wind-turbine rotor...

  16. 76 FR 82202 - Airworthiness Directives; International Aero Engines AG Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ... Engines AG Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed... International Aero Engines AG (IAE) V2500-A1, V2525-D5 and V2528-D5 turbofan engines, and certain serial numbers... engines. The existing AD currently requires initial and repetitive on-wing ultrasonic inspections (USIs...

  17. 78 FR 22168 - Airworthiness Directives; International Aero Engines AG Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    ... Engines AG Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain International Aero Engines AG (IAE), V2525-D5 and V2528-D5 turbofan engines, with a certain No. 4 bearing internal scavenge tube and a...

  18. 77 FR 30371 - Airworthiness Directives; International Aero Engines AG Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ... Engines AG Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are superseding an existing airworthiness directive (AD) for all International Aero Engines AG (IAE) V2500-A1, V2525-D5 and V2528-D5 turbofan engines, and certain serial numbers (S/Ns) of IAE V2522...

  19. 78 FR 1776 - Airworthiness Directives; International Aero Engines AG Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ... Engines AG Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed... Aero Engines AG (IAE), V2525-D5 and V2528-D5 turbofan engines, with a certain number (No.) 4 bearing... prompted by a report of an engine under-cowl fire and commanded in-flight shutdown. This proposed AD would...

  20. Improving Aerospace Engineering Students' Achievements by an Open Aero Control Experiment Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, QingHua; Zhang, WeiHua; Huang, ZheZhi; Dong, RongHua

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an aero control experiment apparatus (ACEA) for use in aerospace control practical courses. The ACEA incorporates a systematic multihierarchy learning and teaching method, and was designed to improve aerospace engineering students' understanding of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) control systems. It offers a…

  1. An AeroCom initial assessment – optical properties in aerosol component modules of global models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kinne, S.; Schulz, M.; Textor, C.; Guibert, S.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S.; Berntsen, E.; Berglen, T.F.; Boucher, O.; Chin, M.; Collins, W.; Dentener, F.; Diehl, T.; Easter, R.; Feichter, J.; Fillmore, D.; Ghan, S.; Ginoux, P.; Gong, S.; Grini, A.; Hendricks, J.; Herzog, M.; Horowitz, L.; Isaksen, I.; Iversen, T.; Kirkevåg, A.; Kloster, S.; Koch, D.; Kristjansson, J.E.; Krol, M.C.; Lauer, A.; Lamarque, J.F.; Lesins, G.; Liu, X.; Lohmann, U.; Montanaro, V.; Myhre, G.; Penner, J.; Pitari, G.; Reddy, S.; Seland, O.; Stier, P.; Takemura, T.; Tie, X.

    2006-01-01

    The AeroCom exercise diagnoses multi-component aerosol modules in global modeling. In an initial assessment simulated global distributions for mass and mid-visible aerosol optical thickness (aot) were compared among 20 different modules. Model diversity was also explored in the context of previous

  2. Analysis and quantification of the diversities of aerosol life cycles within AeroCom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Textor, C.; Schulz, M.; Guibert, S.; Kinne, S.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S.; Berntsen, T.; Berglen, T.; Boucher, O.; Chin, M.; Dentener, F.; Diehl, T.; Easter, R.; Feichter, H.; Fillmore, D.; Ghan, S.; Ginoux, P.; Gong, S.; Grini, A.; Hendricks, J.; Horowitz, L.; Huang, P.; Isaksen, I.; Iversen, T.; Kloster, S.; Koch, D.; Kirkevåg, A.; Kristjansson, J.E.; Krol, M.C.; Lauer, A.; Lamarque, J.F.; Liu, X.; Montanaro, V.; Myhre, G.; Penner, J.; Pitari, G.; Reddy, S.; Seland, O.; Stier, P.; Takemura, T.; Tie, X.

    2006-01-01

    Simulation results of global aerosol models have been assembled in the framework of the AeroCom intercomparison exercise. In this paper, we analyze the life cycles of dust, sea salt, sulfate, black carbon and particulate organic matter as simulated by sixteen global aerosol models. The differences

  3. Performance of small-scale aero-derivative industrial gas turbines derived from helicopter engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barinyima Nkoi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers comparative assessment of simple and advanced cycle small-scale aero-derivative industrial gas turbines derived from helicopter engines. More particularly, investigation was made of technical performance of the small-scale aero-derivative engine cycles based on existing and projected cycles for applications in industrial power generation, combined heat and power concept, rotating equipment driving, and/or allied processes. The investigation was done by carrying out preliminary design and performance simulation of a simple cycle (baseline two-spool small-scale aero-derivative turboshaft engine model, and some advanced counterpart aero-derivative configurations. The advanced configurations consist of recuperated and intercooled/recuperated engine cycles of same nominal power rating of 1.567 MW. The baseline model was derived from the conversion of an existing helicopter engine model. In doing so, design point and off-design point performances of the engine models were established. In comparing their performances, it was observed that to a large extent, the advanced engine cycles showed superior performance in terms of thermal efficiency, and specific fuel consumption. In numerical terms, thermal efficiencies of recuperated engine cycle, and intercooled/recuperated engine cycles, over the simple cycle at DP increased by 13.5%, and 14.5% respectively, whereas specific fuel consumption of these cycles over simple cycle at DP decreased by 12.5%, and 13% respectively. This research relied on open access public literature for data.

  4. "Vedes päi elo tulob..." = "Veest saab elu alguse..." : [luuletused] / Miikul Pahomov ; tlk. Jaan Õispuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pahomov, Miikul

    2006-01-01

    Sisu: "Vedes päi elo tulob..." = "Veest saab elu alguse..." ; "Ei skuup voi pajatada denguush..." = "Ei kooner rahast laulda või..." ; "Coma neicud lyydilaane..." = "Kaunis neiu, lüüdi neiu..." ; "Olizhbo purjeh..." = "Oleks puri mul..." ; "Mi om meiden lyhyd elo..." = "Mis on meie pisku elu..." ; "Sinizhed lindud..." = "Sinised linnud..." ; "Ole, kaivo, puhtaz..." = "Ole, allik, puhas..." ; "Pimedas..." = "Pimedas..." ; Ken miä olen? = Kes ma olen ; Lüüdiland = Lüüdiland ; "Sa kuna mäned, minun rahvaz..." = "Kuhu lähed sa, minu rahvas..." ; Minu kibu - minun mua = Minu valu on minu maa ; Lüüdikiel̀ = Lüüdi keel ; Dälgmäizhed = Viimased ; Kand da latv = Känd ja latv ; Kardàlaine külü = Karjala saun ; Petruskoi = Petruskoi ; "Tägä Suomen taivhan al..." = "Siinse soome taeva all..." ; Viiburin - Piiterin tiel = Viiburi - Piiteri teel

  5. HST Grism Observations of a Gravitationally Lensed Redshift 9.5 Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoag, A.; Bradač, M.; Brammer, G.; Huang, K.-H.; Treu, T.; Mason, C. A.; Castellano, M.; Di Criscienzo, M.; Jones, T.; Kelly, P.; Pentericci, L.; Ryan, R.; Schmidt, K.; Trenti, M.

    2018-02-01

    We present deep spectroscopic observations of a Lyman break galaxy (LBG) candidate (hereafter MACS1149-JD) at z ∼ 9.5 with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) WFC3/IR grisms. The grism observations were taken at four distinct position angles, totaling 34 orbits with the G141 grism, although only 19 of the orbits are relatively uncontaminated along the trace of MACS1149-JD. We fit a three-parameter (z, F160W mag, and Lyα equivalent width [EW]) LBG template to the three least contaminated grism position angles using a Markov chain Monte Carlo approach. The grism data alone are best fit with a redshift of {z}{grism}={9.53}-0.60+0.39 (68% confidence), in good agreement with our photometric estimate of {z}{phot}={9.51}-0.12+0.06 (68% confidence). Our analysis rules out Lyα emission from MACS1149-JD above a 3σ EW of 21 Å, consistent with a highly neutral IGM. We explore a scenario where the red Spitzer/IRAC [3.6]–[4.5] color of the galaxy previously pointed out in the literature is due to strong rest-frame optical emission lines from a very young stellar population rather than a 4000 Å break. We find that while this can provide an explanation for the observed IRAC color, it requires a lower redshift (z ≲ 9.1), which is less preferred by the HST imaging data. The grism data are consistent with both scenarios, indicating that the red IRAC color can still be explained by a 4000 Å break, characteristic of a relatively evolved stellar population. In this interpretation, the photometry indicates that a {340}-35+29 Myr stellar population is already present in this galaxy only ∼500 Myr after the big bang.

  6. PREFACE: 2013 International Conferences on Geological, Geographical, Aerospace and Earth Sciences (AeroEarth 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    The 2013 International Conferences on Geological, Geographical, Aerospace and Earth Sciences (AeroEarth 2013), was held at the Swiss Bell Mangga Besar, Jakarta, Indonesia, on 23 December 2013. The AeroEarth conference aims to bring together researchers, engineers and scientists in the domain of interest from around the world. AeroEarth 2013 promotes interaction between the theoretical, experimental, and applied communities, so that high-level exchange is achieved in new and emerging areas within Earth Science. Through research and development, earth scientists have the power to preserve the planet's different resource domains by providing expert opinion and information about the forces which make life possible on Earth. We would like to express our sincere gratitude to all in the Technical Program Committee who have reviewed the papers and developed a very interesting Conference Program as well as the invited and plenary speakers. This year, we received 91 papers and after rigorous review, 17 papers were accepted. The participants come from 8 countries. There are 3 (three) Plenary Sessions and two invited Speakers. It is an honour to present this volume of IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (EES) and we deeply thank the authors for their enthusiastic and high-grade contribution. Finally, we would like to thank the conference chairmen, the members of the steering committee, the organizing committee, the organizing secretariat and the financial support from the conference sponsors that allowed the success of AeroEarth 2013. The AeroEarth 2013 Proceedings Editors Dr. Ford Lumban Gaol Dr. Benfano Soewito Dr. Amit Desai Further information on the invited plenary speakers and photographs from the conference can be found in the pdf.

  7. Fusing Simulation Results From Multifidelity Aero-servo-elastic Simulators - Application To Extreme Loads On Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Imad; Sudret, Bruno; Lataniotis, Christos

    2015-01-01

    Fusing predictions from multiple simulators in the early stages of the conceptual design of a wind turbine results in reduction in model uncertainty and risk mitigation. Aero-servo-elastic is a term that refers to the coupling of wind inflow, aerodynamics, structural dynamics and controls. Fusing...... the response data from multiple aero-servo-elastic simulators could provide better predictive ability than using any single simulator. The co-Kriging approach to fuse information from multifidelity aero-servo-elastic simulators is presented. We illustrate the co-Kriging approach to fuse the extreme flapwise...

  8. Understanding Aero-Fractures using optics and acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkaya, Semih; Toussaint, Renaud; Kvalheim Eriksen, Fredrik; Zecevic, Megan; Daniel, Guillaume; Grude Flekkøy, Eirik; Jørgen Måløy, Knut

    2016-04-01

    exponent p value around 0.5. An analytical model of overpressure diffusion predicting p = 0.5 and two other free parameters of the Omori Law (prefactor and origin time) is developed. The spatial density of the seismic events, and the time of end of formation of the channels can also be predicted using this developed model. Using direct simulations of acoustic emissions due to the air vibration in opening fractal cavities, the evolution in the power spectrum is investigated. 1. Turkaya S, Toussaint R, Eriksen FK, Zecevic M, Daniel G, Flekkøy EG, Måløy KJ. "Bridging aero-fracture evolution with the characteristics of the acoustic emissions in a porous medium." Front. Phys.3:70. 2015 doi: 10.3389/fphy.2015.00070

  9. Smart Rotor Modeling: Aero-Servo-Elastic Modeling of a Smart Rotor with Adaptive Trailing Edge Flaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergami, Leonardo

    This book presents the formulation of an aero-servo-elastic model for a wind turbine rotor equipped with Adaptive Trailing Edge Flaps (ATEF), a smart rotor configuration. As the name suggests, an aero-servo-elastic model consists of three main components: an aerodynamic model, a structural model......, and a control model. The book first presents an engineering type of aerodynamic model that accounts for the dynamic effects of flap deflection. The aerodynamic model is implemented in a Blade Element Momentum framework, and coupled with a multi-body structural model in the aero-servoelastic simulation code HAWC...... the trailing edge flap deflection to actively reduce the fatigue loads on the structure. The performance of the smart rotor configuration and its control algorithms are finally quantified by aero-servo-elastic simulations of the smart rotor turbine operating in a standard turbulent wind field....

  10. Current Progress of a Finite Element Computational Fluid Dynamics Prediction of Flutter for the AeroStructures Test Wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, Andrew S., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    This progress report focuses on the use of the STructural Analysis RoutineS suite program, SOLIDS, input for the AeroStructures Test Wing. The AeroStructures Test Wing project as a whole is described. The use of the SOLIDS code to find the mode shapes of a structure is discussed. The frequencies, and the structural dynamics to which they relate are examined. The results of the CFD predictions are compared to experimental data from a Ground Vibration Test.

  11. Aero-allergens in canine atopic dermatitis in southeastern Australia based on 1000 intradermal skin tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, R S; Bettenay, S V; Tideman, L

    2000-06-01

    To determine the most relevant aero-allergens involved in canine atopic dermatitis in southeastern Australia and provide information about these aero-allergens to the general practitioner. Dogs presented to the Animal Skin & Allergy Clinic with history and clinical signs of atopic dermatitis were injected intradermally with 38 different allergens and negative and positive control. Intradermal skin tests in 1000 dogs were retrospectively evaluated. One third of all patients reacted to the house dust mite Dermatophagoides farinae. Allergens reacting in more than 15% of the patients were wheat (Triticum aestivum), sweet vernal (Anthoxanthum odoratum), English couch (Agropyron repens), yellow dock (Rumex crispus), Mexican tea (Chenopodium ambrosioides), plantain (Plantago lanceolata), melaleuca (Melaleuca quinquenervia) and peppercorn (Schimus spp). House dust mites are the most common allergens in canine atopic dermatitis in southeastern Australia and D farinae is involved most frequently. However, a number of grass, weed and tree pollens also are involved regularly.

  12. Study on aero-optical effect of a hypersonic missile infrared image guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Zhao, Yuejin; Hu, Xinqi

    2009-11-01

    When a hypersonic missile with a side mounted IR seeker is launched in the atmosphere, a serious aero-optical effect is formed and affects the quality of the detector's imaging. And in the course of the missile flight time,aero-optical effects changes over time, which makes real-time, accurate correction of optical distortion becomes very difficult. Therefore, it is necessary to study the relationship between the optical distortion and time.In this paper, Fluent,a computational fluid dynamics(CFD) internet applications is used to make researches on effect of optical transmission of the flow field outside the IR window. And a thermal finite element analysis (FEA) of an IR window is used to study the aerodynamic heat effect.

  13. G181.1+9.5, a new high-latitude low-surface brightness supernova remnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothes, Roland; Reich, Patricia; Foster, Tyler J.; Reich, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Context. More than 90% of the known Milky Way supernova remnants (SNRs) are within 5° of the Galactic plane. The discovery of the new high-latitude SNR G181.1+9.5 will give us the opportunity to learn more about the environment and magnetic field at the interface between disk and halo of our Galaxy. Aims: We present the discovery of SNR G181.1+9.5, a new high-latitude SNR, serendipitously discovered in an ongoing survey of the Galactic anti-centre High-Velocity Cloud complex, observed with the DRAO Synthesis Telescope in the 21 cm radio continuum and H i spectral line. Methods: We use radio continuum observations (including the linearly polarized component) at 1420 MHz (observed with the DRAO ST) and 4850 MHz (observed with the Effelsberg 100-m radio telescope) to map G181.1+9.5 and determine its nature as a SNR. High-resolution 21 cm H i line observations and H i emission and absorption spectra reveal the physical characteristics of its local interstellar environment. Finally, we estimate the basic physical parameters of G181.1+9.5 using models for highly-evolved SNRs. Results: G181.1+9.5 has a circular shell-like morphology with a radius of about 16 pc at a distance of 1.5 kpc some 250 pc above the mid-plane. The radio observations reveal highly linearly polarized emission with a non-thermal spectrum. Archival ROSAT X-ray data reveal high-energy emission from the interior of G181.1+9.5 indicative of the presence of shock-heated ejecta. The SNR is in the advanced radiative phase of SNR evolution, expanding into the HVC inter-cloud medium with a density of nHI ≈ 1 cm-3. Basic physical attributes of G181.1+9.5 calculated with radiative SNR models show an upper-limit age of 16 000 yr, a swept-up mass of more than 300M⊙, and an ambient density in agreement with that estimated from H i observations. Conclusions: G181.1+9.5 shows all characteristics of a typical mature shell-type SNR, but its observed faintness is unusual and requires further study.

  14. Results of a WINGDES2/AERO2S Flap Optimization for the TCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaros, Steven F.

    1999-01-01

    The codes WINGDES2 and AERO2S were easy to obtain, and technical help was readily available. The codes have a long, well-documented history of successful optimizations of various aircraft configurations. The codes were easy to use, although specification of input data was time-consuming. The Run times were short, allowing the many runs necessary for the Suction Parameter matrix to be accomplished within a day or two. The results of the optimization appear to be reasonable.

  15. Aero-elastic stability of airfoil flow using 2-D CFD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansen, J. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    A three degrees-of-freedom structural dynamics model has been coupled to a two-dimensional incompressible CFD code. The numerical investigation considers aero-elastic stability for two different airfoils; the NACA0012 and the LM 2 18 % airfoils. Stable and unstable configurations and limit cycle oscillations are predicted in accordance with literature for the first airfoil. An attempt to predict stall induced edge-wise vibrations on a wind turbine airfoil fails using this two-dimensional approach. (au)

  16. Performance of a Supercritical CO2 Bottoming Cycle for Aero Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Jacob

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available By 2050, the evolutionary approach to aero engine research may no longer provide meaningful returns on investment, whereas more radical approaches to improving thermal efficiency and reducing emissions might still prove cost effective. One such radical concept is the addition of a secondary power cycle that utilizes the otherwise largely wasted residual heat in the core engine’s exhaust gases. This could provide additional shaft power. Supercritical carbon dioxide closed-circuit power cycles are currently being investigated primarily for stationary power applications, but their high power density and efficiency, even for modest peak cycle temperatures, makes them credible bottoming cycle options for aero engine applications. Through individual geometric design and performance studies for each of the bottoming cycle’s major components, it was determined that a simple combined cycle aero engine could offer a 1.9% mission fuel burn benefit over a state-of-the-art geared turbofan for the year 2050. However, the even greater potential of more complex systems demands further investigation. For example, adding inter-turbine reheat (ITR to the combined cycle is predicted to significantly improve the fuel burn benefit.

  17. Validation of the AeroDyn subroutines using NREL unsteady aerodynamics experimental data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laino, D.J.; Hansen, A.C.; Minnema, J.E. [Windward Engineering, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2002-07-01

    Completion of the full-scale wind tunnel tests of the NREL Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment (UAE) phase VI allowed validation of the AeroDyn wind turbine aerodynamics software to commence. Detailed knowledge of the inflow to the UAE was the bane of prior attempts to accomplish any in-depth validation in the past. The wind tunnel tests permitted unprecedented control and measurement of inflow to the UAE rotor. The data collected from these UAE tests are currently under investigation as part of an effort to better understand wind turbine rotor aerodynamics in order to improve aeroelastic modelling techniques. Preliminary results from this study using the AeroDyn subroutines are presented, pointing to several avenues towards improvement. Test data indicate that rotational effects cause more static stall delay over a larger portion of the blades than predicted by current methods. Despite the relatively stiff properties of the UAE, vibration modes appear to influence the aerodynamic forces and system loads. AeroDyn adequately predicts dynamic stall hysteresis loops when appropriate steady, 2D aerofoil tables are used. Problems encountered include uncertainties in converting measured inflow angle to angle of attack for the UAE phase VI. Future work is proposed to address this angle-of-attack problem and to analyse a slightly more complex dynamics model that incorporates some of the structural vibration modes evident in the test data. (author)

  18. A comparison between different finite elements for elastic and aero-elastic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahran, Mohamed; ELsabbagh, Adel; Negm, Hani

    2017-11-01

    In the present paper, a comparison between five different shell finite elements, including the Linear Triangular Element, Linear Quadrilateral Element, Linear Quadrilateral Element based on deformation modes, 8-node Quadrilateral Element, and 9-Node Quadrilateral Element was presented. The shape functions and the element equations related to each element were presented through a detailed mathematical formulation. Additionally, the Jacobian matrix for the second order derivatives was simplified and used to derive each element's strain-displacement matrix in bending. The elements were compared using carefully selected elastic and aero-elastic bench mark problems, regarding the number of elements needed to reach convergence, the resulting accuracy, and the needed computation time. The best suitable element for elastic free vibration analysis was found to be the Linear Quadrilateral Element with deformation-based shape functions, whereas the most suitable element for stress analysis was the 8-Node Quadrilateral Element, and the most suitable element for aero-elastic analysis was the 9-Node Quadrilateral Element. Although the linear triangular element was the last choice for modal and stress analyses, it establishes more accurate results in aero-elastic analyses, however, with much longer computation time. Additionally, the nine-node quadrilateral element was found to be the best choice for laminated composite plates analysis.

  19. A comparison between different finite elements for elastic and aero-elastic analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Mahran

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, a comparison between five different shell finite elements, including the Linear Triangular Element, Linear Quadrilateral Element, Linear Quadrilateral Element based on deformation modes, 8-node Quadrilateral Element, and 9-Node Quadrilateral Element was presented. The shape functions and the element equations related to each element were presented through a detailed mathematical formulation. Additionally, the Jacobian matrix for the second order derivatives was simplified and used to derive each element’s strain-displacement matrix in bending. The elements were compared using carefully selected elastic and aero-elastic bench mark problems, regarding the number of elements needed to reach convergence, the resulting accuracy, and the needed computation time. The best suitable element for elastic free vibration analysis was found to be the Linear Quadrilateral Element with deformation-based shape functions, whereas the most suitable element for stress analysis was the 8-Node Quadrilateral Element, and the most suitable element for aero-elastic analysis was the 9-Node Quadrilateral Element. Although the linear triangular element was the last choice for modal and stress analyses, it establishes more accurate results in aero-elastic analyses, however, with much longer computation time. Additionally, the nine-node quadrilateral element was found to be the best choice for laminated composite plates analysis.

  20. Stille wird zu Farben : [aus "Vaikus saab värvideks" ("Stille wird zu Farben")] : [luuletused] / Jaan Kaplinski ; tlk. Irja Grönholm ja Gisbert Jänicke

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaplinski, Jaan, 1941-

    2006-01-01

    Sisu: Stille wird zu Farben ; Der letzte rote Apfel ; Wer allein bleibt ; Ruf nach dem Vorherigen ; Mit jedem Frühling ; So viele Namen ; In die Spuren ; Höher ; Es wird Licht ; Mit dem Sommerwrind um die Wette ; Ob sie noch hört. Orig.: Vaikus saab värvideks ; Viimane verev õun ; Üksi jääb ; Hüüab eelmist ; Iga kevadega ; Niipalju nimesid ; Astub tuule jälgedele ; Käib kõrgemalt ; Saab valguseks ; Suvetuulega võidu ; Kas kuuleb enam

  1. The spectral analysis of an aero-engine assembly incorporating a squeeze-film damper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, R.; Dede, M. M.

    1989-01-01

    Aero-engine structures have very low inherent damping and so artificial damping is often introduced by pumping oil into annular gaps between the casings and the outer races of some or all of the rolling-element bearings supporting the rotors. The thin oil films so formed are called squeeze film dampers and they can be beneficial in reducing rotor vibration due to unbalance and keeping to reasonable limits the forces transmitted to the engine casing. However, squeeze-film dampers are notoriously non-linear and as a result can introduce into the assembly such phenomena as subharmonic oscillations, jumps and combination frequencies. The purpose of the research is to investigate such phenomena both theoretically and experimentally on a test facility reproducing the essential features of a medium-size aero engine. The forerunner of this work was published. It was concerned with the examination of a squeeze-film damper in series with housing flexibility when supporting a rotor. The structure represented to a limited extent the essentials of the projected Rolls Royce RB401 engine. That research demonstrated the ability to calculate the oil-film forces arising from the squeeze film from known motions of the bearing components and showed that the dynamics of a shaft fitted with a squeeze film bearing can be predicted reasonably accurately. An aero-engine will normally have at least two shafts and so in addition to the excitation forces which are synchronous with the rotation of one shaft, there will also be forces at other frequencies from other shafts operating on the squeeze-film damper. Theoretical and experimental work to consider severe loading of squeeze-film dampers and to include these additional effects are examined.

  2. Development and Validation of a New Blade Element Momentum Skewed-Wake Model within AeroDyn: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ning, S. A.; Hayman, G.; Damiani, R.; Jonkman, J.

    2014-12-01

    Blade element momentum methods, though conceptually simple, are highly useful for analyzing wind turbines aerodynamics and are widely used in many design and analysis applications. A new version of AeroDyn is being developed to take advantage of new robust solution methodologies, conform to a new modularization framework for National Renewable Energy Laboratory's FAST, utilize advanced skewed-wake analysis methods, fix limitations with previous implementations, and to enable modeling of highly flexible and nonstraight blades. This paper reviews blade element momentum theory and several of the options available for analyzing skewed inflow. AeroDyn implementation details are described for the benefit of users and developers. These new options are compared to solutions from the previous version of AeroDyn and to experimental data. Finally, recommendations are given on how one might select from the various available solution approaches.

  3. Aeronautical Satellite-Assisted Process for Information Exchange Through Network Technologies (Aero-SAPIENT) Conducted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zernic, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    Broadband satellite communications for aeronautics marries communication and network technologies to address NASA's goals in information technology base research and development, thereby serving the safety and capacity needs of the National Airspace System. This marriage of technology increases the interactivity between airborne vehicles and ground systems. It improves decision-making and efficiency, reduces operation costs, and improves the safety and capacity of the National Airspace System. To this end, a collaborative project called the Aeronautical Satellite Assisted Process for Information Exchange through Network Technologies, or Aero-SAPIENT, was conducted out of Tinker AFB, Oklahoma, during November and December 2000.

  4. Fractional Order Modeling of Atmospheric Turbulence - A More Accurate Modeling Methodology for Aero Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopasakis, George

    2014-01-01

    The presentation covers a recently developed methodology to model atmospheric turbulence as disturbances for aero vehicle gust loads and for controls development like flutter and inlet shock position. The approach models atmospheric turbulence in their natural fractional order form, which provides for more accuracy compared to traditional methods like the Dryden model, especially for high speed vehicle. The presentation provides a historical background on atmospheric turbulence modeling and the approaches utilized for air vehicles. This is followed by the motivation and the methodology utilized to develop the atmospheric turbulence fractional order modeling approach. Some examples covering the application of this method are also provided, followed by concluding remarks.

  5. Aero-servo-viscoelasticity theory: Lifting surfaces, plates, velocity transients, flutter, and instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrett, Craig G.

    Modern flight vehicles are fabricated from composite materials resulting in flexible structures that behave differently from the more traditional elastic metal structures. Composite materials offer a number of advantages compared to metals, such as improved strength to mass ratio, and intentional material property anisotropy. Flexible aircraft structures date from the Wright brothers' first aircraft with fabric covered wooden frames. The flexibility of the structure was used to warp the lifting surface for flight control, a concept that has reappeared as aircraft morphing. These early structures occasionally exhibited undesirable characteristics during flight such as interactions between the empennage and the aft fuselage, or control problems with the elevators. The research to discover the cause and correction of these undesirable characteristics formed the first foray into the field of aeroelasticity. Aeroelasticity is the intersection and interaction between aerodynamics, elasticity, and inertia or dynamics. Aeroelasticity is well suited for metal aircraft, but requires expansion to improve its applicability to composite vehicles. The first is a change from elasticity to viscoelasticity to more accurately capture the solid mechanics of the composite material. The second change is to include control systems. While the inclusion of control systems in aeroelasticity lead to aero-servo-elasticity, more control possibilities exist for a viscoelastic composite material. As an example, during the lay-up of carbon-epoxy plies, piezoelectric control patches are inserted between different plies to give a variety of control options. The expanded field is called aero-servo-viscoelasticity. The phenomena of interest in aero-servo-viscoelasticity are best classified according to the type of structure considered, either a lifting surface or a panel, and the type of dynamic stability present. For both types of structures, the governing equations are integral

  6. Statistical learning methods for aero-optic wavefront prediction and adaptive-optic latency compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, W. Robert

    Since the early 1970's research in airborne laser systems has been the subject of continued interest. Airborne laser applications depend on being able to propagate a near diffraction-limited laser beam from an airborne platform. Turbulent air flowing over the aircraft produces density fluctuations through which the beam must propagate. Because the index of refraction of the air is directly related to the density, the turbulent flow imposes aberrations on the beam passing through it. This problem is referred to as Aero-Optics. Aero-Optics is recognized as a major technical issue that needs to be solved before airborne optical systems can become routinely fielded. This dissertation research specifically addresses an approach to mitigating the deleterious effects imposed on an airborne optical system by aero-optics. A promising technology is adaptive optics: a feedback control method that measures optical aberrations and imprints the conjugate aberrations onto an outgoing beam. The challenge is that it is a computationally-difficult problem, since aero-optic disturbances are on the order of kilohertz for practical applications. High control loop frequencies and high disturbance frequencies mean that adaptive-optic systems are sensitive to latency in sensors, mirrors, amplifiers, and computation. These latencies build up to result in a dramatic reduction in the system's effective bandwidth. This work presents two variations of an algorithm that uses model reduction and data-driven predictors to estimate the evolution of measured wavefronts over a short temporal horizon and thus compensate for feedback latency. The efficacy of the two methods are compared in this research, and evaluated against similar algorithms that have been previously developed. The best version achieved over 75% disturbance rejection in simulation in the most optically active flow region in the wake of a turret, considerably outperforming conventional approaches. The algorithm is shown to be

  7. Presentations from the Aeroelastic Workshop – latest results from AeroOpt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Hartvig

    This report contains the slides of the presentations at the Aeroelastic Workshop held at Risø-DTU for the wind energy industry in Denmark on January 27, 2011. The scientific part of the agenda at this workshop was • Anisotropic beam element in HAWC2 for modelling of composite lay-ups (Taeseong Ki...... (Niels N. Sørensen) • Status of airfoil design and plans for wind tunnel tests of new thick airfoils (Christian Bak) The presented results are mainly obtained in the EUDP project “Aeroelastic Optimization of MW Wind Turbines (AeroOpt)” funded under contract no. 63011-0190....

  8. Radiative forcing of the direct aerosol effect from AeroCom Phase II simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Myhre

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We report on the AeroCom Phase II direct aerosol effect (DAE experiment where 16 detailed global aerosol models have been used to simulate the changes in the aerosol distribution over the industrial era. All 16 models have estimated the radiative forcing (RF of the anthropogenic DAE, and have taken into account anthropogenic sulphate, black carbon (BC and organic aerosols (OA from fossil fuel, biofuel, and biomass burning emissions. In addition several models have simulated the DAE of anthropogenic nitrate and anthropogenic influenced secondary organic aerosols (SOA. The model simulated all-sky RF of the DAE from total anthropogenic aerosols has a range from −0.58 to −0.02 Wm−2, with a mean of −0.27 Wm−2 for the 16 models. Several models did not include nitrate or SOA and modifying the estimate by accounting for this with information from the other AeroCom models reduces the range and slightly strengthens the mean. Modifying the model estimates for missing aerosol components and for the time period 1750 to 2010 results in a mean RF for the DAE of −0.35 Wm−2. Compared to AeroCom Phase I (Schulz et al., 2006 we find very similar spreads in both total DAE and aerosol component RF. However, the RF of the total DAE is stronger negative and RF from BC from fossil fuel and biofuel emissions are stronger positive in the present study than in the previous AeroCom study. We find a tendency for models having a strong (positive BC RF to also have strong (negative sulphate or OA RF. This relationship leads to smaller uncertainty in the total RF of the DAE compared to the RF of the sum of the individual aerosol components. The spread in results for the individual aerosol components is substantial, and can be divided into diversities in burden, mass extinction coefficient (MEC, and normalized RF with respect to AOD. We find that these three factors give similar contributions to the spread in results.

  9. Comparison of caffeine disposition following administration by oral solution (energy drink) and inspired powder (AeroShot) in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laizure, S Casey; Meibohm, Bernd; Nelson, Kembral; Chen, Feng; Hu, Zhe-Yi; Parker, Robert B

    2017-12-01

    To determine the disposition and effects of caffeine after administration using a new dosage form (AeroShot) that delivers caffeine by inspiration of a fine powder into the oral cavity and compare it to an equivalent dose of an oral solution (energy drink) as the reference standard. Healthy human subjects (n = 17) inspired a 100 mg caffeine dose using the AeroShot device or consumed an energy drink on separate study days. Heart rate, blood pressure and subject assessments of effects were measured over an 8-h period. Plasma concentrations of caffeine and its major metabolites were determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic, cardiovascular and perceived stimulant effects were compared between AeroShot and energy drink phases using a paired t test and standard bioequivalency analysis. Caffeine disposition was similar after caffeine administration by the AeroShot device and energy drink: peak plasma concentration 1790 and 1939 ng ml -1 , and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) 15 579 and 17 569 ng ml -1 × h, respectively, but they were not bioequivalent: AeroShot AUC of 80.3% (confidence interval 71.2-104.7%) and peak plasma concentration of 86.3% (confidence interval 62.8-102.8%) compared to the energy drink. Female subjects did have a significantly larger AUC compared to males after consumption of the energy drink. The heart rate and blood pressure were not significantly affected by the 100 mg caffeine dose, and there were no consistently perceived stimulant effects by the subjects using visual analogue scales. Inspiration of caffeine as a fine powder using the AeroShot device produces a similar caffeine profile and effects compared to administration of an oral solution (energy drink). © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  10. Level-2 perspectives computed quickly and spontaneously: Evidence from eight- to 9.5-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elekes, Fruzsina; Varga, Máté; Király, Ildikó

    2017-11-01

    It has been widely assumed that computing how a scene looks from another perspective (level-2 perspective taking, PT) is an effortful process, as opposed to the automatic capacity of tracking visual access to objects (level-1 PT). Recently, adults have been found to compute both forms of visual perspectives in a quick but context-sensitive way, indicating that the two functions share more features than previously assumed. However, the developmental literature still shows the dissociation between automatic level-1 and effortful level-2 PT. In the current paper, we report an experiment showing that in a minimally social situation, participating in a number verification task with an adult confederate, eight- to 9.5-year-old children demonstrate similar online level-2 PT capacities as adults. Future studies need to address whether online PT shows selectivity in children as well and develop paradigms that are adequate to test preschoolers' online level-2 PT abilities. Statement of Contribution What is already known on this subject? Adults can access how objects appear to others (level-2 perspective) spontaneously and online Online level-1, but not level-2 perspective taking (PT) has been documented in school-aged children What the present study adds? Eight- to 9.5-year-olds performed a number verification task with a confederate who had the same task Children showed similar perspective interference as adults, indicating spontaneous level-2 PT Not only agent-object relations but also object appearances are computed online by eight- to 9.5-year-olds. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  11. Turbine Inlet Air Cooling for Industrial and Aero-derivative Gas Turbine in Malaysia Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, A.; Salim, D. A.; Othoman, M. A.; Kamal, S. N. Omar; Tam, Danny; Yusof, M. KY

    2017-12-01

    The performance of a gas turbine is dependent on the ambient temperature. A higher temperature results in a reduction of the gas turbine’s power output and an increase in heat rate. The warm and humid climate in Malaysia with its high ambient air temperature has an adverse effect on the performance of gas turbine generators. In this paper, the expected effect of turbine inlet air cooling technology on the annual performance of an aero-derivative gas turbine (GE LM6000PD) is compared against that of an industrial gas turbine (GEFr6B.03) using GT Pro software. This study investigated the annual net energy output and the annual net electrical efficiency of a plant with and without turbine inlet air cooling technology. The results show that the aero-derivative gas turbine responds more favorably to turbine inlet air cooling technology, thereby yielding higher annual net energy output and higher net electrical efficiency when compared to the industrial gas turbine.

  12. The Design and Semi-Physical Simulation Test of Fault-Tolerant Controller for Aero Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Tianhong

    2017-11-01

    A new fault-tolerant control method for aero engine is proposed, which can accurately diagnose the sensor fault by Kalman filter banks and reconstruct the signal by real-time on-board adaptive model combing with a simplified real-time model and an improved Kalman filter. In order to verify the feasibility of the method proposed, a semi-physical simulation experiment has been carried out. Besides the real I/O interfaces, controller hardware and the virtual plant model, semi-physical simulation system also contains real fuel system. Compared with the hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation, semi-physical simulation system has a higher degree of confidence. In order to meet the needs of semi-physical simulation, a rapid prototyping controller with fault-tolerant control ability based on NI CompactRIO platform is designed and verified on the semi-physical simulation test platform. The result shows that the controller can realize the aero engine control safely and reliably with little influence on controller performance in the event of fault on sensor.

  13. The Chaotic Prediction for Aero-Engine Performance Parameters Based on Nonlinear PLS Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxiao Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The prediction of the aero-engine performance parameters is very important for aero-engine condition monitoring and fault diagnosis. In this paper, the chaotic phase space of engine exhaust temperature (EGT time series which come from actual air-borne ACARS data is reconstructed through selecting some suitable nearby points. The partial least square (PLS based on the cubic spline function or the kernel function transformation is adopted to obtain chaotic predictive function of EGT series. The experiment results indicate that the proposed PLS chaotic prediction algorithm based on biweight kernel function transformation has significant advantage in overcoming multicollinearity of the independent variables and solve the stability of regression model. Our predictive NMSE is 16.5 percent less than that of the traditional linear least squares (OLS method and 10.38 percent less than that of the linear PLS approach. At the same time, the forecast error is less than that of nonlinear PLS algorithm through bootstrap test screening.

  14. Sensor Fault Diagnosis for Aero Engine Based on Online Sequential Extreme Learning Machine with Memory Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie Lu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The on-board sensor fault detection and isolation (FDI system is essential to guarantee the reliability and safety of an aero engine. In this paper, a novel online sequential extreme learning machine with memory principle (MOS-ELM is proposed for detecting, isolating, and reconstructing the fault sensor signal of aero engines. In many practical online applications, the sequentially coming data chunk usually possesses a characteristic of timeliness, and the overdue training data may mislead the subsequent learning process. The proposed MOS-ELM can improve the training process by introducing the concept of memory principle into the online sequential extreme learning machine (OS-ELM to tackle the timeliness of the data chunk. Simulations on some time series problems and some benchmark databases show that MOS-ELM performs better in generalization performance, stability, and prediction accuracy than OS-ELM. The experiment results of the MOS-ELM-based sensor fault diagnosis system also verify the excellent generalization performance of MOS-ELM and indicate the effectiveness and feasibility of the developed diagnosis system.

  15. Wind tunnel validation of AeroDyn within LIFES50+ project: imposed Surge and Pitch tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayati, I.; Belloli, M.; Bernini, L.; Zasso, A.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents the first set of results of the steady and unsteady wind tunnel tests, performed at Politecnico di Milano wind tunnel, on a 1/75 rigid scale model of the DTU 10 MW wind turbine, within the LIFES50+ project. The aim of these tests is the validation of the open source code AeroDyn developed at NREL. Numerical and experimental steady results are compared in terms of thrust and torque coefficients, showing good agreement, as well as for unsteady measurements gathered with a 2 degree-of-freedom test rig, capable of imposing the displacements at the base of the model, and providing the surge and pitch motion of the floating offshore wind turbine (FOWT) scale model. The measurements of the unsteady test configuration are compared with AeroDyn/Dynin module results, implementing the generalized dynamic wake (GDW) model. Numerical and experimental comparison showed similar behaviours in terms of non linear hysteresis, however some discrepancies are herein reported and need further data analysis and interpretations about the aerodynamic integral quantities, with a special attention to the physics of the unsteady phenomenon.

