WorldWideScience

Sample records for sa perpetration compared

  1. [Victimologic studies--a comparative study of perpetrator-victim relations in homicide crimes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szewczyk, H; Selle, B; Daue, A

    1984-02-01

    Investigations into 404 homicide cases involving 422 perpetrators and 442 victims in the GDR are described as an introduction to a new subject, victimology , dealing with the importance of the relations between perpetrator and victim for the actual crime. Although certain uniform features are apparent, it is evident that relations between perpetrators and victims in the GDR differ considerably from those in other countries, especially in the case of countries with very high homicide rates.

  2. Perpetrator Disgust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch-Jurisic, Ditte Marie

    perpetrator disgust”. The central point of dispute is the moral significance of perpetrator disgust. Does the perpetrator’s bodily response indicate a subliminal awareness of the moral wrong of the act? I argue that perpetrator disgust can in some cases reflect a moral conflict, but warn against conflating...

  3. Perpetrator Abhorrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch-Jurisic, Ditte Marie

    2014-01-01

    Most contemporary research on disgust can be divided into “disgust advocates” and “disgust skeptics.” The so-called advocates argue that disgust can have a positive influence on our moral judgment; skeptics warn that it can mislead us toward prejudice and discrimination. This article compares...... this disagreement to a structurally similar debate in the field of genocide studies concerning the phe- nomenon of “perpetrator abhorrence.” While some soldiers report having felt strong disgust in the moment of committing or witnessing atrocity, scholars dis- agree on whether such disgust is moral in nature...

  4. Comparative Analysis of Personality Structures of the Perpetrators of Aggressive and Non-aggressive Offense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalashnikova A.S.,

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available problem of the emergence of aggressive behavior is seen through the analysis of the relationship of proagressive and inhibiting aggression personality structures. The study involved 54 men serving sentences for criminal offenses, of which 24 were accused for violent offenses and 30 - for offenses without resorting to violence. We used questionnaires to study the proagressive and deterring aggression personality structures. Statistical analysis was performed to reveal significant differences between groups and to determine correlations. On this basis, the correlations were interpreted with the help of not only quantitative but also qualitative analysis. The results showed no significant differences in the level of expression of aggression and aggression inhibitors between treatment groups, but we identified qualitative differences in the structural analysis of data from individual psychological characteristics that are expected to distinguish aggressive offenders from the perpetrators without violence.

  5. Perpetrator Disgust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch-Jurisic, Ditte Marie

    Some soldiers experience strong emotional outbursts and bodily discomfort – such as disgust, dizziness, fainting, nausea, vomiting and crying – in the moment of committing or witnessing atrocities. This dissertation delivers a systematic examination of this complex phenomenon that I call “perpetr......Some soldiers experience strong emotional outbursts and bodily discomfort – such as disgust, dizziness, fainting, nausea, vomiting and crying – in the moment of committing or witnessing atrocities. This dissertation delivers a systematic examination of this complex phenomenon that I call...

  6. Perpetration of teen dating violence in a networked society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korchmaros, Josephine D; Ybarra, Michele L; Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Boyd, Danah; Lenhart, Amanda

    2013-08-01

    Teen dating violence (TDV) is a serious form of youth violence that youth fairly commonly experience. Although youth extensively use computer-mediated communication (CMC), the epidemiology of CMC-based TDV is largely unknown. This study examined how perpetration of psychological TDV using CMC compares and relates to perpetration using longer-standing modes of communication (LSMC; e.g., face-to-face). Data from the national Growing up with Media study involving adolescents aged 14-19 collected from October 2010 to February 2011 and analyzed May 2012 are reported. Analyses focused on adolescents with a history of dating (n=615). Forty-six percent of youth daters had perpetrated psychological TDV. Of those who perpetrated in the past 12 months, 58% used only LSMC, 17% used only CMC, and 24% used both. Use of both CMC and LSMC was more likely among perpetrators who used CMC than among perpetrators who used LSMC. In addition, communication mode and type of psychological TDV behavior were separately related to frequency of perpetration. Finally, history of sexual intercourse was the only characteristic that discriminated between youth who perpetrated using different communication modes. Results suggest that perpetration of psychological TDV using CMC is prevalent and is an extension of perpetration using LSMC. Prevention should focus on preventing perpetration of LSMC-based TDV as doing so would prevent LSMC as well as CMC-based TDV.

  7. Perpetrator or victim?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Helle Rabøl

    and identifies a legally informed matrix, which points out unequivocal positions of perpetrators and victims. The policy document mixes the definition practices, which derive from the Olweus tradition on bullying research, into a law informed kind of discourse. Subsequently the policy document iterates...... a formally legal procedure from the domain of law, which includes 1. a description of the perpetrator, 2. a criminalisation of the act, succeeded by, 3. a claim of punishment and potential fixing of the sentence. As the analyses will show the trajectories of teacher participation, as practiced in everyday...

  8. Antecedents to the Perpetration of Domestic Violence in Curaçao

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van N.Ph.L.; Bruijn, de J.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTPrevious international studies have found collectivism and low gender empowerment to contribute to higher domestic violence perpetration by males, compared to females. Little is known about gender differences in domestic violence perpetration prevalence in collectivist countries with high ge

  9. Antecedents to the Perpetration of Domestic Violence in Curaçao

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van N.Ph.L.; Bruijn, de J.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Previous international studies have found collectivism and low gender empowerment to contribute to higher domestic violence perpetration by males, compared to females. Little is known about gender differences in domestic violence perpetration prevalence in collectivist countries with high g

  10. Antecedents to the Perpetration of Domestic Violence in Curaçao

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van N.Ph.L.; Bruijn, de J.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTPrevious international studies have found collectivism and low gender empowerment to contribute to higher domestic violence perpetration by males, compared to females. Little is known about gender differences in domestic violence perpetration prevalence in collectivist countries with high

  11. Comparative expression analysis of isolated human adipocytes and the human adipose cell lines LiSa-2 and PAZ6

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van E.A.; Bakker, A.H.; Kruyt, P.M.; Vink, C.; Saris, W.H.; Keijer, J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To obtain insight in the extent to which the human cell lines LiSa-2 and PAZ6 resemble isolated primary human adipocytes. Design: A combination of cDNA subtraction (representative difference analysis; RDA) and cDNA microarray analysis was used to select adipose specific genes to compare i

  12. Anger, hostility, internalizing negative emotions, and intimate partner violence perpetration: A meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkley, Erica L; Eckhardt, Christopher I

    2015-04-01

    Prior reviews have identified elevated trait anger as a risk factor for intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration. Given that 10 years have passed since the last comprehensive review of this literature, we provide an updated meta-analytic review examining associations among anger, hostility, internalizing negative emotions, and IPV for male and female perpetrators. One hundred and five effect sizes from 64 independent samples (61 studies) were included for analysis. IPV perpetration was moderately associated with the constructs of anger, hostility, and internalizing negative emotions. This association appeared stronger for those who perpetrated moderate to severe IPV compared to those who perpetrated low to moderate IPV, and did not vary across perpetrator sex, measurement method, relationship type, or perpetrator population. Implications and limitations of findings were reviewed in the context of theoretical models of IPV, and future directions for empirical and clinical endeavors were proposed.

  13. Anger, Hostility, Internalizing Negative Emotions, and Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration: A Meta-Analytic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkley, Erica; Eckhardt, Christopher I.

    2015-01-01

    Prior reviews have identified elevated trait anger as a risk factor for intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration. Given that 10 years have passed since the last comprehensive review of this literature, we provide an updated meta-analytic review examining associations among anger, hostility, internalizing negative emotions, and IPV for male and female perpetrators. One hundred and five effect sizes from 64 independent samples (61 studies) were included for analysis. IPV perpetration was moderately associated with the constructs of anger, hostility, and internalizing negative emotions. This association appeared stronger for those who perpetrated moderate to severe IPV compared to those who perpetrated low to moderate IPV, and did not vary across perpetrator sex, measurement method, relationship type, or perpetrator population. Implications and limitations of findings were reviewed in the context of theoretical models of IPV, and future directions for empirical and clinical endeavors were proposed. PMID:25752947

  14. A comparative study of stool antigen Immunocard STAT HpSA test with biopsy in diagnosis of H Pylori Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munish Rastogi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted on 78 cases in the Department of Medicine at G.S.V.M Medical College, Kanpur who reported with various gastrointestinal symptoms such as dyspepsia, heartburns, nausea, vomiting and loss of appetite. They all were advised for biopsy by the physician. Patients treated with antibiotics, bismuth or proton pump inhibitors within 4 weeks preceding the study were excluded. Invasive tests using mucosal biopsies including histology and rapid urease test (RUT were used to establish the gold standard in order to evaluate the accuracy of Immunocard STAT HpSA. Sensitivity, Specificity, Positive Predictive Value and Negative Predictive Value of Immunocard STAT HpSA as compared to gold standard were 95.5%, 81.8%, 96.9% and 75.0% respectively. It is thus concluded that the Immunocard STAT HpSA test has a diagnostic value comparable to the gold standard in detecting H Pylori. The sensitivity and specificity of the test is fair enough to be used as a test for screening purpose and also for diagnosis and treatment of H.Pylori infection in clinical practice

  15. Multi-perpetrator domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Michael

    2014-04-01

    A significant proportion of reports of domestic violence against women involve multiple perpetrators. Although the number of perpetrators has been consistently identified as a measure of abuse severity, only a minority of studies of domestic violence examine the role of multiple offenders. Data on multi-perpetrator domestic violence (MDV) is frequently removed from analysis in domestic violence studies, or multi-perpetrator incidents are treated as single-perpetrator incidents. However, the available research links MDV to negative mental and physical health outcomes, intimate partner homicide, homelessness among women, and severe mental illness and suicidality. This article reviews the available prevalence data on MDV and draws together research on the contexts in which MDV takes place. It highlights two groups that are particularly vulnerable to MDV: (1) girls and women partnered to members of gangs and organized crime groups and (2) girls and women in some ethnic minority communities. While discussions of honor in relation to domestic violence are often racialized in Western media, this article highlights the cross-cultural role of masculine honor in collective violence against women in the working class and impoverished communities of majority cultures as well as in migrant and ethnic minority communities. It is clear that such complex forms of violence present a range of challenges for intervention and treatment and the article emphasizes the need for specialized and coordinated modes of investigation, support, and care.

  16. The in vitro comparative cytopathology of a porcine rotavirus and the simian prototype (SA-11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lonien S.C.H.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A citopatologia in vitro de uma cepa de rotavírus porcino adaptado em cultura de células foi comparada à estirpe-protótipo símia (SA-11. O efeito citopático (ECP produzido pelos vírus foi semelhante embora a estirpe porcina tivesse apresentado algumas alterações diferentes, como o acentuado estreitamento do citoplasma, com grande perda do volume citoplasmático. O vírus porcino apresentou menor número de plaques de ECP porém com diâmetro maior em relação ao vírus símio, demonstrando maior capacidade de disseminação célula-célula, quase oito vezes mais, a julgar pelo diâmetro dos plaques de ECP. Os elementos do citoesqueleto das células infectadas revelaram uma reorganização semelhante para ambas as estirpes, não sendo possível observar nenhuma diferença, embora o ECP do vírus porcino tenha sido mais acentuado.

  17. Parental and School Bonding in Iranian Adolescent Perpetrators and Victims of Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohebbi, Mina; Mirnasab, Mirmahmoud; Wiener, Judith

    2016-01-01

    This study compared parental and school bonding in adolescents in Iran who are perpetrators of bullying, victims of bullying and not-involved in bullying. Secondary school students (N = 240) were selected by cluster random sampling and screening, and categorized as perpetrators of bullying (N = 80), victims of bullying (N = 80) and non-involved (N…

  18. Engaging in Violence on American Television: A Comparison of Child, Teen, and Adult Perpetrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Barbara J.; Colvin, Carolyn M.; Smith, Stacy L.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the perpetrators of violence on American television in terms of their chronological age. Compares the amount and nature of violence committed by child and teen characters to that committed by adult characters. Suggests that younger perpetrators are depicted in several ways that pose risks for the child viewer. (SG)

  19. Developmental Trajectories of (Cyber)Bullying Perpetration and Social Intelligence during Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabian, Sara; Vandebosch, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to examine bullying perpetration and social intelligence (SI), which is a sociocognitive characteristic that has been proposed as a possible regulator of traditional and cyberbullying. We compared SI for perpetrators and nonperpetrators of traditional bullying and/or cyberbullying and examined longitudinal…

  20. Developmental Trajectories of (Cyber)Bullying Perpetration and Social Intelligence during Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabian, Sara; Vandebosch, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to examine bullying perpetration and social intelligence (SI), which is a sociocognitive characteristic that has been proposed as a possible regulator of traditional and cyberbullying. We compared SI for perpetrators and nonperpetrators of traditional bullying and/or cyberbullying and examined longitudinal…

  1. The Association between Impulsivity, Trait Anger, and the Perpetration of Intimate Partner and General Violence among Women Arrested for Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Brasfield, Hope; Febres, Jeniimarie; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2011-01-01

    The problem of domestic violence is widespread, with research indicating men and women both perpetrate a substantial amount of aggression. However, aggression perpetrated by women is a relatively understudied area compared to aggression perpetrated by men. Additionally, research is needed to determine the correlates of aggression perpetration…

  2. Characteristics of Child Sexual Abuse Victims According to Perpetrator Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudin, Margaret M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Comparison of 87 child abuse victims of lone female perpetrators with 93 victims of lone male perpetrators found that female perpetrators abused children 3.3 years younger than male perpetrators. Both female and male perpetrators abused more girls than boys and did not differ in severity of abuse. (Author/DB)

  3. Abusive Head Trauma: A Perpetrator Confesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Erica; Shouldice, Michelle; Levin, Alex V.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To present a detailed confession from a perpetrator of Shaken Baby syndrome. Methods: Case study. Results: We present a confession of Shaken Baby syndrome describing how the perpetrator severely injured a 3 year old with repeated bursts of acceleration-deceleration (shaking). The child sustained retinal and intracranial hemorrhage.…

  4. Comparative Review of Abu al-Tayyib al-Mutanabbi’s & Masu’d Sa’d Salman Odes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    f Ishraqi

    2014-11-01

    This survey reviews similar contents of the two Divan using comparative aspect in Abu al-Tayyib and Masu’d Sa’d-i Salman’s poems. Several exemplifications show that Masu’d Sa’d-i Salman sometimes translated al-mutanbbi’s poets and used them artily. Sometimes however, we can find identical contents originating from connotation between the two poets, so they should not be considered as adoption or translation.

  5. Water SA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Vol 43, No 2 (2017) ... WaterSA publishes refereed, original work in all branches of water science, technology and engineering. ... Water SA is the WRC's accredited scientific journal which contains original research articles ... via linearized calibration method in the upstream of Huaihe River Basin, China ...

  6. Antecedents to the Perpetration of Domestic Violence in Curaçao

    OpenAIRE

    Wijk; Bruijn, de, CHMM Chris

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTPrevious international studies have found collectivism and low gender empowerment to contribute to higher domestic violence perpetration by males, compared to females. Little is known about gender differences in domestic violence perpetration prevalence in collectivist countries with high gender empowerment, for example Curaçao. Curaçao demonstrates gender similarity in committing domestic violence, resembling Western countries: 25–33 % have committed psychological domestic violence, ...

  7. Antecedents to the Perpetration of Domestic Violence in Curaçao

    OpenAIRE

    Wijk, van, C.A.P.; Bruijn, de, M.E.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTPrevious international studies have found collectivism and low gender empowerment to contribute to higher domestic violence perpetration by males, compared to females. Little is known about gender differences in domestic violence perpetration prevalence in collectivist countries with high gender empowerment, for example Curaçao. Curaçao demonstrates gender similarity in committing domestic violence, resembling Western countries: 25–33 % have committed psychological domestic violence, ...

  8. The weapon focus effect is weaker with Black versus White male perpetrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickel, Kerri L; Sneyd, Danielle E

    2017-04-23

    We compared the influence of a weapon's presence on eyewitnesses' memory for a White versus a Black male perpetrator. Prior data indicate that unusual objects in visual scenes attract attention and that a weapon's effect depends on how unusual it seems within the context in which it appears. Therefore, given the stereotype linking Black men and weapons, we predicted a weaker weapon focus effect with the Black perpetrator. The results of Experiment 1 supported this hypothesis using White and Black witnesses. Moreover, in Experiment 2 the weapon focus effect became nonsignificant when the Black perpetrator wore a style of clothing that is strongly associated with Black men. We propose that observing an armed Black perpetrator automatically activates a stereotype linking Black men with weapons and crime, which in turn reduces the perceived unusualness of the weapon and thus its ability to attract attention.

  9. Impact of Adverse Childhood Experiences on Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration among Sri Lankan Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseka, Ruvani W.; Minnis, Alexandra M.; Gomez, Anu Manchikanti

    2015-01-01

    In Sri Lanka, over one in three women experience intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization in their lifetime, making it a serious public health concern. Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) such as child abuse and neglect, witnessing domestic violence, parental separation, and bullying are also widespread. Studies in Western settings have shown positive associations between ACEs and IPV perpetration in adulthood, but few have examined this relationship in a non-Western context. In the present study, we examined the association of ACEs with IPV perpetration among Sri Lankan men surveyed for the UN Multi-Country Study on Men and Violence in Asia and the Pacific. We found statistically significant positive associations between the number of ACE categories (ACE score) and emotional, financial, physical, and sexual IPV perpetration among Sri Lankan men. We analyzed the contributions of each ACE category and found that childhood abuse was strongly associated with perpetration of IPV in adulthood, with sexual abuse associated with the greatest increase in odds of perpetration (Adjusted odds ratio 2.36; 95% confidence interval: 1.69, 3.30). Witnessing abuse of one’s mother was associated with the greatest increase in the odds of perpetrating physical IPV (AOR 1.82; 95% CI: 1.29, 2.58), while lack of a male parental figure was not associated with physical IPV perpetration (AOR 0.76; 95% CI: 0.53, 1.09). These findings support a social learning theory of IPV perpetration, in which children who are exposed to violence learn to perpetrate IPV in adulthood. They also suggest that in Sri Lanka, being raised in a female-headed household does not increase the risk of IPV perpetration in adulthood compared to being raised in a household with a male parental figure. The relationship between being raised in a female-headed household (the number of which increased dramatically during Sri Lanka’s recent civil war) and perpetration of IPV warrants further study. Interventions

  10. Impact of Adverse Childhood Experiences on Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration among Sri Lankan Men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruvani W Fonseka

    Full Text Available In Sri Lanka, over one in three women experience intimate partner violence (IPV victimization in their lifetime, making it a serious public health concern. Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs such as child abuse and neglect, witnessing domestic violence, parental separation, and bullying are also widespread. Studies in Western settings have shown positive associations between ACEs and IPV perpetration in adulthood, but few have examined this relationship in a non-Western context. In the present study, we examined the association of ACEs with IPV perpetration among Sri Lankan men surveyed for the UN Multi-Country Study on Men and Violence in Asia and the Pacific. We found statistically significant positive associations between the number of ACE categories (ACE score and emotional, financial, physical, and sexual IPV perpetration among Sri Lankan men. We analyzed the contributions of each ACE category and found that childhood abuse was strongly associated with perpetration of IPV in adulthood, with sexual abuse associated with the greatest increase in odds of perpetration (Adjusted odds ratio 2.36; 95% confidence interval: 1.69, 3.30. Witnessing abuse of one's mother was associated with the greatest increase in the odds of perpetrating physical IPV (AOR 1.82; 95% CI: 1.29, 2.58, while lack of a male parental figure was not associated with physical IPV perpetration (AOR 0.76; 95% CI: 0.53, 1.09. These findings support a social learning theory of IPV perpetration, in which children who are exposed to violence learn to perpetrate IPV in adulthood. They also suggest that in Sri Lanka, being raised in a female-headed household does not increase the risk of IPV perpetration in adulthood compared to being raised in a household with a male parental figure. The relationship between being raised in a female-headed household (the number of which increased dramatically during Sri Lanka's recent civil war and perpetration of IPV warrants further study

  11. Emergency Department Visits and Injury Hospitalizations for Female and Male Victims and Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine L. Kothari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The potential for hospital-based interventions for male victims of intimate partner violence (IPV as well as adult perpetrators of both genders has been largely unexplored despite early evidence of acute-care utilization that may be as high as female victims. The current investigation compared the emergency department (ED and injury-related-hospitalization rates of IPV-involved individuals against standardized national norms, assessing differences by gender and victim/perpetrator-status. Methods. This cross-sectional study collected one-year ED and in-patient visit data from hospital records for individuals listed as victim or perpetrator in an IPV criminal charging request in a Midwestern county (N=2,937. Expected rates were calculated based upon age-adjusted national norms. Results. The IPV-involved population generated ED rates 4.1 times higher than expected and injury-related-hospitalization rates that were 4.0 times higher than expected. Bi-directionally-violent individuals (both victim and perpetrator in IPV charges consistently had the highest utilization rates (ED 8.4 RR, injury-hospitalization 22.5 RR. Victims, primarily female, had higher ED-visits than perpetrators, primarily male (victims = 4.6 RR, perpetrator = 3.1 RR. Perpetrators, though, had higher injury hospitalizations (victims = 0.8RR, perpetrators = 5.5 RR. Conclusions. Substantial opportunities exist within acute-care medical settings to intervene with IPV-involved women, men, victims, and perpetrators, although the magnitude of the opportunity varied by setting, gender and victim/perpetrator-status.

  12. A Telephone Intervention for Substance-Using Adult Male Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbilinyi, Lyungai F; Neighbors, Clayton; Walker, Denise D; Roffman, Roger A; Zegree, Joan; Edleson, Jeffrey; O'Rourke, Allison

    2011-01-27

    OBJECTIVE: To preliminarily evaluate telephone-delivered motivational enhancement therapy (MET) in motivating unadjudicated and nontreatment seeking intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators, who also use substances, to self-refer into treatment. METHOD: 124 adult men were recruited via a multimedia marketing campaign and were randomly assigned to the intervention (MET) or comparison group following a baseline assessment. Participants in the MET condition received a personalized feedback report on their IPV and substance-use behaviors, consequences, and social norms beliefs. RESULTS: Results supported the likely effectiveness of MET in short-term reduction of IPV behavior, increasing motivation for treatment seeking, and changing perceived norms for IPV and substance abuse (SA). CONCLUSIONS: Applications for brief MET interventions to facilitate voluntary treatment entry among substance-using IPV perpetrators are discussed.

  13. Subtyping Male Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Katherine A.; Westen, Drew

    2011-01-01

    Domestic violence is a serious problem with far-reaching consequences. This study applies a new methodology to derive subtypes of male perpetrators of intimate partner violence. As part of a larger National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)-funded study, a national sample of randomly selected psychologists and psychiatrists describe 188 adult male…

  14. Sexual Coercion among Adolescents: Victims and Perpetrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacasse, Anne; Mendelson, Morton J.

    2007-01-01

    Adolescence is a transitional period when the pressure to engage in romantic and sexual relationships can leave teenagers feeling confused and at risk for sexual coercion. Our studies investigated characteristics of male and female perpetrators and victims of peer sexual coercion, focusing on self-esteem, sexist attitudes, and involvement in…

  15. Intimate partner violence perpetration, immigration status, and disparities in a community health center-based sample of men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Jhumka; Acevedo-Garcia, Dolores; Hemenway, David; Decker, Michele R; Raj, Anita; Silverman, Jay G

    2010-01-01

    We examined disparities in male perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) based on immigration status. From 2005 to 2006, 1,668 men aged 18-35 who were recruited from community health centers anonymously completed an automated, computer-assisted self-interview. Men self-reported their immigrant status (e.g., native-born, or = 6 years in the U.S. [non-recent immigrants]) and IPV perpetration. We calculated differences in IPV perpetration based on immigrant status. Among immigrant men, we further examined differences in IPV perpetration based on English-speaking ability. Recent immigrants were less likely to report IPV perpetration than native-born men in the overall sample (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.36, 1.00). However, we observed no differences in IPV perpetration between non-recent immigrants and native-born men (AOR=0.88, 95% CI 0.63, 1.23). Among immigrant men, those who were non-recent immigrants and reported limited English-speaking ability were at the highest risk for IPV perpetration, compared with recent immigrants with high English-speaking ability (AOR=7.48, 95% CI 1.92, 29.08). Although immigrant men were at a lower risk as a group for IPV perpetration as compared with non-immigrants, this lower likelihood of IPV perpetration was only evident among recent immigrants. Among immigrant men, those who arrived in the U.S. more than six years ago and reported speaking English relatively poorly appeared to be at greatest risk for using violence against partners. Future research should examine the effects of fear of legal sanctions, discrimination, and changes in gender roles to clarify the present findings.

  16. Cardiovascular reactivity to a marital conflict version of the Trier social stress test in intimate partner violence perpetrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Martínez, Angel; Nunes-Costa, Rui; Lila, Marisol; González-Bono, Esperanza; Moya-Albiol, Luis

    2014-07-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators have been categorized into two groups based on their heart rate (HR) reactivity to stress following Gottman's studies. Overall, type I perpetrators tend to show autonomic underarousal, whereas type II or reactive perpetrators present a hyper-reactivity in anticipation of stress. In this study, changes in HR, pre-ejection period (PEP), vagal ratio as well as psychological state variables (anxiety and anger) in response to stress were assessed, comparing a group of type II IPV perpetrators (based on violence reports and psychological assessment; n = 17; mean age = 37) with non-violent controls (n = 17; mean age = 35) using modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test. IPV perpetrators had higher HRs and lower vagal ratios than controls, particularly during the recovery period. Moreover, the former presented shorter PEPs than controls. There were no differences between groups in the magnitude of response of the HR, PEP or vagal ratio. High baseline anxiety and anger were associated with an HR increase during the preparation time in IPV perpetrators but not in controls. These findings indicate a different cardiovascular pattern of response to psychosocial stress in IPV perpetrators, especially during recovery. Thus, they contribute to understanding the biological functioning of violence sub-types, supporting the validity of cardiovascular measures as diagnostic indicators for IPV classification.

  17. A comparison of violence exposure and perpetration in recruits and high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, M G

    1999-04-01

    This study compared the rates of violence perpetration from two groups of young adults. Samples of 782 recruits at U.S. Army basic combat training were surveyed by the author, and 3,700 adolescents from inner-city and suburban schools were surveyed by another researcher to assess levels of premilitary exposure to violence and levels of violence perpetration. Results showed that there is a significant positive correlation between levels of violence exposure and levels of violence perpetration in both populations (r = 0.71, p attack with a knife or firearm) was 2.6 times greater for the civilian high school sample than for basic training recruits. Selection criteria used by the military to screen out individuals who have felony convictions may be the most likely explanation for this difference.

  18. The animal in you: animalistic descriptions of a violent crime increase punishment of perpetrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Eduardo A; Loughnan, Steve; Gootjes-Dreesbach, Ellis; Weger, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Criminal acts are sometimes described using animal metaphors. What is the impact of a violent crime being described in an animalistic versus a non-animalistic way on the subsequent retribution toward the perpetrator? In two studies, we experimentally varied animalistic descriptions of a violent crime and examined its effect on the severity of the punishment for the act. In Study 1, we showed that compared to non-animalistic descriptions, animalistic descriptions resulted in significantly harsher punishment for the perpetrator. In Study 2, we replicated this effect and further demonstrated that this harsher sentencing is explained by an increase in perceived risk of recidivism. Our findings suggest that animalistic descriptions of crimes lead to more retaliation against the perpetrator by inducing the perception that he is likely to continue engaging in violence.

  19. College students' social reactions to the victim in a hypothetical sexual assault scenario: the role of victim and perpetrator alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Untied, Amy S; Orchowski, Lindsay M; Mastroleo, Nadine; Gidycz, Christine A

    2012-01-01

    College students' responses to a hypothetical sexual assault scenario involving alcohol use by the victim and/or perpetrator were examined (N = 295). Participants reported on victim/perpetrator responsibility, the extent to which the scenario would be considered rape, and their likelihood of providing positive or negative responses to the victim. Compared to women, men indicated that they would provide more negative and less positive social reactions to the victim, were less likely to identify the scenario as rape, and endorsed less perpetrator responsibility. When the victim was drinking, participants endorsed greater victim responsibility and lower perpetrator responsibility for the assault. Participants indicated that they would provide the victim with less emotional support when only the perpetrator was drinking, compared to when both the individuals were drinking.

  20. Sibling bullying perpetration: associations with gender, grade, peer perpetration, trait anger, and moral disengagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanrikulu, Ibrahim; Campbell, Marilyn A

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated bullying among siblings in both traditional and cyber forms, and the associations of gender, grade, peer bullying perpetration, trait anger, and moral disengagement. The participants were 455 children in Grades 5 to 12 (262 girls and 177 boys with 16 unknown gender) who had a sibling. As the number of siblings who only bullied by technology was low, these associations were not able to be calculated. However, the findings showed that the percentage of sibling traditional bullying perpetration (31.6%) was higher than peer bullying perpetration (9.8%). Sibling bullies reported engaging in complex behaviors of perpetration and victimization in both the physical and in cyber settings, although the number was small. Gender, trait anger, moral disengagement, and bullying peers at school (but not grade) were all significantly associated with sibling traditional bullying perpetration. The implications of the findings are discussed for bullying intervention and prevention programs to understand childhood bullying in diverse contexts. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Adolescents as victims and perpetrators of violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legano, Lori; McHugh, Margaret

    2013-04-01

    The hallmark of adolescent development is risk-taking behavior, mostly benign in nature, with no sequelae in adulthood. For that small number of adolescents for whom risk-taking behaviors are dangerous, for themselves and others, there are common childhood factors that may lead to those behaviors. In studies of adolescent victims, as well as perpetrators, a common theme can be identified, ie, maltreatment. The adolescent who visits Internet chat rooms, meets unknown individuals, and is later sexually assaulted by that individual is often a victim of sexual abuse in earlier childhood. Studies demonstrate that when adolescents are perpetrators of violent acts, they have a history of childhood physical abuse and often ongoing exposure to violence in their homes. For victims and perpetrators, there can be a common source of primary prevention in children rather than secondary interventions later in adolescence. That source can be a medical care provider in a medical home. Discussion of Internet usage with a 10-year-old by a medical provider may prevent later victimization. Identification and provision of services to families involved in domestic violence situations can help children establish positive adult roles with peers and future partners.

  2. Portrayal of women as intimate partner domestic violence perpetrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Marianne

    2012-09-01

    The article explores some of the ways heterosexual women are portrayed as perpetrators of intimate partner domestic violence (IPV) in police domestic violence records in England and is the first study in the United Kingdom to examine the issue of gender and domestic violence perpetrators in any detail and over time. The article is based on a study of 128 IPV cases tracked longitudinally over 6 years, including 32 cases where women were the sole perpetrators and a further 32 cases where women were "dual" perpetrators alongside men. Women were 3 times more likely than men to be arrested when they were construed as the perpetrator. However, Pence and Dasgupta's category of "pathological violence" appeared more useful as an analytical category in the construction of women as "perpetrators" and men as "victims" than the notion of "battering."

  3. English-Speaking and Spanish-Speaking Domestic Violence Perpetrators: An MMPI-2 Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Ronald L.; Flowers, John V.; Bulnes, Alejandro; Olmsted, Eileen; Carbajal-Madrid, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    The use of assessments to characterize domestic violence perpetrators continues to develop with an emphasis on increasing the effectiveness of domestic violence interventions. The present study examines and compares Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)-2 responses from 41 English-speaking and 48 Spanish-speaking men who were in…

  4. The Challenge Project: A Treatment Program Evaluation for Perpetrators of Child Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craissati, Jackie; McClurg, Grace

    1997-01-01

    A British follow-up study of 25 convicted perpetrators of child abuse compared group and individual treatment outcomes. Results found some evidence for positive change in the group condition in terms of greater honesty in reporting normal and deviant sexual outlets, in addition to the improvement in attitudes toward women. (CR)

  5. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF CLINICAL EFFICACY AND SA FETY OF SALBUTAMOL AND LEVOSALBUTAMOL MDI IN PATIENTS OF BRONCHIAL ASTHMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitender

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Salbutamol is the most common β2-agonist being cur rently used in the treatment of asthma. It was only available as a racemate, a 50:5 0 mixture of the dextro [(S-salbutamol] and levo [(R-salbutamol] rotatory forms. Regular and e xcessive use of racemate can induce paradoxical reactions in some subjects with asthma. The present study, compared MDI Salbutamol with levo [(R-salbutamol] isomer over 8 weeks in terms of clinical efficacy and safety. METHODS: A prospective, parallel design, comparative study last ing eight weeks, involving 80 patient of either sex after taking thei r informed consent. Patients were randomly divided into 2 groups, A and B of 40 patients each. P atients in Group A and Group B were administered Salbutamol MDI two puffs 100 mcg per puf f four times daily and Levosalbutamol MDI two puffs each containing 50 mcg four times dail y respectively. Rescue dose two or more puffs was allowed as required and the number of addi tional doses were counted by patients. Observations were made and analyzed at 0, 4 and 8 w eeks for FEV1, FVC, and PEFR and side effects. RESULTS: Highly significant (p < 0.001 mean percent change in FEV1, FVC and PEFR at 4 and 8 weeks of Group B (Levosalbutamol patients as compared to mean percent change in FEV1 of Group A (Salbutamol patients at 4 weeks and 8 weeks. CONCLUSION: High therapeutic efficacy was observed with the use of the Levosalbu tamol MDI with lesser side effects.

  6. Dating Violence Perpetration: Associations With Early Maladaptive Schemas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C; Strauss, Catherine; Zapor, Heather; Stuart, Gregory L

    2017-08-01

    Violence between dating couples is a serious and prevalent problem among college students (Shorey, Cornelius, & Bell, 2008). Social-cognitive theories of aggression (e.g., Berkowitz, 1990) propose that perpetrators may have more maladaptive cognitive schemas that increase risk for aggression than non-perpetrators. Thus, this study examined differences between perpetrators and non-perpetrators of dating violence on early maladaptive schemas, which are rigidly held cognitive and behavioral patterns that guide how individuals encode and respond to stimuli in their environments (Young, Klosko, & Weishaar, 2003). Within a sample of female (n = 242) and male (n = 193) college students, results demonstrated that many early maladaptive schema domains were associated with psychological and physical dating violence perpetration, although mostly for women. In addition, the schema domain of impaired autonomy showed medium-to-large differences between female perpetrators and non-perpetrators, whereas the domain of impaired limits showed a medium-to-large difference for male perpetrators and non-perpetrators of physical aggression. These findings add to a growing body of literature on risk factors for dating violence, suggesting that early maladaptive schemas may be associated with individual differences in aggression risk. The results also further support social-cognitive models of aggressive behavior.

  7. All Apologies: On the Willingness of Perpetrators to Apologize

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Leunissen (Joost)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ An apology is one of the most common ways for a perpetrator to initiate the reconciliation process. Numerous studies have shown the positive effects of apologies. Contrary to this, almost no research has investigated when perpetrators are actually willing to offer such

  8. We Shared Something Special: The Moral Discourse of Incest Perpetrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilgun, Jane F.

    1995-01-01

    Analyzed narrative accounts of incest perpetrators (10 men, 1 woman) using the concepts of justice and care. Almost all perpetrators defined incest as love and care and viewed their behavior as considerate and fair, although this care and love were contradicted by adults' refusal to stop when children wanted them to stop. (RJM)

  9. Men's Alcohol Intoxication and Condom Use during Sexual Assault Perpetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Kiekel, Preston A.; Schraufnagel, Trevor J.; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H.; Kajumulo, Kelly F.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the association between alcohol consumption and condom use during penetrative sexual assault acts perpetrated by young adult men. Men aged 21 to 35 who reported inconsistent condom use and heavy episodic drinking (N = 225) completed a questionnaire assessing their perpetration of sexual assault since the age of 15, their consumption of…

  10. Exploring Men's Perpetrator Programs in Small Rural Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Shirley; Wendt, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    This paper outlines the findings of an exploratory study conducted in a small rural community in South Australia in 2006. Human service providers, experienced in working with victims and/or perpetrators of domestic violence, were asked about their experiences and perceptions of perpetrator programs in small rural communities. Specifically,…

  11. Brief report: Physical health of adolescent perpetrators of sibling aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Corinna Jenkins; Van Gundy, Karen; Sharp, Erin Hiley; Rebellon, Cesar

    2015-12-01

    We describe adolescents' perpetration of sibling aggression and its link to physical health two years later. In-school surveys at Time 1 (N = 331) and Time 2 (two-years later, N = 283) were administered to adolescents (at Time 1, Mage = 15.71 years, SD = .63; 52% female) living in the United States querying about perpetration of aggression toward a sibling closest in age and perceived physical health. The majority of adolescents perpetrated aggression towards their sibling (74%). Adolescents who were part of brother-brother pairs reported the most aggression. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that perpetrating sibling aggression more often at Time 1 was predictive of lower physical health at Time 2 controlling for Time 1 physical health and demographic characteristics. Perpetration of aggression toward a sibling is common and has negative health consequences in late adolescence suggesting this issue should be targeted to improve adolescents' sibling dynamics and physical health.

  12. Risk factors for men's lifetime perpetration of physical violence against intimate partners: results from the international men and gender equality survey (IMAGES in eight countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J Fleming

    Full Text Available This paper examines men's lifetime physical intimate partner violence (IPV perpetration across eight low- and middle-income countries to better understand key risk factors that interventions can target in order to promote gender equality and reduce IPV. We use data from men (n = 7806 that were collected as part of the International Men and Gender Equality Survey (IMAGES in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Chile, Croatia, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC, India, Mexico, and Rwanda. Results show that there is wide variation across countries for lifetime self-reported physical violence perpetration (range: 17% in Mexico to 45% in DRC, men's support for equal roles for men and women, and acceptability of violence against women. Across the sample, 31% of men report having perpetrated physical violence against a partner in their lifetime. In multivariate analyses examining risk factors for men ever perpetrating physical violence against a partner, witnessing parental violence was the strongest risk factor, reinforcing previous research suggesting the inter-generational transmission of violence. Additionally, having been involved in fights not specifically with an intimate partner, permissive attitudes towards violence against women, having inequitable gender attitudes, and older age were associated with a higher likelihood of ever perpetrating physical IPV. In separate analyses for each country, we found different patterns of risk factors in countries with high perpetration compared to countries with low perpetration. Findings are interpreted to identify key knowledge gaps and directions for future research, public policies, evaluation, and programming.

  13. Risk Factors for Men’s Lifetime Perpetration of Physical Violence against Intimate Partners: Results from the International Men and Gender Equality Survey (IMAGES) in Eight Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Paul J.; McCleary-Sills, Jennifer; Morton, Matthew; Levtov, Ruti; Heilman, Brian; Barker, Gary

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines men’s lifetime physical intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration across eight low- and middle-income countries to better understand key risk factors that interventions can target in order to promote gender equality and reduce IPV. We use data from men (n = 7806) that were collected as part of the International Men and Gender Equality Survey (IMAGES) in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Chile, Croatia, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), India, Mexico, and Rwanda. Results show that there is wide variation across countries for lifetime self-reported physical violence perpetration (range: 17% in Mexico to 45% in DRC), men’s support for equal roles for men and women, and acceptability of violence against women. Across the sample, 31% of men report having perpetrated physical violence against a partner in their lifetime. In multivariate analyses examining risk factors for men ever perpetrating physical violence against a partner, witnessing parental violence was the strongest risk factor, reinforcing previous research suggesting the inter-generational transmission of violence. Additionally, having been involved in fights not specifically with an intimate partner, permissive attitudes towards violence against women, having inequitable gender attitudes, and older age were associated with a higher likelihood of ever perpetrating physical IPV. In separate analyses for each country, we found different patterns of risk factors in countries with high perpetration compared to countries with low perpetration. Findings are interpreted to identify key knowledge gaps and directions for future research, public policies, evaluation, and programming. PMID:25734544

  14. Risk factors for men's lifetime perpetration of physical violence against intimate partners: results from the international men and gender equality survey (IMAGES) in eight countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Paul J; McCleary-Sills, Jennifer; Morton, Matthew; Levtov, Ruti; Heilman, Brian; Barker, Gary

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines men's lifetime physical intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration across eight low- and middle-income countries to better understand key risk factors that interventions can target in order to promote gender equality and reduce IPV. We use data from men (n = 7806) that were collected as part of the International Men and Gender Equality Survey (IMAGES) in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Chile, Croatia, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), India, Mexico, and Rwanda. Results show that there is wide variation across countries for lifetime self-reported physical violence perpetration (range: 17% in Mexico to 45% in DRC), men's support for equal roles for men and women, and acceptability of violence against women. Across the sample, 31% of men report having perpetrated physical violence against a partner in their lifetime. In multivariate analyses examining risk factors for men ever perpetrating physical violence against a partner, witnessing parental violence was the strongest risk factor, reinforcing previous research suggesting the inter-generational transmission of violence. Additionally, having been involved in fights not specifically with an intimate partner, permissive attitudes towards violence against women, having inequitable gender attitudes, and older age were associated with a higher likelihood of ever perpetrating physical IPV. In separate analyses for each country, we found different patterns of risk factors in countries with high perpetration compared to countries with low perpetration. Findings are interpreted to identify key knowledge gaps and directions for future research, public policies, evaluation, and programming.

  15. Corruption: Engineers are Victims, Perpetrators or Both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecujlija, M; Cosic, I; Nesic-Grubic, L; Drobnjak, S

    2015-08-01

    This study was conducted in Serbian companies on licensed engineers and in its first part included a total of 336 licensed engineers who voluntarily completed the questionnaires about their ethical orientation and attitudes toward corruption and in the second part 214 engineers who participated in the first survey, who voluntarily evaluated their company's business operations characteristics. This study has clearly shown that there is a direct significant influence of the engineer's ethical orientations and attitudes toward corruption on their evaluation of the characteristics of their respective companies regarding business operations. This research also clearly shows that only engineers with a strong deontological orientation, low ethical subjectivity, and strong readiness to fight corruption, low corruption acceptance and high awareness of corruption can successfully fight corruption, improve the business operations of their companies and make beneficial changes to society. Otherwise, they should be considered as corruption perpetrators, not just as its victims.

  16. XYY chromosome abnormality in sexual homicide perpetrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briken, Peer; Habermann, Niels; Berner, Wolfgang; Hill, Andreas

    2006-03-05

    In a retrospective investigation of the court reports about sexual homicide perpetrators chromosome analysis had been carried out in 13 of 166 (7.8%) men. Three men (1.8%) with XYY chromosome abnormality were found. This rate is much higher than that found in unselected samples of prisoners (0.7-0.9%) or in the general population (0.01%). The three men had shown prepubescent abnormalities, school problems, and had suffered from physical abuse. The chromosome analysis in all cases had been carried out in connection with the forensic psychiatric court report due to the sexual homicide. However, two men had earlier psychiatric referrals. All were diagnosed as sexual sadistic, showed a psychopathic syndrome or psychopathy according to the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised [Hare RD, 1991, The Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised, Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Multi-Health Systems]. Two were multiple murderers. Especially forensic psychiatrists should be vigilant of the possibility of XYY chromosome abnormalities in sexual offenders.

  17. Sexual harassment victimization and perpetration among high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clear, Emily R; Coker, Ann L; Cook-Craig, Patricia G; Bush, Heather M; Garcia, Lisandra S; Williams, Corrine M; Lewis, Alysha M; Fisher, Bonnie S

    2014-10-01

    This large, population-based study is one of the few to examine prevalence rates of sexual harassment occurring during the past 12 months by victimization and perpetration among adolescents. In this large, cross-sectional survey of students attending 26 high schools, sexual harassment was defined using three questions from the Sexual Experiences Questionnaire. Among 18,090 students completing the survey, 30% disclosed sexual harassment victimization (37% of females, 21% of males) and 8.5% reported perpetration (5% of females, 12% of males). Sexual harassment perpetration was highly correlated with male sex, minority race/ethnicity, same-sex attraction, bullying, alcohol binge drinking, and intraparental partner violence.

  18. Prevalence and correlates of bullying perpetration and victimization among school-aged youth with intellectual disabilities: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maïano, Christophe; Aimé, Annie; Salvas, Marie-Claude; Morin, Alexandre J S; Normand, Claude L

    2016-01-01

    Recent literature reviews show that bullying perpetration and victimization are major public health concerns for typically developing (TD) youth. Nevertheless, the magnitude of this phenomenon among youth with intellectual disabilities (ID) remains unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to provide a synthesis of the empirical studies examining the prevalence and correlates of bullying perpetration and victimization among youth with ID. A systematic literature search was performed and 11 studies met the inclusion criteria. The findings from these studies showed weighted mean prevalence rates of general bullying perpetration, bullying victimization and both of 15.1%, 36.3%, and 25.2%, respectively. Weighted mean prevalence rates of bullying perpetration and victimization differed according to the characteristics of the studies (e.g., assessment context, school setting, information source, type of measures, time frame). Additionally, high weighted mean prevalence rates of physical (33.3%), verbal (50.2%), relational (37.4%), and cyber (38.3%) victimization were found among youth with ID. When youth with ID were compared to youth with other disabilities or TD peers, no clear differences were found. Finally, the present review shows that correlates of bullying perpetration and victimization in this population remain understudied. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Teen Dating Violence Victimization, Perpetration, and Sexual Health Correlates Among Urban, Low-Income, Ethnic, and Racial Minority Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedina, Lisa; Howard, Donna E; Wang, Min Qi; Murray, Kantahyanee

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the associations between teen dating violence (TDV) perpetration, victimization, sexual risk behaviors, and pregnancy among a sample of low-income, urban, and predominately African-American and Latino youth age 15 to 21 years ( N = 513). Findings suggest that youth who experienced TDV victimization were more likely to report inconsistent condom use in the past 12 months ( OR = 1.6) and pregnancy ( OR = 2.2) compared with nonvictimized youth. Youth who reported perpetrating dating violence were more likely to be female ( OR = 3.8) and to report multiple sex partners ( OR = 2.0), inconsistent condom use ( OR = 2.6), and prostitution in the past 12 months ( OR = 6.7). TDV perpetration and victimization were highly associated (χ(2 )= 127.00, p reproductive health education programs.

  20. Middle Eastern adolescents' perpetration of school violence against peers and teachers: a cross-cultural and ecological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury-Kassabri, Mona; Astor, Ron Avi; Benbenishty, Rami

    2009-01-01

    The current study presents the prevalence of students' reports of perpetration of violence toward peers and teachers among 16,604 7th- through 11th-grade Jewish and Arab students in Israel and examines the individual and school contextual factors that explain students' violence. The study explores how students' reports of violence are influenced by individual factors (gender, age, perception of school climate and intervention) and school contextual factors (cultural affiliation, SES of students' families, school and class size, school climate, intervention). Almost one third of all students reported at least one form of perpetration toward peers, and one in five reported perpetration against teachers. Compared to the school climate characteristics, school organizational factors, and cultural affiliation, students' SES has the highest contribution to explained variance in reports of violence toward others. The discussion highlights the need to allocate more resources to schools in low-SES contexts to protect low-SES students from school violence.

  1. Survivor Perspectives on IPV Perpetrator Interventions: A Systematic Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinn, Tony; Taylor, Brian; McColgan, Mary; Lagdon, Susan

    2016-07-01

    More effective work with perpetrators of intimate partner violence (IPV) can be built upon a better understanding of how and why they change their behavior. This article presents a systematic narrative review of female IPV survivor perspectives on the changes brought about by IPV perpetrator programs. Fourteen databases and web search engines were searched and 16 articles reporting relevant qualitative findings were identified. Survivors often reported some level of positive change through their partner's engagement with a program, but the sustainability of this change is unclear and there was also some negative feedback. From the survivors' perspective, key barriers to perpetrator change include alcohol dependency, mental health challenges, relationship dynamics, and their family of origin. Mechanisms by which perpetrators are held to account, namely, survivor validation and judicial measures, were seen as central to the change process. Survivors perceived changes in perpetrator behavior (the use of conflict interruption techniques and new communication skills) and changes in perpetrators' belief systems (adopting new perspectives). Changes in belief systems were associated with more complete desistence from violence and would appear more difficult to effect. The review highlights the complexity in this field, which is discussed by the authors with reference to practice, policy, and research.

  2. Brief intervention for perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV): simulation versus instruction alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Amy A; Weiss, Steven J; Hobley, Kenlyn; Medoro, Ian; Baker, Joe Jebb; Kanter, Julie

    2011-06-01

    To compare two brief randomized computer-based interventions about perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV). The study was a prospective cross-sectional cohort study of patients during randomized 4-hour shifts in an urban hospital-based emergency department setting with an emergency medicine residency. The site is a level 1 trauma center emergency department with an annual census of 60,000 adults. A touch-screen computer program was developed in Visual Basic 2005 Studio with consecutive data entry screens. A series of questions to evaluative IPV knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) was given before and after the brief intervention. The subjects were randomized to one of two intervention groups. Both groups were shown a set of PowerPoint slides addressing IPV prevention, which was followed by either a control group with nothing further (control) or a five-minute simulation video depicting IPV perpetration in adults (SIM). The main outcome was the net improvement in KAP scores defined as number who improved minus number who did worse. Perpetrators and victims were assessed separately. Demographics were also obtained. For demographics, descriptive statistics and percentages were used. Wilcoxon signed rank test was used for pre-post test paired data. A total of 239 patients, presenting during 52 randomized four-hour shifts, completed the study; 118 were in the control group, 121 in SIM; 115 (48%) were male and 124 (51 %) female (9 unknown). Most participants were from 21 to 30 years old (38%); 77 (32%) were Hispanic and 100 (42%) were white. There was an overall improvement in responses to KAP questions with correct answers to all questions in 46% before vs 59% after the computer intervention (Diff 13% 95% confidence interval [CI] 4-22). The net improvement in KAP score in the control group was 8% and in the SIM group it was 22% (Diff = 15%, 95% CI = 6-24). Forty subjects (17%, 95% CI = 12-21) were perpetrators and 52 subjects (22%, 95% CI = 17-27) were

  3. Incest perpetrators. Their assessment and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, W

    1992-09-01

    The multitude of articles published in the last decade in the area of intrafamilial sexual abuse highlight the complexity of the issue--both its assessment and treatment. Although no unique profile of an incest perpetrator exists, a review of studies revealed problems in the areas of sexual satisfaction, psychological functioning, interpersonal relationships, and family of origin. As well, incest families have been reported to be dysfunctional, with power imbalances; control struggles; indirect, unclear communication; and inappropriate coalitions among family members. Based on these observations, a wide range of treatment interventions now exists, including offender-oriented cognitive/behavioral therapies and a family-focused multimodal systems approach. Although questions remain to be answered in regard to the effectiveness and process of treatment, efforts limited to the recognition of these problematic families are no longer adequate. The focus must move to prevention through the early identification of individuals at risk both for offending and being part of an incest family structure; the implementation of proven, cost-effective, proactive intervention strategies; and the continuing dissemination of information to the public.

  4. A Rorschach comparison of psychopaths, sexual homicide perpetrators, and nonviolent pedophiles: where angels fear to tread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gacono, C B; Meloy, J R; Bridges, M R

    2000-06-01

    Nonsexually offending psychopaths (N = 32) were compared to sexual homicide perpetrators (N = 38) and nonviolent pedophiles (N = 39) on select Comprehensive System Rorschach variables (Exner et al., 1993). Results indicate similarities among the groups in pathological narcissism, formal thought disorder, and borderline level reality testing. Nonsexually offending psychopaths are distinguished by their lack of interest in and attachment to others and their seemingly conflict-free internal world. While both sexually deviant groups evidenced interest in others and appear to experience a very dysphoric internal world, the sexual homicide perpetrators are distinguished by high levels of obsessional thought and an inability to disengage from environmental stimuli. Pedophiles show significantly more characterological anger, which may stem from their general inadequacy, cognitive rigidness, less alloplastic (acting out) style, and their introversive inability to gratify their needs. Rorschach differences add to our understanding of sexual deviation and violence among these three groups.

  5. Exposure to violence, typology, and recidivism in a probation sample of domestic violence perpetrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Drew R; Cantos, Arthur L; Miller, Steven A

    2016-09-01

    The present study investigated the predictive utility of self-reported domestic violence perpetrators' exposure to violence in their family of origin and patterns related to this exposure through the use of longitudinal analyses on a sample of 228 men on probation in Lake County, Illinois. Differences in typology, recidivism, recidivism frequency, and violent behavior survival patterns in men with a history of domestic violence perpetration and with varying levels of family of origin violence exposure were examined. Findings suggest that those who witnessed interparental violence (either alone, or in combination with experiencing violence) were most likely to be classified as Generally Violent offenders (e.g., perpetrators who direct violence toward their family and others), compared to those who did not report experiencing or witnessing violence. In addition, results also indicate that men who experienced both witnessing interparental violence and receiving physical abuse in childhood were more likely to recidivate more frequently compared to those who did not report experiencing or witnessing violence. No significant findings for typology and recidivism were noted. Clinical and policy/practice implications are discussed.

  6. Effects of the child-perpetrator relationship on mental health outcomes of child abuse: it's (not) all relative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiser, Laurel J; Stover, Carla Smith; Navalta, Carryl P; Dorado, Joyce; Vogel, Juliet M; Abdul-Adil, Jaleel K; Kim, Soeun; Lee, Robert C; Vivrette, Rebecca; Briggs, Ernestine C

    2014-06-01

    The present study was conducted to better understand the influence of the child-perpetrator relationship on responses to child sexual and physical trauma for a relatively large, ethnically diverse sample of children and youth presenting for clinical evaluation and treatment at child mental health centers across the United States. This referred sample includes 2,133 youth with sexual or physical trauma as their primary treatment focus. Analyses were conducted to ascertain whether outcomes were dependent on the perpetrator's status as a caregiver vs. non-caregiver. Outcome measures included psychiatric symptom and behavior problem rating scales. For sexual trauma, victimization by a non-caregiver was associated with higher posttraumatic stress, internalizing and externalizing behavior problems, depression, and dissociation compared to youth victimized by a caregiver. For physical trauma, victimization by a non-caregiver was also associated with higher posttraumatic symptoms and internalizing behavior problems. The total number of trauma types experienced and age of physical or sexual trauma onset also predicted several outcomes for both groups, although in disparate ways. These findings are consistent with other recent studies demonstrating that perpetration of abuse by caregivers results in fewer symptoms and problems than abuse perpetrated by a non-caregiving relative. Thus, clinicians should not make a priori assumptions that children and adolescents who are traumatized by a parent/caregiver would have more severe symptoms than youth who are traumatized by a non-caregiver. Further exploration of the role of the perpetrator and other trauma characteristics associated with the perpetrator role is needed to advance our understanding of these findings and their implications for clinical practice.

  7. Extracurricular Activities and Bullying Perpetration: Results From a Nationally Representative Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riese, Alison; Gjelsvik, Annie; Ranney, Megan L

    2015-08-01

    Bullying is a widespread problem for school-aged children and adolescents. Interventions to reduce bullying are not well disseminated. Extracurricular involvement is, however, common. This study aims to examine the relationship between parent-reported participation in extracurricular activities and bullying perpetration. Using the 2011 National Survey of Children's Health, 62,215 interviews with parents of children 6 to 17 were analyzed. Extracurricular categories of sports only, sports + nonsport, nonsport only, and no activities were based on parental response to questions regarding sport teams/lessons, clubs, and organizations. Bullying was derived from report of the child "bullying or being cruel/mean to others." Weighted bivariate analyses, logistic regression, and sex/race/ethnicity/age stratified analyses were conducted. Eighty percent of children participated in extracurricular activities: 8% sports, 48% sports + nonsports, and 24% nonsports. Bullying perpetration was reported in 15% of the sample. Compared with those not participating in extracurricular activities, the odds of bullying were significantly lower for children who participated in sports + nonsports (Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.57-0.79) and nonsport only (AOR 0.82, 95% CI 0.70-0.97). Stratified analyses showed attenuated effects of extracurricular activities for boys and for Hispanics. Children who participate in a variety of extracurricular activities exhibit the least frequent bullying perpetration. © 2015, American School Health Association.

  8. Intergenerational transmission of child abuse and neglect: Do maltreatment type, perpetrator, and substantiation status matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Jessica Dym; Kotake, Chie; Fauth, Rebecca; Easterbrooks, M Ann

    2017-01-01

    A maternal history of childhood maltreatment is thought to be a potent risk factor for child abuse and neglect, yet the extent of continuity across generations is unclear, with studies reporting vastly different rates of intergenerational transmission. Disparate findings may be due to lack of attention to the nature of maltreatment experiences in each generation. We sought to expand the current literature by examining the role of maltreatment type, perpetrator identity, and substantiation status of reports to child protective services (CPS) on intergenerational maltreatment among adolescent mothers (n=417) and their children. We found that when mothers had at least one report of childhood maltreatment (substantiated or not), the odds that they maltreated their children increased by 72% (OR=2.52), compared to mothers who are not maltreated, but the odds were considerably lower when we limited analysis to substantiated reports. Both a maternal history of substantiated neglect and multiple type maltreatment (neglect and physical or sexual abuse) were associated with increased risk of child maltreatment, yet the likelihood of children experiencing multiple maltreatment perpetrated with their mothers identified as perpetrators increased over 300% when mothers had a childhood history of multiple maltreatment.

  9. Psychosocial characteristics of men and women as perpetrators of domestic violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rode Danuta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The presented study aims to compare men and women (N = 227, perpetrators of domestic violence in terms of psychosocial characteristics, present conditions of socialization in which the perpetrator grew and the motives for committing violent act against partners. The population of violence offenders under study and its sub-groups (women and men did not differ from the norm group in terms of personality traits and temperament. The differences were noticed only in two KSP scales: secure style and avoidance style. The comparison of women and men revealed differences, in three variables: openness for experience, emotional intelligence and avoidance-ambivalence style. Moreover, study showed that despite the good relationship between the subjects’ parents, some perpetrators suffered violence from the loved ones. It should be noted that women were more affected by physical and psychological aggression in childhood. Analysis of motives to commit acts of violence indicated that they are associated with three factors: advantage over your partner, influence and control.

  10. Examining explanations for the link between bullying perpetration and physical dating violence perpetration: Do they vary by bullying victimization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foshee, Vangie A; Benefield, Thad S; McNaughton Reyes, Heath Luz; Eastman, Meridith; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M; Basile, Kathleen C; Ennett, Susan T; Faris, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This short-term longitudinal study examined whether the association between bullying perpetration and later physical dating violence perpetration and mediators of that association (via anger, depression, anxiety, and social status), varied depending on level of bullying victimization. Differences have been noted between those who bully but are not victims of bullying, and those who are both bullies and victims. These differences may influence dating violence risk and the explanations for why bullying leads to dating violence. Data were from dating adolescents in three rural counties who completed self-administered questionnaires in the fall semester of grades 8-10 and again in the spring semester. The sample (N = 2,414) was 44.08% male and 61.31% white. Bullying perpetration in the fall semester predicted physical dating violence perpetration in the spring semester when there was no bullying victimization, but not when there was any bullying victimization. Bullying perpetration was positively associated with anger at all levels of bullying victimization and with social status when there was no or low amounts of victimization; it was negatively associated with social status at high levels of victimization. Bullying victimization was positively associated with anger, depression, and anxiety at all levels of bullying perpetration. Anger mediated the association between bullying perpetration and dating violence, regardless of level of victimization; depression, anxiety, and social status did not mediate the association at any level of bullying victimization. The findings have implications for dating violence prevention efforts and for future research on the link between bullying and dating violence. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Ambivalent Sexism, Alcohol Use, and Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renzetti, Claire M; Lynch, Kellie R; DeWall, C Nathan

    2015-09-09

    Research on risk factors for men's perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) has shown a high correlation with problem alcohol use. Additional studies, however, indicate that the alcohol-IPV link is neither simple nor necessarily direct and that a range of factors may moderate this relationship. Using a national, community-based sample of 255 men, the present study examined the moderating effects of ambivalent sexism (i.e., hostile and benevolent sexism) on the relationship between alcohol use and IPV perpetration. The findings show that both greater alcohol consumption and high hostile sexism are positively associated with IPV perpetration, and that hostile sexism moderates the alcohol-IPV relationship for perpetration of physical IPV, but not for psychological IPV. Moreover, high levels of alcohol consumption have a greater impact on physical IPV perpetration for men low in hostile sexism than for men high in hostile sexism, lending support to the multiple threshold model of the alcohol-IPV link. Implications of the findings for prevention, intervention, and future research are discussed.

  12. Relationship Characteristics Associated with Teen Dating Violence Perpetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M; Massetti, Greta; Niolon, Phyllis; Foshee, Vangie; McNaughton-Reyes, Luz

    Teen dating violence (TDV) is unstable across dating relationships, suggesting that characteristics of the relationship could be related to TDV. Few empirical studies have examined these links. This study examined associations between relationship characteristics and TDV perpetration among teens and sex differences in those associations. Relationship characteristics examined include tactics used to manipulate partners; ways of responding to relationship problems; relationship duration; exclusivity of the relationship; age difference between partners; and history of sexual intercourse with partner. Data were drawn from 667 teens in a current relationship (62.5% female and 81.4% white) enrolled in the 11(th) or 12(th) grade in 14 public schools in a rural US state. Bivariate and multivariable regression analyses examined proposed associations. 30.1% and 8.2% of teens reported controlling and physical TDV perpetration, respectively. In multivariable models, frequent use manipulation tactics increased risk for controlling or physical TDV perpetration. Teens dating a partner two or more years younger were at significantly increased risk for both controlling and physical perpetration. A significant interaction emerged between sex and exit/neglect accommodation for physical TDV. Characteristics of a current dating relationship play an important role in determining risk for controlling and physical TDV perpetration.

  13. Risk Factors for Hispanic Male Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancera, Bibiana M; Dorgo, Sandor; Provencio-Vasquez, Elias

    2017-07-01

    The literature review analyzed 24 studies that explored male intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration risk factors among men, in particular Hispanics, using the socioecological model framework composed of four socioecological levels for violence prevention. Six databases were reviewed within the EBSCO search engine for articles published from 2000 to 2014. Articles reviewed were specific to risk factors for IPV perpetration among Hispanic men, focusing particularly on Mexican American men. Many key factors have previously been associated with risk for IPV perpetration; however, certain determinants are unique to Hispanics such as acculturation, acculturation stress, and delineated gender roles that include Machismo and Marianismo. These risk factors should be incorporated in future targeted prevention strategies and efforts and capitalize on the positive aspects of each to serve as protective factors.

  14. ANALISIS DAYA SAING KEDELAI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarwono Sarwono

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available RCA (Revealed Comparative Advantage index of soybean in Indonesia from 1983 up to 2013 is less than one, mostly. It means that the competitiveness of soybean in Indonesia is low. The purpose of this study is to analyze the factors influence the soybean competitiveness. OLS (Ordinary Least Square was used as the analysis method. Hypotheses test based on that analysis model is not bias, so that, classic divergence test is needed. It is for getting the Best Linier Unbiased Estimator (BLUE appraisal. T statistic and F statistic were also applied. The result of this research shows that production and export have positive and significant influence. In addition, exchange rate and government policy do not influence the Indonesia soybean competitiveness.Indeks RCA (Revealed Comparative Advantage kedelai Indonesia dari tahun 1983-2013 kecenderungan bernilai kurang dari satu yang berarti daya saing kedelai Indonesia rendah.Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi daya saing kedelai Indonesia.Metode analisis yang digunakan adalah Ordinary Least Square (OLS.Pengujian hipotesis berdasarkan model analisis tersebut tidak bias maka perlu dilakukan uji penyimpangan klasik yang tujuannya agar diperoleh penaksiran yang bersifat Best Linier Unbiased Estimator (BLUE.Pengujian statistik menggunakan uji t statistikdan uji f statistik.Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa produksi dan ekspor berpengaruh secara positif dan signifikan terhadap daya saing kedelai Indonesia. Nilai tukar rupiah dan kebijakan pemerintah tidak berpengaruh terhadap daya saing kedelai Indonesia.

