WorldWideScience

Sample records for s-type sugar pucker

  1. A Multidimensional B-Spline Correction for Accurate Modeling Sugar Puckering in QM/MM Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ming; Dissanayake, Thakshila; Kuechler, Erich; Radak, Brian K; Lee, Tai-Sung; Giese, Timothy J; York, Darrin M

    2017-09-12

    The computational efficiency of approximate quantum mechanical methods allows their use for the construction of multidimensional reaction free energy profiles. It has recently been demonstrated that quantum models based on the neglect of diatomic differential overlap (NNDO) approximation have difficulty modeling deoxyribose and ribose sugar ring puckers and thus limit their predictive value in the study of RNA and DNA systems. A method has been introduced in our previous work to improve the description of the sugar puckering conformational landscape that uses a multidimensional B-spline correction map (BMAP correction) for systems involving intrinsically coupled torsion angles. This method greatly improved the adiabatic potential energy surface profiles of DNA and RNA sugar rings relative to high-level ab initio methods even for highly problematic NDDO-based models. In the present work, a BMAP correction is developed, implemented, and tested in molecular dynamics simulations using the AM1/d-PhoT semiempirical Hamiltonian for biological phosphoryl transfer reactions. Results are presented for gas-phase adiabatic potential energy surfaces of RNA transesterification model reactions and condensed-phase QM/MM free energy surfaces for nonenzymatic and RNase A-catalyzed transesterification reactions. The results show that the BMAP correction is stable, efficient, and leads to improvement in both the potential energy and free energy profiles for the reactions studied, as compared with ab initio and experimental reference data. Exploration of the effect of the size of the quantum mechanical region indicates the best agreement with experimental reaction barriers occurs when the full CpA dinucleotide substrate is treated quantum mechanically with the sugar pucker correction.

  2. SEAM PUCKERING EVALUATION METHOD FOR SEWING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRAD Raluca

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an automated method for the assessment and classification of puckering defects detected during the preproduction control stage of the sewing machine or product inspection. In this respect, we have presented the possible causes and remedies of the wrinkle nonconformities. Subjective factors related to the control environment and operators during the seams evaluation can be reduced using an automated system whose operation is based on image processing. Our implementation involves spectral image analysis using Fourier transform and an unsupervised neural network, the Kohonen Map, employed to classify material specimens, the input images, into five discrete degrees of quality, from grade 5 (best to grade 1 (the worst. The puckering features presented in the learning and test images have been pre-classified using the seam puckering quality standard. The network training stage will consist in presenting five input vectors (derived from the down-sampled arrays, representing the puckering grades. The puckering classification consists in providing an input vector derived from the image supposed to be classified. A scalar product between the input values vectors and the weighted training images is computed. The result will be assigned to one of the five classes of which the input image belongs. Using the Kohonen network the puckering defects were correctly classified in proportion of 71.42%.

  3. Structure, Vibrational Spectra and Ring Puckering Barrier of Cyclobutane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Blake, Thomas A.

    2006-09-02

    We present the results of high level ab initio calculations on the structure and puckering barrier of cyclobutane in an effort to establish the minimum theoretical requirements needed for their accurate description. Our best computed value for the puckering angle is 29.68o. Furthermore we found that accurate estimates for the barrier between the minimum (D2d) and transition state (D4h) configurations require both higher levels of electron correlation [MP4, CCSD(T)] and basis sets of quadruple-z quality or larger. By performing CCSD(T) calculations with basis sets as large as cc-pV5Z we obtained a complete basis set (CBS) estimate of 498 cm-1 for the puckering barrier. Our estimate for the barrier is within 10 cm-1 to the value proposed originally, but it lies ~50 cm-1 higher than the one obtained more recently, therefore revisiting the analysis of the experimental data might be warranted. The results of the current study can serve as a guide for calculations on the substituted four member ring compounds. To this end we present a method for estimating the barrier height at higher levels of electron correlation [MP4, CCSD(T)] from the MP2 results.

  4. Skin puckering an uncommon sign of underlying humeral neck fracture: a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Davarinos, N

    2012-01-31

    Skin puckering is a sign that is well associated with certain fractures such as supracondylar humeral fractures in children. To our knowledge, there has been only one clinical report of skin puckering associated with fractured neck of humerus of an adult. This is a second such case of fractured proximal humerus in an adult presenting with skin puckering and the first from the Republic of Ireland. Skin puckering is suggestive of soft tissue interposition and may be an important clinical sign indicating the need for internal fixation.

  5. Electronic and Thermal Properties of Puckered Orthorhombic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Ruixiang

    Puckered orthorhombic crystals, such as black phosphorus and group IV monochalcogenides, are attracting tremendous attention because of their new exotic properties, which are of great interests for fundamental science and novel applications. Unlike those well studied layered hexagonal materials such as graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides, the puckered orthorhombic crystals possess highly asymmetrical in-plane crystal structures. Understanding the unique properties emerginge from their low symmetries is an intriguing and useful process, which gives insight into experimental observation and sheds light on manipulating their properties. In this thesis, we study and predict various properties of orthorhombic materials by using appropriate theoretical techniques such as first-principles calculations, Monte-Carlo simulations, and k · p models. In the first part of the thesis, we deal with the anisotropic electric and thermal properties of a typical puckered orthorhombic crystal, black phosphorus. We first study the electric properties in monolayer and few-layer black phosphorus, where the unique, anisotropic electrical conductance is founded. Furthermore, we find that the anisotropy of the electrical conductance can be rotated by 90° through applying appropriate uniaxial or biaxial strain. Beyond electrical conductance, we, for the first time, predict that the thermal conductance of black phosphorus is also anisotropic and, particularly, the preferred conducting direction is perpendicular to the preferred electrical conducting direction. Within the reasonable estimation regime, the thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) ultimately reaches 1 at room temperature using only moderate doping. The second part of this thesis focuses on the electronic polarization of non-centrosymmetric puckered materials-group IV monochalcogenide. We propose that monolayer group IV monochalcogenides are a new class of two-dimensional (2D) ferroelectric materials with spontaneous in

  6. Microwave Spectra, Structure, and Ring-Puckering Vibration of Octafluorocyclopentene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, B E; Arsenault, Eric A; Obenchain, Daniel A; Choi, Yoon Jeong; Ocola, Esther J; Laane, Jaan; Pringle, Wallace C; Cooke, S A

    2016-11-03

    The rotational spectra of octafluorocyclopentene (C5F8) has been measured for the first time using pulsed jet Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy in a frequency range of 6 to 16 GHz. As in the molecule cyclopentene, the carbon ring is nonplanar, and inversion through the plane results in an inversion pair of ground state vibrational energy levels with an inversion splitting of 18.4 MHz. This large amplitude motion leads to the vibration-rotation coupling of energy levels. The symmetric double minimum ring-puckering potential function was calculated, resulting in a barrier of 222 cm-1. The rotational constants A0 = 962.9590(1) MHz, B0 = 885.1643(4) MHz, C0 = 616.9523(4) MHz, A1 = 962.9590(1) MHz, B1 = 885.1643(4) MHz, C1 = 616.9528(4) MHz, and two centrifugal distortion constants for each state were determined for the parent species and all 13C isotopologues. A mixed coordinate molecular structure was determined from a least-squares fit of the ground state rotational constants of the parent and each 13C isotopologue combined with the equilibrium bond lengths and angles from quantum chemical calculations.

  7. The Effect of the Pucker Sign on Outcomes of Type III Extension Supracondylar Fractures in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smuin, Dallas M; Hennrikus, William L

    2017-06-01

    The pucker sign, also called skin tenting, indicates significant displacement of the supracondylar fracture and can be a cause for alarm. The purpose of this study is to compare a cohort of patients with type III supracondylar fractures presenting with a pucker sign to a group without a pucker sign by evaluating neurovascular injury at presentation, need for open reduction, persistent neurovascular injury, range of motion, and carrying angle at final follow-up. A retrospective review was performed for Gartland type III extension type supracondylar fractures. Those with a pucker sign were identified and evaluated. Type III supracondylar fractures with a pucker sign were compared with a similar cohort without a pucker sign. In total, 12 patients with a pucker sign at an average age of 5.2 years were evaluated. A total of 11 patients (92%) had diminished or absent pulses, and 2 (17%) had weakness in the median nerve distribution. Nine (75%) patients in this group were transferred to the university hospital. Average time to surgery was 8.9 hours with an average operating time of 25.1 minutes. Open reduction was not needed in any case. At an average follow-up of 4.7 months no patients had persistent neurovascular compromise. Two patients lacked sign, in the context of a supracondylar fracture of the humerus, is a soft tissue defect with potential entrapment of median nerve and brachial artery. At a maximum time of 16 hours from injury to surgery we report excellent outcomes and no long-term complications. Using the techniques of gradual traction, and milking the soft tissue, the pucker sign can be eliminated. Closed reduction and percutaneous pinning were performed in all the cases. Level III-retrospective comparative study.

  8. Puckering and Blowing Facial Expressions in People With Facial Movement Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denlinger, Rachel L; VanSwearingen, Jessie M; Cohn, Jeffrey F; Schmidt, Karen L

    2008-01-01

    Background and Purpose: People with facial movement disorders are instructed to perform various facial movements as part of their physical therapy rehabilitation. A difference in the movement of the orbicularis oris muscle has been demonstrated among people without facial nerve impairments when instructed to “pucker your lips” and to “blow, as if blowing out a candle.” The objective of this study was to determine whether the within-subject difference between “pucker your lips” and “blow, as if blowing out a candle” found in people without facial nerve impairments is present in people with facial movement disorders. Subjects and Methods: People (N=68) with unilateral facial movement disorders were observed as they produced puckering and blowing movements. Automated facial image analysis of both puckering and blowing was used to determine the difference between facial actions for the following movement variables: maximum speed, amplitude, duration, and corresponding asymmetry. Results: There was a difference between the amplitudes of movement for puckering and blowing. “Blow, as if blowing out a candle” produced a larger amplitude of movement. Discussion and Conclusion: The findings demonstrate that puckering and blowing movements in people with facial movement disorders differ in a manner that is consistent with differences found in people who are healthy. This information may be useful in the assessment of and intervention for facial movement disorders affecting the lower face. PMID:18617578

  9. Ring-Puckering Potential Energy Functions for Trimethylene Sulfide and Its Monovalent Cation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Hye Jin; Ocola, Esther J; Laane, Jaan

    2017-04-13

    The spectra and ring-puckering potential energy function for trimethylene sulfide cation (TMS+) from vacuum ultraviolet mass-analyzed threshold ionization spectra have recently been reported. To provide an in-depth comparison of the potential function with that of trimethylene sulfide (TMS) itself, we have used ab initio MP2/cc-pVTZ calculations and DFT B3LYP/cc-pVTZ calculations to predict the structures of both TMS and TMS+ and then used these to calculate coordinate-dependent ring-puckering kinetic energy functions for both species. These kinetic energy functions allowed us to calculate refined potential energy functions of the puckering for both molecules based on the previously published spectra. TMS has an experimental barrier of 271 cm-1 and energy minima at ring-puckering angles of ±29°. For TMS+ the barrier is 60 cm-1 and the energy minima correspond to ring-puckering angles of ±21°. The lower barrier for the cation reflects the smaller amount of angle strain in the ring angles for TMS+.

  10. Spin density waves predicted in zigzag puckered phosphorene, arsenene and antimonene nanoribbons

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaohua Wu; Xiaoli Zhang; Xianlong Wang; Zhi Zeng

    2016-01-01

    The pursuit of controlled magnetism in semiconductors has been a persisting goal in condensed matter physics. Recently, Vene (phosphorene, arsenene and antimonene) has been predicted as a new class of 2D-semiconductor with suitable band gap and high carrier mobility. In this work, we investigate the edge magnetism in zigzag puckered Vene nanoribbons (ZVNRs) based on the density functional theory. The band structures of ZVNRs show half-filled bands crossing the Fermi level at the midpoint of r...

  11. Seam Pucker

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Galuszynski, S

    1986-05-01

    Full Text Available dog and the bottom fabric. Feeding of the upper fabric is obtained by the frictional force produced between the fabrics and through an advance of the seam. During this movement the feeding and seam advancing forces have to overcome some frictional... force (braking force) produced between the presser foot and the top fabric. Therefore there is a need for a high value of frictional force between feed dog and bottom fabric as well as between the fabrics. At the same time the frictional force created...

  12. Macular Pucker

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and ... Clinical Studies Publications Catalog Photos and Images Spanish Language Information Grants and Funding Extramural Research Division of ...

  13. Spin density waves predicted in zigzag puckered phosphorene, arsenene and antimonene nanoribbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Wu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The pursuit of controlled magnetism in semiconductors has been a persisting goal in condensed matter physics. Recently, Vene (phosphorene, arsenene and antimonene has been predicted as a new class of 2D-semiconductor with suitable band gap and high carrier mobility. In this work, we investigate the edge magnetism in zigzag puckered Vene nanoribbons (ZVNRs based on the density functional theory. The band structures of ZVNRs show half-filled bands crossing the Fermi level at the midpoint of reciprocal lattice vectors, indicating a strong Peierls instability. To remove this instability, we consider two different mechanisms, namely, spin density wave (SDW caused by electron-electron interaction and charge density wave (CDW caused by electron-phonon coupling. We have found that an antiferromagnetic Mott-insulating state defined by SDW is the ground state of ZVNRs. In particular, SDW in ZVNRs displays several surprising characteristics:1 comparing with other nanoribbon systems, their magnetic moments are antiparallelly arranged at each zigzag edge and almost independent on the width of nanoribbons; 2 comparing with other SDW systems, its magnetic moments and band gap of SDW are unexpectedly large, indicating a higher SDW transition temperature in ZVNRs; 3 SDW can be effectively modified by strains and charge doping, which indicates that ZVNRs have bright prospects in nanoelectronic device.

  14. Spin density waves predicted in zigzag puckered phosphorene, arsenene and antimonene nanoribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Xiaohua; Zhang, Xiaoli; Wang, Xianlong [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Zeng, Zhi, E-mail: zzeng@theory.issp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2016-04-15

    The pursuit of controlled magnetism in semiconductors has been a persisting goal in condensed matter physics. Recently, Vene (phosphorene, arsenene and antimonene) has been predicted as a new class of 2D-semiconductor with suitable band gap and high carrier mobility. In this work, we investigate the edge magnetism in zigzag puckered Vene nanoribbons (ZVNRs) based on the density functional theory. The band structures of ZVNRs show half-filled bands crossing the Fermi level at the midpoint of reciprocal lattice vectors, indicating a strong Peierls instability. To remove this instability, we consider two different mechanisms, namely, spin density wave (SDW) caused by electron-electron interaction and charge density wave (CDW) caused by electron-phonon coupling. We have found that an antiferromagnetic Mott-insulating state defined by SDW is the ground state of ZVNRs. In particular, SDW in ZVNRs displays several surprising characteristics:1) comparing with other nanoribbon systems, their magnetic moments are antiparallelly arranged at each zigzag edge and almost independent on the width of nanoribbons; 2) comparing with other SDW systems, its magnetic moments and band gap of SDW are unexpectedly large, indicating a higher SDW transition temperature in ZVNRs; 3) SDW can be effectively modified by strains and charge doping, which indicates that ZVNRs have bright prospects in nanoelectronic device.

  15. Ring Puckering Potentials of Three Fluorinated Cyclopentenes: C_5F_8, C_5HF_7, and C_5H_2F_6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenault, E. A.; Long, B. E.; Pringle, Wallace C.; Choi, Yoon Jeong; Cooke, S. A.; Ocola, Esther J.; Laane, Jaan

    2015-06-01

    A systematic study on the ring puckering potentials of three fluorinated cyclopentenes has been performed using Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy in tandem with quantum chemical calculations. Spectra between 8 GHz and 16 GHz have been measured for octafluorocyclopentene, 1H-heptafluorocyclopentene, and 1H,2H-hexafluorocyclopentene, where the hydrogens sequentially replace the fluorines on the sp^2 hybridized carbons. Rotational constants and centrifugal distortion constants have been determined for the parent species and all 13C isotopologues. In regards to the ring puckering, double minimum potential, both cross state and intra-state transitions were observed for all molecules except the 1H,2H-hexafluorocyclopentene. Experimental Coriolis coupling constants and ΔE01 values will be presented and discussed. The ring puckering barrier heights for C_5F_8, C_5HF_7, and C_5H_2F_6, have been calculated to be 222 wn, 302 wn, and 367 wn, respectively.

  16. Blood Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of your body's cells to use for energy. Diabetes is a disease in which your blood sugar levels are too high. Over time, having too ... serious problems. Even if you don't have diabetes, sometimes you may have problems with blood sugar that is too low or too high. Keeping ...

  17. Sweeteners - sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sugar in soda. However, popular "vitamin-type" waters, sports drinks, coffee drinks, and energy drinks also contain a ... water instead of regular soda, "vitamin-type" water, sports drinks, coffee drinks, and energy drinks. Eat less candy ...

  18. Sugar 101

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Blood Pressure Healthy Hey Kids, Learn About Cholesterol Hey Kids, Learn About Blood Sugar and Diabetes ... as whole-grain cereal, low-fat milk or yogurt, is better than eating nutrient-poor, highly sweetened ...

  19. Macular pucker in association with RPE adenoma: a report of a case and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupp, D G; McCannel, T A

    2014-07-01

    Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) adenoma is an extremely rare tumor of the posterior segment which must be differentiated from other choroidal tumors, such as choroidal nevus or melanoma. We report the case of a patient with RPE adenoma coincident with macular pucker who underwent successful pars plana vitrectomy and membrane peeling. A 58-year-old female patient was diagnosed with RPE adenoma and epiretinal membrane and subsequently underwent pars plana vitrectomy and epiretinal membrane peeling. RPE adenoma was diagnosed and, following vitrectomy with membrane peeling vision, improved to 20/20 with resolution of symptoms of distortion. Sixteen months of follow-up revealed no clinical change in the RPE adenoma and stable vision. The diagnosis of RPE adenoma can be made upon consideration of unique clinical characteristics of these benign tumors. RPE adenoma may be more closely associated with epiretinal membrane than previously believed, given recent advances in imaging technology. We describe our management strategy, which included observation of the adenoma and surgical removal of the epiretinal membrane.

  20. Blood sugar test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fasting blood sugar; Glucose test; Diabetic screening - blood sugar test; Diabetes - blood sugar test ... to screen a person for diabetes. High blood sugar and diabetes may not cause symptoms in the early stages. ...

  1. Managing your blood sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperglycemia - control; Hypoglycemia - control; Diabetes - blood sugar control; Blood glucose - managing ... about how often you should check your blood sugar. Not everyone with diabetes needs to check their blood sugar every day. ...

  2. Sugar beet breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar beet is a recent crop developed solely for extraction of the sweetener sucrose. Breeding and improvement of Beta vulgaris for sugar has a rich historical record. Sugar beet originated from fodder beet in the 1800s, and selection has increased sugar content from 4 to 6% then to over 18% today. ...

  3. Conformational Study of DNA Sugars: from the Gas Phase to Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uriarte, Iciar; Vallejo-López, Montserrat; Cocinero, Emilio J.; Corzana, Francisco; Davis, Benjamin G.

    2017-06-01

    Sugars are versatile molecules that play a variety of roles in the organism. For example, they are important in energy storage processes or as structural scaffolds. Here, we focus on the monosaccharide present in DNA by addressing the conformational and puckering properties in the gas phase of α- and β-methyl-2-deoxy-ribofuranoside and α- and β-methyl-2-deoxy-ribopiranoside. Other sugars have been previously studied in the gas phase The work presented here stems from a combination of chemical synthesis, ultrafast vaporization methods, supersonic expansions, microwave spectroscopy (both chirped-pulsed and Balle-Flygare cavity-based spectrometers) and NMR spectroscopy. Previous studies in the gas phase had been performed on 2-deoxyribose, but only piranose forms were detected. However, thanks to the combination of these techniques, we have isolated and characterized for the first time the conformational landscape of the sugar present in DNA in its biologically relevant furanose form. Our gas phase study serves as a probe of the conformational preferences of these biomolecules under isolation conditions. Thanks to the NMR experiments, we can characterize the favored conformations in solution and extract the role of the solvent in the structure and puckering of the monosaccharides. E. J. Cocinero, A. Lesarri, P. Écija, F. J. Basterretxea, J.-U. Grabow, J. A. Fernández, F. Castaño, Angew. Chem. Int. Edit. 2012, 51, 3119. P. Écija, I. Uriarte, L. Spada, B. G. Davis, W. Caminati, F. J. Basterretxea, A. Lesarri, E. J. Cocinero, Chem. Commun. 2016, 52, 6241. I. Peña, E. J. Cocinero, C. Cabezas, A. Lesarri, S. Mata, P. Écija, A. M. Daly, Á. Cimas, C. Bermúdez, F. J. Basterretxea, S. Blanco, J. A. Fernández, J. C. López, F. Castaño, J. L. Alonso, Angew. Chem. Int. Edit. 2013, 52, 11840.

  4. Low blood sugar - newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007306.htm Low blood sugar - newborns To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A low blood sugar level in newborn babies is also called neonatal ...

  5. Hyperactivity and sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002426.htm Hyperactivity and sugar To use the sharing features on this page, ... more likely to be hyperactive if they eat sugar, artificial sweeteners, or certain food colorings. Other experts ...

  6. Home blood sugar testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes - home glucose testing; Diabetes - home blood sugar testing ... day Your blood sugar level The amount of carbohydrates you ate The type and dose of your diabetes medicine The type of any exercise you do ...

  7. Sugar and other sweeteners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar and starch are among the abundant plant products available, and large industries exist worldwide to extract and process them from agricultural sources. The world production of sugar (sucrose from sugarcane and sugar beet) in 2015/2016 was approximately 176 million metric tons, raw value, with...

  8. Monitoring Your Blood Sugar Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety ... Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics ...

  9. Sugar - a harmless indulgence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Andersen, Niels Lyhne; Ovesen, L.

    1998-01-01

    The consumption of sugar is relatively high in Denmark - and other industrial countries - and many persons have a consumption which exceeds the recommended level of maximally 10% of energy intake. A high sugar consumption may reduce the nutrient density of the diet and increase the risk of vitamin...... and mineral deficiency, especially in low energy consumers. The sugar intake and the fat intake, expressed as percentage of energy, usually show an inverse association. This has lead to the statement that a diet with both a low sugar content and a low fat content is incompatible, but we will argue...... that this is not the fact. The significance of sugar for the development of obesity is not clarified. A high fat content in the diet seems to promote the development of obesity, while a high carbohydrate content tends to reduce obesity. It is not known if sugar in this connection is comparable to the other carbohydrates...

  10. Sugar from Palms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Anders

    Throughout the tropics and subtropics a large number of products are derived from the sugar-rich sap tapped from palms. I will give an overview of the most important species being exploited, harvesting practices and yields. I will further provide insights in the biomechanmics of sugar...... transportation in palms, which remain an enigma. Finally, the prospects for developing palm sugar into a commodity of worlswide significance will be discussed....

  11. Transport of sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Qing; Cheung, Lily S; Feng, Liang; Tanner, Widmar; Frommer, Wolf B

    2015-01-01

    Soluble sugars serve five main purposes in multicellular organisms: as sources of carbon skeletons, osmolytes, signals, and transient energy storage and as transport molecules. Most sugars are derived from photosynthetic organisms, particularly plants. In multicellular organisms, some cells specialize in providing sugars to other cells (e.g., intestinal and liver cells in animals, photosynthetic cells in plants), whereas others depend completely on an external supply (e.g., brain cells, roots and seeds). This cellular exchange of sugars requires transport proteins to mediate uptake or release from cells or subcellular compartments. Thus, not surprisingly, sugar transport is critical for plants, animals, and humans. At present, three classes of eukaryotic sugar transporters have been characterized, namely the glucose transporters (GLUTs), sodium-glucose symporters (SGLTs), and SWEETs. This review presents the history and state of the art of sugar transporter research, covering genetics, biochemistry, and physiology-from their identification and characterization to their structure, function, and physiology. In humans, understanding sugar transport has therapeutic importance (e.g., addressing diabetes or limiting access of cancer cells to sugars), and in plants, these transporters are critical for crop yield and pathogen susceptibility.

  12. Low blood sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... provider if wearing a continuous glucose monitor and sensor can help you detect when your blood sugar ... ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 47. Review Date 4/15/2017 Updated by: Robert Hurd, ...

  13. Blood Sugar - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Blood Sugar URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/bloodsugar.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  14. THE TASTE OF SUGARS

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaughey, Stuart A.

    2008-01-01

    Sugars evoke a distinctive perceptual quality (“sweetness” in humans) and are generally highly preferred. The neural basis for these phenomena is reviewed for rodents, in which detailed electrophysiological measurements have been made. A receptor has been identified that binds sweeteners and activates G-protein-mediated signaling in taste receptor cells, which leads to changes in neural firing rates in the brain, where perceptions of taste quality, intensity, and palatability are generated. Most cells in gustatory nuclei are broadly-tuned, so quality perception presumably arises from patterns of activity across neural populations. However, some manipulations affect only the most sugar-oriented cells, making it useful to consider them as a distinct neural subtype. Quality perception may also arise partly due to temporal patterns of activity to sugars, especially within sugar-oriented cells that give large but delayed responses. Non-specific gustatory neurons that are excited by both sugars and unpalatable stimuli project to ventral forebrain areas, where neural responses provide a closer match with behavioral preferences. This transition likely involves opposing excitatory and inhibitory influences by different subgroups of gustatory cells. Sweeteners are generally preferred over water, but the strength of this preference can vary across time or between individuals, and higher preferences for sugars are often associated with larger taste-evoked responses. PMID:18499254

  15. Apparatus for drying sugar cubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derckx, H.A.J.; Torringa, H.M.

    1999-01-01

    Device for drying sugar cubes containing a heating apparatus for heating and dehumidifying the sugar cubes, a conditioning apparatus for cooling off and possibly further dehumidifying the sugar cubes and a conveying apparatus for conveying the sugar cubes through the heating apparatus and the

  16. The Sugar Tax in Holland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ajjaji, Fadoua

    2016-01-01

    This inquiry supports the theory of a sugar tax has a positive influence on the sugar consumption of Dutch individuals. Once a tax is implemented, the sugar consumption declines. Furthermore, this study supported the hypothesis claiming that children have a positive influence on their parental sugar

  17. Overall structure and sugar dynamics of a DNA dodecamer from homo- and heteronuclear dipolar couplings and {sup 31}P chemical shift anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Zhengrong; Delaglio, Frank [National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Laboratory of Chemical Physics (United States); Tjandra, Nico [National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Laboratory of Biophysical Chemistry (United States); Zhurkin, Victor B. [National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Laboratory of Experimental and Computational Biology (United States); Bax, Ad [National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Laboratory of Chemical Physics (United States)

    2003-08-15

    The solution structure of d(CGCGAATTCGCG){sub 2} has been determined on the basis of an exceptionally large set of residual dipolar couplings. In addition to the heteronuclear {sup 13}C-{sup 1}H and {sup 15}N-{sup 1}H and qualitative homonuclear {sup 1}H-{sup 1}H dipolar couplings, previously measured in bicelle medium, more than 300 quantitative {sup 1}H-{sup 1}H and 22 {sup 31}P-{sup 1}H dipolar restraints were obtained in liquid crystalline Pf1 medium, and 22 {sup 31}P chemical shift anisotropy restraints. High quality DNA structures can be obtained solely on the basis of these new restraints, and these structures are in close agreement with those calculated previously on the basis of {sup 13}C-{sup 1}H and {sup 15}N-{sup 1}H dipolar couplings. In the newly calculated structures, {sup 31}P-{sup 1}H dipolar and {sup 3}JsubH3{sup '}Psub couplings and {sup 31}P CSA data restrain the phosphodiester backbone torsion angles. The final structure represents a quite regular B-form helix with a modest bending of {approx}10 deg., which is essentially independent of whether or not electrostatic terms are used in the calculation. Combined, the number of homo- and heteronuclear dipolar couplings significantly exceeds the number of degrees of freedom in the system. Results indicate that the dipolar coupling data cannot be fit by a single structure, but are compatible with the presence of rapid equilibria between C2{sup '}-endo and C3{sup '}-endo deoxyribose puckers (sugar switching). The C2{sup '}-H2{sup '}/H2{sup ''} dipolar couplings in B-form DNA are particularly sensitive to sugar pucker and yield the largest discrepancies when fit to a single structure. To resolve these discrepancies, we suggest a simplified dipolar coupling analysis that yields N/S equilibria for the ribose sugar puckers, which are in good agreement with previous analyses of NMR J{sub HH} couplings, with a population of the minor C3{sup '}-endo form higher for

  18. Metabolic engineering of sugars and simple sugar derivatives in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, John W; Botha, Frikkie C; Birch, Robert G

    2013-02-01

    Carbon captured through photosynthesis is transported, and sometimes stored in plants, as sugar. All organic compounds in plants trace to carbon from sugars, so sugar metabolism is highly regulated and integrated with development. Sugars stored by plants are important to humans as foods and as renewable feedstocks for industrial conversion to biofuels and biomaterials. For some purposes, sugars have advantages over polymers including starches, cellulose or storage lipids. This review considers progress and prospects in plant metabolic engineering for increased yield of endogenous sugars and for direct production of higher-value sugars and simple sugar derivatives. Opportunities are examined for enhancing export of sugars from leaves. Focus then turns to manipulation of sugar metabolism in sugar-storing sink organs such as fruits, sugarcane culms and sugarbeet tubers. Results from manipulation of suspected 'limiting' enzymes indicate a need for clearer understanding of flux control mechanisms, to achieve enhanced levels of endogenous sugars in crops that are highly selected for this trait. Outcomes from in planta conversion to novel sugars and derivatives range from severe interference with plant development to field demonstration of crops accumulating higher-value sugars at high yields. The differences depend on underlying biological factors including the effects of the novel products on endogenous metabolism, and on biotechnological fine-tuning including developmental expression and compartmentation patterns. Ultimately, osmotic activity may limit the accumulation of sugars to yields below those achievable using polymers; but results indicate the potential for increases above current commercial sugar yields, through metabolic engineering underpinned by improved understanding of plant sugar metabolism. © 2012 The Authors Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2012 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Monitoring Blood Sugar: The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Carbohydrates and Diabetes Keeping Track of Your Blood Sugar Diabetes Control: Why It's Important Diabetes Center Blood Glucose ... Is Too Low Keeping Track of Your Blood Sugar Diabetes Control: Why It's Important Carbohydrates and Diabetes When ...

  20. Sugar for wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topham, J

    2000-07-01

    Sugar in its pure form, or incorporated into a paste containing an adhesive hydropolymer (gum), is a non-toxic treatment for a variety of wounds. Not only does it provide a suitable clean environment for angiogenesis to take place, but it will debride the wound surface and reduce odour. The presence of an adhesive hydropolymer seems to prevent hypergranulation, scarring and contraction.

  1. Sugar Cane Magic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mower, Nancy Alpert

    The booklet contains a story for middle-grade students which shows how the roles of men and women change through the years. The main characters are three sixth graders in Hawaii: one girl has Hawaiian ancestors, one girl has Japanese ancestors, and one boy has New England missionary ancestors. The children discover a magic stalk of sugar cane…

  2. Future sustainability of the sugar and sugar-ethanol industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Like many other food and chemical industries, the sugar and sugar-ethanol industries are facing important sustainability issues. The relatively low and fluctuating profit for sugar, the world-wide impetus to produce alternatives to petroleum-based fuels and reduce green house gases, and water- and ...

  3. Manage your blood sugar (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checking your blood sugar levels often and writing down the results will tell you how well you are managing your diabetes so you ... possible. The best times to check your blood sugar are before meals and at bedtime. Your blood ...

  4. Impacts of Sugar Import Policy on Sugar Production in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Suryantoro, Agustinus; Susilo, Albertus Magnus; Supriyono, Supriyono

    2013-01-01

    Production of sugar unful lled consumption of Indonesia society. The lack of consumption and productionhave ful lled by import. Assumption national consumption 2,7 million ton, Indonesia will import sugar in 2013predicted about 300.000 ton (Tempo.co, August, 21, 2012).The aims in general of this research are to understand the impact of sugar import policy on sugar production.Especially (1) to understand the factors that in uence sugar import price, (2) to understand impact of sugarimport pric...

  5. 76 FR 62339 - Domestic Sugar Program-2011-Crop Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and Company...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... Commodity Credit Corporation Domestic Sugar Program--2011-Crop Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing...) among the sugar beet processors and the cane sugar allotment of 4,316,778 STRV (45.65 percent of the OAQ... proportionate shares in Louisiana, the only State eligible for proportionate shares, in FY 2012. The cane sugar...

  6. Starches, Sugars and Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik E. J. G. Aller

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The rising prevalence of obesity, not only in adults but also in children and adolescents, is one of the most important public health problems in developed and developing countries. As one possible way to tackle obesity, a great interest has been stimulated in understanding the relationship between different types of dietary carbohydrate and appetite regulation, body weight and body composition. The present article reviews the conclusions from recent reviews and meta-analyses on the effects of different starches and sugars on body weight management and metabolic disturbances, and provides an update of the most recent studies on this topic. From the literature reviewed in this paper, potential beneficial effects of intake of starchy foods, especially those containing slowly-digestible and resistant starches, and potential detrimental effects of high intakes of fructose become apparent. This supports the intake of whole grains, legumes and vegetables, which contain more appropriate sources of carbohydrates associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular and other chronic diseases, rather than foods rich in sugars, especially in the form of sugar-sweetened beverages.

  7. Pyrolysis of Table Sugar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Bulut

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Table sugars were pyrolyzed at different temperatures (300, 400, and 500°C in a fixed-bed reactor. The effect of pyrolysis temperature on yields of liquid, solid, and gaseous products was investigated. As expected the yield of liquid products gradually increased and the yield of solid products gradually decreased when the pyrolysis temperature was raised. The yield of liquid products was greatest (52 wt% at 500°C. The composition of bio-oils extracted with diethyl ether was identified by means of gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS, nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. The following compounds were observed in bio-oils produced from the pyrolysis of table sugar at 500°C: 1,4:3,6-dianhydro-α-d-glucopyranose, 5-(hydroxymethyl furfural, 5-acetoxymethyl-2-furaldehyde, and cyclotetradecane liquid product. The relative concentration of 5-(hydroxymethyl furfural was the highest in bio-oils obtained from pyrolysis of table sugars at 500°C.

  8. Starches, Sugars and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aller, Erik E. J. G.; Abete, Itziar; Astrup, Arne; Martinez, J. Alfredo; van Baak, Marleen A.

