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Sample records for sa paris france

  1. Sources and geographical origins of fine aerosols in Paris (France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bressi, M.; Nicolas, J.B.; Sciare, J.; Feron, A.; Nonnaire, N.; Petit, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims at identifying and apportioning fine aerosols to their major sources in Paris (France) - the second most populated - larger urban zone - in Europe - and determining their geographical origins. It is based on the daily chemical composition of PM2.5 examined over 1 year at an urban background site of Paris (Bressi et al., 2013). Positive matrix factorization (EPA PMF3.0) was used to identify and apportion fine aerosols to their sources; bootstrapping was performed to determine the adequate number of PMF factors, and statistics (root mean square error, coefficient of determination, etc.) were examined to better model PM2.5 mass and chemical components. Potential source contribution function (PSCF) and conditional probability function (CPF) allowed the geographical origins of the sources to be assessed; special attention was paid to implement suitable weighting functions. Seven factors, namely ammonium sulfate (A.S.)-rich factor, ammonium nitrate (A.N.)-rich factor, heavy oil combustion, road traffic, biomass burning, marine aerosols and metal industry, were identified; a detailed discussion of their chemical characteristics is reported. They contribute 27, 24, 17, 14, 12, 6 and 1% of PM2.5 mass (14.7 μgm -3 ) respectively on the annual average; their seasonal variability is discussed. The A.S.- and A.N.-rich factors have undergone mid- or long-range transport from continental Europe; heavy oil combustion mainly stems from northern France and the English Channel, whereas road traffic and biomass burning are primarily locally emitted. Therefore, on average more than half of PM2.5 mass measured in the city of Paris is due to mid- or long-range transport of secondary aerosols stemming from continental Europe, whereas local sources only contribute a quarter of the annual averaged mass. These results imply that fine-aerosol abatement policies conducted at the local scale may not be sufficient to notably reduce PM2.5 levels at urban background sites

  2. 76 FR 13063 - Airworthiness Directives; EUROCOPTER FRANCE Model SA330F, SA330G, and SA330J Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    ... Airworthiness Directives; EUROCOPTER FRANCE Model SA330F, SA330G, and SA330J Helicopters AGENCY: Federal... system and the pedals rocking forward. After investigation, it was determined that the Loctite bond on the ``tall pilot'' stop nut was damaged, most likely due to aging of the adhesive. The nut came loose...

  3. Climate champions? France, Germany and Europe in the negotiations about the Paris Agreement on climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aykut, Stefan

    2016-05-01

    This report discusses the role and implications of France, Germany and Europe in the preparation of the Paris Agreement of December 2015. The author first discusses the historical aspiration of Europe to have a role of leadership in the negotiations. Then, he examines and comments the actual results of the COP21 and the content of the Paris Agreement. He analyses situational factors, the economic and political context, the role of the French diplomacy, of Germany and of the European Union. He analyses dynamics which, on the medium and the long terms, has shaped climate governance, notably the red lines defined by China and the USA, and the general framework of negotiations which tend to exclude some important issues which are considered as matters of conflict. The last part proposes a retrospective overview on room and options available for Europe to find a leadership again within the new climate regime implemented by the Paris Agreement

  4. Environmental magnetism and magnetic mapping of urban metallic pollution (Paris, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isambert, Aude; Franke, Christine; Macouin, Mélina; Rousse, Sonia; Philip, Aurélio; de Villeneuve, Sybille Henry

    2017-04-01

    Airborne pollution in dense urban areas is nowadays a subject of major concern. Fine particulate pollution events are ever more frequent and represent not only an environmental and health but also a real economic issue. In urban atmosphere, the so-called PM2.5 (particulate matter pollution and determine their sources (Sagnotti et al., 2012). In this study, we report on magnetic measurements of traffic-related airborne PM in the city of Paris, France. Two distinct environments were sampled and analyzed along the Seine River: the aquatic environment in studying fluvial bank and river bed sediments and the atmospheric environment by regarding magnetic particles trapped in adjacent tree barks (Platanus hispanica). About 50 sediment samples and 350 bark samples have been collected and analysed to determine their magnetic properties (susceptibility, hysteresis parameters, IRM, frequency-dependent susceptibility) and to estimate the presence and spatial concentration of superparamagnetic or multi-domain particles for each sample type. The bark results allow proposing a high spatial resolution mapping (pollution. In addition to that, the sampling of banks and riverbed sediments of the Seine allow a global estimation on the anthropogenic versus detrital and biologic input in the city of Paris. The first results presented here show a general increase of the concentration in magnetic particles from upstream to downstream Paris probably linked to urban pollutions as previously observed for suspended particulate matter (Franke et al. 2009; Kayvantash, 2016). Sagnotti, L., & Winkler, A. (2012). On the magnetic characterization and quantification of the superparamagnetic fraction of traffic-related urban airborne PM in Rome, Italy. Atmospheric environment, 59, 131-140. Franke, C., Kissel, C., Robin, E., Bonté, P., & Lagroix, F. (2009). Magnetic particle characterization in the Seine river system: Implications for the determination of natural versus anthropogenic input

  5. Feasibility of CO2 storage in geothermal reservoirs example of the Paris Basin - France. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbier, J.; Robelin, C.; Kervevan, C.; Thiery, D.; Menjoz, A.; Matray, J.M.; Cotiche, C.; Herbrich, B.

    2003-01-01

    This study is realized in the framework of GESCO project, which aims to provide the first documentation that, for emission sources within selected key areas, sufficient geological storage capacity is available. Then the BRGM/ANTEA/CFG took care to provide: an inventory of the CO 2 emitters in France, an inventory of the main deep aquifers present in the Paris basin, an evaluation of the storage capacities of CO 2 in one of the four principal case-study, technical solutions for CO 2 injection in geothermal aquifers and an evaluation of the cost of CO 2 storage in such an aquifer. (A.L.B.)

  6. Greenlite™: a year of carbon dioxide monitoring over paris, france, and recent progress in monitoring methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobler, Jeremy; Zaccheo, T. Scott; Pernini, Timothy; Blume, Nathan; Braun, Michael

    2018-04-01

    GreenLITE™ is a ground-based laser absorption spectroscopy system capable of measuring and mapping CO2 concentrations over areas up to 25 km2. The system was deployed for COP21 as a demonstration and has now completed a year of CO2 measurements over the city of Paris, France. We will discuss lessons learned and relevant data from the year-long deployment. Recently, the system has demonstrated the same measurement capability for CH4, and results from preliminary testing are presented.

  7. Paris

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 This image of Paris was acquired on July 23, 2000 and covers an area of 23 by 20 km. Known as the City of Light, Paris has been extolled for centuries as one of the great cities of the world. Its location on the Seine River, at a strategic crossroads of land and river routes, has been the key to its expansion since the Parisii tribe first settled here in the 3rd century BC. Paris is an alluring city boasting many monumental landmarks, such as the Cathedral of Notre Dame, the Louvre, and the Eiffel Tower. Its beautiful gardens, world-class cuisine, high fashion, sidewalk cafes, and intellectual endeavors are well known. The city's cultural life is centered on the Left Bank of the Seine, while business and commerce dominate the Right Bank. The image is located at 48.8 degrees north latitude and 2.3 degrees east longitude. In figure 1, the 4 enlarged areas zoom in to some of the major buildings. In the UPPER LEFT, the Eiffel Tower and its shadow are seen. Based on the length of the shadow and the solar elevation angle of 59 degrees, we can calculate its height as 324 m (1054 ft), compared to its actual height of 303 m (985 ft). In the UPPER RIGHT, the Arc de Triomphe is at the center of the Place de L'etoile, from which radiate 12 major boulevards. In the LOWER LEFT is the Tuileries Garden and the Louvre Museum art its eastern end. In the LOWER RIGHT is the Invalides, the burial place and monument of Napoleon Bonaparte. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  8. Food Insecurity in Homeless Families in the Paris Region (France: Results from the ENFAMS Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Martin-Fernandez

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The number of families living in shelters in the Paris region (France has increased by a factor of three in 10 years. In 2013, a survey was performed on homeless families in order to characterize their living conditions, their health needs, and the developmental problems in children. This probability survey was conducted in 17 languages among 801 homeless families sheltered in emergency centers for asylum-seekers, emergency housing centers, social rehabilitation centers, and social hotels in the Paris region. Among the 772 families that provided data on food security only 14.0% were with food security, whereas 43.3% were with low food security and 9.8% with very low food security (a situation where children are also affected. Stratified multivariate robust Poisson models showed that some characteristics are associated with a higher risk of food insecurity and/or of falling into very low food security, such as residential instability, single parenthood, having more than three children, depressive symptoms, housing in social hostels, and difficult access to cheap or free food locally. Given the wealth of the Paris region, resources and programs should be concentrated on improving the living situation of this vulnerable population. It needs better detection of these families, a closer social follow-up, and an increase in food aid.

  9. Food Insecurity in Homeless Families in the Paris Region (France): Results from the ENFAMS Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Fernandez, Judith; Lioret, Sandrine; Vuillermoz, Cécile; Vandentorren, Stéphanie

    2018-01-01

    The number of families living in shelters in the Paris region (France) has increased by a factor of three in 10 years. In 2013, a survey was performed on homeless families in order to characterize their living conditions, their health needs, and the developmental problems in children. This probability survey was conducted in 17 languages among 801 homeless families sheltered in emergency centers for asylum-seekers, emergency housing centers, social rehabilitation centers, and social hotels in the Paris region. Among the 772 families that provided data on food security only 14.0% were with food security, whereas 43.3% were with low food security and 9.8% with very low food security (a situation where children are also affected). Stratified multivariate robust Poisson models showed that some characteristics are associated with a higher risk of food insecurity and/or of falling into very low food security, such as residential instability, single parenthood, having more than three children, depressive symptoms, housing in social hostels, and difficult access to cheap or free food locally. Given the wealth of the Paris region, resources and programs should be concentrated on improving the living situation of this vulnerable population. It needs better detection of these families, a closer social follow-up, and an increase in food aid. PMID:29495563

  10. Food Insecurity in Homeless Families in the Paris Region (France): Results from the ENFAMS Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Fernandez, Judith; Lioret, Sandrine; Vuillermoz, Cécile; Chauvin, Pierre; Vandentorren, Stéphanie

    2018-02-28

    The number of families living in shelters in the Paris region (France) has increased by a factor of three in 10 years. In 2013, a survey was performed on homeless families in order to characterize their living conditions, their health needs, and the developmental problems in children. This probability survey was conducted in 17 languages among 801 homeless families sheltered in emergency centers for asylum-seekers, emergency housing centers, social rehabilitation centers, and social hotels in the Paris region. Among the 772 families that provided data on food security only 14.0% were with food security, whereas 43.3% were with low food security and 9.8% with very low food security (a situation where children are also affected). Stratified multivariate robust Poisson models showed that some characteristics are associated with a higher risk of food insecurity and/or of falling into very low food security, such as residential instability, single parenthood, having more than three children, depressive symptoms, housing in social hostels, and difficult access to cheap or free food locally. Given the wealth of the Paris region, resources and programs should be concentrated on improving the living situation of this vulnerable population. It needs better detection of these families, a closer social follow-up, and an increase in food aid.

  11. [Violence for educational purpose: Representations of general practitioners in the Paris area, France. A qualitative study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brie, Claire; Piet, Emmanuelle; Chariot, Patrick

    2018-03-01

    Violence for educational purpose refers to a modality of education that includes threats, verbal abuse, physical abuse and humiliations. Twenty European countries, not including France, have abolished corporal punishment through explicit laws and regulations. The position of general practitioners in the screening and care of violence for educational purpose in France is unknown. In this study, we aimed to assess the representations of this form of violence among general practitioners. We have performed semi-directed interviews of general practitioners in the Paris, France region (Île-de-France). Interviews were conducted until data saturation was achieved. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed by two investigators. Interviews were conducted with 20 physicians (November 2015-January 2016). General practitioners considered that physical, verbal or psychological abuse had possible negative consequences on children. Uncertainty regarding the consequences of violence was a cause of tolerance towards violence for educational purpose, depending on the act committed and the context, as perceived by nearly all practitioners. General practitioners expressed interest in the field. They cited their own education and experience as the main obstacles to action. Most of them expressed a feeling of failure when they screened or took care of violence for educational purpose. This study suggests that doctors can participate in supporting the parents in the prevention of violence for educational purpose. Support to parents would need specific medical training as well as a societal change. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. New characterization aspects of carbonate accumulation horizons in Chalky Champagne (NE of the Paris Basin, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linoir, Damien; Thomachot-Schneider, Céline; Gommeaux, Maxime; Fronteau, Gilles; Barbin, Vincent

    2016-05-01

    The soil profiles of the Champagne area (NE of Paris Basin, France) occasionally show carbonate accumulation horizons (CAHs). From the top to the bottom, these soil profiles include a rendic leptosol horizon, a Quaternary cryoturbated paleosol (QCP), and a chalky substratum. The CAHs are located in the top part of the QCP. This study is aimed at highlighting the specific characteristics of CAHs compared to other soil profile horizons using geophysics, geochemistry, micromorphology, and mercury injection porosimetry. It is the first essential step for understanding the impact of CAHs on water transfers into the Champagne soil profiles. Our analyses show that Champagne CAHs are not systematically characterized by a typical induration unlike generally put forward in the regional literature. They are more porous and heterogeneous than their parent material (QCP). Carbonate accumulation horizons are also characterized by singular colorimetric parameters that are linked to their geochemical specific content, even if they bear a signature of the initial QCP before the pedogenic modification.

  13. Characteristics and health of homeless families: the ENFAMS survey in the Paris region, France 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandentorren, Stéphanie; Le Méner, Erwan; Oppenchaim, Nicolas; Arnaud, Amandine; Jangal, Candy; Caum, Carme; Vuillermoz, Cécile; Martin-Fernandez, Judith; Lioret, Sandrine; Roze, Mathilde; Le Strat, Yann; Guyavarch, Emmanuelle

    2016-02-01

    The objectives were to estimate the size of homeless family population in Paris region, to describe their living conditions and health and to analyse the impact of homelessness on children's growth and development, which was never investigated in France. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on a random sample of homeless sheltered families in 2013. Families were interviewed in 17 languages and a nurse took anthropometric measures, blood samples and collected health data from child health reports. The population size was estimated at 10 280 families. Half were single-parent female families and 94% were born outside France. Most families had experienced housing instability and 94% were living below the poverty line (828 euros/month). Malnutrition was a major problem: the prevalence of food insecurity was high (77% of parents and 69% of children), as well as anaemia (50% of mothers and 38% of children), overweight (38% of mothers and 22% of children) and obesity (32% of mothers and 4% of children). High rates of depressive disorders were found in 30% of homeless mothers and 20% of children had signs of possible mental health disorders. These first results highlight the important number of families among the homeless population in Paris region. Families differed from other homeless people regarding social characteristics such as birthplace, single-parent status and residential instability that are likely to influence schooling, social ties, health and access to care. These results demonstrate the need for urgent actions targeting homeless families, in terms of reducing housing instability and providing adequate care, especially for children. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  14. Formal Methods for Industrial Critical Systems : 17th International Workshop, FMICS 2012, Paris, France, August 27-28, 2012. Proceedings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoelinga, Mariëlle; Pinger, Ralf

    This volume contains the papers presented at FMICS 2012, the 17th International Workshop on Formal Methods for Industrial Critical Systems, taking place August 27–28, 2012, in Paris, France. The aim of the FMICS workshop series is to provide a forum for researchers who are interested in the

  15. Theoretical value of Newtonian constant G confirmed by the International Bureau of Weights & Measures in Paris, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omerbashich, Mensur

    2015-01-01

    World oldest authority for scientific constants and the keeper of the original metre standard, the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM) in Paris, France has accomplished a historic confirmation of the Omerbashich's (first-ever) scientific prediction of value of the Newtonian gravitational constant G.

  16. Predictive factors of cytomegalovirus seropositivity among pregnant women in Paris, France.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieynaba S N'Diaye

    Full Text Available Cytomegalovirus (CMV is the most frequent cause of congenital infection. The objective of this study was to evaluate predictive factors for CMV seronegativity in a cohort of pregnant women in Paris, France.Pregnant women enrolled in a prospective cohort during the 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic were tested for CMV IgG antibodies. Variables collected were age, geographic origin, lifestyle, work characteristics, socioeconomic status, gravidity, parity and number of children at home. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to identify independent predictive factors for CMV seropositivity.Among the 826 women enrolled, 389 (47.1% were primiparous, and 552 (67.1% had Metropolitan France as a geographic origin. Out of these, 355 (i.e. 57.0%, 95% confidence interval (CI: [53.6%-60.4%] were CMV seropositive: 43.7% (95% CI:[39.5%-47.9%] in those whose geographic origin was Metropolitan France and 84.1% in those with other origins (95% CI:[79.2%-88.3%]. Determinants associated with CMV seropositivity in a multivariate logistic regression model were: (i geographic origin (p<0.001(compared with Metropolitan France, geographic origins of Africa adjusted odds ratio (aOR 21.2, 95% CI:[9.7-46.5], French overseas departments and territories and other origin, aOR 7.5, 95% CI:[3.9-14.6], and Europe or Asia, aOR 2.2, 95% CI: [1.3-3.7]; and (ii gravidity (p = 0.019, (compared with gravidity = 1, if gravidity≥3, aOR = 1.5, 95% CI: [1.1-2.2]; if gravidity = 2, aOR = 1.0, 95% CI: [0.7-1.4]. Work characteristics and socioeconomic status were not independently associated with CMV seropositivity.In this cohort of pregnant women, a geographic origin of Metropolitan France and a low gravidity were predictive factors for CMV low seropositivity. Such women are therefore the likely target population for prevention of CMV infection during pregnancy in France.

  17. The meaning of city noises: Investigating sound quality in Paris (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Daniele; Guastavino, Catherine; Maffiolo, Valerie; Guastavino, Catherine; Maffiolo, Valerie

    2004-05-01

    The sound quality of Paris (France) was investigated by using field inquiries in actual environments (open questionnaires) and using recordings under laboratory conditions (free-sorting tasks). Cognitive categories of soundscapes were inferred by means of psycholinguistic analyses of verbal data and of mathematical analyses of similarity judgments. Results show that auditory judgments mainly rely on source identification. The appraisal of urban noise therefore depends on the qualitative evaluation of noise sources. The salience of human sounds in public spaces has been demonstrated, in relation to pleasantness judgments: soundscapes with human presence tend to be perceived as more pleasant than soundscapes consisting solely of mechanical sounds. Furthermore, human sounds are qualitatively processed as indicators of human outdoor activities, such as open markets, pedestrian areas, and sidewalk cafe districts that reflect city life. In contrast, mechanical noises (mainly traffic noise) are commonly described in terms of physical properties (temporal structure, intensity) of a permanent background noise that also characterizes urban areas. This connotes considering both quantitative and qualitative descriptions to account for the diversity of cognitive interpretations of urban soundscapes, since subjective evaluations depend both on the meaning attributed to noise sources and on inherent properties of the acoustic signal.

  18. Infestation by pyrethroids resistant bed bugs in the suburb of Paris, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durand R.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Bed bugs are hematophagous insects responsible for a re-emerging and challenging indoor pest in many countries. Bed bugs infestations may have health consequences including nuisance biting, cutaneous and systemic reactions. This resurgence can probably be attributed to factors such as increased international travel and development of resistance against insecticides. Resistance against pyrethroids has been reported several times from the USA and rarely in Europe. In France, very few data on bed bugs are available. The present study aimed to assess the infestation by bed bugs of a complex of two high-rise apartment buildings in the suburb of Paris and to evaluate their susceptibility to pyrethroid insecticides. We inspected for bed bugs 192 out of 198 apartments units (97% and interviewed their residents. 76 (39.6% apartments were infested. Among the 97 residents living in infested apartments, 53 (54.6% reported bed bug bites. A total of 564 bed bugs were collected in the infested units. Bioassays showed that 54 out of 143 bed bugs were resistant to pyrethroids (37.8%; 95% confidence interval: 29.9-45.7%. DNA sequencing showed that all bed bugs tested (n = 124 had homozygous L925I kdr-like gene mutation. The level of pyrethroid resistance found indicates that this phenomenon was already established in the site and prompts the need to reevaluate the wide use of pyrethroids to control bed bugs.

  19. 7TH Annual Anesthesia and Critical Care Symposium (7th) Held in Paris (France) on 22-24 April 1994,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-30

    Amphitheatre Poincare DIMANCHE 24 AVRIL / SUNDAY APRIL 24th TRAUMATISME CRANIEN CHEZ L’ENFANT HEAD TRA UMA IN CHILDREN Mod6rateurs : J. BERMAN (Winston...Salem, Etats-Unis), Ph. MEYER (Paris, France) 08h30 Epid6miologie et physio-pathologie des traumatismes craniens chez 1’enfant Epidemiology and...pathophysiology of head injuries in children P. OAKLEY (Staffordshire, Royaume-Uni) 09h00 R6animation pr6-hospitali~re du traumatisme cranien grave

  20. The Politics of Deception and the French Lais in the Roman de Fauvel, Manuscript Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, fonds français 146

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marinescu, R.C.I.

    2014-01-01

    The interpolated version of the French allegorical satire, the Roman de Fauvel, transmitted in manuscript Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, fonds français 146 (produced in Paris ca. 1317), targets the corruption within the French royal court in the last years of the rule of King Philip IV of

  1. Three centuries of heavy metal pollution in Paris (France) recorded by urban speleothems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pons-Branchu, Edwige; Ayrault, Sophie; Roy-Barman, Matthieu; Bordier, Louise; Borst, Wolfgang; Branchu, Philippe; Douville, Eric; Dumont, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    The first record of urban speleothems used to reconstruct the history of heavy metal pollution of shallow groundwaters is presented. Two speleothems grew during the last 300 years in an underground aqueduct in the north-eastern part of Paris. They display high Pb, Mn V, Cu, Cd and Al concentrations since 1900 due to the urbanization of the site which triggered anthropogenic contamination of the water feeding the speleothems. Surprisingly, these heavy metal concentrations are also high in the oldest part. This early pollution could come from the use of Parisian waste as fertilizers in the orchards and vineyards cultivated above the aqueduct before urbanization. Lead isotopes were measured in these carbonates as well as in lead artifacts from the 17th–18th centuries ( 206 Pb/ 207 Pb = 1.180 +/− 0.003). The mean 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratio, for one of the speleothems is 1.181 +/− 0.003 unvarying with time. These lead signatures are close to those of coal and old lead from northern European mines, lower than the natural background signature. It confirms that the high metal concentrations found come from anthropogenic pollution. Conversely, the lead isotopic composition of the second speleothem presents two temporal trends: for the oldest levels, the mean value (1.183 +/− 0.003) is similar to the first speleothem. For the youngest part, a lower value (1.172 +/− 0.005) is recorded, evidencing the contribution of a new lead source at the beginning of the industrial revolution. Pb isotopes were also measured in recent samples from a nearby superficial site. The first sample is a recent (AD 1975 +/− 15 years) deposit ( 206 Pb/ 207 Pb = 1.148 +/− 0.003), and the second, a thin subactual layer ( 206 Pb/ 207 Pb = 1.181 +/− 0.002). These data are compatible with the adding of anthropogenic sources (leaded gasoline and industrial lead from Rio Tinto ore). - Highlights: • Urban speleothems from underground aqueduct in Paris, France were studied. • Speleothems are

  2. Three centuries of heavy metal pollution in Paris (France) recorded by urban speleothems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pons-Branchu, Edwige, E-mail: epons@lsce.ipsl.fr [LSCE (UMR8212, CEA/CNRS/UVSQ), Bâtiment 12, avenue de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Ayrault, Sophie; Roy-Barman, Matthieu; Bordier, Louise [LSCE (UMR8212, CEA/CNRS/UVSQ), Bâtiment 12, avenue de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Borst, Wolfgang; Branchu, Philippe [CEREMA, 12 rue Teisserenc de Bort, 78190 Trappes (France); Douville, Eric [LSCE (UMR8212, CEA/CNRS/UVSQ), Bâtiment 12, avenue de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Dumont, Emmanuel [CEREMA, rue de l' égalité Prolongée, 93352, Le Bourget cedex 319 (France)

    2015-06-15

    The first record of urban speleothems used to reconstruct the history of heavy metal pollution of shallow groundwaters is presented. Two speleothems grew during the last 300 years in an underground aqueduct in the north-eastern part of Paris. They display high Pb, Mn V, Cu, Cd and Al concentrations since 1900 due to the urbanization of the site which triggered anthropogenic contamination of the water feeding the speleothems. Surprisingly, these heavy metal concentrations are also high in the oldest part. This early pollution could come from the use of Parisian waste as fertilizers in the orchards and vineyards cultivated above the aqueduct before urbanization. Lead isotopes were measured in these carbonates as well as in lead artifacts from the 17th–18th centuries ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb = 1.180 +/− 0.003). The mean {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratio, for one of the speleothems is 1.181 +/− 0.003 unvarying with time. These lead signatures are close to those of coal and old lead from northern European mines, lower than the natural background signature. It confirms that the high metal concentrations found come from anthropogenic pollution. Conversely, the lead isotopic composition of the second speleothem presents two temporal trends: for the oldest levels, the mean value (1.183 +/− 0.003) is similar to the first speleothem. For the youngest part, a lower value (1.172 +/− 0.005) is recorded, evidencing the contribution of a new lead source at the beginning of the industrial revolution. Pb isotopes were also measured in recent samples from a nearby superficial site. The first sample is a recent (AD 1975 +/− 15 years) deposit ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb = 1.148 +/− 0.003), and the second, a thin subactual layer ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb = 1.181 +/− 0.002). These data are compatible with the adding of anthropogenic sources (leaded gasoline and industrial lead from Rio Tinto ore). - Highlights: • Urban speleothems from underground aqueduct in Paris, France were

  3. Load curve impact of large electric vehicles fleet in the Paris Ile-de-France region

    OpenAIRE

    Assoumou , Edi; Marmorat , Jean-Paul; Houel , Jérôme; Roy , Valérie

    2015-01-01

    The EV-STEP project was carried out within the ERANET+ Electromobility framework. Funding for the research work presented in this paper by the French Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development and Energy is gratefully acknowledged. Complementary support was provided by the Chair Modeling for sustainable development, driven by MINES ParisTech, Ecole des Ponts ParisTech, and AgroParisTech; supported by ADEME, EDF, GRTgaz, Schneider Electric and the Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development...

  4. Overweight according to geographical origin and time spent in France: a cross sectional study in the Paris metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin-Fernandez Judith

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For the first time in France in a population-based survey, this study sought to investigate the potential impact of migration origin and the proportion of lifetime spent in mainland France on body mass index (BMI and overweight in adults living in the Paris metropolitan area. Methods A representative, population-based, random sample of the adult, French speaking population of the Paris metropolitan area was interviewed in 2005. Self-reported BMI (BMI = weight/height2 and overweight (BMI ≥ 25 were our 2 outcomes of interest. Two variables were constructed to estimate individuals’ migration origin: parental nationality and the proportion of lifetime spent in mainland France, as declared by the participants. We performed multilevel regression models among different gender and age groups, adjusted for demographics and socioeconomic status. Results In women, a parental origin in the Middle East or North Africa (MENA was associated with a higher risk of being overweight (especially before the age of 55 and a higher BMI (between 35 and 54 years of age, and so were women of Sub-Sahara African parental origin in the middle age category. Only in the youngest men ( Conclusions Our results plea for potential cultural determinants of overweight in the migrant and migrants-born populations in the French context of the capital region. Taking into account the people’ family and personal migration histories may be an important issue in public health research and policies on overweight and obesity prevention.

  5. Seasonal variability and source apportionment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs in the Paris megacity (France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baudic

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of air quality studies at the megacity scale, highly time-resolved volatile organic compound (C2–C8 measurements were performed in downtown Paris (urban background sites from January to November 2010. This unique dataset included non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs and aromatic/oxygenated species (OVOCs measured by a GC-FID (gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector and a PTR-MS (proton transfer reaction – mass spectrometer, respectively. This study presents the seasonal variability of atmospheric VOCs being monitored in the French megacity and their various associated emission sources. Clear seasonal and diurnal patterns differed from one VOC to another as the result of their different origins and the influence of environmental parameters (solar radiation, temperature. Source apportionment (SA was comprehensively conducted using a multivariate mathematical receptor modeling. The United States Environmental Protection Agency's positive matrix factorization tool (US EPA, PMF was used to apportion and quantify ambient VOC concentrations into six different sources. The modeled source profiles were identified from near-field observations (measurements from three distinct emission sources: inside a highway tunnel, at a fireplace and from a domestic gas flue, hence with a specific focus on road traffic, wood-burning activities and natural gas emissions and hydrocarbon profiles reported in the literature. The reconstructed VOC sources were cross validated using independent tracers such as inorganic gases (NO, NO2, CO, black carbon (BC and meteorological data (temperature. The largest contributors to the predicted VOC concentrations were traffic-related activities (including motor vehicle exhaust, 15 % of the total mass on the annual average, and evaporative sources, 10 %, with the remaining emissions from natural gas and background (23 %, solvent use (20 %, wood-burning (18 % and a biogenic source (15 %. An

  6. IAEA specialist meeting on flow induced vibrations in fast breeder reactors, Paris, France, 22-24 October 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, M.A.

    1986-10-01

    The Specialists' Meeting on ''Flow Induced Vibrations in FBRs for LMFBR Applications'' was held in Paris under the auspices of the French CEA on 21-24 October 1982. The meeting was sponsored by the IAEA on the recommendation of the 14th Meeting of the IWGFR and was attended by 31 participants from France, the Federal Republic of Germany, India, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United States of America and one international organization (IAEA). The meeting was presided over by Pr. R.J. Gibert of France. After the first session on review of national positions in the subject field (7 papers), the meeting was divided into five technical sections as follows: fluid-structures interaction, calculation methods (3 papers); tubes bundles vibration and weir (4 papers); instability (6 papers); induced vibrations in the pumps (2 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers

  7. Automobile pollution in Paris, France, influences traffic and meteorological conditions; La pollution automobile a Paris influence du trafic et des conditions meteorologiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alary, Rene; Donati, Jacques; Viellard, Henri [Laboratoire Central de la Prefecture de Police, Paris (France)

    1995-06-22

    The improvement of urban air quality is a major challenge namely for NO{sub 2} (nitrogen dioxide), a toxic pollutant controlled by the European Regulation EEC n85-203. We now know that catalytic converters reduce car emissions and we believe that a reduction in traffic (already enforced in some cities) and the restriction of vehicle road traffic, applied to some European towns, is an area for further research. In Paris, the existence of periods of serious pollution (essentially due to NO{sub 2} levels reaching >200 {mu}g/m{sup 3} in periods of several hours) has made the public and public administration aware of the importance of this problem. Thus, a commitment has been made to reduce these periods of severe pollution. The study being presented deals with the search for a correlation between vehicle traffic (vehicle flow/hour) and measured concentrations of NO, NO{sub 2} and CO at two sites in Paris, in 1992. This relation has been established by plotting the traffic levels against concentrations of each gaseous effluent. When the pollutants are well dispersed it is possible to plot the concentrations of NO and NO{sub 2}. The slope is much steeper for NO than for NO{sub 2}. On the other hand, when meteorological conditions are unfavourable (high pressure zone, stability of the atmosphere, temperature inversion or strong solar radiance) no significant correlation could be observed. This proves the predominance of meteorological conditions on NO{sub 2} levels during high pollution periods. The study also confirmed that NO is a very good indicator of car pollution, taking into account the increasing number of diesel powered vehicles in France

  8. Two clusters of ciguatera fish poisoning in Paris, France, related to tropical fish imported from the French Caribbean by travelers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epelboin, Loïc; Pérignon, Alice; Hossen, Virginie; Vincent, Renaud; Krys, Sophie; Caumes, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is a food-borne illness due to the consumption of reef fish containing pathogenic toxins. CFP is endemic to tropical areas and may be described in travelers in non-endemic areas. We describe two clusters of autochthonous cases of CFP in Paris, France. They were related to two fish caught in Guadeloupe (French West Indies) and consumed in Paris after being air-transported in a cooler. In both cases, fish flesh was analyzed and the presence of ciguatoxins by mouse bioassay (MBA) was confirmed. The first cluster involved eight individuals among whom five presented gastrointestinal symptoms and four presented neurological symptoms after consuming barracuda flesh (Sphyraena barracuda). The second cluster involved a couple who consumed a grey snapper (Lutjanus griseus). Most of them consulted at different emergency departments in the region of Paris. CFP may be seen in non-traveler patients outside endemic countries resulting from imported species of fish. Thus, CFP may be undiagnosed as physicians are not aware of this tropical disease outside endemic countries. The detection of ciguatoxins by MBA in the French National Reference Laboratory is useful in the confirmation of the diagnosis. © 2014 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  9. Trace element concentrations along a gradient of urban pressure in forest and lawn soils of the Paris region (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foti, Ludovic; Dubs, Florence; Gignoux, Jacques; Lata, Jean-Christophe; Lerch, Thomas Z; Mathieu, Jérôme; Nold, François; Nunan, Naoise; Raynaud, Xavier; Abbadie, Luc; Barot, Sébastien

    2017-11-15

    The concentration, degree of contamination and pollution of 7 trace elements (TEs) along an urban pressure gradient were measured in 180 lawn and wood soils of the Paris region (France). Iron (Fe), a major element, was used as reference element. Copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) were of anthropogenic origin, while arsenic (As), chromium (Cr) and nickel (Ni) were of natural origin. Road traffic was identified as the main source of anthropogenic TEs. In addition, the industrial activity of the Paris region, especially cement plants, was identified as secondary source of Cd. Soil characteristics (such as texture, organic carbon (OC) and total nitrogen (tot N) contents) tell the story of the soil origins and legacies along the urban pressure gradient and often can explain TE concentrations. The history of the land-use types was identified as a factor that allowed understanding the contamination and pollution by TEs. Urban wood soils were found to be more contaminated and polluted than urban lawns, probably because woods are much older than lawns and because of the legacy of the historical management of soils in the Paris region (Haussmann period). Lawn soils are similar to the fertile agricultural soils and relatively recently (mostly from the 1950s onwards) imported from the surrounding of Paris, so that they may be less influenced by urban conditions in terms of TE concentrations. Urban wood soils are heavily polluted by Cd, posing a high risk to the biological communities. The concentration of anthropogenic TEs increased from the rural to the urban areas, and the concentrations of most anthropogenic TEs in urban areas were equivalent to or above the regulatory reference values, raising the question of longer-term monitoring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. History of psychosurgery at Sainte-Anne Hospital, Paris, France, through translational interactions between psychiatrists and neurosurgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanello, Marc; Pallud, Johan; Baup, Nicolas; Peeters, Sophie; Turak, Baris; Krebs, Marie Odile; Oppenheim, Catherine; Gaillard, Raphael; Devaux, Bertrand

    2017-09-01

    Sainte-Anne Hospital is the largest psychiatric hospital in Paris. Its long and fascinating history began in the 18th century. In 1952, it was at Sainte-Anne Hospital that Jean Delay and Pierre Deniker used the first neuroleptic, chlorpromazine, to cure psychiatric patients, putting an end to the expansion of psychosurgery. The Department of Neuro-psychosurgery was created in 1941. The works of successive heads of the Neurosurgery Department at Sainte-Anne Hospital summarized the history of psychosurgery in France. Pierre Puech defined psychosurgery as the necessary cooperation between neurosurgeons and psychiatrists to treat the conditions causing psychiatric symptoms, from brain tumors to mental health disorders. He reported the results of his series of 369 cases and underlined the necessity for proper follow-up and postoperative re-education, illustrating the relative caution of French neurosurgeons concerning psychosurgery. Marcel David and his assistants tried to follow their patients closely postoperatively; this resulted in numerous publications with significant follow-up and conclusions. As early as 1955, David reported intellectual degradation 2 years after prefrontal leucotomies. Jean Talairach, a psychiatrist who eventually trained as a neurosurgeon, was the first to describe anterior capsulotomy in 1949. He operated in several hospitals outside of Paris, including the Sarthe Psychiatric Hospital and the Public Institution of Mental Health in the Lille region. He developed stereotactic surgery, notably stereo-electroencephalography, for epilepsy surgery but also to treat psychiatric patients using stereotactic lesioning with radiofrequency ablation or radioactive seeds of yttrium-90. The evolution of functional neurosurgery has been marked by the development of deep brain stimulation, in particular for obsessive-compulsive disorder, replacing the former lesional stereotactic procedures. The history of Sainte-Anne Hospital's Neurosurgery Department sheds

  11. The social aspects in the identification of children’s mental health problems in two health services in Paris, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Nakamura

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Children’s mental health problems were analyzed from a sociological approach addressing two questions: what are the main children’s behaviors identified and considered to be mental health problems, and what are the consequences of this classification for the debate on children’s problems in contemporary societies. This quantitative and qualitative study analyzed 275 patients’ records from two child mental health services (CMHS in the northeast area of Paris, France. The majority of children were boys from six to 11 years old; requests were presented mainly by schools and parents; the main problems were behavioural problems, cognitive difficulties and relational problems (boys, and affective or emotional problems (girls. There is an interdependence of a great number of actors who worry about children’s behavior and a system of expectations seems to be collectively woven by them as social classifications.

  12. Trace metal concentrations in forest and lawn soils of Paris region (France) along a gradient of urban pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludovic, Foti

    2017-04-01

    concentrations and subsequent risks in soils of Paris and Paris region (Île-de-France). Our study aims at filling this knowledge gap, focusing on contamination and pollution by TMs in lawns and forests that constitute the main types of vegetation in urban areas of Paris region. Considering the rational described above, the aims of the present study were (i) to examine the concentration of eight selected TMs (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Zn) in soils of two land-uses (public lawns and woods) along an urban pressure gradient in Paris region, (ii) to distinguish origins and sources of contamination or pollution, (iii) to evaluate the individual and overall TM contamination degree as well as the individual and overall TM pollution degree, (iiii) to use soil characteristics to better understand soil origins and histories along the urban pressure gradient and the relationship between these characteristics and TM concentrations. Ultimately, this study provides a baseline TM assessment for the long-term monitoring of the evolution of TM soil contents in urban area of the Paris region.

  13. Urban dew and rain in Paris, France: Occurrence and physico-chemical characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beysens, D.; Mongruel, A.; Acker, K.

    2017-06-01

    This paper summarizes one year (April 2011 to March 2012) measurements on planar condensing surfaces of dew and rain events and related physico-chemical characteristics in the urban environment of Paris (city center). Yearly collected water was 3.48 mm for dew (63 events) and 593 mm for rain (146 events). The latter value compares well with rain data (547 mm and 107 events) collected within 12 km at Paris-Orly airport. An estimation of dew yield based on meteo data gives 2.35 mm and 74 events, to be compared with 17.11 mm and 196 events at Paris-Orly. These differences highlight the large reduction in dew events and dew yields in an urban area as compared to a close rural-like area. This reduction is not due to a sky view reduction but to heat island that increases air temperature and decreases relative humidity. Analysis of dew (34) and rain (77) samples were done concerning pH, electrical conductivity (EC), major anions and cations as well as selected trace metals and other minor ions. Mean pH values are found similar for both, dew (6.5) and rain (6.1), rain being slightly more acidic than dew. The mean dew total ionic content (TIC 1.8 meq/l) and EC value (124 μS/cm) are about four times that of rain (0.45 meq/l; 35 μS/cm), meaning that total dissolved solids in dew is nearly four times that in rain. Sulfate and nitrate are the most acidifying components, calcium the most neutralizing constituent with ratio of mean total acidity/total alkalinity comparable for dew and rain ( 0.9). Sulfate and nitrate have mainly anthropogenic sources, whereas chloride and magnesium are mostly connected with marine air masses. Dew is a considerable factor of wet deposition of pollutants; dew and rain ion concentrations, however, meet the WHO requirements for drinking water.

  14. Three centuries of heavy metal pollution in Paris (France) recorded by urban speleothems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons-Branchu, Edwige; Ayrault, Sophie; Roy-Barman, Matthieu; Bordier, Louise; Borst, Wolfgang; Branchu, Philippe; Douville, Eric; Dumont, Emmanuel

    2015-06-15

    The first record of urban speleothems used to reconstruct the history of heavy metal pollution of shallow groundwaters is presented. Two speleothems grew during the last 300 years in an underground aqueduct in the north-eastern part of Paris. They display high Pb, Mn V, Cu, Cd and Al concentrations since 1900 due to the urbanization of the site which triggered anthropogenic contamination of the water feeding the speleothems. Surprisingly, these heavy metal concentrations are also high in the oldest part. This early pollution could come from the use of Parisian waste as fertilizers in the orchards and vineyards cultivated above the aqueduct before urbanization. Lead isotopes were measured in these carbonates as well as in lead artifacts from the 17th-18th centuries ((206)Pb/(207)Pb=1.180+/-0.003). The mean (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratio, for one of the speleothems is 1.181+/-0.003 unvarying with time. These lead signatures are close to those of coal and old lead from northern European mines, lower than the natural background signature. It confirms that the high metal concentrations found come from anthropogenic pollution. Conversely, the lead isotopic composition of the second speleothem presents two temporal trends: for the oldest levels, the mean value (1.183+/-0.003) is similar to the first speleothem. For the youngest part, a lower value (1.172+/-0.005) is recorded, evidencing the contribution of a new lead source at the beginning of the industrial revolution. Pb isotopes were also measured in recent samples from a nearby superficial site. The first sample is a recent (AD 1975+/-15 years) deposit ((206)Pb/(207)Pb=1.148+/-0.003), and the second, a thin subactual layer ((206)Pb/(207)Pb=1.181+/-0.002). These data are compatible with the adding of anthropogenic sources (leaded gasoline and industrial lead from Rio Tinto ore). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Unmet healthcare needs in homeless women with children in the Greater Paris area in France.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Vuillermoz

    Full Text Available Despite their poor health status, homeless women encounter many barriers to care. The objectives of our study were to estimate the prevalence of unmet healthcare needs in homeless women and to analyse associated relationships with the following factors: financial and spatial access to care, housing history, migration status, healthcare utilisation, victimization history, caring for children, social network and self-perceived health status.We used data from 656 homeless women interviewed during the ENFAMS representative survey of sheltered homeless families, conducted in the Paris region in 2013. Structural equation models (SEM were used to estimate the impact of various factors on homeless women's unmet healthcare needs.Among those interviewed, 25.1% (95%CI[21.3-29.0] had at least one unmet healthcare need over the previous year. Most had given up on visiting general practitioners and medical specialists. No association with factors related to financial access or to health insurance status was found. However, food insecurity, poor spatial health access and poor self-perceived health were associated with unmet healthcare needs. Self-perceived health appeared to be affected by victimization and depression.The lower prevalence of unmet healthcare needs in homeless women compared with women in stable housing situations suggests that homeless women have lower needs perceptions and/or lower expectations of the healthcare system. This hypothesis is supported by the results from SEM. Strategies to provide better access to care for this population should not only focus on financial interventions but also more broadly on spatial healthcare access, cultural norms, and perceptions of health. Reducing their unmet needs and improving their access to healthcare and prevention must include an improvement in their living, financial and housing conditions.

  16. Phthalates and alkylphenols in industrial and domestic effluents: case of Paris conurbation (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergé, A; Gasperi, J; Rocher, V; Gras, L; Coursimault, A; Moilleron, R

    2014-08-01

    Phthalates and alkylphenols are toxics classified as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). They are of particular concern due to their ubiquity and generally higher levels found in the environment comparatively to other EDCs. Industrial and domestic discharges might affect the quality of receiving waters by discharging organic matter and contaminants through treated waters and combined sewer overflows. Historically, industrial discharges are often considered as the principal vector of pollution in urban areas. If this observation was true in the past for some contaminants, no current data are today available to compare the quality of industrial and domestic discharges as regards EDCs. In this context, a total of 45 domestic samples as well as 101 industrial samples were collected from different sites, including 14 residential and 33 industrial facilities. This study focuses more specifically on 4 phthalates and 2 alkylphenols, among the most commonly studied congeners. A particular attention was also given to routine wastewater quality parameters. For most substances, wastewaters from the different sites were heavily contaminated; they display concentrations up to 1200 μg/l for di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and between 10 and 100 μg/l for diethyl phthalate and nonylphenol. Overall, for the majority of compounds, the industrial contribution to the flux of contaminant reaching the wastewater treatment plants ranges between 1 and 3%. The data generated during this work constitutes one of the first studies conducted in Europe on industrial fluxes for a variety of sectors of activity. The study of the wastewater contribution was used to better predict the industrial and domestic contributions at the scale of a huge conurbation heavily urbanized but with a weak industrial cover, illustrated by Paris. Our results indicate that specific investigations on domestic discharges are necessary in order to reduce the release of phthalates and alkylphenols in the sewer systems

  17. Use of poppers and HIV risk behaviours among men who have sex with men in Paris, France: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambrick, H Rhodes; Park, Su Hyun; Palamar, Joseph J; Estreet, Anthony; Schneider, John A; Duncan, Dustin T

    2018-06-01

    The use of inhaled nitrites, or poppers, among men who have sex with men (MSM) is prevalent, yet has been associated with HIV seroconversion. We surveyed 580 MSM from a geosocial networking smartphone application in Paris, France, in 2016. Of the respondents, 46.7% reported popper use within the previous 3 months. Regression models adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics found that the use of poppers was significantly (P<0.05) associated with the following during the prior 3 months: condomless anal intercourse (adjusted relative risk (aRR) 1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-1.50), use of alcohol and/or drugs during sex once or twice (adjusted relative risk ratio (aRRR) 2.33, 95% CI 1.44-2.03), three to five times (aRRR 5.41, 95% CI 2.98-9.84) or six or more times (aRRR 4.09, 95% CI 2.22-7.56), participation in group sex (aRRR 3.70, 95% CI 2.33-5.90) and self-reported diagnosis with any sexually transmissible infection over the previous year (aRR 1.63, 95% CI 1.18-2.27), specifically chlamydia (aRR 2.75, 95% CI 1.29-4.29) and syphilis (aRR 2.27, 95% CI 1.29-4.29).

  18. Highlights from the WIN 2017 Symposium, 26-27 June 2017, Paris, France: 'Expediting Global Innovation in Precision Cancer Medicine'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Will

    2017-01-01

    The Worldwide Innovative Networking (WIN) symposium brings together representatives from academic institutions, pharmaceutical partners, technology companies and charitable organisations from across the globe for an annual summit, discussing ongoing research and the latest developments in precision medicine. Now, in its seventh year, the aims of the WIN consortium's annual meeting, to foster communication and collaboration between members and deliver clinical trial results that improve the care and outcomes of patients are presented in open dialogue to encourage debate and discussion. This year, the meeting was held in Paris, France from 26-27 June and consisted of six plenary sessions, two debates, and poster presentations from attendees. In keeping with the consortium's goals, presentations and posters focused on the development and integration of new therapies and updates in genome-based medicine. Among the presentations at this year's meeting, much of the focus fell on design and implementation of new designs of clinical trials, moving away from decades-long assessments of thousands of patients towards a nimble, adaptive design fitting the edicts of personalised medicine and delving into greater depths within genomic data, ranging beyond genome analysis to chart new targets in ligandomics, proteogenomics and more.

  19. Influence of the water quality improvement on fish population in the Seine River (Paris, France) over the 1990-2013 period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimi, Sam; Rocher, Vincent

    2016-01-15

    Over the past 20 years, rules concerning wastewater treatment and quality of water discharged into the environment have changed considerably. Huge investments have been made in Paris conurbation to improve waste water treatment processes in accordance with the European Water Framework Directive. The interdepartmental association for sewage disposal in Paris conurbation (SIAAP) carried out a monitoring of both fish assemblages and water quality in the Seine River around the Paris conurbation (France) since the early 90's. The main goal of this study was to estimate the influence of the water quality improvement on fish. On one hand, the study confirmed the improvement of the water quality (dissolved oxygen, ammonia nitrogen, organic matter) in the Seine River, mostly focused downstream of Paris conurbation. On the other hand, an increase of the number of species occurred from 1990 (14) to 2013 (21). Moreover, changes in the river Seine assemblages happened over that 23-year period with emergence of sensitive species (ruffe, scalpin and pike-perch). The improvement of the water quality was also reported with respect to the Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI). However, no variation of pollutant concentrations in roach, eel and chub muscles has been observed. An exceedance of the environmental quality standards have even been reported all over this period as regards mercury and organochlorine.

  20. Multi-parameter observation of environmental asbestos pollution at the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (Jussieu Campus, France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besson, P; Lalanne, F X; Wang, Y; Guyot, F

    1999-11-01

    An original multi-parameter system has been used to study the nature of dust in the ambient air, particularly the total fibers and asbestos fibers, in eight areas of the Institut de Physique de Globe de Paris (France). These analyses provide a detailed case study of environmental pollution by asbestos fibers at low levels. The levels of total fibers with a length greater than 3 microns, measured with a real time fiber analyser monitor (FAM), give a baseline of 2.5 fibers per l., throughout the duration of sampling. The same levels, calculated during periods of effective presence of staff, are smaller than 10 fb per l. During these periods, the instantaneous value can show high peaks, reaching a maximum of 60 fb per l., but more often of about 5 to 10 fb per l. A direct cause and effect relationship exists between fiber concentrations and the presence of people, and indirectly with the variation of the other environmental parameters (temperature, humidity, air velocity). The baseline concentration of asbestos fibers, determined by analytical transmission electron microscopy (ATEM), is about 10(-1) fb per l., with a mean value during the presence of people always less than 1.5 fb per l. The low levels of asbestos fibers do not allow us to establish a precise correlation between the concentration of total fibers and the asbestos concentration, but a rough estimate suggests that asbestos could represent 10-20% of the airborne fibers monitored with the FAM. The statistical study of fiber sizes shows that 70 and 55% of analyzed chrysotile and amosite fibers respectively are smaller than 5 microns. These numbers are 40 and 35% for fibers smaller than 3 microns, which are undetected by the FAM. Amosite, which characterizes most of the asbestos-containing materials (ACM) in the analyzed areas, is detected in the ambient air in quantities ten times less important than chrysotile. The low asbestos levels and the difference between the nature of building asbestos and airborne

  1. Understanding the patient multidimensional experience: a qualitative study on coping in hospitals of Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reach G

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Gérard Reach,1 Denis Fompeyrine,2 Carole Mularski21Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, Avicenne Hospital APHP and EA 3412, CRNH-IdF, Paris 13 University, Bobigny, France; 2Direction des Patients, Usagers et Associations, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Paris, FranceObjective: Time spent in hospitals is complex and entails a number of distinct phases that fluctuate depending on many variables. Attempts to understand patients’ experiences often involve focusing on their needs using self-evaluation, but this does not clearly highlight the complexity of coping. Questionnaires based on telephone surveys and emails do not facilitate a sufficient assessment of the coping effort. However, when patients express themselves through spontaneous narration, different dimensions may emerge in their experience at the hospital. This qualitative study explores the various forms of coping among patients with a hospital experience.Methods: Interviews were conducted with 75 patients in six hospital departments. Transcripts from interviews were thematically analyzed and a conceptual, multidimensional model was developed to explain the relationship between patient experience and coping complexity.Results: Patients used a set of about 50 different terms to describe their experiences in the hospital. They described with the greatest number of words the aspects that triggered their stress or distress and forced them to cope. Stress resulting from the experienced situation was classifiable into five dimensions: trauma, environment, medical, interpersonal affective, and social impact, which constitute invariants that may require individual complex coping strategies.Conclusion: Patient experience is hard to evaluate, and this represents a permanent challenge for medical teams. Considering the five coping dimensions delineated in this study may be helpful in improving the patient’s hospital experience.Keywords: patient experience

  2. Tracing transfer processes of metal pollutants from soils to surface water using environmental magnetic techniques - results from Paris suburbia (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Christine; Lamy, Isabelle; van Oort, Folkert; Thiesson, Julien; Barsalini, Luca

    2015-04-01

    Major river systems in Europe are potential sinks for environmental pollutions and therefore reflect the consequences of European industrialization and urbanization. Surface water pollution is a major concern for the health of the population and its related ecosystems as well as for the water quality. Within the variety of different typical pollutants in a river watershed, the metallic fraction embraces many toxic/dangerous contaminants. Each of these elements comprises different sources and follows specific processes throughout its pathways from its origin to and within the river system. But the detection, estimation and follow up of the different contaminants is highly complex. Physico-chemical techniques such as environmental and rock magnetics are powerful complementary tools to traditional methods because they comprise the possibility to trace the entire metal fraction and do offer the possibility to perform spatio-temporal analyze campaigns directly in the field and on a relative high number of samples from both the river and the adjacent areas (suspended particular matter, soils, dust, sediments, etc). In this study, we took advantages of the recent results on the Seine river (France) that have shown the high potential of environmental magnetic methods to estimate the metal fraction in suspended particular matter samples, and to allow the discrimination of its natural detrital, biogenic or anthropogenic origin (see parallel EGU abstract of Kayvantash et al. in this session). We focused on a suburban agricultural area west of Paris (Pierrelaye-Bessancourt) adjacent to the Seine river, which suffers from a high accumulation of heavy metal pollutants caused by long-term historical irrigation with urban waste waters. For the time being, these heavy metals seem to be geochemically fixed in the surface layer mainly by the soil organic matter. Future land use planning, however, arises questions on the fate of these pollutants and their potential remobilization by

  3. European and Americas Committees for Treatment and Research in Multiple Sclerosis (ECTRIMS/ACTRIMS) - 7th Joint Triennial Congress (October 25-28, 2017 - Paris, France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, N

    2017-10-01

    The 7th Triennial Joint conference of the European Committee for Treatment and Research in Multiple Sclerosis (ECTRIMS) and Americas Committee for Treatment and Research in Multiple Sclerosis (ACTRIMS) was held in Paris, France. The meeting brought together attendees from a wide range of disciplines involved in multiple sclerosis (MS) research to explore an extensive program of teaching courses, plenary lectures, oral and poster sessions from approximately 2,000 abstracts submitted, and hot topic and young investigator presentations. These presentations covered topics including diagnostics, therapeutics and biomarkers, as well as a special section for MS nurses. Industry-sponsored symposia were also held. The report from this conference covers the latest developments in MS treatments.

  4. Preliminary report on AED deployment on the entire Air France commercial fleet: a joint venture with Paris XII University Training Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, C; Rodriguez Redington, P; Lecarpentier, E; Bellaiche, G; Michel, D; Teiger, E; Morris, W; Le Bourgeois, J P; Barthout, M

    2004-11-01

    The positive effect of early defibrillation on survival from cardiac arrest has been demonstrated. We describe the use of AEDs over 1 year following the training of flight attendants. Air France and the University of Paris XII together designed a 1 year training programme for 14000 flight attendants. The university emergency departments (SAMU) provided 250 instructors. AEDs training and certification was conducted for crew members between November 2001 and November 2002. By January 2003, all aircraft were fully equipped with AEDs. All cases of cardiac arrest that occurred during the study were reviewed comprehensively. Comments from the crew were collected. Twelve cardiac arrests were reported between November 2002 and November 2003 out of 4194 cases of emergency care delivered to passengers. Shock treatment was advised initially in 5/12 cases. The survival rate after in-flight cardiac arrest was 3/12. The survival rate at discharge from hospital following in flight shock was 2/5. No complications arose from the use of AEDs. Training by professionals gave the flight attendants confidence and allowed for the survival of two young passengers. Our study highlights the ability of flight attendants to give better onboard care for the future. The next step is to consolidate the network between in-flight care and the medical dispatch centre in Paris.

  5. Perceived Neighborhood Safety Is Associated with Poor Sleep Health among Gay, Bisexual, and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men in Paris, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Dustin T; Park, Su Hyun; Goedel, William C; Kreski, Noah T; Morganstein, Jace G; Hambrick, H Rhodes; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Chaix, Basile

    2017-06-01

    Recent studies have examined sleep health among men who have sex with men (MSM), but no studies have examined associations of neighborhood characteristics and sleep health among this population. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between perceived neighborhood safety and sleep health among a sample of MSM in Paris, France. We placed broadcast advertisements on a popular smartphone application for MSM in October 2016 to recruit users in the Paris (France) metropolitan area (n = 580). Users were directed to complete a web-based survey, including previously used items measuring perceptions of neighborhood safety, validated measures of sleep health, and socio-demographics. Modified Poisson models were used to estimate risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the associations between perceived neighborhood safety and the following outcomes: (1) poor sleep quality, (2) short sleep duration, and (3) self-reported sleep problems. Poor sleep health was common in our sample; e.g., 30.1% reported poor sleep quality and 44.7% reported problems falling asleep. In multivariate regression models, perceived neighborhood safety was associated with poor sleep quality, short sleep duration, and having sleep problems. For example, reporting living in a neighborhood perceived as unsafe during the daytime (vs. safe) was associated with poor sleep quality (aRR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.01, 2.52), short sleep duration (aRR, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.26, 2.94), problems falling asleep (aRR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.17, 2.11), and problems staying awake in the daytime (aRR, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.05, 4.43). Interventions to increase neighborhood safety may improve sleep health among MSM.

  6. Protection et valorisation du patrimoine géomorphologique en Île- de-France (Bassin de Paris, France)État des lieux et perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Bétard, François

    2015-01-01

    Reconnu depuis une dizaine d’années seulement, le patrimoine géomorphologique fait l’objet d’une attention accrue de la part des scientifiques et des acteurs du territoire, en raison des menaces grandissantes qui pèsent sur la préservation des reliefs et des paysages, mais aussi compte tenu des potentialités qu’offre la valorisation culturelle et touristique des sites d’intérêt géomorphologique (ou géomorphosites) pour le développement local. En France métropolitaine, la région Île-de-France ...

  7. Sequence stratigraphy and tectonosedimentary history of the Upper Jurassic of the Eastern Paris Basin (Lower and Middle Oxfordian, Northeastern France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpentier, Cédric; Lathuilière, Bernard; Ferry, Serge; Sausse, Judith

    2007-04-01

    In the present study, the difficulty which lies in the identification of sea-level fall discontinuities in deep depositional environments led the authors to use the transgressive surfaces (i.e. the most noticeable surfaces in the present case) to determine depositional cycles. Four (3rd order?) Lower and Middle Oxfordian cycles were identified (S1, S2, S3, and S4) in the Eastern Paris Basin. These four cycles can be organised into two lower frequency cycles (So I and So II) which comprise the S1, S2 and the S3, S4 cycles respectively. During the time intervals of the S1, S2, and S3 cycles, sedimentation occurred along a southward dipping carbonate-siliciclastic ramp, prograding from the northern Ardennes area. The S4 cycle shows the development of a reefal distally steepened ramp which subsequently evolved into a flat-topped platform as a result of the compensation infill of the available accommodation space by the carbonate production during a climatic warming, in this case reef growth. Isopach and facies maps suggest synsedimentary activities of hercynian faults coevals with the floodings of the So I and So II cycles. One of these events generated a diachronism of the maximum flooding (Plicatilis Zone) during the So II cycle between the northwestern and southeastern parts of the studied area. The depositional patterns found in the Eastern Paris Basin and the Swiss Jura show great similarities for the Early-Middle Oxfordian. Both regions were probably connected and recorded the same tectonosedimentary evolution. In contrast a tectonic control certainly generated differences between the sequence-stratigraphic framework of the Eastern Paris Basin and the eustatic chart.

  8. Urbanization impact on sulfur content of groundwater revealed by the study of urban speleothem-like deposits: Case study in Paris, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons-Branchu, E; Roy-Barman, M; Jean-Soro, L; Guillerme, A; Branchu, P; Fernandez, M; Dumont, E; Douville, E; Michelot, J L; Phillips, A M

    2017-02-01

    Speleothem-like deposits that develop underground in urban areas are an archive of the environmental impact of anthropic activities that has been little studied so far. In this paper, the sulfate content in shallow groundwater from northern Paris (France) is compared with the sulfur content in two 300-year-old urban carbonate deposits that grew in a historical underground aqueduct. The present-day waters of the aqueduct have very high sulfur and calcium contents, suggesting pollution from gypsum dissolution. However, geological gypsum levels are located below the water table. Sulfur content was measured by micro-X-ray fluorescence in these very S-rich carbonate deposits (0.5 to 1% of S). A twofold S increase during the second half of the 1800s was found in both samples. These dates correspond to two major periods of urbanization above the site. We discus three possible S sources: anthropic sources (industries, fertilizers…), volcanic eruptions and input within the water through gypsum brought for urbanization above the studied site (backfill with quarry waste) since the middle of the 19th century. For the younger second half of the studied section, S input from gypsum brought during urbanization was confirmed by the study of isotopic sulfur composition (δ 34 S=+15.2‰ at the top). For the oldest part, several sulfur peaks could be related to early industrial activity in Paris, that caused high local air pollution, as reported in historical archives but also to historical gypsum extraction. This study provides information on the origin and timing of the very high SO 4 2- levels measured nowadays within the shallow groundwater, thus demonstrating the interest in using carbonate deposits in urban areas as a proxy for the history of urbanization or human activities and their impact on water bodies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Partitioning behaviour of perfluorinated alkyl contaminants between water, sediment and fish in the Orge River (nearby Paris, France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labadie, Pierre; Chevreuil, Marc

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on the partitioning behaviour of 15 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), including C 4 -C 10 sulfonates and C 5 -C 14 carboxylic acids, between water, sediment and fish (European chub, Leuciscus cephalus) in the Orge River (nearby Paris). Total PFC levels were 73.0 ± 3.0 ng L -1 in water and 8.4 ± 0.5 ng g -1 in sediment. They were in the range 43.1-4997.2 ng g -1 in fish, in which PFC tissue distribution followed the order plasma > liver > gills > gonads > muscle. Sediment-water distribution coefficients (log K d ) and bioaccumulation factors (log BAF) were in the range 0.8-4.3 and 0.9-6.7, respectively. Both distribution coefficients positively correlated with perfluoroalkyl chain length. Field-based biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) are also reported, for the first time for PFCs other than perfluorooctane sulfonate. log BSAF ranged between -1.3 and 1.5 and was negatively correlated with the perfluoroalkyl chain length in the case of carboxylic acids. - Research highlights: → PFC tissue distribution in European chub followed the order plasma > liver > gills > gonads > muscle. → K d and BAF correlated with PFC alkyl chain length. → BSAF negatively correlated with the perfluoroalkyl chain length in the case of carboxylic acids. → BSAF did not correlate with alkyl chain length of sulfonates. - Sediment-water, biota-water and biota-sediment partitioning coefficients were determined for perfluorinated acids and sulfonates and were generally correlated with alkyl chain length.