  15. The Relationship Between Child Maltreatment and Partner Violence Victimization and Perpetration Among College Students: Focus on Auditory Status and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuiller Williams, LaVerne; Porter, Judy L

    2015-08-01

    Partner violence is a pervasive public health concern that has received significant attention over the past three decades. Although a number of studies have reported that college students who are Deaf or hard of hearing are at an increased risk of experiencing partner violence compared with their hearing counterparts, little is known about partner violence perpetration among college students who are Deaf or hard of hearing. Furthermore, beyond disability, studies examining partner violence among students with disabilities tend to ignore other potential risk factors that may increase the risk of partner violence as a victim and/or a perpetrator. This exploratory study examines the extent of partner violence among male and female college students by auditory status and the relationship between experiencing and perpetrating partner abuse (i.e., physical abuse and psychological abuse) and child maltreatment (i.e., witnessing abuse and experiencing child physical abuse). The study also examines gender differences in the relationship between child maltreatment and physical and psychological abuse victimization and perpetration. Data were collected from a sample of approximately 680 college students at a northeastern university. Findings indicate that having witnessed interparental abuse as a child was only significant for being an adult victim of physical abuse. Having been a child victim of parental abuse was not significant for any of the abuse measures. Gender was only significant for being an adult victim of physical abuse. Deaf students were significantly more likely to report all abuse measures. Implications and directions for further research are discussed.

  16. How Useful Are Indices of Personality Pathology when Assessing Domestic Violence Perpetrators?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Peter; Collins, Marjorie; Reid, Corinne

    2011-01-01

    There has been considerable debate about profiling personality pathology when assessing and treating male perpetrators of domestic violence (DV). This study used the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-III) to explore the severity and diversity of male perpetrator personality pathology and response bias in a group of DV perpetrators being…

  17. The Role of Perpetrator Motivation in Two Crime Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizemore, O. J.

    2013-01-01

    Undergraduate volunteers (n = 134) were randomly assigned in a 2 x 2 design that manipulated type of crime (rape vs. robbery) and perpetrator motivation (anger vs. desire). After reading one of the crime scenarios, participants responded to a series of attitude items regarding responsibility for the crime, assigned blame to agents mentioned in the…

  18. Understanding cybercrime perpetrators and the strategies they employ in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aransiola, Joshua Oyeniyi; Asindemade, Suraj Olalekan

    2011-12-01

    A lot has been written on cybercrime and its prevention, but the problem has proved particularly resilient to remedial action. Desperate and vulnerable individuals in every continent continue to fall into its trap. Despite this, there is dearth of descriptive study that attempts to unravel the strategies employed by the perpetrators in Nigeria, as an important precondition for workable and reliable policy direction to address the problem. This article has filled this gap by using data from 40 cybercrime perpetrators selected with snowballing technique. The findings revealed that most of the cybercrime perpetrators in Nigeria are between the age of 22 and 29 years who were undergraduates and have distinctive lifestyles from other youths. Their strategies include collaboration with security agents and bank officials, local and international networking, and the use of voodoo that is, traditional supernatural power. It was clear that most perpetrators of cybercrime were involved in on-line dating and buying and selling with fake identity among others. The article discussed the need for reorientation of Nigerian youths in higher institutions, and various methods as guiding principles for potential victims. It recommended a complete reorganization of the Nigerian Police Force and Economic and Financial Crime Commission, as some of the officers in the institutions aid and abet cybercrime. It finally suggested a review of the Nigerian law guiding the operations of banking, poster agencies, and various speed post services in the country, as these are necessary preconditions to effectively combat the problem.

  19. Exploring Alcohol Policy Approaches to Prevent Sexual Violence Perpetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippy, Caroline; DeGue, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Sexual violence continues to be a significant public health problem worldwide with serious consequences for individuals and communities. The implementation of prevention strategies that address risk and protective factors for sexual violence at the community level are important components of a comprehensive approach, but few such strategies have been identified or evaluated. The current review explores one potential opportunity for preventing sexual violence perpetration at the community level: alcohol policy. Alcohol policy has the potential to impact sexual violence perpetration through the direct effects of excessive alcohol consumption on behavior or through the impact of alcohol and alcohol outlets on social organization within communities. Policies affecting alcohol pricing, sale time, outlet density, drinking environment, marketing, and college environment are reviewed to identify existing evidence of impact on rates of sexual violence or related outcomes, including risk factors and related health behaviors. Several policy areas with initial evidence of an association with sexual violence outcomes were identified, including policies affecting alcohol pricing, alcohol outlet density, barroom management, sexist content in alcohol marketing, and policies banning alcohol on campus and in substance-free dorms. We identify other policy areas with evidence of an impact on related outcomes and risk factors that may also hold potential as a preventative approach for sexual violence perpetration. Evidence from the current review suggests that alcohol policy may represent one promising avenue for the prevention of sexual violence perpetration at the community level, but additional research is needed to directly examine effects on sexual violence outcomes.

  20. Correlates of Psychological Abuse Perpetration in College Dating Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormley, Barbara; Lopez, Frederick G.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the contributions of gender, adult romantic attachment orientations (i.e., avoidance, anxiety), defense mechanisms (i.e., narcissism, other-splitting), and stressors to college student psychological abuse perpetration (dominance). Men with higher levels of attachment avoidance, narcissistic entitlement, and stressful problems…

  1. Effects of perpetrator identity on suicidality and nonsuicidal self-injury in sexually victimized female adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unlu, Gulsen; Cakaloz, Burcu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Child sexual abuse and sexual dating violence victimization are common problems that are known to have long-term negative consequences. This study aimed to compare the sociodemographic, abuse-related, and clinical features of female adolescents who were sexually abused by different perpetrators, and identify the factors associated with suicidality and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) in these cases. Patients and methods Data of 254 sexually abused female adolescents between the ages of 12–18 years were evaluated. The cases were classified into three groups, namely “sexual dating violence”, “incest”, and “other child sexual abuse”, according to the identity of the perpetrator. The three groups were compared in terms of sociodemographic, abuse-related, and clinical features. Results Major depressive disorder was the most common psychiatric diagnosis, which was present in 44.9% of the cases. Among all victims, 25.6% had attempted suicide, 52.0% had suicidal ideation, and 23.6% had NSSI during the postabuse period. A logistic regression analysis revealed that attempted suicide was predicted by dating violence victimization (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =3.053; 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.473, 6.330) and depression (AOR =2.238; 95% CI =1.226, 4.086). Dating violence victimization was also the strongest predictor of subsequent suicidal ideation (AOR =3.500; 95% CI =1.817, 6.741). In addition, revictimization was determined to be an important risk factor for both suicidal ideation (AOR =2.897; 95% CI =1.276, 6.574) and NSSI (AOR =3.847; 95% CI =1.899, 7.794). Conclusion Perpetrator identity and revictimization are associated with negative mental health outcomes in sexually victimized female adolescents. Increased risk of suicidality and NSSI should be borne in mind while assessing cases with dating violence and revictimization histories, in particular. PMID:27382291

  2. Health SA Gesondheid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health SA Gesondheid - Journal of Interdisciplinary Health Sciences is an open access, .... Chokwe M. Setati, Zerish Z. Nkosi, 130-137 ... Movement as a critical concept in model generation to attain wholeness · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT ...

  3. Male perpetrators, the gender symmetry debate, and the rejection-abuse cycle: implications for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jac

    2012-07-01

    This review article examined the gender symmetry debate in light of recent research relating to the feminist and family research perspectives on intimate partner violence, providing a context for rethinking perpetrator programs. The concept of coercive control is considered as an explanatory factor in an attempt to integrate the feminist and family research perspectives. The limited effectiveness of perpetrator programs is examined. Research highlighting potential factors that could improve the effectiveness of perpetrator programs is introduced, followed by a discussion of the rejection-abuse cycle, one attempt to incorporate current research into a more inclusive program. The rejection-abuse cycle identifies a pattern of perpetrator behavior, which links rejection, threat to self, defense against threat, and abuse. Finally, suggestions for changing perpetrator programs are elaborated, incorporating past research, which would make them appropriate for both male and female perpetrators. These implications are contextualized within a meta-theory to provide greater clarity for the development of future perpetrator programs.

  4. SalSA status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, Amy [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)], E-mail: amyc@hep.ucl.ac.uk

    2009-06-01

    I review the status of SalSA, a proposed antenna array in a large volume salt formation for detecting ultra-high energy neutrinos. We report on measurements taken in 2007 of attenuation lengths in the 125-900 MHz frequency range at the Cote Blanche salt mine near New Iberia, Louisiana, which is the most precise in situ measurement of attenuation lengths in salt to date. We comment on the impact of these measurements on the feasibility of SalSA.

  5. The association between workplace bullying and depressive symptoms: the role of the perpetrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Török, Eszter; Hansen, Åse Marie; Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard; Garde, Anne Helene; Høgh, Annie; Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten

    2016-09-17

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the depressive symptoms of the bullied respondents differed according to who the perpetrator was. We used cross-sectional questionnaire data from two representative cohorts: the Danish Working Environment Cohort Study (DWECS 2010) and the Work and Health Study (WH 2012). After excluding respondents not having a leader, or being self-employed, assisting spouses, and those reporting multiple perpetrators in WH 2012, the statistical analysis included 2478 bullied individuals. We compared respondents reporting being bullied by their (1) leader, (2) subordinates, (3) clients / customers / patients / students, or (4) colleagues, respectively. The occurrence of depressive symptoms was measured by the Major Depression Inventory (MDI). The most frequent perpetrator of bullying was clients (41.5 %) in DWECS 2010 and colleagues (60.3 %) in WH 2012. In DWECS 2010, the MDI score of those being bullied by clients were significantly lower than the MDI scores of the other groups. In WH 2012, respondents who reported bullying from leaders had a significantly higher mean MDI score than participants being bullied by colleagues. Also in WH 2012, our results indicated that those who were bullied by leaders had a higher MDI score than those bullied by clients, although this difference was not statistically significant at conventional levels. Our findings indicated a similar pattern in the two cohorts, with a tendency of more severe depressive symptoms among employees who are exposed to bullying by their leaders, and the least severe symptoms among those who are bullied by clients.

  6. Integrated treatment options for male perpetrators of intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Cory A; Easton, Caroline J

    2017-01-01

    Male-to-female intimate partner violence remains a worldwide public health issue with adverse physical and psychological consequences for victims, perpetrators and children. Personality disorders, addiction, trauma and mood symptoms are established risk factors for intimate partner violence perpetration and factor prominently into a recovery-oriented treatment approach. We reviewed the partner violence literature for detailed reports of traditional as well as innovative, integrated treatment approaches. Empirically based recommendations for intervention programs and the policies that guide intervention efforts are offered. Nascent research suggests that integrated treatment models utilising a holistic approach to account for psychological comorbidity and interventions that involve a motivational interviewing component appear promising in terms of significantly improving intimate partner violence treatment compliance and reducing subsequent acts of physical partner violence. Further, methodologically rigorous research is required to fully assess the benefits of traditional and integrated treatment options. We have advanced several recommendations, including the development of and exclusive reliance upon empirically supported treatments, conducting a thorough risk and needs assessment of the offender and the immediate family to facilitate appropriate treatment referrals, integrating content to foster the offender's internal motivation to change maladaptive behaviours, and attempting to minimise offender treatment burdens through the strategic use of integrated treatment models. Intimate partner violence is a complicated and nuanced problem that is perpetrated by a heterogeneous population and requires greater variability in integrated treatment options. [Crane CA, Easton CJ. Integrated treatment options for male perpetrators of intimate partner violence. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:24-33]. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  7. Understanding sexual perpetration against children: effects of attachment style, interpersonal involvement, and hypersexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Michael H; Robinson, Beatrice E Bean; Knight, Raymond A; Berg, Dianne; Romine, Rebecca Swinburne; Netland, Jason

    2010-03-01

    This study explores in an adolescent sample hypotheses about child sexual abuse perpetration drawn from contemporary theories that implicate insecure attachment and adolescent social development. Specifically, three 13- to 18-year-old adolescent male samples (sex offenders with child victims, sex offenders with peer/adult victims, and nonsex delinquent youth) were compared in a cross-sectional design. Participants completed a computer-administered self-report questionnaire and a semistructured attachment style interview. Attachment style was coded by two independent raters blind to study hypotheses and group membership. The results indicated an indirect effect for attachment style. Attachment anxiety affected involvement with peers and interpersonal adequacy. Feelings of interpersonal inadequacy, combined with oversexualization and positive attitudes toward others distinguished sex offenders with child victims from nonsex delinquents and from sex offenders with peer/adult victims. These data provide a preliminary model of sexual abuse perpetration consistent with contemporary theories. Attachment anxiety with a lack of misanthropic attitudes toward others appears to lead to isolation from peers and feelings of interpersonal inadequacy. Individuals with this constellation of factors may turn to children to meet their intimacy and sexual needs, both of which seem to be exaggerated compared with other troubled youth.

  8. A Qualitative Analysis of Offenders' Emotional Responses to Perpetrating Sexual Assault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Carolyn L; Swartout, Kevin M; Cook, Sarah L; Parrott, Dominic J

    2016-09-02

    The purpose of this study was to understand sexual assault perpetrators' emotional responses to perpetration to facilitate treatment development and to better understand processes that may give rise to repeat perpetration. Sixty-one firsthand narratives of sexual assault perpetration, posted on Reddit.com, were analyzed using qualitative text analysis. The analysis revealed four primary emotional responses to perpetrating sexual assault: shame, guilt, depression, and anger. Each emotional response was associated with different contextual features that appeared in the narratives. Shame co-occurred with perpetrator alcohol use and consent confusion, guilt co-occurred with perpetrators' stated self-growth, anger co-occurred with denial of responsibility and hostility toward women, and depressed affect co-occurred with social isolation following perpetration. The findings indicate certain emotional responses may be more adaptive than others for protecting against repeat perpetration. This research has important implications for the treatment of perpetrators and supports the idea that self-image and perceived social context may be important treatment targets.

  9. Media Portrayals of Female Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlyle, Kellie E; Scarduzio, Jennifer A; Slater, Michael D

    2014-09-01

    Preventing intimate partner violence (IPV) is a public health priority. An important component of designing prevention programs is developing an understanding of how media portrayals of health issues influence public opinion and policy. To better understand the ways in which media images may be informing our understanding of IPV, this study content analyzed portrayals of IPV in news media articles. Stratified media outlets were used to obtain a representative sample of daily newspapers based on their designated market areas. Researchers created constructed months using weeks from each season across a 2-year period. The first part of the study investigated quantitative differences in the coverage of female and male perpetrators (n = 395) and identified several areas where coverage differed. The second part of the study qualitatively examined coverage of female perpetrators (n = 61) to provide a richer description of such coverage. This study contributes to our understanding of female perpetrators and how these portrayals may contribute to the larger gender symmetry debate surrounding female aggressors. Implications for public health policy and research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Cyberbullying Perpetration and Victimization Among Middle-School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Eric; Rhoades, Harmony; Winetrobe, Hailey; Goldbach, Jeremy; Plant, Aaron; Montoya, Jorge; Kordic, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined correlations between gender, race, sexual identity, and technology use, and patterns of cyberbullying experiences and behaviors among middle-school students. Methods. We collected a probability sample of 1285 students alongside the 2012 Youth Risk Behavior Survey in Los Angeles Unified School District middle schools. We used logistic regressions to assess the correlates of being a cyberbully perpetrator, victim, and perpetrator–victim (i.e., bidirectional cyberbullying behavior). Results. In this sample, 6.6% reported being a cyberbully victim, 5.0% reported being a perpetrator, and 4.3% reported being a perpetrator–victim. Cyberbullying behavior frequently occurred on Facebook or via text messaging. Cyberbully perpetrators, victims, and perpetrators–victims all were more likely to report using the Internet for at least 3 hours per day. Sexual-minority students and students who texted at least 50 times per day were more likely to report cyberbullying victimization. Girls were more likely to report being perpetrators–victims. Conclusions. Cyberbullying interventions should account for gender and sexual identity, as well as the possible benefits of educational interventions for intensive Internet users and frequent texters. PMID:25602905

  11. "Ordinary men" or "evil monsters"? An action systems model of genocidal actions and characteristics of perpetrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollows, Kerrilee; Fritzon, Katarina

    2012-10-01

    This study aimed to address the limitations of the existing genocide literature with the development of an empirically based classification system. Using Shye's (1985) action systems model, it was hypothesized that four types of perpetrators would exist and would be distinguishable by differences in the sources and target of individual criminal actions. Court transcripts from 80 perpetrators sentenced by the international courts were subject to content analysis and revealed 39 offense action variables, 17 perpetrator characteristic variables, and 6 perpetrator motive variables. A smallest space analysis using the Jaccard coefficient of association was conducted on the offense variables. The results supported the proposed framework, producing four distinct types of genocidal perpetrators. Correlational analyses were then conducted to examine the relationships between each of the perpetrator types and the remaining variables. The results of those correlations provided further support for the proposed framework. The implications of these findings are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Sexual harassment of adolescents perpetrated by teachers and by peers : An exploration of the dynamics of power, culture, and gender in secondary schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, G

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore and compare the similarities and disparities between sexual harassment of students that is perpetrated by teachers and by peers. The study involved 2,808 randomly selected adolescents at 22 secondary schools from two regions in the Netherlands. The sample com

  13. Exposure to family violence and attachment styles as predictors of dating violence perpetration among men and women: a mediational model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mary; Reese-Weber, Marla; Kahn, Jeffrey H

    2014-01-01

    This study examined a multiple mediator model explaining how sibling perpetration and one's attachment style mediate the relation between parent-to-child victimization and dating violence perpetration. A sample of undergraduate students (n = 392 women, n = 89 men) completed measures of the aforementioned variables on an Internet survey. For men, path analyses found no mediation; parent-to-child victimization had a direct association with dating violence perpetration, no association was found between sibling perpetration and dating violence perpetration, and attachment anxiety, but not attachment avoidance, was positively associated with dating violence perpetration for men. For women, the hypothesized mediation model was supported; parent-to-child victimization had a direct association with dating violence perpetration, and sibling perpetration and attachment anxiety served as mediating variables. Attachment avoidance was not associated with dating violence perpetration for women. Implications for future research and clinical practice are discussed.

  14. The perpetration of intimate partner violence among LGBTQ college youth: the role of minority stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Katie M; Sylaska, Kateryna M

    2013-11-01

    Preliminary research suggests that partner violence is a problem among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and questioning (LGBTQ) college youth. However, there is no study to date with college youth on the factors associated with perpetration of same-sex partner violence, which is needed to inform prevention efforts specific to this population. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to assess how facets of minority stress (i.e., sexual-orientation-related victimization, sexual minority stigma, internalized homonegativity, sexual identity concealment) relate to physical, sexual, and psychological partner violence perpetration among LGBTQ college youth (N = 391; 49% identified as men; 72% Caucasian; M age: 20.77 years). At the bivariate level, physical perpetration was related to identity concealment and internalized homonegativity; sexual perpetration was related to internalized homonegativity; and psychological perpetration was related to sexual-orientation-related victimization. However, at the multivariate level (after controlling for concurrent victimization), psychological perpetration was unrelated to minority stress variables, whereas physical and sexual perpetration were both related to internalized homonegativity; physical perpetration was also related to identity concealment. These results underscore the utility of understanding partner violence among LGBTQ youth through a minority stress framework. Moreover, the current study highlights the need for a better understanding of factors that mediate and moderate the relationship between minority stress and partner violence perpetration among LGBTQ youth in order to inform prevention and intervention efforts.

  15. Multiple perpetrator rape among girls evaluated at a hospital-based child advocacy center: seven years of reviewed cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edinburgh, Laurel; Pape-Blabolil, Julie; Harpin, Scott B; Saewyc, Elizabeth

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to describe contextual events, abuse experiences, and disclosure processes of adolescents who presented to a hospital-based Child Advocacy Center for medical evaluation and evidentiary collection as indicated after experiencing multiple perpetrator rape during a single event (n=32) and to compare these findings to a group of single perpetrator sexual assaults (n=534). This study used a retrospective mixed-methods design with in-depth, forensic interviews and complete physical examinations of gang-raped adolescents. Patients ranged from 12 to 17 years (M=14 years). Girls who experienced multiple perpetrator rape during a single event were more likely to have run away, to have drunk alcohol in the past month, and to have participated in binge drinking in the past 2 weeks. Acute presentation of these victims were rare but 30% had hymenal transections and 38% had sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Forensic interviews revealed alcohol was a common weapon used by offenders, and its use resulted in victims experiencing difficulty in remembering and reporting details for police investigation or physical and mental health care. Most victims were raped at parties they attended with people they thought they could trust, and they felt let down by witnesses who could have helped but did not intervene. Although relatively rare, multiple perpetrator rape during a single event is a type of severe sexual assault experience and has significant risks for deleterious health outcomes. These victims require health care by trained providers to diagnose physical findings, treat STIs, screen for trauma, and support victims. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Self-esteem in adolescent aggression perpetrators, victims and perpetrator-victims, and the moderating effects of depression and family support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng-Wei; Yang, Pin-Chen; Yeh, Yi-Chun; Lin, Huang-Chi; Ko, Chih-Hung; Liu, Tai-Ling; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2013-04-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to examine differences in the level of self-esteem among adolescents with different roles in aggression involvement (aggression perpetrators, victims, perpetrator-victims and neutrals) according to gender and (2) to examine the moderating effects of depression and family support on association between aggression involvement and self-esteem. A total of 8085 adolescents in Taiwan completed questionnaires. The relationships between self-esteem and aggression involvement were examined by multiple regression analysis. The moderating effects of depression and family support on the association between aggression involvement and self-esteem were examined. The results showed that in females, aggression victims had lower self-esteem than those in the other three groups (t=-2.940 to 2.173, pself-esteem among perpetrators, perpetrator-victims, and neutrals (t=0.693-0.933, p>0.05). In males, self-esteem in victims and perpetrator-victims was lower than in neutrals and perpetrators (t=-3.339 to -2.704, pself-esteem between victims and perpetrator-victims (t=-1.115, p>0.05) or between perpetrators and neutrals (t=-1.396, p>0.05). Family support had a moderating effect on the association between self-esteem and victimization in males. Depression had a moderating effect on the association between self-esteem and perpetration-victimization and victimization in males. The results indicate that self-esteem in adolescents with different patterns of involvement in aggression is not the same as in those without involvement. The moderating effects of depression and family support should be considered when developing intervention strategies to raise self-esteem in adolescents with aggression involvement.

  17. Protocol for the saMS trial (supportive adjustment for multiple sclerosis: a randomized controlled trial comparing cognitive behavioral therapy to supportive listening for adjustment to multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCrone Paul

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple Sclerosis (MS is an incurable, chronic, potentially progressive and unpredictable disease of the central nervous system. The disease produces a range of unpleasant and debilitating symptoms, which can have a profound impact including disrupting activities of daily living, employment, income, relationships, social and leisure activities, and life goals. Adjusting to the illness is therefore particularly challenging. This trial tests the effectiveness of a Cognitive Behavioural intervention compared to Supportive Listening to assist adjustment in the early stages of MS. Methods/Design This is a two arm randomized multi-centre parallel group controlled trial. 122 consenting participants who meet eligibility criteria will be randomly allocated to receive either Cognitive Behavioral Therapy or Supportive Listening. Eight one hour sessions of therapy (delivered over a period of 10 weeks will be delivered by general nurses trained in both treatments. Self-report questionnaire data will be collected at baseline (0 weeks, mid-therapy (week 5 of therapy, post-therapy (15 weeks and at six months (26 weeks and twelve months (52 weeks follow-up. Primary outcomes are distress and MS-related social and role impairment at twelve month follow-up. Analysis will also consider predictors and mechanisms of change during therapy. In-depth interviews to examine participants' experiences of the interventions will be conducted with a purposively sampled sub-set of the trial participants. An economic analysis will also take place. Discussion This trial is distinctive in its aims in that it aids adjustment to MS in a broad sense. It is not a treatment specifically for depression. Use of nurses as therapists makes the interventions potentially viable in terms of being rolled out in the NHS. The trial benefits from incorporating patient input in the development and evaluation stages. The trial will provide important information about the

  18. Patterns of Dating Violence Victimization and Perpetration among Latino Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, H Luz McNaughton; Foshee, Vangie A; Chen, May S; Ennett, Susan T

    2016-12-22

    Theory and research suggest that there may be significant heterogeneity in the development, manifestation, and consequences of adolescent dating violence that is not yet well understood. The current study contributed to our understanding of this heterogeneity by identifying distinct patterns of involvement in psychological, physical, and sexual dating violence victimization and perpetration in a sample of Latino youth (n = 201; M = 13.87 years; 42% male), a group that is understudied, growing, and at high risk for involvement in dating violence. Among both boys and girls, latent class analyses identified a three-class solution wherein the largest class demonstrated a low probability of involvement in dating violence across all indices ("uninvolved"; 56% of boys, 64% of girls) and the smallest class demonstrated high probability of involvement in all forms of dating violence except for sexual perpetration among girls and physical perpetration among boys ("multiform aggressive victims"; 10% of boys, 11% of girls). A third class of "psychologically aggressive victims" was identified for which there was a high probability of engaging and experiencing psychological dating violence, but low likelihood of involvement in physical or sexual dating violence (34% of boys, 24% of girls). Cultural (parent acculturation, acculturation conflict), family (conflict and cohesion) and individual (normative beliefs, conflict resolution skills, self-control) risk and protective factors were associated with class membership. Membership in the multiform vs. the uninvolved class was concurrently associated with emotional distress among girls and predicted emotional distress longitudinally among boys. The results contribute to understanding heterogeneity in patterns of involvement in dating violence among Latino youth that may reflect distinct etiological processes.

  19. Rorschach oral dependency in psychopaths, sexual homicide perpetrators, and nonviolent pedophiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huprich, Steven K; Gacono, Carl B; Schneider, Robert B; Bridges, Michael R

    2004-01-01

    Rorschach Oral Dependency scores (Masling, Rabie, & Blondheim, 1967) were compared among nonsexually offending psychopaths (NSOPs, n = 32), sexual homicide perpetrators (SHPs, n = 38), and non-violent pedophiles (NVPs, n = 39) as initially reported by Gacono, Meloy, and Bridges (2000). The aggressive special scores of Gacono and Meloy (1994; Gacono, unpublished doctoral dissertation, 1998) were also scored and compared with ROD scores. Consistent with theory and predictions, NVPs were found to have significantly higher levels of oral dependency scores than NSOPs or SHPs. Additionally, there was a high degree of association between oral dependency and aggression in the SHP and NSOP groups. These Rorschach differences support the validity of the ROD as an implicit measure of dependency and add to the understanding of the dynamics that fuel sexually deviant violence.

  20. Adolescent predictors of young adult cyberbullying perpetration and victimization among Australian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Sheryl A; Heerde, Jessica A

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of the current article was to examine the adolescent risk and protective factors (at the individual, peer group, and family level) for young adult cyberbullying perpetration and victimization. Data from 2006 (Grade 9) to 2010 (young adulthood) were analyzed from a community sample of 927 Victorian students originally recruited as a statewide representative sample in Grade 5 (age, 10-11 years) in 2002 and followed-up to age 18-19 years in 2010 (N = 809). Participants completed a self-report survey on adolescent risk and protective factors and traditional and cyberbullying perpetration and victimization and young adult cyberbullying perpetration and victimization. As young adults, 5.1% self-reported cyberbullying perpetration only, 5.0% reported cyberbullying victimization only, and 9.5% reported both cyberbullying perpetration and victimization. In fully adjusted logistic regression analyses, the adolescent predictors of cyberbullying perpetration only were traditional bullying perpetration, traditional bullying perpetration and victimization, and poor family management. For young adulthood cyberbullying victimization only, the adolescent predictor was emotion control. The adolescent predictors for young adult cyberbullying perpetration and victimization were traditional bullying perpetration and cyberbullying perpetration and victimization. Based on the results of this study, possible targets for prevention and early intervention are reducing adolescent involvement in (traditional or cyber) bullying through the development of social skills and conflict resolution skills. In addition, another important prevention target is to support families with adolescents to ensure that they set clear rules and monitor adolescents' behavior. Universal programs that assist adolescents to develop skills in emotion control are warranted. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Adolescent predictors of young adult cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization among Australian youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Heerde, Jessica A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the current paper was to examine the adolescent risk and protective factors (at the individual, peer group, and family level) for young adult cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization. Methods Data from 2006 (Grade 9) to 2010 (young adulthood) were analyzed from a community sample of 927 Victorian students originally recruited as a state-wide representative sample in Grade 5 (age 10–11 years) in 2002 and followed up to age 18–19 years in 2010 (N = 809). Participants completed a self-report survey on adolescent risk and protective factors and traditional and cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization, and young adult cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization. Results As young adults, 5.1% self-reported cyber-bullying perpetration only, 5.0% cyber-bullying victimization only, and 9.5% reported both cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization. In fully adjusted logistic regression analyses, the adolescent predictors of cyber-bullying perpetration only were traditional bullying perpetration, traditional bullying perpetration and victimization, and poor family management. For young adulthood cyber-bullying victimization only, the adolescent predictor was emotion control. The adolescent predictors for young adult cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization were traditional bullying perpetration and cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization. Conclusions Based on the results of this study, possible targets for prevention and early intervention are reducing adolescent involvement in (traditional or cyber-) bullying through the development of social skills and conflict resolution skills. In addition, another important prevention target is to support families with adolescents to ensure they set clear rules and monitor adolescent’s behavior. Universal programs that assist adolescents to develop skills in emotion control are warranted. PMID:24939014

  2. Effects of perpetrator identity on suicidality and nonsuicidal self-injury in sexually victimized female adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unlu G

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Gulsen Unlu, Burcu Cakaloz Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Pamukkale University, Denizli, Turkey Purpose: Child sexual abuse and sexual dating violence victimization are common problems that are known to have long-term negative consequences. This study aimed to compare the sociodemographic, abuse-related, and clinical features of female adolescents who were sexually abused by different perpetrators, and identify the factors associated with suicidality and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI in these cases. Patients and methods: Data of 254 sexually abused female adolescents between the ages of 12–18 years were evaluated. The cases were classified into three groups, namely “sexual dating violence”, “incest”, and “other child sexual abuse”, according to the identity of the perpetrator. The three groups were compared in terms of sociodemographic, abuse-related, and clinical features. Results: Major depressive disorder was the most common psychiatric diagnosis, which was present in 44.9% of the cases. Among all victims, 25.6% had attempted suicide, 52.0% had suicidal ideation, and 23.6% had NSSI during the postabuse period. A logistic regression analysis revealed that attempted suicide was predicted by dating violence victimization (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =3.053; 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.473, 6.330 and depression (AOR =2.238; 95% CI =1.226, 4.086. Dating violence victimization was also the strongest predictor of subsequent suicidal ideation (AOR =3.500; 95% CI =1.817, 6.741. In addition, revictimization was determined to be an important risk factor for both suicidal ideation (AOR =2.897; 95% CI =1.276, 6.574 and NSSI (AOR =3.847; 95% CI =1.899, 7.794. Conclusion: Perpetrator identity and revictimization are associated with negative mental health outcomes in sexually victimized female adolescents. Increased risk of suicidality and NSSI should be borne in mind while assessing cases with dating

  3. The Impact of Clergy-Perpetrated Sexual Abuse: The Role of Gender, Development, and Posttraumatic Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogler, Jason M.; Shipherd, Jillian C.; Clarke, Stephanie; Jensen, Jennifer; Rowe, Erin

    2008-01-01

    The literature on clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse suggests that there are two modal populations of survivors: boys and adult women. We review what is known about trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder following sexual abuse and explore the different treatment needs for these two survivor groups. For children, clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse can…

  4. Intimate Partner Violence: The Role of the Relationship between Perpetrators and Children Who Witness Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Emily; Stover, Carla

    2009-01-01

    The issue of the father-child relationship has been greatly ignored in the domestic violence research literature. This study investigated whether intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrated by biological fathers resulted in higher levels of posttraumatic stress symptoms and behavior problems than violence perpetrated by nonbiological fathers and…

  5. Longitudinal Associations Among Bullying, Homophobic Teasing, and Sexual Violence Perpetration Among Middle School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espelage, Dorothy L; Basile, Kathleen C; De La Rue, Lisa; Hamburger, Merle E

    2015-09-01

    Bullying perpetration and sexual harassment perpetration among adolescents are major public health issues. However, few studies have addressed the empirical link between being a perpetrator of bullying and subsequent sexual harassment perpetration among early adolescents in the literature. Homophobic teasing has been shown to be common among middle school youth and was tested as a moderator of the link between bullying and sexual harassment perpetration in this 2-year longitudinal study. More specifically, the present study tests the Bully-Sexual Violence Pathway theory, which posits that adolescent bullies who also participate in homophobic name-calling toward peers are more likely to perpetrate sexual harassment over time. Findings from logistical regression analyses (n = 979, 5th-7th graders) reveal an association between bullying in early middle school and sexual harassment in later middle school, and results support the Bully-Sexual Violence Pathway model, with homophobic teasing as a moderator, for boys only. Results suggest that to prevent bully perpetration and its later association with sexual harassment perpetration, prevention programs should address the use of homophobic epithets.

  6. The Perpetration of School Violence in Taiwan: An Analysis of Gender, Grade Level and School Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ji-Kang; Astor, Ron Avi

    2009-01-01

    Using a nationally representative sample in Taiwan, this study aims to describe the prevalence of perpetration of school violence in Taiwan. The study explores how gender, age and school type relate to students' perpetration of violence in an Asian culture context. The sample included 14,022 students from elementary to high schools in grades 4 to…

  7. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Police-Reported Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration: A Mixed Methods Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipsky, Sherry; Cristofalo, Meg; Reed, Sarah; Caetano, Raul; Roy-Byrne, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine racial and ethnic disparities in perpetrator and incident characteristics and discrepancies between police charges and reported perpetrator behaviors in police-reported intimate partner violence (IPV). This cross-sectional study used standardized police data and victim narratives of IPV incidents…

  8. The Associations between Substance Use, Sexual Behaviors, Bullying, Deviant Behaviors, Health, and Cyber Dating Abuse Perpetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ouytsel, Joris; Torres, Elizabeth; Choi, Hye Jeong; Ponnet, Koen; Walrave, Michel; Temple, Jeff R.

    2017-01-01

    Dating violence is an important public health concern and is considered to be a form of school violence. While digital technologies have enabled perpetrators of dating violence to target their victims online (cyber dating abuse), little is known about how this form of perpetration relates to specific adolescent risk behaviors. This brief research…

  9. Anger Mediates the Relation between Violence Exposure and Violence Perpetration in Incarcerated Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimonis, Eva R.; Ray, James V.; Branch, Jessica R.; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Youth who are exposed to violence are more likely to perpetrate violence. Incarcerated youth are a special population that is at a significantly greater risk for violent offending because of their relatively greater rates of violence exposure. Two important outcomes of violence exposure that may help explain its link with violence perpetration are…

  10. The Impact of Clergy-Perpetrated Sexual Abuse: The Role of Gender, Development, and Posttraumatic Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogler, Jason M.; Shipherd, Jillian C.; Clarke, Stephanie; Jensen, Jennifer; Rowe, Erin

    2008-01-01

    The literature on clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse suggests that there are two modal populations of survivors: boys and adult women. We review what is known about trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder following sexual abuse and explore the different treatment needs for these two survivor groups. For children, clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse can…

  11. Sexual Assault and Rape Perpetration by College Men: The Role of the Big Five Personality Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voller, Emily K.; Long, Patricia J.

    2010-01-01

    A sample of 521 college men completed the Revised NEO Personality Inventory and an expanded version of the Sexual Experiences Survey to examine whether variation in the Big Five personality traits in a normal, college population provides any insight into the nature of sexual assault and rape perpetrators. Rape perpetrators reported lower levels of…

  12. Temporary restraining orders in the Netherlands: a qualitative examination of perpetrator and victim views

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooij, F.B.; ten Haaf, J.; Verhoeff, A.P.

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, the Netherlands introduced a 10-day temporary restraining order (TRO) intended for adult perpetrators of domestic violence to defuse dangerous situations and to reduce recidivism by combining a legal action with social services. For this study, 18 victims and 10 perpetrators were interviewe

  13. How Much Does School Matter? An Examination of Adolescent Dating Violence Perpetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnurr, Melissa P.; Lohman, Brenda J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was two-fold: (1) to identify how school factors were related to perpetration of dating violence among adolescents; and (2) to assess how these factors may reduce or exacerbate the relationship between parental domestic violence and adolescents' perpetration of dating violence, while accounting for individual and family…

  14. Psychological Abuse Perpetration in College Dating Relationships: Contributions of Gender, Stress, and Adult Attachment Orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormley, Barbara; Lopez, Frederick G.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated whether gender, stressful problems common among college students, and adult attachment orientations (anxiety and avoidance) contributed to self-reported perpetration of psychological abuse in dating relationships among 127 college students. College men's stress levels were the strongest predictor of perpetration of…

  15. Adolescent experiences of violence and relation to violence perpetration beyond young adulthood among an urban sample of Black and African American males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Elizabeth; Lawrence, Danielle A; Santana, M C; Welles, C Seth L; Horsburgh, C Robert; Silverman, Jay G; Rich, John A; Raj, Anita

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine if experiences of physical violence during early and late adolescence (12-21 years) places urban Black males at increased risk for interpersonal violence perpetration beyond young adulthood (30 years and older). Participants of this cross-sectional study were Black and African American men (N = 455) between the ages of 30 and 65 years, recruited from four urban clinical sites in the Northeast. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to analyze the relation of adolescent experiences of violence to: (1) past 6 month street violence involvement and (2) past year intimate partner violence perpetration. Ten percent of the sample reported that they experienced adolescent victimization. Men reporting adolescent victimization were significantly more likely to report past 6-month street violence involvement (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 3.2, 95 % CI = 1.7-6.3) and past 6 month intimate partner violence perpetration (AOR = 2.8, 95 % CI = 1.8-5.4) compared to men who did not report such victimization. Study findings suggest that in order to prevent adulthood perpetration of violence, more work is needed to address experiences of victimization among young Black males, particularly violence experienced during adolescence.

  16. Brief report: Associations between adolescent girls’ social emotional intelligence and violence perpetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gower, Amy L.; Shlafer, Rebecca J.; Polan, Julie; McRee, Annie-Laurie; McMorris, Barbara J.; Pettingell, Sandra L.; Sieving, Renee E.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined associations between social emotional intelligence (SEI) and two measures of violence perpetration (relational aggression and physical violence) in a cross-sectional sample of high-risk adolescent girls (N = 253). We evaluated three aspects of SEI: stress management, intrapersonal, and interpersonal skills. Results of a multiple linear regression model accounting for participants’ age, race/ethnicity, and experiences of relational aggression victimization indicated that girls with better stress management skills were less likely to perpetrate relational aggression. A parallel model for perpetration of physical violence showed a similar pattern of results. Study findings suggest that SEI, and stress management skills in particular, may protect adolescent girls – including those who have been victims of violence – from perpetrating relational aggression and physical violence. Interventions that build adolescent girls’ social and emotional skills may be an effective strategy for reducing their perpetration of violence. PMID:24331306

  17. The interactive effects of PTSD, emotion regulation, and anger management strategies on female-perpetrated IPV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Rachel Kendra; Bell, Kathryn M; Lilly, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Research supports a relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration, and theory implicates emotion regulation and anger management skills as probable moderators to that relationship (Chemtob, Novaco, Hamada, Gross, & Smith, 1997). However, no study has investigated these interactive relationships with female-perpetrated physical IPV. Therefore, this study examined the interactive effects of PTSD symptoms, emotion regulation, and anger management skills on female-perpetrated physical IPV. Female community members (N = 254) completed measures of PTSD symptoms, emotion regulation strategies, anger management skills during partner conflict, and IPV perpetration. Results indicated two-way interaction effects between emotion regulation and both PTSD symptoms and negative partner attributions. In addition, PTSD symptoms, emotion regulation, and escalating strategies marginally interacted to predict female-perpetrated IPV. Implications of these results for future research and interventions are discussed.

  18. [Derogating victims and dehumanizing perpetrators: functions of two types of beliefs in a just world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Aya; Miura, Asako

    2015-04-01

    This study defined Belief in Just World (BJW) multidimensionally and investigated the effects of Belief in Immanent Justice (BIJ) and Belief in Ultimate Justice (BUJ) on victim derogation and draconian punishment of perpetrators. Study 1 tested the validity of the multidimensional structure of BJW and demonstrated relationships between BJW and other psychological variables. In Study 2, we measured the reactions to the victim and perpetrator in an injury case reported in a news.article, and evaluated the relationships of these reactions to BIJ and BUJ. The results revealed that BIJ was associated with a preference in draconian punishment of the perpetrator, while BUJ was associated with dissociation from the victim (a type of victim derogation). In addition, as hypothesized, we found that dehumanization of the perpetrator partially mediated the relationship between BIJ and victim derogation. We discussed relationships between the two types of BJW and just-world maintenance strategies in the situation where a victim and a perpetrator are both recognized.

  19. Myths and realities of female-perpetrated terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Karen; Taylor, Paul J

    2013-02-01

    The authors examined the backgrounds and social experiences of female terrorists to test conflicting accounts of the etiology of this offending group. Data on 222 female terrorists and 269 male terrorists were examined across 8 variables: age at first involvement, educational achievement, employment status, immigration status, marital status, religious conversion, criminal activity, and activist connections. The majority of female terrorists were found to be single, young (terrorism, but they were more likely to have a higher education attainment, less likely to be employed, and less likely to have prior activist connections. The results clarify the myths and realities of female-perpetrated terrorism and suggest that the risk factors associated with female involvement are distinct from those associated with male involvement.

  20. First victims then perpetrators: child soldiers and International Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Morini

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the issue of the position of child soldiersunder International Law. After preliminary remarks on the approach ofinternational human rights and humanitarian law to the protection of children involved in armed conflicts, the article discusses the prohibitions on recruiting children and the individual criminal responsibility of recruiters.Case-law on the child soldiers’ recruitment is considered. In thefourth part the position of the child soldiers as perpetrators is discussed and the retributive approach to the issue is explored. The last section offers an overviewof the restorative justice-oriented solution to the dilemma of the criminal responsibility of child soldiers adopted in the context of the post-conflict situation in Sierra Leone.

  1. First victims then perpetrators: child soldiers and International Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Morini

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the issue of the position of child soldiers under International Law. After preliminary remarks on the approach of international human rights and humanitarian law to the protection of children involved in armed conflicts, the article discusses the prohibitions on recruiting children and the individual criminal responsibility of recruiters. Case-law on the child soldiers’ recruitment is considered. In the fourth part the position of the child soldiers as perpetrators is discussed and the retributive approach to the issue is explored. The last section offers an overview of the restorative justice-oriented solution to the dilemma of the criminal responsibility of child soldiers adopted in the context of the post-conflict situation in Sierra Leone.

  2. A cycle of violence? Examining family-of-origin violence, attitudes, and intimate partner violence perpetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Li; Mazerolle, Paul

    2015-03-01

    Exposure to violence in the family-of-origin has consistently been linked to intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration in adulthood. However, whether the transmission of violence across generations is role- and gender-specific still remains unclear. The current study examined the effects of experiencing child abuse and observing parental violence on IPV perpetration among a sample of male arrestees (N = 303). The differential effects of observing violence perpetrated by same-sex (father to mother), opposite-sex (mother to father), and both parents on subsequent IPV perpetration were examined. Logistic regression analyses showed that while observing father-only violence and bidirectional interparental violence was predictive of IPV perpetration, observing mother-only violence and direct experiences of child abuse was not. These findings suggest that the transmission of violence across generations is both role- and gender-specific and highlight the importance of examining unique dimensions of partner violence to assess influences on children. The study further examined whether attitudes justifying wife beating mediate the effect of exposure to violence and subsequent IPV perpetration. Results showed that although attitudes were predictive of perpetration, these attitudes did not mediate the relationship.

  3. Longitudinal relationships between individual and class norms supporting dating violence and perpetration of dating violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Katherine A; Sullivan, Terri N; Farrell, Albert D

    2015-03-01

    Dating violence is commonly perpetrated in adolescence, making it imperative to understand risk factors in order to inform prevention efforts. Although individual norms supporting dating violence are strongly related to its perpetration, few studies have examined their longitudinal impact. Moreover, the influence of class norms (i.e., norms for students in the same grade, cohort, and school) supporting dating violence on perpetration has rarely been studied. The current study examined longitudinal relationships between individual and class norms supporting dating violence and perpetration of physical and psychological dating violence. Participants were two cohorts of sixth graders from 37 schools who were in dating relationships at Wave 1 and 6 months later at Wave 2 (N = 2,022; 43% female; 52% African American, 21% Latino/a, 20% White, and 7% other). The analyses used a multilevel approach, with students represented at Level 1 and classes (n = 74) at Level 2. The models tested direct effects of Wave 1 individual and class norms supporting dating violence on subsequent changes in perpetration of dating violence at Wave 2 and the extent to which gender moderated these relationships. The findings indicated that greater individual norms supporting male dating violence predicted greater change in perpetration of physical and psychological dating violence and greater individual norms supporting female dating violence predicted greater change in perpetration of psychological dating violence. Greater class norms supporting male dating violence predicted greater change in perpetration of physical dating violence; whereas greater class norms supporting female dating violence predicted less change in perpetration of physical dating violence. These findings highlight the need to address norms in early adolescence.

  4. Um estudo comparativo de dois serviços de saúde mental: relações entre participação popular e representações sociais relacionadas ao direito à saúde A comparative study of two mental health services: relationships between popular participation and social representations related to the right to health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Luis da Cunha Gastal

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo origina-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa que analisou representações sociais relacionadas ao direito à saúde de usuários de dois serviços de saúde mental: um constituído e funcionando com participação de usuários e familiares e outro sem essa participação, visando conhecê-las não apenas vinculadas à consciência do direito à saúde, mas também a fatores associados, como: participação popular, o processo de adoecimento; o atendimento público de saúde, percepção da capacidade de intervenção social, e concepções sobre o Estado. As representações sociais encontradas associadas ao direito à saúde implicam expectativas de que o sistema de saúde e o Estado cumpram funções de acolhimento e amparo. Os usuários do serviço sem participação popular tendem a ser mais conformados e pessimistas. O grupo com participação popular vê o serviço que construiu como possuidor das características negadas pelo sistema oficial e percebe como possível a ação reivindicativa, podendo ser um foco alternativo na formação de novas representações sociais.The present paper originated from a qualitative study that analyzed social representations related to the right to health, expressed by users of two types of mental health services, one with participation by users and families and the other without such participation. The aim was to analyze such representations not only in relation to the awareness of the right to health, but also concerning associated factors, such as: popular participation; illness; public health care; perception of social intervention capacity; and concepts concerning the state. Social representations of the right to health involve expectations that the health system and the state meet their roles of ensuring care and support. Users of the mental health service without user/family participation tended to be more resigned and pessimistic. The group with participation views the service it has built

  5. Sexual Aggression Victimization and Perpetration among Male and Female College Students in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Isabell; Krahé, Barbara; Ilabaca Baeza, Paola; Muñoz-Reyes, José A.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence on the prevalence of sexual aggression among college students is primarily based on studies from Western countries. In Chile, a South American country strongly influenced by the Catholic Church, little research on sexual aggression among college students is available. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine the prevalence of sexual aggression victimization and perpetration since the age of 14 (the legal age of consent) in a sample of male and female students aged between 18 and 29 years from five Chilean universities (N = 1135), to consider possible gender differences, and to study the extent to which alcohol was involved in the reported incidents of perpetration and victimization. Sexual aggression victimization and perpetration was measured with a Chilean Spanish version of the Sexual Aggression and Victimization Scale (SAV-S), which includes three coercive strategies (use or threat of physical force, exploitation of an incapacitated state, and verbal pressure), three victim-perpetrator constellations (current or former partners, friends/acquaintances, and strangers), and four sexual acts (sexual touch, attempted sexual intercourse, completed sexual intercourse, and other sexual acts, such as oral sex). Overall, 51.9% of women and 48.0% of men reported at least one incident of sexual victimization, and 26.8% of men and 16.5% of women reported at least one incident of sexual aggression perpetration since the age of 14. For victimization, only few gender differences were found, but significantly more men than women reported sexual aggression perpetration. A large proportion of perpetrators also reported victimization experiences. Regarding victim-perpetrator relationship, sexual aggression victimization and perpetration were more common between persons who knew each other than between strangers. Alcohol use by the perpetrator, victim, or both was involved in many incidents of sexual aggression victimization and perpetration, particularly

  6. Comparison of Psychopathological Symptoms in Adolescents Who Experienced Sexual Violence as a Victim and/or as a Perpetrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlert, Jeannine; Seidler, Corinna; Rau, Thea; Fegert, Jörg; Allroggen, Marc

    2017-03-28

    Research on sexual violence victims and perpetrators indicates that victims in general are found to report higher levels of psychopathological symptoms, especially internalizing behavior, whereas perpetrators often show externalizing behavior. Little is known, however, about the psychopathology of perpetrators of sexual violence who have also experienced sexual victimization (victim-perpetrators). Thus, the aim of the current study was to examine this group within a sample of adolescents living in residential care or federal boarding schools. Participants reported their lifetime experience with sexual violence (both as victim and perpetrator) and completed the Youth Self Report. Results indicate that all three groups of adolescents with sexual violence experience report higher total problem scores than adolescents without this experience. Victim-perpetrators show results more similar to those of perpetrators only than those of victims only. The discussion deals with the implications of our findings for the treatment of victims of sexual violence.

  7. Psychosocial risk and protective factors associated with perpetration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rates of gender-based violence (GBV) in South Africa (SA) are among the ... male dominance and control over women, gender power imbalances contribute to ... as well as protective factors (social support and self-esteem) as self-reported by ...

  8. An eye for an eye? Exploring the relationship between workplace incivility experiences and perpetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallus, Jessica A; Bunk, Jennifer A; Matthews, Russell A; Barnes-Farrell, Janet L; Magley, Vicki J

    2014-04-01

    We examined the effects of gender and organizational climate for incivility on the relationship between individuals' incivility experiences and perpetration. Based on Andersson and Pearson's (1999) concept of the incivility spiral, Naylor, Pritchard, and Ilgen's (1980) theory of behavior in organizations, and social interactionist theory (Felson & Tedeschi, 1993), we proposed an interaction between incivility experiences, organizational climate for incivility (organizational tolerance and policies), and gender in predicting incivility perpetration. Results indicate that incivility experiences predict incivility perpetration and that men are more likely to be uncivil to others when their organization tolerates rudeness. Women's incivility experiences were associated with increased incivility perpetration, but were unaffected by incivility climate. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  9. Cross sectional survey of perpetrators, victims, and witnesses of violence in Bogotá, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Duque, L.; Klevens, J; Ramirez, C.

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To establish the prevalence and distribution of witnesses, victims, and perpetrators of different types of violence in the general population and the proportion of victims consulting health services or reporting the incident to authorities.

  10. Domestic violence perpetrator programs in Europe, Part II: A systematic review of the state of evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoensi, Thomas D; Koehler, Johann A; Lösel, Friedrich; Humphreys, David K

    2013-10-01

    In Part II of this article, we present the results of a systematic review of European evidence on the effectiveness of domestic violence perpetrator programs. After searching through 10,446 titles, we discovered only 12 studies that evaluated the effectiveness of a perpetrator program in some systematic manner. The studies applied treatment to a total of 1,586 domestic violence perpetrators, and the sample sizes ranged from 9 to 322. Although the evaluations showed various positive effects after treatment, methodological problems relating to the evaluation designs do not allow attribution of these findings to the programs. Overall, the methodological quality of the evaluations is insufficient to derive firm conclusions and estimate an effect size. Accordingly, one cannot claim that one programmatic approach is superior to another. Evaluation of domestic violence perpetrator treatment in Europe must be improved and programs should become more tailored to the characteristics of the participants.

  11. Intimate partner violence perpetrators in a forensic psychiatric outpatient setting : Criminal history, psychopathology, and victimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrichs, J.; Bogaerts, S.; Sijtsema, J.J.; Klerx, F.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated criminological, psychopathological, and victimological profiles of intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators in a sample of 119 Dutch female and male forensic psychiatric outpatients aged 18 to 58 years. In addition, differences in criminological, psychopathological, and v

  12. Male Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Homicide: A Review and Proposed Typology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivisto, Aaron J

    2015-09-01

    Nearly one in seven homicides worldwide involve killing of an intimate partner, and men are four times more likely to be the perpetrators of these offenses. This article is a review of the literature on male perpetrators of intimate partner homicide (IPH) with an emphasis on the demographic, psychiatric, situational, and motivational characteristics consistently identified across diverse posthomicide samples. The existing literature supports the heterogeneity among male perpetrators of IPH. Based on patterns that emerge in the literature, a preliminary typology is described that includes four generally distinct subtypes of male IPH perpetrators: the mentally ill, the undercontrolled/dysregulated, chronic batterer, and overcontrolled/catathymic subtypes. Forensic implications related to risk assessment, risk management, and criminal intent are considered, and suggestions for future targeted research aimed at validating the proposed typology are offered.

  13. The Associations Between Substance Use, Sexual Behaviors, Bullying, Deviant Behaviors, Health, and Cyber Dating Abuse Perpetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ouytsel, Joris; Torres, Elizabeth; Choi, Hye Jeong; Ponnet, Koen; Walrave, Michel; Temple, Jeff R

    2017-04-01

    Dating violence is an important public health concern and is considered to be a form of school violence. While digital technologies have enabled perpetrators of dating violence to target their victims online (cyber dating abuse), little is known about how this form of perpetration relates to specific adolescent risk behaviors. This brief research report focuses on the associations between substance use, sexual behaviors, deviant behaviors, self-reported health, and cyber dating abuse perpetration. Participants included 705 ethnically diverse adolescents ( n = 408; 57.9% female) in Southeast Texas. Having had sexual intercourse or using alcohol or drugs before having sex was significantly linked with cyber dating abuse perpetration, as was poor physical health, and substance use. Consistent with limited research, we found a link between cyber dating abuse and engagement in bullying behaviors. The discussion section includes suggestions for school nurse practice and further research.

  14. Paying for someone else's mistake: the effect of bystander negligence on perpetrator blame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critcher, Clayton R; Pizarro, David A

    2008-10-01

    The success of criminal acts can sometimes depend critically on the oversight or negligence of uninvolved bystanders (e.g., someone leaving a first-floor window open). Four studies examined how the contribution of a negligent bystander affects blame for the perpetrator of a crime. Although participants stated that discounting blame for the perpetrator was normatively inappropriate in this context, they expected that others would make this very "error." Instead, across all four studies, bystander negligence amplified ascriptions of perpetrator blame. This amplification occurred because the bad action of the bystander provided an implicit standard of comparison for the perpetrator's act, framing it as more blameworthy. A variety of alternative mechanisms--that bystander negligence altered perceived crime avoidability, prompted spontaneous counterfactualizing, or increased victim empathy--were tested and ruled out. Implications for legal contexts are discussed.

  15. Lewis Porter, John Coltrane. Sa vie, sa musique

    OpenAIRE

    Parent, Emmanuel

    2008-01-01

    Les éditions Outre Mesure viennent de mettre à la disposition du lectorat français, avec la qualité de mise en page et en musique qu’on leur connaît, un nouveau livre de référence en musicologie du jazz. Salué à sa sortie par la critique en langue anglaise en 1998, John Coltrane. Sa vie, sa musique constitue en effet un ouvrage fort complet pour qui veut s’immerger dans le langage du heavyweight champion. L’auteur, enseignant à Rutgers (l’université du New Jersey abritant depuis les années 19...

  16. Self-esteem in adolescent aggression perpetrators, victims and perpetrator-victims, and the moderating effects of depression and family support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng-Wei Wang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were (1 to examine differences in the level of self-esteem among adolescents with different roles in aggression involvement (aggression perpetrators, victims, perpetrator-victims and neutrals according to gender and (2 to examine the moderating effects of depression and family support on association between aggression involvement and self-esteem. A total of 8085 adolescents in Taiwan completed questionnaires. The relationships between self-esteem and aggression involvement were examined by multiple regression analysis. The moderating effects of depression and family support on the association between aggression involvement and self-esteem were examined. The results showed that in females, aggression victims had lower self-esteem than those in the other three groups (t=−2.940 to 2.173, p0.05. In males, self-esteem in victims and perpetrator-victims was lower than in neutrals and perpetrators (t=−3.339 to −2.704, p0.05 or between perpetrators and neutrals (t=−1.396, p>0.05. Family support had a moderating effect on the association between self-esteem and victimization in males. Depression had a moderating effect on the association between self-esteem and perpetration-victimization and victimization in males. The results indicate that self-esteem in adolescents with different patterns of involvement in aggression is not the same as in those without involvement. The moderating effects of depression and family support should be considered when developing intervention strategies to raise self-esteem in adolescents with aggression involvement.

  17. Interactions of adolescent social experiences and dopamine genes to predict physical intimate partner violence perpetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Edith A.; Peek-Asa, Corinne

    2017-01-01

    Objectives We examined the interactions between three dopamine gene alleles (DAT1, DRD2, DRD4) previously associated with violent behavior and two components of the adolescent environment (exposure to violence, school social environment) to predict adulthood physical intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration among white men and women. Methods We used data from Wave IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, a cohort study following individuals from adolescence to adulthood. Based on the prior literature, we categorized participants as at risk for each of the three dopamine genes using this coding scheme: two 10-R alleles for DAT1; at least one A-1 allele for DRD2; at least one 7-R or 8-R allele for DRD4. Adolescent exposure to violence and school social environment was measured in 1994 and 1995 when participants were in high school or middle school. Intimate partner violence perpetration was measured in 2008 when participants were 24 to 32 years old. We used simple and multivariable logistic regression models, including interactions of genes and the adolescent environments for the analysis. Results Presence of risk alleles was not independently associated with IPV perpetration but increasing exposure to violence and disconnection from the school social environment was associated with physical IPV perpetration. The effects of these adolescent experiences on physical IPV perpetration varied by dopamine risk allele status. Among individuals with non-risk dopamine alleles, increased exposure to violence during adolescence and perception of disconnection from the school environment were significantly associated with increased odds of physical IPV perpetration, but individuals with high risk alleles, overall, did not experience the same increase. Conclusion Our results suggested the effects of adolescent environment on adulthood physical IPV perpetration varied by genetic factors. This analysis did not find a direct link between risk alleles

  18. Testosterone and attention deficits as possible mechanisms underlying impaired emotion recognition in intimate partner violence perpetrators

    OpenAIRE

    Ángel Romero-Martínez; Marisol Lila; Luis Moya-Albiol

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have reported impairments in decoding emotional facial expressions in intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators. However, the mechanisms that underlie these impaired skills are not well known. Given this gap in the literature, we aimed to establish whether IPV perpetrators (n = 18) differ in their emotion decoding process, attentional skills, and testosterone (T), cortisol (C) levels and T/C ratio in comparison with controls (n = 20), and also to examine the moderating role...

  19. Peer network influence on intimate partner violence perpetration among urban Tanzanian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulawa, Marta I; Kajula, Lusajo J; Maman, Suzanne

    2017-08-16

    Male perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) against women in Tanzania is widespread. Theory and empirical evidence suggest peer networks may play an important role in shaping IPV perpetration, although research on this topic in sub-Saharan Africa is limited. Grounded in social learning theory, social influence theory, and the theory of gender and power, the purpose of this study was to examine whether and how peer networks influence men's perpetration of IPV in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. We conducted in-depth interviews (n = 40) with a sub-sample of 20 men enrolled in the control condition of an ongoing cluster-randomised controlled trial. We purposively sampled participants who previously reported perpetrating physical IPV. To analyse the data, we generated narrative summaries and conducted thematic and interpretative coding. We saw no evidence that men self-selected into peer networks with certain values or behaviours. Rather, men described several mechanisms through which their peers influenced the perpetration of IPV, including: (1) the internalisation of peer network norms, (2) pressure to conform to peer network norms and (3) the direct involvement of peers in shaping couple power dynamics. Our findings suggest that peer networks influence men's perpetration of IPV and should be targeted in future programmes and interventions.

  20. Prevalence and Correlates of the Perpetration of Cyber Dating Abuse among Early Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peskin, Melissa F; Markham, Christine M; Shegog, Ross; Temple, Jeff R; Baumler, Elizabeth R; Addy, Robert C; Hernandez, Belinda; Cuccaro, Paula; Gabay, Efrat K; Thiel, Melanie; Emery, Susan Tortolero

    2017-02-01

    Much is known about the prevalence and correlates of dating violence, especially the perpetration of physical dating violence, among older adolescents. However, relatively little is known about the prevalence and correlates of the perpetration of cyber dating abuse, particularly among early adolescents. In this study, using a predominantly ethnic-minority sample of sixth graders who reported ever having had a boyfriend/girlfriend (n = 424, 44.2 % female), almost 15 % reported perpetrating cyber dating abuse at least once during their lifetime. Furthermore, using a cross-sectional design, across multiple levels of the socio-ecological model, the individual-level factors of (a) norms for violence for boys against girls, (b) having a current boyfriend/girlfriend, and (c) participation in bullying perpetration were correlates of the perpetration of cyber dating abuse. Collectively, the findings suggest that dating violence interventions targeting these particular correlates in early adolescents are warranted. Future studies are needed to establish causation and to further investigate the relative importance of correlates of the perpetration of cyber dating abuse among early adolescents that have been reported among older adolescents.

  1. A model linking biology, behavior and psychiatric diagnoses in perpetrators of domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, David T; Phillips, Monte J; Doty, Linda; Umhau, John C; Rawlings, Robert R

    2006-01-01

    Research indicates that perpetrators of domestic violence have abnormalities in central serotonin and testosterone metabolism, an increased sensitivity to anxiogenic stimuli, and an impaired neuro-connection between their cortex and the amygdala. Clinical evaluations show that perpetrators of domestic violence also have a distinguishing set of behaviors and diagnoses related to anxiety, depression, intermittent explosive disorder, and borderline personality disorder. In this paper we propose a model to understand how the biological abnormalities can potentially explain the behaviors and diagnoses exhibited by the perpetrators. Changes in the perpetrator's neurotransmitters lead to a heightened sensitivity to environmental stimuli, anxiety, and conditioned fear. Lack of cortical input to the amygdala impairs the perpetrator's ability to extinguish anxiety and/or conditioned fear and gives rise to either innate behaviors (e.g., fight, flight, and shut down) or learned fear avoidant behaviors designed to avoid anxiety (e.g., alcohol consumption, self-injurious acts, and obsessive behaviors). Linking conditioned fear and fear avoidance to the behaviors and psychiatric diagnoses will serve to change the way the medical community perceives and treats perpetrators of domestic violence.