  16. A Co-modeling Method Based on Component Features for Mechatronic Devices in Aero-engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Zhao, Haocen; Ye, Zhifeng

    2017-08-01

    Data-fused and user-friendly design of aero-engine accessories is required because of their structural complexity and stringent reliability. This paper gives an overview of a typical aero-engine control system and the development process of key mechatronic devices used. Several essential aspects of modeling and simulation in the process are investigated. Considering the limitations of a single theoretic model, feature-based co-modeling methodology is suggested to satisfy the design requirements and compensate for diversity of component sub-models for these devices. As an example, a stepper motor controlled Fuel Metering Unit (FMU) is modeled in view of the component physical features using two different software tools. An interface is suggested to integrate the single discipline models into the synthesized one. Performance simulation of this device using the co-model and parameter optimization for its key components are discussed. Comparison between delivery testing and the simulation shows that the co-model for the FMU has a high accuracy and the absolute superiority over a single model. Together with its compatible interface with the engine mathematical model, the feature-based co-modeling methodology is proven to be an effective technical measure in the development process of the device.

  17. Fuselage boundary-layer refraction of fan tones radiated from an installed turbofan aero-engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffney, James; McAlpine, Alan; Kingan, Michael J

    2017-03-01

    A distributed source model to predict fan tone noise levels of an installed turbofan aero-engine is extended to include the refraction effects caused by the fuselage boundary layer. The model is a simple representation of an installed turbofan, where fan tones are represented in terms of spinning modes radiated from a semi-infinite circular duct, and the aircraft's fuselage is represented by an infinitely long, rigid cylinder. The distributed source is a disk, formed by integrating infinitesimal volume sources located on the intake duct termination. The cylinder is located adjacent to the disk. There is uniform axial flow, aligned with the axis of the cylinder, everywhere except close to the cylinder where there is a constant thickness boundary layer. The aim is to predict the near-field acoustic pressure, and in particular, to predict the pressure on the cylindrical fuselage which is relevant to assess cabin noise. Thus no far-field approximations are included in the modelling. The effect of the boundary layer is quantified by calculating the area-averaged mean square pressure over the cylinder's surface with and without the boundary layer included in the prediction model. The sound propagation through the boundary layer is calculated by solving the Pridmore-Brown equation. Results from the theoretical method show that the boundary layer has a significant effect on the predicted sound pressure levels on the cylindrical fuselage, owing to sound radiation of fan tones from an installed turbofan aero-engine.

  18. Aero-Propulsion Technology (APT) Task V Low Noise ADP Engine Definition Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, V.

    2003-01-01

    A study was conducted to identify and evaluate noise reduction technologies for advanced ducted prop propulsion systems that would allow increased capacity operation and result in an economically competitive commercial transport. The study investigated the aero/acoustic/structural advancements in fan and nacelle technology required to match or exceed the fuel burned and economic benefits of a constrained diameter large Advanced Ducted Propeller (ADP) compared to an unconstrained ADP propulsion system with a noise goal of 5 to 10 EPNDB reduction relative to FAR 36 Stage 3 at each of the three measuring stations namely, takeoff (cutback), approach and sideline. A second generation ADP was selected to operate within the maximum nacelle diameter constrain of 160 deg to allow installation under the wing. The impact of fan and nacelle technologies of the second generation ADP on fuel burn and direct operating costs for a typical 3000 nm mission was evaluated through use of a large, twin engine commercial airplane simulation model. The major emphasis of this study focused on fan blade aero/acoustic and structural technology evaluations and advanced nacelle designs. Results of this study have identified the testing required to verify the interactive performance of these components, along with noise characteristics, by wind tunnel testing utilizing and advanced interaction rig.

  19. Aerosciences, Aero-Propulsion and Flight Mechanics Technology Development for NASA's Next Generation Launch Technology Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockrell, Charles E., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The Next Generation Launch Technology (NGLT) program, Vehicle Systems Research and Technology (VSR&T) project is pursuing technology advancements in aerothermodynamics, aeropropulsion and flight mechanics to enable development of future reusable launch vehicle (RLV) systems. The current design trade space includes rocket-propelled, hypersonic airbreathing and hybrid systems in two-stage and single-stage configurations. Aerothermodynamics technologies include experimental and computational databases to evaluate stage separation of two-stage vehicles as well as computational and trajectory simulation tools for this problem. Additionally, advancements in high-fidelity computational tools and measurement techniques are being pursued along with the study of flow physics phenomena, such as boundary-layer transition. Aero-propulsion technology development includes scramjet flowpath development and integration, with a current emphasis on hypervelocity (Mach 10 and above) operation, as well as the study of aero-propulsive interactions and the impact on overall vehicle performance. Flight mechanics technology development is focused on advanced guidance, navigation and control (GN&C) algorithms and adaptive flight control systems for both rocket-propelled and airbreathing vehicles.

  20. Isolation, identification, and culture of goat spermatogonial stem cells using c-kit and PGP9.5 markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Banafsheh; Rahmati-Ahmadabadi, Maryam; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi; Zarnani, Amir Hassan; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood; Shirazi, Abolfazl; Naderi, Mohammad Mehdi; Behzadi, Bahareh

    2012-10-01

    Presently the techniques for making transgenic animals are cumbersome, required costly instruments and trained man-power. The ability of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) to integrate foreign genes has provided the opportunity for developing alternate methods for generation of transgenic animals. One of the big challenges in this field is development of the methods to identify and purify donor SSCs by antibody mediated cell sorting. The present study was aimed to identify goat subpopulations of SSCs using polyclonal antibodies against PGP9.5 and c-kit molecular markers as well as the growth characteristics of SSCs during short term culture. One month old goats' testicular samples were subjected for immunohistochemical and immunocytochemical evaluations. The enzymatically isolated SSCs were cultured in DMEM plus FCS supplemented with (treatment) or without (control) growth factors (GDNF, LIF, FGF, and EGF) for 2 weeks. At the end of culture the morphological characteristics of SSCs colonies and immunocytochemical staining were evaluated. The number and size of colonies in treatment groups were significantly (P goat SSCs. Moreover, culture medium supplementation with growth factors could effectively retain the undifferentiation status of SSCs, reflected as a higher population of PGP9.5 positive cells, after short term culture.

  1. A study on optimal control of the aero-propulsion system acceleration process under the supersonic state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengyong Sun

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the aero-propulsion system acceleration optimal problem, the necessity of inlet control is discussed, and a fully new aero-propulsion system acceleration process control design including the inlet, engine, and nozzle is proposed in this paper. In the proposed propulsion system control scheme, the inlet, engine, and nozzle are simultaneously adjusted through the FSQP method. In order to implement the control scheme design, an aero-propulsion system component-level model is built to simulate the inlet working performance and the matching problems between the inlet and engine. Meanwhile, a stabilizing inlet control scheme is designed to solve the inlet control problems. In optimal control of the aero-propulsion system acceleration process, the inlet is an emphasized control unit in the optimal acceleration control system. Two inlet control patterns are discussed in the simulation. The simulation results prove that by taking the inlet ramp angle as an active control variable instead of being modulated passively, acceleration performance could be obviously enhanced. Acceleration objectives could be obtained with a faster acceleration time by 5%.

  2. 75 FR 50850 - Special Conditions: AeroMech, Incorporated; Hawker Beechcraft Corporation, Model B200 and Other...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... designs. (4) Addition of maintenance requirements to ensure that batteries used as spares are maintained... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 23 Special Conditions: AeroMech, Incorporated; Hawker... Beechcraft Corporation, model B200 and other part 23 aircraft listed on the AML. These airplanes as modified...

  3. 75 FR 33553 - Special Conditions: AeroMech, Incorporated; Hawker Beechcraft Corporation, Model B200 and Other...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-14

    ...) Addition of maintenance requirements to ensure that batteries used as spares are maintained in an... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 23 Special Conditions: AeroMech, Incorporated; Hawker..., Incorporated; Hawker Beechcraft Corporation, model B200 and other part 23 aircraft listed on the AML. These...

  4. Fusing Simulation Results From Multifidelity Aero-servo-elastic Simulators - Application To Extreme Loads On Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Imad; Sudret, Bruno; Lataniotis, Christos

    2015-01-01

    Fusing predictions from multiple simulators in the early stages of the conceptual design of a wind turbine results in reduction in model uncertainty and risk mitigation. Aero-servo-elastic is a term that refers to the coupling of wind inflow, aerodynamics, structural dynamics and controls. Fusing...

  5. On improving Efficiency and Accuracy of Variable-Fidelity Surrogate Modeling in Aero-data for Loads Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Zhonghua; Zimmermann, Ralf; Goertz, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Variable-fidelity surrogate modeling offers an efficient way to generate aerodynamic data for aero-loads prediction based on a set of CFD methods with varying degree of fidelity and computational expense. In this paper, new algorithms, such as a Gradient-Enhanced Kriging method (direct GEK) and a...

  6. Impact of Early Nutrition on Body Composition in Children Aged 9.5 Years Born with Extremely Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Stutte

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate body composition, metabolism and growth as well as their interaction with early nutrition in former extremely low birth weight infants (ELBW, we assessed qualitative and quantitative nutritional intake during initial hospitalization and infantile growth parameters in 61 former ELBW infants with a birth weight <1000 g. In two follow-up exams, physical and biochemical development were measured at 5.7 and at 9.5 years. At the second follow-up, in addition to biochemical reassessment, body composition was analyzed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA. Protein intake between birth and discharge was associated with weight gain in the first six months of life (r = 0.51; p < 0.01. Weight catch-up preceded height catch-up. Protein intake in early infancy correlated highly significantly with abdominal fat mass (r = 0.49; p < 0.05, but not with lean body mass at 9.5 years (r = 0.30; not significant (n.s.. In contrast to nutrient intake, birth weight was associated with lean body mass (r = 0.433; p < 0.001. Early protein and carbohydrate intake were associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol, and early catch-up growth correlated with fasting insulin at follow-up. Stepwise linear regression demonstrated that protein intake predicted fat mass (p < 0.05, whereas only gender and birth weight standard deviation score (SDS contributed significantly to lean body mass variation (p < 0.05. Our results suggest an important impact of early nutrient intake on body composition and metabolism in later childhood in ELBW children.

  7. Aerosols at the poles: an AeroCom Phase II multi-model evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sand

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric aerosols from anthropogenic and natural sources reach the polar regions through long-range transport and affect the local radiation balance. Such transport is, however, poorly constrained in present-day global climate models, and few multi-model evaluations of polar anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing exist. Here we compare the aerosol optical depth (AOD at 550 nm from simulations with 16 global aerosol models from the AeroCom Phase II model intercomparison project with available observations at both poles. We show that the annual mean multi-model median is representative of the observations in Arctic, but that the intermodel spread is large. We also document the geographical distribution and seasonal cycle of the AOD for the individual aerosol species: black carbon (BC from fossil fuel and biomass burning, sulfate, organic aerosols (OAs, dust, and sea-salt. For a subset of models that represent nitrate and secondary organic aerosols (SOAs, we document the role of these aerosols at high latitudes.The seasonal dependence of natural and anthropogenic aerosols differs with natural aerosols peaking in winter (sea-salt and spring (dust, whereas AOD from anthropogenic aerosols peaks in late spring and summer. The models produce a median annual mean AOD of 0.07 in the Arctic (defined here as north of 60° N. The models also predict a noteworthy aerosol transport to the Antarctic (south of 70° S with a resulting AOD varying between 0.01 and 0.02. The models have estimated the shortwave anthropogenic radiative forcing contributions to the direct aerosol effect (DAE associated with BC and OA from fossil fuel and biofuel (FF, sulfate, SOAs, nitrate, and biomass burning from BC and OA emissions combined. The Arctic modelled annual mean DAE is slightly negative (−0.12 W m−2, dominated by a positive BC FF DAE in spring and a negative sulfate DAE in summer. The Antarctic DAE is governed by BC FF. We perform sensitivity

  8. Aerosols at the poles: an AeroCom Phase II multi-model evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sand, Maria; Samset, Bjørn H.; Balkanski, Yves; Bauer, Susanne; Bellouin, Nicolas; Berntsen, Terje K.; Bian, Huisheng; Chin, Mian; Diehl, Thomas; Easter, Richard; Ghan, Steven J.; Iversen, Trond; Kirkevåg, Alf; Lamarque, Jean-François; Lin, Guangxing; Liu, Xiaohong; Luo, Gan; Myhre, Gunnar; van Noije, Twan; Penner, Joyce E.; Schulz, Michael; Seland, Øyvind; Skeie, Ragnhild B.; Stier, Philip; Takemura, Toshihiko; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Yu, Fangqun; Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Hua

    2017-10-01

    Atmospheric aerosols from anthropogenic and natural sources reach the polar regions through long-range transport and affect the local radiation balance. Such transport is, however, poorly constrained in present-day global climate models, and few multi-model evaluations of polar anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing exist. Here we compare the aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 550 nm from simulations with 16 global aerosol models from the AeroCom Phase II model intercomparison project with available observations at both poles. We show that the annual mean multi-model median is representative of the observations in Arctic, but that the intermodel spread is large. We also document the geographical distribution and seasonal cycle of the AOD for the individual aerosol species: black carbon (BC) from fossil fuel and biomass burning, sulfate, organic aerosols (OAs), dust, and sea-salt. For a subset of models that represent nitrate and secondary organic aerosols (SOAs), we document the role of these aerosols at high latitudes.The seasonal dependence of natural and anthropogenic aerosols differs with natural aerosols peaking in winter (sea-salt) and spring (dust), whereas AOD from anthropogenic aerosols peaks in late spring and summer. The models produce a median annual mean AOD of 0.07 in the Arctic (defined here as north of 60° N). The models also predict a noteworthy aerosol transport to the Antarctic (south of 70° S) with a resulting AOD varying between 0.01 and 0.02. The models have estimated the shortwave anthropogenic radiative forcing contributions to the direct aerosol effect (DAE) associated with BC and OA from fossil fuel and biofuel (FF), sulfate, SOAs, nitrate, and biomass burning from BC and OA emissions combined. The Arctic modelled annual mean DAE is slightly negative (-0.12 W m-2), dominated by a positive BC FF DAE in spring and a negative sulfate DAE in summer. The Antarctic DAE is governed by BC FF. We perform sensitivity experiments with one of the Aero

  9. 41 CFR 304-9.5 - What if the employee is compensated by a donor and by us for the same expenses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What if the employee is compensated by a donor and by us for the same expenses? 304-9.5 Section 304-9.5 Public Contracts and Property... a donor and by us for the same expenses? If you reimburse an employee for expenses that are also...

  10. EFFECT OF AERO-/ANAEROBIOSIS ON DECARBOXYLASE ACTIVITY OF SELECTED LACTIC ACID BACTERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Kráčmar

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic amines are undesirable compounds produced in foods mainly through bacterial decarboxylase activity. The aim of this study was to investigate some environmental conditions (particularly aero/anaerobiosis, sodium chloride concentration (0–2% w/w, and amount of lactose (0–1% w/w on the activity of tyrosine decarboxylase enzymes of selected six technological important Lactococcus lactis strains. The levels of parameters tested were chosen according to real situation in fermented dairy products technology (especially cheese-making. Tyramine was determined by the ion-exchange chromatography with post-column ninhydrine derivatization and spectrophotometric detection. Tyrosine decarboxylation occurred during the active growth phase. Under the model conditions used, oxygen availability had influence on tyramine production, anaerobiosis seemed to favour the enzyme activity because all L. lactis strains produced higher tyramine amount. doi:10.5219/43

  11. The neutral atmosphere temperature experiment. [for thermospheric nitrogen measurement on AEROS satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, N. W.; Pelz, D. T.; Niemann, H. B.; Carignan, G. R.; Caldwell, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    The AEROS Neutral Atmosphere Temperature Experiment (NATE) is designed to measure the kinetic temperature of molecular nitrogen in the thermosphere. A quadrupole mass spectrometer tuned to N2 measures the N2 density variation in a small spherical antechamber having a knife-edged orifice which is exposed to the atmosphere at the outer surface of the spacecraft. The changing density of N2 due to the spinning motion of the spacecraft permits determination of the velocity distribution of the N2 from which the temperature is calculated. An alternate mode of operation of the instrument allows measurement of the other gases in the atmosphere as well as N2 permitting determination of the neutral particle composition of the atmosphere.

  12. Methodologies for predicting the part-load performance of aero-derivative gas turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haglind, Fredrik; Elmegaard, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Prediction of the part-load performance of gas turbines is advantageous in various applications. Sometimes reasonable part-load performance is sufficient, while in other cases complete agreement with the performance of an existing machine is desirable. This paper is aimed at providing some guidance...... on methodologies for predicting part-load performance of aero-derivative gas turbines. Two different design models – one simple and one more complex – are created. Subsequently, for each of these models, the part-load performance is predicted using component maps and turbine constants, respectively. Comparisons...... with manufacturer data are made. With respect to the design models, the simple model, featuring a compressor, combustor and turbines, results in equally good performance prediction in terms of thermal efficiency and exhaust temperature as does a more complex model. As for part-load predictions, the results suggest...

  13. The Role of Free-Stream Turbulence on High Pressure Turbine Aero-Thermal Stage Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopriva, James Earl

    Turbulence plays an important role on the aero-thermal performance of modern aircraft engine High Pressure Turbines (HPT). The role of the vane wake and passage turbulence on the downstream blade flow field is an important consideration for both performance and durability. Obtaining measurements to fully characterize the flow field can be challenging and costly in an experimental facility. Advances in computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) modeling and High Performance Computing (HPC) are providing opportunity to close these measurement gaps. In order for CFD to be adopted, methods need to be both accurate and efficient. Meshing approaches must also be able to resolve complex HPT geometry while maintaining quality adequate for scale-resolved simulations. Therefore, the accuracy of executing scale-resolved simulations with a second-order code on a mesh of prisms and tetrahedrals in Fluent is considered. Before execution of the HPT computational study, a building block approach is taken to gain quantified predictive performance in the modeling approach as well as understanding limitations in lower computational cost modeling approaches. The predictive capability for Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS), Hybrid Large Eddy Simulation (LES), and wall-resolved LES turbulence modeling approaches are first assessed for a cylinder in cross-flow at a Reynolds number of 2580. The flow condition and simple geometry facilitate a quick turn-around for modeling assessment before moving the HPT vane study at high Reynolds and Mach number conditions. Modeling approaches are then assessed relative to the experimental measurements of Arts and Rouvroit (1992) on a pitch-line HPT uncooled vane at high Mach and Reynolds numbers conditions with low (0-6%) free-stream turbulence. The current unstructured second-order LES approach agrees with experimental data and is found to be within the equivalent experimental uncertainty when compared to the structured high-ordered solver FDL3DI. The

  14. Propulsion System Dynamic Modeling of the NASA Supersonic Concept Vehicle for AeroPropulsoServoElasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopasakis, George; Connolly, Joseph W.; Seiel, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    A summary of the propulsion system modeling under NASA's High Speed Project (HSP) AeroPropulsoServoElasticity (APSE) task is provided with a focus on the propulsion system for the low-boom supersonic configuration developed by Lockheed Martin and referred to as the N+2 configuration. This summary includes details on the effort to date to develop computational models for the various propulsion system components. The objective of this paper is to summarize the model development effort in this task, while providing more detail in the modeling areas that have not been previously published. The purpose of the propulsion system modeling and the overall APSE effort is to develop an integrated dynamic vehicle model to conduct appropriate unsteady analysis of supersonic vehicle performance. This integrated APSE system model concept includes the propulsion system model, and the vehicle structural aerodynamics model. The development to date of such a preliminary integrated model will also be summarized in this report

  15. Switching LPV Control with Double-Layer LPV Model for Aero-Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lili; Huang, Jinquan; Pan, Muxuan

    2017-11-01

    To cover the whole range of operating conditions of aero-engine, a double-layer LPV model is built so as to take into account of the variability due to the flight altitude, Mach number and the rotational speed. With this framework, the problem of designing LPV state-feedback robust controller that guarantees desired bounds on both H_∞ and H_2 performances is considered. Besides this, to reduce the conservativeness caused by a single LPV controller of the whole flight envelope and the common Lyapunov function method, a new method is proposed to design a family of LPV switching controllers. The switching LPV controllers can ensure that the closed-loop system remains stable in the sense of Lyapunov under arbitrary switching logic. Meanwhile, the switching LPV controllers can ensure the parameters change smoothly. The validity and performance of the theoretical results are demonstrated through a numerical example.

  16. Presentations from the Aeroelastic Workshop - latest results from AeroOpt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartvig Hansen, M. (ed.)

    2011-10-15

    This report contains the slides of the presentations at the Aeroelastic Workshop held at Risoe-DTU for the wind energy industry in Denmark on October 27, 2011. The scientific part of the agenda at this workshop was 1) Detailed and reduced models of dynamic mooring system (Anders M. Hansen). 2) Bend-twist coupling investigation in HAWC2 (Taeseong Kim). 3) Q3UIC - A new aerodynamic airfoil tool including rotational effects (Nestor R. Garcia). 4) Influence of up-scaling on loads, control and aerodynamic modeling (Helge Aa. Madsen). 5) Aerodynamic damping of lateral tower vibrations (Bjarne S. Kallesoee). 6) Open- and closed-loop aeroservoelastic analysis with HAWCStab2 (Morten H. Hansen). 7) Design and test of a thick, flatback, high-lift multielement airfoil (Frederik Zahle). The presented results are mainly obtained in the EUDP project ''Aeroelastic Optimization of MW Wind Turbines (AeroOpt)''. (Author)

  17. Cancer chemotherapy of the upper aero digestive tract; Chimiotherapie des cancers des voies aerodigestives superieures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vedrine, L.; Chargari, C.; Le Moulec, S.; Fayolle, M.; Ceccaldi, B.; Bauduceau, O. [Hopital d' Instruction des Armees du Val-de-Grace, Service d' Oncologie et Radiotherapie, 75 - Paris (France)

    2008-03-15

    Tumours of the upper aero digestive tract represent the sixth most frequent kind of cancer in France and throughout the world. If the localised forms may be controlled in the long run in two thirds of cases by surgery or radiotherapy, only one third of locally advanced forms are accessible to a cure after association from radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Besides, with a median of survival less than six months, metastatic tumours present a catastrophic spontaneous prognosis among patients with a medical ground that is often heavily deteriorated by prolonged exposure to alcohol and tobacco. Thus, there is a necessity to implement adapted therapeutic strategies to each patient and based on satisfactory proof levels of effectiveness. Optimisation of existing chemotherapy protocols and development of new therapies, in particular of targeted therapies, remain an important objective in the hope to improve results of treatments in locally advanced and metastatic cancers of the oral cavity. (authors)

  18. Histology atlas of the developing mouse hepatobiliary system with emphasis on embryonic days 9.5-18.5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Laura Wilding; Foley, Julie F; Elmore, Susan A

    2010-10-01

    Animal model phenotyping, in utero exposure toxicity studies, and investigation into causes of embryonic, fetal, or perinatal deaths have required pathologists to recognize and diagnose developmental disorders in spontaneous and engineered mouse models of disease. In mammals, the liver is the main site of hematopoiesis during fetal development, has endocrine and exocrine functions important for maintaining homeostasis in fetal and adult life; and performs other functions including waste detoxification, production and removal of glucose, glycogen storage, triglyceride and fatty acid processing, and serum protein production. Due to its role in many critical functions, alterations in the size, morphology, or function(s) of the liver often lead to embryonic lethality. Many publications and websites describe individual aspects of hepatobiliary development at defined stages. However, no single resource provides a detailed histological evaluation of H&E-stained sections of the developing murine liver and biliary systems using high-magnification and high-resolution color images. The work herein provides a histology atlas of hepatobiliary development between embryonic days 9.5-18.5. Although the focus of this work is normal hepatobiliary development, common defects in liver development are also described as a reference for pathologists who may be asked to phenotype mice with congenital, inherited, or treatment-related hepatobiliary defects. Authors' note: All digital images can be viewed online at https://niehsimagesepl-inc.com with the username "ToxPathLiver" and the password "embryolivers."

  19. Effect of CaO on Hot Workability and Microstructure of Mg-9.5Zn-2Y Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Tae-yang; Kim, Daeguen; Yang, Jaehack; Yoon, Young-ok; Kim, Shae K.; Lim, Hyunkyu; Kim, Woo Jin

    Mg-Zn-Y system alloys have been a great interest because Mg-Zn-Y alloys with I-phase exhibited high ductility at room and elevated temperatures. According to our preliminary experiments, the addition of CaO improved strength, but the process window became narrow. Therefore, the aim of current work was to find optimum extrusion conditions for CaO added Mg-Zn-Y alloys by processing maps. The 0.3 wt.% of CaO added Mg-9.5Zn-2Y (Mg95.6Zn3.8Y0.6) alloy was prepared by casting into steel mold and homogenizing. Hot compression test were performed in the Gleeble machine at temperature range of 250-400 °C with various strain rates. The alloys were extruded with a reduction ratio of 20:1. To analyze the microstructure and texture, optical micrograph, scanning electron microscope and electron backscattered diffraction were used. Moreover, we investigated the effects of metallic Ca addition in this alloy to compare with the addition of CaO.

  20. Laiad rehvid ja lõvihääl / Jussa Nieminen, Robert Koistinen, Aimo Niemi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nieminen, Jussa

    TM võrdleb sportautosid: Alfa Romeo Giulietta Quadrifoglio Verde; Audi R8 GT Replica; Audi A1 1,4 TFSI; BMW 1. seeria M Coupé; Cadillac CTS-V Wagon; Chevrolet Camaro SS A; Citroën DS3 Racing; Ferrari 458 Italia; Hyundai Genesis Coupe; Mazda MX-5 Takara Edition; Mercedes-Benz SLS AMG Edition; Mercedes-Benz CLS 63 AMG; Mini Cooper S Countryman All4; Porsche 911 Turbo S; Porsche Cayman R; Saab 9-5 2,8T Aero XWD; Škoda Fabia RS; Subaru STI Racing; Volkswagen Polo GTI; Volvo V60 T6 R-Design Polestar

  1. Laiad rehvid ja lõvihääl / Jussa Nieminen, Robert Koistinen, Aimo Niemi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nieminen, Jussa

    2011-01-01

    TM võrdleb sportautosid: Alfa Romeo Giulietta Quadrifoglio Verde; Audi R8 GT Replica; Audi A1 1,4 TFSI; BMW 1. seeria M Coupé; Cadillac CTS-V Wagon; Chevrolet Camaro SS A; Citroën DS3 Racing; Ferrari 458 Italia; Hyundai Genesis Coupe; Mazda MX-5 Takara Edition; Mercedes-Benz SLS AMG Edition; Mercedes-Benz CLS 63 AMG; Mini Cooper S Countryman All4; Porsche 911 Turbo S; Porsche Cayman R; Saab 9-5 2,8T Aero XWD; Škoda Fabia RS; Subaru STI Racing; Volkswagen Polo GTI; Volvo V60 T6 R-Design Polestar

  2. C-Band Airport Surface Communications System Standards Development. Phase II Final Report. Volume 1: Concepts of Use, Initial System Requirements, Architecture, and AeroMACS Design Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Edward; Isaacs, James; Henriksen, Steve; Zelkin, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    This report is provided as part of ITT s NASA Glenn Research Center Aerospace Communication Systems Technical Support (ACSTS) contract NNC05CA85C, Task 7: New ATM Requirements-Future Communications, C-Band and L-Band Communications Standard Development and was based on direction provided by FAA project-level agreements for New ATM Requirements-Future Communications. Task 7 included two subtasks. Subtask 7-1 addressed C-band (5091- to 5150-MHz) airport surface data communications standards development, systems engineering, test bed and prototype development, and tests and demonstrations to establish operational capability for the Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS). Subtask 7-2 focused on systems engineering and development support of the L-band digital aeronautical communications system (L-DACS). Subtask 7-1 consisted of two phases. Phase I included development of AeroMACS concepts of use, requirements, architecture, and initial high-level safety risk assessment. Phase II builds on Phase I results and is presented in two volumes. Volume I (this document) is devoted to concepts of use, system requirements, and architecture, including AeroMACS design considerations. Volume II describes an AeroMACS prototype evaluation and presents final AeroMACS recommendations. This report also describes airport categorization and channelization methodologies. The purposes of the airport categorization task were (1) to facilitate initial AeroMACS architecture designs and enable budgetary projections by creating a set of airport categories based on common airport characteristics and design objectives, and (2) to offer high-level guidance to potential AeroMACS technology and policy development sponsors and service providers. A channelization plan methodology was developed because a common global methodology is needed to assure seamless interoperability among diverse AeroMACS services potentially supplied by multiple service providers.

  3. C-Band Airport Surface Communications System Standards Development. Phase II Final Report. Volume 2: Test Bed Performance Evaluation and Final AeroMACS Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Edward; Magner, James

    2011-01-01

    This report is provided as part of ITT s NASA Glenn Research Center Aerospace Communication Systems Technical Support (ACSTS) contract NNC05CA85C, Task 7: New ATM Requirements-Future Communications, C-Band and L-Band Communications Standard Development and was based on direction provided by FAA project-level agreements for New ATM Requirements-Future Communications. Task 7 included two subtasks. Subtask 7-1 addressed C-band (5091- to 5150-MHz) airport surface data communications standards development, systems engineering, test bed and prototype development, and tests and demonstrations to establish operational capability for the Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS). Subtask 7-2 focused on systems engineering and development support of the L-band digital aeronautical communications system (L-DACS). Subtask 7-1 consisted of two phases. Phase I included development of AeroMACS concepts of use, requirements, architecture, and initial high-level safety risk assessment. Phase II builds on Phase I results and is presented in two volumes. Volume I is devoted to concepts of use, system requirements, and architecture, including AeroMACS design considerations. Volume II (this document) describes an AeroMACS prototype evaluation and presents final AeroMACS recommendations. This report also describes airport categorization and channelization methodologies. The purposes of the airport categorization task were (1) to facilitate initial AeroMACS architecture designs and enable budgetary projections by creating a set of airport categories based on common airport characteristics and design objectives, and (2) to offer high-level guidance to potential AeroMACS technology and policy development sponsors and service providers. A channelization plan methodology was developed because a common global methodology is needed to assure seamless interoperability among diverse AeroMACS services potentially supplied by multiple service providers.

  4. 76 FR 18020 - Airworthiness Directives; Sicma Aero Seat 9140, 9166, 9173, 9174, 9184, 9188, 9196, 91B7, 91B8...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ...-204-AD; Amendment 39-16642; AD 2011-07-05] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Sicma Aero Seat... Seat Assemblies; and Sicma Aero Seat 9501311-05, 9501301-06, 9501311-15, 9501301-16, 9501441-30, 9501441-33, 9501311-55, 9501301-56, 9501441-83, 9501441-95, 9501311-97, and 9501301-98 Passenger Seat...

  5. Validation of High Speed Earth Atmospheric Entry Radiative Heating from 9.5 to 15.5 km/s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandis, A. M.; Johnston, C. O.; Cruden, B. A.; Prabhu, D. K.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the analysis and measurements of equilibrium radiation obtained in the NASA Ames Research Center's Electric Arc Shock Tube (EAST) facility as a part of recent testing aimed at reaching shock velocities up to 15.5 km/s. The goal of these experiments was to measure the level of radiation encountered during high speed Earth entry conditions, such as would be relevant for an asteroid, inter-planetary or lunar return mission. These experiments provide the first spectrally and spatially resolved data for high speed Earth entry and cover conditions ranging from 9.5 to 15.5 km/s at 13.3 and 26.6 Pa (0.1 and 0.2 Torr). The present analysis endeavors to provide a validation of shock tube radiation measurements and simulations at high speed conditions. A comprehensive comparison between the spectrally resolved absolute equilibrium radiance measured in EAST and the predictive tools, NEQAIR and HARA, is presented. In order to provide a more accurate representation of the agreement between the experimental and simulation results, the integrated value of radiance has been compared across four spectral regions (VUV, UV/Vis, Vis/NIR and IR) as a function of velocity. Results have generally shown excellent agreement between the two codes and EAST data for the Vis through IR spectral regions, however, discrepancies have been identified in the VUV and parts of the UV spectral regions. As a result of the analysis presented in this paper, an updated parametric uncertainty for high speed radiation in air has been evaluated to be [9.0%, -6.3%]. Furthermore, due to the nature of the radiating environment at these high shock speeds, initial calculations aimed at modeling phenomena that become more significant with increasing shock speed have been performed. These phenomena include analyzing the radiating species emitting ahead of the shock and the increased significance of radiative cooling mechanisms.

  6. Reconstruction of the aero-mixture channels of the pulverized coal plant of the 100MW power plant unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanovic Vladan B.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available After the last revitalization of thermal power block of 100 MW in TPP “Kostolac A”, made in the year 2004, during the operation of the plant, pulverized coal deposition often occurred in horizontal sections of the aero-mixture channels. Deposition phenomenon manifested itself in places ahead of spherical compensators in the direction of flow of pulverized coal to the burners, due to unfavorable configuration of these channels. Coal dust deposited in the channels dried and spontaneously combusted, causing numerous damage to channels and its isolation as well as the frequent stoppage of the operation for necessary interventions. The paper presents the original solution of reconstruction of aero-mixture channels which prevented deposition of coal dust and its eventual ignition. In this way the reliability of the mill plant is maximized and higher availability of boiler and block as a whole is achieved.

  7. Application of combined analytical/FEA coupled aero-structure simulation in design of wind turbine adaptive blades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheri, Alireza; Noroozi, Siamak; Vinney, John [Faculty of Computing, Engineering and Mathematical Sciences, University of the West of England, Bristol, BS16 1QY (United Kingdom)

    2007-10-15

    This paper demonstrates the application of combined analytical/FEA coupled aero-structure simulation in design of bend-twist adaptive blades. A genetic algorithm based design tool, in which the power curve is predicted through a combined coupled aero-structure simulation, has been developed. A bend-twist adaptive blade has been designed to be used on the rotor of a constant speed stall regulated wind turbine. The bend-twist adaptive blade is assumed to be made out of anisotropic composite materials. The designed blade has the same aerofoil and chord distribution as the original blade used on the wind turbine, but with a different pre-twist distribution. The simulated results show a significant improvement in the average power of the studied stall regulated wind turbine when employing the designed adaptive blades. (author)

  8. CONSIDERATIONS ON ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF LYMPH VESSELS OF UPPER AERO DIGESTIVE ORGANS AND CERVICAL SATELLITE LYMPH NODE GROUP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciupilan, Corina; Stan, C I

    2016-01-01

    The almost constant local regional development of the cancers of upper aero digestive organs requires the same special attention to cervical lymph node metastases, as well as to the primary neoplastic burning point. The surgical therapy alone or associated has a mutilating, damaging character, resulting in loss of an organ and function, most of the times with social implications, involving physical distortions with aesthetic consequences, which make the reintegration of the individual into society questionable. The problem of cervical lymph node metastases is vast and complex, reason why we approached several anatomical and physiological aspects of lymph vessels of the aero digestive organs. Among the available elements during treatment, the headquarters of the tumour, its histologic degree, and its infiltrative nature, each of them significantly influences the possibility of developing metastases.

  9. Improvement on Main/backup Controller Switching Device of the Nozzle Throat Area Control System for a Turbofan Aero Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Duan, Minghu; Yan, Maode; Li, Gang; Li, Xiaohui

    2014-06-01

    A full authority digital electronic controller (FADEC) equipped with a full authority hydro-mechanical backup controller (FAHMBC) is adopted as the nozzle throat area control system (NTACS) of a turbofan aero engine. In order to ensure the switching reliability of the main/backup controller, the nozzle throat area control switching valve was improved from three-way convex desktop slide valve to six-way convex desktop slide valve. Simulation results show that, if malfunctions of FAEDC occur and abnormal signals are outputted from FADEC, NTACS will be seriously influenced by the main/backup controller switching in several working states, while NTACS will not be influenced by using the improved nozzle throat area control switching valve, thus the controller switching process will become safer and smoother and the working reliability of this turbofan aero engine is improved by the controller switching device improvement.

  10. Pensioni saab endiselt postkontorist

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Veebruaris 2009 jõustuvast seadusemuudatusest pensionide kojukande kohta. Ilmunud ka Virumaa Teataja 28. nov. 2008, lk. 4 ; Koit 27. nov. 2008, lk. 2 ; Vooremaa 27. nov. 2008, lk. 3 ; Järva Teataja 27. nov. 2008, lk. 4 ; Nädaline 27. nov. 2008, lk. 5 ; Lääne Elu 27. nov. 2008, lk. 5 ; Sakala 28. nov. 2008, lk. 5 ; Pärnu Postimees 28. nov. 2008, lk. 18 ; Vooremaa 11. dets. 2008, lk. 2

  11. Võidusammas saab kliimaseadme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Tšehhi firma Sans Souci paigaldab Tallinnas Vabadussõja võidusamba sisemusse täiendava kliimaseadme ning alustab samba ristiosa sisse LED-paneelide ja elektrisüsteemi taaspaigaldamist. Suletakse vuugivahed. Garantiiremont peab olema lõpetatud 15. detsembriks

  12. Võidusammas saab uue kliimaseadme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Tallinnasse püstitatud Vabadussõja võidusamba remonttöödest. Monumendi ristiosast eemaldatakse niiskusest kahjustatud valgustussüsteem, suletakse samba vuugivahed ja paigaldatakse täiendav kliimaseade. Töid teostab Tšehhi firma Sans Souci

  13. Cost effective aero-photogrammetry toys at active volcanoes: On the use of drones, balloons and kites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Thomas R.

    2014-05-01

    The availability of aerial photographs allows spatial mapping of flows and fractures, generation of digital elevation models and other change detection. Therefore aerial photographs significantly improve our understanding of volcanic processes. The common problem is the lack of available data for most volcanoes, and the lack of systematic and chronologic repeat surveys. This work summarizes the current state of knowledge and technical implementations that currently revolutionize the field of aero-photogrammetry. By the use of unmanned vehicles, such as octocopters, helicopters and small airplanes, photo data can be acquired from almost any place at distances up to kilometres from the operator. Moreover, by the use of helium balloons, kites or their hybrid helikites, near field aero-photographs are obtained. In combination with modern stitching procedures and computer vision algorithms, the positioning of the camera and the digital elevation model of the ground can be extracted, and the active volcano and its eruption cloud be imaged from almost any perspective. This field is increasingly gaining flexibility, as lightweight cameras are available from visible, infrared and other spectral bands. Here example data are provided from volcanoes that are difficult to access by regular airplanes, showing the strengths and the limits of these new aero-photogrammetry toys.

  14. New design of a compact aero-robotic drilling end effector: An experimental analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Zhenyun

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of a normal adjustment cell (NAC in aero-robotic drilling to improve the quality of vertical drilling, by using an intelligent double-eccentric disk normal adjustment mechanism (2-EDNA, a spherical plain bearing and a floating compress module with sensors. After the surface normal vector is calculated based on the laser sensors’ feedback, the 2-EDNA concept is conceived specifically to address the deviation of the spindle from the surface normal at the drilling point. Following the angle calculation, depending on the actual initial position, two precise eccentric disks (PEDs with an identical eccentric radius are used to rotate with the appropriate angles using two high-resolution DC servomotors. The two PEDs will carry the spindle to coincide with the surface normal, keeping the vertex of the drill bit still to avoid repeated adjustment and position compensation. A series of experiments was conducted on an aeronautical drilling robot platform with a precise NAC. The effect of normal adjustment on bore diameter, drilling force, burr size, drilling heat, and tool wear was analyzed. The results validate that using the NAC in robotic drilling results in greatly improved vertical drilling quality and is attainable in terms of intelligence and accuracy.