  10. Factors associated with excessively lengthy treatment of tuberculosis in the eastern Paris region of France in 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valin Nadia

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few data are available on prescriber adherence to tuberculosis (TB treatment guidelines. In particular, excessively long treatment carries a risk of avoidable adverse effects and represents a waste of healthcare resources. We examined factors potentially associated with excessively long treatment. Methods We reviewed the medical records of patients diagnosed with TB in 2004 in the eastern Paris region. Sociodemographic and clinical factors associated with excessively long treatment were identified by logistic regression analyses. Based on contemporary guidelines, excessively long treatment was defined as more than 6 months of a four-drug regimen for thoracic TB with full sensitive strains, and more than 12 months for patients with extrathoracic TB. Results Analyses concerned 478 patients with a median age of 36.0 ± 13.5 years, of whom 48% were living in precarious conditions (i.e. poor living conditions and/or no health insurance, 80% were born abroad, and 17% were HIV-seropositive. TB was restricted to the chest in 279 patients (isolated pulmonary, pleuropulmonary, and isolated pleural TB in 245, 13, and 21 patients, respectively, exclusively extrathoracic in 115 patients, and mixed in the remaining 84 patients. Treatment was prescribed by a chest specialist in 211 cases (44.1% and 295 patients (61.7% were managed in a single institution. The treatment duration complied with contemporary guidelines in 316 cases (66.1% and was excessively long in 162 cases (33.9%. The median duration of excessively long treatment was 313 days (IQR: 272-412. In multivariate analysis, isolated thoracic TB, previous TB, HIV infection, a prescriber other than a chest specialist, and management in more than one healthcare center during treatment were independently associated with excessively lengthy treatment. Conclusion One-third of TB patients received excessively long treatment, reflecting inadequate awareness of management guidelines or

  11. Afflictions encountered in Paris by an army officer and writer: autobiographical works of Yasmina Khadra and their reception in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jędrzej Pawlicki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes Yasmina Khadra’s autobiographical work composed of two books: "L’écrivain" and "L’imposture des mots" and its reception in France. The main purpose of this study was to establish the literary genre of these books, which implies determining whether Khandra’s work represents an autobiography or an autofiction with reference to P. Lejeune’s and V. Colonna’s theoretical studies. The dividing line between two genres in Khandra’s works refl ects his inner split between being either a solder or a writer. The presentation will also help to understand the controversy resulting from Khandra’s participation in Algerian civil war. Moreover the analysis is related to modern Algerian history.

  12. Tropospheric and total ozone columns over Paris (France measured using medium-resolution ground-based solar-absorption Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Viatte

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Ground-based Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR solar absorption spectroscopy is a powerful remote sensing technique providing information on the vertical distribution of various atmospheric constituents. This work presents the first evaluation of a mid-resolution ground-based FTIR to measure tropospheric ozone, independently of stratospheric ozone. This is demonstrated using a new atmospheric observatory (named OASIS for "Observations of the Atmosphere by Solar absorption Infrared Spectroscopy", installed in Créteil (France. The capacity of the technique to separate stratospheric and tropospheric ozone is demonstrated. Daily mean tropospheric ozone columns derived from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI and from OASIS measurements are compared for summer 2009 and a good agreement of −5.6 (±16.1 % is observed. Also, a qualitative comparison between in-situ surface ozone measurements and OASIS data reveals OASIS's capacity to monitor seasonal tropospheric ozone variations, as well as ozone pollution episodes in summer 2009 around Paris. Two extreme pollution events are identified (on the 1 July and 6 August 2009 for which ozone partial columns from OASIS and predictions from a regional air-quality model (CHIMERE are compared following strict criteria of temporal and spatial coincidence. An average bias of 0.2%, a mean square error deviation of 7.6%, and a correlation coefficient of 0.91 is found between CHIMERE and OASIS, demonstrating the potential of a mid-resolution FTIR instrument in ground-based solar absorption geometry for tropospheric ozone monitoring.

  13. Communication dated 26 November 2004 received from the Permanent Representatives of France, Germany, the Islamic Republic of Iran and the United Kingdom concerning the agreement signed in Paris on 15 November 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Director General has received a letter dated 26 November 2004 from the Permanent Representatives of France, Germany, the Islamic Republic of Iran and the United Kingdom, attaching the text of the agreement signed by the Governments of France, Germany, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland with the support of the High Representative of the European Union, and the Islamic Republic of Iran, in Paris on 15 November 2004. The letter and, as requested therein, the text of the agreement, is reproduced herewith for the information of Member States

  14. EdF competing in the European electricity market. Interview with Francois Ailleret, Electricite de France, Paris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The French nuclear power program was pushed through in order to reduce the country's dependence on imported fossil sources of energy. Nuclear power and hydro power have achieved a level of self-sufficiency in the energy sector of more than 50%. It should be emphasized that the French nuclear power program was largely self-financed. Electricite de France (EdF) considers itself well prepared for the European market, provided the creation of the single market implies that electricity rates are taken as a yardstick of competitiveness. Negotiations about a European directive on deregulating the electricity market were for the government to hold. EdF pleaded in favor of preserving for each country a certain leeway for shaping its own policy. The road to deregulation was to be opened, but the specific situation of each country was to be taken electricity to be passed through imposes narrow constraints upon an expansion of exchanges of electricity, and public acceptance is not very likely to be achieved for the construction of new international high voltage transmission lines. (orig.) [de

  15. France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hourcade, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    The French energy system, like that of most energy-importing nations, was profoundly transformed by the first oil shock. But France was more vulnerable than any other industrialized country besides Japan to oil supply disruption: in 1973, the nation imported 77 percent of total primary energy requirements of 7.6 EJ, and 98 percent of its petroleum. Two imperatives have since formed the 'French response' to the threat of external energy supply disruptions: augmentation of the rate of energy self-sufficiency, and minimization of major macroeconomic dislocations. These two objectives displaced a high priority in France in the early 1970s - protection of the natural environment. Because France has embraced nuclear power, it is often viewed by its European neighbors as having feeble ecological sensibility. At that time, France had a rather advanced policy in this field: sulfur emissions laws were enacted in 1967 and a Ministry of Environment was created in January 1971. Now that environmental concerns have re-emerged as an important force, France finds itself with a plausible greenhouse response in a mix of policies - without environmental protection having been the objective envisioned

  16. France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, K.

    1991-01-01

    The grandeur of the nation is the most important national concern in the France of the Fifth Republic. National independence and maximum world status have been (and still are) characteristic imperatives of French policy. Any asset or resource which promises to strengthen the nation, which seems suitable for improving the global status and glory of France, becomes a worthwhile policy device. Of course, the sots incurred in the pursuit of these objectives are frequently the subject of critical discussion, but all in all these costs are accepted. This has been the case with numerous prestige projects including the French nuclear deterrent, the force de frappe. This paper reports that an analysis of the French ambition to possess nuclear weapons must begin with the complete loss of world status which France suffered as a consequence of World War II. Throughout the post-war period, French political leaders have concentrated their efforts on reversing this loss of status and on preventing a similar occurrence

  17. Impacts of Climate Change and of Anthropisation on Water Resources: from the Risk Assessment to Adaptation, the Case of the Seine Basin (including Paris, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habets, F.; Viennot, P.; Thierion, C.; Vergnes, J. P.; Ait Kaci, A.; Caballero, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The Seine river, located in the temperate climate of northern France and flowing over a large sedimentary basins that hosts multilayer aquifers, is characterized by small temporal variations of its discharge. However, the presence of a megacity (Paris) and a wide area of intensive agriculture combined with climate change puts pressure on the water resources both in terms of quality and quantity. Previous research projects have estimated the impact of climate change on the water resource of the Seine basin, with the uncertainties associated to climate projections, hydrological models or downscaling methods. The water resource was projected to decrease by -14 % ± 10 % in 2050 and -28 +/-16% in 2100. This led to new studies that focus on the combined impact of climate change and adaptations. The tested adaptations are: a reduction of the groundwater abstractions, evolution of land use, development of small dams to « harvest water » or artificial recharge of aquifers. The communication of the results of these projects to stakeholders have led to the development on new indicators that better express the risk on the water resource management, especially for the groundwater. For instance maps of the evolution of piezometric head are difficult to interpret. To better express the risk evolution, a new indicator was defined: the evolution of the groundwater crisis duration, ie, the period when the charge of the aquifer is below the crisis piezometric level defined by the stakeholders. Such crisis piezometric levels are used to help defining the period when the groundwater abstraction should be reduced. Such maps are more efficient to communicate with water resources managers. This communication will focus on the results from the MEDDE Explore 2070 and ANR Oracle projects.

  18. Identifying and Overcoming Barriers to Effective Consideration of Human and Organisational Factors in Event Analysis and Root Cause Analysis. Workshop Proceedings, September 21-22, 2009, Paris, France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear licensees must have effective processes for learning from operating experience in order to manage safety, secure continuous improvement and defend against the potential for repeat events. These processes include root cause analysis (RCA) to identify the underlying causes of events and mechanisms to learn from these analyses and to implement improvements. Correctly identifying and correcting the causes of events will allow lessons to be learned and shared with others in the industry. The treatment of Human and Organisational Factors (HOF) in RCA is of special interest to WGHOF. It is estimated that approximately 60-80% of events in the nuclear industry can be attributed to human and organisational factors. Although the importance of correctly identifying the HOF causes is understood, there is still a tendency for the analysis to focus solely on the technical issues of the event. The history of prominent events across the major hazards sector shows that HOF lessons often fail to be learned. A NEA/CSNI special experts meeting entitled 'Identification of Barriers to Analyzing and Identifying Human and Organisational Factors in Root Cause Analysis' was held at the NEA Headquarters in Paris, France on September 21-22, 2009. A total of 17 participants from 10 countries representing licensee organisations, regulators, international organisations and an independent consultant attended the meeting. The meeting was structured to allow for small group discussions during which a number of themes were explored, followed by plenary discussion. There were also four papers presented which complemented the discussion themes. As set out in the objectives of this work, the participants identified barriers to the effective treatment of HOF in RCA and recommendations to mitigate the effects of these barriers. Many of the barriers and recommendations identified relate to the RCA process in general, not specifically to the treatment of HOF in the RCA process. This is logical, for

  19. Strontium distribution and origins in a natural clayey formation (Callovian-Oxfordian, Paris Basin, France): a new sequential extraction procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerouge, C.; Gaucher, E.C.; Tournassat, C.; Negrel, P.; Crouzet, C.; Guerrot, C.; Gautier, A.; Michel, P.; Vinsot, A.; Buschaert, S.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Strontium is a minor element in the Callovian-Oxfordian clayey formation of Bure (ANDRA Underground Research laboratory, France) and may be interesting as a natural analogue of cationic radionuclides. The objective of our study was to better understand the chemical behaviour of this element since the sediment deposition. Previous mineralogical work showed that main strontium-bearing minerals in the clay-stones, in addition to clay minerals, are celestite, carbonates and accessory micas and K-feldspars. In order to establish the strontium distribution and determine its origins across the clayey formation and establish a strontium diffusion profile, a four step sequential extraction procedure combined with strontium isotopes was developed and adapted to the mineralogy of the Bure clay-stones. The four-steps sequential extraction developed and applied to sixteen samples of Callovian-Oxfordian clay-stones showed that the exchangeable fraction (27 to 48% of the total strontium) and the carbonate fraction (38-47% of the total strontium) are the two main fractions carrying the strontium, the detrital fraction being secondary (< 15%). Celestite is the major strontium-carrier mineral that can perturb the results of the sequential extraction but not significantly modify the distribution of strontium at the scale of the formation. The celestite was studied on micronic to centi-metric crystals, separated by hand-picking on core samples. The development of this sequential extraction procedure for the Callovian-Oxfordian formation shows the importance of the first cobalt hexamine trichloride step to extract the exchangeable strontium adsorbed on clay minerals and block the exchangeable sites with cobalt for the following steps, allowing a good separation of exchangeable fraction and carbonates. However the reagent/solid ratio of 20 seems to be less adapted to carbonate-rich samples. The good separation between exchangeable

  20. From Penrith to Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Elizabeth Clay

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Katherine Clay has written her first graphic novel, 'From Penrith to Paris', based on experiences of her first semester in France. It deals with the issues of student life, the loss of cultural identity through language and what it means to come from the cultural wasteland of Sydney to the cultural capital of the world - Paris. Through these funny and often life changing experiences, she realises the value of her hometown and that culture, no matter how it is perceived, plays an enormous role in the shaping of individuals.

  1. XXII EAACI congress, Paris (France)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ehab

    2017-04-13

    Apr 13, 2017 ... Please visit our website for details of ESPAI 2017 Congress and the WATS! I also encourage you all to hurry and register to participate in the World Allergy Organization Symposium. (Hot Topics in Allergy: Pediatric and Regulatory Aspects) that will be held in Rome/Vatican City, on April 27-29,. 2017. There.

  2. MDEP Conference on New Reactor Design Activities - Multinational Design Evaluation Programme (MDEP) Conference Proceedings, Paris, France, 10-11 September 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The MDEP is a unique ten-nation initiative being undertaken by national regulatory authorities from Canada, China, Finland, France, Japan, Republic of Korea, the Russian Federation, South Africa, the United Kingdom, and the United States with the purposes of co-operating on safety design reviews of new reactors and identifying opportunities to harmonise and converge on safety licensing review practices and requirements. The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency has been chosen to provide the technical secretariat support. The International Atomic Energy Agency participates in many of the MDEP activities. Started in 2007 with co-operation on various pilot project issues, the MDEP's expected outcomes are: (1) improved effectiveness and efficiency of regulatory safety design reviews, (2) increased quality of safety assessments, and (3) and identified areas for the convergence of regulatory requirements and practices. Making each regulator stronger in its ability to make sovereign safety decisions is a key objective that cuts across all MDEP activities. In 2008, the top regulators from each national authority met as the MDEP Policy Group and adopted the present structure and programme of work for the MDEP, including the pursuit of co-operation on specific safety design reviews and pursuing closer co-ordination on harmonisation and convergence issues such as digital instrumentation and control, mechanical codes and standards, and vendor inspections. The MDEP is currently a long-term programme that focuses in near term and interim results to share within MDEP and with other stakeholders. With effective communications in mind, the MDEP Policy Group directed the NEA to co-ordinate the Conference on New Reactor Design Activities with the purpose of communicating to a wide spectrum of stakeholders worldwide as to the program of work and accomplishments of the MDEP, and soliciting feedback and input from these stakeholders regarding recommendations on how to co-operate more efficiently

  3. Intergovernmental Conference of Experts on the Scientific Basis for Rational Use and Conservation of the Resources of the Biosphere (Paris, France, September 4-13, 1968), Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This document contains twenty recommendations put forth at the Intergovernmental Conference of Experts on the Scientific Basis for Rational Use and Conservation of the Resources of the Biosphere under the direction of UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization). The conference was held at the UNESCO House, Paris,…

  4. 76 FR 2842 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Model SA-365N, SA-365N1, AS-365N2, AS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ...: Comments Invited We invite you to send any written relevant data, views, or arguments about this proposed... numbers: No. 05.00.57 for FAA type-certificated Model SA-365N, N1 and AS-365N2 and N3 helicopters and for military, not FAA type- certificated, Model AS365F, Fs, Fi, and K helicopters; No. 05.00.25 for military...

  5. Long-term hydrodynamic response induced by past climatic and geo-morphologic forcing: The case of the Paris basin, France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jost, A.; Violette, S.; Goncalves, J.; Ledoux, E.; Guyomard, Y.; Guillocheau, F.; Kageyama, M.; Ramstein, G.; Suc, J.P.

    2007-01-01

    In the framework of safe underground storage of radioactive waste in low-permeability layers, it is essential to evaluate the mobility of deep groundwaters over timescales of several million years. On these timescales, the environmental evolution of a repository should depend upon a range of natural processes that are primarily driven by climate and geo-morphologic variations. In this paper, the response of the Paris basin groundwater system to variations in its hydrodynamic boundary conditions induced by past climate and geodynamic changes over the last five million years is investigated. A three-dimensional transient modelling of the Paris basin aquifer/aquitard system was developed using the code NEWSAM (Ecole des Mines de Paris, ENSMP). The geometry and hydrodynamic parameters of the model originate from a basin model, NEWBAS (ENSMP), built to simulate the geological history of the basin. Geo-morphologic evolution is deduced from digital elevation model analysis, which allows to estimate river-valley incision and alpine uplift. Climate forcing results from paleo-climate modelling experiments using the LMDz atmospheric general circulation model (Institut Pierre Simon Laplace) with a refined spatial resolution, for the present, the Last Glacial Maximum (21 ka) and the Middle Pliocene Warmth (similar to 3 Ma). The water balance is computed by the distributed hydrological model MODSUR (ENSMP). Results about the simulated evolution of piezometric heads in the system in response to the altered boundary conditions are presented, in particular in the vicinity of ANDRA's Bure potential repository site within the Callovo-Oxfordian argillaceous layer. For the present, the comparison of head patterns between steady state and time dependent simulation shows little differences for aquifer layers close to the surface but suggests a transient state of the current system in the main aquitards of the basin and in the deep aquifers, characterized by abnormally low fluid

  6. Novel ambler class A carbapenem-hydrolyzing beta-lactamase from a Pseudomonas fluorescens isolate from the Seine River, Paris, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girlich, Delphine; Poirel, Laurent; Nordmann, Patrice

    2010-01-01

    A Pseudomonas fluorescens isolate (PF-1) resistant to carbapenems was recovered during an environmental survey performed with water from the Seine River (Paris). It expressed a novel Ambler class A carbapenemase, BIC-1, sharing 68 and 59% amino acid identities with beta-lactamases SFC-1 from Serratia fonticola and the plasmid-encoded KPC-2, respectively. beta-Lactamase BIC-1 hydrolyzed penicillins, carbapenems, and cephalosporins except ceftazidime and monobactams. The bla(BIC-1) gene was chromosomally located and was also identified in two other P. fluorescens strains isolated from the Seine River 3 months later.

  7. The Proceedings of the International Conference on Numerical Ship Hydrodynamics (3rd) Held in Paris, France on 16-19 June 1981

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-19

    A.Erdelyi. Higher Tran- side the contact area. As the experi- scendental Functions. Vol.3, mente show (14] # the integral charac- He Graw -Hill Book Company...HENRICH. Itnt fOr Schiffibso, Hamburg. West Germany STEWART. STEPHEN IL. Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, U SA SULMONT’PATECE #cote Nationals

  8. Social vulnerabilities and health conditions of arrestees in the Greater Paris area, France, in 2013: a multicentre cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdier, Emilie; Denis, Céline; Bourokba, Nacer; Chauvin, Pierre; Chariot, Patrick

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the health and social conditions of arrestees, as compared to the general population. We studied a sample of 600 adult arrestees in three locations in the Greater Paris area, prospectively included (February-May 2013). A descriptive analysis has been performed, then prevalence was estimated using an indirect standardisation according to age, based on data from a population-based, representative survey in the same area. Arrestees had a median age of 31 years; 92% were males. As compared to the general population, arrestees had a lower level of education (8.6 vs. 7.6%, p analysis of male arrestees and males from the general population showed that the former had worse social and health conditions. These results argue for widespread medical interventions on all arrestees. Medical examination during detention could act as a gateway to health care and social support.

  9. Detection of atmospheric tritium by scintillation. Variations in its concentration in France; Detection du tritium atmospherique par scintillation. Evolution de sa concentration en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bibron, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-06-01

    The tritium released into the atmosphere as a result of the explosion of thermonuclear devices is a useful radioactive tracer for the study of certain geophysical problems. The low concentrations found however call for the use of extremely sensitive detectors. Two detection methods using liquid scintillators are described. In the first method, the sample is introduced into the scintillator in liquid form, after prior concentration of the tritium by electrolysis. In the second method the tritium is incorporated into the scintillator solvent molecule by chemical synthesis. In the last part of the report are examined the variations in the tritium concentration in rain-water and of the free hydrogen in the air in France. A discussion is then made of the seasonal variations in the case of rain-water and these are compared to the variations in the strontium-90 concentrations. (author) [French] Le tritium introduit dans l'atmosphere par les explosions d'armes thermonucleaires est un traceur radioactif Interessant pour l'etude de certains problemes de geophysique. Les faibles concentrations rencontrees obligent toutefois a utiliser des detecteurs extremement sensibles. On decrit deux methodes de detection utilisant des scintillateurs liquides. Dans la premiere methode, l'echantillon est introduit dans le scintillateur, sous forme aqueuse, apres une concentration prealable du tritium par electrolyse. Dans la seconde methode, le tritium est incorpore a la molecule du solvant du scintillateur par synthese chimique. Dans la derniere partie du rapport, on examine l'evolution de la concentration du tritium dans les eaux de precipitation et l'hydrogene libre de l'air en France. On discute ensuite les variations saisonnieres dans le cas des eaux de precipitation et on les compare aux variations du strontium 90. (auteur)

  10. Detection of atmospheric tritium by scintillation. Variations in its concentration in France; Detection du tritium atmospherique par scintillation. Evolution de sa concentration en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bibron, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-06-01

    The tritium released into the atmosphere as a result of the explosion of thermonuclear devices is a useful radioactive tracer for the study of certain geophysical problems. The low concentrations found however call for the use of extremely sensitive detectors. Two detection methods using liquid scintillators are described. In the first method, the sample is introduced into the scintillator in liquid form, after prior concentration of the tritium by electrolysis. In the second method the tritium is incorporated into the scintillator solvent molecule by chemical synthesis. In the last part of the report are examined the variations in the tritium concentration in rain-water and of the free hydrogen in the air in France. A discussion is then made of the seasonal variations in the case of rain-water and these are compared to the variations in the strontium-90 concentrations. (author) [French] Le tritium introduit dans l'atmosphere par les explosions d'armes thermonucleaires est un traceur radioactif Interessant pour l'etude de certains problemes de geophysique. Les faibles concentrations rencontrees obligent toutefois a utiliser des detecteurs extremement sensibles. On decrit deux methodes de detection utilisant des scintillateurs liquides. Dans la premiere methode, l'echantillon est introduit dans le scintillateur, sous forme aqueuse, apres une concentration prealable du tritium par electrolyse. Dans la seconde methode, le tritium est incorpore a la molecule du solvant du scintillateur par synthese chimique. Dans la derniere partie du rapport, on examine l'evolution de la concentration du tritium dans les eaux de precipitation et l'hydrogene libre de l'air en France. On discute ensuite les variations saisonnieres dans le cas des eaux de precipitation et on les compare aux variations du strontium 90. (auteur)

  11. Difficulties encountered at the beginning of professional life: results of a 2003 pilot survey among undergraduate students in Paris Rene Descartes University (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbelaïd, R; Dot, D; Levy, G; Eid, N

    2006-11-01

    In addition to dental hospital clinical activity, dental students at Paris Rene Descartes University have the opportunity in their final year of study to practise clinically in a dental office, as associates. This paper outlines a pilot, experimental study designed to assess student reaction to this Vocational Clinical Activity (VCA) in order to identify relevant weaknesses of the undergraduate programme. Using questionnaires, data were collected for each of the following clinical or management skills: clinical difficulty, therapeutic decision-making, patient/practitioner relationship, time management, administrative matters and technical problems. Students were asked to rank each item in order of difficulty (1, high level to 6, low level). A high response rate was observed (90%) among the 50 undergraduate VCA students. The results pointed out three main difficulties encountered by undergraduate students during the VCA: time management (90% of the students), administrative matters (85% of the students) and clinical decision-making (80% of the students). These preliminary results need further investigation. However, they give us the incentive to carry on with this type of assessment and to extend it to young, qualified colleagues' perceptions and to other French Universities.

  12. Organic Matter in the Early Toarcian Shales, Paris Basin, France: a Response to Environmental Changes La matière organique dans les argiles du Toarcien inférieur du bassin de Paris, France : un enregistrement des changements d'environnement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hollander D. J.

    2006-11-01

    éogéographique dans lequel s'est fait le dépôt des black shales du Toarcien inférieur en Europe du Nord semble relativement bien établi - des bassins individualisés à l'intérieur des mers épicontinentales adjacentes à la marge de la Téthys -, l'environnement de dépôt à l'origine de l'accumulation de ces black shales reste controversé et a fait l'objet de nombreux modèles. La présente étude, menée sur une carotte prélevée dans les Schistes Carton du Bassin de Paris, apporte sa contribution à la détermination de leur environnement de dépôt, en intégrant les aspects géochimiques, pétrologiques, isotopiques et moléculaires. Tout au long de la section de 16 m étudiée, qui couvre la zone à falciferum et la zone à bifrons pro parte, et dont la matière organique est encore au stade immature (Tmax autour de 430, les caractéristiques moléculaires et pétrographiques restent remarquablement uniformes : les chromatogrammes des hydrocarbures saturés sont dominés par des n-alcanes de C15 à C18, présentent une quantité significative d'isoprénoïdes, un rapport Pr/Ph systématiquement supérieur à 1 et une contribution importante d'hydrocarbures polycycliques (hopanes, stéranes et méthylstéranes. Les argiles sont laminées, sans traces de bioturbation; des framboïdes de pyrite sont présents dans toute la série; seule variation, les concrétions dolomitiques et calcitiques riches en Mg et les horizons carbonatés plus abondants dans la partie inférieure de la série. La matière organique figurée, de composition quasiment constante, est formée essentiellement d'algues avec une contribution mineure en débris de plantes terrestres. Tous ces résultats attestent de l'origine marine de la matière organique (algaire et bactérienne, la matière organique d'origine terrestre n'intervenant que de manière secondaire. Ils impliquent par ailleurs, que l'environnement à l'interface eau/sédiments est resté anoxique et calme durant le dépôt de la s

  13. Analyse séquentielle de l'Eocène et de l'Oligocène du bassin Parisien (France Sequence Analysis of the Eocene-Oligocene Paris Basin, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gely J. P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Dans le Bassin parisien pendant l'Eocène et l'Oligocène, on dénombre vingt-deux discontinuités issues d'émersions correspondant aux périodes de bas-niveaux marins. La présence de fleuves est décelée dans les prismes de bordure de plate-forme et dans les prismes de haut niveau, remobilisant des stocks sableux anciens à partir des anticlinaux actifs et des bordures du bassin. Ainsi, indépendamment du volume disponible pour les sédiments, se succèdent des séquences dominées soit par des formations détritiques, soit par des formations carbonatées. La plate-forme parisienne a enregistré toutes les variations eustatiques connues, bien que les mouvements tectoniques syn-sédimentaires locaux puissent influencer fortement les conditions de sédimentation. Mieux encore, la plate-forme parisienne a subi des fluctuations marines d'ordre supérieur de très courte durée qui, si elles sont retrouvées dans d'autres domaines, pourront être attribuées à des phénomènes eustatiques. The Paris Basin (Map 1 is a classic example of a stable platform such as has been known throughout the World for a long time now. Aside from the Bartonian and Priabonian, all Eocene and Oligocene stages have been defined in the form of the following four international stratotypes : Sparnacian, Cuisian, Lutetian and Stampian. It should also be noted that the substages of the Bartonian (Auversian, marinesian and the Ludian, the equivalent of the Priabonian, are also Parisian. Even though gaps have recently been redefined (C. Pomerol, 1989, though the correlations between the different formations in the basin and those of the surrounding areas (D. Curry, 1967; et al. 1969, 1978; C. Pomerol, 1977; C. Cavelier, 1979; C. Cavelier and C. Pomerol, 1986 have now been determined, and though the worldwide eustatic sea level curve was partly plotted with the help of stratotype sections (B. U. Haq et al. , 1988, the Eocene and Oligocene sequence analysis of the paris Basin

  14. Submicron aerosol source apportionment of wintertime pollution in Paris, France by double positive matrix factorization (PMF2) using an aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ACSM) and a multi-wavelength Aethalometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, J.E.; Favez, O.; Leoz-Garziandia, E.; Sciare, J.

    2014-01-01

    Online non-refractory submicron aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) measurements in urban areas have successfully allowed the apportionment of specific sources and/or physical and chemical properties of the organic fraction. However, in order to be fully representative of PM pollution, a comprehensive source apportionment analysis is needed by taking into account all major components of submicron aerosols, creating strengthened bonds between the organic components and pollution sources. We present here a novel two-step methodology to perform such an analysis, by taking advantage of high time resolution of monitoring instruments: the aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ACSM) and the multi-wavelength absorption measurements (Aethalometer AE31) in Paris, France. As a first step, organic aerosols (OA) were de-convolved to hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA), biomass burning OA (BBOA) and oxygenated OA (OOA) with positive matrix factorization (PMF), and black carbon was de-convolved into its wood burning and fossil fuel combustion fractions. A second PMF analysis was then carried out with organic factors, BC fractions and inorganic species (nitrate, sulfate, ammonium, chloride), leading to a four-factor solution allowing highly time-resolved characterization of the major sources of PM1. Outputs of this PMF2 include two dominant combustion sources (wood burning and traffic) as well as semi-volatile and low-volatile secondary aerosols. While HOA is found to be emitted by both wood burning and traffic, the latter sources occurred to significantly contribute also to OOA. (authors)

  15. Opening Session [International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles: Safe Technologies and Sustainable Scenarios (FR13), Paris, France, March 4-7, 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigot, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    In Europe today, the energy supply relies on fossil fuels at over 75% of its primary energy consumption. Worldwide, it is over 82%. Such a massive use of fossil fuels is thus both a threat for the environment, climate and health, and also for our economies. In 2012, for France, fossil fuel imports represent an expense 3 times larger than in 2005, and over 90% of France’s trade deficit. If keeping this current energy mix, we will strongly contribute to a large increase of the risk of climate change, environmental and human health impacts, and their damaging effects. Tackling climate change, environmental and health issues will require the priority use of CO 2 emission free energy sources. Despite Kyoto protocol and many political international statements, the amount of CO 2 emission per year has known a +40% growth from 1990 to 2009, with the correlated increase of temperatures. To ensure a sustainable development, the world needs a sustainable energy supply, which makes a sufficient amount available for everybody at an acceptable price. For all these reasons, the substitution of fossil fuel consumption as soon as possible and as large as possible with CO 2 free energy sources must be our top priority. The corner stone of any sustainable European energy is the reduction of our consumption of fossil fuels with three axes of action relative to the technologies using these fuels: energy savings, improved efficiency, substitution by other technologies which do not use such fuels, as renewable and nuclear energies

  16. Corrigendum to 'A novel model evaluation approach focusing on local and advected contributions to urban PM2.5 levels - application to Paris, France' published in Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 1483-1505, 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petetin, H.; Beekmann, M.; Sciare, J.; Bressi, M.; Rosso, A.; Sanchez, O.; Ghersi, V.

    2014-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows: Due to an oversight in the production process, an essential word (overestimation) was left out of the abstract. The correct version of the abstract can be seen below. Aerosol simulations in chemistry transport models (CTMs) still suffer from numerous uncertainties, and diagnostic evaluations are required to point out major error sources. This paper presents an original approach to evaluate CTMs based on local and imported contributions in a large mega-city rather than urban background concentrations. The study is applied to the CHIMERE model in the Paris region (France) and considers the fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and its main chemical constituents (elemental and organic carbon, nitrate, sulfate and ammonium), for which daily measurements are available during a whole year at various stations (PARTICULES project). Back-trajectory data are used to locate the upwind station, from which the concentration is identified as the import, the local production being deduced from the urban concentration by subtraction. Uncertainties on these contributions are quantified. Small biases in urban background PM2.5 simulations (bias of +16 %) hide significant error compensations between local and advected contributions, as well as in PM2.5 chemical compounds. In particular, winter time organic matter (OM) imports appear strongly underestimated while local OM and elemental carbon (EC) production is overestimated all along the year. Erroneous continental wood burning emissions and missing secondary organic aerosol (SOA) pathways may explain errors on advected OM, while the carbonaceous compounds overestimation is likely to be related to errors in emissions and dynamics. A statistically significant local formation of nitrate is also highlighted from observations, but missed by the model. Together with the overestimation of nitrate imports, it leads to a bias of +51% on the local PM2.5 contribution. Such an evaluation finally gives more

  17. IMS LD. Paris Conference, April 2005

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgos, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    3 presentations run in Paris, France, in Apri 1st, 2005, in the Cité des Sciences, sponsored by UNFOLD Project and l'AFNOR about the following topics: - Update on UNFOLD CoP Valkenburg meeting 2005 - Creating a UoL - Introducing CopperCore

  18. Petrophysical Properties of the Middle Jurassic Carbonates in the PICOREF Sector (South Champagne, Paris Basin, France Propriétés pétrophysiques du Dogger carbonaté dans le Secteur PICOREF (Sud Champagne, bassin de Paris, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delmas J.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This article, carried out as part of the PICOREF Project for the CO2 storage in the aquifers of the Paris Basin, presents an important petrophysical database from the numerous petroleum wells drilled in the PICOREF Sector (south-eastern part of the Paris Basin between 1953 and 2001. These core data concern the three saline carbonated aquifers of the Middle Jurassic: the Oolithe Blanche and the Comblanchien formations, Upper Bathonian age, and the Dalle Nacrée formation, Lower Callovian age, that would be used for the CO2 sequestration. Located at –1230 to –1750 m sub sea in the studied sector, these carbonate reservoirs which cumulative thickness is about 150 m, outcrop in the Burgundy region, at about 80 km south-eastern the Sector where they are exploited in several quarries. The analysis of the 6800 routine measurements (porosity and permeability gathered for this study allowed to improve the knowledge of the petrophysical properties. Special measurements (mercury injection tests allowed to characterize the porous medium. Cet article, réalisé dans le cadre du Projet PICOREF(1 pour le stockage de CO2 dans les aquifères du bassin parisien, présente une importante base de données pétrophysiques issues des nombreux puits pétroliers forés dans le Secteur PICOREF (sud-est du bassin parisien entre 1953 et 2001. Ces données concernent les trois aquifères salins du Dogger carbonaté susceptibles d’être utilisés pour séquestrer du CO2 : l’Oolithe Blanche et le Comblanchien, d’âge Bathonien supérieur, ainsi que la Dalle Nacrée d’âge Callovien inférieur. Recoupés à des altitudes de – 1230 à – 1750 m/mer dans le secteur étudié, ces réservoirs carbonatés, dont l’épaisseur cumulée est de 150 m environ, affleurent en Bourgogne, à 80 km au sud-est du « Secteur », où ils sont exploités dans plusieurs carrières. L’analyse des 6800 mesures classiques (porosité et perméabilité rassemblées ici a permis d

  19. Regard sur la participation de populations marginalisées à la recherche-action. Le cas des squatteurs en Ile-de-France The participation of Marginalised populations in research-action: a case study of squatters in the Ile-de-France region (Paris and surrounding region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionel Pourtau

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available La recherche-action comporte deux caractéristiques principales : elle met en œuvre la collaboration entre plusieurs types d’acteurs et vise une transformation de la réalité sociale. Elle possède des forces et des faiblesses différentes de la recherche à objectif strictement cognitif. L’article rend compte d’une recherche-action menée par des sociologues, des intervenants sociaux et des populations vivant en squats en Ile-de-France. Les auteurs analysent les enjeux méthodologiques qui se sont posés sur ce terrain particulier relevant de la sociologie de la déviance. Ceux-ci sont liés, notamment, à la participation de chaque groupe d’acteurs aux différentes étapes de la recherche, à la présence d’intérêts différents portés par chacun d’entre eux, et à la conciliation entre les principes habituellement de rigueur dans l’enquête sociologique et les principes de la recherche-action.Research-Action has two main objectives: to allow different players to cooperate, and to transform social reality. This methodology has both the strengths and the weaknesses of strictly cognitive research. In this article, the authors discuss a research-action project which brought together sociologists, social workers and squatters from the Ile-de-France region (Paris and surrounding region. Methodological issues that arise specifically in the context of deviance are addressed, notably the participation of the different players at different stages of the research project, their different areas of interest, as well as the reconciliation between more conventional sociological research and the principles of research-action.

  20. Water circulation control on carbonate-δ18O records in a low permeability clay formation and surrounding limestones: The Upper Dogger-Oxfordian sequence from the eastern Paris basin, France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavastre, Veronique; Ader, Magali; Buschaert, Stephane; Petit, Eddy; Javoy, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Up. Dog./Oxf. sequence is investigated for radioactive waste disposal feasibilities. → Marine carbonates suffered isotopic exchanges with meteoric water. → Modelling shows that very low W/R ratio can explain isotopic changes in clay layer. → Higher W/R ratio are needed to reach isotopic changes in carbonated layers. → Confirmed barrier property of clay layer was probably reached during early burial. - Abstract: Upper Dogger to Oxfordian Formations in the eastern part of the Paris basin (France) are currently being investigated by the French nuclear waste management agency (Andra), testing the feasibility of long-term deep nuclear waste disposal in the Callovo-Oxfordian claystones. Characterising the hydrogeological behaviour of the Callovo-Oxfordian claystones is, therefore, essential in evaluating its potential as a geological barrier. In order to evaluate and quantify water/rock interactions experienced over geological time by these Formations, bulk carbonate δ 13 C and δ 18 O were measured and calculations of water-rock ratios were used to explain carbonate-δ 18 O changes. Meteoric porewater and a maximum temperature reached of about 40 deg. C were considered. The Jurassic marine carbonate δ 13 C was preserved in the Callovo-Oxfordian claystones and in the overlying limestones (-0.28 per mille to 3.39 per mille/PDB), while the δ 18 O values are lower by 0-5 per mille (-6.25 per mille to -1.32 per mille/PDB). Calculations show that Upper Dogger and Oxfordian Limestone δ 18 O data: (i)have random-like distribution through theoretical δ 18 O-W/R curves and (ii)suggest that water/rock ratios (0.08-0.4) needed to explain δ 18 O changes are higher by a factor of about 2-20 compared to the present-day water/rock ratio. These features indicate advection in both aquifers. According to the history of the Paris basin, this hydrogeological behaviour could have been effective since Jurassic/Cretaceous transition times. Inversely, the

  1. Water circulation control on carbonate-{delta}{sup 18}O records in a low permeability clay formation and surrounding limestones: The Upper Dogger-Oxfordian sequence from the eastern Paris basin, France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavastre, Veronique, E-mail: veronique.lavastre@univ-st-etienne.fr [Universite de Lyon, Universite Jean Monnet, F-42023 Saint Etienne (France)] [CNRS, UMR 6524, LMV, F-42023 Saint Etienne (France)] [Laboratoire de Geochimie des Isotopes Stables, Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris and Universite Paris 7 - UMR CNRS 7154, 4, place Jussieu, 75252 Paris cedex 05 (France); Ader, Magali [Laboratoire de Geochimie des Isotopes Stables, Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris and Universite Paris 7 - UMR CNRS 7154, 4, place Jussieu, 75252 Paris cedex 05 (France); Buschaert, Stephane [Andra, Parc de la Croix Blanche, 7-8 rue Jean Monnet, 92 298 Chatenay-Malabry Cedex (France); Petit, Eddy; Javoy, Marc [Laboratoire de Geochimie des Isotopes Stables, Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris and Universite Paris 7 - UMR CNRS 7154, 4, place Jussieu, 75252 Paris cedex 05 (France)

    2011-05-15

    Research Highlights: > Up. Dog./Oxf. sequence is investigated for radioactive waste disposal feasibilities. > Marine carbonates suffered isotopic exchanges with meteoric water. > Modelling shows that very low W/R ratio can explain isotopic changes in clay layer. > Higher W/R ratio are needed to reach isotopic changes in carbonated layers. > Confirmed barrier property of clay layer was probably reached during early burial. - Abstract: Upper Dogger to Oxfordian Formations in the eastern part of the Paris basin (France) are currently being investigated by the French nuclear waste management agency (Andra), testing the feasibility of long-term deep nuclear waste disposal in the Callovo-Oxfordian claystones. Characterising the hydrogeological behaviour of the Callovo-Oxfordian claystones is, therefore, essential in evaluating its potential as a geological barrier. In order to evaluate and quantify water/rock interactions experienced over geological time by these Formations, bulk carbonate {delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 18}O were measured and calculations of water-rock ratios were used to explain carbonate-{delta}{sup 18}O changes. Meteoric porewater and a maximum temperature reached of about 40 deg. C were considered. The Jurassic marine carbonate {delta}{sup 13}C was preserved in the Callovo-Oxfordian claystones and in the overlying limestones (-0.28 per mille to 3.39 per mille/PDB), while the {delta}{sup 18}O values are lower by 0-5 per mille (-6.25 per mille to -1.32 per mille/PDB). Calculations show that Upper Dogger and Oxfordian Limestone {delta}{sup 18}O data: (i)have random-like distribution through theoretical {delta}{sup 18}O-W/R curves and (ii)suggest that water/rock ratios (0.08-0.4) needed to explain {delta}{sup 18}O changes are higher by a factor of about 2-20 compared to the present-day water/rock ratio. These features indicate advection in both aquifers. According to the history of the Paris basin, this hydrogeological behaviour could have been

  2. Pedo-sedimentary record of human-environment interaction in ditches and waterlogged depressions on tableland (roman and early medieval period) : micromorphological cases studies from Marne-la-Vallée area (Paris Basin, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammas, C.; Blanchard, J.; Broutin, P.; Berga, A.

    2012-04-01

    On lœss derived soils located on the Stampien plateau from the Paris Basin (France), archaeological anthroposols and ancient cultivated soils are only preserved in very few places. Recent archaeological excavations showed the presence of a pattern of roman ditches and waterlogged depressions (« mares ») under the actual cultivated horizon (Ap). This presence strongly suggests extensive past agricultural practices and water management. An original system of ditches was found Near Marne-la-Vallée (France). It is composed of two parts, one being large ditches characterized by flat bottom and sometimes water layered deposits, called « fossés collecteurs » by the archaeologists, and the orher being smaller ditches with colluvial deposits. Our objectives was to use archaeological and micromorphological studies in order to study i) the agricultural function of these ditches and depressions, ii) their evolution with time. Observations conducted on the infilling of a « fossé collecteur » at Bussy-Saint-Georges suggest that it was not part of a drainage system, but that it was a linear water controlled system, with a ramp in one part, and a basin or a tank in another, and that it was used for others anthropic activities. In the same area, a large waterlogged depression was studied, and micromorphological analysis helped to elucidate its pedo-sedimentary formation processes. At the bottom, massive silty clayey matrix retained water. Thin layers composed of silt and clay (indicating low energy flows and decantation), sometimes impregnated and hardened by iron, alternated with silty deposit (indicating higher ernergy water layered deposits). The thin, non porous and iron impregnated crusts helped to raise the depression level, as well as, most likely the water table during roman period, maintaining waterlogging conditions. At the beginning of the early medival period, a slightly peaty event was discriminated. Higher in the profile, in more redoxic conditions

  3. The Paris Agreement to Ignore Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Spash, Clive L.

    2016-01-01

    At the 21st session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change held in Paris, France, 30 November to 11 December 2015, an Agreement was reached by the international community including 195 countries. The Agreement has been hailed, by participants and the media, as a major turning point for policy in the struggle to address human induced climate change. The following is a short critical commentary in which I briefly explain why ...

  4. The coal. Its place in the world, the specifical problems of the european countries and more particularly the France; Le charbon. Sa place dans le monde, les problemes specifiques des pays d'Europe et tout particulierement de la France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-12-15

    In a first part, the work group presents the available resources and studies the coal world market evolution. Then in a second time it discusses the european situation, and especially the french and german situation. The last part is devoted to the reconversion of the mines in France, the problems with the example of the coal basin of north of France. (A.L.B.)

  5. Paris Offscreen: Chinese Tourists in Cinematic Paris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.-A. O. Dung (Yun-An Olivia); S.L. Reijnders (Stijn)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This article examines from a European-Asian perspective the relationship between media representations and the tourist’s imagination. We use the case of Chinese tourists in Paris to investigate how these non-European tourists imagine Europe, and how these imaginations

  6. Paris-Nairobi Conference - Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-04-01

    Energy is critical to economic development and poverty reduction. The provision of reliable, affordable and sustainable energy services, especially for the poorest, contributes decisively to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. Without energy, economies cannot grow and poverty cannot be reduced. Insufficient electricity supply affects many developing countries. Productivity, competitiveness, employment, and economic and social development are therefore limited. Low income countries are uppermost victims of climate change, though being the least responsible and the least armed to tackle and mitigate it. To meet the energy needs of Africa and other countries vulnerable to climate change and engage them on a sustainable development path, a priority for all countries, a concerted common global action is needed. This action shall be connected with existing initiatives in order to complement and enhance their efficiency. 2012 has been declared the international year for energy access by the United-Nations and during its presidency of the G8/G20, France wishes to foreground this issue. Therefore, France and Kenya want to contribute to this overall action, launching a global partnership for universal access to clean energy. In this context, the ministerial meeting launched this partnership on April 21, 2011 in Paris, France. This first meeting discussed ways to mobilize financing to achieve universal access to energy and to develop cleaner energies. Several obstacles have to be addressed and the following challenges shall be overcome: strengthening national and regional legal framework, improving capacity building and project management (source localization, technological options) and risk management. This document brings together the available presentations given at the conference. Twelve presentations (slides) are compiled in this document and deal with: 1 - white paper presentation (A. Mohamed, P. Lorec); 2 - Establishment of ECREEE as a regional

  7. Tour of France by foot

    CERN Multimedia

    Papini

    1982-01-01

    Monsieur Papini(nom juste?) et sa femme, tous les deux journalistes, découvrent avec leur 2 enfants, agés de 16 mois et 3 ans, ainsi qu'avec un âne, la vie nomade en parcourant la France pendant un an et demie à pied: comment être un nomade en France? Sa femme a écrit deux ouvrages concernant ce voyage.

  8. The Road Transport world exhibition in Paris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Following the agreement between French and German professionals of automobile and industrial vehicle, the Road Transport world exhibition will take place alternatively in Paris and Hanover. The 1995 meeting has taken place in Paris (September 15-21) and about 20 countries were represented. Road transport is the principal way of goods transportation in France and represent 88% of the traffic explained in tons gross and 70% in tons km. The petroleum dependence of the transportation sector is becoming a worrying problem as the gasoline and diesel fuels taxes will be discussed in the 1996 financial laws project. According to the last ''Worldwide energetic perspectives'' report published by the IEA, in 2010 the transportation sector could absorb more than 60% of the worldwide petroleum consumption. This increase represents a challenge to the petroleum industry to increase the energetic efficiency of the vehicle fuels and the production of diesel fuels, and conversely to reduce the pollution effluents. (J.S.). 4 tabs

  9. La difficile émergence du droit à l’eau, de sa reconnaissance internationale à sa mise en œuvre à l’échelle nationale : les cas de la France et du Royaume-Uni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TSANGA TABI, Marie ; GREMMEL, Jeanne

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Depuis le milieu des années 1970, les pays industrialisés connaissent des changements socio-économiques qui engendrent de nouvelles formes de précarité. Celles-ci se manifestent en particulier par une « pauvreté en eau ».À travers les exemples de la France et du Royaume-Uni, il est intéressant d'évaluer la portée et les limites de l'énoncé du droit humain à l'eau proclamé par l'Organisation des Nations Unies puis le Conseil des droits de l'Homme en 2010.

  10. THM large spatial-temporal model to simulate the past 2 Ma hydrogeological evolution of Paris Basin including natural tracer transport as part of site characterization for radwaste repository project Cigéo - France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benabderrahmane, A., Sr.

    2017-12-01

    Hydrogeological site characterization for deep geological high level and intermediate level long lived radioactive waste repository cover a large time scale needed for safety analysis and calculation. Hydrogeological performance of a site relies also on the effects of geodynamic evolution as tectonic uplift, erosion/sedimentation and climate including glaciation on the groundwater flow and solute and heat transfer. Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical model of multilayered aquifer system of Paris Basin is developed to reproduce the present time flow and the natural tracer (Helium) concentration profiles based on the last 2 Ma of geodynamic evolution. Present time geological conceptual model consist of 27 layers at Paris Basin (Triassic-Tertiary) with refinement at project site scale (29 layers from Triassic to Portlandian). Target layers are the clay host formation of Callovo-Oxfrodian age (160 Ma) and the surrounding aquifer layers of Oxfordian and Dogger. Modelled processes are: groundwater flow, heat and solutes (natural tracers) transport, freezing and thawing of groundwater (expansion and retreat of permafrost), deformation of the multilayered aquifer system induced by differential tectonic uplift and the hydro-mechanical stress effect as caused by erosion of the outcropping layers. Numerical simulation considers a period from 2 Ma BP and up to the present. Transient boundary conditions are governed by geodynamic processes: (i) modification of the geometry of the basin and (ii) temperatures along the topography will change according to a series of 15 identical climate cycles with multiple permafrost (glaciation) periods. Numerical model contains 71 layers and 18 million cells. The solution procedure solves three coupled systems of equations, head, temperature and concentrations, by the use of a finite difference method, and by applying extensive parallel processing. The major modelling results related to the processes of importance for site characterization as hydraulic

  11. Act of 9 December 1983 approving an Agreement between the Governments of Belgium and France on mutual assistance in the event of catastrophes and serious accidents, signed in Paris on 21 April 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This Agreement between Belgium and France lays down a comprehensive legal framework for mutual emergency assistance. It provides that rescue teams will be sent by the Parties in all cases of catastrophe and serious accidents, including nuclear incidents. The Agreement also contains provisions on administrative competences, on quick border crossings by the rescue teams as well as on their supervision. Finally, other provisions settle the question of the costs incurred by assistance, compensation of damage and exchange of information. (NEA) [fr

  12. De Paris à Lyon. Les mutations éditoriales du «Lancelot du Lac»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaëlle Burg

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Lancelot du Lac est le premier roman arthurien imprimé à la Renais­sance. Dans sa première édition parue en 1488, qui réunit deux imprimeurs (Jean Le Bourgeois à Rouen et Jean Du Pré à Paris, un découpage et un prologue inédits sont ajoutés par le remanieur. Le texte sera réédité six fois par divers imprimeurs-libraires parisiens jusqu’en 1533. L’édition de luxe d’Antoine Vérard (1494, destinée au roi Charles VIII, présente d’importantes modifications effectuées dans un but commercial. Après une longue période d’accalmie qui signe le début du déclin de la vogue des romans de chevalerie médiévaux, Benoît Rigaud publie à Lyon, sous une forme considérablement abrégée, la dernière édition connue du Lancelot au XVIe siècle (1591. Si elle ne présente que peu d’intérêt littéraire, elle apporte cependant des informations concernant les pratiques éditoriales et les goûts du  lecteur de la fin du XVIe siècle. De Paris à Lyon, entre renaissance et déclin, le parcours éditorial d’un incontournable roman arthurien.Lancelot du Lac is the editio princeps of an Arthurian romance in Renaissance France. The first edition in 1488, which brings together two printers (Jean Le Bourgeois from Rouen and Jean Du Pré from Paris, offers original arrangement and prologue added by the compositor. The text will be published six times by various printers and booksellers in Paris until 1533. The luxurious edition from Antoine Vérard (1494 dedicated to King Charles VIII provides interesting transformations in commercial purposes. After a long time without edition, showing the beginning of chivalry literature’s decline, Benoît Rigaud publish in Lyon, in a greatly abbreviated form, the last known edition of Lancelot in the XVIth century (1591. If it presents no literary interest, it provides nevertheless informations about editorial practices and reader’s tastes from the end of Renaissance France. From Paris to

  13. Air pollution and doctors' house calls: results from the ERPURS system for monitoring the effects of air pollution on public health in Greater Paris, France, 1991-1995. Evaluation des Risques de la Pollution Urbaine pour la Santé.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, S; Le Tertre, A; Quénel, P; Le Moullec, Y; Lameloise, P; Guzzo, J C; Festy, B; Ferry, R; Dab, W

    1997-10-01

    This study examines short-term relationships between doctors' house calls and urban air pollution in Greater Paris for the period 1991-1995. Poisson regressions using nonparametric smoothing functions controlled for time trend, seasonal patterns, pollen counts, influenza epidemics, and weather. The relationship between asthma visits and air pollution was stronger for children. A relative risk (RRP95/P5) of 1.32 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.17-1.47)] was observed for an increase from the 5th to the 95th percentile (7-51 micrograms/m3) in daily concentrations of black smoke (BS). The risks for 24-hr sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide levels were in the same range. Cardiovascular conditions, considered globally, showed weaker associations than angina pectoris/myocardial infarction, for which RRP95/P5 was 1.63 (95% CI = 1.10-2.41) in relation to ozone ambient levels. Eye conditions were exclusively related to ozone (RRP95/P5 = 1.17, 95% CI 1.02-1.33). Asthma visits and ozone showed an interaction with minimum temperature: an effect was observed only at 10 degrees C or higher. In two-pollutant models including BS with, successively, SO2, NO2, and O3, only BS and O3 effects remained stable. Along with mortality and hospital admissions, house call activity data, available on a regular basis, may be a sensitive indicator for monitoring health effects related to air pollution.

  14. Paris Conference (Further report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    From 26-31 July, the international particle physics community met for its traditional biennial 'Rochester' jamboree, held this time in Paris. While there were no major physics surprises, there was still plenty of interest for all and the ground that was covered amply demonstrated the progress which has been made since the previous round of international meetings. The emphasis is very much on improving the already considerable level of agreement between different experiments and between experimental results and theoretical predictions

  15. Analysis of the accelerometric data applied to seismic hazard assessment in France; Anisotropies magnetique et de porosite des argilites du callovo-oxfordien du laboratoire souterrain de l'Andra (Meuse/Haute-Marne, Bassin de Paris)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteban, L

    2006-09-15

    In order to test the feasibility of nuclear waste storage, ANDRA, the French Agency in charge of radioactive waste management, gave us the opportunity to study preserved specimens of Jurassic clay-rich rocks from eastern Paris Basin. These rocks, deposited during the Callovian and beginning of the Oxfordian, are dark- to light-grey marls that consist mainly in a mixture of clay, calcite and silt. Core-specimens regularly collected along the Callovo-Oxfordian formation from several vertical and oblique boreholes, were subjected to a magnetic mineralogy study, and to a petro-fabric study with respect to the geographical frame, itself related to a study of the pore network. The mineralogy study helps to characterize the nature of the para- and -ferrimagnetic fractions at the origin of the magnetic susceptibility and remanence which vary according to the clay/calcite/silt ratios, the latter being mostly made of detrital grains of magnetite. In the clay-rich rocks (illite and smectites), the ferrimagnetic fraction is also made of authigenic sulfides, possibly greigite, which accompany the ubiquitous framboids of pyrite. This fraction seems to equate with the soft coercive fraction which was used to re-orient the vertical borehole cores with respect to the present magnetic north. The hard fraction equates with the iron-oxides, in agreement with the random nature of the natural remanence. Hence, the coexistence in the same sediment of iron-sulfides and iron-oxides is related to distinct origins rather than to variable conditions during sedimentation or diagenesis. Preservation of these species is attributed to the very low permeability that the sediment reached after its compaction. The anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) reflects the zone-axis organization of the clay minerals, and eventually the shape fabric of the ferromagnetic fraction. Expectingly, the short axis of the AMS (K3) is vertical (perpendicular to bedding) with an anisotropy degree on the order of

  16. Misunderstanding in Paris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vintges, K.; Hengehold, L.; Bauer, N.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter discusses the mistaken ways in which Beauvoir's work is interpreted by some of France's leading feminists. It counterposes their reception by arguing that Beauvoir's concept of the free ethical way of life is Hegelian rather than Kantian in character. In The Ethics of Ambiguity she

  17. Challenges and Enhancements to Defence-in-Depth (DiD) in Light of the Fukushima Daiichi NPP Accident. Proceedings of a Joint CNRA/CSNI Workshop, Paris, France, 5 June 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niel, Jean-Christophe; Autorite de surete nucleaire - ASN; ); Echavarri, Luis; ); Schneider, Thierry; ); Borchardt, Bill; Wanner, Hans; Park, Youn Won; Glenn, Tracy; Regaldo, Jacques; Fuketa, Toyoshi; Repussard, Jacques; Bolshov, Leonid; Chevet, Pierre Frank

    2014-01-01

    An international Workshop on Challenges and Enhancements to Defence in Depth (DiD) in Light of the Fukushima Daiichi Accident was jointly organised by the NEA Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA) and the NEA Committee on the Safety on Nuclear Installations (CSNI), with input from the NEA Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH), on 5 June 2013 in Paris. About 100 participants from NEA member countries, India, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO) and Eurelectric held in-depth discussions on the defence-in-depth concept and its implementation in the post-Fukushima context. They also considered additional steps to be taken at the national and international levels to address the challenges identified and to make further enhancements to nuclear safety, along with future NEA activities in support of these processes. The concept of DiD - of multiple levels of protection - has been developed and refined by the nuclear safety community over many years. The concept is based on the experience and practice of high hazard industry in general as well as developments within the nuclear industry. The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station in Japan on the 11 March 2011 demonstrated the importance of the concept of DiD, how these multiple levels of protection can operate and how some can be challenged. Just as with the nuclear accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl and accidents from other industries (e.g. chemical, aerospace, oil and gas), the NEA felt it important that lessons learned are used to further develop the concept and implementation of Defence-in-Depth to help ensure and enhance the safe operation of nuclear power plants around the world. The NEA has therefore looked at the concept and implementation of Defence-in-Depth and possible challenges and enhancements. It was noted that a great deal of interest has been shown in this area, particularly in the

  18. Geç Ortaçağ Avrupası’nın Meşhur ve Gizemli Şehri Paris (Paris That Was Famous and Mysterious City of the Late Medieval Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhalik BAKIR

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Paris is one of the most important capitals of the middle age. Actually, this city is universecity. Namely, Paris was remembered as a univercity, education center and art and architecture center. Paris appeared differently from the other cities. Here was an important city that East culture and West culture mixed with each other. In its environment, there were cities that have a traditional structure. It carries all the facilities of the city structure in the later middle ages. Namely, Paris is remembered firstly, while city structure is described. Like Chretien de Troyes described, Paris had the culture that made France as the first heritage of Roma and Greek. Paris is a colourful city. Perhaps, France had the most crowd population because of these facilities of Paris. Generally, undoubtedly, these facilities had a big role about the development of France civilization in the 13th century. So, in this study, we will study to introduce Paris with social-economic and culturel angles and give its appearance in the later middle ages.

  19. Physics buzz in Paris

    CERN Multimedia

    Katie Yurkewicz

    2010-01-01

    The International Conference on High Energy Physics (ICHEP) took place from 22 to 28 July in Paris, and first results from the Large Hadron Collider experiments received top billing.   More than 1,100 physicists gathered in the Palais des Congrès conference centre to attend ICHEP, the world’s premier particle physics conference, where scientists presented and discussed the latest and most intriguing results from experiments in particle physics, particle astrophysics and cosmology, innovative theoretical approaches and predictions, and concepts for future accelerators and particle detectors. The buzz about the LHC experiments caught the eye of French President Nicolas Sarkozy, who addressed the conference on Monday 26 July. President Sarkozy exhorted the particle physics community to continue its quest to understand the nature of the Universe, and stated his belief that investment in fundamental research is critical for the progress of mankind. Steve Myers started off the mo...

  20. FRANCE AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    From 19 to 22 June 2001 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs Thirty-one companies will present their latest technology at the 'France at CERN' exhibition. The French industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technology, superconductivity, measurement, detection, regulation, control and testing, electrical and electronic equipment, mechanics. The exhibition is organised by the French Committee for Trade Events Abroad. There follows : the list of exhibitors, the list of lectures which will be given at the exhibition. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Divisional secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS Air Liquide Air Liquide Alcatel Vacuum Technology Alstom Industrie S.A. Alstom Magnets & Superconductors/Jeumont Industrie ATI Electronique Atos S.A. Axon' Cable S.A...

  1. FRANCE AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    C.-L. Jullien-Woringer/SPL-DI

    2001-01-01

    From 19 to 22 June 2001 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs Thirty companies will present their latest technology at the 'France at CERN' exhibition. The French industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technology, superconductivity, measurement, detection, regulation, control and testing, electrical and electronic equipment, mechanics. The exhibition is organised by the French Committee for Trade Events Abroad. There follows : the list of exhibitors, the list of lectures which will be given at the exhibition. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Divisional secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS Air Liquide Alcatel Vacuum Technology Alstom Industrie S.A. Alstom Magnets & Superconductors/Jeumont Industrie ATI Electronique Atos S.A. Axon' Cable S.A. Cedrat Recher...

  2. Postcard from Paris

    CERN Multimedia

    2010-01-01

    Earlier this week I was in Paris to join particle physicists from around the world at the International Conference on High-Energy Physics, ICHEP 2010. This conference series began in 1950 as the ‘Rochester series’, named for the original venue in the US, and its meetings rapidly became the place to present the latest results and discoveries.   Particle physics has certainly come a long way since those early days. In 60 years, the meetings have witnessed the birth and growth of CERN, the development of the current Standard Model of particles and their interactions - and now the first results from a truly international project, the LHC. I’d had the opportunity to be present at some of the previous meetings where important discoveries were announced, but this was the first time I had the privilege to attend as the Director-General of the laboratory that was the focus of much of the attention. It is clear from many of the people with whom I talked that the high quality ...

  3. Nuclear Education in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guet, C.

    2013-01-01

    This series of slides draws a picture of nuclear engineering training in France. The nuclear sector is very active and developed in France and covers all the aspects of the fuel cycle which implies a strong demand for highly skilled and trained staff. There are both an active involvement of industry in the education process through the design of adequate curricula and a strong support of the State. There are 5 masters dedicated to Science Nuclear Energy (Paris), Nuclear Waste Management (Nantes), Separation Chemistry (Montpellier), Materials for Nuclear Engineering (Grenoble), and 1 engineer degree in nuclear engineering (Saclay). In 2010-2011 there were about 1000 students completing a nuclear energy curriculum (nuclear engineering or specialized nuclear domains) at the master-engineer level throughout France. The detailed curriculum of the Master of Science Nuclear Energy is given. The National Institute of Nuclear Sciences and Techniques (INSTN) plays an important role, it has trained a large fraction of the French leading nuclear practitioners through its 50 years old 'Genie Atomique' curriculum. INSTN proposes also high level courses in nuclear disciplines including training of nuclear physicians, radio-pharmacists and medical physicists and is a major player for continuing education in nuclear sciences. (A.C.)