    2011-01-01

    The rising prevalence of obesity, not only in adults but also in children and adolescents, is one of the most important public health problems in developed and developing countries. As one possible way to tackle obesity, a great interest has been stimulated in understanding the relationship between different types of dietary carbohydrate and appetite regulation, body weight and body composition. The present article reviews the conclusions from recent reviews and meta-analyses on the effects of different starches and sugars on body weight management and metabolic disturbances, and provides an update of the most recent studies on this topic. From the literature reviewed in this paper, potential beneficial effects of intake of starchy foods, especially those containing slowly-digestible and resistant starches, and potential detrimental effects of high intakes of fructose become apparent. This supports the intake of whole grains, legumes and vegetables, which contain more appropriate sources of carbohydrates associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular and other chronic diseases, rather than foods rich in sugars, especially in the form of sugar-sweetened beverages. PMID:22254101

  9. Free Sugar Profile in Cycads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Edward Marler

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The sugars fructose, glucose, maltose, and sucrose were quantified in seven tissues of Zamia muricata Willd. to determine their distribution throughout various organs of a model cycad species, and in lateral structural roots of 18 cycad species to determine the variation in sugar concentration and composition among species representing every cycad genus. Taproot and lateral structural roots contained more sugars than leaf, stem, female strobilus, or coralloid roots. For example, taproot sugar concentration was 6.4-fold greater than stem sugar concentration. The dominant root sugars were glucose and fructose, and the only detected stem sugar was sucrose. Sucrose also dominated the sugar profile for leaflet and coralloid root tissue, and fructose was the dominant sugar in female strobilus tissue. Maltose was a minor constituent of taproot, leaflet, and female strobilus tissue, but absent in other tissues. The concentration of total free sugars and each of the four sugars did not differ among genera or families. Stoichiometric relationships among the sugars, such as the quotient hexoses/disaccharides, differed among organs and families. Although anecdotal reports on cycad starch have been abundant due to its historical use as human food and the voluminous medical research invested into cycad neurotoxins, this is the first report on the sugar component of the non-structural carbohydrate profile of cycads. Fructose, glucose, and sucrose are abundant in cycad tissues, with their relative abundance highly contrasting among organs. Their importance as forms of carbon storage, messengers of information, or regulators of cycad metabolism have not been determined to date.

  10. Method for determining the composition of the sugar moiety of a sugar containing compound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to methods of labeling sugar moieties of sugar containing compounds including glycopeptides. The compounds presented in the present invention facilitate reliable detection of sugar moieties of sugar containing compounds by a combination of spectroscopy methods...

  11. Carbohydrates, Sugar, and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Carbohydrates and Sugar KidsHealth / For Parents / Carbohydrates and Sugar ... carbohidratos, el azúcar y su hijo What Are Carbohydrates? Carbohydrates are the body's most important and readily ...

  12. Sugar Sugar – don’t be misled / laat je niet misleiden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toebes, Brigit

    2017-01-01

    NRC Handelsblad’s Saturday 25 November issue contains an entry of eleven pages entirely devoted to sugar. It discusses a broad range of topics related to sugar, including the role of sugar throughout the centuries, sugar consumption in the Netherlands, the amount of sugar in bread, and sugar

  13. Urinary Sugars--A Biomarker of Total Sugars Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasevska, Natasha

    2015-07-15

    Measurement error in self-reported sugars intake may explain the lack of consistency in the epidemiologic evidence on the association between sugars and disease risk. This review describes the development and applications of a biomarker of sugars intake, informs its future use and recommends directions for future research. Recently, 24 h urinary sucrose and fructose were suggested as a predictive biomarker for total sugars intake, based on findings from three highly controlled feeding studies conducted in the United Kingdom. From this work, a calibration equation for the biomarker that provides an unbiased measure of sugars intake was generated that has since been used in two US-based studies with free-living individuals to assess measurement error in dietary self-reports and to develop regression calibration equations that could be used in future diet-disease analyses. Further applications of the biomarker include its use as a surrogate measure of intake in diet-disease association studies. Although this biomarker has great potential and exhibits favorable characteristics, available data come from a few controlled studies with limited sample sizes conducted in the UK. Larger feeding studies conducted in different populations are needed to further explore biomarker characteristics and stability of its biases, compare its performance, and generate a unique, or population-specific biomarker calibration equations to be applied in future studies. A validated sugars biomarker is critical for informed interpretation of sugars-disease association studies.

  14. Life Cycle Assessment of Sugar Production (VB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teljigovic, Mehmed; Mengiardi, Jon; Factor, Gabriela

    1999-01-01

    The environmental organisation NOAH has proposed carrying out an environmental assessment of two different sugar productions (using sugar beet or sugar cane) in order to illustrate which of the systems has a higher environmental impact for sugar consumption in Denmark. Therefore a comparison...... will be made between sugar from sugar beet produced in Denmark versus sugar produces from sugar cane in a tropical country, Brazil, and transported afterwards to Denmark. To evaluate the environmental aspects of these two product systems a Life Cycle Assessement (LCA) will be carried out.From the results...... obtained in the present LCA of sugar produces from sugar canes or sugar beet it is difficult to make an immediate choice between the two possibilities. Indeed, Quantitative results from the EDIP (Environmental Design of Industrial Products) software are globally similar for both ways of producing sugar...

  15. Industrial wastewater treatment plant of sugar production

    OpenAIRE

    Čad, Luka

    2016-01-01

    Sugar as product in our every day’s life’s been consumed in enormous quantities as one of main resources in food and drink industry. Production processes of sugar from sugar beet bring significant environmental impacts with it’s waste waters as the biggest pollutant. The thesis deals with sugar production waste water’s treatment process by presenting an example of waste water treatment plant of sugar factory, therefor presenting the production processes in sugar factories and their environmen...

  16. Sugar and Type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lean, Michael E J; Te Morenga, Lisa

    2016-12-01

    Consumption of sugar, specifically sugar-sweetened beverages, has been widely held responsible by the media for the global rise in Type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Systematic reviews and dietary guidelines relating dietary sugars to T2DM. Weight gain and T2DM incidence are associated with diet and lifestyle patterns characterized by high consumptions of any sweetened beverages. High sugar intakes impair risk factors for macrovascular complications of T2DM. Much of the association between sugars and T2DM is eliminated by adjusting data for body mass index (BMI). However, BMI adjustment does not fully account for adiposity (r 2 =0.65-0.75). Excess sugar can promote weight gain, thus T2DM, through extra calories, but has no unique diabetogenic effect at physiological levels. Ethical concerns about caffeine added to sweetened beverages, undetectable by consumers, to increase consumption. Evidence needed for limiting dietary sugar below 10% energy intake. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Young People\\'s Relationships with Sugar Daddies and Sugar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    s relationships with sugar daddies and mummies. It considers definitional, measurement and analytical issues involved in assessing these relationships, their magnitude, patterns, determinants and consequences. The review compares and ...

  18. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF RAW SUGAR MATERIAL FOR SUGAR PRODUCER COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Gromkovskii

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. In the article examines the statistical data on the development of average weight and average sugar content of sugar beet roots. The successful solution of the problem of forecasting these raw indices is essential for solving problems of sugar producing complex control. In the paper by calculating the autocorrelation function demonstrated that the predominant trend component of the growth raw characteristics. For construct the prediction model is proposed to use an autoregressive first and second order. It is shown that despite the small amount of experimental data, which provide raw sugar producing enterprises laboratory, using autoregression is justified. The proposed model allows correctly out properly the dynamics of changes raw indexes in the time, which confirms the estimates. In the article highlighted the fact that in the case the predominance trend components in the dynamics of the studied characteristics of sugar beet proposed prediction models provide the better quality of the forecast. In the presence the oscillations portions of the curve describing the change raw performance, for better construction of the forecast required increase number of measurements data. In the article also presents the results of the use adaptive prediction Brown’s model for predicting sugar beet raw performance. The statistical analysis allowed conclusions about the level of quality sufficient to describe changes raw indices for the forecast development. The optimal discount rates data are identified that determined by the form of the curve of growth sugar content of the beet root and mass in the process of maturation. Formulated conclusions of the quality of the forecast, depending on these factors that determines the expert forecaster. In the article shows the calculated expression, derived from experimental data that allow calculate changes of the raw material feature of sugar beet in the process of maturation.

  19. Allergies and Hyperactivity (and sugar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Living Healthy Living Healthy Living Nutrition Fitness Sports Oral Health Emotional Wellness Growing Healthy Sleep Safety & Prevention Safety & ... stimulation of the event than the sugar. Special Diets Special diets for hyperactivity are based on the ...

  20. Sugar daddy : the student attraction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gobind, Jenni; Du Plessis, Graham

    2015-01-01

    The term "sugar daddies" is widely known, society is familiar with the idea but not familiar with the phenomenon and one may argue that it is a practice that is acceptable in many communities and yet...

  1. Frequently Asked Questions about Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Blood Pressure Healthy Hey Kids, Learn About Cholesterol Hey Kids, Learn About Blood Sugar and Diabetes ... such as whole-grain cereal, flavored milk or yogurt—to improve their taste, especially for children, is ...

  2. Solving Abel’s Type Integral Equation with Mikusinski’s Operator of Fractional Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a novel explanation of the integral equation of Abel’s type from the point of view of Mikusinski’s operational calculus. The concept of the inverse of Mikusinski’s operator of fractional order is introduced for constructing a representation of the solution to the integral equation of Abel’s type. The proof of the existence of the inverse of the fractional Mikusinski operator is presented, providing an alternative method of treating the integral equation of Abel’s type.

  3. The water footprint of sweeteners and bio-ethanol from sugar cane, sugar beet and maize

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens-Leenes, Winnie; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2009-01-01

    Sugar cane and sugar beet are used for sugar for human consumption. In the US, maize is used, amongst others, for the sweetener High Fructose Maize Syrup (HFMS). Sugar cane, sugar beet and maize are also important for bio-ethanol production. The growth of crops requires water, a scarce resource. The

  4. Methods for dehydration of sugars and sugar alcohols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holladay, Johnathan E [Kennewick, WA; Hu, Jianli [Kennewick, WA; Zhang, Xinjie [Burlington, MA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA

    2010-08-10

    The invention includes a method of dehydration of a sugar using a dehydration catalyst and a co-catalyst within a reactor. A sugar is introduced and H.sub.2 is flowed through the reactor at a pressure of less than or equal to about 300 psig to convert at least some of the sugar into an anhydrosugar product. The invention includes a process for producing isosorbide. A starting material comprising sorbitol is flowed into a reactor. H.sub.2 is counter flowed through the reactor. The starting material is exposed to a catalyst in the presence of a co-catalyst which comprises at least one metal. The exposing is conducted at a hydrogen pressure of less than or equal to 300 psig within the reactor and the hydrogen removes at least some of any water present during the exposing and inhibits formation of colored byproducts.

  5. SHARP-TACSY: triple-band tailored correlated spectroscopy for base-to-sugar transfer in nucleic acid residues with intermediate time scale motions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farès, Christophe; Carlomagno, Teresa

    2006-08-02

    Established experiments to identify the sugar-to-base connectivity in isotopically labeled RNA require long transfer periods and are inefficient for residues undergoing intermediate time scale motions (microsecond to millisecond). Here, an alternative transfer experiment is introduced, whereby the C1'-N1/9-C6/8 spin system is selectively brought to the so-called Hartmann-Hahn condition using selectiveheteronuclear planar triple-band tailored correlated spectroscopy (SHARP-TACSY). Results are shown for the fully labeled 30-mer oligonucleotide TAR RNA with particular attention placed on residues from and close to the bulge and the loop. For these residues, the faster relaxation can be attributed to exchange contributions stemming from transient stacking and unstacking of the bases and/or from the isomerization of the ribose sugar pucker. The new experiment shows improved signal-to-noise for residues exhibiting large microsecond-millisecond time scale motions with respect to established experiments, thus providing a valid alternative for resonance assignment in mobile RNA regions.

  6. Synthesis of the Sugar Moieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grynkiewicz, Grzegorz; Szeja, Wieslaw

    Biological activity of the anthracycline antibiotics, which have found wide application in clinical oncology, is strongly related to their glycosidic structure. Modification or switch of the saccharide moiety became an important line of new drug discovery and study of their mechanism of action. Natural glycons (sugar moieties) of the anthracycline antibiotics belong to the 2,6-dideoxypyranose family and their principal representative, daunosamine, is 3-amino-2,3,6-trideoxy- l-lyxo-pyranose. Some newer chemical syntheses of this sugar, from a chiral pool as well as from achiral starting materials, are presented and their capability for scale-up and process development are commented upon. Rational sugar structural modifications, which are either useful for synthetic purposes or offer advantages in experimental therapy of cancer, are discussed from the chemical point of view.

  7. Anaerobic Treatment of Cane Sugar Effluent from Muhoroni Sugar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cane sugar mill effluent is characterized by high COD, BOD and Suspended Solids (SS) contents and its treatment by aerobic biological methods is usually difficult. Due to the high content of lignin-cellulose in the SS of the wastewater, its pH falls rapidly during treatment to low levels, which is adverse to microorganisms.

  8. Sugar holograms with erioglaucine and tartrazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejias-Brizuela, N. Y.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Páez-Trujillo, G.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2007-09-01

    An artificial green colorant, composed by erioglaucine (Blue 1) and tartrazine (Yellow 5), was employed in a sugar matrix to improve the material sensibility and to make a comparative analysis of the diffraction efficiency parameter, for holograms replications, the holographic pattern was obtained by a computer and recorded in sugar films and in modified sugar (sugar-colorant). Conventional lithography and UV radiation were used. The results show that the behavior diffraction efficiency of the sugar-colorant films is slightly larger than in the sugar matrix under the same recording conditions.

  9. Sugar cane and sugar beet molasses, antioxidant-rich alternatives to refined sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valli, Veronica; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Di Nunzio, Mattia; Danesi, Francesca; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza; Bordoni, Alessandra

    2012-12-26

    Molasses, the main byproduct of sugar production, is a well-known source of antioxidants. In this study sugar cane molasses (SCM) and sugar beet molasses (SBM) were investigated for their phenolic profile and in vitro antioxidant capacity and for their protective effect in human HepG2 cells submitted to oxidative stress. According to its higher phenolic concentration and antioxidant capacity in vitro, SCM exhibited an effective protection in cells, comparable to or even greater than that of α-tocopherol. Data herein reported emphasize the potential health effects of molasses and the possibility of using byproducts for their antioxidant activity. This is particularly important for consumers in developing countries, as it highlights the importance of consuming a low-price, yet very nutritious, commodity.

  10. History of sugar maple decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. Houston

    1999-01-01

    Only a few episodes of sugar maple dieback or decline were recorded during the first half of the 20th Century. In contrast, the last 50 years have provided numerous reports of both urban and forest dieback/decline. In the late 1950s, a defoliation-triggered decline, termed maple blight, that occurred in Wisconsin prompted the first comprehensive, multidisciplinary...

  11. Molecular mobility in sugar glasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dries, van den I.J.

    2000-01-01

    Glasses are liquids that exhibit solid state behavior as a result of their extremely high viscosity. Regarding their application to foods, glasses play a role in the preservation of foods, due to their high viscosity and the concomitant low molecular mobility. This thesis focuses on sugar

  12. Sugar pine and its hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. B. Critchfield; B. B. Kinloch

    1986-01-01

    Unlike most white pines, sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana) is severely restricted in its ability to hybridize with other species. It has not been successfully crossed with any other North American white pine, nor with those Eurasian white pines it most closely resembles. Crosses with the dissimilar P. koraiensis and P....

  13. Drug-induced low blood sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drug-induced low blood sugar is low blood glucose that results from taking medicine. ... Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) is common in people with diabetes who are taking insulin or other medicines to control their diabetes. ...

  14. Artificial Sweeteners and Other Sugar Substitutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... concentrate Saccharin (SugarTwin, Sweet'N Low) Lactitol Honey Sucralose (Splenda) Maltitol Maple syrup Mannitol Molasses Sorbitol Xylitol ... artificial sweeteners are derived from naturally occurring substances — sucralose comes from sugar, for example. Regardless of how ...

  15. High blood sugar - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperglycemia - self care; High blood glucose - self care; Diabetes - high blood sugar ... with a lot of carbohydrates, starches, or simple sugars? Are you taking your diabetes medicines correctly? Has your doctor changed your medicines? ...

  16. Sugar Intake, Obesity, and Diabetes in India

    OpenAIRE

    Seema Gulati; Anoop Misra

    2014-01-01

    Sugar and sweet consumption have been popular and intrinsic to Indian culture, traditions, and religion from ancient times. In this article, we review the data showing increasing sugar consumption in India, including traditional sources (jaggery and khandsari) and from sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). Along with decreasing physical activity, this increasing trend of per capita sugar consumption assumes significance in view of the high tendency for Indians to develop insulin resistance, abdom...

  17. Enzymatic conversion of lignocellulose into fermentable sugars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henning; Kristensen, Jan Bach; Felby, Claus

    2007-01-01

    The economic dependency on fossil fuels and the resulting effects on climate and environment have put tremendous focus on utilizing fermentable sugars from lignocellulose, the largest known renewable carbohydrate source. The fermentable sugars in lignocellulose are derived from cellulose...... into fermentable sugars requires a number of different cellulases and hemicellulases. The hydrolysis of cellulose is a sequential breakdown of the linear glucose chains, whereas hemicellulases must be capable of hydrolysing branched chains containing different sugars and functional groups. The technology...

  18. 7 CFR 58.934 - Sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sugars. 58.934 Section 58.934 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....934 Sugars. Any sugar used in the manufacture of sweetened condensed or sterilized milk products shall...

  19. Drought tolerance of sugar maple ecotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard J. Hauer; Jeffery O. Dawson

    1995-01-01

    Sugar maple declines periodically occur in rural and urban areas. These declines usually follow periods of below-average precipitation leading to the speculation that moisture deficiency is a primary cause of the decline. Sugar maple ecotypes with greater tolerance to drought should have greater longevity and vitality as a result of this tolerance. Sugar maple and...

  20. Study of fiber optic sugar sensor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present work, an intensity-modulated intrinsic fiber optic sugar sensor is presented. This type of sensor, with slight modification, can be used for on-line determination of the concentration of sugar content in sugarcane juice in sugar industry. In the present set-up, a plastic fiber made of polymethylmethacrylate is used.

  1. Technical Efficiency of Sugar Cane ( Saccharum officinarum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum) is grown by thousands of local farmers in Nigeria, yet the level of production has not kept pace with the level of consumption. This study was therefore carried out to examine the efficiency of sugar cane production in Niger State, Nigeria. The study sample comprised of 105 sugar cane ...

  2. Study of fiber optic sugar sensor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present work, an intensity-modulated intrinsic fiber optic sugar sensor is pre- sented. This type of sensor, with slight modification, can be used for on-line determination of the concentration of sugar content in sugarcane juice in sugar industry. In the present set-up, a plastic fiber made of polymethylmethacrylate is used.

  3. 27 CFR 24.317 - Sugar record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sugar record. 24.317... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.317 Sugar record. A proprietor who receives, stores, or uses sugar shall maintain a record of receipt and use. The record will show the date of...

  4. Keeping Track of Your Blood Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facts Arrhythmias Abuse Keeping Track of Your Blood Sugar KidsHealth > For Teens > Keeping Track of Your Blood Sugar Print A A A What's in this article? ... prevent future problems, you have to keep blood sugar levels in a healthy range. To do that, ...

  5. When Blood Sugar Is Too High

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood sugar levels are. Causes of High Blood Sugar Levels Managing diabetes is like a three-way balancing act because ... Is Too Low Keeping Track of Your Blood Sugar Handling Diabetes When You're Sick Diabetes Control: Why It's ...

  6. Effect of Meloidogyne incognita parasitism on yield and sugar content of sugar beet in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) is typically grown as a summer crop for edible sugar production in the north-central and western US, but it could be incorporated as a winter crop into annual cropping systems in the southern US where the sugar would be used for biofuel and plastic production. Sugar beet ...

  7. Role of potassium and nitrogen on sugar concentration of sugar beet

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sugar is obtained from root of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) in addition to other sources. Three important economic parameters are often considered and these are root yield, sugar concentration in root juice and total sugar yield. All the three are affected by cropping period and use of fertilisers. Existing literature suggests the ...

  8. 76 FR 36512 - USDA Increases the Domestic Sugar Overall Allotment Quantity, Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... Office of the Secretary USDA Increases the Domestic Sugar Overall Allotment Quantity, Reassigns Domestic... in the domestic sugar Overall Allotment Quantity (OAQ); a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic cane sugar allotments of 120,000 short tons raw value (STRV) to imports; and an increase in the...

  9. Saccharification of recalcitrant biomass and integration options for lignocellulosic sugars from Catchlight Energy’s sugar process (CLE Sugar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Johnway

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Woody biomass is one of the most abundant biomass feedstocks, besides agriculture residuals in the United States. The sustainable harvest residuals and thinnings alone are estimated at about 75 million tons/year. These forest residuals and thinnings could produce the equivalent of 5 billion gallons of lignocellulosic ethanol annually. Softwood biomass is the most recalcitrant biomass in pretreatment before an enzymatic hydrolysis. To utilize the most recalcitrant lignocellulosic materials, an efficient, industrially scalable and cost effective pretreatment method is needed. Results Obtaining a high yield of sugar from recalcitrant biomass generally requires a high severity of pretreatment with aggressive chemistry, followed by extensive conditioning, and large doses of enzymes. Catchlight Energy’s Sugar process, CLE Sugar, uses a low intensity, high throughput variation of bisulfite pulping to pretreat recalcitrant biomass, such as softwood forest residuals. By leveraging well-proven bisulfite technology and the rapid progress of enzyme suppliers, CLE Sugar can achieve a high yield of total biomass carbohydrate conversion to monomeric lignocellulosic sugars. For example, 85.8% of biomass carbohydrates are saccharified for un-debarked Loblolly pine chips (softwood, and 94.0% for debarked maple chips (hardwood. Furan compound formation was 1.29% of biomass feedstock for Loblolly pine and 1.10% for maple. At 17% solids hydrolysis of pretreated softwood, an enzyme dose of 0.075 g Sigma enzyme mixture/g dry pretreated (unwashed biomass was needed to achieve 8.1% total sugar titer in the hydrolysate and an overall prehydrolysate liquor plus enzymatic hydrolysis conversion yield of 76.6%. At a much lower enzyme dosage of 0.044 g CTec2 enzyme product/g dry (unwashed pretreated softwood, hydrolysis at 17% solids achieved 9.2% total sugar titer in the hydrolysate with an overall sugar yield of 85.0% in the combined prehydrolysate

  10. Saccharification of recalcitrant biomass and integration options for lignocellulosic sugars from Catchlight Energy's sugar process (CLE Sugar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Johnway; Anderson, Dwight; Levie, Benjamin

    2013-01-28

    Woody biomass is one of the most abundant biomass feedstocks, besides agriculture residuals in the United States. The sustainable harvest residuals and thinnings alone are estimated at about 75 million tons/year. These forest residuals and thinnings could produce the equivalent of 5 billion gallons of lignocellulosic ethanol annually. Softwood biomass is the most recalcitrant biomass in pretreatment before an enzymatic hydrolysis. To utilize the most recalcitrant lignocellulosic materials, an efficient, industrially scalable and cost effective pretreatment method is needed. Obtaining a high yield of sugar from recalcitrant biomass generally requires a high severity of pretreatment with aggressive chemistry, followed by extensive conditioning, and large doses of enzymes. Catchlight Energy's Sugar process, CLE Sugar, uses a low intensity, high throughput variation of bisulfite pulping to pretreat recalcitrant biomass, such as softwood forest residuals. By leveraging well-proven bisulfite technology and the rapid progress of enzyme suppliers, CLE Sugar can achieve a high yield of total biomass carbohydrate conversion to monomeric lignocellulosic sugars. For example, 85.8% of biomass carbohydrates are saccharified for un-debarked Loblolly pine chips (softwood), and 94.0% for debarked maple chips (hardwood). Furan compound formation was 1.29% of biomass feedstock for Loblolly pine and 1.10% for maple. At 17% solids hydrolysis of pretreated softwood, an enzyme dose of 0.075 g Sigma enzyme mixture/g dry pretreated (unwashed) biomass was needed to achieve 8.1% total sugar titer in the hydrolysate and an overall prehydrolysate liquor plus enzymatic hydrolysis conversion yield of 76.6%. At a much lower enzyme dosage of 0.044 g CTec2 enzyme product/g dry (unwashed) pretreated softwood, hydrolysis at 17% solids achieved 9.2% total sugar titer in the hydrolysate with an overall sugar yield of 85.0% in the combined prehydrolysate liquor and enzymatic hydrolysate. CLE Sugar has

  11. Origin of enclaves in S-type granites of the Lachlan Fold Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Bruce W.; Wyborn, Doone

    2012-12-01

    The more mafic S-type granites of the Lachlan Fold Belt contain a distinctive assemblage of lithic inclusions of deep crustal origin. Two types predominate, the schistose enclaves and the microgranular enclaves. There is also a small proportion of fragments of local country rock. All the features of the schistose enclaves are consistent with an origin as lithic restite fragments from the source. Their ubiquity in the mafic S-type granites and absence from both felsic S-type granites and I-type granites, conform with such an origin. The argument that these enclaves are not in chemical equilibrium with the host granite because they do not complement its composition is not valid, since they represent less fertile parts of the source that had different compositions that, as a result, melted to a lesser extent. Models that derived these enclaves from regions of the crust above the zones of partial melting, so that they are not restites, are complex, unnecessary, do not conform with their ubiquity in the more mafic S-type granites, and are not consistent with their chemical compositions. The origin of the microgranular enclaves is controversial. In most S-type granites these enclaves have been recrystallized to a similar mineral assemblage to the host granite with a higher proportion of biotite. In a few places, such material is seen to be forming by recrystallization of material in the core of the enclave, which has the assemblage quartz + calcic plagioclase + orthopyroxene ± cordierite ± biotite with accessory ilmenite, sulfide and apatite. All of the microgranular enclave cores show pseudo-doleritic texture in which calcic plagioclase crystals (> An60) and orthopyroxene crystals project into or are enclosed by quartz. Large plagioclase crystals are zoned, with some core compositions as calcic as An94. The low Na contents of the microgranular enclaves are not consistent with an igneous origin. We consider that these enclaves were derived by metamorphism of calcareous

  12. Why Anticancer Nanomedicine Needs Sugars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouffard, E; El Cheikh, K; Gallud, A; Da Silva, A; Maynadier, M; Basile, I; Gary-Bobo, M; Morere, A; Garcia, M

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, nanomedicine brings new opportunities for diagnosis and treatment through innovative combinations of materials structured at the nanoscale, biomolecules and physicochemical processes. If the intrinsic properties of nanomaterials appear of major importance in this new discipline, the functionalization of these nanotools with biomolecules improves both their biocompatibility and efficacy. This is the case of carbohydrate derivatives, natural or synthetic, which are increasingly being used in nanostructures for medical purposes. As in current medicine, sugars are used to mimic their physiological roles. Indeed, carbohydrates enhance the solubility and reduce the clearance of drugs. They are used to mask immunogenic components of nano-objects and escape the body defenses and finally facilitate the delivery to the target tissue. All these properties explain the growing importance of sugars in nanomedicine.

  13. TDP-43 stage, mixed pathologies, and clinical Alzheimer’s-type dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert S.; Boyle, Patricia A.; Trojanowski, John Q.; Bennett, David A.; Schneider, Julie A.

    2016-01-01

    Hyperphosphorylated transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43, encoded by TARDBP) proteinopathy has recently been described in ageing and in association with cognitive impairment, especially in the context of Alzheimer’s disease pathology. To explore the role of mixed Alzheimer’s disease and TDP-43 pathologies in clinical Alzheimer’s-type dementia, we performed a comprehensive investigation of TDP-43, mixed pathologies, and clinical Alzheimer’s-type dementia in a large cohort of community-dwelling older subjects. We tested the hypotheses that TDP-43 with Alzheimer’s disease pathology is a common mixed pathology; is related to increased likelihood of expressing clinical Alzheimer’s-type dementia; and that TDP-43 pathologic stage is an important determinant of clinical Alzheimer’s-type dementia. Data came from 946 older adults with (n = 398) and without dementia (n = 548) from the Rush Memory and Aging Project and Religious Orders Study. TDP-43 proteinopathy (cytoplasmic inclusions) was present in 496 (52%) subjects, and the pattern of deposition was classified as stage 0 (none; 48%), stage 1 (amygdala; 18%), stage 2 (extension to hippocampus/entorhinal; 21%), or stage 3 (extension to neocortex; 14%). TDP-43 pathology combined with a pathologic diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease was a common mixed pathology (37% of all participants), and the proportion of subjects with clinical Alzheimer’s-type dementia formerly labelled ‘pure pathologic diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease’ was halved when TDP-43 was considered. In logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, and education, TDP-43 pathology was associated with clinical Alzheimer’s-type dementia (odds ratio = 1.51, 95% confidence interval = 1.11, 2.05) independent of pathological Alzheimer’s disease (odds ratio = 4.30, 95% confidence interval = 3.08, 6.01) or other pathologies (infarcts, arteriolosclerosis, Lewy bodies, and hippocampal sclerosis). Mixed Alzheimer’s disease and

  14. Nomenclature, characteristics, and dietary intakes of sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Teresa A

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization has recommended a reduction in free sugars intake throughout one's life span to decrease the burden of noncommunicable diseases, including caries and obesity. The author defines sugars' nomenclature, describes sugars' roles in food, and identifies current sugars intake. The oral health care practitioner can identify added sugars intake and provide guidance to patients to decrease their intake of added sugars while improving nutrient intake and reducing caries risk. Intake of added sugars increases the burden of chronic diseases in the United States. The oral health care practitioner is in a position to provide dietary guidance to patients to reduce both oral and systemic diseases. Copyright © 2015 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Production of clean pyrolytic sugars for fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rover, Marjorie R; Johnston, Patrick A; Jin, Tao; Smith, Ryan G; Brown, Robert C; Jarboe, Laura

    2014-06-01

    This study explores the separate recovery of sugars and phenolic oligomers produced during fast pyrolysis with the effective removal of contaminants from the separated pyrolytic sugars to produce a substrate suitable for fermentation without hydrolysis. The first two stages from a unique recovery system capture "heavy ends", mostly water-soluble sugars and water-insoluble phenolic oligomers. The differences in water solubility can be exploited to recover a sugar-rich aqueous phase and a phenolic-rich raffinate. Over 93 wt % of the sugars is removed in two water washes. These sugars contain contaminants such as low-molecular-weight acids, furans, and phenols that could inhibit successful fermentation. Detoxification methods were used to remove these contaminants from pyrolytic sugars. The optimal candidate is NaOH overliming, which results in maximum growth measurements with the use of ethanol-producing Escherichia coli. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Comparison of oxygen fugacities of S-type granites across the Archean-Proterozoic boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucholz, C. E.; Eiler, J. M.; Stolper, E. M.; Breaks, F. B.

    2016-12-01

    We investigate whether changes in atmospheric O2 levels across the Archean-Proterozoic (AP) boundary were translated into the igneous record via partial melting or assimilation of sedimentary rocks with potentially differing oxidation states. To isolate the effects of sediment melting, we studied 5 S-type granites from the Superior Province (2640-2685 Ma) and 19 from the Paleoproterozoic (PP) Trans-Hudson and Wopmay orogenies (1715-1885 Ma), which were derived from sediments deposited at most 100-400 Ma before subsequent burial and partial melting. Published data from sediment melting experiments indicate that at a fixed temperature, the FeT/Mg ratios of partial melts - and therefore also FeT/Mg in biotites in granites formed from such melts - are sensitive to the abundance of Fe-Ti oxides in the residue. Specifically, FeT/Mg melt and biotite ratios are lower when Fe-Ti oxides are modally important in the residue due to the incorporation of a significant amount of bulk sediment Fe in the oxide phase. In turn, Fe-Ti oxide stability is highly sensitive to the Fe oxidation state inherited from the sedimentary source, being favored at high Fe3+/Fe2+ ratios. Analyzed biotite compositions from the Archean S-type granites have higher FeT/Mg ratios than those from the PP (2.7-3.7 v. 1.6-2.3) and therefore likely reflect more reducing conditions. The simplest explanation of our results is that the Archean S-type granites were derived from more reduced metasedimentary sources relative to the PP S-type granites, being richer in Fe2+-bearing minerals (e.g., pyrite or siderite) and poorer in Fe3+-bearing phases (e.g., magnetite or hematite). The variation in Fe oxidation state of S-type granites across the AP boundary could reflect the effect on sediments of the Great Oxygenation Event that roughly coincides with this boundary. Another possibility is that there is more reduced organic carbon in the sources of the Archean versus PP S-type granites; however, existing data

  17. Scientists Discover Sugar in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-06-01

    The prospects for life in the Universe just got sweeter, with the first discovery of a simple sugar molecule in space. The discovery of the sugar molecule glycolaldehyde in a giant cloud of gas and dust near the center of our own Milky Way Galaxy was made by scientists using the National Science Foundation's 12 Meter Telescope, a radio telescope on Kitt Peak, Arizona. "The discovery of this sugar molecule in a cloud from which new stars are forming means it is increasingly likely that the chemical precursors to life are formed in such clouds long before planets develop around the stars," said Jan M. Hollis of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD. Hollis worked with Frank J. Lovas of the University of Illinois and Philip R. Jewell of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank, WV, on the observations, made in May. The scientists have submitted their results to the Astrophysical Journal Letters. "This discovery may be an important key to understanding the formation of life on the early Earth," said Jewell. Conditions in interstellar clouds may, in some cases, mimic the conditions on the early Earth, so studying the chemistry of interstellar clouds may help scientists understand how bio-molecules formed early in our planet's history. In addition, some scientists have suggested that Earth could have been "seeded" with complex molecules by passing comets, made of material from the interstellar cloud that condensed to form the Solar System. Glycolaldehyde, an 8-atom molecule composed of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen, can combine with other molecules to form the more-complex sugars Ribose and Glucose. Ribose is a building block of nucleic acids such as RNA and DNA, which carry the genetic code of living organisms. Glucose is the sugar found in fruits. Glycolaldehyde contains exactly the same atoms, though in a different molecular structure, as methyl formate and acetic acid, both of which were detected previously in interstellar clouds

  18. 75 FR 53013 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-containing Products; Revision AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade... allocations of raw cane sugar, refined and special sugar, and sugar-containing products. USTR is revising the...

  19. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane....18 Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are... cigar leaf tobacco, cotton, cottonseed, cotton ginning, sugar cane, sugar processing or sugar beets who...