  2. Cyberbullying Perpetration by Arab Youth: The Direct and Interactive Role of Individual, Family, and Neighborhood Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury-Kassabri, Mona; Mishna, Faye; Massarwi, Adeem Ahmad

    2016-07-25

    This study adopts a social-ecological/contextual perspective to explore Arab youth involvement in cyberbullying perpetration. We explored the association between individual (age, gender, and impulsivity), family (socioeconomic status and parental monitoring), and community (experiencing neighborhood violence) characteristics and cyberbullying perpetration. A moderation model exploring individual, family, and context interactions was tested. A sample of 3,178 Arab students in Grades 7 to 11 completed a structured, anonymous self-report questionnaire. The findings suggest that almost 14% of the participants have cyberbullied others during the last month. Adolescent boys with high impulsivity, low parental monitoring, and who experience a high level of violence in their neighborhood are at especially high risk of cyberbullying perpetration. Parental monitoring moderated the effects of impulsivity and experiencing neighborhood violence on adolescents' involvement in perpetrating cyberbullying. Furthermore, the results show that impulsive adolescents who experience high levels of neighborhood violence are at higher risk of cyberbullying perpetration than low impulsive children who experience the same levels of neighborhood violence. The results highlight the central role parenting plays in protecting their children from involvement in cyberbullying perpetration by buffering the effects of personal and situational risk factors.

  3. Estudo comparativo da condição de saúde bucal de idosos não institucionalizados de Governador Valadares-MG, com a meta proposta pela Organização Mundial de Saúde para 2010 Comparative study of the oral health status of non-institutionalized elderly from Governador Valadares-MG, with the goal proposed by the World Health Organization, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Magalhães Alcântara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a condição de saúde bucal de idosos não institucionalizados de Governador Valadares-MG com a meta da Organização Mundial de Saúde (OMS para o ano 2010. Foi utilizado o banco de dados desenvolvido pelo grupo de pesquisa Saúde, Indivíduo e Sociedade (SAIS, da Universidade Vale do Rio Doce (UNIVALE. Avaliaram-se o acesso aos serviços odontológicos, o índice CPO-D e o uso e necessidade de prótese em 505 idosos. Em relação ao acesso aos serviços odontológicos, 61,8% dos idosos afirmaram não terem ido ao dentista nos últimos 12 meses que antecederam a entrevista. Destes, 37,9% relataram ter procurado o sistema público por motivo de consulta de rotina, reparos e manutenção protética. O resultado do índice CPO-D encontrado foi de 27,9. Quanto ao uso e a necessidade de prótese, constatou-se que 46,9% dos idosos utilizavam a total removível, 33,3% não utilizavam nenhum tipo, 54,1% não apresentavam necessidade de uso e 23,8% necessitavam de prótese total removível. Diante dos dados obtidos, conclui-se que a condição de saúde bucal dos idosos avaliados é precária, encontrando-se distante do padrão estabelecido pelas metas da OMS para o ano 2010. Essa ocorrência aponta para a necessidade de investimentos na área da saúde bucal, para que em longo prazo as metas sejam atingidas.This study aimed to compare the oral health status of non-institutionalized elderly from Governador Valadares-MG, with the goal proposed by the World Health Organization for the year 2010. We used the database developed by the research group "Health, Individual and Society", from Vale do Rio Doce University. We assessed access to dental services, the DMFT index and the use and the use and need for prostheses in 505 elderly. With regard to access to dental services, 61.8% of seniors said they had not gone to the dentist in the past 12 months preceding the interview. Of these, 37.9% reported having sought the

  4. Análise comparativa dos dispositivos de saúde do trabalhador nas constituições estaduais brasileiras Workers' health in Brazilian state constitutions: a comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Barros de Oliveira

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo trata de uma análise sumária dos dispositivos legais relacionados à área de Saúde do Trabalhador, encontrados nas Constituições dos Estados Brasileiros. Compara, de forma qualitativa e quantitativa, os diversos dispositivos, segundo sua presença, abrangência e importância, mediante a adoção de critérios preestabelecidos de análise em quatro grupos de atributos: estabelecimento de diretrizes/geração, controle e utilização de informações/intervenção sobre os ambientes de trabalho/garantia de direitos de cidadania. A análise evidenciou a intenção do legislador de conferir ao Sistema Único de Saúde atribuições em Saúde do Trabalhador, possibilitando a implementação de novas práticas.This article briefly analyzes the legal measures related to workers' health in the various Brazilian state constitutions. It makes a qualitative and quantitative comparison of the different provisions based on the presence, weight, and relevance ascribed to the issue, using predefined attributes: statement of guidelines; production, control, and utilization of information; labor intervention; guarantee of rights. The analysis showed legislators' intent to allocate power to the Unified Health System in the field of workers' health so as to allow for new practices in this area.

  5. DAYA SAING KAKAO INDONESIA DI PASAR INTERNASIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anggita Tresliyana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa is one of the major Indonesian agricultural export products. Cocoa international market has great potential regarding world’s consumption growth, therefore Indonesia is expected to take advantage on existing opportunities. The aims of this study were to analyze the competitiveness of Indonesian cocoa beans and processed cocoa trade in the international market as well as the level of competition between cocoa exporting countries. By using Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA and Spearman Rank Correlation, it showed that Indonesia had a comparative advantage as an cocoa exporter on the international market, the highest for cocoa beans and the lowest for cocoa paste; Indonesia also had a significant correlation to exporting countries in cocoa beans’ market (Ghana and cocoa paste’s market (Netherlands and Malaysia, the correlation suggests that there were high correlation between Indonesia and the exporting country in competing for market share.Keywords: cocoa, comparative advantage, international trade, competitiveness, market share, RCA ABSTRAKKakao merupakan salah satu komoditas pertanian unggulan ekspor Indonesia.  Pasar kakao memiliki potensi yang besar dilihat dari peningkatan konsumsi dunia, sehingga Indonesia diharapkan dapat memanfaatkan peluang yang ada.  Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menganalisis daya saing perdagangan biji kakao dan kakao olahan Indonesia di pasar internasional serta hubungan daya saing antar negara eksportir kakao. Dengan menggunakan Reavealed Comparative Advantage (RCA, dan Korelasi Rank Spearman, hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa Indonesia memiliki keunggulan komparatif sebagai eksportir biji kakao dan kakao olahan di pasar internasional, tertinggi untuk biji kakao dan terendah untuk kakao pasta;  Indonesia juga memiliki korelasi yang signifikan di beberapa negara untuk pasar biji kakao (Ghana dan kakao pasta (Belanda dan Malaysia, korelasi tersebut menunjukkan bahwa terdapat hubungan daya saing yang cukup

  6. [Parental bonds in adolescent perpetrators of sexual violence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecce, Paola Alessandra; Lafortezza, Elena; Pinto, Floriana; Craig, Francesco; Grattagliano, Ignazio; Carabellese, Felice; Tarricone, Ivana; Margari, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    A deep understanding of the characteristics of sex offenders may serve to improve clinical prevention and treatment programs. Mostly, however, this knowledge can aid in the creation of better re-education and rehabilitation programs as well as criminological treatment. In prison systems outside of Italy, the use of treatment programs specifically designed for sex offenders is commonplace, whereas in Italy, there is only sporadic experimentation in this field which is aimed at evaluating adults. If this is true for adults, it is even more so for the minors who commit this type of crime that gives rise to worry and a great sense of alarm. The aim of this work is to show the preliminary results of an empirical study that explores the mental representations of the parents of minors who commit acts of sexual violence towards other. This study is an ongoing in collaboration with the Juvenile Justice Center (Centro Giustizia Minorile) of the Region of Apulia, whose first data on 10 juvenile perpetrators of such specific crimes are presented here.

  7. Drug offers as a context for violence perpetration and victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm, Susana; Okamoto, Scott; Kaliades, Alexis; Giroux, Danielle

    2014-01-01

    Drug use has been linked empirically with and aggression and violence among youth in national and State of Hawai'i samples. However, the nature of this link and its implications for prevention are unclear. Therefore, this article explores the intersection of drugs with aggression and violence by using the drug offer context as the unit of analysis. Native Hawaiian youth are sampled because substance use rates tend to be higher and onset tends to be earlier for them than for their non-Hawaiian peers. Fourteen sex-specific focus group discussions were held with rural Native Hawaiian middle school students (N = 64). Students discussed what they think they would do in terms of drug refusal strategies in a variety of drug offer contexts. Although aggression and violence were perceived to be socially inappropriate, students nonetheless felt drug use would be less socially competent. Narrative analyses indicated that aggression and violence were thought to function as potential drug refusal strategies. As proximal drug resistance, aggression and violence perpetration served as an immediate deterrent to the drug offerer and thus drug use. As distal drug resistance, victimization served as a rationale for avoiding drug using contexts. Implications are discussed in terms of prevention policy and practice, specifically in terms of a school-based prevention curriculum. Future research in Hawaiian epistemology and gendered approaches are warranted.

  8. A Mixed Method Study of Intimate Partner Violence: How Sex and Severity Impact Perpetrator Prior Involvement, Abnormality, and Responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Matthew; Scarduzio, Jennifer; Lockwood Harris, Kate; Carlyle, Kellie

    2017-08-15

    This study employed a mixed method approach to examine the effects of participant sex, perpetrator sex, and severity ofviolence on perceptions of intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators. Quantitative participants (n = 449) completed a survey and qualitative participants (n = 31) participated in a focus group or an interview. Participants believed that it was more likely male perpetrators had prior involvement in IPV. Participants rated stories of female perpetrators as more abnormal than stories of male perpetrators. Participants in the weak severity of violence condition had lower evaluations of responsibility than the strong or fatal severity of violence conditions and only women were discerning about perpetrator sex in their ratings of responsibility. Theoretical implications extend intimate terrorism and defensive attribution theory.

  9. Violence witnessing, perpetrating and victimization in medellin, Colombia: a random population survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The burden of injury from violence and the costs attributable to violence are extremely high in Colombia. Despite a dramatic decline in homicides over the last ten years, homicide rate in Medellin, Colombia second largest city continues to rank among the highest of cities in Latin America. This study aims to estimate the prevalence and distribution of witnesses, victims and perpetrators of different forms of interpersonal violence in a representative sample of the general population in Medellin in 2007. Methods A face-to-face survey was carried out on a random selected, non-institutionalized population aged 12 to 60 years, with a response rate of 91% yielding 2,095 interview responses. Results We present the rates of prevalence for having been a witness, victim, or perpetrator for different forms of violence standardized using the WHO truncated population pyramid to allow for cross-national comparison. We also present data on verbal aggression, fraud and deception, yelling and heavy pranks, unarmed aggression during last year, and armed threat, other severe threats, robbery, armed physical aggression, and sexual aggression during the lifetime, by age, sex, marital and socioeconomic status, and education. Men reported the highest prevalence of being victims, perpetrators and witnesses in all forms of violence, except for robbery and sexual violence. The number of victims per perpetrator was positively correlated with the severity of the type of violence. The highest victimization proportions over the previous twelve months occurred among minors. Perpetrators are typically young unmarried males from lower socio-economic strata. Conclusions Due to very low proportion of victimization report to authorities, periodic surveys should be included in systems for epidemiological monitoring of violence, not only of victimization but also for perpetrators. Victimization information allows quantifying the magnitude of different forms of violence, while data on

  10. Violence witnessing, perpetrating and victimization in medellin, Colombia: a random population survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restrepo Alexandra

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The burden of injury from violence and the costs attributable to violence are extremely high in Colombia. Despite a dramatic decline in homicides over the last ten years, homicide rate in Medellin, Colombia second largest city continues to rank among the highest of cities in Latin America. This study aims to estimate the prevalence and distribution of witnesses, victims and perpetrators of different forms of interpersonal violence in a representative sample of the general population in Medellin in 2007. Methods A face-to-face survey was carried out on a random selected, non-institutionalized population aged 12 to 60 years, with a response rate of 91% yielding 2,095 interview responses. Results We present the rates of prevalence for having been a witness, victim, or perpetrator for different forms of violence standardized using the WHO truncated population pyramid to allow for cross-national comparison. We also present data on verbal aggression, fraud and deception, yelling and heavy pranks, unarmed aggression during last year, and armed threat, other severe threats, robbery, armed physical aggression, and sexual aggression during the lifetime, by age, sex, marital and socioeconomic status, and education. Men reported the highest prevalence of being victims, perpetrators and witnesses in all forms of violence, except for robbery and sexual violence. The number of victims per perpetrator was positively correlated with the severity of the type of violence. The highest victimization proportions over the previous twelve months occurred among minors. Perpetrators are typically young unmarried males from lower socio-economic strata. Conclusions Due to very low proportion of victimization report to authorities, periodic surveys should be included in systems for epidemiological monitoring of violence, not only of victimization but also for perpetrators. Victimization information allows quantifying the magnitude of different forms of

  11. Violence witnessing, perpetrating and victimization in Medellín, Colombia: a random population survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Luis F; Montoya, Nilton E; Restrepo, Alexandra

    2011-08-05

    The burden of injury from violence and the costs attributable to violence are extremely high in Colombia. Despite a dramatic decline in homicides over the last ten years, homicide rate in Medellin, Colombia second largest city continues to rank among the highest of cities in Latin America. This study aims to estimate the prevalence and distribution of witnesses, victims and perpetrators of different forms of interpersonal violence in a representative sample of the general population in Medellin in 2007. A face-to-face survey was carried out on a random selected, non-institutionalized population aged 12 to 60 years, with a response rate of 91% yielding 2,095 interview responses. We present the rates of prevalence for having been a witness, victim, or perpetrator for different forms of violence standardized using the WHO truncated population pyramid to allow for cross-national comparison. We also present data on verbal aggression, fraud and deception, yelling and heavy pranks, unarmed aggression during last year, and armed threat, other severe threats, robbery, armed physical aggression, and sexual aggression during the lifetime, by age, sex, marital and socioeconomic status, and education. Men reported the highest prevalence of being victims, perpetrators and witnesses in all forms of violence, except for robbery and sexual violence. The number of victims per perpetrator was positively correlated with the severity of the type of violence. The highest victimization proportions over the previous twelve months occurred among minors. Perpetrators are typically young unmarried males from lower socio-economic strata. Due to very low proportion of victimization report to authorities, periodic surveys should be included in systems for epidemiological monitoring of violence, not only of victimization but also for perpetrators. Victimization information allows quantifying the magnitude of different forms of violence, while data on factors associated with aggression and

  12. Alcohol use and client-perpetrated sexual violence against female sex workers in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita; Hong, Yan; Chen, Yiyun; Shan, Qiao; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Yuejiao

    2013-01-01

    The global literature suggests that female sex workers (FSWs) experience high rates of sexual violence perpetrated by their clients, especially when FSWs are under the influence of alcohol. However, such data are limited in China. The current study is aimed to fill in the literature gap by examining the association between alcohol use by FSWs and client-perpetrated sexual violence against FSWs in China. A total of 1022 FSWs were recruited through community outreach in Guangxi, China. Female sex workers completed a self-administered survey on their demographic information, alcohol use, and sexual violence perpetrated by clients. Multivariable regression was employed to assess the relationship between alcohol use and client-perpetrated sexual violence among FSWs while controlling for possible confounders. Results indicated that alcohol use was positively associated with the experience of sexual violence in both bivariate and multivariable analyses. Women who were at a higher risk level of alcohol use were more likely to experience sexual violence perpetrated by clients even after controlling confounders (e.g., demographics and alcohol-serving practice). Given the association between alcohol use and client-perpetrated sexual violence, preventing or reducing alcohol use among FSWs could be an effective strategy to protect these women from sexual violence perpetrated by their clients. Alternatively, psychological counseling and other support should be available to these women so they can reduce their alcohol use as a maladaptive coping strategy. We call for culturally appropriate alcohol use reduction components, incorporated with sexual violence reduction strategies including adaptive coping skills training as well as empowerment, and targeting both FSWs and their clients.

  13. Teen dating violence perpetration and relation to STI and sexual risk behaviours among adolescent males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Elizabeth; Miller, Elizabeth; Raj, Anita; Decker, Michele R; Silverman, Jay G

    2014-06-01

    To investigate teen dating violence (TDV) perpetration (physical, sexual or psychological violence) and association with STI and related sexual risk behaviours among urban male adolescents. Adolescent male survey participants (N=134) were aged 14-20 years, recruited from urban health centres. Using crude and adjusted logistic regression, TDV perpetration was examined in relation to self-reported: STI, having sex with another person when they were only supposed to have sex with their main partner, and consistent condom use. Over one-third of males (45%) reported any TDV; 42% reported sexual violence perpetration, 13% reported perpetrating physical violence against a dating/sexual partner and 11% reported psychological violence, including threats of physical or sexual violence. Approximately 15% of males reported having ever had an STI, one quarter reported having sex with another person when they were only supposed to have sex with their main partner and 36% reported consistent condom use (past 3 months). In adjusted logistic regression models, TDV perpetration was significantly associated with self-reports of an STI (OR=3.3; 95% CI 1.2 to 9.2) and having sex with another person when they were supposed to be only having sex with their main partner (OR=4.8; 95% CI 2.0 to 11.4). There was no significant association between TDV perpetration and consistent condom use. Current study findings are the first within the literature on adolescents to suggest that greater STI and sexual risk behaviours among male adolescents perpetrating TDV may be one mechanism explaining increased STI among female adolescents reporting TDV victimisation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Meta Analisis sa Pagsusuri ng Maiikling Kwento sa mga Tesis at Disertasyon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina I. Cuizon

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Anumang mga pagbabago na makikita sa mundo ay bunga ng pananaliksik. Ang meta-analisis ay isa sa mga bunga ng pananaliksik na ginagamit sa kasalukuyan bilang teknik upang malaman iba pang mga nagsulputang informasyon. Ito’y pag-aaral sa mga pag-aaral. Isang kritikal at sistematikong pagsusuri sa istruktura ng mga pag-aaral. Maging gabay sa mga gradwadong paaralan sa pagpili ng paksang pagaaralan. Pangunahing layunin na matiyak ang mga pamamaraan sa pagsusuri ng maiikling kwento ng mga tesis at disertasyong nagawa mula sa mga piling SUCs. Desinyong kwalitatibo - kontent analisis sa pagsusuri ng: kaanyuan ayon sa suliranin, metodolohiya, paglalahad at interpretasyon ng mga datos, natuklasan, konklusyon, at rekomendasyon; kahinatnan ayon sa pagkatulad, pagkakaiba at kabuluhan; Emerging tema. Napag-alaman na ang karaniwang pinag-aralan ay 30% kahalagahang pangkatauhan, 20% larawangdiwa ng mga kababaihan at 10% gramatikang aspeto. Sa metodolohiyang ginamit, 80% desinyong kwalitatibo at 20% kwantitatibo-kwalitatibo. Sa paglikom ng datos 60% diretsahang pagsusuri, 30% talatanungan at 10% tseklis. Sa pag-analisa 90% kontent analisis at 10% gramatikal analisis. Batay sa natuklasan, ang pagsusuri ng maiikling kwento sa mga tesis at disertasyon mula sa iba’t ibang paaralan gamit ang meta analisis ay isang epektibo, mabisa, objektibong paraan at kagamitan na magagamit sa makatarungang paghatol; pamumuna sa kabuluhan at kagandahan; paghaham- bing sa mga kritikal na isyu; at pormulasyon ng panibagong pamantayan at batas.

  15. Gender differences and similarities in medical students' experiences of mistreatment by various groups of perpetrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siller, Heidi; Tauber, Gloria; Komlenac, Nikola; Hochleitner, Margarethe

    2017-08-14

    Mistreatment of medical students during medical education is a widespread concern. Studies have shown that medical students report the most mistreatment compared to students of other study programs and that the prevalence of mistreatment peaks during clinical training. For this reason, a study was conducted to assess prevalence of mistreatment among medical students committed by various groups of people. The focus was to identify whether gender was associated with the experience of mistreatment. Additionally, students' perception of university climate for reporting sexual harassment was assessed. In the study 88 medical students (45 women, 43 men) participated. A modified version of the Questionnaire on Student Abuse was used to assess students' experience of various types of mistreatment and associated distress during medical education. To explore factors that could be associated with this experience the organizational climate for reporting sexual harassment was assessed with the Psychological Climate for Sexual Harassment. The most often cited perpetrators of mistreatment were strangers (79.5%), friends (75.0%) and university staff (68.2%). Strangers mostly committed psychological mistreatment and sexual harassment, whereas friends additionally engaged in physical mistreatment of medical students. The most common form of mistreatment conducted by university staff was humiliation of students. These kinds of psychological mistreatment were reported to be distressing (43%). Gender differences were found in the prevalence of mistreatment. Women experienced more sexual harassment and humiliation than did men. On the other hand, men experienced more physical mistreatment than did women. Women reported experiencing more distress from mistreatment experiences than did men and also more often reported being mistreated by university staff than did men. Women perceived a greater risk in reporting sexual harassment to the organization than did men. Mistreatment of female and

  16. Psychotherapy Experiences of Perpetrators of Child Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Sandra P; Phillips, Kenneth D; Blaine, Susan K

    2015-10-01

    Cynicism about treatment of sex offenders pervades both professional and lay literature. A Cochrane review of randomized controlled trials concluded there is no evidence to support any psychological intervention for sex offenders, but RCT design has limitations for evaluating sex offender treatment. Rarely has a qualitative approach been used to explore perceptions of offenders themselves about their psychotherapy experiences. The purpose of this study was to discover the meaning of therapy experiences to 11 community-dwelling perpetrators of child sexual abuse. They had received therapy during incarceration or after release, or both. Secondary analysis was conducted of phenomenological interviews about participants' early life, during which they spontaneously revealed insights gleaned during therapy in adulthood. Rigor of the analysis was enhanced by reading transcripts aloud and thematizing them in an interdisciplinary interpretive group. Five interrelated themes constituted a gestalt comprising the essence of the therapy experience: "This treatment, it's just totally changed my whole world." Themes included: "It just stripped away all the pretense, all the lies, all the manipulation;" "I didn't understand myself; I found out all about myself through this;" "Nobody knew any of my secrets; that (therapy) was the first time that I got to tell my story;" "The group has become a family for me;" and "I'm very ashamed of what I've done; this treatment has really helped me, gave me a second chance." These findings stand in contrast to cynicism about sex offender therapy and lend support to the increased optimism expressed by several contemporary scholars.

  17. Expanding resource theory and feminist-informed theory to explain intimate partner violence perpetration by court-ordered men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Kathleen C; Hall, Jeffrey E; Walters, Mikel L

    2013-07-01

    This study tested resource and feminist-informed theories to explain physical, sexual, psychological, and stalking intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrated by court-mandated men. Data were obtained from 340 men arrested for physical assault of a partner before their court-ordered treatment. Using path analysis, findings provided partial support for each model. Ineffective arguing and substance-use problems were moderators of resources and perpetration. Dominance mediated early exposures and perpetration in the feminist-informed model. In both models, predictors of stalking were different than those for other types of perpetration. Future studies should replicate this research and determine the utility of combining models.

  18. Violent deaths of Iraqi civilians, 2003-2008: analysis by perpetrator, weapon, time, and location.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madelyn Hsiao-Rei Hicks

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Armed violence is a major public health and humanitarian problem in Iraq. In this descriptive statistical analysis we aimed to describe for the first time Iraqi civilian deaths caused by perpetrators of armed violence during the first 5 years of the Iraq war: over time; by weapon used; by region (governorate; and by victim demographics. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We analyzed the Iraq Body Count database of 92,614 Iraqi civilian direct deaths from armed violence occurring from March 20, 2003 through March 19, 2008, of which Unknown perpetrators caused 74% of deaths (n = 68,396, Coalition forces 12% (n = 11,516, and Anti-Coalition forces 11% (n = 9,954. We analyzed the subset of 60,481 civilian deaths from 14,196 short-duration events of lethal violence to link individual civilian deaths to events involving perpetrators and their methods. One-third of civilian violent death was from extrajudicial executions by Unknown perpetrators; quadratic regression shows these deaths progressively and disproportionately increased as deaths from other forms of violence increased across Iraq's governorates. The highest average number of civilians killed per event in which a civilian died were in Unknown perpetrator suicide bombings targeting civilians (19 per lethal event and Coalition aerial bombings (17 per lethal event. In temporal analysis, numbers of civilian deaths from Coalition air attacks, and woman and child deaths from Coalition forces, peaked during the invasion. We applied a Woman and Child "Dirty War Index" (DWI, measuring the proportion of women and children among civilian deaths of known demographic status, to the 22,066 civilian victims identified as men, women, or children to indicate relatively indiscriminate perpetrator effects. DWI findings suggest the most indiscriminate effects on women and children were from Unknown perpetrators using mortar fire (DWI  = 79 and nonsuicide vehicle bombs (DWI  = 54 and from

  19. Violent Deaths of Iraqi Civilians, 2003–2008: Analysis by Perpetrator, Weapon, Time, and Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Madelyn Hsiao-Rei; Dardagan, Hamit; Guerrero Serdán, Gabriela; Bagnall, Peter M.; Sloboda, John A.; Spagat, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background Armed violence is a major public health and humanitarian problem in Iraq. In this descriptive statistical analysis we aimed to describe for the first time Iraqi civilian deaths caused by perpetrators of armed violence during the first 5 years of the Iraq war: over time; by weapon used; by region (governorate); and by victim demographics. Methods and Findings We analyzed the Iraq Body Count database of 92,614 Iraqi civilian direct deaths from armed violence occurring from March 20, 2003 through March 19, 2008, of which Unknown perpetrators caused 74% of deaths (n = 68,396), Coalition forces 12% (n = 11,516), and Anti-Coalition forces 11% (n = 9,954). We analyzed the subset of 60,481 civilian deaths from 14,196 short-duration events of lethal violence to link individual civilian deaths to events involving perpetrators and their methods. One-third of civilian violent death was from extrajudicial executions by Unknown perpetrators; quadratic regression shows these deaths progressively and disproportionately increased as deaths from other forms of violence increased across Iraq's governorates. The highest average number of civilians killed per event in which a civilian died were in Unknown perpetrator suicide bombings targeting civilians (19 per lethal event) and Coalition aerial bombings (17 per lethal event). In temporal analysis, numbers of civilian deaths from Coalition air attacks, and woman and child deaths from Coalition forces, peaked during the invasion. We applied a Woman and Child “Dirty War Index” (DWI), measuring the proportion of women and children among civilian deaths of known demographic status, to the 22,066 civilian victims identified as men, women, or children to indicate relatively indiscriminate perpetrator effects. DWI findings suggest the most indiscriminate effects on women and children were from Unknown perpetrators using mortar fire (DWI  = 79) and nonsuicide vehicle bombs (DWI  = 54) and from Coalition air

  20. Violent deaths of Iraqi civilians, 2003-2008: analysis by perpetrator, weapon, time, and location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Madelyn Hsiao-Rei; Dardagan, Hamit; Guerrero Serdán, Gabriela; Bagnall, Peter M; Sloboda, John A; Spagat, Michael

    2011-02-15

    Armed violence is a major public health and humanitarian problem in Iraq. In this descriptive statistical analysis we aimed to describe for the first time Iraqi civilian deaths caused by perpetrators of armed violence during the first 5 years of the Iraq war: over time; by weapon used; by region (governorate); and by victim demographics. We analyzed the Iraq Body Count database of 92,614 Iraqi civilian direct deaths from armed violence occurring from March 20, 2003 through March 19, 2008, of which Unknown perpetrators caused 74% of deaths (n = 68,396), Coalition forces 12% (n = 11,516), and Anti-Coalition forces 11% (n = 9,954). We analyzed the subset of 60,481 civilian deaths from 14,196 short-duration events of lethal violence to link individual civilian deaths to events involving perpetrators and their methods. One-third of civilian violent death was from extrajudicial executions by Unknown perpetrators; quadratic regression shows these deaths progressively and disproportionately increased as deaths from other forms of violence increased across Iraq's governorates. The highest average number of civilians killed per event in which a civilian died were in Unknown perpetrator suicide bombings targeting civilians (19 per lethal event) and Coalition aerial bombings (17 per lethal event). In temporal analysis, numbers of civilian deaths from Coalition air attacks, and woman and child deaths from Coalition forces, peaked during the invasion. We applied a Woman and Child "Dirty War Index" (DWI), measuring the proportion of women and children among civilian deaths of known demographic status, to the 22,066 civilian victims identified as men, women, or children to indicate relatively indiscriminate perpetrator effects. DWI findings suggest the most indiscriminate effects on women and children were from Unknown perpetrators using mortar fire (DWI  = 79) and nonsuicide vehicle bombs (DWI  = 54) and from Coalition air attacks (DWI  = 69). Coalition

  1. Juvenile perpetrators of homicides and attempted homicides--a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britvić, Dolores; Urlić, Ivan; Definis-Gojanović, Marija

    2006-03-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the influence of certain aspects of family dynamics, as well as some behavior and psychological development disorders on the occurrence of homicides and attempted homicides among juveniles in the Split Dalmatian County over a period of 10 years (1989-1998). A retrospective case-control study was performed to compare juvenile murderers and attempted murderers with minors who committed other offences, i.e. property crimes. The subjects were paired according to demographic and socio-economic background. The data obtained from County Court's files included social anamnesis, specialists' observation and psychiatric expertise results. There was a significant difference between the study group and their controls in the frequency of physical violence and parental rejection during childhood. Neuropsychological and neurophysiological abnormalities were more frequent in the experimental than in the control group. Stealing occurred more often in the control group. No significant differences were found for other studied risk factors. There is no unique type of juvenile murderer. A juvenile homicide is committed under the influence of various developmental characteristics, family milieu, and constitution combined with environmental factors and perpetrator's perception of the victim.

  2. Reformas de saúde em perspectiva comparada: uma questão sem fim .... ou uma busca improvável Health sector reforms in comparative perspective: an unending quest ... or chasing a chimera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Warner Björkman

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Considerando a natureza problemática das tentativas de reformar os sistemas nacionais de prestação de serviços em saúde, este documento aborda o contexto e a lógica das reformas do setor. Após um retrospecto das abordagens do aumento de capacitação em três gerações de reformas do setor público, o documento examina as reformas aplicadas ao financiamento, organização e prestação dos serviços de saúde, e sugere estratégias para reformas que levem a capacidade em consideração.Given the problematic nature of attempts to reform national delivery systems for health care, the paper reviews the context and logic of reforms in the health sector. After a background on approaches to building capacity within three generations of public sector reforms, it examines the reforms applied to financing, organizing and delivering health services and suggests strategies for reform that take capacity into account.

  3. Predicting adolescent perpetration in cyberbullying: an application of the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heirman, Wannes; Walrave, Michel

    2012-11-01

    This study aims to contribute to the research field on cyberbullying by offering a comprehensive theoretical framework that helps to predict adolescents' perpetration of cyberbullying. One thousand forty-two pupils from 12 to 18 years old in 30 different Belgian secondary schools participated in two surveys within a three-month interval. Structural equation modeling was used to test whether the overall model of theory of planned behavior (TPB) helps to predict adolescents' self-reported perpetration in cyberbullying. Overall, the present study provides strong support for the theoretical utility of the TPB in cyberbullying research. The model accounted for 44.8% of the variance in adolescents' behavioral intention to cyberbully and 33.2% of the variance in self-reported cyberbullying perpetration. We found a strong positive relationship between adolescents' attitude towards cyberbullying and their behavioral intention to perpetrate it. Perceived behavioral control and subjective norm, the other two TPB-constructs, were also significant albeit relatively less important predictors of adolescents' intention to cyberbully. The finding that adolescents' attitude is the most important predictor of perpetration, entails that prevention and intervention strategies should aim at reducing the perceived acceptability of cyberbullying among adolescents by converting neutral or positive attitudes towards this anti-social behavior into negative evaluations.

  4. Gender Role Attitudes and Male Adolescent Dating Violence Perpetration: Normative Beliefs as Moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, H Luz McNaughton; Foshee, Vangie A; Niolon, Phyllis Holditch; Reidy, Dennis E; Hall, Jeffrey E

    2016-02-01

    Commonly used dating violence prevention programs assume that promotion of more egalitarian gender role attitudes will prevent dating violence perpetration. Empirical research examining this assumption, however, is limited and inconsistent. The current study examined the longitudinal association between gender role attitudes and physical dating violence perpetration among adolescent boys (n = 577; 14 % Black, 5 % other race/ethnicity) and examined whether injunctive (i.e., acceptance of dating violence) and descriptive (i.e., beliefs about dating violence prevalence) normative beliefs moderated the association. As expected, the findings suggest that traditional gender role attitudes at T1 were associated with increased risk for dating violence perpetration 18 months later (T2) among boys who reported high, but not low, acceptance of dating violence (injunctive normative beliefs) at T1. Descriptive norms did not moderate the effect of gender role attitudes on dating violence perpetration. The results suggest that injunctive norms and gender role attitudes work synergistically to increase risk for dating violence perpetration among boys; as such, simultaneously targeting both of these constructs may be an effective prevention approach.

  5. Mapping developmental precursors of cyber-aggression: trajectories of risk predict perpetration and victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modecki, Kathryn L; Barber, Bonnie L; Vernon, Lynette; Vernon, Lynnette

    2013-05-01

    Technologically mediated contexts are social arenas in which adolescents can be both perpetrators and victims of aggression. Yet, there remains little understanding of the developmental etiology of cyber aggression, itself, as experienced by either perpetrators or victims. The current study examines 3-year latent within-person trajectories of known correlates of cyber-aggression: problem behavior, (low) self-esteem, and depressed mood, in a large and diverse sample of youth (N = 1,364; 54.6% female; 12-14 years old at T1). Findings demonstrate that developmental increases in problem behavior across grades 8-10 predict both cyber-perpetration and victimization in grade 11. Developmental decreases in self-esteem also predicted both grade 11 perpetration and victimization. Finally, early depressed mood predicted both perpetration and victimization later on, regardless of developmental change in depressed mood in the interim. Our results reveal a clear link between risky developmental trajectories across the early high school years and later cyber-aggression and imply that mitigating trajectories of risk early on may lead to decreases in cyber-aggression at a later date.

  6. Planejamento em Saúde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio José Costa CARDOSO

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Esse texto pretendeu subsidiar aula sobre Planejamento e Avaliação em Saúde para os Analistas Técnicos de Políticas Sociais lotados no Ministério da Saúde (MS, na perspectiva de promover uma maior compreensão dos antecedentes históricos do planejamento em saúde no Brasil e na América Latina, do referencial teórico metodológico do planejamento estratégico e participativo, e refletir sobre os avanços e desafios que se apresentam no atual contexto de construção do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS. Neste sentido, foi estruturado na perspectiva de responder a três questões orientadoras: 1 Como tem se dado esse processo de coordenação do Planejamento Estratégico Nacional no âmbito do SUS, em cooperação técnica com os Estados, Municípios e Distrito Federal? 2 Quais são as tecnologias de gestão e planejamento em saúde adotadas pelo MS para conduzir esses processos de forma integrada? 3 Como se dá o gerenciamento das ações no MS? Como os planos, projetos e programas são monitorados pelas equipes responsáveis?

  7. Construção do conceito de promoção da saúde: comparação entre estudantes ingressantes e concluintes de Fonoaudiologia Construction of the health promotion concept: comparative study between freshmen and senior Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiane Gonçalves dos Santos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Caracterizar e comparar o conhecimento de ingressantes (estudantes do 1º período e concluintes (estudantes do 8º período de um curso de Fonoaudiologia acerca do tema promoção da saúde. MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo transversal realizado por meio da aplicação de 92 formulários em estudantes de Fonoaudiologia ingressantes e concluintes. A análise dos dados obtidos foi realizada em três etapas: análise descritiva das questões fechadas, análise estatística da associação entre as respostas do 1º e do 8º períodos, e análise qualitativa das questões abertas do formulário. RESULTADOS: A maioria dos entrevistados cursou disciplinas com o tema promoção da saúde; mais de um terço participou de atividades extracurriculares ou disciplinas práticas envolvendo o tema. A maioria referiu saber o que é promoção da saúde e ter a intenção de realizar ações em promoção da saúde. Os ingressantes relataram conceitos empíricos sobre promoção da saúde e confundiram promoção com prevenção. Entre os concluintes, a confusão existe em menor quantidade. CONCLUSÃO: O curso de graduação em Fonoaudiologia dos estudantes entrevistados contribui para a formação do conceito de promoção da saúde, porém existe uma confusão entre os termos prevenção e promoção da saúde, tanto entre os estudantes do 1º quanto do 8º período. Os dados evidenciam a importância de discutir o tema promoção da saúde durante o processo de formação do fonoaudiólogo.PURPOSE: To characterize and compare the knowledge of freshmen (1st period and senior (8th period undergraduate Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology students regarding health promotion. METHODS: Cross-sectional study that involved the application of 92 forms to 1st and 8th period Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology students. Data analysis was conducted in three stages: descriptive analysis of closed questions, statistical analysis crossing the answers of both

  8. Cor/raça no Estudo Pró-Saúde: resultados comparativos de dois métodos de autoclassificação no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Ethnicity/race in the Pró-Saúde Study: comparative results of two methods of self-classification in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Chor Maio

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Variações nos sistemas de classificação da cor/raça e a dependência contextual de sua aplicação são alguns dos desafios para a realização de estudos de saúde com recorte étnico/racial no Brasil. As respostas a duas abordagens distintas para autoclassificação de raça - questão fechada (IBGE e questão aberta - foram comparadas em um estudo de coorte dos funcionários de uma universidade no Rio de Janeiro. De acordo com a pergunta fechada, 54,0% dos 3.717 participantes classificaram-se como brancos, 30,0% como pardos e 16,0% como pretos. Segundo a pergunta aberta, essas proporções foram 53,0%, 25,0% e 22,0%, respectivamente, agrupando-se os termos moreno, mestiço e mulato na categoria parda. Apesar da concordância elevada (kappa = 0,80; IC95%: 0,78-0,82, proporções não desprezíveis de participantes negros ou pardos (pergunta aberta escolheram categorias mais "claras" entre as opções do IBGE. A utilização do recorte étnico/racial nos estudos de saúde pode não apenas revelar dados sobre as desigualdades sociais no Brasil, mas também contribuir para a formulação de políticas na área da saúde pública informadas pelas especificidades da sociedade brasileira.Variations in classification systems related to color/race and the contextual dependence of their utilization are two challenges for researchers conducting health studies within an ethnic/racial framework. A comparison was made between the results obtained by two distinct approaches to racial self-classification - a closed question (using categories from the IBGE, or National Census Bureau and an open-ended question - in a cohort study of employees at a university in Rio de Janeiro. According to the closed question, 54.0% of the 3,717 respondents classified themselves as white, 30.0% as brown (or mixed-race, and 16.0% as black. According to answers to the open-ended question, the proportions were 53.0%, 25.0%, and 22.0%, respectively, when the terms "moreno

  9. Estudo comparativo de condutas de saúde entre universitários no início e no final do curso Comparative study of health behavior among college students at the start and end of their courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina da Franca

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar as diferenças nas condutas de saúde de estudantes da área de saúde de universidades públicas no início e no final do curso. MÉTODOS: Estudo realizado com amostra estratificada por curso e por universidade, de 735 estudantes de ciências da saúde de universidades públicas do estado de Pernambuco, em 2006. Os dados foram coletados com a aplicação do questionário National College Health Risk Behavior Survey, validado previamente para utilização com estudantes universitários. Para análise de associação foi utilizado o teste qui-quadrado ou exato de Fisher. Os resultados foram considerados significantes para pOBJECTIVE: To analyze differences in health behavior among students studying health related subjects in public universities, between the beginning and end of their courses. METHODS: The study sample comprised 735 students in health sciences at the public universities in Pernambuco state (Northeastern Brazil in 2006. The data were collected by means of the National College Health Risk Behavior Survey that had been validated previously for use among university students. Descriptive and inferential statistical techniques were used. The chi-square test or Fisher's exact test was used to analyze associations. Results were considered to be significant for p<0.05. RESULTS: The majority (69.5% of students were female. Fewer students were found to be living with their parents or a guardian by the end of the course. However there were no significant differences for violent behavior, related to weight and physical activity, nor for most behavior relating to traffic safety and food intake. The consumption of alcohol (68.8% vs. 83.3%, tobacco (40.7% vs. 52.5% and inhalants (10.2% vs. 21.9% and sexual practices (62.5% vs. 85.0% were more frequent by the end of the course, with statistically significant differences. CONCLUSIONS: In general, health behaviors did not differ significantly between students at the beginning and

  10. Minimization of Male Suffering: Social Perception of Victims and Perpetrators of Opposite-Sex Sexual Coercion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studzinska, Anna Magda; Hilton, Denis

    2017-01-01

    Studies show equal impact of sexual harassment (SH) on men and women, whereas lay perceptions are that women suffer more. We identify the phenomenon of minimization of male suffering (MMS), which occurs when people assume that SH has less effect on men's well-being and which results in the perpetrators of SH on men being evaluated less harshly. To verify whether these effects occur, we conducted two studies in which we presented stories describing acts of sexual coercion (SC, study 1) and SC or financial coercion (FC, study 2) and measured the perceived suffering of victims and the perception of the perpetrators. Both studies showed that female victims were perceived to suffer more from SC and FC and that perpetrators of both acts on women were evaluated more negatively. The results support our hypothesis that the suffering of male victims is minimized as they are perceived to suffer less than women.

  11. Effects of social desirability on students' self-reporting of partner abuse perpetration and victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Kathryn M; Naugle, Amy E

    2007-01-01

    Little is still known about the degree to which social desirability affects reports of partner abuse. The current study builds on existing research exploring the relationship between social desirability and partner abuse reports by analyzing 49 male and 155 female students' responses to the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS2) and the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MCSDS). Sex differences were not associated with partner abuse rates, regardless of type, severity, and violence role. Women had significantly higher social desirability scores than men, and women's MCSDS scores were negatively correlated with partner abuse perpetration and victimization rates. Social desirability was a significant predictor of psychological abuse perpetration, whereas gender was a significant predictor of sexual coercion perpetration. In all partner abuse cases, however, social desirability and gender accounted for less than 10% of the variance in partner abuse reports.

  12. SA HEALTH Templete

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ...

    This study was a qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual research study, conducted in the .... research approaches are described as an inductive .... were compared with each other, including analysis by ..... quantitative approaches.

  13. A Robust Separation Assurance (SA) Architecture Using Integrated Airborne and Ground SA Concepts Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Intelligent Automation, Inc. proposes a robust SA architecture that uses integrated airborne and ground-based SA concepts such that SA functions are switched between...

  14. Cerditos Company S.A.

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Esta idea de negocio consiste en la adecuación de una granja, en la cual se desarrollará el proceso de levante y comercialización de carne de cerdo en pie o en canal. Cerditos Company S.A. es una empresa que busca la calidad y el buen servicio, brindando al consumidor garantías de la carne que está consumiendo. En Colombia el mercado ha sido poco explotado comparado con otros países como Chile o Europa, donde el consumo es muy significativo, Cerditos Company S.A. busca aumentar el cons...

  15. DAYA SAING TEH INDONESIA DI PASAR INTERNASIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadhilah Ramadhani

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak ___________________________________________________________________ Teh merupakan komoditas sub sektor perkebunan yang pernah mengalami kejayaan selama dua puluh tahun terakhir. Namun dari tahun ke tahun peringkat teh Indonesia di pasar internasional terus mengalami penurunan. Penurunan tersebut dari peringkat ke dua dunia menjadi peringkat ke enam dunia. Hal ini diduga karena lemahnya daya saing produk teh Indonesia di pasar internasional. Adapun tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengkaji perkembangan daya saing teh Indonesia di pasar internasional serta faktor yang mempengaruhi posisi daya saing tesebut. Metode analisis data yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah analisis deskriptif untuk hasil uji Import Dependency Ratio (IDR, Self Sufficiency Ratio (SSR, dan  Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA. Selanjutnya hasil nilai Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA akan diregresi dengan metode Ordinary Least Square (OLS.  Berdasarkan hasil uji Import Dependency Ratio (IDR mendapatkan nilai 0 persen hingga 16 persen yang menunjukkan Indonesia tidak mempunyai ketergantungan terhadap produk impor teh. Sedangkan nilai Self Sufficiency Ratio (SSR menunjukkan nilai 280,015 persen, artinya produksi teh Indonesia cukup untuk memenuhi kebutuhan dalam negeri dan ekspor. Dengan nilai daya saing yang cukup kuat, dilihat dari nilai Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA sebesar 6,790. Hasil uji regresi Ordinary Least Square (OLS terdahap Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA, menunjukkan kurs rill dan harga riil berpengaruh secara signifikan terhadap posisi daya saing teh indonesia di pasar internasional pada α = 5%. Produksi teh Indonesia tidak berpengaruh terhadap posisi daya saing dengan α = 5%. Abstract ______________________________________________________________ Tea is plantation commodity has been experienced triumph over the last twenty years. But every years ratings Indonesia tea in international markets continues to decline. The decline Indonesia

  16. Longitudinal predictors of cyber and traditional bullying perpetration in Australian secondary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Sheryl A; Kotevski, Aneta; Tollit, Michelle; Smith, Rachel; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Toumbourou, John W; Catalano, Richard F

    2012-07-01

    Cyberbullying perpetration (using communication technology to engage in bullying) is a recent phenomenon that has generated much concern. There are few prospective longitudinal studies of cyberbullying. The current article examines the individual, peer, family, and school risk factors for both cyber and traditional bullying (the latter is bullying that does not use technology) in adolescents. This article draws on a rich data set from the International Youth Development Study, a longitudinal study of students in Victoria, Australia and Washington State, United States, which began in 2002. In this article, data from almost 700 Victorian students recruited in grade 5 are analyzed to examine grade 7 (aged 12-13 years) predictors of traditional and cyberbullying perpetration in grade 9 (aged 14-15 years). Fifteen per cent of students engaged in cyberbullying, 21% in traditional bullying, and 7% in both. There are similarities and important differences in the predictors of cyber and traditional bullying. In the fully adjusted model, only prior engagement in relational aggression (a covert form of bullying, such as spreading rumors about another student) predicted cyberbullying perpetration. For traditional bullying, previous relational aggression was also predictive, as was having been a victim and perpetrator of traditional bullying, family conflict, and academic failure. The use of evidence-based bullying prevention programs is supported to reduce experiences of all forms of bullying perpetration (cyber, traditional, and relational aggression). In addition, for traditional bullying perpetration, addressing family conflict and student academic support are also important. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Longitudinal predictors of cyber and traditional bullying perpetration in Australian secondary school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Kotevski, Aneta; Tollit, Michelle; Smith, Rachel; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Toumbourou, John W.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Cyber bullying perpetration (using communication technology to engage in bullying) is a recent phenomenon that has generated much concern. There are few prospective longitudinal studies of cyber bullying. The current paper examines the individual, peer, family and school risk factors for both cyber and traditional bullying (the latter is bullying that does not utilize technology) in adolescents. Methods This paper draws on a rich data set from the International Youth Development Study, a longitudinal study of students in Victoria, Australia and Washington State, United States, which began in 2002. In this paper, data from almost 700 Victorian students recruited in Grade 5 is analyzed to examine Grade 7 (aged 12-13 years) predictors of traditional and cyber bullying perpetration in Grade 9 (aged 14-15 years). Results Fifteen per cent of students engaged in cyber bullying, 21% in traditional bullying and 7% in both. There are similarities and important differences in the predictors of cyber and traditional bullying. In the fully adjusted model, only prior engagement in relational aggression (a covert form of bullying such as spreading rumors about another student) predicted cyber bullying perpetration. For traditional bullying, previous relational aggression was also predictive, as was having been a victim and perpetrator of traditional bullying, family conflict, and academic failure. Conclusions The use of evidence-based bullying prevention programs is supported to reduce experiences of all forms of bullying perpetration(cyber, traditional, and relational aggression). In addition, for traditional bullying perpetration, addressing family conflict and student academic support are also important. PMID:22727078

  18. Number of deployments, relationship satisfaction and perpetration of partner violence among U.S. Navy members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Michelle L; Stambaugh, Leyla; Milletich, Robert J; Veprinsky, Anna; Snell, Alicia K

    2015-08-01

    The present brief report examined whether number of deployments, relationship satisfaction, and the interaction between number of deployments and relationship satisfaction predicted Navy members' reports of perpetrating physical partner violence. Participants were 80 U.S. Navy members assigned to an Arleigh Burke-class destroyer anticipating an 8-month deployment after Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom. The effect that the number of deployments had on perpetrating physical partner violence diminished as relationship satisfaction increased. Results suggest the importance of designing domestic violence intervention and treatment efforts toward those who report high levels of deployment and low relationship satisfaction.

  19. Victim, Perpetrator, Family, and Incident Characteristics of 32 Infant Maltreatment Deaths in the United States Air Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewster, Albert L.; Nelson, John P.; Hymel, Kent P.; Colby, Donald R.; Lucas, D. R.; McCanne, Thomas R.; Milner, Joel S.

    1998-01-01

    Using a multidisciplinary approach, victim, perpetrator, family, and incident variables in 32 cases of infanticide in U.S. Air Force families were examined. Findings were that 55% percent of infant-victims had physical trauma before the fatal incident, indicating physical abuse. The caretaker-perpetrator was usually male (84%), the biological…

  20. Protective Factors Against the Impact of School Bullying Perpetration and Victimization on Young Adult Externalizing and Internalizing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Tollit, Michelle; Herrenkohl, Todd I.

    2014-01-01

    School-based bullying perpetration and victimization is common worldwide and has profound impacts on student behavior and mental health. However, few studies have examined young adult outcomes of bullying perpetration or victimization. Research on factors that protect students who have bullied or been bullied is also lacking. This study examined…

  1. Sexual Violence Perpetration by Adolescents in Dating versus Sam-Sex Peer Relationships: Differences in Associated Risk and Protective Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen C Basile

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Little is known about the risk and protective factors for youth sexual violence (SV perpetration across different types of relationships. This study examined factors associated with perpetrating SV against a dating partner and a same-sex peer.Methods: Analyses were based on data from a survey conducted in 2004 with public school boys and girls in grades 7, 9, 11, and 12 (N=4,131 in a high-risk, urban school district in the United States. SV perpetration was defined broadly to include forcing someone, about the same age and of the same or opposite sex as the respondent, to have sex or to do something sexual that they did not want to do. Analyses examined the associations between risk and protective factors and SV perpetration, adjusting for SV victimization and demographic characteristics.Results: Findings revealed that 2.1% of respondents reported perpetration against a same-sex peer and 3.2% reported perpetration against a date during the past 12 months. Victims of SV for each relationship type were more likely than non-victims to perpetrate SV. A combination of factors across the individual, relationship, and community level were significantly associated with SV perpetration and there were both shared and unique factors across the relationship types.Conclusion: Data suggest that programs to prevent SV perpetration for both relationship types should start when students are young, with particular focus on middle school boys. Prevention efforts should have slightly different foci to address these 2 types of SV perpetration. [West J Emerg Med. 2013;14(4:329–340.

  2. Saúde e desenvolvimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luiza D'Ávila Viana

    Full Text Available Considerando que os modernos sistemas de saúde são o resultado da complexa interação de processos econômicos, políticos e sociais, o objetivo do trabalho é discutir a relação entre saúde e desenvolvimento no Brasil, mostrando que o esgotamento do modelo liberal de política econômica abre nova perspectiva para a retomada do desenvolvimento, entendido como combinação entre crescimento da economia, mudanças na estrutura produtiva e melhora das condições de vida da população. O complexo produtivo da saúde joga papel decisivo nesse processo, pois constitui um campo em que inovação tecnológica e acumulação de capital geram oportunidades de investimento, trabalho e renda, além de produzir avanços importantes para melhorar o estado de saúde das pessoas. A recente adoção de políticas públicas voltadas para articular, de forma positiva, aspectos da política econômica e da política social revela que a questão do desenvolvimento nacional ganhou nova centralidade na agenda governamental, o que abre a perspectiva de maior integração entre a lógica econômica e a lógica sanitária. Entretanto, é preciso reconhecer que o Brasil ainda não logrou alcançar uma associação virtuosa entre saúde e desenvolvimento.

  3. Exposure to Spousal Violence in the Family, Attitudes and Dating Violence Perpetration Among High School Students in Port-au-Prince.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Anastasia J

    2016-09-01

    This study examined the associations of exposure to spousal violence in the family and personal and peer attitudes with dating violence (DV) perpetration among high school students in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Participants were 342 high school students in Grades 10 to 12 who stated that they had ever been on a date. Multiple linear regression methods were used to examine correlates of the scale of DV perpetration. Findings showed that personal acceptance of DV mediated the association between exposure to wife-perpetrated and husband-perpetrated spousal violence in the family and DV perpetration for girls. Boys who were exposed to husband-perpetrated spousal violence in the family had significantly higher levels of psychological DV perpetration than those who were not. Contrary to expectations, exposure to wife-perpetrated spousal violence in the family was negatively associated with psychological and physical/sexual DV perpetration by boys, after controlling for other factors. Overall, perceived peer tolerance of DV was more strongly associated with DV perpetration than personal tolerance of DV, and was the only significant correlate of psychological DV perpetration for girls. Perceived peer attitudes also moderated the association between boys' exposure to spousal violence in the family and DV perpetration. Implications for future research and policy are discussed.

  4. Community males show multiple-perpetrator rape proclivity: development and preliminary validation of an interest scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleyne, Emma; Gannon, Theresa A; Ó Ciardha, Caoilte; Wood, Jane L

    2014-02-01

    The literature on Multiple Perpetrator Rape (MPR) is scant; however, a significant proportion of sexual offending involves multiple perpetrators. In addition to the need for research with apprehended offenders of MPR, there is also a need to conduct research with members of the general public. Recent advances in the forensic literature have led to the development of self-report proclivity scales. These scales have enabled researchers to conduct evaluative studies sampling from members of the general public who may be perpetrators of sexual offenses and have remained undetected, or at highest risk of engaging in sexual offending. The current study describes the development and preliminary validation of the Multiple-Perpetrator Rape Interest Scale (M-PRIS), a vignette-based measure assessing community males' sexual arousal to MPR, behavioral propensity toward MPR and enjoyment of MPR. The findings show that the M-PRIS is a reliable measure of community males' sexual interest in MPR with high internal reliability and temporal stability. In a sample of university males we found that a large proportion (66%) did not emphatically reject an interest in MPR. We also found that rape-supportive cognitive distortions, antisocial attitudes, and high-risk sexual fantasies were predictors of sexual interest in MPR. We discuss these findings and the implications for further research employing proclivity measures referencing theory development and clinical practice.

  5. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, intimate partner violence perpetration, and the mediating role of shame processing bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sippel, Lauren M; Marshall, Amy D

    2011-10-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may produce internal "threats to the self," which generate shame. Shame is theoretically and empirically linked to intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration. We examined relations among PTSD, cognitive processing of shame-relevant information, and IPV perpetration. Forty-seven community participants completed an emotional Stroop task with shame-relevant and neutral words. Stimuli were presented supraliminally (i.e., until vocal response) and subliminally (i.e., below an individualized threshold of conscious awareness). Facilitated color-naming of shame-relevant words (thought to reflect congruence between shame and self-schemas) mediated the relation between PTSD severity and IPV perpetration frequency. Mediation results for subliminal stimuli suggest that biased processing of shame cues may occur preconsciously and potentially catalyze processes (i.e., expectations of rejection in ambiguous situations with one's partner; avoidance that minimizes discomfort and protects self-image) that lead to IPV perpetration. Psychotherapeutic approaches to PTSD and IPV should consider the role of facilitated processing of shame cues.

  6. Predictors of Sexual Aggression Victimization and Perpetration Among Polish University Students: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewska, Paulina; Krahé, Barbara

    2016-08-19

    This two-wave study investigated predictors of sexual aggression victimization and perpetration in a convenience sample of 318 Polish university students (214 women), considering males and females from the perspective of both victims and perpetrators. At T1, we assessed participants' risky sexual scripts (defined as cognitive representations of consensual sexual interactions containing elements related to sexual aggression), risky sexual behavior, pornography use, religiosity, sexual self-esteem, and attitudes toward sexual coercion. These variables were used to predict sexual aggression perpetration and victimization reports obtained 12 months later (T2) for two time windows: (a) since the age of 15 until a year ago and (b) in the past year. As expected, risky sexual scripts were linked to risky sexual behavior and indirectly increased the likelihood of victimization in both time windows. Lower sexual self-esteem predicted sexual victimization since age 15, but not in the past 12 months. Pornography use and religiosity indirectly predicted victimization via risky scripts and behavior. Attitudes toward sexual coercion were a prospective predictor of sexual aggression perpetration. The results extend the international literature on sexual aggression and have implications for sexual education and sexual aggression prevention programs.

  7. Differences in Perceptions of Child Sexual Abuse Based on Perpetrator Age and Respondent Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giglio, Jessie J.; Wolfteich, Paula M.; Gabrenya, William K.; Sohn, Mary L.

    2011-01-01

    Child sexual abuse changes the lives of countless children. Child sexual abuse victims experience short and long term negative outcomes that affect their daily functioning. In this study, undergraduate students' perceptions of CSA were obtained using vignettes with an adult or child perpetrator and a general questionnaire. Results indicated…

  8. Bullying Perpetration, Victimization, and Demographic Differences in College Students: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Emily M; Ross, Scott W

    2016-01-11

    Although bullying has been widely recognized as a serious issue in elementary and secondary school and in the workplace, little is known about the prevalence of bullying in postsecondary education. We conducted a comprehensive search of the peer-reviewed literature and found 14 studies that reported the prevalence of bullying perpetration, victimization, or both in college or university students. Prevalence estimates varied widely been studies, but on average about 20-25% of students reported noncyberbullying victimization during college and 10-15% reported cyberbullying victimization. Similarly, approximately 20% of students on average reported perpetrating noncyberbullying during college, with about 5% reporting cyber perpetration. Men were more likely to report perpetration, but no consistent gender differences in victimization were found. Few studies reported prevalence by sexual orientation or race/ethnicity, and none reported prevalence by disability status. Overall, these results indicate that bullying continues to be prevalent in postsecondary education, but more research needs to be conducted, particularly that which uses multiuniversity samples and examines demographic differences in prevalence rates.

  9. Dynamic Simulation of Crime Perpetration and Reporting to Examine Community Intervention Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonas, Michael A.; Burke, Jessica G.; Brown, Shawn T.; Borrebach, Jeffrey D.; Garland, Richard; Burke, Donald S.; Grefenstette, John J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To develop a conceptual computational agent-based model (ABM) to explore community-wide versus spatially focused crime reporting interventions to reduce community crime perpetrated by youth. Method: Agents within the model represent individual residents and interact on a two-dimensional grid representing an abstract nonempirically…

  10. Testosterone and attention deficits as possible mechanisms underlying impaired emotion recognition in intimate partner violence perpetrators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Romero-Martínez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have reported impairments in decoding emotional facial expressions in intimate partner violence (IPV perpetrators. However, the mechanisms that underlie these impaired skills are not well known. Given this gap in the literature, we aimed to establish whether IPV perpetrators (n = 18 differ in their emotion decoding process, attentional skills, and testosterone (T, cortisol (C levels and T/C ratio in comparison with controls (n = 20, and also to examine the moderating role of the group and hormonal parameters in the relationship between attention skills and the emotion decoding process. Our results demonstrated that IPV perpetrators showed poorer emotion recognition and higher attention switching costs than controls. Nonetheless,they did not differ in attention to detail and hormonal parameters. Finally, the slope predicting emotion recognition from deficits in attention switching became steeper as T levels increased, especially in IPV perpetrators, although the basal C and T/C ratios were unrelated to emotion recognition and attention deficits for both groups. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying emotion recognition deficits. These factors therefore constitute the target for future interventions.

  11. A Telephone Intervention for Substance-Using Adult Male Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbilinyi, Lyungai F.; Neighbors, Clayton; Walker, Denise D.; Roffman, Roger A.; Zegree, Joan; Edleson, Jeffrey; O'Rourke, Allison

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To preliminarily evaluate telephone-delivered motivational enhancement therapy (MET) in motivating unadjudicated and nontreatment seeking intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators, who also use substances, to self-refer into treatment. Method: 124 adult men were recruited via a multimedia marketing campaign and were randomly assigned…

  12. Experiences of violence among adolescents: gender patterns in types, perpetrators and associated psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landstedt, Evelina; Gillander Gådin, Katja

    2011-08-01

    To explore the psychological distress associations of experiences of several types of violence and the victim-perpetrator relationship of physical violence, a gender analysis was applied. Data were derived from a cross-sectional questionnaire study among 17-year-old upper secondary school students (N = 1,663). Variables in focus were: self-reported psychological distress, experiences of physical violence, sexual assault, bullying and sexual harassment. Logistic regressions were used to examine associations. Experiences of physical violence, sexual assault, bullying and sexual harassment were associated with psychological distress in boys and girls. The perpetrators of physical violence were predominately males. Whether the perpetrator was unknown or known to the victim seem to be linked to psychological distress. Victimisation by a boyfriend was strongly related to psychological distress among girls. Experiences of several types of violence should be highlighted as factors associated with mental health problems in adolescents. The victim-perpetrator relationships of violence are gendered and likely influence the psychological distress association. Gendered hierarchies and norms likely influence the extent to which adolescents experience violence and how they respond to it in terms of psychological distress.

  13. Men's perpetration of intimate partner violence in Vietnam: gendered social learning and the challenges of masculinity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yount, K.M.; Higgins, E.M.; VanderEnde, K.E.; Krause, K.H.; Tran, H.M.; Schuler, S.R.; Hoang, T.A.

    2016-01-01

    Using the survey responses of 522 married men (eighteen to fifty-one years) in Vietnam, we explored how gendered social learning in boyhood and challenges to men’s expected status in marriage may increase the risk that men perpetrate intimate partner violence (IPV) against their wives. Over

  14. Future Expectations, Attitude Toward Violence, and Bullying Perpetration During Early Adolescence: A Mediation Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Sarah A; Varela, Jorge J; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2015-01-01

    Hopeful future expectations have been linked to positive developmental outcomes in adolescence; however, the association between future expectations and bullying perpetration has received less attention. We examined the relationship between future expectations and physical and relational bullying perpetration and tested a mediation model that linked future expectations with bullying through attitude toward violence. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the relationship between future expectations and bullying perpetration (relational and physical) and to test whether these relationships were mediated by attitude toward violence in a sample of U.S. seventh-grade students (Mage = 12.86 years, N = 196, 60% female, 46% African American). Attitude toward violence fully mediated the relationship between future expectations and physical bullying (indirect effects = -0.08, 95% CI [-0.15, -0.01], R = .17). The relationship between future expectations and relational bullying was partially mediated by attitudes toward violence (indirect effects = -0.07, 95% CI [-0.14, -0.002], R = .20). Our findings suggest that future expectations can play a role in reducing attitude toward violence and physical and relational bullying perpetration among youth. Interventions that help support the development of future goals and aspirations could play a vital role in bullying prevention efforts.

  15. Individual and Family Predictors of the Perpetration of Dating Violence and Victimization in Late Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makin-Byrd, Kerry; Bierman, Karen L.