  4. [History of the Journées Dermatologiques de Paris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilles, G

    2013-12-01

    Founded in 1801 at the Hôpital Saint-Louis, Paris, under Jean-Louis Alibert, the French School of Dermatology was initially structured around the French Society of Dermatology (1889) and the organization of two world congresses (Paris 1889, 1900). After World War I, the creation of dermatological societies in the provinces infused French dermatology with new energy. In 1922, the first congress of the French-speaking dermatologists further contributed to the public profile of dermatologists in France. The "Journées de Mars" were initiated in 1961 at the Hôpital Saint-Louis, and in 1975 they went on to become the "Journées dermatologiques de Paris". Pr. Jean Civatte played a key role in their creation and in their organization for 30 years. After 1979, since actual patients could no longer be presented, the organizers of the congress had to change the content of the meeting from clinical presentations to post-graduate teaching and clinical research. From its origins in the form of meetings of French dermatologists in an intimate setting at the Hôpital Saint-Louis, the "Journées dermatologiques de Paris" grew within the ensuing decades into a major scientific event of the French-speaking dermatological community, bringing together more than 4000 participants in December each year. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Les mauvais rêves. Une prison à Disneyland Paris

    OpenAIRE

    Genetelli, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Situé à 35 km de Paris, dans la nouvelle ville de Marne-La-Vallée, Disneyland Paris représente la première destination de loisirs d'Europe. L'implantation du “rongeur aux grande oreilles” ne s'est pas contentée d'établir un simple parc à thème, mais elle a cherché à imposer un cadre de vie sur toute une partie du territoire français, à travers un partenariat public-privé unique en France. De ce fait, nous nous retrouvons dans un “territoire-bulle” contrôlé par Disney. Tout y est propre, sécur...

  6. Messier, Copernicus, Flamsteed: The SAF Rare-Book Collection in Paris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.

    2014-01-01

    The historic books belonging to the Société Astronomique de France, founded by Camille Flammarion in 1887, are located partly in Paris and partly at the Flammarion site in Juvisy, a Paris suburb. Their holdings include first editions of Copernicus's De Revolutionibus and of Flamsteed's star atlas, as well as Messier's own copy of his 1783 and 1784 papers with his handwritten comments and additions. I will describe the fruitless search for a Bevis atlas and the circumstances that led me to inspect these treasures. I thank David Valls-Gabaud and Philippe Morel of the Société Astronomique de France for their hospitality in Paris, Jean-Claude Pecker, and Owen Gingerich for his prior work on Messier's catalogue.

  7. Report of visiting Laboratoire de Physique des Gaz et des Plasmas, Universite Paris-Sud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, J.L.

    1991-03-01

    The activities carried out by identification mission to the Laboratoire de Physique des Gaz et des Plasmas (LPGP) of Paris-Sud University are related. The mission is part of the project of Study on Plasma wave and Plasma turbulence which is part of international agreement between CAPES and COFECUB in France. (M.C.K.)

  8. Gas conference Paris 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2013-01-01

    This special issue of Gaz d'Aujourd'hui journal contains the proceedings of the 2013 edition of the annual French gas conference. These proceedings comprise 7 talks, 5 round-tables and 9 workshops: 1 - Opening talk (H. Malherbe); 2 - Defending the natural gas position in the energy mix (G. Mestralet); 3 - The new youth of natural gas (P. Sauquet); 4 - Round-table No.1: the natural gas market perspectives; 5 - Round-table No.2: natural gas in France's energy transition; 6 - Answering the energy transition challenges (B. Lescoeur); 7 - Round-table No.3: towards an integrated European market in 2014?; 8 - Building up the European gas market (P. de Ladoucette); 9 - Workshop No.1: the big client's strategies in the gas market; 10 - Workshop No.2: the fuel gas perspectives in terrestrial mobility; 11 - Workshop No.3: gas innovations; 12 - The 2030 and 2050 strategy of the European Union policy (B. Devlin); 13 - Round-table No.4: Decentralized production and local development; 14 - Workshop No.4: Gas and maritime transport; 15 - Workshop No.5: bio-methane, vector of the energy transition; 16 - Workshop No.6: Evolution of the storage activity; 17 - Workshop No.7: Dwellings renovation and natural gas development; 18 - Workshop No.8: Is the target model of gas a reality?; 19 - Workshop No.9: Non-conventional gases in the world; 20 - Round-table No.5: Actors' strategy; 21 - Closing talk (J. Ferrier)

  9. Outreach in southern France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D.

    1992-01-01

    France's Europort South community lives cheek by jowl with the chemical industry, with major complexes at For, Berre, and Lavera. Xavier Segond, technical adviser at the regional chemical industry association, Le Syndicat General des Industries Chimiques Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur Corse (SGIC), says a good relationship has grown over a period of 20 years. Segond describes Arco Chimie as an effective driving force for the Responsible Care effort in the region - partly because its US parent introduced the program on a worldwide basis in 1989, ahead of national industry association Union des Industries Chimiques (UIC; Paris). Arco's F2-billion ($373 million)/year Fos-sur-Mer site makes it a significant player. But in 1986 the company was a complete newcomer. We came to Fos as a US company, we had no Paris headquarters or French president, explains Dominique Lequeux, director/human resources. The community viewed the company with a mixture of curiosity and enthusiasm as a potential employer - about 330 people now work at the site. The day before the officials propylene oxide plant opening, we invited in local people, says Lequeux. That formed a good basis for its Responsible Care community outreach program. Now, schools, professional groups, and political groups make 20-25 plant visits each year

  10. Carmes Polytechnique, Housing in the Heart of Paris Energy renovation of a social housing estate in Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Horn

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The architecture offices Atelier de la Seine and Rethink have been commissioned with the engineers Pouget Consultants by the social landlord Paris Habitat for the extensive renovation of a social housing estate in the historic centre of Paris. The estate has been built in 1930 and integrates a part of the former college of the Lombard build in the 17th century. It belongs to the social housing typology 'Habitations à Bon Marché (HBM' constructed between1894 and 1949. This typology is generally characterized by its integration in its urban context and an apparent brick facade. The renovation project includes a focus on the reduction of the energy consumption. An important subject, as of the total number of 4.6 millions of social housing in France more than 50 % have been build before 1975 (before the first thermal regulation and many are still considered energy-intensive.

  11. Ergonomics SA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Homepage Image. Ergonomics SA (esa) provides a medium for publication of material relevant to occupational conditions and needs in Southern Africa at a time of change unparalleled in history. To this end the journal accepts articles in the following categories: research papers, review articles, conceptual theories, ...

  12. SA Rugby

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kathryn van Boom

    (SA Rugby) Youth Week players: a pilot study. J Brown,1,2 ... management guidelines, to which all rugby-playing nations need to ... Consensus Statement for Concussion in Sport [1] and World. Rugby's ... Players with a “time-loss” injury (an ...

  13. Robustness of Electrical Systems of Nuclear Power Plants in Light of the Fukushima Daiichi Accident (ROBELSYS). Workshop Proceedings, Paris, France, 1-4 April 2014 - Robustness of Electrical Systems of NPP's in Light of the Fukushima Daiichi Accident. ROBELSYS Workshop Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The March 2011 accident at Fukushima Daiichi triggered discussions about the significance of electrical power hazards and their treatment in safety analyses. In order to address these issues and provide relevant conclusions and recommendations to CSNI and CNRA, the Robustness in Electrical Systems (ROBELSYS) Technical Working Group was established in 2012 under the leadership of the Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN) of France. The purpose of the ROBELSYS Technical Working Group was to organize an international workshop to identify and discuss the lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi accident. The workshop was focused on the provisions taken by various countries concerning national requirements and modifications to the plant designs in order to enhance the robustness of electrical systems, especially the protection against extreme external hazards. The ROBELSYS workshop was held at the OECD Conference Centre in Paris in April 1-4, 2014. A total of 105 participants attended the workshop representing industry and government organisations from 25 countries, as well as international organisations. A total of 34 technical presentations were given in seven sessions as follows: - 1: National Programmes on Evolution of Onsite and Offsite Electric Power Systems; - 2: Role of Electric Power in Severe Accident Management; - 3: Requirements for Robustness of Onsite Electric Power Systems; - 4: Simulation of Transients within NPP Plant Distribution Systems; - 5: Requirements for Equipment Used for Emergency Response; - 6: Margin Assessments for Modern Power Electronics; - 7: Digital Components in Power Systems. Items addressed in the workshop included: - Review of the lessons learned from the Fukushima accident concerning the robustness of electrical systems; - Review of the provisions already taken or planned after the Fukushima accident, regarding the sources, the distribution systems and the loads, and documenting the technical basis for these

  14. Robustness of Electrical Systems of Nuclear Power Plants in Light of the Fukushima Daiichi Accident (ROBELSYS). Workshop Proceedings, Paris, France, 1-4 April 2014. Appendix 2 (Cont'd) and Appendix 3 - Robustness of Electrical Systems of NPP's in Light of the Fukushima Daiichi Accident. ROBELSYS Workshop Proceedings. Appendices 2 and 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The March 2011 accident at Fukushima Daiichi triggered discussions about the significance of electrical power hazards and their treatment in safety analyses. In order to address these issues and provide relevant conclusions and recommendations to CSNI and CNRA, the Robustness in Electrical Systems (ROBELSYS) Technical Working Group was established in 2012 under the leadership of the Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN) of France. The purpose of the ROBELSYS Technical Working Group was to organize an international workshop to identify and discuss the lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi accident. The workshop was focused on the provisions taken by various countries concerning national requirements and modifications to the plant designs in order to enhance the robustness of electrical systems, especially the protection against extreme external hazards. The ROBELSYS workshop was held at the OECD Conference Centre in Paris in April 1-4, 2014. A total of 105 participants attended the workshop representing industry and government organisations from 25 countries, as well as international organisations. A total of 34 technical presentations were given in seven sessions as follows: - 1: National Programmes on Evolution of Onsite and Offsite Electric Power Systems; - 2: Role of Electric Power in Severe Accident Management; - 3: Requirements for Robustness of Onsite Electric Power Systems; - 4: Simulation of Transients within NPP Plant Distribution Systems; - 5: Requirements for Equipment Used for Emergency Response; - 6: Margin Assessments for Modern Power Electronics; - 7: Digital Components in Power Systems. Items addressed in the workshop included: - Review of the lessons learned from the Fukushima accident concerning the robustness of electrical systems; - Review of the provisions already taken or planned after the Fukushima accident, regarding the sources, the distribution systems and the loads, and documenting the technical basis for these

  15. Smoke Inhalation and Cyanide Poisoning: 20 Years of Paris Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baud, F. J.

    2007-01-01

    Hydroxocobalamin has been used as a cyanide poisoning antidote for many years in France. It has recently been approved by the US FDA. In Paris, hydroxocobalamin is carried by the Brigade de Sapeurs Pompiers (Paris Fire Brigade) in mobile intensive care vehicles and has been administered empirically to victims of enclosed-space fire smoke inhalation who meet the criteria of having soot in the nose, mouth, or throat, any alteration in mental status or disturbance in consciousness, and especially if any degree of hypotension is present (BP less than or equal to 100 mmHg systolic). The administration of hydroxocobalamin at the scene was shown to be safe. Hydroxocobalamin has also been efficacious and safe in 'pure' cyanide poisoning, as long as brain death has not already occurred. A 'toxidrome' of cyanide poisoning has been developed in our institution in Paris, and its application can assist in making the diagnosis of this life-threatening poisoning which cannot be emergent diagnosed by currently-available laboratory methods.(author)

  16. A thyrotoxicosis outbreak due to dietary pills in Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Ioos

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Vincent Ioos1, Vincent Das1, Eric Maury1,2, Jean-Luc Baudel1, Jérôme Guéchot3, Bertrand Guidet1,2, Georges Offenstadt1,21Réanimation Médicale; 2Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, INSERM, UMR-S 707; 3Unité d’Hormonologie, APHP, Hôpital Saint Antoine, F-75012, Paris, FranceAbstract: Three women were consecutively admitted to our medical intensive care unit for thyrotoxicosis after the ingestion of dietary pills accidentally containing high levels of thyroxin. These cases were observed during an outbreak in the Paris area. Despite similar blood levels of thyroid hormones, their clinical presentation and outcome were very different. One patient developed febrile confusion and died from malignant hyperthermia. The second one had progressive confusion requiring mechanical plasma exchange therapy and had a favorable outcome. The third one had very moderate symptoms. These exceptional observations raise several issues concerning diagnosis, physiopathology and treatment of thyrotoxicosis factitia.Keywords: thyrotoxicosis, dietary pills, thyroxin

  17. Paris convention - Decisions, recommendations, interpretations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This booklet is published in a single edition in English and French. It contains decisions, recommendations and interpretations concerning the 1960 Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy adopted by the OECD Steering Committee and the OECD Council. All the instruments are set out according to the Article of the Convention to which they relate and explanatory notes are added where necessary [fr

  18. Korea-France Forum on New Technologies for Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Jong Hwa; Shin, Young Joon; Kim, Yong Wan

    2007-07-01

    In celebration of the 120th anniversary on Korea-France diplomatic relations, both Korea and France agreed that the New-generation Energy Forum on a VHTR-assisted nuclear hydrogen production, renewable energy, and bio-fuel should be held in Paries, France. In accordance with the agreement, the Korea-France Forum on New Technologies for Energy organized by KAERI and CEA was held at the Mercure Hotel Conference Hall in Paries for a couple of days, November 6 and 7 and a facility visit to the CEA-Saclay was arranged on November 8 by the French side. 19 scientists from both countries presented their R and D status and plans in 4 technical sessions of 'VHTR Nuclear System', 'VHTR-assited Hydrogen Production', 'Renewable Energy', and 'Fuel Cell and Energy Storage'. A contact point in each field was established for the exchange of technological information and dispatch of experts if necessary

  19. The coal. Its place in the world, the specifical problems of the european countries and more particularly the France; Le charbon. Sa place dans le monde, les problemes specifiques des pays d'Europe et tout particulierement de la France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-12-15

    In a first part, the work group presents the available resources and studies the coal world market evolution. Then in a second time it discusses the european situation, and especially the french and german situation. The last part is devoted to the reconversion of the mines in France, the problems with the example of the coal basin of north of France. (A.L.B.)

  20. Decision no 2010-DC-0188 by the Nuclear Safety Authority on the 7. of July 2010 specifying to Electricite de France-Societe Anonyme (EDF-SA) the limits of releases in the environment of liquid and gaseous effluents for the operation of Flamanville 1 (IBN n 108), Flamanville 2 (INB n 109) and Flamanville 3 (INB n 167) reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This document contains references to the different legal and official documents (codes, orders, minister's opinion, public surveys, administrative authorizations, local community opinion) at the root of this specification of limits related to releases in the environment of liquid and gaseous effluents by the three Flamanville nuclear reactors operated by Electricite de France-Societe Anonyme (EDF-SA). Tables present the limits for different gaseous and liquid radioactive emissions (carbon 14, hydrogen 3, iodine, radioactive rare earths, and other beta and gamma emitters) from these different installations, but also the maximum admitted concentrations for gaseous chemical effluents (boric acid, hydrazine hydrate, morpholine, phosphates, nitrates, various metals, and so on). The limits for thermal releases are also specified

  1. Maio de 1968 em Paris: testemunho de um estudante Paris, May 1968: witness of a student

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Thiollent

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar informações sobre os acontecimentos de maio de 1968 na França e seus desdobramentos na vida universitária e intelectual. Os temas abordados são o contexto da crise universitária, as formas de contestação estudantil do ensino de ciências sociais e economia e as fontes intelectuais do movimento. Com base em documentos inéditos, são descritas diversas experiências de comunicação alternativa, de relacionamento entre estudantes e trabalhadores no decorrer dos acontecimentos, assim como uma tentativa de Universidade Popular no 13° distrito de Paris, de julho a outubro de 1968. São analisados alguns aspectos dos debates e da evolução das ciências sociais e da filosofia pós-68, período marcado pela crise do ideário socialista e pelo crescimento do individualismo.This article aims to present the happenigs occured in France in May 1968 and its consequences in the intelectual and university world. The topics are the context of the university crises, the forms of studants complaint against the teaching of Social Sciences and Economy and the intelectual sources of the movement. Based on unpublished documents, many experiences of alternative communication are described and the relationship between students and employees during the happenning and even an attempt to make a Popular University in the 13rd district of Paris, from July to October 1968, as well. Some aspects of the debates and the evolution of the Social Sciences and the Philosophy post 68 are analised. This period was remarked by the crises of the socialist set of ideas and the growth of the individualism.

  2. The pioneers of radioactivity. From the Museum to the College de France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This educative guidebook is built like a touristic itinerary threw Paris (France) which follows the footpaths of the French pioneers of radioactivity from the Museum, dominated by the 'Becquerel dynasty', to the College de France. This scientific route is a good way to familiarize oneself with science and its actors. (J.S.)

  3. The Paris Observatory has 350 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lequeux, James

    2017-01-01

    The Paris Observatory is the oldest astronomical observatory that has worked without interruption since its foundation to the present day. The building due to Claude Perrault is still in existence with few modifications, but of course other buildings have been added all along the centuries for housing new instruments and laboratories. In particular, a large dome has been built on the terrace in 1847, with a 38-cm diameter telescope completed in 1857: both are still visible. The main initial purpose of the Observatory was to determine longitudes. This was achieved by Jean-Dominique Cassini using the eclipses of the satellites of Jupiter: a much better map of France was the produced using this method, which unfortunately does not work at sea. Incidentally, the observation of these eclipses led to the discovery in 1676 of the finite velocity of light by Cassini and Rømer. Cassini also discovered the differential rotation of Jupiter and four satellites of Saturn. Then, geodesy was to be the main activity of the Observatory for more than a century, culminating in the famous Cassini map of France completed around 1790. During the first half of the 19th century, under François Arago, the Observatory was at the centre of French physics, which then developed very rapidly. Arago initiated astrophysics in 1810 by showing that the Sun and stars are made of incandescent gas. In 1854, the new director, Urbain Le Verrier, put emphasis on astrometry and celestial mechanics, discovering in particular the anomalous advance of the perihelion of Mercury, which was later to be a proof of General Relativity. In 1858, Leon Foucault built the first modern reflecting telescopes with their silvered glass mirror. Le Verrier created on his side modern meteorology, including some primitive forecasts. The following period was not so bright, due to the enormous project of the Carte du Ciel, which took much of the forces of the Observatory for half a century with little scientific return. In

  4. Acts of terrorism in Paris and Brussels: common and different

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Vonsovych

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the common and distinctive features of the terrorist attacks in Paris and Brussels in 2015 and 2016. The attacks have confirmed the weakness of European security system in the context of the protection of its citizens from the threat № 1 in the world. The high level of democracy and liberalism are not allowed to use power instruments effectively in the fight against terrorism, which was the result of the fact that the terrorists were able to freely access to the place of their acts and to implement them. It was determined that the common features are the following: in Paris and in Brussels, the attacks were carried out by terrorist militaristic group «The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant» (ISIL; the places of commission of terrorist acts; guns of terrorists; military units of France and Belgium are parties of the armed conflict in Syria on the side of the Syrian opposition and struggle against ISIL; there were a few terrorist attacks. It is proved that the differences are as follows: in Paris, in addition to explosives, packed with nails, also were used automatic weapons and grenades, but only explosives in Brussels; France is more active in the fight against terrorism in the international arena and in every way opposed to violence against humanity, so there is a terrorist attack can be seen as a blow to the democratic and humanitarian values; Belgium is a «political heart» of the European Union that’s why the terrorist attack on it can be seen as a blow to the political system of the EU; in Paris, the attack was supposed to apply except for the population and for high officials in the name of F. Hollande and F. Steinmeier, and in Brussels – only civilians.conducting effective public diplomacy by means of virtual diplomacy. In the context of the establishment of the global information society the key target groups must be: Diasporas, foreign media (including bloggers, investors, influential foreign

  5. 18O and 34S in the Upper Bartonium gypsum deposits of the Paris basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontes, J.C.; Letolle, R.

    1976-01-01

    Isotopic analyses ( 18 O and 34 S) of the Eocene gypsum from the Paris basin show a range beyond the normal Tertiary marine values. The possibility of a reduction process during diagenesis is discussed. A hypothesis of continental origin by leaching of Permotriassic deposits is proposed for this formation on the basis of a comparison of the isotopic contents recorded from Germany and eastern France

  6. Climate - 30 questions to understand the Paris Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canfin, Pascal; Staime, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The authors, who participate in the negotiations on climate, propose an analysis and a description of the various geopolitical, economic and financial challenges which are part of the next conference on climate (Conference of Parties, COP 21) which is to take place in France in December 2015. They notably discuss to which extent France is an example, what Obama can do, why things are changing in China, who are the opponents in the struggle against climate change. While one of the main issue of this conference, and the possible cause of its failure, will be the financial issue, and particularly the promise made in 2009 to mobilise 100 billions dollars every year in favour of developing countries which are the most impacted by global warming, in an interview, one of the author evokes the content of his book: he discusses the general consensus about the human origin of climate change, evokes fossil industries and oil producing countries as opponents to an energy revolution, outlines that energy transition is at the heart of what he calls the Battle of Paris (the conference), outlines the important role France can play despite some weaknesses of its climate policy, the new momentum given by China and the USA. He considers low carbon economy as the main world challenge on the long term

  7. Gambling in revolutionary Paris - The Palais Royal: 1789-1838.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhart, R T

    1992-06-01

    By the revolution of 1789, the four-story, quadrangular Palais Royal in Paris had become the most glittering tourist center of Europe, with 180 shops and cafes in its ground floor arcades. By 1791, its basement and secondary story contained over 100 separate, illicit gambling operations featuring the most popular dice and card games. The mania for gambling had been transferred from defunct, monarchical Versailles to the thriving, bourgeois Palais Royal, where the five main gaming clubs throbbed from noon till midnight. During the Revolution, Prince Talleyrand won 30,000 francs at one club, and after Waterloo in 1815, Marshal Blucher lost 1,500,000 francs in one night at another. To bring the situation under control and raise taxes for the state, in 1806 Napoleon legalized the main clubs, which from 1819 to 1837 grossed an enormous 137 million francs. When the anti-gambling forces triumphed in 1837 and the clubs were closed down, the National Guard had to be called out to evict the mobs of gamblers who refused to leave the tables. Dramatic reports from Revolutionary police raids, and quotations from the memoirs of humorous French gamblers and shocked foreign visitors, provide anecdotal illustrations of the 49 years during which the Palais Royal was the most intriguing and picturesque gambling mecca of Europe-and probably of the world.

  8. Paris Commune Imagery in China's Mass Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiss, Guy T.

    The role of ideology in mass media practices is explored in an analysis of the relation between the Paris Commune of 1871 and the Shanghai Commune of 1967, two attempts to translate the philosophical concept of dictatorship of the proletariat into some political form. A review of the use of Paris Commune imagery by the Chinese to mobilize the…

  9. What agreement in Paris in 2015?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombier, Michel; Ribera, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    In Warsaw, countries agreed to a process whereby each will unilaterally design and communicate its contribution toward reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the atmosphere. This process is to be ratified in late 2015 in Paris. Will the Paris agreement mark a turning point in climate policy? Will it measure up to the ambitions proclaimed by the international community at the Durban meeting?

  10. Une herboristerie ethnique à Paris

    OpenAIRE

    Hamaïdi , Maurad

    2012-01-01

    Place de la Chapelle à Paris, dans le 18e arrondissement. L'enseigne de ce magasin est peu explicite, mais la vitrine laisse deviner le type de produits vendus. L'information est un peu plus développée dans la langue arabe car il y est précisé que la vente concerne tous types d'encens, ainsi que des plantes arabes : il s'agit d'une herboristerie. Il est également écrit que le magasin exporte vers le Maroc : le mot en arabe est ambigu puisqu'il s'agit de "Maghreb", mais en général, utilisé seu...

  11. NOGENT, just another power plant - but so close to Paris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fournel, Brigitte

    1993-01-01

    54 PWR type production units are today operating in France. Between 1980 and 1981, 11 units were under construction including both Nogent PWR-1300 units. The increasing consumption in the lie de France region in the early eighties affected the choice of the site so close to Paris on the banks of the Seine, not more than 95 km from Notre Dame Cathedral. In February 1975, the Champagne-Ardenne Regional Council gave a favourable opinion to installation of a nuclear power plant in the Marne or Seine valley. The location of the plant thus offered an economic opportunity to a region in which second homes were growing at the expense of primary residences. The Nogent plant is not the only one to be situated close to a city. One of the major concerns was related to the fact that the power plant was located on the banks of the river supplying Paris with drinking water. The plant has a geographical location whose political and media implications are Parisian, and thus national. Therefore, the plant was equipped with a public information centre which opened on 1st January 1988, and which in general receives some 20 000 visitors annually. It is located outside the controlled areas of the plant and access is free to all visitors. It gives a permanent exhibition on nuclear power and the Nogent plant in particular. Its auditorium can seat 120 for conferences and films on all subjects concerning nuclear power. The construction of the Information Centre cost 6 million francs. The visitors mainly come from the Paris region : many teachers bring their classes to find out about our installations. The EDF Divisions bring many notable visitors : foreign ministers, captains of industry, and any foreign nuclear company on an information visit to France. The opposition to Nogent comes mainly from Paris, in 1979 of a Committee for nuclear alternatives called Stop-Nogent was established. 1982,1983,1984 and 1985 were marked by strong action and local disputes, reported in the press (sabotage

  12. NOGENT, just another power plant - but so close to Paris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fournel, Brigitte [Electricite de France (France)

    1993-07-01

    54 PWR type production units are today operating in France. Between 1980 and 1981, 11 units were under construction including both Nogent PWR-1300 units. The increasing consumption in the lie de France region in the early eighties affected the choice of the site so close to Paris on the banks of the Seine, not more than 95 km from Notre Dame Cathedral. In February 1975, the Champagne-Ardenne Regional Council gave a favourable opinion to installation of a nuclear power plant in the Marne or Seine valley. The location of the plant thus offered an economic opportunity to a region in which second homes were growing at the expense of primary residences. The Nogent plant is not the only one to be situated close to a city. One of the major concerns was related to the fact that the power plant was located on the banks of the river supplying Paris with drinking water. The plant has a geographical location whose political and media implications are Parisian, and thus national. Therefore, the plant was equipped with a public information centre which opened on 1st January 1988, and which in general receives some 20 000 visitors annually. It is located outside the controlled areas of the plant and access is free to all visitors. It gives a permanent exhibition on nuclear power and the Nogent plant in particular. Its auditorium can seat 120 for conferences and films on all subjects concerning nuclear power. The construction of the Information Centre cost 6 million francs. The visitors mainly come from the Paris region : many teachers bring their classes to find out about our installations. The EDF Divisions bring many notable visitors : foreign ministers, captains of industry, and any foreign nuclear company on an information visit to France. The opposition to Nogent comes mainly from Paris, in 1979 of a Committee for nuclear alternatives called Stop-Nogent was established. 1982,1983,1984 and 1985 were marked by strong action and local disputes, reported in the press (sabotage

  13. Research aspects in the Paris-Sud University, in 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Some of the research works developed in the Paris-Sud University, in 1988, are reported. In this second volume, the following research papers are presented: the antiprogesterone; the English Channel Tunnel; the individual will concerning filiation; the glycannic variations of the α 1; the molecular phylogenies; the adrenergetical transmission and the β receptors; the organical phases and crystallogenesis in the carbonaceous biomineralizations; the quarks electric charge determination; the X-imagery; the regulation of the enzymatic activities by light in the superior vegetals; the chemical reaction dynamical analysis; the experiment report concerning heavy ions - high density plasma interactions; the 13 C/ 12 C isotopic splitting during photosynthesis; the articular prothesis methodology; and the public authorities and commerce in France [fr

  14. Two months of disdrometer data in the Paris area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gires, Auguste; Tchiguirinskaia, Ioulia; Schertzer, Daniel

    2018-05-01

    The Hydrology, Meteorology, and Complexity laboratory of École des Ponts ParisTech (hmco.enpc.fr) has made a data set of optical disdrometer measurements available that come from a campaign involving three collocated devices from two different manufacturers, relying on different underlying technologies (one Campbell Scientific PWS100 and two OTT Parsivel2 instruments). The campaign took place in January-February 2016 in the Paris area (France). Disdrometers provide access to information on the size and velocity of drops falling through the sampling area of the devices of roughly a few tens of cm2. It enables the drop size distribution to be estimated and rainfall microphysics, kinetic energy, or radar quantities, for example, to be studied further. Raw data, i.e. basically a matrix containing a number of drops according to classes of size and velocity, along with more aggregated ones, such as the rain rate or drop size distribution with filtering, are available. Link to the data set: https://zenodo.org/record/1240168" target="_blank">https://zenodo.org/record/1240168 (DOI: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1240168" target="_blank">https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1240168).

  15. Social mix policies in Paris: discourses, policies and social effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacqué, Marie-Hélène; Fijalkow, Yankel; Launay, Lydie; Vermeersch, Stéphanie

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1980s, the issue of social mix has become a public policy category in France. Enshrined in legislation, yet remaining controversial, it represents a major premise on which housing policies have been reconfigured. The concept of social mix is essentially based on who lives where, but it is also evoked in the context of urban renewal schemes for social housing estates, as well as in relation to new-build developments. A study of the bases of social mix policies conducted in Paris since 2001 in the context of the embourgeoisement of the capital shows the fundamental role of social housing stock. The City Council has become involved in policy decisions about both the location and the allocation of social housing. Particular attention has been paid to the middle classes in the name of the principle of ‘balancing the population’. In order to measure the effects of the policy, this article relies on an analysis of two City of Paris schemes that have the stated intent of creating social mix. One of these schemes consists of redeveloping a working-class neighbourhood, Goutte d'Or, while the other involves the new acquisition of social housing in various more affluent neighbourhoods in the capital. This comparative study of the population shows that, whether in a neighbourhood poised for gentrification or in a more affluent neighbourhood, this policy has major effects on forms of local social cohesion, setting in motion individual trajectories and reshaping social and/or ethnic identities.

  16. Regional indexes for France. Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    According to the U.S. Department of Energy, an estimated 25% of the GNP is affected by weather-related events. The variations in temperature - even small ones - can also have long-lasting effects on the operational results of a company. Among other, the Energy supply sector is sensitive to weather risks: a milder or harsher than usual winter leads to a decrease or increase of energy consumption. The price of electricity on power trading facilities like Powernext is especially sensitive to odd changes in temperatures. Powernext and Meteo-France (the French meteorological agency) have joined expertise in order to promote the use of weather indices in term of decision making or underlying of hedging tools to energy actors, end users from any other sector of activity and specialists of the weather risk hedging. The Powernext Weather indices are made from information collected by Meteo-France's main observation network according to the norms of international meteorology, in areas carefully selected. The gross data are submitted to a thorough review allowing the correction of abnormalities and the reconstitution of missing data. Each index is fashioned to take into account the economic activity in the various regions of the country as represented by each region's population. This demographic information represents a fair approximation of the weight of the regional economic activity. This document presents the calculation methodology of regional weather indexes for France. Each regional index covers an homogenous area in terms of temperature represented by the biggest city. Five reference cities are used to represent the 22 economical regions of France (Paris Orly, Lyon, Marignane, Bordeaux and Strasbourg). (J.S.)

  17. [From traditional to modern hospital--from Paris to Berlin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murken, Axel Hinrich

    Discussions about the modernisation and reform of the Hôtel Dieu in Paris concerning the catastrophic fire of 1772 there were followed very closely in Prussia and other German countries, though for a long time this had only slight consequences for modernising developments in the hospitals of Berlin or other administrative capitals of Germany. In contrast to this, the Hôpital Lariboisière was praised as a model example in Germany soon after its completion in 1854 after the pre-revolutionary Parisian plans, was imitated in Berlin twenty years later. It must be added that in Prussia great importance was attached to stricter requirements for hygiene and ventilation than in Paris. This was clearly demonstrated barely in the construction of the pavilionhospital in Berlin-Friedrichshain (1868-1874) with an extremely decentralized layout. It was not until two generations later with the completion of the municipal hospital Westend in Charlottenburg (1904-1907), a suburb of Berlin, that a slightly modified "Lariboisière" in the Wilheminian brick Baroque style was built. Similarily the acceptance of high-rise construction was, compared with Paris, considerably delayed on the German hospital scene. Whereas in the USA and France plans had been made for high-rise hospitals from the 1920s on and realized by 1935, as with the Hôpital Beaujon in Paris (1932-1935), there were fundamental reservations about them in Germany. As a result, this conception of the structure, with an effective concentration of inpatient care in towers together with separate low-rise buildings for functions such as treatment and diagnosis, only gradually gained acceptance in Germany at the end of the 1960s. On the other hand, German architects such as Hermann Distel (1875-1946) or Ernst Kopp (1890-1962), had already, indeed before the Second World War, promoted the high-rise type for inpatient care on theoretical grounds. In addition, two hospitals providing medical care within in Berlin, Martin

  18. French Revolution or Industrial Revolution? A Note on the Contrasting Experiences of England and France up to 1800

    OpenAIRE

    Paul R. Sharp; Jacob L. Weisdorf

    2011-01-01

    At the end of the eighteenth century, England and France both underwent revolutions: France the French Revolution, England the industrial revolution. This note sheds new light on these contrasting experiences in the histories of England and France by looking at the evolution of real consumer prices in London and Paris in the centuries leading up to 1800. Whilst in London, building workers were facing low and stable consumer prices over the period, leaving plenty of scope for a demand-driven c...

  19. Institutionalizing the evaluation of health programs and policies in France: cuisine internationale over fast food and sur mesure over ready-made Institucionalizando a avaliação de programas e políticas de saúde: culinária e corte-costura nas lições francesas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulmira M. A. Hartz

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to describe several chronological milestones in institutionalizing the evaluation of public programs and policies in France from a governmental perspective and in the health sector, situating such references in the international context. The institutional nature of evaluation implies integrating it into an action-oriented model, linking analytical activities to management, thus constituting the formulation of an evaluation policy for policy evaluation. The study focuses on issues related to the structure, practice, and utilization of evaluation results as well as other characteristics providing the French model with a certain resistance to traditional "fast-food" or "ready-made" methodological approaches. The institutionalization of sectorial evaluation appears more promising than that of the government's centralized channel, despite the work developed by a Scientific Evaluation Council, and suggests avenues for reflection and debate pertaining to the Brazilian Unified Health System.Este texto tem o propósito de descrever alguns marcos cronológicos de institucionalização da avaliação de programas/políticas públicas da França, na perspectiva governamental e no setor saúde, contextualizando-os no âmbito internacional. O caráter institucional da avaliação supõe integrá-la em um modelo orientado para ação, ligando atividades analíticas às de gestão, constituindo assim uma formulação da política de avaliação para avaliação de políticas. São focalizadas questões relacionadas à estrutura, à prática e à utilização dos resultados da avaliação, bem como outras características que conferem ao modelo francês uma certa resistência ao "fast food" ou "prêt-à-porter" das abordagens metodológicas tradicionais. A avaliação setorial se revela mais promissora em sua instucionalização do que o dispositivo centralizado do governo, apesar do trabalho desenvolvido por um Conselho Cient

  20. The Rise of Massage and Medical Gymnastics in London and Paris before the First World War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quin, Grégory

    2017-01-01

    Massage and medical gymnastics experienced a rapid institutionalization across Europe and North America between 1850 and 1914. This article explores how this process took place in London and Paris. Physiotherapy developed many of the hallmarks of an independent discipline during this period, including an identified corpus of manipulations and exercises, some autonomous training courses and degrees for future practitioners, and even the creation of departments within several hospitals. The article analyzes all of the processes surrounding this rise, paying special attention to the influence of the ambassadors of Swedish gymnastics (which led to the re-invention of massage across Europe), to the installation of physiotherapy in hospitals in London and in Paris, and to the practical and institutional innovations driven by nurses in England and by doctors in France.

  1. In situ, satellite measurement and model evidence on the dominant regional contribution to fine particulate matter levels in the Paris megacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekmann, M.; Prévôt, A.S.H.; Drewnick, F.; Sciare, J.; Pandis, S.N.; Denier van der Gon, H.A.C.; Crippa, M.; Freutel, F.; Poulain, L.; Ghersi, V.; Rodriguez, E.; Beirle, S.; Zotter, P.; Weiden-Reinmüller, S.L. von der; Bressi, M.; Fountoukis, C.; Petetin, H.; Szidat, S.; Schneider, J.; Rosso, A.; El Haddad, I.; Megaritis, A.; Zhang, Q.J.; Michoud, V.; Slowik, J.G.; Moukhtar, S.; Kolmonen, P.; Stohl, A.; Eckhardt, S.; Borbon, A.; Gros, V.; Marchand, N.; Jaffrezo, J.L.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Colomb, A.; Wiedensohler, A.; Borrmann, S.; Lawrence, M.; Baklanov, A.; Baltensperger, U.

    2015-01-01

    A detailed characterization of air quality in the megacity of Paris (France) during two 1-month intensive campaigns and from additional 1-year observations revealed that about 70 % of the urban background fine particulate matter (PM) is transported on average into the megacity from upwind regions.

  2. Where are the radioactive wastes in France? Brochure no 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This document is one of the 6 regional brochures which make the geographical inventory of radioactive wastes in France. For each region, a table lists the recorded sites and a regional map localizes those having a detailed descriptive file. These files mention the most important waste owners (medical, research, nuclear and military industries), the type of waste and the type of management. The polluted sites are also mentioned, even if they are already decontaminated. The volume no 1 concerns the Ile-de-France region (Paris region). (J.S.)

  3. Climate Justice and the Paris Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michelot, Agnes

    2016-01-01

    The concept of climate justice has been, for the first time, used in an international agreement - namely, the Paris Agreement. But this recognition of the notion of climate justice is extremely restricted by the very way it is formulated. Preamble of the Paris Agreement 'notes' that climate justice is recognized by 'certain cultures'. Does it mean that particular and concrete stakes of climate justice of the pre-COP21 agenda have been recognized or, on the contrary, that the notion so introduced is actually an empty shell without any genuine legal perspective? Considering this uncertainty, it appears relevant to analyze the Paris Agreement through the claims of various groups and coalitions, which influenced the COP21 negotiations

  4. La Cité Universitaire Internationale de Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Bureau

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available La Cité Internationale Universitaire de Paris est le lieu où se concentrent le plus de résidences universitaires en Île-de-France avec une vocation affichée d’accueillir les étudiants et chercheurs du monde entier, et ce depuis 1925. Elle leur offre un ensemble de services centralisés et un cadre privilégié mais se considère avant tout comme un creuset pour la rencontre des cultures et la diffusion de la culture française parmi les élites intellectuelles internationales. Au-delà des intentions, nous avons cherché, par la rencontre de ses dirigeants et des résidents, à saisir d’une part, la réalité actuelle des échanges culturels promus par une politique du « brassage » et d’autre part, la dynamique de « l’espace vécu » des résidents.The Cité Internationale of Paris is the place where concentrate most university halls of residence in the French capital with a displayed vocation to welcome the students and the researchers of the whole world since 1925. It offers to them a set of centralized services and a privileged living environment but considers itself above all as a melting pot for the meeting of cultures and the spreading of French culture among international intellectual elites. Beyond intentions, we tried, by the meeting of managements and residents, to grasp the current reality of cultural exchanges thanks to the policy of the "mixing" and the dynamic of "the space lived" on residents.

  5. Where are the radioactive wastes in France? Brochure no 1; Ou sont les dechets radioactifs en France? Brochure no 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This document is one of the 6 regional brochures which make the geographical inventory of radioactive wastes in France. For each region, a table lists the recorded sites and a regional map localizes those having a detailed descriptive file. These files mention the most important waste owners (medical, research, nuclear and military industries), the type of waste and the type of management. The polluted sites are also mentioned, even if they are already decontaminated. The volume no 1 concerns the Ile-de-France region (Paris region). (J.S.)

  6. Circulation of Pneumocystis dihydropteroate synthase mutants in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gal, Solène; Damiani, Céline; Perrot, Maëla; Rouillé, Amélie; Virmaux, Michèle; Quinio, Dorothée; Moalic, Elodie; Saliou, Philippe; Berthou, Christian; Le Meur, Yann; Totet, Anne; Nevez, Gilles

    2012-10-01

    Data on the prevalence of Pneumocystis jirovecii (P. jirovecii) dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) mutants in France are still limited. In this study, mutant prevalence in the Brest region (western France) was determined. Archival pulmonary specimens from 85 patients infected with P. jirovecii and admitted to our institution (University Hospital, Brest) from October 2007 to February 2010 were retrospectively typed at the DHPS locus using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. Type identification was successful in 66 of 85 patients. Sixty-four patients were infected with a wild type, whereas mutants were found in 2 patients (2/66, 3%). Medical chart analysis revealed that these 2 patients usually lived in Paris. Another patient usually lived on the French Riviera, whereas 63 patients were from the city of Brest. Thus, the corrected prevalence of mutants in patients who effectively lived in our geographic area was 0% (0/63). Taking into account that i) Paris is characterized by a high prevalence of mutants from 18.5% to 40%, ii) infection diagnoses were performed in the 2 Parisians during their vacation Paris to Brest through infected vacationers. The study shows that the usual city of patient residence, rather than the city of infection diagnosis, is a predictor of mutants and that P. jirovecii infections involving mutants do not represent a public health issue in western France. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Paris-Princeton Lectures on Mathematical Finance

    CERN Document Server

    Carmona, René A; Kohatsu-Higa, Arturo; Lasry, Jean-Michel; Lions, Pierre-Louis; Pham, Huyên; Taflin, Erik

    2007-01-01

    The Paris-Princeton Lectures in Financial Mathematics, of which this is the third volume, will, on an annual basis, publish cutting-edge research in self-contained, expository articles from outstanding - established or upcoming! - specialists. The aim is to produce a series of articles that can serve as an introductory reference for research in the field. It arises as a result of frequent exchanges between the finance and financial mathematics groups in Paris and Princeton. The present volume sets standards with articles by René Carmona, Ivar Ekeland/Erik Taflin, Arturo Kohatsu-Higa, Pierre-Louis Lions/Jean-Michel Lasry, and Hyuên Pham.

  8. [The meetings of the Société de Pharmacie de Paris during troubled periods (1803-1946)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storck, J

    1997-01-01

    With newly found archives and other already usable documents, it was possible to study the repercussions of several troubled periods in France on the meetings of the Société de Pharmacie de Paris (1803-1946). It seems that only three meetings were cancelled for 143 years. As a matter of fact, the number of attending members decreased widely in the troubled times. Allusions to contemporary events are not scarce in the minutes and have been reported.

  9. Compte rendu de Viala (Alain, La France galante. Essai historique sur une catégorie culturelle, de ses origines jusqu’à la révolution, Paris, PUF, coll. « Les Littéraires », 2008, 541 p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre De Craim

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Alain Viala, professeur à l’Université d’Oxford, a constaté que le concept de galanterie est souvent mobilisé lorsqu’il s’agit d’évoquer la France ou les Français. Cette association d’idée l’a alors conduit à étudier, au-delà du lieu commun, comment un certain modèle galant s’est construit, a prospéré et enfin a décliné tout au long des xviie et xviiie siècles. Pour y parvenir, l’auteur se propose une méthode : l’exploration des œuvres picturales, musicales et littéraires revendiquées comme g...

  10. Decision no 2010-DC-0182 by the Nuclear Safety Authority on the 18. of May 2010 specifying the limits of releases in the environment of liquid and gaseous effluents of civil base nuclear installations no 46, no 74 and no 100 operated by Electricite de France-Societe Anonyme (EDF-SA) on the district of Saint-Laurent-Nouan (Loir-et-Cher department)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This document contains references to the different legal and official documents (codes, orders, minister's opinion, public surveys, administrative authorizations, local community opinion) at the root of this specification of limits related to releases in the environment of liquid and gaseous effluents of civil base nuclear installations operated by Electricite de France-Societe Anonyme (EDF-SA) on the district of Saint-Laurent-Nouan. Commented tables in appendix present the limits for different radioactive emissions (carbon 14, hydrogen 3, iodine, radioactive rare earths, and other alpha, beta and gamma emitters) from these different installations, but also the maximum admitted concentrations for gaseous chemical effluents (boric acid, hydrazine, morpholine, phosphates, nitrates, various metals, and so on). The limits for thermal releases are also specified

  11. Order of the 17. of June 2010 approving the decision no 2010-DC-0182 by the Nuclear Safety Authority on the 18. of May 2010 specifying the limits of releases in the environment of liquid and gaseous effluents of civil base nuclear installations no 46, 74 and 100 operated by Electricite de France-Societe Anonyme (EDF-SA) on the district of Saint-Laurent-Nouan (Loir-et-Cher department)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This legal publication contains references to the different legal and official documents (codes, orders, minister's opinion, public surveys, administrative authorizations, local community opinion) at the root of this specification of limits related to releases in the environment of liquid and gaseous effluents of civil base nuclear installations operated by Electricite de France-Societe Anonyme (EDF-SA) on the district of Saint-Laurent-Nouan. Tables present the limits for different radioactive emissions (carbon 14, hydrogen 3, iodine, radioactive rare earths, and other alpha, beta and gamma emitters) from these different installations, but also the maximum admitted concentrations for gaseous chemical effluents (boric acid, hydrazine, morpholine, phosphates, nitrates, various metals, and so on). The limits for thermal releases are also specified

  12. Order of the 15. of September 2010 approving the decision no 2010-DC-0188 by the Nuclear Safety Authority on the 7. of July 2010 specifying to Electricite de France-Societe Anonyme (EDF-SA) the limits of releases in the environment of liquid and gaseous effluents for the operation of Flamanville 1 (INB n 108), Flamanville 2 (INB n 109) and Flamanville 3 (INB n 167) reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This legal publication contains references to the different legal and official documents (codes, orders, minister's opinion, public surveys, administrative authorizations, local community opinion) at the root of this specification of limits related to releases in the environment of liquid and gaseous effluents by the three Flamanville nuclear reactors operated by Electricite de France-Societe Anonyme (EDF-SA). Tables present the limits for different gaseous and liquid radioactive emissions (carbon 14, hydrogen 3, iodine, radioactive rare earths, and other beta and gamma emitters) from these different installations, but also the maximum admitted concentrations for gaseous chemical effluents (boric acid, hydrazine hydrate, morpholine, phosphates, nitrates, various metals, and so on). The limits for thermal releases are also specified

  13. The myriad challenges of the Paris Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Dann; Allen, Myles R.; Hall, Jim W.; Muller, Benito; Rajamani, Lavanya; Le Quéré, Corinne

    2018-05-01

    The much awaited and intensely negotiated Paris Agreement was adopted on 12 December 2015 by the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The agreement set out a more ambitious long-term temperature goal than many had anticipated, implying more stringent emissions reductions that have been under-explored by the research community. By its very nature a multidisciplinary challenge, filling the knowledge gap requires not only climate scientists, but the whole Earth system science community, as well as economists, engineers, lawyers, philosophers, politicians, emergency planners and others to step up. To kick start cross-disciplinary discussions, the University of Oxford's Environmental Change Institute focused its 25th anniversary conference upon meeting the challenges of the Paris Agreement for science and society. This theme issue consists of review papers, opinion pieces and original research from some of the presentations within that meeting, covering a wide range of issues underpinning the Paris Agreement. This article is part of the theme issue `The Paris Agreement: understanding the physical and social challenges for a warming world of 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels'.

  14. GHG monitoring over Paris megacity and Orléans forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Te, Y. V.; Jeseck, P.; Zanon, T.; Boursier, C.; Janssen, C.; Deutscher, N. M.; Warneke, T.; Notholt, J.; Lac, C.; Dieudonné, E.; Lopez, M.; Schmidt, M.; Xueref-remy, I. C.

    2012-12-01

    In a growing world with more than 7 billion inhabitants and big emerging countries such as China, Brazil and India, emissions of anthropogenic pollutants and greenhouse gases (GHGs) are increasing continuously. Their monitoring and control in megacities have become a major challenge for scientists and public health authorities in environmental research area. The ground-based Fourier transform spectrometer (QualAir FTS[a], model IFS 125HR) of the QualAir platform located in downtown Paris at University Pierre et Marie Curie (UPMC), is a scientific research instrument dedicated to the survey of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and urban air quality. Equipped with a sun-tracker, the remote sensing QualAir FTS relies on solar infrared absorption for monitoring trace gas concentrations and their variability in the Ile-de-France region[b]. Concentrations of atmospheric GHGs, especially CO2, CH4 and N2O, are retrieved by the radiative transfer model PROFFIT[c]. Because Paris is the third largest European megacity, the QualAir FTS can provide new and complementary measurements as compared to existing ground-based FTS network stations (NDACC and TCCON) located in unpolluted environments, such as the TCCON-Orléans station[d] situated in the forest of Orléans (100 km south of Paris). In the effort to integrate QualAir FTS into the TCCON network, simultaneous FTS measurements of GHGs at Paris and Orléans have been performed. We will emphasize on comparisons of CO2 from these two sites. Our comparison will be completed by high-resolved direct CO2 modeling outputs from the Meso-NH model, and ground in situ measurements at different sites (Orléans/Trainou, Paris/Jussieu, Paris/Eiffel Tower). Parts of the data were acquired in the framework of the French CO2-MEGAPARIS project[e, f], whose main goal is to quantify CO2 emissions from the Paris area. The present data intercomparison will help to reduce uncertainties in carbon cycle models and to better characterize regional GHG fluxes

  15. Les débuts des relations "officielles" roumaines - françaises. La création de l'agence diplomatique roumaine à Paris (26 août / 7 septembre 1860

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Oncescu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Institutionalization of diplomatic agents of the United Principalities in Paris was possible after the meeting held on August 26 / September 7 1860. After receiving the note from the Foreign Minister of Moldova, Mihail Jora, and a letter from Prince Cuza, French Foreign Minister, Ed. Thouvenel, said he was very happy to receive the staff of Prince Alexandru Ioan Cuza. Even so, he could not consider the Romanian Agent an official agent, because he would violate the 1858 Paris Convention, to which France participated. In this context, the United Principalities Agency was officially recognized and later became the Romanian Legation in Paris (1880.

  16. Archives: Water SA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 71 ... Archives: Water SA. Journal Home > Archives: Water SA. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 50 of 71 Items, 1 2 > >>. 2018. Vol 44, No 1 (2018) ...

  17. Archives: Health SA Gesondheid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 42 of 42 ... Archives: Health SA Gesondheid. Journal Home > Archives: Health SA Gesondheid. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 42 of 42 Items. 2018 ...

  18. Morphological diversity of wild medicinal Paris L. from China and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Paris L. (Trilliaceae) is a temperate genus of about 24 perennial herbaceous species distributed from Europe to Eastern Asia. Paris is notable in China for its medicinal value. An investigation was conducted to determine the variations of 27 morphological characters of 196 accessions from 8 populations of medicinal Paris ...

  19. Energy in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benard, M.

    1992-01-01

    Geography and clear political leadership have combined to put France in the forefront of both nuclear and hydro-electric generation and energy efficiency so that about 90% of France's electricity is generated by non-fossil fuels. This article explains how and why France has developed its energy mix. (Author)

  20. Korea-France Forum on New Technologies for Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Jong Hwa; Shin, Young Joon; Kim, Yong Wan

    2007-07-15

    In celebration of the 120th anniversary on Korea-France diplomatic relations, both Korea and France agreed that the New-generation Energy Forum on a VHTR-assisted nuclear hydrogen production, renewable energy, and bio-fuel should be held in Paries, France. In accordance with the agreement, the Korea-France Forum on New Technologies for Energy organized by KAERI and CEA was held at the Mercure Hotel Conference Hall in Paries for a couple of days, November 6 and 7 and a facility visit to the CEA-Saclay was arranged on November 8 by the French side. 19 scientists from both countries presented their R and D status and plans in 4 technical sessions of 'VHTR Nuclear System', 'VHTR-assited Hydrogen Production', 'Renewable Energy', and 'Fuel Cell and Energy Storage'. A contact point in each field was established for the exchange of technological information and dispatch of experts if necessary.

  1. Variability of air ion concentrations in urban Paris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, V. N.; Herrmann, E.; Manninen, H. E.; Hussein, T.; Hakala, J.; Nieminen, T.; Aalto, P. P.; Merkel, M.; Wiedensohler, A.; Kulmala, M.; Petäjä, T.; Hämeri, K.

    2015-12-01

    Air ion concentrations influence new particle formation and consequently the global aerosol as potential cloud condensation nuclei. We aimed to evaluate air ion concentrations and characteristics of new particle formation events (NPF) in the megacity of Paris, France, within the MEGAPOLI (Megacities: Emissions, urban, regional and Global Atmospheric Pollution and climate effects, and Integrated tools for assessment and mitigation) project. We measured air ion number size distributions (0.8-42 nm) with an air ion spectrometer and fine particle number concentrations (> 6 nm) with a twin differential mobility particle sizer in an urban site of Paris between 26 June 2009 and 4 October 2010. Air ions were size classified as small (0.8-2 nm), intermediate (2-7 nm), and large (7-20 nm). The median concentrations of small and large ions were 670 and 680 cm-3, respectively, (sum of positive and negative polarities), whereas the median concentration of intermediate ions was only 20 cm-3, as these ions were mostly present during new particle formation bursts, i.e. when gas-to-particle conversion produced fresh aerosol particles from gas phase precursors. During peaks in traffic-related particle number, the concentrations of small and intermediate ions decreased, whereas the concentrations of large ions increased. Seasonal variations affected the ion population differently, with respect to their size and polarity. NPF was observed in 13 % of the days, being most frequent in spring and late summer (April, May, July, and August). The results also suggest that NPF was favoured on the weekends in comparison to workdays, likely due to the lower levels of condensation sinks in the mornings of weekends (CS weekdays 09:00: 18 × 10-3 s-1; CS weekend 09:00: 8 × 10-3 s-1). The median growth rates (GR) of ions during the NPF events varied between 3 and 7 nm h-1, increasing with the ion size and being higher on workdays than on weekends for intermediate and large ions. The median GR of

  2. What Does It Mean to be Central? A Botanical Geography of Paris 1830-1848.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoquet, Thierry

    2016-02-01

    This paper focuses on the geography of the botanical community in Paris, under the July Monarchy (1830-1848). At that time, the Muséum d'Histoire naturelle (MHN) was at its institutional acme and, under the impulse of François Guizot, its budget was increasing dramatically. However, closer attention to manuscript sources (correspondence, travel diaries) reveals that the botanists of the time favoured other private institutions, located both on the Right and Left Banks of the Seine. The MHN was prestigious for its collections and professors but it was relatively remote from the centre of Paris, and its plant samples were sometimes difficult to access. Several other first-class private herbaria granted liberal access to botanists: those of Jacques Gay, Phillip Barker Webb, and Benjamin Delessert. Thanks to their wealth, these plant amateurs had ownership of historical herbaria consisting of species types alongside rich botanical libraries. Botanists visiting Paris from foreign countries or other provinces of France also spent some time studying less general plant collections, like those of Count Jaubert, or specialized collections, like Montagne's or Léveillé's on cryptogams. Other botanists also enjoyed renown at the time, although they published little, if anything (like Maire). Living in crammed apartments, literally in the middle of their plant samples, these botanists were key nodes in botanical networks, although they had no relation with the prestigious MHN.

  3. Bookmaker and pari-mutuel betting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander; Shing, Hui-Fai

    2008-01-01

    A widely documented empirical regularity in gambling markets is that bets on high probability events (a race won by a "favourite") have higher expected returns than bets on low probability events (a "longshot" wins). Such favourite-longshot (FL) biases however appear to be more severe and persist......A widely documented empirical regularity in gambling markets is that bets on high probability events (a race won by a "favourite") have higher expected returns than bets on low probability events (a "longshot" wins). Such favourite-longshot (FL) biases however appear to be more severe...... and persistent in bookmaker markets than in pari-mutuel markets; the latter sometimes exhibit no bias or a reverse FL bias. Our results help understand these differences: the odds grid in bookmaker markets leads to a built-in FL bias, whereas that used in pari-mutuel betting pushes these markets toward a reverse...

  4. Paris-Princeton Lectures on Mathematical Finance

    CERN Document Server

    Çinlar, Erhan; Ekeland, Ivar; Jouini, Elyes; Scheinkman, José; Touzi, Nizar

    2004-01-01

    The Paris-Princeton Lectures in Financial Mathematics, of which this is the second volume, will, on an annual basis, publish cutting-edge research in self-contained, expository articles from outstanding - established or upcoming! - specialists. The aim is to produce a series of articles that can serve as an introductory reference for research in the field. It arises as a result of frequent exchanges between the finance and financial mathematics groups in Paris and Princeton. This volume presents the following articles: "Hedging of Defaultable Claims" by T. Bielecki, M. Jeanblanc, and M. Rutkowski; "On the Geometry of Interest Rate Models" by T. Björk; "Heterogeneous Beliefs, Speculation and Trading in Financial Markets" by J.A. Scheinkman, and W. Xiong.

  5. Porphyry of Russian Empires in Paris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulakh, Andrey

    2014-05-01

    Porphyry of Russian Empires in Paris A. G. Bulakh (St Petersburg State University, Russia) So called "Schokhan porphyry" from Lake Onega, Russia, belongs surely to stones of World cultural heritage. One can see this "porphyry" at facades of a lovely palace of Pavel I and in pedestal of the monument after Nicolas I in St Petersburg. There are many other cases of using this stone in Russia. In Paris, sarcophagus of Napoleon I Bonaparte is constructed of blocks of this stone. Really, it is Proterozoic quartzite. Geology situation, petrography and mineralogical characteristic will be reported too. Comparison with antique porphyre from the Egyptian Province of the Roma Empire is given. References: 1) A.G.Bulakh, N.B.Abakumova, J.V.Romanovsky. St Petersburg: a History in Stone. 2010. Print House of St Petersburg State University. 173 p.

  6. From Paris to the End of Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Claes, Dag Harald; Hveem, Helge

    2016-01-01

    "This article discusses the possibilities and obstacles for a cost-effective implementation of policies that will lead to a significant reduction in global CO2 emissions from the use of oil. The structural conditions and economic consequences of changing national or regional energy systems vary dramatically. In addition, there are a large number of actors with strong interests along the energy value chain that may potentially halt, delay or alter the implementation of the Paris treaty. We ana...

  7. Paris after Trump: An Inconvenient Insight

    OpenAIRE

    Böhringer, Christoph; Rutherford, Thomas F.

    2017-01-01

    With his announcement to pull the US out of the Paris Agreement US President Donald Trump has snubbed the international climate policy community. Key remaining parties to the Agreement such as Europe and China might call for carbon tariffs on US imports as a sanctioning instrument to coerce US compliance. Our analysis, however, reveals an inconvenient insight for advocates of carbon tariffs: given the possibility of retaliatory tariffs across all imported goods, carbon tariffs do not constitu...

  8. SA Journal of Radiology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SA Journal of Radiology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 19, No 2 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  9. SA Journal of Radiology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SA Journal of Radiology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 21, No 1 (2017) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  10. Health SA Gesondheid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Vol 23, No 1 (2018) ... Health SA Gesondheid - Journal of Interdisciplinary Health Sciences is an open access, peer-reviewed ... improvement of health safety and service delivery; management and measurement of health ...

  11. Energy statistics France; Statistiques energetiques France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-04-01

    This document presents statistical data on energy accounting in France compared to other european countries. Many tables and charts on energy consumption, energy invoice and prices are provided by sectors. (A.L.B.)

  12. Post Paris and November 8, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busalacchi, A. J.

    2016-12-01

    COP 21 in Paris, as historic as it was, established the necessary, but not the sufficient. The signatories to the landmark Paris accord are a coalition of the willing, but their pledges are only as good as the sustained will of individual countries to adhere to their commitments. The U.S. presidential election has demonstrated how easily uncertainty can be added. Even if all countries abide by the Paris climate agreement, capping global mean temperatures to 2oC will likely require net zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2085 and substantial negative emissions over the long term. Before the Paris agreement was finished, it was clear that the pledged emission cuts by 2030 would not be sufficient in and of themselves, to stay under 2oC. Given the accumulation of greenhouse gases to date, limiting warming to a maximum of 2oC would require bending the curve of global emissions by 2020, i.e., over the next four years. If the past is a prologue, without even taking into account an emergence from the global recession, we stand a realistic chance of blowing right past the 2oC target. What, then, are the challenges going forward? Is 2oC a real goal that is attainable, or is it a stretch goal? Meeting a 2oC target is a function of when mitigation begins in earnest, the rate of mitigation, and the rate and amount of carbon sequestration. What are the implications of this trade space? While much effort has been put into designing a climate observing system from a science perspective, relatively little thought has been put into determining what observations are needed to support policy decisions, mitigation, and verify the Intended Nationally Determined Contributions that resulted from the Paris Agreement. If 2oC is a stretch goal, intellectual honesty requires that we consider mitigation and adaptation in tandem, and not as either/or. Similarly, even with all its attendant ethical dilemmas, it is important to thoroughly study geoengineering so that policy makers have a robust

  13. The Spirit of France

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greene, Jr, Philip

    1994-01-01

    .... Demonstrating unyielding perseverance to elevate France to a position of respect in the world arena, de Gaulle aggressively pursued national interest objectives to restore French national identity...