  15. Review of modern low emissions combustion technologies for aero gas turbine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yize; Sun, Xiaoxiao; Sethi, Vishal; Nalianda, Devaiah; Li, Yi-Guang; Wang, Lu

    2017-10-01

    Pollutant emissions from aircraft in the vicinity of airports and at altitude are of great public concern due to their impact on environment and human health. The legislations aimed at limiting aircraft emissions have become more stringent over the past few decades. This has resulted in an urgent need to develop low emissions combustors in order to meet legislative requirements and reduce the impact of civil aviation on the environment. This article provides a comprehensive review of low emissions combustion technologies for modern aero gas turbines. The review considers current high Technologies Readiness Level (TRL) technologies including Rich-Burn Quick-quench Lean-burn (RQL), Double Annular Combustor (DAC), Twin Annular Premixing Swirler combustors (TAPS), Lean Direct Injection (LDI). It further reviews some of the advanced technologies at lower TRL. These include NASA multi-point LDI, Lean Premixed Prevaporised (LPP), Axially Staged Combustors (ASC) and Variable Geometry Combustors (VGC). The focus of the review is placed on working principles, a review of the key technologies (includes the key technology features, methods of realising the technology, associated technology advantages and design challenges, progress in development), technology application and emissions mitigation potential. The article concludes the technology review by providing a technology evaluation matrix based on a number of combustion performance criteria including altitude relight auto-ignition flashback, combustion stability, combustion efficiency, pressure loss, size and weight, liner life and exit temperature distribution.

  16. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy and irradiation in multiple synchronous squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aero digestive tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, T.D.; Panis, X.; Demange, L.; Froissart, D. (Institut Jean-Godinot, Reims (France). Department of Radio-omcology); Legros, M. (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 51 - Reims (France)); Marechal, F. (Institut Jean-Godinot, Reims (France). Department of Medical Oncology)

    1989-12-01

    Twenty-four patients with multiple, synchronous carcinoma of hte head and neck, lung or esophagus, were treated with induction chemotherapy followed by irradiation to involved areas. Chemotherapy regimen consisted of cisplatinum either alone, or in combination with 5-FU or etoposide. Subsequently, external radiotherapy, 60-65 Gy nd 70-75 Gy ot the mediastinum and the head and neck areas, respectively, was carried out. Following chemotherapy, three patients (12.5%) had a complete clinical remission in both cervical and mediastinal sites. That rate was significantly increased by radiotherapy (66%). Tolerance was fair or mild even though half of the patients needed a rest break during irradiation. Follow-up ranges from 24 to 38 months, respectively. It is suggested that induction chemotherapy will not drastically improve the overall prognosis of multiple squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aero digestive tact and that external irradiation remains a major part of treatment which should not be reduced in treated volumes, or intotal dose delivered. (author). 15 refs.; 4 tabs.

  17. Advances in SiC/SiC Composites for Aero-Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCarlo, James A.

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, considerable progress has been made in the development and application of ceramic matrix composites consisting of silicon carbide (SiC) based matrices reinforced by small-diameter continuous-length SiC-based fibers. For example, these SiC/SiC composites are now in the early stages of implementation into hot-section components of civil aero-propulsion gas turbine engines, where in comparison to current metallic components they offer multiple advantages due to their lighter weight and higher temperature structural capability. For current production-ready SiC/SiC, this temperature capability for long time structural applications is 1250 degC, which is better than 1100 degC for the best metallic superalloys. Foreseeing that even higher structural reliability and temperature capability would continue to increase the advantages of SiC/SiC composites, progress in recent years has also been made at NASA toward improving the properties of SiC/SiC composites by optimizing the various constituent materials and geometries within composite microstructures. The primary objective of this chapter is to detail this latter progress, both fundamentally and practically, with particular emphasis on recent advancements in the materials and processes for the fiber, fiber coating, fiber architecture, and matrix, and in the design methods for incorporating these constituents into SiC/SiC microstructures with improved thermo-structural performance.

  18. Aero Engine Component Fault Diagnosis Using Multi-Hidden-Layer Extreme Learning Machine with Optimized Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Pang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A new aero gas turbine engine gas path component fault diagnosis method based on multi-hidden-layer extreme learning machine with optimized structure (OM-ELM was proposed. OM-ELM employs quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization to automatically obtain the optimal network structure according to both the root mean square error on training data set and the norm of output weights. The proposed method is applied to handwritten recognition data set and a gas turbine engine diagnostic application and is compared with basic ELM, multi-hidden-layer ELM, and two state-of-the-art deep learning algorithms: deep belief network and the stacked denoising autoencoder. Results show that, with optimized network structure, OM-ELM obtains better test accuracy in both applications and is more robust to sensor noise. Meanwhile it controls the model complexity and needs far less hidden nodes than multi-hidden-layer ELM, thus saving computer memory and making it more efficient to implement. All these advantages make our method an effective and reliable tool for engine component fault diagnosis tool.

  19. Towards an Aero-Propulso-Servo-Elasticity Analysis of a Commercial Supersonic Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Joseph W.; Kopasakis, George; Chwalowski, Pawel; Sanetrik, Mark D.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Silva, Walt A.; McNamara, Jack

    2016-01-01

    This paper covers the development of an aero-propulso-servo-elastic (APSE) model using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and linear structural deformations. The APSE model provides the integration of the following two previously developed nonlinear dynamic simulations: a variable cycle turbofan engine and an elastic supersonic commercial transport vehicle. The primary focus of this study is to provide a means to include relevant dynamics of a turbomachinery propulsion system into the aeroelastic studies conducted during a vehicle design, which have historically neglected propulsion effects. A high fidelity CFD tool is used here for the integration platform. The elastic vehicle neglecting the propulsion system serves as a comparison of traditional approaches to the APSE results. An overview of the methodology is presented for integrating the propulsion system and elastic vehicle. Static aeroelastic analysis comparisons between the traditional and developed APSE models for a wing tip detection indicate that the propulsion system impact on the vehicle elastic response could increase the detection by approximately ten percent.

  20. An Aerodynamic Analysis of a Robustly Redesigned Modern Aero-Engine Fan

    CERN Document Server

    Seshadri, Pranay; Shahpar, Shahrokh

    2016-01-01

    This paper documents results from a recent computational study aimed at de-sensitizing fan stage aerodynamics---in a modern, high bypass ratio aero-engine---to the effects of rear-seal leakage flows. These flows are the result of seal erosion between a rotor and stator disk in an engine, and deterioration over the life of an engine. The density-matching technique for optimization under uncertainty was applied to this problem. This involved RANS and adjoint flow solves of a full fan stage carried out at two different leakage conditions. Here a detailed analysis of the fan stage aerodynamics is carried out to determine why exactly the new design is more insensitive to the effects of leakage flows. Specifically, it is shown that this insensitivity is attributed to three main factors: a slight rearward shift in loading, and thus a reduction in incidence; a reduction in the cross-passage pressure gradient; and a re-acceleration of the flow towards the trailing edge, which prevented any corner separation.

  1. Propulsion System Dynamic Modeling for the NASA Supersonic Concept Vehicle: AeroPropulsoServoElasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopasakis, George; Connolly, Joseph; Seidel, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    A summary of the propulsion system modeling under NASA's High Speed Project (HSP) AeroPropulsoServoElasticity (APSE) task is provided with a focus on the propulsion system for the low-boom supersonic configuration developed by Lockheed Martin and referred to as the N+2 configuration. This summary includes details on the effort to date to develop computational models for the various propulsion system components. The objective of this paper is to summarize the model development effort in this task, while providing more detail in the modeling areas that have not been previously published. The purpose of the propulsion system modeling and the overall APSE effort is to develop an integrated dynamic vehicle model to conduct appropriate unsteady analysis of supersonic vehicle performance. This integrated APSE system model concept includes the propulsion system model, and the vehicle structural-aerodynamics model. The development to date of such a preliminary integrated model will also be summarized in this report.propulsion system dynamics, the structural dynamics, and aerodynamics.

  2. Aero-acoustics of silicone rubber lip reeds for alternative voice production in laryngectomees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Torn, M; Mahieu, H F; Festen, J M

    2001-11-01

    To improve voice quality after laryngectomy, a small pneumatic sound source to be incorporated in a regular tracheoesophageal shunt valve was designed. This artificial voice source consists of a single floppy lip reed, which performs self-sustaining flutter-type oscillations driven by the expired pulmonary air that flows through the tracheoesophageal shunt valve along the outward-striking lip reed. In this in vitro study, aero-acoustic data and detailed high-speed digital image sequences of lip reed behavior are obtained for 10 lip configurations. The high-speed visualizations provide a more explicit understanding and reveal details of lip reed behavior, such as the onset of vibration, beating of the lip against the walls of its housing, and chaotic behavior at high volume flow. We discuss several aspects of lip reed behavior in general and implications for its application as an artificial voice source. For pressures above the sounding threshold, volume flow, fundamental frequency and sound pressure level generated by the floppy lip reed are almost linear functions of the driving force, static pressure difference across the lip. Observed irregularities in these relations are mainly caused by transitions from one type of beating behavior of the lip against the walls of its housing to another. This beating explains the wide range and the driving force dependence of fundamental frequency, and seems to have a strong effect on the spectral content. The thickness of the lip base is linearly related to the fundamental frequency of lip reed oscillation.

  3. Uncertainty of measurement for large product verification: evaluation of large aero gas turbine engine datums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muelaner, J. E.; Wang, Z.; Keogh, P. S.; Brownell, J.; Fisher, D.

    2016-11-01

    Understanding the uncertainty of dimensional measurements for large products such as aircraft, spacecraft and wind turbines is fundamental to improving efficiency in these products. Much work has been done to ascertain the uncertainty associated with the main types of instruments used, based on laser tracking and photogrammetry, and the propagation of this uncertainty through networked measurements. Unfortunately this is not sufficient to understand the combined uncertainty of industrial measurements, which include secondary tooling and datum structures used to locate the coordinate frame. This paper presents for the first time a complete evaluation of the uncertainty of large scale industrial measurement processes. Generic analysis and design rules are proven through uncertainty evaluation and optimization for the measurement of a large aero gas turbine engine. This shows how the instrument uncertainty can be considered to be negligible. Before optimization the dominant source of uncertainty was the tooling design, after optimization the dominant source was thermal expansion of the engine; meaning that no further improvement can be made without measurement in a temperature controlled environment. These results will have a significant impact on the ability of aircraft and wind turbines to improve efficiency and therefore reduce carbon emissions, as well as the improved reliability of these products.

  4. Rotary-Wing Relevant Compressor Aero Research and Technology Development Activities at Glenn Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Gerard E.; Hathaway, Michael D.; Skoch, Gary J.; Snyder, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    Technical challenges of compressors for future rotorcraft engines are driven by engine-level and component-level requirements. Cycle analyses are used to highlight the engine-level challenges for 3000, 7500, and 12000 SHP-class engines, which include retention of performance and stability margin at low corrected flows, and matching compressor type, axial-flow or centrifugal, to the low corrected flows and high temperatures in the aft stages. At the component level: power-to-weight and efficiency requirements impel designs with lower inherent aerodynamic stability margin; and, optimum engine overall pressure ratios lead to small blade heights and the associated challenges of scale, particularly increased clearance-to-span ratios. The technical challenges associated with the aerodynamics of low corrected flows and stability management impel the compressor aero research and development efforts reviewed herein. These activities include development of simple models for clearance sensitivities to improve cycle calculations, full-annulus, unsteady Navier-Stokes simulations used to elucidate stall, its inception, and the physics of stall control by discrete tip-injection, development of an actuator-duct-based model for rapid simulation of nonaxisymmetric flow fields (e.g., due inlet circumferential distortion), advanced centrifugal compressor stage development and experimentation, and application of stall control in a T700 engine.

  5. An AeroCom initial assessment – optical properties in aerosol component modules of global models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kinne

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The AeroCom exercise diagnoses multi-component aerosol modules in global modeling. In an initial assessment simulated global distributions for mass and mid-visible aerosol optical thickness (aot were compared among 20 different modules. Model diversity was also explored in the context of previous comparisons. For the component combined aot general agreement has improved for the annual global mean. At 0.11 to 0.14, simulated aot values are at the lower end of global averages suggested by remote sensing from ground (AERONET ca. 0.135 and space (satellite composite ca. 0.15. More detailed comparisons, however, reveal that larger differences in regional distribution and significant differences in compositional mixture remain. Of particular concern are large model diversities for contributions by dust and carbonaceous aerosol, because they lead to significant uncertainty in aerosol absorption (aab. Since aot and aab, both, influence the aerosol impact on the radiative energy-balance, the aerosol (direct forcing uncertainty in modeling is larger than differences in aot might suggest. New diagnostic approaches are proposed to trace model differences in terms of aerosol processing and transport: These include the prescription of common input (e.g. amount, size and injection of aerosol component emissions and the use of observational capabilities from ground (e.g. measurements networks or space (e.g. correlations between aerosol and clouds.

  6. Aero-hydro-elastic simulation platform for wave energy systems and floating wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallesoee, B.S.

    2011-01-15

    This report present results from the PSO project 2008-1-10092 entitled Aero-Hydro-Elastic Simulation Platform for Wave Energy Systems and floating Wind Turbines that deals with measurements, modelling and simulations of the world's first combined wave and wind energy platform. The floating energy conversion platform, Poseidon, is owned and operated by Floating Power Plant A/S. The platform has been operating for two test periods; one period where it was operating as a wave energy conversion platform only and one period where the three turbines was mounted and the platform operated as a combined wind and wave energy platform. The PSO project has equipped the platform with comprehensive measurements equipment for measuring platform motion, wave and wind conditions and turbine loads. Data from the first test period has been used for determine if the turbine could be mounted on the platform. Preliminary analysis of data from the second test period indicates that the platform is suitable as wind turbine foundation and that the turbines reduce the platform motion. (Author)

  7. Protein gene product 9.5-immunoreactive neurons in the retina of striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) and Fraser dolphin (Lagenodelphis hosei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J P; Chen, S T; Chien, C H; Yao, C J; Chou, L S

    1999-08-01

    This study demonstrates immunocytochemically that protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5), a neuronal marker, is expressed by various populations of retinal cells in Stenella coeruleoalba (striped dolphin) and Lagenodelphis hosei (Fraser dolphin): one in the retinal ganglion cells and the other in the inner nuclear layer, resembling horizontal and amacrine cells. The specific distribution of PGP 9.5 in a dolphin closely resembles that in rodents and carnivores; however, some differences arise among these animals. In a dolphin's retina, for example, only a few of giant ganglion cells are immunoreacted while almost all the small ganglion cells are stained strongly. The processes of horizontal cells, identified according to their localization, appear not to connect entirely in a dolphin. Instead, PGP 9.5 positive cells are widely distributed in the small to moderate ganglion cells and have distinct processes which are ramified extensively in the outer plexiform layer in rodents and carnivores. The high levels of PGP 9.5 expressing in the inner part of dolphin retina, including ganglion cells and their axons as well as distinct sublamination in the inner plexiform layer, indicate that this molecule markedly influences the retinal system, possibly in visual connection. Although mammals have various visual behavior, i.e., living marine vs. terrestrial environment, and active during daytime vs. in the night, the retina is a common model to characterize the neurochemical properties.

  8. Analysis and quantification of the diversities of aerosol life cycles within AeroCom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Textor

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Simulation results of global aerosol models have been assembled in the framework of the AeroCom intercomparison exercise. In this paper, we analyze the life cycles of dust, sea salt, sulfate, black carbon and particulate organic matter as simulated by sixteen global aerosol models. The differences among the results (model diversities for sources and sinks, burdens, particle sizes, water uptakes, and spatial dispersals have been established. These diversities have large consequences for the calculated radiative forcing and the aerosol concentrations at the surface. Processes and parameters are identified which deserve further research. The AeroCom all-models-average emissions are dominated by the mass of sea salt (SS, followed by dust (DU, sulfate (SO4, particulate organic matter (POM, and finally black carbon (BC. Interactive parameterizations of the emissions and contrasting particles sizes of SS and DU lead generally to higher diversities of these species, and for total aerosol. The lower diversity of the emissions of the fine aerosols, BC, POM, and SO4, is due to the use of similar emission inventories, and does therefore not necessarily indicate a better understanding of their sources. The diversity of SO4-sources is mainly caused by the disagreement on depositional loss of precursor gases and on chemical production. The diversities of the emissions are passed on to the burdens, but the latter are also strongly affected by the model-specific treatments of transport and aerosol processes. The burdens of dry masses decrease from largest to smallest: DU, SS, SO4, POM, and BC. The all-models-average residence time is shortest for SS with about half a day, followed by SO4 and DU with four days, and POM and BC with six and seven days, respectively. The wet deposition rate is controlled by the solubility and increases from DU, BC, POM to SO4 and SS. It is the dominant sink for SO4, BC, and POM, and contributes about one third to the total removal

  9. Smoking cessation and survival in lung, upper aero-digestive tract and bladder cancer: cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshiaris, C; Aveyard, P; Oke, J; Ryan, R; Szatkowski, L; Stevens, R; Farley, A

    2017-10-10

    The aim was to examine the association between smoking cessation and prognosis in smoking-related cancer as it is unclear that cessation reduces mortality. In this retrospective cohort study from 1999 to 2013, we assessed the association between cessation during the first year after diagnosis and all-cause and cancer-specific mortality. Of 2882 lung, 757 upper aero-digestive tract (UAT) and 1733 bladder cancer patients 27%, 29% and 21% of lung, UAT and bladder cancer patients quit smoking. In lung cancer patients that quit, all-cause mortality was significantly lower (HR: 0.82 (0.74-0.92), while cancer-specific mortality (HR: 0.89 (0.76-1.04) and death due to index cancer (HR: 0.90 (0.77-1.05) were non-significantly lower. In UAT cancer, all-cause mortality (HR: 0.81 (0.58-1.14), cancer-specific mortality (HR: 0.84 (0.48-1.45), and death due to index cancer (HR: 0.75 (0.42-1.34) were non-significantly lower. There was no evidence of an association between quitting and mortality in bladder cancer. The HRs were 1.02 (0.81-1.30) for all-cause, 1.23 (0.81-1.86) for cancer specific, and 1.25 (0.71-2.20) for death due to index cancer. These showed a non-significantly lower risk in sensitivity analyses. People with lung and possibly UAT cancer who quit smoking have a lower risk of mortality than people who continue smoking.

  10. Fully Coupled Aero-Thermochemical-Elastic Simulations of an Eroding Graphite Nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blades, E. L.; Reveles, N. D.; Nucci, M.; Maclean, M.

    2017-01-01

    A multiphysics simulation capability has been developed that incorporates mutual interactions between aerodynamics, structural response from aero/thermal loading, ablation/pyrolysis, heating, and surface-to-surface radiation to perform high-fidelity, fully coupled aerothermoelastic ablation simulations, which to date had been unattainable. The multiphysics framework couples CHAR (a 3-D implicit charring ablator solver), Loci/CHEM (a computational fluid dynamics solver for high-speed chemically reacting flows), and Abaqus (a nonlinear structural dynamics solver) to create a fully coupled aerothermoelastic charring ablative solver. The solvers are tightly coupled in a fully integrated fashion to resolve the effects of the ablation pyrolysis and charring process and chemistry products upon the flow field, the changes in surface geometry due to recession upon the flow field, and thermal-structural analysis of the body from the induced aerodynamic heating from the flow field. The multiphysics framework was successfully demonstrated on a solid rocket motor graphite nozzle erosion application. Comparisons were made with available experimental data that measured the throat erosion during the motor firing. The erosion data is well characterized, as the test rig was equipped with a windowed nozzle section for real-time X-ray radiography diagnostics of the instantaneous throat variations for deducing the instantaneous erosion rates. The nozzle initially undergoes a nozzle contraction due to thermal expansion before ablation effects are able to widen the throat. A series of parameters studies were conducted using the coupled simulation capability to determine the sensitivity of the nozzle erosion to different parameters. The parameter studies included the shape of the nozzle throat (flat versus rounded), the material properties, the effect of the choice of turbulence model, and the inclusion or exclusion of the mechanical thermal expansion. Overall, the predicted results match

  11. Calibration of aero-structural reduced order models using full-field experimental measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, R.; Bartram, G.; Beberniss, T.; Wiebe, R.; Spottswood, S. M.

    2017-03-01

    The structural response of hypersonic aircraft panels is a multi-disciplinary problem, where the nonlinear structural dynamics, aerodynamics, and heat transfer models are coupled. A clear understanding of the impact of high-speed flow effects on the structural response, and the potential influence of the structure on the local environment, is needed in order to prevent the design of overly-conservative structures, a common problem in past hypersonic programs. The current work investigates these challenges from a structures perspective. To this end, the first part of this investigation looks at the modeling of the response of a rectangular panel to an external heating source (thermo-structural coupling) where the temperature effect on the structure is obtained from forward looking infrared (FLIR) measurements and the displacement via 3D-digital image correlation (DIC). The second part of the study uses data from a previous series of wind-tunnel experiments, performed to investigate the response of a compliant panel to the effects of high-speed flow, to train a pressure surrogate model. In this case, the panel aero-loading is obtained from fast-response pressure sensitive paint (PSP) measurements, both directly and from the pressure surrogate model. The result of this investigation is the use of full-field experimental measurements to update the structural model and train a computational efficient model of the loading environment. The use of reduced order models, informed by these full-field physical measurements, is a significant step toward the development of accurate simulation models of complex structures that are computationally tractable.

  12. Aeronautical-Satellite-Assisted Process Being Developed for Information Exchange Through Network Technologies (Aero-SAPIENT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zernic, Michael J.

    2001-01-01

    Communications technologies are being developed to address safety issues during aviation travel. Some of these technologies enable the aircraft to be in constant bidirectional communications with necessary systems, people, and other aircraft that are not currently in place today. Networking technologies, wireless datalinks, and advanced avionics techniques are areas of particular importance that the NASA Glenn Research Center has contributed. Glenn, in conjunction with the NASA Ames Research Center, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, and NASA Langley Research Center, is investigating methods and applications that would utilize these communications technologies. In mid-June 2000, the flight readiness of the network and communications technologies were demonstrated via a simulated aircraft. A van simulating an aircraft was equipped with advanced phased-array antennas (Advanced Communications/Air Traffic Management (AC/ATM) Advanced Air Transportation Technologies (AATT) project) that used commercial Ku-band satellite communications to connect Glenn, Dryden, and Ames in a combined system ground test. This test simulated air-ground bidirectional transport of real-time digital audio, text, and video data via a hybrid network configuration that demonstrated the flight readiness of the network and communications technologies. Specifically, a Controller Pilot Data Link Communications application was used with other applications to demonstrate a multiprotocol capability via Internet-protocol encapsulated ATN (Aeronautical Telecommunications Network) data packets. The significance of this combined ground test is its contribution to the Aero Information Technology Base Program Level I milestone (Software Technology investment area) of a real-time data link for the National Airspace System. The objective of this milestone was to address multiprotocol technology applicable for real-time data links between aircraft, a satellite, and the ground as well as the ability to

  13. Mixing Process in Ejector Nozzles Studied at Lewis' Aero-Acoustic Propulsion Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center has been studying mixing processes in ejector nozzles for its High Speed Research (HSR) Program. This work is directed at finding ways to minimize the noise of a future supersonic airliner. Much of the noise such an airplane would generate would come from the nozzle, where a hot, high-speed jet exits the engine. Several different nozzle configurations were used to produce nozzle systems with different acoustical and aerodynamic characteristics. The acoustical properties were measured by an array of microphones in an anechoic chamber, and the aerodynamics were measured by traditional pressure and temperature instruments as well as by Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV), a technique for visualizing the airflow pattern without disturbing it. These measurements were put together and compared for different configurations to examine the relationships between mixing and noise generation. The mixer-ejector nozzle with the installed flow-visualization windows (foreground), the optical equipment and the supporting structure for the Laser Doppler Velocimetry flow visualization (midfield), and the sound-absorbing wedges used to create an anechoic environment for acoustic testing (background) is shown. The High Speed Research Program is a NASA-funded effort, in cooperation with the U.S. aerospace industry, to develop enabling technologies for a future supersonic airliner. One of the technological barriers being addressed is noise generated during near-airport operation. The mixer-ejector nozzle concept is being examined as a way to reduce jet noise while maintaining thrust. Ambient air is mixed with the high-velocity engine exhaust to reduce the jet velocity and hence the noise generated by the jet. The model was designed and built by Pratt & Whitney under NASA contract. The test, completed in June 1995, was conducted in Lewis' Aero-Acoustic Propulsion Laboratory.

  14. Numerical study on influence of single control surface on aero elastic behavior of forward-swept wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Su, Xinbing; Ma, Binlin; Zhang, Xiaofei

    2017-10-01

    In order to study the influence of elastic forward-swept wing (FSW) with single control surface, the computational fluid dynamics/computational structural dynamics (CFD/CSD) loose coupling static aero elastic numerical calculation method was adopted for numerical simulation. The effects of the elastic FSW with leading- or trailing-edge control surface on aero elastic characteristics were calculated and analysed under the condition of high subsonic speed. The result shows that, the deflection of every single control surface could change the aero elastic characteristics of elastic FSW greatly. Compared with the baseline model, when leading-edge control surface deflected up, under the condition of small angles of attack, the aerodynamic characteristics was poor, but the bending and torsional deformation decreased. Under the condition of moderate angles of attack, the aerodynamic characteristics was improved, but bending and torsional deformation increased; When leading-edge control surface deflected down, the aerodynamic characteristics was improved, the bending and torsional deformation decreased/increased under the condition of small/moderate angles of attack. Compared with the baseline model, when trailing-edge control surface deflected down, the aerodynamic characteristics was improved. The bending and torsional deformation increased under the condition of small angles of attack. The bending deformation increased under the condition of small angles of attack, but torsional deformation decreases under the condition of moderate angles of attack. So, for the elastic FSW, the deflection of trailing-edge control surface play a more important role on the improvement of aerodynamic and elastic deformation characteristics.

  15. Small wind turbine performance evaluation using field test data and a coupled aero-electro-mechanical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Brian D.

    A series of field tests and theoretical analyses were performed on various wind turbine rotor designs at two Penn State residential-scale wind-electric facilities. This work involved the prediction and experimental measurement of the electrical and aerodynamic performance of three wind turbines; a 3 kW rated Whisper 175, 2.4 kW rated Skystream 3.7, and the Penn State designed Carolus wind turbine. Both the Skystream and Whisper 175 wind turbines are OEM blades which were originally installed at the facilities. The Carolus rotor is a carbon-fiber composite 2-bladed machine, designed and assembled at Penn State, with the intent of replacing the Whisper 175 rotor at the off-grid system. Rotor aerodynamic performance is modeled using WT_Perf, a National Renewable Energy Laboratory developed Blade Element Momentum theory based performance prediction code. Steady-state power curves are predicted by coupling experimentally determined electrical characteristics with the aerodynamic performance of the rotor simulated with WT_Perf. A dynamometer test stand is used to establish the electromechanical efficiencies of the wind-electric system generator. Through the coupling of WT_Perf and dynamometer test results, an aero-electro-mechanical analysis procedure is developed and provides accurate predictions of wind system performance. The analysis of three different wind turbines gives a comprehensive assessment of the capability of the field test facilities and the accuracy of aero-electro-mechanical analysis procedures. Results from this study show that the Carolus and Whisper 175 rotors are running at higher tip-speed ratios than are optimum for power production. The aero-electro-mechanical analysis predicted the high operating tip-speed ratios of the rotors and was accurate at predicting output power for the systems. It is shown that the wind turbines operate at high tip-speeds because of a miss-match between the aerodynamic drive torque and the operating torque of the wind

  16. PREFACE: The 2nd International Conference on Geological, Geographical, Aerospace and Earth Sciences 2014 (AeroEarth 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumban Gaol, Ford; Soewito, Benfano

    2015-01-01

    The 2nd International Conference on Geological, Geographical, Aerospace and Earth Sciences 2014 (AeroEarth 2014), was held at Discovery Kartika Plaza Hotel, Kuta, Bali, Indonesia during 11 - 12 October 2014. The AeroEarth 2014 conference aims to bring together researchers and engineers from around the world. Through research and development, earth scientists have the power to preserve the planet's different resource domains by providing expert opinion and information about the forces which make life possible on Earth. Earth provides resources and the exact conditions to make life possible. However, with the advent of technology and industrialization, the Earth's resources are being pushed to the brink of depletion. Non-sustainable industrial practices are not only endangering the supply of the Earth's natural resources, but are also putting burden on life itself by bringing about pollution and climate change. A major role of earth science scholars is to examine the delicate balance between the Earth's resources and the growing demands of industrialization. Through research and development, earth scientists have the power to preserve the planet's different resource domains by providing expert opinion and information about the forces which make life possible on Earth. We would like to express our sincere gratitude to all in the Technical Program Committee who have reviewed the papers and developed a very interesting Conference Program as well as the invited and plenary speakers. This year, we received 98 papers and after rigorous review, 17 papers were accepted. The participants come from eight countries. There are four Parallel Sessions and two invited Speakers. It is an honour to present this volume of IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (EES) and we deeply thank the authors for their enthusiastic and high-grade contributions. Finally, we would like to thank the conference chairmen, the members of the steering committee, the organizing committee

  17. HAWC2 and BeamDyn: Comparison Between Beam Structural Models for Aero-Servo-Elastic Frameworks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavese, Christian; Wang, Qi; Kim, Taeseong

    2015-01-01

    the geometrically exact beam theory can better model effects such as very large deflections, rotations, and structural couplings, an approach based on a multi-body formulation assembled through linear elements is capable of computing accurate solutions for typical nonlinear beam theory benchmarking cases.......This work presents a comparison of two beam codes for aero-servo-elastic frameworks: a new structural model for the aeroelastic code HAWC2 and a new nonlinear beam model, BeamDyn, for the aeroelastic modularization framework FAST v8. The main goal is to establish the suitability of the two...

  18. Smart rotor modeling aero-servo-elastic modeling of a smart rotor with adaptive trailing edge flaps

    CERN Document Server

    Bergami, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    A smart rotor is a wind turbine rotor that, through a combination of sensors, control units and actuators actively reduces the variation of the aerodynamic loads it has to withstand. Smart rotors feature?promising load alleviation potential and might provide the technological breakthrough required by the next generation of large wind turbine rotors.The book presents the aero-servo-elastic model of a smart rotor with Adaptive Trailing Edge Flaps for active load alleviation and provides an insight on the rotor aerodynamic, structural and control modeling. A novel model for the unsteady aerodynam

  19. Design, manufacturing and characterization of aero-elastically scaled wind turbine blades for testing active and passive load alleviation techniques within a ABL wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagnolo, Filippo; Bottasso, Carlo L.; Bettini, Paolo

    2014-06-01

    In the research described in this paper, a scaled wind turbine model featuring individual pitch control (IPC) capabilities, and equipped with aero-elastically scaled blades featuring passive load reduction capabilities (bend-twist coupling, BTC), was constructed to investigate, by means of wind tunnel testing, the load alleviation potential of BTC and its synergy with active load reduction techniques. The paper mainly focus on the design of the aero-elastic blades and their dynamic and static structural characterization. The experimental results highlight that manufactured blades show desired bend-twist coupling behavior and are a first milestone toward their testing in the wind tunnel.

  20. Investigation of thermally induced stresses in a transition-piece in relation to an aero-derivative gas turbine engine operation

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa, Alaaeldin H.

    2007-01-01

    The transition-piece of an aero-derivative gas turbine engine transfers high temperature combusted gases from the gas generator to a power turbine, and it is manufactured from Iron-Base Superalloy A286 in this investigation. Due to the thermal stress levels developed in the casing of the transition-piece after long operating hours, the life expectancy of the transition-piece becomes shorter. The present study aims to investigate the thermal stress field development in the casing of the aero-d...

  1. One Generation of New Material, One Generation of New Type Engine:Development Trend of Aero-engine and Its Requirements for Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Da-xiang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on the brief review of accelerated developing status of aircraft power technology in the world, the present status and developing trend of key materials technology for aero-engine were analyzed. In accordance with the idea of "one generation of new material, one generation of new type engine", development requirements for the materials technology of the system and main parts of aero-engine were proposed. Suggestions for improving development and application level of the materials technology in China were presented from aspects of quality stability and technical maturity, investigation and verification for engineering, materials system and data, composite materials, airworthiness certificate,etc.

  2. The AERO system: a 3D-like approach for recording gene expression patterns in the whole mouse embryo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirohito Shimizu

    Full Text Available We have recently constructed a web-based database of gene expression in the mouse whole embryo, EMBRYS (http://embrys.jp/embrys/html/MainMenu.html. To allow examination of gene expression patterns to the fullest extent possible, this database provides both photo images and annotation data. However, since embryos develop via an intricate process of morphogenesis, it would be of great value to track embryonic gene expression from a three dimensional perspective. In fact, several methods have been developed to achieve this goal, but highly laborious procedures and specific operational skills are generally required. We utilized a novel microscopic technique that enables the easy capture of rotational, 3D-like images of the whole embryo. In this method, a rotary head equipped with two mirrors that are designed to obtain an image tilted at 45 degrees to the microscope stage captures serial images at 2-degree intervals. By a simple operation, 180 images are automatically collected. These 2D images obtained at multiple angles are then used to reconstruct 3D-like images, termed AERO images. By means of this system, over 800 AERO images of 191 gene expression patterns were captured. These images can be easily rotated on the computer screen using the EMBRYS database so that researchers can view an entire embryo by a virtual viewing on a computer screen in an unbiased or non-predetermined manner. The advantages afforded by this approach make it especially useful for generating data viewed in public databases.

  3. Nonlinear Dynamic Modeling of a Supersonic Commercial Transport Turbo-Machinery Propulsion System for Aero-Propulso-Servo-Elasticity Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Joe; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Kopasakis, George; Woolwine, Kyle

    2015-01-01

    This paper covers the development of an integrated nonlinear dynamic model for a variable cycle turbofan engine, supersonic inlet, and convergent-divergent nozzle that can be integrated with an aeroelastic vehicle model to create an overall Aero-Propulso-Servo-Elastic (APSE) modeling tool. The primary focus of this study is to provide a means to capture relevant thrust dynamics of a full supersonic propulsion system by using relatively simple quasi-one dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods that will allow for accurate control algorithm development and capture the key aspects of the thrust to feed into an APSE model. Previously, propulsion system component models have been developed and are used for this study of the fully integrated propulsion system. An overview of the methodology is presented for the modeling of each propulsion component, with a focus on its associated coupling for the overall model. To conduct APSE studies the described dynamic propulsion system model is integrated into a high fidelity CFD model of the full vehicle capable of conducting aero-elastic studies. Dynamic thrust analysis for the quasi-one dimensional dynamic propulsion system model is presented along with an initial three dimensional flow field model of the engine integrated into a supersonic commercial transport.

  4. Surface integrity of GH4169 affected by cantilever finish grinding and the application in aero-engine blades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xun

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available GH4169 is the main material for aero-engine blades and integrated blisks. Because GH4169 has a poor milling performance, the profile precision and surface integrity of blades and integrated blisks are difficult to be met by utilizing the conventional milling process, which directly influence the global performance and reliability of aero-engines. Through grinding experiments on parameters and surface integrity optimization, the helical cantilever grinding process utilizing a 300# CBN RB wheel is presented and applied in finish machining of GH4169 blades. The profile errors of the blade surface are within ±0.01 mm, the roughness is less than 0.4 μm, the residual compressive stresses and the hardening rate are appropriate, there are no phenomena of burr and smearing with the grinding chips, and the leading/trailing edge can be smoothly connected with the suction/pressure surface. All the experimental results indicate that this grinding process is greatly suitable for the profile finish machining of GH4169 blades.

  5. Emerging and established global life-style risk factors for cancer of the upper aero-digestive tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Bhawna; Johnson, Newell W

    2014-01-01

    Upper aero-digestive tract cancer is a multidimensional problem, international trends showing complex rises and falls in incidence and mortality across the globe, with variation across different cultural and socio-economic groups. This paper seeks some explanations and identifies some research and policy needs. The literature illustrates the multifactorial nature of carcinogenesis. At the cellular level, it is viewed as a multistep process involving multiple mutations and selection for cells with progressively increasing capacity for proliferation, survival, invasion, and metastasis. Established and emerging risk factors, in addition to changes in incidence and prevalence of cancers of the upper aero-digestive tract, were identified. Exposure to tobacco and alcohol, as well as diets inadequate in fresh fruits and vegetables, remain the major risk factors, with persistent infection by particular so-called "high risk" genotypes of human papillomavirus increasingly recognised as also playing an important role in a subset of cases, particularly for the oropharynx. Chronic trauma to oral mucosa from poor restorations and prostheses, in addition to poor oral hygiene with a consequent heavy microbial load in the mouth, are also emerging as significant risk factors. Understanding and quantifying the impact of individual risk factors for these cancers is vital for health decision-making, planning and prevention. National policies and programmes should be designed and implemented to control exposure to environmental risks, by legislation if necessary, and to raise awareness so that people are provided with the information and support they need to adopt healthy lifestyles.

  6. New Acoustic Arena Qualified at NASA Glenn's Aero-Acoustic Propulsion Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wnuk, Stephen P.

    2004-01-01

    A new acoustic arena has been qualified in the Aero-Acoustic Propulsion Laboratory (AAPL) at the NASA Glenn Research Center. This arena is outfitted specifically for conducting fan noise research with the Advanced Noise Control Fan (ANCF) test rig. It features moveable walls with large acoustic wedges (2 by 2 by 1 ft) that create an acoustic environment usable at frequencies as low as 250 Hz. The arena currently uses two dedicated microphone arrays to acquire fan inlet and exhaust far-field acoustic data. It was used successfully in fiscal year 2003 to complete three ANCF tests. It also allowed Glenn to improve the operational efficiency of the four test rigs at AAPL and provided greater flexibility to schedule testing. There were a number of technical challenges to overcome in bringing the new arena to fruition. The foremost challenge was conflicting acoustic requirements of four different rigs. It was simply impossible to construct a static arena anywhere in the facility without intolerably compromising the acoustic test environment of at least one of the test rigs. This problem was overcome by making the wall sections of the new arena movable. Thus, the arena can be reconfigured to meet the operational requirements of any particular rig under test. Other design challenges that were encountered and overcome included structural loads of the large wedges, personnel access requirements, equipment maintenance requirements, and typical time and budget constraints. The new acoustic arena improves operations at the AAPL facility in several significant ways. First, it improves productivity by allowing multiple rigs to operate simultaneously. Second, it improves research data quality by providing a unique test area within the facility that is optimal for conducting fan noise research. Lastly, it reduces labor and equipment costs by eliminating the periodic need to transport the ANCF into and out of the primary AAPL acoustic arena. The investment to design, fabricate, and

  7. Rare earth oxide aero- and xerogels. Tuning porosity and catalytic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, Bjoern

    2013-11-15

    , katalytisch vielversprechende Seltenerdoxide im Hinblick auf Porositaet und Zusammensetzung so zu veraendern, dass sie fuer Oxidationsreaktionen und die oxidative Kupplung von Methan gute Ergebnisse aufweisen. Dabei lag einerseits ein grosser Schwerpunkt auf Sol-gel-chemischen Methoden und hier besonders auf der sog. ''Epoxide Addition Method''. Neben Aero- und Xerogelen der reinen Seltenerdoxide wurden auch Hybridsysteme aus den Seltenerdoxiden und Aluminiumoxid praepariert, umfangreich charakterisiert und katalytisch getestet. Des Weiteren wurden duenne Xerogel Filme und makroporoese Monolithe, letztere mittels einer direkten Schaeumungsmethode, hergestellt. Die Ergebnisse der Arbeit belegen das grosse Potential v.a. der Sol-Gel-Chemie, poroese Materialien mit variabler und kontrollierbarer Porositaet und Zusammensetzung fuer die heterogene Katalyse verfuegbar zu machen und dabei leistungsfaehigere Katalysatoren zu erhalten.

  8. Investigation of global particulate nitrate from the AeroCom phase III experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Huisheng; Chin, Mian; Hauglustaine, Didier A.; Schulz, Michael; Myhre, Gunnar; Bauer, Susanne E.; Lund, Marianne T.; Karydis, Vlassis A.; Kucsera, Tom L.; Pan, Xiaohua; Pozzer, Andrea; Skeie, Ragnhild B.; Steenrod, Stephen D.; Sudo, Kengo; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Tsimpidi, Alexandra P.; Tsyro, Svetlana G.