    2013-01-01

    Teen dating violence is a crime of national concern with approximately one-fourth of adolescents reporting victimization of physical, psychological, or sexual dating violence each year. The present study examined how aggressive family dynamics in both childhood and early adolescence predicted the perpetration of dating violence and victimization…

  16. Domestic violence in Eastern India: factors associated with victimization and perpetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, B V; Kar, S K

    2010-03-01

    To examine the factors associated with victimization and perpetration of domestic violence in Eastern India. Population-based cross-sectional study. Married women (n=1718) and men (n=1715) from three Eastern Indian states were included in this study. Univariate and multiple logistic regression models were used to identify the determinants of domestic violence. Age, education, occupation, marital duration and husband's alcoholism emerged as significant predictors of victimization and perpetration of all types of domestic violence. A higher level of family income was found to be highly protective against the risk of violence. In addition, other risk and protective factors for victimization and perpetration of each type of violence were identified. This study contributes to the violence literature by shedding light on the risk factors of perpetration and victimization of domestic violence. These results provide vital information to develop interventions, as well as policies and programmes towards preventing violence. Also, this knowledge facilitates healthcare personnel to intervene more effectively with women at risk of violence-related health problems. Copyright (c) 2010 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cross sectional survey of perpetrators, victims, and witnesses of violence in Bogotá, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, L F; Klevens, J; Ramirez, C

    2003-05-01

    To establish the prevalence and distribution of witnesses, victims, and perpetrators of different types of violence in the general population and the proportion of victims consulting health services or reporting the incident to authorities. Cross sectional survey of a random sample of 3007 inhabitants between the ages of 15 and 60 in the city of Bogotá, Colombia, in 1997, based on a face to face interview. Age adjusted past year prevalence of witnesses, victims, and perpetrators of physical aggression was 61%, 27%, and 27%, respectively, while lifetime prevalence of witnesses, victims, and perpetrators of assault with a weapon in this population reached 70%, 55%, and 5.8%. Between 11% and 67% of the victims consulted a health service and less than 32% reported the incident to an authority. Those involved in most types of physical violence tended to be young, male, from lower middle social classes, with some degree of secondary education, and single or divorced. Prevalence of witnesses and victims of violence in this sample appears to be high, while perpetrators constitute a small proportion. Violence is not equally distributed throughout the population suggesting the possibility of identifying a population at higher risk for the development of intervention programmes.

  18. Perpetrator Accounts in Infant Abusive Head Trauma Brought about by a Shaking Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biron, Dean; Shelton, Doug

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To analyze perpetrator and medical evidence collected during investigations of infant abusive head trauma (IAHT), with a view to (a) identifying cases where injuries were induced by shaking in the absence of any impact and (b) documenting the response of infant victims to a violent shaking event. Method: A retrospective study was…

  19. Differences in Perceptions of Child Sexual Abuse Based on Perpetrator Age and Respondent Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giglio, Jessie J.; Wolfteich, Paula M.; Gabrenya, William K.; Sohn, Mary L.

    2011-01-01

    Child sexual abuse changes the lives of countless children. Child sexual abuse victims experience short and long term negative outcomes that affect their daily functioning. In this study, undergraduate students' perceptions of CSA were obtained using vignettes with an adult or child perpetrator and a general questionnaire. Results indicated…

  20. New pathways in the evaluation of programmes for men who perpetrate violence against their female partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojnicka, Katarzyna; Scambor, Christian; Kraus, Heinrich

    2016-08-01

    Today, evaluation research in the field of intervention programmes for men who perpetrate violence against their female partners still makes a fragmentary impression. Across Europe various evaluation studies have been performed. However, the methodologies applied are too heterogeneous to allow the combination of the results in a meta-analytical way. In this paper we propose a future pathway for organising outcome evaluation studies of domestic violence perpetrator programmes in community settings, so that today's problems in this field can be overcome. In a pragmatic framework that acknowledges the limited pre-conditions for evaluation studies in the area of domestic violence perpetrator programmes as it is today, feasible approaches for outcome evaluation are outlined, with recent developments in the field taken as starting points. The framework for organising future evaluation studies of work with perpetrators of domestic violence is presented together with a strategy to promote this framework. International networks of practitioners and researchers play a central role in this strategy through upskilling the area of practical work, preparing the ground for evaluation research and improving cooperation between practitioners and researchers. This paper is based on the results of the European funded project IMPACT (under the Daphne-III-funding programme of the European Commission).

  1. Substance Use, Aggression Perpetration, and Victimization: Temporal Co-Occurrence in College Males and Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolin, Gayla; Ramos, Michelle C.; Baucom, Brian R.; Bennett, Diana C.; Guran, Elyse L.

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have documented associations of substance use with aggression perpetration and aggression victimization; however, little is known about the co-occurrence of these problem behaviors within the same day in college students. The present study investigated whether substance use and aggression increase the likelihood of each other and…

  2. Attempted and Completed Incidents of Stranger-Perpetrated Child Sexual Abuse and Abduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Bernard; Bradford, Michael; Pease, Ken

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To establish the prevalence, typology and nature of attempted or completed incidents of stranger-perpetrated sexual abuse or abduction of children "away from home". Methods: A questionnaire was completed by 2,420 children (83% response rate) aged 9-16 years in 26 elementary and high schools in North-West England. Results: Of…

  3. Violence Against Women: Effective Interventions and Practices with Perpetrators: A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, O.; Burman, M.; Lombard, N.; McIvor, G.; Stevenson-Hasgings, L.; D Kyle

    2014-01-01

    Violence against women: effective interventions and practices with perpetrators: A literature review.\\ud \\ud The key focus of the report is on reviewing evidence about reducing re-offending in crimes of violence against women. The research evidence available provides a number of valuable insights into what works to reduce reoffending in the area of violence against women.

  4. Alcohol Use and Perceived Social and Emotional Consequences among Perpetrators of General and Sexual Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stappenbeck, Cynthia A.; Fromme, Kim

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the relation among alcohol use, alcohol-related aggression expectancies, and the perceived negative consequences of perpetrating general and sexual aggression. Participants (N = 2,941; 59% female) were incoming college freshmen who reported on the last 3 months of their senior year of high school. Hierarchical multiple…

  5. The thrill of being violent as an antidote to posttraumatic stress disorder in Rwandese genocide perpetrators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Weierstall

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The cumulative exposure to life-threatening events increases the risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. However, over the course of evolutionary adaptation, intra-species killing may have also evolved as an inborn strategy leading to greater reproductive success. Assuming that homicide has evolved as a profitable strategy in humans, a protective mechanism must prevent the perpetrator from getting traumatised by self-initiated violent acts. We thus postulate an inverse relation between a person's propensity toward violence and PTSD. We surveyed a sample of 269 Rwandan prisoners who were accused or convicted for crimes related to the 1994 genocide. In structured interviews we assessed traumatic event types, types of crimes committed, the person's appetitive violence experience with the Appetitive Aggression Scale (AAS and PTSD symptom severity with the PSS-I. Using path-analysis, we found a dose-response effect between the exposure to traumatic events and the PTSD symptom severity (PSS-I. Moreover, participants who had reported that they committed more types of crimes demonstrated a higher AAS score. In turn, higher AAS scores predicted lower PTSD symptom severity scores. This study provides first empirical support that the victim's struggling can be an essential rewarding cue for perpetrators. The results also suggest that an appetitive aggression can inhibit PTSD and trauma-related symptoms in perpetrators and prevent perpetrators from getting traumatised by their own atrocities.

  6. A Meta-Analysis of the Predictors of Cyberbullying Perpetration and Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Siying

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies so far have investigated various aspects of cyberbullying. Using meta-analytic approaches, the study was primarily to determine the target factors predicting individuals' perpetration and victimization in cyberbullying. A meta-analysis of 77 studies containing 418 primary effect sizes was conducted to exam the relative magnitude…

  7. A Meta-Analysis of the Predictors of Cyberbullying Perpetration and Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Siying

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies so far have investigated various aspects of cyberbullying. Using meta-analytic approaches, the study was primarily to determine the target factors predicting individuals' perpetration and victimization in cyberbullying. A meta-analysis of 77 studies containing 418 primary effect sizes was conducted to exam the relative magnitude…

  8. The relationship between parents' verbal aggression and young adult children's intimate partner violence victimization and perpetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzolo, Kellie E; Roberto, Anthony J; Babin, Elizabeth A

    2010-06-01

    This study examines the relationships between perceived and self-reported parent verbal aggression and their young adult children's intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization and perpetration. Two hundred undergraduate students completed an in-person self-administered survey measuring IPV victimization and perpetration, as well as perceived parent verbal aggression. Three-hundred and eighty-six mail surveys were also sent to their parents; 79% of parents returned the surveys. Results indicate that perceived mother and father verbal aggression was related to higher levels of victimization and perpetration across several forms of IPV for both daughters and sons. The data appear to support theory that suggests parents of the same sex as their children are stronger models for aggressive behavior (Bandura, 1986). In addition, there were some differences in perceived and self-reported data for ratings of parent verbal aggression. Results of this investigation indicate that perceived parent communication has a significant impact on young adult children's victimization and perpetration of violence in intimate partner relationships. The findings also suggest that interventions aimed at developing and enhancing parent communication skills can help prevent or reduce the risk of young adult children becoming involved in violent relationships, as well as reducing risk factors for other adverse health problems.

  9. Community Violence, Social Support Networks, Ethnic Group Differences, and Male Perpetration of Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Chitra; Rajah, Valli; Gentile, Katie; Collado, Lillian; Kavanagh, Ann Marie

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined how witnessing community violence influenced social support networks and how these networks were associated with male-to-female intimate partner violence (IPV) in ethnically diverse male college students. The authors assessed whether male social support members themselves had perpetrated IPV (male network violence) and whether…

  10. White Innocence and Mexican Americans as Perpetrators in the School-to-Prison Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This essay discusses white innocence as a mechanism that may contribute to perceptions of Mexican Americans as perpetrators. These perceptions are crucial to ways teachers and administrators respond to student actions as the initial steps in the school-to-prison pipeline. Specifically, this work reviews the rhetoric of white innocence in a high…

  11. Attempted and Completed Incidents of Stranger-Perpetrated Child Sexual Abuse and Abduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Bernard; Bradford, Michael; Pease, Ken

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To establish the prevalence, typology and nature of attempted or completed incidents of stranger-perpetrated sexual abuse or abduction of children "away from home". Methods: A questionnaire was completed by 2,420 children (83% response rate) aged 9-16 years in 26 elementary and high schools in North-West England. Results: Of these…

  12. Violence in childhood, attitudes about partner violence, and partner violence perpetration among men in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yount, K.M.; Huyen, T.P.; Tran, H.M.; Krause, K.H.; Schuler, S.R.; Hoang, T.A.; VanderEnde, K.; Kramer, M.R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: We assess the association of men’s exposure to violence in childhood—witnessing physical violence against one’s mother and being hit or beaten by a parent or adult relative—with their attitudes about intimate partner violence (IPV) against women. We explore whether men’s perpetration of IPV

  13. Associations between dysfunctional personality traits and intimate partner violence in perpetrators and victims

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsema, J.J.; Baan, L.; Bogaerts, S.

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, the role of borderline and antisocial personality traits and psychological and physical forms of intimate partner violence were examined. Using self- and partner-reports, 30 perpetrators (28 males) and 30 victims (29 females) of partner violence, including 23 (former) couples,

  14. Individual and Family Predictors of the Perpetration of Dating Violence and Victimization in Late Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makin-Byrd, Kerry; Bierman, Karen L.

    2013-01-01

    Teen dating violence is a crime of national concern with approximately one-fourth of adolescents reporting victimization of physical, psychological, or sexual dating violence each year. The present study examined how aggressive family dynamics in both childhood and early adolescence predicted the perpetration of dating violence and victimization…

  15. Trends in Risk and Protective Factors for Child Bullying Perpetration in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetgiri, Rashmi; Lin, Hua; Flores, Glenn

    2013-01-01

    This study examines trends in prevalence and factors associated with bullying perpetration among children 10-17 years old, using the 2003 and 2007 National Survey of Children's Health. A parent-reported bullying measure and NSCH-designed questions were used to measure factors associated with bullying. The 2003 (n = 48,639) and 2007 (n = 44,152)…

  16. Violent Victimization and Perpetration during Adolescence: Developmental Stage Dependent Ecological Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matjasko, Jennifer L.; Needham, Belinda L.; Grunden, Leslie N.; Farb, Amy Feldman

    2010-01-01

    Using a variant of the ecological-transactional model and developmental theories of delinquency on a nationally representative sample of adolescents, the current study explored the ecological predictors of violent victimization, perpetration, and both for three different developmental stages during adolescence. We examined the relative influence…

  17. Mental Health Correlates of the Victim-Perpetrator Relationship among Interpersonally Victimized Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawyer, Steven R.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Saunders, Benjamin E.

    2006-01-01

    This research examines mental health correlates of different victim-perpetrator relationships among adolescent victims of interpersonal violence. A large and nationally representative sample of adolescents (N = 4,023) responded to structured telephone interviews concerning mental health functioning (posttraumatic stress disorder--PTSD, major…

  18. The Trajectory of Perpetrators' Trauma: Mnemonic Politics around the Asia-Pacific War in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Kiyoteru

    2009-01-01

    This study proposes a theoretical framework to understand how nations deal with collective memories of perpetration of severe human rights violations, which do not ft comfortably in any national master narrative but have become increasingly difficult to ignore. Building on studies of collective memory, the framework explicates how initial…

  19. Profiling perpetrators of interpersonal violence against children in sport based on a victim survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vertommen, Tine; Kampen, Jarl; Schipper-van Veldhoven, Nicolette; Wouters, Kristien; Uzieblo, Kasia; Eede, Van Den Filip

    2017-01-01

    The current article reports on perpetrator characteristics gathered in the first large-scale prevalence study on interpersonal violence against children in sport in the Netherlands and Belgium. Using retrospective web survey design, 4043 adults answered questions on their experiences in youth sport.

  20. The Impact of Collective Efficacy on Risks for Adolescents' Perpetration of Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnurr, Melissa P.; Lohman, Brenda J.

    2013-01-01

    Given prevalence rates and negative consequences that adolescents' perpetration of dating violence may have on an individual's well-being and future relationships, it is imperative to explore factors that may increase or reduce its occurrence. Thus, we aimed to identify how multiple contextual risk factors (individual, family, schools, and…

  1. Past Victimizations and Dating Violence Perpetration in Adolescence: The Mediating Role of Emotional Distress and Hostility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin, Sophie; Lavoie, Francine; Hebert, Martine; Gagne, Marie-Helene

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to understand the nature of the relationships between three forms of past victimizations (exposure to interparental violence in childhood, sexual harassment by peers since beginning high school, prior experience of dating violence), physical dating violence perpetration by adolescents, and anger-hostility and emotional distress.…

  2. The Peer Context and the Development of the Perpetration of Adolescent Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foshee, Vangie A.; Benefield, Thad S.; Reyes, Heath Luz McNaughton; Ennett, Susan T.; Faris, Robert; Chang, Ling-Yin; Hussong, Andrea; Suchindran, Chirayath M.

    2013-01-01

    The peer context is a central focus in research on adolescent risk behaviors but few studies have investigated the role of the peer context in the perpetration of adolescent dating violence. This longitudinal study examined between-subjects and within-person contemporaneous and lagged effects of peer attributes, measured with social network…

  3. The Role of Chinese Face in the Perpetration of Dating Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ko Ling

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the associations between the perpetration of partner violence and two types of face orientation--protective and acquisitive--in Chinese societies. Data from a convenience sample of 3,388 university students from Hong Kong, Shanghai, and Beijing were analyzed. The participants completed the Protective and Acquisitive Face…

  4. Youth Experiences of Family Violence and Teen Dating Violence Perpetration: Cognitive and Emotional Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouriles, Ernest N.; McDonald, Renee; Mueller, Victoria; Grych, John H.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a conceptual model of cognitive and emotional processes proposed to mediate the relation between youth exposure to family violence and teen dating violence perpetration. Explicit beliefs about violence, internal knowledge structures, and executive functioning are hypothesized as cognitive mediators, and their potential…

  5. Varyasyong Leksikal sa mga Dayalektong Mandaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Raymund M. Pasion

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Layuning panlahat sa pag-aaral na ito na tuklasin ang varyasyong leksikalsa Wikang Mandaya na matatagpuan sa Probinsyang Davao Oriental. Bilang lunsaran sa paglilikom ng mga datos, ginamit ang mga terminong kultural na pangkabuhayan tulad ng pagsasaka, pangangaso, pangingisda at paghahayupan nanababatay sa Indigenous Knowledge System and Practices (IKSP.Sinikap sagutin sa pagaaral ang suliraning ano-anong varyasyong liksikal ang makikita sa mga terminong kultural na pangkabuhayan ng Mandaya na makikita sa munisipalidad ng Caraga, Manay, Bagangaat Cateel? Disenyong kwalitatibo ginamit.Metodong indehinusat deskriptibo naman ang ginamit mula sa paglilikom hanggang sa pag-aanalisa ng mga datos. Samantalang, ang mga impormante ay pinilisa pamamagitan ng kombinasyong purposive at snow-ball sampling. Natuklasan, na ang wikang Mandaya ay nakitaan ng varyasyong lekisikal ayon sa magkakaiba ang anyo, may pagkakatulad ang anyo, at magkakatulad ang anyo subalit magkakaiba ang bigkas. Gayunpaman, pinaniniwalaang dahil sa paktor na heograpikal, sikolohikal at sosyolohikal na nagaganap sa kanilang kultura ay hindi rin maipagkailang nagyari ang varyasyong leksikal na aspekto nito.

  6. Serious Violence Victimization and Perpetration among Youth Living in the Slums of Kampala, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica H. Swahn

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Violence among youth is a major public health issue globally. Despite these concerns, youth violence surveillance and prevention research are either scarce or non-existent, particularly in developing regions, such as sub-Saharan Africa. The purpose of this study is to quantitatively determine the prevalence of violence involving weapons in a convenience sample of service-seeking youth in Kampala. Moreover, the study will seek to determine the overlap between violence victimization and perpetration among these youth and the potentially shared risk factors for these experiences.Methods: We conducted this study of youth in May and June of 2011 to quantify and describe high-risk behaviors and exposures in a convenience sample (N¼457 of urban youth, 14–24 years of age, living on the streets or in the slums and who were participating in a Uganda Youth Development Link drop-incenter for disadvantaged street youth. We computed bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses to determine associations between psychosocial factors and violence victimization and perpetration.Results: The overall prevalence of reporting violence victimization involving a weapon was 36%, and violence perpetration with a weapon was 19%. In terms of the overlap between victimization and perpetration, 16.6% of youth (11.6% of boys and 24.1% of girls reported both. In multivariate analyses, parental neglect due to alcohol use (Adj.OR¼2.28;95%CI: 1.12—4.62 and sadness (Adj.OR=4.36 ;95%CI: 1.81—10.53 were the statistically significant correlates of victimization only. Reportinghunger (Adj.OR=2.87 ;95%CI:1.30—6.33, any drunkenness (Adj.OR=2.35 ;95%CI:1.12—4.92 and any drug use (Adj.OR=3.02 ;95%CI:1.16—7.82 were significantly associated with both perpetration and victimization.Conclusion: The findings underscore the differential experiences associated with victimization and perpetration of violence involving weapons among these vulnerable youth. In

  7. Victims and/or perpetrators? Towards an interdisciplinary dialogue on child soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derluyn, Ilse; Vandenhole, Wouter; Parmentier, Stephan; Mels, Cindy

    2015-10-14

    Worldwide, thousands of children are acting in different roles in armed groups. Whereas human rights activism and humanitarian imperatives tend to emphasize the image of child soldiers as incapable victims of adults' abusive compulsion, this image does not fully correspond with prevailing pedagogical and jurisprudential discourses, nor does it represent all child soldiers' own perceptions of their role. Moreover, contemporary warfare is often marked by fuzzy distinctions between perpetrators and victims. This article deepens on the question how to conceptualize the victim-perpetrator imaginary about child soldiers, starting from three disciplines, children's rights law, psychosocial approaches and transitional justice, and then proceeding into an interdisciplinary approach. We argue that the victim-perpetrator dichotomy in relation to child soldiers needs to be revisited, and that this can only be done successfully through a truly interdisciplinary approach. Key to this interdisciplinary dialogue is the growing awareness within all three disciplines, but admittedly only marginally within children's rights law, that only by moving beyond the binary distinction between victim- and perpetrator-hood, the complexity of childhood soldiering can be grasped. In transitional justice, the concept of role reversal has been instructive, and in psychosocial studies, emphasis has been put on the 'agency' of (former) child soldiers, whereby child soldiers sometimes account on how joining the armed force or group was (partially) out of their own free will. Hence, child soldiers' perpetrator-hood is not only part of the way child soldiers are perceived in the communities they return to, but equally of the way they see themselves. These findings plea for more contextualized approaches, including a greater participation of child soldiers, the elaboration of accountability mechanisms beyond criminal responsibility, and an intimate connection between individual, social and societal

  8. Anxious Attachment, Social Isolation, and Indicators of Sex Drive and Compulsivity: Predictors of Child Sexual Abuse Perpetration in Adolescent Males?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Michael H; Swinburne Romine, Rebecca; Robinson, Beatrice Bean E; Berg, Dianne; Knight, Raymond A

    2016-03-01

    It has been suggested that child sexual abuse is related to poor attachment to parents, which is associated with an inability to form intimate relationships. Seto and Lalumière indicated that there were too few studies of adolescent males to determine whether poor attachment was associated with perpetration. This study was designed to follow up on a previous study and further explored the association between insecure attachment to parents, social isolation, and interpersonal adequacy to child sexual abuse perpetration in adolescents. We compared two samples of adolescent males who had committed sexual offenses, those who committed offenses against children (n = 140) and those who committed offenses against peer or adults (n = 92), with a sample of similarly aged males in treatment for mental health or substance use issues (n = 93). Data were collected using a semi-structured interview and computer-administered questionnaire. We found an indirect association between anxious attachment and sexual offenses against child victims, which was accounted for by measures of social involvement and social isolation. These involvement and isolation measures also did not have a direct association with sexual offenses against child victims, in that their contribution was accounted for by a measure of Masculine Adequacy. This Masculine Adequacy, combined with decreased levels of Sexual Preoccupation and Hypersexuality and increased Sexual Compulsivity, was associated with commission of child sexual abuse. The interpersonal variables did not enter a model predicting sexual offending against peers/adults, which seemed solely associated with the interaction between Sexual Compulsivity and Hypersexuality. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Students' Perceptions of Characteristics of Victims and Perpetrators of Bullying in Public Schools in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ali, Nahla Mansour; Gharaibeh, Muntaha; Masadeh, Mohammad Jaser

    School bullying is the most common school violence among adolescents and has become a global concern. Little is known about the characteristics associated with bullies and victims among Jordanian students. The aim of the study was to examine student perceptions of school bullying-specifically, the characteristics of perpetrators and victims and how to stop bullying-and assess differences in perceptions between boys and girls. Cross-sectional study, using self-reported questionnaires, was employed to collect data from eighth-grade students (N = 913; 51% male) from a mixed rural and suburban area in northern of Jordan during the 2013-2014 school year. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize item responses. Chi-squared tests were performed to compare responses between the male and female students. Most of the students described a bully as one who is a coward underneath (78.9%), lacks respect for other people (70%), wants to show power (67.5%), wants to impress others (60.8%), and wants to feel superior (59.6%). Students perceived victims of bullying as having low self-esteem (68.2%), talking or sounding different than others (50.9%), shy (35%), and having no friends (27.1%). Students suggested that, to stop bullying, the victim should stand up for himself (75.4%), should become psychologically stronger (75.1%), and should involve adults (teachers, family, or others; 45.9%). There was a significant gender difference, in which boys and girls were describing victims and bullies differently. A significant percentage of students relate bullying and victimization characteristics to psychosocial characteristics and less to physical characteristics. The results offer valuable information necessary to design and implement school bullying prevention and intervention programs.

  10. Practitioner review: The victims and juvenile perpetrators of child sexual abuse--assessment and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizard, Eileen

    2013-05-01

    The assessment of victims of child sexual abuse (CSA) is now a recognized aspect of clinical work for both CAMH and adult services. As juvenile perpetrators of CSA are responsible for a significant minority of the sexual assaults on other children, CAMH services are increasingly approached to assess these oversexualized younger children or sexually abusive adolescents. A developmental approach to assessment and treatment intervention is essential in all these cases. This review examines research on the characteristics of child victims and perpetrators of CSA. It describes evidence-based approaches to assessment and treatment of both groups of children. A selective review of MEDLINE, Psycinfo, Cochrane Library, and other databases was undertaken. Recommendations are made for clinical practice and future research. The characteristics of CSA victims are well known and those of juvenile perpetrators of sexual abuse are becoming recognized. Assessment approaches for both groups of children should be delivered within a safeguarding context where risk to victims is minimized. Risk assessment instruments should be used only as adjuncts to a full clinical assessment. Given high levels of psychiatric comorbidity, assessment, treatment, and other interventions should be undertaken by mental health trained staff. Victims and perpetrators of CSA present challenges and opportunities for professional intervention. Their complex presentations mean that their needs should be met by highly trained staff. However, their youth and developmental immaturity also give an opportunity to nip problem symptoms and behaviors in the bud. The key is in the earliest possible intervention with both groups. Future research should focus on long-term adult outcomes for both child victims and children who perpetrate CSA. Adult outcomes of treated children could identify problems and/or strengths in parenting the next generation and also the persistence and/or desistence of sexualized or abusive

  11. FaSa: A Fast and Stable Quadratic Placement Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU WenTing(侯文婷); HONG XianLong(洪先龙); WU WeiMin(吴为民); CAI YiCi(蔡懿慈)

    2003-01-01

    Placement is a critical step in VLSI design because it dominates overall speed andquality of design flow. In this paper, a new fast and stable placement algorithm called FaSa is pro-posed. It uses quadratic programming model and Lagrange multiplier method to solve placementproblems. And an incremental LU factorization method is used to solve equations for speeding up.The experimental results show that FaSa is very stable, much faster than previous algorithms andits total wire length is comparable with other algorithms.

  12. Differences in pupil characteristics and motives in being a victim, perpetrator, and witness of violence in secondary education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Ton

    2009-01-01

    Mooij, T. (2011). Differences in pupil characteristics and motives in being a victim, perpetrator and witness of violence in secondary education. Research Papers in Education, 26(1), 105-128. doi: 10.1080/02671520903191196.

  13. Referenciamento regional em saúde: estudo comparado de cinco casos no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Management practices of regional referencing: a comparative study of five cases in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Isoyama Venancio

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar práticas gestoras de referenciamento regional no Estado de São Paulo, identificando as principais dificuldades encontradas nos processos de pactuação com vistas à integralidade da atenção. Metodologia; foram selecionadas 5 Regiões (Campinas- CPN, Piracicaba-PRC, Mogi das Cruzes-MC, São José do Rio Preto-SJRP e São José dos Campos-SJC nas quais foram analisados: indicadores de 4 linhas de cuidado (Hipertensão Arterial-HA e Diabetes Mellitus-DM, Saúde Mental, Bucal e da Mulher; os instrumentos de referenciamento operantes e a percepção dos gestores regionais e municipais sobre este processo. RESULTADOS: o desempenho dos gestores no tocante ao alcance da universalidade e integralidade da atenção foi analisado através de 11 indicadores, resultando em um escore com variação de 0 a 5. A classificação das regiões foi: SJRP (4,55; CPN (2,91; SJC (2,27; PRC (2,27 e MC (1,91. A análise das entrevistas com gestores revelou que os mecanismos formais de referenciamento são insuficientes, bem como os instrumentos para o seu acompanhamento; nas regiões metropolitanas parece haver maior dificuldade para pactuação das referências; o fortalecimento dos espaços de negociação entre os gestores foi apontado como um fator facilitador do processo.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate management practices of regional referencing in the State of São Paulo, identifying the main difficulties in the process of agreement between health managers to achieve integrate health care. Methodology: 5 regions were selected (CPN-Campinas, Piracicaba-PRC, MC-Mogi das Cruzes, São José do Rio Preto-SJRP and Sao Jose dos Campos-SJC in which were analyzed: indicators of 4 lines of care (Hypertension-HA and Diabetes Mellitus-DM, Mental Health, Oral and Women, the working tools of referencing and perceptions of regional and municipal managers on the process. RESULTS: the performance of managers regarding the scope of the universality and

  14. Structural Pathways between Child Abuse, Poor Mental Health Outcomes and Male-Perpetrated Intimate Partner Violence (IPV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercilene T Machisa

    Full Text Available Violent trauma exposures, including child abuse, are risk factors for PTSD and comorbid mental health disorders. Child abuse experiences of men exacerbate adult male-perpetrated intimate partner violence (IPV. The relationship between child abuse, poor mental health and IPV perpetration is complex but research among the general population is lacking. This study describes the relationship and pathways between history of child abuse exposure and male-perpetrated IPV while exploring the potentially mediating effect of poor mental health.We analysed data from a randomly selected, two-stage clustered, cross-sectional household survey conducted with 416 adult men in Gauteng Province of South Africa. We used multinomial regression modelling to identify associated factors and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM to test the primary hypothesis that poor mental health (defined as abusing alcohol or having PTSD or depressive symptoms mediates the relationship between child abuse and IPV perpetration.Eighty eight percent of men were physically abused, 55% were neglected, 63% were emotionally abused and 20% were sexually abused at least once in their childhood. Twenty four percent of men had PTSD symptoms, 24% had depressive symptoms and 36% binge drank. Fifty six percent of men physically abused and 31% sexually abused partners at least once in their lifetime. Twenty two percent of men had one episode and 40% had repeat episodes of IPV perpetration. PTSD symptomatology risk increased with severity of child trauma and other trauma. PTSD severity increased the risk for binge drinking. Child trauma, other trauma and PTSD symptomatology increased the severity of depressive symptoms. PTSD symptomatology was comorbid with alcohol abuse and depressive symptoms. Child trauma, having worked in the year before the survey, other trauma and PTSD increased the risk of repeat episodes of IPV perpetration. Highly equitable gender attitudes were protective against single and

  15. Structural Pathways between Child Abuse, Poor Mental Health Outcomes and Male-Perpetrated Intimate Partner Violence (IPV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machisa, Mercilene T.; Christofides, Nicola; Jewkes, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Background Violent trauma exposures, including child abuse, are risk factors for PTSD and comorbid mental health disorders. Child abuse experiences of men exacerbate adult male-perpetrated intimate partner violence (IPV). The relationship between child abuse, poor mental health and IPV perpetration is complex but research among the general population is lacking. This study describes the relationship and pathways between history of child abuse exposure and male-perpetrated IPV while exploring the potentially mediating effect of poor mental health. Methods We analysed data from a randomly selected, two-stage clustered, cross-sectional household survey conducted with 416 adult men in Gauteng Province of South Africa. We used multinomial regression modelling to identify associated factors and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) to test the primary hypothesis that poor mental health (defined as abusing alcohol or having PTSD or depressive symptoms) mediates the relationship between child abuse and IPV perpetration. Results Eighty eight percent of men were physically abused, 55% were neglected, 63% were emotionally abused and 20% were sexually abused at least once in their childhood. Twenty four percent of men had PTSD symptoms, 24% had depressive symptoms and 36% binge drank. Fifty six percent of men physically abused and 31% sexually abused partners at least once in their lifetime. Twenty two percent of men had one episode and 40% had repeat episodes of IPV perpetration. PTSD symptomatology risk increased with severity of child trauma and other trauma. PTSD severity increased the risk for binge drinking. Child trauma, other trauma and PTSD symptomatology increased the severity of depressive symptoms. PTSD symptomatology was comorbid with alcohol abuse and depressive symptoms. Child trauma, having worked in the year before the survey, other trauma and PTSD increased the risk of repeat episodes of IPV perpetration. Highly equitable gender attitudes were protective

  16. What are we capable of? The motivations of perpetrators in South Africa during the Apartheid era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayntun, Claire

    2005-01-01

    This article attempts to explain the motivations of perpetrators who committed violent acts in South Africa during the apartheid era. The relevant psychosocial literature is reviewed and the implicit and explicit explanations given during the amnesty hearings of the Truth and Reconciliation Committee by perpetrators working for the state security forces are analysed. The mental health of the South African society during this period is considered, as is the role of the former white South African government and its authorities in shaping the climate for a violent struggle involving all groups. The issues of individual versus social and state culpability, accountability, justice and reconciliation are explored and their implications for the future prevention of reoccurrences are assessed. The aim of the article is to prompt readers to ask the question: what are we capable of?

  17. Psychopathology and weapon choice: a study of 103 perpetrators of homicide or attempted homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catanesi, Roberto; Carabellese, Felice; Troccoli, Giuseppe; Candelli, Chiara; Grattagliano, Ignazio; Solarino, Biagio; Fortunato, Francesca

    2011-06-15

    The aim of this study was to ascertain if a relationship between weapon choice and psychopathology existed. The perpetrators (103) were evaluated at the Department of Criminology and Forensic Psychiatry of the University of Bari in southern Italy. Psychiatric examination and psycho-diagnostic tests were administered for each of the perpetrators and a database was subsequently formulated. The results showed a significant correlation between some types of mental disorder and weapon choice. A strong correlation was found between delusional disorders and the use of sharp weapons, whereas depressive disorders were more strongly associated with asphyxia. Organic disorders were found to be highly correlated with the use of blunt instruments. In cases where the homicide was the result of an impulsive reaction, the use of sharp weapons was most often observed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Domestic violence perpetrator programs in Europe, Part I: A survey of current practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Leah; Koehler, Johann A; Lösel, Friedrich A

    2013-10-01

    Most research on domestic violence perpetrator programs has been carried out in North America. It does not yet provide a clear picture on what works with these offenders and cannot be generalized to other cultural and legal systems. Therefore, in Part I of this article, we present the results of a survey of 54 programs that were in place in 19 European countries that addressed the programs' practice and effects. The survey captured data about program design, delivery, administration, infrastructure, and other features. Most programs applied cognitive-behavioral, profeminist, or psychodynamic treatment, or a combination of multiple treatment types. There was a wide disparity in approaches to handling domestic violence perpetrators, and a particular dearth of high-quality evaluation throughout the continent. Possible explanations for this disparity and avenues for improvement are discussed, related to a systematic review of European outcome evaluations (Part II).

  19. Age and gender identity in a perpetrators of sexual violence against children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dvoryanchikov N.V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper devoted to the age and gender identity among the perpetrators of sexual violence against children and discussed the factors lead to pathogenesis of abnormal sexual behavior against children. We have identified particularities of gender and age identity in perpetrators of violent sexual acts against children. It was noted that patients with a diagnosis of pedophilia have abnormalities mostly in cognitive structure of sexual identity, that is shown in undifferentiated age peculiarities of perception of self-image and gender and role stereotypes. These data allow assessing more accurately the abnormalities of sexual sphere, explaining the deviant behavior, as well as structure of age and sex self-identity in persons with the disorder of sexual desire in the form of pedophilia and take a step closer to understanding the mechanisms of abnormal choice of sexual object.

  20. A mock juror investigation of blame attribution in the punishment of hate crime perpetrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Robert J; Clark, John W; Kehn, Andre; Burks, Alixandra C; Wechsler, Hayley J

    2014-01-01

    We examined blame attribution as a moderator of perceptions of hate crimes against gay, African American, and transgender victims. Participants were 510 Texas jury panel members. Results of vignette-based crime scenarios showed that victim blame displayed significant negative, and perpetrator blame significant positive, effects on sentencing recommendations. Also as hypothesized, victim and perpetrator blame moderated the effect of support for hate crime legislation. Interaction patterns suggested that both types of blame attribution influence sentencing recommendations, but only for participants disagreeing with hate crime legislation. Three-way interactions with victim type also emerged, indicating that the effects of both types of blame attribution show particular influences when the victim is gay, as opposed to transgender or African American. Implications for attribution theory, hate crime policy, and jury selection are discussed.

  1. Male perpetration of teen dating violence: associations with neighborhood violence involvement, gender attitudes, and perceived peer and neighborhood norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Elizabeth; Silverman, Jay G; Raj, Anita; Decker, Michele R; Miller, Elizabeth

    2011-04-01

    This study aims to examine the link between male perpetration of teen dating violence (TDV) and neighborhood violence, as well as associations with gender attitudes and perceived peer and neighborhood norms related to violence among a sample of urban adolescent boys. Participants of this cross-sectional study (N = 275) were between the ages of 14 and 20 years and recruited from urban community health centers. Crude and adjusted logistic and linear regression models were used to examine TDV perpetration in relation to (a) neighborhood violence involvement, (b) perceptions of peer violence, (c) perceptions of neighborhood violence, and (d) gender attitudes. Slightly more than one in four (28%) boys reported at least one form of TDV perpetration; among boys who have ever had sex, almost half (45%) reported at least one form of TDV perpetration. In logistic and linear regression models adjusted for demographics, boys who reported TDV perpetration were more likely to report involvement in neighborhood violence (odds ratio (OR) = 3.1; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.7-5.5), beliefs that their friends have perpetrated TDV (OR = 2.7; 95%CI = 1.4-5.1), perceptions of violent activity within their neighborhood (OR = 3.0; 95%CI = 1.4-6.3), and greater support of traditional gender norms (β = 3.2, p = 0.002). The findings suggest that efforts are needed to address boys' behaviors related to the perpetration of multiple forms of violence and require explicit efforts to reduce perceived norms of violence perpetration as well as problematic gender attitudes (e.g., increasing support for gender equity) across boys' life contexts.

  2. Gendered pathways from child sexual abuse to sexual aggression victimization and perpetration in adolescence and young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahé, Barbara; Berger, Anja

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the pathways from child sexual abuse to sexual assault victimization and perpetration in adolescence and early adulthood, considering risky sexual behavior and lowered sexual self-esteem as mediator variables. In a two-wave longitudinal study with 2251 college students in Germany, male and female participants provided reports of sexual aggression victimization and perpetration since age 14 (T1) and again a year later (T2), covering the last 12 months. In addition, child sexual abuse (CSA; before the age of 14), risky sexual behavior, and sexual self-esteem were assessed at T1, and risky sexual behavior and sexual-self-esteem were assessed again at T2. Experience of CSA was significantly associated with greater likelihood of sexual aggression victimization and perpetration, lower sexual self-esteem, and more risky sexual behavior in both gender groups at T1 and was directly related to victimization at T2 among male participants. In both gender groups, CSA indirectly contributed to a higher probability of sexual victimization at T2 via its impact on victimization T1. In males, the indirect path from CSA to T2 perpetration via T1 perpetration was also significant. Through its negative impact on sexual self-esteem, CSA indirectly increased the probability of sexual victimization among women and the probability of sexual aggression perpetration among men. Risky sexual behavior mediated the pathway from CSA to sexual victimization at T2 for men and women and the pathway from CSA to sexual aggression perpetration for women. The findings contribute to the understanding of gendered effects of CSA on revictimization and the victim-to-perpetrator cycle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Methods of profiling of perpetrators of criminal offenses in criminal investigations

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The paper discusses the term, objectives and methods of criminal profiling of perpetrators of criminal offenses. Generally, profiling implies techniques that enable cognition of the profile elements on the basis of analysis of criminal offense consequence, as a result of the offender operation and his interaction with the crime execution place. The goal of profiling is narrowing the circle of suspects. Profiling itself is based on two basic logical methods - inductive and deductive. The essen...

  4. The Age-IPV Curve: Changes in Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration during Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Wendi L.; Giordano, Peggy C.; Manning, Wendy D.; Longmore, Monica A.

    2014-01-01

    Research on intimate partner violence (IPV) has evolved over the last decade with increasing interest in how IPV develops over adolescence and young adulthood. Studies examining patterns of IPV over time have generally focused on victimization with less attention to temporal shifts in perpetration. While it is generally assumed that IPV peaks during young adulthood, this has not been empirically verified and documented. Additionally, prior longitudinal analyses of IPV have focused on identify...

  5. Domestic Violence Perpetrator Programs in Europe, Part I : A survey of Current Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, Leah; Koehler, Johann A.; Lösel, Friedrich A.

    2014-01-01

    Most research on domestic violence perpetrator programs has been carried out in North America. It does not yet provide a clear picture on what works with these offenders and cannot be generalized to other cultural and legal systems. Therefore, in Part I of this article, we present the results of a survey of 54 programs that were in place in 19 European countries that addressed the programs’ practice and effects. The survey captured data about program design, delivery, administration, infrastr...

  6. Heavy Alcohol Use and Dating Violence Perpetration During Adolescence: Family, Peer and Neighborhood Violence as Moderators

    OpenAIRE

    McNaughton Reyes, Heathe Luz; Foshee, Vangie A.; Bauer, Daniel J.; Ennett, Susan T.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the hypothesis that family, peer and neighborhood violence would moderate relations between heavy alcohol use and adolescent dating violence perpetration such that relations would be stronger for teens in violent contexts. Random coefficients growth models were used to examine the main and interaction effects of heavy alcohol use and four measures of violence (family violence, friend dating violence, friend peer violence and neighborhood violence) on levels of physical dating viol...

  7. The thrill of being violent as an antidote to posttraumatic stress disorder in Rwandese genocide perpetrators

    OpenAIRE

    Weierstall, Roland; Schaal, Susanne; Schalinski, Inga; Dusingizemungu, Jean-Pierre; Elbert, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Background: The cumulative exposure to life-threatening events increases the risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, over the course of evolutionary adaptation, intra-species killing may have also evolved as an inborn strategy leading to greater reproductive success. Assuming that homicide has evolved as a profitable strategy in humans, a protective mechanism must prevent the perpetrator from getting traumatised by self-initiated violent acts. Objective: We thus postulate an i...

  8. Homicide in the western family and background factors of a perpetrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aho, Anna Liisa; Remahl, Anni; Paavilainen, Eija

    2017-07-01

    Familicide is a multiple-victim homicide incident in which the killer's spouse and one or more children are slain. A systematic review was conducted to reveal the background factors of western homicide perpetrators. The systematic search was performed in the Arto, Medic, Cinahl, Medline, EBSCOhost Academic Search Premier and Social Services abstracts databases. The keywords were familicide, family homicide, familicide-suicide, filicide-suicide, extended suicide, child, murder, family, filicide and infanticide. The searches revealed 4139 references from the databases. The references were filtered and 32 peer-reviewed research articles revealed in years 2004-2014 were selected as data. The articles were analysed using inductive content analysis, by finding all possible background factors related to homicide. The factors were described as percentages of the range. The background factors of familicide perpetrators were categorised as follows: perpetrators who had committed homicide of a child and intimate partner and possibly committed suicide; a father had who killed a child; a mother who had killed a child; a father who had committed a filicide-suicide; and a mother who had committed a filicide-suicide. Psychological instability, violence and crime were found in all these categories of familicides. Perpetrators who had committed a suicide in addition to the familicide had more often been diagnosed with depression, but they sought treatment for mental health problems less often and had violence and self-destructiveness less often in their background than in other familicide categories. Social and healthcare professionals should be more sensitive to emerging family problems and be prepared for intervention.

  9. Individual and Family Predictors of the Perpetration of Dating Violence and Victimization in Late Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Makin-Byrd, Kerry; Bierman, Karen L.

    2012-01-01

    Teen dating violence is a crime of national concern with approximately one-fourth of adolescents reporting victimization of physical, psychological, or sexual dating violence each year. The present study examined how aggressive family dynamics in both childhood and early adolescence predicted the perpetration of dating violence and victimization in late adolescence. Children (n=401, 43% female) were followed from kindergarten entry to the age of 18 years. Early adolescent aggressive-oppositio...

  10. Symptoms of depression, anxiety, and somatization in female victims and perpetrators of intimate partner violence in Maputo City, Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacarias, Antonio Eugenio; Macassa, Gloria; Soares, Joaquim JF; Svanström, Leif; Antai, Diddy

    2012-01-01

    Background Little knowledge exists in Mozambique and sub-Saharan Africa about the mental health (symptoms of depression, anxiety, and somatization) of women victims and perpetrators of intimate partner violence (IPV) by type of abuse (psychological aggression, physical assault without/with injury, and sexual coercion). This study scrutinizes factors associated with mental health among women victims and perpetrators of IPV over the 12 months prior to the study. Methods and materials Mental health data were analyzed with bivariate and multiple regression methods for 1442 women aged 15–49 years who contacted Forensic Services at Maputo Central Hospital (Maputo City, Mozambique) for IPV victimization between April 1, 2007 and March 31, 2008. Results In bivariate analyses, victims and perpetrators of IPVs scored higher on symptoms of mental health than their unaffected counterparts. Multiple regressions revealed that controlling behaviors, mental health comorbidity, social support, smoking, childhood abuse, sleep difficulties, age, and lack of education were more important in explaining symptoms of mental health than demographics/socioeconomics or life-style factors. Victimization and perpetration across all types of IPV were not associated with symptoms of mental health. Conclusion In our sample, victimization and perpetration were not important factors in explaining mental ill health, contrary to previous findings. More research into the relationship between women’s IPV victimization and perpetration and mental health is warranted as well as the influence of controlling behaviors on mental health. PMID:23071419

  11. Partner-Specific Anger Management as a Mediator of the Relation between Mindfulness and Female Perpetrated Dating Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C; Seavey, Amanda E; Quinn, Emily; Cornelius, Tara L

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between facets of mindfulness, partner-specific anger management, and female perpetrated dating violence. In addition, we examined whether anger management mediated the relation between mindfulness and psychological and physical aggression perpetration. Female undergraduate students (N = 481) completed self-report measures of mindfulness, partner-specific anger management, and dating violence perpetration. The mindfulness facets of nonreactivity, act with awareness, and nonjudging, as well as anger management, were associated with dating violence perpetration. After controlling for dating violence victimization, structural equation modeling (SEM) demonstrated that anger management fully mediated the relation between nonreactivity and act with awareness and psychological and physical aggression perpetration. Moreover, specific anger management components (escalating strategies and negative attributions) were largely responsible for the mediation findings. This is one of the first studies to demonstrate a relation between mindfulness and aggression perpetration, and the first to examine theoretically proposed mechanisms responsible for this relationship. Dating violence prevention programs may benefit from including mindfulness-based interventions to improve anger management and reduce aggressive behavior.

  12. High Immunoglobulin A Levels Mediate the Association Between High Anger Expression and Low Somatic Symptoms in Intimate Partner Violence Perpetrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Martínez, A; Lila, M; Vitoria-Estruch, S; Moya-Albiol, L

    2016-02-01

    It has been hypothesized that anger expression may be associated with increased salivary immunoglobulin A (sIgA) levels, which is associated with decreased somatic symptoms, and therefore anger expression may be associated with reduced somatic symptoms in intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators. This study tested the potential mediating effect of sIgA levels on the relationship between anger expression and respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms in IPV perpetrators and non-violent controls. The sample consisted of IPV perpetrators (n = 19) and controls (n = 21). Saliva samples were collected for assessing sIgA levels. The State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2 was used to assess anger expression and the Revised version of the Somatic Symptoms Scale developed by Sandín and Chorot to measure somatic symptoms. High anger expression was associated with low levels of respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms in IPV perpetrators mediated through high sIgA levels but the same was not true for non-violent controls. This finding supports the hypothesis that for IPV perpetrators, anger expression may be physiologically and psychologically rewarding. Future research examining other immunological parameters is needed to further test this hypothesis. Such effort may illuminate why some IPV perpetrators continue to use violence against their partners.

  13. Online gaming and risks predict cyberbullying perpetration and victimization in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Fong-Ching; Chiu, Chiung-Hui; Miao, Nae-Fang; Chen, Ping-Hung; Lee, Ching-Mei; Huang, Tzu-Fu; Pan, Yun-Chieh

    2015-02-01

    The present study examined factors associated with the emergence and cessation of youth cyberbullying and victimization in Taiwan. A total of 2,315 students from 26 high schools were assessed in the 10th grade, with follow-up performed in the 11th grade. Self-administered questionnaires were collected in 2010 and 2011. Multiple logistic regression was conducted to examine the factors. Multivariate analysis results indicated that higher levels of risk factors (online game use, exposure to violence in media, internet risk behaviors, cyber/school bullying experiences) in the 10th grade coupled with an increase in risk factors from grades 10 to 11 could be used to predict the emergence of cyberbullying perpetration/victimization. In contrast, lower levels of risk factors in the 10th grade and higher levels of protective factors coupled with a decrease in risk factors predicted the cessation of cyberbullying perpetration/victimization. Online game use, exposure to violence in media, Internet risk behaviors, and cyber/school bullying experiences can be used to predict the emergence and cessation of youth cyberbullying perpetration and victimization.

  14. Correlates of Female-Perpetrated Intimate Partner Violence in Kano, Northern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amole, Taiwo G; Bello, Shehu; Odoh, Chisom; Aliyu, Muktar H; Iliyasu, Zubairu

    2016-07-01

    Women are by no means the exclusive victims of intimate partner violence (IPV). This study assessed the lifetime prevalence and predictors of female-perpetrated IPV among public servants in Kano, Nigeria. Using a descriptive cross-sectional design and systematic sampling, pre-tested structured self-administered questionnaires were used to assess prevalence, types, and predictors of IPV among 302 married men. The lifetime prevalence of IPV was 66.8% (n = 177; 95% confidence interval [CI] = [60.7, 72.4]). Of surveyed men who have ever experienced violence, 78.0% (n = 138), 81.4% (n = 144), and 16.4% (n = 29) encountered physical assault, psychological aggression, and sexual coercion, respectively. After controlling for confounders, having ≥5 children, adjusted odds ratio (aOR) [95% CI] = 3.93 [1.16, 13.29], p = .027, and childhood experience of violence, aOR [95% CI] = 0.14 [0.05, 0.39], p = .0001, remained significant predictors of female-perpetrated IPV. In conclusion, female-perpetrated IPV is prevalent in northern Nigeria. Addressing IPV will require comprehensive violence prevention measures, including counseling and support for victims and exposed children. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Environmental Unpredictability in Childhood Is Associated With Anxious Romantic Attachment and Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaro, Nicole; Shackelford, Todd K

    2016-03-27

    Human life history theory describes how resources are allocated among conflicting life tasks, including trade-offs concerning reproduction. The current research investigates the unique importance of environmental unpredictability in childhood in association with romantic attachment, and explores whether objective or subjective measures of environmental risk are more informative for testing life history hypotheses. We hypothesize that (1) unpredictability in childhood will be associated with greater anxious attachment, (2) anxious attachment will be associated with intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration, and (3) anxious attachment will mediate the relationship between unpredictability in childhood and IPV perpetration. In two studies (totaln= 391), participants in a heterosexual, romantic relationship completed self-report measures of childhood experiences, romantic attachment, and IPV perpetration. Study 1 provides support for Hypothesis 1. Hypothesis 1 is replicated only for men, but not women, in Study 2. Results of Study 2 provide support for Hypothesis 2 for men and women, and Hypothesis 3 was supported for men but not women. The findings contribute to the literature addressing the association of environmental risk in childhood on adult romantic relationship outcomes.

  16. Teens’ Self-Efficacy to Deal with Dating Violence as Victim, Perpetrator or Bystander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Camp, Tinneke; Hébert, Martine; Guidi, Elisa; Lavoie, Francine; Blais, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Multiple studies have demonstrated that adolescent dating violence is highly prevalent and associated with internalizing and externalizing problems. A number of prevention initiatives are being implemented in North-American high schools. Such initiatives do not only aim to raise awareness among potential victims and offenders but also among peer bystanders. Since teenagers mainly reach out to their peers when experiencing adversity, it is important to address adolescents’ efficiency to deal with witnessing dating violence or with friends disclosing dating abuse, in addition to increasing ability to deal with experienced dating violence victimization or perpetration. The aim of this study is to explore adolescents’ self-efficacy to deal with dating violence victimization and perpetration in their relationships and those of their peers. A paper-and-pencil questionnaire was completed by 259 14–18 years olds in Quebec, Canada. The data allows building insight into adolescents’ confidence to reach out for help or to help others in a situation of dating violence victimization and perpetration. We also considered the impact of gender and dating victimization history. Results suggest that dating violence prevention can build on teens’ self-efficacy to deal with dating violence and offer them tools to do so efficiently. PMID:26807554

  17. Traumatic childhood exposures in the lives of male perpetrators of female intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Margaret E; Scrandis, Debra A

    2013-09-01

    Despite efforts to use behavior modification interventions for male perpetrators, intimate partner violence (IPV) remains a significant problem in some male-female relationships. Childhood exposure to traumatic violent experiences, especially when untreated, can influence adult behaviors. Little is known about these possible factors in the lives of male perpetrators of IPV and if they influence their violent behavior against female intimate partners. This study's aim was to explore the life perspective of men who have been violent with their female intimate partners using Gadamer's hermeneutic phenomenology. Nine men with a history of female IPV were interviewed twice over a 5-month period. Interview content focused on their experiences in childhood and adult lives. Four themes emerged from the qualitative interviews: (a) childhood and family issues, (b) school and mental health issues, (c) substance abuse and (d) legal issues. Traumatic violent experiences in childhood, such as physical and sexual abuse, frequently led to school problems, misuse of substances, and arrests for a spectrum of crimes. These results highlight the importance of identifying traumatic violent exposures through a brief two-question screen of all children in primary care. Implications for individualized mental health treatment of male perpetrators and recommendations for further research are addressed.

  18. The mental illness microaggressions scale-perpetrator version (MIMS-P): Reliability and validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Lauren; Davidoff, Kristin C; DeLuca, Joseph S; Yanos, Philip T

    2015-09-30

    The study objective was to develop a new measure for use in the empirical measurement of microaggression behaviors perpetrated towards persons with mental illness and examine its psychometric properties. Following development of an initial item pool, 505 participants (students at a large college in New York City and community members recruited through Amazon's Mechanical Turk program) completed an online survey including a 20-item measure of microaggression behaviors. Exploratory factor analysis revealed three subscales: Assumption of Inferiority (α=0.81), Patronization (α=0.78), and Fear of Mental Illness (α=0.63). Additional analyses supported convergent validity of the measure with two widely used measures of mental illness stigma. The MIMS-P is the first instrument to measure microaggressions endorsed by perpetrators against a socially marginalized group and demonstrates strong psychometric properties. Inclusion of this scale in future research can help facilitate understanding of perpetrator perspectives and assist with intervention development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Associations Between Dysfunctional Personality Traits and Intimate Partner Violence in Perpetrators and Victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sijtsema, Jelle J; Baan, Lotte; Bogaerts, Stefan

    2014-09-01

    In the current study, the role of borderline and antisocial personality traits and psychological and physical forms of intimate partner violence were examined. Using self- and partner-reports, 30 perpetrators (28 males) and 30 victims (29 females) of partner violence, including 23 (former) couples, were interviewed. Results showed that perpetrators (i.e., males) were higher on antisocial personality traits than victims (i.e., females), but the two groups did not differ on borderline traits and self-reported violence. Moreover, borderline traits were associated with partner violence in general, whereas antisocial personality traits were associated with physical, but not psychological, partner violence. Analyses on (former) couples suggest that there is little congruence between perpetrators' and victims' reports of partner violence. In conclusion, the findings of the current study not only emphasized the complex nature of intimate partner violence but also showed that dysfunctional personality traits and gender play a significant role in both the display and reporting of partner violence. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Predicting cyberbullying perpetration in emerging adults: A theoretical test of the Barlett Gentile Cyberbullying Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlett, Christopher; Chamberlin, Kristina; Witkower, Zachary

    2017-04-01

    The Barlett and Gentile Cyberbullying Model (BGCM) is a learning-based theory that posits the importance of positive cyberbullying attitudes predicting subsequent cyberbullying perpetration. Furthermore, the tenants of the BGCM state that cyberbullying attitude are likely to form when the online aggressor believes that the online environment allows individuals of all physical sizes to harm others and they are perceived as anonymous. Past work has tested parts of the BGCM; no study has used longitudinal methods to examine this model fully. The current study (N = 161) employed a three-wave longitudinal design to test the BGCM. Participants (age range: 18-24) completed measures of the belief that physical strength is irrelevant online and anonymity perceptions at Wave 1, cyberbullying attitudes at Wave 2, and cyberbullying perpetration at Wave 3. Results showed strong support for the BGCM: anonymity perceptions and the belief that physical attributes are irrelevant online at Wave 1 predicted Wave 2 cyberbullying attitudes, which predicted subsequent Wave 3 cyberbullying perpetration. These results support the BGCM and are the first to show empirical support for this model. Aggr. Behav. 43:147-154, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Lingon sa Iskolarsyip sa Dulaan (1948-2007 Looking Back on Theater Scholarship (1948-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apolonio B. Chua

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available From 1948 to 2007, the academic community produced about a hundred titles of theses and dissertations on drama and theater, or made use of data from drama and theater for larger spheres of studies. The current article looked into identifying trends and points of emphasis, as the researches and studies progressed through roughly half a century of research production in the academic setting. Inductive in approach and tentative and exploratory in its analysis, the study identified four trends and points of emphasis in research production. In the fifties and sixties, the emphasis was more on studying the play text or drama; studies veered towards a literary reading and orientation. Eventually, this trend gave way to studying the larger phenomenon of mounting, and the mise en scéne and the spectator became additional units of concern for research. Studies began to have sections on props, costumes, and staging techniques. In the eighties, a larger concern for looking at theater as social production followed. Participant observation, field work and ethnography gave equal emphasis on the social context of theater. Marxism and other perspectives from the social sciences framed theater studies then; correlations between theater and society became useful. Towards the last decade of the century, theater studies aimed at a more conceptual approach, emphasizing core concepts like panata and other related or equivalent terms, elevating and defining the study of theater as a study of culture itself. Gamit ang mahigit sa sandaang tesis at disertasyon hinggil sa dula at dulaan o sinasangkot ang mga ito na lumabas sa akademya mula 1948 hanggang 2007, kapwa sa Unibersidad ng Pilipinas at sa iba pa, nilayon ng “Lingon sa Iskolarsyip sa Dulaan (1948-2007” na pulsuhan ang pangkalahatang daloy, tutok, tunguhin o kalakaran sa pagdadala ng mga pag-aaral. Panimula at exploratory sa inductive nitong lapat, nakatukoy ang pag-aaral ng apat na sapit o tutok sa daloy ng

  2. Prevalence and Correlates of Client-Perpetrated Violence against Female Sex Workers in 13 Mexican Cities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley J Semple

    Full Text Available Globally, client-perpetrated violence against female sex workers (FSWs has been associated with multiple health-related harms, including high-risk sexual behavior and increased exposure to HIV/STIs. This study examined correlates of client-perpetrated sexual, physical, and economic violence (e.g., robbery against FSWs in 13 cities throughout Mexico.FSWs (N = 1,089 who were enrolled in a brief, evidence-based, sexual risk reduction intervention for FSWs (Mujer Segura were interviewed about their work context, including experiences of violence perpetrated by clients, sexual risk and substance use practices, financial need, and social supports. Three broad categories of factors (sociodemographic, work context, behavioral and social characteristics of FSWs were examined as correlates of sexual, physical, and economic violence.The prevalence of different types of client-perpetrated violence against FSWs in the past 6 months was: sexual (11.7%, physical (11.8%, economic (16.9%, and any violence (22.6%. Greater financial need, self-identification as a street worker, and lower perceived emotional support were independently associated with all three types of violence. Alcohol use before or during sex with clients in the past month was associated with physical and sexual violence. Using drugs before or during sex with clients, injection drug use in the past month, and population size of city were associated with sexual violence only, and FSWs' alcohol use score (AUDIT-C was associated with economic violence only.Correlates of client-perpetrated violence encompassed sociodemographic, work context, and behavioral and social factors, suggesting that approaches to violence prevention for FSWs must be multi-dimensional. Prevention could involve teaching FSWs strategies for risk avoidance in the workplace (e.g., avoiding use of alcohol with clients, enhancement of FSWs' community-based supports, development of interventions that deliver an anti

  3. Bullying perpetration and victimization as externalizing and internalizing pathways: A retrospective study linking parenting styles and self-esteem to depression, alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems

    OpenAIRE

    Luk, Jeremy W.; Patock-Peckham, Julie A.; Medina, Mia; Terrell, Nathan; Belton, Daniel; King, Kevin M.

    2016-01-01

    Emerging research suggests significant positive associations between bullying and substance use behaviors. However, these studies typically focused either on the link between substance use and bullying perpetration or victimization, and few have conceptualized bullying perpetration and/or victimization as mediators. In this study, we simultaneously tested past bullying perpetration and victimization as mediational pathways from retrospective report of parenting styles and global self-esteem t...

  4. Exposure to Genocide as a Risk Factor for Homicide Perpetration in Rwanda: A Population-Based Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubanzana, Wilson; Hedt-Gauthier, Bethany L; Ntaganira, Joseph; Freeman, Michael D

    2015-12-16

    A population-based case-control study was conducted to assess the relationship between genocide exposure and homicide perpetration in Rwanda. A sample of 150 homicide perpetrators who were charged with and confessed to having committed homicide between 1 May 2011 and 31 May 2013 and 450 controls were enrolled. Cases were matched to controls by neighborhood, age and sex. Socio-demographic, background and genocide-related information was collected from study subjects' next of kin. Four characteristics of genocide exposure were: genocide survivor, genocide perpetrator, having lost a first-degree relative to genocide and having a first-degree relative convicted of genocide. We assessed the impact of each genocide-exposure variable using conditional logistic regression. Of the 150 cases, 124 (82.7%) were male and 26 (17.3%) were female. The mean age of the alleged homicide perpetrators was 33 years, with a peak in the age group 20-29 years (39.3%). After adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics and past common criminal records, having a first-degree relative who had been convicted of genocide crimes was a significant predictor for homicide perpetration (odds ratio [OR] = 14.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.6-129.4). Being a genocide perpetrator, a genocide survivor and having lost a first-degree family member to genocide were not identified as risk factors for homicide perpetration. In Rwanda, young people who experienced early exposure to trauma by witnessing their first-degree relatives' active participation in the genocide, are more likely to commit homicide. Socio-economic and psychotherapeutic programs targeting this population group are needed to rehabilitate these young people for violent behavior change. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Symptoms of depression, anxiety, and somatization in female victims and perpetrators of intimate partner violence in Maputo City, Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soares JJ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Antonio Eugenio Zacarias,1,2 Gloria Macassa,3 Joaquim JF Soares,1 Leif Svanström,1 Diddy Antai1,41Karolinska Institutet, Department of Public Health Sciences, Division of Social Medicine, Stockholm, Sweden; 2Eduardo Mondlane University, Faculty of Medicine, Maputo, Mozambique; 3University of Gävle, Department of Occupational and Health Sciences, Gävle, Sweden; 4Division of Global Health and Inequalities, The Angels Trust – Nigeria, Abuja, NigeriaBackground: Little knowledge exists in Mozambique and sub-Saharan Africa about the mental health (symptoms of depression, anxiety, and somatization of women victims and perpetrators of intimate partner violence (IPV by type of abuse (psychological aggression, physical assault without/with injury, and sexual coercion. This study scrutinizes factors associated with mental health among women victims and perpetrators of IPV over the 12 months prior to the study.Methods and materials: Mental health data were analyzed with bivariate and multiple regression methods for 1442 women aged 15–49 years who contacted Forensic Services at Maputo Central Hospital (Maputo City, Mozambique for IPV victimization between April 1, 2007 and March 31, 2008.Results: In bivariate analyses, victims and perpetrators of IPVs scored higher on symptoms of mental health than their unaffected counterparts. Multiple regressions revealed that controlling behaviors, mental health comorbidity, social support, smoking, childhood abuse, sleep difficulties, age, and lack of education were more important in explaining symptoms of mental health than demographics/socioeconomics or life-style factors. Victimization and perpetration across all types of IPV were not associated with symptoms of mental health.Conclusion: In our sample, victimization and perpetration were not important factors in explaining mental ill health, contrary to previous findings. More research into the relationship between women’s IPV victimization and perpetration

  6. Suicidal adolescents' experiences with bullying perpetration and victimization during high school as risk factors for later depression and suicidality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klomek, Anat Brunstein; Kleinman, Marjorie; Altschuler, Elizabeth; Marrocco, Frank; Amakawa, Lia; Gould, Madelyn S

    2013-07-01

    This is the first study to examine the extent to which frequent involvement in high-school bullying (as a bullying perpetrator, victim of bullying, or bully-victim) increases the risk for later depression and suicidality beyond other well-established risk factors of suicide. The study included 96 students who reported being a bully, a victim, or a bully-victim, and also reported depression, suicidality, or substance problems during an initial suicide screen. These students were interviewed 2 years later and were compared with 142 youth identified during the initial screen as "suicide-at-risk" by virtue of their depression, suicidal ideation, attempts, and substance problems, but who did not report any involvement in bullying behavior. Students who reported both bullying others and other suicide-related behaviors at baseline had higher suicide ideation and were more functionally impaired at follow-up than students who reported suicide-related behaviors but were not involved in bullying. Preventive efforts in high school should target those children who are characterized by both psychological disturbance and bullying, especially the frequent bullies.