  20. Complete oxidative conversion of lignocellulose derived non-glucose sugars to sugar acids by Gluconobacter oxydans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ruimiao; Hou, Weiliang; Bao, Jie

    2017-11-01

    Non-glucose sugars derived from lignocellulose cover approximately 40% of the total carbohydrates of lignocellulose biomass. The conversion of the non-glucose sugars to the target products is an important task of lignocellulose biorefining research. Here we report a fast and complete conversion of the total non-glucose sugars from corn stover into the corresponding sugar acids by whole cell catalysis and aerobic fermentation of Gluconobacter oxydans. The conversions include xylose to xylonate, arabinose to arabonate, mannose to mannonate, and galactose to galactonate, as well as with glucose into gluconate. These cellulosic non-glucose sugar acids showed the excellent cement retard setting property. The mixed cellulosic sugar acids could be used as cement retard additives without separation. The conversion of the non-glucose sugars not only makes full use of lignocellulose derived sugars, but also effectively reduces the wastewater treatment burden by removal of residual sugars. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Czech Republic Sugar Market Development in the Context of the Phasing out of Sugar Quota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Kovářová

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to assess the current position and situation of the Czech sugar market actors. The new situation is expected due to the declared phasing of out of sugar quota with the EU Common Agriculture Policy. The analysis is based on secondary date from the statistics of the Czech Statistical Office and the Ministry of Agriculture of the Czech Republic. Czech Republic has a long strong tradition in sugar production. It lost a leading position in the sugar market in the past. The sugar industry has been affected by various factors during several periods. The last big challenge for the market was the restricting system of the Common Agriculture Policy of the European Union. The expected development of the sugar market in the no-quota environment could be a good opportunity for both Czech sugar beet producers and sugar beet manufacturers (sugar producers.

  2. A Search for Spectral Rotational Variations on S-Type Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, B. E.; Rivkin, A. S.; Buie, M. W.

    1996-09-01

    We have initiated a statistical search for spectral rotational variations on S-type asteroids using the Ohio State Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (OSIRIS) at the 72 inch Perkins Telescope at Lowell Observatory. Spectral rotational variations may be the result of inherent mineralogic variations, or they may be the result of differential response to weathering across the surface of an asteroid. Previous studies of rotational variation have been plagued by instrumental inability to sample the spectrum quickly enough to prevent flux variations due to light curve variations or sky instability from showing up in the data. In addition, such studies have been limited to very few objects, and are usually constrained by brightness considerations (e.g. Gaffey 1984, Icarus 60). However, because spectra with OSIRIS are obtained simultaneously from 0.9 to 2.2 microns, we expect to have no such troublesome effects in the data, and OSIRIS will permit observations of asteroids at least as faint as 14th Vmag. Spectra have been obtained thus far for four S-type asteroids (20, 29, 126, 287) which have slow rotation rates and relatively low light-curve amplitudes. Each asteroid was observed on average three times spaced evenly over each of two nights. These data are part of an on-going effort to characterize the statistics of spectral rotational variability on S-type asteroids. A characterization of their occurrence will lead to better understanding of asteroid surface variations and their compositional interpretations.

  3. Acceptance of sugar reduction in flavored yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chollet, M; Gille, D; Schmid, A; Walther, B; Piccinali, P

    2013-09-01

    To investigate what level of sugar reduction is accepted in flavored yogurt, we conducted a hedonic test focusing on the degree of liking of the products and on optimal sweetness and aroma levels. For both flavorings (strawberry and coffee), consumers preferred yogurt containing 10% added sugar. However, yogurt containing 7% added sugar was also acceptable. On the just-about-right scale, yogurt containing 10% sugar was more often described as too sweet compared with yogurt containing 7% sugar. On the other hand, the sweetness and aroma intensity for yogurt containing 5% sugar was judged as too low. A second test was conducted to determine the effect of flavoring concentration on the acceptance of yogurt containing 7% sugar. Yogurts containing the highest concentrations of flavoring (11% strawberry, 0.75% coffee) were less appreciated. Additionally, the largest percentage of consumers perceived these yogurts as "not sweet enough." These results indicate that consumers would accept flavored yogurts with 7% added sugar instead of 10%, but 5% sugar would be too low. Additionally, an increase in flavor concentration is undesirable for yogurt containing 7% added sugar. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Impact of glyphosate-resistant sugar beet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishita, Don W

    2016-12-19

    Glyphosate-resistant (GR) sugar beet became commercially available to US sugar beet growers in 2008 and was rapidly adopted. Prior to the availability of GR sugar beet, growers would commonly make 3-5 herbicide applications. This often resulted in some crop injury, but was accepted to reduce the impact of weeds. In addition, non-GR sugar beet was cultivated 1-3 times and often followed by hand weeding. The introduction of GR sugar beet drastically reduced the complexity of weed management. Concerns about GR weeds in the United States also apply to sugar beet growers. Changes in weed management strategies will be required to keep this technology. Sugar beet is arguably one of the most suitable crops for GR technology because: (1) none of the herbicides registered for use in this crop was very effective without risking crop injury; (2) sugar beet cannot be grown in the same field year after year owing to disease concerns and thus requires a 3-4 year rotation; (3) pollen-mediated gene flow is negligible from the sugar beet crop because it is a biennial and harvested before it flowers; (4) the processing of harvested roots to extract the sucrose rapidly degrades the DNA in the extracted raw juice and subsequent refining so that no DNA is present in the finished sugar; (5) studies have shown that processed GR beet sugar is identical to non-GR beet sugar, as well as cane sugar. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Sugar recognition by human galactokinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timson David J

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Galactokinase catalyses the first committed step of galactose catabolism in which the sugar is phosphorylated at the expense of MgATP. Recent structural studies suggest that the enzyme makes several contacts with galactose – five side chain and two main chain hydrogen bonds. Furthermore, it has been suggested that inhibition of galactokinase may help sufferers of the genetic disease classical galactosemia which is caused by defects in another enzyme of the pathway galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase. Galactokinases from different sources have a range of substrate specificities and a diversity of kinetic mechanisms. Therefore only studies on the human enzyme are likely to be of value in the design of therapeutically useful inhibitors. Results Using recombinant human galactokinase expressed in and purified from E. coli we have investigated the sugar specificity of the enzyme and the kinetic consequences of mutating residues in the sugar-binding site in order to improve our understanding of substrate recognition by this enzyme. D-galactose and 2-deoxy-D-galactose are substrates for the enzyme, but N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, L-arabinose, D-fucose and D-glucose are all not phosphorylated. Mutation of glutamate-43 (which forms a hydrogen bond to the hydroxyl group attached to carbon 6 of galactose to alanine results in only minor changes in the kinetic parameters of the enzyme. Mutation of this residue to glycine causes a ten-fold drop in the turnover number. In contrast, mutation of histidine 44 to either alanine or isoleucine results in insoluble protein following expression in E. coli. Alteration of the residue that makes hydrogen bonds to the hydroxyl attached to carbons 3 and 4 (aspartate 46 results in an enzyme that although soluble is essentially inactive. Conclusions The enzyme is tolerant to small changes at position 2 of the sugar ring, but not at positions 4 and 6. The results from site directed mutagenesis could

  6. Sugar intake, obesity, and diabetes in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Seema; Misra, Anoop

    2014-12-22

    Sugar and sweet consumption have been popular and intrinsic to Indian culture, traditions, and religion from ancient times. In this article, we review the data showing increasing sugar consumption in India, including traditional sources (jaggery and khandsari) and from sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). Along with decreasing physical activity, this increasing trend of per capita sugar consumption assumes significance in view of the high tendency for Indians to develop insulin resistance, abdominal adiposity, and hepatic steatosis, and the increasing "epidemic" of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular diseases. Importantly, there are preliminary data to show that incidence of obesity and T2DM could be decreased by increasing taxation on SSBs. Other prevention strategies, encompassing multiple stakeholders (government, industry, and consumers), should target on decreasing sugar consumption in the Indian population. In this context, dietary guidelines for Indians show that sugar consumption should be less than 10% of total daily energy intake, but it is suggested that this limit be decreased.

  7. Does information about sugar source influence consumer liking of products made with beet and cane sugars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanus, Brittany L; Schmidt, Shelly J; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2014-11-01

    Beet sugar contains an off-aroma, which was hypothesized to generate expectations on the acceptability of a product made with beet sugar. Thus, the objective of this study was to assess the impact of information about the sugar source (beet vs. cane) on the overall liking of an orange-flavored beverage. One hundred panelists evaluated an orange-flavored powdered beverage mix and beverage made with beet and cane sugars using a 5-phase testing protocol involving a tetrad test and hedonic ratings performed under blind and informed conditions. Tetrad test results indicated that there was a significant difference (P sugar and cane sugar; however, no difference was found between the beverage made with beet sugar and cane sugar. Hedonic ratings revealed the significance of information conditions on the panelists evaluation of sugar (F = 24.67, P sugar source information in a beverage product. Based on concerns with the use of beet sugar expressed in the popular press, there may be a subgroup of the population that has a preconceived bias about sugar sources due to their prior experiences and knowledge and, thus, would be influenced by labels indicating the sugar source used in a product. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. 21 CFR 184.1859 - Invert sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Invert sugar. 184.1859 Section 184.1859 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1859 Invert sugar. (a) Invert sugar (CAS Reg. No. 8013-17-0) is an aqueous solution of inverted or partly inverted, refined or partly refined sucrose, the solids of which contain not...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1857 - Corn sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Corn sugar. 184.1857 Section 184.1857 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1857 Corn sugar. (a) Corn sugar (C6H12O6, CAS Reg. No. 50-99-7), commonly... monohydrate form and is produced by the complete hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids or...

  10. Role of sugars under abiotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sami, Fareen; Yusuf, Mohammad; Faizan, Mohammad; Faraz, Ahmad; Hayat, Shamsul

    2016-12-01

    Sugars are the most important regulators that facilitate many physiological processes, such as photosynthesis, seed germination, flowering, senescence, and many more under various abiotic stresses. Exogenous application of sugars in low concentration promote seed germination, up regulates photosynthesis, promotes flowering, delayed senescence under various unfavorable environmental conditions. However, high concentration of sugars reverses all these physiological process in a concentration dependent manner. Thus, this review focuses the correlation between sugars and their protective functions in several physiological processes against various abiotic stresses. Keeping in mind the multifaceted role of sugars, an attempt has been made to cover the role of sugar-regulated genes associated with photosynthesis, seed germination and senescence. The concentration of sugars determines the expression of these sugar-regulated genes. This review also enlightens the interaction of sugars with several phytohormones, such as abscisic acid, ethylene, cytokinins and gibberellins and its effect on their biosynthesis under abiotic stress conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. A hybrid origin for Lachlan S-type granites: the Murrumbidgee Batholith example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, B.; Collins, W. J.; Richards, S. W.

    2004-10-01

    The Murrumbidgee Batholith is typical of other composite S-type granite batholiths in the Lachlan Fold Belt (LFB) of southeastern Australia, consisting of discrete peraluminous, cogenetic granite suites. However, it contains a unique suite (Murrumbucka) at its southern extremity that has chemical and petrological features transitional with metaluminous I-type granites. Previous detailed structural and metamorphic studies have shown that the batholith is tilted northward, exposing subvolcanic plutons in the north and root zones in the south, originally located at depths of ˜10 km. A transition from mafic, foliated, sheet-like granites in the south to felsic, generally less foliated, homogeneous granites in the north is consistent with magma ascent via subvertical, structurally controlled sheets to emplacement in an overlying magma chamber. In the inferred root zones, the Murrumbucka Suite hosts migmatitic metasedimentary and gabbroic rocks, both of which have transitional contacts and show evidence for mafic-felsic interaction with the Murrumbucka Suite. The migmatites extend southward to become part of the high- T, low- P Cooma Metamorphic Complex, which contains a core of heterogeneous remobilised diatexitic granite (Cooma Suite), lenses of which also occur throughout the southern (deeper) parts of the Murrumbidgee Batholith. The composition of the most mafic rocks from the batholith lies on a chemical tie-line between Cooma Suite granites and the gabbros, for almost all elements. This chemical coincidence is interpreted to reflect derivation of parental Murrumbidgee S-type granite magmas by bulk mixing between a felsic (crustal) and mafic (mantle-derived) component, consistent with Sr and Nd isotopic results and field observations. Based on the tie-lines and simple numerical modelling, the Murrumbucka suite is estimated to be a 50:50 mix of mantle- and crustal-derived magmas, whereas the more peraluminous and widespread Clear Range Suite, which is very typical

  12. 75 FR 60715 - Domestic Sugar Program-FY 2010 and FY 2011 Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... with deficit allocation. Further, CCC noted the addition of the allocation of Wyoming Sugar Company... -3,728 -62,650 115,716 Hawaii Gay & Robinson, Inc 72,401 -18,673 -50,592 3,136 Hawaiian Commercial...,145 Hawaiian Commercial & Sugar Company........ 245,499 Total Hawaii 318,644 * The sums of individual...

  13. Effects of bagging on sugar metabolism and the activity of sugar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To investigate the effects of bagging on sugar metabolism and the activity of sugar metabolism related enzymes in Qingzhong loquat fruit development, the contents of sucrose, glucose and soluble solids as well as the activities of sugar metabolism related enzymes were evaluated. The content of sucrose, glucose and ...

  14. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435... For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar allotments. (a) The allotment for beet sugar will be 54.35 percent of the overall allotment quantity. (b) The allotment for cane sugar will be 45.65 percent of the...

  15. Engineering of sugar metabolism in Lactococcus lactis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pool, Weia Arianne

    2008-01-01

    Short English Summary Lactococcus lactis is a lactic acid bacterium used in the dairy industry. This thesis decribes the genetic engineering performed on the sugar metabolism of L. lactis. Besides our fundamental interest for sugar metabolism and its regulation in L. lactis, this project had the

  16. Blood Sugar Testing: Why, When and How

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Understand how other factors, such as illness or stress, affect blood sugar levels Monitor the effect of diabetes medications on blood ... You may need to test before meals and snacks, before and after exercise, ... to check your blood sugar level more often if you are ill, change your ...

  17. Simple Potentiometric Determination of Reducing Sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moresco, Henry; Sanson, Pedro; Seoane, Gustavo

    2008-01-01

    In this article a potentiometric method for reducing sugar quantification is described. Copper(II) ion reacts with the reducing sugar (glucose, fructose, and others), and the excess is quantified using a copper wire indicator electrode. In order to accelerate the kinetics of the reaction, working conditions such as pH and temperature must be…

  18. Spring reflections on Louisiana sugar cane

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Louisiana sugar industry continues to produce high cane and sugar yields despite a short growing season. Spring fallow land management is essential for the upcoming crop. In the past few years, wide row spacing, billet cane planting, and cover-cropping have received significant attention. The ei...

  19. Microbiological Spoilage of High-Sugar Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sterling

    The high-sugar products discussed in this chapter are referred to as chocolate, sugar confectionery (non-chocolate), liquid sugars, sugar syrups, and honey. Products grouped in the sugar confectionery category include hard candy, soft/gummy candy, caramel, toffee, licorice, marzipan, creams, jellies, and nougats. A common intrinsic parameter associated with high-sugar products is their low water activity (a w), which is known to inhibit the growth of most spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. However, spoilage can occur as a result of the growth of osmophilic yeasts and xerophilic molds (Von Richter, 1912; Anand & Brown, 1968; Brown, 1976). The a w range for high-sugar products is between 0.20 and 0.80 (Banwart, 1979; Richardson, 1987; Lenovich & Konkel, 1992; ICMSF, 1998; Jay, Loessner, & Golden, 2005). Spoilage of products, such as chocolate-covered cherries, results from the presence of yeasts in the liquid sugar brine or the cherry. Generally, the spoiled product will develop leakers. The chocolate covering the cherry would not likely be a source of yeast contamination.

  20. Characterization of sugar beet pulp derived oligosaccharides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijdekkers, M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This thesis aimed at characterizing complex mixtures of sugar beet pulp derived oligosaccharides, in order to be able to monitor and optimize the enzymatic saccharification of sugar beet pulp. Hydrophilic interaction chromatography with on-line evaporative light scattering

  1. The sugar industry in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaren, Peter F.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the early Colonial times sugar production has been a key sector in the Peruvian export economy. This article analyzes its evolution as from the beginning of its modern phase by mid 19th Century, its consolidation in the Northern coastal region, and its concentration in scale-economy plants. The prosperity of this type of production contributed to the formation of both an oligarchy which governed the country until 1968, and the populist party (APRA and its electoral basis (the so-called «Aprista North». In the sixties Velasco Alvarado’s military revolution nationalized the sugar industry, which underwent structural changes leading to a serious crisis in the eighties that has not been overcome up-todate.

    La producción de azúcar ha constituido un importante sector en la economía exportadora del Perú desde el período colonial temprano. Este artículo analiza su evolución, sobre todo tras el inicio de su fase moderna, fechada a partir de mediados del siglo XIX, cuando se modernizó, se consolidó en la región costera septentrional y se concentró en fábricas que operaban con economías de escala. Su prosperidad, contribuyó, además, a la formación de una oligarquía que gobernó el país hasta 1968 y del partido populista, APRA, y su base electoral (el llamado «sólido Norte aprista». La revolución militar de Velasco Alvarado nacionalizó la industria en la década de 1960 y los cambios estructurales que sufrió posteriormente le condujeron a una grave crisis en los años ochenta que aún no ha superado.

  2. Comparative anatomy of the peduncles of Thai Sugar Palms provides insight on putative sugar transport mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Somjaiai, Pananun; Barfod, Anders; Jampeetong, Arunothai

    Inflorescences of sugar palms exude copious amounts of sugar-rich sap, when their peduncles are scarred. In Thailand this phenomenon form the basis of a widespread cottage industry based on species such as Arenga pinnata, Borassus flabellifera, Cocos nucifera and Nypa fruticans. The extracted sugar...... sap is used mainly for jaggery, syrup and different types of beverages. In this study we looked for anatomical correlates of the elevated sap flow in injured peduncles of sugar palms. Despite a limited sample size we observed that sugar producing palms differ from the reference palm Chamaedorea...

  3. 75 FR 38764 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ... USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate... announced a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic cane sugar allotments of 300,000 short tons raw... Credit Corporation (CCC) today announced the reassignment of projected surplus cane sugar marketing...

  4. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane... used in the control of microorganisms in cane-sugar and/or beet-sugar mills as specified in paragraph...) Combination for cane-sugar mills: Parts per million Disodium cyanodithioimidocarbonate 2.5 Ethylenediamine 1.0...

  5. THE FACTORS FORMING QUALITY OF GRANULATED SUGAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Kulneva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar, with good taste and high caloric, is one of the most popular human food. Consumers sugar must be sure that the sugar under normal conditions of use is of high quality and is not harmful to the health of the product. One reason for the decline in the quality of sugar is bacterial contamination. This is because the sugar industry products are good targets for the development of different groups of microorganisms, e.g., Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium perfringes, Leuconostoc dextranicum, Torula alba, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Sarcina lutea and others. These organisms are affected with beets, and then with sugar beet chips and diffusion juice fall into the processing line of sugar production. Their number in the diffusion juice varies and depends on many facto rs such as the quality of raw materials, the quality of cleaning beet root colonization of transporter-washing and the supply of water to the diffusion process, the temperature of the diffusion and others. In the diffusion unit has the most favorable conditions for the development of micro-organisms. Some of them, especially resistant bacteria and thermophilic bacteria or their spores, forming a capsule which protects against external influences occur in the final product sugar. When injected into the fresh crop of product (juice, syrup, they begin to multiply rapidly, causing difficulties in the process. The higher seeding beet microorganisms, the more they decompose and emit sucrose metabolism byproducts. To reduce the negative impact of microbiological and reduce losses from decomposition of sucrose conducted research on the possibility of using chlorine-containing substances in the sugar industry. It was established experimentally that the investigated chlorinated drug has bacteriostatic action and can be recommended for use in sugar beet production.

  6. Diabetes Management: How Lifestyle, Daily Routine Affect Blood Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sugar-sweetened beverages, such as soda, juice and sports drinks, can be used as an effective treatment for ... sugar-sweetened beverages, such as juice or a sports drink, to keep your blood sugar level from dropping ...

  7. Itokawa dust particles: a direct link between S-type asteroids and ordinary chondrites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Tomoki; Noguchi, Takaaki; Tanaka, Masahiko; Zolensky, Michael E; Kimura, Makoto; Tsuchiyama, Akira; Nakato, Aiko; Ogami, Toshihiro; Ishida, Hatsumi; Uesugi, Masayuki; Yada, Toru; Shirai, Kei; Fujimura, Akio; Okazaki, Ryuji; Sandford, Scott A; Ishibashi, Yukihiro; Abe, Masanao; Okada, Tatsuaki; Ueno, Munetaka; Mukai, Toshifumi; Yoshikawa, Makoto; Kawaguchi, Junichiro

    2011-08-26

    The Hayabusa spacecraft successfully recovered dust particles from the surface of near-Earth asteroid 25143 Itokawa. Synchrotron-radiation x-ray diffraction and transmission and scanning electron microscope analyses indicate that the mineralogy and mineral chemistry of the Itokawa dust particles are identical to those of thermally metamorphosed LL chondrites, consistent with spectroscopic observations made from Earth and by the Hayabusa spacecraft. Our results directly demonstrate that ordinary chondrites, the most abundant meteorites found on Earth, come from S-type asteroids. Mineral chemistry indicates that the majority of regolith surface particles suffered long-term thermal annealing and subsequent impact shock, suggesting that Itokawa is an asteroid made of reassembled pieces of the interior portions of a once larger asteroid.

  8. Myanmar Sugar SMEs: History, Technology, Location and Government Policy

    OpenAIRE

    San, Thein; KUDO, TOSHIHIRO

    2008-01-01

    Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) engaged in sugar processing in Myanmar appeared in the last decade of the socialist era. An acute sugar deficit, restricted trade in white sugar, and high demand from the conventional dairy business led to the growth of sugar SMEs by appropriate blending of semi-finished products (syrup) in the fields, which were then processed in vacuum pans and centrifugals to obtain white sugar. This became a tradable commodity and sugar SMEs grew in clusters in big citi...

  9. EVOLUTION OF SUGAR BEET AND SUGAR PRODUCTION IN ROMANIA AFTER ITS ACCESSION INTO THE E.U

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aurel-Florentin BADIU; Florentina BADIU

    2014-01-01

    ... of EU’s rules for sugar market. The study presents the evolution of the biological sugar content and white sugar content between the years 2007 and 2013 and it evaluates the variability of the way...

  10. BREAK-EVEN POINT IN SUGAR-BEET PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Ilija Nedić

    2015-01-01

    World sugar consumption has been recording a steady growth in the past 70 years and, according to all relevant estimates, it will continue to grow also in the next decade, which puts sugar in the category of the most significant foods and commodities in the world. Of the total world sugar production, around 77% is derived from sugar cane and 23% from sugar beet. Brazil has been the world leader in sugar production for a long period of time, producing white sugar from sugar cane only, whereas ...

  11. On the Structural Differences between Alumina-Supported CoMoS Type I and Alumina-, Silica-, and Carbon-Supported CoMoS Type II Phases Studied by XAFS, MES and XPS.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koningsberger, D.C.; Bouwens, S.M.A.M.; Zon, F.B.M. van; Dijk, M.P. van; Kraan, A.M. van der; Beer, V.H.J. de; Veen, J.A.R. van

    1994-01-01

    In this study the local structure of the Mo and Co promoter atoms in CoMoS type I and II on alumina, and CoMoS type II on various supports is compared using in situ XAFS spectroscopy as the main technique with XPS and MES in a supporting role. In the CoMoS phase the Co atoms are positioned at the

  12. SILAGE CANE SUGAR ADDED WITH DRIED BREWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. R. Castro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the fermentative parameters and chemical composition of silage cane sugar added with residue dried brewery. The experimental design was completely randomized with four treatments and four replications: 100% cane sugar; 90% of cane sugar + 10% residue dried brewer; 80% of cane sugar + 20% residue dried brewer and 70% cane sugar + 30% dried brewer based on natural matter, composed silages. The sugar cane was chopped in a stationary machine with forage particle size of approximately 2 cm, and homogenized manually with the additives. For storage chopped fresh weight were used in experimental silos capacity of about 4 liters. The results showed that the contents of dry matter and crude protein showed positive linear (P0.05 with mean value of 3.81, while for ether extract and ash results were positive linear (P0.05 for N ammonia presented average value of 4.18. It is concluded that the addition of brewer dehydrated improves the fermentation process of silage cane sugar, in addition to improving their nutritional characteristics.

  13. Improved molecular tools for sugar cane biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinkema, Mark; Geijskes, Jason; Delucca, Paulo; Palupe, Anthony; Shand, Kylie; Coleman, Heather D; Brinin, Anthony; Williams, Brett; Sainz, Manuel; Dale, James L

    2014-03-01

    Sugar cane is a major source of food and fuel worldwide. Biotechnology has the potential to improve economically-important traits in sugar cane as well as diversify sugar cane beyond traditional applications such as sucrose production. High levels of transgene expression are key to the success of improving crops through biotechnology. Here we describe new molecular tools that both expand and improve gene expression capabilities in sugar cane. We have identified promoters that can be used to drive high levels of gene expression in the leaf and stem of transgenic sugar cane. One of these promoters, derived from the Cestrum yellow leaf curling virus, drives levels of constitutive transgene expression that are significantly higher than those achieved by the historical benchmark maize polyubiquitin-1 (Zm-Ubi1) promoter. A second promoter, the maize phosphonenolpyruvate carboxylate promoter, was found to be a strong, leaf-preferred promoter that enables levels of expression comparable to Zm-Ubi1 in this organ. Transgene expression was increased approximately 50-fold by gene modification, which included optimising the codon usage of the coding sequence to better suit sugar cane. We also describe a novel dual transcriptional enhancer that increased gene expression from different promoters, boosting expression from Zm-Ubi1 over eightfold. These molecular tools will be extremely valuable for the improvement of sugar cane through biotechnology.

  14. Sugar Metabolism in Hummingbirds and Nectar Bats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul K. Suarez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hummingbirds and nectar bats coevolved with the plants they visit to feed on floral nectars rich in sugars. The extremely high metabolic costs imposed by small size and hovering flight in combination with reliance upon sugars as their main source of dietary calories resulted in convergent evolution of a suite of structural and functional traits. These allow high rates of aerobic energy metabolism in the flight muscles, fueled almost entirely by the oxidation of dietary sugars, during flight. High intestinal sucrase activities enable high rates of sucrose hydrolysis. Intestinal absorption of glucose and fructose occurs mainly through a paracellular pathway. In the fasted state, energy metabolism during flight relies on the oxidation of fat synthesized from previously-ingested sugar. During repeated bouts of hover-feeding, the enhanced digestive capacities, in combination with high capacities for sugar transport and oxidation in the flight muscles, allow the operation of the “sugar oxidation cascade”, the pathway by which dietary sugars are directly oxidized by flight muscles during exercise. It is suggested that the potentially harmful effects of nectar diets are prevented by locomotory exercise, just as in human hunter-gatherers who consume large quantities of honey.

  15. USE CELLULOSE FOR CLEANING CONCENTRATED SUGAR SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Kul’neva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Producing high quality intermediate products in the boiling-crystallization station is an actual problem of sugar production. In the production of white sugar brown sugar syrup is not further purified that decreases the quality of the end product. Studies have been conducted using cellulose as an adsorbent for the purification of concentrated sugar solutions, having affinity to dyes and other impurities. Research have been carried out with the intermediate products of the Lebedyan sugar plant. Test results have shown cellulose ability to adsorb the dyes in sugar production. The influence of the adsorbent concentration and the mass fraction of solids in the syrup on the decolorization effect has been studied; rational process parameters have been obtained. It has been found that proceeding an additional adsorption purification of brown sugars syrup allows to reduce the solution color, increase the amount and quality of the end product. Adsorbing means, received from production wastes on the basis of organic resources, have many advantages: economical, environmentally friendly for disposal, safe to use, reliable and efficient in use. Conducted research on using cellulose as adsorbent for treatment of concentrated sugar solutions, having an affinity for colouring matter and other impurities. The experiments were carried out on the intermediates Lebedyanskiy sugar factory. The test results showed the ability of cellulose to adsorb coloring matter of sugar production. To evaluate the effect of bleaching depending on the mass fraction of dry substances prepared yellow juice filtration of sugar concentration of 55, 60, 65 % with subsequent adsorption purification of cellulose. The results of the experiment built adsorption isotherm of dyestuffs. The influence of the concentration of the adsorbent and a mass fraction of solids of juice filtration on the efficiency of decolorization obtained by rational parameters of the process. It is

  16. Sugar in Infants, Children and Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mis, Nataša Fidler; Braegger, Christian; Bronsky, Jiri

    2017-01-01

    The consumption of sugars, particularly sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs; beverages or drinks that contain added caloric sweeteners (i.e. sucrose, high-fructose corn syrup, fruit-juice concentrates), in European children and adolescents exceeds current recommendations. This is of concern because...... with a desirable goal of children and adolescents aged ≥ 2-18 years. Intakes should probably be even lower in infants and toddlers ... or unsweetened milk drinks. National Authorities should adopt policies aimed at reducing the intake of free sugars in infants, children and adolescents. This may include education, improved labelling, restriction of advertising, introducing standards for kindergarten and school meals, and fiscal measures...

  17. Sugar in infants, children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mis, Nataša Fidler; Braegger, Christian; Bronsky, Jiri

    2017-01-01

    The consumption of sugars, particularly sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs; beverages or drinks that contain added caloric sweeteners (i.e. sucrose, high-fructose corn syrup, fruit-juice concentrates), in European children and adolescents exceeds current recommendations. This is of concern because...... with a desirable goal of children and adolescents aged ≥ 2-18 years. Intakes should probably be even lower in infants and toddlers ... or unsweetened milk drinks. National Authorities should adopt policies aimed at reducing the intake of free sugars in infants, children and adolescents. This may include education, improved labelling, restriction of advertising, introducing standards for kindergarten and school meals, and fiscal measures...

  18. Sugar regulation of SUGAR TRANSPORTER PROTEIN 1 (STP1) expression in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordoba, Elizabeth; Aceves-Zamudio, Denise Lizeth; Hernández-Bernal, Alma Fabiola; Ramos-Vega, Maricela; León, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Sugars regulate the expression of many genes at the transcriptional level. In Arabidopsis thaliana, sugars induce or repress the expression of >1800 genes, including the STP1 (SUGAR TRANSPORTER PROTEIN 1) gene, which encodes an H+/monosaccharide cotransporter. STP1 transcript levels decrease more rapidly after the addition of low concentrations of sugars than the levels of other repressed genes, such as DIN6 (DARK-INDUCED 6). We found that this regulation is exerted at the transcriptional level and is initiated by phosphorylatable sugars. Interestingly, the sugar signal that modulates STP1 expression is transmitted through a HEXOKINASE 1-independent signalling pathway. Finally, analysis of the STP1 5′ regulatory region allowed us to delimit a region of 309bp that contains the cis elements implicated in the glucose regulation of STP1 expression. Putative cis-acting elements involved in this response were identified. PMID:25281700

  19. Excessive consumption of fructose-containing sugars

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    , University of Cape Town, South. Africa. Keywords: Fructose, Diabetes,. Obesity, Public. Nutrition, Africa. ABSTRACT. Consumption of sugar sweetened beverages and processed foods has increased in the last decade in developed countries.

  20. When Blood Sugar is Too High

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the blood can be unhealthy. What Is Hyperglycemia? Hyperglycemia (say: hi-per-gly-SEE-me-uh) is the medical word for high blood sugar levels. The hormone insulin is supposed to control the level of glucose ...

  1. Treatment of biomass to obtain fermentable sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunson, Jr., James B.; Tucker, Melvin [Lakewood, CO; Elander, Richard [Evergreen, CO; Hennessey, Susan M [Avondale, PA

    2011-04-26

    Biomass is pretreated using a low concentration of aqueous ammonia at high biomass concentration. Pretreated biomass is further hydrolyzed with a saccharification enzyme consortium. Fermentable sugars released by saccharification may be utilized for the production of target chemicals by fermentation.

  2. Root rot diseases of sugar beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobsen Barry J.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Root rot diseases of sugar beet caused by Rhizoctonia solani (AG 2-2 IIIB and AG 2-2 IV, R. crocorum, Aphanomyces cochlioides, Phoma betae, Macrophomina phaeseolina, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-betae, Pythium aphanidermatum Phytophthora drechsleri, Rhizopus stolonifer, R. arrhizus and Sclerotium rolfsii cause significant losses wherever sugar beets are grown. However, not all these soil-borne pathogens have been reported in all sugar beet production areas. Losses include reduced harvestable tonnage and reduced white sugar recovery. Many of these pathogens also cause post harvest losses in storage piles. Control for diseases caused by these pathogens include disease resistant cultivars, avoidance of stresses, cultural practices such as water management and the use of fungicides.

  3. Intensive Insulin Therapy: Tight Blood Sugar Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intensive insulin therapy: Tight blood sugar control Intensive insulin therapy can help prevent long-term diabetes complications. Consider the benefits — and understand the commitment. By Mayo Clinic ...

  4. What Price Sugar? Land, Labor, and Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel C. Littlefield

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Sugar, Slavery, and Society: Perspectives on the Caribbean, India, the Mascarenes, and the United States. Bernard Moitt (ed.. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2004. vii + 203 pp. (Cloth US $ 65.00 Tropical Babylons: Sugar and the Making of the Atlantic World, 1450-1680. Stuart B. Schwartz (ed.. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004. xiii + 347 pp. (Paper US $ 22.50 These two books illustrate the fascination that sugar, slavery, and the plantation still exercise over the minds of scholars. One of them also reflects an interest in the influence these have had on the modern world. For students of the history of these things the Schwartz collection is in many ways the more useful. It seeks to fill a lacuna left by the concentration of monographs on the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, suggesting that we know less about the history of sugar than we thought we did. Perhaps in no other single place is such a range of information on so wide an area presented in such detail for so early a period. Ranging from Iberia to the Caribbean and including consumption as well as production of sugar, with a nod to the slave trade and a very useful note on weights and currencies, this volume is a gold mine of information. It considers (briefly the theoretical meaning as well as the growing of this important crop, contrasting its production in Iberia with that on the Atlantic islands of Madeira and the Canaries, colonized by Iberian powers, and continuing the contrast with São Tomé, off the coast of Africa, and on to Brazil and the Spanish American empire before ending with the British in Barbados. In the transit, it of necessity considers and complicates the meaning of “sugar revolution” and shows how scholars using that term do not always mean the same thing. John McCusker and Russell Menard, for example, tackling a cornerstone of the traditional interpretation of the development of sugar, argue that there

  5. Sustainability Issues and Opportunities in the Sugar and Sugar-Bioproduct Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Eggleston

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Like many other industries, the sugar and sugar-bioproduct industries are facing important sustainability issues and opportunities. The relatively low and fluctuating profit for sugar, surpluses of sugar, world-wide trend to produce alternative, renewable bio-based fuels and chemicals to those derived from petroleum and reduce greenhouse gases, water- and energy-intensive factories and refineries, and increased consumer demands for sustainably manufactured products are putting pressure on the industries to diversify for sustainability. Sugar crops, including sugar and energy cane (Saccharum officinarum, sugar and energy beets (Beta vulgaris, and sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench, are excellent, renewable biomass feedstocks because of their availability, their being amongst the plants that give the highest yields of carbohydrates per hectare, and high sugar contents. While much research has been focused on conversion technologies for advanced biofuels and bioproducts, attention is now focused on developing sustainable supply chains of sugar feedstocks for the new, flexible biorefineries, with customers wanting maximum feedstock reliability and quality, while minimizing cost. All biomass from sugar crops are potential feedstocks. The cogeneration of bioelectricity from bagasse and leaf residues is being increasingly manufactured in more countries and, due to the high carbon content of bagasse and leaves, can also be converted into value-added products such as biochar. Sugar crops are superior feedstocks for the production of platform chemicals for the manufacture of a range of end-products, e.g., bioplastics, chemicals, and biomaterials. In several countries and regions, green sustainability criteria are now in place and have to be met to count against national biofuel targets. Processes to convert high-fiber sugar crop biomass into biofuel have been developed but there has only been limited commercialization at the large-scale.