  14. The Biosphere Under Potential Paris Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostberg, Sebastian; Boysen, Lena R.; Schaphoff, Sibyll; Lucht, Wolfgang; Gerten, Dieter

    2018-01-01

    Rapid economic and population growth over the last centuries have started to push the Earth out of its Holocene state into the Anthropocene. In this new era, ecosystems across the globe face mounting dual pressure from human land use change (LUC) and climate change (CC). With the Paris Agreement, the international community has committed to holding global warming below 2°C above preindustrial levels, yet current pledges by countries to reduce greenhouse gas emissions appear insufficient to achieve that goal. At the same time, the sustainable development goals strive to reduce inequalities between countries and provide sufficient food, feed, and clean energy to a growing world population likely to reach more than 9 billion by 2050. Here, we present a macro-scale analysis of the projected impacts of both CC and LUC on the terrestrial biosphere over the 21st century using the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) to illustrate possible trajectories following the Paris Agreement. We find that CC may cause major impacts in landscapes covering between 16% and 65% of the global ice-free land surface by the end of the century, depending on the success or failure of achieving the Paris goal. Accounting for LUC impacts in addition, this number increases to 38%-80%. Thus, CC will likely replace LUC as the major driver of ecosystem change unless global warming can be limited to well below 2°C. We also find a substantial risk that impacts of agricultural expansion may offset some of the benefits of ambitious climate protection for ecosystems.

  15. Paris INDCs: will they achieve the goal of the Paris Climate Agreement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribett, W. R.; Salawitch, R. J.; Hope, A. P.; Bennett, B.; Canty, T. P.

    2016-12-01

    We provide an overview of the Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) submitted prior to the 21st meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, which are the backbone of the Paris Climate Agreement. Two flavors of INDCs were submitted: unconditional (i.e., firm commitments) and conditional (commitments contingent on financial flow and/or technology transfer). Generally, the Paris INDCs extend to year 2030. However, achievement of either the target (1.5 °C warming) or upper limit (2.0 °C warming) of the Paris Agreement requires consideration of emissions out to 2060, due to the projected rise in energy demand, growing populations, and rising standards of living. We therefore project global carbon emissions out to year 2060, and compare to various RCP scenarios of IPCC (2013). These projections will be used to assess whether the target (1.5 °C warming) or upper limit (2.0 °) of the Paris Climate Agreement will be met.

  16. The France energy situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This analysis of the french energy situation provides information and key data on some key facts about the energy in France, the France energy supply and demand, the major principles of energy policy, the challenges of french energy policy and the DGEMP (general directorate for energy and raw materials). (A.L.B.)

  17. Atypical aetiology of a conjugal fever: autochthonous airport malaria between Paris and French Riviera: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fontenille Didier

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Endemic malaria has been eradicated from France, but some falciparum malaria cases have been described in patients who have never travelled outside the country. Ms. V. 21 year-old and Mr. M. 23 year-old living together in Paris were on holiday in Saint Raphaël (French Riviera. They presented with fever, vertigo and nausea. A blood smear made to control thrombocytopaenia revealed intra-erythrocytic forms of Plasmodium falciparum. The parasitaemia level was 0.15% for Ms. V and 3.2% for Mr. M. This couple had no history of blood transfusion or intravenous drug use. They had never travelled outside metropolitan France, but had recently travelled around France: to Saint Mard (close to Paris Charles de Gaulle (CdG airport, to Barneville plage (in Normandy and finally to Saint Raphaël. The most probable hypothesis is an infection transmitted in Saint Mard by an imported anopheline mosquito at CdG airport. The DNA analysis of parasites from Ms. V.'s and Mr. M.'s blood revealed identical genotypes. Because it is unlikely that two different anopheline mosquitoes would be infected by exactly the same clones, the two infections must have been caused by the infective bites of the same infected mosquito.

  18. France and the Rif War: Lessons from a Forgotten Counterinsurgency War (Northern Morocco - April 1925 - May 1927)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    Points Histoire , 2009. - Harris, Walter, France, Spain and the Rif. London: Edward Arnold & CO., 1927. Woolman, David, Rebels in the Rif, Abd el...Marmie, Laguerre du Rif(Paris: Points Histoire , 2009), 17. 6 On the youth and education of Abd El Krim see Cow·celle-Labrousse, Laguerre du Rif, 213

  19. A origem da Universidade de Paris (I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruy Afonso da Costa Nunes

    1967-03-01

    Foi no princípio do século XIII que a Universidade começou a organizar-se . Em 1200, por um privilégio outorgado por Filipe Augusto, a corporação dos professôres e dos estudantes de Paris passou a reger-se pela jurisdição eclesiástica, furtando-se dessa maneira ao fôro civil. Em 1215, Roberto de Courçon, legado pontifício, conce-deu ao studium parisiense seus primeiros estatutos oficiais . Se tais medidas constituíram o início da organização jurídica da Universidade, foram, por outro lado, o remate de um lento processo de formação . Mas, como decorreu êsse movimento germinativo da Universidade de Paris? Que condições o prepararam e que fatôres contri-buíram para sua gênese e desenvolvimento?

  20. France at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    From 19 to 22 June, for the 8th edition of France at CERN, 31 French companies presented their latest technology to the Laboratory. Demonstrating the latest in French technology during France at CERN. The France at CERN exhibition was inaugurated by Mr. Bernard Frois, Director of the Department Energy, Transport, Environment and Natural Resources at the Technology Directorate of the Ministry of Research. 'France is happy to be a Member of CERN, which is a successful example of the construction of scientific Europe,' he declared during the inauguration, 'this exhibition is an excellent opportunity to put fundamental research and advanced technology in contact.' Mr. Philippe Petit, French Ambassador to Switzerland, and Mr. Alexandre Defay, technical adviser of the Minister of Research, were also present to represent France and its industry. Representing CERN at the 19 June opening of the exhibition was Claude Detraz, who said, 'I hope that this exhibition will make it possible to weave stronger links between ...

  1. The impact of area residential property values on self-rated health: A cross-sectional comparative study of Seattle and Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfeng Jiao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the impact of area residential property values, an objective measure of socioeconomic status (SES, on self-rated health (SRH in Seattle, Washington and Paris, France. This study brings forth a valuable comparison of SRH between cities that have contrasting urban forms, population compositions, residential segregation, food systems and transportation modes. The SOS (Seattle Obesity Study was based on a representative sample of 1394 adult residents of Seattle and King County in the United States. The RECORD Study (Residential Environment and Coronary Heart Disease was based on 7131 adult residents of Paris and its suburbs in France. Socio-demographics, SRH and body weights were obtained from telephone surveys (SOS and in-person interviews (RECORD. All home addresses were geocoded using ArcGIS 9.3.1 (ESRI, Redlands, CA. Residential property values were obtained from tax records (Seattle and from real estate sales (Paris. Binary logistic regression models were used to test the associations among demographic and SES variables and SRH. Higher area property values significantly associated with better SRH, adjusting for age, gender, individual education, incomes, and BMI. The associations were significant for both cities. A one-unit increase in body mass index (BMI was more detrimental to SRH in Seattle than in Paris. In both cities, higher area residential property values were related to a significantly lower obesity risk and better SRH. Ranked residential property values can be useful for health and weight studies, including those involving social inequalities and cross-country comparisons.

  2. Editorial | Scott | Ergonomics SA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ergonomics SA. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 23, No 1 (2011) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...

  3. Nucleaire et Energies Nr 63 - June 2014. 18 months before the Paris Climate Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenail, Bernard; Ducroux, Guy; Lamorlette, Guy; Seyve, Claude; Simonnet, Jacques; Justin, Francois; Darricau, Aime; Blanc, Jacques; Salanave, Jean-Luc; Raisonnier, Daniele; Deleigne, Francoise

    2014-06-01

    After a first article which evokes the perspective and challenges of the Paris Climate Conference, two articles address energy issues: a discussion of the evolution of the energy sector (challenge of energy transition, evolutions of the energy mix in different countries, shale gases in the USA, Europe and France, electricity prices in France, situation and projects of French energy companies) and an overview of news in the renewable energy sector (in Morocco, Germany and the UK, the second bidding for offshore wind projects in France). Three articles deal with nuclear energy: agreements and projects in Niger, news about various fuel production sites in different countries, overview of the situation of reactors (EPR, China) and decisions on projects and investments in different countries, overview of activities and events related to the back-end of the fuel cycle (notably in different Areva sites) and to decommissioning in different countries. Four articles address societal issues related to nuclear safety and environment (relationships between French nuclear operators and Safety Authorities, the situation of populations around Fukushima, Greenpeace in Fessenheim, the issue of fuel sheath wear, use of rare earth materials in wind turbines), a positive perception of the presence of Areva (after Cogema) in Niger, a scenario for Fessenheim, and the deep disposal Cigeo project

  4. [Defusing of victims of the terrorist attacks in Paris. Elements of assessment one-month post-event].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, N; Cheucle, E; Faure, P; Digard, F; Dalphin, C; Pachiaudi, V; Simond, M; Darbon, R; Collinet, C; Habibi, R; Gueugniaud, P-Y

    2018-04-01

    The terrorist attacks (fusillades and suicide attacks) in Paris on 13 November 2015 have had a major psychic impact on all individuals directly or secondarily exposed to them. Medico-psychological unit (CUMP) of the Paris Île-de-France region's immediate care services were immediately mobilized and rapidly strengthened by all regional medico-psychological units (CUMP) throughout the country. Psychological assistance has been provided in several key points of Paris and specifically in the 11th district City Hall of Paris where Lyon's Medico-psychological unit was located. These specific immediate psychological assistances, referred to as a "defusing process" by the medico-psychological unit (CUMP), are mostly devoted to provide the victims with an entry point to a psychological healthcare relationship and give them a first sense of soothing and relief even though they do not prevent further psychological care follow up for the victims. Nonetheless, the potential therapeutic effect of this "defusing process" has not yet been sufficiently established nor demonstrated by any scientific study. A phoning survey was carried out one-month post-terrorist attacks and interviewed the 129 victims who benefited from the "defusing process" conducted by Lyon's medico-psychological unit (CUMP) in order to collect data and assess its effects. These people, whether directly exposed, bereaved relatives or witnesses, whose average age is 35, are mostly living in the Île-de-France region. Most of them present a high score on the IES-R scale, whether they were directly exposed, bereaved relatives or witnesses. Almost all of them (96.5%) experienced at least one medical care contact within this one-month post-trauma period with psychotropic medication for 37% of them. Regarding the defusing conducted by Lyon's medico-psychological unit (CUMP) in the 11th district City Hall of Paris, it appears that 93% of the victims who were looked after indicated that they were satisfied and 87.4% of

  5. Pariisi kord = Paris' move / João Francisco Figueira

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Figueira, João Francisco, 1968-

    2009-01-01

    Pariisi nõustamisprojektide rahvusvahelisest võistlusest "Le Grand Pari(s)". Sooviti saada julget ja elluviidavat projekti Pariisi arenguks aastani 2050. Osales kümme kutsutud arhitektide, planeerijate ja ekspertide töörühma. Osade tööde mõningaid aspekte tutvustav käsitlus

  6. PARIS II: Computer Aided Solvent Design for Pollution Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    This product is a summary of U.S. EPA researchers' work developing the solvent substitution software tool PARIS II (Program for Assisting the Replacement of Industrial Solvents, version 2.0). PARIS II finds less toxic solvents or solvent mixtures to replace more toxic solvents co...

  7. The chemical industry of uranium in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldschmidt, B.

    1955-01-01

    The actual CEA program is concerned with the construction of two large graphite reactors, each of those containing at least one hundred tons of uranium metal with nuclear purity. The uranium for these two reactors will be regularly supplied by new resources discovered in France and Madagascar in the last five years. The working and treatment of such ore have led to the creation of an important french industry of which the general outline and principle are described. The operated ores have got different natures and concentration, individual characteristics are described for the main ores.The most high-grade ore are transported to a central plant in Bouchet near Paris; the low-grade ore are concentrated by physical methods or chemical processes of which principles and economy are studied with constancy. The acid processes are the only used until now, although the carbonated alkaline processes has been studied in France. The next following steps after the acid process until the obtention of uranium rich concentrate are described. The purification steps of uranium compounds to nuclear purity material are described as well as the steps to elaborate metal of which the purity grade will be specify. Finally, the economic aspects of uranium production difficulty will be considered in relation with technical progresses which we can expect to achieve in the future. (M.P.)

  8. Binding Nations through Art Quilts and a Visit to the U.S. Embassy in Paris as a Cultural Envoy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riché Richardson

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In the spring of 2008 when Géraldine Chouard, who was helping to coordinate the landmark exhibition in France entitled “Un Patchwork de Cultures,” mentioned the U.S. Embassy in Paris’s interest in inviting me to the city to share some of my quilts as a part of this exhibition and to be a “Cultural Envoy,” I was honored and excited by the possibility. The opportunity to return to Paris under the auspices of the U.S. Embassy, which officially materialized through a grant from the U.S. Departmen...

  9. France's seismic zoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadioun, B.

    1997-01-01

    In order to assess the seismic hazard in France in relation to nuclear plant siting, the CEA, EDF and the BRGM (Mine and Geology Bureau) have carried out a collaboration which resulted in a seismic-tectonic map of France and a data base on seismic history (SIRENE). These studies were completed with a seismic-tectonic zoning, taking into account a very long period of time, that enabled a probabilistic evaluation of the seismic hazard in France, and that may be related to adjacent country hazard maps

  10. Report from the NEA Data Bank to the NRDC meeting in Paris, France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This paper is the status report of the NEA Data Bank. It describes the organisational structure, the numerical and bibliographic data collections, other nuclear data activities and the data from the integral data experiments. The thermochemical database (TDB) in described, as well as the computer program services and the in-house computer configuration. (a.n.)

  11. Statement to International Conference on Access to Civil Nuclear Energy, 8 March 2010, Paris, France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Yukiya

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Mr. Chairman, I am grateful to President Sarkozy for hosting this important event and I welcome his active support for sharing the benefits of peaceful nuclear technology widely throughout the world. As both President Sarkozy and President Barroso noted, nuclear power is enjoying growing acceptance as a stable and clean source of energy that can help to mitigate the impact of climate change. The IAEA has 151 Member States and the number of countries interested in introducing nuclear energy is growing steadily. Demand for our assistance is also constantly increasing. Access to nuclear power should not be the sole prerogative of developed countries. It should also be available to developing countries. The Agency is well-placed to help. We now have projects on introducing nuclear power with fifty-eight of our Member States, 17 of whom are actively preparing nuclear power programmes. We expect between 10 and 25 new countries to bring their first nuclear power plants on-line by 2030. These are momentous changes. We have come together at this conference because we have a shared goal: to assist countries embarking on nuclear power to do so knowledgeably, profitably, safely and securely. The more we cooperate and coordinate, the more successful we will be in reaching that goal. The IAEA plays a key role in helping to share the advantages of nuclear power with interested countries. In doing so, we pay special attention to ensuring high standards of nuclear safety and security and we implement safeguards to verify that all nuclear activities in Member States are exclusively peaceful. Let me share with you some key areas of our work. First, the Agency provides practical guidance to countries considering whether nuclear power might be suitable for them. Two key Agency documents spell out, simply and clearly, everything which they need to do. One is entitled Considerations to Launch a Nuclear Power Programme. It lays out all issues that decision makers need to consider to ensure that nuclear energy is developed beneficially, responsibly and sustainably. The other is called Milestones in the Development of a National Infrastructure for Nuclear Power. It systematically defines all the milestones that should guide a country's preparation of the infrastructure for nuclear power. These cover the appropriate legal and regulatory framework, engineering, financial and environmental concerns, safety and security, as well as the appropriate safeguards regime. These milestones are designed to help countries make progress, not to put obstacles in their way. Our second key role is as a reviewer. At the request of a Member State, we assemble teams of experts to conduct detailed reviews of, for example, the operational safety of its nuclear facilities, the effectiveness of its regulatory system or its overall progress in preparing for nuclear power. This system of peer review - which involves experts sharing information and experience with other experts - is of immense value. It helps to increase transparency, to the benefit of all. Third, the Agency provides a broad range of training to Member States. For example, we organize highly specialised technical training for nuclear engineers and scientists. In Montpelier, we help to run courses in nuclear law. This training helps countries to build up their own expertise so they can make informed decisions and are well prepared in dealing with vendors, consultants, industry associations and other governments. The IAEA plays an active role in contributing to technological development. A good example is the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO). Continual innovation in nuclear technology is essential. Fast reactors, for example, make it possible to extend the lifetime of uranium resources from hundreds of years to thousands of years, to lower costs and to reduce nuclear waste. Here, also, success will depend on international coordination. Let me state again that our shared goal is to assist countries embarking on nuclear power to do so knowledgeably, profitably, safely and securely. I have no doubt that this conference will lead to improved coordination and help to achieve the IAEA's statutory objective, which is 'to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world.' Thank you. (IAEA) [fr

  12. Proceedings on safety case - IGSC Topical Session held 25 November 2001, Paris-France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Sullivan, Patrik; Voinis, Sylvie; Ouzounian, Gerald; Van Luik, Abraham

    2002-01-01

    It is accepted universally that an assessment of the safety of proposed geological repositories is a key input to the decision-making process regarding the development of these facilities. Accordingly, implementing and regulatory organisations in many of the OECD/NEA countries are involved in the investigation and resolution of issues associated with repository safety and NEA has been concerned with this issue for several years. Most current repository development programmes envisage that repository development will occur in an incremental fashion, with decisions being taken by national authorities at several steps in the development process. It may be envisaged that safety assessments will become progressively more refined at successive stages of the development process, with an expectation of increasing levels of confidence that the assessed levels of safety can be realised in practice. Different countries are at different stages and therefore opinions can be expected to vary on where the key issues remain. In accordance with current terminology the Safety Case for a proposed facility should present the results of the safety assessment together with an illustration of the level of confidence in the results. The safety case should also discuss how levels of uncertainty would be reduced in succeeding development phases. The establishment of the IGSC (Integration Group for the Safety Case), to bring together all activities relating to the safety case, recognised its key role of the latter in the process of repository development. Initiatives currently being pursued by the IGSC include the development of a 'Safety Case Brochure', to synthesise current understanding about the requirements of the Safety Case. The IGSC has a role to develop common views on such key aspects of the Safety Case but should not be prescriptive. To go further in establishments of the safety case brochure, a 'Topical Session' on the Safety Case was organised as part of the 3. plenary meeting of the IGSC. This session was attended by 50 participants representing several waste management organisations and regulatory authorities from 15 OECD member countries, the IAEA and the European Commission. The Topical session was mainly aimed at exchanging information on: - National programmes where safety assessments are currently being undertaken or have recently been completed, e.g. ONDRAF/NIRAS, NAGRA and ANDRA; - Feedback from peer reviews, e.g. SR97 (Sweden) and the Yucca Mountain biosphere assessment - The evolution of ICRP recommendations including the assessment of human intrusion; - Future activities, in particular launching the initiative to develop the safety case brochure. This document presents the various presentations and exchanges that took place during the Topical Session. Part A of this document summarises the material presented and provides a short overview of the main outcomes. The papers presented are compiled without elaboration by the Secretariat as Part B of the document and Part C gives a complete list of participants. It is hoped that the document as a whole provides a synthesis of current issues in safety case development including key issues being identified in recently undertaken peer reviews

  13. Statement to International Conference on Access to Civil Nuclear Energy, 8 March 2010, Paris, France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Yukiya

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Mr. Chairman, I am grateful to President Sarkozy for hosting this important event and I welcome his active support for sharing the benefits of peaceful nuclear technology widely throughout the world. As both President Sarkozy and President Barroso noted, nuclear power is enjoying growing acceptance as a stable and clean source of energy that can help to mitigate the impact of climate change. The IAEA has 151 Member States and the number of countries interested in introducing nuclear energy is growing steadily. Demand for our assistance is also constantly increasing. Access to nuclear power should not be the sole prerogative of developed countries. It should also be available to developing countries. The Agency is well-placed to help. We now have projects on introducing nuclear power with fifty-eight of our Member States, 17 of whom are actively preparing nuclear power programmes. We expect between 10 and 25 new countries to bring their first nuclear power plants on-line by 2030. These are momentous changes. We have come together at this conference because we have a shared goal: to assist countries embarking on nuclear power to do so knowledgeably, profitably, safely and securely. The more we cooperate and coordinate, the more successful we will be in reaching that goal. The IAEA plays a key role in helping to share the advantages of nuclear power with interested countries. In doing so, we pay special attention to ensuring high standards of nuclear safety and security and we implement safeguards to verify that all nuclear activities in Member States are exclusively peaceful. Let me share with you some key areas of our work. First, the Agency provides practical guidance to countries considering whether nuclear power might be suitable for them. Two key Agency documents spell out, simply and clearly, everything which they need to do. One is entitled Considerations to Launch a Nuclear Power Programme. It lays out all issues that decision makers need to consider to ensure that nuclear energy is developed beneficially, responsibly and sustainably. The other is called Milestones in the Development of a National Infrastructure for Nuclear Power. It systematically defines all the milestones that should guide a country's preparation of the infrastructure for nuclear power. These cover the appropriate legal and regulatory framework, engineering, financial and environmental concerns, safety and security, as well as the appropriate safeguards regime. These milestones are designed to help countries make progress, not to put obstacles in their way. Our second key role is as a reviewer. At the request of a Member State, we assemble teams of experts to conduct detailed reviews of, for example, the operational safety of its nuclear facilities, the effectiveness of its regulatory system or its overall progress in preparing for nuclear power. This system of peer review - which involves experts sharing information and experience with other experts - is of immense value. It helps to increase transparency, to the benefit of all. Third, the Agency provides a broad range of training to Member States. For example, we organize highly specialised technical training for nuclear engineers and scientists. In Montpelier, we help to run courses in nuclear law. This training helps countries to build up their own expertise so they can make informed decisions and are well prepared in dealing with vendors, consultants, industry associations and other governments. The IAEA plays an active role in contributing to technological development. A good example is the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO). Continual innovation in nuclear technology is essential. Fast reactors, for example, make it possible to extend the lifetime of uranium resources from hundreds of years to thousands of years, to lower costs and to reduce nuclear waste. Here, also, success will depend on international coordination. Let me state again that our shared goal is to assist countries embarking on nuclear power to do so knowledgeably, profitably, safely and securely. I have no doubt that this conference will lead to improved coordination and help to achieve the IAEA's statutory objective, which is 'to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world.' Thank you. (IAEA)

  14. First case of chancroid in 14 years at the largest STI clinic in Paris, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouéré, Sébastien; Lassau, François; Rousseau, Clotilde; Bagot, Martine; Janier, Michel

    2016-08-01

    We report the first case of chancroid seen at our clinic in 14 years. It was diagnosed by nuclear acid amplification test in a male patient returning from Madagascar. Although the disease is considered on the verge of disappearance even in tropical countries, its real potential for reemergence - due to new strains of Haemophilus ducreyi, underreporting and a lack of widespread use of molecular testing - could be underestimated. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. International Conference on Geological Repositories 2016. Conference Synthesis, 7-9 December 2016, Paris, France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walke, Russell; Kwong, Gloria; )

    2017-01-01

    Worldwide consensus exists within the international community that geological repositories can provide the necessary long-term safety and security to isolate long-lived radioactive waste from the human environment over long timescales. Such repositories are also feasible to construct using current technologies. However, proving the technical merits and safety of repositories, while satisfying societal and political requirements, has been a challenge in many countries. Building upon the success of previous conferences held in Denver (1999), Stockholm (2003), Berne (2007) and Toronto (2012), the ICGR 2016 brought together high-level decision makers from regulatory and local government bodies, waste management organisations and public stakeholder communities to review current perspectives of geological repository development. This publication provides a synthesis of the 2016 conference on continued engagement and safe implementation of repositories, which was designed to promote information and experience sharing, particularly in the development of polices and regulatory frameworks. Repository safety, and the planning and implementation of repository programs with societal involvement, as well as ongoing work within different international organisations, were also addressed at the conference. (authors)

  16. Lessons from france: the cardiovascular prevention clinic in the la pitie-salpetriere hospital in paris.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, M.K.; Rensing, K.L.; Giral, P.; Cramer, M.J.; Bruckert, E.; Twickler, T.B.

    2007-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the principal cause of morbidity and mortality in the Netherlands. In this background, various initiatives have been launched to reduce the frequency of cardiovascular disease. One of those is the creation of clinical units with a special focus on prevention of

  17. Can the Paris Agreement stop global warming?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howalt Owe, Selina; Pedersen, Jens Olaf Pepke

    in the year 2030 of about 55 Gt Carbon to 40 Gt Carbon. This can be compared to an approximate emission of 35 Gt in 2014 and thus means that a global rise in emission of only 5 Gt Carbon is allowed over the next 15 years Using the Danish Center for Earth System Science (DCESS)model [1] we have investigated...... how large an emission reduction is necessary to keep the global temperatures below these targets.The DCESS model is a low order Earth system box model which includes atmosphere, ocean, ocean sediment, land biosphere and lithosphere components, and using the year 1765 as the preindustriallevel. We have...... examined different emission scenarios and the national commitments and find that even if the Paris Agreement is fulfilled, global temperatures will have increased by 1.5 degree C in 2030, and then only a yearly percentage reduction of 5% or more will be sufficient to keep temperatures below 2 degree C...

  18. Origin of the Societe des Americanistes, Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Browman

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available Pascal Riviale (1991 produced a two volume dissertation summarizing the work of French scholars involved in anthropology, ethnography, and archaeology in Peru from the beginning of Peruvian independence in 1821 up until World War 1. From the commentary, it is clear that not only does this volume trace individual scholars, and institu­tions involved in archaeologically-related research, but it develops a number of general intellectual themes as well. Riviale has recently (1996 extracted a portion of his dissertation relating to the events leading up to the founding of the Society of Americanists, Paris, in 1895. Because he is focusing in this case on the origin of a specific organiza­tion, he concentrates on exegesis of the institutional antecedents from 1821 onward.

  19. Ocean commitments under the Paris Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Natalya D.; Victor, David G.; Levin, Lisa A.

    2017-11-01

    Under the Paris Agreement nations made pledges known as nationally determined contributions (NDCs), which indicate how national governments are evaluating climate risks and policy opportunities. We find that NDCs reveal important systematic patterns reflecting national interests and capabilities. Because the ocean plays critical roles in climate mitigation and adaptation, we created a quantitative marine focus factor (MFF) to evaluate how governments address marine issues. In contrast to the past, when oceans received minimal attention in climate negotiations, 70% of 161 NDCs we analysed include marine issues. The percentage of the population living in low-lying areas--vulnerable to rising seas--positively influences the MFF, but negotiating group (Annex 1 or small island developing states) is equally important, suggesting political motivations are crucial to NDC development. The analysis reveals gaps between scientific and government attention, including on ocean deoxygenation, which is barely mentioned. Governments display a keen interest in expanding marine research on climate priorities.

  20. Paris Convention on third party liability in the field of nuclear energy and Brussels Convention Supplementary to the Paris Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This new bilingual (English and French) edition of the 1960 Paris Convention and 1963 Brussels Supplementary Convention incorporates the provisions of the Protocols which amended each of them on two occasions, in 1964 and 1982. The Expose des motifs to the Paris Convention, as revised in 1982 is also included in this pubication. (NEA) [fr

  1. Paris 2000 researches and men; Paris 2000 des recherches et des hommes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The IWA and ISWA congresses organized in Paris in july showed the latest research developments in the field of water and wastes management. The water sector is more mature than the waste sector but for both a closer association of the public and private is increasing. A summary of the presentations in successively the water and the wastes management is proposed bringing an analysis of the international situation and regulations. (A.L.B.)

  2. Ergonomics SA: Site Map

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home · Journals · Ergonomics SA · About · Log In · Register · Advanced Search · By Author · By Title. Issues. Current Issue · Archives · Open Journal Systems · Help. ISSN: 1010-2728. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

  3. France at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Rolf Heuer, CERN Director General, visits the exhibition "La France au CERN". The exhibition France at CERN, organized by UBIFRANCE in collaboration with CERN's GS/SEM (Site Engineering and Management) service, took place from Monday 7 to Wednesday 9 June in the Main Building. The 36 French firms taking part came to present their products and technologies related to the Organization's activities. The next exhibition will be "Netherlands at CERN" in November.

  4. Case study - France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabouhams, J.

    1986-01-01

    This lecture concerns the training of the personnel of the PWR 900 MW twin units nuclear power station which is located in the Guangdong Province of the People's Republic of China. The following points are covered: General organization of the training; preparation and recruitment of personnel trained in France; training and qualification of the personnel trained in France; complementary training in PRC for the above personnel; training of additional personnel in PRC; attended retraining. (orig.)

  5. Nuclear safety in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queniart, D.

    1989-12-01

    This paper outlines the organizational and technical aspects of nuclear safety in France. From the organization point of view, the roles of the operator, of the safety authority and of the Institute for Protection and Nuclear Safety are developed. From the technical viewpoint, the evolution of safety since the beginning of the French nuclear programme, the roles of deterministic and probabilistic methods and the severe accident policy (prevention and mitigation, venting containment) in France are explained

  6. Louis-Eugène Varlin e a Comuna de Paris (1871

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Alberto da Costa Pinto

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O artigo propõe uma breve notícia sobre a trajetória política de Louis-Eugène Varlin (1839 - 1871, operário francês (encadernador de livros radicado em Paris (1852 - 1871, intelectual autodidata, um dos principais organizadores da seção francesa da AIT (Associação Internacional dos Trabalhadores a partir de 1865. Personagem emblemático nas lutas sociais acontecidas no período de setembro de 1870 a maio de 1871, quando do cerco à cidade pelas tropas prussianas e depois pelas tropas do governo Thiers, motivos que o levaram à participação no Comitê Central da Guarda Nacional, assim como à organização dos comitês distritais da Comuna (março a maio de 1871.     

  7. An Account of the Inaugural Tessier Skull Exhibition at the University of Paris Descartes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusseldorp, Joseph Richard; Firmin, Françoise

    2015-10-01

    Paul Tessier is widely regarded as the father of modern craniofacial surgery. Upon his passing in 2008, his private collection of human skulls was purchased by the French Association of Facial Surgeons to ensure the collection would remain in France. The first public exhibition of the skulls was held in the medical museum of the University of Paris Descartes in April 2014. From this collection of skulls and the imagination of Tessier an entirely new specialty was created. Modern craniofacial surgery, now is an integral part of any pediatric plastic surgery department. Cranial and facial osteotomies have also become commonplace in both traumatic and aesthetic surgery. The goals for craniofacial deformity are now a return to completely normal appearance and function, as Tessier always believed they should be.

  8. The Paris Climate Conference: What kind of international agreement in 2015?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmet, Sylvie; Watkinson, Paul; Navizet, Damien

    2015-01-01

    At stake during the 21. Climate Conference (COP21) to be held in Paris in 2015 is the adoption of a worldwide agreement that can be applied to all countries. This agreement, which will take effect by 2020, will focus not only on reducing greenhouse gases and adapting to climate change but also on funding and concrete actions for sustainable, resilient economic development. Throughout the coming year, France, which hosts and chairs the COP21, must see to it that a transparent, inclusive process allows all parties to express their viewpoints and be heard. An agreement is not the only result expected of this conference. For the sake of fairness and in order to limit global warming to 2 deg. C, pledges and commitments, including financial ones, from countries in favor of protecting the climate are expected too. International recognition will also have to be provided to climate-related initiatives that have already been launched

  9. Relative humidity impact on aerosol parameters in a Paris suburban area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Randriamiarisoa

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of relative humidity (RH and aerosol parameters (scattering cross section, size distributions and chemical composition, performed in ambient atmospheric conditions, have been used to study the influence of relative humidity on aerosol properties. The data were acquired in a suburban area south of Paris, between 18 and 24 July 2000, in the framework of the 'Etude et Simulation de la Qualité de l'air en Ile-de-France' (ESQUIF program. According to the origin of the air masses arriving over the Paris area, the aerosol hygroscopicity is more or less pronounced. The aerosol chemical composition data were used as input of a thermodynamic model to simulate the variation of the aerosol water mass content with ambient RH and to determine the main inorganic salt compounds. The coupling of observations and modelling reveals the presence of deliquescence processes with hysteresis phenomenon in the hygroscopic growth cycle. Based on the Hänel model, parameterisations of the scattering cross section, the modal radius of the accumulation mode of the size distribution and the aerosol water mass content, as a function of increasing RH, have been assessed. For the first time, a crosscheck of these parameterisations has been performed and shows that the hygroscopic behaviour of the accumulation mode can be coherently characterized by combined optical, size distribution and chemical measurements.

  10. Evaluating BC and NOx emission inventories for the Paris region from MEGAPOLI aircraft measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petetin, H.; Beekmann, M.; Colomb, A.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Dupont, J.-C.; Honoré, C.; Michoud, V.; Morille, Y.; Perrussel, O.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Sciare, J.; Wiedensohler, A.; Zhang, Q. J.

    2015-09-01

    High uncertainties affect black carbon (BC) emissions, and, despite its important impact on air pollution and climate, very few BC emissions evaluations are found in the literature. This paper presents a novel approach, based on airborne measurements across the Paris, France, plume, developed in order to evaluate BC and NOx emissions at the scale of a whole agglomeration. The methodology consists in integrating, for each transect, across the plume observed and simulated concentrations above background. This allows for several error sources (e.g., representativeness, chemistry, plume lateral dispersion) to be minimized in the model used. The procedure is applied with the CHIMERE chemistry-transport model to three inventories - the EMEP inventory and the so-called TNO and TNO-MP inventories - over the month of July 2009. Various systematic uncertainty sources both in the model (e.g., boundary layer height, vertical mixing, deposition) and in observations (e.g., BC nature) are discussed and quantified, notably through sensitivity tests. Large uncertainty values are determined in our results, which limits the usefulness of the method to rather strongly erroneous emission inventories. A statistically significant (but moderate) overestimation is obtained for the TNO BC emissions and the EMEP and TNO-MP NOx emissions, as well as for the BC / NOx emission ratio in TNO-MP. The benefit of the airborne approach is discussed through a comparison with the BC / NOx ratio at a ground site in Paris, which additionally suggests a spatially heterogeneous error in BC emissions over the agglomeration.

  11. [Management of wheezing disorders in infants participating in the PARIS birth cohort].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herr, M; Nikasinovic, L; Foucault, C; Le Marec, A M; Giordanella, J P; Just, J; Momas, I

    2012-01-01

    While wheezing disorders are common in preschool children, their management is not well defined. The aim of this study was to assess the use of medical health care resources due to wheezing disorders in infants aged 18 months followed up in the Pollution and Asthma Risk: an Infant Study (PARIS) birth cohort. Data on wheezing disorders, medical visits and medication on account of respiratory disorders during the previous 12 months were collected with a standardized questionnaire, administered by a paediatrician, during the health check offered to every child aged 18 months included in the PARIS birth cohort. The prevalence of wheezing disorders during the past 12 months amounted to 560/1974 (28.4%). Among wheezers, 493 (89.3%) required a medical visit because of difficult breathing; 61 (11.0%) went to the emergency room, 35 (6.4%) were admitted to the hospital and 375 (67.2%) received an inhaled anti-asthmatic medication. Recourse to chest physiotherapy was reported in 472 of them (85.1%). This study confirms the high use of healthcare resources because of wheezing disorders in infants and suggests a higher use of anti-asthmatic medications in France compared to other European countries. Copyright © 2011 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. The PermaFRANCE network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeneich, Philippe

    2010-05-01

    altitudes (infra-periglacial belt) : - the effect of frost/thaw cycles on rock weathering is monitored on 3 sites on various lithologies ; - a network of seasonal frost monitoring sites (frost occurrence and frost depth) at different altitudes is not yet implemented, but is in discussion. The scope is to gain a complete view of frost related phenomena, of their distribution over altitude, and of their evolution at different altitudinal levels. It is actually expected that some phenomena will migrate to higher altitudes and evolve accordingly in intensity and frequency. The PermaFRANCE network is mainly supported by three research laboratories : PACTE/Institut de Géographie Alpine at the Université de Grenoble, EDYTEM at the Université de Savoie, and PRODIG at the Université Paris 7. Several other partners (labs, private companies, individuals, institutions) will be associated. Financial support is provided by several research projects : the Interreg PermaDATARock project for the permafrsot in rockfaces, a Fondation MAIF project for the monitoring of rockglaciers, and now mainly the ETC Alpine Space PermaNET project until 2011. For further financing, the scope si to be recognized as a long term observation service (SOERE), a status that would ensure financing for several years. The longest time series amount to 25 years for displacement of one rockglacier, 6 years for GST monitoring on one site, 5 years for RST, but most time series have only 2 years or less. The first monitoring report should be printed in the mean time and presented at the conference.

  13. Protocol to amend the convention of 31st January 1963 supplementary to the Paris convention of 29th July 1960 on third party liability in the field of nuclear energy, as amended by the additional protocol of 28th January 1964, Paris, 16 November 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This Protocol further amends the Convention of 31 January 1963 supplementary to the Paris Convention of 29 July 1960 on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy, concluded between the Federal Republic of Germany, Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Spain, Finland, France, Italy, Luxembourg, Norway, Netherlands, United Kingdom, Sweden and Switzerland, within the framework of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. (U.K.)

  14. Localising the nitrogen imprint of the Paris food supply: the potential of organic farming and changes in human diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billen, G.; Garnier, J.; Thieu, V.; Silvestre, M.; Barles, S.; Chatzimpiros, P.

    2012-01-01

    The Seine watershed has long been the food-supplying hinterland of Paris, providing most of the animal and vegetal protein consumed in the city. Nowadays, the shift from manure-based to synthetic nitrogen fertilisation, has made possible a strong land specialisation of agriculture in the Seine watershed: it still provides most of the cereal consumed by the Paris agglomeration, but exports 80% of its huge cereal production. On the other hand the meat and milk supply originates mainly from regions in the North and West of France, specialised in animal farming and importing about 30% of their feed from South America. As it works today, this system is responsible for a severe nitrate contamination of surface and groundwater resources. Herein two scenarios of re-localising Paris's food supply are explored, based on organic farming and local provision of animal feed. We show that for the Seine watershed it is technically possible to design an agricultural system able to provide all the plant- and animal-based food required by the population, to deliver sub-root water meeting the drinking water standards and still to export a significant proportion of its production to areas less suitable for cereal cultivation. Decreasing the share of animal products in the human diet has a strong impact on the nitrogen imprint of urban food supply.

  15. Energy statistics. France; Statistiques energetiques. France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-10-01

    This document summarizes in a series of tables the energy statistical data for France: consumption since 1973; energy supplies (production, imports, exports, stocks) and uses (refining, power production, internal uses, sectoral consumption) for coal, petroleum, gas, electricity, and renewable energy sources; national production and consumption of primary energy; final consumption per sector and per energy source; general indicators (energy bill, US$ change rate, prices, energy independence, internal gross product); projections. Details (resources, uses, prices, imports, internal consumption) are given separately for petroleum, natural gas, electric power and solid mineral fuels. (J.S.)

  16. Recome S.A.

    OpenAIRE

    Espol; Moreno Ramírez, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    El presente trabajo de titulación tiene como objetivo mostrar la factibilidad de una empresa de servicio de reciclaje de computadores, aparatos electrónicos y scrap en la ciudad de Guayaquil denominado "RECOME" S.A. Se estima que en el 2011 se vendieron 415 millones de computadores y más de 487.7 millones de teléfonos inteligentes en todo el mundo (Mundo Contact, 2012), lo que corresponde a un volumen estimado de 7.848.000 toneladas. Como consecuencia, los Residuos de Aparatos Eléctricos ...

  17. Herbert Marcuse vai a Paris, Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Pessoa

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Este ensaio fornece uma interpretação do filme Paris, Texas, de Wim Wenders, à luz da dialética da civilização como apresentada por Herbert Marcuse em Eros e civilização: uma interpretação filosófica do pensamento de Freud. Para que a “aplicação” do pensamento de Marcuse ao filme de Wenders não soterre a obra de arte com filosofemas previamente existentes e de uso disseminado, o contato entre a imagem do cineasta e a palavra do filósofo acontece em uma via de mão dupla. Assim, se a princípio a caracterização marcuseana da dialética entre a pulsão erótica e as demandas da civilização serve para articular algumas das imagens do filme de Wenders, tentamos mostrar, no final de nosso percurso, como o filme de Wenders permite a formulação de algumas questões que tornam visível o quanto o próprio Marcuse negligenciou uma das principais contribuições de Freud para a reflexão estética: a relação essencial entre a pulsão de morte e a negatividade da arte.

  18. Paris, Texas. Saksamaal ja sinu peas / Kairi Prints

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Prints, Kairi

    2010-01-01

    6.- 12. oktoobrini Tallinnas ja Tartus toimuval filmifestivalil "Uus Saksa Kino" saab vaadata Wim Wendersi muusikadokumentaale. "Film ja filosoofia" rubriigis koha- ja rahvusespetsiifika eksistentsist tänapäeva filmikunstis ja W. Wendersi filmist "Paris, Texas" (USA 1984)

  19. Turning Paris into reality at the University of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, David G.; Abdulla, Ahmed; Auston, David; Brase, Wendell; Brouwer, Jack; Brown, Karl; Davis, Steven J.; Kappel, Carrie V.; Meier, Alan; Modera, Mark; Zarin Pass, Rebecca; Phillips, David; Sager, Jordan; Weil, David; TomKat Natural Gas Exit Strategies Working Group

    2018-03-01

    The Paris Agreement highlights the need for local climate leadership. The University Of California's approach to deep decarbonization offers lessons in efficiency, alternative fuels and electrification. Bending the emissions curve globally requires efforts that blend academic insights with practical solutions.

  20. La puissance prescriptive des guides à Paris The prescriptive power of tour guides in Paris. Standardizing elements of tourism ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwendal Simon

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Les « guide-interprètes » constituent des médiateurs entre les touristes et les espaces. Incarnant une présence physique en mesure d’aider les touristes en les informant sur la ville, ils opèrent comme prescripteurs de choses à voir et à faire. S’ils officient très diversement selon les touristes qu’ils accompagnent, ils exercent toujours leur pratique dans une logique de production de discours sur la ville. À Paris, la dimension muséale et patrimoniale constitue depuis longtemps le socle de l’attractivité touristique, qui continue de capitaliser sur des imaginaires et des pratiques liés à la grande ville d’Art et d’Histoire. Face à la constitution de ce référentiel dominant qui opère comme une force d’ « imposition », les guide-interprètes tentent néanmoins de décentrer le regard par des prescriptions délestées des symboles. C’est cette « tension » entre cet ensemble de références touristiques « à voir » et le souci de montrer la ville dans sa pluralité que nous analysons. Ces éléments nourrissent la réflexion actuelle sur les formes polarisées du tourisme à Paris et l’importance de la production de référents urbains plus contemporains que promeut la municipalité.Tour guides are mediators between tourists and spaces. As they embody a physical presence helping tourists and informing them about the city, they also act as prescribers, laying down what is supposed to be seen and to be done. If their recommendations depend on the tourists they travel with, they always mean to produce a discourse on the city. Paris’ museums and heritage have long since been two cornerstones of her enduring appeal. Confronted with this phenomenon, which tends to standardize the way of visiting a city, tour guides try to free their guidelines of symbolic references. This contribution focuses on the tension between must-see tourist references and the desire to show the city in all its diversity. These

  1. Upgrading France's emergency plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moures, Y.

    1991-01-01

    In France as elsewhere, the Chernobyl accident spurred a new stage in the development of nuclear safety. In the months following the accident, France's Minister of Industry launched a campaign to strengthen research and safety measures to: prevent reactor accidents; reinforce the concept of quality in operations; train staff, in areas such as crisis management; systematically review plans, installations and techniques related to crisis management; study accident containment procedures. There was also a systematic review of communication links with authorities and outside emergency organizations during the critical phase of an accident. On the operational level regulatory monitoring procedures were reorganized and reinforced. France has not opted for the permanent presence of on-site inspectors, but rather for the total, continuous responsibility of the power plant operator, with the safety authority intervening at frequent intervals. A major programme was also established to increase capabilities for investigation and intervention in a radioactive environment in nuclear installations. (author)

  2. Energy in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, N.J.D.

    1979-01-01

    The subject is dealt with in chapters, entitled: purpose and context (includes information about France's energy supplies, use and responsible organizations); evolution of relationships among institutions; review of prevailing preoccupations of sectors (separate headings for oil, gas, electricity, coal, nuclear, and unconventional energy sources: under the nuclear heading information is given about the organization of the nuclear industry in France, mining, enrichment, reprocessing, reactor construction); nature and operation of government control; energy in the plans; formulation of policy; opposition to the nuclear policy. (U.K.)

  3. Retrospective observational study of emergency department syndromic surveillance data during air pollution episodes across London and Paris in 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Helen E; Morbey, Roger; Fouillet, Anne; Caserio-Schönemann, Céline; Dobney, Alec; Hughes, Thomas C; Smith, Gillian E; Elliot, Alex J

    2018-04-19

    Poor air quality (AQ) is a global public health issue and AQ events can span across countries. Using emergency department (ED) syndromic surveillance from England and France, we describe changes in human health indicators during periods of particularly poor AQ in London and Paris during 2014. Using daily AQ data for 2014, we identified three periods of poor AQ affecting both London and Paris. Anonymised near real-time ED attendance syndromic surveillance data from EDs across England and France were used to monitor the health impact of poor AQ.Using the routine English syndromic surveillance detection methods, increases in selected ED syndromic indicators (asthma, difficulty breathing and myocardial ischaemia), in total and by age, were identified and compared with periods of poor AQ in each city. Retrospective Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney tests were used to identify significant increases in ED attendance data on days with (and up to 3 days following) poor AQ. Almost 1.5 million ED attendances were recorded during the study period (27 February 2014 to 1 October 2014). Significant increases in ED attendances for asthma were identified around periods of poor AQ in both cities, especially in children (aged 0-14 years). Some variation was seen in Paris with a rapid increase during the first AQ period in asthma attendances among children (aged 0-14 years), whereas during the second period the increase was greater in adults. This work demonstrates the public health value of syndromic surveillance during air pollution incidents. There is potential for further cross-border harmonisation to provide Europe-wide early alerting to health impacts and improve future public health messaging to healthcare services to provide warning of increases in demand. © Crown copyright 2018. Reproduced with the permission of the Controller of Her Majesty’s Stationery Office/Queen’s Printer for Scotland and Public Health England.

  4. 75 FR 4482 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Model SE3160, SA315B, SA316B, SA316C, and SA319B...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-28

    ..., Part A, paragraph 2.a. through 2.e., of the SB. (1) If there is no void or paint crack in the root... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 [Docket No. FAA-2010... Parts Manufacturer Approval under Supplemental Type Certificate (STC) SH778GL. The AD requires...

  5. [Stays in Paris of professors and students from the Faculty of Pharmacy of Santiago de Compostela (Spain), 1900-1936].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatriz Arias, Brasa; Landín Pérez, Mariana

    2011-10-01

    In the early twentieth century, if there were an European Capital of biomedical research, it was definitely Paris. It was in this city where microbiology was born in the 19th century due to the crucial influence of Louis Pasteur. In 1888 he founded the Pasteur Institute in Paris where the rabies vaccine, that Pasteur himself had discovered in 1885, was administrated. This institution was also a place to continue his research on infectious diseases and to disseminate its findings. It is a private non-profit state-approved foundation that has attracted along the years many scientists from France and abroad who have been traditionally called "pasteuriens". So it was a world reference centre which has produced important scientific discoveries at a rapid pace and where resources both material and human, were abundant. The Pasteur institute therefore became one of the favourite research facilities of teachers and students from Spanish universities during the first third of the twentieth century, thanks to new regulations that encouraged training abroad. Scholarship policy promoted by the Spanish Government by an organization called Junta para la Ampliación de Estudios e Investigaciones Científicas (Council for Higher Studies and Scientific Research from, 1907 to 1936) formed scientists abroad. The Faculty of Pharmacy of Santiago de Compostela sent some of its members to the French capital between 1905 and 1933. We found that the vast majority chose the Pasteur Institute to conduct the studies of biological chemistry and drug synthesis, but always dependent of the Faculty of Pharmacy of Paris. Our study focuses on teachers and students who went to Paris, the dates, the course of their scientific stay and how these studies influenced their later work, once they returned to the Faculty of Pharmacy of Santiago de Compostela.

  6. Small-area spatiotemporal analysis of heatwave impacts on elderly mortality in Paris: A cluster analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmarhnia, Tarik; Kihal-Talantikite, Wahida; Ragettli, Martina S; Deguen, Séverine

    2017-08-15

    Heat-waves have a substantial public health burden. Understanding spatial heterogeneity at a fine spatial scale in relation to heat and related mortality is central to target interventions towards vulnerable communities. To determine the spatial variability of heat-wave-related mortality risk among elderly in Paris, France at the census block level. We also aimed to assess area-level social and environmental determinants of high mortality risk within Paris. We used daily mortality data from 2004 to 2009 among people aged >65 at the French census block level within Paris. We used two heat wave days' definitions that were compared to non-heat wave days. A Bernoulli cluster analysis method was applied to identify high risk clusters of mortality during heat waves. We performed random effects meta-regression analyses to investigate factors associated with the magnitude of the mortality risk. The spatial approach revealed a spatial aggregation of death cases during heat wave days. We found that small scale chronic PM 10 exposure was associated with a 0.02 (95% CI: 0.001; 0.045) increase of the risk of dying during a heat wave episode. We also found a positive association with the percentage of foreigners and the percentage of labor force, while the proportion of elderly people living in the neighborhood was negatively associated. We also found that green space density had a protective effect and inversely that the density of constructed feature increased the risk of dying during a heat wave episode. We showed that a spatial variation in terms of heat-related vulnerability exists within Paris and that it can be explained by some contextual factors. This study can be useful for designing interventions targeting more vulnerable areas and reduce the burden of heat waves. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Dietary inadequacies observed in homeless men visiting an emergency night shelter in Paris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmon, N; Coupel, J; Deheeger, M; Briend, A

    2001-04-01

    To assess the dietary intake and the nutritional status of homeless men. A night emergency shelter in Paris, France. Dietary survey (48-h) including alcohol intake and a questionnaire on age, duration of homelessness, smoking habits. Subjects were also weighed and measured. Ninety-seven men aged 18-72 years (mean 43.3), of whom 54% were homeless for more than 18 months, 82% were smokers and 53% were regular and/or excessive drinkers. The BMI distribution was shifted towards low values, the percentage of wasted persons being four times higher than in the reference population. The mean total energy intake was 2376 kcal and included a high and highly variable percentage of energy derived from alcohol (12.0% Among drinkers, the mean ethanol intake was 90 g and there was a significant negative correlation between ethanol and non-alcoholic energy intakes. The median intakes of potassium, calcium, zinc, vitamins B1, B2, and niacin were lower than European Population Reference Intakes but only the mean intake of vitamin B1 was significantly lower. Eighty percent of non-alcoholic energy was provided by charitable organisations. For most nutrients, the nutritional density of the shelter ration was not significantly different from the density of the foods purchased by the homeless. These data suggest that the content of some nutrients should be increased in existing food assistance programs for homeless people in France.

  8. Christophe Couderc, dir., Le théâtre Espagnol du Siècle d'Or en France. De la traduction au transfert culturel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Andrès

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of Christophe Couderc, Le théâtre Espagnol du Siècle d'Or en France. De la traduction au transfert culturel, Presses Universitaires de Paris Ouest, París, 2012, 299 pp. ISBN: 978-2-84016-102-8.

  9. Urban compaction vs city sprawl: impact of road traffic on air quality in the greater Paris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etuman Arthur, Elessa; Isabelle, Coll; Vincent, Viguie; Nicolas, Coulombel; Julie, Prud'homme

    2017-04-01

    Urban pollution remains a major sanitary and economic concern. In France, particulate pollution is known to cause 48,000 premature deaths every year (Santé Publique France, 2016), while the economic cost of air pollution reaches almost 25 billion euros per year (CGDD, 2012). In the Greater Paris, despite strengthened emission standards, restricted traffic areas, car-sharing and incentives for electric vehicle use, road transport plays a substantial role in the exposure of inhabitants to high levels of pollutants. In this context, urban planning could possibly constitute an innovative strategy to reduce emissions from road traffic, through its actions on transport demand, travel distances, modal shift (public transportation, cycling, walking...) or even proximity to emitters. We have developed a multi-scalar modeling of urban pollution by coupling an urban economic growth model NEDUM (CIRED), a model for urban mobility (LISA), a traffic emission model (LISA) and the CHIMERE Chemistry-Transport model (CTM) for air quality simulation (LISA). The innovative aspect of this modeling system is to integrate into a classic CTM the mechanisms underlying the dynamics of an urban system. This way, we establish a quantitative and comprehensive link between a given urban scenario, the associated public and individual transport matrix, and local air quality. We then make it possible to highlight the levers of energy consumption reductions inside compact or sprawled cities. We have been working on the Ile de France region (centered on the Paris agglomeration) which relies on a broad urban structure of megacity, a high density of housing and an expanding urban peripheral zone, clearly raising the issue of transport demand, mobility and traffic congestion. Two scenarios, considering opposite urban development policies from the 1960s to 2010, have been simulated over the whole modelling chain. The first one promotes a dense and compact city while the second favors city spread

  10. From Paris to the End of Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dag Harald Claes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the possibilities and obstacles for a cost-effective implementation of policies that will lead to a significant reduction in global CO2 emissions from the use of oil. The structural conditions and economic consequences of changing national or regional energy systems vary dramatically. In addition, there are a large number of actors with strong interests along the energy value chain that may potentially halt, delay or alter the implementation of the Paris treaty. We analyze these issues by first locating oil in the overall energy system, then identifying possibilities and obstacles at various stages of the oil value chain, and finally by contextualizing global oil by discussing whether and how it may be affected by geopolitics and regional conflict. In brief, our argument is that developments in consumption volumes and patterns will be most important. Market forces are vital, but they are influenced by politics and public policy outcomes. Transportation is the most important sector for oil consumption, with changes in transport behavior, modes and technology being vital drivers. The behavior of investors will be a decisive factor in shaping the production side of the oil system. If investments go down as a response to lasting low oil prices and/or because investors decide to turn to green economy options, the supply of oil will logically shrink. On the other hand, the growth and development aspirations of a rapidly growing population in developing countries are likely to stimulate demand and thus increase exploration, production and subsequently the price. Finally, we emphasize the importance of (geopolitics influencing all aspects of the value chain of oil.

  11. Electricite de France`s ALARA policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stricker, L. [EDF - DEPT, Paris la Defense (France); Rollin, P. [EDF Radioprotection Committee, Paris (France)

    1995-03-01

    In 1992, Electricite de France - EDF decided to improve the degree to which radiological protection is incorporated in overall management of the utility and set itself the objective of ensuring the same level of protection for workers from contractors as for those from EDF. This decision was taken in a context marked by a deterioration in exposure figures for French plants and by the new recommendations issued by the ICRP. This document describes the policy adopted by EDF at both corporate and plant level to meet these objectives, by: (1) setting up management systems which were responsive but not cumbersome; (2) a broad policy of motivation; (3) the development and use of suitable tools. The document then describes some quite positive results of EDF`s ALARA policy, giving concrete examples and analyzing the changes in global indicators.

  12. France - energy situation 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The energy situation of France is reviewed on the basis of relevant data. Data on the country's national and international energy policy are followed by an outline of trends in energy sources and electric power generation. Key figures are presented on the country's external trade and balance of payments. (UA) [de

  13. VISAS FOR FRANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2002-01-01

    1. Definition of a visa A visa is an administrative document required by the nationals of certain countries to cross a border. The visas referred to in this article ('consular visas') are issued to people who do not live in France (not to be confused with 'exit and/or re-entry visas' issued to people living in France; cf. communiqué of 26 May 1998, ref. CERN/DSU-DO/RH/8283). 2. Types of visa The numerous types of visa include, in particular: short-stay visas, which allow their holders to enter France for a continuous or non-continuous period not exceeding three months in any six; long-stay visas, which are required by those applying for a residence document (Carte spéciale issued by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs or Carte de séjour issued by a Préfecture). 3. Visa requirement 3.1 General rule In France, the requirement to obtain a visa varies, in particular, according to nationality and the length of stay. To put it simply, three different situations can...

  14. The action of France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    After a favorable period for the weapons mastership, the disarmament and the non-proliferation, the conditions of international safety and the strategical context revealed recently worrying developments. The France is decided to continue its action in favor of the disarmament and the non-proliferation in the continuity of its political engagements. (A.L.B.)

  15. Energy in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This document provides a selection of energy statistics in France on, the energy in the economy, all energies, oil, gas, coal, electricity, renewable energies, district heating systems, rational use of energy, prices, energy and the environment and some useful addresses. (A.L.B.)

  16. France energy situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The monthly (May 1991) energy situation analysis in France is presented: the energy consumption rise is lowered and especially, oil imports have fallen from -3.1 pc; natural gas imports and domestic electric power production have risen. The energy import dependence rate have very slightly risen, around 50 pc. Diagrams for 1989, 1990, 1991 are presented [fr

  17. Figures and Institutions of the neurological sciences in Paris from 1800 to 1950. Part IV: Psychiatry and psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, J; Clarac, F; Barbara, J-G; Broussolle, E

    2012-05-01

    We present a short historical review on the major institutions and figures who contributed to make Paris a renowned centre of physiology and neurology during the XIXth and the first half of the XXth century. We purposely chose to focus on the period 1800-1950, as 1800 corresponds to the actual beginning of neurosciences, and as 1950 marks their exponential rise. Our presentation is divided into four chapters, matching the main disciplines that have progressed and contributed most to the knowledge we have of the brain sciences: anatomy, physiology, neurology, and psychiatry-psychology. The present article is the fourth of the four parts of this review, which deals with the chapter on psychiatry and psychology. When the French Revolution occurred, only a few institutions were taking care of the mentally ill. In the Paris area, these included Maison Royale de Charenton, Les Petites Maisons, and one of the departments of larger hospitals such as Hôtel-Dieu, the Salpêtrière Hospital and Bicêtre Hospital. One of the founders of psychiatry in Paris at that time and thereafter was Philippe Pinel (1745-1826) who was the first to distinguish insane/alienated patients from misfits, beggars, and other vagabonds. During the first half of the XIXth century, his student Jean-Étienne Esquirol (1772-1840) also played a major role with his treatise on mental diseases and the 1838 law and the creation of asylums in all parts of France. Alienists were in general caregivers and learned by themselves. In contrast, at the academic level, the emerging disciplines psychiatry and neurology were very close to each other in the second half of the XIXth century, the best example being Jules Baillarger (1809-1890). The actual development of psychiatry and psychology and the foundation of psychoanalysis later in the XIXth century and in the first half of the XXth century owed much to several European doctors and scientists, particularly those from British institutions and from German

  18. Health-resource use and costs associated with fibromyalgia in France, Germany, and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandran A

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Tyler Knight,1 Caroline Schaefer,1 Arthi Chandran,2 Gergana Zlateva,2 Andreas Winkelmann,3 Serge Perrot4 1Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Covance Market Access Services, Gaithersburg, MD, USA; 2Primary Care Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Pfizer Global Health Economics, New York, NY, USA; 3Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University Hospital Munich, Munich, Germany; 4Service de Médecine Interne et Thérapeutique, Université Paris Descartes, Paris, France Background: Fibromyalgia (FM is a chronic disorder characterized by widespread, persistent pain. Prospective and retrospective studies have demonstrated substantial health-care costs associated with FM in a number of countries. This study evaluated and compared health-resource use (HRU and associated costs related to FM in routine clinical practice across the US, France, and Germany. Methods: Two separate, cross-sectional, observational studies of subjects with FM were conducted: one in the US and one in France and Germany. HRU related to prescription medication, physician office visits, diagnostic tests, and hospitalizations was abstracted from chart review; patient out-of-pocket costs and lost productivity were collected via subject self-report. Costs were assigned to HRU based on standard algorithms. Direct and indirect costs were evaluated and compared by simple linear regression. Results: A total of 442 subjects (203 US, 70 France, 169 Germany with FM were analyzed. The mean (standard deviation age in the US, France, and Germany was 47.9 (10.9, 51.2 (9.5, and 49.2 (9.8, respectively (P = 0.085. Most subjects were female (95% US, 83% France, 80% Germany (P < 0.001. Adjusted annual direct costs per subject for FM were significantly higher in the US ($7087 than in France ($481, P < 0.001 or Germany ($2417, P < 0.001. Adjusted mean annual indirect costs per subject for FM were lower in the US ($6431 than in France ($8718 or Germany ($10,001, but represented

  19. Chemical characteristics of saponins from Paris fargesii var. brevipetala and cytotoxic activity of its main ingredient, paris saponin H.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Feiyan; Yin, Hongxiang; Chen, Chu; Liu, Xianbo; Xue, Dan; Chen, Tiezhu; He, Jun; Zhang, Hao

    2012-06-01

    More attention was paid to the anti-tumor activity of Rhizoma Paridis (RP) recently, of which the wild resource was decreased significantly. This study was aimed to elucidate the chemical characteristics of Paris fargesii var. brevipetala (PFB) that may be administrated as alternate resource of legal RP. A HPLC-ELSD method was established to characterize the steroid saponins in rhizomes of PFB and two legal Paris species [Paris polyphylla var. chinensis (PPC) and P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis (PPY)] in Chinese Pharmacopoeia (CP). Ten saponins (paris saponins I, II, V, VI, VII, H, gracillin and other three paris saponins) were involved as standards. The results indicated that PFB contained pennogenyl saponins as the main components with small amounts of diosgenin saponins. The total contents of the detected saponins in PFB ranged from 9.12mg/g to 85.33mg/g. Nine of the twelve PFB samples own a total content of paris saponins I, II, VI, and VII more than 6.0mg/g (meeting the standard of CP 2010 edition). Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Partial Least Squares-Discriminate Analysis (PLS-DA) both confirmed the fact that saponin profiles of PFB, PPC and PPY were different from each other. In addition, paris saponin H (Ps H), the predominant saponin of PFB (>50%), was tested in vitro to evaluate its cytotoxic activities on HepG2, A549, RPE and L929 cells with a positive control of Cisplatin. Ps H showed a remarkable cytotoxic activity on A549 cells with an IC(50) value of 1.53±0.08μg/mL. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Gaz de France: first half 2007 results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Paris, 29 August 2007, Gaz de France Group presents its first half 2007 results (billion euros): Sales revenue 13.78 (-11% with respect to 2006), EBITDA 3.11 (-4.9%), Operating income 2.33 ( -8.7%), Net income Group share 1.51 (-11%), Net income Group share per share 1.53 euro (-11%). The half-year results are attributable primarily to three factors: - A very difficult environment with exceptionally mild climate conditions in the first half, impacting nearly all of the businesses, and unfavourable market conditions, reflected in particular in the low gas prices on the markets; - A tariff context which did not negatively impact the sales margins following a very difficult year 2006; - Good performance in international activities. Despite the environment, the Group is maintaining its financial target for 2007, as announced in March this year: 2007 will be a year of consolidation. EBITDA is expected to be in line with that of 2006. This target assumes average climate conditions during the second half 2007.