  7. Empathy Impairments in Intimate Partner Violence Perpetrators With Antisocial and Borderline Traits: A Key Factor in the Risk of Recidivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Martínez, Ángel; Lila, Marisol; Moya-Albiol, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Antisocial, borderline, and narcissistic personality traits have been described as characteristics of intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators. Furthermore, deficits in cognitive empathy and impairments in emotional decoding processes may at least partially explain conduct disorders and social dysfunction in general. However, previous research has not explored potential associations between empathy deficits and the aforementioned traits or whether they are reflected in recidivism in IPV perpetrators. Accordingly, the main aim of this study was to explore associations between empathy deficits, antisocial, borderline, and narcissistic traits and the risk of recidivism in this population. The sample consisted of 144 IPV perpetrators (mean age = 41 years). High antisocial and borderline personality traits in this sample were associated with a high risk of recidivism, these relationships being moderated by poor empathy skills. Moreover, in IPV perpetrators with both antisocial and borderline personality traits, the risk of recidivism was higher than in those with only one of these traits. In contrast, narcissistic traits were unrelated to the risk of recidivism and impairments in empathy. The results of our study highlight the importance of empathy deficits and may help professionals to develop specific intervention programs focusing on improving empathy skills in antisocial and borderline IPV perpetrators.

  8. Child physical abuse - High school students' mental health and parental relations depending on who perpetrated the abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, D; Nordås, E; Pribe, G; Svedin, C G

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to contribute to the research of child physical abuse (CPA) by examining if there were any differences in high school students' mental health (in this study symptoms of depression and anxiety, self-esteem and sense of coherence) and/or, in how they perceive their parents, depending on whether or not they had been subjected to CPA during childhood. In addition, if high school students reported different mental health and/or, relationships with their parents, depending on if their mother, father or both parents were the perpetrators of CPA. A representative national sample of high school students (N=3288, data collected 2009) participated in the study. Participants completed the following: questions about CPA and alleged perpetrators, the Hopkins Symptom Checklist, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Sense of Coherence Scale and Parental Bonding Instrument. The results showed students who reported experiences of CPA were more likely to report symptoms of mental illness and negative perceptions of their parents' parenting. However, there were no mental health differences depending on whether their mother, father or both parents were the perpetrators of CPA. Still, there were differences in perceived parenting indicating that mothers' parenting was perceived as more negative when mothers only or both parents were perpetrators of the abuse than when only fathers were perpetrators. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The impact of parental and peer social support on dating violence perpetration and victimization among female adolescents: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Tara N; Branch, Kathryn A; Ray, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the role social support may play in reducing the risk of adolescent dating violence perpetration and victimization. This study is a longitudinal analysis of the independent impact of social support from friends and parents on the risk of emotional and physical dating violence perpetration and victimization among a large sample of female youth (n = 346). Findings indicate that 22% of the sample indicated perpetrating physical dating violence against a partner, whereas almost 16% revealed being the victim of physical dating violence; 34% of the sample indicated perpetrating emotional dating violence against a partner, whereas almost 39% revealed being the victim of emotional dating violence. Negative binomial regression models indicated that increased levels of support from friends at Time 1 was associated with significantly less physical and emotional dating violence perpetration and emotional (but not physical) dating violence victimization at Time 2. Parental support was not significantly related to dating violence in any model. Implications for dating violence curriculum and future research are addressed.

  10. The Age-IPV Curve: Changes in Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration during Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wendi L.; Giordano, Peggy C.; Manning, Wendy D.; Longmore, Monica A.

    2014-01-01

    Research on intimate partner violence (IPV) has evolved over the last decade with increasing interest in how IPV develops over adolescence and young adulthood. Studies examining patterns of IPV over time have generally focused on victimization with less attention to temporal shifts in perpetration. While it is generally assumed that IPV peaks during young adulthood, this has not been empirically verified and documented. Additionally, prior longitudinal analyses of IPV have focused on identifying trajectories and their accompanying risk factors, with less attention given to within-individual change in IPV experiences across and within relationships. Drawing on five waves of data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (TARS), we examined patterns of the perpetration of IPV among a diverse sample of adolescents and young adults (51.1% female, 63.9% non-Hispanic White, 24.6% non-Hispanic Black, 11.5% Hispanic) spanning the ages of 13–28 years (N = 1,164). Analyses demonstrated that IPV patterns deviate from the age-crime curve, with women’s involvement in IPV increasing, while their involvement in other antisocial behaviors is decreasing. Traditional behavioral and psychological risk factors (delinquency, alcohol and drug use, depressive symptoms) accounted for some of the age variation in IPV for men, but these factors did not account for age variation in IPV among women. Relationship risk factors including frequency of disagreements, trust, jealousy, validation and self-disclosure, however, accounted for substantial portions of the age-IPV perpetration relationship for male and female youth. These findings reinforce recent calls for prevention efforts that focus on the development and maintenance of healthy relationships. PMID:25081024

  11. Direct and indirect effects of neighborhood characteristics on the perpetration of dating violence across adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ling-Yin; Foshee, Vangie A; Reyes, Heathe Luz McNaughton; Ennett, Susan T; Halpern, Carolyn T

    2015-03-01

    Neighborhood context plays a role in the development of adolescent health risk behaviors, but few studies have investigated the influence of neighborhoods on the perpetration of dating violence. This longitudinal study examined the direct effects of risky neighborhood structural and physical characteristics on trajectories of the perpetration of dating violence, tested whether collective efficacy mediated these relationships, and determined if the effects varied by the sex of the adolescent. Adolescent data are from a multi-wave longitudinal study from grades 8 to 12; neighborhood data were collected from parents' interviews and U.S. Census data. Multilevel growth curve models were conducted with 3,218 students; the sample was 50% male, 41% White, 50% Black, and 9% other race/ethnicity. In models examining risky neighborhood variables one at a time, and controlling for potential individual-level confounders, the sex of the adolescent interacted with economic disadvantage, residential instability, and physical disorder; these risky neighborhood characteristics increased risk for girls' but not boys' perpetrating of dating violence. In full models with all of the risky neighborhood variables, the sex of the adolescent continued to interact with neighborhood economic disadvantage; living in economically disadvantaged neighborhoods increased girls' but not boys' risk for dating violence across all ages. No other risky neighborhood effects were found for boys or girls. Collective efficacy did not mediate the relationships between other neighborhood characteristics and the outcome. These findings suggest that dating violence prevention strategies for girls should consider the contexts in which they live rather than only targeting changes in their individual characteristics.

  12. Intimate partner violence in Rwanda: the mental health of victims and perpetrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verduin, Femke; Engelhard, Esther A N; Rutayisire, Theoneste; Stronks, Karien; Scholte, Willem F

    2013-06-01

    Exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) is a common feature of women living in low- and middle-income countries. Several studies have shown a significant association between IPV against women and mental health in both developed and in low- and middle-income countries. In postconflict settings, the relationship between IPV and mental health is likely more complex, given the high levels of violence experienced by the population as a whole. In this cross-sectional study the authors explore the association between IPV and common mental health disorders (CMD), and more specifically, suicidal ideation, among inhabitants of postgenocide Rwanda. The authors use the concept of "mutual partner violence," thereby exploring the association between IPV and CMD in victims, perpetrators, and those who state they are both. Data of 241 married men and women were used. Symptoms suggestive of CMD were established by use of the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20), and physical intimate partner violence was measured using the Conflict Tactics Scale, Short Version (CTS2S). The authors applied multivariate logistic regressions with total SRQ-20 scores (above/below cutoff) and suicidal ideation as the outcome measures and corrected for age and gender. The study findings suggest that reported IPV is associated with CMD (odds ratio [OR] = 1.7, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 0.92-3.15) and suicidal ideation (OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 0.70-3.53). Those who state to be both victim and perpetrator (OR = 1.75, 95% CI = 0.82-3.72), or only perpetrator (OR = 3.13, 95% CI = 0.49-20.0), are more likely to report mental health problems than victims and people who do not report IPV. In a postconflict situation, perpetrators of IPV may suffer from mental health problems as much as, or even more than, victims. Longitudinal data are needed to clarify the complex relationship between CMD and IPV, especially if outcomes may also be related to other forms of violence experienced in the past.

  13. "Maybe She Was Provoked": Exploring Gender Stereotypes About Male and Female Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarduzio, Jennifer A; Carlyle, Kellie E; Harris, Kate Lockwood; Savage, Matthew W

    2017-01-01

    The current study is concerned with the different types of gender stereotypes that participants may draw upon when exposed to news stories about intimate partner violence (IPV). We qualitatively analyzed open-ended responses examining four types of gender stereotypes-aggression, emotional, power and control, and acceptability of violence. We offer theoretical implications that extend past research on intimate terrorism and situational couple violence, the gender symmetry debate, and how stereotypes are formed. We also discuss practical implications for journalists who write stories about IPV and individuals who provide services to victims and perpetrators.

  14. Social and environmental contexts of adolescent and young adult male perpetrators of intimate partner violence: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Elizabeth; Silverman, Jay G; Raj, Anita; Rothman, Emily F; Decker, Michele R; Gottlieb, Barbara R; Molnar, Beth E; Miller, Elizabeth

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine qualitatively the life contexts of young males enrolled in programs addressing perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV). Semistructured interviews were conducted with 19 males recruited from these programs. Interviews were coded to examine life contexts and analyzed using a content analysis approach. Five themes emerged across interviews: (a) disruptive home environment; (b) lack of positive male role models; (c) a peer context characterized by substance use, gang involvement, and behaviors supporting the sexual maltreatment of girls; (d) school circumstances characterized by a lack of academic support; and (e) community exposures to violence. These factors were often interrelated within the various contexts of participants. Further research is needed to provide insight into whether and how these issues may contribute to IPV perpetration. Efforts to support young males regarding a broad array of concerns should be included in programming to reduce IPV perpetration.

  15. An Investigation of Short-Term Longitudinal Associations Between Social Anxiety and Victimization and Perpetration of Traditional Bullying and Cyberbullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabian, Sara; Vandebosch, Heidi

    2016-02-01

    Previous research has suggested that social anxiety is associated with victimization and perpetration of (cyber)bullying. The direction and causality of this relationship has not yet been empirically supported for both traditional and cyberbullying involvement. This study examined short-term longitudinal associations between feelings of social anxiety and involvement in traditional bullying and cyberbullying among 2128 adolescents aged 10-17 (56.6 % girls). A cross-lagged panel analysis provided evidence for the contribution of social anxiety to later victimization of bullying, both on- and off-line. The possibility of a reciprocal relationship was also examined, although it was not supported. Furthermore, longitudinal bidirectional relationships between social anxiety and the perpetration of bullying were investigated. Only one significant longitudinal association was found: the perpetration of traditional bullying predicted subsequent higher levels of social anxiety. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  16. Examining Perpetration of Physical Violence by Women: The Influence of Childhood Adversity, Victimization, Mental Illness, Substance Abuse, and Anger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiak, Sheryl; Fedock, Gina; Kim, Woo Jong; Bybee, Deborah

    2017-02-01

    Research on women's perpetration of physical violence has focused primarily on partners, often neglecting perpetration against nonpartners. This study proposes a conceptual model with direct and indirect relationships between childhood adversity and different targets of violence (partners and nonpartners), mediated by victimization experiences (by partner and nonpartners), mental illness, substance abuse, and anger. Using survey data from a random sample of incarcerated women (N = 574), structural equation modeling resulted in significant, albeit different, indirect paths from childhood adversity, through victimization, to perpetration of violence against partners (β = .20) and nonpartners (β = .19). The results indicate that prevention of women's violence requires attention to specific forms of victimization, anger expression, and targets of her aggression.

  17. Suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among youth who report bully victimization, bully perpetration and/or low social connectedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arango, Alejandra; Opperman, Kiel J; Gipson, Polly Y; King, Cheryl A

    2016-08-01

    The current study examined characteristics of bullying involvement and social connectedness in relation to suicide ideation and attempts in a sample of youth who report bully victimization, bully perpetration, and/or low social connectedness. The sample was comprised of 321 youth (67% female), ages 12-15 years (M = 13.6), recruited from an emergency department in the Midwest region of the United States. Results indicated that lower levels of social connectedness and higher levels of bully victimization and perpetration were significantly associated with suicide ideation and attempts. Level of social connectedness did not moderate the relationship between bullying involvement and suicide risk. The associations between the severity of subtypes of bully victimization and perpetration (verbal, relational, physical), electronic bullying involvement, and suicide risk were examined. Results highlight a continuum in severity of bullying involvement and social connectedness associated with suicide risk. Implications of these results are discussed.

  18. Dispositional Mindfulness as a Moderator of the Relationship Between Perceived Partner Infidelity and Women's Dating Violence Perpetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brem, Meagan J; Wolford-Clevenger, Caitlin; Zapor, Heather; Elmquist, Joanna; Shorey, Ryan C; Stuart, Gregory L

    2015-09-08

    Mindfulness gained increased attention as it relates to aggressive behavior, including dating violence. However, no known studies examined how the combined influences of dispositional mindfulness and perceived partner infidelity, a well-documented correlate of dating violence, relate to women's dating violence perpetration. Using a sample of college women (N = 203), we examined the relationship between perceived partner infidelity and physical dating violence perpetration at varying levels of dispositional mindfulness, controlling for the influence of alcohol use. Results indicated perceived partner infidelity and dating violence perpetration were positively related for women with low and mean dispositional mindfulness, but not for women with high dispositional mindfulness. These results further support the applicability of mindfulness theory in the context of dating violence. Implications of the present findings provide preliminary support for mindfulness intervention in relationships characterized by infidelity concerns.

  19. The preliminary study of autophagy induction of SA and MeSA by confocal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Lijuan; Chen, Wenli

    2010-02-01

    Autophagy appears to be a highly conserved process from unicellular to multicellular eukaryotes which contributes to the equilibrium of intracelluar environment. While it would be harmful to the cells when it is excessive by inducing programmed cell death (PCD). It is a protein degradation process in which cells recycle cytoplasmic contents when subjected to environmental stress conditions or during certain stages of development. Previous studies have demonstrated autophagy can be induced during abiotic or biotic stresses. salicylic acid (SA) and methyl salicytic (MeSA) are endogenous signal molecules. We found SA and MeSA can induce autophagy in Arabidopsis thaliana respectively. While autophagy was not induced by SA or MeSA in tobacco suspension cells under the same concentration and period. The differences in stuctures or physiological states may contribute to the results.

  20. Assaults in the elderly--a population-based study with victim and perpetrator characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biermann, Teresa; Dippel, Olga; Bergner, Matthias; Keller, Jochen; Coffey, Claire; Sperling, Wolfgang; Bleich, Stefan; Kornhuber, Johannes; Reulbach, Udo

    2011-05-01

    The aim of the present epidemiological study was to investigate characteristics of assaults in the elderly aged 65 years and above from the perspective of the victim and perpetrator. This population-based study included 23,142 assaults (according to §§ 224/226 StGB of German criminal law) that were recorded in Bavaria, Germany, from 1999 to 2005. The population-based ratio of serious crimes of battery for the elderly in comparison with the reference population was markedly lower (0.10; 95% CI: 0.09-0.11) in suspects aged more than 65 years and 0.08 (95% CI: 0.07-0.09) for the injured above 65 years. Elderly perpetrators differed significantly concerning the manner of the assault (p crimes in urban areas (56.1% vs. 68.8%) and were victimized significantly more in rural areas (p < 0.001; 41.2% vs. 30.2%). Violence in the elderly differs from that of the younger population. Further research is warranted to establish prevention measures. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  1. Early maladaptive schemas and personality disorder traits in perpetrators of intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral, Carmen; Calvete, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Personality disorders (PDs) are highly prevalent among perpetrators of intimate partner violence (IPV). Schema Therapy proposes a number of early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) that are involved in the development of PDs. This study examined the prevalence of PD traits in a sample of men who committed violence against their partners and the relationship between EMSs domains and PD traits. With this aim, a sample of 119 convicted men completed the Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form (YSQ-SF; Young & Brown, 1994) and the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-III; Millon, Millon, & Davis, 1994). The results showed that the most prevalent PD traits were narcissistic (24.6%), obsessive-compulsive (21.9%), and paranoid (17.5%). These PD traits were linked to several EMSs in ways consistent with the Schema Therapy model. Namely, narcissistic PD traits were positively associated with schemas of the impaired limits domain and were negatively associated with the other-directedness domain. The paranoid PD traits were associated with the disconnection and rejection domain and the impaired autonomy and performance domain. Finally, both borderline and antisocial PD traits were associated with the disconnection and rejection domain and the impaired limits domain. These findings suggest that the assessment and modification of EMSs should be a factor to consider for inclusion in the treatment programs for perpetrators of IPV in order to provide comprehensive intervention of this population.

  2. Factors contributing to ongoing intimate partner abuse: childhood betrayal trauma and dependence on one's perpetrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Rebecca L; Deprince, Anne P

    2013-05-01

    Identifying the factors that contribute to ongoing intimate partner abuse (IPA) among survivors of childhood abuse is essential to developing appropriate interventions. The current study assessed prospectively whether childhood betrayal trauma (BT) history and women's potential dependence on their perpetrators (unemployment, number of children below 13) increased women's risk of ongoing victimization, while controlling for trauma-related symptoms (PTSD, depression, dissociation). Women survivors of IPA (N = 190) from an urban U.S. city were recruited based on an IPA incident reported to the police. At the initial interview, women reported on childhood betrayal trauma experiences, their employment status, number of children, and current trauma-related symptoms. Women returned 6 months later and reported on ongoing events of victimization (physical, sexual, psychological aggression, and injury) in their relationships with the initial IPA perpetrator. Results showed that higher levels of childhood BT were associated with ongoing victimization over the course of 6 months. Women's unemployment status predicted greater physical and sexual aggression and injuries. Higher levels of depression and lower levels of PTSD symptoms were also associated with increases in physical, sexual, and psychological aggression, and bodily injury. The findings have important implications for interventions by demonstrating the need to process women's betrayal trauma experiences, target depression symptoms, and increase women's economic opportunities to prevent further victimization.

  3. Heavy alcohol use and dating violence perpetration during adolescence: family, peer and neighborhood violence as moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton Reyes, Heathe Luz; Foshee, Vangie A; Bauer, Daniel J; Ennett, Susan T

    2012-08-01

    We examined the hypothesis that family, peer and neighborhood violence would moderate relations between heavy alcohol use and adolescent dating violence perpetration such that relations would be stronger for teens in violent contexts. Random coefficients growth models were used to examine the main and interaction effects of heavy alcohol use and four measures of violence (family violence, friend dating violence, friend peer violence and neighborhood violence) on levels of physical dating violence perpetration across grades 8 through 12. The effects of heavy alcohol use on dating violence tended to diminish over time and were stronger in the spring than in the fall semesters. Consistent with hypotheses, across all grades, relations between heavy alcohol use and dating violence were stronger for teens exposed to higher levels of family violence and friend dating violence. However, neither friend peer violence nor neighborhood violence moderated relations between alcohol use and dating violence. Taken together, findings suggest that as adolescents grow older, individual and contextual moderators may play an increasingly important role in explaining individual differences in relations between alcohol use and dating violence. Implications for the design and evaluation of dating abuse prevention programs are discussed.

  4. Individual and family predictors of the perpetration of dating violence and victimization in late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makin-Byrd, Kerry; Bierman, Karen L

    2013-04-01

    Teen dating violence is a crime of national concern with approximately one-fourth of adolescents reporting victimization of physical, psychological, or sexual dating violence each year. The present study examined how aggressive family dynamics in both childhood and early adolescence predicted the perpetration of dating violence and victimization in late adolescence. Children (n = 401, 43 % female) were followed from kindergarten entry to the age of 18 years. Early adolescent aggressive-oppositional problems at home and aggressive-oppositional problems at school each made unique predictions to the emergence of dating violence in late adolescence. The results suggest that aggressive family dynamics during childhood and early adolescence influence the development of dating violence primarily by fostering a child's oppositional-aggressive responding style initially in the home, which is then generalized to other contexts. Although this study is limited by weaknesses detailed in the discussion, the contribution of longitudinal evidence including parent, teacher, and adolescent reports from both boys and girls, a dual-emphasis on the prediction of perpetration and victimization, as well as an analysis of both relations between variables and person-oriented group comparisons combine to make a unique contribution to the growing literature on adolescent partner violence.

  5. Girls and weapons: an international study of the perpetration of violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Patricia G; Butters, Jennifer E; Cousineau, Marie-Marthe; Harrison, Lana; Korf, Dirk

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe delinquent girls' weapons preferences where and how often they carried weapons and to identify the most important factors that explained four different weapon-related violent outcomes. A large, high-risk sample of female adolescents consisting of 510 girls aged 14-17 in four cities were interviewed using the same questionnaire and methods. Tabular and logistic regression analyses were applied. Knives emerged as the most frequently reported weapon in all cities. Rates of both lifetime victimization and perpetration of violence with weapons were high in all sites. Starting to carry a weapon as a result of violence was reported by 40% of the girls in Toronto, 28% in Philadelphia, 25% in Amsterdam, and 16% in Montreal. The major predictors of weapon perpetrated violent behaviours included ethnic origin, early onset of delinquent activities, participation in delinquent acts in the past 12 months, gang fighting and carrying a weapon as a result of violence. Site, age and heavy alcohol consumption had a minor impact, and drug use, drug selling, and neighborhood features, none. Despite numerous differences in weapons' prevalence across cities, the logistic regression found that site was only significant in use of an object (Toronto) and not significant in threatening or hurting someone with either a knife or a gun or actually hurting others with a weapon. These findings suggest commonality in serious female violence that extends beyond borders and cultures.

  6. SA3654 Component characterization. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meir, G.W.

    1996-06-01

    AlliedSignal Inc., Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T), was provided with production capability assurance program (PCAP) funding to develop, characterize, and qualify purchased product components for use on the PRESS-A program. The SA3654, N-Channel, Power MOSFET was identified as a component needing such activity to support PRESS-A. This report presents the characterization activities and results for the SA3654.

  7. SaVi: satellite constellation visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Wood, Lloyd

    2012-01-01

    SaVi, a program for visualizing satellite orbits, movement, and coverage, is maintained at the University of Surrey. This tool has been used for research in academic papers, and by industry companies designing and intending to deploy satellite constellations. It has also proven useful for demonstrating aspects of satellite constellations and their geometry, coverage and movement for educational and teaching purposes. SaVi is introduced and described briefly here.

  8. "You just don't report that kind of stuff": investigating teens' ambivalence toward peer-perpetrated, unwanted sexual incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Karen G

    2013-01-01

    An investigation of narratives from the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) finds that one in three teenagers--12-18 years old--who experience an unwanted sexual incident perpetrated by another teen trivialize their incidents as minor, unimportant, or normal kid stuff. This study contextualizes these responses within a framework of ambivalence that highlights separately teens' ambiguity of definitions, or uncertainty that incidents perpetrated by other teens (especially dating partners and schoolmates) are "real" crimes or offenses worth reporting, and adaptive indifference, a more tactical response to conflicting norms and allegiances that discourage teens from reporting their peers' sexual misconduct to authorities. The context and consequences of teens' ambivalence are discussed.

  9. The relation between alcohol use and psychological, physical, and sexual dating violence perpetration among male college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C; Brasfield, Hope; Zapor, Heather Zucosky; Zapor, Heather Zuckosky; Febres, Jeniimarie; Stuart, Gregory L

    2015-02-01

    The prevalence of alcohol use and dating violence are shockingly high among male college students, making this a particularly high-risk group for alcohol-related aggression. Expanding upon previous research, the current study examined the relations between three indicators of alcohol use and three types of dating violence among 204 male college students. We also examined whether hazardous drinkers reported more violence perpetration than non-hazardous drinkers. Results demonstrated that alcohol use was related to all types of aggression, and hazardous drinkers are at greater risk of violence perpetration than non-hazardous drinkers. Implications for dating violence prevention programs and future research are discussed.

  10. An Exploratory Multi-Method Analysis of Cybercrime Perpetrators' Perceptions to Combat Cyber Crime in Sub Saharan Africa: The Case of Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akuta, Eric Agwe-Mbarika

    2012-01-01

    The past decade has projected much of Africa as a haven for cybercrime perpetration. This view was widely evidenced in Cameroon, a country regarded as a miniature Africa due to its diverse socio-cultural, economic and political characteristics. In spite of efforts by government to curb cybercrime, the perpetration rate has not declined due to a…

  11. Screening on perpetration and victimization of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV): two studies on the validity of an IPV screening instrument in patients in substance abuse treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraanen, F.L.; Vedel, E.; Scholing, A.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Background About 50% of patients in substance abuse treatment with a partner perpetrated and/or experienced intimate partner violence in the past year. To date, there are no screeners to identify both perpetrators and victims of partner intimate violence in a substance abusing population. We

  12. Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration by Court-Ordered Men: Distinctions among Subtypes of Physical Violence, Sexual Violence, Psychological Abuse, and Stalking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeffrey E.; Walters, Mikel L.; Basile, Kathleen C.

    2012-01-01

    This study continues previous work documenting the structure of violence perpetrated by males against their female intimate partners. It assesses the construct validity of a measurement model depicting associations among eight subtypes of perpetration: moderate physical violence, severe physical violence, forced or coerced sexual violence, sexual…

  13. Åsa portreed / Åsa Johannesson ; intervjueerinud Kaisa Eiche

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Johannesson, Åsa

    2009-01-01

    Rootsi fotograafist Åsa Johannessonist, kelle portreefotode seeriat "Portraits of Her" eksponeeriti Riias toimunud kunstiüritusel "MOMENT". Tema õpingutest ja elust Londonis. Naiselikkusest ja mehelikkusest

  14. Åsa portreed / Åsa Johannesson ; intervjueerinud Kaisa Eiche

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Johannesson, Åsa

    2009-01-01

    Rootsi fotograafist Åsa Johannessonist, kelle portreefotode seeriat "Portraits of Her" eksponeeriti Riias toimunud kunstiüritusel "MOMENT". Tema õpingutest ja elust Londonis. Naiselikkusest ja mehelikkusest

  15. On SA, CA, and GA numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Caveney, Geoffrey; Sondow, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Gronwall's function $G$ is defined for $n>1$ by $G(n)=\\frac{\\sigma(n)}{n \\log\\log n}$ where $\\sigma(n)$ is the sum of the divisors of $n$. We call an integer $N>1$ a \\emph{GA1 number} if $N$ is composite and $G(N) \\ge G(N/p)$ for all prime factors $p$ of $N$. We say that $N$ is a \\emph{GA2 number} if $G(N) \\ge G(aN)$ for all multiples $aN$ of $N$. In arXiv 1110.5078, we used Robin's and Gronwall's theorems on $G$ to prove that the Riemann Hypothesis (RH) is true if and only if 4 is the only number that is both GA1 and GA2. Here, we study GA1 numbers and GA2 numbers separately. We compare them with superabundant (SA) and colossally abundant (CA) numbers (first studied by Ramanujan). We give algorithms for computing GA1 numbers; the smallest one with more than two prime factors is 183783600, while the smallest odd one is 1058462574572984015114271643676625. We find nineteen GA2 numbers $\\le 5040$, and prove that a GA2 number $N>5040$ exists if and only if RH is false, in which case $N$ is even and $>10^{8576}$.

  16. Comparison of the live-attenuated Japanese encephalitis vaccine SA14-14-2 strain with its pre-attenuated virulent parent SA14 strain: similarities and differences in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Sang-Im; Song, Byung-Hak; Polejaeva, Irina A; Davies, Christopher J; White, Kenneth L; Lee, Young-Min

    2016-10-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is the main cause of acute viral encephalitis, primarily affecting children and young adults in the Asia-Pacific region. JEV is a vaccine-preventable pathogen, with four types of JE vaccine licensed in different regions of the world. To date, the most common JEV strain used in vaccine development and production is SA14-14-2, an attenuated strain derived from its wild-type parental strain SA14. In this study, we directly compared the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of SA14 and SA14-14-2 to determine the biological and genetic properties associated with their differential virulence. In susceptible BHK-21 cells, SA14-14-2 grew slightly more slowly and formed smaller plaques than SA14, but unlike SA14, it showed almost no expression of the viral protein NS1', the product of a conserved predicted RNA pseudoknot-mediated ribosomal frameshift. In weanling ICR mice, SA14-14-2 was highly attenuated in terms of both neuroinvasiveness and neurovirulence, with its median lethal doses invariably over five logs higher than those of SA14 when inoculated intramuscularly and intracerebrally. Interestingly, the neurovirulence of SA14-14-2 was dependent on mouse age, with the 1- to 7-day-old mice being highly susceptible and the 14- to 21-day-old mice becoming resistant to intracerebral inoculation. At the genome level, SA14-14-2 differed from SA14 by 57 nucleotides, including one silent G-to-A substitution at position 3599 within the predicted RNA pseudoknot for NS1' synthesis; of the 57 differences, 25 resulted in amino acid substitutions. Our data pave the way for the development of new genetically modified JE vaccines.

  17. DAYA SAING DAN STRATEGI PENGEMBANGAN MINYAK SAWIT DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jauhar Samudera Nayantakaningtyas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe aims of this study were to analyze the competitiveness of Indonesian Crude palm oil CPO products in the international market and to analyze the strategy to improve the competitiveness of Indonesian CPO. The analysis methods used this research were descriptive qualitative methods. The tools used to analyze the competitiveness of palm oil is Revealed Comparative Advantages and Porter Diamond Theory, while the development of the strategy used to determine the SWOT method. Based on the analysis of Porter's Diamond System and revealed comparative advantages, this study concluded that the competitiveness of Indonesian CPO was pretty strong, but it still needed a strategy to strengthen its competitiveness especially on derivative products. Some of the routine strategies that need to be done every year, are the development of the CPO industry human resources through training and innovation activities, paying attention to national and international issues by improving government policies, downstream industrial development and palm oil value-added increase, enhance cooperation with manufacturers from other countries through promotions.Keywords: crude palm oil, competitiveness, strategy, analysis of porter's diamondABSTRAKTujuan penelitian ini adalah menganalisis daya saing produk Crude Palm Oil (CPO Indonesia di pasar internasional dan menganalisis strategi peningkatan daya saing CPO Indonesia. Metode pengolahan dan analisis data yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode deskriptif kualitatif. Alat  yang digunakan untuk menganalisis daya saing minyak sawit  adalah Revealed Comparative Advantages dan Teori Berlian Porter, sedangkan untuk mengetahui strategi pengembangan digunakan metode SWOT. Hasil analisis Sistem Berlian Porter dan revealed comparative advantages disimpulkan bahwa daya saing CPO Indonesia cukup kuat, namun masih diperlukan adanya strategi untuk memperkuat terutama pada produk turunan CPO. Strategi rutin yang harus

  18. Improvement in Mechanical Properties of SA508 Gr.1a Piping Material by Modifying Microstructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Weon; Choi, Myung Rak [Chosun Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Young Jin; Park, Heung Bae; Kim, Kyung Su [KEPCO E-C, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    It is attempted to apply LBB concept to the design of secondary piping systems, such as main-steam line and feed-water line. But, for obtaining sufficient margin in LBB analysis for these piping systems, it is necessary to reduce the applied loads by improving structural design and to employ piping material with higher toughness and strength than existing piping materials such as SA106 Gr.C and SA106 Gr.B carbon steels. SA508 Gr.1a ferritic steel has been used for the reactor coolant system (RCS) piping in KSNP (Korea Nuclear Power Plant) and is known to have good toughness and strength as well as weld ability. Such characteristics provide a sufficient margin in the LBB analysis for RCS piping. Based on SA508 Gr.1a piping material, thus, this study attempts to obtain a further improved piping material by modifying microstructure of SA508 Gr.1a without change of chemical composition. In order to obtain a modified microstructure, thus, this study simply heat-treated again SA508 Gr.1a piping material at the same heat-treatment condition that had been employed in the fabrication of SA508 Gr.1a piping material. The microstructure is composed of the homogeneous mixture of fine-grained ferrite and bainite. This is different from that of as-received SA508 Gr.1a. This difference is associated with different size of object to be heat-treated. This shows that SA508 Gr.1a piping material has a microstructure with fine-grained ferrite and bainite mixture, which provides good toughness and strength, if it is properly heat-treated. Tensile and J-R tests were conducted using specimens machined form modified SA508 Gr.1a piping material given by heat-treated, and the results were compared with those tested from as-received SA508 Gr..1a piping material. At 316 .deg. C, however, both strength and elongation of modified SA508 Gr.1a are higher than those of as-received SA508 Gra.1a. The results of J-R tests showed that J-R curve of modified SA508 Gr.1a is almost the same as that of as

  19. A Generalized Eigensolver based on Smoothed Aggregation (GES-SA) for Initializing Smoothed Aggregation Multigrid (SA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brezina, M; Manteuffel, T; McCormick, S; Ruge, J; Sanders, G; Vassilevski, P S

    2007-05-31

    Consider the linear system Ax = b, where A is a large, sparse, real, symmetric, and positive definite matrix and b is a known vector. Solving this system for unknown vector x using a smoothed aggregation multigrid (SA) algorithm requires a characterization of the algebraically smooth error, meaning error that is poorly attenuated by the algorithm's relaxation process. For relaxation processes that are typically used in practice, algebraically smooth error corresponds to the near-nullspace of A. Therefore, having a good approximation to a minimal eigenvector is useful to characterize the algebraically smooth error when forming a linear SA solver. This paper discusses the details of a generalized eigensolver based on smoothed aggregation (GES-SA) that is designed to produce an approximation to a minimal eigenvector of A. GES-SA might be very useful as a standalone eigensolver for applications that desire an approximate minimal eigenvector, but the primary aim here is for GES-SA to produce an initial algebraically smooth component that may be used to either create a black-box SA solver or initiate the adaptive SA ({alpha}SA) process.

  20. Middle Eastern Adolescents' Perpetration of School Violence against Peers and Teachers: A Cross-Cultural and Ecological Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury-Kassabri, Mona; Astor, Ron Avi; Benbenishty, Rami

    2009-01-01

    The current study presents the prevalence of students' reports of perpetration of violence toward peers and teachers among 16,604 7th- through 11th-grade Jewish and Arab students in Israel and examines the individual and school contextual factors that explain students' violence. The study explores how students' reports of violence are influenced…

  1. Co-Animation of and Resistance to the Construction of Witness, Victim, and Perpetrator Identities in Forensic Interviews with Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckert, Sharon K.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines how the interrelated identities of witness, victim, and perpetrator are co-constructed in forensic interviews occurring after allegations of child sexual abuse are made. Work related to issues of power in the area of forensic interviews with children tends to focus on coerciveness, and interviewers have power relative to…

  2. An Examination of Emotion Regulation and Alcohol Use as Risk Factors for Female-Perpetrated Dating Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Edwin; Shorey, Ryan C; Cornelius, Tara L

    2015-01-01

    Dating violence is a serious problem among college students. Research indicates that females perpetrate as much, if not more, psychological and physical aggression against their dating partners relative to their male counterparts. Unfortunately, there is considerably less research on risk factors for female-perpetrated dating violence, hindering efforts aimed at preventing violence in their relationships. This study examined 2 risk factors for female-perpetrated dating violence, namely alcohol use and emotion regulation, within a sample of undergraduate female college students (N = 379). Using structural equation modeling, results demonstrated that emotion regulation was associated with psychological aggression perpetration, and this was partially mediated by alcohol use. Moreover, a 2-chain mediation was present, such that emotion regulation deficits predicted alcohol use, which in turn predicted psychological aggression, which finally predicted physical aggression. These findings are consistent with theoretical models of dating violence and indicate that intervention programs should focus their efforts on increasing adaptive emotion regulation, decreasing alcohol use, and reducing psychological aggression.

  3. Parent and Peer Predictors of Physical Dating Violence Perpetration in Early Adolescence: Tests of Moderation and Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Shari; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Sullivan, Terri; Orpinas, Pamela; Simon, Thomas R.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined parenting and peer predictors of physical dating violence perpetration during early adolescence and tested moderation among these predictors and gender. Participants were 2,824 ethnically diverse sixth-grade students with a recent boyfriend/girlfriend who was part of a multisite, longitudinal investigation of the development…

  4. Cross-Gender Violence Perpetration and Victimization among Early Adolescents and Associations with Attitudes toward Dating Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windle, Michael; Mrug, Sylvie

    2009-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in cross-gender violence perpetration and victimization (ranging from mild, e.g., push, to severe, e.g., assault with a knife or gun) and attitudes toward dating conflict, among an urban sample of 601 early adolescents (78% African-American). Comparisons across gender groups for cross-gender (e.g.,…

  5. Impact of Prosocial Behavioral Involvement on School Violence Perpetration Among African American Middle School and High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDade, Rhyanne S; King, Keith A; Vidourek, Rebecca A; Merianos, Ashley L

    2017-01-04

    The purpose of this study was to examine factors associated with school violence perpetration among African American youth. African American students in 7th through 12th grade (n = 7488) in schools within one Metropolitan area completed the Pride National Drug Survey. Chi square analyses revealed school violence perpetration significantly differed based on grade and prosocial behavioral involvement. Students in 7th-8th grade (54.7%) were more likely to engage in school violence in comparison to 9th-12th grade students (48.8%). Students with low prosocial behavior (52.8%) involvement were more likely than their counterparts (48.9%) to engage in school violence perpetration. Logistic regression also indicated females and 9th-12th students with low prosocial behavior involvement were significantly less likely than their counterparts to engage in school violence. Findings should be considered by health educators and prevention specialists when developing programs and efforts to prevent in school violence perpetration among African American students.

  6. Risky online behaviors among adolescents: Longitudinal relations among problematic Internet use, cyberbullying perpetration, and meeting strangers online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gámez-Guadix, Manuel; Borrajo, Erika; Almendros, Carmen

    2016-03-01

    Background and aims This study aims to analyze the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationship between three major risky online behaviors during adolescence: problematic Internet use, cyberbullying perpetration, and meeting strangers online. An additional objective was to study the role of impulsivity-irresponsibility as a possible explanatory variable of the relationships between these risky online behaviors. Methods The study sample was 888 adolescents that completed self-report measures at time 1 and time 2 with an interval of 6 months. Results The findings showed a significant cross-sectional relationship between the risky online behaviors analyzed. At the longitudinal level, problematic Internet use at time 1 predicted an increase in the perpetration of cyberbullying and meeting strangers online at time 2. Furthermore, meeting strangers online increased the likelihood of cyberbullying perpetration at time 2. Finally, when impulsivity-irresponsibility was included in the model as an explanatory variable, the relationships previously found remained significant. Discussion These results extend traditional problem behavior theory during adolescence, also supporting a relationship between different risky behaviors in cyberspace. In addition, findings highlighted the role of problematic Internet use, which increased the chances of developing cyberbullying perpetration and meeting strangers online over time. However, the results suggest a limited role of impulsivity-irresponsibility as an explicative mechanism. Conclusions The findings suggest that various online risk activities ought to be addressed together when planning assessment, prevention and intervention efforts.

  7. The Role of Social, Emotional and Mental Wellbeing on Bullying Victimisation and Perpetration of Secondary School Boarders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Leanne; Mander, David

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the social, emotional and mental wellbeing predictors of bullying victimisation and perpetration for boarding students following the transition from primary school to secondary boarding school. Longitudinal data on 76 male and 74 female boarding students in Grades 7, 8 and 9 was used from a larger longitudinal study of…

  8. Co-Animation of and Resistance to the Construction of Witness, Victim, and Perpetrator Identities in Forensic Interviews with Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckert, Sharon K.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines how the interrelated identities of witness, victim, and perpetrator are co-constructed in forensic interviews occurring after allegations of child sexual abuse are made. Work related to issues of power in the area of forensic interviews with children tends to focus on coerciveness, and interviewers have power relative to…

  9. Cross-Gender Violence Perpetration and Victimization among Early Adolescents and Associations with Attitudes toward Dating Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windle, Michael; Mrug, Sylvie

    2009-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in cross-gender violence perpetration and victimization (ranging from mild, e.g., push, to severe, e.g., assault with a knife or gun) and attitudes toward dating conflict, among an urban sample of 601 early adolescents (78% African-American). Comparisons across gender groups for cross-gender (e.g.,…

  10. Moral duty or moral defence? The effects of perceiving shared humanity with the victims of ingroup perpetrated harm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morton, Thomas A.; Postmes, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Previous theory and research suggests that perceiving shared humanity with others should be a positive force for intergroup relations. The present research considers the alternative possibility, that notions of shared humanity might protect people from feelings of guilt over ingroup perpetrated harm

  11. Longitudinal associations between cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization and problem behavior and mental health problems in young Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Sheryl A; Kotevski, Aneta; Heerde, Jessica A

    2015-02-01

    To investigate associations between Grade 9 and 10 cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization and Grade 11 problem behavior and mental health problems after controlling for risk factors for these outcomes in the analyses. The sample comprised 927 students from Victoria, Australia who completed a modified version of the self-report Communities That Care Youth Survey in Grades 9-11 to report on risk factors, traditional and cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization, problem behavior, and mental health. Complete data on over 650 participants were analyzed. Five per cent of Grade 9 and 10 students reported cyber-bullying perpetration only, 6-8% reported victimization only, and 8-9% both cyber-bullied others and were cyber-bullied. Results showed that cyber-bullying others in Grade 10 was associated with theft in Grade 11, cyber-victimization in Grade 10 was linked with Grade 11 depressive symptoms, and Grade 10 cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization combined predicted Grade 11 school suspension and binge drinking. Prevention approaches that target traditional and cyber-bullying, and established risk factors are necessary. Such multi-faceted programs may also reduce problem behavior and mental health problems.

  12. Moral duty or moral defence? The effects of perceiving shared humanity with the victims of ingroup perpetrated harm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morton, Thomas A.; Postmes, Tom

    Previous theory and research suggests that perceiving shared humanity with others should be a positive force for intergroup relations. The present research considers the alternative possibility, that notions of shared humanity might protect people from feelings of guilt over ingroup perpetrated harm

  13. The Perpetrator's Strategy as a Crucial Variable: A Representative Study of Sexual Abuse of Girls and Its Sequelae in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederberger, Josef Martin

    2002-01-01

    A study asked 980 women in the German-speaking part of Switzerland questions regarding psychosomatic well-being, sexual actions, and perpetrator strategies. Results indicate the use of strategies involving affection had a stronger effect than those based on force. Love-bargaining was more influential than self-blaming and the need for affection.…

  14. An Exploratory Qualitative Study of the Self-Reported Impact of Female-Perpetrated Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deering, Rebecca; Mellor, David

    2011-01-01

    The limited findings on the impact of female-perpetrated sexual abuse of children are often contradictory, particularly in relation to males. In this exploratory qualitative study, a sample of nine men and five women who reported that they had been sexually abused by women in their childhood were recruited from the general community. They…

  15. Prevalence and correlates of young people's sexual aggression perpetration and victimisation in 10 European countries: a multilevel analysis,

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krahe, B.; Berger, A.; Vanwesenbeeck, W.M.A.; Bianchi, Gabriel; Chliaoutakis, Joannes; Fernandez-Fuertes, A.A.; Fuertes, A.; Gaspar de Matos, M.; Hadjigeorgiou, Eleni; Haller, B.; Hellemans, Sabine; Izdebski, Z.; Kouta, Christiana; Meijnckens, Dwayne; Murauskiene, Liubove; Papadakaki, Maria; Ramiro, L.; Reis, M.; Symons, Katrien; Tomaszewska, Paulina; Vicario-Molina, Isabel; Zygadlo, A.

    2015-01-01

    Data are presented on young people’s sexual victimization and perpetration from 10 European countries (Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Greece, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, and Spain) using a shared measurement tool (N = 3,480 participants aged between 18 and 27 years). Between 1

  16. The Role of Shame, Anger, and Affect Regulation in Men's Perpetration of Psychological Abuse in Dating Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Felicity W. K.; Austin, Amanda G.; Cercone, Jennifer J.; Arias, Ileana

    2005-01-01

    This study determines the relationships between shame, anger, and men's perpetration of psychological abuse in dating relationships. The authors' hypothesize the connection between shame proneness and men's use of psychological abuse with a dating partner, with anger's mediating in this relationship. In addition, the authors' hypothesize that…

  17. Why victims of undermining at work become perpetrators of undermining: An integrative model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, KiYoung; Kim, Eugene; Bhave, Devasheesh P; Duffy, Michelle K

    2016-06-01

    We develop and test an integrative model explaining why victims of workplace social undermining become perpetrators of undermining. Conceptualizing social undermining as a norm-violating and a resource-depleting experience, we theorize that undermining victimization lowers interpersonal justice perceptions and depletes self-regulatory resources, and these 2 mechanisms in tandem trigger a moral disengagement process that influences subsequent undermining behaviors. We further theorize that moral identity functions as a boundary condition: high moral identity attenuates whether interpersonal injustice and resource depletion shape moral disengagement and whether moral disengagement translates to subsequent undermining. A field study of bank employees provides empirical support for the mediating mechanisms, and shows that employees who have high moral identity are less likely to respond to interpersonal injustice by morally disengaging and to translate moral disengagement to undermining. (PsycINFO Database Record

  18. Chemoautotrophy: Discerning the Key Perpetrators from the Cariaco Redoxcline Lineup of Suspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgcomb, V. P.; Pachiadaki, M.; Taylor, G. T.; Suter, E.

    2016-02-01

    Our polyphasic investigation was designed to characterize microbial communities and metabolic activities across the well-constrained Cariaco Basin redoxcline. We coupled interrogations of microbial functional potential (metagenomics), activity (rate measurements and gene expression), and taxonomic diversity (based on SSU rRNA) to identify the key suspects in chemoautotrophic processes. We infer from these data the microbial impacts on key ecological/geochemical processes. Contrary to popular belief and former testimonials, the epsilon-proteobacteria are not the sole perpetrators, and the gamma-proteobacteria are currently the main suspects. Sulfur oxidation appears to be the main source of energy production and Marine Group A and delta-proteobacteria are implicated as partners in crime regarding cryptic sulfur cycling. Anammox bacteria play a key role in the micro-oxic water layers. Data suggest that even the permanently-stratified Cariaco basin is not a static ecosystem, but instead, one that experiences temporal and spatial perturbations and evolution.

  19. State standards for domestic violence perpetrator treatment: current status, trends, and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiuro, Roland D; Eberle, Jane A

    2008-01-01

    We empirically surveyed and analyzed existing standards for the treatment of perpetrators of domestic violence across the United States. Specific areas examined included: presence and scope; administrative entity for certifying; screening and risk assessment protocols; minimum length of treatment; theoretical or conceptual orientation; treatment content; preferred or allowable modalities of treatment; whether research findings are mentioned; methods for revising standards; and minimum education and training required for providers. We examined trends using several methods including comparisons between present and previous survey data (Maiuro et al., 2001). Positive trends were evident including increased use of multivariate models of treatment content, use of an intake assessment prior to treatment, use of a danger/lethality assessment to manage risk, recognition of the need for program evaluation and supportive research, and the requirement of a minimum level of formal education as a prerequisite for providers. We identify specific areas for further research and development and make recommendations for improving existing practice and standards of care.

  20. Strategies of psychological terrorism perpetrated by ETA's network: delimitation and classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Peña, Javier; Rodríguez-Carballeira, Alvaro; Escartín Solanelles, Jordi; Porrúa García, Clara; Willem Winkel, Frans

    2010-02-01

    This paper defines and analyzes the harassment perpetrated by ETA's terrorist network in the Basque Country, providing a taxonomy of its strategies of psychological violence. The usefulness of this taxonomy has been tested and contrasted by means of a content analysis of 19 testimonies of persons who were the victims of violence by the terrorist network. The taxonomy of strategies of psychological violence is made up of four dimensions that emphasize the actions on the context of the persons affected, and on their emotional state, cognitions, and behaviour. Results show the predominance of emotional and cognitive strategies. Intra-observer and inter-observer reliability analysis in coding showed a Cohen's Kappa coefficient of .92 and .87, respectively. The psychological violence analyzed in this study reflects a form of psychological terrorism that harasses and persecutes a specific sector of the population.

  1. Body and Terror: Women’s Bodies as Victims and Perpetrators of Terror

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Sultana

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Bodies are vulnerable because they are intrinsically linked to death. Bodies are social and they are embedded with meaning. They cannot be extracted from their specific contexts. The nation is also often equated with body politic. As a result individual bodies become the site of security/ insecurity depending on the social location of bodies. Within this discourse, this article tries to locate the bodies of women. It will look at the bodies of women as victims of terror as well as perpetrators of terror. It will try to understand if in these differentiated roles, women are able to break away from stereotypes or are still caught in heteronormative narratives. Keywords: Body, Suicide Bombers, Victims, Ethnic Conflict, Terrorism.

  2. Childhood trauma perpetrated by close others, psychiatric dysfunction, and urological symptoms in patients with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chui-De; Lee, Ming-Huei; Chen, Wei-Chih; Ho, Hoi Lam; Wu, Huei-Ching

    2017-02-01

    A psychosocial phenotype of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS), a urogenital condition without known organic causes, was proposed. While psychosocial variables, including interpersonal maltreatment and negative affect, were studied in association with IC/BPS, the specificities of the relationships between childhood trauma by close others, psychiatric dysfunctions (negative affect and post-traumatic psychopathology), and urogenital symptoms have not been established. 94 IC/BPS patients were recruited together with 47 patients with acute cystitis who served as clinical controls. Standardized scales were used to assess various potentially traumatizing events in childhood and adulthood as well as psychiatric (dissociation and negative affect) and urogenital symptoms. Among the potentially traumatizing events, those perpetrated by close others during childhood were found to be the most salient features discriminating the IC/BPS group from the control group. When divided into 2 subgroups according to their history of childhood trauma by close others, only IC/BPS patients with childhood trauma by close others had more dissociative and anxiety symptoms compared with the control group. These two subgroups did not differ in urogenital symptom severity. Childhood trauma by close others, rather than other types of interpersonal trauma, was a differentiating characteristic in IC/BPS patients, and a childhood trauma related psychosocial phenotype with a distinct clinical profile of dissociation and anxiety proneness was identified. Future studies should investigate whether a distinct set of pathogenic factors exists in IC/BPS patients with a history of childhood trauma by close others, even if this subgroup is not readily differentiated by urogenital symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Masculine gender roles associated with increased sexual risk and intimate partner violence perpetration among young adult men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, M Christina; Raj, Anita; Decker, Michele R; La Marche, Ana; Silverman, Jay G

    2006-07-01

    This study sought to assess the association between traditional masculine gender role ideologies and sexual risk and intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration behaviors in young men's heterosexual relationships. Sexually active men age 18-35 years attending an urban community health center in Boston were invited to join a study on men's sexual risk; participants (N=307) completed a brief self-administered survey on sexual risk (unprotected sex, forced unprotected sex, multiple sex partners) and IPV perpetration (physical, sexual and injury from/need for medical services due to IPV) behaviors, as well as demographics. Current analyses included men reporting sex with a main female partner in the past 3 months (n=283). Logistic regression analyses adjusted for demographics were used to assess significant associations between male gender role ideologies and the sexual risk and IPV perpetration behaviors. Participants were predominantly Hispanic (74.9%) and Black (21.9%); 55.5% were not born in the continental U.S.; 65% had been in the relationship for more than 1 year. Men reporting more traditional ideologies were significantly more likely to report unprotected vaginal sex in the past 3 months (OR(adj) = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.2-4.6) and IPV perpetration in the past year (OR(adj) = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.2-3.6). Findings indicate that masculine gender role ideologies are linked with young men's unprotected vaginal sex and IPV perpetration in relationships, suggesting that such ideologies may be a useful point of sexual risk reduction and IPV prevention intervention with this population.

  4. Men's exposure to human rights violations and relations with perpetration of intimate partner violence in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Jhumka; Reed, Elizabeth; Kelly, Jocelyn; Stein, Dan J; Williams, David R

    2012-06-01

    Despite widespread apartheid-related human rights violations (HRV) and intimate partner violence (IPV) in South Africa, research investigating the influence of HRV on IPV perpetration is scarce. This study analysed data from the South Africa Stress and Health Study, a cross-sectional survey conducted from 2003 to 2004 with 4351 South Africans examining public health concerns associated with apartheid. Analyses were restricted to men who had ever been married or had ever cohabited with a female partner. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between experiences of HRV and lifetime physical IPV perpetration. A total of 772 South Africa men met the study criteria (389 liberation supporters and 383 government supporters). Adjusted logistic regression analyses indicated that among liberation supporters, a significant association existed between experiencing major HRV (AOR 2.40, 95% CI 1.20 to 4.81), custody-related HRV (AOR 6.61, 95% CI 2.00 to 21.83), victimisation of close friends/family members (AOR 3.38, 95% CI 1.26 to 9.07) and physical IPV perpetration. Among government supporters, a significant association was observed between experiencing HRV (AOR 2.99, 95% CI 1.34 to 6.65) and victimisation of close friends/immediate family (AOR 5.42, 95% CI 1.44 to 19.02) and IPV perpetration. This work indicates the importance of men's experiences with HRV with regard to IPV perpetration risk. Future work is needed to understand the mechanisms underlying the observed relationships, particularly regarding mental health and gender norms as suggested by current literature, in order to inform interventions in South Africa and other regions affected by politically motivated conflict.

  5. Gender inequitable masculinity and sexual entitlement in rape perpetration South Africa: findings of a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Jewkes

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence and patterns of rape perpetration in a randomly selected sample of men from the general adult population, to explore factors associated with rape and to describe how men explained their acts of rape. DESIGN: Cross-sectional household study with a two- stage randomly selected sample of men. METHODS: 1737 South African men aged 18-49 completed a questionnaire administered using an Audio-enhanced Personal Digital Assistant. Multivariable logistic regression models were built to identify factors associated with rape perpetration. RESULTS: In all 27.6% (466/1686 of men had raped a woman, whether an intimate partner, stranger or acquaintance, and whether perpetrated alone or with accomplices, and 4.7% had raped in the last 12 months. First rapes for 75% were perpetrated before age 20, and 53.9% (251 of those raping, did so on multiple occasions. The logistic regression model showed that having raped was associated with greater adversity in childhood, having been raped by a man and higher maternal education. It was associated with less equitable views on gender relations, having had more partners, and many more gender inequitable practices including transactional sex and physical partner violence. Also drug use, gang membership and a higher score on the dimensions of psychopathic personality, namely blame externalisation and Machiavellian egocentricity. Asked about why they did it, the most common motivations stemmed from ideas of sexual entitlement. CONCLUSIONS: Perpetration of rape is so prevalent that population-based measures of prevention are essential to complement criminal justice system responses. Our findings show the importance of measures to build gender equity and change dominant ideas of masculinity and gender relations as part of rape prevention. Reducing men's exposure to trauma in childhood is also critically important.

  6. Atlas mundial da saúde

    OpenAIRE

    Barrozo, Ligia Vizeu

    2009-01-01

    O Atlas é de autoria de Zoé Vaillant, mestre de conferências da Universidade Paris-Ouest-Nanterre-La Défense e membro do laboratório Espaço, Saúde e Territórios e de Gérard Salem, professor de geografia da saúde da Universidade Paris-Ouest-Nanterre-La Défense e coordenador do laboratório Espaço, Saúde e Territórios. Cécile Marin, responsável pela cartografia do Atlas, é geógrafa-cartógrafa, formada pela Universidade d’Orléans. O Atlas mondial de la santé faz parte da série Collection Atlas/M...

  7. Otimismo comparativo e percepções de controle face à saúde na adolescência: existirão diferenças etárias? Comparative optimism and perceived control over health in adolescence: are there any age differences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sónia F. Bernardes

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O Otimismo Comparativo (OC, a tendência da maioria das pessoas para ver o seu futuro como mais positivo que o futuro dos outros, e a sua relação com a Percepção de Controle estão pouco estudados na adolescência. Os objetivos deste estudo prenderam-se com a análise das diferenças etárias na adolescência: (1 no OC e Percepções Comparativas de Controle (PCC face a riscos para a saúde e (2 na forma como as Percepções Absolutas e Comparativas de Controle predizem o OC. Noventa e um pré-adolescentes (M = 11,92 anos e 97 adolescentes (M = 16,86 anos saudáveis efectuaram julgamentos de risco e controle (Próprio vs. Alvo para 8 enfermidades. Os participantes mostraram-se comparativamente otimistas, julgando ter maior controle sobre algumas doenças que o alvo. Não existiram diferenças etárias no OC ou nas PCCs. Estas foram o principal preditor do OC, mediando a relação entre este e as Percepções Absolutas de Controle apenas na sub-amostra dos adolescentes.Comparative Optimism (CO is the tendency for most people to perceive their future as rosier than the future of others. Such optimistic bias and its relationship with Perceived Control have seldom been studied among adolescents. Hence, this study aimed at exploring age differences throughout adolescence in: 1 CO and Comparative Perceived Control (CPC over health hazards; 2 the way Absolute and Comparative Perceived Control account for CO. Ninety-one pre-adolescents (M = 11.92 years and 97 adolescents (M = 16.86 years, all considered healthy, were asked for risk and control judgements (Self vs. Target regarding 8 health hazards. Generally, participants were comparatively optimistic and saw themselves as having more personal control over some hazards than the target. No age differences were found in CO or CPC. The latter was the best predictor of CO for both cohorts. It mediated the relationship between Absolute Perceived Control and CO in the older participants' sample.

  8. Correlations between self-reported symptoms and psychosocial factors of perpetrators with domestic violence in China: a population-based sample

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Yu-ping; ZHANG Ya-lin; Doris F.Chang; YANG Shi-chang; WANG Guo-qiang

    2011-01-01

    Background Domestic violence (DV) is not only a devastating societal problem, but also a severe medical and mental health problem worldwide. Our previous study has shown that perpetrators were with higher prevalence of self-reported symptoms than that of controls. This study based on our former large scale population-based samples is aimed to further explore the correlations between the symptoms and psychosocial factors of the perpetrators with DV. It was helpful to provide some insight into possible strategies for clinicians to reduce the symptoms of the perpetrators with DV in China.Methods From our former population-based epidemiological samples, 1098 households with a history of DV in preceding year, 318 perpetrators with DV were randomly selected. Face-to-face interviews were conducted. Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) was administrated to check and classify the symptoms of perpetrators, Eysenck's personality questionnaire(EPQ), trait coping style questionnaire (TCSQ), life events scale (LES) and social supporting rating scale (SSRS) were administrated to evaluate the psychosocial factors of perpetrators. The correlation analysis was used to analyze the relationships between the symptoms and psychosocial factors of perpetrators of DV. Results The global and all subscale scores of SCL-90 were significantly positively correlated with EPQ-N, negative TCSQ and negative LES scores (P<0.01). The global score of SCL-90 was negatively correlated with both objective and subjective SSRS (P<0.01). The negative LES and negative TCSQ were significantly positively correlated with EPQ-N (P <0.01). Negative TCSQ was significantly positively correlated with negative LES and negatively correlated with subjective SSRS (P<0.01).Conclusions The self-reported symptoms of perpetrators with DV were strongly correlated with their psychosocial factors, such as the neurotic personality, negative coping style, more negative life events and less subjective social supports. It

  9. DAYA SAING PRODUK TURUNAN SUSU INDONESIA DI PASAR DUNIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Yanti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis research purposes were (1 to measures the competitiveness of Indonesian milk derivative product in international market based on its comparative advantage, (2 to analyze the dynamics of Indonesian milk and also to analyze the commodity’s competitive position in the international market through its dynamic export product performance, (3 to analyze dominant factors that influencing Indonesian dairy export growth based on constant market share analysis. The analysis methods used to measure the competitiveness of Indonesian milk in this research are based on revealed comparative advantage analysis, Export product dynamic analysis (EPD, and constant market share analysis. The result from RCA showed that the Indonesian milk derivative products which are Milk not concentrated nor sweetened 1–6% fat (HS 040120, Milk and cream, concentrated or sweetened (HS 0402 and Buttermilk, curdled milk, cream, kephir, etc (HS 040390 do not have comparative advantage but for Milk and cream powder unsweetened > 1,5%  fat (HS 040221, Milk and cream nes sweetened or concentrated (HS 040299 and Cereal, flour, starch, milk preparations and products (HS19 have comparative advantage. The EPD found that all Indonesian milk derivative products are included in the Rising Star position. The result test using CMS analysis concluded that the most significant factor which affect the export growth for Indonesian HS 040390 and HS 0402 derivative products are the import growth effect, HS 19 is mainly dominated by commodity composition effect, and the export growth for the rest derivative products are dominated with the competitiveness effect. Therefore, it needs to be implemented efforts to enhance the competitiveness of dairy derived products IndonesiaKeywords: milk, competitiveness, revealed comparative advantage (RCA, export product dynamic (EPD, constant market share analysis (CMSAABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan (1 menganalisis daya saing komoditas susu

  10. Studies of the aggregation of RNase Sa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khasa, Harshit; Kramer, Ryan; Maddux, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    Thirty-eight mutants of RNase Sa (ribonuclease from Streptomyces aureofaciens) were examined for their structure, thermal sensitivity, and tendency to aggregate. Although a biphasic correlation was seen between the effect of temperature on structure and the free energy of transfer changes in many...

  11. G-LoSA: An efficient computational tool for local structure-centric biological studies and drug design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hui Sun; Im, Wonpil

    2016-04-01

    Molecular recognition by protein mostly occurs in a local region on the protein surface. Thus, an efficient computational method for accurate characterization of protein local structural conservation is necessary to better understand biology and drug design. We present a novel local structure alignment tool, G-LoSA. G-LoSA aligns protein local structures in a sequence order independent way and provides a GA-score, a chemical feature-based and size-independent structure similarity score. Our benchmark validation shows the robust performance of G-LoSA to the local structures of diverse sizes and characteristics, demonstrating its universal applicability to local structure-centric comparative biology studies. In particular, G-LoSA is highly effective in detecting conserved local regions on the entire surface of a given protein. In addition, the applications of G-LoSA to identifying template ligands and predicting ligand and protein binding sites illustrate its strong potential for computer-aided drug design. We hope that G-LoSA can be a useful computational method for exploring interesting biological problems through large-scale comparison of protein local structures and facilitating drug discovery research and development. G-LoSA is freely available to academic users at http://im.compbio.ku.edu/GLoSA/.