  6. Holograms recorded in dichromated with simple sugars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mejias-Brizuela, N Y; Olivares-Perez, A [Instituto Tecnologico Superior de Atlixco, Coordinacion de Bioquimica, Prolongacion Heliotropo N0 1201, Vista Hermosa Atlixco, Puebla (Mexico); Grande-Grande, A, E-mail: nilyame@inaoep.mx, E-mail: olivares@inaoep.mx

    2011-01-01

    Sugars as glucose and fructose can be used to holographic record. These materials have the advantage to mix very well with K{sub 2}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7}.Holographic gratings recorded in sugars, were made by a lineal setup to producing interference pattern using a wavelength at 473 nm. These materials have the ability to register information in real time.

  7. Management of Oehler’s Type III Dens Invaginatus Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaya Ranganathan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dens Invaginatus is a dental malformation that poses diagnostic difficulties in the clinical context. This anomaly may increase the risk of pulp disease and can potentially complicate endodontic procedure due to the aberrant root canal anatomy. Compared to conventional radiographs, three-dimensional images obtained with Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT are invaluable in the diagnosis of the extent of this anomaly and in the appropriate treatment planning. Oehler’s classification (1957 for Dens Invaginatus (DI into three types depending on the depth of the invagination has been used for treatment planning. Of the three types Type III DI is characterized by infolding of the enamel into the tooth up to the root apex and is considered as the most severe variant of DI and hence the most challenging to treat endodontically, due to the morphological complexities. This report describes a case of Oehler’s Type III DI in a necrotic permanent maxillary lateral incisor in which CBCT images played a key role in diagnosis and treatment planning. The case was managed successfully by a combination of nonsurgical and surgical endodontic therapy with orthograde and retrograde thermoplastic gutta percha obturation.

  8. Computational optimization for S-type biological systems: cockroach genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shinq-Jen; Wu, Cheng-Tao

    2013-10-01

    S-type biological systems (S-systems) are demonstrated to be universal approximations of continuous biological systems. S-systems are easy to be generalized to large systems. The systems are identified through data-driven identification techniques (cluster-based algorithms or computational methods). However, S-systems' identification is challenging because multiple attractors exist in such highly nonlinear systems. Moreover, in some biological systems the interactive effect cannot be neglected even the interaction order is small. Therefore, learning should be focused on increasing the gap between the true and redundant interaction. In addition, a wide searching space is necessary because no prior information is provided. The used technologies should have the ability to achieve convergence enhancement and diversity preservation. Cockroaches live in nearly all habitats and survive for more than 300 million years. In this paper, we mimic cockroaches' competitive swarm behavior and integrated it with advanced evolutionary operations. The proposed cockroach genetic algorithm (CGA) possesses strong snatching-food ability to rush forward to a target and high migration ability to escape from local minimum. CGA was tested with three small-scale systems, a twenty-state medium-scale system and a thirty-state large-scale system. A wide search space ([0,100] for rate constants and [-100,100] for kinetic orders) with random or bad initial starts are used to show the high exploration performance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Sugar Intake, Obesity, and Diabetes in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Gulati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sugar and sweet consumption have been popular and intrinsic to Indian culture, traditions, and religion from ancient times. In this article, we review the data showing increasing sugar consumption in India, including traditional sources (jaggery and khandsari and from sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs. Along with decreasing physical activity, this increasing trend of per capita sugar consumption assumes significance in view of the high tendency for Indians to develop insulin resistance, abdominal adiposity, and hepatic steatosis, and the increasing “epidemic” of type 2 diabetes (T2DM and cardiovascular diseases. Importantly, there are preliminary data to show that incidence of obesity and T2DM could be decreased by increasing taxation on SSBs. Other prevention strategies, encompassing multiple stakeholders (government, industry, and consumers, should target on decreasing sugar consumption in the Indian population. In this context, dietary guidelines for Indians show that sugar consumption should be less than 10% of total daily energy intake, but it is suggested that this limit be decreased.

  10. Effect on Caries of Restricting Sugars Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, P.J.; Kelly, S.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    A systematic review of studies in humans was conducted to update evidence on the association between the amount of sugars intake and dental caries and on the effect of restricting sugars intake to caries to inform the updating of World Health Organization guidelines on sugars consumption. Data sources included MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Database, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang, and South African Department of Health. Eligible studies reported the absolute amount of sugars and dental caries, measured as prevalence, incidence, or severity. The review was conducted and reported in accordance with the PRISMA statement, and the evidence was assessed according to GRADE Working Group guidelines. From 5,990 papers identified, 55 studies were eligible – 3 intervention, 8 cohort, 20 population, and 24 cross-sectional. Data variability limited meta-analysis. Of the studies, 42 out of 50 of those in children and 5 out of 5 in adults reported at least one positive association between sugars and caries. There is evidence of moderate quality showing that caries is lower when free-sugars intake is caries risk throughout the life course. PMID:24323509

  11. Sugar Intake, Obesity, and Diabetes in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Seema; Misra, Anoop

    2014-01-01

    Sugar and sweet consumption have been popular and intrinsic to Indian culture, traditions, and religion from ancient times. In this article, we review the data showing increasing sugar consumption in India, including traditional sources (jaggery and khandsari) and from sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). Along with decreasing physical activity, this increasing trend of per capita sugar consumption assumes significance in view of the high tendency for Indians to develop insulin resistance, abdominal adiposity, and hepatic steatosis, and the increasing “epidemic” of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular diseases. Importantly, there are preliminary data to show that incidence of obesity and T2DM could be decreased by increasing taxation on SSBs. Other prevention strategies, encompassing multiple stakeholders (government, industry, and consumers), should target on decreasing sugar consumption in the Indian population. In this context, dietary guidelines for Indians show that sugar consumption should be less than 10% of total daily energy intake, but it is suggested that this limit be decreased. PMID:25533007

  12. 40 CFR 409.30 - Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... liquid cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.30 Section 409.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.30 Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining... cane sugar into liquid refined sugar. ...

  13. The efficacy of sugar labeling formats: Implications for labeling policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderlee, Lana; White, Christine M; Bordes, Isabelle; Hobin, Erin P; Hammond, David

    2015-12-01

    To examine knowledge of sugar recommendations and test the efficacy of formats for labeling total and added sugar on pre-packaged foods. Online surveys were conducted among 2008 Canadians aged 16-24. Participants were asked to identify recommended limits for total and added sugar consumption. In Experiment 1, participants were randomized to one of six labeling conditions with varying information for total sugar for a high- or low-sugar product and were asked to identify the relative amount of total sugar in the product. In Experiment 2, participants were randomized to one of three labels with different added sugar formats and were asked if the product contained added sugar and the relative amount of added sugar. Few young people correctly identified recommendations for total sugar (5%) or added sugar (7%). In Experiment 1, those who were shown percent daily value information were more likely to correctly identify the relative amount of total sugar (P sugar information were more likely to correctly identify that the product contained added sugar and the relative amount of added sugar in the product (P sugars in food products. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  14. 15 CFR 2011.204 - Entry of specialty sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Entry of specialty sugars. 2011.204... UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE ALLOCATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA ON IMPORTED SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.204 Entry of specialty sugars. An importer or the importer's agent must...

  15. [Sugar substitute products impact on oral fluid biochemical properties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsapok, P I; Imbriakov, K V; Chuchkova, M R

    2012-01-01

    Sugar substitute products impact on oral fluid protein and carbohydrate content, as well as oxidative balance were studied in 60 medical school students in compare with conventional sugar. Sugar intake proved to cause cariesogenic carbohydrate metabolism disorders in oral fluid, intensification of lipoperoxidation and decrease in antioxidation activity. Sugar substitute products help to prevent dental decay.

  16. 7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.305 Section 1435... For Sugar § 1435.305 State cane sugar allotments. (a) Hawaii and Puerto Rico will be allotted a total of 325,000 short tons, raw value, of the cane sugar allotment. (b) A new entrant cane State will...

  17. BYPRODUCTS OF THE SUGAR INDUSTRY AS ANIMAL FEEDS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa ranks approxirnately 8th in the world as a producer of sugar from sugar cane (Anonymous, 1979). During seasons of normal rainfall, annual production of sugar presently amounts to some 2 million tons. Sugar production has been increasing at an average rate of about 7,59o per annum over the past 20 years ...

  18. 19 CFR 151.24 - Unlading facilities for bulk sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. 151.24 Section... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.24 Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. When dutiable sugar is to be imported in bulk, a full...

  19. 27 CFR 24.181 - Use of sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of sugar. 24.181... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Wine § 24.181 Use of sugar. Only sugar, as defined in § 24.10, may be used in the production of standard wine. The quantity of sugar used will be determined...

  20. 19 CFR 151.22 - Estimated duties on raw sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Estimated duties on raw sugar. 151.22 Section 151... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.22 Estimated duties on raw sugar. Estimated duties shall be taken on raw sugar, as defined...

  1. Determination of endotoxins in sugar with the Limulus test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskå, G; Nystrand, R

    1979-01-01

    The Limulus amebocyte lysate test has been used for determination of pyrogens in sugar of different qualities. All the samples of domestic white sugar and beet raw sugar produced in Sweden during 1976 had a very low content of endotoxins, less than 10 ng/g of sugar. Imported cane raw sugar was, however, highly contaminated. The highest value obtained corresponds to about 100 mg of Escherichia coli endotoxin per g of raw sugar. Such crude sugar cannot, even after refining, be used for medical purposes. Instead, Swedish beet sugar is used as the raw material for production of invert sugar solutions for parenteral administration. The amount of endotoxin in this sugar is less than 1 ng/g. PMID:526016

  2. Differential Roles of Environmental Enrichment in Alzheimer’s Type of Neurodegeneration and Physiological Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir V. Salmin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Impairment of hippocampal adult neurogenesis in aging or degenerating brain is a well-known phenomenon caused by the shortage of brain stem cell pool, alterations in the local microenvironment within the neurogenic niches, or deregulation of stem cell development. Environmental enrichment (EE has been proposed as a potent tool to restore brain functions, to prevent aging-associated neurodegeneration, and to cure neuronal deficits seen in neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we report our data on the effects of environmental enrichment on hippocampal neurogenesis in vivo and neurosphere-forming capacity of hippocampal stem/progenitor cells in vitro. Two models – Alzheimer’s type of neurodegeneration and physiological brain aging – were chosen for the comparative analysis of EE effects. We found that environmental enrichment greatly affects the expression of markers specific for stem cells, progenitor cells and differentiated neurons (Pax6, Ngn2, NeuroD1, NeuN in the hippocampus of young adult rats or rats with Alzheimer’s disease (AD model but less efficiently in aged animals. Application of time-lag mathematical model for the analysis of impedance traces obtained in real-time monitoring of cell proliferation in vitro revealed that EE could restore neurosphere-forming capacity of hippocampal stem/progenitor cells more efficiently in young adult animals (fourfold greater in the control group comparing to the AD model group but not in the aged rats (no positive effect of environmental enrichment at all. In accordance with the results obtained in vivo, EE was almost ineffective in the recovery of hippocampal neurogenic reserve in vitro in aged, but not in amyloid-treated or young adult, rats. Therefore, EE-based neuroprotective strategies effective in Aβ-affected brain could not be directly extrapolated to aged brain.

  3. 78 FR 146 - Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar-Containing Products of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ...-Containing Products of Chile, Morocco, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras... Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar-Containing Products of Chile, Morocco, Costa Rica, the Dominican... sugar and syrup goods and sugar-containing products exceeded its exports by 3,066 metric tons. The...

  4. 75 FR 23631 - Sugar Re-Export Program, the Sugar-Containing Products Re-Export Program, and the Polyhydric...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Foreign Agricultural Service 7 CFR Part 1530 Sugar Re-Export Program, the Sugar... cane sugar under subheading 1701.11.20 of the HTS for the production of polyhydric alcohols, except polyhydric alcohols for use as a substitute for sugar in human food consumption, or to be refined and re...

  5. Aromatics extraction from pyrolytic sugars using ionic liquid to enhance sugar fermentability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, X.; Luque-Moreno, L.C.; Oudenhoven, Stijn; Rehmann, L.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Schuur, Boelo

    2016-01-01

    Fermentative bioethanol production from pyrolytic sugars was improved via aromatics removal by liquid–liquid extraction. As solvents, the ionic liquid (IL) trihexyltetradecylphosphonium dicyanamide (P666,14[N(CN)2]) and ethyl acetate (EA) were compared. Two pyrolytic sugar solutions were created

  6. Sugar palm (Argena pinnata). Potential of sugar palm for bio-ethanol production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbersen, H.W.; Oyen, L.P.A.

    2010-01-01

    The energetic and economic feasibility of bioethanol production from sugar palm is virtually unknown. A positive factor are the potentially very high yields while the long non-productive juvenile phase and the high labor needs can be seen as problematic. Expansion to large scale sugar palm

  7. Triple sugar screen breath hydrogen test for sugar intolerance in children with functional abdominal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitelbaum, Jonathan E; Ubhrani, Dolly

    2010-09-01

    Sugar intolerance and functional gastrointestinal disorders are both common in school age children. Both may present with similar complaints such as abdominal pain, diarrhea and bloating. Lactose, fructose and sucrose hydrogen breath tests are widely used to detect sugar malabsorption. To determine the proportion of children with symptoms of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) that have sugar intolerance as determined by using a breath hydrogen test. We prospectively enrolled subjects with chronic abdominal pain, bloating and/or chronic diarrhea. All subjects underwent triple sugar screen hydrogen breath test (TSST) using the combined sugar solution. Breath hydrogen concentration ≥ 20 ppm above baseline was interpreted a positive test for sugar malabsorption. A positive hydrogen breath test consistent with sugar malabsorption was found in 5 out of 31 (16%) subjects. Three of these subjects were confirmed to have lactose malabsorption based on small bowel lactase enzyme analysis or subsequent lactose hydrogen breath test. One subject with positive TSST was diagnosed with fructose malabsorption based on dietary history; he improved on a limited fructose diet, and one was diagnosed to have gastric Crohn's disease. Approximately one in six children with symptoms of FGID had sugar intolerance as determined by the TSST.

  8. Process innovation in the sugar industry : Chromatographic sugar separation using SMB technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bussmann, P.; Vroon, R.; Timmer, J.; Boon, F.; Bruijn, J.M. de

    2007-01-01

    The chromatographic separation of sugar from raw juice was identified as a promising alternative for the current juice purification. Simulated moving bed technology (SMB) was chosen as the most suitable technology on the basis of the purification, limited degree of dilution and increased sugar

  9. Stem girdling manipulates leaf sugar concentrations and anthocyanin expression in sugar maples trees during autumn

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.F. Murakami; P.G. Schaberg; J.B. Shane

    2008-01-01

    To better understand the effects of sugar accumulation on red color development of foliage during autumn, we compared carbohydrate concentration, anthocyanin expression and xylem pressure potential of foliage on girdled versus non-girdled (control) branches of 12 mature, open-grown sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) trees. Half of the study trees...

  10. Anaerobic treatment of sugar beet pulps for biogas production in a sugar beet factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, L.; Parravicini, V.; Svardal, K.; Kroiss, H. [Institute for Water Quality, Vienna University of Technology, Karlsplatz 13/226, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Prendl, L. [BPE Technisches Buro Dr. Prendl, Am Kellerberg 31, 2325 Himberg-Pellendorf (Austria); Gaschler, E. [Agrana Beteiligungs-AG, Donau-City-Strasse 9, 1220 Vienna (Austria)

    2008-07-01

    Sugar beet press pulp accumulates as a by-product in sugar factories. Rising energy prices and the opening of the European Union sugar market has put pressure on the manufactures to find alternatives for energy supply. The aim of this project was to develop a technology in the treatment of sugar beet press pulp that would lead to savings in energy consumption, decline of treatment costs and to a more competitive production. These goals were met by the anaerobic digestion of SBP for biogas production. In the first implementation step at a Hungarian sugar factory half of the SBP (800 t/d, 22%TS) was converted into biogas, which could substitute about 40% of the natural gas required for the thermal energy supply within a sugar campaign. Lab-scale experiments were performed to gain basic information about the suitability of sugar beet press pulp as substrate for anaerobic bacteria and the stability of the anaerobic process. Pilot-scale experiments focused on process optimization and procedures for a quick start up and operational control. The results of the experiments led to the implementation of a fullscale biogas plant, which has been put in operation during the sugar campaign 2007. The maximum input load of press pulp was about 925 t/d (9.3 kgCSB/m{sup 3}.d), with a biogas production of 125,000 Nm{sup 3}/d.

  11. Sugar addiction: pushing the drug-sugar analogy to the limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Serge H; Guillem, Karine; Vandaele, Youna

    2013-07-01

    To review research that tests the validity of the analogy between addictive drugs, like cocaine, and hyperpalatable foods, notably those high in added sugar (i.e., sucrose). Available evidence in humans shows that sugar and sweetness can induce reward and craving that are comparable in magnitude to those induced by addictive drugs. Although this evidence is limited by the inherent difficulty of comparing different types of rewards and psychological experiences in humans, it is nevertheless supported by recent experimental research on sugar and sweet reward in laboratory rats. Overall, this research has revealed that sugar and sweet reward can not only substitute to addictive drugs, like cocaine, but can even be more rewarding and attractive. At the neurobiological level, the neural substrates of sugar and sweet reward appear to be more robust than those of cocaine (i.e., more resistant to functional failures), possibly reflecting past selective evolutionary pressures for seeking and taking foods high in sugar and calories. The biological robustness in the neural substrates of sugar and sweet reward may be sufficient to explain why many people can have difficultly to control the consumption of foods high in sugar when continuously exposed to them.

  12. Synthesis of N-sugar-substituted phthalimides and their derivatives from sugar azides and phthalic anhydride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Su-Na; Li, Zhong-Jun; Cai, Meng-Shen

    2004-06-01

    N-Sugar-substituted phthalimides and tetrachlorophthalimide derivatives can be prepared in good yields under essentially neutral conditions. Mixing a sugar azide, NaI, Me3SiCl, phthalic or substituted phthalic anhydride and tetrabutylammonium iodide as catalyst in acetonitrile at rt or 60 degrees C, afforded 12 imides in 83-95% yields. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Decontamination of sugar syrup by pulsed light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaine, Aline; Levy, Caroline; Lacour, Bernard; Riedel, Christophe; Carlin, Frédéric

    2012-05-01

    The pulsed light produced by xenon flash lamps was applied to 65 to 67 °Brix sugar syrups artificially contaminated with suspensions of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and with spores of Bacillus subtilis, Geobacillus stearothermophilus, Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris, and Aspergillus niger. The emitted pulsed light contained 18.5 % UV radiation. At least 3-log reductions of S. cerevisiae, B. subtilis, G. stearothermophilus, and A. acidoterrestris suspended in 3-mm-deep volumes of sugar syrup were obtained with a fluence of the incident pulsed light equal to or less than 1.8 J/cm(2), and the same results were obtained for B. subtilis and A. acidoterrestris suspended in 10-mm-deep volumes of sugar syrup. A. niger spores would require a more intense treatment; for instance, the maximal log reduction was close to 1 with a fluence of the incident pulsed light of 1.2 J/cm(2). A flowthrough reactor with a flow rate of 320 ml/min and a flow gap of 2.15 mm was designed for pulsed light treatment of sugar syrup. Using this device, a 3-log reduction of A. acidoterrestris spores was obtained with 3 to 4 pulses of incident pulsed light at 0.91 J/cm(2) per sugar syrup volume.

  14. PRODUCTION VALUES OF INVESTIGATED SUGAR BEET HYBRIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pospišil

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Production values of 43 experimental and recognized sugar beet hybrids were conducted on the Zagreb location in the period 2003-2005. The trials included hybrids from six breeding institutions that sell sugar beet seed in the Republic of Croatia. Research results have revealed significant differences in yields and root quality among inve- stigated sugar beet hybrids. However, the results of a large number of hybrids were equal in value; namely, the dif- ference between them was within the statistically allowable deviation. The hybrids KW 0148 HR and Buda in 2003, Sofarizo and Takt were distinguished by high sugar yields in 2004, whereas Merak, Impact and Europa in 2005. The highest root yields were recorded for hybrids Dioneta, Buda and KW 0148 HR in 2003, Sofarizo, Takt, HI 0191 and Dorotea in 2004, Impact and SES 2371 in 2005. The highest root sugar contents were determined in hybrids Zita and Evelina in 2003, Cyntia, Diamant and Belinda in 2004, and Merak, Belinda and Cyntia in 2005.

  15. Fermentable sugars by chemical hydrolysis of biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Joseph B.; Raines, Ronald T.

    2010-01-01

    Abundant plant biomass has the potential to become a sustainable source of fuels and chemicals. Realizing this potential requires the economical conversion of recalcitrant lignocellulose into useful intermediates, such as sugars. We report a high-yielding chemical process for the hydrolysis of biomass into monosaccharides. Adding water gradually to a chloride ionic liquid-containing catalytic acid leads to a nearly 90% yield of glucose from cellulose and 70–80% yield of sugars from untreated corn stover. Ion-exclusion chromatography allows recovery of the ionic liquid and delivers sugar feedstocks that support the vigorous growth of ethanologenic microbes. This simple chemical process, which requires neither an edible plant nor a cellulase, could enable crude biomass to be the sole source of carbon for a scalable biorefinery. PMID:20194793

  16. Sap flow and sugar transport in plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kaare Hartvig; Berg-Sørensen, Kirstine; Bruus, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Green plants are Earth’s primary solar energy collectors. They harvest the energy of the Sun by converting light energy into chemical energy stored in the bonds of sugar molecules. A multitude of carefully orchestrated transport processes are needed to move water and minerals from the soil to sites...... of photosynthesis and to distribute energy-rich sugars throughout the plant body to support metabolism and growth. The long-distance transport happens in the plants’ vascular system, where water and solutes are moved along the entire length of the plant. In this review, the current understanding of the mechanism...... and the quantitative description of these flows are discussed, connecting theory and experiments as far as possible. The article begins with an overview of low-Reynolds-number transport processes, followed by an introduction to the anatomy and physiology of vascular transport in the phloem and xylem. Next, sugar...

  17. Sugar Transport and Metabolism in Thermotoga

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noll, Kenneth M.; Romano, Antonio H.

    2003-02-11

    The work conducted under this grant demonstrated that the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga neapolitana carries out glucose and lactose transport in a sodium-dependent manner and that energization of anaerobic cells is required to observe transport. We also demonstrated that Thermotoga maritima carries out maltose and glucose transport using periplasmic sugar binding proteins. We began defining patterns of expression of genes encoding sugar transport and catabolic functions in both T. maritima and T. neapolitana. We began a collaborative effort to identify all the genes regulated at the transcriptional level in response to sugars substrates. These funds also allowed us to begin an examination of the functions of several periplasmic substrate binding proteins encoded in the genome of T. maritima.

  18. Effect of Size and Height of Storage of Sugar Beets on Weight and Sugar Loses in Silos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kh Behzad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Previous studies have shown that weight and sugar content decrease during sugar beets storage in silos. Different parameter such as size of sugar beets and height of storage, can affect on changes of weight and sugar. These parameters arewere considered in this study. Therefore, random sampling was done from sugar beets that had been carried to Shirvan sugar beet factory silos. Samples were divided in 4 groups of size (large, medium, small and mixed. These groups were stored in 4 different heights in industrial Shirvan sugar beet factory silos and after 18 days, pol and weight of beets were measured and were compared with data obtained on first day (before storing. The results showed that during storage of sugar beets in silos, maximum weight and sugar loses belonged to small sugar beets with 5.54 to 6.97 and 3.86 to 4.13 percent decrease, respectively. Also minimum weight and sugar loses belonged to samples that were stored in floor of silos with 1.69 to 1.91percent decrease. Increasing of height of storage resulted to increase of weight lose, so maximum of weight lose belonged to sugar beets that were stored in 5 meter height (silos level and amount of it was 6.37 to 9.84 percent. Furthermore, results showed that maximum of sugar lose belonged to sugar beets that were stored in the lowest height in this study and amount of it was between 4.80 to 5.20 percent. Increasing the height of storage caused to decreasing of sugar loses, as sugar loses of sugar beets that was stored on the uppermost level were obtained between 1.77 to 2.20 percent. Keywords: Size of sugar beet, Height of storage, Weight lose, Sugar lose, Storage in silos

  19. СHIPS FROM SUGAR BEET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Priority social problem in the Russian Federation is to provide diverse populations rational healthy diet, taking into account their traditions and economic status. Solving this problem requires the development of processing industries of agriculture on the basis of the improvement of existing and creation of new energy-saving environmentally friendly technologies that can provide deep, if possible without waste, recycling of raw materials. Therefore, the aim of research was the development of technology for production of sugar beet chips. Technology is as follows: sugar beet supplied into the washing machine to remove dirt from its surface. Washed roots inspect on conveyor belts. Next pure sugar beets sent to steam-heat treatment for cleaning the skin. After the beets is subjected to cutting by combining this process with a treatment with an aqueous solution of citric acid. Then he sent for the drying process is completed upon reaching a product of moisture content of 4-5 %. Drying chips feature is that under the high temperature reaction proceeds melanoidins between proteins and sugars present in sugar beet. As a result, the product obtained has the following characteristics: gold-yellow color; absence of a characteristic odor of sugar beet; pleasant sour taste; humidity of 4-5%. Thus, the new technology is relevant, because now the chips are one of the most popular products, ready to eat. A beet chips are rich in dietary fiber (pectin, hemicellulose and cellulose - 4-5 % minerals - macroelements (potassium, sodium, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, trace elements (iron, zinc, copper, manganese - 0.5-0.6 %, and are the product of a functional food.

  20. Sugar export limits size of conifer needles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rademaker, Hanna; Zwieniecki, Maciej A.; Bohr, Tomas

    2017-01-01

    Plant leaf size varies by more than three orders of magnitude, from a few millimeters to over one meter. Conifer leaves, however, are relatively short and the majority of needles are no longer than 6 cm. The reason for the strong confinement of the trait-space is unknown. We show that sugars...... does not contribute to sugar flow. Remarkably, we find that the size of the active part does not scale with needle length. We predict a single maximum needle size of 5 cm, in accord with data from 519 conifer species. This could help rationalize the recent observation that conifers have significantly...

  1. Acids, sugars, and sugar alcohols in Chinese hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pengzhan; Kallio, Heikki; Lü, Deguo; Zhou, Chuansheng; Ou, Shiyi; Yang, Baoru

    2010-01-27

    Acids, sugars, and sugar alcohols in the fruits of 22 cultivars/origins of three species of hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) were analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Citric acid (2.0-8.4 g/100 g dry mass [DM]), quinic acid (0.5-5.6 g/100 g DM), malic acid (0.3-1.1 g/100 g DM), fructose (5.5-18.4 g/100 g DM), glucose (5.3-16.6 g/100 g DM), sorbitol (3.0-15.7 g/100 g DM), and myo-inositol (0.1-0.3 g/100 g DM) were found in all the samples. Sucrose was present only in C. scabrifolia and three cultivars of C. pinnatifida var. major. C. scabrifolia differed from other species by its high content of quinic acid. The cultivars of C. pinnatifida var. major and C. brettschneideri had a higher content of total sugars and a higher sugar/acid ratio than the natural origins of C. pinnatifida and C. scabrifolia (P hawthorn samples analyzed fell into two groups rich in sugars and acids respectively. This is the first report of the profiles of sugars and sugar alcohols and the occurrence of quinic acid in hawthorn fruits.

  2. Sugar and Sugar Derivatives in Residues Produced from the UV Irradiation of Astrophysical Ice Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuevo, M.; Sandford, S. A.; Cooper, G.

    2016-01-01

    A large variety and number of organic compounds of prebiotic interest are known to be present in carbonaceous chondrites. Among them, one sugar (dihydroxyacetone) as well as several sugar acids, sugar alcohols, and other sugar derivatives have been reported in the Murchison and Murray meteorites. Their presence, along with amino acids, amphiphiles, and nucleobases strongly suggests that molecules essential to life can form abiotically under astrophysical conditions. This hypothesis is supported by laboratory studies on the formation of complex organic molecules from the ultraviolet (UV) irradiation of simulated astrophysical ice mixtures consisting of H2O, CO, CO2, CH3OH, CH4, NH3, etc., at low temperature. In the past 15 years, these studies have shown that the organic residues recovered at room temperature contain amino acids, amphiphiles, nucleobases, as well as other complex organics. However, no systematic search for the presence of sugars and sugar derivatives in laboratory residues have been reported to date, despite the fact that those compounds are of primary prebiotic significance. Indeed, only small (up to 3 carbon atoms) sugar derivatives including glycerol and glyceric acid have been detected in residues so far.

  3. A Loose Relationship: Incomplete H+/Sugar Coupling in the MFS Sugar Transporter GlcP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzone, Andre; Zabadne, Annas J; Salisowski, Anastasia; Madej, M Gregor; Fendler, Klaus

    2017-12-19

    The glucose transporter from Staphylococcus epidermidis, GlcPSe, is a homolog of the human GLUT sugar transporters of the major facilitator superfamily. Together with the xylose transporter from Escherichia coli, XylEEc, the other prominent prokaryotic GLUT homolog, GlcPSe, is equipped with a conserved proton-binding site arguing for an electrogenic transport mode. However, the electrophysiological analysis of GlcPSe presented here reveals important differences between the two GLUT homologs. GlcPSe, unlike XylEEc, does not perform steady-state electrogenic transport at symmetrical pH conditions. Furthermore, when a pH gradient is applied, partially uncoupled transport modes can be generated. In contrast to other bacterial sugar transporters analyzed so far, in GlcPSe sugar binding, translocation and release are also accomplished by the deprotonated transporter. Based on these experimental results, we conclude that coupling of sugar and H+ transport is incomplete in GlcPSe. To verify the viability of the observed partially coupled GlcPSe transport modes, we propose a universal eight-state kinetic model in which any degree of coupling is realized and H+/sugar symport represents only a specific instance. Furthermore, using sequence comparison with strictly coupled XylEEc and similar sugar transporters, we identify an additional charged residue that may be essential for effective H+/sugar symport. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Sugars and Sugar Derivatives in Residues Produced from the UV Irradiation of Astrophysical Ice Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuevo, M.; Sandford, S. A.; Cooper, G.

    2017-01-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites contain a large variety of organic compounds of prebiotic interest, which include amino acids, amphiphiles, nucleobases, and sugar derivatives. The presence of these compounds strongly suggests that molecules essential to life can form abiotically under astrophysical conditions. Among the sugar derivatives reported in the Murchison and Murray meteorites, only one sugar (dihydroxyacetone) was found, together with a variety of sugar alcohols and sugar acids containing up to 6 carbon atoms, including sugar acid derivatives of the biological sugars ribose and glucose. On the other hand, laboratory studies on the formation of complex organic molecules from the ultraviolet (UV) irradiation of simulated astrophysical ice mixtures consisting of H2O, CO, CO2, CH3OH, CH4, NH3, etc., at low temperature have been routinely carried out in the past 15 years. These studies have shown that the organic residues recovered at room temperature contain amino acids, amphiphiles, nucleobases, as well as other complex organics, supporting a scenario in which molecules of prebiotic interest can form in extra-terrestrial environments.

  5. Distributed Gaussian basis sets : Variationally optimized s-type sets for H-2, LiH, and BH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glushkov, VN; Wilson, S

    2002-01-01

    Distributed basis sets of s-type Gaussian functions are determined by invoking the variation principle for the Hartree-Fock ground states of the H-2, LiH, and BH molecules at their respective experimental equilibrium geometries. The calculated energy expectation values supported by these finite

  6. A tetrapyridine ligand with a rigid tetrahedral core forms metal-organic frameworks with PtS type architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Christopher B; Vukotic, V Nicholas; Sirizzotti, Natalie M; Loeb, Stephen J

    2011-08-14

    A new tetradentate, pyridine ligand with a rigid tetrahedral core can be prepared in good yield by a cross-coupling methodology. Two metal organic framework structures of Cu(II) with PtS-type topology having a carbon atom as the tetrahedral node have been characterized utilising this ligand. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  7. Ambient aerosol concentrations of sugars and sugar-alcohols at four different sites in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yttri, K. E.; Dye, C.; Kiss, G.

    2007-08-01

    Sugars and sugar-alcohols are demonstrated to be important constituents of the ambient aerosol water-soluble organic carbon fraction, and to be tracers for primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP). In the present study, levels of four sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose, trehalose) and three sugar-alcohols (arabitol, inositol, mannitol) in ambient aerosols have been quantified using a novel HPLC/HRMS-TOF (High Performance Liquid Chromatography in combination with High Resolution Mass Spectrometry - Time of Flight) method to assess the contribution of PBAP to PM>sub>10 and PM2.5. Samples were collected at four sites in Norway at different times of the year in order to reflect the various contributing sources and the spatial and seasonal variation of the selected compounds. Sugars and sugar-alcohols were present at all sites investigated, underlining the ubiquity of these highly polar organic compounds. The highest concentrations were reported for sucrose, reaching a maximum concentration of 320 ng m-3 in PM10 and 55 ng m-3 in PM2.5. The mean concentration of sucrose was up to 10 times higher than fructose, glucose and the dimeric sugar trehalose. The mean concentrations of the sugar-alcohols were typically lower, or equal, to that of the monomeric sugars and trehalose. Peak concentrations of arabitol and mannitol did not exceed 30 ng m-3 in PM10, and for PM2.5 all concentrations were below 6 ng m-3. Sugars and sugar-alcohols were associated primarily with coarse aerosols except during wintertime at the suburban site in Elverum, where a shift towards sub micron aerosols was observed. It is proposed that this shift was due to the intensive use of wood burning for residential heating at this site during winter, confirmed by high concurrent concentrations of levoglucosan. Elevated concentrations of sugars in PM2.5 were observed during spring and early summer at the rural background site Birkenes. It is hypothesized that this was due to ruptured pollen.

  8. The economics of sugar mill waste management in the Australian Sugar Industry: Mill mud case study

    OpenAIRE

    Qureshi, Muhammad Ejaz; Wegener, Malcolm K.; Mallawaarachchi, Thilak

    2001-01-01

    Sugar mills produce a range of by-products during the process of sugar extraction. Mill mud is one of the by-products that is produced in significant volume. Often mill mud is mixed with mill ash from the firing of bagasse, which together forms the bulk of mill waste available for disposal from raw sugar mills. The practice of spreading mill mud over nearby cane fields has been the primary means of disposing mill mud for many years. Mills generally promote the practice by offering freight sub...