  1. Gaz de France: first half 2007 results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Paris, 29 August 2007, Gaz de France Group presents its first half 2007 results (billion euros): Sales revenue 13.78 (-11% with respect to 2006), EBITDA 3.11 (-4.9%), Operating income 2.33 ( -8.7%), Net income Group share 1.51 (-11%), Net income Group share per share 1.53 euro (-11%). The half-year results are attributable primarily to three factors: - A very difficult environment with exceptionally mild climate conditions in the first half, impacting nearly all of the businesses, and unfavourable market conditions, reflected in particular in the low gas prices on the markets; - A tariff context which did not negatively impact the sales margins following a very difficult year 2006; - Good performance in international activities. Despite the environment, the Group is maintaining its financial target for 2007, as announced in March this year: 2007 will be a year of consolidation. EBITDA is expected to be in line with that of 2006. This target assumes average climate conditions during the second half 2007

  2. Decision No. 2008-DC-0114 of 26 September 2008 by the French Nuclear Safety Authority Setting Forth Specific Requirements to Be Met by Electricite de France - Societe anonyme (EDF-SA) at the Flamanville Nuclear site Regarding the Design and Construction of the Flamanville-3 (INB No. 167) NPP and the Operation of Flamanville-1 (INB No. 108) and Flamanville-2 (INB No. 109) NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This decision sets forth the requirements to be met by Electricite de France (EDF-SA), the operator, regarding the design and construction of Basic Nuclear Installation ('installation nucleaire de base' - INB) No. 167 and the operation of INBs Nos. 108 and 109 on the Flamanville Site, Manche Department. The specific requirements applicable to INB No. 167 (Flamanville-3) are described in Annex 1. Common requirements applicable to INBs Nos. 167 (Flamanville 3), 108 (Flamanville 1) and 109 (Flamanville 2) are described in Annex 2. Content of the annex 1 (Requirements applicable to INB No. 167 - Flamanville-3): Organisation and management: Organisation and management, Operations to be declared to or approved by ASN; Accident-risk management: Process control (Nuclear safety demonstration, Compliance of operations, Analysis of internal and external hazards leading to hostile conditions or damages to structures, systems and components, Analysis of hazards caused by the environment of the installation that may induced hostile conditions or damages to structures, systems and components, Probabilistic studies, Specific studies, Environmental qualification of systems, equipment, material and components, Controls or tests performed to comply with the hypotheses used in safety demonstration); Prevention of accident conditions that may lead to large early releases (Core-meltdown situations occurring while the primary circuit is at high pressure, Fuel-meltdown situations in the spent-fuel cooling pool, Reactivity accidents resulting from the rapid introduction in the primary circuit of cold water or of water with an insufficient concentration of soluble neutron absorber, Core-meltdown situations with containment bypass, Global hydrogen detonations and steam explosions likely to compromise the integrity of the reactor containment), Basic nuclear safety functions of the installation (Common provisions, Reactivity control, Cooling of nuclear fuel, Containment of radioactive

  3. Wind power in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuille, F.; Courtel, J.

    2015-01-01

    After 3 years of steady decreasing, wind power has resumed growth in 2014 in France and the preliminary figures of 2015 confirm this trend. About 1100 MW were installed in 2014 which was almost twice as much as it was installed the year before. This renaissance is mostly due to the implementation of Brottes' law that eases the installations of wind farms by suppressing the wind power development areas (that were interfering with regional wind power schemes) and by suppressing the minimum number of 5 turbines for any new wind farms. Another important incentive measure was the announcement in January 2015 of a new financial support scheme in replacement of the policy of guaranteed purchase price for the electricity produced. In 2014 the total wind power produced in mainland France reached 17 TW which represented 3.1% of the production of electricity. (A.C.)

  4. Tidal energy in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemperiere, F.

    2010-01-01

    The author first discusses the potential theoretical production of tidal energy in the world and more particularly in France, and compares this potential production with that of hydroelectric energy. He discusses the existence of potentially interesting sites in France in terms of sizing and exploitation modes. He describes the main associated works for turbines and sea walls, impacts on the environment, on the economy and on employment. He discusses the production possibilities and their cost, and the issue of energy storage. He indicates sites which could be built before 2025: Saint-Brieuc, Portbail-Coutainville or Granville, Mers or Cayeux, Penly or Saint-Valery en Caux. For each of this site, the author describes the project implantation, gives an gross assessment of the construction cost, and therefore of the kWh cost

  5. [Primary care in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Sagrado, T

    2016-01-01

    The poor planning of health care professionals in Spain has led to an exodus of doctors leaving the country. France is one of the chosen countries for Spanish doctors to develop their professional career. The French health care system belongs to the Bismarck model. In this model, health care system is financed jointly by workers and employers through payroll deduction. The right to health care is linked to the job, and provision of services is done by sickness-funds controlled by the Government. Primary care in France is quite different from Spanish primary care. General practitioners are independent workers who have the right to set up a practice anywhere in France. This lack of regulation has generated a great problem of "medical desertification" with problems of health care access and inequalities in health. French doctors do not want to work in rural areas or outside cities because "they are not value for money". Medical salary is linked to professional activity. The role of doctors is to give punctual care. Team work team does not exist, and coordination between primary and secondary care is lacking. Access to diagnostic tests, hospitals and specialists is unlimited. Duplicity of services, adverse events and inefficiencies are the norm. Patients can freely choose their doctor, and they have a co-payment for visits and hospital care settings. Two years training is required to become a general practitioner. After that, continuing medical education is compulsory, but it is not regulated. Although the French medical Health System was named by the WHO in 2000 as the best health care system in the world, is it not that good. While primary care in Spain has room for improvement, there is a long way for France to be like Spain. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. La titrisation en France.

    OpenAIRE

    BIROUK, O.; CASSAN, L.

    2012-01-01

    La crise financière a justifié une surveillance accrue de la titrisation dans le refinancement de l’économie. Les créances titrisées en France sont en grande majorité représentatives de crédits octroyés par les banques aux ménages et aux sociétés non financières résidents.

  7. France in Black Africa,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Difficulties with this romantic concept developed, however, when General Faidherbe began to expand French control into the Senegalese hinterland. He was...and his German 45 France in Black Africa friends to gain greater control of the AOF.6 The tragi- comedy ended with the 1942 Allied landings in North...service]). Trinquier’s own stay in Africa was short-lived. Belgian resistance to a French invasion of their turf was fierce. Trinquier’s romantic

  8. Pharmacy education in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdon, Olivier; Ekeland, Catherine; Brion, Françoise

    2008-12-15

    In France, to practice as a pharmacist, one needs a "diplome d'état de Docteur en Pharmacie" This degree is awarded after 6 or 9 years of pharmacy studies, depending on the option chosen by the student. The degree is offered only at universities and is recognized in France as well as throughout the European Union. Each university in France is divided into faculties called Unité de Formation et de Recherche (UFR). There are 24 faculties of pharmacy or UFRs de pharmacie. A national committee develops a pharmacy education program at the national level and each faculty adapts this program according to its specific features and means (eg, faculty, buildings). The number of students accepted in the second year is determined each year by a Government decree (numerus clausus). Successive placements, totalling 62 weeks, progressively familiarize the student with professional practice, and enable him/her to acquire the required competencies, such as drug monitoring and educating and counselling patients. Challenges facing community pharmacies in the next 10 years are patient education, home health care, and orthopaedics; in hospital pharmacies, empowering pharmacists to supervise and validate all prescriptions; and finally, research in pharmacy practice.

  9. Energy options in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carle, R.

    1980-01-01

    The rapid rise of oil price and the future shortage of oil are the problems, to which those in charge of energy must face. The method of maintaining and increasing energy consumption without destroying financial balance must be found. As the common points in Japan and France, domestic energy resources are scarce, coal reserves are small and the cost is high, the room for expanding water power generation hardly remains, and the atomic energy projects of large scale seem to be the only solution, but actually, they encountered many difficulties. In France, Energy Conservation Agency was established in 1974. The energy consumption per man was 4500 kWh in 1979, and it is not high level, accordingly it is difficult to reduce the present consumption further. The growth of electricity consumption in 1979 slowed down remarkably. The present crisis is oil crisis instead of energy crisis. Therefore electric power is the most suitable medium to get rid of the bondage of oil. The breakdown of heat production is as follows: coal 41%, oil 32%, gas 4%, and uranium 23%. Since 1976, 15 power plants of 3.5 million kW were converted to coal burning, but more staffs are required for the operation and maintenance. Water power generation is valuable to supplement nuclear power generation which lacks flexibility. As the nucleus of energy projects in France, PWR development project is in progress. Six 900 MW PWR plants are in operation. (Kako, I.)

  10. Taxation in France

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2016-01-01

    Information regarding income tax in France. Request for additional information: social security number and personal details.   Some members of the personnel living in France have received a letter from the French tax authorities accompanied by a form, to be returned by 31 March 2016 at the latest, asking them to indicate their social security number and to confirm their personal details. As employed members of the CERN personnel are members of the Organization’s own health insurance scheme and do not participate in the French social security system, we recommend that you tick the box indicating that you do not have a social security number. We also advise you to specify in writing that, as an employed member of the CERN personnel, you do not participate in the French social security system especially by virtue of the 1970 agreement on social security between France and CERN: “Je ne suis pas soumis(e), en tant que fonctionnaire du CERN, à la sécurit&...

  11. Hauts-de-France. A pioneer in the French energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falk, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    France had established in advance of last year's climate summit in Paris on ambitious energy policy goals. Especially the 2016 newly formed Region Hauts-de-France stands out as a pioneer here. There one drives innovation and investments with the objective of fulfilling by 2050 their own needs completely by renewable sources. The orientation to supplies Jeremy Rifkin idea of the third industrial revolution. If successful, the region would be on climate protection well ahead of the national targets, the 2050 ''only'' provide a CO 2 emission reduction of 75%. In addition to the Research and development (R and D) to many future ideas in Hauts-de-France but also some major projects for Security of European energy supplies are realized that show the local agility. [de

  12. Hauts-de-France. A pioneer in the French energy transition; Hauts-de-France. Vorreiter in der franzoesischen Energiewende

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falk, Thomas

    2016-08-15

    France had established in advance of last year's climate summit in Paris on ambitious energy policy goals. Especially the 2016 newly formed Region Hauts-de-France stands out as a pioneer here. There one drives innovation and investments with the objective of fulfilling by 2050 their own needs completely by renewable sources. The orientation to supplies Jeremy Rifkin idea of the third industrial revolution. If successful, the region would be on climate protection well ahead of the national targets, the 2050 ''only'' provide a CO{sub 2} emission reduction of 75%. In addition to the Research and development (R and D) to many future ideas in Hauts-de-France but also some major projects for Security of European energy supplies are realized that show the local agility. [German] Frankreich hatte sich im Vorfeld des letztjaehrigen Pariser-Klimagipfels auf ambitionierte Energiewendeziele festgelegt. Insbesondere die 2016 neu gebildete Region Hauts-de-France sticht dabei als Vorreiter heraus. Dort treibt man Innovationen und Investitionen mit dem Ziel an, bis 2050 den Eigenbedarf vollstaendig mittels erneuerbarer Quellen zu decken. Die Orientierung dazu liefert Jeremy Rifkins Idee der dritten industriellen Revolution. Im Erfolgsfall laege die Region beim Klimaschutz deutlich vor den nationalen Zielen, die bis 2050 ''nur'' eine CO{sub 2}-Emissionsreduktion von 75 % vorsehen. Neben der Forschung und Entwicklung (F and E) zu vielen Zukunftsideen werden in Hauts-de-France aber auch einige Grossprojekte zur Absicherung der europaeischen Energieversorgung realisiert, die Ausweis der dortigen Agilitaet sind.

  13. Regulation of pluralism in France. Context, analysis and interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núria Almiron-Roig, Ph.D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article offers a historical and up-to-date study of the media regulation in France with regards to the protection of pluralism. To this end, the article presents a study on the French legal framework for the media, which is complemented with the opinions of scholars, journalists, trade union representatives, members of public organizations regulating the media, and relevant figures with expertise in the media sector in France. The views of these actors were obtained through a series of in-depth interviews conducted in Paris in July 2008 and December 2009. The study reveals that the legal framework, which uses multiple mechanisms and instruments to guarantee pluralism, both external (mainly, corporate concentration and internal (media contents, is highly complex, vast, difficult, and almost impossible to apply. The study suggests that the French legal framework is a top example of inefficient hyper-regulation, which the author sees as a result of the ferocious battle between the two strongest modern forces in France: the egalitarian democratic values, based on solidarity and deeply rooted in the historical tradition of the French Republic; and the neoliberal capitalism based on the ideas of material accumulation and individualism.

  14. Wartime Paris, cirrhosis mortality, and the ceteris paribus assumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillmore, Kaye Middleton; Roizen, Ron; Farrell, Michael; Kerr, William; Lemmens, Paul

    2002-07-01

    This article critiques the ceteris paribus assumption, which tacitly sustains the epidemiologic literature's inference that the sharp decline in cirrhosis mortality observed in Paris during the Second World War derived from a sharp constriction in wine consumption. Paris's wartime circumstances deviate substantially from the "all else being equal" assumption, and at least three other hypotheses for the cirrhosis decline may be contemplated. Historical and statistical review. Wartime Paris underwent tumultuous changes. Wine consumption did decline, but there were, as well, a myriad of other changes in diet and life experience, many involving new or heightened hardships, nutritional, experiential, institutional, health and mortality risks. Three competing hypotheses are presented: (1) A fraction of the candidates for cirrhosis mortality may have fallen to more sudden forms of death; (2) alcoholics, heavy drinkers and Paris's clochard subpopulation may have been differentially likely to become removed from the city's wartime population, whether by self-initiated departure, arrest and deportation, or death from other causes, even murder; and (3) there was mismeasurement in the cirrhosis mortality decline. The alcohol-cirrhosis connection provided the template for the alcohol research effort (now more than 20 years old) aimed at re-establishing scientific recognition of alcohol's direct alcohol-problems-generating associations and causal responsibilities. In a time given to reports of weaker associations of the alcohol-cirrhosis connection, the place and importance of the Paris curve in the wider literature, as regards that connection, remains. For this reason, the Paris findings should be subjected to as much research scrutiny as they undoubtedly deserve.

  15. L'exemple d'un décor religieux dans le nord de la France : Bruno Chérier (1817-1880 et Notre-Dame-des-Anges de Tourcoing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Guillot

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Ami et modèle du sculpteur Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux, Bruno Chérier (1817 Valenciennes, 1880 Paris se consacre à partir de la fin des années 1850 jusqu'à sa mort au décor religieux dans le nord de la France. Devenu en 1852 professeur aux écoles académiques de Tourcoing, il répond aux commandes les plus variées dans le domaine de l'art religieux. Ainsi, sa participation au décor de l'église Notre-Dame-des-Anges de Tourcoing est exemplaire de la diversité de ses contributions : chemin de croix, cartons de vitraux, peintures ornementales illusionnistes. Cette église constitue en outre dans le Nord un des rares témoignages conservé presque intégralement de l'art religieux dans la seconde moitié du XIXe siècle. La collaboration de Chérier à ce chantier témoigne d'un statut de l'artiste sous le Second Empire, éloigné de l'image romantique du créateur libre dont est redevable le mythe constitué autour de la figure de Carpeaux.Les auteurs préparent une étude globale de l'œuvre de Bruno Chérier et de son rôle auprès de Carpeaux.

  16. Paris-Princeton lectures on mathematical finance 2002

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    The Paris-Princeton Lectures in Financial Mathematics, of which this is the first volume, will, on an annual basis, publish cutting-edge research in self-contained, expository articles from outstanding - established or upcoming! - specialists. The aim is to produce a series of articles that can serve as an introductory reference for research in the field. It arises as a result of frequent exchanges between the finance and financial mathematics groups in Paris and Princeton. The present volume sets standards with articles by P. Bank/H. Föllmer, F. Baudoin, L.C.G. Rogers, and M. Soner/N. Touzi.

  17. USA Withdrawal from Paris Agreement – What Next?

    OpenAIRE

    Sergey Chestnoy; Dinara Gershinkova

    2017-01-01

    In June 2017, President Trump announced the USA’s withdrawal from the Paris Climate Accord, which had been ratified for less than a year, thanks in large part to the USA. That drastic shift followed the change in residency at the White House. Withdrawing from the Paris Accord presents an interesting topic for analysis. There’s the practical side of the withdrawal procedure as set out in Article 28 of the agreement, not to mention the consequences of US non-participation in address...

  18. SA-Mot: a web server for the identification of motifs of interest extracted from protein loops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regad, Leslie; Saladin, Adrien; Maupetit, Julien; Geneix, Colette; Camproux, Anne-Claude

    2011-07-01

    The detection of functional motifs is an important step for the determination of protein functions. We present here a new web server SA-Mot (Structural Alphabet Motif) for the extraction and location of structural motifs of interest from protein loops. Contrary to other methods, SA-Mot does not focus only on functional motifs, but it extracts recurrent and conserved structural motifs involved in structural redundancy of loops. SA-Mot uses the structural word notion to extract all structural motifs from uni-dimensional sequences corresponding to loop structures. Then, SA-Mot provides a description of these structural motifs using statistics computed in the loop data set and in SCOP superfamily, sequence and structural parameters. SA-Mot results correspond to an interactive table listing all structural motifs extracted from a target structure and their associated descriptors. Using this information, the users can easily locate loop regions that are important for the protein folding and function. The SA-Mot web server is available at http://sa-mot.mti.univ-paris-diderot.fr.

  19. Gerard Larguier, Artist, France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larguier, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    Since 1994, the French National Agency for Radioactive Waste Management (Andra) has been pursuing a study of collective memory, based on its experience with the Manche disposal facility. In 2010 - in response to the project Centre industriel de stockage geologique (Cigeo), its concomitant need to preserve collective memory of the site for at least 500 years, and public demand - Andra launched an initiative to ensure that future generations do not forget about the existence of radioactive waste disposal facilities. Pursuing its investigations in this area, Andra has led theoretical enquiries that consider art as a possible vehicle of collective memory. Memory is often found between parentheses that do not overload the spirit but enclose it in rules that facilitate forgetting... which is a vanity of the present moment. The past must always have the role of providing future ferment. And then the transfer occurs that can open up to history. Born in 1938, Gerard Larguier began working in 1956 with the renowned poster artist Paul Colin of Nancy before going on to study at the Beaux-Arts in Paris and Academie Julian. He has worked at his studio in the Bateau Lavoir in Paris since 1979 as well as Bonnet's former presbytery in the Meuse since 1973. Using both materials and relief, he has exhibited his artwork at leading institutions around the world. Since 1998, he has taken up the theme of memory in his works 'Chronique du XXeme siecle', 'Autodafes et palimpsestes' and his series 'A saute-souvenances'. He has also tackled the evolution of artwork over the centuries in a series of fifty works entitled 'Les chefs-d'oeuvre revisites'. In 2008, Gerard Larguier completed a fresco commissioned by Andra on the local heritage and environment of the Bure Laboratory. In 2010, the municipality of Soulaines d'Huys commissioned a fresco of the history of the town from the sixteenth century to the present using the archives of

  20. France country report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouillot, Dominique [Onet Technologies, 36, Bd des Oceans 13009 Marseille (France)

    2008-07-01

    Nuclear in France - Electricity share: 78%. Electricity production by Electricite de France: 419 TWh, 63,260 GWe installed. Number of Reactors: 58 NPPs type PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) in operation; One under construction: EPR (European Pressurized Reactor) Flamanville 3, on time. Others nuclear installations: The AREVA NC La Hague fuel treatment and recycling plant - Capacity: 1700 tons (Facilities UP2 and UP3). COMURHEX is number one worldwide in the conversion of uranium mine concentrates into UF{sub 6} and has a processing capacity of 14,000 tonnes of uranium per year. EURODIF Production site, with the construction of the Georges Besse II plant, Centrifugation is the highest performance technology today. Others nuclear installations: MELOX production site - Mox fuel production; FBFC:fuel rods manufacturing; Waste Storage in Surface and Subsurface: The Aube department storage center in Soulaines, which houses short-lived low- to medium-level waste; the VLL storage centre in Morvilliers (Aube), which houses very low-level waste. Public acceptance: An opinion poll published in June 2007, commissioned by the OE (Observatoire de l'Energie) shows that a majority of French people support nuclear. The respondents were asked whether nuclear energy, which produces 78% of total electricity, is an asset: 51% of them backed the idea, 39% a disadvantage, 10% did not have an opinion. Energy policy: The new President Nicolas Sarkozy said that Nuclear energy is necessary for France. (Organisation of so called 'Grenelle of environment'). Projects: EPR Flamanville 3: Due to be commissioned in 2012, Commercial FBR (Fast Breeders reactor) in 2040, EURODIF will ended in 2012 and Georges Besse 2 (centrifugation) should be operational in 2012, Decommissioning of 6 UNGG reactors, Superphenix and Brennillis within 25 years. (estimated at 3 billion Euros). Nuclear waste management policy: The French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA) is responsible

  1. Energy statistics. France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-10-01

    This document summarizes in a series of tables the energy statistical data for France: consumption since 1973; energy supplies (production, imports, exports, stocks) and uses (refining, power production, internal uses, sectoral consumption) for coal, petroleum, gas, electricity, and renewable energy sources; national production and consumption of primary energy; final consumption per sector and per energy source; general indicators (energy bill, US$ change rate, prices, energy independence, internal gross product); projections. Details (resources, uses, prices, imports, internal consumption) are given separately for petroleum, natural gas, electric power and solid mineral fuels. (J.S.)

  2. Literatures of Medieval France

    OpenAIRE

    Zink, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Dear Mr Administrator,Dear colleagues, Deep forests, enchanted castles, monsters, damsels in distress, stout-hearted heroes and boundless love. The literature of the Middle Ages has everything it takes to appeal to the imagination of children and teenagers. However, can it do more than that? And does it even still have this appeal? Anatole France claims that, to the loves of Abeille des Clarides and Georges de Blanchelande and to the magnanimity of the King of the Dwarves, his pretty little n...

  3. Planeteria: news from France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilensten, J.; Acker, A.; Delfosse, X.

    2011-10-01

    France has a good network of planetaria. They are linked through a network called Association of the French Speaking Planetaria. In this talk, I will present this organization and its different activities. I will also report on the making of a Art and Science museum in Grenoble which will include a planetarium. The grand opening is foreseen in 2014. Finally, I will present an astronomical show which has been adapted for planetaria and demonstrate how this benefits both to the show and the planetarium.

  4. An office building of Paris city air-conditioned by an aquifer-source heat pump; Un immeuble parisien climatise par une thermofrigopompe sur nappe phreatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2003-09-01

    A 7000 m{sup 2} office building of Paris (France) is equipped with an aquifer-source heat pump for the space heating and cooling. This choice allows to save 28400 euros of heating/cooling expenses each year with respect to other solutions. The equipment ensures also the production of hot and chilled water and the calories recovered from the refrigeration system are used to supply the space heating needs of the building. This paper describes the equipments (heat pump, heat exchangers, ventilation-convection systems), the centralized control system and the cost-benefit aspects. (J.S.)

  5. Polyp Morphology: An Interobserver Evaluation for the Paris Classification Among International Experts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, Sascha C.; Hazewinkel, Y.; East, James E.; van Leerdam, Monique E.; Rastogi, Amit; Pellisé, Maria; Sanduleanu-Dascalescu, Silvia; Bastiaansen, Barbara A. J.; Fockens, Paul; Dekker, Evelien

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The Paris classification is an international classification system for describing polyp morphology. Thus far, the validity and reproducibility of this classification have not been assessed. We aimed to determine the interobserver agreement for the Paris classification among seven Western

  6. Mael-e(st-France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Mée, Mael

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A performance of Mael Le Mée and France Geoffroy Photos and videos (France: Denis Louis Photo (Montreal: Alexandre Cv France Geoffroy’s assistant: Rosalie Chrétien Production: Espace Projet and Dorsa Barlow Performance co-developed within the project BIOGRAPHIES, with the support of CNC – DICRéAM, Aquitaine Regional Council and the City of Bordeaux.

  7. Gas de France international strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deyirmendjian, J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the main international objectives of Gaz de France, and actions taken to achieve them. The safety and the reliability of natural gas supplies is the priority-holder axis of the international strategy of Gaz de France. The second axis is to obtain a consolidated position in Europe on natural gas markets and valorize the know-how of Gaz de France in foreign countries

  8. Soviet-France cooperative study of the solar corona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vsekhvsyatskij, S.K.; Dzyubenko, N.I.; Ivanchuk, V.I.; Popov, O.S.; Rubo, G.A.; Kuchmij, S.; Kuchmij, O.; Shtel'makher, G.

    1981-01-01

    The study continues the investigations on the solar corona performed according to the program of the Soviet-France experiment ''The white corona dynamics'' during total solar eclipses on July 10 1972 and June 30, 1973 by the expeditions of Kiev University and Paris Astrophysical Institute. The results of the study of eclipse negatives obtained on June 30 1973 in Africa are given. On the basis of new methods of photometry and colorimetry using star images up to 8.5sup(m) as the photometry standards it has been found with high accuracy the distribution of the total corona brightness up to r approximately equal to 4.5 Rsub(S) and its K- and F-corona components for E and N directions. Neither color effect nor flattening is found in the dust component (r -6 Esub(S)

  9. The Callovo-Oxfordian of the Paris Basin: From its geological context to the modelling of its properties; Le Callovo-Oxfordien du bassin de Paris: du contexte geologique a la modelisation de ses proprietes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2006-10-15

    The French law from December 30, 1991 entrusted the French national agency for radioactive wastes (ANDRA) with the mission of assessing the feasibility of a deep geological repository in the clay-rich Callovo-Oxfordian formation of NE France (Meuse and Haute-Marne departements). A research program, coordinated by ANDRA and involving several university laboratories and other French organizations (CNRS, CEA, BRGM, INERIS, INPL, ENSMP) has permitted to gather a huge amount of information about the properties of the Callovo-Oxfordian formation of the eastern part of the Paris basin. These properties are summarized in this introductive paper: paleo-geography, bio-stratigraphy of ammonites, clay mineralogy and other minerals content, anisotropy of argillite beds, permeability and porosity, osmosis and thermal diffusion, chemistry of interstitial waters, fracturing.. (J.S.)

  10. Withdrawing from the Paris climate agreement hurts the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordoff, Jason

    2017-09-01

    The Trump administration's domestic plans would have curtailed the nation's climate action even if it had stayed in the Paris Agreement. Yet, the decision to leave the agreement undermines US international energy and climate leadership and the prospects of ramping up global climate policy ambition.

  11. Science and policy characteristics of the Paris Agreement temperature goal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schleussner, Carl Friedrich; Rogelj, Joeri; Schaeffer, Michiel; Lissner, Tabea; Licker, Rachel; Fischer, Erich M.; Knutti, Reto; Levermann, Anders; Frieler, Katja; Hare, William

    2016-01-01

    The Paris Agreement sets a long-term temperature goal of holding the global average temperature increase to well below 2 °C, and pursuing efforts to limit this to 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels. Here, we present an overview of science and policy aspects related to this goal and analyse the

  12. The impact of the US retreat from the Paris Agreement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pickering, Jonathan; McGee, Jeffrey S.; Stephens, Tim; Karlsson-Vinkhuyzen, Sylvia I.

    2017-01-01

    The United States’ decision to withdraw from the Paris Agreement (pending possible re-engagement under different terms) may have significant ramifications for international climate policy, but the implications of this decision remain contested. This commentary illustrates how comparative analysis

  13. What does the Paris Agreement mean for adaptation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lesnikowski, Alexandra; Ford, James; Biesbroek, Robbert; Berrang-Ford, Lea; Maillet, Michelle; Araos, Malcolm; Austin, Stephanie E.

    2017-01-01

    The Paris Agreement takes a significant step forward in strengthening the adaptation pillar of global climate policy. By widening the normative framing around adaptation, calling for stronger adaptation commitments from states, being explicit about the multilevel nature of adaptation governance, and

  14. Artificial radioactive products in the atmosphere at Paris. [In French

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abribat, M; Pouradier, J; Venet, A M

    1952-01-01

    The radioactivity of solid matter in rain water and air collected near Paris in November 1951, and in April and May 1952, follows the same decay law as that observed for fission products after a nuclear detonation in Nevada in November 1951.

  15. Retracted: Effect of Paris polyphylla extract on seconddegree burns ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-01-26

    Jan 26, 2018 ... This article previously published in Volume 15 Issue 10 of this journal in October 2016 has been retracted in line with the guidelines from the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE, http://publicationethics.org/resources/guidelines). Retracted: Ma Z, Yin W, Hu G, Zhu Z, Huang Z. Effect of Paris polyphylla ...

  16. The Paris Agreement: Consequences for the EU and Carbon Markets?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinar Andresen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Most observers argue that this agreement is a step in the right direction. However, we do not know how effective it will be in terms of reducing emissions. We therefore discuss its potential effectiveness regarding EU climate policies and carbon markets. We argue that the Paris Agreement may have a positive effect but uncertainties abound.

  17. The Magic Factory: How MGM Made "An American in Paris."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Donald

    This book covers the aesthetic and production aspects of the 1951 musical film, "An American in Paris," through interviews with many of the production specialists who helped make this motion picture. The film represents the genre of the color Hollywood musical. It was the winner of six Academy Awards, featured a major star and a developing star,…

  18. Creating to understand – developmental biology meets engineering in Paris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kicheva, Anna; Rivron, Nicolas C.

    2017-01-01

    In November 2016, developmental biologists, synthetic biologists and engineers gathered in Paris for a meeting called ‘Engineering the embryo’. The participants shared an interest in exploring how synthetic systems can reveal new principles of embryonic development, and how the in vitro manipulation

  19. Paris polyphylla extract inhibits proliferation and promotes apoptosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of Paris polyphylla extract (PPE) on proliferation and apoptosis in A549 human lung cancer cells. Methods: Morphological changes were examined by microscopy in A549 cells after exposure to PPE. Trypan blue staining of living cells was used to aid the construction of the cell growth curve ...

  20. Paris: Beyond the Climate Dead End through Pledge and Review?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert O. Keohane

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Paris Climate Agreement of December 2015 marks a decisive break from the unsuccessful Kyoto regime. Instead of targets and timetables, it established a Pledge and Review system, under which states will offer Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs to reducing emissions that cause climate change. But this successful negotiation outcome was achieved at the price of vagueness of obligations and substantial discretion for governments. Many governments will be tempted to use the vagueness of the Paris Agreement, and the discretion that it permits, to limit the scope or intensity of their proposed actions. Whether Pledge and Review under the Paris Agreement will lead to effective action against climate change will therefore depend on the inclination both of OECD countries and newly industrializing countries to take costly actions, which for the OECD countries will include financial transfers to their poorer partners. Domestic politics will be crucial in determining the attitudes of both sets of countries to pay such costs. The actual impact of the Paris Agreement will depend on whether it can be used by domestic groups favoring climate action as a point of leverage in domestic politics—that is, in a “two-level game” simultaneously involving both international and domestic politics.

  1. Graph Theory in Paris : Conference in Memory of Claude Berge

    CERN Document Server

    Fonlupt, Jean; Fouquet, Jean-Luc; Fournier, Jean-Claude; Alfonsín, Jorge

    2007-01-01

    In July 2004, a conference on graph theory was held in Paris in memory of Claude Berge, one of the pioneers of the field. The event brought together many prominent specialists on topics, such as perfect graphs and matching theory, upon which Claude Berge's work has had a major impact. This volume includes contributions to these and other topics from many of the participants.

  2. France at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    Industrial Exhibition Administration Building Bldg 61 Tuesday 8 June: 9 a.m. – 5.30 p.m. Wednesday 9 June: 9 a.m. – 4 p.m. “FRANCE AT CERN” – INDUSTRIAL EXHIBITION Thirty-six French companies are presenting their latest technological advances during the industrial exhibition "France at CERN", featuring products and technologies specifically related to the activities of the CERN facility. Presenting their know-how in electric vehicles, PSA - PEUGEOT/CITROEN are sponsoring the event. Seminars will be hold in the Main Building’s conference rooms: R&D innovation strategy in Pôle Nucléaire Bourgogne (08/06/2010 – 13h) MU by Peugeot (08/06/2010 – 14h) Citroën (08/06/2010 – 15h) « Elément 14 » : a unique design engineer community for sharing Electronic Engineering Solutions (09/06/2010 – 11h) Individual B2B meetin...

  3. France without nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charmant, A.; Devezeaux, J.G.; Ladoux, N.; Vielle, M.

    1991-01-01

    As coal production declined and France found herself in a condition of energy dependency, the country decided to turn to nuclear power and a major construction program was undertaken in 1970. The consequences of this step are examined in this article, by imagining where France would be without its nuclear power. At the end of the sixties, fuel-oil incontestably offered the cheapest way of producing electricity; but the first petroleum crisis was to upset the order of economic performance, and coal then became the more attractive fuel. The first part of this article therefore presents coal as an alternative to nuclear power, describing the coal scenario first and then comparing the relative costs of nuclear and coal investment strategies and operating costs (the item that differs most is the price of the fuel). The second part of the article analyzes the consequences this would have on the electrical power market, from the supply and demand point of view, and in terms of prices. The third part of the article discusses the macro-economic consequences of such a step: the drop in the level of energy dependency, increased costs and the disappearance of electricity exports. The article ends with an analysis of the environmental consequences, which are of greater and greater concern today. The advantage here falls very much in favor of nuclear power, if we judge by the lesser emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and especially carbon dioxide. 22 refs.; 13 figs.; 10 tabs

  4. Nestor Capdevila, Le concept d’idéologie, Paris, PUF, 2004, 326 pages, 25 euros.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie GAILLE-NIKODIMOV

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Que la philosophie puisse se pratiquer dans toute sa rigueur conceptuelle en s’appliquant à des notions politiques, voilà qui n’a pas été et n’est pas toujours évident pour tous. Le concept d’idéologie de Nestor Capdevila est une lecture tout indiquée pour les sceptiques. Le pari n’est pourtant pas gagné a priori : ce terme, forgé en 1798 par Destutt de Tracy pour désigner la science des idées prises au sens général de perceptions, est on ne peut plus fuyant. S’il n’a pas, à l’origine, la con...

  5. Les arts en France autour de 1400. Création artistique, questions iconographiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Russo

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Durant le printemps et l’été 2004, cinq grandes expositions ont montré la très grande richesse des arts en France, sous le règne de Charles VI (1368-1422, roi de 1380 à 1422, et d’Isabeau de Bavière (1371-1435, reine de 1385 à 1435. Une forte insistance fut mise sur le foyer parisien (Paris 1400. Les arts sous Charles VI, musée du Louvre, Paris, 22 mars-12 juillet, sous le commissariat d’Élisabeth Taburet-Delahaye, mais aussi, et ce fut une grande originalité, sur les principaux foyers sit...

  6. Considering the Creation of a Domestic Intelligence Agency in the United States: Lessons from the Experiences of Australia, Canada, France, Germany, and the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    National Infrastructure. CSIS—see Canadian Security Intelligence Service. Dard, Olivier, “L’OAS: Histoire d’un Refus,” Guerre d’Algérie, Vol. 8, June...Faligot, Jean Guisnel, and Rémi Kauffer, eds., Histoire Secrète de la Ve République, Paris: La Découverte, 2006a, pp. 394–399. ———, “La France Complice...ou Otage de la Seconde Guerre d’Algérie?” in Roger Faligot, Jean Guisnel, and Rémi Kauffer, eds., Histoire Secrète de la Ve République, Paris: La

  7. The France energy situation; La situation energetique de la France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This analysis of the french energy situation provides information and key data on some key facts about the energy in France, the France energy supply and demand, the major principles of energy policy, the challenges of french energy policy and the DGEMP (general directorate for energy and raw materials). (A.L.B.)

  8. New Maids and Caretakers in Paris?: The Reactivation of Transnational Social Fields of Spanish Emigration Following the Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Oso

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the migration of Spanish women to France following the 2008 economic crisis, considering the reactivation of the transnational social fields that have been built up between the two countries over the years. It reveals how the recession has led to a renewal of the gender-based labour niches filled by women emigrating to Paris in the period between 1950 and 1970 (bonnes à tout faire or maid, domestic workers, caretakers and cleaners, stemming from the reactivation of transnational fields built up through social networks woven by the various migratory trends. It provides an insight into the way these transnational fields are linked to global production and reproduction chains in terms of the patriarchal reorganisation of the labour market and workforce. It concludes that the economic crisis has reinforced traditional social reproduction channels rooted in gender-based sources of employment.

  9. Major bleeding complications in patients treated with direct oral anticoagulants: One-year observational study in a Paris Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deville, L; Konan, M; Hij, A; Goldwirt, L; Peyrony, O; Fieux, F; Faure, P; Madelaine, I; Villiers, S; Farge-Bancel, D; Frère, C

    Direct oral anticoagulants (DAOC) are indicated for the treatment of venous thromboembolism and the prevention of stroke or systemic embolism in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. Given their advantages and friendly use for patient, the prescription of long term DOAC therapy has rapidly increased both as first line treatment while initiating anticoagulation and as a substitute to vitamins K antagonist (VKA) in poorly controlled patients. However, DOAC therapy can also be associated with significant bleeding complications, and in the absence of specific antidote at disposal, treatment of serious hemorrhagic complications under DOAC remains complex. We report and discuss herein five cases of major hemorrhagic complications under DOAC, which were reported to the pharmacological surveillance department over one year at Saint-Louis University Hospital (Paris, France). We further discuss the need for careful assessment of the risk/benefit ratio at time of starting DOAC therapy in daily clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. France in the front line for geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, Aude; Talpin, Juliette

    2016-01-01

    A set of articles illustrates that France is among the European leaders in heat networks fed by deep aquifers in sedimentary basins, and will soon possess new types of plants to valorise this hot water. A first article describes the operation principle and the distinction between the different geothermal energy levels (very low, low and medium, high). The still slow but actual development of geothermal energy is commented. It notably concerns local communities and industries, but not yet individuals. A brief focus is proposed on the case of the Aquitaine basin and of Bordeaux, and on the use of geothermal energy to cool the wine. The case of Ferney-Voltaire is then discussed: a whole district will be supplied with probe-based tempered water loops. The interest of the ADEME in geo-cooling is evoked. An article comments the development of a new model of deep geothermal energy developed by France and Germany: a dozen of plants are planned to be built by 2020, and the Ecogi plant in Rittershoffen is a showcase of a first application of fractured rock geothermal technology (the operation is described). A map indicates locations of geothermal search permits which have been awarded for 16 sites in France. An overview is given of various initiatives in Ile-de-France. The case of Geothermie Bouillante plant in Guadeloupe is evoked: it has been purchased by an American group and will multiply its electricity production by a factor 4 by 2025. The two last articles respectively address the need to boost the very low geothermal energy sector, and the use of geothermal energy in cities near Paris (Grigny and Viry-Chatillon) which aim at supplying energy at lower prices, and thus struggle against energy poverty

  11. Key figures on climate France, Europe and Worldwide. Edition 2018

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baude, Manuel; Dussud, Francois-Xavier; Ecoiffier, Mathieu; Moreau, Sylvain; Bottin, Anne; Duvernoy, Jerome; Vailles, Charlotte

    2017-10-01

    In line with previous years, the 2018 edition of 'Key figures on climate' has been written in the context of the 22. Conference of the Parties on Climate Change (COP 22) held in Bonn from 6 to 17 November 2017. This latest version was updated relative to the 2017 edition. New data sources have been used for emissions factors and the part on the carbon footprint was further developed. The part on climate policies notably deals with the Paris Agreement adopted in December 2015 at COP 21. Several data sets, displayed in graphs in this document are also available in tables on the web version. Content: 1 - What is climate change? This part summarizes the scientific basis of climate change, including indicators, causes and possible consequences of global warming. 2 - Which amounts of greenhouse gases are emitted globally? The focus here is on the most relevant data related to global greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions, in particular the geographic distribution of these emissions. 3 - How much greenhouse gas is emitted in Europe and in France? A complete overview of GHG emissions statistics in Europe and in France is presented in this part as well as estimates of the carbon footprint of French people. 4 - What is the sectoral distribution of GHG emissions in Europe and in France? This part features the detailed evolution since 1990 of GHG emissions in the following economic sectors: energy sector, transports, industry, residential and tertiary, agriculture, forestry, land use and waste management. 5 - Which climate policies in the world, in Europe and in France? The main climate policies are described at each level: global, European and French

  12. Key figures on climate France and Worldwide - 2017 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baude, Manuel; Dussud, Francois-Xavier; Ecoiffier, Mathieu; Duvernoy, Jerome; Vailles, Charlotte; Moreau, Sylvain; Bottin, Anne; Hiblot, Guillaume

    2016-10-01

    In line with previous years, the 2017 edition of 'Key figures on climate' has been written in the context of the 22. Conference of the Parties on Climate Change (COP 22) held in Marrakech from 7 to 18 November 2016. This latest version, published as part of the new 'datalab' collection of the General commission for sustainable development was updated and expanded relative to the 2016 edition. New data sources have been used for the part on global CO_2 emissions. The part on climate policies was further developed, and notably deals with the Paris agreement adopted in December 2015 at COP 21. Moreover, the analysis of climate finance (current climate investments and climate finance needs) has been expanded. About the form, and with a goal of simplification, some data previously displayed in both a graph and a table is now presented only in a graph. Content: Part 1: What is climate change? This part summarizes the scientific basis of climate change, including indicators, causes and possible consequences of global warming. Part 2: Which amounts of greenhouse gases are emitted globally? The focus here is on the most relevant data related to global greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions, in particular the geographic distribution of these emissions. Part 3: How much greenhouse gas is emitted in Europe and in France? A complete overview of GHG emissions statistics in Europe and in France is presented in this part as well as estimates of the carbon footprint of French people. Part 4: What is the sectoral distribution of GHG emissions in Europe and in France? This part features the detailed evolution since 1990 of GHG emissions in the following economic sectors: energy sector, transports, industry, residential and tertiary, agriculture, forestry, land use and waste management. Part 5: Which climate policies in the world, in Europe and in France? The main climate policies are described at each level: global, European and French

  13. The C'JAAD: a French team for early intervention in psychosis in Paris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppetit, Alice; Bourgin, Julie; Martinez, Gilles; Kazes, Mathilde; Mam-Lam-Fook, Célia; Gaillard, Raphael; Olié, Jean-Pierre; Krebs, Marie-Odile

    2018-04-01

    The aim is to describe a centre operating in Paris that pioneers the early intervention for young people at the onset and at high risk of psychosis in France. Comprehensive descriptive analysis of different clinical and service measures is used in describing the implementation of the C'JAAD (Evaluation Centre for Young Adults and Adolescents) using data from an ongoing prospective non-interventional research programme. Over a 2-year period, 151 patients were referred to the C'JAAD and included in the ICAAR research programme. After evaluation by the Comprehensive Assessment of the At-Risk Mental States Scale, 53.7% were identified at risk of developing a psychosis, 20.6% presented a full-blown psychosis and 25.7% were considered not at risk of developing a psychosis. A total of 84% of the at-risk subjects suffered from a psychiatric co-morbidity, of which anxiodepressive symptoms being the most frequent (39%). The global functioning of these at-risk subjects was seriously impaired (average Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale score = 48.9). More than one third of the patients was self-referred (33.8%), 22.5% were addressed by a psychiatrist whereas 10.6% were referred by a general practitioner. In this paper, we report for the first time the activities of the C'JAAD, the pioneer unit in France for early detection and treatment of young adults with early psychosis. These observations indicate that such early intervention centre is a feasible and sustainable extension of traditional care for people with mental disorders in this country and offers promising perspective for the development of further centres. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  14. Efficacy and cost effectiveness of telemedicine for improving access to care in the Paris region: study protocols for eight trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrier, Nathanael; Zarca, Kevin; Durand-Zaleski, Isabelle; Calinaud, Christine

    2016-02-08

    With the development of information and communication technologies, telemedicine has been proposed as a way to improve patient management by facilitating access to appropriate diagnosis and treatment. The Paris Ile de France Regional Health Agency is currently funding a comprehensive program of telemedicine experiments. This article describes the protocols for the evaluation of the implementation of telemedicine in the Paris region. Over 2,500 patients have been included in eight studies addressing the use of telemedicine in the context of specific diseases or settings. Two projects are randomized controlled trials, while the six other projects are based on before-after designs (differences in differences studies). Based on the MAST model and the French national framework, we identified endpoints to assess the impact of telemedicine on five dimensions: clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, security of the application, patient satisfaction and quality of life and perception of professionals. Telemedicine encompasses a wide range of services and stakeholders, and thus study protocols must be tailored to the specific constraints and interests of the users. NCT02110433 (03/07/2014), NCT02157740 (05/27/2014), NCT02374697 (02/05/2015), NCT02157727 (05/27/2014), NCT02229279 (08/28/2014), NCT02368769 (02/05/2015), NCT02164747 (NCT02164747), NCT02309905 (11/27/2014).

  15. Organic market gardening around the Paris agglomeration: agro-environmental performance and capacity to meet urban requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglade, Juliette; Medina, Michael Ramos; Billen, Gilles; Garnier, Josette

    2016-05-04

    Organic market gardening is often promoted by urban municipalities as a way to resource part of the food supply, creating new social links and protecting groundwater resources. The agronomical and environmental performance of six commercial organic market gardening farms supplying vegetables in Paris were evaluated and compared with other vegetable production systems. When expressed in terms of protein production, the yield of these systems appears rather low compared with the productive capacity of open-field organic cropping systems where vegetable production is inserted into rotation with other crops. Moreover, the requirement of producing infiltrated water meeting the drinking water standards seriously limits the allowable rate of fertilisation, thus limiting production. The data reported herein show that to supply the amount of vegetables required by the Paris agglomeration (12 million inhabitants) only by organic market gardening, 160,000-205,000 ha, i.e. 28-36 % of the agricultural area of the surrounding Ile-de-France region, would be required. We conclude that organic market gardening is only one of several other farming systems which can contribute to a re-localised supply of vegetables to large cities.

  16. Suppression or knockout of SaF/SaM overcomes the Sa-mediated hybrid male sterility in rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongyao Xie; Baixiao Niu; Yunming Long; Gousi Li; Jintao Tang; Yaling Zhang; Ding Ren; Yao-Guang Liu; Letian Chen

    2017-01-01

    Hybrids between the indica and japonica subspecies of rice (Oryza sativa) are usually sterile, which hinders utilization of heterosis in the inter-subspecific hybrid breeding. The complex locus Sa comprises two adjacently located genes, SaF and SaM, which interact to cause abortion of pollen grains carrying the japonica allele in japonica-indica hybrids. Here we showed that silencing of SaF or SaM by RNA interference restored male fertility in indica-japonica hybrids with heterozygous Sa. We further used clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9-based genome editing to knockout the SaF and SaM alleles, respectively, of an indica rice line to create hybrid-compatible lines. The resultant artificial neutral alleles did not affect pollen viability and other agricultural traits, but did break down the reproductive barrier in the hybrids. We found that some rice lines have natural neutral allele Sa-n, which was compatible with the typical japonica or indica Sa alleles in hybrids. Our results demonstrate that SaF and SaM are required for hybrid male sterility, but are not essential for pollen development. This study provides effective approaches for the generation of hybrid-compatible lines by knocking out the Sa locus or using the natural Sa-n allele to overcome hybrid male sterility in rice breeding.

  17. Suppression or knockout of SaF/SaM overcomes the Sa-mediated hybrid male sterility in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yongyao; Niu, Baixiao; Long, Yunming; Li, Gousi; Tang, Jintao; Zhang, Yaling; Ren, Ding; Liu, Yao-Guang; Chen, Letian

    2017-09-01

    Hybrids between the indica and japonica subspecies of rice (Oryza sativa) are usually sterile, which hinders utilization of heterosis in the inter-subspecific hybrid breeding. The complex locus Sa comprises two adjacently located genes, SaF and SaM, which interact to cause abortion of pollen grains carrying the japonica allele in japonica-indica hybrids. Here we showed that silencing of SaF or SaM by RNA interference restored male fertility in indica-japonica hybrids with heterozygous Sa. We further used clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9-based genome editing to knockout the SaF and SaM alleles, respectively, of an indica rice line to create hybrid-compatible lines. The resultant artificial neutral alleles did not affect pollen viability and other agricultural traits, but did break down the reproductive barrier in the hybrids. We found that some rice lines have natural neutral allele Sa-n, which was compatible with the typical japonica or indica Sa alleles in hybrids. Our results demonstrate that SaF and SaM are required for hybrid male sterility, but are not essential for pollen development. This study provides effective approaches for the generation of hybrid-compatible lines by knocking out the Sa locus or using the natural Sa-n allele to overcome hybrid male sterility in rice breeding. © 2017 The Authors. Bioelectromagnetics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  18. France acts on electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahn, Zachary

    2013-11-01

    France is deciding how to regulate electronic cigarettes. I first consider the French approach and how it contrasts with other attempts at electronic cigarette regulation globally. Next, I critique the individual elements of the French proposal. The overall approach taken by France is a positive development, but banning indoor use appears unnecessary and banning advertising may be counterproductive.

  19. Women in physics in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierron-Bohnes, Véronique [CNRS-University of Strasbourg, Strasbourg (France)

    2015-12-31

    We present six associations and entities working in France on issues of women in physics: the Women and Physics Commission, French Physical Society; Women in Nuclear (WiN) France; Women and Science Association; Mission for the Place of Women at CNRS; Parity, Diversity, and Women Network, CEA; and the Network of University Equality-Diversity Representatives.

  20. Women in physics in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierron-Bohnes, Véronique

    2015-01-01

    We present six associations and entities working in France on issues of women in physics: the Women and Physics Commission, French Physical Society; Women in Nuclear (WiN) France; Women and Science Association; Mission for the Place of Women at CNRS; Parity, Diversity, and Women Network, CEA; and the Network of University Equality-Diversity Representatives

  1. France at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    From 22 to 25 September 2003 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 hrs - 17.30 hrs Twenty five companies will present their latest technology at the "France at CERN" exhibition. The French industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: electrical engineering, electronics, computer data processing, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperatures technologies, particles detectors and civil engineering. The exhibition is organised by UBIFRANCE, the French Committee for Trade Events Abroad. Please find below: - the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : - your Divisional secretariat, - the reception information desk, Building 33, - the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS 1 Air Liquide14 Nicomatic 2 ATI Electronique15 Photonis 3 ATIM16 Positronic industries SAS 4 ATOS17 Quantel 5 AXON18 Radiospares 6 Cedrat Technologies19 Rexor 7 CIAT20 SDS Service &...

  2. France at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    From 04 to 06 october 2005 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09:00 - 17:30   Thirty-two companies will present their latest technology at the "France at CERN" exhibition. French industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, electronics, data processing, various supplies, civil engineering and buildings, and vacuum and low temperature technology. The exhibition is organised by UBIFRANCE, the French Committee for Trade Events Abroad.  You will find below : the list of exhibitors.   A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Departmental secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition itself.   A detailed list of the firms involved is already available under the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm     LIST OF EXHIBITORS AIR LIQUIDE DTA ALSTO...

  3. France at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    From 23 to 25 September 2003 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 hrs - 17.30 hrs Twenty five companies will present their latest technology at the "France at CERN" exhibition. The French industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: electrical engineering, electronics, computer data processing, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperatures technologies, particles detectors and civil engineering. The exhibition is organised by UBIFRANCE, the French Committee for Trade Events Abroad. There follows : - the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : - your Divisional secretariat, - the reception information desk, Building 33, - the exhibition. A web page is available under the following link: http://www.lafranceaucern.com LIST OF EXHIBITORS 1 Air Liquide14 Nicomatic 2 ATI Electronique15 Photonis 3 ATIM16 Positronic industries SAS 4 ATOS17 Qu...

  4. France at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    From 04 to 06 october 2005 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09:00 - 17:30   Thirty-two companies will present their latest technology at the "France at CERN" exhibition. French industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, electronics, data processing, various supplies, civil engineering and buildings, and vacuum and low temperature technology. The exhibition is organised by UBIFRANCE, the French Committee for Trade Events Abroad.  You will find below : the list of exhibitors.   A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Departmental secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition itself.   A detailed list of the firms involved is already available under the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm     LIST OF EXHIBITORS AIR LIQUIDE DTA ALSTOM...

  5. France at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    From 23 to 25 September 2003 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 hrs - 17.30 hrs Twenty five companies will present their latest technology at the "France at CERN" exhibition. The French industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: electrical engineering, electronics, computer data processing, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperatures technologies, particles detectors and civil engineering. The exhibition is organised by UBIFRANCE, the French Committee for Trade Events Abroad. There follows : - the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : - your Divisional secretariat, - the reception information desk, Building 33, - the exhibition. A web page is available under the following link: http://www.lafranceaucern.com LIST OF EXHIBITORS 1 Air Liquide 14 Nicomatic 2 ATI Electronique 15 Photonis 3 ATIM 16 Positronic industries SAS 4 ATOS 17 Quantel 5 AXON 18 Ra...

  6. Energy in France. References

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This small booklet is a compilation of key data about the energy in France: energy and economy (energy industries and gross internal product, employment, investments), overall energies (primary energy production and consumption, sectoral consumption, energy bill, price of imported crude oil), petroleum (primary production, sectoral consumption of refined petroleum products, automotive fuels demand, import and export of petroleum products), natural gas (production, sectoral consumption, imports per country of origin), coal (production, sectoral consumption, imports), electric power (production per origin, classical thermal production per type of fuel, sectoral consumption), renewable energies (overall production, heat networks supplied with non-conventional energy sources, wood consumption, wind power production, solar thermal and photovoltaic production), rational use of energy (primary energy intensity, cumulated energy saving), energy prices (in industries and households, automotive fuel prices, energy consumptions in households), energy and environment (CO 2 emissions). A synthesis of the main energy tariffs and prices is given in a separate folder. (J.S.)

  7. Measurements and modelling of atmospheric pollution over the Paris area: an overview of the ESQUIF Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Menut

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available The "Étude et Simulation de la QUalité de l'air en Ile de France" (ESQUIF project is the first integrated project dedicated to the study of the processes leading to air pollution events over the Paris area. The project was carried out over two years (summer 1998 to winter 2000 to document all types of meteorological conditions favourable to air quality degradation, and in particular to photo oxydant formation. The goals of ESQUIF are (1 to improve our understanding of the relevant chemical and dynamical processes and, in turn, improve their parametrizations in numerical models, and (2 to improve and validate existing models dedicated to pollution analysis, scenarios and/or forecasting, by establishing a comprehensive and thorough database. We present the rationale of the ESQUIF project and we describe the experimental set-up. We also report on the first experiments which took place during the summer of 1998 involving surface networks, and remote sensing instruments as well as several aircraft. Focusing on three days of August 1998, the relative contributions of long-range transported and locally-produced ozone to the elevated ozone concentrations observed during this period are discussed and chemistry-transport model preliminary results on this period are compared to measurements.Key words: Atmospheric composition and structure (pollution – urban and regional; troposphere – composition and chemistry – Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (mesoscale meteorology

  8. Measurements and modelling of atmospheric pollution over the Paris area: an overview of the ESQUIF project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menut, L; Vautard, R; Flamant, P H [Centre National de Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 75 - Paris (France). Lab. de Meteorologie Dynamique; Flamant, C; Beekmann, M; Megie, G; Sicard, M [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 91 - Verrieres-le-Buisson (France). Service d' Aeronomie; Abonnel, C; Lefebvre, M P; Lossec, B [Meteo-France, 75 - Paris (France); Chazette, P; Martin, D [CNRS (France). Lab. des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement; Gombert, D [AIRPARIF, Paris (France); Guedalia, D [CNRS-Universite Paul Sabatier (France). Lab. d' Aerologie; Kley, D [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany); Perros, P; Toupance, G [CNRS (France). Lab. Interuniversitaire des Systemes Atmospheriques

    2000-11-01

    The ''etude et simulation de la qualite de l'air en ile de France'' (ESQUIF) project is the first integrated project dedicated to the study of the processes leading to air pollution events over the Paris area. The project was carried out over two years (summer 1998 to winter 2000) to document all types of meteorological conditions favourable to air quality degradation, and in particular to photo oxydant formation. The goals of ESQUIF are (1) to improve our understanding of the relevant chemical and dynamical processes and, in turn, improve their parametrizations in numerical models, and (2) to improve and validate existing models dedicated to pollution analysis, scenarios and/or forecasting, by establishing a comprehensive and thorough database. We present the rationale of the ESQUIF project and we describe the experimental set-up. We also report on the first experiments which took place during the summer of 1998 involving surface networks, and remote sensing instruments as well as several aircraft. Focusing on three days of August 1998, the relative contributions of long-range transported and locally-produced ozone to the elevated ozone concentrations observed during this period are discussed and chemistry-transport model preliminary results on this period are compared to measurements. (orig.)

  9. Jaromir Krejcar, technique’s apology. Czechoslovak pavilion at the International Exhibition, Paris 1937

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pura Moreno Moreno

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available L'Exposition Internationale des Arts et Techniques dans les Temps Modernes in Paris (1937 offered, across the construction of their pavilions to each country the opportunity to materialize their technological progress and also to show socio-political factors referred to the art’s integration or aesthetic formalization of their ideologies. In the Czechoslovakian pavilion, made by the architect Jaromir Krejcar, crystallized architectural postulates from the purism, cubism, and new objectivity close to technical aspects driven by the russian constructivism that had been developed during the first decades of the twentieth century in the architecture of the new Czech Republic. Its geographical location, at the crossroads of Europe, had favored the knowledge of avant-garde movements of its two flanks: the Eastern Europe –France, Germany, Austria and Netherlands— on one hand, and the other the Soviet Union. This article will recognize the architectural thought of Krejcar’s generation across the decisions of the pavilion’s project. The characteristics of its emplacement, combined with the moral obligation of showing the high technological level of his country, managed to place it as one of the best examples of that exhibition. Its materialization represent the culmination of previous architectural researches in Czechoslovakia that were truncated from 1939 by the political circumstances.

  10. Alternative medicine in Paris and Rio de Janeiro: a study on transformative health experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Eglem

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore the practice of alternative medicine as an experience capable of modifying the very perception of the body and body feeling, based in a two-field research in France (Paris and Brazil (Rio de Janeiro. In this research, the resort to alternative medicines was considered as urban practice and a possible response to emotional needs, beyond the curative specificities of these medicines. The two countries were chosen for their supposed complementarity concerning the perception of spirituality and therefore, the perception of holistic health concepts. The study relies on an inductive approach and a qualitative methodology: introspective interviews with consumers and professionals, as well as participant observations. After a review of the theoretical aspects on the subject — concepts related to health, alternative medicine, transformative experience —, empirical results are presented. They show that the experience of alternative medicine tends to modify body perception, understood as how individuals define their own body. It also tends to modify body internal feeling, literally how people feel their body. The second conclusion that can be drawn from our study is that, beyond cultural specificities, some similarities appear in the way the practice of alternative medicine impacts on body perception and individual values. In that sense, alternative medicine practices in big urban centers appear to be related to a global consumer culture. However, alternative health behaviors rely on a subjective quest of sense which can be expressed through a variety of practices related to better health, not necessarily involving consumption.

  11. Evaluation and monitoring of an household waste incineration plant in Paris area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Person, A.; Le Moullec, Y.; Gilibert, E.

    1995-01-01

    Urban population is more and more concerned by air quality and waste disposal. In Paris Area, municipal waste are incinerated in three large plants all equipped with gas cleaning systems, except one that will be equipped in June 1995. It appeared interesting to characterize and evaluate the impact of this incinerator on ambient air quality in an area where other sources interfere. An sampling campaign was set up on six sites of AIRPARIF (ile de France Air Quality Monitoring Network). Nitrogen oxides. Sulphur dioxide and black smokes are measured in continuously. Other pollutants, considered more specific of waste incineration plants were analysed on a 24 h-sampling basis (heavy metals, hydrochloride acid, Chlorides). The first results seem to show some trends. Regarding usual pollutants, it appears downwind sites present higher average level that upwind sites. For hydrochloric acid, 24 h. averages are higher when the site was frequently downwind during the day. The size of the data set is small for heavy metals, however it seems that an impact can be detected for Cd and Zn. (author)

  12. Measurements and modelling of atmospheric pollution over the Paris area: an overview of the ESQUIF Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Menut

    Full Text Available The "Étude et Simulation de la QUalité de l'air en Ile de France" (ESQUIF project is the first integrated project dedicated to the study of the processes leading to air pollution events over the Paris area. The project was carried out over two years (summer 1998 to winter 2000 to document all types of meteorological conditions favourable to air quality degradation, and in particular to photo oxydant formation. The goals of ESQUIF are (1 to improve our understanding of the relevant chemical and dynamical processes and, in turn, improve their parametrizations in numerical models, and (2 to improve and validate existing models dedicated to pollution analysis, scenarios and/or forecasting, by establishing a comprehensive and thorough database. We present the rationale of the ESQUIF project and we describe the experimental set-up. We also report on the first experiments which took place during the summer of 1998 involving surface networks, and remote sensing instruments as well as several aircraft. Focusing on three days of August 1998, the relative contributions of long-range transported and locally-produced ozone to the elevated ozone concentrations observed during this period are discussed and chemistry-transport model preliminary results on this period are compared to measurements.