    2017-11-01

    An assessment of global particulate nitrate and ammonium aerosol based on simulations from nine models participating in the Aerosol Comparisons between Observations and Models (AeroCom) phase III study is presented. A budget analysis was conducted to understand the typical magnitude, distribution, and diversity of the aerosols and their precursors among the models. To gain confidence regarding model performance, the model results were evaluated with various observations globally, including ground station measurements over North America, Europe, and east Asia for tracer concentrations and dry and wet depositions, as well as with aircraft measurements in the Northern Hemisphere mid-to-high latitudes for tracer vertical distributions. Given the unique chemical and physical features of the nitrate occurrence, we further investigated the similarity and differentiation among the models by examining (1) the pH-dependent NH3 wet deposition; (2) the nitrate formation via heterogeneous chemistry on the surface of dust and sea salt particles or thermodynamic equilibrium calculation including dust and sea salt ions; and (3) the nitrate coarse-mode fraction (i.e., coarse/total). It is found that HNO3, which is simulated explicitly based on full O3-HOx-NOx-aerosol chemistry by all models, differs by up to a factor of 9 among the models in its global tropospheric burden. This partially contributes to a large difference in NO3-, whose atmospheric burden differs by up to a factor of 13. The atmospheric burdens of NH3 and NH4+ differ by 17 and 4, respectively. Analyses at the process level show that the large diversity in atmospheric burdens of NO3-, NH3, and NH4+ is also related to deposition processes. Wet deposition seems to be the dominant process in determining the diversity in NH3 and NH4+ lifetimes. It is critical to correctly account for contributions of heterogeneous chemical production of nitrate on dust and sea salt, because this process overwhelmingly controls

  9. Advanced Aero-Propulsive Mid-Lift-to-Drag Ratio Entry Vehicle for Future Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, C. H.; Stosaric, R. R; Cerimele, C. J.; Wong, K. A.; Valle, G. D.; Garcia, J. A.; Melton, J. E.; Munk, M. M.; Blades, E.; Kuruvila, G.; hide

    2012-01-01

    vehicle stage return, thus making ideas reality. These paradigm shifts include the technology maturation of advanced flexible thermal protection materials onto mid lift-to-drag ratio entry vehicles, the development of integrated supersonic aero-propulsive maneuvering, and the implementation of advanced asymmetric launch shrouds. These paradigms have significant overlap with launch vehicle stage return already being developed by the Air Force and several commercial space efforts. Completing the realization of these combined paradigms holds the key to a high-performing entry vehicle system capability that fully leverages multiple technology benefits to accomplish NASA's Exploration missions to atmospheric planetary destinations.

  10. Investigation of global particulate nitrate from the AeroCom phase III experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bian

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available An assessment of global particulate nitrate and ammonium aerosol based on simulations from nine models participating in the Aerosol Comparisons between Observations and Models (AeroCom phase III study is presented. A budget analysis was conducted to understand the typical magnitude, distribution, and diversity of the aerosols and their precursors among the models. To gain confidence regarding model performance, the model results were evaluated with various observations globally, including ground station measurements over North America, Europe, and east Asia for tracer concentrations and dry and wet depositions, as well as with aircraft measurements in the Northern Hemisphere mid-to-high latitudes for tracer vertical distributions. Given the unique chemical and physical features of the nitrate occurrence, we further investigated the similarity and differentiation among the models by examining (1 the pH-dependent NH3 wet deposition; (2 the nitrate formation via heterogeneous chemistry on the surface of dust and sea salt particles or thermodynamic equilibrium calculation including dust and sea salt ions; and (3 the nitrate coarse-mode fraction (i.e., coarse/total. It is found that HNO3, which is simulated explicitly based on full O3-HOx-NOx-aerosol chemistry by all models, differs by up to a factor of 9 among the models in its global tropospheric burden. This partially contributes to a large difference in NO3−, whose atmospheric burden differs by up to a factor of 13. The atmospheric burdens of NH3 and NH4+ differ by 17 and 4, respectively. Analyses at the process level show that the large diversity in atmospheric burdens of NO3−, NH3, and NH4+ is also related to deposition processes. Wet deposition seems to be the dominant process in determining the diversity in NH3 and NH4+ lifetimes. It is critical to correctly account for contributions of heterogeneous chemical production of nitrate on dust and sea salt, because this process

  11. The AeroCom evaluation and intercomparison of organic aerosol in global models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsigaridis, K.; Daskalakis, N.; Kanakidou, M.; Adams, P. J.; Artaxo, P.; Bahadur, R.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S. E.; Bellouin, N.; Benedetti, A.; Bergman, T.; Berntsen, T. K.; Beukes, J. P.; Bian, H.; Carslaw, K. S.; Chin, M.; Curci, G.; Diehl, T.; Easter, R. C.; Ghan, S. J.; Gong, S. L.; Hodzic, A.; Hoyle, C. R.; Iversen, T.; Jathar, S.; Jimenez, J. L.; Kaiser, J. W.; Kirkevåg, A.; Koch, D.; Kokkola, H.; Lee, Y. H.; Lin, G.; Liu, X.; Luo, G.; Ma, X.; Mann, G. W.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Morcrette, J.-J.; Müller, J.-F.; Myhre, G.; Myriokefalitakis, S.; Ng, N. L.; O'Donnell, D.; Penner, J. E.; Pozzoli, L.; Pringle, K. J.; Russell, L. M.; Schulz, M.; Sciare, J.; Seland, Ø.; Shindell, D. T.; Sillman, S.; Skeie, R. B.; Spracklen, D.; Stavrakou, T.; Steenrod, S. D.; Takemura, T.; Tiitta, P.; Tilmes, S.; Tost, H.; van Noije, T.; van Zyl, P. G.; von Salzen, K.; Yu, F.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z.; Zaveri, R. A.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, Q.; Zhang, X.

    2014-10-01

    This paper evaluates the current status of global modeling of the organic aerosol (OA) in the troposphere and analyzes the differences between models as well as between models and observations. Thirty-one global chemistry transport models (CTMs) and general circulation models (GCMs) have participated in this intercomparison, in the framework of AeroCom phase II. The simulation of OA varies greatly between models in terms of the magnitude of primary emissions, secondary OA (SOA) formation, the number of OA species used (2 to 62), the complexity of OA parameterizations (gas-particle partitioning, chemical aging, multiphase chemistry, aerosol microphysics), and the OA physical, chemical and optical properties. The diversity of the global OA simulation results has increased since earlier AeroCom experiments, mainly due to the increasing complexity of the SOA parameterization in models, and the implementation of new, highly uncertain, OA sources. Diversity of over one order of magnitude exists in the modeled vertical distribution of OA concentrations that deserves a dedicated future study. Furthermore, although the OA / OC ratio depends on OA sources and atmospheric processing, and is important for model evaluation against OA and OC observations, it is resolved only by a few global models. The median global primary OA (POA) source strength is 56 Tg a-1 (range 34-144 Tg a-1) and the median SOA source strength (natural and anthropogenic) is 19 Tg a-1 (range 13-121 Tg a-1). Among the models that take into account the semi-volatile SOA nature, the median source is calculated to be 51 Tg a-1 (range 16-121 Tg a-1), much larger than the median value of the models that calculate SOA in a more simplistic way (19 Tg a-1; range 13-20 Tg a-1, with one model at 37 Tg a-1). The median atmospheric burden of OA is 1.4 Tg (24 models in the range of 0.6-2.0 Tg and 4 between 2.0 and 3.8 Tg), with a median OA lifetime of 5.4 days (range 3.8-9.6 days). In models that reported both OA and

  12. A multi-scale model for geared transmission aero-thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Sean M.

    A multi-scale, multi-physics computational tool for the simulation of high-per- formance gearbox aero-thermodynamics was developed and applied to equilibrium and pathological loss-of-lubrication performance simulation. The physical processes at play in these systems include multiphase compressible ow of the air and lubricant within the gearbox, meshing kinematics and tribology, as well as heat transfer by conduction, and free and forced convection. These physics are coupled across their representative space and time scales in the computational framework developed in this dissertation. These scales span eight orders of magnitude, from the thermal response of the full gearbox O(100 m; 10 2 s), through effects at the tooth passage time scale O(10-2 m; 10-4 s), down to tribological effects on the meshing gear teeth O(10-6 m; 10-6 s). Direct numerical simulation of these coupled physics and scales is intractable. Accordingly, a scale-segregated simulation strategy was developed by partitioning and treating the contributing physical mechanisms as sub-problems, each with associated space and time scales, and appropriate coupling mechanisms. These are: (1) the long time scale thermal response of the system, (2) the multiphase (air, droplets, and film) aerodynamic flow and convective heat transfer within the gearbox, (3) the high-frequency, time-periodic thermal effects of gear tooth heating while in mesh and its subsequent cooling through the rest of rotation, (4) meshing effects including tribology and contact mechanics. The overarching goal of this dissertation was to develop software and analysis procedures for gearbox loss-of-lubrication performance. To accommodate these four physical effects and their coupling, each is treated in the CFD code as a sub problem. These physics modules are coupled algorithmically. Specifically, the high- frequency conduction analysis derives its local heat transfer coefficient and near-wall air temperature boundary conditions from a quasi

  13. 75 FR 10694 - Airworthiness Directives; AeroSpace Technologies of Australia Pty Ltd Models N22B, N22S, and N24A...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; AeroSpace Technologies of Australia Pty Ltd Models N22B, N22S, and N24A Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking...

  14. Lifetime and baseline alcohol intake and risk of cancer of the upper aero-digestive tract in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC) study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weikert, Cornelia; Dietrich, Thomas; Boeing, Heiner; Bergmann, Manuela M.; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Allen, Naomi; Key, Tim; Lund, Eiliv; Olsen, Anja; Tjonneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Rohrmann, Sabine; Linseisen, Jakob; Pischon, Tobias; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Weinehall, Lars; Johansson, Ingegerd; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Agudo, Antonio; Barricarte, Aurelio; Amiano, Pilar; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Ramon Quiros, J.; Wirfalt, Elisabet; Peeters, Petra H.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Vrieling, Alina; Pala, Valeria; Palli, Domenico; Vineis, Paolo; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Bingham, Sheila; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Norat, Teresa; Jenab, Mazda; Ferrari, Pietro; Slimani, Nadia; Riboli, Elio

    2009-01-01

    Recent alcohol consumption is all established risk factor for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) or the upper aero-digestive tract. In contrast, the role or lifetime exposure to alcohol with regard to risk of SCC is not well established. Historical data oil alcohol use are available in 271,253

  15. Development of mathematical models for the aero derivative and heavy duty gas turbines; Desenvolvimento de modelos matematicos para as turbinas a gas aeroderivativas e heavy duty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freire, Marcelo; Mendes, Pedro Paulo de C.; Ferreira, Claudio; Passaro, Mauricio Campos; Gomes, Leonardo Vinicius [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Eletronica]. E-mails: freire_marcelo@hotmail.com; ppaulo@iee.efei.br; claudio@iee.efei.br; mcpassaro@uol.com.br; leonardo@iee.efei.br

    2002-07-01

    This paper develops, implements and simulates simplified mathematical models of multiple shafts, aero derivatives and heavy-duty gas turbines, aiming the subsides for studies of power systems dynamic behaviour. These components are fundamental to an approximated evaluation of the National Integrated System after the new thermoelectric plants are incorporated.

  16. Is it time to repair a Fairly Fast SAAB Convertible? Testing an evidence-based mnemonic for the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Jialiang; Fulcher, Jordan; Jenkins, Alicia; Keech, Anthony

    2015-05-01

    Optimising secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease has the greatest potential to reduce recurrent events, yet despite major guidelines there are ongoing treatment gaps. FFSAABC (Fish oils, Fibrates, Statins, Aspirin, Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin 2 receptor antagonists, Beta blockers and Clopidogrel) is one mnemonic previously adopted to assist clinicians in remembering medications for use in secondary prevention. The aim of this narrative review is to examine the current evidence base for medications recommended for patients with established cardiovascular disease and the current applicability of this, or a revised mnemonic for their use. Randomised controlled trials and systematic reviews were sought examining Fish oils, Fibrates, Statins, Aspirin, Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin 2 receptor antagonists, Beta blockers or Clopidogrel vs placebo in secondary prevention. The emerging evidence base for other contemporary therapies including the P2Y12 inhibitors (ticagrelor and prasugrel) and aldosterone antagonists was also reviewed. Definitive evidence supports the use of statins, aspirin, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin 2 receptor antagonists, and P2Y12 antagonists (clopidogrel, ticagrelor or prasugrel) for the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Aldosterone antagonists have strong evidence in the presence of systolic heart failure. There is a weaker evidence base for the routine use of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation although this therapy carries minimal harms. Fenofibrate reduces cardiovascular events in dyslipidaemic patients, with additional benefits in patients with diabetes. Mnemonic upgrading from a Fairly Fast SAAB Convertible to a Fairly Fast SA(2)A(2)B (Fish oils, Fibrate, Statin, Antiplatelets (Aspirin+Other), ACE/ARB, Aldosterone Antagonist, Beta-blocker) may help to ensure patients receive best practice evidence-based pharmacotherapies for the secondary

  17. Aero-Propulsive Model Design from a Commercial Aircraft in Climb and Cruise Regime using Performance Data =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudor, Magdalena

    IATA has estimated, in 2012, at about 2% of global carbon dioxide emissions, the environmental impact of the air transport, as a consequence caused by the rapidly growing of global movement demand of people and goods, and which was effectively taken into account in the development of the aviation industry. The historic achievements of scientific and technical progress in the field of commercial aviation were contributed to this estimate, and even today the research continues to make progress to help to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases. Advances in commercial aircraft, and its engine design technology had the aim to improve flight performance. These improvements have enhanced the global flight planning of these types of aircrafts. Almost all of these advances rely on generated performance data as reference sources, the most of which are classified as "confidential" by the aircraft manufacturers. There are very few aero-propulsive models conceived for the climb regime in the literature, but none of them was designed without access to an engine database, and/or to performance data in climb and in cruise regimes with direct applicability for flight optimization. In this thesis, aero-propulsive models methodologies are proposed for climb and cruise regimes, using system identification and validation methods, through which airplane performance can be computed and stored in the most compact and easily accessible format for this kind of performance data. The acquiring of performance data in this format makes it possible to optimize flight profiles, used by on-board Flight Management Systems. The aero-propulsive models developed here were investigated on two aircrafts belonging to commercial class, and both of them had offered very good accuracy. One of their advantages is that they can be adapted to any other aircraft of the same class, even if there is no access to their corresponding engine flight data. In addition, these models could save airlines a considerable

  18. Host model uncertainties in aerosol radiative forcing estimates: results from the AeroCom Prescribed intercomparison study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Stier

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Simulated multi-model "diversity" in aerosol direct radiative forcing estimates is often perceived as a measure of aerosol uncertainty. However, current models used for aerosol radiative forcing calculations vary considerably in model components relevant for forcing calculations and the associated "host-model uncertainties" are generally convoluted with the actual aerosol uncertainty. In this AeroCom Prescribed intercomparison study we systematically isolate and quantify host model uncertainties on aerosol forcing experiments through prescription of identical aerosol radiative properties in twelve participating models. Even with prescribed aerosol radiative properties, simulated clear-sky and all-sky aerosol radiative forcings show significant diversity. For a purely scattering case with globally constant optical depth of 0.2, the global-mean all-sky top-of-atmosphere radiative forcing is −4.47 Wm−2 and the inter-model standard deviation is 0.55 Wm−2, corresponding to a relative standard deviation of 12%. For a case with partially absorbing aerosol with an aerosol optical depth of 0.2 and single scattering albedo of 0.8, the forcing changes to 1.04 Wm−2, and the standard deviation increases to 1.01 W−2, corresponding to a significant relative standard deviation of 97%. However, the top-of-atmosphere forcing variability owing to absorption (subtracting the scattering case from the case with scattering and absorption is low, with absolute (relative standard deviations of 0.45 Wm−2 (8% clear-sky and 0.62 Wm−2 (11% all-sky. Scaling the forcing standard deviation for a purely scattering case to match the sulfate radiative forcing in the AeroCom Direct Effect experiment demonstrates that host model uncertainties could explain about 36% of the overall sulfate forcing diversity of 0.11 Wm−2 in the AeroCom Direct Radiative Effect experiment. Host model errors in aerosol radiative forcing are largest in regions of uncertain host model

  19. Behaviour of the Aero-Accelerator system in treating effluents with fat additives (II); Comportamiento del sistema Aero-Accelator en el tratamiento de afluents con aditivos garsos (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosque del Hernandez, J. L.; Martin Sanchez, J. L. [Universidad de Salamanca (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    The directive 91/271/CEE (transferred to the Spanish juridical classification by the Real ordinance-laws 11/1995 of December 28 and the 509/1996 of March 15) forces to decontaminate the effluents residual liquids and the R.D.P.H. as well as the municipal regulations, establish the maximum values of the polluting parameters to allow their poured in the superficial waters or in municipal sanitary collectors. The Annex III of the R. D. P. H contemplate the slaughterhouses like industries of the group 3 (notably polluting): But it is found that the presence in this type of effluents of oils and fats cause an unstable operation of the process depurativo. Presently work is studied the behavior of the system of active mires Aero-Accelator in the treatment of residual effluents with different loads pollutants of fatty preservatives. (Author) 12 refs.

  20. Evaluation of cardiac adrenergic neuronal damage in rats with doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy using iodine-131 MIBG autoradiography and PGP 9.5 immunohistochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, T.J.; Lee, J.D. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Yonsei University Medical College, Seoul (Korea); Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University Medical College, Seoul (Korea); Ha, J.-W. [Cardiology Division, Yonsei Cardiovascular Center, Yonsei University Medical College, Seoul (Korea); Yang, W.I.; Cho, S.H. [Department of Pathology, Yonsei University Medical College, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-06-01

    Doxorubicin is one of the most useful anticancer agents, but its repeated administration can induce irreversible cardiomyopathy as a major complication. The purpose of this study was to investigate doxorubicin toxicity on cardiac sympathetic neurons using iodine-131-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) and protein gene product (PGP) 9.5 immunohistochemistry, which is a marker of cardiac innervation. Wistar rats were treated with doxorubicin (2 mg/kg, i.v.) once a week for 4 (n=5), 6 (n=6) or 8 (n=7) weeks consecutively. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), calculated by M-mode echocardiography, was used as an indicator of cardiac function. Plasma noradrenaline (NA) concentration was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). {sup 131}I-MIBG uptake of the left ventricular wall (24 ROIs) was measured by autoradiography. {sup 131}I-MIBG uptake pattern was compared with histopathological results, the neuronal population on PGP 9.5 immunohistochemistry and the degree of myocyte damage assessed using a visual scoring system on haematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome staining. LVEF was significantly decreased in the 8-week group (P<0.05). The serum NA level also showed no statistical difference until 4 weeks and was significantly increased in the 8-week group (P<0.05). MIBG uptake was decreased in the 6- and 8-week groups (P<0.05), and was closely correlated with the reduction in the number of nerve fibres on PGP 9.5 stain. Myocyte damage was seen only in the 8-week group. Neuronal population and the {sup 131}I-MIBG uptake ratio of subepicardium to subendocardium were significantly increased (P<0.05) in the 8-week group as compared with the control group. It may be concluded that radioiodinated MIBG is a reliable marker for the detection of cardiac adrenergic neuronal damage in doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy; it detects such damage earlier than do other clinical parameters and in this study showed a good correlation with the reduction in the

  1. Multi-centre comparison of ABBOTT MATRIX Aero to Pharmacia Standard RAST, Modified RAST and skin puncture tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ownby, D R; Adkinson, N F; Hamilton, R G; Homburger, H A; Zeitz, H J; Kowalski, D; Lindberg, R E; Frank, P M; Hrusovsky, I

    1994-08-01

    ABBOTT MATRIX Aero is an enzyme immunoassay which measures specific IgE antibodies to 14 individually calibrated airborne allergens using a single serum specimen. In this study, ABBOTT MATRIX performance was evaluated in comparison to the results of skin puncture test and the Standard and Modified RAST procedures. The ABBOTT MATRIX demonstrated overall sensitivity of 89% vs. Standard RAST and Modified RAST, with specificity greater than 92% vs. both methods. ABBOTT MATRIX sensitivity vs. skin test (71%) exceeded that of the Standard and Modified RAST procedures (62% and 67% respectively). Positive results reported by ABBOTT MATRIX but not RAST were corroborated by skin test results for 3 of 5 allergens evaluated. All in vitro systems demonstrated specificity of approximately 90% vs. skin test. The ABBOTT MATRIX system provided results which compared favorably with the results of skin test and RAST, but required less hands-on time to obtain quantitative specific IgE measurements to multiple allergens.

  2. HAWC2 and BeamDyn: Comparison Between Beam Structural Models for Aero-Servo-Elastic Frameworks: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavese, Christian; Kim, Taeseong; Wang, Qi; Jonkman, Jason; Sprague, Michael A.

    2016-08-01

    This work presents a comparison of two beam codes for aero-servo-elastic frameworks: a new structural model for the aeroelastic code HAWC2 and a new nonlinear beam model, BeamDyn, for the aeroelastic modularization framework FAST v8. The main goal is to establish the suitability of the two approaches to model the structural behaviour of modern wind turbine blades in operation. Through a series of benchmarking structural cases of increasing complexity, the capability of the two codes to simulate highly nonlinear effects is investigated and analyzed. Results show that even though the geometrically exact beam theory can better model effects such as very large deflections, rotations, and structural couplings, an approach based on a multi-body formulation assembled through linear elements is capable of computing accurate solutions for typical nonlinear beam theory benchmarking cases.

  3. A Volume-Limited Sample of 63 M7-M9.5 Dwarfs. II. Activity, Magnetism, and the Fade of the Rotation-Dominated Dynamo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiners, A.; Basri, G.

    2010-02-01

    In a volume-limited sample of 63 ultracool dwarfs of spectral type M7-M9.5, we have obtained high-resolution spectroscopy with UVES at the Very Large Telescope and HIRES at Keck Observatory. In this second paper, we present projected rotation velocities, average magnetic field strengths, and chromospheric emission from the Hα line. We confirm earlier results that the mean level of normalized Hα luminosity decreases with lower temperature, and we find that the scatter among Hα luminosities is larger at lower temperature. We measure average magnetic fields between 0 and 4 kG with no indication for a dependence on temperature between M7 and M9.5. For a given temperature, Hα luminosity is related to magnetic field strength, consistent with results in earlier stars. A few very slowly rotating stars show very weak magnetic fields and Hα emission, and all stars rotating faster than our detection limit show magnetic fields of at least a few hundred Gauss. In contrast to earlier-type stars, we observe magnetic fields weaker than 1 kG in stars rotating faster than ~3 km s-1, but we find no correlation between rotation and magnetic flux generation among them. We interpret this as a fundamental change in the dynamo mechanism; in ultracool dwarfs, magnetic field generation is predominantly achieved by a turbulent dynamo, while other mechanisms can operate more efficiently at earlier spectral types.

  4. Birmingham vasculitis activity score of more than 9.5 at diagnosis is an independent predictor of refractory disease in granulomatosis with polyangiitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Juyoung; Kim, Ho Jae; Jung, Seung Min; Song, Jason Jungsik; Park, Yong-Beom; Lee, Sang-Won

    2017-10-01

    We investigated whether clinical manifestations, anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs), Birmingham vasculitis activity score (BVAS) for granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) and five factor score (FFS) at diagnosis can predict relapse or refractory disease in 30 histology-proven GPA patients with follow-up duration ≥ 12 weeks. We reviewed the medical records of 30 GPA patients. We collected clinical data, ANCAs, BVAS for GPA, FFSs at diagnosis, and we compared variables between the two groups based on relapse or refractory disease. The optimal cut-offs were extrapolated. Multivariate logistic regression and Cox hazard model analyses were conducted to identify predictors of refractory disease. The mean age and follow-up duration of patients were 63.3 years old and 45.2 months. The mean initial BVAS for GPA, FFS (1996) and FFS (2009) were 5.4, 0.6 and 1.0. There were no significant predictors of relapse. The mean BVAS for GPA, FFS (1996) and FFS (2009) of patients with refractory disease were higher than those without (P refractory disease than those without (relative risk 23.0, 11.0, and 55.0, respectively), and low cumulative refractory disease-free survival rates. Multivariate Cox hazard model analysis proved BVAS for GPA ≥ 9.5 was an independent predictor of refractory disease during the follow-up duration (odds ratio 12.892). BVAS for GPA ≥ 9.5 was an independent predictor of refractory disease during follow-up duration ≥ 12 weeks. © 2017 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. On the aero-elastic design of the DTU 10MW wind turbine blade for the LIFES50+ wind tunnel scale model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayati, I.; Belloli, M.; Bernini, L.

    2016-01-01

    , with respect to the full scale reference. From the Selig low Reynolds database airfoils, the SD7032 was chosen for this purpose and a proper constant section wing was tested at DTU red wind tunnel, providing force and distributed pressure coefficients for the design, in the Reynolds range 30-250 E3......This paper illustrates the aero-elastic optimal design, the realization and the verification of the wind tunnel scale model blades for the DTU 10 MW wind turbine model, within LIFES50+ project. The aerodynamic design was focused on the minimization of the difference, in terms of thrust coefficient...... and for different angles of attack. The aero-elastic design algorithm was set to define the optimal spanwise thickness over chord ratio (t/c), the chord length and the twist to match the first flapwise scaled natural frequency. An aluminium mould for the carbon fibre was CNC manufactured based on B-Splines CAD...

  6. Simulating Global AeroMACS Airport Ground Station Antenna Power Transmission Limits to Avoid Interference With Mobile Satellite Service Feeder Uplinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jeffrey D.

    2013-01-01

    The Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS), which is based upon the IEEE 802.16e mobile wireless standard, is expected to be implemented in the 5091 to 5150 MHz frequency band. As this band is also occupied by Mobile Satellite Service feeder uplinks, AeroMACS must be designed to avoid interference with this incumbent service. The aspects of AeroMACS operation that present potential interference are under analysis in order to enable the definition of standards that assure that such interference will be avoided. In this study, the cumulative interference power distribution at low Earth orbit from transmitters at global airports was simulated with the Visualyse Professional software. The dependence of the interference power on antenna distribution, gain patterns, duty cycle, and antenna tilt was simulated. As a function of these parameters, the simulation results are presented in terms of the limitations on transmitter power from global airports required to maintain the cumulative interference power under the established threshold.

  7. 77 FR 26158 - Airworthiness Directives; Saab AB, Saab Aerosystems Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-03

    ..., Transport Airplane Directorate, Aircraft Certification Service. BILLING CODE 4910-13-P ... qualification issue during the change of the base material, for the end parts of the accumulator back in 1993... requirements.'' Under that section, Congress charges the FAA with promoting safe flight of civil aircraft in...

  8. 78 FR 49982 - Airworthiness Directives; Saab AB, Saab Aerosystems Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... products of these same type designs. Proposed AD Requirements This proposed AD would require an inspection... the commutator, armature, and field windings. Purge from the commutator end of the motor. (11) Install... to an appropriately rated repair station, provided that the A/C is deactivated as specified in...

  9. 76 FR 81889 - Airworthiness Directives; Saab AB, Saab Aerosystems Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... hydraulic accumulators, and structural modifications in the nose landing gear bay. We are proposing this AD... associated structural modifications in the nose landing gear bay. You may obtain further information by... 40800- 2050, and do the structural modifications in the nose landing gear bay, in accordance with the...

  10. GETRAN: A generic, modularly structured computer code for simulation of dynamic behavior of aero- and power generation gas turbine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schobeiri, M. T.; Attia, M.; Lippke, C.

    1994-07-01

    The design concept, the theoretical background essential for the development of the modularly structured simulation code GETRAN, and several critical simulation cases are presented in this paper. The code being developed under contract with NASA Lewis Research Center is capable of simulating the nonlinear dynamic behavior of single- and multispool core engines, turbofan engines, and power generation gas turbine engines under adverse dynamic operating conditions. The modules implemented into GETRAN correspond to components of existing and new-generation aero- and stationary gas turbine engines with arbitrary configuration and arrangement. For precise simulation of turbine and compressor components, row-by-row diabatic and adiabatic calculation procedures are implemented that account for the specific turbine and compressor cascade, blade geometry, and characteristics. The nonlinear, dynamic behavior of the subject engine is calculated solving a number of systems of partial differential equations, which describe the unsteady behavior of each component individually. To identify each differential equation system unambiguously, special attention is paid to the addressing of each component. The code is capable of executing the simulation procedure at four levels, which increase with the degree of complexity of the system and dynamic event. As representative simulations, four different transient cases with single- and multispool thrust and power generation engines were simulated. These transient cases vary from throttling the exit nozzle area, operation with fuel schedule, rotor speed control, to rotating stall and surge.

  11. Benefits to the Simulation Training Community of a New ANSI Standard for the Exchange of Aero Simulation Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildreth, Bruce L.; Jackson, E. Bruce

    2009-01-01

    The American Institute of Aeronautics Astronautics (AIAA) Modeling and Simulation Technical Committee is in final preparation of a new standard for the exchange of flight dynamics models. The standard will become an ANSI standard and is under consideration for submission to ISO for acceptance by the international community. The standard has some a spects that should provide benefits to the simulation training community. Use of the new standard by the training simulation community will reduce development, maintenance and technical refresh investment on each device. Furthermore, it will significantly lower the cost of performing model updates to improve fidelity or expand the envelope of the training device. Higher flight fidelity should result in better transfer of training, a direct benefit to the pilots under instruction. Costs of adopting the standard are minimal and should be paid back within the cost of the first use for that training device. The standard achie ves these advantages by making it easier to update the aerodynamic model. It provides a standard format for the model in a custom eXtensible Markup Language (XML) grammar, the Dynamic Aerospace Vehicle Exchange Markup Language (DAVE-ML). It employs an existing XML grammar, MathML, to describe the aerodynamic model in an input data file, eliminating the requirement for actual software compilation. The major components of the aero model become simply an input data file, and updates are simply new XML input files. It includes naming and axis system conventions to further simplify the exchange of information.

  12. 3D modelling of an aero-gravity and -magnetic survey as an first exploration step in a frontier basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köther, Nils; Eckard, Marcel; Götze, Hans-Jürgen

    2010-05-01

    The West African Taoudeni basin covers a desert area of about 1.8 million km² and is one of the last frontier basins worldwide. Here Wintershall Holding AG holds acreage of about 68000 km². During 2005-2007 geological surveys and an aero-gravity and -magnetic survey were conducted in this area. The potential field modelling should contribute first insight about the subsurface to plan an economic seismic survey. 2D models lead to poor results. 2008 the results of an internship (NK) were 3D subsurface models, which were enhanced during the following diploma thesis (Köther, 2009). Complex igneous rocks and sparsely distributed constraints lead to an ambiguous interpretation. Therefore, several simple 3D models were compiled with the in-house software IGMAS+, which base on geological ideas of the underground and fit well the measured data. These basic models allow a geophysical evaluation of different geological theories about the subsurface. Also, for a thorough interpretation field transformations (Euler, Curvature, and Derivatives) were calculated. These results led to new constraints for further interpretation of the basin structures and therefore they are important contributions for future exploration e.g. the planning of seismic surveys.

  13. Investigation of high-speed abrasion behavior of an abradable seal rubber in aero-engine fan application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijun XUAN

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abradable seal rubber has been widely used in aero-engine fans to improve their efficiency by reducing the clearance between rotating and stationary components. To investigate the high-speed scraping behavior between a vulcanized silicone rubber and a Ti-6Al-4V fan blade and evaluate the abradable performance of seal rubber, abrasion tests were conducted at a blade tip velocity of 50–300 m/s with an incursion rate of 100 μm/s. The influences of the blade tip velocity on the wear mechanism and interaction forces were specially analyzed. It is shown that abrasive wear and pattern wear are the predominant wear mechanisms, and pattern wear can be seen as the emergence and propagation of cracks. With an increase of the blade tip velocity, both of the final incursion depth and wear mass loss of seal rubber exhibit growth trends. The gradual changes of rubbing forces with an increase of rubbing time are the characteristic of abrasive wear, and force curves with unstable mutations are a reflection of pattern wear. At a constant incursion rate of 100 μm/s, the maximum values of interaction forces decrease first and then grow with an increase of the blade tip velocity, and the blade tip velocity of 150 m/s becomes the cut-off point between abrasive wear and pattern wear.

  14. Statistical characteristics of the tilts of the aero-optical aberration caused by the supersonic turbulent boundary layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qiong; Jiang, Zongfu; Yi, Shihe; Wang, Xiaohu

    2013-03-01

    The tilt of the aero-optical aberration caused by the supersonic turbulent boundary layer is obtained by analyzing the center wandering of the far-field optical pattern, and its characteristics are examined from the viewpoint of statistics. When the diameter of the beam propagating through the flow is small compared with the boundary layer thickness, the probability density function (PDF) of the tilt coefficient is centered and can be approximated with a Gaussian distribution. For a larger beam diameter, the PDF of the tilt in the spanwise direction can still be regarded as centered and Gaussian, but the tilt in the streamwise direction clearly deviates from a Gaussian distribution. The correlation of the tilts in the two directions is investigated by computing the correlation coefficient, and the results indicate that the correlation is negative and strong for a small beam diameter and becomes positive and weak for a large beam diameter. These characteristics are explained by the hairpin vortex structures in the boundary layer, which prevail and meander for a very long distance streamwise.

  15. The effect of harmonized emissions on aerosol properties in global models – an AeroCom experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Textor

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of unified aerosol sources on global aerosol fields simulated by different models are examined in this paper. We compare results from two AeroCom experiments, one with different (ExpA and one with unified emissions, injection heights, and particle sizes at the source (ExpB. Surprisingly, harmonization of aerosol sources has only a small impact on the simulated inter-model diversity of the global aerosol burden, and consequently global optical properties, as the results are largely controlled by model-specific transport, removal, chemistry (leading to the formation of secondary aerosols and parameterizations of aerosol microphysics (e.g., the split between deposition pathways and to a lesser extent by the spatial and temporal distributions of the (precursor emissions.

    The burdens of black carbon and especially sea salt become more coherent in ExpB only, because the large ExpA diversities for these two species were caused by a few outliers. The experiment also showed that despite prescribing emission fluxes and size distributions, ambiguities in the implementation in individual models can lead to substantial differences.

    These results indicate the need for a better understanding of aerosol life cycles at process level (including spatial dispersal and interaction with meteorological parameters in order to obtain more reliable results from global aerosol simulations. This is particularly important as such model results are used to assess the consequences of specific air pollution abatement strategies.

  16. Experimental and numerical investigation of the flow field through a heat exchanger for aero-engine applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Missirlis, D.; Yakinthos, K.; Palikaras, A.; Goulas, A. [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (Greece). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Katheder, K. [MTU Aero Engines GmbH, Munich (Germany)

    2005-06-01

    An experimental and computational study for the flow development through a heat exchanger for aero-engine applications is presented. The heat exchanger consists of elliptic tubes in a U formation, the ends of which are attached to the collector pipe, which has a cylindrical cross section. In this way, two identical packages (named as matrices) are formed and located at a certain distance between them. The elliptic tubes are placed in a staggered arrangement. Detailed flow measurements using a 3-hole pitot-static probe were carried out on a 1:1 scale model of the heat exchanger in order to measure the pressure drop through the heat exchanger and the velocity distribution behind it. The flow through the heat exchanger was modeled with a computational fluid dynamics approach. The heat exchanger matrices were modeled using a porous medium assumption. The pressure drop through each element of the porous medium was linked to an effective local velocity. In order to check the validity of the computational modeling, the results were compared to the measured flow parameters such as pressure and velocity distributions. Two sets of modeling were performed assuming a laminar and a turbulent flow. The results showed that the laminar approach gave better results and this is supported by the corresponding Reynolds numbers, which indicated that the global flow field is transitional. (author)

  17. Mis saab Iraagist? / Aadu Hiietamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hiietamm, Aadu, 1954-

    2004-01-01

    Iraagi Islamipartei teatas otsusest mitte osaleda jaanuaris toimuvatel parlamendivalimistel. Osama bin Laden kutsus iraaklasi üles valimisi boikoteerima. USA endine julgeolekunõunik Zbigniew Brzezinski kritiseeris USA sõda Iraagis

  18. Unistus saab reaalsuseks / Kadri Kaldam

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaldam, Kadri

    2008-01-01

    Arhitektuuri ja disaini veebiportaali Architonic salong Kölni mööblimessil. Projekteerija: LAVA (Laboratory for Visionary Architecture, Stuttgart, Sydney). Arhitektid: Tobias Wallisser, Chris Bosse. Loov meeskond: Kadri Kaldam, Stephan M. Albrecht, Kristof Gavrielides

  19. Mis saab Afganistanist? / Aadu Hiietamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hiietamm, Aadu, 1954-

    2008-01-01

    Tulemusteta sõda Afganistanis on sundinud USA presidenti George W. Bushi tunnistama, et Afganistan vajab oluliselt rohkem tähelepanu. Vabariiklaste presidendikandidaat John McCain on valimisvõidu korral lubanud sinna vägesid juurde saata ning demokraatide presidendikandidaat Barack Obama lubas võidu puhul lõpetada sõja Iraagis ning keskenduda Afganistanile. Vt. samas: Taanlased raiskavad aega; Kanada uurib kogemusi

  20. Muusika saab rõivasteks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Itaalia professori Fabio Sartorelli teaduseksperimendist tõlkida muusikalised noodid ja rütmid mustrite, triipude ja värvide keelde ja kanda need kangale. Itaalia firma Paul & Shark rõivakollektsioonist "Kanna muusikat, mis sulle meeldib"

  1. Porcine skin damage thresholds for 0.6 to 9.5 cm beam diameters from 1070-nm continuous-wave infrared laser radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincelette, Rebecca; Noojin, Gary D; Harbert, Corey A; Schuster, Kurt J; Shingledecker, Aurora D; Stolarski, Dave; Kumru, Semih S; Oliver, Jeffrey W

    2014-03-01

    There is an increasing use of high-power fiber lasers in manufacturing and telecommunications industries operating in the infrared spectrum between 1000 and 2000 nm, which are advertised to provide as much as 10 kW continuous output power at 1070 nm. Safety standards have traditionally been based on experimental and modeling investigations with scant data available for these wavelengths. A series of studies using 1070-nm infrared lasers to determine the minimum visible lesion damage thresholds in skin using the Yucatan miniature pig (Sus scrofa domestica) for a range of beam diameters (0.6, 1.1, 1.9, 2.4, 4.7, and 9.5 cm) and a range of exposure durations (10 ms to 10 s) is presented. Experimental peak temperatures associated with each damage threshold were measured using thermal imaging. Peak temperatures at damage threshold for the 10-s exposures were ∼10°C lower than those at shorter exposures. The lowest and highest experimental minimum visible lesion damage thresholds were found to have peak radiant exposures of 19 and 432  J/cm2 for the beam diameter-exposure duration pairs of 2.4 cm, 25 ms and 0.6 cm, 10 s, respectively. Thresholds for beam diameters >2.5  cm had a weak to no effect on threshold radiant exposure levels for exposure times ≤0.25  s, but may have a larger effect on thresholds for exposures ≥10  s.

  2. Kepler sheds new and unprecedented light on the variability of a blue supergiant: Gravity waves in the O9.5Iab star HD 188209

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, C.; Símon-Díaz, S.; Bloemen, S.; Debosscher, J.; Pápics, P. I.; Bryson, S.; Still, M.; Moravveji, E.; Williamson, M. H.; Grundahl, F.; Fredslund Andersen, M.; Antoci, V.; Pallé, P. L.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Rogers, T. M.