  9. Ambient aerosol concentrations of sugars and sugar-alcohols at four different sites in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. Yttri

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Sugars and sugar-alcohols are demonstrated to be important constituents of the ambient aerosol water-soluble organic carbon fraction, and to be tracers for primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP. In the present study, levels of four sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose, trehalose and three sugar-alcohols (arabitol, inositol, mannitol in ambient aerosols have been quantified using a novel HPLC/HRMS-TOF (High Performance Liquid Chromatography in combination with High Resolution Mass Spectrometry – Time of Flight method to assess the contribution of PBAP to PM>sub>10 and PM2.5. Samples were collected at four sites in Norway at different times of the year in order to reflect the various contributing sources and the spatial and seasonal variation of the selected compounds.

    Sugars and sugar-alcohols were present at all sites investigated, underlining the ubiquity of these highly polar organic compounds. The highest concentrations were reported for sucrose, reaching a maximum concentration of 320 ng m−3 in PM10 and 55 ng m−3 in PM2.5. The mean concentration of sucrose was up to 10 times higher than fructose, glucose and the dimeric sugar trehalose. The mean concentrations of the sugar-alcohols were typically lower, or equal, to that of the monomeric sugars and trehalose. Peak concentrations of arabitol and mannitol did not exceed 30 ng m−3 in PM10, and for PM2.5 all concentrations were below 6 ng m−3.

    Sugars and sugar-alcohols were associated primarily with coarse aerosols except during wintertime at the suburban site in Elverum, where a shift towards sub micron aerosols was observed. It is proposed that this shift was due to the intensive use of wood burning for residential heating at this site during winter, confirmed by high concurrent concentrations of levoglucosan. Elevated concentrations of sugars in PM2

  10. S-type and P-type habitability in stellar binary systems: A comprehensive approach. I. Method and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuntz, M., E-mail: cuntz@uta.edu [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019-0059 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive approach is provided for the study of both S-type and P-type habitability in stellar binary systems, which in principle can also be expanded to systems of higher order. P-type orbits occur when the planet orbits both binary components, whereas in the case of S-type orbits, the planet orbits only one of the binary components with the second component considered a perturbator. The selected approach encapsulates a variety of different aspects, which include: (1) the consideration of a joint constraint, including orbital stability and a habitable region for a putative system planet through the stellar radiative energy fluxes ({sup r}adiative habitable zone{sup ;} RHZ), needs to be met; (2) the treatment of conservative, general, and extended zones of habitability for the various systems as defined for the solar system and beyond; (3) the provision of a combined formalism for the assessment of both S-type and P-type habitability; in particular, mathematical criteria are presented for the kind of system in which S-type and P-type habitability is realized; (4) applications of the attained theoretical approach to standard (theoretical) main-sequence stars. In principle, five different cases of habitability are identified, which are S-type and P-type habitability provided by the full extent of the RHZs; habitability, where the RHZs are truncated by the additional constraint of planetary orbital stability (referred to as ST- and PT-type, respectively); and cases of no habitability at all. Regarding the treatment of planetary orbital stability, we utilize the formulae of Holman and Wiegert as also used in previous studies. In this work, we focus on binary systems in circular orbits. Future applications will also consider binary systems in elliptical orbits and provide thorough comparisons to other methods and results given in the literature.

  11. Evolution of C, D and S-type cystatins in mammals: an extensive gene duplication in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa-Pereira, Patrícia; Abrantes, Joana; Pinheiro, Ana; Colaço, Bruno; Vitorino, Rui; Esteves, Pedro J

    2014-01-01

    Cystatins are a family of inhibitors of cysteine peptidases that comprises the salivary cystatins (D and S-type cystatins) and cystatin C. These cystatins are encoded by a multigene family (CST3, CST5, CST4, CST1 and CST2) organized in tandem in the human genome. Their presence and functional importance in human saliva has been reported, however the distribution of these proteins in other mammals is still unclear. Here, we performed a proteomic analysis of the saliva of several mammals and studied the evolution of this multigene family. The proteomic analysis detected S-type cystatins (S, SA, and SN) in human saliva and cystatin D in rat saliva. The evolutionary analysis showed that the cystatin C encoding gene is present in species of the most representative mammalian groups, i.e. Artiodactyla, Rodentia, Lagomorpha, Carnivora and Primates. On the other hand, D and S-type cystatins are mainly retrieved from Primates, and especially the evolution of S-type cystatins seems to be a dynamic process as seen in Pongo abelii genome where several copies of CST1-like gene (cystatin SN) were found. In Rodents, a group of cystatins previously identified as D and S has also evolved. Despite the high divergence of the amino acid sequence, their position in the phylogenetic tree and their genome organization suggests a common origin with those of the Primates. These results suggest that the D and S type cystatins have emerged before the mammalian radiation and were retained only in Primates and Rodents. Although the mechanisms driving the evolution of cystatins are unknown, it seems to be a dynamic process with several gene duplications evolving according to the birth-and-death model of evolution. The factors that led to the appearance of a group of saliva-specific cystatins in Primates and its rapid evolution remain undetermined, but may be associated with an adaptive advantage.

  12. Dietary sources of sugars in adolescents' diet: the HELENA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesana, M I; Hilbig, A; Androutsos, O; Cuenca-García, M; Dallongeville, J; Huybrechts, I; De Henauw, S; Widhalm, K; Kafatos, A; Nova, E; Marcos, A; González-Gross, M; Molnar, D; Gottrand, F; Moreno, L A

    2016-11-29

    To report dietary sugars consumption and their different types and food sources, in European adolescents. Food consumption data of selected groups were obtained from 1630 adolescents (45.6% males, 12.5-17.5 years) from the HELENA study using two nonconsecutive 24-h recalls. Energy intake, total sugars and free sugars were assessed using the HELENA-DIAT software. Multiple regression analyses were performed adjusting for relevant confounders. Total sugars intake (137.5 g/day) represented 23.6% and free sugars (110.1 g/day), 19% of energy intake. Girls had significantly lower intakes of energy, carbohydrates, total sugars and free sugars. 94% of adolescents had a consumption of free sugars above 10% of total energy intake. The main food contributor to free sugars was 'carbonated, soft and isotonic drinks,' followed by 'non-chocolate confectionary' and 'sugar, honey, jam and syrup.' Older boys and girls had significantly higher intakes of free sugars from 'cakes, pies and biscuits.' Free sugars intake was negatively associated with low socioeconomic status for 'non-chocolate confectionary' and 'sugar, honey and jam' groups; with low maternal educational level for carbonated and 'soft drinks,' 'sugar, honey and jam,' 'cakes and pies' and 'breakfast cereals' groups; and with high paternal educational level for 'carbonated and soft drinks' and 'chocolates' group. The majority (94%) of studied adolescents consumed free sugars above 10% of daily energy intake. Our data indicate a broad variety in foods providing free sugars. Continued efforts are required at different levels to reduce the intake of free sugars, especially in families with a low educational level.

  13. EVOLUTION OF SUGAR BEET AND SUGAR PRODUCTION IN ROMANIA AFTER ITS ACCESSION INTO THE E.U.

    OpenAIRE

    Aurel-Florentin BADIU; Florentina BADIU

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents an analysis of the evolution for sugar beet production and sugar beet extraction after Romania accesion in European Union. The analysis is based on the evolutions of areas, total and average yields per unit of area. The last period (2007- 2013) is compared to the previous period (2001-2006), utilised at reference. Also, it is performed in the four sugar factories respectively (SC AGRANA Romania SA, Sugar Factory Bod, SC sugar Oradea SA, sugar Ludus SA) and it was made for t...

  14. When Blood Sugar Is Too Low

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Low There are a bunch of symptoms that someone with low blood sugar might have. It's not the same for everybody. The symptoms are as minor as feeling hungry and as serious as having seizures or passing out. Have you ever had low ...

  15. Bioethanol Production from Fermentable Sugar Juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabed, Hossain; Faruq, Golam; Sahu, Jaya Narayan; Azirun, Mohd Sofian; Hashim, Rosli; Nasrulhaq Boyce, Amru

    2014-01-01

    Bioethanol production from renewable sources to be used in transportation is now an increasing demand worldwide due to continuous depletion of fossil fuels, economic and political crises, and growing concern on environmental safety. Mainly, three types of raw materials, that is, sugar juice, starchy crops, and lignocellulosic materials, are being used for this purpose. This paper will investigate ethanol production from free sugar containing juices obtained from some energy crops such as sugarcane, sugar beet, and sweet sorghum that are the most attractive choice because of their cost-effectiveness and feasibility to use. Three types of fermentation process (batch, fed-batch, and continuous) are employed in ethanol production from these sugar juices. The most common microorganism used in fermentation from its history is the yeast, especially, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, though the bacterial species Zymomonas mobilis is also potentially used nowadays for this purpose. A number of factors related to the fermentation greatly influences the process and their optimization is the key point for efficient ethanol production from these feedstocks. PMID:24715820

  16. Sap flow and sugar transport in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, K. H.; Berg-Sørensen, K.; Bruus, H.; Holbrook, N. M.; Liesche, J.; Schulz, A.; Zwieniecki, M. A.; Bohr, T.

    2016-07-01

    Green plants are Earth's primary solar energy collectors. They harvest the energy of the Sun by converting light energy into chemical energy stored in the bonds of sugar molecules. A multitude of carefully orchestrated transport processes are needed to move water and minerals from the soil to sites of photosynthesis and to distribute energy-rich sugars throughout the plant body to support metabolism and growth. The long-distance transport happens in the plants' vascular system, where water and solutes are moved along the entire length of the plant. In this review, the current understanding of the mechanism and the quantitative description of these flows are discussed, connecting theory and experiments as far as possible. The article begins with an overview of low-Reynolds-number transport processes, followed by an introduction to the anatomy and physiology of vascular transport in the phloem and xylem. Next, sugar transport in the phloem is explored with attention given to experimental results as well as the fluid mechanics of osmotically driven flows. Then water transport in the xylem is discussed with a focus on embolism dynamics, conduit optimization, and couplings between water and sugar transport. Finally, remarks are given on some of the open questions of this research field.

  17. Artificial ripening of sugar pine seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley L. Krugman

    1966-01-01

    Immature sugar pine seeds were collected and ripened either in the cone or in moist vermiculate. Seeds collected before the second week of August could not be artificially ripened and the causes for these failures were investigated. After the second week of August, immature seeds could be brought to maturity. A practical method for a commercial operation should be...

  18. Variability in Phoma species affecting sugar beet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoma betae can cause damage to sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) at multiple growth stages. It has historically been an important seedling disease, but this is largely managed by ensuring clean seed for planting. The pathogen also can cause a root rot, a leaf spot, and rotting of beets during storage. In ...

  19. Idiomatic Control used in Sugar Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten Mølgaard; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard; Pedersen, Tom Søndergaard

    1993-01-01

    A description of a control system for a large scale industrial plant - the evaporator section of a sugar plant. The control system is based on the idiomatic control concept, causing decomposition into loop control units - idioms. Dynamic decoupling, feedforward- and feedback loops eg. have been...

  20. Editorial: Sugar, Pressure and Pregnancy | Michell | Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Journal of Critical Care. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 33, No 1 (2017) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Editorial: Sugar, Pressure and Pregnancy. W. Lance Michell ...

  1. Mixed sugar fermentation by Pichia stipitis, Sacharomyces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2007-05-02

    May 2, 2007 ... semiaerobic conditions than Pichia stipitis and Sacharomyces cerevisiae and ethanol tolerance than P. stipitis, was isolated from .... (1999). Fermentation media. 250 ml Erlenmayer flasks containing 100 ml culture media comprising 30 g/l glucose, 30 g/l xylose, 12 g/l mannose, 8 g/l galactose, (total sugar ...

  2. Bioethanol Production from Fermentable Sugar Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossain Zabed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioethanol production from renewable sources to be used in transportation is now an increasing demand worldwide due to continuous depletion of fossil fuels, economic and political crises, and growing concern on environmental safety. Mainly, three types of raw materials, that is, sugar juice, starchy crops, and lignocellulosic materials, are being used for this purpose. This paper will investigate ethanol production from free sugar containing juices obtained from some energy crops such as sugarcane, sugar beet, and sweet sorghum that are the most attractive choice because of their cost-effectiveness and feasibility to use. Three types of fermentation process (batch, fed-batch, and continuous are employed in ethanol production from these sugar juices. The most common microorganism used in fermentation from its history is the yeast, especially, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, though the bacterial species Zymomonas mobilis is also potentially used nowadays for this purpose. A number of factors related to the fermentation greatly influences the process and their optimization is the key point for efficient ethanol production from these feedstocks.

  3. Postharvest Rhizopus rot on sugar beet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhizopus species have been reported as a minor post-harvest rot on sugar beet, particularly under temperatures above 5 deg C. In 2010, Rhizopus was isolated from beets collected from Michigan storage piles in February at a low frequency. However, recent evidence from Michigan has found a high incide...

  4. Sequence of the Sugar Pine Megagenome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristian A. Stevens; Jill L. Wegrzyn; Aleksey Zimin; Daniela Puiu; Marc Crepeau; Charis Cardeno; Robin Paul; Daniel Gonzalez-Ibeas; Maxim Koriabine; Ann E. Holtz-Morris; Pedro J. Martínez-García; Uzay U. Sezen; Guillaume Marçais; Kathie Jermstad; Patrick E. McGuire; Carol A. Loopstra; John M. Davis; Andrew Eckert; Pieter de Jong; James A. Yorke; Steven L. Salzberg; David B. Neale; Charles H. Langley

    2016-01-01

    Until very recently, complete characterization of the megagenomes of conifers has remained elusive. The diploid genome of sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana Dougl.) has a highly repetitive, 31 billion bp genome. It is the largest genome sequenced and assembled to date, and the first from the subgenus Strobus, or white pines, a group...

  5. Possible toxicity of boron on sugar cane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo C., M.

    Analyses of necrotic and green leaf tissues from sugar cane grown in the Tambo Valley (Arequipa, Peru) have shown that the boron concentration in necrotic tissue (average 657.7 ppm) is several times higher than that in the green tissue (average 55.7 ppm). This suggests that the necrosis may be due to boron toxicity.

  6. Ethanol production from tropical sugar beet juice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sanette

    2012-07-05

    Jul 5, 2012 ... as a source for sugar production for some time, but its development as a large scale agricultural crop in. South Africa has been limited by ... Transport plays a major role in the economic activity of. South Africa and transport ... are a reduced reliance on foreign oil imports which can lead to long-term energy ...

  7. Sugar in Moderation: Variable Sugar Diets Affect Short-Term Parasitoid Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    The biological control potential of parasitic wasps in the field is expected to increase with provisioning of sugar sources, which increase longevity and replenish carbohydrate reserves. Apanteles aristoteliae Viereck is an important parasitoid of Argyrotaenia franciscana (Walsingham), the orange to...

  8. Measurements of particulate sugars at urban and forested suburban sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, Sae; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Kaneyasu, Naoki; Shigihara, Ado; Katono, Koichi; Igawa, Manabu

    2011-04-01

    Neutral sugars (arabinose, fucose, galactose, glucose, mannose, rhamnose, and xylose) in fine and coarse aerosols were measured at urban and forested suburban sites in Japan. The most dominant compound in the sugar group was glucose at both sites. Size partitioning of the sugars generally showed dominance in the fine mode range but shifted toward the coarse mode range in summer. Seasonal trends in the sugar concentrations in the fine and coarse mode ranges were opposite: higher concentrations of fine mode sugars were found in winter, although coarse mode sugars increased in summer. Fine mode glucose consisted dominantly of the combined form, whereas free glucose increased in the coarse mode range. Although the sources of the sugars in the aerosols remain largely uncertain, primary biogenic particles can be considered as candidates of main sources of the sugars in both coarse and fine mode ranges.

  9. For Diabetics, Nasal Powder Fixed Severe Low Blood Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Diabetics, Nasal Powder Fixed Severe Low Blood Sugar New product much easier to use than rescue ... News) -- For many people with diabetes, low blood sugar levels are a serious health risk, but researchers ...

  10. Effects of Sugar Consumption on Human Behavior and Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Flora, Stephen Ray; Polenick, Courtney Allyn

    2013-01-01

    .... These effects may be most apparent shortly after sugar has been consumed. While the brain utilizes large amounts of glucose, the exact physiological mechanisms responsible for the performance-enhancing effects of sugar consumption are still debated...

  11. Diabetes Management: How Lifestyle, Daily Routine Affect Blood Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... management requires awareness. Know what makes your blood sugar level rise and fall — And how to control ... factors. By Mayo Clinic Staff Keeping your blood sugar levels within the range recommended by your doctor ...

  12. Diabetes and Exercise: When to Monitor Your Blood Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... plan. To avoid potential problems, check your blood sugar before, during and after exercise. By Mayo Clinic ... diabetes. Exercise can help you improve your blood sugar control, boost your overall fitness, and reduce your ...

  13. RESEARCH OF LIMY AND CARBONATE SYSTEM OF SUGAR PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Kulneva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of рН and temperature on activity of suspension of lime and carbonate in sugar production is investigated. Possibility of decrease in a consumption of reagents on purification of production sugar solutions is established.

  14. Research of color characteristics of sugar production intermediates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    N. G. Kulneva; Gebre Biraro Egnet; P. N. Savvin; N. N. Lobacheva

    2017-01-01

    .... The rest is lost during the processing or remains in intermediates. The color of white sugar is mainly determined by the color of the returned to the first stage of crystallization of the brown sugars melt...

  15. On the decrease in lateral mobility of phospholipids by sugars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bogaart, Geerl; Hermans, Nicolaas; Krasnikov, Victor; de Vries, Alex H.; Poolman, Bert

    2007-01-01

    Upon cold and drought stress, sucrose and trehalose protect membrane structures from fusion and leakage. Similarly, these sugars protect membrane proteins from inactivation during dehydration. We studied the interactions between sugars and phospholipid membranes in giant unilamellar vesicles with

  16. Sweet Stuff: How Sugars and Sweeteners Affect Your Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you’re getting a lot of nutrients and dietary fiber along with the natural sugars.” Although sugar itself ... Some animal studies indicate that sweeteners can produce physiological effects. But depending on what kind of measurement is ...

  17. Diabetes and Exercise: When to Monitor Your Blood Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes and exercise: When to monitor your blood sugar Exercise is an important part of any diabetes ... plan. To avoid potential problems, check your blood sugar before, during and after exercise. By Mayo Clinic ...

  18. Measuring micronutrient intakes at different levels of sugar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-10-28

    Oct 28, 2011 ... urbanisation that can negatively affect health. Traditional ... sugar intakes that provided between 5-16% of dietary energy did not have a ...... white high school pupils in relation to sugar intake and snack habits. Community ...

  19. Hydrogenolysis of 5-carbon sugars, sugar alcohols, and methods of making propylene glycol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werpy, Todd A [West Richland, WA; Zacher, Alan H [Kennewick, WA; Miller, Dennis J [Okemos, MI

    2006-05-02

    Methods and compositions for reactions of hydrogen over a Re-containing catalyst with compositions containing a 5-carbon sugar, sugar alcohol, or lactic acid are described. It has been surprisingly discovered that reaction with hydrogen over a Re-containing multimetallic catalyst resulted in superior conversion and selectivity to desired products such as propylene glycol. A process for the synthesis of PG from lactate or lactic acid is also described.

  20. SUGAR-SWEETENED BEVERAGE, SUGAR INTAKE OF INDIVIDUALS AND THEIR BLOOD PRESSURE: INTERMAP STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ian J.; Stamler, Jeremiah; Van Horn, Linda; Robertson, Claire E.; Chan, Queenie; Dyer, Alan R.; Huang, Chiang-Ching; Rodriguez, Beatriz L.; Zhao, Liancheng; Daviglus, Martha L.; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Elliott, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The obesity epidemic has focused attention on relationships of sugars and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) to cardiovascular risk factors. Here we report cross-sectional associations of SSB, diet beverages, sugars with blood pressure (BP) for UK and USA participants of the International Study of Macro/Micro-nutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP). Data collected includes four 24-h dietary recalls, two 24-h urine collections, eight BP readings, questionnaire data for 2,696 people ages 40-59 from 10 USA/UK population samples. Associations of SSB, diet beverages, and sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose) with BP were assessed by multiple linear regression. Sugar-sweetened beverage intake related directly to BP, P-values 0.005 to beverage intake higher by 1 serving/day (355 ml/24-h) was associated with systolic/diastolic BP differences of +1.6/+0.8 mm Hg (both P beverage intake was inversely associated with BP, P 0.41 to 0.003. Fructose- and glucose-BP associations were direct, with significant sugar-sodium interactions: for individuals with above-median 24-h urinary sodium excretion, fructose intake higher by 2 SD (5.6 %kcal) was associated with systolic/diastolic BP differences of +3.4/+2.2 mm Hg (both P <0.001); 2.5/1.7 mm Hg (both P 0.002) with adjustment for weight, height. Observed independent, direct associations of SSB intake and BP are consistent with recent trial data. These findings, plus adverse nutrient intakes among SSB consumers, and greater sugar-BP differences for persons with higher sodium excretion, lend support to recommendations that intake of SSB, sugars, and salt be substantially reduced. PMID:21357284

  1. CO-PROCESSING BEET AND CANE RAW SUGAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Golybin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many sugar factories of the Russian Federation sugar and white sugar is produced not only from sugar beet, but also from raw sugar. To do this, the technological scheme of the plants provide mostly separate processing beet and raw sugar. This paper proposes a joint processing. With the aim of improving the quality of syrup, improving the filtration properties of the juice II saturation with joint processing beet and raw sugar was proposed clarification raw sugar to conduct the filtered juice I saturation with the addition of bleach in the amount of 0.05-0.10 % by weight of raw sugar and fine clay powder in the amount of 0.3-0.5 % by weight of raw sugar. Introduction chlorine is in the process of clarification raw sugar partly to carry out the depolymerization of highmolecular compounds, including polysaccharide dextran, and to adsorb the resulting fragments of high molecular compounds and pigments on fine particles of clay powder. Similar results were obtained when changing the costs of expanded clay powder. At a flow rate less than 0.3 %, there is a lack of adsorption of the surface to remove the degradation products of high -molecular compounds, which degrades the quality characteristics of the mixture of woodworking and furniture production of raw sugar and juice I carbon ation, and at a rate clay powder more than 0.5 % is irrational, since the cleaning effect is increased slightly. Suggested ways of coprocessing beet and raw sugar allow without significant cost effective processing of raw sugar factories. When beet low techn ological quality of these methods will increase the cleanliness of the production of sugar solutions and improve conditions for obtaining sugar of standard quality with the normative content of sucrose in molasses.

  2. PROCESS OF OBTAINING OF SUGAR FROM SUGAR BEET AND INFLUENCE ON ITS QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marián Tokár

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Cooking of massecuites has been study in the connection with different particle size distribution of white sugar. During the crystallization is possible to operate with parameters which have influence on particle size of white sugar. Dry matter of juice in crystallizer, volume of the standard syrup in crystallizer and heating curve of crystallization process are constant parameters in this process. Quantity of slurry (seed magma crystallizate and volume of slurry massecuite are parameters which can be changed for control the particle size distribution of white sugar. Five variants of viable parameters have been trying for obtain ideal particle size distribution of white sugar. As a best has been evaluated variant with 1100 cm3 of slurry and 20 % of volume of slurry massecuite in crystallizer. This variant has had the crystals proportions captured by the sieves between 1.00 and 0.40 mm with minimal differences in weight. More results have been related to reduction of losses of sugar in molasses with the right setting for the line of cooling crystallization process. The looses of sugar can be reduced by adding two coolers in the end of cooling crystalization process what will decrease a temperature to 40 ° C. This temperature will lead to more efficient crystallization in the cooling crystallization process.doi:10.5219/122

  3. Comparative study of effects of table sugar, laboratory grade ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cntaganda

    A study was conducted to investigate effects of table sugar, laboratory grade sucrose and mannitol on growth of banana ... l-1 of laboratory grade sucrose, table sucrose and mannitol was used with no sugar as a control treatment. ..... of banana plantlets under in vitro condition at a level of 30g x l-1. However, reducing sugar ...

  4. Evaluation Of Three Methods Of Sugar Analyses For Determination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These indicate that the three methods can generally be applied for analysis of reducing sugar in fruits and other food materials low in sugar content. However, Dubois et al method is not recommended for non-climacteric fruits. Keywords: Low sugar content, Fruits, Coefficient of variation, Anova, Detection limit. Plant Product ...

  5. Methyl transfer in chemotaxis toward sugars by Bacillus subtilis.

    OpenAIRE

    Thoelke, M S; Casper, J M; Ordal, G W

    1990-01-01

    Like amino acids, the sugars glucose and the nonmetabolizable 2-deoxyglucose caused a turnover of methyl groups on the methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins. These sugars also caused methanol formation on addition. Thus, in contrast to chemotaxis in Escherichia coli, taxis to phosphotransferase sugars by Bacillus subtilis utilizes the methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins.

  6. Added Sugar: Don't Get Sabotaged by Sweeteners

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and healthy eating Do you know how much sugar is in your diet? See why added sugars are a concern and how to cut back. ... people, you're probably eating and drinking more sugar than you realize because it's added to so ...

  7. Sugar beet leaves: from biorefinery to techno-functionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiskini, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    Sugar beet leaves (SBL), which are a side stream of the sugar beets cultivation, are currently left unexploited after sugar beets have been harvested. The general aim of this thesis was to study the biorefinery of SBL, with a special focus on the isolation of proteins. To reach this aim the research

  8. Power generation from fuelwood by the Nicaraguan sugar mills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carneiro de Miranda, R.; Broek, R. van den

    1997-01-01

    With new concept development for the sugar industry and with new power market opportunities, two sugar mills in Nicaragua initiated projects aimed at becoming power plants during the sugar cane off-season. Basically the idea is to use more efficient boilers and turbines, and generate power beyond

  9. Determination of Sugar and Some Trace Metals Content in Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ten brands of commercial fruit juices were analyzed for pH, specific gravity, total solids, reducing sugar and total sugar trace metals contents. The pH was determined using a Hanna pH meter. Sugar content was determined using the Lane and Eynon method. Sodium and potassium were determined by flame photometry ...

  10. role of potassium and nitrogen on sugar concentration

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sugar is obtained from root of su gar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) in addition to other sources. Three important economic parameters are often considered and these are root yield, sugar concentration in root juice and total sugar"yield. All the three are affected by cropping period and use of fertilisers. Existingliterature suggests the ...

  11. Fusarium stalk blight and rot in sugar beet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium stalk blight of sugar beet can cause reductions or complete loss of seed production. The causal agent is Fusarium oxysporum. In addition, Fusarium solani has been demonstrated to cause a rot of sugar beet seed stalk, and other species have been reported associated with sugar beet fruit, but...

  12. 19 CFR 151.25 - Mixing classes of sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mixing classes of sugar. 151.25 Section 151.25... TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.25 Mixing classes of sugar. No regulations relative to the weighing, taring, sampling, classifying...

  13. Estimating Free and Added Sugar Intakes in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibblewhite, Rachael; Nettleton, Alice; McLean, Rachael; Haszard, Jillian; Fleming, Elizabeth; Kruimer, Devonia; Te Morenga, Lisa

    2017-11-27

    The reduction of free or added sugar intake (sugars added to food and drinks as a sweetener) is almost universally recommended to reduce the risk of obesity-related diseases and dental caries. The World Health Organisation recommends intakes of free sugars of less than 10% of energy intake. However, estimating and monitoring intakes at the population level is challenging because free sugars cannot be analytically distinguished from naturally occurring sugars and most national food composition databases do not include data on free or added sugars. We developed free and added sugar estimates for the New Zealand (NZ) food composition database (FOODfiles 2010) by adapting a method developed for Australia. We reanalyzed the 24 h recall dietary data collected for 4721 adults aged 15 years and over participating in the nationally representative 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey to estimate free and added sugar intakes. The median estimated intake of free and added sugars was 57 and 49 g/day respectively and 42% of adults consumed less than 10% of their energy intake from free sugars. This approach provides more direct estimates of the free and added sugar contents of New Zealand foods than previously available and will enable monitoring of adherence to free sugar intake guidelines in future.

  14. Ethanol production in fermentation of mixed sugars containing xylose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viitanen, Paul V [West Chester, PA; Mc Cutchen, Carol M [Wilmington, DE; Li,; Xu, [Newark, DE; Emptage, Mark [Wilmington, DE; Caimi, Perry G [Kennett Square, PA; Zhang, Min [Lakewood, CO; Chou, Yat-Chen [Lakewood, CO; Franden, Mary Ann [Centennial, CO

    2009-12-08

    Xylose-utilizing Z. mobilis strains were found to have improved ethanol production when grown in medium containing mixed sugars including xylose if sorbitol or mannitol was included in the medium. The effect was seen in concentrations of mixed sugars where no growth lag period occurs, as well as in higher sugars concentrations.

  15. 21 CFR 172.585 - Sugar beet extract flavor base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sugar beet extract flavor base. 172.585 Section 172... CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.585 Sugar beet extract flavor base. Sugar beet extract flavor base may be safely used in food in accordance with the provisions of this section. (a...

  16. 77 FR 57180 - Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ... Secretary of Agriculture (Secretary) announced the sugar program provisions for fiscal year (FY) 2013 (Oct... specified below: FY 2013 Raw cane sugar Country allocations (MTRV) Argentina 46,154 Australia 89,087...

  17. 75 FR 50796 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ..., the Secretary of Agriculture (Secretary) announced the sugar program provisions for fiscal year (FY... specified below: FY 2011 Raw cane sugar Country allocations (MTRV) Argentina 45,281 Australia 87,402...

  18. Ratiometric fluorescence sensing of sugars via a reversible disassembly and assembly of the peptide aggregates mediated by sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupane, Lok Nath; Han, Song Yee; Lee, Keun-Hyeung

    2014-06-04

    An amphiphilic dipeptide (1) bearing pyrene and phenylboronic acid was demonstrated as a unique example of a ratiometric sensing system for sugars by reversibly converting the peptide aggregates into the monomer form of the complex with sugars in aqueous solutions.

  19. [Trend of sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and intake of added sugar in China nine provinces among adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Donghua; Yu, Dongmei; Zhao, Liyun

    2014-01-01

    To describe sugar-sweetened beverage ( SSB) consumption status and intake of added sugar in China nine provinces among adult from 2004 to 2009. Use of "U.S.D.A. Database for the Added Sugars Content of Selected Foods" to calculate the intake of added sugar from sugar-sweetened beverage. SSB consumption was basic on the rise. The daily average intake of added sugar from SSB was 13.4 g. Men were significantly higher than women, urban was higher than rural areas. Added sugar from soft drinks was higher than that from fruit juice. Added sugar intake level in our country is low relative to other developed countries, also did not exceed WHO and the AHA recommends. But it's on the rise in generally.

  20. Fitting Formulae and Constraints for the Existence of S-type and P-type Habitable Zones in Binary Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Zhaopeng; Cuntz, Manfred, E-mail: zhaopeng.wang@mavs.uta.edu, E-mail: cuntz@uta.edu [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States)

    2017-10-01

    We derive fitting formulae for the quick determination of the existence of S-type and P-type habitable zones (HZs) in binary systems. Based on previous work, we consider the limits of the climatological HZ in binary systems (which sensitively depend on the system parameters) based on a joint constraint encompassing planetary orbital stability and a habitable region for a possible system planet. Additionally, we employ updated results on planetary climate models obtained by Kopparapu and collaborators. Our results are applied to four P-type systems (Kepler-34, Kepler-35, Kepler-413, and Kepler-1647) and two S-type systems (TrES-2 and KOI-1257). Our method allows us to gauge the existence of climatological HZs for these systems in a straightforward manner with detailed consideration of the observational uncertainties. Further applications may include studies of other existing systems as well as systems to be identified through future observational campaigns.

  1. S-TYPE AND P-TYPE HABITABILITY IN STELLAR BINARY SYSTEMS: A COMPREHENSIVE APPROACH. II. ELLIPTICAL ORBITS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuntz, M., E-mail: cuntz@uta.edu [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019-0059 (United States)

    2015-01-10

    In the first paper of this series, a comprehensive approach has been provided for the study of S-type and P-type habitable regions in stellar binary systems, which was, however, restricted to circular orbits of the stellar components. Fortunately, a modest modification of the method also allows for the consideration of elliptical orbits, which of course entails a much broader range of applicability. This augmented method is presented here, and numerous applications are conveyed. In alignment with Paper I, the selected approach considers a variety of aspects, which comprise the consideration of a joint constraint including orbital stability and a habitable region for a possible system planet through the stellar radiative energy fluxes ({sup r}adiative habitable zone{sup ;} RHZ). The devised method is based on a combined formalism for the assessment of both S-type and P-type habitability; in particular, mathematical criteria are deduced for which kinds of systems S-type and P-type habitable zones are realized. If the RHZs are truncated by the additional constraint of orbital stability, the notation of ST-type and PT-type habitability applies. In comparison to the circular case, it is found that in systems of higher eccentricity, the range of the RHZs is significantly reduced. Moreover, for a considerable number of models, the orbital stability constraint also reduces the range of S-type and P-type habitability. Nonetheless, S-, P-, ST-, and PT-type habitability is identified for a considerable set of system parameters. The method as presented is utilized for BinHab, an online code available at The University of Texas at Arlington.

  2. Hercynian I-type and S-type granitoids from the Slavonian mountains (southern Pannonian Basin, northern Croatia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamic, J.; Lanphere, M.; Belak, M.

    1996-01-01

    Two genetically different groups of Hercynian granitoids occur in the Slavonian Mountains which are included in the southern Pannonian Basin. I-type granitoids occur in Barrovian-type progressive metamorphic sequences which originated during the Hercynian orogeny from the Late Silurian to Lower Carboniferous magmatic-sedimentary complex. S-type granitoids, enriched in incompatible trace elements, are accompanied by penecontemporaneous migmatites which originated from rocks of the same progressive metamorphic sequences and lower continental crust. I-type granitoids are represented mostly by granodiorite and monzogranite impoverished in incompatible trace elements, with rare diorite and monzodiorite and basic to intermediate rocks. Hercynian age of the crystalline rocks is supported by numerous K-Ar, 40Ar-39Ar and Rb-Sr measurements carried out mostly on monomineralic concentrates. About 20 representative samples of S-type and I-type granites and associated rocks were selected from over 1000 samples and analyzed in detail for major and trace elements, including REE, Sr and O isotopic compositions; microprobe chemical composition of the main rock-forming minerals was determined. Although most major and trace element diagrams do not provide the best genetic discrimination between the Slavonian granitoids, Sr and O isotope composition, REE data and some other data for the S-type granitoids are indicative of their sedimentary and continental crust source, whereas the I-type granitoids were derived by partial melting of the upper mantle with slight crustal contamination.