  12. Pathways From Bullying Perpetration, Victimization, and Bully Victimization to Suicidality Among School-Aged Youth: A Review of the Potential Mediators and a Call for Further Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jun Sung; Kral, Michael J; Sterzing, Paul R

    2015-10-01

    In the wake of several highly publicized adolescent suicides attributed to bullying victimization, national attention has been brought to bear on the profound public health problem of bullying. This article reviews the extant literature on the associations between bullying perpetration, victimization, and thoughts of or attempts at suicide and proposes five potential mediators, namely depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, loneliness, and hopelessness, that may explain this relationship. Numerous studies have found empirical support for the interrelations between internalizing behaviors and both bullying perpetration and victimization and suicide. We find that further longitudinal research needs to be conducted to more conclusively determine the role and causal ordering these various psychosocial factors may play in bullying perpetration, victimization, and suicide. Although the research literature implies causal directions among all these potential mediators, untangling the unique influence of bullying perpetration, victimization, and bully victimization on suicide and its mechanisms of action has major research and practice implications.

  13. Review of survey and experimental research that examines the relationship between alcohol consumption and men's sexual aggression perpetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbey, Antonia; Wegner, Rhiana; Woerner, Jacqueline; Pegram, Sheri E; Pierce, Jennifer

    2014-10-01

    This article systematically reviews empirical studies that examine associations between alcohol consumption and men's sexual aggression with the goal of identifying major findings; gaps in current knowledge; and directions for future research, practice, and policy. We identified 25 cross-sectional surveys, 6 prospective studies, and 12 alcohol administration experiments published between 1993 and August 2013 with male college students and young adult (nonincarcerated) samples. Many cross-sectional surveys have demonstrated that distal and proximal measures of men's alcohol consumption are positively associated with sexual assault perpetration, although very few of these studies evaluated how alcohol interacts with other risk and protective factors to exacerbate or inhibit sexual aggression. There are surprisingly few surveys that examine alcohol's effects at the event level and over short-time intervals to identify how changes in alcohol consumption are associated with changes in perpetration status. Alcohol administration studies suggest some important mechanisms that warrant additional investigation. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Perpetration, revictimization, and self-injury: traumatic reenactments of child sexual abuse in a nonclinical sample of South African adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penning, Susan L; Collings, Steven J

    2014-01-01

    Risk factors for traumatic reenactments of child sexual abuse experiences (perpetration, revictimization, and self-injury) were examined in a sample of 718 South African secondary school adolescents. Logistic regression analyses indicated that the most consistent predictors of reenactments were a history of child sexual abuse (rape and/or indecent assault) and respondents' gender, with males being significantly more likely than females to report perpetration (OR = 13.5) and females being more likely to report revictimization (OR = 3.2) and self-injury (OR = 2.5). An analysis restricted to respondents with a history of child sexual abuse indicated that negative abuse-related cognitions were the most consistent predictor of all forms of traumatic reenactment.

  15. Estudo comparativo da qualidade da imagem e do kerma, de entrada e de saída, em simulador de tórax utilizando sistemas analógico e digitalizado CR de aquisição de imagens Comparative study of image quality and entrance and exit air kerma measurements on chest phantom utilizing analog and CR digital imaging systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Matos da Luz

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O processo de migração de sistemas analógicos para digitalizados, para aplicações diagnósticas, requer cuidados específicos, a fim de manter a qualidade das imagens e minimizar a dose no paciente. Este trabalho tem como objetivo analisar e comparar a qualidade da imagem e o kerma num simulador não antropomórfico de tórax gerados por sistemas analógicos e digitalizados CR. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foram analisados a qualidade da imagem e o kerma, de entrada e saída, no simulador para dois equipamentos de raios X diferentes (Siemens e Emic, com diferentes sistemas de retificação de onda (12 pulsos e alta frequência. Ambos os sistemas (analógico e digitalizado estavam sendo utilizados no mesmo local. Foram geradas imagens em filme e em image plates. RESULTADOS: Foi observado aumento na tensão e/ou na carga transportada pelo tubo de raios X quando houve a migração para o sistema CR, para manutenção das características diagnósticas da imagem. Isto resultou em aumento de kerma coletado. CONCLUSÃO: As maiores diferenças determinadas (aumento de dose e redução da qualidade da imagem foram observadas no equipamento com retificação de onda de 12 pulsos e transdutor de imagem CR (image plates.OBJECTIVE: The process of migration from analog to digital imaging system requires specific attention to preserve images quality and minimizing the dose to the patients. The present study was aimed at analyzing and comparing images quality and entrance and exist air kerma measurements in a non-anthropomorphic chest phantom with analog and CR digital imaging systems. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two different X-ray units (Siemens and Emic with different wave rectification systems (12-pulse and high-frequency were utilized in a single institution along the process of migration from analog to CR digital imaging system. Images were acquired on films and image plates. RESULTS: An increase on the X-ray tube peak voltage and/or load was observed

  16. Factors contributing to the perpetration of workplace incivility: the importance of organizational aspects and experiencing incivility from others

    OpenAIRE

    Torkelson, Eva; Holm, Kristoffer; Bäckström, Martin; Schad, Elinor

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In recent years a growing amount of research has been conducted in the area of workplace incivility. Whereas many studies have focused on the victims and the consequences of incivility, little attention has been paid to the perpetrators and antecedents of workplace incivility. This study aims to identify possible antecedents of workplace incivility, by investigating organizational aspects as well as the possibility that being the target of incivility from co-workers and supervisors c...

  17. Relationship of workplace violence and perpetrators on sleep disturbance-data from the 4th Korean working conditions survey

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Taejun; Ye, Byeongjin; Kim, Jung-Il; Park, Siwoo

    2016-01-01

    Objective The present study analyzed relationship of workplace violence and perpetrators of violence on sleep disturbance among wage workers in Korea. Methods The present study used data from the 4th Korean Working Conditions Survey (KWCS) of 2014 in selecting a total of 25,138wage workers as the study population, which excluded those who failed or refused to respond to questions required for the present study. The workplace violence experience group included people who satisfied at least one...

  18. Relationship of workplace violence and perpetrators on sleep disturbance-data from the 4th Korean working conditions survey

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Taejun; Ye, Byeongjin; Kim, Jung-Il; Park, Siwoo

    2016-01-01

    Objective The present study analyzed relationship of workplace violence and perpetrators of violence on sleep disturbance among wage workers in Korea. Methods The present study used data from the 4th Korean Working Conditions Survey (KWCS) of 2014 in selecting a total of 25,138wage workers as the study population, which excluded those who failed or refused to respond to questions required for the present study. The workplace violence experience group included people who satisfied at least one...

  19. Parent and peer predictors of physical dating violence perpetration in early adolescence: tests of moderation and gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Shari; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Sullivan, Terri; Orpinas, Pamela; Simon, Thomas R

    2009-07-01

    This study examined parenting and peer predictors of physical dating violence perpetration during early adolescence and tested moderation among these predictors and gender. Participants were 2,824 ethnically diverse sixth-grade students with a recent boyfriend/girlfriend who was part of a multisite, longitudinal investigation of the development and prevention of violence among middle school students. Those students who reported having a boyfriend/girlfriend reported significantly more drug use and delinquent activity and were more likely to be male. Twenty-nine percent of youth with a boyfriend/girlfriend reported perpetrating physical aggression against their boyfriend/girlfriend. Parenting and peer variables were significant predictors of physical dating violence. However, gender moderated the association between parenting practices and physical dating violence, with parental monitoring inversely linked to dating violence for boys and parent support for nonaggression inversely linked to dating violence for girls. Parent support for aggression also moderated the association between peer deviancy and reported perpetration. Finally, gender moderated the interaction between peer deviancy and parent support for nonaggressive solutions.

  20. Restoring relationship between former genocide perpetrators and survivors of genocide against Tutsi in Rwanda through reconciliation villages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mafeza, F.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the 20th century, genocide has claimed many lives across the world. In Rwanda, the Genocide against the Tutsi was perpetrated with unprecedented violence and took the lives of more than one million. In the aftermath of the genocide, the interpersonal relationships between genocide survivors and former genocide perpetrators as well as their respective family members was undermined. Through Prison Fellowship Rwanda, former genocide perpetrators and survivors of genocide were brought together in reconciliation villages as a way of restoring their relationships. Drawing on interviews and focus group discussion with members of five reconciliation villages, this study uses a qualitative approach to examine how these villages contribute to the restoration of relationship between conflicting parties in the aftermath of the genocide against the Tutsi in Rwanda. The findings indicate that living together in reconciliation village combined with economic joint activities provided a favorable space in which negative-dehumanizing attitudes were overcome, while positive-re-humanizing attitudes were fostered. Additionally, the village offered members an opportunity for communication, reduced prejudice and fear among them, and generated trust in the community.

  1. Hybrid PSO-SA Type Algorithms for Multimodal Function Optimization and Reducing Energy Consumption in Embedded Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lhassane Idoumghar

    2011-01-01

    When a local optimal solution is reached with PSO, all particles gather around it, and escaping from this local optima becomes difficult. To avoid premature convergence of PSO, we present a new hybrid evolutionary algorithm, called HPSO-SA, based on the idea that PSO ensures fast convergence, while SA brings the search out of local optima because of its strong local-search ability. The proposed HPSO-SA algorithm is validated on ten standard benchmark multimodal functions for which we obtained significant improvements. The results are compared with these obtained by existing hybrid PSO-SA algorithms. In this paper, we provide also two versions of HPSO-SA (sequential and distributed for minimizing the energy consumption in embedded systems memories. The two versions, of HPSO-SA, reduce the energy consumption in memories from 76% up to 98% as compared to Tabu Search (TS. Moreover, the distributed version of HPSO-SA provides execution time saving of about 73% up to 84% on a cluster of 4 PCs.

  2. Does Salicylic Acid (SA) Improve Tolerance to Salt Stress in Plants? A Study of SA Effects On Tomato Plant Growth, Water Dynamics, Photosynthesis, and Biochemical Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimouni, Hajer; Wasti, Salma; Manaa, Arafet; Gharbi, Emna; Chalh, Abdellah; Vandoorne, Bertrand; Lutts, Stanley; Ben Ahmed, Hela

    2016-03-01

    Environmental stresses such as salinity directly impact crop growth, and by extension, world food supply and societal prosperity. It is estimated that over 800 million hectares of land throughout the world are salt-affected. In arid and semi-arid regions, salt concentration can be close to that in the seawater. Hence, there are intensive efforts to improve plant tolerance to salinity and other environmental stressors. Salicylic acid (SA) is an important signal molecule for modulating plant responses to stress. In the present study, we examined, on multiple plant growth related endpoints, whether SA applied through the rooting medium could mitigate the adverse effects of salinity on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) cv. Marmande. The latter is a hitherto understudied tomato plant from the above perspective; it is a classic variety that produces the large ribbed tomatoes in the Mediterranean and consumed worldwide. We found salt stress negatively affected the growth of cv. Marmande tomato plants. However, the SA-treated plants had greater shoot and root dry mass, leaf area compared to untreated plants when exposed to salt stress. Application of SA restores photosynthetic rates and photosynthetic pigment levels under salt (NaCl) exposure. Leaf water, osmotic potential, stomatal conductance transpiration rate, and biochemical parameters were also ameliorated in SA-treated plants under saline stress conditions. Overall, these data illustrate that SA increases cv. Marmande tomato growth by improving photosynthesis, regulation and balance of osmotic potential, induction of compatible osmolyte metabolism, and alleviating membrane damage. We suggest salicylic acid might be considered as a potential growth regulator to improve tomato plant salinity stress resistance, in the current era of global climate change.

  3. Masculine discrepancy stress, teen dating violence, and sexual violence perpetration among adolescent boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, Dennis E; Smith-Darden, Joanne P; Cortina, Kai S; Kernsmith, Roger M; Kernsmith, Poco D

    2015-06-01

    Addressing gender norms is integral to understanding and ultimately preventing violence in both adolescent and adult intimate relationships. Males are affected by gender role expectations which require them to demonstrate attributes of strength, toughness, and dominance. Discrepancy stress is a form of gender role stress that occurs when boys and men fail to live up to the traditional gender norms set by society. Failure to live up to these gender role expectations may precipitate this experience of psychological distress in some males which, in turn, may increase the risk to engage in physically and sexually violent behaviors as a means of demonstrating masculinity. Five-hundred eighty-nine adolescent males from schools in Wayne County, Michigan completed a survey assessing self-perceptions of gender role discrepancy, the experience of discrepancy stress, and history of physical and sexual dating violence. Logistic regression analyses indicated boys who endorsed gender role discrepancy and associated discrepancy stress were generally at greater risk to engage in acts of sexual violence but not necessarily physical violence. Boys who experience stress about being perceived as "sub-masculine" may be more likely to engage in sexual violence as a means of demonstrating their masculinity to self and/or others and thwarting potential "threats" to their masculinity by dating partners. Efforts to prevent sexual violence perpetration among male adolescents should perhaps consider the influence of gender socialization in this population and include efforts to reduce distress about masculine socialization in primary prevention strategies. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Dating the abusive head trauma episode and perpetrator statements: key points for imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamsbaum, Catherine; Morel, Baptiste [AP-HP, CHU Bicetre, Service d' Imagerie Pediatrique, Paris (France); Ducot, Beatrice [Universite Paris Sud, Faculte de Medecine, Le Kremlin Bicetre (France); INSERM CESP U 1018, Paris (France); Antoni, Guillemette [Universite Paris Sud, Faculte de Medecine, Le Kremlin Bicetre (France); Rey-Salmon, Caroline [AP-HP, CHU Hotel Dieu, Unite Medico-Judiciaire, Paris (France)

    2014-12-15

    Shaken baby syndrome/abusive head trauma is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in infants. The presence of a diffuse subdural hematoma without evidence of accident is a key diagnostic clue. The hematoma is typically attributed to rupture of the cerebral bridging veins due to violent shaking, with or without impact. Dating the incident, however, remains controversial. The aim of this article is to review the most reliable features used for dating the incident, based on both legal statements by perpetrators and medical documentation. The key points are: 1) The high (yet likely underestimated) frequency of repeated shaking is around 50%, 2) Children do not behave normally immediately after shaking, and the time of onset of even mild symptoms appears to be the best clue for dating the incident and 3) Brain imaging provides strong indicators of ''age-different'' injuries but the ranges for dating the causal event are wide. The density pattern in a single subdural hematoma location provides no reliable clues for assessing repeated violence. Only the finding of different density in two distant subdural hematomas argues in favor of ''age-different'' injuries, i.e. repeated violence. MRI is difficult to interpret in terms of dating subdural hemorrhages and must be analyzed in conjunction with CT. Most importantly, all of the child's previous clinical and radiological data must be carefully studied and correlated to provide accurate information on the date and repetition of the trauma. (orig.)

  5. Understanding child directed caregiver aggression: An examination of characteristics and predictors associated with perpetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkout, Olga V; Kolko, David J

    2016-06-01

    Child physical abuse presents a substantial public health concern with lasting negative consequences for victims. Understanding the variables associated with perpetration can help inform prevention and intervention efforts. The current study examined background and clinical variables in a sample of 195 help-seeking caregivers who were at risk for or had been identified as having engaged in child directed aggression or abuse. We found that caregivers who did (vs. did not) report severe child directed aggression had poorer parenting and reported more drug use. Having a recent allegation of child physical abuse (vs. no allegation) based on official child welfare records was unrelated to parenting, drug and alcohol use, negative affect, parenting stress, or neglect. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the influence of parenting stress on child directed aggression and its effects through negative affect and positive parenting. We found that parenting stress predicted higher negative affect, which was related to greater child directed aggression. Additionally, parenting stress predicted lower positive parenting, which in turn predicted lower child directed aggression. A model including drug and alcohol use did not add to the prediction of child directed aggression. Prediction of neglect using similar variables found that only positive parenting was of import and that parenting stress and negative affect did not contribute to neglect. Implications for future prevention and treatment development efforts with abusive/aggressive caregivers are discussed.

  6. Some Epidemiological Characteristics of Perpetrators and Victims of Incest in Contemporary Ghana: Analysis of Media Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarshie, Emmanuel N-B; Osafo, Joseph; Akotia, Charity S; Peprah, Jennifer; Andoh-Arthur, Johnny

    2017-01-01

    In Ghana, incest is considered sinful, taboo, and illegal. However, recent media reports show that incest has become a daily reality in Ghana. This study is a situational analysis of the pattern of incest in Ghana as reported in the media from January 2008 through July 2015. Qualitative content analysis was conducted on 48 incest news reports in Ghana. The findings showed that father-daughter incest was most frequent across the study period. Forty-seven females aged 3 to 25 years and a male aged 3 years were identified as victims. Generally, the incest lasted between 1 day and 13 years before disclosure. Perpetrators employed psychological and/or physical methods to coerce their victims. Marital difficulties, diabolical control, and seduction by victim featured prominently as alleged motives behind the abuse. The study observes that the recent increase in father-daughter incest warrants an immediate shift of research attention onto men's mental health in Ghana.

  7. Alcohol misuse, firearm violence perpetration, and public policy in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintemute, Garen J

    2015-10-01

    Firearm violence is a significant public health problem in the United States, and alcohol is frequently involved. This article reviews existing research on the relationships between alcohol misuse; ownership, access to, and use of firearms; and the commission of firearm violence, and discusses the policy implications of these findings. Narrative review augmented by new tabulations of publicly-available data. Acute and chronic alcohol misuse is positively associated with firearm ownership, risk behaviors involving firearms, and risk for perpetrating both interpersonal and self-directed firearm violence. In an average month, an estimated 8.9 to 11.7 million firearm owners binge drink. For men, deaths from alcohol-related firearm violence equal those from alcohol-related motor vehicle crashes. Enforceable policies restricting access to firearms for persons who misuse alcohol are uncommon. Policies that restrict access on the basis of other risk factors have been shown to reduce risk for subsequent violence. The evidence suggests that restricting access to firearms for persons with a documented history of alcohol misuse would be an effective violence prevention measure. Restrictions should rely on unambiguous definitions of alcohol misuse to facilitate enforcement and should be rigorously evaluated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Extent, trends, and perpetrators of prostitution-related homicide in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Devon D; Dudek, Jonathan A; Potterat, John J; Muth, Stephen Q; Roberts, John M; Woodhouse, Donald E

    2006-09-01

    Prostitute women have the highest homicide victimization rate of any set of women ever studied. We analyzed nine diverse homicide data sets to examine the extent, trends, and perpetrators of prostitution-related homicide in the United States. Most data sources substantially under-ascertained prostitute homicides. As estimated from a conservative capture-recapture analysis, 2.7% of female homicide victims in the United States between 1982 and 2000 were prostitutes. Frequencies of recorded prostitute and client homicides increased substantially in the late 1980s and early 1990s; nearly all of the few observed pimp homicides occurred before the late 1980s. These trends may be linked to the rise of crack cocaine use. Prostitutes were killed primarily by clients, clients were killed mainly by prostitutes, and pimps were killed predominantly by pimps. Another conservative estimate suggests that serial killers accounted for 35% of prostitute homicides. Proactive surveillance of, and evidence collection from, clients and prostitutes might enhance the investigation of prostitution-related homicide.

  9. 什么是SA8000

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    20世纪末期,欧洲、美国和澳大利亚都先后出现了一些关于“企业社会责任”的多边组织,并逐步形成了一些评价体系和认证制度。SA8000(SOCIAL ACCOUT ABILTY8000的英文简称)是其中最有名的标准之

  10. Atmospheric environment for ASTP (SA-210) launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D. L.

    1976-01-01

    A summary is presented of selected atmospheric conditions observed near ASTP/SA-210 launch time on July 15, 1975, at Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Values of ambient pressure, temperature, moisture, ground winds, visual observations (cloud), density, index of refraction, and wind/wind shear aloft are included. A final meteorological data tape for the ASTP launch, consisting of wind and thermodynamic parameters versus altitude, has been constructed.

  11. IkusaSA. Integrated Assessment for Sustainability

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scholes, RJ

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available , have intended and unintended consequences across a range of important issues. The IkusaSA model system comprises: ? A South African national IAM nested within one or more ?state-of-the-art? global IAMs that predict trade, climate change and human.... The desired outcome is a well-functioning interface between sectors and between technical assessments and policy action. WHAT IS AN INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT MODEL (IAM)? An IAM is a numerical simulation of the dynamic interaction between socio...

  12. The Role of the Government in Perpetrating Genocide: A Comparative Analysis of 1994 Rwanda Genocide and 2003 Sudan Genocide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    response, to ensure timely action to avert it. In Rwanda, the UN had enough information to show that genocide was happening and they chose to withdraw ...including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and...Twa or pygmoids did their hunting in forests, the majority Hutu cultivated land, while the minority Tutsi reared cattle . The Tutsi group caught the

  13. Performance Evaluation Considering Iterations per Phase and SA Temperature in WMN-SA System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Sakamoto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the key advantages of Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs is their importance for providing cost-efficient broadband connectivity. There are issues for achieving the network connectivity and user coverage, which are related with the node placement problem. In this work, we consider Simulated Annealing Algorithm (SA temperature and Iteration per phase for the router node placement problem in WMNs. We want to find the optimal distribution of router nodes in order to provide the best network connectivity and provide the best coverage in a set of Normal distributed clients. From simulation results, we found how to optimize both the size of Giant Component and number of covered mesh clients. When the number of iterations per phase is big, the performance is better in WMN-SA System. From for SA temperature, when SA temperature is 0 and 1, the performance is almost same. When SA temperature is 2 and 3 or more, the performance decrease because there are many kick ups.

  14. Homicide-suicides compared to homicides and suicides: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panczak, Radoslaw; Geissbühler, Michael; Zwahlen, Marcel; Killias, Martin; Tal, Kali; Egger, Matthias

    2013-12-10

    Homicide-suicides, the murder of one or several individuals followed by the suicide of the perpetrator, are rare but have devastating effects on families and communities. We did a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies comparing perpetrators of homicide-suicides with perpetrators of simple homicides and suicides and examined the proportion of firearm use and its correlation with firearm availability. We searched Medline and Embase from inception to July 2012 and identified 27 eligible studies. Perpetrators of homicide-suicides were older and more likely to be male and married to or separated from their victims than perpetrator of simple homicides or suicides. Influence of alcohol and a history of domestic violence or unemployment were less prevalent in homicide-suicides than in homicides. The proportion of firearm use in homicide-suicides varied across countries and was highest in the USA, Switzerland and South Africa, followed by Australia, Canada, The Netherlands and England and Wales, with a strong correlation between the use of firearms and the level of civilian gun ownership in the country. Our results indicate that homicide-suicides represent a distinct entity, with characteristics distinguishing them both from homicides and suicides. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterization of a novel cell wall binding domain-containing Staphylococcus aureus endolysin LysSA97.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yoonjee; Ryu, Sangryeol

    2017-01-01

    Endolysin from Staphylococcus aureus phage SA97 (LysSA97) was cloned and investigated. LysSA97 specifically lyse the staphylococcal strains and effectively disrupted staphylococcal biofilms. Bioinformatic analysis of LysSA97 revealed a novel putative cell wall binding domain (CBD) as well as two enzymatically active domains (EADs) containing cysteine, histidine-dependent amidohydrolases/peptidases (CHAP, PF05257) and N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase (Amidase-3, PF01520) domains. Comparison of 98 endolysin genes of S. aureus phages deposited in GenBank showed that they can be classified into six groups based on their domain composition. Interestingly, approximately 80.61 % of the staphylococcal endolysins have a src-homology 3 (SH3, PF08460) domain as CBD, but the remaining 19.39 %, including LysSA97, has a putative C-terminal CBD with no homology to the known CBD. The fusion protein containing green fluorescent protein and the putative CBD of LysSA97 showed a specific binding spectrum against staphylococcal cells comparable to SH3 domain (PF08460), suggesting that the C-terminal domain of LysSA97 is a novel CBD of staphylococcal endolysins.

  16. Pre-Teen Alcohol Use as a Risk Factor for Victimization and Perpetration of Bullying among Middle and High School Students in Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swahn, Monica

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We examined the association between pre-teen alcohol use initiation and the victimization and perpetration of bullying among middle and high school students in Georgia.Methods: We computed analyses using data from the 2006 Georgia Student Health Survey (N=175,311 of students in grades 6, 8, 10 and 12. The current analyses were limited to students in grades 8, 10 and 12 (n=122,434. We used multilogistic regression analyses to determine the associations between early alcohol use and reports of both victimization and perpetration of bullying, perpetration only, victimization only, and neither victimization or perpetration, while controlling for demographic characteristics, other substance use, peer drinking and weapon carrying.Results: Pre-teen alcohol use initiation was significantly associated with both bullying perpetration and victimization relative to non drinkers in bivariate analyses (OR=3.20 95%CI:3.03-3.39. The association was also significant between pre-teen alcohol use initiation and perpetration and victimization of bullying in analyses adjusted for confounders (Adj.OR=1.74; 95%CI:1.61-1.89. Overall, findings were similar for boys and girls.Conclusion: Pre-teen alcohol use initiation is an important risk factor for both the perpetration and victimization of bullying among boys and girls in Georgia. Increased efforts to delay and reduce early alcohol use through clinical interventions, education and policies may also positively impact other health risk behaviors, including bullying. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(3:305-309.

  17. Electro-generation of TGA by Ni-mSA-mCS bipolar membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Ni-mSA-mCS bipolar membrane (BM) was prepared by sodium alginate (SA) and chitosan (CS), which were modified by Ca2+and glutaraldehyde as linking reagents, respectively. mSA-mCS membrane was characterized by FTIR, SEM, TG and used as a separator in the electrolysis cell to produce thioglycolic acid (TGA). The experiment results show that TGA was prepared effectively by electro-reduction of dithiodiglycolic acid (DTDGA) with the mixture of TGA and DTDGA in the cathodic chamber. The current efficiency was up to 66.7% at the room temperature (25 ℃) during the current density of 10 mA/cm2. Compared with the traditional metal reduction method, the electro-reduction technology saves the zinc powder and eliminates the pollution to environment.

  18. Natural Science and Technology Terminology in the Sesotho sa Leboa Monolingual Dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.M. Mojapelo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: The main purpose of this article is to make a comparative analysis of the structural and the lexical differences between coinage and transliteration, as methods for the acquisition of foreign natural sci-ence and technology lexical items, which are meant for inclusion in the Sesotho sa Leboa comprehensive monolingual dictionary, Pukuntšutlhaloši ya Sesotho sa Leboa. With the exception of the multilingual glossaries ('dictionaries' as they are called, which are compiled by the National Language Service of the Department of Arts and Culture, the Sesotho sa Leboa National Lexicography Unit does not at present have any monolin-gual dictionary specializing in specific subjects like natural science and technology. As a start, the Lexicogra-phy Unit decided to include this specialized terminology in the second edition of its comprehensive monolin-gual dictionary. The main purpose for lemmatizing the natural science and technology terminology is to give these lexical items comprehensive definitions in Sesotho sa Leboa, instead of 'a one word translation defini-tion' as is the case in the bilingual and multilingual dictionaries.

    Keywords: TRANSLITERATION, COINAGE, COINED LEXICAL ITEM, LOAN WORD, ADOPTIVE, FOREIGN WORD, LEXICOGRAPHY, SOTHOIZED WORD, INDIGENOUS WORD, NATURAL SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, COMPOUND WORD, AMBIGUITY

    Opsomming: Natuurwetenskaplike en tegnologiese terminologie in die Sesotho sa Leboa eentalige woordeboek. Die hoofdoel van hierdie artikel is om 'n ver-gelykende ontleding te maak van die strukturele en die leksikale verskille tussen nuutskepping en transliterasie as metodes vir die verwerwing van vreemde natuurwetenskaplike en tegnologiese leksikale items wat bedoel is vir insluiting in die Sesotho sa Leboa omvattende eentalige woorde-boek Pukuntšutlhaloši ya Sesotho sa Leboa. Met die uitsondering van die meertalige woordelyste ("woordeboeke" soos hulle genoem word wat deur die Nasionale Taaldiens van die

  19. Case-control study of student-perpetrated physical violence against educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerberich, Susan G; Nachreiner, Nancy M; Ryan, Andrew D; Church, Timothy R; McGovern, Patricia M; Geisser, Mindy S; Mongin, Steven J; Watt, Gavin D; Feda, Denise M; Sage, Starr K; Pinder, Evette D

    2014-05-01

    Although prior research focused primarily on student-on-student school violence, educators are also at risk. This study was designed to identify risk factors for assaults against educators. Kindergarten-grade 12 educators (n = 26,000), randomly selected from a state license database, were screened for eligibility (6,469, eligible) by mailed questionnaire. Phase 1 (12-month recall) identified eligible assault cases (n = 372) and controls (n = 1,116), June 2004 to December 2005; phase 2 (case-control study; response, 78%) enabled identification of exposures through 1-month recall before student-perpetrated assaults (cases) and randomly selected months (controls). Directed acyclic graphs enabled confounder selection for multivariable logistic regression analyses; reweighting adjusted for potential biases. Risks (odds ratios, 95% confidence intervals) increased for working in: Special Education (5.84; 4.07-8.39) and School Social Work (7.18; 2.72-18.91); kindergarten to second grade (1.81; 1.18-2.77); urban (1.95; 1.38-2.76) schools; schools with less than 50 (8.40; 3.12-22.63), 50-200 (3.67; 1.84-7.34), 201-500 (2.09; 1.32-3.29), and 501-1000 (1.94; 1.25-3.01) students versus more than 1000; schools with inadequate resources always/frequently (1.62; 1.05-2.48) versus infrequently/never; inadequate building safety always/frequently (4.48; 2.54-7.90) versus infrequently/never; and environments with physical barriers (1.50; 1.07-2.10). Risks decreased with routine locker searches (0.49; 0.29-0.85) and accessible exits (0.36; 0.17-0.74). Identification of assault risk factors provides a basis for further investigation and interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. ANALISIS DAN MODEL STRATEGI PENINGKATAN DAYA SAING PRODUK EDAMAME BEKU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandryas Alief Kurniasanti

    2015-03-01

    penelitian ini adalah untuk menganalisis daya saing dan merumuskan prioritas alternatif strategi peningkatan daya saing produk edamame beku di PT MT 27. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah Revealed Comparative Advantage untuk mengetahui kinerja ekspor dari produk edamame beku di pasar dunia, kemudian menganalisis faktor persaingan dengan menggunakan Diamond Porter’s Theory. Alternatif strategi dihasilkan dari analisis SWOT dan ditentukan prioritasnya dengan menggunakan analytical hierarchy process dari satu narasumber ahli. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa prioritas alternatif strategi peningkatan daya saing produk edamame beku PT MT 27 secara berurutan meliputi: (1 diversifikasi pasar, (2 diversifikasi produk, (3 meningkatkan kerjasama luar negeri, (4 pengembangan divisi Research and Development, (5 mengembangkan program Corporate Social Responsibility, (6 pengelolaan keuangan secara baik dan benar, serta (7 mengembangkan areal pertanian yang berbasis rumah kaca untuk menghindari cuaca buruk karena beriklim tropis. Implikasi Manajerial dari penelitian ini adalah mengembangkan pasar yang sudah ada, dan mengembangkan jenis produk yang diproduksi untuk memenuhi selera pasar ekspor dan juga penghematan biaya produksi. Kata kunci: daya saing, edamame beku, Mitratani Dua Tujuh, strategi daya saing

  1. Manufacturing of JT-60SA Cryostat Base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medrano, Mercedes, E-mail: mercedes.medrano@ciemat.es [Association EURATOM – CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Alonso, Javier; Botija, José; Fernández, Pilar; Ramos, Francisco; Rincon, Esther; Soleto, Alfonso [Association EURATOM – CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Davis, Sam; Di Pietro, Enrico [Fusion for Energy, JT-60SA European Home Team, 85748 Garching bei Munchen (Germany); Masaki, Kei; Sakasai, Akira [JAEA, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka Fusion Institute, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► JT-60SA Cryostat Base has been fabricated in seven structures fastened by bolts. ► The pieces are fully welded structures further machined to get required tolerances. ► The pre-assembly of the Cryostat Base will be done at the factory to check final tolerances as well as to anticipate problems which could be encountered during final assembly. -- Abstract: JT-60SA is a superconducting tokamak to be assembled and operated at the JAEA laboratories in Naka (Japan) [1]. The tokamak has been designed to prepare, support and complement the ITER experimental programme and will be manufactured and operated under the funding of the Broader Approach Agreement (between the government of Japan and the European Commission) and of the Japan Fusion National Programme. Within the European contribution to JT-60SA, Spain has to provide the cryostat. Due to functional purposes, the cryostat has been divided in two large assemblies: the Cryostat Base (CB) and the Cryostat Vessel Body the latter subdivided into Cryostat Vessel Body Cylindrical Section (CVBCS) and the Top Lid. Spain is committed to provide the design and subsequent manufacturing of the CB and CVBCS (excluding the Top Lid) through the National Laboratory of Fusion at Ciemat. The design of both components has been concluded and the CB is currently being manufactured by a Spanish company, IDESA. This paper aims to present the status of the manufacturing and pre-assembly at the factory of the CB that has to be delivered in November 2012.

  2. AGREEMENT BETWEEN CERN AND UBS SA

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    We wish to inform you that the agreement between CERN and UBS SA has been renewed for a period of five years with effect from 1st July 2002. This represents the culmination of work carried out since 1999 by a group consisting of representatives of the Finance Division, the SPL Division, the Staff Association and the Users Office. After analysis of the results of a market survey, it emerged that OVERALL the UBS offered the best conditions and guarantees for the CERN personnel. Owing to developments in the banking market, new conditions have had to be negotiated, which will be presented to you by the UBS (see article).

  3. News Stories of Intimate Partner Violence: An Experimental Examination of Participant Sex, Perpetrator Sex, and Violence Severity on Seriousness, Sympathy, and Punishment Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Matthew W; Scarduzio, Jennifer A; Lockwood Harris, Kate; Carlyle, Kellie E; Sheff, Sarah E

    2017-06-01

    This study experimentally examines the effects of participant sex, perpetrator sex, and severity of violence on perceptions of intimate partner violence (IPV) seriousness, sympathy toward the victim, and punishment preferences for the perpetrator. Participants (N = 449) were randomly assigned to a condition, exposed to a composite news story, and then completed a survey. Ratings of seriousness of IPV for stories with male perpetrators were significantly higher than ratings of seriousness for stories with female perpetrators. Men had significantly higher sympathy for female victims in any condition than for male victims in the weak or strong severity of violence conditions. Men's sympathy for male victims in the fatal severity of violence condition did not differ from their sympathy for female victims. Women had the least sympathy for female victims in the weak severity condition and men in the weak or strong severity conditions. Women reported significantly higher sympathy for female victims in the strong and fatal severity of violence conditions. Women's ratings of sympathy for male victims in the fatal severity of violence condition were statistically indistinguishable from any other group. Participants reported stronger punishment preferences for male perpetrators and this effect was magnified among men. Theoretical implications are presented with attention provided to practical considerations about support for public health services.

  4. The Military Perpetrator: A Narrative Analysis of Sentencing Judgments on Sexual Violence Offenders at the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inger Skjelsbæk

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the ways in which principal perpetrators of sexual violence crimes are situated in an international criminal court. It is based on a narrative psychological analysis of the sentencing judgments of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY. Specifically, the article argues that at least three narratives can be distinguished within the relevant legal texts: those of the chivalrous, the opportunistic and the remorseful perpetrator, each with a distinct plot structure: that of being a normal person responding adequately to a situation that is seen as normal; an abnormal person responding to what is seen as an abnormal (or extreme situation; and a normal person responding inadequately to what is seen as an abnormal (or extreme situation. The ways in which these plots come out depend on how the various voices in the courtroom position the perpetrator within the stories. Ultimately, these narratives represent different stories of how militarism and masculinity intersect to create different understandings of the soldier and military behavior. The mere analysis of this material, i.e. how sexual violence crimes are discussed in theatre in an international criminal court, is a scholarly contribution to the understanding of how sexual violence perpetrators can be situated in a war setting, and after. The findings suggest new perspectives on military perpetrators and changes in what is considered normal and abnormal behavior in military settings.

  5. An investigation on SA 213-Tube to SA 387-Tube plate using friction welding process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajan, S. Pandia; Kumaraswamidhas, L. A. [Indian Institute of Technology, Jharkhand (India); Kumaran, S. Senthil [RVS School of Engineering and Technology, Tamil Nadu (India); Muthukumaran, S. [National Institute of Technology, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2016-01-15

    Friction welding of tube to tube plate using an external tool (FWTPET) is a relatively newer solid state welding process used for joining tube to tube plate of either similar or dissimilar materials with enhanced mechanical and metallurgical properties. In the present study, FWTPET has been used to weld SA 213 (Grade T12) tube with SA 387 (Grade 22) tube plate. The welded samples are found to have satisfactory joint strength and the Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD) study showed that inter metallic compound is absent in the weld zone. The different weld joints have been identified and the phase composition is found using EDX and XRD. Microstructures have been analyzed using optical and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mechanical properties such as hardness, compressive shear strength and peel test for different weld conditions are studied and the hardness survey revealed that there is increase in hardness at the weld interface due to grain refinement. The corrosion behavior for different weld conditions have been analyzed and the weld zone is found to have better corrosion resistance due to the influence of the grain refinement after FWTPET welding process. Hence, the present investigation is carried out to study the behavior of friction welded dissimilar joints of SA 213 tube and SA 387 tube plate joints and the results are presented. The present study confirms that a high quality tube to tube plate joint can be achieved using FWTPET process at 1120 rpm.

  6. Perfil de saúde dos trabalhadores de um Centro de Saúde-Escola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nascimento Lucila Castanheira

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo buscou descrever o perfil de saúde dos trabalhadores (184 de um Centro de Saúde-Escola de Ribeirão Preto, sob a perspectiva da Promoção de Saúde, modelo epidemiológico de Blum e fatores de risco para doenças crônico-degenerativas. Foi realizado estudo descritivo utilizando-se entrevista estruturada. Concluiu-se que os trabalhadores eram predominantemente do sexo feminino, faixa etária de 35 a 39 anos e escolaridade "superior completo". Dentre os achados, constatou-se que 61,9% tinham sobrepeso e obesidade; a hipertensão foi detectada em 33,1%; 41 (22,3% apresentaram pressão arterial acima do nível da normalidade e a obesidade mostrou-se presente em mais da metade dos indivíduos com pressão arterial alterada. Os dados possibilitaram explorar riscos autocriados para as doenças crônico-degenerativas; identificar fatores relacionados à promoção de saúde e prevenção de doenças e refletir sobre o autocuidado e auto-responsabilidade, visando à qualidade de vida que desfrutarão, em decorrência da transição demográfica e epidemiológica que vivenciamos.

  7. Como a posição social influencia a auto-avaliação do estado de saúde? Uma análise comparativa entre 1998 e 2003 How does social position influence self-reported health status? A comparative analysis between 1998 and 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Guimarães Rodrigues

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é analisar de que forma a posição social das famílias está associada ao estado de saúde individual auto-avaliado. As informações foram extraídas dos suplementos de saúde da Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (PNAD/IBGE de 1998 e 2003. A análise baseou-se em estatísticas descritivas e regressão logística para captar a relação condicional entre estado de saúde, posição social e demais variáveis de controle, como idade, sexo, raça/cor, renda, escolaridade e região de residência. Os resultados mostram que a hierarquia de classes ocupacionais reproduz-se na auto-avaliação do estado de saúde. Há um aumento das desigualdades entre 1998 e 2003, com redução na prevalência de saudáveis nos grupos de base e aumento no topo da pirâmide social. Embora a prevalência de saudáveis seja maior nas classes não agrícolas, a probabilidade de declarar-se saudável é maior para os agrícolas, depois de adicionadas as demais variáveis de controle. Os resultados reforçam a necessidade de se analisar as desigualdades em saúde sob a perspectiva da estratificação social.The aim of this paper is to analyze how the social position of families affects self-reported health status, based on data from the 1998 and 2003 National Sample Household Survey of the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (PNAD-IBGE. The method was based on descriptive statistics and logistic regression to capture the conditional relationship between health status, social position, and other control variables, such as age, sex, race/color, income, education, and place of residence. The results show that the same hierarchy of the occupational classes is reproduced in self-reported health status. There was an increase in inequalities in the period, with a reduction in the prevalence of healthy workers in the lower social strata and an increase in the upper strata. Although there were more healthy individuals in non

  8. Studies on the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of SA14 wild Japanese encephalitis virus and its attenuated viruses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XING LIANG FAN; YONG XIN YU; DE FU LI; ZHI HUI YAO; LI LI JIA

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the molecular basis for the attenuation of the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) vaccine strain SA14-14-2. The virulence of SA14 wild Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and its several attenuated viruses was tested by intracerebral (i. c. ) or intraperitonial (i. p. ) inoculation of 10-12 g mice. The stability of neuroattenuation was tested by one passage in suckling mouse brain. The E protein genes of those viruses were amplified by PCR, sequenced and compared. Three attenuated virus strains, SA14-14-2 vaccine virus, SA14-9-7 and SA14-5-3, did not exhibit lethal infections by i.c. or i.p. inoculation of 10-12 g mice and revert to the virulence. The other virus strain, SA14-12-1-7, showed no neuroinvasiveness by i.p. inoculation but residual neurovirulence by i.c. inoculation and reverted to high virulence after one brain passage. Comparison of the E protein gene sequences of the five virus strains indicated that there were differences of twelve nucleotides and eight amino acids between the parent strain SA14 and vaccine strain SA14-14-2, of which six amino acids (E-107, E-176, E-439, E138, E-279, E-315) exhibited changes common to those of SA14-9-7 and SA14-5-3, three substitutions common to SA14-12-1-7. Two amino acid substitutions at the sites E177 (T→A) and E264 (Q→H) are unique to the SA14-14-2 vaccine virus. The results suggest that the mutations of E-107 (Leu→Phe), E176 (Ile→Val), and E-439 (Lys→Arg) may contribute for the attenuation of neuroinvasiveness and partially for the attenuation of neurovirulence, the mutations of E-138, E-279, E-315 may not only critical to the neuroattenuation but also to its stability.

  9. The age-IPV curve: changes in the perpetration of intimate partner violence during adolescence and young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wendi L; Giordano, Peggy C; Manning, Wendy D; Longmore, Monica A

    2015-03-01

    Research on intimate partner violence (IPV) has evolved over the last decade with increasing interest in how IPV develops over adolescence and young adulthood. Studies examining patterns of IPV over time have generally focused on victimization with less attention to temporal shifts in perpetration. While it is generally assumed that IPV peaks during young adulthood, this has not been empirically verified and documented. Additionally, prior longitudinal analyses of IPV have focused on identifying trajectories and their accompanying risk factors, with less attention given to within-individual change in IPV experiences across and within relationships. Drawing on five waves of data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study, we examined patterns of the perpetration of IPV among a diverse sample of adolescents and young adults (51.1% female, 63.9% non-Hispanic White, 24.6% non-Hispanic Black, 11.5% Hispanic) spanning the ages of 13-28 years (N = 1,164). Analyses demonstrated that IPV patterns deviate from the age-crime curve, with women's involvement in IPV increasing, while their involvement in other antisocial behaviors is decreasing. Traditional behavioral and psychological risk factors (delinquency, alcohol and drug use, depressive symptoms) accounted for some of the age variation in IPV for men, but these factors did not account for age variation in IPV among women. Relationship risk factors including frequency of disagreements, trust, jealousy, validation and self-disclosure, however, accounted for substantial portions of the age-IPV perpetration relationship for male and female youth. These findings reinforce recent calls for prevention efforts that focus on the development and maintenance of healthy relationships.

  10. Using administrative data to identify U.S. Army soldiers at high-risk of perpetrating minor violent crimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosellini, Anthony J; Monahan, John; Street, Amy E; Hill, Eric D; Petukhova, Maria; Reis, Ben Y; Sampson, Nancy A; Benedek, David M; Bliese, Paul; Stein, Murray B; Ursano, Robert J; Kessler, Ronald C

    2017-01-01

    Growing concerns exist about violent crimes perpetrated by U.S. military personnel. Although interventions exist to reduce violent crimes in high-risk populations, optimal implementation requires evidence-based targeting. The goal of the current study was to use machine learning methods (stepwise and penalized regression; random forests) to develop models to predict minor violent crime perpetration among U.S. Army soldiers. Predictors were abstracted from administrative data available for all 975,057 soldiers in the U.S. Army 2004-2009, among whom 25,966 men and 2728 women committed a first founded minor violent crime (simple assault, blackmail-extortion-intimidation, rioting, harassment). Temporally prior administrative records measuring socio-demographic, Army career, criminal justice, medical/pharmacy, and contextual variables were used to build separate male and female prediction models that were then tested in an independent 2011-2013 sample. Final model predictors included young age, low education, early career stage, prior crime involvement, and outpatient treatment for diverse emotional and substance use problems. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.79 (for men and women) in the 2004-2009 training sample and 0.74-0.82 (men-women) in the 2011-2013 test sample. 30.5-28.9% (men-women) of all administratively-recorded crimes in 2004-2009 were committed by the 5% of soldiers having highest predicted risk, with similar proportions (28.5-29.0%) when the 2004-2009 coefficients were applied to the 2011-2013 test sample. These results suggest that it may be possible to target soldiers at high-risk of violence perpetration for preventive interventions, although final decisions about such interventions would require weighing predicted effectiveness against intervention costs and competing risks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. North America and South America (NA-SA) neuropathy project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasnoor, Mamatha; Nascimento, Osvaldo J M; Trivedi, Jaya; Wolfe, Gil I; Nations, Sharon; Herbelin, Laura; de Freitas, M G; Quintanilha, Giseli; Khan, Saud; Dimachkie, Mazen; Barohn, Richard

    2013-08-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is a common neurological disorder. There may be important differences and similarities in the diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy between North America (NA) and South America (SA). Neuromuscular databases were searched for neuropathy diagnosis at two North American sites, University of Kansas Medical Center and University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, and one South American site, Federal Fluminense University in Brazil. All patients were included into one of the six major categories: immune-mediated, diabetic, hereditary, infectious/inflammatory, systemic/metabolic/toxic (not diabetic) and cryptogenic. A comparison of the number of patients in each category was made between North America and South America databases. Total number of cases in North America was 1090 and in South America was 1034 [immune-mediated: NA 215 (19.7%), SA 191 (18%); diabetic: NA 148 (13.5%), SA 236 (23%); hereditary: NA 292 (26.7%), SA 103 (10%); infectious/inflammatory: NA 53 (4.8%), SA 141 (14%); systemic/metabolic/toxic: NA 71 (6.5%), SA 124 (12%); cryptogenic: NA 311 (28.5%), SA 239 (23%)]. Some specific neuropathy comparisons were hereditary neuropathies [Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) cases] in NA 246/292 (84.2%) and SA 60/103 (58%); familial amyloid neuropathy in SA 31/103 (30%) and none in NA. Among infectious neuropathies, cases of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) neuropathy in SA were 36/141(25%), Chagas disease in SA were 13/141(9%) and none for either in NA; cases of neuropathy due to leprosy in NA were 26/53 (49%) and in SA were 39/141(28%). South American tertiary care centers are more likely to see patients with infectious, diabetic and hereditary disorders such as familial amyloid neuropathies. North American tertiary centers are more likely to see patients with CMT. Immune neuropathies and cryptogenic neuropathies were seen equally in North America and South America.

  12. Saúde Coletiva: um desafio para a enfermagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matumoto Silvia

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O texto parte da saúde pública para discutir o que é saúde coletiva, seu objeto e campo de atuação, dando ênfase à concepção de homem, à discussão a respeito do âmbito individual e coletivo e ao conceito de saúde-doença, passando pelo debate da construção interdisciplinar da saúde coletiva. Em seguida, busca situar a enfermagem nesse campo, destacando aquilo que parece ser um grande desafio, compreender a enfermagem como prática de relações.

  13. Two sides of a coin: Perpetrators and survivors perspectives on the triad of alcohol, intimate partner violence and mental health in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyanarayana, Veena A; Hebbani, Sudharshan; Hegde, Sudarshan; Krishnan, Suneeta; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari

    2015-06-01

    The present study explored the intersection among alcohol consumption, gender roles, intimate partner violence (IPV) and mental health from the perspective of heavy drinking men who also perpetrate IPV (perpetrators) and their spouses (survivors). Interpretive phenomenological approach was used, and in-depth interviews were conducted with adult married heavy drinking men who reported to have perpetrated IPV (N=10) and their spouses (N=10). These interviews were audio-recorded, and salient themes were generated using the NVivo software. Findings indicated a deeply embedded association among alcohol consumption, IPV, and mental health, with culturally sanctioned gender norms strongly contributing to this association. There was evidence for anxiety and depression in the survivors and emotional-behavioural and academic difficulties in their children. The study provides valuable insight into the intersecting problems of alcohol and IPV, which independently and together signify an emergent public health problem that can have immense ramifications on mental health of individuals and families.

  14. The effects of perpetrator age and abuse disclosure on the relationship between feelings provoked by child sexual abuse and posttraumatic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantón-Cortés, David; Cortés, María Rosario; Cantón, José; Justicia, Fernando

    2011-07-01

    The present study examined the relationship between feelings provoked by child sexual abuse (CSA) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom scores in a sample of 163 female survivors of CSA. Finkelhor and Browne's traumagenic dynamics model was applied. The interactive effects of provoked feelings with perpetrator age and the existence of abuse disclosure were also studied. Results showed an overall relationship between feelings provoked by CSA and PTSD symptom scores. Feelings of stigma, betrayal, and powerlessness as a result of CSA were associated with PTSD symptom score when the entire group of CSA victims was analyzed. The role of traumatic sexualization was relevant only when analyzed in interaction with the age of the perpetrator and disclosure. The relationship between traumatic sexualization and PTSD symptom scores was only significant when the abuse was committed by an adult perpetrator and when a disclosure was made during the time of abuse, or a short time after the abuse had occurred.

  15. SA4503, a sigma-1 receptor agonist, suppresses motor neuron damage in in vitro and in vivo amyotrophic lateral sclerosis models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Yoko; Tanaka, Hirotaka; Takata, Masafumi; Nagahara, Yuki; Noda, Yasuhiro; Tsuruma, Kazuhiro; Shimazawa, Masamitsu; Hozumi, Isao; Hara, Hideaki

    2014-01-24

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease. Recently, it has been reported that a mutation in the sigma-1 receptor causes juvenile ALS. Therefore, the function of the sigma-1 receptor may be important in the pathology of ALS. In the present study, we investigated the effect of SA4503, a sigma-1 receptor agonist, against in in vitro and in vivo ALS models. We first investigated whether SA4503, a sigma-1 receptor agonist, prevented superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1(G93A))- and serum free-induced cell death of mice motor neuron cells (NSC34) in in vitro model of an ALS. At concentrations of 1-10μM, SA4503 reduced SOD1(G93A)-induced cell death in a concentration-dependent manner, and BD1047, a sigma-1 receptor antagonist, inhibited the protective effect of SA4503. Next, we investigated whether SA4503 affected the phosphorylation levels of Akt (Ser 473) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 and the expression of the sigma-1 receptor. SA4503 promoted the phosphorylation of Akt (Ser 473) and ERK1/2 in a time-dependent manner, but SA4503 did not affect the expression of the sigma-1 receptor. These results suggest that the protective effect of SA4503 might be involved in promoting the phosphorylation of Akt and ERK1/2. We then investigated whether SA4503 suppressed the progression of ALS in an SOD1(G93A) ALS mouse model. SA4503 did not affect the onset time of ALS. However, it significantly extended the survival time in the SOD1(G93A) mice compared with a vehicle-treated group. These findings indicate that SA4503 is effective in suppressing motor neuron degeneration and symptom progression in ALS.

  16. Envelope Protein Mutations L107F and E138K Are Important for Neurovirulence Attenuation for Japanese Encephalitis Virus SA14-14-2 Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The attenuated Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV strain SA14-14-2 has been successfully utilized to prevent JEV infection; however, the attenuation determinants have not been fully elucidated. The envelope (E protein of the attenuated JEV SA14-14-2 strain differs from that of the virulent parental SA14 strain at eight amino acid positions (E107, E138, E176, E177, E264, E279, E315, and E439. Here, we investigated the SA14-14-2-attenuation determinants by mutating E107, E138, E176, E177, and E279 in SA14-14-2 to their status in the parental virulent strain and tested the replication capacity, neurovirulence, neuroinvasiveness, and mortality associated with the mutated viruses in mice, as compared with those of JEV SA14-14-2 and SA14. Our findings indicated that revertant mutations at the E138 or E107 position significantly increased SA14-14-2 virulence, whereas other revertant mutations exhibited significant increases in neurovirulence only when combined with E138, E107, and other mutations. Revertant mutations at all eight positions in the E protein resulted in the highest degree of SA14-14-2 virulence, although this was still lower than that observed in SA14. These results demonstrated the critical role of the viral E protein in controlling JEV virulence and identified the amino acids at the E107 and E138 positions as the key determinants of SA14-14-2 neurovirulence.

  17. Factors contributing to the perpetration of workplace incivility: the importance of organizational aspects and experiencing incivility from others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torkelson, Eva; Holm, Kristoffer; Bäckström, Martin; Schad, Elinor

    2016-04-02

    In recent years a growing amount of research has been conducted in the area of workplace incivility. Whereas many studies have focused on the victims and the consequences of incivility, little attention has been paid to the perpetrators and antecedents of workplace incivility. This study aims to identify possible antecedents of workplace incivility, by investigating organizational aspects as well as the possibility that being the target of incivility from co-workers and supervisors could induce incivility. A total of 512 employees (378 women and 133 men) in the school sector in a Swedish municipality completed an online questionnaire. Overall, the results of structural equation modelling analyses showed that organizational variables were related to the perpetration of incivility. A direct relationship was found between being uncivil and organizational change, job insecurity, low social support from co-workers and high job demands. However, the strongest relationship was found between experienced incivility from co-workers and instigated incivility. This could be reflecting a climate or culture of incivility in the organization, and carry implications for future practice in interventions against workplace incivility. The results indicate the importance of focusing on the perspective of the instigator to gain knowledge about the process of workplace incivility.

  18. Intimate partner violence perpetrated by young adult women against men in Ukraine: Examining individual, familial, and cultural factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balabukha, Iryna; Krishnakumar, Ambika; Narine, Lutchmie

    2016-07-01

    We examined the role of financial strain, parent-to-parent violence, parent-to-child violence, emotional distress, and alcohol use in intimate partner violence perpetrated by young adult women against men in Ukraine. The moderating role of acceptability of intimate partner violence and violence-related laws and regulations was also examined. Four hundred and six full-time female university students from four universities in Ukraine participated in the study. We found that emotional distress, parent-to-parent, and parent-to-child violence mediated the link between financial strain and intimate partner violence perpetrated by women on men. However, we found limited support for the moderating role of acceptability of intimate partner violence and violence-related laws and regulations in the relationship between individual and familial factors on intimate partner violence. The findings from this investigation suggest that there is a distinct need for supporting families and individuals in dealing with issues of intimate partner violence directed by women against men in Ukraine. Aggr. Behav. 42:380-393, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Alcohol Abuse Mediates the Association between Baseline T/C Ratio and Anger Expression in Intimate Partner Violence Perpetrators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Romero-Martínez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The imbalance between testosterone (T and cortisol (C levels has been proposed as a possible marker of risk for intimate partner violence (IPV. Moreover, it could be related to a high probability of adopting risky behaviors such as alcohol abuse which, in turn, promotes the onset of IPV. This study tested the potential mediating effect of alcohol consumption on the relationship between baseline T/C ratio and anger expression in IPV perpetrators and non-violent controls. Alcohol consumption was higher in the former than controls. A high baseline T/C ratio was only associated with high anger expression in IPV perpetrators, and this association was mediated by high alcohol consumption. Thus, alcohol abuse may act as a catalytic factor in this relationship, high consumption promoting the onset of IPV. These findings contribute to the development of effective treatment and prevention programs, which could introduce the use of biological markers for preventing the onset, development and recidivism of IPV.

  20. Self-regulatory failure and the perpetration of adolescent dating violence: Examining an alcohol use by gene explanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foshee, Vangie A; Benefield, Thad S; Puvanesarajah, Samantha; Reyes, Heath Luz McNaughton; Haberstick, Brett C; Smolen, Andrew; Ennett, Susan T; Suchindran, Chirayath

    2015-03-01

    Studies report that alcohol use is related to partner violence, but for many, alcohol use does not culminate in violence against partners. Guided by a self-regulatory failure framework, we predicted that alcohol use would be more strongly associated with dating violence perpetration among adolescents with genotypes linked to impulsivity and emotional reactivity. The hypothesis was tested using random coefficient modeling of data from a multi-wave longitudinal study spanning grades 8-12 (ages 13-18) (n = 1,475). Analyses adjusted for multiple testing and race, and the potential for gene by environment correlation was examined. As predicted, alcohol use was more strongly associated with dating violence among adolescents who had a high rather than a low multilocus genetic profile composed of five genetic markers that influence dopamine signaling. Alcohol use was more strongly related to dating violence among boys with long rather than short 5-HTTLPR alleles, the opposite of the prediction. MAOA-uVNTR did not interact with alcohol, but it had a main effect on dating violence by boys in later grades in the expected direction: boys with more low activity alleles perpetrated more dating violence. Exploratory analyses found variation in findings by race. Our findings demonstrate the importance of incorporating genes into etiological studies of adolescent dating violence, which to date has not been done. Aggr. Behav. Aggr. Behav. 42:189-203, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Biodiversidade, biotecnologia e saúde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia Eloi S.

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta a importância da biodiversidade, da biotecnologia a da saúde e discute vários aspectos dos problemas biológicos, ambientais e o dilema ético, relacionados com a expansão e a exploração dos recursos naturais em razão das quais espécies de plantas e animais têm sido extintas. Por outro lado, o conhecimento da biodiversidade tem possibilitado a identificação e a utilização de novos recursos naturais para a melhoria da vida do homem neste planeta. É importante que nossos pesquisadores se envolvam na luta pela preservação do ecossistema tropical. Os programas de exploração da biodiversidade devem estar baseados em sólidos conhecimentos científicos e favorecer ecológica e economicamente a sociedade.

  2. Biodiversidade, biotecnologia e saúde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloi S. Garcia

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta a importância da biodiversidade, da biotecnologia a da saúde e discute vários aspectos dos problemas biológicos, ambientais e o dilema ético, relacionados com a expansão e a exploração dos recursos naturais em razão das quais espécies de plantas e animais têm sido extintas. Por outro lado, o conhecimento da biodiversidade tem possibilitado a identificação e a utilização de novos recursos naturais para a melhoria da vida do homem neste planeta. É importante que nossos pesquisadores se envolvam na luta pela preservação do ecossistema tropical. Os programas de exploração da biodiversidade devem estar baseados em sólidos conhecimentos científicos e favorecer ecológica e economicamente a sociedade.

  3. Novas Tecnologias e Saúde

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Introdução Comecemos por algo simples: lidar e combater doenças sempre pressupõe alguma forma de domínio técnico, mesmo quando as práticas para obtenção da saúde estão culturalmente associadas a meios mágicos. Um aspecto importante da magia, seu sentido ritualístico estrito, a observância de fórmulas rigorosas, constitui uma forma de racionalização da experiência empírica, que resulta em conhecimento sobre propriedades alucinógenas ou curativas de certos vegetais, por exemplo. A esse resp...

  4. Gender Equality, Patriarchal Cultural Norms, and Perpetration of Intimate Partner Violence: Comparison of Male University Students in Asian and European Cultural Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Reiko; Otis, Melanie D

    2016-07-03

    This study examined the relationship between patriarchal cultural norms and violence perpetration by male partners using a subsample of university students in Asia (n = 784) and Europe (n = 575) from the International Dating Violence Study (IDVS) data set. Bivariate analyses indicated Asian students scored significantly higher than Europeans on dominance, hostility to women, jealousy, negative attribution, and violence approval as well as perpetration of severe physical assault in dating relationships. Logistic regression models demonstrated that dominance and violence approval were significant predictors of severe physical and psychological aggression against dating partners. Implications for culturally relevant programming for intimate partner violence prevention are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. A saúde na escola: um breve resgate histórico Health at school: a brief history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Túlio Alberto Martins de Figueiredo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Discute o nascimento histórico da saúde escolar no mundo e no Brasil. Apresenta a Iniciativa Regional Escolas Promotoras de Saúde - um discurso de múltiplos olhares e trabalho articulado entre a educação, saúde e sociedade -, como modelo alternativo de atenção à saúde na escola recomendado, pela Organização Pan-Americana de Saúde, para os países do Caribe e da América Latina. Considera que o olhar atento aos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais é condição fundamental para que os profissionais de saúde sensíveis à questão da educação em saúde na escola contribuam para que a mesma compareça na educação fundamental com um enfoque crítico, interdisciplinar e transversal e, finalmente, apresenta as diretrizes da nova política nacional de saúde na escola pública.It involves the historical birth of school health in the world and Brazil. It shows a regional initiative of Health Promoting Schools - a discourse of multiple viewings and joint work among education, health and society -, as an alternative model of attention to school health, recommended by Pan American Health Organization, to the Caribbean and Latin American Countries. Finally, it takes into account that a detailed observation of the National Curriculum Parameters is an essential condition so that health professionals, who are sensitive to the school health education issue, can contribute to its inclusion in the fundamental education with a critical, interdisciplinary and transversal approach, presenting the guidelines of a new national health polices at public schools.

  6. Saúde oral: um desafio para a equipe de saúde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia de Oliveira Gomes

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo desvelar o conhecimento dos formandos dos cursos de Enfermagem e Medicina de uma Universidade do Rio Grande do Sul acerca da promoção da Saúde Oral. Participaram do estudo 58 acadêmicos, sendo 26 do Curso de Enfermagem e 32 do Curso de Medicina, estes responderam a um questionário com três perguntas semi-estruturadas. Através da triangulação constatamos que esse conhecimento entre os formandos dos referidos cursos é deficitário. Sabemos que é grande a dificuldade de acesso da população infantil carente aos gabinetes dentários, por esse motivo, acreditamos ser indispensável que os profissionais de Enfermagem e Medicina tenham conhecimentos referentes à promoção de saúde oral em crianças.

  7. Rheumatoid arthritis specific anti-Sa antibodies target citrullinated vimentin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vossenaar, E.R.; Despres, N.; Lapointe, E.; Heijden, A.G. van der; Lora, M.; Senshu, T.; Venrooij, W.J.W. van; Menard, H.A.