    Key words: Atmospheric composition and structure (pollution – urban and regional; troposphere – composition and chemistry – Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (mesoscale meteorology

  13. Nuclear prospects in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1972-07-01

    At the present time, then, we are on the threshold of the second phase of nuclear development, in the. course of which nuclear activities will play a more telling role in the economic cycle. We must therefore consider the development of nuclear energy during its first two decades in the light of the above conclusions and in the realization that for some time to come we shall find ourselves in a delicate transitional stage, during which various influences from the period behind us and the period ahead will make themselves felt. This train of events is not restricted to France, where in 1970 the CEA undertook a complete restructuring of its departments. It is also taking place in other countries, where the various atomic energy commissions are feeling the need to reorganize in order to fit themselves for essential changes. We must therefore be prepared to act in the most effective way possible during this nuclear industrial period. To this end we must establish structures and adopt ways of thinking that art in keeping with the objectives of the period, which will be accompanied by a large growth of investment in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. Success will depend to a large extent on timely joint efforts in the public and private sectors. Taken together, these requirements imply that we must follow a long-term policy covering at least the next 20 years. As our remarks are to concern the peaceful applications of nuclear energy in France, leaving aside questions of fundamental research and military applications, we shall concentrate ori the fuel cycle and the production of nuclear power, enlarging the subject at each step to encompass the necessary and increasing international co-operation.

  14. Shielding research in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafore, P

    1964-10-01

    Shielding research as an independent subject in France dates from 1956. The importance of these studies has been reflected in the contribution which they have made to power reactor design and in the resultant savings in expenditure for civil engineering and machinery for the removal of mobile shields. The Reactor Shielding Research Division numbers approximately 60 persons and uses several experimental facilities. These include: NAIADE I, installed near the ZOE reactor and operating with a natural uranium slab 2 cm thick (an effective diameter of 60 cm is the one most commonly used); the TRITON pool-type reactor, mainly used in shielding studies, includes an active-water loop, by means of which the secondary shields required for light-water reactors can be studied; core, NEREIDE, which is situated near a 2 m x 2 m aluminium window enables a large neutron source to be placed in a compartment without water in which large-scale mock-ups can be mounted for the study, in particular, of neutron diffusion in large cavities, and of reactor shielding of greater thickness than that in NAIADE I; SAMES 600 keV accelerator is used for monoenergetic neutron studies. Instrumentation studies are an important part of the work, mainly in the measurement of fast neutrons and their spectra by activation detectors. Of late, attention has been directed towards the use of (n, n') (rhodium) reactions and of heavy detectors for low-flux measurements. The simultaneous use of a large number of detectors poses automation problems. With our installation we can count 16 detectors simultaneously. Neutron spectrum studies are conducted with nuclear emulsions and a lithium-6 semiconductor spectrometer. As to the materials used, the research carried out in France involves chiefly graphite, iron and concrete at various temperatures up to 800 deg C. Different compounds, borated and non-borated and of densities up to between 1 and 9 are under consideration. Problems connected with applications are

  15. 76 FR 53315 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Model SA-365N and SA-365N1 Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    ... of compliance. (d) The Joint Aircraft System/Component Code is 2897: Fuel System Wiring. (e) The... helicopters. This action requires you to disconnect the high level fuel switches in the fuel tanks on the affected helicopters. In addition, for helicopters without a crossfeed between the fuel filler necks, you...

  16. 2006 annual results: Gaz de France announces record-high results and exceeds its objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Paris, 13 March 2007 - In fiscal year 2006, Gaz de France had the best operational performance in its history. The Group confirms the strength of its business model, with sound Infrastructure business and sharp growth in Exploration - Production, Trading and Sales: - Net income, Group share: 2.3 billion euros; - EBITDA: 5.15 billion euros; - Dynamic dividend policy: 1.1 euro per share (+62%); - Investments at stepped-up pace: 4 billion euros (+38%); - Contribution of Group's international activities doubled in two years (39% of sales); - Many operational advances: strengthened operations, Exploration-Production, LNG Infrastructures and Electricity; - Major steps completed in merger project with Suez.

  17. 2006 annual results: Gaz de France announces record-high results and exceeds its objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Paris, 13 March 2007 - In fiscal year 2006, Gaz de France had the best operational performance in its history. The Group confirms the strength of its business model, with sound Infrastructure business and sharp growth in Exploration - Production, Trading and Sales: - Net income, Group share: 2.3 billion euros; - EBITDA: 5.15 billion euros; - Dynamic dividend policy: 1.1 euro per share (+62%); - Investments at stepped-up pace: 4 billion euros (+38%); - Contribution of Group's international activities doubled in two years (39% of sales); - Many operational advances: strengthened operations, Exploration-Production, LNG Infrastructures and Electricity; - Major steps completed in merger project with Suez

  18. Theories of genetics and evolution and the development of medical entomology in France (1900-1939).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gachelin, G; Opinel, A

    2008-12-01

    The development of entomology and medical entomology in France is discussed in the context of the prevalence of Lamarckian ideas concerning heredity and evolution. Lamarckian ideas have greatly influenced research carried out at the Institut Pasteur by Emile Roubaud and more generally in Felix Mesnil's laboratory, as well as research in general entomology at the Museum national d'histoire naturelle. By contrast, it did not influence research and teaching at the Faculté de médecine of Paris or that of physicians more generally including those in overseas Instituts Pasteur, which clearly kept away from theoretical discussion concerning the origin of variations and adaptation in insects of medical interest.

  19. Paris-Princeton lectures on mathematical finance 2010

    CERN Document Server

    Cousin, Areski; Guéant, Olivier; Hobson, David; Jeanblanc, Monique; Lasry, Jean-Michel; Laurent, Jean-Paul; Lions, Pierre-Louis; Tankov, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The Paris-Princeton Lectures on Mathematical Finance, of which this is the fourth volume, publish cutting-edge research in self-contained, expository articles from outstanding specialists - established or on the rise! The aim is to produce a series of articles that can serve as an introductory reference source for research in the field. The articles are the result of frequent exchanges between the finance and financial mathematics groups in Paris and Princeton. The present volume sets standards with articles by Areski Cousin, Monique Jeanblanc and Jean-Paul Laurent, Stéphane Crépey, Olivier Guéant, Jean-Michel Lasry and Pierre-Louis Lions, David Hobson, and Peter Tankov.

  20. Vincenzo Neri and His Legacy in Paris and Bologna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanone, Federico; Lorusso, Lorenzo; Venturini, Simone

    2016-01-01

    Italian neurologist Vincenzo Neri was able to discover cinematography at the beginning of his career, when in 1908 he went to Paris to learn and improve his clinical background by following neurological cases at La Pitié with Joseph Babinski, who became his teacher and friend. While in Paris, Neri photographed and filmed several patients of famous neurologists, such as Babinski and Pierre Marie. His stills were published in several important French neurological journals and medical texts. He also collaborated with Georges Mendel, who helped Doyen film the first known surgical operation in the history of cinema. In 1910, when he came back to Bologna, he continued in his clinical activities and, for 50 years, slowly developed a huge archive of films, images, and prints of neurological, psychiatric, and orthopedic cases. This archive was extremely helpful to Neri, who especially needed to analyze neurological disorders and to differentiate them from functional conditions in order to understand clinical signs, rules, and mechanisms.

  1. Intimidade e saúde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Maria Moreira Ferreira de Almeida

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A intimidade é antecedida de processos ativos, transversais ao ciclo de vida. O vínculo afetivo estabelece-se primariamente na relação de vinculação mãe-bebê, e os padrões comportamentais e estilos de vinculação tendem a repercutir-se nas relações adultas. O objetivo exploratório desta investigação pretende apurar a transcrição física (consequências na saúde de vivências insatisfatórias de intimidade. Sessenta universitários (30 do sexo feminino; 30 do sexo masculino, com idades entre 22 e 27 anos, envolvidos numa relação amorosa fixa (duração mínima: 6 meses foram contactados para responder a uma bateria de instrumentos (variáveis de interesse: intimidade, identidade, autoconceito e vinculação. Um bom estado de saúde parece associar-se a valores elevados de interdependência e baixos valores de dependência na relação amorosa. Nestes jovens a intimidade baseada na dependência compromete 14% da saúde mental. O impacto de uma intimidade pouco saudável limita em quase 9% a saúde física de jovens adultos saudáveis.

  2. Health SA Gesondheid: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health SA Gesondheid - Journal of Interdisciplinary Health Sciences is an open ... on issues related to public health, including implications for practical applications and ... researchers to showcase their work whilst upholding the standards of health ... improvement of health safety and service delivery; management and ...

  3. ANALISIS DAYA SAING KEDELAI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarwono Sarwono

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available RCA (Revealed Comparative Advantage index of soybean in Indonesia from 1983 up to 2013 is less than one, mostly. It means that the competitiveness of soybean in Indonesia is low. The purpose of this study is to analyze the factors influence the soybean competitiveness. OLS (Ordinary Least Square was used as the analysis method. Hypotheses test based on that analysis model is not bias, so that, classic divergence test is needed. It is for getting the Best Linier Unbiased Estimator (BLUE appraisal. T statistic and F statistic were also applied. The result of this research shows that production and export have positive and significant influence. In addition, exchange rate and government policy do not influence the Indonesia soybean competitiveness.Indeks RCA (Revealed Comparative Advantage kedelai Indonesia dari tahun 1983-2013 kecenderungan bernilai kurang dari satu yang berarti daya saing kedelai Indonesia rendah.Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi daya saing kedelai Indonesia.Metode analisis yang digunakan adalah Ordinary Least Square (OLS.Pengujian hipotesis berdasarkan model analisis tersebut tidak bias maka perlu dilakukan uji penyimpangan klasik yang tujuannya agar diperoleh penaksiran yang bersifat Best Linier Unbiased Estimator (BLUE.Pengujian statistik menggunakan uji t statistikdan uji f statistik.Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa produksi dan ekspor berpengaruh secara positif dan signifikan terhadap daya saing kedelai Indonesia. Nilai tukar rupiah dan kebijakan pemerintah tidak berpengaruh terhadap daya saing kedelai Indonesia.

  4. Borderline personality disorder in cultural context: commentary on Paris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S G

    1996-01-01

    Paris suggests that some cultures provide protective factors that can suppress the emergence of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Yet all cultures contain some individuals who perceive themselves as unable to meet what is expected of them, and the resultant distress is expressed through a variety of "ethnic" disorders such as susto or nervios. When viewed in this context, BPD is similar to these disorders, notably in the perceived sense of social failure, marginality and powerlessness.

  5. Probabilistic analysis of crack containing structures with the PARIS code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckner-Foit, A.

    1987-10-01

    The basic features of the PARIS code which has been developed for the calculation of failure probabilities of crack containing structures are explained. An important issue in the reliability analysis of cracked components is the probabilistic leak-before-break behaviour. Formulae for the leak and break probabilities are derived and it is shown how a leak detection system influences the results. An example taken from nuclear applications illustrates the details of the probabilistic leak-before-break analysis. (orig.) [de

  6. Interobserver reproducibility of the Paris system for reporting urinary cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Long

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Paris System for Reporting Urinary Cytology represents a significant improvement in classification of urinary specimens. The system acknowledges the difficulty in cytologically diagnosing low-grade urothelial carcinomas and has developed categories to deal with this issue. The system uses six categories: unsatisfactory, negative for high-grade urothelial carcinoma (NHGUC, atypical urothelial cells, suspicious for high-grade urothelial carcinoma, high-grade urothelial carcinoma, other malignancies and a seventh subcategory (low-grade urothelial neoplasm. Methods: Three hundred and fifty-seven urine specimens were independently reviewed by four cytopathologists unaware of the previous diagnoses. Each cytopathologist rendered a diagnosis according to the Paris System categories. Agreement was assessed using absolute agreement and weighted chance-corrected agreement (kappa. Disagreements were classified as low impact and high impact based on the potential impact of a misclassification on clinical management. Results: The average absolute agreement was 65% with an average expected agreement of 44%. The average chance-corrected agreement (kappa was 0.32. Nine hundred and ninety-nine of 1902 comparisons between rater pairs were in agreement, but 12% of comparisons differed by two or more categories for the category NHGUC. Approximately 15% of the disagreements were classified as high clinical impact. Conclusions: Our findings indicated that the scheme recommended by the Paris System shows adequate precision for the category NHGUC, but the other categories demonstrated unacceptable interobserver variability. This low level of diagnostic precision may negatively impact the applicability of the Paris System for widespread clinical application.

  7. Evolution of atmospheric radioactivity in Paris region. [In French

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abribat, M; Pouradier, J; Venet, A M

    1953-01-01

    Daily measurements of radioactivity have shown the passage of many atomic clouds, and particularly the series of explosions in the US and Russia, while those in the Pacific and Australia have been identified in Milan. For the Australian explosion in October 1953, there was no radioactive increase in the air in the Paris region, while for the Pacific explosion there were measurable fluctuations but very feeble. For the Russian explosions in August 1954, the fluctuations were much greater than for the Pacific ones.

  8. Retracted: Effect of Paris polyphylla extract on second- degree burns ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-01-26

    Jan 26, 2018 ... Retracted: Ma Z, Yin W, Hu G, Zhu Z, Huang Z. Effect of Paris polyphylla extract on second-degree burns in rats. Trop J Pharm Res 2016; 15(10):2131-2135 doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/tjpr.v15i10.11. From the Editor. Our attention was drawn to the falsification of the data published in this article which was ...

  9. Le Paris d’Hemingway : une question de style

    OpenAIRE

    Mallier, Clara

    2017-01-01

    Hemingway’s representation of Paris in The Sun Also Rises and A Moveable Feast has held many a reader in thrall. It steers clear of traditional description as the author prefers to "make" the city rather than "describe" it. This article analyzes Hemingway’s style in the light of this enigmatic aesthetic statement. The author’s idiosyncratic syntax tends to blur the semantic frontiers between juxtaposed words, and his use of repetition enhances the musicality of sentences, which constitutes th...

  10. Could US mayors achieve the entire US Paris climate target?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, K. R.; Huang, J.; Hutchins, M.; Liang, J.

    2017-12-01

    After the recent US Federal Administration announcement not to adhere to the Paris Accords, 359 mayors (and counting) in the US pledged to maintain their commitments, reducing emissions within their jurisdictions by 26-28% from their 2005 levels by the year 2025. While important, this leaves a large portion of the US landscape, and a large amount of US emissions, outside of the Paris commitment. With Federal US policy looking unlikely to change, could additional effort by US cities overcome the gap in national policy and achieve the equivalent US national Paris commitment? How many cities would be required and how deep would reductions need to be? Up until now, this question could not be reliably resolved due to lack of data at the urban scale. Here, we answer this question with new data - the Vulcan V3.0 FFCO2 emissions data product - through examination of the total US energy related CO2 emissions from cities. We find that the top 500 urban areas in the US could meet the national US commitment to the Paris Accords with a reduction of roughly 30% below their 2015 levels by the year 2025. This is driven by the share of US emissions emanating from cities, particularly the largest cohort. Indeed, as the number of urban areas taking on CO2 reduction targets grows, the less the reduction burden on any individual city. In this presentation, we provide an analysis of US urban CO2 emissions and US climate policy, accounting for varying definitions of urban areas, emitting sectors and the tradeoff between the number of policy-active cities and the CO2 reduction burden.

  11. Assessment of indoor environment in Paris child day care centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roda, Célina; Barral, Sophie; Ravelomanantsoa, Hanitriniala; Dusséaux, Murielle; Tribout, Martin; Le Moullec, Yvon; Momas, Isabelle

    2011-11-01

    Children are sensitive to indoor environmental pollution. Up until now there has been a lack of data on air quality in child day care centers. The aim of this study is to document the indoor environment quality of Paris child day care centers by repeated measurements, and to compare pollutant levels in child day care centers with levels in Paris dwellings. We selected 28 child day care centers frequented by a random sample of babies who participated in the PARIS birth cohort environmental investigation, and visited the child day care centers for one week twice in one year. Biological contaminants assessed were fungi, endotoxin, dust mite allergens, and chemical pollutants: aldehydes, volatile organic compounds and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Relative humidity, temperature, and carbon dioxide levels were measured simultaneously. A standardized questionnaire was used to gather information about the buildings and their inhabitants. Airborne endotoxin levels in child day care centers were higher than those found in Paris dwellings. Dust mite allergens in child day care centers were below the threshold level for sensitization in the majority of samples, and in common with dwelling samples. Penicillium and Cladosporium were the most commonly identified genera fungi. The child day care center indoor/outdoor ratio for most chemical pollutants was above unity except for NO2, the levels for NO2 being significantly higher than those measured in homes. Chemical and biological contamination in child day care centers appears to be low, apart from endotoxin and NO2. Failure to take child exposure in child day care centers into account could result in an overestimation of children's exposure to other pollutants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Are therapeutics decisions homogeneous in multidisciplinary onco-urology staff meeting? Comparison of therapeutic options taken in four departments from Paris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audenet, F; Lejay, V; Mejean, A; De La Taille, A; Abbou, C-C; Lebret, T; Botto, H; Bitker, M-O; Roupret, M

    2012-06-01

    One of the priorities of the "Plan against the Cancer" in France is to ensure the discussion of all cancer cases in a multidisciplinary meeting staff (RCP). The multidisciplinary collaboration is proposed to guarantee a discussion between specialists in every cases, particularly in complex cases. The aim of this study was to compare the therapeutic decision taken in four RCP in Paris Île-de-France academic centres for three identical cases. Three cases of urological oncology (prostate cancer [PCa], renal cell carcinoma [RCC] and bladder tumour) were selected by a single urologist, not involved in further discussion. These cases were blindly presented in four academic urology department from Paris: Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, Mondor Hospital, the Georges-Pompidou European Hospital and Foch Hospital. The four centres met the criteria of quality of RCP in terms of multidisciplinarity, frequency and standardization. The therapeutic suggestions were similar in the RCC cases, there were differences in the surgical approaches and preoperative work-up in the PCa case and, lastly, the proposals were different for the bladder cancer case. The decisions relies on clinical data and preoperative work-up but also on the experience and habits of the centre of excellence. For complex cases that does not fit with current guidelines, the panel discussion can lead to different therapeutic options from a centre to another and is largely influenced by the local organisation of the RCP. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. [Reflection on the psychiatric financial allocation in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, L; Fond, G; Devictor, B; Samuelian, J-C; Lancon, C; Rouillon, F; Gaillard, R; Zendjidjian, X; Llorca, P-M

    2016-08-01

    For 25years work has been underway in France for the implementation of an alternative to public financing of health care. In the absence of progress, some regional health agencies are engaged in work related to the reallocation of public finances between psychiatric institutions. We propose a reflection with suggestion on the method proposed by the Provence Alpes Côte d'Azur Regional Health Agency. Without questioning the need for a reallocation of resources between psychiatric institutions, the method proposed here needs to evolve further to be applied in a legitimate and appropriate manner. There is a kind of urgency for a reallocation of resources between psychiatric institutions in France, but it implies a collective thinking and especially the definition of evaluation procedures for the selected models. These conditions are necessary to guarantee the quality of French psychiatry and equity in access to psychiatric care. Copyright © 2016 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Saúde e desenvolvimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luiza D'Ávila Viana

    Full Text Available Considerando que os modernos sistemas de saúde são o resultado da complexa interação de processos econômicos, políticos e sociais, o objetivo do trabalho é discutir a relação entre saúde e desenvolvimento no Brasil, mostrando que o esgotamento do modelo liberal de política econômica abre nova perspectiva para a retomada do desenvolvimento, entendido como combinação entre crescimento da economia, mudanças na estrutura produtiva e melhora das condições de vida da população. O complexo produtivo da saúde joga papel decisivo nesse processo, pois constitui um campo em que inovação tecnológica e acumulação de capital geram oportunidades de investimento, trabalho e renda, além de produzir avanços importantes para melhorar o estado de saúde das pessoas. A recente adoção de políticas públicas voltadas para articular, de forma positiva, aspectos da política econômica e da política social revela que a questão do desenvolvimento nacional ganhou nova centralidade na agenda governamental, o que abre a perspectiva de maior integração entre a lógica econômica e a lógica sanitária. Entretanto, é preciso reconhecer que o Brasil ainda não logrou alcançar uma associação virtuosa entre saúde e desenvolvimento.

  15. Revision of the Paris and Brussels Conventions of Nuclear Liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyners, P.

    2002-01-01

    The Contracting Parties to the 1960 Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy and to the 1963 Brussels Convention Supplementary to the Paris Convention, have concluded this Spring four years of negotiation on the revision of these instruments. This exercise was itself started as a logical consequence of the adoption in 1997 of a revised Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage and of a Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage. The Contracting Parties have concluded that the existing regime established by these Conventions remains viable and sound but that it also warrants improvements to ensure that greater financial security will be available to compensate a potentially larger number of victims in respect of a broader range of nuclear damage. A number of more technical amendments have also been agreed, in particular to ensure compatibility with other existing Conventions in this field. When the revised Paris and Brussels Conventions come into force, the total amount of funds available for compensation, provided by the liable nuclear operator and by the States concerned, will be 1.5 billion euros. (author)

  16. Gaz de France. Operation note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This note was published for the public at the occasion of the admission to Euronext's Eurolist of the existing shares that make the capital of Gaz de France company, the French gas utility. The note gives some informations about Gaz de France activity, and about its strategy of development in the European gas market. Then it describes the offer relative to the opening of Gaz de France capital. Some selected financial data and some precision about the risk factors and the management of the company complete the document. (J.S.)

  17. Interconnection France-England; Interconnexion France-Angleterre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    These documents defines the interconnection France-England rules for the 2000 MW DC submarine cable directly linking the transmission networks of England and Wales and France. Rights to use Interconnector capacity from 1 April 2001 are to be offered through competitive tenders and auctions, full details of which are set out in the Rules. The contract and a guide to the application form are provided. (A.L.B.)

  18. Géochimie organique du bassin de Paris Organic Geochemistry of the Paris Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espitalie J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available On présente ici les principaux résultats de l'étude géochimique réalisée, dans le bassin de Paris, à partir des déblais et des carottes provenant de 100 sondages pétroliers ou miniers, et des huiles prélevées dans les réservoirs du Mésozoïque (Trias, Bathonien supérieur, Néocomien. Les différentes méthodes géochimiques utilisées sont la pyrolyse, particulièrement bien adaptée à l'étude des nombreux échantillons de déblais recueillis, la chromatographie en phase gazeuse pour l'analyse détaillée des huiles et des extraits de roche, la spectrométrie de masse pour l'étude des biomarqueurs. Les époques principales de formation de l'huile et du gaz ont été déterminées par simulation sur ordinateur d'un modèle mathématique de genèse des hydrocarbures. Les méthodes de pyrolyse ont permis de dresser des logs géochimiques des forages étudiés et de déterminer, par le calcul, les paramètres de pyrolyse initiaux des roches-mères, avant leur enfouissement. On a pu ainsi établir, dans le périmètre étudié, des cartes de carbone organique initial, de potentiels pétroliers totaux et de quantités d'HC migrés. L'ensemble de ces résultats montre que les roches-mères de la grande majorité des huiles du Mésozoïque sont situées dans le Lias, s'échelonnant depuis le Toarcien jusqu'à l'Hettangien et que les meilleures zones de potentiel pétrolier du Bassin sont localisées à l'emplacement des régions de forte subsidence à l'époque du Lias. L'étude détaillée des hydrocarbures et celle des biomarqueurs ne permettent pas de distinguer les différentes huiles entre elles, quelle que soit leur profondeur, ni de leur attribuer une origine précise à partir des différents niveaux du Lias. Les cartes de migration mettent en évidence des déplacements latéraux des hydrocarbures dans certaines roches-mères (cas du Toarcien inférieur. Elles montrent aussi un déficit important en hydrocarbures à la base du

  19. France looks to biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-03-22

    France's Solar Energy Commission has announced a series of measures it is backing to increase the country's production of energy from biomass. Following consultations on suitable equipment, it has decided to go ahead with experiments of 15 systems designed to produce methane from animal wastes. Its eventual target is the production of between 1 million and 1.5 million tons per year of oil equivalent (toe) from this source. Secondly, it has launched a tender for the supply of domestic and industrial heating equipment capable of functioning on straw. It has calculated that the amount of straw available for this end use is in the region of 6 million ton per year, equivalent to about 2 million tons per year toe. Finally, tests are to be carried out in 14 different areas to determine the best variety of Jerusalem artichoke for the production of ethanol. Together with the Institut Francais du Petrole the Commission is building a demonstration unit for the production of acetone/butyric acid by fermentation of sugars from Jerusamlem artichoke and beet roots.

  20. Nuclear electricity from France?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harms, W.

    1987-01-01

    This second volume of the Berlin series presents the papers and discussion of the eleventh discussion meeting on energy law, for the first time held in Berlin, on May 12-13, 1987. The leading subject of the first conference day, namely electricity imports from France, has since then widely been discussed in the media or at other meetings, although the legal problems or obstacles revealed at this Berlin meeting are far from being solved. There is EdF's wish to export electricity to West Germany on the other hand, and there is the West German coal industry's scepticism on the other hand. Much is at stake for West Germany's national concept of enhanced use of coal for electricity generation, and the related system of subventions. Supply concepts and franchise charges, a standing topic of the power sector for quite a time now, have been discussed on the second conference day. The papers read there gave an account of the situation and also presented some new aspects. (orig./UA) [de

  1. Nuclear safety in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laverie, M.

    1981-02-01

    The principles and rules governing the safety of nuclear installations are defined as from three fundamental principles and three practical rules as follows: First principle: the operator is responsible and of the highest order. Second principle: the public authorities exercise their control responsibility with respect to the design, construction and running of the installations. Third principle: nuclear safety, this is to accept that man and his technique are not infallible and that one must be prepared to control the unpredictable. First rule: the installations must include several 'lines of defence' in succession and to the extent where this is possible these must be independent of each other. Second rule: procedures are required and supervised by the Government Departments. Third rule: nuclear safety requires that any incident or anomaly must undergo an analysis in depth and is also based on a standing 'clinical' examination of the installations. The definition is given as to how the public authorities exercise their intervention: terms and conditions of the intervention by the safety authorities, authorization procedures, surveillance of the installations, general technical regulations. Two specific subjects are presented in the addendum, (a) the choice of nuclear power station sites in France and (b) the storage of radioactive wastes [fr

  2. Income tax in France

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Memorandum from the HR and FP Departments and the Legal Service concerning the annual internal taxation certificate and the declaration of income for 2008 You are reminded that each year the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that members of the personnel are thus exempt from external taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN. This memorandum is intended to provide members of the personnel residing in France with information on how salaries and emoluments paid by CERN should be indicated in the 2008 income declaration form. For any other income, they are invited to comply with the instructions attached to the form. I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2008 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2008, issued by the FP Department, has been available since 1st March 2009 (see Bulletin No. 11-12/2009). It is int...

  3. Income Tax in France

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Memorandum from the HR and FP Departments and the Legal Service concerning the annual internal taxation certificate and the declaration of income for 2008 You are reminded that each year the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that members of the personnel are thus exempt from external taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN. This memorandum is intended to provide members of the personnel residing in France with information on how salaries and emoluments paid by CERN should be indicated in the 2008 income declaration form. For any other income, they are invited to comply with the instructions attached to the form. I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2008 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2008, issued by the FP Department, has been available since 1st March 2009 (see Bulletin No. 11-12/2009). It is int...

  4. Accident response in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duco, J.; L'Homme, A.; Queniart, D.

    1988-07-01

    French PWR power plant design relies basically on a deterministic approach. A probabilistic approach was introduced in France in the early seventies to define safety provisions against external impacts. In 1977 an overall safety objective was issued by the safety authority in terms of an upper probability limit for having unacceptable consequences. Additional measures were taken (the ''H'' operating procedures) to complement the automatic systems normally provided by the initial design, so as to safisfy the safety objective. The TMI-2 accident enhanced the interest in confused situations in which possible multiple equipment failure and/or unappropriate previous actions of the operators impede the implementation of any of the existing event-oriented procedures. In such situations, the objective becomes to avoid core-melt by any means available: this is the goal of the Ul symptom-oriented procedure. Whenever a core-melt occurs, the radioactive releases into the environment must be compatible with the feasibility of the off-site emergency plans; that means that for some hypothetical, but still conceivable scenarios, provisions have to be made to delay and limit the consequences of the loss of the containment: the U2, U4 and U5 ultimate procedures have been elaborated for that purpose. For the case of an emergency, a nationwide organization has been set up to provide the plant operator with a redundant technical expertise, to help him save his plant or mitigate the radiological consequences of a core-melt

  5. EDF - 2012 full-year results: Strong results and commitments delivered. Confirmation of the solidity of EDF's integrated and diversified business model. Annual results 2012. Electricite de France S.A.: Statutory Auditors' Report on the consolidated financial statements. Management report 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    As the world's biggest electricity generator, the EDF Group covers every sector of expertise, from generation to trading and transmission grids. EDF builds on the expertise of its people, its R and D and engineering skills, its experience as a leading industry operator and the attentive support of its customers to deliver competitive solutions that successfully reconcile economic growth with climate protection. This document presents the 2012 annual results, management report and Consolidated financial statements of the Group at 31 December 2012: EBITDA: euro 16.1 billion, +7.7% of which 4.6% organic growth; Net income excluding non-recurring items: euro 4.2 billion, +16.9%; Net income - Group share: euro 3.3 billion, + 5.3%; Allocation in 2013 of the CSPE receivable to dedicated assets, bringing coverage of eligible provisions to 100% starting as early as 2013; Net financial debt/EBITDA: 2.4x2; Proposed dividend of euro 1.25/share for the 20123 financial year, i.e. a pay-out ratio of 55% of net income excluding non-recurring items. 2013: a decisive year: Launch of 'Spark': plan targeting savings of euro 1 billion as soon as 2013; EBITDA: between 0% and 3% in organic growth excluding Edison; Edison: expectation for recurring EBITDA in line with 2012, with fluctuation in results possible in 2013-2014 linked to calendar effect from the re-negotiation of gas supply contracts; Net investments stable at euro 12 billion; Net financial debt/EBITDA: between 2x and 2.5x; Pay-out ratio: between 55% and 65% of net income excluding non-recurring items. Consolidated Financial Statements: Group accounting standards; comparability; significant events and transactions; regulatory events in France; changes in the scope of consolidation; segment reporting; sales; fuel and energy purchases; other external expenses; personnel expenses; taxes other than income taxes; other operating income and expenses; impairment / reversals; other income and expenses; financial result; income taxes

  6. The chemical industry of uranium in France; L'industrie chimique de l'uranium en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldschmidt, B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Paris (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    The actual CEA program is concerned with the construction of two large graphite reactors, each of those containing at least one hundred tons of uranium metal with nuclear purity. The uranium for these two reactors will be regularly supplied by new resources discovered in France and Madagascar in the last five years. The working and treatment of such ore have led to the creation of an important french industry of which the general outline and principle are described. The operated ores have got different natures and concentration, individual characteristics are described for the main ores.The most high-grade ore are transported to a central plant in Bouchet near Paris; the low-grade ore are concentrated by physical methods or chemical processes of which principles and economy are studied with constancy. The acid processes are the only used until now, although the carbonated alkaline processes has been studied in France. The next following steps after the acid process until the obtention of uranium rich concentrate are described. The purification steps of uranium compounds to nuclear purity material are described as well as the steps to elaborate metal of which the purity grade will be specify. Finally, the economic aspects of uranium production difficulty will be considered in relation with technical progresses which we can expect to achieve in the future. (M.P.)

  7. Undocumented Youth Living Between the Lines: Urban Governance, Social Policy, and the Boundaries of Legality in New York City and Paris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruszczyk, Stephen P.

    This dissertation compares the transition to adulthood of undocumented youth in New York and Paris, along with analysis of the construction of illegality in each city. In both the United States and France, national restrictions against undocumented immigrants increasingly take the form of deportations and limiting access to social rights. New York City and Paris, however, mitigate the national restrictions in important but different ways. They construct "illegality" differently, leading to different young adult outcomes and lived experiences of "illegality." This project uses seven years of multi-site ethnographic data to trace the effects of these mitigated "illegalities" on two dozen (male) youth. We can begin to understand the variation in these undocumented young men's social lives within and between cities by centering on (1) governance structure, the labyrinth of obtaining rights associated with citizenship, (2) citizenship, the possibility of gaining a legal status, steered in particular by civil society actors, and (3) identity, here centered on youths' negotiation of social mobility with the fear of enforcement. Biographical narratives show the shifts in social memberships as youth transition to new countries, new restrictions at adulthood, and new, limiting work. In New York, most social prospects are flattened as future possibilities are whittled down to ones focusing on family and wages. Undocumented status propels New York informants into an accelerated transition to adulthood, as they take on adult responsibilities of work, paying bills, and developing families. In Paris, youth experience more divergent processes of transitioning to adulthood. Those who are more socially integrated use a civil society actor to garner a (temporary) legal status, which does not lead to work opportunities. Those who are less socially integrated face isolation as they wait to gain status and access to better jobs. Paris undocumented youth are thus characterized by a

  8. Mid-21st century air quality at the urban scale under the influence of changed climate and emissions: case studies for Paris and Stockholm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markakis, K.; Valari, M.; Engardt, M.; Lacressonnière, G.; Vautard, R.; Andersson, C.

    2015-10-01

    Ozone, PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations over Paris, France and Stockholm, Sweden were modeled at 4 and 1 \\unit{km} horizontal resolutions respectively for the present and 2050 periods employing decade-long simulations. We account for large-scale global climate change (RCP-4.5) and fine resolution bottom-up emission projections developed by local experts and quantify their impact on future pollutant concentrations. Moreover, we identify biases related to the implementation of regional scale emission projections over the study areas by comparing modeled pollutant concentrations between the fine and coarse scale simulations. We show that over urban areas with major regional contribution (e.g., the city of Stockholm) the bias due to coarse emission inventory may be significant and lead to policy misclassification. Our results stress the need to better understand the mechanism of bias propagation across the modeling scales in order to design more successful local-scale strategies. We find that the impact of climate change is spatially homogeneous in both regions, implying strong regional influence. The climate benefit for ozone (daily average and maximum) is up to -5 % for Paris and -2 % for Stockholm city. The joined climate benefit on PM2.5 and PM10 in Paris is between -10 and -5 % while for Stockholm we observe mixed trends up to 3 % depending on season and size class. In Stockholm, emission mitigation leads to concentration reductions up to 15 % for daily average and maximum ozone and 20 % for PM and through a sensitivity analysis we show that this response is entirely due to changes in emissions at the regional scale. On the contrary, over the city of Paris (VOC-limited photochemical regime), local mitigation of NOx emissions increases future ozone concentrations due to ozone titration inhibition. This competing trend between the respective roles of emission and climate change, results in an increase in 2050 daily average ozone by 2.5 % in Paris. Climate and not

  9. Mid-21st century air quality at the urban scale under the influence of changed climate and emissions - case studies for Paris and Stockholm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markakis, Konstantinos; Valari, Myrto; Engardt, Magnuz; Lacressonniere, Gwendoline; Vautard, Robert; Andersson, Camilla

    2016-02-01

    Ozone, PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations over Paris, France and Stockholm, Sweden were modelled at 4 and 1 km horizontal resolutions respectively for the present and 2050 periods employing decade-long simulations. We account for large-scale global climate change (RCP-4.5) and fine-resolution bottom-up emission projections developed by local experts and quantify their impact on future pollutant concentrations. Moreover, we identify biases related to the implementation of regional-scale emission projections by comparing modelled pollutant concentrations between the fine- and coarse-scale simulations over the study areas. We show that over urban areas with major regional contribution (e.g. the city of Stockholm) the bias related to coarse-scale projections may be significant and lead to policy misclassification. Our results stress the need to better understand the mechanism of bias propagation across the modelling scales in order to design more successful local-scale strategies. We find that the impact of climate change is spatially homogeneous in both regions, implying strong regional influence. The climate benefit for ozone (daily mean and maximum) is up to -5 % for Paris and -2 % for Stockholm city. The climate benefit on PM2.5 and PM10 in Paris is between -5 and -10 %, while for Stockholm we estimate mixed trends of up to 3 % depending on season and size class. In Stockholm, emission mitigation leads to concentration reductions up to 15 % for daily mean and maximum ozone and 20 % for PM. Through a sensitivity analysis we show that this response is entirely due to changes in emissions at the regional scale. On the contrary, over the city of Paris (VOC-limited photochemical regime), local mitigation of NOx emissions increases future ozone concentrations due to ozone titration inhibition. This competing trend between the respective roles of emission and climate change, results in an increase in 2050 daily mean ozone by 2.5 % in Paris. Climate and not emission change

  10. Varyasyong Leksikal sa mga Dayalektong Mandaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Raymund M. Pasion

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Layuning panlahat sa pag-aaral na ito na tuklasin ang varyasyong leksikalsa Wikang Mandaya na matatagpuan sa Probinsyang Davao Oriental. Bilang lunsaran sa paglilikom ng mga datos, ginamit ang mga terminong kultural na pangkabuhayan tulad ng pagsasaka, pangangaso, pangingisda at paghahayupan nanababatay sa Indigenous Knowledge System and Practices (IKSP.Sinikap sagutin sa pagaaral ang suliraning ano-anong varyasyong liksikal ang makikita sa mga terminong kultural na pangkabuhayan ng Mandaya na makikita sa munisipalidad ng Caraga, Manay, Bagangaat Cateel? Disenyong kwalitatibo ginamit.Metodong indehinusat deskriptibo naman ang ginamit mula sa paglilikom hanggang sa pag-aanalisa ng mga datos. Samantalang, ang mga impormante ay pinilisa pamamagitan ng kombinasyong purposive at snow-ball sampling. Natuklasan, na ang wikang Mandaya ay nakitaan ng varyasyong lekisikal ayon sa magkakaiba ang anyo, may pagkakatulad ang anyo, at magkakatulad ang anyo subalit magkakaiba ang bigkas. Gayunpaman, pinaniniwalaang dahil sa paktor na heograpikal, sikolohikal at sosyolohikal na nagaganap sa kanilang kultura ay hindi rin maipagkailang nagyari ang varyasyong leksikal na aspekto nito.

  11. The nuclear energy in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedroso, L.J.

    1983-01-01

    An overview of the nuclear energy in France is done. The great centers and the great research lines of the French nuclear program, as well as its present status and prospects for the future are presented. (EG) [pt

  12. Electricite de France in 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menage, G.; Bergougnoux, J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes financial results of a french electric utility (Electricite de France) in 1992. Statistical data on investments, tariffs, and prices of electric power in Europe are also given. 7 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Lack of reliable alternatives means France faces challenges finding a replacement for nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalton, David [NucNet, Brussels (Belgium)

    2017-03-15

    The lack of alternative low-carbon energy sources that are as reliable as nuclear means France's ''ambitious'' plans to reduce its share of nuclear from 78 % in 2015 to 50 % by 2025 might not be achievable, the International Energy Agency (IEA) said in its January 2017 report. The Paris-based agency said France - which has the world's highest share of nuclear in its electricity mix - must assess possible changes in energy demand and supply and to guarantee ''continuous security of electricity supply'' as it pushes ahead with its plans for an ''energy transition'' up to 2050. The Energy Transition for Green Growth Act (Loi relative a la transition energetique pour la croissance verte, LTECV) was the result of consultations that ran from January to July 2013.

  14. Gaz de France. Source document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document was issued by Gaz de France, the French gas utility, at the occasion of the opening of the capital of the company. It is intended to shareholders and presents some informations relative to the stocks admitted to Euronext's Eurolist, some general informations about the company and its capital, some informations about the activities of Gaz de France group, about its financial situation and results, about its management, and about its recent evolution and future perspectives. (J.S.)

  15. Policemen exposure to atmospheric pollutants in Paris; Exposition des policiers aux polluants atmospheriques a Paris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bugajny, Ch.; Coursimault, A.; Donati, J.; Vieillard, H. [Laboratoire Central de la Prefecture de Police de Paris, 75 (France); Ducos, P.; Gaudin, R. [Institut National de Recherche et de Securite, 54 - Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France)

    2000-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of automotive pollution on police health in Paris, more particularly those that are working near streets and crossroads; police working indoors are included in measurements as a reference population. This work included individual exposure measurements to some urban pollution main indicators and biological determinations to estimate the impact of these pollutants on health. Biological measurements, including determinations of carboxyhemoglobin, lead in blood and trans, trans-muconic acid in urine were realised. Carbon monoxide and benzene individual exposure had been measured by the use of individual analysers and diffusive samplers respectively. Motorcycle policemen and policemen at crossroads are more exposed than reference population working indoor. CO mean exposure levels are 6, 8 mg/m{sup 3} for motorcycle policemen, 5, 4 mg/m{sup 3} for policemen at crossroads, compared to 3, 6 mg/m{sup 3} for policemen working indoors. Carboxyhemoglobin mean values before work are four to five times more important for smokers (4, 5 % HbCO) than no-smokers (1,0%HbCO). After work, these values are respectively 5,3 % and 1,1 %. Non-smokers agents don't reach the OMS value (2,5%HbCO), even after work. Smoking contributes to higher levels of CO in blood than car exhaust pollutants, even for high air pollutants concentrations. Lead blond levels, which average is 45{mu}g/l, are clearly smaller than the OMS value (200{mu}g/l). About non-smokers agents, benzene median exposures are 74 {mu}g/m{sup 3} for motorcycle policemen, 19 {mu}g/m{sup 3} for policemen at crossroads, compared to 8 {mu}g/m{sup 3} for sedentary agents. If motorcycle agents filled up the tank with gasoline, benzene median exposure level is 229 {mu}g/m{sup 3}. Differences between smokers and non-smokers benzene exposure are not significant. For non-smokers agents, median trans, trans muconic acid values after work are 0,06 mg/l for pollution exposed agents

  16. France without nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barre, B.; Charmant, A.; Devezeaux, J.G.; Ladoux, N.; Vielle, M.

    1995-01-01

    As environmental issues (particularly questions associated with the greenhouse effect) become a matter of increasing current concern, the French nuclear power programme can, in retrospect, be seen to have had a highly positive impact upon emissions of atmospheric pollutants. The most spectacular effect of this programme was the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions from 530 million tonnes per annum in 1973 to 387 million tonnes per annum today. Obviously, this result cannot be considered in isolation from the economic consequences of the nuclear power programme, which have been highly significant.The most obvious consequence of nuclear power has been the production of cheap electricity, while a further consequence has been the stability of electricity prices resulting from the increasing self-sufficiency of France in energy supplies (from 22% in 1973 to 49.% in 1992). Moreover, French nuclear industry exports. In 1993, 61.7 TW·h from nuclear production were exported, which contributed F.Fr. 14.2 billion to the credit side of the balance of payment. For the same year, Framatome exports are assessed at about F.Fr. 2 billion, corresponding to manufacturing and erection of heavy components, and maintenance services. Cogema, the French nuclear fuel operator, sold nuclear materials and services for F.Fr. 9.3 billion. Thus, nuclear activities contributed more than F.Fr. 25 billion to the balance of payment. Therefore, a numerical assessment of the macroeconomic impact of the nuclear power programme is essential for any accurate evaluation of the environmental consequences of that programme. For this assessment, which is presented in the paper, the Micro-Melodie macroeconomic and energy supply model developed by the Commissariat a l'energie atomique has been used. (author). 6 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  17. In brief...France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    Among the different news we can find information about the situation of the radiation accidents at the hospital of Epinal in the east of France. The medical surveillance of the irradiated patients has allowed to find others cases of over exposure.These new cases add to a series of events enlightened in this service: 24 patients treated for a prostate cancer between may 2004 and august 2005 have been over exposed of about 20 % because of a bad use of the treatment planning software. 4 hundred patients treated for a prostate cancer between 2001 and 2006 have been over exposed of about 8% by an excessive use of the imaging controlling the positioning during the treatment. Among 4500 patients treated for different cancers between september 1987 and july 2000 and concerned by a programming error of an internal software, 312 patients have received an overexposure of about 7%. The Authority of nuclear safety and the Institute of radiation protection and nuclear safety (I.R.S.N.) publish the report of management 2006 on the Internet gate of the National network of environmental radioactivity measurements. The Internet site of the pluralist expertise group on the uranium mines sites of the Limousin opens at the address :www.gep-nucleaire.org. The high committee for the transparency and information on nuclear safety is officially created. The Asn has classified at the level 4+ of the experimental scale Asn-S.F.R.O. the accident occurred at the teaching hospital of Toulouse between the 11. april 2006 and the 18. april 2007 implying 145 patients treated by intracranial radiosurgery. (N.C.)

  18. International Conference on Photochemistry (15th) Abstracts of Invited Lectures and Oral and Poster Contributions Held in Paris, France on 28 July-2 August 1991 (XVeme Conference Internationale de Photochimie, Paris, France 28 Juillet-2 Aout 1991)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-01

    M. Novo, C. Rios, F. Rodrlguez PrIelo Dpto. Quimica Fisica. Universidad de Santiago. E-15706 Santiago de Compostela. SPAIN. Ground- and excited-state...Sebastiao J. Formosinh Jo~o S. Brancod), and M. Mendes M.M. Fernandes a ) a) Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Coimbra,3000-Coibra,Portugal b) Department of...Braslavskyl, and Kurt Schaffner i I 3Max-Planck-Institut far Strahlenchemie, D.4330 M~lhem a.d. Ruhr, Stiftstrafle 34- 36, FRG. ’ Departamento de QuImica

  19. Cost analysis of adverse events associated with non-small cell lung cancer management in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chouaid C

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Christos Chouaid,1 Delphine Loirat,2 Emilie Clay,3 Aurélie Millier,3 Chloé Godard,4 Amira Fannan,4 Laurie Lévy-Bachelot,4 Eric Angevin5 1Chest Department, Centre Hospitalier Intercommunal Créteil, Créteil, France; 2Institut Curie, Paris, France; 3Creativ-Ceutical, Paris, France; 4MSD France, Courbevoie, France; 5Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France Background: Adverse events (AEs related to medical treatments in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC are frequent and need an appropriate costing in health economic models. Nevertheless, data on costs associated with AEs in NSCLC are scarce, particularly since the development of immunotherapy with specific immune-related AEs.Objective: To estimate the costs of grades 3 and 4 AEs related to NSCLC treatments including immunotherapy in France.Methods: Grades 3 and 4 AEs related to treatment and reported in at least 1% of patients in Phase III clinical trials for erlotinib, ramucirumab plus docetaxel, docetaxel, pemetrexed plus carboplatin plus bevacizumab, platinum-based chemotherapies, nivolumab and pembrolizumab were identified. When no cost evaluation was reported in literature, estimates on standard treatments and medical resource use for each AE were obtained thanks to an expert panel. Total cost per AE was calculated from a French national health insurance perspective and updated in 2017 Euros. Hospital stay costs were estimated based on public and private weighted tariffs and data from the French Medical Information System (Programme de Médicalisation des Systèmes d’Information. Costs of tests, consultations and treatments were calculated based on national reimbursement tariffs.Results: Overall, costs of grades 3 and 4 AEs related to treatment ranged from €46 per event to €7,742 per year. Fourteen out of 24 AEs identified had a mean estimated cost over €2,000. The highest mean costs were related to type 1 diabetes (€7,742 per year followed by pneumonitis (€5,786 per event

  20. Is Individual Metering Socially Sustainable? The Case of Multifamily Housing in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Barraqué

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Before generalising water metering and billing at the apartment level for consumer equity reasons, and alleviating the burden of water bills for poor families through increasing block tariffs (IBTs, Paris Council asked for some expert advice. The pros and cons of two separate issues – IBTs efficiency and justice; and individual household metering – were mixed. Our research first summarises various studies of the redistributive effects of tariff changes, first from flat rates to metering, and then from uniform prices to IBTs. We address the particular case of multifamily housing, where it is possible to retain collective billing, while relying on sub-metering to allocate the bill. The limitations of classical econometric surveys on large samples (in terms of understanding households’ strategies with tap water support the need for supplementary detailed sociological surveys at neighbourhood or building levels, if only to check the unexpected redistributive effects of tariff changes in practice. We review the specific French situation, peculiarly in Paris, to show that individual apartment billing is more costly and tends to have regressive effects. Like other cities in France, Paris abandoned the implementation of Art. 93 of the 2000 law, which encouraged individual billing; and we explain why.

  1. Colloquium on High Resolution Molecular Spectroscopy (16th) Held in Universite de Bourgogne, Dijon, France on 6-10 September 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-28

    Chimica Fisica e Photophysique Mol6culaire, Physikalische Chemnie, Inorganica, Universit6 de Paris-Sud, ETH Zentrum, Universitý, de Bologna, Orsay... de la Materia, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Serrano 123, 28006 Madrid, Spain; C. CLAVEAU and A. VALENTIN, Laboratoire de Physique...Cedex, France; J. C. LOPEZ and S. BLANCO, Departamento de Quimica- Fisica , Facultad de Ciencias, Universitad de Valladolid, 47071 Valladolid, Spain; A

  2. Revival of coal. [France and USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    This edition is devoted to the production and consumption of coal in France. It presents a study of the main topics involved, discusses the position of coal in France - under what form should it beused, and deals with coal consumption in cement works role of coal for urban district heating, future of coal gasification in France, France's coal policy, coal industry in the USA, underground gasification of coal, France's coal reserves, etc.. (In French)

  3. USA Withdrawal from Paris Agreement – What Next?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Chestnoy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In June 2017, President Trump announced the USA’s withdrawal from the Paris Climate Accord, which had been ratified for less than a year, thanks in large part to the USA. That drastic shift followed the change in residency at the White House. Withdrawing from the Paris Accord presents an interesting topic for analysis. There’s the practical side of the withdrawal procedure as set out in Article 28 of the agreement, not to mention the consequences of US non-participation in addressing international climate issues. There are other international forums (Such as G8 and G20, which also have an interest in climate related topics. The Article analyses the U.S. position in negotiations and its commitments assumed the moment the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC came into effect until now: the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, financial aid and reporting. It also provides general analysis of national legal obligations under the Paris Accord, ratification of that agreement in general and in particularly another that took place in the USA, it focuses on the specifics of withdrawal. The specified three-year period from the Agreement becoming active, after which any party may withdraw from it (2019, is a noteworthy detail. It is well-known that the Paris Agreement provides a framework that does not impose individual national commitments or a commitment to a compliance system. In essence, and from a legal point of view, it is nonbinding. This was what allowed the USA to accept the terms of the accord relatively quickly and to use the simplified procedure, which by-passed Congress. In the opinion of the authors, President Trump’s resolution to withdraw should, possibly, be considered as a simple continuation of his election discourse and the fulfilment of a campaign promise. Additionally, President Trump’s declared intent to review the Paris Accord has legal grounds on which to launch further international negotiations

  4. France's 2010 energy situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    2010 in Europe was marked by a moderate economic upturn after the crisis year of 2009, when consumption dropped. At the global level, the energy demand from emerging countries continued to push up prices. In France, 2010 was a year in which the winter months were particularly cold, causing additional consumption for heating of more than 10 per cent, estimated at 4.6 millions tonnes of oil equivalent (Mtoe). National primary energy production was 138.6 Mtoe, 0.2 Mtoe higher than the previous record year 2008. Nearly all forms of energy contributed to the increase. Nuclear power increased its output by 4.6 per cent and was only 5 per cent below its maximum, reached in 2005. Hydro production returned to a regime almost in line with the average. Wind power once again increased significantly (+19%) and photovoltaic electricity tripled, although it still only accounts for 0.6 Mtoe. Extraction of conventional fossil fuels was stable at 2.5 Mtoe. Thermal renewable energy and energy recovered from waste also increased markedly, by 10.7 per cent (+1.7 Mtoe). Total primary energy consumption increased by 3.8 per cent. Once corrected for climatic variations, it increased slightly (+1.7%) but remained well below its pre-crisis level. With 266 Mtoe it was even below its 2000 level. It progressed by 4 Mtoe per year on average in the 1990's, then by only 2 Mtoe in 2001 and 2002. Since then, despite a rebound in 2004, it had remained stable until the clear drop in 2009. Aggregated renewable thermal energy and energy recovered from waste continued their progression (+5.1%). The pace dipped slightly, but progress has been permanent since 2006 (+37% in 4 years). However, this group of sources still only accounts for 6.4 per cent of primary consumption. Stimulated by the rigours of the climate, gas beat all its records. However, after correction, its level was close to that around which it was fluctuating before the crisis, between 2002 and 2008. Primary electricity consumption (+2

  5. Understanding the Paris agreement: analysing the reporting requirements under the enhanced transparency framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desgain, Denis DR; Sharma, Sudhir

    At the Paris climate conference (COP-21) in December 2015, the Conference of the Parties decided to adopt the Paris Agreement under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. This was the first time that 195 Parties had agreed on a universal, legally binding climate instrument......th October 2016, 74 Par¬ties had ratified the Agreement, accounting for 58.82% of global GHG emissions.1 The Paris Agreement will thus enter into force on 4th November 2016....

  6. A Library in the Grands Moulins de Paris: challenging Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Tresson

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available In 2006, the University of Paris 7 and its new Main Library will move to Paris Rive Gauche, a recently developed neighbourhood on the left bank of the Seine. The library will occupy most of the city’s former industrial mills, the Grands Moulins de Paris. As part of the project, the library developed a very detailed functional program. The facilities are expected to comprise 1,800 workstations (half of which will be computerized, and upon completion will have a capacity of 300,000 freely accessible documents and 350,000 documents in store over a total surface area of some 12,000 m2. The architect Rudy Ricciotti won the international competition to design the library held in 2001. Perfectly suited to its function, the industrial building in which the library is housed dates from the 1920s. It presents both advantages (vast surfaces, sufficient load-bearing capacity, natural light, etc. and obstacles (restrictions on free circulation, forests of columns in certain areas, interrupted spaces, etc. to being transformed into a library that is functional and adapted to its purposes. The building’s structure and the constraints it imposed profoundly influenced the program which had to be adjusted, and also affected other aspects, including the arrangement and features of the furnishings as well as the building’s system of signs. In agreement with the university, the library worked in close collaboration with the architect from the earliest sketches onwards. As a result, his initial plan also evolved considerably. The installation of the library in the Grands Moulins offers us a chance to observe the nature and effects of the interactions between the transformation of a building and the evolution of a program.

  7. [From Ulysses to Paris: Journey to the medicalization of ageing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Belén; Pedace, Mariana; Matusevich, Daniel

    2015-09-01

    In the following study we will be introducing the Paris Syndrome, taking as a departure stand the Ulises Syndrome described by Mercer Rang back in 1972. This syndrome is analyzed within the current context of medicalization that old people within Western societies are currently undergoing. We decided to present this topic by looking at the medical trajectories of four paradigmatic patients with the intention of capturing how they themselves experience this process. Through these cases, we would also like to further understand current medical practices toward the elderly.

  8. 5th Paris-Princeton Lectures on Mathematical Finance

    CERN Document Server

    Benth, Fred Espen; Guasoni, Paolo; Manolarakis, Konstantinos; Muhle-Karbe, Johannes; Nee, Colm; Protter, Philip

    2013-01-01

    The current volume presents four chapters touching on some of the most important and modern areas of research in Mathematical Finance: asset price bubbles (by Philip Protter); energy markets (by Fred Espen Benth); investment under transaction costs (by Paolo Guasoni and Johannes Muhle-Karbe); and numerical methods for solving stochastic equations (by Dan Crisan, K. Manolarakis and C. Nee).The Paris-Princeton Lecture Notes on Mathematical Finance, of which this is the fifth volume, publish cutting-edge research in self-contained, expository articles from renowned specialists. The aim is to produce a series of articles that can serve as an introductory reference source for research in the field.

  9. A fractal analysis of the public transportation system of Paris

    OpenAIRE

    L Benguigui

    1995-01-01

    An analysis of the railway networks of the public transportation system of Paris, based on the notion of fractals, is presented. The two basic networks, (metropolitan and suburban) which have different functions, have also a different fractal dimension: 1.8 for the metropolitan network, and 1.5 for the suburban network. By means of computer simulation, it is concluded that the true dimension of the metro network is probably 2.0. A fractal model of the suburban network, with the same features ...

  10. Numerical simulation of meteorological conditions for peak pollution in Paris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carissimo, B. [Electricite de France (EDF), 78 - Chatou (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches

    1997-06-01

    Results obtained on the simulation of meteorological conditions during two episodes of peak pollution in Paris are presented, one in the winter, the other in the summer. The A3UR air quality modelling system is first described followed by the MERCURE mesoscale meteorological model. The conditions of simulation are described. The results obtained on these two causes show satisfactory agreement, for example on the magnitude of the urban heat island which is correctly reproduced. In this study, several areas of progress have been identified: improvement of the altitude measurement network around cities, the simulation of light wind conditions and the simulation of formation and dissipation of fog. (author) 24 refs.

  11. Overcoming Obstacles in Global Climate Action from Copenhagen to Paris

    OpenAIRE

    Garrison, Jean A.; Kolleg-Forschergruppe The Transformative Power of Europe

    2017-01-01

    The global climate change agreement completed on December 12, 2015 in Paris set a collective target to cap greenhouse gas emissions in order to limit the temperature increase to 2 degrees Celsius with a goal to get as close as possible to 1.5 degrees above pre-industrial levels. These goals were to be accomplished through a “bottom up” mechanism for national policy approaches in which states made their own choices about how they would meet climate targets. This paper examines why and how an a...

  12. Walter Benjamin e Paris: individualidade e trabalho intelectual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Ortiz

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo é uma leitura do texto de Walter Benjamin Paris capital do século XIX. A partir do conjunto de anotações que Benjamin faz de diversos livros consultados, principalmente durante sua pesquisa na Bibliothèque Nationale, o autor pretende trabalhar a noção de indivíduo vinculando-a a dois temas. Primeiro, a emergência do flâneur como tradução do espírito de mobilidade que se inaugura com a modernidade. Para isso a discussão sobre a noção de espaço, particularmente no que diz respeito a cidade de Paris, é importante. O flâneur surge assim como um indivíduo desenraizado que se locomove através do espaço urbano remodelado. Segundo, uma aproximação entre o ato da flânerie e o trabalho intelectual. Considerando a flânerie como uma atividade intelectual o autor mostra como os temas do distanciamento e da construção do objeto são relevantes tanto para o flâneur-detetive quanto para a reflexão nas ciências sociais.This paper is an interpretation of Walter Benjamins Paris, Capital of the 19th Century. Based on the notes Benjamin made on several books he read, mainly during his research at the Bibliotèque Nationale, the author discusses the notion of the individual linking it to two themes. First, to the emergence of the flâneur as a translation of the spirit of mobility which starts with modernity. The discussion on the notion of space, especially where it concerns Paris, is essential for this analysis. The flâneur is seen as an uprooted individual who moves around the remodelled urban space. Second, to the proximity between the act of flânerie and that of intellectual work. Taking flânerie to be intellectual activity, the author shows how the themes of the distancing and the construction of the object are relevant, both to the detective-flâneur and to the reflection in social sciences.

  13. International Conference on Advances in Materials and Processing Technologies: (AMPT2010), 24-27 October 2010, Paris, France

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chinesta, Francisco; Chastel, Yvan; Mansori, Mohamed El

    2010-01-01

    "Covers all forming processes including sheet forming, bulk forming, powder forming, forming in melt or near-melt conditions, material removal processes and non-traditional processes such as abrasive...

  14. Present Status of the JENDL Project (May, 2013). WPEC Meeting, Paris, France, 23-24 May, 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukahori, Tokio; Iwamoto, Osamu; Ishikawa, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    This paper briefly presents the present status of the Japanese JENDL Project: organization of Japanese Nuclear Data Committee (JNDC), a research committee for JAEA research activities; Nuclear Data Evaluation (JENDL-4.0 Updated Files and JENDL-4.0 Plus, benchmarking for fission reactor applications (criticality for thermal systems, adjusted library for fast systems), new evaluations, covariances, evaluation tools, fission products decay data file); other activities such as the 2012 Symposium on Nuclear Data at Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute, the initiation of conversation on Covariance Data with users, the celebration of the Golden Jubilee (since 1963) of JNDC

  15. EURYDICE Seminar on the Role of School Heads in Education Systems. Main Speeches. (Paris, France, June 29, 1995).

    Science.gov (United States)

    EURYDICE European Unit, Brussels (Belgium).

    Three speeches from a seminar include: (1) "Introductory Statement" (Antoine Bousquet); (2) "Objectives and Reforms of the French Education System" (Claude Thelot); and (3) "School Heads in the French Education System" (Louis Baladier). The seminar program and a list of participants also are included. (EH)

  16. Lessons from france: the cardiovascular prevention clinic in the la pitié-salpêtrière hospital in paris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, M. K.; Rensing, K. L.; Giral, P.; Cramer, M. J. M.; Bruckert, E.; Twickler, Th B.

    2007-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the principal cause of morbidity and mortality in the Netherlands. In this background, various initiatives have been launched to reduce the frequency of cardiovascular disease. One of those is the creation of clinical units with a special focus on prevention of

  17. FOREIGN DRIVING LICENCES IN FRANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    Service des relations avec les Pays Hôtes

    2000-01-01

    1. PERSONS RESIDING IN FRANCE1.1 National driving licences from countries belonging to the EEAa) ValidityCurrent national driving licences issued by a country belonging to the European Economic Area (here inafter called EEA) are, in principle, valid in France. N.B. : The countries belonging to the EEA are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom.b)\tRegistrationTo ensure that all the conditions of validity in France have been met, holders of driving licences issued by a country belonging to the EEA, who reside in France (i.e. hold a residence permit issued by a Préfecture, or a carte spéciale issued by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, which is equivalent to a residence permit), can have their licences registered with the Préfecture of the department where they live (for Ain, call 04 74 32 30 00, for Haute Savoie call 04 50 33 ...

  18. Information concerning the tax position of Users and Unpaid Associates in France

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2006-01-01

    Users and Unpaid Associates domiciled in France are liable for tax, under ordinary French law, on the remunerations paid by French institutions employing them. They are therefore required to complete and sign a declaration of income form and send it to their local tax office (centre des impôts), together with the annual certificate issued by CERN in accordance with Article R IV 2.04 of the Staff Regulations (cf. the information from the Legal Service and the HR Department concerning declarations of income for 2005 published above). Users and Unpaid Associates remunerated by a French institution but domiciled in Switzerland are required to complete and sign a declaration of income form and send it to the tax office for non residents: Centre des impôts des non-résidents - 9 rue d'Uzès - 75002 Paris - France. Users and Unpaid Associates residing in France for more than six months in 2005 and remunerated by an institution not established in France must also complete a declaration of income form. In the fi...