    2017-06-01

    Stellar evolution models are most uncertain for evolved massive stars. Asteroseismology based on high-precision uninterrupted space photometry has become a new way to test the outcome of stellar evolution theory and was recently applied to a multitude of stars, but not yet to massive evolved supergiants.Our aim is to detect, analyse and interpret the photospheric and wind variability of the O9.5 Iab star HD 188209 from Kepler space photometry and long-term high-resolution spectroscopy. We used Kepler scattered-light photometry obtained by the nominal mission during 1460 d to deduce the photometric variability of this O-type supergiant. In addition, we assembled and analysed high-resolution high signal-to-noise spectroscopy taken with four spectrographs during some 1800 d to interpret the temporal spectroscopic variability of the star. The variability of this blue supergiant derived from the scattered-light space photometry is in full in agreement with the one found in the ground-based spectroscopy. We find significant low-frequency variability that is consistently detected in all spectral lines of HD 188209. The photospheric variability propagates into the wind, where it has similar frequencies but slightly higher amplitudes. The morphology of the frequency spectra derived from the long-term photometry and spectroscopy points towards a spectrum of travelling waves with frequency values in the range expected for an evolved O-type star. Convectively-driven internal gravity waves excited in the stellar interior offer the most plausible explanation of the detected variability. Based on photometric observations made with the NASA Kepler satellite and on spectroscopic observations made with four telescopes: the Nordic Optical Telescope operated by NOTSA and the Mercator Telescope operated by the Flemish Community, both at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (La Palma, Spain) of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, the T13 2.0 m Automatic Spectroscopic

  3. Time trends in educational differences in lung and upper aero digestive tract cancer mortality in France between 1990 and 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenaar, Kim P; de Boer, Michiel R; Luce, Danièle; Menvielle, Gwenn

    2012-08-01

    We investigated the magnitude of educational differences in lung and upper aero digestive tract (UADT) cancer mortality in France from 1990 to 2007. The analyses were based on census data from a representative sample of the French population. Educational level was used as the indicator for socioeconomic status. Educational differences in mortality from lung and UADT cancer were calculated among people aged 30-74 and by birth cohort. Two periods were compared: 1990-1998 and 1999-2007. Mortality rates, hazard ratios and relative indices of inequality (RII) were computed. We found higher lung and UADT cancer mortality among those with less education. Inequalities in male UADT cancer mortality remained stable over time (RII(1990-1998)=0.21 (95% confidence interval 0.15-0.29); RII(1999-2007)=0.17 (0.11-0.26)) whereas inequalities in lung cancer mortality increased among the younger men (RII(1990-1998)=0.48 (0.28-0.83); RII(1999-2007)=0.16 (0.09-0.31)). Among women, inequalities in lung cancer mortality became apparent during the second period with higher mortality among those with less education. This trend was exclusively driven by the younger women, among whom inequalities reached about the same magnitude as among younger men (RII(1999-2007)=0.21 (0.08-0.56)). UADT cancer mortality rates strongly decreased over time for every educational level. This implies that the burden of health associated with socioeconomic inequalities in UADT cancer mortality decreased substantially. Inequalities in lung cancer mortality are increasing among the younger generation and are expected to increase even more. Differences in magnitude of inequalities among men and women may disappear in the coming decades. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Nonlinear and chaotic vibration and stability analysis of an aero-elastic piezoelectric FG plate under parametric and primary excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaee, Mousa; Jahangiri, Reza

    2015-05-01

    In this study, in the presence of supersonic aerodynamic loading, the nonlinear and chaotic vibrations and stability of a simply supported Functionally Graded Piezoelectric (FGP) rectangular plate with bonded piezoelectric layer have been investigated. It is assumed that the plate is simultaneously exposed to the effects of harmonic uniaxial in-plane force and transverse piezoelectric excitations and aerodynamic loading. It is considered that the potential distribution varies linearly through the piezoelectric layer thickness, and the aerodynamic load is modeled by the first order piston theory. The von-Karman nonlinear strain-displacement relations are used to consider the geometrical nonlinearity. Based on the Classical Plate Theory (CPT) and applying the Hamilton's principle, the nonlinear coupled partial differential equations of motion are derived. The Galerkin's procedure is used to reduce the equations of motion to nonlinear ordinary differential Mathieu equations. The validity of the formulation for analyzing the Limit Cycle Oscillation (LCO), aero-elastic stability boundaries is accomplished by comparing the results with those of the literature, and the convergence study of the FGP plate is performed. By applying the Multiple Scales Method, the case of 1:2 internal resonance and primary parametric resonance are taken into account and the corresponding averaged equations are derived and analyzed numerically. The results are provided to investigate the effects of the forcing/piezoelectric detuning parameter, amplitude of forcing/piezoelectric excitation and dynamic pressure, on the nonlinear dynamics and chaotic behavior of the FGP plate. It is revealed that under the certain conditions, due to the existence of bi-stable region of non-trivial solutions, system shows the hysteretic behavior. Moreover, in absence of airflow, it is observed that variation of control parameters leads to the multi periodic and chaotic motions.

  5. Evaluation of the aerosol vertical distribution in global aerosol models through comparison against CALIOP measurements: AeroCom phase II results: AEROSOL PROFILES IN AEROCOM II GCM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koffi, Brigitte [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Ispra Italy; Schulz, Michael [Norwegian Meteorological Institute, Oslo Norway; Bréon, François-Marie [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement, Gif-sur-Yvette France; Dentener, Frank [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Ispra Italy; Steensen, Birthe Marie [Norwegian Meteorological Institute, Oslo Norway; Griesfeller, Jan [Norwegian Meteorological Institute, Oslo Norway; Winker, David [NASA Langley Research Center, MS/475, Hampton Virginia USA; Balkanski, Yves [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement, Gif-sur-Yvette France; Bauer, Susanne E. [Center for Climate Systems Research, Columbia University, New York New York USA; NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York New York USA; Bellouin, Nicolas [Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, Reading UK; Berntsen, Terje [Department of Geosciences, University of Oslo, Oslo Norway; Center for International Climate and Environmental Research-Oslo (CICERO), Oslo Norway; Bian, Huisheng [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt Maryland USA; Joint Center for Earth Systems Technology, University of Maryland Baltimore County, Baltimore Country Maryland USA; Chin, Mian [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt Maryland USA; Diehl, Thomas [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Ispra Italy; Easter, Richard [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Ghan, Steven [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Hauglustaine, Didier A. [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement, Gif-sur-Yvette France; Iversen, Trond [Norwegian Meteorological Institute, Oslo Norway; Department of Geosciences, University of Oslo, Oslo Norway; Kirkevåg, Alf [Norwegian Meteorological Institute, Oslo Norway; Liu, Xiaohong [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Now at University of Wyoming, Laramie Wyoming USA; Lohmann, Ulrike [ETH-Zentrum, Zürich Switzerland; Myhre, Gunnar [Center for International Climate and Environmental Research-Oslo (CICERO), Oslo Norway; Rasch, Phil [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt Maryland USA; Seland, Øyvind [Norwegian Meteorological Institute, Oslo Norway; Skeie, Ragnhild B. [Center for International Climate and Environmental Research-Oslo (CICERO), Oslo Norway; Steenrod, Stephen D. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt Maryland USA; Stier, Philip [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford UK; Tackett, Jason [Science Systems and Applications, Inc., Hampton Virginia USA; Takemura, Toshihiko [Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, Fukuoka Japan; Tsigaridis, Kostas [Center for Climate Systems Research, Columbia University, New York New York USA; NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York New York USA; Vuolo, Maria Raffaella [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement, Gif-sur-Yvette France; Now at National Institute for Agronomic Research, Thiverval-Grignon France; Yoon, Jinho [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Now at Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju Korea; Zhang, Kai [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg Germany

    2016-06-27

    The ability of eleven models in simulating the aerosol vertical distribution from regional to global scales, as part of the second phase of the AeroCom model inter-comparison initiative (AeroCom II) is assessed and compared to results of the first phase. The evaluation is performed using a global monthly gridded dataset of aerosol extinction profiles built on purpose from the CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) Layer Product 3.01. Results over 12 sub-continental regions show that five models improved whereas three degraded in reproducing the Zα 0-6 km mean extinction height diagnostic, which is computed over the 0-6 km altitude range for each studied region and season. While the models’ performance remains highly variable, it has generally improved in terms of inter-regional diversity and seasonality. The biases in Zα 0-6 km have notably decreased in the U.S. and European industrial and downwind maritime regions, whereas the timing of the Zα 0-6 km peak season has improved for all but two models. However, most of the models now show a Zα 0-6 km underestimation over land, notably in the dust and biomass burning regions in Asia and Africa. At global scale, the AeroCom II models better reproduce the Zα 0-6 km latitudinal variability over ocean than over land. Hypotheses for the (changes in the) the performance of the individual models and for the inter-model diversity are discussed. We also provide an analysis of the CALIOP limitations and uncertainties that can contribute to the differences between the simulations and observations.

  6. The effects of plantar flexor static stretching and dynamic stretching using an aero-step on foot pressure during gait in healthy adults: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Je-Myung; Jung, Ju-Hyeon; Kim, Hwan-Hee

    2015-07-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine whether plantar flexor static stretching and dynamic stretching using an Aero-Step results in changes in foot pressure during gait in healthy adults. [Subjects] Eighteen normal adults were randomly allocated to either a dynamic stretching using an Aero-Step group (DSUAS) group (n = 8) or a static stretching (SS) group (n = 10). [Methods] The DSUAS and SS participants took part in an exercise program for 15 minutes. Outcome measures were foot plantar pressure, which was measured during the subject's gait stance phase; the asymmetric ratio of foot pressure for both feet; and the visual analogue scale (VAS) measured during the interventions. [Results] There were significant differences in the asymmetric ratio of foot pressure for both feet and VAS between the two groups after intervention. However, there were no significant differences in foot plantar pressure during the gait stance phase within both groups. [Conclusion] DSUSAS is an effective stretching method, as pain during it is lower than that with SS, which can minimize the asymmetric ratio of foot pressure for both feet during gait due to asymmetric postural alignment.

  7. Mineralogy and characterization of deposited particles of the aero sediments collected in the vicinity of power plants and the open pit coal mine: Kolubara (Serbia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetković, Željko; Logar, Mihovil; Rosić, Aleksandra

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, particular attention was paid to the presence of aerosol solid particles, which occurred mainly as a result of exploitation and coal combustion in the thermal power plants of the Kolubara basin. Not all of the particles created by this type of anthropogenic pollution have an equal impact on human health, but it largely depends on their size and shape. The mineralogical composition and particle size distribution in the samples of aero sediments were defined. The samples were collected close to the power plant and open pit coal mine, in the winter and summer period during the year 2007. The sampling was performed by using precipitators placed in eight locations within the territory of the Lazarevac municipality. In order to characterize the sedimentary particles, several methods were applied: microscopy, SEM-EDX and X-ray powder diffraction. The concentration of aero sediments was also determined during the test period. Variety in the mineralogical composition and particle size depends on the position of the measuring sites, geology of the locations, the annual period of collecting as well as possible interactions. By applying the mentioned methods, the presence of inhalational and respiratory particles variously distributed in the winter and in the summer period was established. The most common minerals are quartz and feldspar. The presence of gypsum, clay minerals, calcite and dolomite as secondary minerals was determined, as well as the participation of organic and inorganic amorphic matter. The presence of quartz as a toxic mineral has a particular impact on human health.

  8. Il rumore aerodinamico generato da elementi apribili di facciata continua - Aero-dynamic noise generated by openable elements of façade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Baruffa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Negli edifici aventi grandi altezze, il vento non costituisce solo una sollecitazione dinamica, ma anche una possibile sorgente di rumore sia per l’ambiente interno che per quello esterno. In presenza di elevate velocità d’aria, gli elementi della facciata, spesso in aggetto e con griglie, possono innescare uno o più dei meccanismi di generazione del rumore aero-dinamico. Nel presente lavoro sono illustrate le modalità di prova e di analisi dei risultati di una estesa campagna metrologica, compiuta in laboratorio, sugli elementi apribili esterni di una facciata a doppia pelle, sottoposti a prova variandone il grado di apertura, l’angolo di incidenza e velocità del flusso d’aria. ------ In buildings having a relevant height, wind is not only a dynamic load, but even a possible noise source both for internal that for external environment. In the presence of air at high speed, façade elements, often with projection components and grills, can trigger one or more generation mechanisms of aero-dynamic noise. In the present paper, test method and results analysis of an extended measurement campaign carried out in laboratory on openable external elements of a double skin façade, tested changing opening degree, air-flow incidence angle and air speed, are shown.

  9. An impulsive receptance technique for the time domain computation of the vibration of a whole aero-engine model with nonlinear bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai, Pham Minh; Bonello, Philip

    2008-12-01

    The direct study of the vibration of real engine structures with nonlinear bearings, particularly aero-engines, has been severely limited by the fact that current nonlinear computational techniques are not well-suited for complex large-order systems. This paper introduces a novel implicit "impulsive receptance method" (IRM) for the time domain analysis of such structures. The IRM's computational efficiency is largely immune to the number of modes used and dependent only on the number of nonlinear elements. This means that, apart from retaining numerical accuracy, a much more physically accurate solution is achievable within a short timeframe. Simulation tests on a realistically sized representative twin-spool aero-engine showed that the new method was around 40 times faster than a conventional implicit integration scheme. Preliminary results for a given rotor unbalance distribution revealed the varying degree of journal lift, orbit size and shape at the example engine's squeeze-film damper bearings, and the effect of end-sealing at these bearings.

  10. Comparison of phenotypic methods and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry for the identification of aero-tolerant Actinomyces spp. isolated from soft-tissue infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, L S Y; Sim, J H C; Eng, L C; Menon, S; Tan, T Y

    2012-08-01

    Aero-tolerant Actinomyces spp. are an under-recognised cause of cutaneous infections, in part because identification using conventional phenotypic methods is difficult and may be inaccurate. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is a promising new technique for bacterial identification, but with limited data on the identification of aero-tolerant Actinomyces spp. This study evaluated the accuracy of a phenotypic biochemical kit, MALDI-TOF MS and genotypic identification methods for the identification of this problematic group of organisms. Thirty aero-tolerant Actinomyces spp. were isolated from soft-tissue infections over a 2-year period. Species identification was performed by 16 s rRNA sequencing and genotypic results were compared with results obtained by API Coryne and MALDI-TOF MS. There was poor agreement between API Coryne and genotypic identification, with only 33% of isolates correctly identified to the species level. MALDI-TOF MS correctly identified 97% of isolates to the species level, with 33% of identifications achieved with high confidence scores. MALDI-TOF MS is a promising new tool for the identification of aero-tolerant Actinomyces spp., but improvement of the database is required in order to increase the confidence level of identification.

  11. Neuronal protein gene product 9.5 (IEF SSP 6104) is expressed in cultured human MRC-5 fibroblasts of normal origin and is strongly down-regulated in their SV40 transformed counterparts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honoré, B; Rasmussen, H H; Vandekerckhove, J

    1991-01-01

    of proteins recovered from 2D gels we have identified PGP 9.5 UCH-L1 as polypeptide IEF SSP 6104 (Mr = 27,000, pI = 5.49) in the comprehensive 2D gel cellular protein database of human embryonal lung MRC-5 fibroblasts [(1989) Electrophoresis 10, 76 115; (1990) Electrophoresis 11, 1072 1113]. This protein...

  12. Late xerostomia after intensity-modulated conformational radiotherapy of upper aero-digestive tract cancers: study 2004-03 by the head and neck oncology and radiotherapy Group (Gortec); Xerostomie tardive apres radiotherapie conformationnelle avec modulation d'intensite des cancers des voies aero-digestives superieures: etude 2004-03 du Groupe oncologie et radiotherapie de la tete et du cou (Gortec)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toledano, I.; Lapeyre, M. [Centre Jean-Perrin, 63 - Clermont-Ferrand (France); Graff, P. [Centre Alexis-Vautrin, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Serre, C. [Centre Val d' Aurelle, 34 - Montpellier (France); Bensadoun, R.J. [CHU La Miletrie, 86 - Poitiers (France); Bensadoun, R.J.; Ortholan, C. [Centre Antoine-Lacassagne, 06 - Nice (France); Calais, G. [CHU Bretonneau, 37 - Tours (France); Alfonsi, M. [Institut Sainte-Catherine, 84 - Avignon (France); Giraud, P. [Institut Curie, 75 - Paris (France); Hopital europeen Georges-Pompidou, 75 - Paris (France); Racadot, S. [Centre Leon-Berrard, 69 - Lyon (France)

    2010-10-15

    The authors report a retrospective assessment of late xerostomia according to the RTOG (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group) classification of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) among patients treated by intensity-modulated conformational radiotherapy (IMRT) and suffering from upper aero-digestive tract carcinomas of different stages. Some of these patients have bee operated, and some have been treated by chemotherapy. It appears that the IMRT results in a reduction of late xerostomia, and even in an absence of salivary toxicity. Short communication

  13. Retrospective study of the evolution of nutritional, inflammatory and bacteriological profiles of patients suffering from inoperable aero-digestive duct tumour during sequential or concomitant chemo-radiotherapy; Etude retrospective de l'evolution des profils nutritionnels, inflammatoires et bacteriologiques des patients atteints de tumeur des voies aero digestives inoperable au cours des chimioradio-therapies sequentielles ou concomitantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, L. [Centre Guillaume-le-Conquerant, 76 - Le Havre (France); Brocard, C. [CMC Ormeaux-Vauban, 76 - Le Havre (France); Coudray, C. [Hopital Monod, 76 - Montivilliers (France); Pavlovitch, J.M. [Clinique du Petit-Colmoulin, 76 - Harfleur (France)

    2010-10-15

    The authors report a retrospective study which aimed at analysing a cohort of consecutive patients in terms of clinic and biological aspects reflecting their nutritional and inflammatory status as well as the status of their buccal bacterial flora during a sequential or concomitant chemo-radiotherapy. The objective was to detect a possible difference between these both therapeutic modalities, and a possible relationship with toxicity. Several data have been collected for patients suffering from inoperable aero-digestive tract tumour: weight, body mass index, prealbumin, albumin, orosomucoid, C-reactive protein, PINI index, and buccal bacterial flora. The evolution of these nutritional biological criteria appears to depend on the treatment modality. Short communication

  14. New aero-gravity results from the Arctic: Linking the latest Cretaceous-early Cenozoic plate kinematics of the North Atlantic and Arctic Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing, Arne; Hopper, J.R.; Olesen, Arne Vestergaard

    2013-01-01

    plateau against an important fault zone north of Greenland. Our results provide new constraints for Cretaceous-Cenozoic plate reconstructions of the Arctic. Key Points Presentation of the largest aero-gravity survey acquired over the Arctic Ocean Plate tectonic link between Atlantic and Arctic spreading......The tectonic history of the Arctic Ocean remains poorly resolved and highly controversial. Details regarding break up of the Lomonosov Ridge from the Barents-Kara shelf margins and the establishment of seafloor spreading in the Cenozoic Eurasia Basin are unresolved. Significantly, the plate...... tectonic evolution of the Mesozoic Amerasia Basin is essentially unknown. The Arctic Ocean north of Greenland is at a critical juncture that formed at the locus of a Mesozoic three-plate setting between the Lomonosov Ridge, Greenland, and North America. In addition, the area is close to the European plate...

  15. Futurepath: The Story of Research and Technology at NASA Lewis Research Center. Structures for Flight Propulsion, ARC Sprayed Monotape, National Aero-Space Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    The story of research and technology at NASA Lewis Research Center's Structures Division is presented. The job and designs of the Structures Division needed for flight propulsion is described including structural mechanics, structural dynamics, fatigue, and fracture. The video briefly explains why properties of metals used in structural mechanics need to be tested. Examples of tests and simulations used in structural dynamics (bodies in motion) are briefly described. Destructive and non-destructive fatigue/fracture analysis is also described. The arc sprayed monotape (a composite material) is explained, as are the programs in which monotape plays a roll. Finally, the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP or x-30) is introduced, including the material development and metal matrix as well as how NASP will reduce costs for NASA.

  16. Solar Tower Experiments for Radiometric Calibration and Validation of Infrared Imaging Assets and Analysis Tools for Entry Aero-Heating Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splinter, Scott C.; Daryabeigi, Kamran; Horvath, Thomas J.; Mercer, David C.; Ghanbari, Cheryl M.; Ross, Martin N.; Tietjen, Alan; Schwartz, Richard J.

    2008-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center sponsored Hypersonic Thermodynamic Infrared Measurements assessment team has a task to perform radiometric calibration and validation of land-based and airborne infrared imaging assets and tools for remote thermographic imaging. The IR assets and tools will be used for thermographic imaging of the Space Shuttle Orbiter during entry aero-heating to provide flight boundary layer transition thermography data that could be utilized for calibration and validation of empirical and theoretical aero-heating tools. A series of tests at the Sandia National Laboratories National Solar Thermal Test Facility were designed for this task where reflected solar radiation from a field of heliostats was used to heat a 4 foot by 4 foot test panel consisting of LI 900 ceramic tiles located on top of the 200 foot tall Solar Tower. The test panel provided an Orbiter-like entry temperature for the purposes of radiometric calibration and validation. The Solar Tower provided an ideal test bed for this series of radiometric calibration and validation tests because it had the potential to rapidly heat the large test panel to spatially uniform and non-uniform elevated temperatures. Also, the unsheltered-open-air environment of the Solar Tower was conducive to obtaining unobstructed radiometric data by land-based and airborne IR imaging assets. Various thermocouples installed on the test panel and an infrared imager located in close proximity to the test panel were used to obtain surface temperature measurements for evaluation and calibration of the radiometric data from the infrared imaging assets. The overall test environment, test article, test approach, and typical test results are discussed.

  17. Results of Aero/Acoustic Tests and Analytical Studies of a Two-Dimensional Eight-Lobe Mixer-Ejector Exhaust Nozzle at Takeoff Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Douglas (Technical Monitor); Schweiger, P.; Stern, A.; Gamble, E.; Barber, T.; Chiappetta, L.; LaBarre, R.; Salikuddin, M.; Shin, H.; Majjigi, R.

    2005-01-01

    Hot flow aero-acoustic tests were conducted with Pratt & Whitney's High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Mixer-Ejector Exhaust Nozzles by General Electric Aircraft Engines (GEAE) in the GEAE Anechoic Freejet Noise Facility (Cell 41) located in Evendale, Ohio. The tests evaluated the impact of various geometric and design parameters on the noise generated by a two-dimensional (2-D) shrouded, 8-lobed, mixer-ejector exhaust nozzle. The shrouded mixer-ejector provides noise suppression by mixing relatively low energy ambient air with the hot, high-speed primary exhaust jet. Additional attenuation was obtained by lining the shroud internal walls with acoustic panels, which absorb acoustic energy generated during the mixing process. Two mixer designs were investigated, the high mixing "vortical" and aligned flow "axial", along with variations in the shroud internal mixing area ratios and shroud length. The shrouds were tested as hardwall or lined with acoustic panels packed with a bulk absorber. A total of 21 model configurations at 1:11.47 scale were tested. The models were tested over a range of primary nozzle pressure ratios and primary exhaust temperatures representative of typical HSCT aero thermodynamic cycles. Static as well as flight simulated data were acquired during testing. A round convergent unshrouded nozzle was tested to provide an acoustic baseline for comparison to the test configurations. Comparisons were made to previous test results obtained with this hardware at NASA Glenn's 9- by 15-foot low-speed wind tunnel (LSWT). Laser velocimetry was used to investigate external as well as ejector internal velocity profiles for comparison to computational predictions. Ejector interior wall static pressure data were also obtained. A significant reduction in exhaust system noise was demonstrated with the 2-D shrouded nozzle designs.

  18. Ablation in teeth with the free-electron laser around the absorption peak of hydroxyapatite (9.5 μm) and between 6.0 and 7.5 μm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostertag, Manfred; Walker, Rudolf; Weber, Heiner; van der Meer, Lex; McKinley, Jim T.; Tolk, Norman H.; Jean, Benedikt J.

    1996-04-01

    Pulsed IR laser ablation on dental hard substances was studied in the wavelength range between 9.5 and 11.5 micrometers with the Free-Electron Laser (FEL) in Nieuwegein/NL and between 6.0 and 7.5 micrometers with the FEL at Vanderbilt University in Nashville/TN. Depth, diameter and volume of the ablation crater were determined with a special silicon replica method and subsequent confocal laser topometry. The irradiated surfaces and the ejected debris were examined with an SEM 9.5 - 11.5 micrometers : depth, diameter and volume of the ablation crater are greater and the ablation threshold is lower for ablation with a wavelength corresponding to the absorption max. of hydroxyapatite (9.5 micrometers ), compared to ablation at wavelengths with lower absorption (10.5 - 11.5 micrometers ). For all wavelengths, no thermal cracking can be observed after ablation in dentine, however a small amount of thermal cracking can be observed after ablation in enamel. After ablation at 9.5 micrometers , a few droplets of solidified melt were seen on the irradiated areas, whereas the debris consisted only of solidified melt. In contrast, the surface and the debris obtained from ablation using the other wavelengths showed the natural structure of dentine 6.0 - 7.5 micrometers : the depth of the ablation crater increases and the ablation threshold decreases for an increasing absorption coefficient of the target material. Different tissue components absorbed the laser radiation of different wavelengths (around 6.0 micrometers water and collagen, 6.5 micrometers collagen and water, 7.0 micrometers carbonated hydroxyapatite). Nevertheless the results have shown no major influence on the primary tissue absorber.

  19. MiR-9-5p, miR-675-5p and miR-138-5p Damages the Strontium and LRP5-Mediated Skeletal Cell Proliferation, Differentiation, and Adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tianhao; Leung, Frankie; Lu, William W

    2016-02-15

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of strontium on the expression levels of microRNAs (miRNAs) and to explore their effects on skeletal cell proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, and apoptosis. The targets of these miRNAs were also studied. Molecular cloning, cell proliferation assay, cell apoptosis assay, quantitative real-time PCR, and luciferase reporter assay were used. Strontium altered the expression levels of miRNAs in vitro and in vivo. miR-9-5p, miR-675-5p, and miR-138-5p impaired skeletal cell proliferation, cell differentiation and cell adhesion. miR-9-5p and miR-675-5p induced MC3T3-E1 cell apoptosis more specifically than miR-138-5p. miR-9-5p, miR-675-5p, and miR-138-5p targeted glycogen synthase kinase 3 β (GSK3β), ATPase Aminophospholipid Transporter Class I Type 8A Member 2 (ATP8A2), and Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 4E Binding Protein 1 (EIF4EBP1), respectively. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) played a positive role in skeletal development. miR-9-5p, miR-675-5p, and miR-138-5p damage strontium and LRP5-mediated skeletal cell proliferation, differentiation, and adhesion, and induce cell apoptosis by targeting GSK3β, ATP8A2, and EIF4EBP1, respectively.

  20. miR-9-5p, miR-675-5p and miR-138-5p Damages the Strontium and LRP5-Mediated Skeletal Cell Proliferation, Differentiation, and Adhesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianhao Sun

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the effects of strontium on the expression levels of microRNAs (miRNAs and to explore their effects on skeletal cell proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, and apoptosis. The targets of these miRNAs were also studied. Molecular cloning, cell proliferation assay, cell apoptosis assay, quantitative real-time PCR, and luciferase reporter assay were used. Strontium altered the expression levels of miRNAs in vitro and in vivo. miR-9-5p, miR-675-5p, and miR-138-5p impaired skeletal cell proliferation, cell differentiation and cell adhesion. miR-9-5p and miR-675-5p induced MC3T3-E1 cell apoptosis more specifically than miR-138-5p. miR-9-5p, miR-675-5p, and miR-138-5p targeted glycogen synthase kinase 3 β (GSK3β, ATPase Aminophospholipid Transporter Class I Type 8A Member 2 (ATP8A2, and Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 4E Binding Protein 1 (EIF4EBP1, respectively. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5 played a positive role in skeletal development. miR-9-5p, miR-675-5p, and miR-138-5p damage strontium and LRP5-mediated skeletal cell proliferation, differentiation, and adhesion, and induce cell apoptosis by targeting GSK3β, ATP8A2, and EIF4EBP1, respectively.

  1. 44 CFR 9.5 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY..., purchase of mobile homes and provision of structures as minimum protective measures; (ii) Personal property... be applied is the establishment of programmatic standards or criteria, not the application of...

  2. Relationship of Lifetime Exposure to Tobacco, Alcohol and Second Hand Tobacco Smoke with Upper aero-digestive tract cancers in India: a Case-Control Study with a Life-Course Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Bhawna; Kumar, Narinder; Newell W. Johnson

    2017-01-01

    Background: Squamous cell carcinomas of the upper aero-digestive tract (UADTSCC) are a multifaceted public health problem. Effects of lifestyle risk factors, including tobacco (chewing and smoking), alcohol drinking and exposure to second hand tobacco smoke (SHS) at home and their association with UADT cancers was assessed in a case-control study with a life-course perspective. The study was conducted at two different hospitals in Pune, India. Material and methods: The total sample size (N=48...

  3. Ultrasound Backscatter Microscopy Image-Guided Intraventricular Gene Delivery at Murine Embryonic Age 9.5 and 10.5 Produces Distinct Transgene Expression Patterns at the Adult Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiwon Jang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In utero injection of a retroviral vector into the embryonic telencephalon aided by ultrasound backscatter microscopy permits introduction of a gene of interest at an early stage of development. In this study, we compared the tissue distribution of gene expression in adult mice injected with retroviral vectors at different embryonic ages in utero. Following ultrasound image-guided gene delivery (UIGD into the embryonic telencephalon, adult mice were subjected to whole-body luciferase imaging and immunohistochemical analysis at 6 weeks and 1 year postinjection. Luciferase activity was observed in a wide range of tissues in animals injected at embryonic age 9.5 (E9.5, whereas animals injected at E10.5 showed brain-localized reporter gene expression. These results suggest that mouse embryonic brain creates a closed and impermeable structure around E10. Therefore, by injecting a transgene before or after E10, transgene expression can be manipulated to be local or systemic. Our results also provide information that widens the applicability of UIGD beyond neuroscience studies.

  4. A-Train Aerosol Observations Preliminary Comparisons with AeroCom Models and Pathways to Observationally Based All-Sky Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redemann, J.; Livingston, J.; Shinozuka, Y.; Kacenelenbogen, M.; Russell, P.; LeBlanc, S.; Vaughan, M.; Ferrare, R.; Hostetler, C.; Rogers, R.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a technique for combining CALIOP aerosol backscatter, MODIS spectral AOD (aerosol optical depth), and OMI AAOD (absorption aerosol optical depth) retrievals for the purpose of estimating full spectral sets of aerosol radiative properties, and ultimately for calculating the 3-D distribution of direct aerosol radiative forcing. We present results using one year of data collected in 2007 and show comparisons of the aerosol radiative property estimates to collocated AERONET retrievals. Use of the recently released MODIS Collection 6 data for aerosol optical depths derived with the dark target and deep blue algorithms has extended the coverage of the multi-sensor estimates towards higher latitudes. We compare the spatio-temporal distribution of our multi-sensor aerosol retrievals and calculations of seasonal clear-sky aerosol radiative forcing based on the aerosol retrievals to values derived from four models that participated in the latest AeroCom model intercomparison initiative. We find significant inter-model differences, in particular for the aerosol single scattering albedo, which can be evaluated using the multi-sensor A-Train retrievals. We discuss the major challenges that exist in extending our clear-sky results to all-sky conditions. On the basis of comparisons to suborbital measurements, we present some of the limitations of the MODIS and CALIOP retrievals in the presence of adjacent or underlying clouds. Strategies for meeting these challenges are discussed.

  5. Modeling, Analysis, and Control of a Hypersonic Vehicle with Significant Aero-Thermo-Elastic-Propulsion Interactions: Elastic, Thermal and Mass Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, Jaidev

    This thesis examines themodeling, analysis, and control system design issues for scramjet powered hypersonic vehicles. A nonlinear three degrees of freedom longitudinal model which includes aero-propulsion-elasticity effects was used for all analyses. This model is based upon classical compressible flow and Euler-Bernouli structural concepts. Higher fidelity computational fluid dynamics and finite element methods are needed for more precise intermediate and final evaluations. The methods presented within this thesis were shown to be useful for guiding initial control relevant design. The model was used to examine the vehicle's static and dynamic characteristics over the vehicle's trimmable region. The vehicle has significant longitudinal coupling between the fuel equivalency ratio (FER) and the flight path angle (FPA). For control system design, a two-input two-output plant (FER - elevator to speed-FPA) with 11 states (including 3 flexible modes) was used. Velocity, FPA, and pitch were assumed to be available for feedback. Aerodynamic heat modeling and design for the assumed TPS was incorporated to original Bolender's model to study the change in static and dynamic properties. De-centralized control stability, feasibility and limitations issues were dealt with the change in TPS elasticity, mass and physical dimension. The impact of elasticity due to TPS mass, TPS physical dimension as well as prolonged heating was also analyzed to understand performance limitations of de-centralized control designed for nominal model.

  6. Estimating the prevalence of aero-allergy and/or food allergy in infants, children and young people with moderate-to-severe atopic eczema/dermatitis in primary care: multi-centre, cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhami, Sangeeta; Sheikh, Aziz

    2015-06-01

    We sought to determine the primary care-based prevalence of moderate-to-severe atopic eczema/dermatitis in children and to estimate what proportion had co-morbid aero-allergy and/or food allergy that was contributing to their atopic eczema/dermatitis. Multi-centre, cross-sectional study. Infants, children and young people aged between 0-17 years. Primary Care. General practice electronic health records were interrogated to identify children (0-17 years) with current moderate-to-severe atopic eczema/dermatitis. Eligible children were assessed by an allergy specialist nurse, this involving a detailed allergy history, examination and, if appropriate, measurement of total IgE and specific IgE to relevant aero-allergens and/or food allergens. Prevalence of atopic eczema, moderate to severe atopic eczema, IgE-mediated atopic eczema. We recruited eight practices, which together enrolled 16,877 children. Of these, 4331 (25.7%; 95% CI 25.0, 26.3) children had a recorded diagnosis of atopic eczema/dermatitis and 1316 (7.8%; 95% CI 7.4, 8.2) had treatment indicative of current moderate-to-severe atopic eczema/dermatitis. We recruited 159 children for clinical assessment, and complete data were available for 157. The clinical assessment revealed that 130/157 (82.8%) had no indication of IgE-mediated allergy contributing to their atopic eczema/dermatitis; the remaining 27/157 (17.2%; 95% CI 12.1, 23.9) were on clinical assessment considered to possibly have underlying IgE-mediated disease. Specific IgE tests were positive in 14/27 (51.9%; 95% CI 34.0, 69.3) children. Of the 14 children who tested positive, six (42.9%; 95% CI 21.4, 67.4) were positive to food allergens and six (42.9%; 95% CI 21.4, 67.4) to aero-allergens; the remaining two (14.3%; 95% CI 4.0, 40.0) were positive to both food and aero-allergens. Although atopic eczema/dermatitis is a very common diagnosis in children in primary care, most appear to be relatively mild and/or transient. Only a small proportion of

  7. Estimating the prevalence of aero-allergy and/or food allergy in infants, children and young people with moderate-to-severe atopic eczema/dermatitis in primary care: multi-centre, cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Objective We sought to determine the primary care-based prevalence of moderate-to-severe atopic eczema/dermatitis in children and to estimate what proportion had co-morbid aero-allergy and/or food allergy that was contributing to their atopic eczema/dermatitis. Design Multi-centre, cross-sectional study. Participants Infants, children and young people aged between 0–17 years. Setting Primary Care. Methods General practice electronic health records were interrogated to identify children (0–17 years) with current moderate-to-severe atopic eczema/dermatitis. Eligible children were assessed by an allergy specialist nurse, this involving a detailed allergy history, examination and, if appropriate, measurement of total IgE and specific IgE to relevant aero-allergens and/or food allergens. Main outcome measures Prevalence of atopic eczema, moderate to severe atopic eczema, IgE-mediated atopic eczema. Results We recruited eight practices, which together enrolled 16,877 children. Of these, 4331 (25.7%; 95% CI 25.0, 26.3) children had a recorded diagnosis of atopic eczema/dermatitis and 1316 (7.8%; 95% CI 7.4, 8.2) had treatment indicative of current moderate-to-severe atopic eczema/dermatitis. We recruited 159 children for clinical assessment, and complete data were available for 157. The clinical assessment revealed that 130/157 (82.8%) had no indication of IgE-mediated allergy contributing to their atopic eczema/dermatitis; the remaining 27/157 (17.2%; 95% CI 12.1, 23.9) were on clinical assessment considered to possibly have underlying IgE-mediated disease. Specific IgE tests were positive in 14/27 (51.9%; 95% CI 34.0, 69.3) children. Of the 14 children who tested positive, six (42.9%; 95% CI 21.4, 67.4) were positive to food allergens and six (42.9%; 95% CI 21.4, 67.4) to aero-allergens; the remaining two (14.3%; 95% CI 4.0, 40.0) were positive to both food and aero-allergens. Conclusions Although atopic eczema/dermatitis is a very common diagnosis in children in

  8. Eesti viisavabadus USAga saab kinnituse / Allar Viivik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Viivik, Allar

    2008-01-01

    USA sisejulgeoleku minister Michael Chertoff ja siseminister Jüri Pihl allkirjastavad Tallinnas siseministeeriumis viisavabadusmemorandumi. USAga viisavabaduse kehtestamisest rääkis ka president Toomas Hendrik Ilves Strasbourg'is kohtumisel Euroopa Komisjoni presidendi Jose Manuel Barrosoga. Vabariigi Presidendi töövisiit Strasbourgi 11.-12.03.2008

  9. Kust saab edaspidi elektrit? / Marko Pomerants

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pomerants, Marko, 1964-

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Eesti Eest = Za Estoniju : Izdanije objedinenija "Sojuz Otetshestva i Res Publica" 20. nov. 2008, lk. 5. Millest toodetakse elektrit Eestis lähema 20 aasta jooksul. Riigikogu keskkonnakomisjoni esimees peab end Eesti oma tuumaelektrijaama küsimuses pessimistiks, vähemalt selle valmimises lähemal 12-15 aastal

  10. Meningokoki vastu saab end vaktsineerida / Ada Maltseva

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Maltseva, Ada, 1970-

    2008-01-01

    Vt. ka Linnaleht : Tallinn : na russkom jazõke, Linnaleht : Tartu 16. jaan., lk. 7. Tervisekaitseinspektsiooni avalike suhete juht Iiris Saluri räägib meningokokknakkusest ning selle vastu vaktsineerimisest

  11. Tallinn saab uue linnaskulptuuri / Tarmo Michelson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Michelson, Tarmo, 1975-

    1998-01-01

    Ideekavandite võistluse võitjad: 1. preemia Angela Orgusaare skulptuur "Urban Egg", 2. preemia Lembit Palmi skulptuur "399" ja 3. preemia Leida Ilo töö "Majakas". Skulptuur püstitatakse Hoiupanga lähedale.

  12. Maailma parimat Iiri kohvi saab Eestis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Baristade maailmameistrivõistlustel Belgias saavutas Eesti parim kohvikubaarmen Helger Aava kohvikust C'est La Vie parima alkoholi sisaldava kohvijoogi Coffee in Good Spirit valmistamise erivõistlustel esimese koha

  13. Rebalas saab tulevikus keskonnaharidust / Merike Metstak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Metstak, Merike

    2010-01-01

    Jõelähtme vald hakkab Rebala riikliku muinsuskaitseala baasil arendama "Rebala Õpimaad", eesmärgiks keskkonnahariduse valdkonna arendamine ning regulaarse õppetegevuse korraldamine. Ühiste kavatsuste protokollidele kirjutasid alla Kultuuriministeerium, Haridus-ja Teadusministeerium, UNESCO Eesti Rahvuslik Komisjon, Tallinna Ülikool, Harju Maavalitsus, Maardu linn, Rae vald jpt.