  3. Sensory differences between beet and cane sugar sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanus, Brittany L; Cox, Ginnefer O; Eklund, Emily J; Ickes, Chelsea M; Schmidt, Shelly J; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2014-09-01

    Research concerning the sensory properties of beet and cane sugars is lacking in the scientific literature. Therefore, the objectives of this research were to determine whether a sensory difference was perceivable between beet and cane sugar sources in regard to their (1) aroma-only, (2) aroma and taste without nose clips, and (3) taste-only with nose clips, and to characterize the difference between the sugar sources using descriptive analysis. One hundred panelists evaluated sugar samples using a tetrad test. A significant difference (P cane sugar sources when evaluated by aroma-only and taste and aroma without nose clips. However, there was no difference when tasted with nose clips. To characterize the observed differences, ten trained panelists identified and quantified key sensory attributes of beet and cane sugars using descriptive analysis. Analysis of variance indicated significant differences (P sugar samples for 8 of the 10 attributes including: off-dairy, oxidized, earthy, and barnyard aroma, fruity and burnt sugar aroma-by-mouth, sweet aftertaste, and burnt sugar aftertaste. The sensory profile of beet sugar was characterized by off-dairy, oxidized, earthy, and barnyard aromas and by a burnt sugar aroma-by-mouth and aftertaste, whereas cane sugar was characterized by a fruity aroma-by-mouth and sweet aftertaste. This study shows that beet and cane sugar sources can be differentiated by their aroma and provides a sensory profile characterizing the differences. As sugar is used extensively as a food ingredient, sensory differences between beet and cane sugar sources once incorporated into different product matrices should be studied as a next step. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. 75 FR 22095 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases.... SUMMARY: The Secretary of Agriculture today announced a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic cane... projected surplus cane sugar marketing allotments and allocations under the FY 2010 (October 1, 2009...

  5. 76 FR 20305 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw Sugar Tariff...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases.... SUMMARY: The Secretary of Agriculture today announced a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic cane... projected surplus cane sugar marketing allotments under the FY 2011 (October 1, 2010-September 30, 2011...

  6. Sugar-source preference, sugar intake and relative nutritional benefits in Anopheles arabiensis males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouagna, Louis Clément; Kerampran, Renaud; Lebon, Cyrille; Brengues, Cecile; Toty, Celine; Wilkinson, David A; Boyer, Sébastien; Fontenille, Didier

    2014-04-01

    Plant-derived sugar is the only source of dietary carbohydrate for males of most mosquito species. Male resource acquisition and utilization remain an under-researched area of behavior in vectors of human diseases. However, the renewed interest in the use of sterile males against disease vector mosquitoes reinforces the urgent need for studies on the behavioral and ecological processes that underpin male fitness and reproductive success. Here an attempt was made first to characterize the conditions and modes of resource acquisition (plant derived sugar meals) early in the life of An. arabiensis males, and second to test the hypothesis that the plants chosen for their sugar meals are those which maximize their fitness in terms of energy gains (i.e. amount of lipids, proteins, glycogen and glucose). Olfactometry assays demonstrated the ability of An. arabiensis males to discriminate among a sample of ten abundant flowering plants present in their natural habitats. In further experiments, we observed significant variations in the sugar intake rates that matched their olfactory preferences, with the most attractive plants eliciting significantly higher sugar intake rates. Consistent with our expectations, analyses of the whole-body free sugars, lipids and glycogen unequivocally showed that the energy reserve accumulated post-feeding is dependent on the diet of the adult males, with the preferred plants providing more energy reserves than the less preferred ones, despite mosquitoes actively feeding on both. Taken together, these results show that An. Arabiensis males are able to discern between food sources, preferentially feeding on those species of plant that provide the highest metabolic payoff. Ensuring or somehow heightening the ability to detect and obtain rewarding sugar meals by male mosquitoes reared for field release could enhance their competitive ability in the field. Copyright © 2013 International Atomic Energy Agency 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All

  7. Strip-till seeder for sugar beets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schulze Lammers

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Strip-till save costs by reducing tillage on the area of sugar beet rows only. The seeding system is characterized by a deep loosening of soil with a tine combined with a share and by following tools generating fine-grained soil as seed bed. In cooperation with the Kverneland company group Soest/Germany a strip tiller combined with precision seeder was designed and tested in field experiments. Tilling and seeding was performed in one path on fields with straw and mustard mulch. Even the plant development was slower as compared to conventional sawn sugar beets the yield was on equivalent level. Further field experiments are planned to attest constant yield, cost and energy efficiency of the seeding system.

  8. Fermentable sugars from biopolymers of bagasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramachandran, K.; Das, K.; Sharma, D.K.

    1987-11-01

    Ethanol can replace oil as a fuel and its use would help in the conservation of the meagre oil reserves in India. The article indicates some convenient and cost-effective processes for the production of ethanol from biopolymers available in bagasse, an agricultural residue. A two-stage acid hydrolysis process produced a maximum of fermentable sugars at 35%. Calcium chloride used as a promoter enhanced production by 3.5%. Other promoters are under investigation. Agitation had a significant effect on production, complete hydrolysis being possible between 10-45 minutes depending on temperature. The fermentable sugars obtained, xylose and glucose, can then be fermented to ethanol in an integrated three-stage process. 11 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Sugars, the clock and transition to flowering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza eBolouri Moghaddam

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Sugars do not only act as source of energy, but they also act as signals in plants. This mini review summarizes the emerging links between sucrose-mediated signaling and the cellular networks involved in flowering time control and defense. Cross-talks with gibberellin (GA and jasmonate (JA signaling pathways are highlighted. The circadian clock fulfills a crucial role at the heart of cellular networks and the bilateral relation between sugar signaling and the clock is discussed. It is proposed that important factors controlling plant growth (DELLAs, PIFs, invertases and trehalose- 6-phosphate or T6P might fulfill central roles in the transition to flowering as well. The emerging concept of ‘sweet immunity’, modulated by the clock, might at least partly rely on a sucrose-specific signaling pathway that needs further exploration.

  10. Sugars: hedonic aspects, neuroregulation, and energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Allen S; Kotz, Catherine M; Gosnell, Blake A

    2003-10-01

    The prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically in recent years in the United States, with similar patterns seen in several other countries. Although there are several potential explanations for this dramatic increase in obesity, dietary influences are a contributing factor. An inverse correlation between dietary sugar intake and body mass index has been reported, suggesting beneficial effects of carbohydrate intake on body mass index. In this review we discuss how sugars interact with regulatory neurochemicals in the brain to affect both energy intake and energy expenditure. These neurochemicals appear to be involved in dietary selection, and sugars and palatable substances affect neurochemical changes in the brain. For example, rats that drink sucrose solutions for 3 wk have major changes in neuronal activity in the limbic area of the brain, a region involved in pleasure and other emotions. We also investigate the relations between sucrose (and other sweet substances), drugs of abuse, and the mesolimbic dopaminergic system. The presence of sucrose in an animal's cage can affect the animals desire to self-administer drugs of abuse. Also, an animal's level of sucrose preference can predict its desire to self-administer cocaine. Such data suggest a relation between sweet taste and drug reward, although the relevance to humans is unclear. Finally, we address the influence of sugar on body weight control. For example, sucrose feeding for 2 wk decreases the efficiency of energy utilization and increases gene expression of uncoupling protein 3 in muscle, suggesting that sucrose may influence uncoupling protein 3 activity and contribute to changes in metabolic efficiency and thus regulation of body weight.

  11. SUGAR CANE ENSILED WITH SALT OR UREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio Henrique Vilela

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Sugar cane silage is widely used in livestock production. Nevertheless, it presents a drawback which is alcoholic fermentation caused by yeasts and which can reduce its nutritional value. In this sense, the aim of this work was to evaluate the use of either doses of salt or urea in the ensiling of sugar cane with the objective of producing silages of better quality. For this purpose, an experiment consisted of completely randomized design with seven treatments and three replications was performed. The treatments consisted of the ensiling of sugar cane without the use of additives (control and ensiling utilizing 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% of either salt or urea. Sugar cane was ensiled with 31.8% of DM in experimental PVC silos, which remained closed for 202 days. After this period, the silos were opened and a part of the central silage of each silo was utilized for evaluation of potential of hydrogen (pH and of the percentages of dry matter (DM, for crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, lignin and hemicellulose. By utilizing the weights of the silos, the production of effluents was also computed. The data were submitted to the analysis of variance and the means compared by the Skott-Knott test at 5% de significance. The percentage of DM (29.5% and lignin (9.9% as well as the effluent production (43.8 kg/t of natural matter were not influenced (P>0.05 by the treatments. Increased pH values (P

  12. Coil irrigation in sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum)

    OpenAIRE

    Jesús Sánchez Gutiérrez; Yoslén Fernández Gálvez; Mayra Martínez Pírez; Camilo Bonet Pérez; Manuel A Hernández Victoria; Arlandy Noy Perera

    2016-01-01

    This study was made at the Basic Seed Bank of the Local Sugar Cane Research Station for the Mideastern Cuba, based in Camaguey, on brown carbonate soil, between 2013 and 12014. Coil irrigation was applied to meet the water requirements for the crop, according to the edafoclimatic conditions and the different phenological phases it has. The Savo method was used to determine useful rain water. Adjustment and complementation of the irrigation program was based on indicators that characterize the...

  13. Sugar and Glycerol Transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisson, Linda F; Fan, Qingwen; Walker, Gordon A

    2016-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae the process of transport of sugar substrates into the cell comprises a complex network of transporters and interacting regulatory mechanisms. Members of the large family of hexose (HXT) transporters display uptake efficiencies consistent with their environmental expression and play physiological roles in addition to feeding the glycolytic pathway. Multiple glucose-inducing and glucose-independent mechanisms serve to regulate expression of the sugar transporters in yeast assuring that expression levels and transporter activity are coordinated with cellular metabolism and energy needs. The expression of sugar transport activity is modulated by other nutritional and environmental factors that may override glucose-generated signals. Transporter expression and activity is regulated transcriptionally, post-transcriptionally and post-translationally. Recent studies have expanded upon this suite of regulatory mechanisms to include transcriptional expression fine tuning mediated by antisense RNA and prion-based regulation of transcription. Much remains to be learned about cell biology from the continued analysis of this dynamic process of substrate acquisition.

  14. Naturally Occurring Cinnamic Acid Sugar Ester Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxin Tian

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Cinnamic acid sugar ester derivatives (CASEDs are a class of natural product with one or several phenylacrylic moieties linked with the non-anomeric carbon of a glycosyl skeleton part through ester bonds. Their notable anti-depressant and brains protective activities have made them a topic of great interest over the past several decades. In particular the compound 3′,6-disinapoylsucrose, the index component of Yuanzhi (a well-known Traditional Chinese Medicine or TCM, presents antidepressant effects at a molecular level, and has become a hotspot of research on new lead drug compounds. Several other similar cinnamic acid sugar ester derivatives are reported in traditional medicine as compounds to calm the nerves and display anti-depression and neuroprotective activity. Interestingly, more than one third of CASEDs are distributed in the family Polygalaceae. This overview discusses the isolation of cinnamic acid sugar ester derivatives from plants, together with a systematic discussion of their distribution, chemical structures and properties and pharmacological activities, with the hope of providing references for natural product researchers and draw attention to these interesting compounds.

  15. Rapid screening for anthocyanins in cane sugars using ESR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamaphat, Kheamrutai; Goodman, Bernard A; Limsuwan, Pichet; Smith, Siwaporn Meejoo

    2015-03-15

    Anthocyanin, which is soluble in water and released into sugar steam during extraction, was investigated in this study. The anthocyanin content in refined sugar, plantation white sugar, soft brown sugar and raw sugar was determined using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, which was operated at room temperature, and compared with spectra from standard anthocyanin. The ESR spectra of red and violet anthocyanins was predominantly g ≈ 2.0055, which corresponded to an unpaired electron located in the pyrylium ring. Signals for Fe(III) and Mn(II), which naturally occur in plants, were found in raw sugar, soft brown sugar and standard anthocyanin but were absent from refined sugar and plantation white sugar due to the refining process. In addition, the ESR results were correlated with the apparent colour of the sugar, which was determined using the method of the International Commission for Uniform Methods of Sugar Analysis and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. An econometrics method to estimate demand of sugar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negar Seyed Soleimany

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar is one of the strategic goods in the basket of households in each country and it plays an important role in supplying the required energy. On the other hand, it is one of the goods, which Iranian government is about to change its subsidy strategies. To design useful sugar subsidy strategies, it is necessary to know sugar position in the basket of households and be familiar with households' sugar demand or consumption behavior. This research estimates sugar demand for Iranian households by using time series of 1984-2008, which is taken from central bank of Iran. In this paper, first independent and dependent variables of household sugar demand model are chosen based on the literature review and theory of demand. Then, sugar demand is estimated by OLS technique and linear regression. The preliminary statistical observations such as Durbin-Watson, F statistic and R2 indicate that the regression is admissible. The results seem plausible and consistent with theory and show that sugar demand in Iranian households is associated with household expenditure, relative sugar price, family size and indicate that demand of sugar is affected during the war time. The results also show the income elasticity is 0.8 and price elasticity is -0.2 which means sugar is essential good for Iranian households and is inelastic to price.

  17. THE TECHNOLOGY OF PASTE FROM SUGAR BEET OBTAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Magomedov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We considered a new technology for processing sugar beet into intermediate product for the food industry. Nowadays sugar beet is mainly used for processing into granulated sugar. In the granulated sugar obtaining sugar beet undergoes deep extraction of all nutrients: proteins, minerals, pectin, organic acids, preventing the crystallization process, and then the refined product (granulated sugar with a mass fraction of sucrose not less than 99.75% is obtained. We developed a technology for producing a sugar beet paste, which allows to preserve both sucrose, and almost all useful for human food substances containing in beet. A sugar beet paste is a valuable food product. Carbohydrates, organic acids, minerals, proteins, dietary fibers and vitamins are found in it. The block diagram of a sugar beet paste is given in the article. Technology of obtaining a sugar beet paste was tested under production conditions at the cannery (Joint Stock Company "Sadovoye" Liskinsky district,. Storozhevoe village, Voronezh region. The chemical composition of the paste (Dry Substances = 40% was determined, the degree of meeting of daily requirement for nutrients was calculated. 100 g of the product satisfy the daily requirement for dietary fiber by 42.5%, organic acids by 27.5% potassium by 24.0%, magnesium by 40.0%, iron by 26.7%. The sugar beet paste can be used as a semi-finished product in the confectionery, bakery, food concentrates industry, for products with increased nutritional value, as well as the finished product instead of marmalade and jam.

  18. Factors associated with sugar intake and sugar sources in European children from 1 to 8 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawellek, I; Grote, V; Theurich, M; Closa-Monasterolo, R; Stolarczyk, A; Verduci, E; Xhonneux, A; Koletzko, B

    2017-01-01

    The World Health Organization recommends to limit intake of free sugars to 5% of total energy per day because of the great impact of high sugar intake on body fat deposition, adiposity and dental caries. However, little data exist about total intake and sources of sugar in European children. Therefore, this paper aims to describe sugar intake and dietary sugar sources and associated factors. Three-day weighed dietary records were obtained at eight time points from children 1 to 8 years of age (n=995) in five European countries. Food items were classified into subgroups according to food composition. Linear mixed models were used to examine associated factors. Total sugar intake increased from 65 g/day (30.0% of energy intake (E%)) at 12 months of age to 83 g/day (20.9 E%) at 96 months of age. Around 80% of children's sugar intake was derived from the following sources: milk and dairy products, fruits and fruit products, confectionary and sugar sweetened beverages (SSB). Total sugar intake and dietary sugar sources varied significantly by country of residence. Boys had a significantly (P=0.003) higher total sugar consumption than girls.SSB consumption was significantly higher in children from young mothers while sugar intake from fruit products was lower in children from mothers with lower educational status and those with higher birth order. Sugar intake in our population was lower than in other studies. Total sugar intake was associated with country of residence and gender, while dietary sugar sources varied by country of residence, maternal age, education and birth order.

  19. Oxidative enzymatic gelation of sugar beet pectin for emulsion stabilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abang Zaidel, Dayang Norulfairuz; Meyer, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    Pectin from sugar beet is derived from the sugar beet pulp residue which results when sugar beets are processed for sucrose extraction. The sugar beet pectin has poor gelationability by the classic divalentcation molecular mechanism because of a relatively high acetylation degree and short...... polygalacturonate backbone chain length. However, due to the feruloyl-substitutions on the side chains, the sugar beet pectic polysaccharides can be cross-linked via enzyme catalyzed oxidation. The enzyme kinetics and functionality of such oxidativelycross-linked sugar beet pectin, in relation to stabilizing...... emulsions has recently been investigated in model food emulsions. This paper reviews the pectin chemistry, enzymatic oxidative gelation mechanisms, interaction mechanisms of the sugar beet pectin with the emulsion droplets and explores how the gelation affects the rheology and stability of emulsion systems...

  20. THE EFFECT OF NITROGEN INPUT ON POLARISED SUGAR PRODUCTION AND QUALITATIVE PARAMETERS OF SUGAR BEET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILAN MACÁK

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available During 1998-2002, the application of different forms and doses of nitrogen on quantitative (polarised sugar productionand qualitative parameters (digestion, molasses forming components - potassium, sodium and α-amino nitrogen content of sugar beet in vulnerable zones (Nitrate directive was studied. Calculated input of nitrogen ranged from 12 kg up to 240 kg N.ha-1. By increasing input of N from FYM application into the soil causes an increases of α- amino nitrogen content in root, which in consequence causes a decreases the sugar content (negative correlation r= -0.8659+. The application of straw instead FYM of analogues treatments caused significant decrease (straw versus FYM and highly significant decrease (straw plus N fertilizers versus FYM plus N fertilizers of α-amino nitrogen content in sugar beet root living the productive parameters unchanged. The content of α-amino nitrogen in root of sugar beet indicate an environmentally friendly management practices with causal relation to water protection from nitrate.

  1. Are restrictive guidelines for added sugars science based?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Jennifer; Slavin, Joanne

    2015-12-12

    Added sugar regulations and recommendations have been proposed by policy makers around the world. With no universal definition, limited access to added sugar values in food products and no analytical difference from intrinsic sugars, added sugar recommendations present a unique challenge. Average added sugar intake by American adults is approximately 13% of total energy intake, and recommendations have been made as low 5% of total energy intake. In addition to public health recommendations, the Food and Drug Administration has proposed the inclusion of added sugar data to the Nutrition and Supplemental Facts Panel. The adoption of such regulations would have implications for both consumers as well as the food industry. There are certainly advantages to including added sugar data to the Nutrition Facts Panel; however, consumer research does not consistently show the addition of this information to improve consumer knowledge. With excess calorie consumption resulting in weight gain and increased risk of obesity and obesity related co-morbidities, added sugar consumption should be minimized. However, there is currently no evidence stating that added sugar is more harmful than excess calories from any other food source. The addition of restrictive added sugar recommendations may not be the most effective intervention in the treatment and prevention of obesity and other health concerns.

  2. Pollen dispersal in sugar beet production fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmency, Henri; Klein, Etienne K; De Garanbé, Thierry Gestat; Gouyon, Pierre-Henri; Richard-Molard, Marc; Muchembled, Claude

    2009-04-01

    Pollen-mediated gene flow has important implications for biodiversity conservation and for breeders and farmers' activities. In sugar beet production fields, a few sugar beet bolters can produce pollen as well as be fertilized by wild and weed beet. Since the crop, the wild beets, and the weed beets are the same species and intercross freely, the question of pollen flow is an important issue to determine the potential dispersal of transgenes from field to field and to wild habitats. We report here an experiment to describe pollen dispersal from a small herbicide-resistant sugar beet source towards male sterile target plants located along radiating lines up to 1,200 m away. Individual dispersal functions were inferred from statistical analyses and compared. Pollen limitation, as expected in root-production fields, was confirmed at all the distances from the pollen source. The number of resistant seeds produced by bait plants best fitted a fat-tailed probability distribution curve of pollen grains (power-law) dependent on the distance from the pollen source. A literature survey confirmed that power-law function could fit in most cases. The b coefficient was lower than 2. The number of fertilized flowers by background (herbicide-susceptible) pollen grains was uniform across the whole field. Airborne pollen had a fertilization impact equivalent to that of one adjacent bolter. The individual dispersal function from different pollen sources can be integrated to provide the pollen cloud composition for a given target plant, thus allowing modeling of gene flow in a field, inter-fields in a small region, and also in seed-production area. Long-distance pollen flow is not negligible and could play an important role in rapid transgene dispersal from crop to wild and weed beets in the landscape. The removing of any bolting, herbicide-resistant sugar beet should be compulsory to prevent the occurrence of herbicide-resistant weed beet, thus preventing gene flow to wild

  3. The effect of sugar solution type, sugar concentration and viscosity on the imbibition and energy intake rate of bumblebees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardone, Erika; Dey, Tania; Kevan, Peter G

    2013-09-01

    Nectar is an essential resource for bumblebees and many other flower-visiting insects. The main constituents of nectar are sugars, which vary in both composition and concentration between plant species. We assessed the influence of sugar concentration, sugar solution viscosity and sugar solution composition on the imbibition and energy intake rate of bumblebees, Bombus impatiens Cresson (Hymenoptera: Apidae). To do this, we measured their rate of solution intake for 49 different sugar solution treatments, which varied in both sugar composition and concentration. In general, the imbibition rates of bumblebees were found to increase with increasing sugar concentration, probably due to their preference for high sugar concentrations, up to a concentration of 27% (w/w), at which point solutions reached a threshold viscosity of approximately 1.5-1.6 mPa.s. Above this threshold, the increasing viscosity of the solutions physically inhibited the imbibition rates of bees, and imbibition rate began to decrease as the concentration increased. Nevertheless, bumblebee energy intake rate increased with increasing concentration up to about 42-56%. Although we found that sugar solution composition had an impact on both imbibition and energy intake rate, its effect was not as straightforward as that of sugar concentration and viscosity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Transcription Factor AREB2 Is Involved in Soluble Sugar Accumulation by Activating Sugar Transporter and Amylase Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qi-Jun; Sun, Mei-Hong; Lu, Jing; Liu, Ya-Jing; Hu, Da-Gang; Hao, Yu-Jin

    2017-08-01

    Sugars play important roles in plant growth and development, crop yield and quality, as well as responses to abiotic stresses. Abscisic acid (ABA) is a multifunctional hormone. However, the exact mechanism by which ABA regulates sugar accumulation is largely unknown in plants. Here, we tested the expression profile of several sugar transporter and amylase genes in response to ABA treatment. MdSUT2 and MdAREB2 were isolated and genetically transformed into apple (Malus domestica) to investigate their roles in ABA-induced sugar accumulation. The MdAREB2 transcription factor was found to bind to the promoters of the sugar transporter and amylase genes and activate their expression. Both MdAREB2 and MdSUT2 transgenic plants produced more soluble sugars than controls. Furthermore, MdAREB2 promoted the accumulation of sucrose and soluble sugars in an MdSUT2-dependent manner. Our results demonstrate that the ABA-responsive transcription factor MdAREB2 directly activates the expression of amylase and sugar transporter genes to promote soluble sugar accumulation, suggesting a mechanism by which ABA regulates sugar accumulation in plants. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Acid-producing capacity from sugars and sugar alcohols among Lactobacillus isolates collected in connection with radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almståhl, Annica; Rudbäck, Helena; Basic, Amina; Carlén, Anette; Alstad, Torgny

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the acid-producing capacity from sugars and sugar alcohols of oral Lactobacillus collected in connection with radiation therapy (RT) to the head and neck region. Lactobacillus were collected from the tongue, buccal mucosa and supragingival plaque in 24 patients before, during, and after RT. The acid-producing capacity of Lactobacillus isolates (n=211) was analyzed using a colorimetric fermentation test in microtiter plates. Solutions containing 2% sugars (sucrose, glucose, fructose, lactose) or sugar-alcohols (sorbitol and xylitol) were used. After 24h of incubation, bacterial acid-producing capacity was determined as strong (pH6). Data regarding intake frequency of sugar-rich products and products with sugar-alcohols was collected. The highest acid-producing capacity using the sugars was seen for isolates collected during RT. Sorbitol was fermented to a higher extent during and post RT, especially among isolates from plaque. Lactobacillus fermenting xylitol showed the highest acid-producing capacity during RT (psugar-rich products or sugar-alcohol containing products and Lactobacillus acid-producing capacity, were found. The results suggest that Lactobacillus isolates, collected from the tongue, buccal mucosa and supragingival plaque, have a higher acid-producing capacity using sugars and sugar-alcohols during RT than one year post RT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Understanding the Effect of Sugar and Sugar Replacement in Short Dough Biscuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laguna, L.; Vallons, K.J.R.; Jurgens, A.; Sanz, T.

    2013-01-01

    Sucrose is the main sugar used in short dough biscuit formula, and it plays an important role in the biscuit manufacturing as well as in the biscuits final quality. However, for health reasons, high levels of sucrose are undesirable, making sucrose replacement an important issue to study. The

  7. Technical and Economical Feasibility of Production of Ethanol from Sugar Cane and Sugar Cane Bagasse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Efe, C.; Straathof, A.J.J.; Van der Wielen, L.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    The primary aim of this study is to investigate and analyze the sugar-ethanol plants operating in Brazil to construct a raw model to gain better understanding and insight about the technical and economical aspects of the currently operating plants. And, the secondary aim is to combine the knowledge

  8. A tonoplast sugar transporter underlies a sugar accumulation QTL in watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    The molecular mechanism controlling accumulation of soluble sugars in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) fruit, a trait associated with sweet-dessert watermelon domestication, is still unknown. We re-sequenced 96 recombinant inbred lines, derived from a cross between sweet and unsweet watermelon accessi...

  9. Coronary heart disease: prevalence and dietary sugars in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton-Smith, C; Woodward, M

    1994-04-01

    The aim was to investigate the effects of dietary intakes of different types of sugars (extrinsic, intrinsic, and lactose) and the dietary fat to sugar ratio on prevalent coronary heart disease (CHD). This was a baseline cross sectional survey of CHD risk factors. Twenty two Scottish health districts were surveyed between 1984 and 1986. A total of 10,359 men and women aged 40-59 years were screened as part of the Scottish Heart Health Study, and a further 1267 men and women aged 25-39 and 60-64 years were screened as part of the Scottish MONICA (monitoring trends and determinants in cardiovascular disease) Study. The response rates were 74% and 64% respectively. Subjects completed a questionnaire which included sociodemographic, health, and food frequency information. Medical history, response to the Rose chest pain questionnaire, and results of a 12 lead ECG recording were used to categorize subjects into CHD diagnosed, previously CHD undiagnosed, or no CHD groups. The chi 2 statistic was used to determine whether the CHD groups differed in their sugar consumption, and multiple logistic regression analysis, with adjustment for other potential coronary risk factors, was used to calculate odds ratios for prevalent CHD by intake fifths of dietary sugars. Men, but not women, differed in their sugar consumption by CHD group. The odds ratios showed a tendency for a U shaped relationship for extrinsic sugar intake with CHD prevalence, but no significant effect of the fat to sugar ratio (possible marker of obesity) on CHD was seen. The results suggest that neither extrinsic sugar, intrinsic sugar, nor the fat to sugar ratio are significant independent predictors of prevalent CHD in the Scottish population, when the other major risk factors such as cigarette smoking, blood cholesterol concentration, and antioxidant vitamins intake are accounted for. These new data for different sugar types agree with the consensus view that total sugar intake is not a major marker of

  10. Analysis of honey main sugars by size-exclusion chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Mara E.B.C.; Peres, António M.; Dias, L.G.; Morais, Jorge Sá; Estevinho, Leticia M.; Machado, Adélio

    2012-01-01

    The main constituents of honey are sugars, mainly the monosaccharides fructose and glucose (reducing sugars), which account for 80% of the total mass, while the disaccharides (especially sucrose and maltose) represent 10%. In general, fructose predominates (giving a sweeter taste to honey than sucrose), although, in some honeys, glucose (that assigns a less sweet taste than sucrose but more than maltose) may be the main sugar. The fructose/glucose mass ratio is a parameter that...

  11. IRREVERSIBILITY GENERATION IN SUGAR, ALCOHOL AND BIOGAS INTEGRATED PRODUCTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Meilyn González Cortés; Yenisleidy Martínez Martínez; Yailet Albernas Carvajal; Raúl A. Pérez Bermúdez

    2017-01-01

    In this work, the stages of losses and lower exergetic efficiency are determined when the sugar production process is integrated with others for the production of products such as biogas, torula yeast and electricity. The study is carried out in three scenarios of integrated processes for obtaining the indicated products. A sugar factory in which sugar and electricity are produced is considered as the base scenario and from this; a second scenario is inferred in which alcohol is produced from...

  12. Sugar cane bagasse prehydrolysis using hot water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Abril

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Results are presented on the hot water prehydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse for obtaining ethanol by fermentation. The experimental study consisted of the determination of the effect of temperature and time of prehydrolysis on the extraction of hemicelluloses, with the objective of selecting the best operating conditions that lead to increased yield of extraction with a low formation of inhibitors. The study, carried out in a pilot plant scale rotational digester, using a 3² experimental design at temperatures of 150-190ºC and times of 60-90 min, showed that it is possible to perform the hot water prehydrolysis process between 180-190ºC in times of 60-82 min, yielding concentrations of xylose > 35 g/L, furfural < 2.5 g/L, phenols from soluble lignin < 1.5 g/L, and concentrations < 3.0 g/L of hemicelluloses in the cellolignin residue. These parameters of temperature and prehydrolysis time could be used for the study of the later hydrolysis and fermentation stages of ethanol production from sugar cane bagasse.

  13. SOUFFLE WITH REDUCED AMOUNT OF SUGAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Was studied the technology of producing aerated candies "Souffle" with replacement of sugar to molasses with increased shelf life, molded by "jetting" with a vacuum syringe with continuous action, which is used in the meat industry, into metallized film type "flow-pack ". Studied the process of foaming disperse systems. Studied the process of gelation and gelation affected by various factors. To establish a relationship between the effective viscosity and jelly mass of gelation ability of agar were achieved the dependence according to the effective viscosity of the jelly mass shear rate and a shear rate on the shear stress at temperature of 65 ˚C and a mass fraction of solids of 78%. Viscosity reduction has a positive effect on the process of molding molasses candies by the "extrusion". Were definede values of the plastic strength of jelly masses and found that replacing sugar to molasses reduces the plastic strength, but it does not affect a good form-stable ability. Cinnamon was added into the prescription whipped composition to improve the nutritional value of products. Were defined organoleptic, physical and chemical qualities, calculated energy value of the products. High hygroscopic souffle on molasses requires hermetic packaging. Proposed a new progressive method of forming a souffle with a vacuum syringe with continuous action, which is used in the meat industry to form sausages. Curing and structure foarming implemented directly in the shell for 2 h, which is an important advantage of this method. Whipped products on molasses are functional.

  14. Animal models of addiction: fat and sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Drake; Sizemore, Glen M

    2011-01-01

    The concept of "food addiction" is gaining acceptance among the scientific community, and much is known about the influence of various components of food (e.g. high-fat, sugar, carbohydrate, salt) on behavior and physiology. Most of the studies to date have studied these consequences following relatively long-term diet manipulations and/or relatively free access to the food of interest. It is suggested that these types of studies are primarily tapping into the energy regulation and homeostatic processes that govern food intake and consumption. More recently, the overlap between the neurobiology of "reward-related" or hedonic effects of food ingestion and other reinforcers such as drugs of abuse has been highlighted, contributing to the notion that "food addiction" exists and that various components of food may be the substance of abuse. Based on preclinical animal models of drug addiction, a new direction for this field is using self-administration procedures and identifying an addiction-like behavioral phenotype in animals following various environmental, genetic, pharmacological, and neurobiological manipulations. Here we provide examples from this research area, with a focus on fat and sugar self-administration, and how the sophisticated animal models of drug addiction can be used to study the determinants and consequences of food addiction.

  15. pH Regulation of Electrogenic Sugar/H+ Symport in MFS Sugar Permeases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Bazzone

    Full Text Available Bacterial sugar symporters in the Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS use the H+ (and in a few cases Na+ electrochemical gradients to achieve active transport of sugar into the cell. Because a number of structures of MFS sugar symporters have been solved recently, molecular insight into the transport mechanism is possible from detailed functional analysis. We present here a comparative electrophysiological study of the lactose permease (LacY, the fucose permease (FucP and the xylose permease (XylE, which reveals common mechanistic principles and differences. In all three symporters energetically downhill electrogenic sugar/H+ symport is observed. Comparison of the pH dependence of symport at symmetrical pH exhibits broad bell-shaped pH profiles extending over 3 to 6 pH units and a decrease at extremely alkaline pH ≥ 9.4 and at acidic to neutral pH = 4.6-7.5. The pH dependence can be described by an acidic to neutral apparent pK (pKapp and an alkaline pKapp. Experimental evidence suggests that the alkaline pKapp is due to H+ depletion at the protonation site, while the acidic pKapp is due to inhibition of deprotonation. Since previous studies suggest that a single carboxyl group in LacY (Glu325 may be the only side chain directly involved in H+ translocation and a carboxyl side chain with similar properties has been identified in FucP (Asp46 and XylE (Asp27, the present results imply that the pK of this residue is switched during H+/sugar symport in all three symporters.

  16. pH Regulation of Electrogenic Sugar/H+ Symport in MFS Sugar Permeases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzone, Andre; Madej, M Gregor; Kaback, H Ronald; Fendler, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial sugar symporters in the Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS) use the H+ (and in a few cases Na+) electrochemical gradients to achieve active transport of sugar into the cell. Because a number of structures of MFS sugar symporters have been solved recently, molecular insight into the transport mechanism is possible from detailed functional analysis. We present here a comparative electrophysiological study of the lactose permease (LacY), the fucose permease (FucP) and the xylose permease (XylE), which reveals common mechanistic principles and differences. In all three symporters energetically downhill electrogenic sugar/H+ symport is observed. Comparison of the pH dependence of symport at symmetrical pH exhibits broad bell-shaped pH profiles extending over 3 to 6 pH units and a decrease at extremely alkaline pH ≥ 9.4 and at acidic to neutral pH = 4.6-7.5. The pH dependence can be described by an acidic to neutral apparent pK (pKapp) and an alkaline pKapp. Experimental evidence suggests that the alkaline pKapp is due to H+ depletion at the protonation site, while the acidic pKapp is due to inhibition of deprotonation. Since previous studies suggest that a single carboxyl group in LacY (Glu325) may be the only side chain directly involved in H+ translocation and a carboxyl side chain with similar properties has been identified in FucP (Asp46) and XylE (Asp27), the present results imply that the pK of this residue is switched during H+/sugar symport in all three symporters.