  19. Volatility of organic aerosol and its components in the Megacity of Paris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paciga, A.; Karnezi, E.; Kostenidou, E.; Hildebrandt, L.; Psichoudaki, M.; Engelhart, G. J.; Lee, B.-H.; Crippa, M.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Baltensperger, U.; Pandis, S. N.

    2015-08-01

    Using a mass transfer model and the volatility basis set, we estimate the volatility distribution for the organic aerosol (OA) components during summer and winter in Paris, France as part of the collaborative project MEGAPOLI. The concentrations of the OA components as a function of temperature were measured combining data from a thermodenuder and an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) with Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis. The hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) had similar volatility distributions for the summer and winter campaigns with half of the material in the saturation concentration bin of 10 μg m-3 and another 35-40 % consisting of low and extremely low volatility organic compounds (LVOCs and ELVOCs, respectively). The winter cooking OA (COA) was more than an order of magnitude less volatile than the summer COA. The low volatility oxygenated OA (LV-OOA) factor detected in the summer had the lowest volatility of all the derived factors and consisted almost exclusively of ELVOCs. The volatility for the semi-volatile oxygenated OA (SV-OOA) was significantly higher than that of the LV-OOA, containing both semi-volatile organic components (SVOCs) and LVOCs. The oxygenated OA (OOA) factor in winter consisted of SVOCs (45 %), LVOCs (25 %) and ELVOCs (30 %). The volatility of marine OA (MOA) was higher than that of the other factors containing around 60 % SVOCs. The biomass burning OA (BBOA) factor contained components with a wide range of volatilities with significant contributions from both SVOCs (50 %) and LVOCs (30 %). Finally, combining the O : C ratio and volatility distributions of the various factors, we incorporated our results into the two-dimensional volatility basis set (2D-VBS). Our results show that the factors cover a broad spectrum of volatilities with no direct link between the average volatility and average O : C of the OA components. Agreement between our findings and previous publications is encouraging for our understanding of the

  20. [Venereal granuloma (donovaniasis) in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duperrat, B; Labouche, F

    1975-01-01

    The study of six cases of MacLeod-Donovan chancre, 2 in Paris, 4 in Brest, in young men coming from the West Indies, showed after 15 days incubation, a balano-preputial lesion consisting of an oval-shaped granuloma, 1 to 4 cm diameter, raised, indurated, ulcerated, reddish-yellow, spontaneously painful, bleeding easily, accompanied in 50 p. 100 of cases by inguinal adenitis, due to secondary infection. Swabs, which should be repeated, showed Donovan bodies within numerous histiocytes. The inactivity of penicillin may be contrasted with the rapidly favourable effect of streptomycin, chloramphenicol or aureomycin.

  1. Via Lyon: Parcours de romans et mutations éditoriales au XVIe siècle. Partie II. La circulation des textes entre Lyon et Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaëlle Burg

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available La première partie du dossier Via Lyon (Carte Romanze 2/2 [2014] analysait le rôle de carrefour économique et culturel de la ville de Lyon dans la constitution d’une identité éditoriale des romans publiés en France au XVIe siècle. L’étude de ces «parcours de romans» conduit à replacer, en cette seconde partie du dossier, la notion d’«étape lyonnaise» dans la dynamique qui anime les deux principaux centres d’imprimerie français de la Renaissance. L’étude des pérégrinations éditoriales, de Paris à Lyon et de Lyon à Paris, de Lancelot du Lac (G. Burg, de Valentin et Orson (M. Colombo Timelli et de Méliadus chevalier de la Croix (A. Réach-Ngô met ainsi au jour les diverses formes de circulation, d’adaptation et de réappropriation que les ateliers parisiens et lyonnais confèrent aux œuvres romanesques qui passent sous leurs presses tout au long du siècle. The first part of the file Via Lyon (Carte Romanze 2/2 [2014] analyzed the role of economic and cultural crossroad of Lyon city in the constitution of an editorial identity of novels published in France in the sixteenth century. The study of these «novels’ route» leads to situate the concept of «Lyon step» in the dynamics which animates the two major French printing centers of the Renaissance. The editorial peregrinations, from Paris to Lyon and from Lyon to Paris, of three french novels, Lancelot du Lac (G. Burg, Valentin and Orson (M. Colombo Timelli and Méliadus chevalier de la Croix (A. Réach-Ngô, shows the various forms of circulation, adaptation and reappropriation that various Parisian and Lyon workshops give to novels they print throughout the century. 

  2. Beginning of Viniculture in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Patrick E.; Luley, Benjamin P.; Rovira, Nuria; Mirzoian, Armen; Callahan, Michael P.; Smith, Karen F.; Hall, Gretchen R.; Davidson, Theodore; Henkin, Joshua M.

    2013-01-01

    Chemical analyses of ancient organic compounds absorbed into the pottery fabrics of imported Etruscan amphoras (ca. 500-475 B.C.) and into a limestone pressing platform (ca. 425-400 B.C.) at the ancient coastal port site of Lattara in southern France provide the earliest biomolecular archaeological evidence for grape wine and viniculture from this country, which is crucial to the later history of wine in Europe and the rest of the world. The data support the hypothesis that export of wine by ship from Etruria in central Italy to southern Mediterranean France fueled an ever-growing market and interest in wine there, which, in turn, as evidenced by the winepress, led to transplantation of the Eurasian grapevine and the beginning of a Celtic industry in France. Herbal and pine resin additives to the Etruscan wine point to the medicinal role of wine in antiquity, as well as a means of preserving it during marine transport.

  3. Understanding the origin of Paris Agreement emission uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogelj, Joeri; Fricko, Oliver; Meinshausen, Malte; Krey, Volker; Zilliacus, Johanna J J; Riahi, Keywan

    2017-06-06

    The UN Paris Agreement puts in place a legally binding mechanism to increase mitigation action over time. Countries put forward pledges called nationally determined contributions (NDC) whose impact is assessed in global stocktaking exercises. Subsequently, actions can then be strengthened in light of the Paris climate objective: limiting global mean temperature increase to well below 2 °C and pursuing efforts to limit it further to 1.5 °C. However, pledged actions are currently described ambiguously and this complicates the global stocktaking exercise. Here, we systematically explore possible interpretations of NDC assumptions, and show that this results in estimated emissions for 2030 ranging from 47 to 63 GtCO 2 e yr -1 . We show that this uncertainty has critical implications for the feasibility and cost to limit warming well below 2 °C and further to 1.5 °C. Countries are currently working towards clarifying the modalities of future NDCs. We identify salient avenues to reduce the overall uncertainty by about 10 percentage points through simple, technical clarifications regarding energy accounting rules. Remaining uncertainties depend to a large extent on politically valid choices about how NDCs are expressed, and therefore raise the importance of a thorough and robust process that keeps track of where emissions are heading over time.

  4. Understanding the origin of Paris Agreement emission uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogelj, Joeri; Fricko, Oliver; Meinshausen, Malte; Krey, Volker; Zilliacus, Johanna J. J.; Riahi, Keywan

    2017-06-01

    The UN Paris Agreement puts in place a legally binding mechanism to increase mitigation action over time. Countries put forward pledges called nationally determined contributions (NDC) whose impact is assessed in global stocktaking exercises. Subsequently, actions can then be strengthened in light of the Paris climate objective: limiting global mean temperature increase to well below 2 °C and pursuing efforts to limit it further to 1.5 °C. However, pledged actions are currently described ambiguously and this complicates the global stocktaking exercise. Here, we systematically explore possible interpretations of NDC assumptions, and show that this results in estimated emissions for 2030 ranging from 47 to 63 GtCO2e yr-1. We show that this uncertainty has critical implications for the feasibility and cost to limit warming well below 2 °C and further to 1.5 °C. Countries are currently working towards clarifying the modalities of future NDCs. We identify salient avenues to reduce the overall uncertainty by about 10 percentage points through simple, technical clarifications regarding energy accounting rules. Remaining uncertainties depend to a large extent on politically valid choices about how NDCs are expressed, and therefore raise the importance of a thorough and robust process that keeps track of where emissions are heading over time.

  5. Australia's Unprecedented Future Temperature Extremes Under Paris Limits to Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Sophie C.; King, Andrew D.; Mitchell, Daniel M.

    2017-10-01

    Record-breaking temperatures can detrimentally impact ecosystems, infrastructure, and human health. Previous studies show that climate change has influenced some observed extremes, which are expected to become more frequent under enhanced future warming. Understanding the magnitude, as a well as frequency, of such future extremes is critical for limiting detrimental impacts. We focus on temperature changes in Australian regions, including over a major coral reef-building area, and assess the potential magnitude of future extreme temperatures under Paris Agreement global warming targets (1.5°C and 2°C). Under these limits to global mean warming, we determine a set of projected high-magnitude unprecedented Australian temperature extremes. These include extremes unexpected based on observational temperatures, including current record-breaking events. For example, while the difference in global-average warming during the hottest Australian summer and the 2°C Paris target is 1.1°C, extremes of 2.4°C above the observed summer record are simulated. This example represents a more than doubling of the magnitude of extremes, compared with global mean change, and such temperatures are unexpected based on the observed record alone. Projected extremes do not necessarily scale linearly with mean global warming, and this effect demonstrates the significant potential benefits of limiting warming to 1.5°C, compared to 2°C or warmer.

  6. Ice-free Arctic projections under the Paris Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmond, Michael; Fyfe, John C.; Swart, Neil C.

    2018-05-01

    Under the Paris Agreement, emissions scenarios are pursued that would stabilize the global mean temperature at 1.5-2.0 °C above pre-industrial levels, but current emission reduction policies are expected to limit warming by 2100 to approximately 3.0 °C. Whether such emissions scenarios would prevent a summer sea-ice-free Arctic is unknown. Here we employ stabilized warming simulations with an Earth System Model to obtain sea-ice projections under stabilized global warming, and correct biases in mean sea-ice coverage by constraining with observations. Although there is some sensitivity to details in the constraining method, the observationally constrained projections suggest that the benefits of going from 2.0 °C to 1.5 °C stabilized warming are substantial; an eightfold decrease in the frequency of ice-free conditions is expected, from once in every five to once in every forty years. Under 3.0 °C global mean warming, however, permanent summer ice-free conditions are likely, which emphasizes the need for nations to increase their commitments to the Paris Agreement.

  7. Addressing climate change: lessons from Paris, challenges for Marrakech

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayaram, Dhanasree

    2016-02-01

    Dhanasree Jayaram, Project Associate in the Manipal Advanced Research Group of Manipal University (Karnataka, India), and author of 'Breaking out of the Green House: Indian Leadership in Times of Environmental Change (2012)' answers the following questions regarding the Paris agreement reach during COP21: - What is your assessment of the Paris agreement reach during COP21? - What is the most positive/negative aspect? - Is the agreement legally binding according to you? - What was the main 'redline' for the Indian government in the negotiations? - Is the Indian government satisfied by the content of the agreement? - Some people say that what happened outside the COP21 but during the week (Indian Solar Alliance, New Chinese Funds, Divest-Invest campaign, Electricity for Africa, activism of civil society, etc.), is more important that what happened inside. Do you share this opinion? - Are you optimistic regarding the gap between the 1.5 deg. C limit and the current level of the INDC? - What do you think about the position of the OPEC countries? - What are the main progresses proposed by the agreement regarding the financial dimension? - What are the main challenges for the COP22 in Morocco? What are the next big steps?

  8. REDD+ Crossroads Post Paris: Politics, Lessons and Interplays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteve Corbera

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces the special issue “REDD+ crossroads post Paris: politics, lessons and interplays”. The contributions to the special issue demonstrate, first, that REDD+ design in the studied countries has generally lacked social legitimacy and sidelined key actors that have an important role in shaping land-use sector dynamics. Second, they show that REDD+ early actions have tended to oversimplify local realities and have been misaligned with other policy goals and local needs. Third, REDD+ efforts have remained constrained to the forestry or climate mitigation policy sectors and have thus suffered from a lack of harmonization across local, national and international concerns, specifically of contradictory policy. As REDD+ moves from its preparedness to its implementation phase, more research efforts should be aimed at analysing the power relations that underpin and determine the design and implementation of REDD+ policies and actions, the potential for and limits to the vertical and horizontal harmonization of land-use policies and management, and the processes of resistance to or accommodation of REDD+ practices on the ground. In doing so, we advocate for multi-and transdisciplinary research that does not take for granted the benefits of REDD+ and which critically scrutinizes the multiple goals of this ambitious international policy framework, and where it sits within the broader Paris Agreement implementation agenda.

  9. Contribution of ozone to airborne aldehyde formation in Paris homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rancière, Fanny; Dassonville, Claire; Roda, Célina; Laurent, Anne-Marie; Le Moullec, Yvon; Momas, Isabelle

    2011-09-15

    Indoor aldehydes may result from ozone-initiated chemistry, mainly documented by experimental studies. As part of an environmental investigation included in the PARIS birth cohort, the aim of this study was to examine ozone contribution to airborne aldehyde formation in Paris homes. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and hexaldehyde levels, as well as styrene, nitrogen dioxide and nicotine concentrations, comfort parameters and carbon dioxide levels, were measured twice during the first year of life of the babies. Ambient ozone concentrations were collected from the closest background station of the regional air monitoring network. Traffic-related nitrogen oxide concentrations in front of the dwellings were estimated by an air pollution dispersion model. Home characteristics and families' way of life were described by questionnaires. Stepwise multiple linear regression models were used to link aldehyde levels with ambient ozone concentrations and a few aldehyde precursors involved in oxidation reactions, adjusting for other indoor aldehyde sources, comfort parameters and traffic-related nitrogen oxides. A 4 and 11% increase in formaldehyde and hexaldehyde levels was pointed out when 8-hour ozone concentrations increased by 20 μg/m(3). The influence of potential precursors such as indoor styrene level and frequent use of air fresheners, containing unsaturated volatile organic compounds as terpenes, was also found. Thus, our results suggest that ambient ozone can significantly impact indoor air quality, especially with regard to formaldehyde and hexaldehyde levels. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. -Climate: the key objectives of the Paris 2015 Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damian, Michel; Abbas, Mehdi; Berthaud, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The present article focuses on the already discernable key objectives of the climate agreement due to be signed in December 2015 in Paris, to come into force in 2020. The agreement - promoted by the G2 USA-China - will be based exclusively on 'national policies', turning its back on the first climate policy enshrined in the Kyoto Protocol, synonymous with an outdated, top-down architecture and hopes of a binding international agreement. All states, including those, such as China, which the Kyoto Protocol placed in the list of developing countries, are expected to propose 'intended nationally determined contributions' to cutting greenhouse gas emissions. These contributions are heterogeneous, with only modest medium-term targets, and not legally binding. The Paris Agreement will represent a turning point, heralding a new climate governance in the continuation of state-centered governance, but henceforth on a global scale. In other words the agreement will take into account the preferences of the 196 parties to the 1992 Framework Convention on Climate Change, in particular those of the most powerful among their number. We maintain that this agreement will change the course of climate change mitigation and adaptation for decades

  11. Approach and institutions in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanteur, J.

    1989-01-01

    In France, safety training for workers is compulsory under general legislation, supplemented in some cases by specific regulations on certain individual hazards. The radiation protection training for exposed workers is largely left to the initiative of the qualified officers, and there are regulations governing the training of the officers themselves. Qualified officers play a fundamental part in France in disseminating the radiation protection training and information which the regulations require them to have. It should be pointed out that qualification for the purposes of these regulations, implies having a clear grasp of the mechanisms involved rather than the acquisition of theoretical knowledge and requires a thorough understanding of the relevant legislation

  12. Interconnection France-Italy; Interconnexion France-Italie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    These documents presents the rules, defined by RTE, of the attribution of electric power transportation capacity between France and Italy. The contract form and the general principles are given in annexes. A guide to the application form is provided. (A.L.B.)

  13. 2. orientation council. National observatory on the climatic change effects in France and in overseas territories and Departments; 2. conseil d'orientation. Observatoire national sur les effets du rechauffement climatique en France metropolitaine et dans les departements et territoires d'outre-mer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-11-01

    This document provides the transparencies presented at the 2. orientation council concerning the climatic change effects. The participation of the ONERC to the colloquium on ''managers facing the climatic risks'', 23-24 june 2003 in Paris and the preparation to the technical assistance market, are discussed. The document presents also the heat wave of summer 2003 in France and the first reflexions on the adaptation. Some action principles are proposed. (A.L.B.)

  14. Meet Paris in Yu Xi's Documentaries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SuSan

    2004-01-01

    "This is a documenfary porlrayal of cultural celebrities.All the 60 interviewees have devoted themselves to the greal cause of China-France cultural exchange.Today,it is highly important to stress the preservation and promotion of cultural diversity and make

  15. Quantitative determination of carbonaceous particle mixing state in Paris using single particle mass spectrometer and aerosol mass spectrometer measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, R. M.; Sciare, J.; Poulain, L.; Crippa, M.; Wiedensohler, A.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Baltensperger, U.; Sarda-Estève, R.; McGuire, M. L.; Jeong, C.-H.; McGillicuddy, E.; O'Connor, I. P.; Sodeau, J. R.; Evans, G. J.; Wenger, J. C.

    2013-04-01

    Single particle mixing state information can be a powerful tool for assessing the relative impact of local and regional sources of ambient particulate matter in urban environments. However, quantitative mixing state data are challenging to obtain using single particle mass spectrometers. In this study, the quantitative chemical composition of carbonaceous single particles has been estimated using an aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) as part of the MEGAPOLI 2010 winter campaign in Paris, France. Relative peak areas of marker ions for elemental carbon (EC), organic aerosol (OA), ammonium, nitrate, sulphate and potassium were compared with concurrent measurements from an Aerodyne high resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS), a thermal/optical OCEC analyser and a particle into liquid sampler coupled with ion chromatography (PILS-IC). ATOFMS-derived mass concentrations reproduced the variability of these species well (R2 = 0.67-0.78), and ten discrete mixing states for carbonaceous particles were identified and quantified. Potassium content was used to identify particles associated with biomass combustion. The chemical mixing state of HR-ToF-AMS organic aerosol factors, resolved using positive matrix factorization, was also investigated through comparison with the ATOFMS dataset. The results indicate that hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) detected in Paris is associated with two EC-rich mixing states which differ in their relative sulphate content, while fresh biomass burning OA (BBOA) is associated with two mixing states which differ significantly in their OA/EC ratios. Aged biomass burning OA (OOA2-BBOA) was found to be significantly internally mixed with nitrate, while secondary, oxidized OA (OOA) was associated with five particle mixing states, each exhibiting different relative secondary inorganic ion content. Externally mixed secondary organic aerosol was not observed. These findings demonstrate the heterogeneity of primary and

  16. Quantitative determination of carbonaceous particle mixing state in Paris using single-particle mass spectrometer and aerosol mass spectrometer measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Healy

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Single-particle mixing state information can be a powerful tool for assessing the relative impact of local and regional sources of ambient particulate matter in urban environments. However, quantitative mixing state data are challenging to obtain using single-particle mass spectrometers. In this study, the quantitative chemical composition of carbonaceous single particles has been determined using an aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS as part of the MEGAPOLI 2010 winter campaign in Paris, France. Relative peak areas of marker ions for elemental carbon (EC, organic aerosol (OA, ammonium, nitrate, sulfate and potassium were compared with concurrent measurements from an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS, a thermal–optical OCEC analyser and a particle into liquid sampler coupled with ion chromatography (PILS-IC. ATOFMS-derived estimated mass concentrations reproduced the variability of these species well (R2 = 0.67–0.78, and 10 discrete mixing states for carbonaceous particles were identified and quantified. The chemical mixing state of HR-ToF-AMS organic aerosol factors, resolved using positive matrix factorisation, was also investigated through comparison with the ATOFMS dataset. The results indicate that hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA detected in Paris is associated with two EC-rich mixing states which differ in their relative sulfate content, while fresh biomass burning OA (BBOA is associated with two mixing states which differ significantly in their OA / EC ratios. Aged biomass burning OA (OOA2-BBOA was found to be significantly internally mixed with nitrate, while secondary, oxidised OA (OOA was associated with five particle mixing states, each exhibiting different relative secondary inorganic ion content. Externally mixed secondary organic aerosol was not observed. These findings demonstrate the range of primary and secondary organic aerosol mixing states in Paris. Examination of the

  17. Quantitative determination of carbonaceous particle mixing state in Paris using single-particle mass spectrometer and aerosol mass spectrometer measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, R. M.; Sciare, J.; Poulain, L.; Crippa, M.; Wiedensohler, A.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Baltensperger, U.; Sarda-Estève, R.; McGuire, M. L.; Jeong, C.-H.; McGillicuddy, E.; O'Connor, I. P.; Sodeau, J. R.; Evans, G. J.; Wenger, J. C.

    2013-09-01

    Single-particle mixing state information can be a powerful tool for assessing the relative impact of local and regional sources of ambient particulate matter in urban environments. However, quantitative mixing state data are challenging to obtain using single-particle mass spectrometers. In this study, the quantitative chemical composition of carbonaceous single particles has been determined using an aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) as part of the MEGAPOLI 2010 winter campaign in Paris, France. Relative peak areas of marker ions for elemental carbon (EC), organic aerosol (OA), ammonium, nitrate, sulfate and potassium were compared with concurrent measurements from an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS), a thermal-optical OCEC analyser and a particle into liquid sampler coupled with ion chromatography (PILS-IC). ATOFMS-derived estimated mass concentrations reproduced the variability of these species well (R2 = 0.67-0.78), and 10 discrete mixing states for carbonaceous particles were identified and quantified. The chemical mixing state of HR-ToF-AMS organic aerosol factors, resolved using positive matrix factorisation, was also investigated through comparison with the ATOFMS dataset. The results indicate that hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) detected in Paris is associated with two EC-rich mixing states which differ in their relative sulfate content, while fresh biomass burning OA (BBOA) is associated with two mixing states which differ significantly in their OA / EC ratios. Aged biomass burning OA (OOA2-BBOA) was found to be significantly internally mixed with nitrate, while secondary, oxidised OA (OOA) was associated with five particle mixing states, each exhibiting different relative secondary inorganic ion content. Externally mixed secondary organic aerosol was not observed. These findings demonstrate the range of primary and secondary organic aerosol mixing states in Paris. Examination of the temporal

  18. features using RBF-SA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael do Espírito Santo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We present in this work a new type of classes discriminator based upon nonlinear and combinational optimization techniques: radial basis functions-simulated annealing (RBF-SA. The combinational optimization method is used here as a preestimation of some parameters of the network classifier. We compare the classifier performance with and without pre-estimation. For training the classifiers, adopting the leave-one-out procedure, we have used case examples such as mammographic masses (malignant and benign. The classifier is trained with shape factors and edge-sharpness measures extracted from 57 regions of interest (ROI (37 malignant and 20 benign, manually delineated, that describe mammographic masses and tumor features in terms of polygonal models for shape factors (compactness [CC], Fourier description [FF], fractional concavity [FCC] and speculated index [SI] and edge sharpness-acutance (A . The classifier performance is compared in terms of the area under the receive operating characteristic (ROC curve – (A. Higher values of A correspond to a better performance of classifier. Experiments with mammographic tumor and masses show that the best result of 0.9776 is obtained with RBF-SA when RBF parameters such as centers and spread matrix are pre-estimated, which is significantly better than the results obtained with no pre-estimation or only pre-estimation of the RBF centers, which are, 0.7071 and 0.9552 respectively.

  19. Present status of nuclear medicine - Situation in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiniarski, R. de

    2002-01-01

    Contrary to the general belief the nuclear medicine (NM) is a rather old science; actually, Henry Becquerel, the discoverer of the natural radioactivity in 1896, is deemed often as the initiator of this science and that would be the first stage. Discovery of artificial radioactivity by Irene and Frederic Joliot-Curie in 1934 marks the second essential stage and as such the initiation of NM. Nuclear medicine recorded significant progress since its inception, essentially after the WW1 due mainly to the advance of nuclear physics, nuclear electronics and the associated information techniques. But, the development of general physics boosted also other new methods of medical imaging as MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging), ultrasonic imaging, X-ray scanner, magnetic encephalography (MEG), etc. Several services of nuclear medicine currently functioning in France, in public or private hospitals, are all equipped at least with one Anger chamber, possibly two, what allows making the scintigraphy of most of human organs, or else, planar gamma-scintigraphy or tomo-scintigraphy. Unfortunately, regarding the positron chambers (positron computed tomography-PCT) the situation in France is not satisfactory. For the time being only three centres, particularly designed for research, are equipped with cyclotrons plus PCT technology, namely SHFJ at Orsay, Cyceron at Caen and SERMEP at Lyon (especially devoted to cardiologic investigation). Other two installations will be soon available at Toulouse and at Tenon (Paris). Officials, responsible of health services and medical schools and hospitals have defined a national index for PCT in France. Thus, starting from 2001, a machine for every million of inhabitants is provided, i.e. about 60 PCTs are planned to be installed till 2003 in Lille, Grenoble, Nantes, Rennes and other large French cities. France is committed not to miss the European bus of nuclear oncology of installing this equipment absolutely necessary in cancer detection and

  20. The German ''Energiewende''. Evaluation after the Paris-agreement; Die Deutsche Energiewende. Bewertung nach dem Klima-Abkommen von Paris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, Eike

    2016-08-01

    The World-Climate-Summit 2016 in Paris agreed to exacerbated goals for climate protection. This paper will scrutinize whether Germany can comply with its Paris-obligations by continuing the ongoing German ''Energiewende''. The result is clear-cut: The German ''Energiewende'' is inadequate. Due to the cap-and-trade system of the EU the '''Energiewende''.

  1. The German ''Energiewende''. Evaluation after the Paris-agreement; Die Deutsche Energiewende. Bewertung nach dem Klima-Abkommen von Paris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, Eike

    2016-12-15

    The World-Climate-Summit 2016 in Paris agreed to exacerbated goals for climate protection. This paper will scrutinize whether Germany can comply with its Paris-obligations by continuing the ongoing German ''Energiewende''. The result is clear-cut: The German ''Energiewende'' is inadequate. Due to the cap-and-trade system of the EU the ''Energiewende'' can in no way contribute to climate protection.

  2. France, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    This image of France was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). For this broad view the resolution of the data was reduced to 6 arcseconds (about 185 meters north-south and 127 meters east-west), resampled to a Mercator projection, and the French border outlined. Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the country is readily apparent.The upper central part of this scene is dominated by the Paris Basin, which consists of a layered sequence of sedimentary rocks. Fertile soils over much of the area make good agricultural land. The Normandie coast to the upper left is characterized by high, chalk cliffs, while the Brittany coast (the peninsula to the left) is highly indented where deep valleys were drowned by the sea, and the Biscay coast to the southwest is marked by flat, sandy beaches.To the south, the Pyrenees form a natural border between France and Spain, and the south-central part of the country is dominated by the ancient Massif Central. Subject to volcanism that has only subsided in the last 10,000 years, these central mountains are separated from the Alps by the north-south trending Rhone River Basin.Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D

  3. Karl Marx and the Paris Commune of 1871: Tracing Traditions of Critical Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGray, Robert

    2014-01-01

    In 1871, citizens of the war torn arrondissements of Paris, in the face of traumatic political and military turmoil, established a new local form of government. The Paris Commune, as this government became known as in the English world, attracted attention for its alternative political-economic organization. One notable commentator was Karl Marx…

  4. Energy and Global Climate Change: The Road from Paris to Denver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, Jeffrey

    2016-10-27

    This presentation provides an overview of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory; a snapshot of U.S. power sector transformation; a brief history of climate negotiations; an overview of the Paris Agreement; and what the Paris Agreement means for Colorado and beyond.

  5. Effect of Paris saponin on antitumor and immune function in U14 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    bearing mice, and reduced the serum IL-4 level. The Paris saponin can inhibit U14 cell growth and prolong survival time of mice; it is speculated that the Paris saponin may express its anti-tumor activity by improving the body's immune system.

  6. Lingon sa Iskolarsyip sa Dulaan (1948-2007 Looking Back on Theater Scholarship (1948-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apolonio B. Chua

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available From 1948 to 2007, the academic community produced about a hundred titles of theses and dissertations on drama and theater, or made use of data from drama and theater for larger spheres of studies. The current article looked into identifying trends and points of emphasis, as the researches and studies progressed through roughly half a century of research production in the academic setting. Inductive in approach and tentative and exploratory in its analysis, the study identified four trends and points of emphasis in research production. In the fifties and sixties, the emphasis was more on studying the play text or drama; studies veered towards a literary reading and orientation. Eventually, this trend gave way to studying the larger phenomenon of mounting, and the mise en scéne and the spectator became additional units of concern for research. Studies began to have sections on props, costumes, and staging techniques. In the eighties, a larger concern for looking at theater as social production followed. Participant observation, field work and ethnography gave equal emphasis on the social context of theater. Marxism and other perspectives from the social sciences framed theater studies then; correlations between theater and society became useful. Towards the last decade of the century, theater studies aimed at a more conceptual approach, emphasizing core concepts like panata and other related or equivalent terms, elevating and defining the study of theater as a study of culture itself. Gamit ang mahigit sa sandaang tesis at disertasyon hinggil sa dula at dulaan o sinasangkot ang mga ito na lumabas sa akademya mula 1948 hanggang 2007, kapwa sa Unibersidad ng Pilipinas at sa iba pa, nilayon ng “Lingon sa Iskolarsyip sa Dulaan (1948-2007” na pulsuhan ang pangkalahatang daloy, tutok, tunguhin o kalakaran sa pagdadala ng mga pag-aaral. Panimula at exploratory sa inductive nitong lapat, nakatukoy ang pag-aaral ng apat na sapit o tutok sa daloy ng

  7. Geochemical and palynological records for the end-Triassic Mass-Extinction Event in the NE Paris Basin (Luxemburg)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, Natascha; van de Schootbrugge, Bas; Thein, Jean; Fiebig, Jens; Franz, Sven-Oliver; Hanzo, Micheline; Colbach, Robert; Faber, Alain

    2016-04-01

    The End-Triassic mass-extinction event is one of the "big five" mass extinctions in Earth's history. Large scale flood basalt volcanism associated with the break-up of Pangaea, which resulted in the opening of the central Atlantic Ocean, is considered as the leading cause. In addition, an asteroid impact in Rochechouart (France; 201 ± 2 Ma) may have had a local influence on ecosystems and sedimentary settings. The Luxembourg Embayment, in the NE Paris Basin, offers a rare chance to study both effects in a range of settings from deltaic to lagoonal. A multidisciplinary study (sedimentology, geochemistry, palynology) has been carried out on a number of outcrops and cores that span from the Norian to lower Hettangian. Combined geochemical and palynological records from the Boust core drilled in the NE Paris Basin, provide evidence for paleoenvironmental changes associated with the end-Triassic mass-extinction event. The Triassic-Jurassic stratigraphy of the Boust core is well constrained by palynomorphs showing the disappaerance of typical Triassic pollen taxa (e.g. Ricciisporites tuberculates) and the occurrence of the marker species Polypodiisporites polymicroforatus within the uppermost Rhaetian, prior to the Hettangian dominance of Classopollis pollen. The organic carbon stable isotope record (δ13Corg) spanning the Norian to Hettangian, shows a series of prominent negative excursions within the middle Rhaetian, followed by a trend towards more positive values (approx -24 per mille) within the uppermost Rhaetian Argiles de Levallois Member. The lowermost Hettangian is characterized by a major negative excursion, reaching - 30 per mille that occurs in organic-rich sediments. This so-called "main negative excursion" is well-known from other locations, for example from Mariental in Northern Germany and from St Audrie's Bay in England, and Stenlille in Denmark. Based on redox-sensitive trace element records (V, Cr, Ni, Co, Th, U) the lowermost Hettangian in most of

  8. 2004 energy accounting in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This economic analysis presents the energy accounting of the France in 2004 which shows a little renewal of the consumption and a better energy efficiency. It provides data on the energy consumption and production for the different energy types and for the different activity sectors, to illustrate the analysis. (A.L.B.)

  9. 2003 energy situation of France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-04-01

    This short document summarizes the key data of the 2003 energy status of France: real and climate-corrected total primary energy consumption, end-use energy consumption (demand per energy source and per sector of use), power supply and demand, and CO 2 emissions. (J.S.)

  10. Human coronavirus NL63, France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vabret, Astrid; Mourez, Thomas; Dina, Julia; van der Hoek, Lia; Gouarin, Stéphanie; Petitjean, Joëlle; Brouard, Jacques; Freymuth, François

    2005-01-01

    The human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63) was first identified in The Netherlands, and its circulation in France has not been investigated. We studied HCoV-NL63 infection in hospitalized children diagnosed with respiratory tract infections. From November 2002 to April 2003, we evaluated 300 respiratory

  11. Frances Allen Wins Turing Award

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 8. Frances Allen Wins Turing Award. Priti Shankar. Article-in-a-Box Volume 12 Issue 8 August 2007 pp ... Author Affiliations. Priti Shankar1. Department of Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India ...

  12. La propagande anti-britannique en France pendant l’Occupation Anti-British Propaganda in France during the Occupation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Passera

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Left to fight alone after France signed the armistice on the 22nd of June 1940, Great Britain became enemy number one in the eyes of the German occupying forces and the Vichy government. This hostility found expression in a considerable quantity of propaganda in the guise of posters, tracts, booklets and brochures meant to denounce British responsibility for the conflict in the eyes of French public opinion. Propaganda was particularly intense from June to December 1940 and from January to June 1944 but the German and French propaganda services waged this psychological warfare against Great Britain throughout the war. In 1940, the anti-British brainwashing campaigns aimed at ridding the defeated French of their guilt by accusing the ex-ally of being the cause of the conflict and of deceit during the Battle of France. In 1941-1942, the Allies’ military setbacks were the subject of tracts and brochures that ridiculed British strategic skills. Propaganda was also based on the painful history of France and Great Britain so as to convince the French that England had always tried to deprive France of her colonies and that it was what she was trying to do by maintaining her presence in Africa. The major part of this propaganda was promoted by the German authorities, only to a lesser degree by the French collaboration parties. Till 1942, the Information Secretariat of the Vichy government distributed few anti-British tracts, concentrating its efforts on the promotion of the National Revolution. On the other hand, the first Anglo-American bombings in the Paris area provoked strong reactions in the Vichy government which then relied on the French population’s confusion and anxiety to denounce British policy. What was the impact of these anti-British speeches on the French population? The prefects’ reports on public opinion show that the plugging of Anglophobic sentiment had little influence on the French who were globally in complete support of the

  13. Hurricane Frances Poster (September 5, 2004)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hurricane Frances poster. Multi-spectral image from NOAA-17 shows Hurricane Frances over central Florida on September 5, 2004. Poster dimension is approximately...

  14. PARIS reprograms glucose metabolism by HIF-1α induction in dopaminergic neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hojin; Jo, Areum; Kim, Hyein; Khang, Rin; Lee, Ji-Yeong; Kim, Hanna; Park, Chi-Hu; Choi, Jeong-Yun; Lee, Yunjong; Shin, Joo-Ho

    2018-01-22

    Our previous study found that PARIS (ZNF746) transcriptionally suppressed transketolase (TKT), a key enzyme in pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) in the substantia nigra (SN) of AAV-PARIS injected mice. In this study, we revealed that PARIS overexpression reprogrammed glucose metabolic pathway, leading to the increment of glycolytic proteins along with TKT reduction in the SN of AAV-PARIS injected mice. Knock-down of TKT in differentiated SH-SY5Y cells led to an increase of glycolytic enzymes and decrease of PPP-related enzymes whereas overexpression of TKT restored PARIS-mediated glucose metabolic shift, suggesting that glucose metabolic alteration by PARIS is TKT-dependent. Inhibition of PPP by either PARIS overexpression or TKT knock-down elevated the level of H 2 O 2 , and diminished NADPH and GSH levels, ultimately triggering the induction of HIF-1α, a master activator of glycolysis. In addition, TKT inhibition by stereotaxic injection of oxythiamine demonstrated slight decrement of dopaminergic neurons (DNs) in SN but not cortical neurons in the cortex, suggesting that TKT might be a survival factor of DNs. In differentiated SH-SY5Y, cell toxicity by GFP-PARIS was partially restored by introduction of Flag-TKT and siRNA-HIF-1α. We also observed the increase of HIF-1α and glycolytic hexokinase 2 in the SN of Parkinson's disease patients. Taken together, these results suggest that PARIS accumulation might distort the balance of glucose metabolism, providing clues for understanding mechanism underlying selective DNs death by PARIS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Pengelolaan Sumberdaya Air untuk Pengembangan Pariwisata di Pulau Pari, Kepulauan Seribu, DKI Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Sinulingga

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Penelitian bertujuan untuk (a menganalisis kondisi ketersediaan air di Pulau Pari, (b menganalisis kondisi kualitas air di Pulau Pari, (c menganalisis kebutuhan air dan proyeksinya untuk masa yang akan datang di Pulau Pari, dan (d merumuskan strategi pengelolaan sumberdaya air untuk pariwisata di Pulau Pari. Metode penelitian terdiri atas perhitungan neraca air, kebutuhan air, metode geometrik, analisis deskriptif, dan analisis SWOT. Pengambilan sampel air dan penduduk menggunakan metode purposive, sedangkan sampel wisatawan menggunakan metode accidental random sampling. Hasil akhir penelitian ketersediaan airtanah di Pulau Pari sebesar 290000,48 m3/tahun. Kualitas airtanah di lokasi penelitian tergolong baik. Besarnya kebutuhan air tahun 2013 sebesar 46381,947 m3/tahun. Pada tahun 2018 menjadi 54443,953 m3/tahun dan pada tahun 2023 mengalami peningkatan menjadi 63548,472 m3/tahun. Prioritas utama strategi pengelolaan sumberdaya air untuk pariwisata yaitu membuat kebijakan pembatasan pengunjung agar kelestarian pulau dan sumberdaya air tetap terjaga.   ABSTRACT This study aims to (a analyze water availability conditions in Pari Island, (b analyze the water quality conditions in Pari Island, (c analyze water demand and water projections for the future in Pari Island, and (d formulate strategies management water resources for tourism in Pari Island. The research method consists of the calculation of the water balance, water requirements, geometric methods, descriptive analysis, and SWOT analysis. Water sampling and settlement using purposive method, tourist’s samples using accidental random sampling. The final results of The amount of soil water availability in Pari Island of 290000,48 m3 / year. Groundwater quality in the study area are classified as good. The amount of water demand in 2013 amounted to 46381,947 m3 / year. In 2018 became 54443,953 m3 / year and in 2023 increased to 63548,472 m3 / year. First priority water resource

  16. La productivité et sa mesure en France (1944-1955)

    OpenAIRE

    Boulat, Régis

    2009-01-01

    Après la Deuxième Guerre mondiale, grâce à Jean Fourastié et aux modernisateurs du Plan, la productivité est reconnue par les élites et par l'opinion publique française comme « la clef » de la connaissance économique et le moteur de la croissance. Alors que la IVe République institutionnalise une politique d'accroissement de la prductivité dans le cadre d'un programme franco-américain de modernisation, la mesure de la productivité se perfectionne lentement grâce à l'affinement des mesures de ...

  17. The monuments of the UNESCO List under threat in the 21rst century: the Project "MONUNESCO-PARIS" (2012-2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menendez, B.; Brimblecombe, P.; Deque, M.; Grossi, C. M.; Ionescu, A.; Lefevre, R. A.

    2012-04-01

    The banks of the River Seine in Paris are inscribed on the UNESCO List of the World Cultural Heritage since 1991 because they are studded with a succession of masterpieces such as Notre- Dame Cathedral, Sainte Chapelle, Louvre, Place de la Concorde, Tour Eiffel, and with prestigious museums: Louvre, Orsay, Quai Branly, Petit Palais…Unfortunately, these banks are crossed by the Pompidou urban motorway, an important and continuous source of atmospheric pollution. The aim of the Project is to evaluate the evolution of the weathering of limestone, glass and stained glass in the centre of Paris in the 21rst century by crossing Climate and Pollution Models with Dose-Response Functions (DRF) for limestone, glass and stained glass and with Climatology of Salt Transitions for limestone. A Lutetian limestone (« Courville Stone ») has been used for the construction and the restoration of the most important monuments (Notre-Dame, Louvre…) and haussmannian buildings in Paris. It has a fine grain, a medium porosity (19%) and contains 90% of CaO. The modern glass of windows and large contemporaneous façades has a Si-Ca-Na composition, it is chemically inert, has a low thermal inertia, a flat surface, no open porosity and no surface roughness, therefore it is very durable. The glass of stained glass windows has a Si-Ca-K composition and it is low durable. Using different climate and pollution scenarios of the 21rst century, the project will evaluate different schemes of material degradations: (i) - Recession of limestone surface; (ii) - Soiling of limestone surface; (iii) - Soiling of modern glass; (iv) - Leaching of ancient stained glass windows; (v) - Deterioration of limestone by salts. The British Hadley Models, the French Météo- France Arpège-Aladin Models and the ENSEMBLES Approach will be crossed with DRF and Climatology of Salts Transitions. An in-the-field inventory (stock at risk) of the surface occupied on the façades by each kind of material (stone

  18. 16. Paris Cosmology Colloquium 2012 - Slides of the presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasenby, A.; Page, L.; Vega, H.J. de; Biermann, P.L.; Ma, E.; Laveder, M.; Kormendy, J.; Weinheimer, C.; Freeman, K.; Walker, M.; Conselice, C.J.; Rebolo, R.; Wehus, K.; Mirabel, F.; Serenelli, A.; Das, S.; Cooray, A.; Burigana, C.; Sanchez, N.G.; Mather, J.C.; Smoot, G.F.; Schmidt, B.P.; Tognini, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, Warm (keV scale) Dark Matter emerged impressively over CDM (Cold Dark Matter) as the leading Dark Matter candidate. In the context of this new Dark Matter situation, which implies novelties in the astrophysical, cosmological and keV particle physics context, this 16. Paris Colloquium 2012 is devoted to the LambdaWDM Standard Model of the Universe. The topics of the colloquium are as follows: -) observational and theoretical progress on the nature of dark matter: keV scale warm dark matter, -) large and small scale structure formation in agreement with observations at large scales and small galactic scales, and -) neutrinos in astrophysics and cosmology. This document gathers the slides of the presentations.

  19. LUTETIAN LIMESTONES IN THE PARIS REGION: PETROGRAPHIC AND COMPOSITIONAL EXAMINATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BLANC, A.; HOLMES, L.L.; HARBOTTLE, G.

    1998-01-01

    Stone for building and decorating monuments in the Paris Basin from antiquity to the present came from numerous quarries in the Lutetian limestone formations of the region. To identify specific-stone sources used for masonry and sculptures in these monuments, a team of geologists and archaeologists has investigated 300 quarries and collected 2,300 limestone samples for study in a collaborative effort by geologists and chemists. Petrographic and paleontologic examinations of thin sections enable geologists to distinguish the Tertiary Lutetian limestones from similar stone in Jurassic and Cretaceous strata. The methods of the geologist have been supplemented by those of the chemist whose compositional studies by neutron activation analysis can differentiate among the fine-grained upper Lutetian limestones extracted from specific ancient quarries

  20. Revision of the Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busekist, Otto von.

    1977-01-01

    The Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention have in substance remained unchanged since their adoption in 1960 and 1963, respectively. During that period, nuclear industry and technology have developed considerably while the financial and monetary bases of the Conventions have been shattered. The amounts of liability and compensation have been eroded by inflation, and the gold-based unit of account in which these amounts are expressed has lost its original meaning after the abolition of the official gold price. The question of revising the Conventions, in particular of raising those amounts and of replacing the unit of account, is therefore being studied by the Group of Governmental Experts on Third party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. (auth.) [fr

  1. Flexibility of the Paris Agreement on climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemoine-Schonne, Marion

    2016-01-01

    The Paris agreement lays the foundation for a new international legal regime on climate change. To achieve a universal agreement, many compromises were made, reflected in the international agreement by signs of flexibility. Firstly, at the temporal level, a 'periodic review mechanism of the National Contributions' is set up. Concerning then the means of implementation of the agreement, a new 'mechanism for sustainable development' has been introduced. This mechanism aims to facilitate the implementation of international legal obligations with a logic of cost-effectiveness, reproducing in this sense the market mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol. At least, at the normative level, flexibility of law is obvious in this agreement, in order to adapt norms to scientific knowledge evolution and political decisions

  2. Paris Agreement and opportunities for innovative nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tam, Cecilia

    2017-01-01

    How far can technology take us? Pushing energy technology to achieve carbon neutrality by 2060 could meet the mid-point of the range of ambitions expressed in Paris. Nuclear additions need to double current rate to meet 2DS. 2016 saw the highest nuclear capacity additions since 1990, but new construction starts down sharply. The fuel mix to generate electricity is vastly different to today. The average carbon intensity of power generation falls from around 520 gCO2/kWh today to Below zero in the B2DS. Nuclear innovation could also target need for decarbonised heat. Heating and cooling in industry and buildings accounts for more than 40% of final energy consumption and 30% of global CO2 emissions

  3. Paris and Vienna nuclear liability conventions: challenges for insurers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitsma, S. M. S.

    2004-01-01

    Insurers have actively contributed to the negotiations on the revision of the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage and the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy. In the course of these negotiations they have pointed out that some of the proposals for revision may have consequences for insurers and could prove incapable of finding insurance support. This paper aims at explaining the revision related points, which could cause problems in respect of insurability. Furthermore, the writer takes the liberty to expand its scope to more generally include developments, which have the potential to influence the availability of insurance capacity. Therefore, also the insurance implications of terrorist acts combined with share market developments of recent years will be dealt with.(author)

  4. Parametrization of the scattering wave functions of the Paris potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loiseau, B.; Mathelitsch, L.

    1996-10-01

    The neutron-proton scattering wave functions of the Paris nucleon-nucleon potential are parametrized for partial waves of total angular momenta less than 5. The inner parts of the wave functions are approximated by polynomials with a continuous transition to the outer parts, which are given by the asymptotic regime and determined by the respective phase shifts. The scattering wave functions can then be calculated at any given energy below 400 MeV. Special attention is devoted to the zero-energy limit of the low partial waves. An easy-to-use FORTRAN program, which allows the user to calculate these parametrized wave functions, is available via electronic mail. (author)

  5. France under a microscope - Nuclear power in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The first French nuclear power plant was built in 1956, but it was only after the 1970's oil shock that nuclear power gained an important place in the French energy sector. Planning Act 2005-781 of 13 July 2005 laying down French energy policy orientations confirmed that nuclear energy was to remain the primary source of electricity supply in France. The Act also encourages diversification of sources of electricity production through renewable energies (wind power, biomass) and the security of electricity supply from oil, gas and coal. Nuclear energy accounted for 78.4% of electricity production in France in 2006. French nuclear capacity includes 58 pressurized water reactors (PWRs) that produced 450 billion nuclear kilowatt-hours (kWh) in 2006, i.e. 78.4% of total electricity production which is of 574 billion kWh. The lifetime of a third of currently operating nuclear plants will end in around 2020 and, with a view to the renewal of its nuclear capacity, France is about to deploy new-generation reactors that meet requirements in terms of production, environmental protection and enhanced nuclear safety. In April 2007, France started building a third-generation EPR reactor at Flamanville in the Manche Department. The EPR is to be operational by 2012. France is also devoting research programmes to fourth generation reactor technology with a view to those reactors being operational by 2040. There are a number of reasons for choosing nuclear power: it enables France to ensure its national energy independence (France imports less than 50% of its energy resources) and environmental protection (France is one of the European countries which emits the least greenhouse gases) at a stable and competitive price. Decree 2008-378 of 21 April 2008 instituted a council on nuclear policy presided by the President of the Republic. The council will define the broad lines of nuclear policy and monitor their implementation, particularly with regard to exports and international

  6. [Survey among academic teachers about psychiatric training in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Effenterre, A; Hanon, C; Llorca, P-M

    2014-06-01

    Given the results of resident psychiatrists' surveys conducted in France over the past 3 years, it has become essential to also examine the opinion of the academic psychiatrists in charge of psychiatry education. To study the teachers point of view on psychiatric training in France, the weaknesses and strengths of the training, recent improvements and problems, and to compare their opinion with that of the residents. A survey was conducted in April 2012 among 125 academic teachers professors hospital practitioners (PU-PH), in child & adolescent psychiatry and adult psychiatry. An anonymous online questionnaire including seven parts and three open questions was sent to the PU-PH. The questionnaire was answered by 79/125 psychiatric PU-PH (63%). Results show that a majority of PU-PH (78%) were willing to maintain a single training pathway including adult psychiatry and child psychiatry with a single diploma, with the addition of a DESC (specific and additional Diploma) in forensic psychiatry (72%) and old age psychiatry (62%). Almost all respondents suggested the implementation of an assessment of teaching and a formal mentorship program. Some aspects of training included more controversial issues: such as the length of the training, the opening of training to private practice physicians, or the European harmonization. The survey stressed some areas of improvement: such training in psychotherapy and research, access to supervision as well as barriers to improved training including an insufficient number of academic practitioners. Compared with other surveys, it emphasized that in addition to the need of diversifying the theoretical (thematic, interactive media and teaching, teachers, etc.) and the practical aspect (training sites), it is essential according to trainees and PU-PH, to implement an efficient supervision during residency. Copyright © 2013 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Hering S.A. Valuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Fukuzawa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The case studies real investment decisions and firm valuation. Hering S.A is a textile and retail clothing company listed in BM&FBovespa stock exchange. This case, based on newspaper articles and public information detailed in the text, (i enables the students to analyze the real investment decisions taken by investors that bought Hering´s stocks and at the same time (ii challenges the students to formulate assumptions to value the firm based on public information such as: financial statements, macroeconomic indicators and other market variables. The result obtained by the students can be confronted in the classroom for further discussion about (i the assumptions used and (ii the stock prices calculated. Such discussion can explicit the biases arising from the motivation of the evaluators considering that different assumptions may have been adopted based on different interests (buyer’s, seller’s, etc..

  8. EUROPEAN UNION IN GLOBAL CLIMATE GOVERNANCE: TO PARIS AND BEYOND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Savorskaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s, the European Union is aspiring global leadership in the area of climate change, which is refl ected in its active participation in the negotiations on the international climate change regime. However, those ambitions have not always turned out to be appropriate or justifi ed. Despite the fact that the European Union was able to achieve certain results during the Kyoto Protocol negotiations and even more signifi cant results in the process of its ratifi cation, for the most part EU negotiation strategy based on normative considerations, had not been successful, it was especially evident during the 2009 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen. Partly the disappointing results of EU performance during the Copenhagen negotiations are to be blamed on some of the key features of EU functioning logic, for example, the overall tendency to rely on scientifi c evidence in policy-making, which did not allow the EU to assess other parties’ interests adequately. As the results of the negotiations of parties to the UNFCCC in December 2015 in Paris have shown, the European Union did manage to work out its previous mistakes and build a broad informal international coalition. Contrary to the pessimistic expectations, the agreement was adopted and it took into account quite a few of the EU proposals. However, the Paris Treaty has a number of fl aws and inaccuracies, so the ability to eliminate them in a timely manner by the international community and the EU in particular, will determine the future of the new international climate change regime.

  9. Remote sensing of GHG over Paris megacity and Orléans forest using ground-based QualAir FTS and TCCON-Orléans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Te, Y.; Jeseck, P.; Da Costa, J.; Deutscher, N. M.; Warneke, T.; Notholt, J.

    2012-04-01

    In a growing world with more than 7 billion inhabitants and big emerging countries such as China, Brazil and India, emissions of anthropogenic pollutants are increasing continuously. Monitoring and control of atmospheric pollutants in megacities have become a major challenge for scientists and public health authorities in environmental research area. The QualAir platform at University Pierre et Marie Curie (UPMC), is an innovating experimental research platform dedicated to survey greenhouse gases (GHGs) and urban air quality. As one of the major instruments of the QualAir platform, the ground-based Fourier transform spectrometer (QualAir FTS, IFS 125HR model) analyses the composition of the urban atmosphere of Paris, which is the third European megacity. The continuous monitoring of atmospheric pollutants is essential to improve the understanding of urban air pollution processes. Associated with a sun-tracker, the QualAir remote sensing FTS operates in solar infrared absorption and enables to monitor many trace gases, and to follow up their variability in the Ile-de-France region. A description of the QualAir FTS will be given. Concentrations of atmospheric GHG, especially CO2 and CH4, are retrieved by the radiative transfer model PROFFIT. Located in the centre of Paris, the QualAir FTS can provide new and complementary urban measurements as compared to unpolluted ground-based stations of existing networks (NDACC and TCCON). The work made by LPMAA to join the TCCON network will also be presented. TCCON-Orléans is a ground-based FTS of the TCCON network located in the forest of Orléans (100 km south of Paris). Preliminary comparisons of GHGs measurements from both sites will be shown. Such ground-based information will help to better characterize regional GHGs, especially regarding anthropogenic emissions and trends.

  10. SUMOylation of the KRAB zinc-finger transcription factor PARIS/ZNF746 regulates its transcriptional activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, Tamotsu; Yamada, Yoshiji

    2016-01-01

    Parkin-interacting substrate (PARIS), a member of the family of Krüppel-associated box (KRAB)-containing zinc-finger transcription factors, is a substrate of the ubiquitin E3 ligase parkin. PARIS represses the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), although the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. In the present study, we demonstrate that PARIS can be SUMOylated, and its SUMOylation plays a role in the repression of PGC-1a promoter activity. Protein inhibitor of activated STAT y (PIASy) was identified as an interacting protein of PARIS and shown to enhance its SUMOylation. PIASy repressed PGC-1a promoter activity, and this effect was attenuated by PARIS in a manner dependent on its SUMOylation status. Co-expression of SUMO-1 with PIASy completely repressed PGC-1a promoter activity independently of PARIS expression. PARIS-mediated PGC-1a promoter repression depended on the activity of histone deacetylases (HDAC), whereas PIASy repressed the PGC-1a promoter in an HDAC-independent manner. Taken together, these results suggest that PARIS and PIASy modulate PGC-1a gene transcription through distinct molecular mechanisms. -- Highlights: •PARIS can be SUMOylated in vivo and in vitro. •SUMOylation of PARIS functions in the repression of PGC-1a promoter activity. •PIASy interacts with PARIS and enhances its SUMOylation. •PIASy influences PARIS-mediated repression of PGC-1a promoter activity.

  11. SUMOylation of the KRAB zinc-finger transcription factor PARIS/ZNF746 regulates its transcriptional activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishida, Tamotsu, E-mail: nishida@gene.mie-u.ac.jp; Yamada, Yoshiji

    2016-05-13

    Parkin-interacting substrate (PARIS), a member of the family of Krüppel-associated box (KRAB)-containing zinc-finger transcription factors, is a substrate of the ubiquitin E3 ligase parkin. PARIS represses the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), although the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. In the present study, we demonstrate that PARIS can be SUMOylated, and its SUMOylation plays a role in the repression of PGC-1a promoter activity. Protein inhibitor of activated STAT y (PIASy) was identified as an interacting protein of PARIS and shown to enhance its SUMOylation. PIASy repressed PGC-1a promoter activity, and this effect was attenuated by PARIS in a manner dependent on its SUMOylation status. Co-expression of SUMO-1 with PIASy completely repressed PGC-1a promoter activity independently of PARIS expression. PARIS-mediated PGC-1a promoter repression depended on the activity of histone deacetylases (HDAC), whereas PIASy repressed the PGC-1a promoter in an HDAC-independent manner. Taken together, these results suggest that PARIS and PIASy modulate PGC-1a gene transcription through distinct molecular mechanisms. -- Highlights: •PARIS can be SUMOylated in vivo and in vitro. •SUMOylation of PARIS functions in the repression of PGC-1a promoter activity. •PIASy interacts with PARIS and enhances its SUMOylation. •PIASy influences PARIS-mediated repression of PGC-1a promoter activity.

  12. 1997 annual report. Petroleum research and production in France; Rapport annuel 1997. Recherche et production petrolieres en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The efforts expended during the previous years for the renewal of oil and gas exploration in France led to a significant increase in the number of applications for exploration permits: 8 against 2 in 1996. A renewing interest for the French offshore mining acreage is observed in Sea of Iroise, Saint-Pierre and Miquelon and in the Bay of Biscay. The total number of valid production permits has slightly dropped (76 against 77 in 1996) and is divided into 55 concessions and 21 production permits. A 42% decline of exploration investments is observed as compared to the previous year. The geophysical prospecting sector has been particularly affected but the exploration drilling activity has been marked by a new discovery realized with the Tamaris 1D well on the Lege permit held jointly by Esso Rep and Elf Aquitaine. However the level of exploration drilling activity is much lower than in 1996 (3 wells completed against 7 in 1996). A 59% increase in investments production is due to the put on stream of the Courbey discovery (Arcachon basin) and to the arrival of new operators on the French mining acreage. The infill drilling activity has shown a significant increase linked to these events with 8 completed wells. The Paris basin remains the main oil producing area in France (1.026 million tons) but is affected by a 18.2% decline compared with 1996, higher than the Aquitaine basin decline (11.8%). Natural gas production has decreased by 8.4% due to the decline of the Lacq and Meillon main gas fields. (J.S.)

  13. 1997 annual report. Petroleum research and production in France; Rapport annuel 1997. Recherche et production petrolieres en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The efforts expended during the previous years for the renewal of oil and gas exploration in France led to a significant increase in the number of applications for exploration permits: 8 against 2 in 1996. A renewing interest for the French offshore mining acreage is observed in Sea of Iroise, Saint-Pierre and Miquelon and in the Bay of Biscay. The total number of valid production permits has slightly dropped (76 against 77 in 1996) and is divided into 55 concessions and 21 production permits. A 42% decline of exploration investments is observed as compared to the previous year. The geophysical prospecting sector has been particularly affected but the exploration drilling activity has been marked by a new discovery realized with the Tamaris 1D well on the Lege permit held jointly by Esso Rep and Elf Aquitaine. However the level of exploration drilling activity is much lower than in 1996 (3 wells completed against 7 in 1996). A 59% increase in investments production is due to the put on stream of the Courbey discovery (Arcachon basin) and to the arrival of new operators on the French mining acreage. The infill drilling activity has shown a significant increase linked to these events with 8 completed wells. The Paris basin remains the main oil producing area in France (1.026 million tons) but is affected by a 18.2% decline compared with 1996, higher than the Aquitaine basin decline (11.8%). Natural gas production has decreased by 8.4% due to the decline of the Lacq and Meillon main gas fields. (J.S.)

  14. Diurnal, synoptic and seasonal variability of atmospheric CO2 in the Paris megacity area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xueref-Remy, Irène; Dieudonné, Elsa; Vuillemin, Cyrille; Lopez, Morgan; Lac, Christine; Schmidt, Martina; Delmotte, Marc; Chevallier, Frédéric; Ravetta, François; Perrussel, Olivier; Ciais, Philippe; Bréon, François-Marie; Broquet, Grégoire; Ramonet, Michel; Spain, T. Gerard; Ampe, Christophe

    2018-03-01

    Most of the global fossil fuel CO2 emissions arise from urbanized and industrialized areas. Bottom-up inventories quantify them but with large uncertainties. In 2010-2011, the first atmospheric in situ CO2 measurement network for Paris, the capital of France, began operating with the aim of monitoring the regional atmospheric impact of the emissions coming from this megacity. Five stations sampled air along a northeast-southwest axis that corresponds to the direction of the dominant winds. Two stations are classified as rural (Traînou - TRN; Montgé-en-Goële - MON), two are peri-urban (Gonesse - GON; Gif-sur-Yvette - GIF) and one is urban (EIF, located on top of the Eiffel Tower). In this study, we analyze the diurnal, synoptic and seasonal variability of the in situ CO2 measurements over nearly 1 year (8 August 2010-13 July 2011). We compare these datasets with remote CO2 measurements made at Mace Head (MHD) on the Atlantic coast of Ireland and support our analysis with atmospheric boundary layer height (ABLH) observations made in the center of Paris and with both modeled and observed meteorological fields. The average hourly CO2 diurnal cycles observed at the regional stations are mostly driven by the CO2 biospheric cycle, the ABLH cycle and the proximity to urban CO2 emissions. Differences of several µmol mol-1 (ppm) can be observed from one regional site to the other. The more the site is surrounded by urban sources (mostly residential and commercial heating, and traffic), the more the CO2 concentration is elevated, as is the associated variability which reflects the variability of the urban sources. Furthermore, two sites with inlets high above ground level (EIF and TRN) show a phase shift of the CO2 diurnal cycle of a few hours compared to lower sites due to a strong coupling with the boundary layer diurnal cycle. As a consequence, the existence of a CO2 vertical gradient above Paris can be inferred, whose amplitude depends on the time of the day and on

  15. Diurnal, synoptic and seasonal variability of atmospheric CO2 in the Paris megacity area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Xueref-Remy

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Most of the global fossil fuel CO2 emissions arise from urbanized and industrialized areas. Bottom-up inventories quantify them but with large uncertainties. In 2010–2011, the first atmospheric in situ CO2 measurement network for Paris, the capital of France, began operating with the aim of monitoring the regional atmospheric impact of the emissions coming from this megacity. Five stations sampled air along a northeast–southwest axis that corresponds to the direction of the dominant winds. Two stations are classified as rural (Traînou – TRN; Montgé-en-Goële – MON, two are peri-urban (Gonesse – GON; Gif-sur-Yvette – GIF and one is urban (EIF, located on top of the Eiffel Tower. In this study, we analyze the diurnal, synoptic and seasonal variability of the in situ CO2 measurements over nearly 1 year (8 August 2010–13 July 2011. We compare these datasets with remote CO2 measurements made at Mace Head (MHD on the Atlantic coast of Ireland and support our analysis with atmospheric boundary layer height (ABLH observations made in the center of Paris and with both modeled and observed meteorological fields. The average hourly CO2 diurnal cycles observed at the regional stations are mostly driven by the CO2 biospheric cycle, the ABLH cycle and the proximity to urban CO2 emissions. Differences of several µmol mol−1 (ppm can be observed from one regional site to the other. The more the site is surrounded by urban sources (mostly residential and commercial heating, and traffic, the more the CO2 concentration is elevated, as is the associated variability which reflects the variability of the urban sources. Furthermore, two sites with inlets high above ground level (EIF and TRN show a phase shift of the CO2 diurnal cycle of a few hours compared to lower sites due to a strong coupling with the boundary layer diurnal cycle. As a consequence, the existence of a CO2 vertical gradient above Paris can be inferred, whose amplitude depends

  16. Visas for Switzerland and France - Time needed to process applications

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Please note that any person required to be in possession of a visa in order to take up functions at CERN must start the application process sufficiently early to allow the visa to be issued in time.   The submission of an incomplete application, local circumstances and an increase in applications before the summer holiday period can all result in considerable variation in the time needed to process your application and issue the visa. You are therefore recommended to submit your visa application at least three months, and not later than 21 days, prior to your departure date. We would also like to remind you that the Swiss Consulate in Paris and the French Consulate in Geneva can issue visas exclusively to people resident within their respective spheres of competence (i.e. those who are holders of a French or Swiss residence permit respectively). You must therefore obtain all visas required for stays longer than three months in France or Switzerland from the visa-issuing authority competent for ...