  14. Indiast saab maailma rahvarohkeim riik / Tõnu Prei

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Prei, Tõnu, 1950-

    2005-01-01

    ÜRO rahvastikuraporti andmeil on maakera elanike arv 2050. a. 9,1 miljardit, kusjuures poole 2,6-miljardilisest juurdekasvust annavad vaid 9 riiki - India, Pakistan, Nigeeria, Kongo, Bangladesh, Uganda, USA, Etioopia ja Hiina

  15. Kas Iisrael saab oma tahtmise? / Toomas Alatalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alatalu, Toomas, 1942-

    2006-01-01

    Autori hinnangul on Lähis-Ida sündmused hakanud tormiliselt arenema, mille võtmesündmuseks on Palestiina peaministri ja Hamasi ühe liidri Ismail Haniyehi tagasipöördumine oma esimeselt välisreisilt Iraani, Pärsia lahe riikidesse ja Sudaani

  16. Mille eest saab stsenograafiatudeng lõpudiplomi ...

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Kunstiakadeemias stsenograafia erialal bakalaureusekraadi saav Laura Pählapuu lõpuportfooliost moodustab ühe osa lava- ja kostüümikujundus lavastusele "Iwona, burgundia printsess" Theatrumi stuudios

  17. Ekspressi tellija saab rikkaliku kogumiku Eesti muusikat

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Viimasel kaheksal nädalal on ajalehemüügikohtades Eesti Ekspressi vahel olnud Eesti artistide singelplaadid: Tõnis Mägi ja Noorkuu, Jana Kask, Metsatöll, HU?, Ithaka-Maria, Rainer Jancise muusika filmist "Mina olin siin", Toe Tag, Birgit Õigemeel. Selgunud on Eesti Ekspressi tellijatele jaanuari alguses saadetava singlikogumiku lisaartistid: Vaiko Eplik, Pedigree, Traffic, Slide-Fifty ja Lenna Kuurmaa, Smilers, Leslie Da Bass ja Singer-Vinger

  18. Bensiini paagiimport saab uue hoo / Sulev Oll

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oll, Sulev, 1964-

    2002-01-01

    Riigikohtu määrus, mille kohaselt pole isikliku sõiduautoga tollipiiri ületamise kordade arv päevas piiratud, hoogustab veelgi Kagu-Eestis vohavat auto kütusepaagis imporditud maksuvaba bensiini ja diislikütuse müüki

  19. Helsingi saab eestlaste disainitud pingid / Raivo Murde

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Murde, Raivo

    2010-01-01

    Eesti ettevõtte Frog Industrial Designi kaubamärgi Extery pingid "Klaar" võitsid Helsingi avaliku ruumi mööblikonkursi. Tooteseeria autoriteks on Martin Pärn, Edina Dufala-Pärn, Sven Sõrmus ja Pent Talvet disainibüroost Iseasi. Žürii valis Exteri toodangust välja ka teisi linnaruumis kasutatavaid elemente. Eestlaste disainitud linnamööbel on eksponeeritud Helsingi sisustusmessil Habitare

  20. Kas Eesti saab 2007. a. euro?

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Sisaldab artikleid: Maris Lauri. Inflatsioonikriteeriumi täitmine pea võimatu; Joaquin Almunia. Eesti vastuvõtmiseks EL oma eeskirju ei muuda; Euro kasutuselevõtu mõjud Eestile; Ruta Eier. Kokkuvõttes on tegemist ikkagi poliitilise otsusega; Euro kasutuselevõtuga kaasnevad muutused; Reitinguagentuur eeldab liitumist 2007. aastal

  1. Eesti esimene relvaabi saab õppetunniks / Toomas Sildam

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sildam, Toomas, 1961-

    2005-01-01

    Autori sõnul kinnitas Eesti suursaadik NATO-s Harri Tiido Kuku raadio saates "Välismääraja", et NATO peasekretär Jaap de Hoop Scheffer avaldas imestust, et ei saanud Eesti peaministriga telefoni kaudu ühendust, samas lükkas H. Tiido ümber väite, nagu poleks ka tema olnud peasekretärile kättesaadav

  2. Tartust saab taas kirjanduspealinn / Maarja All

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    All, Maarja

    2009-01-01

    7.-9. mail Tartus toimuvast kirjandusfestivalist Prima Vista, kus osalevad aukülalistena kirjandusklassik Umberto Eco ja kriminaalromaanide autor Aleksandra Marinina. Viljandis esitletakse festivali raames kogumikku "Mehed ei nuta!"

  3. Tantsud Tartus - vaatajast saab looja / Andres Keil

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Keil, Andres, 1974-

    2007-01-01

    Festivalide Draama ja Eclectica tantsulavastustest : Krõõt Juuraku "Once Upon", Kaja Kannu, Martins Eiche ja Aigars Aipinsi "Vabadus/Briviba" ja Mairika Plakso ja Margus Toomla "The story of M & M Part II"

  4. Verest saab vein : [luuletused] / Mare Osi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Osi, Mare

    2003-01-01

    Sisu: "Must üü nigu kaaren ..." ; Metamorfoos ; Pettumus ; Skeptiline ; Talisman ; Unetet latsepõli ; Meie kaits ; Sannaõhtu ; "Külmä süä lüüdi lõhki ..." ; "Egäl kevädil ...". Eluloolisi andmeid autori kohta lk. 193

  5. Salaselts saab presidendi koha / koost. Virgo Kruve

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Yale'i ülikooli salaseltsi "Skull and Bones" mõjust Ameerika poliitikale, presidentide George Bush seeniori ja George W. Bushi kuulumisest mainitud ühingusse. Telesaate "60 minutit" materjalide põhjal

  6. Taimne linn - fantaasia saab tegelikkuseks / Kadri Kalle

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kalle, Kadri, 1984-

    2009-01-01

    Belgia arhitektist Luc Schuitenist ja tema töödest Brüsselis 2009. a. suvel eksponeeritud näitusel "Vegetal City". Arhitekt pakub loovaid lähenemisi sellele, kuidas linnad võiksid rohkem sarnaneda looduslike elupaikadega. Juba 1970. aastatel ehitas ta maja, mis kasutab päikese- ja tuuleenergiat, tema ideekavandite hulka kuuluvad ka üllatava disainiga keskkonnasõbralikud sõidukid

  7. Kõik hea saab kord otsa / Krista Kumberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kumberg, Krista, 1959-

    2010-01-01

    Arvustus: Rowling, J. K. Bard Beedle’i lood / ruunikirjas algteosest tõlkinud Hermione Granger, inglise keelest tõlkinud Krista Kaer. Tallinn : Varrak, 2009 ; Benedictus, David. Tagasi Saja Aakri Metsa. Tallinn : Fookus Meedia, 2009

  8. Mis saab Keila haiglast? / Inga Lill

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lill, Inga

    2008-01-01

    Valitsus andis võimaluse AS-i Keila Ravikeskus 100%-liseks võõrandamiseks, siiski jääb hoonesse ka edasi tervisekeskus, kuid iseseisva juriidilise isikuna. Keila haigla baasil moodustatakse Regionaalhaigla tütarettevõte Keila Ravikeskus AS

  9. Kassinurme saab Kassirabaks / Riina Mägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mägi, Riina, 1957-

    2006-01-01

    30. juulil esietendub Jõgeva Linna Teatri vabaõhulavastus "Kassirabal", milles teevad kaasa ka professionaalsed näitlejad Ülle Lichtfeldt, Ines Aru ja Luule Komissarov ning Jõgeva, Põltsamaa, Tallinna, Mäetaguse ja teiste paikade harrastusnäitlejad

  10. Kõlakojas saab kuulata suvemuusikat / Eevi Laanemaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laanemaa, Eevi, 1962-

    2009-01-01

    13. hooaega alustavast kontserdisarjast "Kuressaare "Suvemuusika"" (projektijuht Katre Roolaht, kunstiline juht dirigent Matis Männa): Kuressaare Muusikakooli brassansambli ja Nõmme Muusikakooli brassansambli kontsert 7. juunil, Kuressaare Linnaorkester koos koos Maria Väliga 20. juunil, Big Band Tartu koos laulusolist Kreet Stubenderiga 27. juunil, tšellokvartett C-Jam 12. juulil ja Talsi Brassband Lätist 17. juulil

  11. Võimatu saab võimalikuks / Priit Ennet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ennet, Priit

    2008-01-01

    Hetkeline ümberpaiknemine ja nähtamatus võivad tõeks saada juba lähematel aastakümnetel, kaugemas tulevikus realiseerub ka ajaränd. Need on vaid mõned paljudest ennustustest, mille USA füüsikateoreetik Michio Kaku käib välja oma värskes raamatus "Võimatuse füüsika"

  12. Ostetud saab vaid parim / Silvia Viidik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Viidik, Silvia, 1972-

    2010-01-01

    Maailma kaks suuremat kiibitootjat - Advanced Micro Devices ja Intel - alandasid oma kvartaliprognoose. Autor analüüsib, mis sellel turul toimub, ning ütleb, et enne tulemuste hooaega võiks infotehnoloogiasektorist huvitatud investor kaaluda pigem ettevõtteid, kes toodavad ka väga valivale kliendile sobivaid tooteid

  13. Ostke lehti, kuni osta saab / Madli Zobel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Zobel, Madli, 1976-

    1999-01-01

    Eesti päevalehed on pärast skandinaavlaste omandusse minekut tootnud kahjumit. Diagrammid: Ekspress Grupi ja AS Eesti Meedia omanikud ning osalus Eesti trükimeedias, ajalehtede tiraazhid ja majandustulemuste prognoos

  14. Kortermajast saab kena kodu / Mirja Adler

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Adler, Mirja

    2005-01-01

    KredExi eluasemevaldkonna juht soovitab kortermaja renoveerimiseks julgelt laenu võtta, kuna see on ehitushindade pideva tõusu tõttu laenuvõtjale lõppkokkuvõttes odavam kui iseseisvalt remondiraha koguda. Tabelid: Kogumise ja laenu hinnatõusu võrdlus; KredExi käenduse maksumus

  15. Digitaalallkirja seadus saab sisu / Aare Reivart

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reivart, Aare, 1968-

    2000-01-01

    Sideoperaatorid ja pangad hakkavad välja töötama ühtset avalikku võtme infrastruktuuri (PKI), mis võimaldab telefoni ja interneti vahendusel kasutada mitmesuguseid teenuseid kiiresti ja turvaliselt

  16. Noore teadlase preemia saab Jaan Raik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Vabariigi presidendi kultuurirahastu nõukogu otsustas tänavuse noore teadlase preemia anda Tallinna Tehnikaülikooli vanemteadurile, tehnikateaduste doktor Jaan Raik'ile. Ilmunud ka Pärnu Postimees, 2004/Dec/1, lk. 6 ; Mente et Manu, 2004/Dec/15, lk. 1

  17. Afganistani suunduv Estcoy-16 saab hinnangu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2013-01-01

    1. jalaväebrigaadi Scoutspataljon alustab Ida-Virumaal Sirgalas kahenädalast õppust "BAM", mis on järgmise rotatsiooniga Afganistani suunduva Eesti kontingendi väljaõppeharjutus, kus kaitseväelased kinnistavad välisoperatsiooniks vajalikke oskusi. Õppusel harjutavad jalaväekompanii Estcoy-16 ja rahvuslik logistiline toetuselement NSE-15 koostööd

  18. Tutanhamon saab uue viimse puhkepaiga / Allan Espenberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Espenberg, Allan

    2005-01-01

    Egiptuses hakatakse ehitama hiigelsuurt muuseumi, mis eksponaatide kõrval mahutaks ka kunstiteoste restaureerimise töökodasid ja Ramses II 12 m kõrguse kuju. Muuseum tuleks Giza püramiididest põhja poole. Projekti autor Iirimaa arhitektuuribüroo Heneghan Peng Architects

  19. Characterization of Ni{sub 5}3.5-Fe{sub 1}9.5-Ga{sub 2}7 Ni{sub 5}3.5 ferromagnetic shape memory alloy produced by powder metallurgy; Caracterizacion de la aleacion Ni{sub 5}3.5-Fe{sub 1}9.5-Ga{sub 2}7 con memoria de forma ferromagnetica producida por metalurgia de polvos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olmos, L.; Alvarado-Hernandez, F.; Omar Jimenez, H.; Vergara-Hernandez, J.; Arroyo Albiter, M.; Ochoa-Gamboa, R. A.

    2015-07-01

    The main drawback of ferromagnetic shape memory alloys fabricated through casting methods are its brittleness. In order to overcome this disadvantage, powder metallurgy is an ideal technique for the consolidation of many engineering parts. This paper is focused on the study of the milling and sintering effects of metallic powders over the evolution of the crystalline phases responsibly for the shape memory effect of these materials. To achieve this objective, ferromagnetic shape memory alloy powders (Ni{sub 5}3.5-Fe{sub 1}9.5-Ga{sub 2}7) were prepared from a cast ingot by mechanical milling at two different times of 30 and 60 minutes. The evolution of the phases was investigated through high temperature X-ray diffraction (HTXRD), whereas sintering was analyzed with dilatometry tests. X-ray studies showed that four different phases can be present depending on the particle size and temperature at which the heat treatment was performed. Coarser powders showed a B2 structure along with a γ phase while the finer showed a L21 structure when treated below 1173 K. Furthermore, finer powders had a modulated M14 martensitic structure after sintering at temperatures above 1273 K. The sintering of powders was slow and a mass diffusion mechanism was not clearly observed. (Author)

  20. Towards the improvements of simulating the chemical and optical properties of Chinese aerosols using an online coupled model – CUACE/Aero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Hong Zhou

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available CUACE/Aero, the China Meteorological Administration (CMA Unified Atmospheric Chemistry Environment for aerosols, is a comprehensive numerical aerosol module incorporating emissions, gaseous chemistry and size-segregated multi-component aerosol algorithm. On-line coupled into a meso-scale weather forecast model (MM5, its performance and improvements for aerosol chemical and optical simulations have been evaluated using the observations data of aerosols/gases from the intensive observations and from the CMA Atmosphere Watch network, plus aerosol optical depth (AOD data from CMA Aerosol Remote Sensing network (CARSNET and from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS. Targeting Beijing and North China region from July 13 to 31, 2008, when a heavy hazy weather system occurred, the model captured the general variations of PM10 with most of the data within a factor of 2 from the observations and a combined correlation coefficient (r of 0.38 (significance level=0.05. The correlation coefficients are better at rural than at urban sites, and better at daytime than at nighttime. Chemically, the correlation coefficients between the daily-averaged modelled and observed concentrations range from 0.34 for black carbon (BC to 0.09 for nitrates with sulphate, ammonium and organic carbon (OC in between. Like the PM10, the values of chemical species are higher for the daytime than those for the nighttime. On average, the sulphate, ammonium, nitrate and OC are underestimated by about 60, 70, 96.0 and 10.8%, respectively. Black carbon is overestimated by about 120%. A new size distribution for the primary particle emissions was constructed for most of the anthropogenic aerosols such as BC, OC, sulphate, nitrate and ammonium from the observed size distribution of atmospheric aerosols in Beijing. This not only improves the correlation between the modelled and observed AOD, but also reduces the overestimation of AOD simulated by the original model size

  1. What Controls the Vertical Distribution of Aerosol? Relationships Between Process Sensitivity in HadGEM3-UKCA and Inter-Model Variation from AeroCom Phase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipling, Zak; Stier, Philip; Johnson, Colin E.; Mann, Graham W.; Bellouin, Nicolas; Bauer, Susanne E.; Bergman, Tommi; Chin, Mian; Diehl, Thomas; Ghan, Steven J.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The vertical profile of aerosol is important for its radiative effects, but weakly constrained by observations on the global scale, and highly variable among different models. To investigate the controlling factors in one particular model, we investigate the effects of individual processes in HadGEM3-UKCA and compare the resulting diversity of aerosol vertical profiles with the inter-model diversity from the AeroCom Phase II control experiment. In this way we show that (in this model at least) the vertical profile is controlled by a relatively small number of processes, although these vary among aerosol components and particle sizes. We also show that sufficiently coarse variations in these processes can produce a similar diversity to that among different models in terms of the global-mean profile and, to a lesser extent, the zonal-mean vertical position. However, there are features of certain models' profiles that cannot be reproduced, suggesting the influence of further structural differences between models. In HadGEM3-UKCA, convective transport is found to be very important in controlling the vertical profile of all aerosol components by mass. In-cloud scavenging is very important for all except mineral dust. Growth by condensation is important for sulfate and carbonaceous aerosol (along with aqueous oxidation for the former and ageing by soluble material for the latter). The vertical extent of biomass-burning emissions into the free troposphere is also important for the profile of carbonaceous aerosol. Boundary-layer mixing plays a dominant role for sea salt and mineral dust, which are emitted only from the surface. Dry deposition and below-cloud scavenging are important for the profile of mineral dust only. In this model, the microphysical processes of nucleation, condensation and coagulation dominate the vertical profile of the smallest particles by number (e.g. total CN >3 nm), while the profiles of larger particles (e.g. CN>100 nm) are controlled by the

  2. Preservation of quality of life of patients treated for a upper aero-digestive ducts cancer: contribution of intensity modulated conformal radiotherapy; Preservation de la qualite de vie des patients traites pour un cancer des voies aerodigestives superieures: apport de la radiotherapie conformationnelle avec modulation d'intensite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graff, P.; Desandes, E.; Peiffert, D. [Centre Alexis-Vautrin, 54 - Vandoeuvre-Les-Nancy (France); Lapeyre, M. [Centre Jean-Perrin, 63 - Clermond-Ferrand (France); Ortholan, C.; Bensadoun, J. [Centre Antoine-Lacassagne, 06 Nice (France); Alfonsi, M. [Clinique Sainte-Catherine, 84 - Avignon (France); Maingon, P. [Centre Georges Francois Leclerc, 21 - Dijon (France); Giraud, P. [Institut Curie, 75 - Paris (France); Bourhis, J. [Institut Gustave-Roussy, 94 - Villejuif (France)

    2007-11-15

    The evaluation of quality of life among patients irradiated for an upper aero-digestive ducts cancer has revealed a benefit of I.M.C.R.T. (intensity modulated conformal radiotherapy) in term of salivary alteration, oral discomfort, and feeding difficulties. (N.C.)

  3. 9.5 college credit fiber optic training program for under- and unemployed women: a private/public/continuing education partnership designed to promote women in fiber optics as a workforce initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroup, Margaret H.; Valentin, Marjorie R.; Seebeck, Randall G.; Williams, Joseph; Jeffers, Deborah; Markoja, Robert

    2002-05-01

    Three Rivers Community College, in conjunction with CiDRA Corporation a fiber-optic telecommunication company and Middlesex Community College, offered a 12 week, 9.5 college credit Fiber Optics training program for 14 unemployed and underemployed women in central Connecticut. Classes were held at the Meriden Center of Middlesex Community College, with some laboratory activities held at CiDRA's headquarters in Wallingford. Connecticut photonics related manufacturing companies project a need to hire anywhere from 100 to 1000 new photonics workers over the next several years. Despite this incredible demand, Three Rivers Community College is the only community college to offer an associate degree program in Photonics Engineering Technology in Connecticut, and one of only two colleges in new England. Funded in part by monies targeting Non-Traditional Occupations for women through the Connecticut Department of Labor, this accelerated program enabled participants to learn industry basics, be interview ready, and earn valuable credit towards an associate degree. The goal of the training program is to provide these former waitresses, truck drivers, certified nurse aides and medical technicians an opportunity to enter the higher-paying field of fiber-optic technology. The course, designed with curriculum assistance from Connecticut companies, will provide education and training needed to qualify for an entry-level position in fiber-optic manufacturing. In addition to free tuition students enrolled in the program received all supplies needed for the course including textbooks, a scientific calculator and an optics experiment kit. Students also practiced fiber termination and splicing skills and were eligible to take the Fiber Optic Association Certification Test at the conclusion of the program. The cost for the test was also paid by the grant. Students met regularly with female employees of CiDRA who served as mentors for the 12- week program. Math and science tutoring was

  4. Superconducting Aero Propulsion Motor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Superconducting electric propulsion systems will yield improvements in total ownership costs due to the simplicity of electric drive when compared with gas turbine...

  5. A coupled aero-structural model of a HAWT blade for dynamic load and response prediction in time-domain for health monitoring applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauder, Heather Scot

    experience for fatigue life prediction procedures. To fill in the gaps in the existing knowledge and meet the overall goal of the proposed research, the following objectives were accomplished: (a) improve the existing aeroelastic (motion- and turbulence-induced) load models to predict the response of wind turbine blade airfoils to understand its behavior in turbulent wind, (b) understand, model and predict the response of wind turbine blades in transient or gusty wind, boundary-layer wind and incoherent wind over the span of the blade, (c) understand the effects of aero-structural coupling between the along-wind, cross-wind and torsional vibrations, and finally (d) develop a computational tool using the improved time-domain load model to predict the real-time load, stress distribution and response of a given wind turbine blade during operating and parked conditions subject to a specific wind environment both in a short and long term for damage, flutter and fatigue life predictions.

  6. Initial comments on the aero geophysical information present at the B and C areas of the Itatira (Brazil) project; Comentarios iniciais sobre as informacoes aerogeofisicas presentes nas areas B e C do Projeto Itatira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Neivaldo Araujo de; Castelo Branco, Raimundo Mariano Gomes [Ceara Univ., Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia. Lab. de Geofisica de Prospeccao e Sensoriamento Remoto

    1999-07-01

    The aero geophysical project called Itatira,, accomplished by LASA Engenharia e Prospeccoes S.A., Between September and November/1977 through contract with NUCLEBRAS, corresponds to one of the first project of this gender accomplished in national territory. In this project were flight more than 80 000 km of linear lines, which covered approximately 38 000 km{sup 2} on the precambrian terrains of the Ceara State, NE Brazil. For several reasons, the total area of the project was subdivided in three sub-areas (A, B and C), each one covered by a different airship (LAS, 1977). This paper presents the geophysical information and preliminary interpretations of the areas B and C that were obtained through the integrated use of the soft wares AUTOCAD r. 14, OASIS MONTAJ r.4.2 and ERMAPPER r.5.5. (author)

  7. Analysis of the role of the gene coding the Amyloid-Precursor Protein Binding Protein 1 (APP-BP1) in the radio-sensitivity of epidermoid carcinomas of the upper aero-digestive tract infected by the human papillomavirus; Analyse du role du gene codant l'Amyloid-Precursor Protein Binding Protein 1 (APP-BP1) dans la radiosensibilite des carcinomes epidermoides des voies aero-digestives superieures infectees par le papillomavirus humain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guihard, S.; Altmeyer, A.; Ramolu, L.; Macabre, C.; Abecassis, J.; Noel, G.; Jung, A.C. [Centre de lutte contre le cancer Paul-Strauss, 67 - Strasbourg (France)

    2010-10-15

    As the human papillomavirus (HPV) is at the origin of 25% of upper aero-digestive tract cancers, and as these tumours present an increased radio-sensitivity compared to other tumours, probably due to a greater transcriptional activity of p53, the authors report the study on the influence of a decrease of the expression of the APP-BP1 in these tumours which could favour a radio-induced apoptosis. By using a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), they assessed the APP-BP1 expression levels as well as expression levels of transcriptions coding onco-proteins known to be over-expressed in HPV+ tumours. They compared the radio-sensitivities of HPV+ and HPV- cells, the first one appearing to be greater than the second one. Short communication

  8. Feasibility of an early dynamic acquisition in PET-F.D.G. to evaluate the prognosis of epidermoid carcinomas of superior aero digestive pathways; Faisabilite d'une acquisition dynamique precoce en TEP-FDG pour l'evaluation pronostique des carcinomes epidermoides des VADS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abgral, R.; Le Roux, P.Y.; Querellou, S.; Turzo, A.; Salaun, P.Y. [CHU de Brest, Service de medecine nucleaire, 29 (France); Valette, G.; Potard, G.; Marianowski, R. [CHU de Brest, Service d' oto-rhinolaryngologie, 29 (France); Conan-Charlet, V. [CHU de Brest, Service d' anatomopathologie, 29 (France); Moser, E. [Centre hospitalier de Quimper, service de radiotherapie, 29 (France)

    2010-07-01

    purpose: evaluate the feasibility of an early dynamic acquisition in PET-F.D.G. in the staging of squamous cell carcinomas of upper aero digestive tract. Extract kinetics parameters of F.D.G. tumor uptake and compare them to SUV{sub max} at 60 minutes (prognosis value recognized but without established cut-off) and to {Delta}SUV{sub max} (1-2 h). Conclusions: The results of our study demonstrates the realisation feasibility of a early 60 minutes dynamic acquisition in PET-F.D.G. at the cervical level, allowing to get a kinetic parameter (initial slope) independent of the SUV{sub max} simple measure at 1 h and to envisage to compare their respective prognosis value in the initial evaluation of epidermoid carcinomas of superior aero digestive pathways. (N.C.)

  9. 38 CFR 9.5 - Payment of proceeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., discounted to the date of his or her death at the same rate used for inclusion of interest in the computation... remain unpaid will be discounted to the date of payment at the same rate used for inclusion of interest... effective before he or she ceases to be totally disabled or before the end of 1 year following termination...

  10. 15 CFR 9.5 - Participation of manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the measurements to obtain the information required for inclusion on the Label and, if requested, will..., complete with all information required to be displayed at the point of retail sale, is shown legibly. ... Department of Commerce. The notification will identify the particular Specification to be used and the...

  11. Relationship of Lifetime Exposure to Tobacco, Alcohol and Second Hand Tobacco Smoke with Upper aero-digestive tract cancers in India: a Case-Control Study with a Life-Course Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Bhawna; Kumar, Narinder; Johnson, Newell W

    2017-02-01

    Background: Squamous cell carcinomas of the upper aero-digestive tract (UADTSCC) are a multifaceted public health problem. Effects of lifestyle risk factors, including tobacco (chewing and smoking), alcohol drinking and exposure to second hand tobacco smoke (SHS) at home and their association with UADT cancers was assessed in a case-control study with a life-course perspective. The study was conducted at two different hospitals in Pune, India. Material and methods: The total sample size (N=480) included 240 histopathologically confirmed cases of UADT cancers and an equal number of controls frequency matched with cases by gender and age distribution (+5 years). All the patients were interviewed face-face using structured questionnaires. Self-reported information on socio-demographic and lifestyle risk factors from childhood to the date of diagnosis of disease/cancer was obtained. Frequency, duration and age of initiation of habits were also recorded to study dose-response relationships. Odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated through unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for relevant potential confounders. Results: Chewing tobacco emerged as the strongest predictor for UADT cancers (OR=7.61; 95% CI 4.65-12.45) in comparison to smoking and drinking alcohol. Exposure to SHS during childhood (<16 years) rather than ≥16 years increased the risk (OR=4.05; 95% CI 2.06-7.95). Combined effects of tobacco and alcohol consumption habits elevated the risk by twelve fold (OR=12.05; 95% 4.61-31.49) in comparison to never users of these habits. Furthermore, the combination of these lifestyle risk factors accounted for 86.8% of population attributable risk. Conclusions: Early exposure to various modifiable lifestyle risk factors has a strong positive association with UADT cancer incidence. Effective future public health interventions with focus on vital time points in life targeting these risk factors could possibly be a major step in primary

  12. Endohedrally filled [Ni@Sn9](4-) and [Co@Sn9](5-) clusters in the neat solids Na12Ni(1-x)Sn17 and K(13-x)Co(1-x)Sn17: crystal structure and 119Sn solid-state NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlukhyy, Viktor; Stegmaier, Saskia; van Wüllen, Leo; Fässler, Thomas F

    2014-09-15

    A systematic approach to the formation of endohedrally filled atom clusters by a high-temperature route instead of the more frequent multistep syntheses in solution is presented. Zintl phases Na12Ni(1-x)Sn17 and K(13-x)Co(1-x)Sn17, containing endohedrally filled intermetalloid clusters [Ni@Sn9](4-) or [Co@Sn9](5-) beside [Sn4](4-), are obtained from high-temperature reactions. The arrangement of [Ni@Sn9](4-) or [Co@Sn9](5-) and [Sn4](4-) clusters, which are present in the ratio 1:2, can be regarded as a hierarchical replacement variant of the hexagonal Laves phase MgZn2 on the Mg and Zn positions, respectively. The alkali-metal positions are considered for the first time in the hierarchical relationship, which leads to a comprehensive topological parallel and a better understanding of the composition of these compounds. The positions of the alkali-metal atoms in the title compounds are related to the known inclusion of hydrogen atoms in the voids of Laves phases. The inclusion of Co atoms in the {Sn9} cages correlates strongly with the number of K vacancies in K(13-x)Co(1-x)Sn17 and K(5-x)Co(1-x)Sn9, and consequently, all compounds correspond to diamagnetic valence compounds. Owing to their diamagnetism, K(13-x)Co(1-x)Sn17, and K(5-x)Co(1-x)Sn9, as well as the d-block metal free binary compounds K12Sn17 and K4Sn9, were characterized for the first time by (119)Sn solid-state NMR spectroscopy. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Venemaast saab pehme impeerium / Leonid Gozman ; interv. Vallo Toomet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gozman, Leonid

    2003-01-01

    Venemaa Ühendatud Energiasüsteemide juhatuse liige Leonid Gozman vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad riske äriajamisel Venemaaga, Eesti liitumist EL-iga, Kremli suhtumist Venemaa oligarhidesse, varanduslikku kihistumist, poliitilist arengut Venemaal

  14. Mis saab Eesti maaelust 2013. aastal? / Kalev Kotkas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kotkas, Kalev, 1960-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Nädaline, 14. juuli 2007, lk. 5; Meie Maa, 13. juuli 2007, lk. 2; Järva Teataja, 17. juuli 2007, lk. 2; Valgamaalane, 17. juuli 2007, lk. 2; Hiiu Leht, 17. juuli 2007, lk. 2; Põhjarannik, 13. juuli 2007, lk. 3; Severnoje Poberezhje, 13. juuli 2007, lk. 3; Sõnumitooja, 18. juuli 2007, lk. 2; Pärnu Postimees, 19. juuli 2007, lk. 15; Lääne Elu, 19. juuli 2007, lk. 2; Võrumaa Teataja, 17. juuli 2007, lk. 2; Virumaa Teataja, 20. juuli 2007, lk. 11; Vooremaa, 19. juuli 2007, lk. 2; Sakala, 25. juuli 2007, lk. 2. Autor arutleb maaelu arengukava 2007-2013 meetmete võimaluse üle põllumajanduse konkurentsivõimet parandada ning hoiatab riigikontrolli maaelu käsitleva auditi ja selles prognoositavate majandusraskuste võimalike kaasmõjude eest noorte elukutsevalikule

  15. Ülesande lahendamise eest saab miljon dollarit / Harli Uljas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uljas, Harli

    2000-01-01

    Maailma tippmatemaatikutele pakutakse seitset miljonit dollarit seitsme raske võrduse lahendamise eest. Clay Mathematics Institute pani probleemi üles oma internetileheküljele ja teatas sellest Pariisis toimunud konverentsil. Princetoni ülikooli matemaatikaprofessori Andrew Wilesi sõnul on need seitse matemaatilist probleemi selle ala kõige suuremad lahendamata väljakutsed

  16. Eesti suur partner saab uue presidendi / Silver Pukk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pukk, Silver

    2008-01-01

    Ameerika Ühendriikide uueks presidendiks valiti Barack Obama. Ilmunud ka: Tallinna Teataja : Haabersti, Kristiine ja Põhja-Tallinn nov. lk. 5; Tallinna Teataja : Nõmme ja Mustamäe nov. lk. 5; Eesti Teataja : Hiiumaa, Saaremaa, Läänemaa ja Pärnumaa nov. nr. 5 lk.4; Eesti Teataja : Järvamaa, Jõgevamaa, Tartumaa, Põlvamaa, Võrumaa, Valgamaa ja Viljandimaa nov. nr. 4 lk. 4; Eesti Teataja : Virumaa nov. nr. 7 lk.4; Eesti Teataja : Harju- ja Raplamaa nov. nr. 6 lk. 4

  17. Laenu tagamisest munitsipaalmaaga ehk kuidagi ikka saab / Rein Tiivel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tiivel, Rein, 1940-

    2006-01-01

    AS Kinnisvaratehingud ja Puulinna Linnavalitsus leppisid kokku linna omandis oleva kinnisasja koormamises kinnisvarafirma kasuks. Esitatud kaasus sisaldas mitmeid kokkuleppeid, mis seadsid kahtluse alla tehingu kehtivuse ja valitud tee otstarbekuse

  18. Kui klassikaaslasest saab aastaks sinu boss / Sirje Pärismaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pärismaa, Sirje, 1958-

    2014-01-01

    Õpilasfirmade võistlusest. Tänavu võitis Tallinna Õismäe Vene Lütseumi õpilasfirma DK Koolitus, kes hakkas pakkuma algkoolilastele suhtlemisabi. 2. koht - Tallinna 21. Kooli võistkond EasyClip, 3. koht - Tallinna Reaalkooli võistkond Sants

  19. Taevakeha saab Tartu tüdruku nime

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Triinu Ots Hugo Treffneri gümnaasiumist sai oma teadustööga põlevkivielektrijaamade õhusaastest Eesti edukamaks rahvusvahelisel konkursil osalenud õpilaseks. Lisaks muudele auhindadele nimetatakse tema järgi väike planeet või asteroid

  20. Ladina-Ameerika saab elektroonilise valuuta / Allan Espenberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Espenberg, Allan

    2008-01-01

    Ladina-Ameerika riikide Venezuela, Kuuba, Boliivia, Hondurase, Nicaragua, Dominica ja Ecuadori ühendus ALBA on alustanud ettevalmistustega ühise virtuaalse valuuta, sucre, sisseseadmiseks ning ühtse majandus- ja rahandustsooni loomiseks

  1. Internetireklaami odavast hinnast saab varsti ajalugu / Villu Zirnask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Zirnask, Villu, 1966-

    2006-01-01

    Delfi juhatuse esimehe Ville Jehe hinnangul toimub internetireklaami hinna tõus - umbes 20% aastas - vähemalt seni, kuni see on jõudnud telereklaami hinnaga lähedasele tasemele. Ühispanga turustusosakonna asedirektor Merike Kukk, online-reisibüroo bookinghouse.net turundusjuht Jane Ild interneti- ja telereklaami kasutamisest. Lisad. Diagrammid

  2. Saaremaalt saab heinaseemet igale maitsele / Jana Rand ; kommenteerinud Hindrek Older

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rand, Jana, 1963-

    2016-01-01

    Saaremaal Laadjala külas tegutsev OÜ Saaremaa Seeme on Eesti suurim heinaseemne kasvataja, aga mitte erakordselt head looduslikud tingimused pole ettevõtte edu taganud, vaid aastakümnetega omandatud kogemused ja terve Sauna pere pühendunud töö. Vestlusest Arli Saunaga

  3. Saksamaa endine valitsusjuht saab gaasijuhtme eest pahandada / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2005-01-01

    Saksamaa opositsioonipoliitikud ning välismaa meedia kritiseerivad Saksa endise kantsleri Gerhard Schröderi asumist Vene-Saksa gaasijuhet rajava firma etteotsa. Korruptsiooni jälgiva organisatsiooni Transparency International Saksamaa esindaja hinnang

  4. Viljandis saab näha paremaid pressifotosid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    2007. aasta Eesti Ajalehtede Liidu pressifoto konkursil osalenud tööde näitus Viljandi Linnagaleriis. Väljas on kõik nominendid ja eri kategooriate võitjad. Parima uudisfoto autor on Liis Treimann, parima maakonna uudisfoto autor Sille Annuk. Parima olemusfoto autor on Annika Haas, parima maakonna olemusfoto autor Andrus Eesmaa

  5. Ita Ever saab pojalt kingiks filmi / Ada Maltseva

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Maltseva, Ada, 1970-

    2006-01-01

    Näitleja Ita Everi 75-ndaks sünnipäevaks jõuab ekraanile mängufilm "Vana daami visiit" : stsenaristid Roman Baskin, Ilmar Raag : režissöör Roman Baskin : MTÜ Kell Kümme koostöös ETV ja Exitfilmiga, Kultuurkapital. Filmi võtteplatsil toimunust

  6. Suvilast saab armas maja / Milla Mägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mägi, Milla, 1949-

    2005-01-01

    Võistlustantsijate Ave (sünd. 1971) ja Peep (sünd. 1967) Vardja suvilast ehitatud kodu Kakumäel. Maja planeering ja sisekujundus: Ave ja Peep Vardja. Vahetatavad diivani- ja padjakatted võimaldavad muuta sisekujunduse värvilahendust. 2 välis- ja 6 sisevaadet

  7. Ühiskondliku Leppe Sihtasutus saab riigilt miljoni

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Valitsuseslt Riigikogule esitatud tuleva aasta riigieelarve eelnõu näeb ühiskondliku leppe sihtasutusele ette miljon krooni. Sihtasutuse esindaja Andra Veidemanni kommentaar. Ilmunud ka Sakala, 2004/Oct/7, lk. 7

  8. IT-arendusjuhi saab rentida teenusepakkujalt / Kaido Einama

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Einama, Kaido, 1971-

    2003-01-01

    Arvutifirma Intral pakub ettevõtetele, kelle põhiline tegevusala pole seotud infotehnoloogiaga IT strateegilise juhtimise teenust - võimalust rentida firmale tipptasemel IT-juht. Vt. samas: Mida sisaldab IT strateegilise juhtimise teenus? Kommenteerivad Valior AS tegevdirektor Eduard Saul ja OÜ Ideal nõukogu esimees Urmas Isok.