    2004-01-01

    Antibodies directed to the Sa antigen are highly specific for rheumatoid arthritis ( RA) and can be detected in approximately 40% of RA sera. The antigen, a doublet of protein bands of about 50 kDa, is present in placenta and in RA synovial tissue. Although it has been stated that the Sa antigen is

  8. Projetos PET-Saúde e Educando para a Saúde: construindo saberes e práticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pâmela Leites de Souza

    Full Text Available Buscando alcançar ações intersetoriais efetivas e inovadoras, o projeto Educando para a Saúde, vem envolvendo as escolas, academia e serviços de saúde locais no desafio de construir uma sólida relação entre saúde-escola. O presente relato de experiência socializa a trajetória do projeto Educando para a Saúde, uma parceria entre a Equipe de Saúde da Família (ESF de um bairro de Pelotas - RS, a comunidade docente de duas escolas do território e acadêmicos do Programa de Educação pelo Trabalho para a Saúde - PET-Saúde. O objetivo é refletir o papel da ESF e dos acadêmicos do Projeto PET-Saúde na integração saúde-educação. Os temas discutidos são relacionados à educação em sexualidade, direitos sexuais e reprodutivos com ênfase nas DSTs e métodos contraceptivos, prevenção, promoção e recuperação da saúde. A participação do acadêmico nas atividades de integração saúde-educação veio a acrescentar ideias, valores e conceitos, possibilitando a (reconstrução das relações interpessoais, promovendo a reciclagem do processo de trabalho. Pelos laços multiprofissionais e interdisciplinares, essa parceria consiste em aprendizado mútuo, cujos frutos refletem diretamente na melhoria da assistência prestada à comunidade.

  9. Gasto privado com saúde por classes de renda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KILSZTAJN SAMUEL

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O artigo analisa a participação do gasto privado com saúde das famílias no PIB e no total da renda familiar per capita e a distribuição do gasto privado com saúde das famílias por classes de renda. MÉTODOS: A pesquisa utilizou os microdados da Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios de 1998, com a divisão da população em quatro classes de renda familiar per capita e a distribuição dos gastos em planos de saúde, consultas médicas, consultas com outros profissionais de saúde, exames, medicamentos, artigos ortopédicos e aparelhos médicos, óculos e lentes, odontologia, hospitais, enfermagem domiciliar e outros gastos com saúde. RESULTADOS: Apenas 7,2% da população com renda familiar per capita até 1 salário mínimo em 1998 tinha direito a algum plano de saúde, e o gasto privado com saúde das famílias desta classe, que representava 52,5% da população, era em média de R$ 5,36 por pessoa. Para as pessoas com renda familiar per capita acima de 9 salários mínimos, os planos de saúde atingiam 83,2% da população e o gasto privado com saúde das famílias R$ 133,04. CONCLUSÕES: A implantação do Sistema Único de Saúde foi acompanhada pelo crescimento expressivo dos planos de saúde nos anos 90. Mesmo se todo o gasto público com saúde fosse destinado à população sem planos de saúde, ainda assim o gasto destas pessoas em 1998 só alcançaria R$ 352,62, ou seja, 43% do gasto com saúde das pessoas com planos, R$ 819,08.

  10. Saúde mental e trabalho: os problemas que persistem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leny Sato

    Full Text Available Este artigo toma por objeto a Saúde Mental e Trabalho como uma subárea do campo da Saúde do Trabalhador. Parte da constatação de que os problemas de saúde mental e trabalho, já identificados em meados da década de 1980, persistem. Após retomar a taxonomia de tais problemas, busca evidenciar algumas de suas expressões atuais a partir da assistência e da vigilância em saúde do trabalhador, bem como pela perspectiva de alguns sindicatos mais atentos à questão. Para tal, toma como ponto de partida o Centro de Referência em Saúde do Trabalhador (CRST de Campinas. Por fim, pontua algumas características do trabalho no contexto atual para compreender as motivações dessa persistência.

  11. Em busca de uma Teologia Pública da Saúde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Villas Boas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A proposta de uma teologia pública da saúde visa o diálogo entre antropologia teológica e antropologias médicas e da saúde de modo a ampliar a percepção da saúde, não somente como fato, mas como valor. Mesmo um Estado Laico, suas tradições religiosas possuem hermenêuticas de saúde, ao interpretar a doença e a morte com razões religiosas distintas, ora conflitantes, ora cooperativas com as ciências da saúde. Ampliar essas hermenêuticas religiosas compondo a sabedoria de vida presente nas expressões religiosas e o conhecimento científico da área de saúde visa uma cooperação para interesses de bem comum da sociedade civil, como é a questão da saúde. Para essa reflexão, a escola de Cós combina a sabedoria mítica asclepíade e a ciência jônia. Os mitos de saúde nomeados no juramento hipocrático pertencem à tradição da teologia poética grega e indica uma espécie de credo no qual a medicina hipocrática professa, no qual o médico além de profissional também possui fé na vida e exerce o ofício de sacerdote da esperança. Interessa ainda o modo como o a teologia da saúde grega foi recebida pela teologia cristã, e como ambas desconstruíram suas teodiceias. Nessa recepção há um caminho para pensar uma teologia pública da saúde. 

  12. Produção e citação em Saúde Coletiva: um olhar a partir dos periódicos Cadernos de Saúde Pública e Revista de Saúde Pública Output and citation in Public Health: a perspective based on the journals Cadernos de Saúde Pública and Revista de Saúde Pública

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Carvalho

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho é um estudo bibliométrico comparativo entre as duas principais revistas científicas da área da Saúde Coletiva publicadas no Brasil: Cadernos de Saúde Pública (CSP e Revista de Saúde Pública (RSP. Foram analisados 24 fascículos de cada periódico, publicados entre 1996 e 2003, construindo uma amostra de 819 artigos (496 de CSP e 323 de RSP. Os seguintes elementos dos artigos foram identificados e analisados: área temática do artigo e padrão de citações de publicações (artigos em periódicos, livros e/ou capítulos de livro, teses/dissertações, documentos de Internet, "literatura cinzenta" e outros tipos de publicações. Os dados encontrados mostram que a maioria dos artigos publicados é da subárea "epidemiologia". O padrão de citação identificado nas revistas foi de citações a artigos em periódico em maior número, seguidas das citações a livros e/ou capítulos de livro. Artigos na subárea "ciências sociais em saúde" publicados em CSP apresentam características distintas, com maior número de citações a livros e capítulos. Os autores argumentam que as informações são relevantes na caracterização da produção da área, com desdobramentos importantes no plano da avaliação acadêmico-científica da Saúde Coletiva no país.This is a comparative bibliometric study of the two main scientific journals in the Public Health field in Brazil: Cadernos de Saúde Pública (CSP and Revista de Saúde Pública (RSP. Twenty-four issues of each periodical were analyzed, published from 1996 to 2003, comprising a sample of 819 articles (496 from CSP and 323 from RSP. The following elements in the articles were identified and analyzed: thematic area of the article and citation pattern of publications (articles in periodicals, books and/or book chapters, theses/dissertations, Internet documents, "gray" literature, and other types of publications. The resulting data showed that the majority of the

  13. What does this photograph want from me? The perpetrator image of Bophana and its reverse shot. Iconographies of the Cambodian Genocide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Sánchez-Biosca

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Perpetrator images are those that are part of the machinery of destruction (torture, genocide…. This means that in them the act of violence and the apparatus of image production are interpenetrated. However, this condition does not predetermine the degree of personal, temporal, spatial implication between the two processes. And, in fact, several kinds of hiatuses may occur. The objective of this text is to analyse the production and migration of a perpetrator image-icon associated with the Cambodian genocide (the image of Hout Bophana. First, the article focuses on the process of (pragmatic creation of this mug shot that identifies the detainee, emphasising her identity. Then, we study the use, re-appropriation, insertion, détournement of the same image in two films directed by Rithy Panh: Bophana, une tragédie combodgienne (1996 and Duch, le maître des forges de l’enfer (2011. In this proposed itinerary, we move from the creation of a performative image (the one that produces an enemy, instead of simply registering him to its confrontation with the perpetrator (the Tuol Sleng’s director, Duch responsible for its execution. In so doing, we draw attention to the pictorial and cinematic re-elaboration of the counter-figure, the reverse shot, of that perpetrator image: Bophana portrait as it was painted by the survivor Vann Nath.

  14. The Roles of Family Factors and Relationship Dynamics on Dating Violence Victimization and Perpetration Among College Men and Women in Emerging Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paat, Yok-Fong; Markham, Christine

    2016-03-27

    Using data from the International Dating Violence Study, this study examined the roles of early socialization, family social structure, and relationship dynamics factors on physical aggression in dating among U.S. college students in emerging adulthood. The interaction effects between these three domains of interest (early socialization, family social structure, and relationship dynamics) were explored to understand the underlying mechanisms that influenced victimization and perpetration in dating. In general, we found that family and relational variables associated with dating victimization and perpetration were fairly similar. Among the early socialization variables, experience of childhood neglect and having witnessed domestic violence were significantly related to victimization and perpetration. Living in a two-parent household appeared to exert a protective effect, although associations with parental education were not statistically significant. Furthermore, the participants were more likely to experience victimization or impose aggression in dating relationships which were characterized by conflicts, distress, dominance, or psychological aggression. Overall, for the participants who came from a two-parent household, dominance in dating was linked to less violence. When the participants faced higher levels of psychological aggression, adverse early socialization factors were associated with higher levels of dating violence victimization and perpetration. Research and practice implications were discussed.

  15. The Rosenzweig Picture-Frustration Study "Extra-Aggression" Score as an Indicator in Cognitive Restructuring Therapy for Male Perpetrators of Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Michael; Ryan, Lawrence J.

    2008-01-01

    It was hypothesized that male perpetrators of domestic violence in the early stages of a 1-year process of cognitive restructuring therapy would manifest on the Rosenzweig Picture-Frustration Study higher levels of extra-aggressiveness than in later stages of the therapy process. A sample of male batterers in the process of treatment took the…

  16. Importance of Gender and Attitudes about Violence in the Relationship between Exposure to Interparental Violence and the Perpetration of Teen Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Jeff R.; Shorey, Ryan C.; Tortolero, Susan R.; Wolfe, David A.; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Mounting evidence has demonstrated a link between exposure to family of origin violence and the perpetration of teen dating violence (TDV). However, only recently have mechanisms underlying this relationship been investigated and very few studies have differentiated between exposure to father-to-mother and mother-to-father violence.…

  17. Improvements in Empathy and Cognitive Flexibility after Court-Mandated Intervention Program in Intimate Partner Violence Perpetrators: The Role of Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Martínez, Ángel; Lila, Marisol; Martínez, Manuela; Pedrón-Rico, Vicente; Moya-Albiol, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Research assessing the effectiveness of intervention programs for intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators has increased considerably in recent years. However, most of it has been focused on the analysis of psychological domains, neglecting neuropsychological variables and the effects of alcohol consumption on these variables. This study evaluated potential neuropsychological changes (emotional decoding, perspective taking, emotional empathy and cognitive flexibility) and their relationship with alcohol consumption in a mandatory intervention program for IPV perpetrators, as well as how these variables affect the risk of IPV recidivism. The sample was composed of 116 individuals with high alcohol (n = 55; HA) and low alcohol (n = 61; LA) consumption according to self-report screening measures who received treatment in a IPV perpetrator intervention program developed in Valencia (Spain). IPV perpetrators with HA consumption were less accurate in decoding emotional facial signals and adopting others’ perspective, and less cognitively flexible than those with LA consumption before the IPV intervention. Further, the effectiveness of the intervention program was demonstrated, with increases being observed in cognitive empathy (emotional decoding and perspective taking) and in cognitive flexibility. Nevertheless, the HA group showed a smaller improvement in these skills and higher risk of IPV recidivism than the LA group. Moreover, improvement in these skills was related to a lower risk of IPV recidivism. The study provides guidance on the targeting of cognitive domains, which are key factors for reducing IPV recidivism. PMID:27043602

  18. Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration by Court-Ordered Men: Distinctions and Intersections among Physical Violence, Sexual Violence, Psychological Abuse, and Stalking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Kathleen C.; Hall, Jeffrey E.

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the construct validity of two different measurement models of male partners' perpetration of physical violence, sexual violence, psychological abuse, and stalking against intimate partners. Data were obtained from a sample of 340 men arrested for physical assault of a female spouse or partner and court ordered into batterer…

  19. "The Alcohol Just Pissed Me Off": Views About How Alcohol and Marijuana Influence Adolescent Dating Violence Perpetration, Results of a Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Emily Faith; Linden, Judith A.; Baughman, Allyson L.; Kaczmarsky, Courtney; Thompson, Malindi

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory study was designed to examine the beliefs of youth users of alcohol and marijuana about the connections between their substance use and dating violence perpetration. Eighteen youth (ages 14-20 years old), who were primarily of Black or Hispanic race/ethnicity, participated in in-depth interviews about times when they had…

  20. Testosterone reactivity and identification with a perpetrator or a victim in a story are associated with attraction to violence-related cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weierstall, Roland; Moran, James; Giebel, Gilda; Elbert, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Recent field research has demonstrated that an attraction to aggressive behavior and cruelty is common among combatants and perpetrators involved in organized violence. The biological basis of this appetitive perception of aggression in humans has to date not been studied. We examined testosterone as a potential hormonal moderator during induction of specifically appetitive aggressive behavior in the laboratory. To activate physiological responding related to appetitive aggression, 145 university students (72 women) listened to tape recordings of variants of a violent story. The perspective of the listener in the story was randomized between subjects. Participants were required to either identify as perpetrator, neutral observer, or victim. We assessed changes in saliva testosterone in response to the story. Subsequently, a series of pictorial stimuli (IAPS) with different valence ratings was presented and participants determined the length of viewing time with a button click. This viewing time for negative IAPS was assessed as a dependent variable indicating level of interest in violent scenes. Men identified themselves with the perpetrator more than women irrespective of the particular perspective presented by the story. Men who responded with an increase in saliva testosterone when adopting the perpetrator perspective chose to view the negative IAPS pictures for longer intervals than participants in other conditions or those who did not exhibit a release in testosterone. Testosterone moderates attraction to cruel and violent cues in men, as indicated by extended deliberate viewing of violence cues. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Dating Violence Perpetration and/or Victimization and Associated Sexual Risk Behaviors among a Sample of Inner-City African American and Hispanic Adolescent Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleyne-Green, Binta; Coleman-Cowger, Victoria H.; Henry, David B.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence of physical and psychological dating violence victimization and perpetration reported by inner-city African American and Hispanic adolescent girls as well as associated risky sexual behaviors among this population. Participants in this study were 10th- and 11th-grade female students from seven…

  2. Importance of Gender and Attitudes about Violence in the Relationship between Exposure to Interparental Violence and the Perpetration of Teen Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Jeff R.; Shorey, Ryan C.; Tortolero, Susan R.; Wolfe, David A.; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Mounting evidence has demonstrated a link between exposure to family of origin violence and the perpetration of teen dating violence (TDV). However, only recently have mechanisms underlying this relationship been investigated and very few studies have differentiated between exposure to father-to-mother and mother-to-father violence.…

  3. Improvements in Empathy and Cognitive Flexibility after Court-Mandated Intervention Program in Intimate Partner Violence Perpetrators: The Role of Alcohol Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Romero-Martínez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Research assessing the effectiveness of intervention programs for intimate partner violence (IPV perpetrators has increased considerably in recent years. However, most of it has been focused on the analysis of psychological domains, neglecting neuropsychological variables and the effects of alcohol consumption on these variables. This study evaluated potential neuropsychological changes (emotional decoding, perspective taking, emotional empathy and cognitive flexibility and their relationship with alcohol consumption in a mandatory intervention program for IPV perpetrators, as well as how these variables affect the risk of IPV recidivism. The sample was composed of 116 individuals with high alcohol (n = 55; HA and low alcohol (n = 61; LA consumption according to self-report screening measures who received treatment in a IPV perpetrator intervention program developed in Valencia (Spain. IPV perpetrators with HA consumption were less accurate in decoding emotional facial signals and adopting others’ perspective, and less cognitively flexible than those with LA consumption before the IPV intervention. Further, the effectiveness of the intervention program was demonstrated, with increases being observed in cognitive empathy (emotional decoding and perspective taking and in cognitive flexibility. Nevertheless, the HA group showed a smaller improvement in these skills and higher risk of IPV recidivism than the LA group. Moreover, improvement in these skills was related to a lower risk of IPV recidivism. The study provides guidance on the targeting of cognitive domains, which are key factors for reducing IPV recidivism.

  4. Total synthesis and evaluation of iso-duocarmycin SA and iso-yatakemycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMillan, Karen S; Nguyen, Trinh; Nguyen, Trihn; Hwang, Inkyu; Boger, Dale L

    2009-01-28

    The total synthesis and evaluation of iso-duocarmycin SA (5) and iso-yatakemycin (6), representing key analogues of the corresponding natural products incorporating an isomeric alkylation subunit, are detailed. This pyrrole isomer of the natural alkylation subunit displayed an enhanced reaction regioselectivity and a 2-fold diminished stability. Although still exceptionally potent, the iso-duocarmycin SA derivatives and natural product analogues exhibited a corresponding approximate 3-5-fold reduction in cytotoxic activity [L1210 IC(50) for (+)-iso-duocarmycin SA = 50 pM and for (+)-iso-yatakemycin = 15 pM] consistent with their placement on a parabolic relationship correlating activity with reactivity. The DNA alkylation selectivity of the resulting key natural product analogues was unaltered by the structure modification in spite of the minor-groove presentation of a potential H-bond donor. Additionally, a unique ortho-spirocyclization with such derivatives was explored via the preparation, characterization, and evaluation of 34 that is incapable of the more conventional para-spirocyclization. Although 34 proved sufficiently stable for isolation and characterization, it displayed little stability in protic solvents (t(1/2) = 0.19 h at pH 3, t(1/2) = 0.20 h at pH 7), a pH-independent (H(+) independent) solvolysis rate profile at pH 3/4-7, and a much reduced cytotoxic potency, but a DNA alkylation selectivity and efficiency comparable to those of duocarmycin SA and iso-duocarmycin SA. The implications of these observations on the source of the DNA alkylation selectivity and catalysis for this class of natural products are discussed.

  5. [Physical and psychological violence perpetration and violent victimisation in the German adult population: results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlack, R; Rüdel, J; Karger, A; Hölling, H

    2013-05-01

    Violence is of considerable relevance to Public Health. It was the aim of the violence screening implemented as part of the"German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults" (DEGS1) to assess data on physical and psychological violence in various social environments (partnership, family, workplace, public space). For the first time as part of a nationally representative health survey, the data was collected from the perspective of victim and perpetrator both among women and men. The study population was comprised of 5939 participants aged between 18 and 64 years. Approximately every 20th participant reported being the victim of physical violence in the preceding 12 months, men significantly more frequently than women. With regard to the frequency of being the perpetrator of physical violence (overall prevalence 3.7 %) there were no significant differences between the sexes. Psychological victimisation was reported by every fifth participant and overall perpetrating psychological violence was reported by every tenth. Women tended to be more frequent the victims but they were also significantly more frequently the perpetrators of both physical and psychological violence in the domestic area (partnership, family). In contrast, men more frequently report being both the perpetrator and the victim of violence in the workplace and in the public space. Young adults between 18 and 29 years as well as persons of low socioeconomic status were consistently more frequently affected by violence although there were exceptions with regard to psychological violent victimisation. More than three-quarters of the victims of physical violence reported being greatly or extremely affected in their well-being by the violence and in the case of psychological violence the rate was about approximately 60%. Overall, the traumatic experience as a consequence of experiencing physical and psychological violence was considerably higher, especially in the case of domestic violence

  6. Triagem em saúde mental infantil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Vieira Gauy

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi conduzido para comparar os resultados de um procedimento grupal aberto e um procedimento individual estruturado para avaliação do comportamento da criança conforme o relato materno. Participaram deste estudo 29 mães que buscavam atendimento para seus filhos em uma unidade de saúde mental infanto-juvenil. As primeiras 15 mães que procuraram o serviço foram entrevistadas individualmente conforme um roteiro estruturado desenvolvido a partir do CBCL e depois foram entrevistadas em grupo, em formato aberto. As outras 14 mães participaram da entrevista grupal aberta e em seguida participaram da entrevista individual estruturada. Os resultados das entrevistas foram comparados tomando como referência as 67 categorias comportamentais identificadas a partir do roteiro individual e quatro variáveis contextuais relatadas nos dois procedimentos. Os resultados mostram que um número substancialmente maior de comportamentos-problema foi identificado através de entrevista individual estruturada do que através de entrevista grupal aberta realizada com os mesmos informantes. É possível que o uso de um roteiro estruturado em entrevistas grupais possa oferecer mais informações com otimização do tempo de avaliação.

  7. Saúde e meio ambiente nas cidades: os desafios da saúde ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Gouveia

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available Dentro de alguns poucos anos, nosso planeta contará com mais habitantes em áreas urbanas do que em áreas rurais. A urbanização desenfreada, sem mecanismos regulatórios e de controle, típica dos países periféricos, trouxe consigo enormes repercussões na saúde da população. Problemas como a insuficiência dos serviços básicos de saneamento, coleta e destinação adequada do lixo e condições precárias de moradia, tradicionalmente relacionados com a pobreza e o subdesenvolvimento, somam-se agora à poluição química e física do ar, da água e da terra, problemas ambientais antes considerados "modernos". Novamente, é sobre as populações mais carentes que recai a maior parte dos efeitos negativos da urbanização, gerando uma situação de extrema desigualdade e iniqüidade ambiental e em saúde. Para reverter esse quadro é preciso que haja uma reincorporação das questões do meio ambiente nas políticas de saúde, e a integração dos objetivos da saúde ambiental numa ampla estratégia de desenvolvimento sustentável. Uma abordagem mais integrada, com mecanismos intersetoriais que possibilitem um diálogo amplo entre as partes, trará enormes benefícios na conquista de melhores condições de vida nas cidades. A saúde ambiental hoje tem o desafio de promover uma melhor qualidade de vida e saúde nas cidades e a oportunidade de enfrentar o absurdo quadro de exclusão social, sob a perspectiva da eqüidade.In a matter of few years there will be more urban than rural dwellers worldwide. The rapid urbanisation lacking adequate control and regulatory mechanisms typical of developing countries, brought along huge effects to the health of the population Environmental problems traditionally related to poverty and underdevelopment such as insufficient provision of sanitation services, waste collection and disposal, and precarious housing conditions, are now added to environmental problems considered of "modern life" such as the

  8. A Self-Determination Model of Childhood Exposure, Perceived Prevalence, Justification, and Perpetration of Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neighbors, Clayton; Walker, Denise D; Mbilinyi, Lyungai F; Zegree, Joan; Foster, Dawn W; Roffman, Roger A

    2013-02-01

    The present research was designed to evaluate self-determination theory as a framework for integrating factors associated with intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration. The proposed model suggests that childhood exposure to parental violence may influence global motivational orientations which, in turn result in greater cognitive biases (overestimating the prevalence of IPV and justification of IPV) which, in turn, contribute to an individual's decision to use abusive behavior. Participants included 124 men who had engaged in abusive behavior toward an intimate partner. Results provided reasonable support for the proposed model and stronger support for a revised model suggesting that controlled orientation, rather than autonomy orientation, appears to play a stronger role in the association between childhood exposure to parental violence and cognitive biases associated with abusive behavior.

  9. What looks like sexism and why? The effect of comment type and perpetrator type on women's perceptions of sexism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemer, Abigail; Chaudoir, Stephenie; Earnshaw, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    Sexist comments are not perceived equally in the eyes of women. We extend previous research by examining the degree to which multiple types of potentially sexist comments made by multiple types of men are perceived as sexist. Further, we examine the degree to which three possible mediators--prototypicality, perceived intent, and interdependence--explained these effects. Female undergraduate students (N = 248) were randomly assigned to read a scenario in which a hostile sexist, benevolent sexist, or objectifying comment was made by one of three types of men: a stranger, their boss, or their boyfriend. Results demonstrate that hostile sexism was perceived as more sexist than benevolent sexism or objectification. Comments made by boyfriends were also rated as less sexist than those made by bosses or strangers. Furthermore, perceptions of prototypicality of the comment or perpetrator and perceived intent to harm mediated the effect of study manipulations on perceptions of sexism.

  10. Brief report: Cyberbullying perpetration and its associations with socio-demographics, aggressive behaviour at school, and mental health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Adam; Fitzgerald-Yau, Natasha; Jones, Rebecca; Allen, Elizabeth; Viner, Russell M; Bonell, Chris

    2014-12-01

    Relatively little is known about those who cyberbully others, especially in a UK context. We drew on data from 1144 young people aged 12-13 in eight English secondary schools to examine the prevalence of cyberbullying perpetration and its associations with sociodemographics, other behaviours, and health outcomes. Overall, 14.1% of respondents reported ever cyberbullying others with no significant differences by gender or socioeconomic status. Drawing on mixed-effects logistic regression models, first we found a strong, dose-response relationship between aggressive behaviour at school and cyberbullying others, suggesting that cyberbullying may not only be a facet of wider patterns of bullying but also of aggression more broadly. Second, cyberbullying others was associated with poorer quality of life and with psychological difficulties but not with peer/social problems or worse mental wellbeing. Longitudinal studies are needed to assess whether such associations are causal.

  11. School-related factors in the development of bullying perpetration and victimization: introduction to the special section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendgen, Mara; Troop-Gordon, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    Although not limited to school contexts, bullying perpetration and victimization often emanates from social ecologies formed within the classroom. Thus, to fully illuminate risk for involvement in bullying, we must investigate contextual features of schools that heighten or minimize aggression among students and the targeting of children for peer victimization. To this end, the articles in this special section each contribute conceptually and empirically to the study of school-related factors in bullying and peer victimization. This introduction summarizes and highlights the major findings of each paper, organized around two major themes of the articles-the role of peer group ecologies and the role of the classroom teacher. We conclude our synopsis by discussing implications for intervention and the need for anti-bullying efforts that systemically address the peer group and teacher influences identified in these investigations.

  12. Bullying perpetration and victimization as externalizing and internalizing pathways: A retrospective study linking parenting styles and self-esteem to depression, alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patock-Peckham, Julie A; Medina, Mia; Terrell, Nathan; Belton, Daniel; King, Kevin M

    2016-01-01

    Emerging research suggests significant positive associations between bullying and substance use behaviors. However, these studies typically focused either on the link between substance use and bullying perpetration or victimization, and few have conceptualized bullying perpetration and/or victimization as mediators. In this study, we simultaneously tested past bullying perpetration and victimization as mediational pathways from retrospective report of parenting styles and global self-esteem to current depressive symptoms, alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. Data were collected from a college sample of 419 drinkers. Mediation effects were conducted using a bias-corrected bootstrap technique in structural equation modeling. Two-path mediation analyses indicated that mother and father authoritativeness were protective against bully victimization and depression through higher self-esteem. Conversely, having a permissive or authoritarian mother was positively linked to bullying perpetration, which in turn was associated with increased alcohol use, and to a lesser degree, more alcohol-related problems. Mother authoritarianism was associated with alcohol-related problems through depressive symptoms. Three-path mediation analyses suggested a trend in which individuals with higher self-esteem were less likely to report alcohol-related problems through lower levels of bullying victimization and depression. Results suggested that bullying perpetration and victimization may respectively serve as externalizing and internalizing pathways through which parenting styles and self-esteem are linked to depression and alcohol-related outcomes. The present study identified multiple modifiable precursors of, and mediational pathways to, alcohol-related problems which could guide the development and implementation of prevention programs targeting problematic alcohol use. PMID:26757486

  13. The Effect of Gender and Perpetrator-Victim Role on Mental Health Outcomes and Risk Behaviors Associated With Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulloa, Emilio C; Hammett, Julia F

    2016-04-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a major public health concern. Previous studies have consistently shown that IPV is tied by to a variety of detrimental consequences for affected individuals, including negative mental health outcomes. However, the differential impact of gender and perpetrator-victim role (i.e., whether an individual is the perpetrator or victim of violence or both) remains largely understudied in the academic literature. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to describe a variety of mental health outcomes and risk behaviors among men and women experiencing no violence, perpetration-only, victimization-only, and bidirectional violence. Data from Waves 3 and 4 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 7,187) were used. Participants provided information on their perpetrator-victim role and on a variety of factors related to mental health (depression, suicidality, alcohol use, illegal drug use, and relationship satisfaction). For all outcomes, prevalence and severity generally tended to be highest among individuals affected by bidirectional IPV and lowest among individuals not affected by any violence (independent of gender). The present findings highlight that IPV and negative mental health outcomes and risk behaviors should be addressed as co-occurring problems in research, prevention, and treatment. In addition, all gender-role combinations should be addressed to better understand and address all potential effects of IPV. According to the present findings, couples affected by bidirectional violence are at particularly high risk of developing mental health disorders. Thus, policy makers and clinicians should predominantly target couples as well as individuals who are not only the victims but also the perpetrators of IPV and pay particular attention to potential signs of mental health distress these individuals might exhibit.

  14. Lifetime Prevalence Rates and Overlap of Physical, Psychological, and Sexual Dating Abuse Perpetration and Victimization in a National Sample of Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ybarra, Michele L; Espelage, Dorothy L; Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Korchmaros, Josephine D; Boyd, Danah

    2016-07-01

    National, epidemiological data that provide lifetime rates of psychological, physical, and sexual adolescent data abuse (ADA) perpetration and victimization within the same sample of youth are lacking. To address this gap, data from 1058 randomly selected U.S. youth, 14-21 years old, surveyed online in 2011 and/or 2012, were weighted to be nationally representative and analyzed. In addition to reporting prevalence rates, we also examined the overlap of the six types of ADA queried. Results suggested that ADA was commonly reported by both male and female youth. Half (51 %) of female youth and 43 % of male youth reported victimization of at least one of the three types of ADA. Half (50 %) of female youth and 35 % of male youth reported at least one type of ADA perpetration. More male youth reported sexual ADA perpetration than female youth. More female youth reported perpetration of psychological and physical ADA and more reported psychological victimization than male youth. Rates were similar across race and ethnicity, but increased with age. This increase may have been because older youth spent longer time in relationships than younger youth, or perhaps because older youth were developmentally more likely than younger youth to be in abusive relationships. Many youth reported being both perpetrators and victims and/or involved in multiple forms of ADA across their dating history. Together, these findings suggested that interventions should acknowledge that youth may play multiple roles in abusive dyads. Understanding the overlap among ADA within the same as well as across multiple relationships will be invaluable to future interventions aiming to disrupt and prevent ADA.

  15. Bullying Perpetration and Victimization as Externalizing and Internalizing Pathways: A Retrospective Study Linking Parenting Styles and Self-Esteem to Depression, Alcohol Use, and Alcohol-Related Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Jeremy W; Patock-Peckham, Julie A; Medina, Mia; Terrell, Nathan; Belton, Daniel; King, Kevin M

    2016-01-02

    Emerging research suggests significant positive associations between bullying and substance use behaviors. However, these studies typically focused either on the link between substance use and bullying perpetration or victimization, and few have conceptualized bullying perpetration and/or victimization as mediators. In this study, we simultaneously tested past bullying perpetration and victimization as mediational pathways from retrospective report of parenting styles and global self-esteem to current depressive symptoms, alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems. Data were collected from a college sample of 419 drinkers. Mediation effects were conducted using a bias-corrected bootstrap technique within a structural equation modeling framework. Two-path mediation analyses indicated that mother and father authoritativeness were protective against bully victimization and depression through higher self-esteem. Conversely, having a permissive or authoritarian mother was positively linked to bullying perpetration, which in turn, was associated with increased alcohol use, and to a lesser degree, more alcohol-related problems. Mother authoritarianism was associated with alcohol-related problems through depressive symptoms. Three-path mediation analyses suggested a trend in which individuals with higher self-esteem were less likely to report alcohol-related problems through lower levels of bullying victimization and depression. Results suggested that bullying perpetration and victimization may, respectively, serve as externalizing and internalizing pathways through which parenting styles and self-esteem are linked to depression and alcohol-related outcomes. The present study identified multiple modifiable precursors of, and mediational pathways to, alcohol-related problems which could guide the development and implementation of prevention programs targeting problematic alcohol use.

  16. Shared Risk Factors for the Perpetration of Physical Dating Violence, Bullying, and Sexual Harassment Among Adolescents Exposed to Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foshee, Vangie A; McNaughton Reyes, H Luz; Chen, May S; Ennett, Susan T; Basile, Kathleen C; DeGue, Sarah; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M; Moracco, Kathryn E; Bowling, J Michael

    2016-04-01

    The high risk of perpetrating physical dating violence, bullying, and sexual harassment by adolescents exposed to domestic violence points to the need for programs to prevent these types of aggression among this group. This study of adolescents exposed to domestic violence examined whether these forms of aggression share risk factors that could be targeted for change in single programs designed to prevent all three types of aggression. Analyses were conducted on 399 mother victims of domestic violence and their adolescents, recruited through community advertising. The adolescents ranged in age from 12 to 16 years; 64 % were female. Generalized estimating equations was used to control for the covariation among the aggression types when testing for shared risk factors. Approximately 70 % of the adolescents reported perpetrating at least one of the three forms of aggression. In models examining one risk factor at a time, but controlling for demographics, adolescent acceptance of sexual violence, mother-adolescent discord, family conflict, low maternal monitoring, low mother-adolescent closeness, low family cohesion, depressed affect, feelings of anger, and anger reactivity were shared across all three aggression types. In multivariable models, which included all of the risk factors examined and the demographic variables, low maternal monitoring, depressed affect and anger reactivity remained significant shared risk factors. Our findings suggest that programs targeting these risk factors for change have the potential to prevent all three forms of aggression. In multivariable models, poor conflict management skills was a risk for bullying and sexual harassment, but not dating violence; acceptance of dating violence was a risk for dating violence and bullying, but not sexual harassment; and none of the examined risk factors were unique to aggression type. The study's implications for the development of interventions and future research are discussed.

  17. Low and Increasing Trajectories of Perpetration of Physical Dating Violence: 7-Year Associations with Suicidal Ideation, Weapons, and Substance Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orpinas, Pamela; Nahapetyan, Lusine; Truszczynski, Natalia

    2017-05-01

    Understanding the interrelation among problem behaviors and their change over time is fundamental for prevention research. The Healthy Teens Longitudinal Study followed a cohort of adolescents from Grades 6-12. Prior research identified two distinct trajectories of perpetration of physical dating violence: Low and Increasing. The purpose of this study was to examine whether adolescents in these two trajectories differed longitudinally on other problem behaviors: (1) suicidal ideation and attempts, (2) weapon-carrying and threats with a weapon, and (3) substance use, particularly alcohol and marijuana. The sample consisted of 588 randomly-selected students (52% males; 49% White, 36% Black, 12% Latino). Students completed a self-reported, computer-based survey each spring from Grades 6-12. To examine significant differences by perpetration of physical dating violence trajectory, we used Chi-square test and generalized estimating equations modeling. Across most grades, significantly more students in Increasing than in the Low trajectory reported suicidal ideation and attempts, carried a weapon, and threatened someone with a weapon. Adolescents in the Increasing trajectory also had higher trajectories of alcohol use, being drunk, and marijuana use than those in the Low trajectory. All differences were already significant in Grade 6. The difference in the rate of change between groups was not significant. This longitudinal study highlights that problem behaviors-physical dating violence, suicidal ideation and attempts, weapon carrying and threats, marijuana and alcohol use-cluster together as early as sixth grade and the clustering persists over time. The combination of these behaviors poses a great public health concern and highlight the need for early interventions.

  18. A saúde mental em cuidados de saúde primários

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Ana Isabel Monteiro dos

    2009-01-01

    As perturbações psiquiátricas no contexto da Clínica Geral / Medicina Geral e Familiar constituem um tema que tem vindo a ser estudado desde a década de 1960, sendo uma matéria complexa e com múltiplas implicações. Os estudos epidemiológicos mais recentes demonstram que as perturbações psiquiátricas e os problemas de saúde mental se tornaram a principal causa de incapacidade e uma das principais causas de morbilidade nas sociedades modernas. E, para além dos indivíduos que apresentam uma ...

  19. Educação em saúde como principal alternativa para promover a saúde do idoso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielli Gavião Mallmann

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de uma revisão integrativa que objetivou identificar as evidências científicas sobre as ações educativas em saúde voltadas à promoção da saúde do idoso. A busca dos artigos foi realizada nas bases de dados Medline, Lilacs, BDENF, CINAHL e biblioteca virtual SciELO, por meio do cruzamento dos descritores Educação em Saúde, Idoso, Envelhecimento, Saúde do Idoso, Promoção da Saúde e Qualidade de vida, incluindo-se artigos publicados no período de 2003 a 2013, nos idiomas inglês, espanhol e português, realizados com idosos. Foram selecionados oito artigos, dos quais percebeu-se a qualidade de vida e a promoção do envelhecimento saudável como fatores resultantes das estratégias de educação em saúde. As ações de educação em saúde para idosos necessitam de metodologias que atentem para a complexidade do processo de envelhecimento e relacionem os fatores que cercam o indivíduo, como as crenças, os valores, as normas e os modos de vida.

  20. Biodegradable mixed MPEG-SS-2SA/TPGS micelles for triggered intracellular release of paclitaxel and reversing multidrug resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Kai; Yan, Yan; Wang, Pengchong; Shi, Xianpeng; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Ke; Xing, Jianfeng; Dong, Yalin

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a type of multifunctional mixed micelles were prepared by a novel biodegradable amphiphilic polymer (MPEG-SS-2SA) and a multidrug resistance (MDR) reversal agent (d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate, TPGS). The mixed micelles could achieve rapid intracellular drug release and reversal of MDR. First, the amphiphilic polymer, MPEG-SS-2SA, was synthesized through disulfide bonds between poly (ethylene glycol) monomethyl ether (MPEG) and stearic acid (SA). The structure of the obtained polymer was similar to poly (ethylene glycol)-phosphatidylethanolamine (PEG-PE). Then the mixed micelles, MPEG-SS-2SA/TPGS, were prepared by MPEG-SS-2SA and TPGS through the thin film hydration method and loaded paclitaxel (PTX) as the model drug. The in vitro release study revealed that the mixed micelles could rapidly release PTX within 24 h under a reductive environment because of the breaking of disulfide bonds. In cell experiments, the mixed micelles significantly inhibited the activity of mitochondrial respiratory complex II, also reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential, and the content of adenosine triphosphate, thus effectively inhibiting the efflux of PTX from cells. Moreover, in the confocal laser scanning microscopy, cellular uptake and 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assays, the MPEG-SS-2SA/TPGS micelles achieved faster release and more uptake of PTX in Michigan Cancer Foundation-7/PTX cells and showed better antitumor effects as compared with the insensitive control. In conclusion, the biodegradable mixed micelles, MPEG-SS-2SA/TPGS, could be potential vehicles for delivering hydrophobic chemotherapeutic drugs in MDR cancer therapy. PMID:27785018

  1. Homens, violência de gênero e atenção integral em saúde Men, gender violence and comprehensive health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Granja

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho se insere no campo de discussões sobre violência de gênero, tendo como objeto de estudo o jogo discursivo de profissionais que atuam na rede de enfrentamento à violência contra as mulheres. Nosso objetivo é identificar como esses profissionais se posicionam acerca das possibilidades de atendimento a homens autores de violência, no Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS. Foram identificadas 38 instituições, nas quais realizamos observações e entrevistas semi-estruturadas com 55 profissionais que atuam diretamente na rede de prevenção, assistência e enfrentamento da violência doméstica e familiar contra a mulher no Recife, constituindo-se assim em nossos informantes-chave. A análise envolveu tanto a identificação dos repertórios como mapeamento das matrizes discursivas. A análise apresenta reflexões sobre alternativas de atendimento a esses homens, considerando eventos, condições de possibilidades, problematizando o lugar desse atendimento entre as estratégias transformadoras das práticas que dão sustentação à violência de gênero.This paper concerns gendered violence in relation to healthcare. Its focus is to examine the discourse of healthcare professionals who work to prevent, confront and assist in cases of violence against women, about the possibility of attending to male perpetrators of violence in the public health system (Sistema Único de Saúde - SUS. Our methodological resources consisted of observations and semi-structured interviews with 55 health professionals from 38 services and entities concerned with the prevention, treatment and management of intra-familial and domestic violence in the city of Recife (NE, Brazil. We analysed discursive repertories and discursive matrix, based on the constructionism approach. From the analysis of these interviews, we sought to reflect on the alternatives of attending to male perpetrators of violence, considering events, conditions and the issue of the place of

  2. A interdisciplinaridade vivenciada no PET-Saúde = The interdisciplinarity experienced in the PET- Saúde program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assega, Mariana Lieka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: A incorporação da equipe de saúde bucal na Estratégia de Saúde da Família (ESF, em 2000, possibilitou a adoção de uma postura mais ativa de atenção primária nesta área, visto que a saúde bucal consiste em parte integrante e inseparável da saúde do indivíduo. A interação dos profissionais da saúde torna-se possível por meio de iniciativas como o PET-Saúde, o qual fomenta a formação profissional articulada com os profissionais da ESF, bem como, o processo de integração ensino-serviço-comunidade na perspectiva da interdisciplinaridade. Objetivo: Relatar a vivência de estudantes ao realizar uma pesquisa interdisciplinar. Descrição da experiência: Esse relato foi vivenciado no projeto PET-Saúde da Faculdade de Medicina de Marília, no sub projeto Saúde do Homem, visando construir e validar um instrumento de coleta de dados por meio da Técnica Delphi, para auxiliar a equipe de saúde detectar precocemente agravos odontológicos, visto que no Brasil, o perfil de saúde bucal, na faixa etária de 35 a 44 anos, está comprometido. Os participantes, deste estudo, são discentes de enfermagem e medicina, preceptora cirurgiã-dentista e tutora docente enfermeira. Para as atividades educacionais utilizou-se a metodologia ativa de ensino-aprendizagem. Conclusão: Os movimentos reflexivos, os espaços de diálogos propiciaram o desenvolvimento da investigação científica. Além disso, a aproximação do processo de validação pela Técnica Delphi, também permitiu ampliação do conhecimento multidisciplinar sobre saúde bucal. Esta vivência possibilitou qualificar a formação acadêmico-profissional na linha da interdisciplinaridade, sendo importante sua multiplicação para o fortalecimento da interação entre os profissionais e a articulação das ações de saúde

  3. Cumulative Production Per Township - SaMiRa

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset contains a selected township grid within the Sagebrush Mineral Resource Assessment project (SaMiRa) study area attributed with cumulative oil and gas...

  4. Desenvolvimento econômico, desigualdade e saúde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Reginaldo Prata

    1994-09-01

    Full Text Available O autor se refere a dimensão socioeconômica, individual e coletiva do fenômeno saúde-doença. Refere-se também ao fato das populações estarem sobre a influência desigual de fatores de risco e de proteção à saúde. Discute as desigualdades no desenvolvimento e a relação entre desenvolvimento, riqueza, saúde e justiça social. Questiona as teorias de desenvolvimento econômico, diferenciando desenvolvimento de crescimento. Cunha os conceitos de armadilha do desenvolvimento e refugiados sociais. Define uma comunidade saudável. Propõe a necessidade de mudança no modelo de desenvolvimento. Baliza o papel e as limitações do setor saúde no que diz respeito a iniqüidade social.

  5. Discussion of CoSA: Clustering of Sparse Approximations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, Derek Elswick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-07

    The purpose of this talk is to discuss the possible applications of CoSA (Clustering of Sparse Approximations) to the exploitation of HSI (HyperSpectral Imagery) data. CoSA is presented by Moody et al. in the Journal of Applied Remote Sensing (“Land cover classification in multispectral imagery using clustering of sparse approximations over learned feature dictionaries”, Vol. 8, 2014) and is based on machine learning techniques.

  6. Desigualdade social e saúde no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neri Marcelo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Esse artigo estuda a relação entre desigualdade social e saúde no Brasil. A estratégia usada foi avaliar as necessidades e o consumo dos serviços de saúde, bem como o acesso a seguro saúde ao longo da distribuição de renda. Adicionalmente, por meio da estimação de uma regressão logística, foram avaliados outros determinantes do consumo dos serviços de saúde, com o intuito de se conhecer aonde e quem utiliza esses serviços no país. Os dados foram extraídos da Pesquisas Nacional de Amostra por Domicilio da Fundação Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística levada a campo em 1998. Em geral, observou-se que os indivíduos nos primeiros décimos da distribuição de renda têm pior acesso a seguro saúde, necessitam de maiores cuidados médicos, mas consomem menos os serviços de saúde. As outras características extra rendimento indicam que os principais determinantes para o consumo dos serviços de saúde estariam fortemente associados aos grupos sociais mais privilegiados (de maior escolaridade, acesso a seguro saúde, água, esgoto, luz, coleta de lixo e a fatores que apontam para capacidade de geração de oferta desses serviços no país.

  7. Review of underground salt attenuation measurements for SalSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, Amy, E-mail: connolly@mps.ohio-state.edu [1040 Physics Research Building, 191 West Woodruff Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210-1117 (United States)

    2012-01-11

    We report on the status of the Salt Sensor Array (SalSA), a proposed experiment for detecting ultra-high energy neutrinos through the radio Cherenkov technique with an array of radio-microwave antennas embedded in a large, naturally occurring salt formation. We review the measurements to date aimed at assessing SalSA's feasibility, including a return visit of the Hockley Salt Mine in Hockley, Texas, and discuss the current status of the project.

  8. Apoio social e saúde entre idosos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramos Marília P.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo trata da relação entre a saúde dos idosos e relacionamentos sociais, bem como na interpretação e entendimento desta problemática sob a luz de dois enfoques teóricos: um macro, centrado na Teoria da Integração Social de Emile Durkheim e outro micro, centrado na Teoria das Trocas, de Peter Blau, com ênfase na Teoria da Eqüidade. A integração social (freqüência de contatos pode ter efeitos negativos na saúde, mas isto tem de ser medido pela qualidade dos contatos. Algumas conclusões apresentadas indicam que as relações sociais têm um efeito na saúde, no sentido de que as pessoas, nas sociedades modernas, esperam a reciprocidade, e, quando isto não é possível, principalmente na fase do envelhecimento, as pessoas sentem-se dependentes, e isso pode afetar a saúde de diferentes maneiras. Por outro lado, quando as pessoas têm problemas de saúde, elas experienciam uma falta de relações sociais balanceadas devido à incapacidade para trocar em bases iguais. Sendo assim, conclui-se que a relação entre relações sociais e saúde na população idosa pode ser uma relação recíproca.

  9. Comparison on Mechanical Properties of SA508 Gr.3 Cl.1, Cl.2, and Gr.4N Low Alloy Steels for Pressure Vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min-Chul; Park, Sang-Gyu; Lee, Bong-Sang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ki-Hyoung [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    In this study, microstructure and mechanical properties of SA508 Gr.3 Cl. 1, Cl.2, and Gr.4N low alloy steels are characterized to compare their properties. To evaluate the fracture toughness in the transition region, the master curve method according to ASTM E1921 was adopted in the cleavage transition region. Tensile tests and Charpy impact tests were also performed to evaluate the mechanical properties, and a microstructural investigation was carried out. The microstructure and mechanical properties of SA508 Gr.3 Cl.1, Cl2 and Gr.4N low alloy steels were characterized.. The predominant microstructure of SA508 Gr.4N model alloy is tempered martensite, while SA508 Gr.3 Cl.1 and Cl.2 steels show a typical tempered upper bainitic structure. SA508 Gr. 4N model alloy shows the best strength and transition behavior among the three SA508 steels. SA508 Gr.3 Cl.2 steel also has quite good strength, but there is a loss of toughness.

  10. Automated analysis of calcium spiking profiles with CaSA software: two case studies from root-microbe symbioses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Giulia; Spinella, Salvatore; Sciacca, Eva; Bonfante, Paola; Genre, Andrea

    2013-12-26

    Repeated oscillations in intracellular calcium (Ca2+) concentration, known as Ca2+ spiking signals, have been described in plants for a limited number of cellular responses to biotic or abiotic stimuli and most notably the common symbiotic signaling pathway (CSSP) which mediates the recognition by their plant hosts of two endosymbiotic microbes, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and nitrogen fixing rhizobia. The detailed analysis of the complexity and variability of the Ca2+ spiking patterns which have been revealed in recent studies requires both extensive datasets and sophisticated statistical tools. As a contribution, we have developed automated Ca2+ spiking analysis (CaSA) software that performs i) automated peak detection, ii) statistical analyses based on the detected peaks, iii) autocorrelation analysis of peak-to-peak intervals to highlight major traits in the spiking pattern.We have evaluated CaSA in two experimental studies. In the first, CaSA highlighted unpredicted differences in the spiking patterns induced in Medicago truncatula root epidermal cells by exudates of the AM fungus Gigaspora margarita as a function of the phosphate concentration in the growth medium of both host and fungus. In the second study we compared the spiking patterns triggered by either AM fungal or rhizobial symbiotic signals. CaSA revealed the existence of different patterns in signal periodicity, which are thought to contribute to the so-called Ca2+ signature. We therefore propose CaSA as a useful tool for characterizing oscillatory biological phenomena such as Ca2+ spiking.

  11. Antropologia no campo da saúde global

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Biehl

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, eu exploro os limites de abordagens baseadas em balas mágicas para os problemas de saúde global e mostro como as iniciativas centradas nas pessoas desafiam as ortodoxias econômicas e dos direitos humanos e ampliam nossa percepção daquilo que é socialmente possível e desejável. Utilizo o meu estudo etnográfico de longo prazo sobre a resposta terapêutica brasileira ao HIV/AIDS e suas repercussões nos âmbitos de governo, mercados, sistemas de saúde e vida pessoal. Faço também o relato de um novo projeto comparativo sobre as consequências de grandes intervenções farmacêuticas em contextos com recursos limitados. Considerando tanto os processos mais amplos quanto as singularidades humanas, o artigo abre uma janela crítica para os valores e os resultados de intervenções farmacêuticas e humanitárias contemporâneas na vida real. Ao criticar as práticas institucionais de produção de evidência, também reconsidero as noções de responsabilidade e cuidado dentro da antropologia e da medicina.In this article, I explore the limits of magic-bullet approaches to global health problems and show how people-centered initiatives challenge economic and human rights orthodoxies and enlarge our sense of what is socially possible and desirable. I draw from my long-term ethnographic study of the Brazilian therapeutic response to HIV/AIDS and its repercussions through government, markets, health systems and personal lives. I also report on a new comparative project on the aftermath of large-scale pharmaceutical interventions in resource-poor settings. Attending to both larger processes and to human singularities, the article opens a critical window into the values and the real-life outcomes of contemporary pharmaceutical and humanitarian interventions. As I critique institutional evidence-making practices I also reconsider anthropology and medicine's notions of responsibility and care.

  12. Cryogenic performance and numerical modeling of a helium refrigerator for the JT-60SA coil test facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrand, Alexandre; Abdel-Maksoud, Walid; Genini, Laurent; Juster, François-Paul

    2014-01-01

    In the framework of the JT-60SA project, a cryogenic loop, dedicated to the tests of the JT-60SA Toroidal Field Coils, is planned to be installed at CEA Saclay. To analyze the dynamic thermal behavior of the cryogenic loop and to optimize the cryogenic process control of the coil test facility, dynamic simulations will be carried out with the software EcosimPro. This paper deals with the validation of the software. Experimental power measurements in pure refrigeration on a helium refrigerator have been compared to computations. Results are close and allow validating the software. The modeling of the JT-60SA CTF cryogenic test loop is also described in order to give an overview of the next computations.

  13. Evidence of increased STI/HIV-related risk behavior among male perpetrators of intimate partner violence in Guatemala: results from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hembling, John; Andrinopoulos, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant public health problem with a demonstrated link to increased sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV-related risk and vulnerability. While IPV is an important issue in Central America, the link to STI/HIV risk has not been explored in this region. In this study, the relationship between emotional and physical/sexual IPV and the STI/HIV-related risk behaviors of sex worker patronage and infidelity is assessed among male IPV perpetrators using data from a national survey conducted in 2009 in Guatemala (n = 4773 married/partnered men). Bivariate associations between background characteristics and emotional and physical IPV perpetration were explored. Logistic regression models were run to test associations between IPV for each sexual risk behavior. Perpetration of emotional and physical/sexual IPV was more common among married/partnered men who were older than 24, had more education, lived in urban areas, or were in common law versus married unions. Reports of past-year emotional IPV perpetration increased as wealth quintile increased. After adjusting for demographics and other characteristics, physical/sexual IPV perpetration was associated with past-year infidelity (AOR 1.9, 95% CI: 1.1-3.6). Lifetime emotional IPV (AOR 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1-1.7) and physical/sexual IPV 1.6 (95% CI 1.2-2.0) were positively associated with a history of sex worker patronage. Endorsement of traditional gender role norms showed a marginally positive association with past-year infidelity in the adjusted model (AOR 1.3, 95% CI 1.0-1.8). The study findings from Guatemala reinforce the growing evidence globally that male IPV perpetrators are more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior, including sex worker patronage and main partner infidelity. The concurrency of violence and increased STI/HIV risk may compound the health risks for female victims of IPV who also face injury and psychological trauma. Integration of prevention and screening of

  14. Saúde, direito à saúde e justiça sanitária

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Arriscado Nunes

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Propõe‑se uma abordagem preliminar dos processos heterogéneos e contingentes através dos quais se definem e constituem mutuamente a saúde e o direito à saúde. São apresentadas e discutidas duas manifestações recentes dessa dinâmica. A primeira situa‑se na linha das transformações associadas às orientações de inspiração neoliberal no campo da saúde, apontando para a passagem da saúde como direito à saúde como imperativo, centrado na responsabilização individual e na centralidade da vigilância e da prevenção. A segunda, designada justiça sanitária, é exemplificada através de situações em que cidadãos, através da acção colectiva e mobilizando os vocabulários dos direitos e da justiça, procuram o reconhecimento como portadores de uma doença, os direitos associados a essa condição e a acção pública sobre situações que afectam a sua saúde.

  15. Ang Demokratikong Sistema at ang mga Modelo ng Pamumuno sa Pilipinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. P. A. Demeterio

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Maraming paraan ang pagsusuri sa problema ng pulitika sa Pilipinas.Para sa mga moralista at ideyalista, halimbawa, maaari itong tingnangamit ang perspektibo ng sistema ng pagpapahalaga (values at moralidad; para sa mga materyalista naman, maaari din itong himayin gamit ang perspektibo ng pagka-di-pantay-pantay ng kayamanan at kapangyarihan(unequal wealth and power ng ating mga mamamayan; o hindi kaya para sa mga eksperto sa sistema at istraktura, maaari din itong dalumatin gamit ang perspektibo ng ating marupok na burukrasya. Susubukan ng papel na ito na pag-aralan ang paksa sa pamamagitan ng pagsusuri sa konsepto ng pamumuno na hinihiling ng ating demokratikong sistema at sa kaparehong konseptong umiiiral naman sa kamalayan ng ating mga kababayan. Gagamitin ng pagsusuring ito, bilang teoretikal na balangkas, ang isang uri ng antropolohikalna teorya at pamamaraan na kilala bilang “kognitibong antropolohiya”(cognitive anthropology.

  16. MimoSA: a system for minimotif annotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kundeti Vamsi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Minimotifs are short peptide sequences within one protein, which are recognized by other proteins or molecules. While there are now several minimotif databases, they are incomplete. There are reports of many minimotifs in the primary literature, which have yet to be annotated, while entirely novel minimotifs continue to be published on a weekly basis. Our recently proposed function and sequence syntax for minimotifs enables us to build a general tool that will facilitate structured annotation and management of minimotif data from the biomedical literature. Results We have built the MimoSA application for minimotif annotation. The application supports management of the Minimotif Miner database, literature tracking, and annotation of new minimotifs. MimoSA enables the visualization, organization, selection and editing functions of minimotifs and their attributes in the MnM database. For the literature components, Mimosa provides paper status tracking and scoring of papers for annotation through a freely available machine learning approach, which is based on word correlation. The paper scoring algorithm is also available as a separate program, TextMine. Form-driven annotation of minimotif attributes enables entry of new minimotifs into the MnM database. Several supporting features increase the efficiency of annotation. The layered architecture of MimoSA allows for extensibility by separating the functions of paper scoring, minimotif visualization, and database management. MimoSA is readily adaptable to other annotation efforts that manually curate literature into a MySQL database. Conclusions MimoSA is an extensible application that facilitates minimotif annotation and integrates with the Minimotif Miner database. We have built MimoSA as an application that integrates dynamic abstract scoring with a high performance relational model of minimotif syntax. MimoSA's TextMine, an efficient paper-scoring algorithm, can be used to

  17. A conceptual framework for cyber security awareness and education in SA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noluxolo Kortjan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Internet is becoming increasingly interwoven in the daily lives of many individuals, organisations and nations. It has, to a large extent, had a positive effect on the way people communicate. It has also introduced new avenues for business; and it has offered nations an opportunity to govern online. Nevertheless, although cyberspace offers an endless list of services and opportunities, it is also accompanied by many risks, of which many Internet users are not aware. As such, various countries have developed and implemented cyber-security awareness and education measures to counter the perceived ignorance of the Internet users. However, there is currently a definite lack in South Africa (SA in this regard; as there are currently, little government-led and sponsored cyber-security awareness and education initiatives. The primary research objective of this paper, therefore, is to propose a cyber-security awareness and education framework for SA that would assist in creating a cyber-secure culture in SA among all of the users of the Internet. This framework will be developed on the basis of key factors extrapolated from a comparative analysis of relevant developed countries.

  18. Testosterone reactivity and identification with a perpetrator or a victim in a story are associated with attraction to violence-related cues

    OpenAIRE

    Weierstall, Roland; Moran, James; Giebel, Gilda; Elbert, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundRecent field research has demonstrated that an attraction to aggressive behavior and cruelty is common among combatants and perpetrators involved in organized violence. The biological basis of this appetitive perception of aggression in humans has to date not been studied.AimsWe examined testosterone as a potential hormonal moderator during induction of specifically appetitive aggressive behavior in the laboratory.MethodTo activate physiological responding related to appetitive aggr...

  19. Pre-Teen Alcohol Use as a Risk Factor for Victimization and Perpetration of Bullying among Middle and High School Students in Georgia

    OpenAIRE

    Swahn, Monica; Topalli, Volkan; Ali, Bina; Strasser, Sheryl; Ashby, Jeffrey; Meyers, Joel

    2011-01-01

    Objective: We examined the association between pre-teen alcohol use initiation and the victimization and perpetration of bullying among middle and high school students in Georgia. Methods: We computed analyses using data from the 2006 Georgia Student Health Survey (N=175,311) of students in grades 6, 8, 10 and 12. The current analyses were limited to students in grades 8, 10 and 12 (n=122,434). We used multilogistic regression analyses to determine the associations between early alco...

  20. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the South African Pain Catastrophizing Scale (SA-PCS among patients with fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morris Linzette D

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pain catastrophization has recently been recognized as a barrier to the healthy development of physical functioning among chronic pain patients. Levels of pain catastrophization in chronic pain patients are commonly measured using the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS. Objective To cross-culturally adapt and validate the South African PCS (SA-PCS among English-, Afrikaans- and Xhosa-speaking patients with fibromyalgia living in the Cape Metropole area, Western Cape, South Africa. Methods The original PCS was cross-culturally adapted in accordance with international standards to develop an English, Afrikaans and Xhosa version of the SA-PCS using a repeated measures study design. Psychometric testing included face/content validity, internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha-α, test-retest reliability (intraclass coefficient correlations-ICC, sensitivity-to-change and cross-sectional convergent validity (by comparing the adapted SA-PCS to related constructs. Results The cross-culturally adapted English, Afrikaans and Xhosa SA-PCS showed good face and content validity, excellent internal consistency (with Chronbach’s α = 0.98, 0.98 and 0.97 for the English, Afrikaans and Xhosa SA-PCS, as a whole, respectively, excellent test-retest reliability (with ICC’s of 0.90, 0.91 and 0.89 for the English, Afrikaans and Xhosa SA-PCS, respectively; as well as satisfactory sensitivity-to-change (with a minimum detectable change of 8.8, 9.0 and 9.3 for the English, Afrikaans and Xhosa SA-PCS, respectively and cross-sectional convergent validity (when compared to pain severity as well as South African versions of the Tampa scale for Kinesiophobia and the revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire. Conclusion The SA-PCS can therefore be recommended as simple, efficient, valid and reliable tool which shows satisfactory sensitivity-to-change and cross-sectional convergent validity, for use among English, Afrikaans and Xhosa-speaking patients with

  1. The Contribution of Childhood Parental Rejection and Early Androgen Exposure to Impairments in Socio-Cognitive Skills in Intimate Partner Violence Perpetrators with High Alcohol Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Moya-Albiol

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption, a larger history of childhood parental rejection, and high prenatal androgen exposure have been linked with facilitation and high risk of recidivism in intimate partner violence (IPV perpetrators. Participants were distributed into two groups according to their alcohol consumption scores as high (HA and low (LA. HA presented a higher history of childhood parental rejection, prenatal masculinization (smaller 2D:4D ratio, and violence-related scores than LA IPV perpetrators. Nonetheless, the former showed poor socio-cognitive skills performance (cognitive flexibility, emotional recognition and cognitive empathy. Particularly in HA IPV perpetrators, the history of childhood parental rejection was associated with high hostile sexism and low cognitive empathy. Moreover, a masculinized 2D:4D ratio was associated with high anger expression and low cognitive empathy. Parental rejection during childhood and early androgen exposure are relevant factors for the development of violence and the lack of adequate empathy in adulthood. Furthermore, alcohol abuse plays a key role in the development of socio-cognitive impairments and in the proneness to violence and its recidivism. These findings contribute to new coadjutant violence intervention programs, focused on the rehabilitation of basic executive functions and emotional decoding processes and on the treatment of alcohol dependence.

  2. The association between childhood maltreatment experiences and the onset of maltreatment perpetration in young adulthood controlling for proximal and distal risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-David, Vered; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Drake, Brett; Kohl, Patricia L

    2015-08-01

    The evidence for association between child maltreatment victimization and later maltreatment perpetration is both scant and mixed. The objective of the present study was to assess the association between childhood maltreatment experiences and later perpetration of maltreatment in young adulthood controlling for proximal young adult functioning, prior youth risk behaviors, and childhood poverty. The study included 6,935 low-income children with (n=4,470) or without (n=2,465) maltreatment reports prior to age 18 followed from ages 1.5 through 11 years through early adulthood (ages 18-26). Administrative data from multiple regional and statewide agencies captured reports of maltreatment, family poverty and characteristics, system contact for health, behavioral risks and mental health in adolescence, and concurrent adult functioning (crime, mental health and poverty). After controlling for proximal adult functioning, repeated instances of neglect or mixed type maltreatment remained associated with young adult perpetration. Females and subjects with adolescent history of runaway, violent behaviors or non-violent delinquency also had higher risk. Greater caregiver education remained associated with reduced risk. The study concludes that prevention of recurrent neglect and mixed forms of maltreatment may reduce risk of maltreatment for future generations. Intervening to increase parental education and decrease adolescent risk behaviors may offer additional benefit.