  17. Media use and insomnia after terror attacks in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Robin; Lemola, Sakari; Ben-Ezra, Menachem

    2018-03-01

    Direct exposure to traumatic events often precipitates sleep disorders. Sleep disturbance has also been observed amongst those indirectly exposed to trauma, via mass media. However, previous work has focused on traditional media use, rather than contemporary social media. We tested associations between both traditional and social media consumption and insomnia symptoms following 2015 terror attacks in Paris France, controlling for location and post-traumatic symptomology. 1878 respondents, selected to represent the national French population, completed an internet survey a month after the Bataclan attacks (response rate 72%). Respondents indicated different media use, post-traumatic stress and insomnia. Controlling for demographics, location and PTSD, insomnia was associated with both traditional (β 0.10, P = .001) and social media use (β 0.12, P = .001). Associations between social media and insomnia were independent of traditional media use. Interventions targeted at social media may be particularly important following mass trauma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Environmental remediation of an Alstom grid industrial site (France) - 59270

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    ALSTOM Grid is the project owner of the remediation of a former industrial site, located in Saint-Ouen, north of Paris. The industrial activity (power transformer production) started in 1921 and stopped in 2006. The type of pollution is linked with the former activity. It's an organic pollution: hydrocarbon, PCB and chlorinated volatile organic compounds. The clean-up concerns soil and groundwater. The main specificity of the project is that the remediation is operated inside the existing industrial buildings which must be kept in place and restituted to the owner after the works. The treatment of soil requires excavating soil up to 9 m deep (1 m under the level of the groundwater) inside the buildings. As a consequence, some impressive devices were set up to ensure the stability of the buildings during the clean-up, like support structures of the foundations and strengthening of the building fronts. In the same time, it has to be pointed out that great diversity of clean-up actions is performed on the site: the soil is excavated to be treated on site (bioremediation or chemical treatment) or off site. The treatment of groundwater consists of pumping the oil staying on the surface and oxidizing the dissolved pollution. This project is probably the first experience of this scale in France with multi-contaminated soil and groundwater decontamination in keeping and reinforcing the existing buildings. (authors)

  19. Reliability data banks at Electricite de France (EDF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Procaccia, H.

    1991-01-01

    When Electricite de France opted for a policy of rapid development of PWR nuclear power plants only foreign data was available on plant operation to start a computerized data bank. Since 1978 however, a specific French data bank has been built up. The collected data are recorded on a central computer near Paris. This article describes the component reliability bank. First a history of the banks' development, which has taken place in four steps, is described. Then the data bank itself, known as SRDF, is explained. It allows computation of the component failure rates in operation, on standby or on demand, their development with time, the corresponding unavailability and repair time, the modes and causes of failure, the affected subcomponents and the consequences of the failure on the plant. To achieve this SRDF has three subfiles, the identification file, the operating file and the failure file. The components monitored are listed. Data processing, and data retrieval are explained and some examples given of studies performed using SRDF. (UK)

  20. The New Microbiology: a conference at the Institut de France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radoshevich, Lilliana; Bierne, Hélène; Ribet, David; Cossart, Pascale

    2012-08-01

    In May 2012, three European Academies held a conference on the present and future of microbiology. The conference, entitled "The New Microbiology", was a joint effort of the French Académie des sciences, of the German National Academy of Sciences Leopoldina and of the British Royal Society. The organizers - Pascale Cossart and Philippe Sansonetti from the "Académie des sciences", David Holden and Richard Moxon from the "Royal Society", and Jörg Hacker and Jürgen Hesseman from the "Leopoldina Nationale Akademie der Wissenschaften" - wanted to highlight the current renaissance in the field of microbiology mostly due to the advent of technological developments and allowing for single-cell analysis, rapid and inexpensive genome-wide comparisons, sophisticated microscopy and quantitative large-scale studies of RNA regulation and proteomics. The conference took place in the historical Palais de l'Institut de France in Paris with the strong support of Jean-François Bach, Secrétaire Perpétuel of the Académie des sciences. Copyright © 2012 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Euro plays : Canadian companies find success in England and France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsters, S.

    1998-01-01

    A growing list of Canadian companies are searching for oil and gas onshore in England and France. Cirque Energy Corp., Vermilion Resources Ltd., Morrison Middlefield Resources Ltd., and Bow Valley Energy Ltd., are among the companies that are taking advantage of the underexplored basins, little competition, availability of land, and (in the case of the United Kingdom) a superior fiscal regime. Cirque Energy Corp. entered the U.K. in 1995 and currently has a 220,000 acre land position in the East Midlands basin, 250 km north of London. The main producing reservoirs are Permo-Carboniferous in age. The geology is similar to that in the North Sea. In November 1998, Cirque plans to build a 2,500 metre, six inch pipeline to transport up to 1,500 gross bbls of oil per day. Vermilion Resources Ltd. acquired oil and gas assets in the Paris and Aquitaine basin. The company has executed a $10.1 million workover and recompletion program on 42 wells which has increased production to more than 6,000 BOE per day from the previous 4,000 BOE per day. 3 figs

  2. A coil test facility for the cryogenic tests of the JT-60SA TF coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chantant, M.; Genini, L.; Bayetti, P.; Millet, F.; Wanner, M.; Massaut, V.; Corte, A. Della; Ardelier-Desage, F.; Catherine-Dumont, V.; Dael, A.; Decool, P.; Donati, A.; Duchateau, J.L.; Garibaldi, P.; Girard, S.; Hatchressian, J.C.; Fejoz, P.; Jamotton, P.; Jourdheuil, L.; Juster, F.P.

    2011-01-01

    In the framework of the Broader Approach Activities, the EU will deliver to Japan the 18 superconducting coils, which constitute the JT-60SA Toroidal field magnet. These 18 coils, manufactured by France and Italy, will be cold tested before shipping to Japan. For this purpose, the European Joint Undertaking for ITER, the Development of Fusion Energy ('Fusion for Energy', F4E) and the European Voluntary Contributors are collaborating to design and set-up a coil test facility (CTF) and to perform the acceptance test of the 18 JT-60SA Toroidal Field (TF) coils. The test facility is designed to test one coil at a time at nominal current and cryogenic temperature. The test of the first coil of each manufacturer includes a quench triggered by increasing the temperature. The project is presently in the detailed design phase.

  3. The ecological movement in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taccoen, L.B.C.

    1977-01-01

    The anti-nuclear movements in France are part of a broader movement which, following common usage, the author calls the Ecological Movement. In France, the movement can be divided into a fairly small politically oriented core, numerous and varied associations for the defence of the environment, and a number of consumer associations. The movement cannot be classified politically, which accounts for the attitude of the political parties - distrust of the ''ecologists'', but considerable interest in them as voters. Those with responsibility for power generation must explain to the population at large the energy problem and the importance of economic growth in raising wages and reducing unemployment. They must also explain why nuclear power generation is one of the safest technologies existing at present. (author)

  4. Coal: a revival for France?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brones, W.

    2007-01-01

    All energy consumption forecasts indicate a world production peak of fossil fuels around 2030 followed by a rapid decline. The oil peak should probably occur earlier. In this context the huge worldwide reserves of coal represent a fantastic opportunity to meet the world power demand which should double between 2002 and 2030 with in particular a huge growth in China and India. If promising alternate technologies (coal liquefaction..) exist which would allow to replace petroleum by coal, the main question remains the management of CO 2 . Capture and sequestration techniques are already implemented and tested and the search for new coal deposits is going on, in particular in France in the Nievre area. Economic studies about the profitability of coal exploitation in France stress on the socio-economical advantage that a revival of this activity would represent, in particular in terms of employment. (J.S.)

  5. User's inspection authorities in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robault, B.; Paquet, D.

    2004-01-01

    The article 14 of the directive 97/23 EC concerning pressure equipment has been introduced in french regulation. Electricite de France (EDF) and Gaz de France (GDF) decided to become user inspectorates. The EDF user inspectorate was authorized by the departmental order of 10/10/2000 re-conducted by departmental order of 19/12/2002. The GDF user inspectorate was authorized by the departmental order of 10/07/2002 re-conducted by departmental order of 09/02/2004. The presentation of user inspectorates evaluation methods associated with the experience of firsts evaluations shows the interest of user inspectorates. This interest concerned specific equipments with experience accumulated in manufacturing and plant working. (authors)

  6. Nuclear safety organisation in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    This report outlines the public authorities responsible for the safety of nuclear installations in France. The composition and responsibilities of the Central Safety Service of Nuclear Installations within the Ministry of Industry, the Institute of Nuclear Protection and Safety within the CEA, the Central Service of Protection Against Ionising Radiation and the Interministerial Committee of Nuclear Safety are given. Other areas covered include the technical safety examination of large nuclear installations, the occurrence of accidents, treatment and control of release of radioactive wastes and decommissioning. The section on regulations covers the authorisation procedure, plant commissioning, release of radioactive effluents, surveillance and protection of workers exposed to ionising radiation. The situation is compared with the USA and the Federal Republic of Germany. A list of commercial nuclear installations in France is given

  7. Training at Electricite de France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rippon, S.

    1985-01-01

    With 41 nuclear power units operating and another 21 units under construction, France is serious about improving personnel training for the 3000 new employees each year. Electricite de France (EdF) takes a paternalistic approach to personnel training and to recruitment and advancement from within the organization. Courses in the training program range from one day to one year in length, and may take place either on or off the site. The author describes the training centers and schedule, but emphasizes the training is an ongoing process. Most instructors come from operating power stations. The courses use simulators to train operators in the use of fault analysis during an emergency. Computer-aided teaching systems are also widely used. 1 figure

  8. Developing solar energy in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alary-Grall, L.

    2003-01-01

    3 years ago the 'Soleil' program was launched and today 660.000 m 2 of solar cells have been installed which has made France to rank 4 behind Germany, Greece and Austria in terms of the use of solar energy. The 'Soleil' program, that will end in 2006, aims at developing solar energy in France and is composed of 4 axis: 1) the contribution to the funding of solar equipment through enticing financial helps, 2) the implementation of a quality plan for the installers of solar equipment, 3) the setting of a quality label for innovative and efficient solar equipment and 4) the promoting of solar energy to the professionals of the construction sector. (A.C.)

  9. The oncologic outcome and immediate surgical complications of lipofilling in breast cancer patients: a multicenter study--Milan-Paris-Lyon experience of 646 lipofilling procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Jean Yves; Lohsiriwat, Visnu; Clough, Krishna B; Sarfati, Isabelle; Ihrai, Tarik; Rietjens, Mario; Veronesi, Paolo; Rossetto, Fabio; Scevola, Anna; Delay, Emmanuel

    2011-08-01

    Lipofilling is now performed to improve the breast contour, after both breast-conserving surgery and breast reconstruction. However, injection of fat into a previous tumor site may create a new environment for cancer and adjacent cells. There is also no international agreement regarding lipofilling after breast cancer treatment. The authors included three institutions specializing in both breast cancer treatment and breast reconstruction (European Institute of Oncology, Milan, Italy; Paris Breast Center, Paris, France; and Leon Berard Centre, Lyon, France) for a multicenter study. A collective chart review of all lipofilling procedures after breast cancer treatment was performed. From 2000 to 2010, the authors reviewed 646 lipofilling procedures from 513 patients. There were 370 mastectomy patients and 143 breast-conserving surgery patients. There were 405 patients (78.9 percent) with invasive carcinoma and 108 (21.1 percent) with carcinoma in situ. The average interval between oncologic surgical interventions and lipofilling was 39.7 months. Average follow-up after lipofilling was 19.2 months. The authors observed a complication rate of 2.8 percent (liponecrosis, 2.0 percent). Twelve radiologic images appeared after lipofilling in 119 breast-conserving surgery cases (10.1 percent). The overall oncologic event rate was 5.6 percent (3.6 percent per year). The locoregional event rate was 2.4 percent (1.5 percent per year). Lipofilling after breast cancer treatment leads to a low complication rate and does not affect radiologic follow-up after breast-conserving surgery. A prospective clinical registry including high-volume multicenter data with a long follow-up is warranted to demonstrate the oncologic safety. Until then, lipofilling should be performed in experienced hands, and a cautious oncologic follow-up protocol is advised. Therapeutic, IV [corrected].

  10. Aerosol particle measurements at three stationary sites in the megacity of Paris during summer 2009: meteorology and air mass origin dominate aerosol particle composition and size distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Freutel

    2013-01-01

    inferred from these measurements: Volume mixing ratios of 1–14 ppb of NOx, and upper limits for mass concentrations of about 1.5 μg m−3 of black carbon and of about 3 μg m−3 of hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol can be deduced which originate from both, local emissions and the overall Paris emission plume. The secondary aerosol particle phase species were found to be not significantly influenced by the Paris megacity, indicating their regional origin. The submicron aerosol mass concentrations of particulate sulphate, nitrate, and ammonium measured during time periods when air masses were advected from eastern central Europe were found to be similar to what has been found from other measurement campaigns in Paris and south-central France for this type of air mass origin, indicating that the results presented here are also more generally valid.

  11. [Development strategy of Paris based on combination of domestic patent and current resource application and development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fei-Ya; Tao, Ai-En; Xia, Cong-Long

    2018-01-01

    Paris is a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), and has antitumor, antibacterial, sedative, analgesic and hemostatic effects. It has been used as an ingredient of 81 Chinese patent medicines, with a wide application and large market demand. Based on the data retrieved from state Intellectual Property Office patent database, a comprehensive analysis was made on Paris patents, so as to explore the current features of Paris patents in the aspects of domestic patent output, development trend, technology field distribution, time dimension, technology growth rate and patent applicant, and reveal the development trend of China's Paris industry. In addition, based on the current Paris resource application and development, a sustainable, multi-channel and multi-level industrial development approach was built. According to the results, studies of Paris in China are at the rapid development period, with a good development trend. However, because wild Paris resources tend to be exhausted, the studies for artificial cultivation technology should be strengthened to promote the industrial development. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  12. PINK1 Primes Parkin-Mediated Ubiquitination of PARIS in Dopaminergic Neuronal Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunjong Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1 and parkin cause autosomal-recessive Parkinson’s disease through a common pathway involving mitochondrial quality control. Parkin inactivation leads to accumulation of the parkin interacting substrate (PARIS, ZNF746 that plays an important role in dopamine cell loss through repression of proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1-alpha (PGC-1α promoter activity. Here, we show that PARIS links PINK1 and parkin in a common pathway that regulates dopaminergic neuron survival. PINK1 interacts with and phosphorylates serines 322 and 613 of PARIS to control its ubiquitination and clearance by parkin. PINK1 phosphorylation of PARIS alleviates PARIS toxicity, as well as repression of PGC-1α promoter activity. Conditional knockdown of PINK1 in adult mouse brains leads to a progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra that is dependent on PARIS. Altogether, these results uncover a function of PINK1 to direct parkin-PARIS-regulated PGC-1α expression and dopaminergic neuronal survival.

  13. Jihadists’ Grievance Narratives against France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Bindner

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available France ranks first in the EU as a provider of foreign terrorist fighters in Syria and Iraq, and as the most-targeted European country in the context of the Syrian-Iraqi conflict. France has a longstanding history related to jihadism, correlated with multiple grievances from jihadist groups: it has been depicted as an enemy of Islam because of its foreign policy, its domestic policy towards religion, and, last but not least, its very essence. These grievances have been conveyed, like the baton of a relay race, from the first generations of North-African Islamist networks and the “elder brothers of jihad” to contemporary jihadists. The French jihadist media ecosystem has been instrumental in attracting a particularly large contemporary following. From the French perspective, a range of social, cultural, religious, economic, political, demographic drivers and identity factors converged to create a fertile ground for receptive radicals to emerge and break away from democratic values. Informed by these issues, this Policy Brief aims to identify avenues of further development for the French counter-terrorism strategic communication strategy. It concludes by stressing the need for this communication strategy to strive for positive, alternative messaging to re-create a continuum between individuals in the jihadist milieu and France as a nation state.

  14. 2035: a no nuclear France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupin, L.; Chandes, C.; James, O.; Moragues, M.

    2011-01-01

    The authors propose a prospective scenario: the newly elected French president decides of a 20-year program to give up nuclear energy production. First, the Fessenheim and Gravelines reactors are closed. The others are to be closed by 2035. Investments are decided for offshore wind energy production, methanation projects, housing thermal insulation. Employees of the nuclear energy sector are taken into account. The authors describe the situation in 2020: energy supply problems, 5 more years of lifetime awarded to some nuclear power stations, decision to build only positive energy buildings, mandatory housing renovation, job creation, decision to develop carbon capture and storage projects. In 2025: the dismantling of nuclear reactors is going on and its cost is assessed, always more electrical vehicles, drastic cost reduction for lithium batteries. In 2035: renewable energies represent the half of the energy mix, the dismantling activity is a success for Areva. In parallel, current figures are given for energy consumption per year and per person in France and Germany, for energy French exports and imports, for electricity cost associated with the different energy sources, for the energy mix in France, for the number of jobs in the nuclear sector. In an interview, a member of the CEA comments the Italian, German and Swiss decisions to give up nuclear energy, the possibilities of its replacement by renewable energies, and the challenges associated with such a decision in France

  15. Foreign driving licences in France

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The following information is subject to possible amendments decided by the competent French authorities. Those wishing to undertake the necessary steps with the prefectural services of the Departments of the Ain and Haute-Savoie may obtain information by calling the following numbers: + 33 4 74 32 30 65 for the Ain and + 33 4 50 33 60 00 for Haute-Savoie. 1. PERSONS RESIDING IN FRANCE 1.1 Driving licences issued by a State belonging to the EU or the EEA a) Recognition on French territory All currently valid driving licences issued by States belonging to the European Union (EU) or to the European Economic Area (EEA) are generally valid for driving on French territory. However, if the licence was originally obtained in exchange for a licence issued by a State not belonging to the EU or to the EEA and with which France has not concluded a reciprocity agreement, it will be recognised for a maximum of one year following the date of establishment of normal residence in France ...

  16. FOREIGN DRIVING LICENCES IN FRANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Unit

    2008-01-01

    The following information is provided subject to possible amendments decided by the competent French authorities. Those wishing to undertake the necessary steps with the prefectural services of the Departments of Ain and Haute-Savoie may obtain information by calling the following numbers: + 33 474 32 30 65 for Ain and + 33 450 33 60 00 for Haute-Savoie. 1. PEOPLE RESIDING IN FRANCE 1.1 Driving licences issued by a state belonging to the EU or the EEA a) Recognition on French territory All currently valid driving licences issued by States belonging to the European Union (EU) or to the European Economic Area (EEA) are generally valid for driving on French territory. However, if the licence was originally obtained in exchange for a licence issued by a State not belonging to the EU or to the EEA with which France has not concluded a reciprocity agreement, it is recognised only up to one year following the date of establishment of normal residence in France (date of the first special residence permit issu...

  17. Climate index for France - Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    According to the U.S. Department of Energy, an estimated 25% of the GNP is affected by weather-related events. The variations in temperature - even small ones - can also have long-lasting effects on the operational results of a company. Among other, the Energy supply sector is sensitive to weather risks: a milder or harsher than usual winter leads to a decrease or increase of energy consumption. The price of electricity on power trading facilities like Powernext is especially sensitive to odd changes in temperatures. Powernext and Meteo-France (the French meteorological agency) have joined expertise in order to promote the use of weather indices in term of decision making or underlying of hedging tools to energy actors, end users from any other sector of activity and specialists of the weather risk hedging. The Powernext Weather indices are made from information collected by Meteo-France's main observation network according to the norms of international meteorology, in areas carefully selected. The gross data are submitted to a thorough review allowing the correction of abnormalities and the reconstitution of missing data. Each index is fashioned to take into account the economic activity in the various regions of the country as represented by each region's population. This demographic information represents a fair approximation of the weight of the regional economic activity. This document presents the calculation methodology of average, minimum and maximum weather indexes with the winter and summer regression equations for the different economical regions of France. (J.S.)

  18. Electrical energy statistics for France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-07-01

    In 2008, national electrical consumption reached 494.5 TWh, an increase of 2.9 % compared with 2007 (480.4 TWh). Adjusted for winter and summer climate contingencies and leap year, its evolution rate compared with 2007 is +1.3 % Consumption by business and private customers came to 198.0 TWh, an increase of 5.9 % compared with 2007 (187.0 TWh); consumption by Large-scale industry and SME/SMIs came to 263.0 TWh, an increase of 0.7 % compared with 2007 (261.3 TWh). Generation in France came to 549.1 TWh, as in 2006, an increase of 4.3 TWh or +0.8 % compared with 2007 (544.8 TWh). Hydro-electric generation reached 68.0 TWh, an increase of 7.5 % compared with 2007 (63.3 TWh). Renewable energy sources generation but hydro reached 9.7 TWh, an increase of 23.8 % compared with 2007 (7.8 TWh), mainly due to an increase of 37.5 % of wind energy (5.6 TWh in 2008 compared with 4.0 TWh in 2007). This progression is coherent with the increase of 48% of the installed capacity for wind generation. Nuclear generation came to 418.3 TWh in 2008, a decrease of 0.1 % compared with 2007 (418.6 TWh). Fossil thermal generation came to 53.1 TWh, a decrease of 3.5 % compared with 2007 (55.1 TWh). The heaviest load in terms of capacity reaches 92.4 GW during winter 2008/2009. Its evolution rate compared with 2007 is +3.8 % with a temperature lower by 2.2 deg. C. Since 2001, the heaviest load in winter has increased by 16% whereas the national electrical consumption has increased by 10%. The year 2008 is marked by the commissioning of the 400 kV line VIGY-MARLENHEIM. Besides, the underground circuits lengths grow by 118 km over the entire network. In terms of physical exchanges of electrical energy between France and the neighbouring countries France exported a net total of 48.0 TWh, a decrease of 15.4 % compared with 2007 (56.7 TWh). Contractual exchanges with foreign countries came to a cumulative value for exports and imports of 116.2 TWh, an increase of 5.1 % compared with 2007 (110.5 TWh

  19. Batteries and accumulators in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-12-01

    The present report gives an overview of the batteries and accumulators market in France in 2011 based on the data reported through ADEME's Register of Batteries and accumulators. In 2001, the French Environmental Agency, known as ADEME, implemented a follow-up of the batteries and accumulators market, creating the Observatory of batteries and accumulators (B and A). In 2010, ADEME created the National Register of producers of Batteries and Accumulators in the context of the implementation of the order issued on November 18, 2009. This is one of the four enforcement orders for the decree 2009-1139 issued on September 22, 2009, concerning batteries and accumulators put on the market and the disposal of waste batteries and accumulators, and which transposes the EU-Directive 2006/66/CE into French law. This Register follows the former Observatory for batteries and accumulators. This Register aims to record the producers on French territory and to collect the B and A producers and recycling companies' annual reporting: the regulation indeed requires that all B and A producers and recycling companies report annually on the Register the quantities of batteries and accumulators they put on the market, collect and treat. Based on this data analysis, ADEME issues an annual report allowing both the follow-up of the batteries and accumulators market in France and communication regarding the achievement of the collection and recovery objectives set by EU regulation. This booklet presents the situation in France in 2011

  20. Intellectual Property and Strategic Agreements (IP/SA) | FNLCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    What does IP/SA handle? IP/SA handles all invention issues including patents and copyrights. All employee inventionreports are filed through the IP/SA office for all activities under the OTS contract.Additionally,&nbs

  1. The route of ´The sitting woman´. The cartoons of Copi between Paris and Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Plante

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available During the 1960’ –those years marked by the growth of cultural industry and political radicalization in diverse points of the world–  the cultural field was shaped by the tensions between ‘Art’ and ‘minor culture’ or between visual production and political commitment. In this context, the multiple activity of Copi makes him a key case since it fluently traveled trough narrative writing, dramaturgy and graphic humor. Living in Paris since 1962, Copi created for the newspaper Le Nouvel Observateur the character that made this argentine artist famous in France, La Femme Assise (The sitting woman. Conceived for the massive audience of the modernized press of the 1960’, his strips questioned –with corrosive nonsense– middle sectors in expansion at both sides of the Atlantic Ocean. This paper tackles precisely with this sort of geographic and linguistic swinging mediated by Copi’s foreignness. This without eluding nor the graphic humor’s specificities, nor larger cultural phenomenon of the 1960’s like the internationalization of the urban culture and the fading of the borders of the artistic fields.

  2. ''La Grande Galerie de l'Evolution'' of Paris: The only museum in the world entirely devoted to biological evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raulin Cerceau, F.

    1995-01-01

    The new building called ''Grande Galerie de l'Evolution'' of the national Museum of natural History, in Paris-France, is the first museum in the world exclusively devoted to biological evolution. The Museum is divided in 3 parts (named ''Acts''): The aim of Act 1 is to sensibilize the visitor to the results of 4 billions years of biological evolution. This act shows some examples of biological diversity through few terrestrial and marine environments (deserts, tropical forests, polar habitats, abyssal zones ...). Act 2 is the principal part of the Museum explaining the main processes of evolution. This part shows also the story of life from the first living cells to man. Act 3, the last part offers to visitors a vision of the interactions between man and nature, and of their consequences along millions of years. A special Gallery is entirely devoted to vanished and threatened species, as a nefast consequence of human interaction on biological diversity particularly since the beginning of this century. (Abstract only)

  3. How to Catch All Those Mutations—The Report of the Third Human Variome Project Meeting, UNESCO Paris, May 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohonen-Corish, Maija R.J.; Al-Aama, Jumana Y.; Auerbach, Arleen D.; Axton, Myles; Barash, Carol Isaacson; Bernstein, Inge; Béroud, Christophe; Burn, John; Cunningham, Fiona; Cutting, Garry R.; den Dunnen, Johan T.; Greenblatt, Marc S.; Kaput, Jim; Katz, Michael; Lindblom, Annika; Macrae, Finlay; Maglott, Donna; Möslein, Gabriela; Povey, Sue; Ramesar, Raj; Richards, Sue; Seminara, Daniela; Sobrido, María-Jesús; Tavtigian, Sean; Taylor, Graham; Vihinen, Mauno; Winship, Ingrid; Cotton, Richard G.H.

    2011-01-01

    The third Human Variome Project (HVP) Meeting “Integration and Implementation” was held under UNESCO Patronage in Paris, France, at the UNESCO Headquarters May 10–14, 2010. The major aims of the HVP are the collection, curation, and distribution of all human genetic variation affecting health. The HVP has drawn together disparate groups, by country, gene of interest, and expertise, who are working for the common good with the shared goal of pushing the boundaries of the human variome and collaborating to avoid unnecessary duplication. The meeting addressed the 12 key areas that form the current framework of HVP activities: Ethics; Nomenclature and Standards; Publication, Credit and Incentives; Data Collection from Clinics; Overall Data Integration and Access—Peripheral Systems/Software; Data Collection from Laboratories; Assessment of Pathogenicity; Country Specific Collection; Translation to Healthcare and Personalized Medicine; Data Transfer, Databasing, and Curation; Overall Data Integration and Access—Central Systems; and Funding Mechanisms and Sustainability. In addition, three societies that support the goals and the mission of HVP also held their own Workshops with the view to advance disease-specific variation data collection and utilization: the International Society for Gastrointestinal Hereditary Tumours, the Micronutrient Genomics Project, and the Neurogenetics Consortium. PMID:20960468

  4. How to catch all those mutations--the report of the third Human Variome Project Meeting, UNESCO Paris, May 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohonen-Corish, Maija R J; Al-Aama, Jumana Y; Auerbach, Arleen D; Axton, Myles; Barash, Carol Isaacson; Bernstein, Inge; Béroud, Christophe; Burn, John; Cunningham, Fiona; Cutting, Garry R; den Dunnen, Johan T; Greenblatt, Marc S; Kaput, Jim; Katz, Michael; Lindblom, Annika; Macrae, Finlay; Maglott, Donna; Möslein, Gabriela; Povey, Sue; Ramesar, Raj; Richards, Sue; Seminara, Daniela; Sobrido, María-Jesús; Tavtigian, Sean; Taylor, Graham; Vihinen, Mauno; Winship, Ingrid; Cotton, Richard G H

    2010-12-01

    The third Human Variome Project (HVP) Meeting "Integration and Implementation" was held under UNESCO Patronage in Paris, France, at the UNESCO Headquarters May 10-14, 2010. The major aims of the HVP are the collection, curation, and distribution of all human genetic variation affecting health. The HVP has drawn together disparate groups, by country, gene of interest, and expertise, who are working for the common good with the shared goal of pushing the boundaries of the human variome and collaborating to avoid unnecessary duplication. The meeting addressed the 12 key areas that form the current framework of HVP activities: Ethics; Nomenclature and Standards; Publication, Credit and Incentives; Data Collection from Clinics; Overall Data Integration and Access-Peripheral Systems/Software; Data Collection from Laboratories; Assessment of Pathogenicity; Country Specific Collection; Translation to Healthcare and Personalized Medicine; Data Transfer, Databasing, and Curation; Overall Data Integration and Access-Central Systems; and Funding Mechanisms and Sustainability. In addition, three societies that support the goals and the mission of HVP also held their own Workshops with the view to advance disease-specific variation data collection and utilization: the International Society for Gastrointestinal Hereditary Tumours, the Micronutrient Genomics Project, and the Neurogenetics Consortium. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Making a Success of the 2015 Paris Climate Conference. Opinion of the Economic, Social and Environmental Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesquida, Celine; Guirkinger, Bernard

    2015-04-01

    In November 2011, the ESEC voted on an opinion entitled 'International Climate Negotiations and the Durban Conference'. The holding in France, at the end of this year, of the 21. Conference of Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention (COP 21) provides an opportunity for the ESEC to issue a follow-up opinion. All of the scientific data points to the same alarming finding: global warming is being exacerbated due to the effects of an unprecedented increase in Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. Worldwide, the signs of climate disruption are already more than apparent and will continue to intensify if nothing is done about them, as was highlighted by the IPCC. The outlook for the future is therefore disturbing to say the least, as the lives of current and future generations are at stake if we fail to challenge current modes of production and consumption that are incompatible with limited resources and the fair distribution of wealth. At the same time, the successive major international climate change conferences have struggled to progress towards an international climate regulatory framework. These conferences are not about the climate alone, but take place at the confluence of contradictory geostrategic, political and economic interests. Within this context, the goal of concluding a global, fair and ambitious agreement in Paris is a challenge that must be risen to. (authors)

  6. Unexpected {delta}{sup 18}O and {delta}{sup 2}H Variability of Groundwater in the Eastern Paris Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gourcy, L.; Petelet-Giraud, E. [BRGM Service EAU, Orleans (France)

    2013-07-15

    The Paris Basin covers about one-third of the total surface area of France. In 2009, two campaigns sampling 25 boreholes tapping Tertiary aquifers were carried out in the Basin. These aquifers are recharged at a similar altitude and the groundwater age is too young to have registered climate change. In the past, regional studies included the use of isotopes to understand groundwater origin and dynamics. Both {delta}{sup 18}O and {delta}{sup 2}H as well as ages (CFC/SF{sub 6)} and chemical components were determined in all collected samples. A noticeable stable isotope 'anomaly' appears in the south-western part of the Basin, where the average {delta}{sup 18}O and {delta}{sup 2}H values are more depleted and do not fit the pattern given by the continental effect in this area. A regional particularity of the spatial distribution of such isotopes in precipitation may be possible, but should be confirmed by additional work. (author)

  7. Highlights from the 2016 WIN Symposium, 27-29 June 2016, Paris: personalised therapy beyond next-generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilsky, Richard; Davies, Will

    2016-01-01

    The Worldwide Innovative Networking (WIN) consortium is an alliance of academic institutions, pharmaceutical partners, representatives from technology companies and charitable/health payer organisations from across the globe. For the last six years, the consortium's aims have been to foster communication and collaboration between members, encourage dialogue in an open forum, and deliver clinical trial results that improve the care and outcomes of patients with cancer using the latest advances in genomic-based medicine. The annual WIN Symposium, held over two days, is a chance for its members to come together and discuss ongoing research, recent announcements, and introduce new developments in personalised medicine. This year's conference, held in Paris, France 27-29 June, consisted of six dedicated sessions, including two debates, and posters from members and participating organisations, all focusing on the latest therapeutic advances and updates in genomic analysis. Special highlights from this year included discussion of the MINDACT clinical trial, which uses a gene expression test to identify patients with breast cancer who can safely forego adjuvant chemotherapy, and the reflections on the SHIVA trial. Of particular interest to many speakers was the utilisation of liquid biopsy samples to produce near real time snapshots of tumour mutational profiles and vulnerability.

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The Canada-France Redshift Survey (CFRS) (Lilly+, 1995)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilly, S. J.; Le Fevre, O.; Crampton, D.; Hammer, F.; Tresse, L.

    2001-11-01

    The Canada-France Redshift Survey (CFRS) is a collaboration between astronomers in Canada and France: Simon Lilly (University of Toronto), Olivier Le Fevre and Francois Hammer (Observatoire de Paris Meudon), David Crampton (Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, Victoria), Laurence Tresse (Cambridge University), and David Schade and Dan Hudon (University of Toronto). The survey is based primarily on observations with the 3.6m Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. The CFRS consists of spectra of over 1000 faint objects selected to have 17.5 study of normal galaxies at redshifts z > 0.5, corresponding to look-back times of greater than 50% of the age of the Universe. Observations of CFRS galaxies have also been made with the Hubble Space Telescope and the survey will form the basis of future studies with a number of other ground-based and space facilities. We have written a lay-persons guide to the CFRS and the main scientific results that are emerging from it. (1 data file).

  9. Enterovirus infections in hospitals of Ile de France region over 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molet, Lucie; Saloum, Kenda; Marque-Juillet, Stéphanie; Garbarg-Chenon, Antoine; Henquell, Cécile; Schuffenecker, Isabelle; Peigue-Lafeuille, Hélène; Rozenberg, Flore; Mirand, Audrey

    2016-01-01

    The monitoring and genotyping of Enterovirus (EV) infections can help to associate particular or severe clinical manifestations with specific EV types and to identify the aetiology of infectious outbreaks. To describe the epidemiological features of EV infections diagnosed during the year 2013 in the Greater Paris area (Ile de France). During 2013, 2497 samples taken from 470 patients in 33 hospitals of Ile-de France were tested for EV genome by RT-PCR. EV genotyping was performed by the National Reference Centre (NRC) laboratories. EV infections were retrospectively reviewed by retrieving clinical and genotyping data from the NRC database. Of the 2497 samples, 490 (19.6%) was positive for EV genome detection. These EV infections represented 88.7% and 24.1%, respectively, of all reported regional and national infections. Twenty-seven different genotypes were identified. Echovirus 30 (E-30) accounted for 54.1% of all characterized strains and caused a large outbreak. Four severe neonatal infections were reported, of which two were caused by EV-A71. Respiratory infections involving EV-D68 were observed in two adults. One fatal case of Coxsackievirus A2-associated myocarditis was reported. Monitoring EV infections in combination with EV genotyping via the French EV network characterized the epidemiology of EV infections in the Ile de France region in 2013 and documented severe EV infections associated with EV-A71 or CV-A2. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. [Involuntary psychiatric care for inmates in France: Only for "dangerous" patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fovet, T; Bertrand, M; Horn, M; Si Mohammed, W; Dandelot, D; Dalle, M-C; Thomas, P; Amad, A

    2017-11-27

    The unités hospitalières spécialement aménagées (UHSA) are full-time inpatient psychiatric units for inmates in France. Their creation has been associated with several advances in access to psychiatric care for inmates in recent years. However, there is still only one means of involuntary hospitalization for prisoners in France: care by decision of a representative of the state (les soins sur décision d'un représentant de l'état [SDRE]). Interestingly, for SDRE to be recognized as legal by the French judge, the patient must be "a danger to himself or to the others". Thus, there is a major difference with involuntary hospitalization outside the prison, and there are specific criteria for involuntary psychiatric hospitalization for inmates in France. This situation questions the general framework of involuntary psychiatric care and is very inconsistent with French law. Indeed, the goal of the loi n o  94-43 du 18 janvier 1994 relating to public health and social protection is to ensure equivalent care for all patients, incarcerated or not. Copyright © 2017 L'Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Nutrition Transition and Biocultural Determinants of Obesity among Cameroonian Migrants in Urban Cameroon and France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Emmanuel; Amougou, Norbert; Ponty, Amandine; Loinger-Beck, Juliette; Nkuintchua, Téodyl; Monteillet, Nicolas; Bernard, Jonathan Y; Saïd-Mohamed, Rihlat; Holdsworth, Michelle; Pasquet, Patrick

    2017-06-29

    Native of rural West Cameroon, the Bamiléké population is traditionally predisposed to obesity. Bamiléké who migrated to urban areas additionally experience the nutrition transition. We investigated the biocultural determinants of obesity in Bamiléké who migrated to urban Cameroon (Yaoundé), or urban France (Paris). We conducted qualitative interviews ( n = 36; 18 men) and a quantitative survey ( n = 627; 266 men) of adults using two-stage sampling strategy, to determine the association of dietary intake, physical activity and body weight norms with obesity of Bamiléké populations in these three socio-ecological areas (rural Cameroon: n = 258; urban Cameroon: n = 319; urban France: n = 50). The Bamiléké valued overweight and traditional energy-dense diets in rural and urban Cameroon. Physical activity levels were lower, consumption of processed energy-dense food was frequent and obesity levels higher in new migrants living in urban Cameroon and France. Female sex, age, duration of residence in urban areas, lower physical activity and valorisation of overweight were independently associated with obesity status. This work argues in favour of local and global health policies that account for the origin and the migration trajectories to prevent obesity in migrants.

  12. France: National INIS Centre: New Directions and Main Achievements in an Evolving Context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surmont, Jérôme; Mouffron, Odile

    2015-01-01

    In a letter dated October 8, 1969 and addressed to the Director General of the IAEA, the French Governor of the IAEA Board of Governors gave his official consent for France to participate in the newborn INIS. At the same time, it was decided to establish the France National INIS Centre at the premises of the Central Documentation Department, located at the Saclay Nuclear Research Centre (French Atomic Energy Commission - CEA), near Paris. Forty-five years later, the Central Documentation has become the “Information Valorization Service” (SVI in French) which incorporates INIS, the CEA-Saclay Scientific Library and several other scientific and technical information-related activities (archives, scientific watch, collaborative work, bibliometric surveys, etc.). This brief look back over the last 20 years of the France National INIS Centre allows us to measure how far we have come and what choices we have had to make in a constantly evolving context. We have particularly stressed what, in our view, represents the most important mission of INIS, which is the preservation and dissemination of nuclear knowledge, in particular through the coverage and full text archiving of conferences and grey literature documents, with special attention paid to PhD Theses

  13. Severe accident training simulator APROS SA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raiko, Eerikki; Salminen, Kai; Lundstroem, Petra; Harti, Mika; Routamo, Tomi

    2003-01-01

    APROS SA is a severe accident training simulator based on the APROS simulation environment. APROS SA has been developed in Fortum Nuclear Services Ltd to serve as a training tool for the personnel of the Loviisa NPP. Training with APROS SA gives the personnel a deeper understanding of the severe accident phenomena and thus it is an important part of the implementation of the severe accident management strategy. APROS SA consists of two parts, a comprehensive Loviisa plant model and an external severe accident model. The external model is an extension to the Loviisa plant model, which allows the simulation to proceed into the severe accident phase. The severe accident model has three submodels: the core melting and relocation model, corium pool model and fission product model. In addition to these, a new thermal-hydraulic solver is introduced to the core region of the Loviisa plant model to replace the more limited APROS thermal-hydraulic solver. The full APROS SA training simulator has a graphical user interface with visualizations of both severe accident management panels at the operator room and the important physical phenomena during the accident. This paper describes the background of the APROS SA training simulator, the severe accident submodels and the graphical user interface. A short description how APROS SA will be used as a training tool at the Loviisa NPP is also given

  14. Experience of the Paris Research Consortium Climate-Environment-Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joussaume, Sylvie; Pacteau, Chantal; Vanderlinden, Jean Paul

    2016-04-01

    It is now widely recognized that the complexity of climate change issues translates itself into a need for interdisciplinary approaches to science. This allows to first achieve a more comprehensive vision of climate change and, second, to better inform the decision-making processes. However, it seems that willingness alone is rarely enough to implement interdisciplinarity. The purpose of this presentation is to mobilize reflexivity to revisit and analyze the experience of the Paris Consortium for Climate-Environment-Society. The French Consortium Climate-Environment-Society aims to develop, fund and coordinate interdisciplinary research into climate change and its impacts on society and environment. Launched in 2007, the consortium relies on the research expertise of 17 laboratories and federation in the Paris area working mainly in the fields of climatology, hydrology, ecology, health sciences, and the humanities and social sciences. As examples, economists and climatologists have studied greenhouse gas emission scenarios compatible with climate stabilization goals. Historical records have provided both knowledge about past climate change and vulnerability of societies. Some regions, as the Mediterranean and the Sahel, are particularly vulnerable and already have to cope with water availability, agricultural production and even health issues. A project showed that millet production in West Africa is expected to decline due to warming in a higher proportion than observed in recent decades. Climate change also raises many questions concerning health: combined effects of warming and air quality, impacts on the production of pollens and allergies, impacts on infectious diseases. All these issues lead to a need for approaches integrating different disciplines. Furthermore, climate change impacts many ecosystems which, in turn, affect its evolution. Our experience shows that interdisciplinarity supposes, in order to take shape, the conjunction between programming

  15. Biological effects of particles from the paris subway system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachoual, Rafik; Boczkowski, Jorge; Goven, Delphine; Amara, Nadia; Tabet, Lyes; On, Dinhill; Leçon-Malas, Véronique; Aubier, Michel; Lanone, Sophie

    2007-10-01

    Particulate matter (PM) from atmospheric pollution can easily deposit in the lungs and induce recruitment of inflammatory cells, a source of inflammatory cytokines, oxidants, and matrix metalloproteases (MMPs), which are important players in lung structural homeostasis. In many large cities, the subway system is a potent source of PM emission, but little is known about the biological effects of PM from this source. We performed a comprehensive study to evaluate the biological effects of PM sampled at two sites (RER and Metro) in the Paris subway system. Murine macrophages (RAW 264.7) and C57Bl/6 mice, respectively, were exposed to 0.01-10 microg/cm2 and 5-100 microg/mouse subway PM or reference materials [carbon black (CB), titanium dioxide (TiO2), or diesel exhaust particles (DEPs)]. We analyzed cell viability, production of cellular and lung proinflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP-2), KC (the murin analog of interleukin-8), and granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF)], and mRNA or protein expression of MMP-2, -9, and -12 and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Deferoxamine and polymixin B were used to evaluate the roles of iron and endotoxin, respectively. Noncytotoxic concentrations of subway PM (but not CB, TiO2, or DEPs) induced a time- and dose-dependent increase in TNFalpha and MIP-2 production by RAW 264.7 cells, in a manner involving, at least in part, PM iron content (34% inhibition of TNF production 8 h after stimulation of RAW 264.7 cells with 10 microg/cm2 RER particles pretreated with deferoxamine). Similar increased cytokine production was transiently observed in vivo in mice and was accompanied by an increased neutrophil cellularity of bronchoalveolar lavage (84.83+/-0.98% of polymorphonuclear neutrophils for RER-treated mice after 24 h vs 7.33+/-0.99% for vehicle-treated animals). Subway PM induced an increased expression of MMP-12 and HO-1 both in vitro and in vivo. PM from the

  16. El Gran Proyecto Urbano ”Paris Rive Gauche”: La transformación de un baldío ferroviario-industrial en un nuevo barrio parisino / The Great Urban Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duval-Zack, Chloé

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available “Paris Rive Gauche” es el proyecto urbano más importante que conoció la ciudad desde la remodelación de Haussmann. El perímetro de intervención, de aproximadamente unas 130 hectáreas de terrenos baldíos de origen ferroviario-industriales, se localiza intramuros a lo largo del Sena y del tejido urbano del distrito 13. Para concretar su política urbana y crear un nuevo barrio, el Municipio, junto con la SEMAPA, formalizó un programa ambicioso de revitalización, mediante la mezcla de funciones urbanas y la construcción de la Biblioteca Nacional de Francia como proyecto detonante./"Paris Rive Gauche" is the most important urban project in Paris since the Haussmann's remodelling. The area of intervention, approximately 130 hectares of railways and abandoned industries, is located intra-muros (within the walls along the Seine and the 13th district. To translate the urban politics and to create a new neighborhood, the City, together with the SEMAPA, formalized an ambitious program of revitalisation, with the mixture of urban functions and the construction of the National Library of France as a trigger project.

  17. Climate index for France - Methodology; Indice climatique France - Methodologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    According to the U.S. Department of Energy, an estimated 25% of the GNP is affected by weather-related events. The variations in temperature - even small ones - can also have long-lasting effects on the operational results of a company. Among other, the Energy supply sector is sensitive to weather risks: a milder or harsher than usual winter leads to a decrease or increase of energy consumption. The price of electricity on power trading facilities like Powernext is especially sensitive to odd changes in temperatures. Powernext and Meteo-France (the French meteorological agency) have joined expertise in order to promote the use of weather indices in term of decision making or underlying of hedging tools to energy actors, end users from any other sector of activity and specialists of the weather risk hedging. The Powernext Weather indices are made from information collected by Meteo-France's main observation network according to the norms of international meteorology, in areas carefully selected. The gross data are submitted to a thorough review allowing the correction of abnormalities and the reconstitution of missing data. Each index is fashioned to take into account the economic activity in the various regions of the country as represented by each region's population. This demographic information represents a fair approximation of the weight of the regional economic activity. This document presents the calculation methodology of average, minimum and maximum weather indexes with the winter and summer regression equations for the different economical regions of France. (J.S.)

  18. Strategicheskiy analiz predpriyatiy Nestle S.A

    OpenAIRE

    Nazarova, Daria

    2017-01-01

    The subject of the research of the bachelor's thesis is the organization and the application of individual tools of strategic analysis. The object of the research is the Nestle SA enterprise in Russia. The aim of the work is to study the tools of strategic analysis of the enterprise Nestle SA in Russia to develop proposals for improving the strategy. "Nestle SA" is the world's largest concern for food production. The company was founded in distant 1866, by the Swiss pharmacist Henri-Henry Nes...

  19. Energy statistics France - June 2008; Statistiques energetiques France - juin 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This document summarizes in a series of tables and graphics the energy statistics for France for the last decades and up to 2007: resources, uses, prices, net imports and domestic market consumption for petroleum, natural gas, electricity, and solid mineral fuels (coal, lignite, coke). 2007 statistics are presented separately for each energy source (availability, uses). The evolution of the domestic energy production and consumption and the end-use consumption per sector is also summarized for the last decades. Some primary consumption forecasts are given for 2030. (J.S.)

  20. Statistical data on energy. France; Statistiques energetiques. France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-05-01

    This document summarizes in a series of tables the energy status of France for the year 2001: supplies, consumption and uses, national production, evolution per energy source and per sector of the national production and consumption since 1973, general indicators (evolution of the energy bill, prices, energy independence and gross internal product since 1973), projections. Details about the resources, uses and prices are given separately for petroleum, natural gas, electricity and solid mineral fuels and compared with the average data of the European Union. (J.S.)

  1. Running from Paris to Beijing: biomechanical and physiological consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, Guillaume Y; Morin, Jean-Benoît; Degache, Francis; Edouard, Pascal; Feasson, Léonard; Verney, Julien; Oullion, Roger

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the physiological and biomechanical changes occurring in a subject after running 8,500 km in 161 days (i.e. 52.8 km daily). Three weeks before, 3 weeks after (POST) and 5 months after (POST+5) running from Paris to Beijing, energy cost of running (Cr), knee flexor and extensor isokinetic strength and biomechanical parameters (using a treadmill dynamometer) at different velocities were assessed in an experienced ultra-runner. At POST, there was a tendency toward a 'smoother' running pattern, as shown by (a) a higher stride frequency and duty factor, and a reduced aerial time without a change in contact time, (b) a lower maximal vertical force and loading rate at impact and (c) a decrease in both potential and kinetic energy changes at each step. This was associated with a detrimental effect on Cr (+6.2%) and a loss of strength at all angular velocities for both knee flexors and extensors. At POST+5, the subject returned to his original running patterns at low but not at high speeds and maximal strength remained reduced at low angular velocities (i.e. at high levels of force). It is suggested that the running pattern changes observed in the present study were a strategy adopted by the subject to reduce the deleterious effects of long distance running. However, the running pattern changes could partly be linked to the decrease in maximal strength.

  2. Lorenz Oken and Naturphilosophie in Jena, Paris and London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breidbach, Olaf; Ghiselin, Michael T

    2002-01-01

    Although Lorenz Oken is a classic example of Naturphilosophie as applied to biology, his views have been imperfectly understood. He is best viewed as a follower of Schelling who consistently attempted to apply Schelling's ideas to biological data. His version of Naturphilosophic, however, was strongly influenced by older pseudoscience traditions, especially alchemy and numerology as they had been presented by Robert Fludd, whose works were current in Jena and available to him. According to those influences, parts of Oken's philosophical conception were communicable even in a non-idealistic scientific culture, for example in Paris, where Oken met Etienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire. Geoffroy however was embedded in a French intellectual tradition, and the correspondence between his views and those of Oken was only superficial. The English anatomist Richard Owen attempted to incorporate the views of Oken and Geoffroy within his own, idiosyncratic system. Although Darwin knew of Oken's ideas, it was Geoffroy who really affected his evolutionary biology, and any influence of Oken must have been attenuated to the point of triviality.

  3. An American termite in Paris: temporal colony dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudouin, Guillaume; Dedeine, Franck; Bech, Nicolas; Bankhead-Dronnet, Stéphanie; Dupont, Simon; Bagnères, Anne-Geneviève

    2017-12-01

    Termites of the genus Reticulitermes are widespread invaders, particularly in urban habitats. Their cryptic and subterranean lifestyle makes them difficult to detect, and we know little about their colony dynamics over time. In this study we examined the persistence of Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) colonies in the city of Paris over a period of 15 years. The aim was (1) to define the boundaries of colonies sampled within the same four areas over two sampling periods, (2) to determine whether the colonies identified during the first sampling period persisted to the second sampling period, and (3) to compare the results obtained when colonies were delineated using a standard population genetic approach versus a Bayesian clustering method that combined both spatial and genetic information. Herein, colony delineations were inferred from genetic differences at nine microsatellite loci and one mitochondrial locus. Four of the 18 identified colonies did not show significant differences in their genotype distributions between the two sampling periods. While allelic richness was low, making it hard to reliably distinguish colony family type, most colonies appeared to retain the same breeding structure over time. These large and expansive colonies showed an important ability to fuse (39% were mixed-family colonies), contained hundreds of reproductives and displayed evidence of isolation-by-distance, suggesting budding dispersal. These traits, which favor colony persistence over time, present a challenge for pest control efforts, which apply treatment locally. The other colonies showed significant differences, but we cannot exclude the possibility that their genotype distributions simply changed over time.

  4. Paris to Beijing by bike: they made it!

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The challenge, a 12,623 km cycle trip to Beijing for the inauguration of the Olympic Games, was no easy ride, but they made it there on time. "I can do nothing for those who do not ask themselves questions" (Confucius -551-479 BC) CERN’s Raymond Cambarrat and Peter Dreesen arrived in the Chinese capital on 3 August after an incredible human and sporting adventure that began in Paris on 16 March (see Bulletin No. 20 & 21, 8 May 2008). The two cyclists, who set off on their journey with 102 other enthusiasts, rode for a total of 120 days with only ten days’ rest along the way. The greatest distance they covered in a single day was a 192 km leg in Russia, one of 12 countries their expedition took them through. From the arid steppes of Kirghizstan through the fog of Mount Hua to the snowy wind-swept pass of Kampa, the group covered roads of varying quality, some of them untarmacked, notchi...

  5. Indoor tetrachloroethylene levels and determinants in Paris dwellings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roda, Célina; Kousignian, Isabelle; Ramond, Anna; Momas, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    There is growing public health concern about indoor air quality. Tetrachloroethylene (PERC), a chlorinated volatile organic compound widely used as a solvent in dry cleaning facilities, can be a residential indoor air pollutant. As part of an environmental investigation included in the PARIS (Pollution and asthma Risk: an Infant Study) birth cohort, this study firstly aimed to document domestic PERC levels, and then to identify the factors influencing these levels using standardized questionnaires about housing characteristics and living conditions. Air samples were collected in the child's bedroom over one week using passive devices when infants were 1, 6, 9, and 12 months. PERC was identified and quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. PERC annual domestic level was calculated by averaging seasonal levels. PERC was omnipresent indoors, annual levels ranged from 0.6 to 124.2 μg/m3. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models showed that proximity to dry cleaning facilities, do-it-yourself activities (e.g.: photographic development, silverware), presence of air vents, and building construction date (<1945) were responsible for higher domestic levels of PERC. This study, conducted in an urban context, provides helpful information on PERC contamination in dwellings, and identifies parameters influencing this contamination. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Winter air pollution and infant bronchiolitis in Paris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ségala, Claire; Poizeau, David; Mesbah, Mounir; Willems, Sylvie; Maidenberg, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the most common respiratory pathogens in infants and young children. It is not known why some previously healthy infants, when in contact with RSV, develop bronchiolitis whereas others have only mild symptoms. Our study aimed to evaluate the possible association between emergency hospital visits for bronchiolitis and air pollution in the Paris region during four winter seasons. We included children under the age of 3 years who attended emergency room services for bronchiolitis (following standardized definition) during the period 1997-2001. Two series of data from 34 hospitals, the daily number of emergency hospital consultations (n=50857) and the daily number of hospitalizations (n=16588) for bronchiolitis, were analyzed using alternative statistical methods; these were the generalized additive model (GAM) and case-crossover models. After adjustments for public holidays, holidays and meteorological variables the case-crossover model showed that PM10, BS, SO2 and NO2 were positively associated with both consultations and hospitalizations. GAM models, adjusting for long-term trend, seasonality, holiday, public holiday, weekday and meteorological variables, gave similar results for SO2 and PM10. This study shows that air pollution may act as a trigger for the occurrence of acute severe bronchiolitis cases.

  7. Paris Photo 2015 / Kristel Schwede, Annika Haas, Laura Põld, Piret Frey

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2015-01-01

    Rahvusvaheline fotomess "Paris Photo 2015" 12. kuni 15. novembrini Pariisi messihallis Grand Palais. Eestit esindasid messil oma loominguga Jaanus Samma, Sigrid Viir, Krista Mölder (Temnikova & Kasela galerii)

  8. Treatment of unicameral bone cysts by curettage and packing with plaster-of-Paris pellets. 1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, Leonard F; Jones, Richard H

    2004-05-01

    Long-term follow-up of twenty-six patients with unicameral bone cysts treated by curettage and packing with plaster-of-Paris pellets showed a recurrence in only two cases and no serious complications.

  9. Paris Chamber of Commerce Examinations and ACTFL/ETS Proficiency Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Patricia W.

    1987-01-01

    Compares the Paris Chamber of Commerce Exams (both certificate and diploma levels) and the ACTFL Guidelines for language proficiency for the benefit of language teachers. Teaching strategies are suggested for preparing students for the Chamber of Commerce exams. (LMO)

  10. Events - France. Stock exchange. International; Actualite - France. Bourse. International

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon,

    2000-10-01

    These columns made of short articles report on facts and events in the oil and gas industry in France and worldwide: 1 - France: increase of the production capacity of the ethylene oxide unit of BP's Lavera plant; the 'Plateaux-du-Vexin' gas pipeline crosses the Seine river; completion of the pumping of the front wreckage of the Erika tanker ship; Total inaugurates a vapor recovery unit at the Gonfreville l'Orcher refinery; a national energy saving plan for the abatement of the greenhouse effect; Sercel, a daughter company of Compagnie Generale de Geophysique (CGG), acquires Mark Products division of Shaw industries; the oil prices shoot the international trade; 2 - stock exchange: trend of market values in the context of oil crisis; 3 - international: important oil and gas strike made by TotalFinaElf and OKIOC (Offshore Kazakhstan International Operating Company) in Kazakhstan; communication: a new look for BP; status of Lukoil reserves in Russia; next round for the exploration of the Norwegian North Sea; Transocean Sedco Forex absorbs R and B Falcon Corp and becomes the first drilling contractor; ENI (Italy) becomes operator on the development of South Pars gas field (Iran) for the phases 4 and 5; Shell Overseas Investments BV, BP and Exxon Mobil have signed strategic alliance agreements with China Petroleum and Chemical Corp (Sinopec); first exploration permits for the Faeroe islands; different gas pricing rules for the industrialists in the different European countries. (J.S.)

  11. Events - France. Stock exchange. International; Actualite - France. Bourse. International

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2000-10-01

    These columns made of short articles report on facts and events in the oil and gas industry in France and worldwide: 1 - France: increase of the production capacity of the ethylene oxide unit of BP's Lavera plant; the 'Plateaux-du-Vexin' gas pipeline crosses the Seine river; completion of the pumping of the front wreckage of the Erika tanker ship; Total inaugurates a vapor recovery unit at the Gonfreville l'Orcher refinery; a national energy saving plan for the abatement of the greenhouse effect; Sercel, a daughter company of Compagnie Generale de Geophysique (CGG), acquires Mark Products division of Shaw industries; the oil prices shoot the international trade; 2 - stock exchange: trend of market values in the context of oil crisis; 3 - international: important oil and gas strike made by TotalFinaElf and OKIOC (Offshore Kazakhstan International Operating Company) in Kazakhstan; communication: a new look for BP; status of Lukoil reserves in Russia; next round for the exploration of the Norwegian North Sea; Transocean Sedco Forex absorbs R and B Falcon Corp and becomes the first drilling contractor; ENI (Italy) becomes operator on the development of South Pars gas field (Iran) for the phases 4 and 5; Shell Overseas Investments BV, BP and Exxon Mobil have signed strategic alliance agreements with China Petroleum and Chemical Corp (Sinopec); first exploration permits for the Faeroe islands; different gas pricing rules for the industrialists in the different European countries. (J.S.)

  12. JT-60SA power supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coletti, A.; Baulaigue, O.; Cara, P.; Coletti, R.; Ferro, A.; Gaio, E.; Matsukawa, M.; Novello, L.; Santinelli, M.; Shimada, K.; Starace, F.; Terakado, T.; Yamauchi, K.

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes the main features of the Superconducting Magnets Power Supply to generate the toroidal and poloidal magnetic fields in JT-60SA tokamak, with special regard to coil current regulation mode and magnets protection.

  13. Synovial sarcoma | Vlok | SA Journal of Radiology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SA Journal of Radiology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 18, No 2 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  14. Mandibulofacial dysostosis | Els | SA Journal of Radiology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SA Journal of Radiology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 16, No 1 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  15. Cerebral schistosomiasis | Ravi | SA Journal of Radiology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SA Journal of Radiology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 17, No 4 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  16. Pseudomyxoma peritonei | Sureka | SA Journal of Radiology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SA Journal of Radiology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 18, No 1 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  17. Torus palatinus | Naidoo | SA Journal of Radiology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SA Journal of Radiology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 17, No 4 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  18. Medical negligence | Otto | SA Journal of Radiology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SA Journal of Radiology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 8, No 2 (2004) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  19. Ergonomics SA - Vol 20, No 1 (2008)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modelling of Energy Expenditure at Welding Workstations: Effect of Temperature on Work Performance · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. SA Oke, JU Obioma, OG Akanbi, K Adekunle, FA Oyawale, 16-28 ...

  20. Pain associated with health and economic burden in France: results from recent National Health and Wellness Survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadjiat Y

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Yacine Hadjiat,1 Alain Serrie,2 Richard Treves,3 Berangere Chomier,1 Laurent Geranton,4 Stephane Billon5 1Medical Department, Mundipharma SAS, Paris, 2Pain and Palliative Care Department, CHU Lariboisiere, Paris, 3Rheumatology Department, CHU Limoges, Limoges, 4Public Affairs Department, Mundipharma, 5Department of Health Economics, University Paris Dauphine, Paris, France Purpose: This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of pain among French adults and assess the impact of pain on health-related quality of life (HRQoL, activity impairment, and health care resource use (HRU.Patients and methods: Respondents from the 2015 France National Health and Wellness Survey (N=19,173 were categorized by self-reported pain (experienced pain in the past 12 months vs no pain and compared on HRQoL (36-Item Short Form Health Survey version 2: Mental Component Summary, Physical Component Summary, and Short Form-6 Dimensions health utilities, activity impairment (Work Productivity and Activity Impairment questionnaire, employment status, and HRU (health care provider visits, emergency room visits, and hospitalizations. Bivariate analyses examined differences between pain groups stratified by age, sex, income, and Charlson comorbidity index (CCI scores.Results: Pain prevalence was 20.2% (n=4007. Mean Physical Component Summary decrements with pain ranged from 3.4 to 8.1 points among those aged <35 years to those aged 45–54 years, respectively. Results for Mental Component Summary and Short Form-6 Dimensions scores followed similar patterns. Regardless of income, sex, or CCI group, pain was associated with significant decrements on all HRQoL measures (for all, p<0.05. The impact of pain on activity impairment was lowest among those <35 years; this impact was higher in middle age and then tapered off among those aged ≥75 years. Pain was associated with greater activity impairment and more health care provider visits across income, sex, and CCI groups (for all