  9. Milline saab olema uuenenud WTO põllumajandusleping? / Ruve Schank

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Šank, Ruve, 1954-

    2003-01-01

    Uuenenud WTO põllumajanduslepinguga hakkab riiklik toetus üha vähem olema seotud tootmisega, selle asemel toetatakse lihtsalt maal elamist ja seal töötamist põllumajandusega mitte otseselt seotud aladel

  10. Püssi plaat saab 30aastaseks / Gerli Romanovitsh

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Romanovitš, Gerli, 1977-

    2004-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Severnoje Poberezhje, 22. dets. 2004, lk. 4. Aasta aega Šveitsi investeerimisfirmale Sorbes AG kuulunud Püssi Repo Vabrikud tähistab puitlaastvabrikute kombinaadi 30. sünnipäeva. Praegu toodetakse 170 000 m3 puitlaastplaati aastas

  11. Soome maiustustetootja Leaf saab peatselt uue omaniku / Tõnis Arnover

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Arnover, Tõnis, 1952-

    2004-01-01

    Hollandi kontsern CSM otsustas loobuda maiustusetootmisest, sh. Soome magusatootjast Leaf ning keskenduda pagaritööstustoorme, biokemikaalide ning suhkrutoodete valmistamisele. Diagramm: CSMi kasumlikkus vähenes. Vt. samas: Eestis menukad kurgupastillid

  12. Mis saab maaärist? / Ester Šank

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Šank, Ester, 1956-

    2000-01-01

    Maaostu piirava seaduseelnõu Riigikogu menetlusest välja arvamist kommenteerib Vootele Hansen. Lisatud ka eelnõu autorite Jaanus Marrandi, Harri Õunapuu ja töörühma liikme Ain Kendra seisukohad

  13. Kaitsealast saab ehitustander / Ulvar Käärt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Käärt, Ulvar, 1982-

    2008-01-01

    OÜ Järve Holding tahab Jõgevamaale Vooremaa maastikukaitsealale ehitada elu- ja suvemaju. Jõgevamaa keskkonnateenistus ei kiitnud heaks arenduse kohta koostatava detailplaneeringu keskkonnamõju strateegilise hindamise aruannet. Kaart: Vooremaa maastikukaitseala

  14. Tiinerite lugemislaud saab täiendust / Ilona Martson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Martson, Ilona, 1970-

    2002-01-01

    Kirjastus Tänapäev ja Eesti Lastekirjanduse Teabekeskus avalikustasid noorsooromaani võistluse võitjad. Esikohta jagasid kolm autorit: Helga. Nõu "Kuues sõrm", Katrin Reimuse "Haldjatants" ja Jaan Tangsoo "Hanejaht". Äramärgitus võistlustööd: Ingrid Giltsi "Väike, kena inimene", Mart Kase "Head lapsed"

  15. Riik saab juubelikingiks ooperimaja / Teele Tammeorg, Dannar Leitmaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tammeorg, Teele

    2010-01-01

    Rahvusooper Estonia on välja valinud võimaliku parima ehitusplatsi Admiraliteedi basseini ääres, teatrihoone valmimistähtajaks on nad pakkunud 2018. aasta Eesti Vabariigi saja aasta juubeli. Admiraliteedi ja Poordi t. vahelist ala peavad ooperiteatri kõige tõenäolisemaks asukohaks ka Tallinna peaarhitekt Endrik Mänd ja Eesti Arhitektide Liidu esimees Peeter Pere

  16. Eesti ja USA kaitsekoostöö saab uue aluspaberi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2017-01-01

    Valitsus kiitis eilsel istungil heaks Eesti ja Ameerika Ühendriikide valitsuse kaitsekoostöö kokkuleppe ning volitas kaitseminister Margus Tsahknat allkirjastama selle USA suursaadikuga Eestis. Leppe peab ratifitseerima ka riigikogu

  17. Aafrika saab endale esimese ühisarmee / Allan Espenberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Espenberg, Allan

    2007-01-01

    Lõuna-Aafrika riikide majandusühenduse (Southern African Development Community) SADCi peaeesmärkidest ja tegevusest. Organisatsiooni 27. tippkohtumisel valiti uueks esimeheks Sambia president Levy Mwanawasa, samas otsustati moodustada ka regionaalne armee, mille peamiseks ülesandeks on rahumissioonide korraldamine ja elluviimine

  18. Eve Kivi saab Pirita kloostri abtissiks / Kadi Lehtmets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lehtmets, Kadi

    2005-01-01

    20. augustil esietendub Pirita kloostris Birgitta festivalil H. Volmeri multimeediaetendus muusika ja filmiga "Tallinn pole enam kaugel ehk Kogu tõde Liivi sõjast", mis kujutab endast paroodiat filmile "Viimne reliikvia"

  19. Pindalatoetusi saab tänavu taotleda maikuus / Heli Raamets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raamets, Heli, 1975-

    2005-01-01

    Sama ka Vali Uudised 27. aprill 2005, lk. 7 ; Vooremaa : Palamuse Valla Teataja 30. aprill 2005, lk. 3 ; Vooremaa : Pala Teataja 3. mai 2005, lk. 2 artiklis pealkiri kujul: Pindalatoetuse taotlusi ootab PRIA mais ; Vooremaa : Jõgeva Valla Teataja 7. mai 2005, lk. 3 ; Vooremaa : Saare Valla Teataja 14. mai 2005, lk. 2 artiklis pealkiri kujul: PRIA ootab pindalatoetuse taotlusi

  20. Õppimine saab uue hoo / Sirje Tohver

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tohver, Sirje, 1948-

    2007-01-01

    Konverentsist "Uus hoog õppimisele", millega Euroopa Liidu haridusprogramme Eestis koordineeriv SA Archimedes tähistas uue programmiperioodi algust ja kus osales ka Euroopa Komisjoni hariduse, koolituse, noorteküsimuste ja kultuurivaldkonna volinik Jan Figel

  1. Riigilt saab toetust senisest rohkem inimesi / Heljo Pikhof

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pikhof, Heljo, 1958-

    2001-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Meie Maa, 30. okt. 2001, lk. 2; Vooremaa, 30. okt. 2001, lk. 2; Koit, 30. okt. 2001, lk. 6; Lääne Elu, 30. okt. 2001, lk. 4. Vastuseks M. Treiali art.-le üle 80-aastastele pensionilisa maksmise kohta. Vanus ei ole objektiivne alus, et lisaraha maksta. Uuest toetuste süsteemist. Autor: Rahvaerakond Mõõdukad

  2. Saabism and Saabists : An ethnographic analysis of Saab culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maly, Ico

    2017-01-01

    Both Simmel and Goffman were deeply persuaded that the big things in society, in actual observable reality are made up of a dynamic and complex system of interlocking and interacting small things. In this paper, I wish to examine the online-offline communicative and semiotic practices of one such

  3. Kui sirge saab olema lõpusirge? / Ruta Eier

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Eier, Ruta, 1976-

    2005-01-01

    SEB Eesti Ühispanga makroanalüütik arutleb, kuivõrd inflatsioonimäära kriteeriumi mittetäitmine ohustab Eesti liitumist Euroopa Rahaliiduga. Kuna Eestil ei ole rahapoliitilisi vahendeid inflatsiooni mõjutamiseks, on autori arvates riigil vajalik rakendada hinnasurveid leevendavaid meetmeid

  4. Kas Ene Ergmast saab president? / Ene Ergma ; interv. Peeter Ernits

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ergma, Ene, 1944-

    2006-01-01

    Riigikogu aseesimees räägib presidendivalimistel osalemisest, presidendile esitatavatest nõuetest, oma väidetavast kunagisest seotusest Nõukogude eriteenistusega, hariduse tähtsusest Eesti arengus ja Res Publica käekäigust

  5. ELi-Vene arupidamisest saab kriisikohtumine / Igor Taro

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Taro, Igor

    2007-01-01

    Euroopa Liidu ja Venemaa tippkohtumisel Samaras on arutluse all Poola veto ELi-Vene partnerlusleppe läbirääkimiste alustamisele, põhjuseks Venemaa majandussanktsioonid Poola vastu, probleemina on tõstatud ka varjatud sanktsioonid Leedu ja Eesti vastu. Lisa: Brüsseli ja Moskva erinevad mured

  6. Õunpuu saab Euroopa Talendi auhinna / Kristiina Davidjants

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Davidjants, Kristiina, 1974-

    2008-01-01

    Cannes'i filmifestivali raames toimuval Euroopa päeval antakse filmirežissöör Veiko Õunpuule üle Euroopa Talendi auhind (European Talent Prize) mängufilmiprojekti "Püha Tõnu Kiusamine" eest (produtsent Katrin Kissa)

  7. Pärnu saab esimese kõrghoone?

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Pärnu kesklinna jõeäärse ala rahvusvahelise arhitektuurikonkursi võidutöö "Flood", mille autoriteks on itaalia arhitektid Francesco De Luca, Paolo Gori, Romolo Nati, Antonio Capasso ja Giuliana Mancinelli Bonafaccia. Ill.: 3 vaadet

  8. Kuressaare linna uueks vapilaevaks saab miinijahtija Admiral Cowan / Raul Vinni

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vinni, Raul

    2008-01-01

    Eesti mereväe uusim alus, miinijahtija Admiral Cowan, hakkab Kuressaare sõpruslaevana kandma linna vappi. Juuresoleval fotol kuninganna Elizabeth II ja president Toomas Hendrik Ilves 20. oktoobril 2006 avamas Eesti uue miinijahtija Admiral Cowani vappi

  9. Kui Kerry saab USA presidendiks, siis... / Anvar Samost

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Samost, Anvar, 1971-

    2004-01-01

    Autor võrdleb USA presidendi George W. Bushi ja presidendikandidaat John Kerry välispoliitilisi seisukohti ning leiab, et peaaegu kõigis välispoliitika küsimustes on nad ühel meelel ja mõnes küsimuses on Kerry vaated pigem radikaalsemad

  10. Eesti keele oskust saab ise mõõta

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Eesti keele veebipõhistest testidest, mis lihtsustab nii kursuse- kui eksamivalikut. Keeleoskust testitakse viie Euroopa Liidus kasutatava keeletaseme ulatuses: tasemest A1 tasemeni C1. Veebikeskkond valmis integratsiooni sihtasutuse, riikliku eksami- ja kvalifikatsioonikeskuse, Juku Lab OÜ ning Tallinna Ülikooli koostöös

  11. Kas tosina saab täis? / Kaarel Tarand

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tarand, Kaarel, 1966-

    2006-01-01

    Sarjas "Sirbi raamat" ilmusid 10. ja 11. esseekogumik, Marek Voldi "Esteetikast" ja Toomas Pauli "Kontide kasulikkus". Sarjast ja selle tulevikust. Seni ilmunud raamatute autorid: Vaapo Vaher, Mihkel Mutt, Jan Kaus, Mati Unt, Jaak Allik, Mari Sobolev, Johannes Saar, Ervin Õunapuu, Leonhard Lapin

  12. 2x väikesest saab suur / Varje Talivee

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Talivee, Varje

    2011-01-01

    Sisearhitekt Aet Piel kujundas osavate kujundusvõtetega väikesest 43 m² kahetoalisest tüüpkorterist kaks ruumikalt mõjuvat tervikut, millest üks on elegantselt hall ning teine valge ja helge. Mõlemaid näidislahendusi esitleti sisustusmessil Interjöör 2011

  13. Eesti saab hakata ise relvi tootma / Märt Belkin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Belkin, Märt

    2017-01-01

    Kaitseministeerium sai valmis eelnõu, mis annaks Eesti kaitsetööstusele õiguse remontida, ümber ehitada ja valmistada sõjarelvi ning laskemoona. Eesti Kaitsetööstuse Liidu juhi Ingvar Pärnamäe kommentaar

  14. Ülikooliga saab kohtuda ekraanil / Kerttu Jänese

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jänese, Kerttu, 1981-

    2007-01-01

    Tartu Ülikooli 375. aastapäeva puhul valminud dokumentaalfilm "Universitas Tartuensis 375" : stsenaristid Jaak Lõhmus ja Lauri Vahtre : režissöörid Rene Vilbre ja Märten Vaher : Estinfilm 2007. Filmist räägivad tegijad

  15. Viru tunnel saab uue ilme urbanistliku grafiti abil / Ilmar Kahro

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kahro, Ilmar

    2011-01-01

    MTÜ Linnalabor koostöös Tallinn 2011 SA-ga viis läbi Tallinnas Gonsiori ja Laikmaa tänava ristmiku all paikneva Viru tunneli kujunduskonkursi "Viru tunnel kunstigaleriiks". EKA skulptuuri eriala tudengi Eldar Jakubovi võidutööst "Avame linna"

  16. Kas ja kus saab puitmaja eurooplase koduks? / Pille Nagel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nagel, Pille

    2003-01-01

    Põhjamaade Puidunõukogu "Building Europe" projektis uuriti lähemalt Soome, Rootsi Suurbritannia, Hollandi, Poola, Saksa- ja Prantsusmaa elamuehituse iseloomu. Kasutati ka Austria, Belgia, Iirimaa, Norra ja Taani andmeid. Artiklis tuuakse uurimusest välja mõningaid fakte ja ideid, mida valdkonna arenguks pakuti

  17. Hea haridus saab alguse headest õpetajatest / Tõnis Lukas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lukas, Tõnis, 1962-

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Põhjarannik 2. veebr. 2008, lk. 4, Severnoje Poberezhje 2. veebr. 2008, lk. 4., Pärnu Postimees 2. veebr. lk 19, Meie Maa 4. veebr. lk. 2, Lääne Elu 5. veebr. 2008, lk. 2, Hiiu Leht 5. veebr. 2008, lk. 2, Nädaline 5. veebr. 2008, lk. 4., Võrumaa Teataja 5. veebr. lk. 2, Harju Elu 8. veebr. lk. 2, Koit 12. veebr. lk. 6, Järva Teataja 19. veebr. lk. 2, Sakala 20. veebr. lk. 2. Valitsus kiitis heaks haridusminister Tõnis Lukase poolt esitatud määruse eelnõu, mille kohaselt tõusevad õpetajate palkade alammäärad käesoleva aasta esimesest jaanuarist 22% võrra

  18. Kellest saab Alan Greenspani järeltulija? / Tõnis Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oja, Tõnis, 1957-

    2005-01-01

    USA presidendil ei ole veel uut kandidaati ametist lahkuva keskpanga juhi Alan Greenspani asemele. Vt. samas: Alan Greenspani tegevuse olulisemad verstapostid keskpanga juhina; Pole välistatud ka ametikoha säilitamine

  19. Tammistust saab puuetega laste peremõis / Helju Koger

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koger, Helju, 1943-

    2007-01-01

    Tammistu mõisast, kuhu Eesti Agrenska Fond rajab puuetega laste pere- ja koolituskeskust. Mõisa ajaloost lühidalt, pargi korrastamisest, hilisklassitsistliku häärberi renoveerimistööde seisust, tulevasest perekeskusest. Salongis on säilinud kappkemmerg. Kommenteerib Meelis Joost Eesti Agrenska Fondist. 11 vaadet

  20. 15. III - 13. IV saab Stockholmis Infra galeriis...

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Eesti, Läti, Leedu ja Rootsi noorte kaasaegse tekstiilikunsti näituse "Forever Young" on koostanud leedu kunstiteadlane Ruta Pileckaite. Eestist osalevad Krista Leesi, Lylian Meister, Monika Järg, Piret Valk

  1. Veebiruumis saab liikuda teadlikult ja turvaliselt / Liis Ehavere

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ehavere, Liis

    2013-01-01

    Eesti Infotehnoloogia ja Telekommunikatsiooni Liit korraldas koostöös BCS Koolitusega noorte internetialase turvateadlikkuse tõstmiseks Eesti eri paigus kuus konverentsi, lisaks toimus projekti "Targalt internetis" aastakonverents "Minu jalajälg internetis"

  2. Eesti saab veel ühe monumendi / Eric A. Johnson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Johnson, Eric A.

    2008-01-01

    Eesti Vabadussõjas (1918-1920) osalesid peale soomlaste, rootslaste, taanlaste ja inglaste ka ameeriklased, kes olid enamuses Ameerika Punase Risti vabatahtlikud. Monument, mis plaanitakse valmis saada aasta lõpuks, hakkab seisma Tallinna kaitseväe kalmistul. Ilmunud ka: Linnaleht : na russkom jazõke, 23. mai 2008, lk 9 (V Estonii pojavitsja eshtshjo odin monument)

  3. Võimekuse pingerida saab kriitikat / Bianca Mikovitš

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mikovitš, Bianca

    2011-01-01

    OÜ Geomeedia poolt teostatud kohalike omavalitsuste võimekuse uuring ja edetabel pälvib kriitikat. Tabel: Kohalike omavalitsuste pingerida 2010: eesotsas on põhiliselt Harjumaa omavalitsused, rea lõpetavad need, mis asuvad pealinnast kaugemal ning kus on vähe rahvast

  4. Eesti saab Schengeni-küpseks / Uwe Gnadenteich

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gnadenteich, Uwe

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Linnaleht : na russkom jazõke 1. nov. lk. 1. Euroopa Liidu Nõukogu töögrupp andis Eesti valmisolekule Schengeni leppega liituda üldiselt positiivse hinnangu, tehti ka märkusi. Venek. art. autorita

  5. Kes saab kuningriigi ja pool printsessi? / Peeter Kreitzberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kreitzberg, Peeter, 1948-2011

    2005-01-01

    Sotsiaalliberaal Peeter Kreitzberg analüüsib praegu Tallinna võimukoalitsioonis toimuvat ning leiab, et praeguse olukorra jätkudes Reformierakond oma reitingut ei säilita ja et Keskerakonna eesmärk on ka võimuvahetus Toompeal. Autori sõnul on nii Res Publicat kui ka Keskerakonda häirinud pidevalt mure sotsiaalliberaalide võimu pärast Riigikogus

  6. LaNi5-Assisted Hydrogenation of MgNi2 in the Hybrid Structures of La1.09Mg1.91Ni9D9.5 and La0.91Mg2.09Ni9D9.4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman V. Denys

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This work focused on the high pressure PCT and in situ neutron powder diffraction studies of the LaMg2Ni9-H2 (D2 system at pressures up to 1,000 bar. LaMg2Ni9 alloy was prepared by a powder metallurgy route from the LaNi9 alloy precursor and Mg powder. Two La3−xMgxNi9 samples with slightly different La/Mg ratios were studied, La1.1Mg1.9Ni9 (sample 1 and La0.9Mg2.1Ni9 (sample 2. In situ neutron powder diffraction studies of the La1.09Mg1.91Ni9D9.5 (1 and La0.91Mg2.09Ni9D9.4 (2 deuterides were performed at 25 bar D2 (1 and 918 bar D2 (2. The hydrogenation properties of the (1 and (2 are dramatically different from those for LaNi3. The Mg-containing intermetallics reversibly form hydrides with DHdes = 24.0 kJ/molH2 and an equilibrium pressure of H2 desorption of 18 bar at 20 °C (La1.09Mg1.91Ni9. A pronounced hysteresis of H2 absorption and desorption, ~100 bar, is observed. The studies showed that LaNi5-assisted hydrogenation of MgNi2 in the LaMg2Ni9 hybrid structure takes place. In the La1.09Mg1.91Ni9D9.5 (1 and La0.91Mg2.09Ni9D9.4 (2 (a = 5.263/5.212; c = 25.803/25.71 Å D atoms are accommodated in both Laves and CaCu5-type slabs. In the LaNi5 CaCu5-type layer, D atoms fill three types of interstices; a deformed octahedron [La2Ni4], and [La(Mg2Ni2] and [Ni4] tetrahedra. The overall chemical compositions can be presented as LaNi5H5.6/5.0 + 2*MgNi2H1.95/2.2 showing that the hydrogenation of the MgNi2 slab proceeds at mild H2/D2 pressure of just 20 bar. A partial filling by D of the four types of the tetrahedral interstices in the MgNi2 slab takes place, including [MgNi3] and [Mg2Ni2] tetrahedra.

  7. Aero-Hydroacoustics for Ships. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-01

    Structures," Nay. Res. Lab. Rep. 7945 (1976).. 175. Blake, W.K. and LiJ. Maga, "Near Wake Structure and Unsteady Prep -.ures ; ""at Trailing Edges of Airfoils...Limited, Derby (1974). 68. Trillo, R.L., "An Empirical Study of Hovercraft Propeller Noise," J. Sound Vih ., Vol. 3, pp. 476-509 (1966). 69. Kazin, S.B. and

  8. Reflexive Aero Structures for Enhanced Survivability Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cornerstone Research Group Inc. (CRG) proposes to develop an advanced reflexive structure system to increase the survivability of aerostructures. This reflexive...

  9. Aero-tactile integration in speech perception

    OpenAIRE

    Gick, Bryan; Derrick, Donald

    2009-01-01

    Visual information from a speaker’s face can enhance1 or interfere with2 accurate auditory perception. This integration of information across auditory and visual streams has been observed in functional imaging studies3,4, and has typically been attributed to the frequency and robustness with which perceivers jointly encounter event-specific information from these two modalities5. Adding the tactile modality has long been considered a crucial next step in understanding multisensory integration...

  10. Aero-tactile integration in speech perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gick, Bryan; Derrick, Donald

    2009-11-26

    Visual information from a speaker's face can enhance or interfere with accurate auditory perception. This integration of information across auditory and visual streams has been observed in functional imaging studies, and has typically been attributed to the frequency and robustness with which perceivers jointly encounter event-specific information from these two modalities. Adding the tactile modality has long been considered a crucial next step in understanding multisensory integration. However, previous studies have found an influence of tactile input on speech perception only under limited circumstances, either where perceivers were aware of the task or where they had received training to establish a cross-modal mapping. Here we show that perceivers integrate naturalistic tactile information during auditory speech perception without previous training. Drawing on the observation that some speech sounds produce tiny bursts of aspiration (such as English 'p'), we applied slight, inaudible air puffs on participants' skin at one of two locations: the right hand or the neck. Syllables heard simultaneously with cutaneous air puffs were more likely to be heard as aspirated (for example, causing participants to mishear 'b' as 'p'). These results demonstrate that perceivers integrate event-relevant tactile information in auditory perception in much the same way as they do visual information.

  11. The aero- and hydromechanics of keel yachts

    CERN Document Server

    Slooff, J W

    2015-01-01

    How and why does sail boat performance depend on the configuration and trim of boat and sails? This book provides the yachtsman with answers in a relatively straightforward account of the physical mechanisms of sailing. It presents an accessible overview of the fluid dynamic aspects of sailing and sailing technology, addressing both aeromechanics and hydromechanics.  Readers are provided with the basic principles of physics and general mechanics that will assist their understanding of the fluid mechanics of sailing yachts. Rich appendices cover not only in-depth, mathematical-physical treatments and derivations for those wishing to explore further, but also helpful summaries of basic mathematical notions for those wishing to refresh their knowledge.  This work explores keel yachts, specifically single-masted mono-hulls with ‘fore-and-aft’, Bermuda-rigged sails. However, much of it is applicable to other types of sailing vessels such as multi-hulls, yachts with multiple masts, windsurf boards and the li...

  12. Aero-Acoustic Computations of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Wei Jun

    2008-01-01

    both for laminar and turbulent flows. Results have shown that sound generation is due to the unsteadiness of the flow field and the spectrum of sound has a strong relation with fluctuating forces on the solid body. Flow and acoustic simulation were also carried out for a wind turbine where general...

  13. Reflexive Aero Structures for Enhanced Survivability Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cornerstone Research Group Inc. (CRG) will develop an advanced reflexive structure technology system to increase the survivability of future systems constructed of...

  14. SAM2_AERO_PRF_NAT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement II - Aerosol Profile - Native format which measures solar irradiance attenuated by aerosol particles in the Arctic & Antarctic...

  15. Development of aero-engines, part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehn, K.

    1943-01-01

    In the second part of his paper, Mr. Dehn enters into the area of problems in engine construction and design. The main question was, how can more power be coaxed from an engine without increasing its stroke displacement and weight. To begin with, a change in combustion-chamber configuration was made. A hemispheric chamber appeared to be the best design. Into this new design was incorporated a system to swirl the fuel-air mixture for better combustion and more power. Also needed was relocation of the spark plug. Since there was better combustion, valves had to be improved. These were hollowed, filled with sodium and finished with chromium or stellite for more hardness. However, the temperature created by these improvements proved to be a serious problem in engine durability. Heat corrosion destroyed pistons and rings, causing the engine not just to seize-up, but to come apart. This resulted in the loss of aircraft. Finally, a system of cooling the pistons from beneath by an oil spray increased both performance and piston life. Dehn summarizes his paper by comparing two cylinder units from Curtis-Wright radial engines, one old, the other new. He claims that these represented advances in engine technology in all areas he discussed. First, the size had not been increased, but the newer one developed more power. This had been accomplished, he reports, by fuel development reducing pre-detonation. The super-charging, and most important, the re-design of the cooling fins on the cylinder head exterior, provided greater thermal capacity for the engine. In this way, power had been increased more than 100 percent. The author concludes his paper by stating that this type of development is possible only through advances in, and use of, materials technology. That would involve intensive co-operation between the scientists and engineers working in fuels development and aviation engineering.

  16. Aero-acoustic Computations of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Wen Zhong; Michelsen, Jess; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2002-01-01

    A numerical algorithm for acoustic noise generation is extended to 3D flows. The approach involves two parts comprising a viscous incompressible flow part and an inviscid acoustic part. In order to simulate noise generated from a wind turbine, the incompressible and acoustic equations are written...

  17. Quasisteady aero-acoustic response of orifices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durrieu, P.; Hofmans, G.; Ajello, G.; Boot, R.; Aurégan, Y.; Hirschberg, A.; Peters, M.C.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    The low frequency response of orifices (slit, circular diaphragm, and perforated plate) in the presence of mean flow is well predicted by a quasisteady theory. A refinement is brought to the theory by considering a Mach number dependent vena contracta coefficient. The measurements of the vena

  18. Aero-Acoustic Propulsion Lab (AAPL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility is an acoustically treated geodesic dome. The 130-ft-diameter dome is 65-ft high and acts as a noise barrier, protecting adjacent Glenn buildings and...

  19. Properties and nature of Be stars. 30. Reliable physical properties of a semi-detached B9.5e+G8III binary BR CMi = HD 61273 compared to those of other well studied semi-detached emission-line binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmanec, P.; Koubský, P.; Nemravová, J. A.; Royer, F.; Briot, D.; North, P.; Lampens, P.; Frémat, Y.; Yang, S.; Božić, H.; Kotková, L.; Škoda, P.; Šlechta, M.; Korčáková, D.; Wolf, M.; Zasche, P.

    2015-01-01

    Reliable determination of the basic physical properties of hot emission-line binaries with Roche-lobe filling secondaries is important for developing the theory of mass exchange in binaries. It is a very hard task, however, which is complicated by the presence of circumstellar matter in these systems. So far, only a small number of systems with accurate values of component masses, radii, and other properties are known. Here, we report the first detailed study of a new representative of this class of binaries, BR CMi, based on the analysis of radial velocities and multichannel photometry from several observatories, and compare its physical properties with those for other well-studied systems. BR CMi is an ellipsoidal variable seen under an intermediate orbital inclination of ˜ 51°, and it has an orbital period of 12.^d919059(15) and a circular orbit. We used the disentangled component spectra to estimate the effective temperatures 9500(200) K and 4655(50) K by comparing them with model spectra. They correspond to spectral types B9.5e and G8III. We also used the disentangled spectra of both binary components as templates for the 2D cross-correlation to obtain accurate radial velocities and a reliable orbital solution. Some evidence of a secular period increase at a rate of (1.1 ± 0.5) s per year was found. This, together with a very low mass ratio of 0.06 and a normal mass and radius of the mass gaining component, indicates that BR CMi is in a slow phase of the mass exchange after the mass-ratio reversal. It thus belongs to a still poorly populated subgroup of Be stars for which the origin of Balmer emission lines is safely explained as a consequence of mass transfer between the binary components. Based on new spectroscopic and photometric observations from the following instruments: Elodie spectrograph of the Haute Provence Observatory, France; CCD coudé spectrograph of the Astronomical Institute AS ČR at Ondřejov, Czech Republic; CCD coudé spectrograph of

  20. Autolehe kõige põhjalikum autotest

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    10 toimetuse sõiduki pikaaegne kasutustest: BMW R1100S (1999), Chrysler Sebring (2002), Dacia Duster (2011), Ford Sierra (1983), Mercedes-Benz 500 SEL (1990), Mitsubishi Galant (1989), Saab 9-5 (1999), Subaru Legacy (2007), Škoda Fabia RS (2010) ja Toyota MR 2 (1988)

  1. Implementation of the AeroRP and AeroNP in Python

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    Department of Electrical Engineering & Computer Science Information and Telecommunication Technology Center The University of Kansas Lawrence, KS 66045...Science and Technology (T&E/S&T) Program for their support. This work was funded in part by the T&E/S&T Program through the Army PEO STRI Contracting

  2. Revised physical elements of the astrophysically important O9.5+O9.5V eclipsing binary system Y Cygni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmanec, P.; Holmgren, D. E.; Wolf, M.; Božić, H.; Guinan, E. F.; Kang, Y. W.; Mayer, P.; McCook, G. P.; Nemravová, J.; Yang, S.; Šlechta, M.; Ruždjak, D.; Sudar, D.; Svoboda, P.

    2014-03-01

    Context. Rapid advancements in light-curve and radial-velocity curve modelling, as well as improvements in the accuracy of observations, allow more stringent tests of the theory of stellar evolution. Binaries with rapid apsidal advance are particularly useful in this respect since the internal structure of the stars can also be tested. Aims: Thanks to its long and rich observational history and rapid apsidal motion, the massive eclipsing binary Y Cygrepresents one of the cornerstones of critical tests of stellar evolutionary theory for massive stars. Nevertheless, the determination of the basic physical properties is less accurate than it could be given the existing number of spectral and photometric observations. Our goal is to analyse all these data simultaneously with the new dedicated series of our own spectral and photometric observations from observatories widely separated in longitude. Methods: We obtained new series of UBV observations at three observatories separated in local time to obtain complete light curves of Y Cygfor its orbital period close to 3 days. This new photometry was reduced and carefully transformed to the standard UBV system using the HEC22 program. We also obtained new series of red spectra secured at two observatories and re-analysed earlier obtained blue electronic spectra. Reduction of the new spectra was carried out in the IRAF and SPEFO programs. Orbital elements were derived independently with the FOTEL and PHOEBE programs and via disentangling with the program KOREL . The final combined solution was obtained with the program PHOEBE . Results: Our analyses provide the most accurate value of the apsidal period of (47.805 ± 0.030) yr published so far and the following physical elements: M1 = 17.72 ± 0.35 M⊙, M2 = 17.73 ± 0.30 M⊙, R1 = 5.785 ± 0.091 R⊙, and R2 = 5.816 ± 0.063 R⊙. The disentangling thus resulted in the masses, which are somewhat higher than all previous determinations and virtually the same for both stars, while the light curve implies a slighly higher radius and luminosity for star 2. The above empirical values imply the logarithm of the internal structure constant log k2 = -1.937. A comparison with Claret's stellar interior models implies an age close to 2 × 106 yr for both stars. Conclusions: The claimed accuracy of modern element determination of 1-2 per cent still seems a bit too optimistic and obtaining new high-dispersion and high-resolution spectra is desirable. Based on new spectral and photometric observations from the following observatories: Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, Hvar, Ondřejov, Fairborn, and Sejong.Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgTables 4 and 5 are available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/563/A120

  3. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(9)-5 - Required minimum distributions from defined contribution plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of the distribution. See A-8 of this section for rules that apply if a portion of the employee's... is required is a distribution calendar year. If an employee's required beginning date is April 1 of... first distribution calendar year is the year the employee attains age 701/2. If an employee's required...

  4. Tammsaare park saab lõõgastava salaaia : Tammsaare kuju tagune ala saab olema mõnus privaatne unistamise paik / Kai Maran ; kommenteerib Arvo Sarapuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Maran, Kai, 1957-

    2012-01-01

    2013. a hakatakse uuendama Tallinna kesklinnas asuvat Tammsaare parki. Ideekonkursi võitjaks tunnistas linna žürii võistlustöö märgusõnaga "Belle Epoque", mille esitas arhitektuuribüroo Kadarik Tüür Arhitektid OÜ (autorid Ott Kadarik, Mihkel Tüür, Katerina Veerde ja Kadri Tamme)

  5. An Aero-Acoustic Tool for Terminal Area Operations Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this highly interconnected world, transportation systems must feature increased flexibility and shorter door-to-door trip times to be successful. Shorter...

  6. Optimization of Heat Exchangers for Intercooled Recuperated Aero Engines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dimitrios Misirlis; Zinon Vlahostergios; Michael Flouros; Christina Salpingidou; Stefan Donnerhack; Apostolos Goulas; Kyros Yakinthos

    2017-01-01

    .... The present work is focused only on the recuperation process. This is carried out through a system of heat exchangers mounted inside the hot-gas exhaust nozzle, providing fuel economy and reduced pollutant emissions...

  7. Aero-Mechanical Coupling in a High-Speed Compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ISO - LATED COMPRESSOR BLADE 4.1 Introduction The aeroelastic behavior of a single cantilevered blade in a uniform subsonic and...55 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 10 −12 10 −10 10 −8 10 −6 10 −4 10 −2 Frequency [Hz] A u to sp ec tr a l d en si ty o f th e b la d e v...el o ci ty [m 2 / s2 / H z] 0 1.27 2.54 3.81 5.08 6.35 7.62 8.89 ω⋆ = πfcU∞ (a) M ≈ 0.4 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 10 −12 10 −10

  8. Combined Aero and Underhood Thermal Analysis for Heavy Duty Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vegendla, Prasad [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sofu, Tanju [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Saha, Rohit [Cummins Inc., Columbus, IN (United States); Madurai Kumar, Mahesh [Cummins Inc., Columbus, IN (United States); Hwang, L. K [Cummins Inc., Columbus, IN (United States)

    2017-01-31

    Aerodynamic analysis of the medium-duty delivery truck was performed to achieve vehicle design optimization. Three dimensional CFD simulations were carried out for several improved designs, with a detailed external component analysis of wheel covers, side skirts, roof fairings, and rounded trailer corners. The overall averaged aerodynamics drag reduction through the design modifications were shown up to 22.3% through aerodynamic considerations alone, which is equivalent to 11.16% fuel savings. The main identified fuel efficiencies were based on second generation devices, including wheel covers, side skirts, roof fairings, and rounded trailer corners. The important findings of this work were; (i) the optimum curvature radius of the rounded trailer edges found to be 125 mm, with an arc length of 196.3 mm, (ii) aerodynamic drag reduction increases with dropping clearance of side skirts between wheels and ground, and (iii) aerodynamic drag reduction increases with an extension of front bumper towards the ground.

  9. Aero-Acoustic-Structural Optimization Analysis and Testing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal effort is concerned with the development of a novel multidisciplinary optimization scheme and computer software for the effective design of advanced...

  10. Advanced materials and protective coatings in aero-engines application

    OpenAIRE

    M. Hetmańczyk; L. Swadźba; B. Mendala

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The following article demonstrates the characteristics of the materials applied as parts of aircraft engine turbines and the stationary gas turbines. The principal technologies for manufacturing the heat resistant coatings and the erosion and corrosion resistant coatings were characterized. Sample applications for the aforementioned coatings are presented: on turbine blades, compressor blades and on parts of combustion chambers of aircraft engines.Design/methodology/approach: The nic...

  11. Performance of an aero-space plane propulsion nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, George; Bae, Yoon-Yeong

    1989-01-01

    An inviscid and viscous analysis is provided for an exposed half nozzle that is used with a scramjet for thrust generation. The analysis is based on the inviscid theory of a two-dimensional, minimum length nozzle with a curved inlet surface, where the flow may be sonic or supersonic. Inlet conditions are prescribed and the gas is assumed to be perfect. Viscous, and when appropriate inviscid, nondimensional parametric results are provided for the thrust, lift, heat transfer, pitching moment, and a variety of boundary-layer thicknesses. In addition to global results, wall distributions of pressure, heat transfer, etc., are provided. The analysis demonstrates that the nozzle produces a considerable lift force whose magnitude may exceed the thrust and a significant pitching moment. The thrust is quite sensitive to the inlet Mach number; it rapidly decreases as the inlet Mach number increases There is little loss in the thrust as the nozzle's downstream wall is truncated. The corresponding decrease in lift and the pitching moment is moderate.

  12. Propulsion technology for National Aero-Space Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C. W.; Mcclinton, Charles R.; Guy, R. W.

    1990-01-01

    The National Aerospace Plane (NASP) program is briefly reviewed, including its growth, objectives, team organization, and schedule. The NASP propulsion technology is discussed, and the results of engine module tests are described. Future large-scale and higher-speed testing needs are examined.

  13. Receding-horizon adaptive contyrol of aero-optical wavefronts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tesch, J.; Gibson, S.; Verhaegen, M.

    2013-01-01

    A new method for adaptive prediction and correction of wavefront errors in adaptive optics (AO) is introduced. The new method is based on receding-horizon control design and an adaptive lattice filter. Experimental results presented illustrate the capability of the new adaptive controller to predict

  14. Aero-Acoustic Moldeling using Large Eddy Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Wen Zhong; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2008-01-01

    a NACA 0015 airfoil at a Mach number of 0.2 and a Reynolds number of for different angles of attack. The flow solutions are validated by comparing lift and drag characteristics to the experiments of Shedhal and Klimas. The comparisons show good agreement between computed and measured airfoil...

  15. Control of Boundary Layers for Aero-optical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-23

    Tunnel ( TWT ) facility located in Hessert Laboratory for Aerospace Research at the University of 8 Notre Dame. The TWT is composed of an inlet...4.2 Results One set of measurements were conducted in the Hessert Transonic Wind Tunnel ( TWT ) at the University of Notre Dame. The total length...Boundary Layer Wall Heating Conditions Facility V∞ [m/s] M δ [cm] Reθ ΔT [K] fsamp [kHz] Caltech MWT 9.4 0.03 2.7 1,700 21 30 ND TWT 64.8 0.18 1.2

  16. XCOR AeroSpace: Providing Low Cost Access to Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    Formation flight automatically keeps troops on-target and in formation unlike WW2 drops • Capsule Troopers – Disposable capsule for 2+ people and... Capsules can carry many things besides troops – Some capsules might include fixed weapons for securing LZ 12 Extraction • Once you have rapid transport, USE...launched as a payload to target area – Lands vertically under steerable chute + retro rocket like Soyuz – Takes off vertically under rocket power to

  17. Predicting vibratory stresses from aero-acoustic loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Matthew D.

    Sonic fatigue has been a concern of jet aircraft engineers for many years. As engines become more powerful, structures become more lightly damped and complex, and materials become lighter, stiffer, and more complicated, the need to understand and predict structural response to aeroacoustic loads becomes more important. Despite decades of research, vibration in panels caused by random pressure loads, such as those found in a supersonic jet, is still difficult to predict. The work in this research improves on current prediction methods in several ways, in particular for the structural response due to wall pressures induced by supersonic turbulent flows. First, solutions are calculated using time-domain input pressure loads that include shock cells and their interaction with turbulent flow. The solutions include both mean (static) and oscillatory components. Second, the time series of stresses are required for many fatigue assessment counting algorithms. To do this, a method is developed to compute time-dependent solutions in the frequency domain. The method is first applied to a single-degree-of-freedom system. The equations of motion are derived and solved in both the frequency domain and the time domain. The pressure input is a random (broadband) signal representative of jet flow. The method is then applied to a simply-supported beam vibrating in flexure using a line of pressure inputs computed with computational fluid dynamics (CFD). A modal summation approach is used to compute structural response. The coupling between the pressure field and the structure, through the joint acceptance, is reviewed and discussed for its application to more complicated structures. Results from the new method and from a direct time domain method are compared for method verification. Because the match is good and the new frequency domain method is faster computationally, it is chosen for use in a more complicated structure. The vibration of a two-dimensional panel loaded by jet nozzle discharge flow is addressed. The surface pressures calculated at Pratt and Whitney using viscous and compressible CFD are analyzed and compared to surface pressure measurements made at the United Technologies Research Center (UTRC). A structural finite element model is constructed to represent a flexible panel also used in the UTRC setup. The mode shapes, resonance frequencies, modal loss factors, and surface pressures are input into the solution method. Displacement time series and power spectral densities are computed and compared to measurement and show good agreement. The concept of joint acceptance is further addressed for two-dimensional plates excited by supersonic jet flow. Static and alternating stresses in the panel are also computed, and the most highly stressed modes are identified. The surface pressures are further analyzed in the wavenumber domain for insight into the physics of sonic fatigue. Most of the energy in the wall pressure wavenumber-frequency spectrum at subsonic speeds is in turbulent structures near the convective wavenumber. In supersonic flow, however, the shock region dominates the spectrum at low frequencies, but convective behavior is still dominant at higher frequencies. When the forcing function wavenumber energy overlaps the modal wavenumbers, the acceptance of energy by the structure from the flow field is greatest. The wavenumber analysis suggests a means of designing structures to minimize overlap of excitation and structural wavenumber peaks to minimize vibration and sonic fatigue.

  18. Aero-Effected Flight Control Using Distributed Active Bleed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    Caltagirone, J.-P., “Sur les conditions hydrodynamique au voisinage d’une interface milieu fluide-milieu poreux; application à la convection naturelle ...vorticity from an airfoil that is oscillating time-periodically in pitch with a significant increase in the stall angle due to convective flow time-lag

  19. Atmospheric Turbulence Modeling for Aero Vehicles: Fractional Order Fits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopasakis, George

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric turbulence models are necessary for the design of both inlet/engine and flight controls, as well as for studying coupling between the propulsion and the vehicle structural dynamics for supersonic vehicles. Models based on the Kolmogorov spectrum have been previously utilized to model atmospheric turbulence. In this paper, a more accurate model is developed in its representative fractional order form, typical of atmospheric disturbances. This is accomplished by first scaling the Kolmogorov spectral to convert them into finite energy von Karman forms and then by deriving an explicit fractional circuit-filter type analog for this model. This circuit model is utilized to develop a generalized formulation in frequency domain to approximate the fractional order with the products of first order transfer functions, which enables accurate time domain simulations. The objective of this work is as follows. Given the parameters describing the conditions of atmospheric disturbances, and utilizing the derived formulations, directly compute the transfer function poles and zeros describing these disturbances for acoustic velocity, temperature, pressure, and density. Time domain simulations of representative atmospheric turbulence can then be developed by utilizing these computed transfer functions together with the disturbance frequencies of interest.

  20. Process fluids of aero-hydraulic systems and their properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Shumilov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers process fluids, which are presently applied to aviation hydraulic systems in domestic and world practice. Aviation practice deals with rather wide list of fluids. Based on the technical specification a designer makes the choice of specific fluid for the specific aircraft. Process fluids have to possess the specified properties presented in the article, namely: lubricating properties; stability of physical and chemical characteristics at operation and storage; lowtemperature properties; acceptable congelation temperature; compatibility with materials of units and components of hydraulic systems; heat conductivity; high rigidity; minimum low coefficient of volume expansion; fire-explosion safety; low density. They should also have good dielectric properties, be good to resist to destruction of molecules, have good anticorrosion and antierosion properties, as well as not create conditions for emerging electro-kinetic erosion of spooltype and other precision devices, and a number of other properties.The article presents materials on the oil-based process fluids with + (200-320 °C boiling temperature, gelled by a polymer of vinyl butyl ether, with aging inhibitor and dye for hydraulic systems of the subsonic and transonic aircraft which are combustible, with a temperature interval of use from — 60oС до +125oС. It also describes materials on process fluids, which are based on the mix of polydialkylsiloxane oligomers with organic diester aging inhibitors, and wear-resistant additive to be applied to the hydraulic systems of supersonic aircrafts using a fluid within the temperature interval from - 6О oС to +175oС for a long duration. The fire-explosion safety process fluids representing a mix of phosphoric esters with additives to improve viscous, anti-oxidizing, anticorrosive and anti-erosive properties are considered as well. They are used within the temperature range from - 60оС to +125оС with overheats up to +150оС.The article shows experimentally attained properties of process fluids for the aviation hydraulic systems. These properties are essential in design engineering and operation of aircraft equipment.