  17. Does Consuming Sugar and Artificial Sweeteners Change Taste Preferences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolotto, Carole

    2015-01-01

    Americans consume 22.3 teaspoons of added caloric sweeteners a day. Sweeteners range from 180 to 13,000 times sweeter than sugar. In summer 2014, 20 people from Kaiser Permanente California facilities cut out all added sugars and artificial sweeteners for 2 weeks: 95% of participants found that sweet foods and drinks tasted sweeter or too sweet, 75% found that other foods tasted sweeter, and 95% said moving forward they would use less or even no sugar. Additionally, 86.6% of participants stopped craving sugar after 6 days.

  18. Is the EU sugar policy reform likely to increase obesity?

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnet, Celine; Requillart, Vincent

    2010-01-01

    National Health authorities recommend a decrease in the consumption of ’added’ sugar. At the same moment, a reform of the Common Organisation of the Sugar Market will lead to a decrease by more than 30% of the sugar price in the EU. Using the example of the soft drink industry, this paper investigates the impact of that reform on the consumption of sugar sweetened beverages. Because the soft drink industry as well as the retail industry are both highly concentrated, using structural econometr...

  19. Sugar ester surfactants: enzymatic synthesis and applications in food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neta, Nair S; Teixeira, José A; Rodrigues, Lígia R

    2015-01-01

    Sugar esters are non-ionic surfactants that can be synthesized in a single enzymatic reaction step using lipases. The stability and efficiency of lipases under unusual conditions and using non-conventional media can be significantly improved through immobilization and protein engineering. Also, the development of de novo enzymes has seen a significant increase lately under the scope of the new field of synthetic biology. Depending on the esterification degree and the nature of fatty acid and/or sugar, a range of sugar esters can be synthesized. Due to their surface activity and emulsifying capacity, sugar esters are promising for applications in food industry.

  20. Characterization of Sugar Insensitive (sis) Mutants of Arabidopsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, Susan I.

    2009-06-08

    Despite the fact that soluble sugar levels have been postulated to play an important role in the control of a wide variety of plant metabolic and developmental pathways, the mechanisms by which plants respond to soluble sugar levels remain poorly understood. Plant responses to soluble sugar levels are also important in bioenergy production, as plant sugar responses are believed to help regulate both carbon fixation and carbon partitioning. For example, accumulation of soluble sugars, such as sucrose and glucose, in source tissues leads to feedback inhibition of photosynthesis, thereby decreasing rates of carbon fixation. Soluble sugar levels can also affect sink strengths, affecting the rates of accumulation of carbon-based compounds into both particular molecular forms (e.g. carbohydrates versus lipids versus proteins) and particular plant organs and tissues. Mutants of Arabidopsis that are defective in the ability to respond to soluble sugar levels were isolated and used as tools to identify some of the factors involved in plant sugar response. These sugar insensitive (sis) mutants were isolated by screening mutagenized seeds for those that were able to germinate and develop relatively normal shoot systems on media containing 0.3 M glucose or 0.3 M sucrose. At these sugar concentrations, wild-type Arabidopsis germinate and produce substantial root systems, but show little to no shoot development. Twenty-eight sis mutants were isolated during the course of four independent mutant screens. Based on a preliminary characterization of all of these mutants, sis3 and sis6 were chosen for further study. Both of these mutations appear to lie in previously uncharacterized loci. Unlike many other sugar-response mutants, sis3 mutants exhibit a wild-type or near wild-type response in all phytohormone-response assays conducted to date. The sis6-1 mutation is unusual in that it appears to be due to overexpression of a gene, rather than representing a loss of function mutation

  1. Evolution of the Apicomplexan Sugar Transporter Gene Family Repertoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Ousman; Kissinger, Jessica C

    2017-01-01

    Apicomplexan protist parasites utilize host sugars transported into the parasite by sugar transporter proteins for use as an energy source. We performed a phylum-wide phylogenetic analysis of the apicomplexan sugar transporter repertoire. Phylogenetic analyses revealed six major subfamilies of apicomplexan sugar transporters. Transporters in one subfamily have undergone expansions in Piroplasma species and Gregarina niphandrodes, while other subfamilies are highly divergent and contain genes found in only one or two species. Analyses of the divergent apicomplexan subfamilies revealed their presence in ciliates, indicating their alveolate ancestry and subsequent loss in chromerids and many apicomplexans.

  2. Auditory and Visual Cues for Topic Maintenance with Persons Who Exhibit Dementia of Alzheimer’s Type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy F. Teten

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the effectiveness of auditory and visual redirections in facilitating topic coherence for persons with Dementia of Alzheimer’s Type (DAT. Five persons with moderate stage DAT engaged in conversation with the first author. Three topics related to activities of daily living, recreational activities, food, and grooming, were broached. Each topic was presented three times to each participant: once as a baseline condition, once with auditory redirection to topic, and once with visual redirection to topic. Transcripts of the interactions were scored for overall coherence. Condition was a significant factor in that the DAT participants exhibited better topic maintenance under visual and auditory conditions as opposed to baseline. In general, the performance of the participants was not affected by the topic, except for significantly higher overall coherence ratings for the visually redirected interactions dealing with the topic of food.

  3. Pengaruh Keragaman Gula Aren Cetak terhadap Kualitas Gula Aren Kristal (Palm Sugar) Produksi Agroindustri Kecil

    OpenAIRE

    susi, susi

    2013-01-01

    Cyrstal palm sugar was one product diversification of palm sugar that utilization continues to grow and is expected to reduce its dependence on white sugar. Crystal palm sugar can be processed from the sap of palm or palm sugar product which melted. Utilization palm sugar as a raw material is one way to reduce excess palm sugar, but on the other hand is rather difficult to control the quality of raw materials. Wide variations in the quality of the palm sugar will also cause the palm sugar cry...

  4. Total antioxidant content of alternatives to refined sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Katherine M; Carlsen, Monica H; Blomhoff, Rune

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative damage is implicated in the etiology of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and other degenerative disorders. Recent nutritional research has focused on the antioxidant potential of foods, while current dietary recommendations are to increase the intake of antioxidant-rich foods rather than supplement specific nutrients. Many alternatives to refined sugar are available, including raw cane sugar, plant saps/syrups (eg, maple syrup, agave nectar), molasses, honey, and fruit sugars (eg, date sugar). Unrefined sweeteners were hypothesized to contain higher levels of antioxidants, similar to the contrast between whole and refined grain products. To compare the total antioxidant content of natural sweeteners as alternatives to refined sugar. The ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) assay was used to estimate total antioxidant capacity. Major brands of 12 types of sweeteners as well as refined white sugar and corn syrup were sampled from retail outlets in the United States. Substantial differences in total antioxidant content of different sweeteners were found. Refined sugar, corn syrup, and agave nectar contained minimal antioxidant activity (sugar had a higher FRAP (0.1 mmol/100 g). Dark and blackstrap molasses had the highest FRAP (4.6 to 4.9 mmol/100 g), while maple syrup, brown sugar, and honey showed intermediate antioxidant capacity (0.2 to 0.7 mmol FRAP/100 g). Based on an average intake of 130 g/day refined sugars and the antioxidant activity measured in typical diets, substituting alternative sweeteners could increase antioxidant intake an average of 2.6 mmol/day, similar to the amount found in a serving of berries or nuts. Many readily available alternatives to refined sugar offer the potential benefit of antioxidant activity.

  5. European Sugar Market – Impact of Quota System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Benešová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The European agricultural market has been criticized for its heavy regulations and subsidization. The sugar market is one of the most regulated ones; however, this will change radically in 2017 when the current system of production quotas will end. The aim of this paper is to present the basic characteristics of the EU quota sugar market. The analysis identifies the main drivers of EU sugar market and their position within the EU sugar market. The paper identifies especially those drivers/companies/alliances which take control over the EU sugar production realized under the quota production system. The paper also highlights the level of EU sugar market concentration and also identifies those countries and companies which are the main leaders in the sugar production area realized under the quota system. Based on the results deriving from the paper, it is possible to characterize the EU sugar market as a heavily concentrated one – nearly 75% (10 mil. tonnes of the quota is controlled by five multinational companies only; these companies are operating more than 50% of all the available sugar plants located in the EU. These multinational alliances are also in control of the production capacities of their subsidiaries. In most countries, this causes serious problems as the given quota is controlled by one or two producers only. The EU sugar market is extremely concentrated especially if we take into consideration the location of each alliance’s headquarters. The majority of production capacities are under (the control of especially German and French companies. These two countries are also the main beneficiaries in relation to the EU sugar production quota system.

  6. Orientation and strain modulated electronic structures in puckered arsenene nanoribbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Y. Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Orthorhombic arsenene was recently predicted as an indirect bandgap semiconductor. Here, we demonstrate that nanostructuring arsenene into nanoribbons successfully transform the bandgap to be direct. It is found that direct bandgaps hold for narrow armchair but wide zigzag nanoribbons, which is dominated by the competition between the in-plane and out-of-plane bondings. Moreover, straining the nanoribbons also induces a direct bandgap and simultaneously modulates effectively the transport property. The gap energy is largely enhanced by applying tensile strains to the armchair structures. In the zigzag ones, a tensile strain makes the effective mass of holes much higher while a compressive strain cause it much lower than that of electrons. Our results are crucial to understand and engineer the electronic properties of two dimensional materials beyond the planar ones like graphene.

  7. VISUALIZATION OF MACULAR PUCKER BY MULTICOLOR SCANNING LASER IMAGING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic Muftuoglu, Ilkay; Bartsch, Dirk-Uwe; Barteselli, Giulio; Gaber, Raouf; Nezgoda, Joseph; Freeman, William R

    2018-02-01

    To compare the visualization of the epiretinal membrane (ERM) using multicolor imaging (MCI) (Heidelberg Engineering, Carlsbad, CA) and conventional white light flood color fundus photography (FP) (Topcon). The paired images of patients with ERM who underwent same-day MCI and FP examinations were reviewed. Visibility of the ERM was graded using a scale (0: not visible, 1: barely visible, and 2: clearly visible) by masked readers, and surface folds were counted to quantify the membrane visibility for each method. Images from individual color channels in MCI (green, blue, and infrared) were also graded using the same method to further investigate MCI images. Forty-eight eyes of 42 patients were included. The average ERM visibility score was 1.8 ± 0.37 for MCI and 1.01 ± 0.63 for FP (P provided better detection of surface folds (5.54 ± 2.12) compared to blue reflectance (4.2 ± 2.34) and infrared reflectance (1.2 ± 0.9). Multicolor scanning laser imaging provides superior ERM detection and delineation of surface folds than conventional FP, primarily due to the green channel present in the combination-pseudocolor image in MCI.

  8. Moisture and shelf life in sugar confections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergun, R; Lietha, R; Hartel, R W

    2010-02-01

    From hardening of marshmallow to graining of hard candies, moisture plays a critical role in determining the quality and shelf life of sugar-based confections. Water is important during the manufacturing of confections, is an important factor in governing texture, and is often the limiting parameter during storage that controls shelf life. Thus, an understanding of water relations in confections is critical to controlling quality. Water content, which is controlled during candy manufacturing through an understanding of boiling point elevation, is one of the most important parameters that governs the texture of candies. For example, the texture of caramel progresses from soft and runny to hard and brittle as the moisture content decreases. However, knowledge of water content by itself is insufficient to controlling stability and shelf life. Understanding water activity, or the ratio of vapor pressures, is necessary to control shelf life. A difference in water activity, either between candy and air or between two domains within the candy, is the driving force for moisture migration in confections. When the difference in water activity is large, moisture migration is rapid, although the rate of moisture migration depends on the nature of resistances to water diffusion. Barrier packaging films protect the candy from air whereas edible films inhibit moisture migration between different moisture domains within a confection. More recently, the concept of glass transition, or the polymer science approach, has supplemented water activity as a critical parameter related to candy stability. Confections with low moisture content, such as hard candy, cotton candy, and some caramels and toffees, may contain sugars in the amorphous or glassy state. As long as these products remain below their glass transition temperature, they remain stable for very long times. However, certain glassy sugars tend to be hygroscopic, rapidly picking up moisture from the air, which causes

  9. Total and Free Sugar Content of Canadian Prepackaged Foods and Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi T. Bernstein

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A number of recommendations for policy and program interventions to limit excess free sugar consumption have emerged, however there are a lack of data describing the amounts and types of sugar in foods. This study presents an assessment of sugar in Canadian prepackaged foods including: (a the first systematic calculation of free sugar contents; (b a comprehensive assessment of total sugar and free sugar levels; and (c sweetener and free sugar ingredient use, using the University of Toronto’s Food Label Information Program (FLIP database 2013 (n = 15,342. Food groups with the highest proportion of foods containing free sugar ingredients also had the highest median total sugar and free sugar contents (per 100 g/mL: desserts (94%, 15 g, and 12 g, sugars and sweets (91%, 50 g, and 50 g, and bakery products (83%, 16 g, and 14 g, proportion with free sugar ingredients, median total sugar and free sugar content in Canadian foods, respectively. Free sugar accounted for 64% of total sugar content. Eight of 17 food groups had ≥75% of the total sugar derived from free sugar. Free sugar contributed 20% of calories overall in prepackaged foods and beverages, with the highest at 70% in beverages. These data can be used to inform interventions aimed at limiting free sugar consumption.

  10. Total and Free Sugar Content of Canadian Prepackaged Foods and Beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Jodi T; Schermel, Alyssa; Mills, Christine M; L'Abbé, Mary R

    2016-09-21

    A number of recommendations for policy and program interventions to limit excess free sugar consumption have emerged, however there are a lack of data describing the amounts and types of sugar in foods. This study presents an assessment of sugar in Canadian prepackaged foods including: (a) the first systematic calculation of free sugar contents; (b) a comprehensive assessment of total sugar and free sugar levels; and (c) sweetener and free sugar ingredient use, using the University of Toronto's Food Label Information Program (FLIP) database 2013 (n = 15,342). Food groups with the highest proportion of foods containing free sugar ingredients also had the highest median total sugar and free sugar contents (per 100 g/mL): desserts (94%, 15 g, and 12 g), sugars and sweets (91%, 50 g, and 50 g), and bakery products (83%, 16 g, and 14 g, proportion with free sugar ingredients, median total sugar and free sugar content in Canadian foods, respectively). Free sugar accounted for 64% of total sugar content. Eight of 17 food groups had ≥75% of the total sugar derived from free sugar. Free sugar contributed 20% of calories overall in prepackaged foods and beverages, with the highest at 70% in beverages. These data can be used to inform interventions aimed at limiting free sugar consumption.

  11. 40 CFR 409.20 - Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.20 Section 409.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Crystalline Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.20 Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar... processing of raw cane sugar into crystalline refined sugar. ...

  12. Total and Free Sugar Content of Canadian Prepackaged Foods and Beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Jodi T.; Schermel, Alyssa; Mills, Christine M.; L’Abbé, Mary R.

    2016-01-01

    A number of recommendations for policy and program interventions to limit excess free sugar consumption have emerged, however there are a lack of data describing the amounts and types of sugar in foods. This study presents an assessment of sugar in Canadian prepackaged foods including: (a) the first systematic calculation of free sugar contents; (b) a comprehensive assessment of total sugar and free sugar levels; and (c) sweetener and free sugar ingredient use, using the University of Toronto’s Food Label Information Program (FLIP) database 2013 (n = 15,342). Food groups with the highest proportion of foods containing free sugar ingredients also had the highest median total sugar and free sugar contents (per 100 g/mL): desserts (94%, 15 g, and 12 g), sugars and sweets (91%, 50 g, and 50 g), and bakery products (83%, 16 g, and 14 g, proportion with free sugar ingredients, median total sugar and free sugar content in Canadian foods, respectively). Free sugar accounted for 64% of total sugar content. Eight of 17 food groups had ≥75% of the total sugar derived from free sugar. Free sugar contributed 20% of calories overall in prepackaged foods and beverages, with the highest at 70% in beverages. These data can be used to inform interventions aimed at limiting free sugar consumption. PMID:27657125

  13. 7 CFR 1435.504 - Timing of distribution of CCC-owned sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Timing of distribution of CCC-owned sugar. 1435.504... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Processor Sugar Payment-In-Kind (PIK) Program § 1435.504 Timing of distribution of CCC-owned sugar. Distribution of sugar...

  14. Hybrid modelling of a sugar boiling process

    CERN Document Server

    Lauret, Alfred Jean Philippe; Gatina, Jean Claude

    2012-01-01

    The first and maybe the most important step in designing a model-based predictive controller is to develop a model that is as accurate as possible and that is valid under a wide range of operating conditions. The sugar boiling process is a strongly nonlinear and nonstationary process. The main process nonlinearities are represented by the crystal growth rate. This paper addresses the development of the crystal growth rate model according to two approaches. The first approach is classical and consists of determining the parameters of the empirical expressions of the growth rate through the use of a nonlinear programming optimization technique. The second is a novel modeling strategy that combines an artificial neural network (ANN) as an approximator of the growth rate with prior knowledge represented by the mass balance of sucrose crystals. The first results show that the first type of model performs local fitting while the second offers a greater flexibility. The two models were developed with industrial data...

  15. Frontal affinity chromatography: sugar-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateno, Hiroaki; Nakamura-Tsuruta, Sachiko; Hirabayashi, Jun

    2007-01-01

    Frontal affinity chromatography using fluorescence detection (FAC-FD) is a versatile technique for the precise determination of dissociation constants (Kd) between glycan-binding proteins (lectins) and fluorescent-labeled glycans. A series of glycan-containing solutions is applied to a lectin-immobilized column, and the elution profile of each glycan (termed the 'elution front', V) is compared with that (V0) for an appropriate control. Here we describe our standard protocol using an automated FAC system (FAC-1), consisting of two isocratic pumps, an autosampler, a column oven and two miniature columns connected to a fluorescence detector. Analysis time for 100 sugar-protein interactions is approximately 10 h, using as little as 2.5 pmol of pyridylaminated (PA) oligosaccharide per analysis. Using FAC-FD, we have so far obtained quantitative interaction data of >100 lectins for >100 PA oligosaccharides.

  16. Coil irrigation in sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Sánchez Gutiérrez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was made at the Basic Seed Bank of the Local Sugar Cane Research Station for the Mideastern Cuba, based in Camaguey, on brown carbonate soil, between 2013 and 12014. Coil irrigation was applied to meet the water requirements for the crop, according to the edafoclimatic conditions and the different phenological phases it has. The Savo method was used to determine useful rain water. Adjustment and complementation of the irrigation program was based on indicators that characterize the exploitation scheme. The machine´s working parameters were determined to meet the water needs, and increase crop´s overall yields. The evaluations and results achieved have contributed to new proposals for management and operation of coil irrigation, and they are important to increase its efficiency.

  17. Measuring micronutrient intakes at different levels of sugar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measuring micronutrient intakes at different levels of sugar consumption in a population in transition: the Transition and Health during Urbanisation in South Africa (THUSA) ... Respondents who consumed the most added sugar had significantly lower mean intakes of alcohol, but higher intakes of energy, macronutrients

  18. 13 Comparative Effects of Cassava Starch and Simple Sugar in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arc. Usman A. Jalam

    Comparative effects of simple laboratory quality sugar and cassava starch on grade C35 concrete were studied in the laboratory. The simple white ... hydroxide nuclSei thus forming a more efficient barrier to further hydration than is ... sodium based with sugar content of 1-30%. (Rixom & Mailvaganam, 2007). Molasses.

  19. Sugar content, cariogenicity, and dental concerns with commonly used medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Mark; Goodchild, Jason H; Epstein, Joel B

    2015-02-01

    Oral adverse events such as cariogenicity are often overlooked as drug-associated effects because the sugar content of many medications may be negligible compared with the patients' overall dietary intake of sugar. There are, however, several liquid formulations of medications with significantly high sugar content that are commonly used in patients with swallowing difficulties. These medications may be associated with negative oral health sequelae and should be considered part of the oral health care providers' differential diagnosis of oral pathologies. We reviewed the literature regarding the sugar content of oral liquid medications commonly prescribed by oral health care providers, with consideration to their caries potential. Where not available via public sources, pharmaceutical companies were contacted directly for additional information on the sugar (carbohydrate) content of these oral liquid medication formulations. Over 50 commonly used oral liquid medications prescribed for patients with swallowing difficulties were reviewed and found to contain sugar in varying amounts up to 4 grams per dose (usually 1 teaspoon or 5 milliliters). Patients who are required to take multiple doses per day of these sugar-containing oral liquid medications may be at increased risk for caries and associated oral health consequences. Recognition and avoidance of sugar-containing oral liquid medications can help clinicians optimize patient treatment, decreasing the risk for potential drug-induced caries while emphasizing patient safety and improved oral health. Copyright © 2015 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Root rot in sugar beet piles at harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar beet root rots are not only a concern because of reduced yields, but can also be associated with losses in storage. Our primary sugar beet root rot disease problem in the Amalgamated production area is Rhizoctonia root rot. However, this rot frequently only penetrates a short distance past t...

  1. Sugar catabolism during growth on plant biomass in Aspergillus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khosravi, C.

    2017-01-01

    A growing industrial sector in which plant degrading enzymes are used is the production of alternative fuels, such as bio-ethanol, and biochemicals. Plant polysaccharides can be converted to fermentable sugars by fungal enzymes. The sugars are then fermented to ethanol and other products mainly by

  2. Structure and function of nucleotide sugar transporters: Current progress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadley, B.; Maggioni, A.; Ashikov, A.M.; Day, C.J.; Haselhorst, T.; Tiralongo, J.

    2014-01-01

    The proteomes of eukaryotes, bacteria and archaea are highly diverse due, in part, to the complex post-translational modification of protein glycosylation. The diversity of glycosylation in eukaryotes is reliant on nucleotide sugar transporters to translocate specific nucleotide sugars that are

  3. Supported metal catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Stephen D; Zhang, He; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2014-08-21

    Despite extensive studies on hydrogen production via steam reforming of alcohols and sugar alcohols, catalysts typically suffer a variety of issues from poor hydrogen selectivity to rapid deactivation. Here, we summarize recent advances in fundamental understanding of functionality and structure of catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming, and provide perspectives on further development required to design highly efficient steam reforming catalysts.

  4. Reconciliation of opposing views on membrane-sugar interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Heidi D.; Wang, Chunhua; Arleth, Lise

    2011-01-01

    It is well established that small sugars exert different types of stabilization of biomembranes both in vivo and in vitro. However, the essential question of whether sugars are bound to or expelled from membrane surfaces, i.e., the sign and size of the free energy of the interaction, remains unre...

  5. Factors associated with rapid mortality of sugar maple in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas J. Hall; James D. Unger; Thomas C. Bast; Bradley S. Regester

    1999-01-01

    Mortality of sugar maple and red maple was observed throughout Pennsylvania in 1995 following an outbreak in 1994 by forest tent caterpillar and elm spanworm on sugar maple and red maple, respectively. Symptoms of leaf anthracnose caused by Discula campestris (Pass.) were observed during the refoliation period from July through September 1994: the...

  6. The ionic balance of the sugar-beet plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egmond, van F.

    1975-01-01

    The ionic balance of the sugar-beet plant was studied by measuring dry weight and chemical composition of every leaf, the crown and the root during the growing season.

    The sugar-beet plant has an almost neutral uptake. The nitrate and sulphate reduction determines the amount of carboxylates

  7. Added sugar and dietary sodium intake from purchased fast food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Participants (N=1 451, 49.6% male, mean 17.7 years of age) completed interviewer-assisted questionnaires on dietary intake practices pertaining to food choices in the home, school and community. The consumption of fast foods, sugar-sweetened beverages and snacks was determined and the average added sugar and ...

  8. Sugar Cane Genome Numbers Assumption by Ribosomal DNA FISH Techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thumjamras, S.; Jong, de H.; Iamtham, S.; Prammanee, S.

    2013-01-01

    Conventional cytological method is limited for polyploidy plant genome study, especially sugar cane chromosomes that show unstable numbers of each cultivar. Molecular cytogenetic as fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques were used in this study. A basic chromosome number of sugar cane

  9. Seasonal alteration of sugar metabolism in strawberry ( Fragaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plants of strawberry cvs Aromas and Diamante were removed from the field in cold acclimated (CA, January) and non-acclimated (NA, July) stages. Crown parts of the plant were used for analysis. Apoplastic total soluble sugar (TSS), reducing sugars and sucrose contents did not change in both cultivars in both sampling ...

  10. Management Politics in Kenya's Sugar Industry: Towards an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poor management, corruption and vested political interests have made Kenya's sugar industry so inefficient that the country's goal of attaining self-sufficiency in sugar production will remain unattainable for a long time. To explain the persistence of this situation, the article examines the management practice in the industry, ...

  11. Dynamic analysis of sugar metabolism in different harvest seasons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In pineapple fruits, sugar accumulation plays an important role in flavor characteristics, which varies according to the stage of fruit development. Metabolic changes in the contents of fructose, sucrose and glucose and reducing sugar related to the activities of soluble acid invertase (AI), neutral invertase (NI), sucrose ...

  12. Comparative Effects of Cassava Starch and Simple Sugar in Cement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative effects of simple laboratory quality sugar and cassava starch on grade C35 concrete were studied in the laboratory. The simple white sugar was used at concentrations of 0 to 1% by weight of cement in concrete cured at 3, 7, 14 and 28 days using ordinary Portland cement. Cassava starch of the same ...

  13. Conversion of oligomeric starch, cellulose, hydrolysates or sugars to hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silks, Louis A; Sutton, Andrew; Kim, Jin Kyung; Gordon, John Cameron; Wu, Ruilian; Kimball, David B.

    2017-09-05

    Embodiments of the present invention are directed to the conversion of a source material (e.g., a depolymerized oligosaccharide mixture, a monomeric sugar, a hydrolysate, or a mixture of monomeric sugars) to intermediate molecules containing 7 to 26 contiguous carbon atoms. These intermediates may also be converted to saturated hydrocarbons. Such saturated hydrocarbons are useful as, for example, fuels.

  14. Sugar cane juice as a retarding admixture in concrete production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sugar cane juice (SCJ) was investigated as a retarding agent in concrete production. Slump values and compressive strength of concrete with partial replacement of water by sugar cane juice was also investigated. The concrete cubes were prepared by replacing water with SCJ in the following proportions 0, 3, 5, 10 and ...

  15. The dynamics of fat, protein and sugar metabolism during walnut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Walnut (Juglans regia L.) is named the “super food” in the 21st century. In this study, the 9-year-old precocious walnut cultivar 'Xiangling' were used to exam the developmental process, and the dynamics of fat, protein and sugar content in the fruit, and the activities of enzymes related with sugar metabolism were further ...

  16. Sugar amino acids and related molecules: Some recent developments

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sugar amino acids constitute an important class of such polyfunctional scaffolds where the carboxyl, amino and hydroxyl termini provide an excellent opportunity to organic chemists to create structural diversities akin to Nature's molecular arsenal. In recent years, sugar amino acids have been used extensively in the area of ...

  17. Decolorization of sugar beet distillery effluent using mixed cultures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malgosia

    distillery stillage cannot be treated by conventional biological methods. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of temperature and medium supplementation on the decolorization of sugar beet stillage. Two mixed bacterial cultures of the genus Bacillus (C1 and C2) were tested for colour removal ability. Sugar beet ...

  18. Measurement of the moisture content of the granulated sugar by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2007-01-18

    Jan 18, 2007 ... p=5%) with other known classical, but laborious and expensive methods of moisture determination. Key words: Sugar ... Darkness. Day light. Moisture content (%). Output signal. (Volt). Figure 1. Response of the IR transphotometer in function of the moisture content (ultrafiltered water) of sugar: influence of.

  19. Individual sugar and acid composition within southeastern peach germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    eaches grown in the southeast are valued for their acidic, sweet flavor. A complex mixture of various sugars and acids at different ratios play a key role in determining these unique peach flavor attributes. To understand the flavor profile of fresh market peaches, individual sugar and acid compone...

  20. Effects of sugar intake on body weight: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermunt, S.H.F.; Pasman, W.J.; Schaafsma, G.; Kardinaal, A.F.M.

    2003-01-01

    Weight reduction programmes are mainly focused on reducing intake of fat and sugar. In this review we have evaluated whether the replacement of dietary (added) sugar by low-energy sweeteners or complex carbohydrates contributes to weight reduction. In two experimental studies, no short-term

  1. Two Step Wittig/Dihydroxylation Synthetic Route to Higher Sugars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Morten; Madsen, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Higher carbon sugars are obtained by a two carbon, two step chain elongation of aldoses involving first a Wittig reaction and then an osmium tetroxide catalyzed dihydroxylation......Higher carbon sugars are obtained by a two carbon, two step chain elongation of aldoses involving first a Wittig reaction and then an osmium tetroxide catalyzed dihydroxylation...

  2. "Sugar" jõuab lavale / Ülle Hallik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hallik, Ülle, 1963-

    2008-01-01

    Vanemuises esietendub 5. juunil "Sugar", lavastaja Mare Tommingas. Muusikal põhineb Jule Styne muusikalil "Sugar ehk Dzhässis ainult tüdrukud". Muusikali libreto kirjutas Peter Stone Robert Thoereni jutustuse ning Billy Wilderi ja I. A. L. Dimanondi filmi "Some Like It Hot" põhjal

  3. Ethanol and sugar tolerance of wine yeasts isolated from fermenting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seventeen wine yeasts isolated from fermenting cashew apple juice were screened for ethanol and sugar tolerance. Two species of Saccharomyces comprising of three strains of S. cerevisiae and one S. uvarum showed measurable growth in medium containing 9% (v/v) ethanol. They were equally sugar-tolerant having ...

  4. Sugar beet genotype effect on potential of bioethanol production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sugar beet genotype effect on potential of bioethanol production using Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation. ... on ethanol production were intensively related to the chemical composition of root, especially sugar content, potassium impurity, syrup purity and some characteristics such as root dry matter and root length.

  5. Possible root infection of Cercospora betiicola in sugar beet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vereijssen, J.; Schneider, J.H.M.; Termorshuizen, A.J.

    2004-01-01

    A potential primary infection site of the foliar pathogen Cercospora beticola in sugar beet is described. Sugar beet seedlings of the susceptible cv. Auris were grown in a standard soil for 14 days. A monoconidial culture of a C. beticola isolate was grown to produce conidia. In experiment 1, roots

  6. Ethanol production from tropical sugar beet juice | Marx | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Starch and sugar resources have been extensively researched to find a suitable renewable source of energy to supplement the world's ever increasing demand for energy while also abating global warming by stemming the addition of earthbound carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Sugar beet has been used as a source ...

  7. Effect of manganese on endomycorrhizal sugar maple seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    George A. Schier; Carolyn J. McQuattie

    2002-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) toxicity may play an important role in the poor survival of seedlings in declining sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) stands in northern Pennsylvania. To determine the effect of Mn on the growth of sugar maple seedlings, 1-year-old seedlings inoculated with vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi and growing in sand-vermiculite-...

  8. Sugar preferences and digestion by Cape white-eyes, Zosterops ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sugar preferences and digestion by Cape white-eyes, Zosterops virens , fed artificial fruit diets. ... It appears likely that the Cape white-eye has high levels of sucrase activity, although further study is needed to verify this. Key words: frugivory, sugar, fruit composition, digestion, preference, Cape white-eye, Zosterops virens.

  9. Countering Children's Sugared Food Commercials: Do Rebuttals Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Lois; Sandman, Peter M.

    To assist the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) in policy making decisions concerning sugared food advertisements on television, a study was conducted to assess the effects on children of counter advertisements and disclaimers as a means of lessening the undesirable impact of sugared food ads. Approximately 1,200 children, aged 5 to 10 years,…

  10. Investigation of Copper Sorption by Sugar Beet Processing Lime Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the western United States, sugar beet processing for sugar recovery generates a lime-based waste product (~250,000 Mg yr-1) that has little liming value in the region’s calcareous soils. This area has recently experienced an increase in dairy production, with dairi...

  11. Analysis of Rhizoctonia solani isolates associated with sugar beet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-19

    Dec 19, 2011 ... Rhizoctonia solani is one of the most important sugar beet pathogens worldwide with anastomosis groups (AGs) 2-2 and 4 as the most pathogenic strains on sugar beet. AG 2-2 (intraspecific groups IIIB and IV) can cause both root and crown rot and damping-off, while AG-4 is typically associated only with.

  12. Hierarchy of non-glucose sugars in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidelberg, Guy; Towbin, Benjamin D; Rothschild, Daphna; Dekel, Erez; Bren, Anat; Alon, Uri

    2014-12-24

    Understanding how cells make decisions, and why they make the decisions they make, is of fundamental interest in systems biology. To address this, we study the decisions made by E. coli on which genes to express when presented with two different sugars. It is well-known that glucose, E. coli's preferred carbon source, represses the uptake of other sugars by means of global and gene-specific mechanisms. However, less is known about the utilization of glucose-free sugar mixtures which are found in the natural environment of E. coli and in biotechnology. Here, we combine experiment and theory to map the choices of E. coli among 6 different non-glucose carbon sources. We used robotic assays and fluorescence reporter strains to make precise measurements of promoter activity and growth rate in all pairs of these sugars. We find that the sugars can be ranked in a hierarchy: in a mixture of a higher and a lower sugar, the lower sugar system shows reduced promoter activity. The hierarchy corresponds to the growth rate supported by each sugar- the faster the growth rate, the higher the sugar on the hierarchy. The hierarchy is 'soft' in the sense that the lower sugar promoters are not completely repressed. Measurement of the activity of the master regulator CRP-cAMP shows that the hierarchy can be quantitatively explained based on differential activation of the promoters by CRP-cAMP. Comparing sugar system activation as a function of time in sugar pair mixtures at sub-saturating concentrations, we find cases of sequential activation, and also cases of simultaneous expression of both systems. Such simultaneous expression is not predicted by simple models of growth rate optimization, which predict only sequential activation. We extend these models by suggesting multi-objective optimization for both growing rapidly now and preparing the cell for future growth on the poorer sugar. We find a defined hierarchy of sugar utilization, which can be quantitatively explained by

  13. The Effect of Sugar-Free Versus Sugar-Sweetened Beverages on Satiety, Liking and Wanting: An 18 Month Randomized Double-Blind Trial in Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruyter, J.C.; Katan, M.B.; Kuijper, L.D.J.; Liem, D.G.; Olthof, M.R.