  3. POSISI DAYA SAING DAN FAKTOR-FAKTOR YANG MEMENGARUHI EKSPOR BUAH-BUAHAN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia Pradipta

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The success of competitiveness of Indonesian fruits export in the destination countries is determined by comparative and competitive advantage and other factors. Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA and Export Product Dynamic (EPD are used in this research to analyze the position of competitiveness of Indonesian fruits export. This research also uses panel gravity model to analyze the factors which affect the export volume of Indonesia fruits (mango, mangosteen, rambutan, banana, and melon. The results from EPD and RCA method show that fruits which have the highest comparative and competitive advantage in destination countries and the world are mangoesteen, mango, and guava. Indonesian fruit which lost its opportunity to compete in the destination countries is strawberry. The results of this research shows that the factors which influence the export of Indonesian fruits to the destination countries are export price, population, economic distance, real GDP and GDP per capita, real exchange rate, Indonesian consumer price index, and dummy variable of crisis which happened in Europe.Keywords: competitiveness, EPD, gravity model, RCAABSTRAKKeberhasilan daya saing ekspor buah Indonesia di negara tujuan ditentukan oleh keunggulan komparatif dan kompetitif serta faktor lainnya. Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA dan Export Product Dynamic (EPD digunakan untuk menganalisis posisi daya saing ekspor buah-buahan Indonesia. Pada penelitian ini digunakan analisis data panel gravity model untuk menganalisis faktor-faktor yang memengaruhi aliran volume ekspor buah-buahan Indonesia (mangga, manggis, rambutan, pisang, dan melon. Pada metode Export Product Dynamic (EPD dan Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA menunjukkan bahwa buah yang memiliki keunggulan komparatif dan kompetitif tertinggi di negara tujuan dan dunia adalah buah manggis, mangga, dan jambu. Ekspor buah Indonesia yang kehilangan kesempatan dalam bersaing di negara tujuan adalah stroberi. Hasil

  4. Tungo sa Hardin ng Tao: “Si Bonifacio ang pinakauna, hindi lamang sa Pilipinas, kundi sa buong Indonesia, oo, sa buong Asia na nanggaling sa, at edukado bilang, proletaryado, na nag-organisa ng mga proletaryo.” ni Tan Malaka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Guillermo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Salin ito ng sanaysay na “Ke Taman Manusia” (sinulat taong 1943 nakathang-isip ng Indones na lider komunista na si Tan Malaka o Ibrahimgelar Datuk Tan Malaka (1897-1949 hinggil sa isang “Taman Manusia”o “Hardin ng Tao” na itatayo ng darating na Republika ng Indonesia sahinaharap. Dahil sa futuristiko nitong perspektiba, maihahalintuladang obrang ito ni Tan Malaka sa sanaysay ni Jose Rizal na “Filipinasdentro de cien años” (Ang Pilipinas sa loob ng isang dantaon (1891.Galing ito sa napakalaking akdang pilosopikal ni Tan Malaka napinamagatang Madilog: Materialisme, Dialektika, Logika (1948(Larawan 1 at tila tumatayo bilang pansarang mga repleksyon nito(Magnis-Suseno, 2005, pp. 205-233. Ang akdang ito ay unanginilathala noong 1951 ng Terbitan Widjaya sa Jakarta.

  5. Bacillus licheniformis SA03 Confers Increased Saline–Alkaline Tolerance in Chrysanthemum Plants by Induction of Abscisic Acid Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Zhou

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil saline-alkalization is a major abiotic stress that leads to low iron (Fe availability and high toxicity of sodium ions (Na+ for plants. It has recently been shown that plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR can enhance the ability of plants to tolerate multiple abiotic stresses such as drought, salinity, and nutrient deficiency. However, the possible involvement of PGPR in improving saline–alkaline tolerance of plants and the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of Bacillus licheniformis (strain SA03 on the growth of Chrysanthemum plants under saline–alkaline conditions. Our results revealed that inoculation with SA03 alleviated saline–alkaline stress in plants with increased survival rates, photosynthesis and biomass. The inoculated plants accumulated more Fe and lower Na+ concentrations under saline–alkaline stress compared with the non-inoculated plants. RNA-Sequencing analyses further revealed that SA03 significantly activated abiotic stress- and Fe acquisition-related pathways in the stress-treated plants. However, SA03 failed to increase saline–alkaline tolerance in plants when cellular abscisic acid (ABA and nitric oxide (NO synthesis were inhibited by treatment with fluridone (FLU and 2-(4-carboxyphenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (c-PTIO, respectively. Importantly, we also found that NO acted downstream of SA03-induced ABA to activate a series of adaptive responses in host plants under saline–alkaline stress. These findings demonstrated the potential roles of B. licheniformis SA03 in enhancing saline–alkaline tolerance of plants and highlighted the intricate integration of microbial signaling in regulating cellular Fe and Na+ accumulation.

  6. Profiles of the parents of adolescent CSA perpetrators attending a voluntary outpatient treatment programme in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Duane, Yvonne; Carr, Alan; Cherry, Joan; et al

    2003-01-01

    A group of 22 parents of adolescent sexual offenders (PASO) was compared with a group of 19 normal controls (NC) and 10 clinical controls (CC) on demographic, developmental, personal adjustment and family environment variables. The assessment protocol included the General Health Questionnaire –12, the Culture-Free Self-Esteem Inventory, the Child Behaviour Checklist, the Family Assessment Device, the Parent Satisfaction Scale, and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Compar...

  7. SA8000标准的来历

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    社会道德责任标准Social Accoutability 8000或简称SA8000。自1997年问世以来,受到了公众极大的关注,在美欧工商界引起了强烈反响。专家们认为,SA8000是ISO9000、ISO14000之后出现的又一个重要的国际性标准,并迟早会转化为ISO标准;通过SA8000认证将成为国际市场竞争中的又一重要武器。有远见的组织家应未

  8. Sexual abuse of children – psychological and psychodynamic traits and functioning of the perpetrator, the partner and the victim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Rojšek

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Sexual abuse significantly affects the victim's formation and his/her functioning and causes or predisposes certain physical and psychical problems both during the subject's childhood and his/her adulthood. The intensity of the problems depends on the victim's age, his/her pre-morbid personality, the form and the duration of the abuse. Emotional and behavioural reactions are specific in different age periods and as such characteristic for the abuse. Within the therapeutic context first reactions of the surroundings i.e. as support, security and acceptance are important. Psychotherapeutic treatment is established regarding its form ant contents. On the other side we deal with case studies and statistical research dealing with male and female perpetrators and their partners who tend to show peculiarities in their personality structures and personal traits. In addition to that there are elements of ego defects and characteristic object relations and self pathology. Constitutional characteristics and personal traits enable the application of the biological therapy and a wide range of psychotherapeutic approaches.

  9. Arrest History and Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration in a Sample of Men and Women Arrested for Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C; Ninnemann, Andrew; Elmquist, Joanna; Labrecque, Lindsay; Zucosky, Heather; Febres, Jeniimarie; Brasfield, Hope; Temple, Jeff R; Stuart, Gregory L

    2012-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious and prevalent problem throughout the United States. Currently, individuals arrested for domestic violence are often court mandated to batterer intervention programs (BIPs). However, little is known about the arrest histories of these individuals, especially women. The current study examined the arrest histories of men (n = 303) and women (n = 82) arrested for domestic violence and court-referred to BIPs. Results demonstrated that over 30% of the entire sample had been previously arrested for a non-violent offense, and over 25% of the participants had been previously arrested for a violent offense other than domestic violence. Moreover, men were arrested significantly more frequently for violence-related and non-violent offenses than their female counterparts. In addition, men were more likely than women to have consumed binge-levels of alcohol prior to the offense that led to their most recent arrest and court-referral to a BIP. Lastly, arrest history was positively associated with physical and psychological aggression perpetration against an intimate partner for men only, such that more previous arrests were associated with more frequent aggression. These results provide evidence that many men and women arrested for domestic violence have engaged in a number of diverse criminal acts during their lifetimes, suggesting that BIPs may need to address general criminal behavior.

  10. A riot on campus: The effects of social identity complexity on emotions and reparative attitudes after ingroup-perpetrated violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costabile, Kristi A; Austin, Adrienne B

    2017-08-02

    When a group commits a transgression, members who identify closely with the group often engage in defensive strategies in which they are less likely to experience guilt and shame in response to the transgression than are less identified group members. Subsequently, highly identified group members are often less willing to offer reparations to the injured parties. Because appropriate emotional responses and reparations are critical to community reconciliation, the present investigation examined whether social identity complexity-the degree to which individuals perceive their multiple social identities as interrelated-reduced these defensive responses. In the aftermath of a campus riot, emotional responses and reparative attitudes of undergraduate students were assessed. Results indicated that individuals who closely identified with the university were in fact capable of experiencing guilt and shame, but only if they also had complex social identities. A path model indicated that emotional responses, in turn, predicted willingness to provide reparations to the campus community. Accordingly, social identity complexity provides a new approach to understanding responses to ingroup-perpetrated violence. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Structural determinants of client perpetrated violence among female sex workers in two Mexican-U.S. border cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conners, Erin E.; Silverman, Jay G.; Ulibarri, Monica; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Staines-Orozco, Hugo; Patterson, Thomas L.; Brouwer, Kimberly C.

    2015-01-01

    Female sex workers (FSW) are disproportionately affected by both HIV and gender-based violence, such as that perpetrated by clients (CPV). We used a structural determinants framework to assess correlates of physical or sexual CPV in the past 6 months among FSW in the Mexico/U.S. border cities of Ciudad Juárez and Tijuana. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis identified individual, client, interpersonal, work environment and macrostructural factors associated with recent CPV. Among 496 FSW, 5% experienced recent CPV. Witnessing violence towards other FSW in one's neighborhood (aOR:5.6, 95% CI:1.8-17.2), having a majority of foreign (aOR:3.5, 95% CI:1.4-8.4) or substance using (aOR:4.0, 95% CI:1.5-10.4) clients, and being a street worker (aOR:3.0, 95% CI:1.1-7.7) were independently associated with recent CPV. Our findings underscore the vulnerability of FSWs and the need to design policies and interventions addressing macro-level influences on CPV rather than exclusively targeting individual behaviors. PMID:26111732

  12. Structural Determinants of Client Perpetrated Violence Among Female Sex Workers in Two Mexico-U.S. Border Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conners, Erin E; Silverman, Jay G; Ulibarri, Monica; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Staines-Orozco, Hugo; Patterson, Thomas L; Brouwer, Kimberly C

    2016-01-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) are disproportionately affected by both HIV and gender-based violence, such as that perpetrated by clients (CPV). We used a structural determinants framework to assess correlates of physical or sexual CPV in the past 6 months among FSWs in the Mexico/U.S. border cities of Ciudad Juárez and Tijuana. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis identified individual, client, interpersonal, work environment and macrostructural factors associated with recent CPV. Among 496 FSWs, 5 % experienced recent CPV. Witnessing violence towards other FSWs in one's neighborhood (aOR 5.6, 95 % CI 1.8-17.2), having a majority of foreign (aOR 3.5, 95 % CI 1.4-8.4) or substance using (aOR 4.0, 95 % CI 1.5-10.4) clients, and being a street worker (aOR 3.0, 95 % CI 1.1-7.7) were independently associated with recent CPV. Our findings underscore the vulnerability of FSWs and the need to design policies and interventions addressing macro-level influences on CPV rather than exclusively targeting individual behaviors.

  13. A mobile diabetes management and educational system for type-2 diabetics in Saudi Arabia (SAED).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alotaibi, Mohammed M; Istepanian, Robert; Philip, Nada

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is a chronic disease, with high prevalence across many nations, which is characterized by elevated level of blood glucose and risk of acute and chronic complication. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has one of the highest levels of diabetes prevalence globally. It is well-known that the treatment of diabetes is complex process and requires both lifestyle change and clear pharmacologic treatment plan. To avoid the complication from diabetes, the effective behavioural change and extensive education and self-management is one of the key approaches to alleviate such complications. However, this process is lengthy and expensive. The recent studies on the user of smart phone technologies for diabetes self-management have proven to be an effective tool in controlling hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels especially in type-2 diabetic (T2D) patients. However, to date no reported study addressed the effectiveness of this approach in the in Saudi patients. This study investigates the impact of using mobile health technologies for the self-management of diabetes in Saudi Arabia. In this study, an intelligent mobile diabetes management system (SAED), tailored for T2D patients in KSA was developed. A pilot study of the SAED system was conducted in Saudi Arabia with 20 diabetic patients for 6 months duration. The patients were randomly categorized into a control group who did not use the SAED system and an intervention group whom used the SAED system for their diabetes management during this period. At the end of the follow-up period, the HbA1c levels in the patients in both groups were measure together with a diabetes knowledge test was also conducted to test the diabetes awareness of the patients. The results of SAED pilot study showed that the patients in the intervention group were able to significantly decrease their HbA1c levels compared to the control group. The SAED system also enhanced the diabetes awareness amongst the patients in the intervention group during the trial

  14. PET-Saúde: micropolítica, formação e o trabalho em saúde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Tereza da Cruz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo analisa os efeitos que podem ser coletados das múltiplas experiências cotidianas vivenciadas pelos tutores/as, preceptores/as e alunos/as participantes do Programa de Educação pelo Trabalho para Saúde (PET-Saúde quando se trata de utilizá-las para se pensarem transformações na micropolítica da formação universitária e no trabalho em saúde. Tem como eixo uma pergunta: O Programa Pet-Saúde, nos seus processos cotidianos, é capaz de produzir efeitos que alargam a matriz de formação que tem como característica principal os processos de ensignação? Mais do que polarizar entre o sim e o não, temos como objetivo colocar em discussão as apostas na formação e atuação do campo da produção do cuidado em saúde, tentando pensar o que têm sido esses campos no âmbito da educação brasileira, e como é possível re-inventar processos de formação que tomam muito mais as desaprendizagens e as potencialidades dos diferentes atores envolvidos.

  15. Sindicalismo, SUS e planos de saúde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto Pina

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute a interlocução do sindicalismo brasileiro com o Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS e os planos e seguros privados de saúde. São ponderadas algumas teses na Saúde Coletiva à luz de estudos mais recentes nas Ciências Sociais sobre o sindicalismo e realizada análise documental para o caso da Central Única dos Trabalhadores (CUT, tomado aqui como referência. Aponta-se a necessidade de considerar os pesos relativos que a ação sindical atribuiu a cada um dos aspectos da relação, SUS e planos privados de saúde, pelas distintas conjunturas do país. O conflito entre trabalhadores e empresas somado ao desemprego e à precarização do trabalho expõe os limites das coberturas assistenciais privadas e impele a representação sindical a pleitear a intervenção estatal. O trabalho refletiu sobre as distintas modalidades de ação sindical na empresa e no Estado. A complexidade dessa dinâmica fez emergir um setor sindical interessado na gestão da previdência complementar e dos planos de saúde e, ao mesmo tempo, recria as circunstâncias e traz novas possibilidades de as organizações sindicais se colocarem na cena política e aglutinar os interesses de amplos segmentos dos trabalhadores para pressionar o Estado na defesa da melhoria do sistema público de saúde.

  16. Product policy of SC Electrecord S.A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph. D. Candidate Cristina Andreescu (Manolache

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The global brand has the advantage of the scale economy, facilitates the company image and prestige and sometimes benefits even from its origin country effect. Its use is quite difficult (the semantic variations can impede the use of the same brand. The international brands act as a restriction against standardisation (the product should not be differentiated as there are internationally accepted and recognized brands. This paper makes an overview description of the general market environment, but also of the arket environment of SC ELECTRECORD S.A.; it underlines the product characteristics as well as the commercial diagnosis within SC ELECTRECORD S.A.

  17. SaRDIn - A Safe Reconfigurable Distributed Interlocking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantechi, A.; Gnesi, S.; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth;

    2016-01-01

    Current computer-based interlocking systems most often have a centralized design, with all logic residing in a single computer. Centralized interlockings are complex to design. Following the general trend in Cyber-Physical Systems, the SaRDIn (Safe Reconfigurable Distributed Interlockings) concept...... promises a radically simpler solution. The novelty of the SaRDIn concept is a fine-grained distribution of the logic over all processors deployed at the sensors and actuators along the track layout, i.e. within the track circuits, point machines, signals, etc. The advantages and drawbacks...

  18. For-LySa: UML for Authentication Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholtz, Mikael; Montangero, Carlo; Perrone, Lara;

    2005-01-01

    The DEGAS project aims at enriching standard UML-centred development environments in such a way that the developers of global applications can exploit automated formal analyses with minimal overhead. In this paper, we present For-LySa, an instantiation of the DEGAS approach for authentication...... analysis, which exploits an existing analysis tool developed for the process calculus LySa. We discuss what information is needed for the analysis, and how to build the UML model of an authentication protocol in such a way that the needed information can be extracted from the model. We then present our...

  19. Can a "Psychosocial Model" Help Explain Violence Perpetrated by Female Batterers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Regardt J.; Buttell, Frederick P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the psychosocial predictors of propensity for abusiveness among a large sample of women ordered into a 26-week batterer intervention program (BIP). Method: The study employed a nonequivalent, control group design (comparing program completers to dropouts) in a secondary analysis of 485 women.…

  20. Ressignificando Promoção de Saúde em Grupos para Profissionais da Saúde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegrid Kurzawa Zwiener dos Santos

    Full Text Available RESUMO Diferenças entre os conceitos de promoção e prevenção não estão claras para parte dos profissionais de saúde, incluindo médicos e estudantes de Medicina. Este trabalho objetivou problematizar o conceito de grupos de promoção de saúde para contribuir com o desenvolvimento da autonomia de profissionais de modo a avaliarem criticamente a maneira como vinham realizando educação em saúde e a refletirem sobre novas práticas. Foram realizados seis encontros no formato de círculos de cultura com profissionais da Estratégia Saúde da Família (ESF. Após esse trabalho, o grupo compreendeu a diferença entre promoção e prevenção. Promoção foi entendida como abordagem de condições de vida, cidadania, moradia, dinâmica familiar, como um processo que capacita para enfrentamentos, desenvolvimento do afeto, da discussão, do ouvir, do aceitar, do opinar e do oferecer. Os profissionais concluíram que é necessário desenvolver a autonomia dos grupos e indivíduos, ouvir a comunidade para compreender suas necessidades, resgatar o saber que a população possui e ver a saúde como um todo. Fatores biológicos foram relacionados à prevenção, e os sociais e psicológicos à promoção. O grupo é um instrumento importante para a promoção de saúde e deve ter uma metodologia problematizadora.

  1. Mga Kuwento-Kuwento ng Baliw: Lihis na Pagkilos sa Mga Maikling-Kuwentong Tagalog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Ziganay

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available Ang sulating ito ay nalikha upang magbigay ng isang pagsusuri at pagtatalakay sa pagbuo ng konsepto ng abnormalidad o kakaibang kilos o pananaw buhat sa mga piling uri ng panitikang Pilipinong naisulat sa wikang Ingles noong ika-1900 hanggang 1945. Pag-uukulan ng pansin dito ang panahon at kalagayang binanggit, ang mga suliraning binanggit, ang maga suliranin ng pagbuo ng panitikang Pilipino sa Ingles, at ang daloy ng kaisipan ng mga manunulat na may kaugnayan sa pag-unawa ng konsepto ng abnormalidad na sumasalamin sa ilang mga piling sulatin, tuwiran man o di tuwiran.

  2. Saúde mental nas práticas em saúde: a experiência do PROLIG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Mucci

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho apresenta o relato de experiências do Serviço de Atenção Psicossocial Integrada em Saúde (SAPIS nos Programas de Ligação (PROLIG. O SAPIS foi implantado em junho de 2002, no Hospital São Paulo (HSP, com o objetivo de promover uma atenção mais ampla às necessidades gerais e específicas do hospital no que diz respeito aos aspectos psicossociais bem como de reorganizar a inclusão de profissionais de saúde mental nas enfermarias e ambulatórios. Esse estudo tem como objetivo descrever a atuação do psicólogo como profissional de ligação em saúde mental no atendimento às demandas específicas de unidades do HSP. A tarefa do profissional de ligação em saúde mental envolve a assistência psicológica ao paciente e seu familiar assim como o desempenho do papel de especialista em saúde mental junto à equipe multiprofissional. Temos encontrado em nossa prática, no entanto, algumas dificuldades para a implementação e a manutenção de algumas propostas. Concluímos que a atuação do psicólogo como profissional de ligação de saúde mental tem promovido mudanças nos cuidados em saúde nessa instituição, porém ainda exige uma profunda reflexão e maior envolvimento da instituição e de políticas de saúde que viabilizem mudanças estruturais para a construção de uma efetiva prática integral e integrada nessa área.

  3. Qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde em espanholas com osteoporose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LLM Aranha

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde de pacientes com osteoporose e compará-la com a população geral. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo descritivo transversal com 60 pacientes do sexo feminino no serviço de reumatologia de um hospital universitário na Espanha, de abril a outubro de 2003. Foi aplicado o questionário Short Form-36, abordando dados demográficos, características clínicas e dados sobre estilos de vida relacionados à saúde. As pacientes foram classificadas em grupos etários. Foram utilizados os seguintes testes estatísticos: qui-quadrado, modelo linear geral, t de Student. RESULTADOS: As entrevistadas tinham idade média de 65,57 (DP: ±9,7 anos, e tempo de diagnóstico médio de 3,4±2,84 anos. As melhores pontuações foram obtidas nas dimensões aspectos sociais (89, aspectos emocionais (72,2 e saúde mental (63. As mais baixas foram em estado geral de saúde (45,1, capacidade funcional (47,7, dor (52,3 e aspectos físicos (59,9. As pontuações médias dos pacientes resultaram inferiores às pontuações conhecidas da população geral espanhola nas dimensões capacidade funcional, aspectos físicos, dor e estado geral de saúde. As máximas diferenças entre as pontuações médias do SF-36 dos pacientes e os valores populacionais espanhóis correspondem ao grupo de idade de 55 a 64 anos. Nas demais dimensões do SF-36, as pontuações foram inferiores ou similares aos valores populacionais espanhóis. Não se encontraram associações significativas entre as dimensões do SF-36 estudadas e os dados clínicos, demográficos e de estilos de vida analisados. CONCLUSÕES: Os pacientes apresentaram baixa qualidade de vida, sobretudo nas dimensões mais relevantes da enfermidade, quando comparada com valores da população espanhola em geral. As áreas físicas foram as mais afetadas.

  4. Programa de saúde mental Programme in mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cid Guimarães

    1975-12-01

    Full Text Available É apresentado o programa de Saúde Mental decorrente de convênio estabelecido pela Secretaria da Saúde do Estado de São Paulo com a Universidade de São Paulo, através da Faculdade de Saúde Pública. Este convênio tem por finalidade a realização de estudos na área de Saúde Mental, tais como assistência psiquiátrica preventiva e pesquisas visando a medir transtornos mentais através de casos de óbito e na população da cidade e de cursos e atividades curriculares e extra-curriculares.The School of Public Health is conducting a project, sponsored by the Health Department of the State of S. Paulo Government, aiming at: studying the integration of a team of mental health workers in a polivalent community health center; carrying out two large surveys on the incidence and prevalence of mental disorders and some of their characteristics; promoting courses and seminars on Mental Health for the personnel of Community Health Centers.

  5. Fonoaudiologia em saúde pública

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina M. Freire

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se obter o entendimento das funções do fonoaudiólogo enquanto profissional da saúde. Discutem-se as dificuldades ligadas à implantação de um serviço novo, estranho às Unidades Básicas de Saúde. A seguir, analisa-se a demanda pelo serviço de Fonoaudiologia em postos de saúde, e verifica-se que 32% da população que busca esse serviço está em idade escolar e vem encaminhada pelas escolas, com queixa de problemas de aprendizagem. Uma aproximação maior dessas crianças, através do atendimento fonoaudiológico, delineia uma outra realidade: a de que não se pode considerar como distúrbio/desvio/problema/patologia marcas gráficas que se constituem como indícios do choque entre o processo de letramento e o de alfabetização. Entendendo a problemática do ponto de vista da saúde pública, propõe-se um programa de atendimento ao professor, cujo objetivo é o esclarecimento da escola com relação ao seu papel de co-construtora do processo de letramento da criança, devolvendo-lhe a responsabilidade pelo sucesso e/ou fracasso da alfabetização.

  6. KELEMBAGAAN DAN STRATEGI PENINGKATAN DAYA SAING KOMODITAS CABAI KAPUPATEN GARUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silmi Tsurayya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to identify supply chains, analyze the institutions, formulate strategies for competitiveness enhancement, design competitiveness enhancement model, and determine the main strategies in competitiveness enhancement of chili pepper in Garut District. This study used primary data (observations, interviews, and questionnaires and secondary data (literature study. The data were processed and analyzed by Descriptive Analysis, SWOT Analysis, the House Model, and Pairwise Comparison. The results of this study showed that: 1 there were 6 supply chain structures in chili pepper distribution; 2 the major institutional sectors contributed to competitiveness enhancement of chili pepper including public sector, voluntary sector, and private sector; 3 SWOT Analysis obtained 15 alternative strategies; 4 the House Model as competitiveness enhancement model had 3 pillars consisting of products, human resource, and institutional and marketing; 5 the main strategies in competitiveness enhancement of chili pepper included Increase in the number of productions, Market expansion, and Partnership Strengthening and development. The managerial implications of the study suggest: 1 land expansion and plant arrangement pattern to ensure continuity of production quantities; 2 Optimization of the role of Agribusiness Sub-Terminal as the marketing institution; and 3 Maximization in the government’s role in facilitating farmer groups with associations or corporations.Keywords: institutional, the house model, competitiveness, chili, SWOTABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan mengidentifikasi rantai pasok, menganalisis kelembagaan, merumuskan strategi peningkatan daya saing, merancang model peningkatan daya saing, dan menentukan strategi utama dalam peningkatan daya saing  komoditas cabai di Kabupaten Garut. Data yang digunakan terdiri dari data primer (observasi, wawancara, dan kuesioner dan data sekunder (studi literatur. Metode pengolahan dan

  7. Electricity Demand Projection Using a Path-Coefficient Analysis and BAG-SA Approach: A Case Study of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qunli Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Path-coefficient analysis is utilized to investigate the direct and indirect effects of economic growth, population growth, urbanization rate, industrialization level, and carbon intensity on electricity demand of China. To improve the projection accuracy of electricity demand, this study proposes a hybrid bat algorithm, Gaussian perturbations, and simulated annealing (BAG-SA optimization method. The proposed BAG-SA algorithm not only inherits the simplicity and efficiency of the standard BA with a capability of searching for global optimality but also enhances local search ability and speeds up the global convergence rate. The BAG-SA algorithm is employed to optimize the coefficients of the multiple linear and quadratic forms of electricity demand estimation model. Results indicate that the proposed algorithm has higher precision and reliability than the coefficients optimized by other single-optimization methods, such as genetic algorithm, particle swarm optimization algorithm, or bat algorithm. And the quadratic form of BAG-SA electricity demand estimation model has better fitting ability compared with the multiple linear form of the model. Therefore, the quadratic form of the model is applied to estimate electricity demand of China from 2016 to 2030. The findings of this study demonstrate that China’s electricity demand will reach 14925200 million KWh in 2030.

  8. Master curve characterization of the fracture toughness behavior in SA508 Gr.4N low alloy steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ki-Hyoung; Kim, Min-Chul; Lee, Bong-Sang; Wee, Dang-Moon

    2010-08-01

    The fracture toughness properties of the tempered martensitic SA508 Gr.4N Ni-Mo-Cr low alloy steel for reactor pressure vessels were investigated by using the master curve concept. These results were compared to those of the bainitic SA508 Gr.3 Mn-Mo-Ni low alloy steel, which is a commercial RPV material. The fracture toughness tests were conducted by 3-point bending with pre-cracked charpy (PCVN) specimens according to the ASTM E1921-09c standard method. The temperature dependency of the fracture toughness was steeper than those predicted by the standard master curve, while the bainitic SA508 Gr.3 steel fitted well with the standard prediction. In order to properly evaluate the fracture toughness of the Gr.4N steels, the exponential coefficient of the master curve equation was changed and the modified curve was applied to the fracture toughness test results of model alloys that have various chemical compositions. It was found that the modified curve provided a better description for the overall fracture toughness behavior and adequate T0 determination for the tempered martensitic SA508 Gr.4N steels.

  9. WRKY Transcription Factors Involved in Activation of SA Biosynthesis Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bol John F

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased defense against a variety of pathogens in plants is achieved through activation of a mechanism known as systemic acquired resistance (SAR. The broad-spectrum resistance brought about by SAR is mediated through salicylic acid (SA. An important step in SA biosynthesis in Arabidopsis is the conversion of chorismate to isochorismate through the action of isochorismate synthase, encoded by the ICS1 gene. Also AVRPPHB SUSCEPTIBLE 3 (PBS3 plays an important role in SA metabolism, as pbs3 mutants accumulate drastically reduced levels of SA-glucoside, a putative storage form of SA. Bioinformatics analysis previously performed by us identified WRKY28 and WRKY46 as possible regulators of ICS1 and PBS3. Results Expression studies with ICS1 promoter::β-glucuronidase (GUS genes in Arabidopsis thaliana protoplasts cotransfected with 35S::WRKY28 showed that over expression of WRKY28 resulted in a strong increase in GUS expression. Moreover, qRT-PCR analyses indicated that the endogenous ICS1 and PBS3 genes were highly expressed in protoplasts overexpressing WRKY28 or WRKY46, respectively. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays indentified potential WRKY28 binding sites in the ICS1 promoter, positioned -445 and -460 base pairs upstream of the transcription start site. Mutation of these sites in protoplast transactivation assays showed that these binding sites are functionally important for activation of the ICS1 promoter. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays with haemagglutinin-epitope-tagged WRKY28 showed that the region of the ICS1 promoter containing the binding sites at -445 and -460 was highly enriched in the immunoprecipitated DNA. Conclusions The results obtained here confirm results from our multiple microarray co-expression analyses indicating that WRKY28 and WRKY46 are transcriptional activators of ICS1 and PBS3, respectively, and support this in silico screening as a powerful tool for identifying new components of stress

  10. Paraphilia-related disorders and personality disorders in sexual homicide perpetrators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin P. Kafka

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the relationship between paraphilias (PA, paraphilia-related disorders (PRD, and personality disorders retrospectively in a sample of 161 sexual murderers. Four groups were compared: (1 sexual murderers without a PA or a PRD diagnosis (n=47, (2 sexual murderers with at least one PRD but no PA (n=29, (3 murderers with at least one PA but no PRDs (n=29, and finally, (4 those with a combination of both (PA + PRD, n=56. The PA + PRD group showed a significantly higher prevalence for antisocial (42.9% and sadistic (32.1% personality disorders compared to the three other groups. Schizoid personality disorder was more often diagnosed in the two paraphilic diagnosed subgroups (PA = 24.1%; PA + PRD = 24.9%. Our data suggests that PRDs and personality disorders should be systematically assessed in sexual offenders, and that the combination of PAs and PRDs in sexual offenders may characterize a group who are more impulsive, consistent with personality disorders such as antisocial personality disorder.

  11. Original article Intrapersonal correlates of aggression in adolescents: determinants of undertaking the role of the perpetrator and the victim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzanna Farnicka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Youthful aggression, perceived both as a social phenomenon and a psychological issue, is the subject matter of numerous theoretical analyses and scientific studies. Usually, their aim is to determine the consequences of aggressive behaviour, especially the development of criminal behaviour. However, empirical studies devoted to the relations between aggressive behaviour of Polish youth and intrapersonal factors are still lacking. The main aim of the research presented in this paper was to determine the relationship between attachment, temperament, aggressiveness and aggressive behaviour among young people. For research purposes, the multidimensional aggression model developed by Anderson and Bushman was used. Participants and procedure Measurements were carried out with the Buss-Perry Aggressiveness Scale, the Parent and Peer Attachment Inventory by Armsden and Greenberg, the Buss and Plomin Temperament Scale and the Mini DIA Questionnaire (Österman and Björqvist. The studied group consisted of 120 young persons aged between 16 and 19. Results The research results support the conclusion that the dominant temperamental component of persons characterized by a high level of aggressiveness is anger. Also, correlations were found indicating that a high level of trust and a high level of alienation in the relationship with the mother are connected with anger as an aggressiveness component. Conclusions The actually undertaken aggressive behaviour depends on the prevailing aggressiveness dimension: the frequency of perpetrator-type behaviour increases along with the general aggressiveness level and the frequency of its manifestation in the form of physical and verbal aggression, while the frequency of victim-type behaviour increases along with the experienced level of anger and hostility.

  12. STRATEGI PENINGKATAN DAYA SAING INDUSTRI FURNITURE ROTAN INDONESIA DI KAWASAN ASEAN DAN TIONGKOK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudi Eko Setyawan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Competitiveness of a country’s export commodities is one of the indicators used to measure its economic progress. This study aims to analyze the competitiveness of Indonesian rattan furniture in China and the ASEAN region, along with the influencing factors and to conclude appropriate strategies to improve its competitiveness. The analysis was conducted by utilizing Diamond's Porter, Normalized Revealed Comparative Advantage (NRCA, and panel data regression. The results showed that the competitiveness of Indonesian rattan furniture in the ASEAN region and China, in the period of 2001 to 2014, is fluctuated with small level of competitiveness. This notion can be seen from all of the positive NRCA index values. In the Fixed Effects Model (FEM, the independent variables that significantly influence NRCA include the export prices and volumes, global prices of rattan furniture and raw rattan, the number of rattan industries, production of real rattan, production value of rattan, investment of rattan industry, direct labor of rattan industry, interest rate of Bank loans, implementation of ACFTA and violation policy of raw and semi-finished rattan exports. To increase the competitiveness of Indonesian rattan furniture, the government is urged to establish a development or training center for the innovative designs and improvement of quality standard of Indonesian rattan furniture. This is also supported by a guarantee of rattan raw material availability and technological improvement of rattan processing industry. Thus, the third step to perform is the improvement of infrastructure and distribution chain, improvement of market information systems, and strengthening of brand image of rattan furniture in Indonesia.Keywords:  competitiveness of rattan furniture, diamond's porter, normalized revealed comparative advantage, fixed effect model ABSTRAKDaya saing komoditas ekspor negara merupakan salah satu indikator yang digunakan untuk mengukur kemajuan

  13. Promoção da saúde, qualidade de vida e iniquidade em saúde: reflexões para a saúde pública.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Rodrigues de ALMEIDA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A ideia de promover saúde tem se tornado uma energia fundamental no movimento de saúde coletiva, no qual saúde é um fenômeno social e marcado por iniquidades. Este trabalho teve como objetivo compreender as relações entre promoção da saúde e iniquidades de acesso e assistência em saúde, identificandoos entraves para uma prática equânime da saúde pública com ênfase à qualidade de vida. Os diferentes perfis de doença e suas mediações sociais ultrapassam os estudos de variação biológica e incorpora o foco na dimensão social das vulnerabilidades. Para promover saúde no Brasil, é indissociável do enfrentamento de uma realidade de iniquidades históricas de grandes proporções que impõem desafios cotidianos não apenas ao setor de saúde, mas a todos aqueles que constroem políticas públicas. A qualidade de vida depende da satisfação das necessidades básicas de todos os cidadãos, propondo uma gestão baseada na solidariedade social, uma visão holística dos problemas e a redução das iniquidades. A promoção da saúde em um país tão desigual como o Brasil propõe um desafio constante aos atores envolvidos no sistema de saúde. A compreensão das iniquidades em saúde para estabelecer uma assistência holística é um processo difícil, mas extremamente relevante para a saúde pública.

  14. Growth, physicochemical properties, and morphogenesis of Chinese wild-type PRV Fa and its gene-deleted mutant strain PRV SA215

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Shanhu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PRV Fa is common in China and causes most of the pseudorabies in the pig industry. A PRV SA215 strain with deleted gE, gI, and TK genes was constructed to develop a commercial attenuated live vaccine. However, the physicochemical properties, growth pattern, penetration kinetics, and morphogenesis of the PRV SA215 and its parental PRV Fa strain are unclear. Results A series of experiments were conducted to characterize both strains and provide more information. PRV Fa and PRV SA215 were found to have similar penetration patterns, with about 5 min half-time of penetration. The SA215 strain exhibited a slight delay in entry compared with PRV Fa. In the one-step growth test, the titers of the SA215 strain were first detected at 8 h, rapidly increased, and peaked at 12 h. A plateau was formed between 12-36 h of culturing. PRV SA215 showed delayed replication and approximately 10-30-fold lower titers during 0-16 h of culturing compared with the PRV-Fa strain. After 16 h, the PRV Fa titers dramatically decreased, whereas those of PRV SA215 were prolonged to 36 h and reached a titer value equal to that of PRV Fa and then decreased. Both strains were sensitive to both heat and acid-alkali treatments; however, PRV Fa was relatively more stable to heat treatment than PRV SA215. Both strains could propagate in the cultures with pH values from 5.0 to 9.0. Cultures with pH below 3.0 or above 11.0 were fatal to both strains. Both strains had considerable resistance to freeze-thawing treatments. Morphogenetic investigations showed that typical phases in the maturation pathway were observed in the PRV Fa-infected PK15 cells, whereas secondary envelopment was not observed in the PRV SA215 strain. Instead, capsid aggregations with concomitants of electrodense materials were observed. Conclusions These results suggest that PRV SA215 is a promising strain for vaccine development

  15. Sequence determinants for DNA packaging specificity in the S. aureus pathogenicity island SaPI1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, Joana C; Lane, Kristin D; Read, Erik K; Cerca, Nuno; Christie, Gail E

    2014-01-01

    The SaPIs and their relatives are a family of genomic islands that exploit helper phages for high frequency horizontal transfer. One of the mechanisms used by SaPIs to accomplish this molecular piracy is the redirection of the helper phage DNA packaging machinery. SaPIs encode a small terminase subunit that can be substituted for that of the phage. In this study we have determined the initial packaging cleavage sites for helper phage 80α, which uses the phage-encoded small terminase subunit, and for SaPI1, which uses the SaPI-encoded small terminase subunit. We have identified a 19nt SaPI1 sequence that is necessary and sufficient to allow high frequency 80α transduction of a plasmid by a terminase carrying the SaPI1-encoded small subunit. We also show that the hybrid enzyme with the SaPI1 small terminase subunit is capable of generalized transduction.

  16. Isolation of Asticcacaulis sp. SA7, a novel agar-degrading alphaproteobacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoda, Akifumi; Sakai, Masao

    2006-03-01

    An agar-degrading bacterium, strain SA7, was isolated from plant roots cultivated in soil. Analysis of the 16S rDNA sequence showed that strain SA7 is affiliated with the genus Asticcacaulis. Strain SA7 produced extracellular agarase, and grew utilizing agar in the culture medium as sole carbon source. Zymogram analysis showed that strain SA7 extracellularly secreted single agarase protein (about 70 kDa).

  17. Psychological trauma of severe physical violence perpetrators with violent pedigree%暴力高发家系施暴者的精神创伤研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳娜; 李箕君; 张宁; 张亚林

    2015-01-01

    Objetive To explore the feature and influence of psychological trauma of severe physical violence (SPV) perpetrators with or without violent pedigree,and to provide theoretical basis in the intervention of domestic violence.Methods The cases of domestic violence were identified based on appeals for help to police stations,local Women' s Federations,Residents' Community Committee,Center of Community Health Services,the judicial branch of city governments.The subjects were screened,recruited and divided into the group of the abusers with violent pedigree(AP,n=136),the group of abusers without violent pedigree (ANP,n =105),the group of non-abusers with violent pedigree(NAP,n=105) and the group of non-abusers without violent pedigree(NANP,n =198).The features and influence of psychological trauma in four groups were compared.Results (1) In AP group,above 6 traumatic events got 66.1 percent.The median of the number of traumatic events in AP group was 7,and outstanding statistical significance existed among four groups(P<0.01).(2)The scores of avoidance (1.37± 0.79) and intrusion(1.40±0.80) and added scores of IES-R(4.08±2.30) in AP group were significantly higher than the other groups,while the scores of hyper-vigilance (1.31 ± 0.88) were higher than NAP (0.95 ± 0.75) and NANP group(0.94±0.83).The scores of intrusion(1.22±0.83) and hyper-vigilance (1.14±0.85) in ANP group were significantly higher than those in the NANP group(P<0.05).(3)The scores of witness DV,childhood emotional,physical and sexual abuse and the numbers of traumatic events were positively related with the traumatic symptoms.Conclusion The traumatic experiences are significantly correlated with severe physical violence behavior among violence perpetrator with violent pedigree.Some traumatic experiences may be the protective factors of domestic violence behavior.In the violent pedigrees,abusers have the most severe traumatic symptoms and their traumatic symptoms,especially intrusion and

  18. Aspectos relevantes sobre tuberculose para profissionais de saúde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Daronco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A Tuberculose (TB é uma patologia infectocontagiosa com clínica ampla cujo agentecausador é o Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Bacilo de Koch, uma micobactéria aeróbia estrita. Apesar de tratar-se dedoença antiga, que acomete seres humanos há séculos, sendo uma importante causa de morte no mundo inteiro,diferentes pesquisas do Ministério da Saúde apontam números preocupantes no tocante a novos casos. Materiais eMétodos: O presente artigo de revisão procura, de forma objetiva e clara, explicitar os principais aspectos de interessepara profissionais de saúde no tocante a Tuberculose doença. O artigo divide-se em tópicos: Defi nição, Sintomatologia,Diagnóstico, Tratamento, Multirresistência, Profi laxia, Formas de Contágio e Formas de Prevenção. Foram utilizadasreferências atuais sobre o tema, incluindo Manuais, Guidelines e Artigos científicos diversos de bases de dados comoUp to Date e Science Direct. Discussão: Sinais e sintomas da doença aumentam o grau de suspeição da mesma, oque torna o pedido de exames para confirmação da infecção dentro de tempo hábil para instituição da terapêuticaadequada. Assim como diagnóstico e tratamento, medidas para evitar o contágio, em serviços de saúde, locaiscom aglomerações humanas e em residências, são de fundamental importância no combate a tuberculose. Osprofissionais de saúde devem atentar para possíveis casos de resistência aos fármacos e as indicações de profilaxia,pois tais variáveis são de extrema relevância no controle da disseminação da doença. Conclusão: Por tratar-se dedoença infecciosa que pode acometer todas as classes sociais, além de possuir formas diferentes de acometimento,o conhecimento básico acerca da Tuberculose é deveras imprescindível em serviços de saúde, desde a atençãoprimária até os centros de saúde com alta tecnologia.

  19. Por um programa preventivo em saúde mental do trabalhador na brigada militar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Spanier Amador

    Full Text Available O presente artigo argumenta sobre a importância de políticas de Saúde e Segurança Públicas que sustentem programas voltados à saúde do trabalhador na Brigada Militar. Aborda, mais especificamente, a necessidade de ações preventivas e promotoras de saúde mental nesse âmbito.

  20. Zitkala-Sa and the Problem of Regionalism: Nations, Narratives, and Critical Traditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totten, Gary

    2005-01-01

    Although Yankton Sioux writer Zitkala-Sa (Gertrude Bonnin, 1876-1938) was, as P. Jane Hafen notes, "virtually unknown for many decades," much critical work has appeared since Dexter Fisher's 1979 article,"Zitkala-Sa: Evolution of a Writer." Some critics desiring to bring Zitkala-Sa into the conversation about turn-of-the-century American women…

  1. 76 FR 7511 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-10

    ... Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170 Airplanes; and Model ERJ 190-100..., contact Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER), Technical Publications Section (PC 060), Av.... 39.13 by adding the following new AD: Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER): Docket...

  2. MAPK-dependent JA and SA signalling in Nicotiana attenuata affects plant growth and fitness during competition with conspecifics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meldau Stefan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Induced defense responses to herbivores are generally believed to have evolved as cost-saving strategies that defer the fitness costs of defense metabolism until these defenses are needed. The fitness costs of jasmonate (JA-mediated defenses have been well documented. Those of the early signaling units mediating induced resistance to herbivores have yet to be examined. Early signaling components that mediate herbivore-induced defense responses in Nicotiana attenuata, have been well characterized and here we examine their growth and fitness costs during competition with conspecifics. Two mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs, salicylic acid (SA-induced protein kinase (SIPK and wound-induced protein kinase (WIPK are rapidly activated after perception of herbivory and both kinases regulate herbivory-induced JA levels and JA-mediated defense metabolite accumulations. Since JA-induced defenses result in resource-based trade-offs that compromise plant productivity, we evaluated if silencing SIPK (irSIPK and WIPK (irWIPK benefits the growth and fitness of plants competiting with wild type (WT plants, as has been shown for plants silenced in JA-signaling by the reduction of Lipoxygenase 3 (LOX3 levels. Results As expected, irWIPK and LOX3-silenced plants out-performed their competing WT plants. Surprisingly, irSIPK plants, which have the largest reductions in JA signaling, did not. Phytohormone profiling of leaves revealed that irSIPK plants accumulated higher levels of SA compared to WT. To test the hypothesis that these high levels of SA, and their presumed associated fitness costs of pathogen associated defenses in irSIPK plants had nullified the JA-deficiency-mediated growth benefits in these plants, we genetically reduced SA levels in irSIPK plants. Reducing SA levels partially recovered the biomass and fitness deficits of irSIPK plants. We also evaluated whether the increased fitness of plants with reduced SA or JA levels

  3. Biodegradable mixed MPEG-SS-2SA/TPGS micelles for triggered intracellular release of paclitaxel and reversing multidrug resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong K

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Kai Dong,1 Yan Yan,2 Pengchong Wang,2 Xianpeng Shi,2 Lu Zhang,2 Ke Wang,2 Jianfeng Xing,2 Yalin Dong1 1Department of Pharmacy, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University, 2School of Pharmacy, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi, People’s Republic of China Abstract: In this study, a type of multifunctional mixed micelles were prepared by a novel biodegradable amphiphilic polymer (MPEG-SS-2SA and a multidrug resistance (MDR reversal agent (D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate, TPGS. The mixed micelles could achieve rapid intracellular drug release and reversal of MDR. First, the amphiphilic polymer, MPEG-SS-2SA, was synthesized through disulfide bonds between poly (ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (MPEG and stearic acid (SA. The structure of the obtained polymer was similar to poly (ethylene glycol-phosphatidylethanolamine (PEG-PE. Then the mixed micelles, MPEG-SS-2SA/TPGS, were prepared by MPEG-SS-2SA and TPGS through the thin film hydration method and loaded paclitaxel (PTX as the model drug. The in vitro release study revealed that the mixed micelles could rapidly release PTX within 24 h under a reductive environment because of the breaking of disulfide bonds. In cell experiments, the mixed micelles significantly inhibited the activity of mitochondrial respiratory complex II, also reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential, and the content of adenosine triphosphate, thus effectively inhibiting the efflux of PTX from cells. Moreover, in the confocal laser scanning microscopy, cellular uptake and 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assays, the MPEG-SS-2SA/TPGS micelles achieved faster release and more uptake of PTX in Michigan Cancer Foundation-7/PTX cells and showed better antitumor effects as compared with the insensitive control. In conclusion, the biodegradable mixed micelles, MPEG-SS-2SA/TPGS, could be potential vehicles for delivering hydrophobic chemotherapeutic drugs in

  4. An Examination of the Gender Inclusiveness of Current Theories of Sexual Violence in Adulthood: Recognizing Male Victims, Female Perpetrators, and Same-Sex Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchik, Jessica A; Hebenstreit, Claire L; Judson, Stephanie S

    2016-04-01

    Although the majority of adulthood sexual violence involves a male perpetrator and a female victim, there is also substantial evidence that members of both genders can be victims and perpetrators of sexual violence. As an alternative to viewing sexual violence within gender-specific terms, we advocate for the use of a gender inclusive conceptualization of sexual aggression that takes into account the factors that contribute to sexual victimization of, and victimization by, both men and women. The goal of the current review is to examine the need and importance of a gender inclusive conceptualization of sexual violence and to discuss how compatible our current theories are with this conceptualization. First, we examine evidence of how a gender-specific conceptualization of sexual violence aids in obscuring assault experiences that are not male to female and how this impacts victims of such violence. We specifically discuss this impact regarding research, law, public awareness, advocacy, and available victim treatment and resources. Next, we provide an overview of a number of major sexual violence theories that are relevant for adult perpetrators and adult victims, including neurobiological and integrated biological theories, evolutionary psychology theory, routine activity theory, feminist theory, social learning and related theories, typology approaches, and integrated theories. We critically examine these theories' applicability to thinking about sexual violence through a gender inclusive lens. Finally, we discuss further directions for research, clinical interventions, and advocacy in this area. Specifically, we encourage sexual violence researchers and clinicians to identify and utilize appropriate theoretical frameworks and to apply these frameworks in ways that incorporate a full range of sexual violence.

  5. Política de recursos humanos em saúde: análise de documentos oficiais do ministério da saúde

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana Pavanelli Von Gal de Almeida

    2007-01-01

    A reforma do setor saúde no Brasil levou à criação do Sistema Único de Saúde que contemplou a saúde como um direito social. Dessa forma, na atualidade, a saúde é tratada como um bem universal a ser provido para todos os cidadãos, implicando no princípio da equidade, em que cada cidadão tem direito a ações e serviços requeridos para manutenção e recuperação de sua saúde. Esse ideário tem forte implicação com os recursos humanos em saúde, em termos de definições políticas e técnicas relacionada...

  6. CTCF and CohesinSA-1 Mark Active Promoters and Boundaries of Repressive Chromatin Domains in Primary Human Erythroid Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie A Steiner

    Full Text Available CTCF and cohesinSA-1 are regulatory proteins involved in a number of critical cellular processes including transcription, maintenance of chromatin domain architecture, and insulator function. To assess changes in the CTCF and cohesinSA-1 interactomes during erythropoiesis, chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with high throughput sequencing and mRNA transcriptome analyses via RNA-seq were performed in primary human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC and primary human erythroid cells from single donors.Sites of CTCF and cohesinSA-1 co-occupancy were enriched in gene promoters in HSPC and erythroid cells compared to single CTCF or cohesin sites. Cell type-specific CTCF sites in erythroid cells were linked to highly expressed genes, with the opposite pattern observed in HSPCs. Chromatin domains were identified by ChIP-seq with antibodies against trimethylated lysine 27 histone H3, a modification associated with repressive chromatin. Repressive chromatin domains increased in both number and size during hematopoiesis, with many more repressive domains in erythroid cells than HSPCs. CTCF and cohesinSA-1 marked the boundaries of these repressive chromatin domains in a cell-type specific manner.These genome wide data, changes in sites of protein occupancy, chromatin architecture, and related gene expression, support the hypothesis that CTCF and cohesinSA-1 have multiple roles in the regulation of gene expression during erythropoiesis including transcriptional regulation at gene promoters and maintenance of chromatin architecture. These data from primary human erythroid cells provide a resource for studies of normal and perturbed erythropoiesis.

  7. Estudo comparativo de alguns indicadores em municípios do Estado de São Paulo segundo a implantação do Saúde da Família Estudio comparativo de algunos indicadores en municipios del Estado de São Paulo según la implantación del Programa Salud de la Familia Comparative study of some health indicators in municipalities of the State of São Paulo in accordance to the implementation of the Family Health Program

    OpenAIRE

    Mariângela Guanaes Bortolo da Cruz

    2005-01-01

    Este estudo tem como objetivo descrever comparativamente o comportamento de três indicadores de saúde: mortalidade infantil; cobertura vacinal/taxa de abandono da vacina DPT e hospitalizações em menores de 5 anos, em dois Blocos de sete municípios paulistas, com características sócio-econômicas semelhantes, mas diferenciados por terem implantado (Bloco A) e não implantado (Bloco B) o Programa de Saúde da Família (PSF), sendo parâmetro para esta comparação os mesmos indicadores de saúde para o...

  8. The interdisciplinarity experienced in the PET- Saúde program A interdisciplinaridade vivenciada no PET-Saúde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli Moreira Pirolo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The incorporation of the oral health team in the Family Health Strategy (ESF, in 2000, enabled the adoption of a more active attitude of Primary Health Care in this field, in as much as oral health consists of an inseparable and integral part of the individual’s health. The interaction of health professionals becomes possible through policies like “PET-Saúde” which promotes the professional formation articulated with the ESF professionals as well as the process of integration of teaching, service and community in the perspective of interdisciplinarity. Objective: To report the experience of students during an interdisciplinary research. Description of the experience: This report was experienced in “PET-Saúde” of the Faculty of Medicine of Marília, at the “Man’s Health” subproject aiming at elaborating and validating a data collection instrument through Delphi Technique in order to help the health care team to detect early dental problems because of the damaged oral health pattern of the age group between 35 and 44 in Brazil. The members of this study are: medical and nursing students, a dentist preceptor and a nursing tutor. For the educational activities, the active methodology of teaching-learning was used. Conclusion: The reflexive actions, the moments for discussions provided the development of scientific investigation. The approximation of the process of validation through Delphi Technique also allowed the expansion of multidisciplinary knowledge on oral health. This experience made it possible to qualify the academic-professional formation on the interdisciplinary approach, and it’s important to strengthen the interaction among professionals and the articulation of health actions.Introdução: A incorporação da equipe de saúde bucal na Estratégia de Saúde da Família (ESF, em 2000, possibilitou a adoção de uma postura mais ativa de atenção primária nesta área, visto que a saúde bucal consiste

  9. ANALISIS PRODUCT MAPPING DAYA SAING EKSPOR PRODUK PRIMER INDONESIA DAN CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulthon Sjahril Sabaruddin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This research attempts to analyze the mapping competition of the Indonesian and Chinese primary products in order to identify and map the strengths and weaknesses of Indonesian products vis-à-vis China. To examine this, the study uses tools such as the SMART Model (Software for Market Analysis and Restrictions on Trade, Social Accounting Matrix 2008 (SAM 2008, Normalized Revealed Comparative Advantage (NRCA and the Product Mapping. The results of the competition analysis found that Indonesia which rely on the export of primary products, in overall it is predicted to win the competition against China as the Indonesian primary products have better competitiveness than China. However, in the future, the competition will be fiercer, therefore, Indonesia should make efforts to improve further the competitiveness of Indonesian exports. Penelitian ini dimaksudkan untuk mengevaluasi peta persaingan produk primer Indonesia dan China guna mengidentifikasi dan memetakan kekuatan dan kelemahan produk Indonesia dalam persaingan dengan produk-produk primer asal China. Guna menelaah studi ini, beberapa perangkat dimanfaatkan yakni SMART Model (Software for Market Analysis and Restrictions on Trade, Sistem Neraca Sosial Ekonomi 2008 (SNSE 2008, Normalized Revealed Comparative Advantage (NRCA dan Product Mapping. Hasil analisis peta persaingan kedua negara, Indonesia yang mengandalkan ekspor produk primer diperkirakan secara keseluruhan unggul dibandingkan produk primer dari China karena Indonesia memiliki daya saing yang lebih baik dibandingkan China. Namun demikian, perlu diperhatikan bahwa persaingan ke depan akan berlangsung semakin ketat, oleh karena itu Indonesia perlu melakukan upaya untuk meningkatkan daya saing ekspor Indonesia.

  10. Cell Assignment in Hybrid CMOS/Nanodevices Architecture Using a PSO/SA Hybrid Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadiq M. Sait

    2013-10-01

    anowire\\MOLecular Hybrid, higher circuit densities are possible. In CMOL there is an additional layer of nanofabric on top of CMOS stack. Nanodevices that lie between overlapping nanowires are programmable and can implement any combinational logic using a netlist of NOR gates. The limitation on the length of nanowires put a constraint on the connectivity domain of a circuit. The gates connected to each other must be within a connectivity radius; otherwise an extra buffer is inserted to connect them. Particle swarm optimization (PSO has been used in a variety of problems that are NP- hard. PSO compared to the other iterative heuristic techniques is simpler to implement. Besides, it delivers comparable results. In this paper, a hybrid of PSO and simulated annealing (SA for solving the cell assignment in CMOL, an NP-hard problem, is proposed. The proposed method takes advantage of the exploration and exploitation factors of PSO and the intrinsic hill climbing feature of SA to reduce the number of buffers to be inserted. Experiments conducted on ISCAS'89 benchmark circuits and a comparison with other heuristic techniques, are presented. Results showed that the proposed hybrid algorithm achieved better solution in terms of buffer count in reasonable time.

  11. Food web accumulation of cyclic siloxanes in Lake Mjøsa, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgå, Katrine; Fjeld, Eirik; Kierkegaard, Amelie; McLachlan, Michael S

    2012-06-05

    The biomagnification of the cyclic volatile methyl siloxanes octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) and dodecamethylcyclohexatetrasiloxane (D6) was analyzed in the Lake Mjøsa food web in Norway from zooplankton and Mysis to planktivorous and piscivorous fish. The trophic magnification factor (TMF) for D5 was determined and compared with TMFs of several legacy contaminants: polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners 153 and 180, polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners 47 and 99, and p,p'-DDE. D5 showed TMF significantly greater than 1, implying food web biomagnification (TMF = 2.28, CI: 1.22-4.29). This contrasts with two studies that reported TMF < 1, which may reflect variability in TMF between food webs. The Lake Mjøsa D5 TMF was sensitive to the species included at the higher trophic level; whole food web TMF differed from TMF excluding smelt (Osmerus eperlanus) or brown trout (Salmo trutta) (TMF(-SMELT) = 1.62, CI: 0.96-2.72; TMF(-TROUT) = 3.58, CI: 1.82-7.03). For legacy contaminants (e.g., PCB-153 and PCB-180), the TMFs were less sensitive to the food web composition, and a better model fit was obtained compared to D5. The differences in biomagnification behavior between D5 and the legacy contaminants suggest that the biomagnification of D5 is being governed by species-specific properties such as biotransformation rate or tissue distribution that differ from those of legacy contaminants.

  12. Quantitation of Staphylococcus aureus in seawater using CHROMagar SA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tice, Alan D; Pombo, David; Hui, Jennifer; Kurano, Michelle; Bankowski, Matthew J; Seifried, Steven E

    2010-01-01

    A microbiological algorithm has been developed to analyze beach water samples for the determination of viable colony forming units (CFU) of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). Membrane filtration enumeration of S. aureus from recreational beach waters using the chromogenic media CHROMagar SA alone yields a positive predictive value (PPV) of 70%. Presumptive CHROMagar SA colonies were confirmed as S. aureus by 24-hour tube coagulase test. Combined, these two tests yield a PPV of 100%. This algorithm enables accurate quantitation of S. aureus in seawater in 72 hours and could support risk-prediction processes for recreational waters. A more rapid protocol, utilizing a 4-hour tube coagulase confirmatory test, enables a 48-hour turnaround time with a modest false negative rate of less than 10%.

  13. Andragogia na saúde: estudo bibliométrico

    OpenAIRE

    Draganov, Patrícia Bover [UNIFESP; Friedländer,Maria Romana; Sanna, Maria Cristina [UNIFESP

    2011-01-01

    O sucesso da aprendizagem envolve o uso de estratégias adequadas. Como a clientela de formação profissional e de educação permanente e a população assistida, para quem se dirigem as ações de educação em saúde, são majoritariamente adultas, metodologias como a Andragogia, que é a arte e ciência de conduzir adultos ao aprendizado, são uma alternativa interessante. Com o objetivo de quantificar e descrever a produção científica sobre Andragogia nas Ciências da Saúde no período de 1999 a 2009, re...

  14. Vibration analysis of the SA349/2 helicopter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffernan, Ruth; Precetti, Dominique; Johnson, Wayne

    1991-01-01

    Helicopter airframe vibration is examined using calculations and measurements for the SA349/2 research helicopter. The hub loads, which transmit excitations to the fuselage, are predicted using a comprehensive rotorcraft analysis and correlated with measuring hub loads. The predicted and measured hub loads are then coupled with finite element models representing the SA349/2 fuselage. The resulting vertical acceleration at the pilot seat is examined. Adjustments are made to the airframe structural models to examine the sensitivity of predicted vertical acceleration to the model. Changes of a few percent to the damping and frequency of specific models lead to large reductions in predicted vibration, and to major improvements in the correlations with measured pilot-seat vertical acceleration.

  15. Analysis and correlation of SA349/2 helicopter vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffernan, Ruth; Precetti, Dominique; Johnson, Wayne

    1991-01-01

    Helicopter airframe vibration is examined using calculation and measurements for the SA349/2 research helicopter. The hub loads, which transmit excitation to the fuselage, are predicted using a comprehensive rotorcraft analysis and correlated with measured hub loads. The predicted and measured hub loads are then coupled with finite element models representing the SA349/2 fuselage. The resulting vertical acceleration at the pilot seat is examined. Adjustments are made to the airframe structural models to examine the sensitivity of predicted vertical acceleration to the model. Changes of a few percent to the damping and frequency of specific modes lead to large reductions in predicted vibration and to major improvements in the correlations with measured pilot seat vertical acceleration.

  16. Eventos de massa, desastres e Saúde Pública

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Figueiredo de Castro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil tem sediado eventos de massa (EM e seus participantes estão sujeitos a riscos à saúde. Objetivou-se sistematizar as principais relações, de interesse da Saúde Pública, entre eventos de massa e ocorrência de desastres. Foram realizadas três estratégias metodológicas: revisão da literatura de EM, com busca sistemática, sistematização das principais informações sobre EM e seleção e sistematização das Referências que tratavam do tema desastre em suas palavras-chave, título ou Resumo. Foram selecionadas 28 Referências sobre EM, a maioria artigo científico, revisão de literatura, de 2012 e de natureza esportiva. Os principais assuntos abordados foram sistemas de vigilância e planejamento dos EM. Evidenciou-se a pouca informação analítica sobre os EM, bem como a importância de eventos não transmissíveis para a ocorrência de desastres, com destaque aos relacionados à multidão. O risco de desastres deve ser considerado no planejamento dos EM, para aumentar a capacidade de resposta considerando áreas estratégicas como: emergência médica, vigilância de doenças transmissíveis e vetores, segurança alimentar e dos serviços de saúde, saúde ambiental e laboratório. Ressalta-se a importância de pesquisas analíticas e de registro das experiências relacionadas aos EM, para a redução de risco de desastres.

  17. Genome sequencing and annotation of Morganella sp. SA36

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samy Selim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We report draft genome sequence of Morganella sp. Strain SA36, isolated from water spring in Aljouf region, Saudi Arabia. The draft genome size is 2,564,439 bp with a G + C content of 51.1% and contains 6 rRNA sequence (single copies of 5S, 16S & 23S rRNA. The genome sequence can be accessed at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession no. LDNQ00000000.

  18. Gripe Suína: Saúde em destaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HELOÍZA FELTRIN BANDEIRA

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available

    O texto tem por objetivo analisar alguns

    fatos ligados à crise mundial na saúde causada pelo

    virus da Influenza A.

  19. A narrativa nas pesquisas qualitativas em saúde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Eduardo Pfeiffer Castellanos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available O forte interesse das ciências sociais e humanas em saúde nos estudos narrativos levou a várias formas de incorporação das contribuições desses estudos na pesquisa qualitativa em saúde. Torna-se importante refletir sobre os contextos e as características dessa incorporação. Para tanto, destacamos as principais questões teóricas aí envolvidas, assim como situamos essa incorporação no contexto da produção científica mais ampla das ciências sociais e humanas em saúde. Apontamos, também, a contribuição dos estudos narrativos para reflexão sobre as relações entre estrutura e ação social ou entre contextos específicos de interação social e contextos societários mais amplos. Essa contribuição pode ser identificada na análise das relações narrativamente estabelecidas entre interpretação, experiência e ação, ao longo do processo de saúde-doença-cuidado. Argumenta-se que as narrativas não somente organizam interpretações, mas também consistem em uma forma específica de agenciamento social. Nesse sentido, as interpretações narrativas e as performances narrativas podem ser vistas como elementos centrais da construção social de experiências e trajetórias de adoecimento e cuidado.

  20. Using SA508/533 for the HTGR Vessel Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry Demick

    2012-06-01

    This paper examines the influence of High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) module power rating and normal operating temperatures on the use of SA508/533 material for the HTGR vessel system with emphasis on the calculated times at elevated temperatures approaching or exceeding ASME Code Service Limits (Levels B&C) to which the reactor pressure vessel could be exposed during postulated pressurized and depressurized conduction cooldown events over its design lifetime.