  1. Aero-Thermodynamic Distortion Induced Structured Dynamic Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-04

    34 Whitelkad. D. S.. l117. "Classiga Two.l-Dlaceka Mcthods." AGAPE ) ASMlE Jowm-A tw Tuauwnemaamav. Vol 109. No. 4. pp. 49 V0. Manvol an ,ercrwnwy w Azl...Smith (91. frequency nspa, in term of gain attenuation and phase shift. are not affected by the reverse mounting technique. Thenmaimumn ero in San Il...oems c*a d m ta n per d ad lower boudules and sowed. aI I oEwith a 0.7S reduod ftpe•uvdl.afemA u For a on- ero , bleba phase regle the wo phase an&le Mach

  2. Aero-Elastic Optimization of a 10 MW Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahle, Frederik; Tibaldi, Carlo; Verelst, David Robert

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a multi-disciplinary optimization and analysis tool for wind turbines that is based on the open-source framework OpenMDAO. Interfaces to several simulation codes have been implemented which allows for a wide variety of problem formulations and combinations of models. In thi...

  3. Aero dynamical and mechanical behaviour of the Savonius rotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aouachria, Z. [Batna Univ., (Algeria). Applied Energetic Physics Laboratory

    2009-07-01

    Although the Savonius wind turbine is not as efficient as the traditional Darrieus wind turbine, its rotor design has many advantages such as simple construction; acceptance of wind from all directions; high starting torque; operation at relatively low speed; and easy adaptation to urban sites. These advantages may outweigh its low efficiency and make it suitable for small-scale power requirements such as pumping and rural electrification. This paper presented a study of the aerodynamic behaviour of a Savonius rotor, based on blade pressure measurements. A two-dimensional analysis method was used to determine the aerodynamic strengths, which leads to the Magnus effect and the generation of the vibrations on the rotor. The study explained the vibratory behaviour of the rotor and proposed an antivibration system to protect the machine. 14 refs., 1 tab., 9 figs.

  4. Denutrition et cancers des voies aero-digestives superieures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Head and neck cancer and its treatment are responsible in more than 30% of cases of malnutrition witch can be severe and interfere with the management of these tumors. The aim of this paper is to provide a protocol for nutritional management practices of these cancers. The malnutrition diagnosis requires an examination ...

  5. Aero Engine Fault Diagnosis Using an Optimized Extreme Learning Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyi Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A new extreme learning machine optimized by quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO is developed in this paper. It uses QPSO to select optimal network parameters including the number of hidden layer neurons according to both the root mean square error on validation data set and the norm of output weights. The proposed Q-ELM was applied to real-world classification applications and a gas turbine fan engine diagnostic problem and was compared with two other optimized ELM methods and original ELM, SVM, and BP method. Results show that the proposed Q-ELM is a more reliable and suitable method than conventional neural network and other ELM methods for the defect diagnosis of the gas turbine engine.

  6. Airborne Aero-Optics Laboratory - Transonic (AAOL-T)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-03

    NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES). Enter the name and address of the organization(s) financially responsible for and monitoring the work. 10. SPONSOR...Also, in [2] it was shown that at subsonic speeds over a range of viewing angles between 90° and 100°, a local separation bubble forms over the flat...behavior is very similar to OPDRMS results at M = 0.5. For a higher M = 0.7, the location of the local peak due to the separation bubble is around 90

  7. Nädalavahetusel saab alguse süvakultuuri festival "Ariel"

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    26.-27. okt. toimub Tallinnas V juudi süvakultuuri festival "Ariel", mille peaesinejaks on klarnetist David Krakauer ansambliga Klezmer Madness1 USAst. Lisaks annavad kontserdi solist Sofia Rubina ja ansambel Vox Clamantis

  8. Instituutide areng saab paika / Paavo Kaimre, Rando Värnik, Illar Lemetti, Ants Soon...[jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Koostatavaid arengukavasid tutvustavad Metsandus- ja maaehitusinstituudi direktor Paavo Kaimre, Majandus- ja sotsiaalinstituudi direktor Rando Värnik, Põllumajandus- ja keskkonnainstituudi direktor Illar Lemetti, Tehnikainstituudi direktor Ants Soon ja Veterinaarmeditsiini ja loomakasvatuse instituudi direktor Toomas Tiirats

  9. Väliskaubandusstatistikat saab ettevõtja äris kasutada / Allar Aron

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aron, Allar, 1973-

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 14. sept. lk. 21. Statistikaameti väliskaubandusstatistika talituse juhataja võrdleb Eesti väliskaubandusstatistikat enne ja pärast ühinemist Euroopa Liiduga. Lisa: Aruanne sisaldab infot kauba kohta. Vt. samas lühiintervjuusid Outokumpu Baltic OÜ tegevjuhi Marko Peetsalu ja Linette AS-i müügidirektori Vello-Maido Koorega

  10. Neli kulda juunioride MM-ilt. Mis saab edasi? / Märt Roosna

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Roosna, Märt

    2006-01-01

    Juunioride kergejõustiku MM-il Pekingis võitsid eestlased neli kuldmedalit: Kaire Leibak kolmikhüppes, Marek Niit 200 m jooksus, Margus Hunt kuulitõukes ja kettaheites. Lisaks vestlus Kaire Leibaku treeneri Kersti Viruga, Marek Niiduga ja Margus Hundiga

  11. Infot saab hallata kõik-ühes portaalitarkvaraga / Jaak Ennuste

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ennuste, Jaak

    2003-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 17. dets. lk. 23. Microsofti poolt turule toodud infoportaali tarkvara SharePoint Portal Server 2003 võimaldab kõiki infotöötlemise protsesse hallata ühes keskkonnas ja on mõeldud eelkõige informatsiooniga töötavatele ettevõtetele. Lisa: Portaali juurutamine ettevõttes

  12. Kas katastroofifilm saab tõeks? / Margot Wallström

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Wallström, Margot

    2004-01-01

    Katastroofifilm "Päev pärast homset" ("The Day After Tomorrow") : režissöör Roland Emmerich : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2004. Euroopa Liidu keskkonnavolinik vaeb filmi sündmustiku võimalikkust kliima muutumise tagajärjel, mis omakorda sõltub suuresti riikide poliitilistest otsustest

  13. Kas terrorismi saab neutraalselt defineerida? = Is it possible to define terrorism neutrally? / Marek Järvik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Järvik, Marek

    2006-01-01

    Terrorismi definitsioon, vägivald, poliitilised eesmärgid, terrorism ja kuritegevus, avalikkus, revolutsioon ja vabadusvõitlus. Ettekanne Kaasaegse Kunsti Eesti Keskuse 4. ettekannete päeval "Kunstnike moraalsed valikud kultuurikonfliktides" Tallinna Kunstihoones 27.04.2006. Bibliograafia lk. 99

  14. Eesti aidsiennetus saab 52 miljonit välisraha / Rando Tooming

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tooming, Rando

    2003-01-01

    Rahvusvaheline finantsorganisatsioon Global Fund (Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria) annab Eestile 2 aasta jooksul aidsiennetustööks 52 miljonit krooni. Kommenteerib Nelli Kalikova

  15. Kuningas loodab teha kirgliku lavastuse : "Jevgeni Oneginist" saab Eesti ja Soome ooperikoolituse alustala

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    Sibeliuse akadeemia ja Eesti muusikaakadeemia lauluosakonna juhatajad allkirjastasid ühiste kavatsuste protokolli, mille kohaselt tuuakse ühiste jõududega välja Pjotr Tshaikovski ooper "Jevgeni Onegin"

  16. Tallinna ülikooli uueks südameks saab avar loovainete hoovimaja / Mari Kodres

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kodres, Mari

    2009-01-01

    Tallinna Ülikooli linnaku arhitektuurivõistluse võitsid Salto AB OÜ arhitektid Ralf Lõoke, Karli Luik ja Maarja Kask. Ülikoolil on soov kujundada peamiselt Balti Filmi- ja Meediakoolile koduks saavast hoonest ning hoovialast ülikooli uus süda. Uute õppekavadena pakub Tallinna Ülikool tuleva aasta sügisest magistritasemel infotehnoloogia ettevõtluse ja haridustehnoloogia õpet, doktoriõppe tasemel infoühiskonna tehnoloogia õpet

  17. FSB : terror saab tuge välismaa MTÜdelt / Oliver Tiks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tiks, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    Venemaa föderaalse julgeolekuteenistuse FSB peadirektor Nikolai Patrushev süüdistab välismaiseid valitsusväliseid organisatsioone rahvusvaheliste terroristide aitamises, värvates terroristide toetajaid Venemaa territooriumil

  18. Millises Ida-Euroopa riigis saab kõige vabamalt äri teha?

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Finansovõi Menedzhment : infovõpusk nr. 11 veebr. lk. 8-9. Heritage Foundation'i ja Wall Street Journal'i edetabeli järgi on Eesti majandusvabaduse poolest maailmas 12. kohal. Lisa: Majandusvabaduse indeksi kümme komponenti. Tabel: Majandusvabadus Euroopas: Heritage Foundationi ja Wall Street Journali 2007. aasta edetabel

  19. President saab uue ja turvalisema ametiauto, margiks endiselt Audi / Tiina Kaukvere

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaukvere, Tiina

    2011-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilvese uueks ametiautoks on Audi A8 L 3.0 TDI Quattro Tiptronic. Rendilepingu tingimustest. Vt. ka juhtkiri lk. 8: Jõulud: presidendile Audi, kodutule saun. Lk. 8 ka karikatuur

  20. Sallivus saab alguse teisejärgulistest kodanikest / John Randolph Lucas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lucas, John Randolph, 1929-

    2011-01-01

    Vabadusest, võrdsusest, sallivusest. Igasuguse võrdsuse korral tuleb määrata, millises mõttes inimesed on või peaksid olema võrdsed. Niisamuti peab sallivuse korral arvesse võtma sellega vältimatult kaasnevaid piiranguid

  1. Skypega saab sügisest helistada sama lihtsalt kui tavatelefoniga / Henrik Roonemaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Roonemaa, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    Eesti programmeerijate abiga loodud tasuta helistamist võimaldavast internetitelefonist Skype, mille tarbeks toob Siemens müügile spetsiaalse juhtmeta lauatelefoni koos arvuti külge käiva adapteriga

  2. "Vaibaparadiisist" saab puhkajate paradiis / Jukka-Pekka Pajunen ; interv. Margit Aedla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pajunen, Jukka-Pekka

    2005-01-01

    Kinnisvarafirma Arco Vara ja Soome juhtiv vaba aja sisustaja Holiday Club Finland kavandavad Tallinnasse aastaks 2007 Põhjamaade suurimat spaahotelli. Holiday Club Finlandi projektidirektor spaade turust Eestis, Holiday City Tallinna spaa eripärast ja eelistest võrreldes teiste Eesti spaadega, selle sihtrühmast ning hindadest, Soomes tegutsevatest spaadest. Lisad: Holiday City Tallinn; Taust. Kommenteerib Arco Vara investeerimisdivisjoni projektijuht Jüri Kuusk

  3. Kas Euroopast saab maailma südametunnistus? / Jeremy Rifkin ; interv. Arko Olesk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rifkin, Jeremy

    2005-01-01

    Raamatu "European Dream" ("Euroopa unelm") autor sõnul valitseb maailmas väärarusaam Ameerika majanduse suurest jõust, mis vastandub hääbuvale ja laialilagunevale Euroopa majandusele. Tema arvates on Euroopale väljakutse see, kuidas avatakse oma uksed ulatuslikule immigratsioonile, sest seda on vaja madala iibe pärast

  4. Mahtras saab näha ja kuulda "Mahtra sõda" / Tõnu Tamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tamm, Tõnu

    2008-01-01

    30. mail Raplamaal Juurus ajaloolise Atla-Eeru kõrtsi ees toimuvast "Mahtra sõja" ettelugemisest. Mahtra sõja 150. aastapäevale pühendatud lugemisetendust lavastab Ago-Endrik Kerge. Loevad näitlejad koos eri vanuses ja eri paigust vabatahtlikega

  5. Ettevõtte saab pankroti asemel uuesti jalule tõsta / Rein Lang

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lang, Rein, 1957-

    2008-01-01

    Seaduseelnõust, millega luuakse makseraskustesse sattunud firmade jaoks saneerimismenetlus, mis on alternatiiv senisele pankrotimenetlusele. Ilmunud ka Sakala 29. juuli 2008, lk. 2, pealkiri kujul: menetlus aitab makseraskustes ettevõtte jalule ; Pärnu Postimees 30. juuli 2008, lk. 15 ; Põhjarannik 29. juuli 2008, lk. 2 ; Võrumaa Teataja 31. juuli 2008, lk. 2 ; Koit 31. juuli 2008, lk. 6 ; Kuulutaja 1. august 2008, lk. 4 ; Nädaline 5. aug. 2008, lk. 4 ; Oma Saar 5. aug. 2008, lk. 5

  6. Maailma farmaatsiatööstus saab Tartust topeltkiirenduse / Nils Niitra

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Niitra, Nils, 1975-

    2004-01-01

    Tänavu sügisel valmib Tartu Ülikoolis Euroopa Liidu rahastatud molekulaardisaini süsteem, mis kahandab uute ravimite väljatöötamise kestust maailmas seniselt 15 aastalt 7-8 aastani. Lisad: Mis on molekulaardisain?, Mis on grid? Vt. ka Postimehes pealk. all: Tartu Ülikool aitab ravimitootjaid

  7. "Kõike saab teha, miski ei näi enam imelik" / Triin Ojari

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ojari, Triin, 1974-

    2005-01-01

    Valgusinstallatsioonist Tallinnas Raekoja platsil 2005. aasta veebruaris. Hollandi arhitekt Winy Maas räägib 1991. aastal asutatud arhitektuuribüroo MVRDV tegevusest. Büroo asutajateks olid arhitektid Winy Maas, Jacob van Rijs ja Nathalie de Vries

  8. Toetusi saab küsida ka LEADER-programmi raames / Raavo Raadik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raadik, Raavo

    2011-01-01

    Eesti Hobusekasvatajate Seltsi raskeveohobuse kasvatajate haruseltsi juht Enn Rand on LEADER-programmi abil oluliselt arendanud Pärnumaal Tõstamaa vallas asuvat Maria talu, mis on praeguseks muutunud maakonnas arvestatavaks puhke- ja spordikeskuseks

  9. Tapa väljaõppekeskus saab uued haubitsad / Sergei Klaasen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Klaasen, Sergei, 1964-

    2008-01-01

    Kaitseministeeriumi kaitseinvesteeringute asekantsler Martin Hurt kohtus Soome relvastusdirektori Eero Levoneniga, kellega arutati põhjanaabritelt 22 mm haubitsate hankimist Tapa väljaõppekeskuse suurtükigrupile

  10. Unes saab mitut moodi kõndida / Lauri Kärk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kärk, Lauri, 1954-

    2002-01-01

    Pimedate Ööde Filmifestivali raames toimuva tudengifilmide festivali programmist "Vanad ja väärikad", kus näidati maailmakuulsate režissööride esimesi katsetusi ning kuulsate eksperimentaalfilmide autorite underground-filmide kavast

  11. Walesa : kommunism saab kohtupäeva / Lech Walesa ; interv. Erkki Bahovski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Walesa, Lech

    2006-01-01

    Poola kunagise vabadusliikumise Solidaarsus üks juhte, Poola endine president Lech Walesa vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad tema autasustamist Maarjamaa Risti esimese klassi ordeniga, suhtumist endistesse kommunistidesse, Venemaa suhteid Poolaga ning Poola arengut pärast ühinemist Euroopa Liiduga. Lisa: CV

  12. Viljandi saab veel ühe teatri / Margus Haav ; kommenteerinud Hillar Sein

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Haav, Margus, 1969-

    2009-01-01

    Viljandi kultuurimajas hakkab tegutsema rahvateater "Seasaare näitemängu selts". Asutajad Tiit Kalmet ja Aivar Trallmann. Avaetendusena tuuakse 6. jaanuaril publiku ette Aivar Trallmanni kirjutatud ja Margus Vaheri lavastatud lugu "Kui onu teatrit tegi"

  13. Eesti politsei saab uued sõrmejälgede võtmise aparaadid / Olger Nõmm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nõmm, Olger

    2005-01-01

    PHARE programmi kaasabil teostuvast AFIS-i (Automated Fingerprint Identification System) projektist, mille raames Eesti Politsei ja Piirivalveamet saavad kaasaegsed sõrmejälgede võtmise seadmed. Hangitavate seadmete tüübid. Vt. samas: Projektist on kasu kolmele ametkonnale

  14. Hahni pubist saab kord nädalas džässiklubi / Marge Lumisalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lumisalu, Marge

    2009-01-01

    Eesti Draamateatri näitleja Guido Kanguri eestvõttel kõlab Pärnus C. F. Hahni pubis (Riia mnt 129a) kolmapäeviti džässmuusika. 7. oktoobril toimunud esimesel kontserdil esinenud ansamblist Ajavares

  15. Sänna mõisast saab kultuuri- ja loomekeskus / Kaile Kabun

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kabun, Kaile

    2009-01-01

    Sänna kultuurimõisa esimese hooaja juhatab sisse 27. veebruaril valguspidu. Mõisa õuel näeb prantsuse kunstniku valgusskulptuure. Kultuurimõisa rajamine on Rõuge vallavalitsuse ja Tallinna kultuuritehase Polymer ühisettevõtmine. Loomeinimeste residentsi ja töötubade sisseseadmise kavast

  16. Plektrumil saab MediaLabis digikunstniku tööd proovida / Anne Vetik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vetik, Anne

    2006-01-01

    Eesti Meediakunstnike Ühingu ja Kultuuritehase Polymer koostöös sündinud "MediaLab Tallinn" Madara 22 tutvustab ennast 15.-19. nov. 2006. a. visuaalsete helide festivalil Plektrum. Piibe Piirma ja Marge Paasi sõnul piiritlevad nad oma tegevust sõnadega "digitaalne kunst"

  17. Papp-prillid pähe : täna õhtul saab stereokino / Maris Meiessaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Meiessaar, Maris

    2008-01-01

    Animafilmide festivali "Animated Dreams" loenguprogrammis Keyframes esineb täna Von Krahli teatris hollandi stereofilmi guru Alexander Lentjes. Filmide osas näeb ka Andres Tenusaare uut stereofilmi "Miriami piknik"

  18. Kui euro saab saatuslikuks / Paul Krugman ; tõlkinud Priit Simson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Krugman, Paul, 1953-

    2010-01-01

    USA majandusprofessori hinnangul ei ole eelarvedistsipliin Euroopa hädade kogu põhjus, ka mitte Kreekas. Tegelik põhjus peitub poliitilises eliidis, mis survestas Euroopat eurole üle minema oluliselt varem, kui Euroopa selliseks katsetuseks valmis oli. Kriisi keskmes asetseb euro paindumatus, mitte eelarvedefitsiidini viiv kulutamine

  19. Bioetanooli saab prügist / Mette Hedegaard Thomsen ; interv. Sten-Aleks Pihlak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard

    2008-01-01

    Taani Tehnikaülikooli Riso laboratooriumi teaduri Mette Hedegaard Thomseni sõnul suudab teise põlvkonna bioetanoolitehas teha kütust kõikvõimalikest jäätmetest ning on samas palju loodussõbralikum. Kommenteerib Robert Antropov

  20. Tallinna esimene elektrijaam saab 24. märtsil 91-aastaseks / Robert Nerman

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nerman, Robert, 1946-2015

    2004-01-01

    Tallinna Linna Elektri Keskjaama ajaloost. Elektrijaama masinajaama, katlamaja ja kontorihoone projekteeris arhitekt G. (?) Schmidt. Hoonete ehitust juhatas insener P. Kürenius. Telliskorstna rajas insener J. Russwurmi ehituskontor

  1. Tartu Ülikooli Voroneži kunstikogu saab kataloogi / Inge Kukk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kukk, Inge, 1955-

    2005-01-01

    Tartu Ülikooli Voronežis asuvate kunstivarade kataloogi "Dorpat-Jurjev-Tartu ja Voronež : ülikooli kunstikogu saatus" tutvustus. Valmis kataloogi esimese osa käsikiri. Lühidalt kunstikogu ajaloolisest saatusest

  2. Eduka ettevõtte aluseks saab olla vaid looming / Ave Schmidt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Schmidt, Ave

    2010-01-01

    Tänapäeva ettevõttele tagavad konkurentsieelise inspiratsioon ja originaalsed ideed. Arvamust avaldavad Tallinna kohviku Nop asutaja Margit Aasmäe, Estonian Airi arendusdirektor Gunnar Mägi, Tallinna Kaubamaja müügi- ja turundusdirektor Enn Parel ja Balteco disainijuht Aivar Habakukk

  3. Kas Euroopa saab Euroopaks? / Timothy Garton Ash ; tõlk. Aet Varik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Garton Ash, Timothy, 1955-

    2002-01-01

    3. aprillil 1996 peetud Sanford S. Elbergi nim. loeng California Ülikooli (Berkeley) Rahvusvaheliste Uuringute Instituudis. Euroopa määratlus enne 1945. aastat, 1945-1989, külma sõja järgsel perioodil ja tänapäeval

  4. Loomakahjustuste hüvitamistaotlusi saab esitada oktoobri lõpuni / Agnes Jürgens

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jürgens, Agnes, 1954-

    2008-01-01

    Keskkonnaminister allkirjastas määruse, mille alusel hakkab riiklik looduskaitsekeskus tegelema hüljeste, rändlindude, karu, hundi, ilvese, euroopa naaritsa, meri- ja kalakotka tekitatud kahju hüvitamisega. Ilmunud ka Harju Ekspress 17. okt. 2008, lk. 8 ; Koit 18. okt. 2008, lk. 3 ; Sõnumitooja 22. okt. 2008, lk. 6 ; Pärnu Postimees 24. okt. 2008, lk. 15

  5. Võru saab tähtpäevaks omapärase skulptuuri

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Võru linna 220. sünnipäevaks augustis peaks valmima monument "Lamav sõbralikkus". Figuur valmistatakse pinnasest, teda hakkab katma muru ja väike igihali, kivid figuuri embusse paigutavad Võru sõpruslinnade esindajad. Idee autor Andrus Needo, haljastuse kujundaja Risto Aim

  6. Ettevõtja saab maaostuks laenu / Silja Lättemäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lättemäe, Silja, 1952-

    2004-01-01

    Maaelu Edendamise Sihtasutus annab maaostuks laenu 25 aastaks intressiga 6% aastas. Tabel: Kutsekoolidele jagatavad MES-i stipendiumid. Vt. ka: Kuidas hindate MESi tööd? Küsimusele vastab Eesti Põllumajandus-Kaubanduskoja juhatuse esimees Ester Tuiksoo

  7. Eesmärgiks saab olla vaid mõistlik elukorraldus / Kalev Kotkas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kotkas, Kalev, 1960-

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Sotsiaaldemokraat okt. nr. 133 lk. 6. Riigikogu maaelukomisjoni esimehe sõnul on Eesti haldusterritoriaalse reformi süsteemitu käsitlemine tekitanud omavalitsustasandil palju asjatuid probleeme ja pingeid

  8. Kas õpetajate professionaalne areng saab toimuda e-toel? / Piret Luik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Luik, Piret, 1967-

    2015-01-01

    Õpetajate professionaalne areng on tõusnud päevakorda kogu Euroopas ja viinud õpetajakoolituse reformimiseni. Tartu ülikooli haridusteaduste instituut koostöös partneritega Euroopa ülikoolidest kutsus personaalsemate e-kursuste loomiseks 2013. aastal ellu Lifelong Learningi projekti „Social Networks in Teacher Education” (SoNetTE)

  9. Loodusfotograaf Sven Začek saab lindudega sõbraks / interv. Kristjan Roos

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Začek, Sven, 1980-

    2012-01-01

    Tartu lähedal Kõrvekülas elavast 31-aastasest loodusfotograafist Sven Začekist sai Remo Savisaare ja Priit Vesilinnu kõrval kolmas eestlane, kelle fotosid on avaldanud mainekas loodusajakiri National Geographic

  10. Läti kunstnike näitust saab vaadata Järvamaa Muuseumis / Taive Kuuse

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuuse, Taive

    1999-01-01

    Järvamaa muuseumis avatud läti kunstnike maalide ja keraamika näitusest, kus esinevad eesti päritolu Salduse muuseumi kunstnik Rita Armulik ning Salduse kunstikooli õpetajad Zigrida Buzoverova ja Gunta Kraulepe

  11. Balti film saab tugev olla ainult üheskoos / Soren E. Jakobsen ; interv. Triin Tammert

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jakobsen, Soren E.

    2005-01-01

    Lühiintervjuu Tallinnas viibinud Põhjamaade-Balti filmifondi nõukogu esimees. Fond rahastab Tallinna loodavat Balti filmi- ja meediakooli, mis peab hakkama andma professionaalset tehnilist kaadrit balti filmitootmisele

  12. Mis saab Tallinna Polütehnikumist? / Sirje Tohver ; kommenteerib Mati Kask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tohver, Sirje, 1948-

    2000-01-01

    Tallinna Polütehnikumi liitmisest Tallinna Kõrgema Tehnikakõrgkooliga. Arvamust avaldavad TPT õppealadirektor Jüri Mickfeldt ja AS Eesti Telefon IP Teenused turundusjuht Avo-Rein Tereping (TPT vilistlane, kooli nõukogu liige)

  13. Iseseisvuspäeval saab teenetemärgi 268 inimest

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilves kirjutas 6. veebruaril 2008 alla otsusele, millega andis seoses iseseisvuspäevaga ja Eesti riigile osutatud teenete tunnustamiseks 268 Eesti Vabariigi kodanikule või välismaalasele riiklikud autasud. Ilmunud ka: Eesti Elu 8. veebr. 2008, lk.16, pealk.: President Ilves andis riikliku autasu 268 inimesele

  14. Vanilla Ninjast saab vene bänd / Viktoria Ladõnskaja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ladõnskaja, Viktoria, 1981-

    2007-01-01

    Plaadifirmalt Topten Vanilla Ninja lepingu ära ostnud jurist Aleksander Simakov kuulutab välja konkursi bändi uute tüdrukute leidmiseks, bänd koosseisus Piret Järvis, Lenna Kuurmaa ja Katrin Siska kavatsevad ka Vanilla Ninja nime all jätkata

  15. Puhkusereisist saab ohtlik seiklus. Kas reisija või reisikorraldaja risk? / Maria Pihlak, Urmas Volens

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pihlak, Maria, 1988-

    2017-01-01

    Reisi ohtlikuks muutumisega seonduvast riskijaotusest võlaõigusseaduse alusel ja asjakohasest kohtupraktikast. Reisikorraldaja teavitamiskohustusest ja pakettreisilepingu ülesütlemisest vääramatu jõu tõttu

  16. Juba kaevandatud raba saab taas elule äratada / Ulvar Käärt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Käärt, Ulvar, 1982-

    2010-01-01

    Tallinna Ülikooli ökoloogia instituudi teadlaste katsetustest taastada turbakaevandustest maha jäänud jääksoodes turbakihti kasvatavad turbasamblad. Katse käigus külvati 2007. aastal Lahemaa rahvuspargis asuva Viru raba tühjaks kaevandatud osa katselapile lõigatud turbasammalt. Teema kohta jagab selgitusi uuringut vedav ökoloogia instituudi soodeuurija Mati Ilomets

  17. Ameerika pidu saab läbi / Hans-Werner Sinn

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sinn, Hans-Werner, 1948-

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 26. märts lk. 33. Jooksevkonto defitsiit, ülemäärane tarbimine ja katteta laenud USA-s on toonud lõpu ebatavaliselt pikale majanduskasvu perioodile maailmamajanduses

  18. President saab õlgadele paljude vääriskividega kuldse ametiketi / Allar Viivik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Viivik, Allar

    2008-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilves kannab Eesti Vabariigi aastapäeval Riigivapi ketiklassi teenetemärki, mille valmistamiseks kulus ligi 900 grammi kulda, üks rubiin, kolm safiiri ja 96 briljanti. Teenetemärgi valmimisest räägib riigikantselei sümboolikanõunik Gert Uiboaed. Lisatud fotod: Riigipea uued ametitunnused - kuldkett, erisuurpael ja suurtäht. Vt. samas: Presidendi ametitunnus 1940. aastani. Riigivapi teenetemärk ja Valgetähe teenetemärk valmistati kunstnik Paul Luhteina kavandite järgi. President Konstantin Päts kandis ametitunnust avalikult viimati 17. juunil 1940. Nõukogude okupatsioonirežiim röövis Eesti riigipea ametitunnuse ja aastast 1963 asub see Kremlis Relvapalatis

  19. Eestlane saab tööd ka Mustal Mandril / Reelika Võsang

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Võsang, Reelika

    2005-01-01

    Heategevusorganisatsiooni Humana People to People projektidega on võimalik liituda igaühel, kes ei karda väljakutseid, pingelist koolitust ja tööd ning soovib teisi aidata. Samas räägib vabatahtliku elust Aafrikas Jana Teppih. Lisa: Fakte aidsist

  20. Telepurgi videoid saab nüüd sõpradega jagada / Maris Männiste

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Männiste, Maris

    2011-01-01

    Euroopa Noored Telepurk on SA Archimedes Euroopa Noored Eesti Büroo poolt käima lükatud videokeskkond, mis koondab endasse nii noorteprojektide kestel valminud videoid, koolitusmeetodite läbimänge, seminaride ettekandeid

  1. Sillamäest saab Hollywoodi võtteplats / Teet Korsten

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Korsten, Teet, 1967-

    2008-01-01

    Maria Avdjushkol on valminud komöödiafilmistsenaarium "GEP ehk Garjatshije estonskije parni" USA firma Twentieth Century Fox jaoks, teemaks eestlased Venemaal seiklemas, näitlejateks venelased ja mängupaigaks Sillamäe. Taska Film oleks Eestipoolne osanik

  2. Bob Scott: Tallinn 2011 saab oma preemiaraha kätte / Bob Scott ; intervjueerinud Teele Tammeorg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Scott, Bob

    2010-01-01

    Euroopa kultuuripealinnade hindamiskomisjoni esimees räägib oma kohtumisest Tallinna linnapea Edgar Savisaare ja kultuuriministri Laine Jänesega ning sellest, et Tallinnal ja Eestil tuleb lisatoetuse saamiseks saata Euroopa Komisjonile vaid kiri, milles nad kinnitavad, et kultuuripealinna programmi jaoks on raha olemas

  3. Raskustes Onistari tennisehall saab rahasüsti / Toivo Tänavsuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tänavsuu, Toivo

    2005-01-01

    Rootsi investeerimisfondide haldusfirma Askembla Asset Management investeerib Onistari tennisehalli 20 miljonit krooni, kuhu rajab veekompleksi ja Eesti ühe suurema jõusaali. Lisa: Konkurent: julge ettevõtmine

  4. Mis saab maast, kui päike kustub? / Triin Tael

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tael, Triin

    2007-01-01

    Ulmefilm "Päikesepaiste" ("Sunshine") : režissöör Danny Boyle : Suurbritannia 2007. Lisaks Oxfordi ülikooli teadlase, dr. Chris Lintotti kommentaar "Tunnustatud teadlane : "Jabur idee, aga realistlik teostus"

  5. Kas talupidaja saab sõjaväest vabaks? / Carol Merzin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Merzin, Carol

    2006-01-01

    Vastab kaitseressursside ameti avalike suhete nõunik Carol Merzin. 16. apr. 2006 jõustunud kaitseväeteenistuse seaduse kohaselt võib kehvade majanduslike tingimuste korral kaitseväeteenistusest vabastamist taotleda

  6. Kosmosejaam saab lõpuks valmis. Ainult kui kauaks? / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2010-01-01

    2011. aastal valmiv maailma ainus mehitatud kosmosejaam ISS töötab praeguse plaani kohaselt 2015. aastani. Euroopa kosmoseagentuuri (ESA) juht Jean-Jacques Dordain peab jaama kasutamise lõpetamist veaks, ESA kogub ettepanekuid, kuidas jaamast rohkem kasu saada. Ettepanekutest jaamaga seotud kulude kokkuhoiuks

  7. Lembit Peterson: teatris saab tegelda südametunnistuse äratamisega / intervjueerinud Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Peterson, Lembit, 1953-

    2011-01-01

    Tahkuna tuletornis septembris esietendunud lavastusest "Üks suvepäev", mis jõudis Theatrumi teatrisaali. Näidendi autorist Jon Fossest. Sellest, kuidas tekkis mõte mängida etendust Tahkuna tuletornis. Lavastusest "Misantroop", mida etendatakse Kadrioru lossis. Theatrumi publikust, suhtlemisest publikuga, majanduslikust olukorrast

  8. Kas sotsiaalmeedias turundamiseks tehtud investeeringu tootlust saab mõõta? Donna L. Hoffman, Marek Fodor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hoffmann, Donna L.

    2010-01-01

    Sotsiaalmeedia vahendusel toimuva turunduse efektiivsuse mõõtmise võimalustest. Lisatud tabel : Sotsiaalmeediarakenduste olulisemad mõõdikud, süstematiseerituna võtmetähtsusega sotsiaalmeedia eesmärkide järgi

  9. Kuusalus saab rattad alla autotreileritööstus / Peep Talimaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Talimaa, Peep

    2008-01-01

    OÜ-le Trucks & Trailers kuuluvast Kuusalu treileritehasest. Lisa: Kuusalu treileritehase ajalugu ja eellugu; Autotreileri valmimine; Üldandmeid treilerite kohta; Kuusalu treileritehase ajalugu ja eellugu

  10. Uus äriidee - lemmik saab netti konto / Gert D. Hankewitz

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hankewitz, Gert D.

    2007-01-01

    Viis Eesti noort lõid portaali uniteddogsandcats.com, kuhu loomaomanikud saavad panna pilte oma koertest ja kassidest ning kirjutada lahti nende päevasündmusi. Vt. samas: Koer.ee omanik Hedvig Tahlfeldt: portaalidel on tulevikku. Kommenteerivad Jüri Kaljundi ja Andrei Korobeinik

  11. Peetri maja kant Kadriorus saab peagi uue näo / Ulvar Käärt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Käärt, Ulvar, 1982-

    2009-01-01

    Kadrioru pargis asuva Peeter I maja ja presidendi kantselei vahelise pargiala uuendustöödest. Vt. samas: Presidendi lossi esine suletakse. Peetri aia rekonstrueerimistööde käigus on plaanis pargi territooriumile üle viia ka praegu presidendi kantselei esist paraadplatsi läbiv kõnnitee, kuna kantseleil on plaanis hoone esine ümbritseda piirdeaiaga

  12. Maavanemaks saab tõenäoliselt Ago Silde / Külli Kriis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kriis, Külli, 1961-

    2004-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Severnoje Poberezhje, 18. juuni 2004, lk. 1; Narvskaja Nedelja, 19. juuni 2004, lk. 2. Narva kutseõppekeskuse direktori Ago Silde esitamisest Ida-Viru maavanema kandidaadiks. Kommentaarid Ida-Viru omavalitsusjuhtidelt ja Ago Sildelt. Lisa: Ago Silde

  13. Teatrikuul saab Tallinnas näha palju laste- ja nukuteatrit / Andres Keil

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Keil, Andres, 1974-

    2005-01-01

    20. märtsil on rahvusvaheline laste- ja noorteteatrite päev. Sel puhul korraldab ASSITEJ Eesti keskus Rahvusraamatukogu saalis minifestivali. 21. märtsil, ülemaailmsel nukuteatrite päeval korraldavad Eesti Nukuteater ja Rahvusvahelise Nukuteatrite Ühenduse UNIMA Eesti keskus "nukumaratoni". Lisatud Saksamaa GRIPS Teatri kunstilise juhi V. Ludwigi pöördumine üldsuse poole

  14. Koolipsühholoog saab hakkama / Kärt Käesel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Käesel, Kärt

    2007-01-01

    Pelgulinna Gümnaasiumi psühholoog räägib laste probleemidest, mida ei osata märgata. Need on : terviseprobleemid, psühhiaatrilised hädad, hüperaktiivsete laste probleemid, anoreksia, koduvägivald, koolivägivald

  15. Robert Antropov saab tagasi politseitööle / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2005-01-01

    25. augustil politseiameti peadirektori kohalt vabastatud Robert Antropov jätkab teenistust politseiameti politseidirektori ametikohal. Antropovi tööülesandeks uues ametis on tõhustada politsei ja siseministeeriumi koostööd. Vt. samas: Ansip toetab politseiameti kaotamise ideed

  16. Uudised : Tallinn toetab andekat tshellisti. "Klassikaraadio" saab viieaastaseks. VOP 35 / Hugo Alter

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alter, Hugo-Eduard, 1929-2003

    2000-01-01

    Tallinna linnavalitsus eraldas 12 500 krooni Tallinna kultuuriametile, et toetada A. Lendi osavõttu noorte tshellistide konkursist Austrias Liezenis 25.-30. apr. "Klassikaraadio" sünnipäevaüritustest 31.03-1.04. Möödunud nädalavahetusel Tallinnas toimunud pukpillimuusikakontsertidest, VOPi 35. aastapäeva kontserdist Mustpeade majas

  17. Frank Lloyd Wright - väike maja saab suureks : meistriklass / Pille Nagel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nagel, Pille

    2006-01-01

    Frank Lloyd Wrighti (1867-1959) eramuloomingust. Preeriamajadest, usonia majadest, krundist ja maastikust algavast arhitektuurist, katustest ja horisontaalsusest, plaanist, tasapindade ja kõrguste muutumistest, akendest, autovarjualustest, materjalidest ja värvidest, privaatsusest ja avatusest, inimlikust mõõtmest jm. 11 värv. vaadet, plaan

  18. Mahepõllumajandus saab parandada Läänemere seisundit / Anne Luik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Luik, Anne, 1949-

    2011-01-01

    BERAS projekti (Baltic Ecological Recycling Agriculture and Society Implementation) raames on esmatähtis anda edasi teadmisi, kuidas minna põllumajanduses üle ökoloogilisele taaskasutavale tootmisviisile

  19. Harjumaal saab suvel väärt teatrietendusi näha / Regina Lilleorg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lilleorg, Regina

    2009-01-01

    MTÜ R.A.A.A.M suvelavastustest: "Vahepeatus" Hüüru mõisas, autor-lavastaja Uku Uusberg; "Tuult tiibadesse!" Hüüru mõisas, autor-lavastaja Katrin Saukas; Mart Kivastiku "Käsu Hansu ajalootund" Viinistu Kunstimuuseumi vabaõhulaval, lavastaja Ingomar Vihmar; Martin Alguse "Päris pea ehk Kreutzwaldi sõber" Pärispea küla Seltsimaja õuel, lavastaja Ingomar Vihmar

  20. Eesti saab tõenäoliselt USA-lt pooletoobise viisavabaduse / Raimo Poom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poom, Raimo

    2008-01-01

    Algasid läbirääkimised USA-ga viisavabaduse saavutamiseks. USA eksperdid tulevad hindama Eesti riigipiiri pidavust, koostatakse vastastikuse arusaamise memorandum. Tõenäoliselt hakkab Eesti puhul kehtima teistsugune süsteem kui on praegu 27 riigil, kellel on USA-ga viisavabadus ja kellest 15 on EL-i nn vanad riigid. USA sisejulgeoleku ministeeriumi asekantsleri Richard Barthi seisukohti. Vt. samas: Eesti näide võib tekitada vastuolulist reaktsiooni