    2013-01-01

    Background:Substituting sugar-free for sugar-sweetened beverages reduces weight gain. A possible explanation is that sugar-containing and sugar-free beverages cause the same degree of satiety. However, this has not been tested in long-term trials.Methods:We randomized 203 children aged 7-11 years to

  14. Molecular dynamics simulations of lysozyme in water/sugar solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerbret, A. [Department of Food Science, Cornell University, 101 Stocking Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Affouard, F. [Laboratoire de Dynamique et Structure des Materiaux Moleculaires, UMR CNRS 8024, Universite Lille I, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France)], E-mail: frederic.affouard@univ-lille1.fr; Bordat, P. [Laboratoire de Chimie Theorique et de Physico-Chimie Moleculaire, UMR 5624, Universite de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour, 64000 Pau (France); Hedoux, A.; Guinet, Y.; Descamps, M. [Laboratoire de Dynamique et Structure des Materiaux Moleculaires, UMR CNRS 8024, Universite Lille I, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France)

    2008-04-18

    Structural and dynamical properties of the solvent at the protein/solvent interface have been investigated by molecular dynamics simulations of lysozyme in trehalose, maltose and sucrose solutions. Results are discussed in the framework of the bioprotection phenomena. The analysis of the relative concentration of water oxygen atoms around lysozyme suggests that lysozyme is preferentially hydrated. When comparing the three sugars, trehalose is seen more excluded than maltose and sucrose. The preferential exclusion of sugars from the protein surface induces some differences in the behavior of trehalose and maltose, particularly at 50 and 60 wt% concentrations, that are not observed experimentally in binary sugar/mixtures. The dynamical slowing down of the solvent is suggested to mainly arise from the homogeneity of the water/sugar matrices controlled by the percolation of the sugar hydrogen bonds networks. Furthermore, lysozyme strongly increases relaxation times of solvent molecules at the protein/solvent interface.

  15. Sugar transport across lactose permease probed by steered molecular dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Østergaard; Yin, Ying; Tajkhorshid, Emad

    2007-01-01

    Escherichia coli lactose permease (LacY) transports sugar across the inner membrane of the bacterium using the proton motive force to accumulate sugar in the cytosol. We have probed lactose conduction across LacY using steered molecular dynamics, permitting us to follow molecular and energetic......, forcing it to interact with channel lining residues. Lactose forms a multitude of direct sugar-channel hydrogen bonds, predominantly with residues of the flexible N-domain, which is known to contribute a major part of LacY's affinity for lactose. In the periplasmic half-channel lactose predominantly...... interacts with hydrophobic channel lining residues, whereas in the cytoplasmic half-channel key protein-substrate interactions are mediated by ionic residues. A major energy barrier against transport is found within a tight segment of the periplasmic half-channel where sugar hydration is minimal and protein-sugar...

  16. Enzymatic gelation of sugar beet pectin in food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergsøe, Merete Norsker; Jensen, Mette; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2000-01-01

    Sugar beet pectin is a food ingredient with specific functional properties. It may form gels by an oxidative cross-linking of ferulic acid. In the present study, the gel forming properties of three oxidative enzymes were examined in different food relevant conditions. The enzymes chosen were two...... laccases and one peroxidase. The textural properties of the produced gels were measured on a texture analyser. The influence of sugar, salt and protein were analysed. Finally, the enzymatic gelation was studied in three food products with added sugar beet pectin. These were black currant juice, milk...... and chopped heat-treated meat emulsion. The addition of salt resulted in softer, less stiff and chewy, and less adhesive gels. Generally speaking, sugar addition increased the hardness but at high concentration the gels were very brittle. However, Young's modulus was lower in gels containing sugar than...

  17. Mechanical properties of sugar beet root during storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedomová, Šárka; Kumbár, Vojtěch; Pytel, Roman; Buchar, Jaroslav

    2017-10-01

    This paper is an investigation via two experimental methods, of the textural properties of sugar beet roots during the storage period. In the work, sugar beet roots mechanical properties were evaluated during the post-harvest period - 1, 8, 22, 43, and 71 days after crop. Both experimental methods, i.e. compression test and puncture test, suggest that the failure strength of the sugar beet root increases with the storage time. The parameters obtained using the puncture test, are more sensitive to the storage duration than those obtained by way of the compression test. We also found that such mechanical properties served as a reliable tool for monitoring the progress of sugar beet roots storage. The described methods could also be used to highlight important information on sugar beet evolution during storage.

  18. IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF SUGAR AT THE EXPENSE OF INTENSIFICATION SULPHITATION INTERMEDIATES OF SUGAR PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Zelepukin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Applicable for sulfitation equipment should provide a high degree of utilization of sulfur dioxide, which should allow to reduce the cost of production of sugar by reducing fuel sulfur and improve the ecological situation in the placement of a sugar factory. Currently used as standard equipment the liquid-jet sulfitator type A2-PSK and A2-PSM have disadvantages, the main ones are: unsatisfactory performance when the flow solution to be treated and released into the atmosphere from the combustion products nutritionally sulfur. Modernized standard liquid spray sulfitator to improve performance without significant cost, even if the treated liquid flow. A positive result with this work sulfitator achieved due to the fact that the mixing chamber is provided with a device for controlling the flow cross section of holes disc formed as it moves in the ring attached thereto with tapered fingers. Sulfitator is a cylindrical body provided with a sulfited separator for separating liquid and flue gas. By using a separator attached flange connection mixing chamber sulfitation source liquid and a gas supply pipe provided with sulfur dioxide placed inside a disk having five openings for forming jets of high dynamic fluid flow control device and a disk hole section formed in a chamber in the movable ring attached to it, tapered fingers. The form allows the fingers to create a flow of fluid through the disc hole, flowing at high speed and maintain a constant positive pressure to drive the liquid in the mixing chamber. When changing the amount of fluid supplied to the sulfitation ring having tapered fingers moves the fingers and alter the orifice holes, maintaining the pressure of the sugar solution prior to manufacturing the disk constant. This improves the contact of the liquid with the gas. The designed device can improve the efficiency of physical and chemical treatment of liquid intermediates of sugar production.

  19. Insights to the clarification of sugar cane juice expressed from sugar cane stalk and trash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, C C D; Bakir, H; Doherty, W O S

    2012-03-21

    Processing of juice expressed from green sugar cane containing all the trash (i.e., tops and leaves, the nonstalk component) of the sugar cane plant during sugar manufacture has been reported to lead to poor clarified juice (CJ) quality. Studies of different liming techniques have been conducted to identify which liming technique gives the best clarification performance from juice expressed from green cane containing half of all trash extracted (GE). Results have shown that lime saccharate addition to juice at 76 °C either continuous or batchwise gives satisfactory settling rates of calcium phosphate flocs (50-70 cm/min) and CJ with low turbidity and minimal amounts of mineral constituents. Surprisingly, the addition of phosphoric acid (≤ 300 mg/kg as P₂O₅), prior to liming to reduce juice turbidity (≤ 80%), increased the Mg (≤ 101%) and Si (≤ 148%) contents particularly for clarified GE juices. The increase was not proportional with increasing phosphoric acid dose. The nature of the flocs formed, including the zeta potential of the particles by the different liming techniques, has been used to account for the differences in clarification performance. Differences between the qualities of the CJ obtained with GE juice and that of burnt cane juices with all trash extracted (BE) have been discussed to provide further insights into GE processing.

  20. Packaged baby and toddler foods: questions of sugar and sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, C D; Conlon, M J

    2015-04-01

    Sugar and sodium levels in packaged foods is a critical consideration when it comes to the public health of Americans, yet little is known about the sugar and salt contained in packaged foods targeted at our youngest consumers. To examine the sugar and sodium content of packaged baby and toddler foods sold in the American marketplace and to evaluate them in light of current intake recommendations and the current policy context. Content analysis of baby and toddler foods (n = 240) found in nine US retail stores. Summary statistics were created for sugar and sodium; the products' per-serving sodium levels were assessed in light of the US Institute of Medicine's dietary reference intakes while the products' sugar levels were evaluated in light of American Heart Association recommendations. Fifty-eight percent of the products assessed either have a high level of sodium or >20% of calories from sugar. Sodium levels in toddler foods were of concern in certain product categories (i.e., toddler entrées) and 15% of toddler foods exceeded the 'moderate level' recommended for sodium. Sugar levels were high in 45% of the products coded, and over half of those products - 56% - were designed for babies. More than one in six products had sugar as the first or second ingredient. Baby and toddler foods are not, by definition, 'healthy' foods and some exceed normal expectations for sugar and sodium. A policy opportunity exists to consider placing limits on the allowable levels of sugar and sodium in these packaged food products. © 2014 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2014 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  1. Implications of WHO Guideline on Sugars for dental health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, Paula; Makino, Yuka; Petersen, Poul Erik; Ogawa, Hiroshi

    2018-02-01

    The burden of oral disease is high in populations across the world. This is because of high consumption of free sugars. The WHO Guideline on Sugars Intake for Adults and Children recommended limiting free sugars to no more than 5% energy intake to protect oral health throughout the life-course. The objectives of this paper are to consider the implications of the Guideline for dental health practice and to advocate use of the common risk factor approach when providing dietary advice. As part of a broad range of actions needed to reduce free sugars intake, improved education for dental health professionals and supporting patients to eat less free sugars are key actions for the dental profession. All dental health professionals should have the skills and confidence to provide their patients with healthier eating advice, including how to limit free sugars intake. It is therefore important that dental health professionals receive adequate education in diet and nutrition, and there is a need for dental educational regulating bodies to define the content of the dental curriculum with respect to nutrition. All patients, or their parents or carers, should receive dietary advice to reduce free sugars within the context of a healthy diet for the prevention of all NCDs. Dietary advice should: (i) focus on reducing the amount of free sugars consumed; (ii) be tailored according to the patient's body mass status (eg underweight, overweight, normal weight); (iii) encourage the consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables, nuts, seeds, and wholegrain starch-rich foods; (iv) discourage the consumption of foods high in saturated fat and salt; and (v) discourage the consumption of all drinks containing free sugars. The dental health professional has an opportunity to support patients to reduce their intake of free sugars-such advice and support will have positive impacts beyond the mouth. © 2017 The World Health Organization.

  2. Experimental branch cooling increases foliar sugar and anthocyanin concentrations in sugar maple at the end of the growing season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul G. Schaberg; Paula F. Murakami; John R. Butnor; Gary J. Hawley

    2017-01-01

    Autumnal leaf anthocyanin expression is enhanced following exposure to a variety of environmental stresses and may represent an adaptive benefit of protecting leaves from those stresses, thereby allowing for prolonged sugar and nutrient resorption. Past work has shown that experimentally induced sugar accumulations following branch girdling triggers anthocyanin...

  3. A rapid method for simultaneous quantification of 13 sugars and sugar alcohols in food products by UPLC-ELSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Dong-Wan; Park, Jae-Woong; Lim, Jung-Hoon; Yea, Myeong-Jai; Bang, Dae-Young

    2018-02-01

    A novel, rapid, simultaneous analysis method for five sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose, maltose, and lactose) and eight sugar alcohols (erythritol, xylitol, sorbitol, mannitol, inositol, maltitol, lactitol, and isomalt) was developed using UPLC-ELSD, without derivatization. The analysis conditions, including the gradient conditions, modifier concentration and column length, were optimized. Thirteen sugars and sugar alcohols were separated well and the resolution of their peaks was above 1.0. Their optimum analysis condition can be analyzed within 15min. Standard curves for sugars and sugar alcohols with concentrations of 5.0-0.1% and 2.0-0.05% are presented herein, and their correlation coefficients are found to be above 0.999 and the limit of detection (LOD) was around 0.006-0.018%. This novel analysis system can be used for foodstuffs such as candy, chewing gum, jelly, chocolate, processed chocolate products, and snacks containing 0.21-46.41% of sugars and sugar alcohols. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Production of Malt Flavoured Low-Sugar Drink from Banana ( Musa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    amyloglucosidase were also evaluated. The pH and percentage sugar ... This malt flavoured low-sugar drink could thus help reduce health complications in conditions associated with high sugar consumption. The use of additional enzymes in ...

  5. Interaction between sugar and abscisic acid signalling during early seedling development in Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekkers, B.J.W.; Schuurmans, J.A.M.J.; Smeekens, J.C.M.

    2008-01-01

    Sugars regulate important processes and affect the expression of many genes in plants. Characterization of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants with altered sugar sensitivity revealed the function of abscisic acid (ABA) signalling in sugar responses. However, the exact interaction between

  6. Investigation of science production in Iran’s type I universities of medical sciences, a 6-year assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Yadollahi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Science production is one of the main dimensions of sustainable development in any country. Thus, universities as the major centers for science production play a key role in development. The present study aimed to assess the trend of science production in Iran’s type I universities of medical sciences from 2007 to 2012. Method: In this study, the universities’ scores of empowering, governance and leadership, science production, student researches, and number of published articles were computed based on the evaluations of universities of medical sciences by the Ministry of Health, Treatment, and Medical Education from 2007 to 2012. Then, the data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and the figures were drawn by Excel software. Results: This study assessed science production in Iran’s type I universities of medical sciences and analyzed each university’s proportion in publication of articles. According to the results, most of the published articles were affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. However, considering the role of number of faculty members, different results were obtained. With respect to the evaluation raw scores, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences showed a considerable reduction of scores in 2012, while other universities had a constant or ascending trend. Besides, indexed articles followed an ascending trend in all the universities and most of the articles had been published in index 1. Conclusion: Similar to other studies, the findings of this study revealed an increase in science productions in Iran through the recent years. Yet, the highest scores of the studied indexes, except for student researches, were related to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. This great difference between this university and other universities might be due to accumulation of specific potentials and forces in this region. Overall, science productions followed an ascending trend in all type I universities of

  7. An accurate locally active memristor model for S-type negative differential resistance in NbO{sub x}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, Gary A.; Musunuru, Srinitya; Zhang, Jiaming; Lee, James; Hsieh, Cheng-Chih; Jackson, Warren; Jeon, Yoocharn; Henze, Dick; Li, Zhiyong; Stanley Williams, R. [Hewlett-Packard Laboratories, 1501 Page Mill Road, Palo Alto, California 94304 (United States); Vandenberghe, Ken [PTD-PPS, Hewlett-Packard Company, 1070 NE Circle Boulevard, Corvallis, Oregon 97330 (United States)

    2016-01-11

    A number of important commercial applications would benefit from the introduction of easily manufactured devices that exhibit current-controlled, or “S-type,” negative differential resistance (NDR). A leading example is emerging non-volatile memory based on crossbar array architectures. Due to the inherently linear current vs. voltage characteristics of candidate non-volatile memristor memory elements, individual memory cells in these crossbar arrays can be addressed only if a highly non-linear circuit element, termed a “selector,” is incorporated in the cell. Selectors based on a layer of niobium oxide sandwiched between two electrodes have been investigated by a number of groups because the NDR they exhibit provides a promisingly large non-linearity. We have developed a highly accurate compact dynamical model for their electrical conduction that shows that the NDR in these devices results from a thermal feedback mechanism. A series of electrothermal measurements and numerical simulations corroborate this model. These results reveal that the leakage currents can be minimized by thermally isolating the selector or by incorporating materials with larger activation energies for electron motion.

  8. Pyridylamination as a means of analyzing complex sugar chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hase, Sumihiro

    2010-01-01

    Herein, I describe pyridylamination for versatile analysis of sugar chains. The reducing ends of the sugar chains are tagged with 2-aminopyridine and the resultant chemically stable fluorescent derivatives are used for structural/functional analysis. Pyridylamination is an effective “operating system” for increasing sensitivity and simplifying the analytical procedures including mass spectrometry and NMR. Excellent separation of isomers is achieved by reversed-phase HPLC. However, separation is further improved by two-dimensional HPLC, which involves a combination of reversed-phase HPLC and size-fractionation HPLC. Moreover, a two-dimensional HPLC map is also useful for structural analysis. I describe a simple procedure for preparing homogeneous pyridylamino sugar chains that is less laborious than existing techniques and can be used for functional analysis (e.g., sugar-protein interaction). This novel approach was applied and some of the results are described: i) a glucosyl-serine type sugar chain found in blood coagulation factors; ii) discovery of endo-β-mannosidase (EC 3.2.1.152) and a new type plant α1,2-l-fucosidase; and iii) novel substrate specificity of a cytosolic α-mannosidase. Moreover, using homogeneous sugar chains of a size similar to in vivo substrates we were able to analyze interactions between sugar chains and proteins such as enzymes and lectins in detail. Interestingly, our studies reveal that some enzymes recognize a wider region of the substrate than anticipated. PMID:20431262

  9. Added Sugars and Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Miriam B.; Kaar, Jill L.; Welsh, Jean A.; Van Horn, Linda V.; Feig, Daniel I.; Anderson, Cheryl A.M.; Patel, Mahesh J.; Munos, Jessica Cruz; Krebs, Nancy F.; Xanthakos, Stavra A.; Johnson, Rachel K.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Poor lifestyle behaviors are leading causes of preventable diseases globally. Added sugars contribute to a diet that is energy dense but nutrient poor and increase risk of developing obesity, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, obesity-related cancers, and dental caries. METHODS AND RESULTS For this American Heart Association scientific statement, the writing group reviewed and graded the current scientific evidence for studies examining the cardiovascular health effects of added sugars on children. The available literature was subdivided into 5 broad subareas: effects on blood pressure, lipids, insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and obesity. CONCLUSIONS Associations between added sugars and increased cardiovascular disease risk factors among US children are present at levels far below current consumption levels. Strong evidence supports the association of added sugars with increased cardiovascular disease risk in children through increased energy intake, increased adiposity, and dyslipidemia. The committee found that it is reasonable to recommend that children consume ≤25 g (100 cal or ≈6 teaspoons) of added sugars per day and to avoid added sugars for children sugars most likely can be safely consumed in low amounts as part of a healthy diet, few children achieve such levels, making this an important public health target. PMID:27550974

  10. Influence of selected Rhizoctonia solani isolates on sugar beet seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skonieczek Paweł

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available From 2008 to 2010 the levels of sugar beet seedlings infection caused by Rhizoctonia solani were compared in laboratory tests. Seven sugar beet lines were tested: H56, H66, S2, S3, S4, S5 and S6 as well as three control cultivars: Carlos, Esperanza and Janosik. Sugar beet lines with tolerance to rhizoctoniosis and cultivars without tolerance were infected artificially by R. solani isolates: R1, R28a and R28b. These isolates belong to the second anastomosis group (AG, which is usually highly pathogenic to beet roots. The aim of the experiment was to test whether the tolerance of sugar beet genotypes to R. solani AG 2 prevents both root rot, and damping-off of seedlings, induced by the pathogen. Sugar beet lines tolerant to brown root rot in laboratory tests were significantly less sensitive to infection of the seedlings by R. solani AG 2 isolates in comparison to control cultivars. Rhizoctonia solani AG 2 isolates demonstrated considerable differences in pathogenicity against seedlings of sugar beet lines and cultivars. The strongest infection of sugar beet seedlings occurred with the isolate R28b. The greatest tolerance to infection by AG 2 isolates was found for the S5 and S3 breeding lines.

  11. On the pull: periplasmic trapping of sugars before transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Gavin H

    2017-06-01

    Bacteria have evolved many routes for taking up nutrients, demonstrating great versatility in the types and mechanism of uptake used in different physiological conditions. The discovery of a single transporter in the bacterium Advenella mimigardefordensis for the uptake of five different sugars, including L-glucose and D-xylose, is described in this issue (Meinert et al., ), providing yet another example of the surprising adaptability of bacterial transport strategies. The transporter identified is a tripartite ATP-independent (TRAP) transporter, not previously associated with sugar transport, and in fact does not transport the sugars directly at all, rather requiring them to be converted in the periplasm to their respective sugar acid forms before transport through what appears to be a novel general sugar acid transporter. In this commentary, I describe how this process is consistent with the known mechanisms of TRAP transporters and consider how the role of sugar oxidation, or oxidative fermentation, operates with multiple hexose and pentose sugars. Finally I suggest that the periplasmic conversion of nutrients acquired across the outer membrane, before transport across the inner membrane, could have potentially useful biological functions in Gram negative bacteria. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. IRREVERSIBILITY GENERATION IN SUGAR, ALCOHOL AND BIOGAS INTEGRATED PRODUCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meilyn González Cortés

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the stages of losses and lower exergetic efficiency are determined when the sugar production process is integrated with others for the production of products such as biogas, torula yeast and electricity. The study is carried out in three scenarios of integrated processes for obtaining the indicated products. A sugar factory in which sugar and electricity are produced is considered as the base scenario and from this; a second scenario is inferred in which alcohol is produced from the molasses of the sugar process and biogas from the vinasse of the alcohol distillation process. Finally, a third scenario is exergetically evaluated in which sugar, electricity, biogas and alcohol are produced, but this last one from juices and molasses of the sugar process. For the exergetic analysis the integrated scheme was divided into 8 subsystems. From the analysis of results, the major subsystems that generate irreversibilities are: cogeneration (64.36-65.98%, juice extraction (8.85-9.85%, crystallization and cooking, (8.48 -9.02%, fermentation (4.12-4.94% and distillation (2.74-3.2%. Improvements are proposed to minimize irreversibilities, including the thermal integration of processes, technological modifications in the fermentation process and the introduction of more efficient equipment for the generation of electricity. The exergetic efficiency is between 78.95-81.10%, obtaining greater exergetic efficiency in the scheme of joint operation to produce sugar, alcohol and biogas.

  13. Structural confirmation of oligosaccharides newly isolated from sugar beet molasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abe Tatsuya

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sugar beet molasses is a viscous by-product of the processing of sugar beets into sugar. The molasses is known to contain sucrose and raffinose, a typical trisaccharide, with a well-established structure. Although sugar beet molasses contains various other oligosaccharides as well, the structures of those oligosaccharides have not been examined in detail. The purpose of this study was isolation and structural confirmation of these other oligosaccharides found in sugar beet molasses. Results Four oligosaccharides were newly isolated from sugar beet molasses using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and carbon-Celite column chromatography. Structural confirmation of the saccharides was provided by methylation analysis, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionaization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR measurements. Conclusion The following oligosaccharides were identified in sugar beet molasses: β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1- > 6-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2 1-α-D-glucopyranoside (named β-planteose, α-D-galactopyranosyl-(1- > 1-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2 1-α-D-glucopyranoside (named1-planteose, α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1- > 6-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 2-β-D-fructofuranoside (theanderose, and β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1- > 3-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 2-β-D-fructofuranoside (laminaribiofructose. 1-planteose and laminaribiofructose were isolated from natural sources for the first time.

  14. Urinary Sugars—A Biomarker of Total Sugars Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Tasevska

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Measurement error in self-reported sugars intake may explain the lack of consistency in the epidemiologic evidence on the association between sugars and disease risk. This review describes the development and applications of a biomarker of sugars intake, informs its future use and recommends directions for future research. Recently, 24 h urinary sucrose and fructose were suggested as a predictive biomarker for total sugars intake, based on findings from three highly controlled feeding studies conducted in the United Kingdom. From this work, a calibration equation for the biomarker that provides an unbiased measure of sugars intake was generated that has since been used in two US-based studies with free-living individuals to assess measurement error in dietary self-reports and to develop regression calibration equations that could be used in future diet-disease analyses. Further applications of the biomarker include its use as a surrogate measure of intake in diet-disease association studies. Although this biomarker has great potential and exhibits favorable characteristics, available data come from a few controlled studies with limited sample sizes conducted in the UK. Larger feeding studies conducted in different populations are needed to further explore biomarker characteristics and stability of its biases, compare its performance, and generate a unique, or population-specific biomarker calibration equations to be applied in future studies. A validated sugars biomarker is critical for informed interpretation of sugars-disease association studies.

  15. Does Consuming Sugar and Artificial Sweeteners Change Taste Preferences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolotto, Carole

    2015-01-01

    Americans consume a lot of sugar, primarily from sweeteners that are added to processed foods and beverages. Data from the US Department of Agriculture reveals that in 2013, Americans consumed 22.3 teaspoons of added caloric sweeteners a day, which is significantly more than the American Heart Association’s recommendation. Artificial and alternative sweeteners have also been added to a plethora of foods. These sweeteners range from about 180 times sweeter to as much as 13,000 times sweeter than sugar. Consumption of both sugar and artificial sweeteners may be changing our palates or taste preferences over time, increasing our desire for sweet foods. Unfortunately, the data on this are lacking. In the summer of 2014, a group of 20 people from Kaiser Permanente facilities throughout California agreed to cut out all added sugars and artificial sweeteners for 2 weeks and then complete a survey to determine whether their taste preferences had changed. After the 2-week challenge, 95% of participants (18 out of 19 respondents) found that sweet foods and drinks tasted sweeter or too sweet, 75% (15 out of 20 respondents) found that other foods tasted sweeter, and 95% (19 out of 20 respondents) said moving forward they would use less or even no sugar. Additionally, 86.6% of participants (13 out of 15 respondents) stopped craving sugar after 6 days. Although this was a small survey, the results suggest that using a 2-week sugar challenge can help to reset taste preferences and make consuming less or no sugar easier. Physicians should consider recommending a sugar and artificial sweetener challenge to all their patients, especially those with obesity, diabetes, or cardiovascular disease. PMID:26176574

  16. Declining consumption of added sugars and sugar-sweetened beverages in Australia: a challenge for obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand-Miller, Jennie C; Barclay, Alan W

    2017-04-01

    Background: Reduced intakes of added sugars and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) have been the main focus of efforts to stall obesity. Although obesity has risen steeply in Australia, some evidence suggests that added-sugars and SSB intakes have declined over the same time frame. Objective: We investigated recent trends in the availability of sugars and sweeteners and changes in intakes of total sugars, added sugars, and SSBs in Australia by using multiple, independent data sources. Design: The study was designed to compare relevant data published by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations [FAO Statistics Division Database (FAOSTAT)], the Australian government, academia, and the food industry. Results: With the use of the FAOSTAT food balance sheets for Australia, the per capita availability of added or refined sugars and sweeteners was shown to have fallen 16% from 152 g/d in 1980 to 127 g/d in 2011 ( P -trend = 0.001). In national dietary surveys in 1995 and 2011-2012, added-sugars intake declined markedly in adult men (from 72 to 59 g/d; -18%) but not in women (44-42 g/d; NS). As a proportion of total energy, added-sugars intake fell 10% in adult men but nonsignificantly in adult women. Between 1995 and 2011-2012, the proportion of energy from SSBs (including 100% juice) declined 10% in adult men and 20% in women. More marked changes were observed in children aged 2-18 y. Data from national grocery sales indicated that per capita added-sugars intakes derived from carbonated soft drinks fell 26% between 1997 and 2011 (from 23 to 17 g/d) with similar trends for noncarbonated beverages. Conclusions: In Australia, 4 independent data sets confirmed shorter- and longer-term declines in the availability and intake of added sugars, including those contributed by SSBs. The findings challenge the widespread belief that energy from added sugars or sugars in solution are uniquely linked to the prevalence of obesity. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  17. Influence of Palm Sugar Water in the Native Chicken Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Aryanti, Fera; Aji, Muhammad Bayu; Budiono, Nugroho

    2013-01-01

    Palm sugar containing 66,18% sukrose is an additional source of energi quickly available to the chicken. A study to examine the effect of palm sugar in the native chicken performance was held in animal health training center, Cinagara-Bogor lasted from August until November 2012. This present experiment using 1274 native chicken that were kept starting DOC. Palm sugar concentrations given in the drinking water as much as one percent started to be given to the chcken when they were still DOC. ...

  18. Antioxidant vitamin adequacy in relation to consumption of sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton-Smith, C; Woodward, M

    1995-02-01

    To investigate the prevalence of antioxidant vitamin inadequacy and low fibre intakes according to total, intrinsic, extrinsic and milk-sugar consumption groups. Age- and sex-stratified cross-sectional study of coronary risk factors and diet. Based on a personal health and food frequency questionnaire with a clinic attendance for body measurements. Ten general practitioners' surgeries from each of 22 Scottish districts (12 Mainland Health Boards) surveyed during 1984-1986. 11,626 men and women aged 25-64 years who participated in the baseline Scottish Heart Health (SHHS) and MONICA studies. Overall response rate was 69% after one reminder letter. Both the mean daily intakes of fibre and vitamins A (retinol and carotenes), C and E, and the percentage of each sex group who fall below the dietary reference values for each nutrient are reported according to fifths of dietary sugars. The percentage of the population variation in vitamin and fibre intake which can be explained by consumption of the different sugars is provided from multiple analysis of variance techniques. Intrinsic sugar intake is positively related to antioxidant vitamin and fibre intake (correlation coefficients, r, between 0.1 and 0.61 apart from retinol, r = -0.06), due to their mutual occurrence in fresh fruits and vegetables, while consumption of milk sugars tends to be weekly inversely related to antioxidant vitamin and fibre intake (apart from vitamin C, r = 0.02-0.06). Both low and high extrinsic sugar intake seems to be associated with poorer antioxidant vitamin and fibre-containing diets compared with a consumption of extrinsic sugar of between 6.5 and 15.6% energy for men and 4.8 and 11.6% energy for women. Intake of different sugar types is related to the antioxidant nutrient adequacy of a diet independent of age, smoking habit, total energy intake, alcohol consumption, weight and height. Fibre intake is below the recommended value at all levels of dietary sugars. Prevalence of antioxidant

  19. Influence of Palm Sugar Water in the Native Chicken Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Aryanti, Fera; Aji, Muhammad Bayu; Budiono, Nugroho

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Palm sugar containing 66,18% sukrose is an additional source of energi quickly available to the chicken. A study to examine the effect of palm sugar in the native chicken performance was held in animal health training center, Cinagara-Bogor lasted from August until November 2012. This present experiment using 1274 native chicken that were kept starting DOC. Palm sugar concentrations given in the drinking water as much as one percent started to be given to the chcken when they were st...

  20. Association of Dietary Sugars and Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake with Obesity in Korean Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyungho Ha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined the association between dietary sugar intake and obesity in Asian children and adolescents. We evaluated the association of dietary sugar intake and its food source with obesity in Korean children and adolescents. In this cross-sectional analysis, data were obtained from five studies conducted between 2002 and 2011. The study included 2599 children and adolescents who had completed more than three days of dietary records and had anthropometric data. Total sugar intake was higher in girls than in boys (54.3 g for girls and 46.6 g for boys, p < 0.0001. Sugar intake from milk and fruits was inversely associated with overweight or obesity in girls only (OR for overweight, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.32–0.84; p for trend = 0.0246 and OR for obesity, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.23–0.79; p for trend = 0.0113. Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB consumption was not associated with obesity in girls, while boys had lower odds ratios for obesity (OR for obesity, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.26–1.05; p for trend = 0.0310. These results suggest that total sugars and SSB intake in Asian children and adolescents remains relatively low and sugar intake from milk and fruits is associated with a decreased risk of overweight or obesity, especially in girls.

  1. Total, added, and free sugars: are restrictive guidelines science-based or achievable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Jennifer; Slavin, Joanne

    2015-04-15

    Sugar consumption, especially added sugars, is under attack. Various government and health authorities have suggested new sugar recommendations and guidelines as low as 5% of total calories from free sugars. Definitions for total sugars, free sugars, and added sugars are not standardized, nor are there accepted nutrient databases for this information. Our objective was to measure total sugars and added sugars in sample meal plans created by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (AND). Utilizing the Nutrition Data System for Research (NDSR) nutritional database, results found that plans created by the USDA and AND averaged 5.1% and 3.1% calories from added sugar, 8.7% and 3.1% from free sugar, and 23.3% and 21.1% as total sugars respectively. Compliance with proposed added sugar recommendations would require strict dietary compliance and may not be sustainable for many Americans. Without an accepted definition and equation for calculating added sugar, added sugar recommendations are arbitrary and may reduce intakes of nutrient-rich, recommended foods, such as yogurt, whole grains, and tart fruits including cranberries, cherries, and grapefruit. Added sugars are one part of excess calorie intake; however, compliance with low added sugar recommendations may not be achievable for the general public.

  2. Total, Added, and Free Sugars: Are Restrictive Guidelines Science-Based or Achievable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Erickson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sugar consumption, especially added sugars, is under attack. Various government and health authorities have suggested new sugar recommendations and guidelines as low as 5% of total calories from free sugars. Definitions for total sugars, free sugars, and added sugars are not standardized, nor are there accepted nutrient databases for this information. Our objective was to measure total sugars and added sugars in sample meal plans created by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA and the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (AND. Utilizing the Nutrition Data System for Research (NDSR nutritional database, results found that plans created by the USDA and AND averaged 5.1% and 3.1% calories from added sugar, 8.7% and 3.1% from free sugar, and 23.3% and 21.1% as total sugars respectively. Compliance with proposed added sugar recommendations would require strict dietary compliance and may not be sustainable for many Americans. Without an accepted definition and equation for calculating added sugar, added sugar recommendations are arbitrary and may reduce intakes of nutrient-rich, recommended foods, such as yogurt, whole grains, and tart fruits including cranberries, cherries, and grapefruit. Added sugars are one part of excess calorie intake; however, compliance with low added sugar recommendations may not be achievable for the general public.

  3. Total, free, and added Sugar consumption and adherence to guidelines: the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007-2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluik, D.; Lee, van L.; Engelen, A.I.P.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    A high sugar intake is a subject of scientific debate due to the suggested health implications and recent free sugar recommendations by the WHO. The objective was to complete a food composition table for added and free sugars, to estimate the intake of total sugars, free sugars, and added sugars,

  4. Added Sugar: Don't Get Sabotaged by Sweeteners

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... foods during processing. Desserts, sodas, and energy and sports drinks are the top sources of added sugars for ... calorie-free drinks instead of sugary sodas or sports drinks. That goes for coffee drinks, too. When you ...

  5. Energy potential of sugar cane biomass in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rípoli Tomaz Caetano Cannavam

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is a developing tropical country with abundant biomass resources. Sugar cane (Saccahrum spp. is primarily produced to obtain sugar and alcohol. Presently sugar cane is burned before harvest. If the cane were not burned before harvest, the trash (tops and leaves could be collected and burned to produce steam to generate electricity, or be converted into alcohol fuel and decrease the severe air pollution problems caused by sugar cane burning. Based upon logical assumptions and appropriate data, we estimate the number of people that could be served each year by this biomass if its energy was converted into electricity. From trash and bagasse, 7.0x10(6 and 5.5x10(6 people y-1 could be served, respectively.

  6. Low Blood Sugar in Newborns Tied to Brain Problems Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... TUESDAY, Aug. 8, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Low blood sugar affects about one in six newborns, and new research suggests it could lead to brain difficulties in childhood. Babies who experience low blood ...

  7. Kinetic modelling of the Maillard reaction between proteins and sugars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brands, C.M.J.

    2002-01-01

    Keywords: Maillard reaction, sugar isomerisation, kinetics, multiresponse modelling, brown colour formation, lysine damage, mutagenicity, casein, monosaccharides, disaccharides, aldoses, ketoses

    The aim of this thesis was to determine the kinetics of the Maillard reaction between

  8. Salt, sugar, fat: how the food giants hooked us

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moss, Michael

    2013-01-01

    .... Traces the rise of the processed food industry and how addictive salt, sugar, and fat have enabled its dominance in the past half century, revealing deliberate corporate practices behind current...

  9. Simple Sugar Intake and Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Epidemiological and Mechanistic Insight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Laguna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sugar intake has dramatically increased during the last few decades. Specifically, there has been a clear trend towards higher consumption of fructose and high fructose corn syrup, which are the most common added sugars in processed food, soft drinks and other sweetened beverages. Although still controversial, this rising trend in simple sugar consumption has been positively associated with weight gain and obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Interestingly, all of these metabolic alterations have also been related to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. The purpose of this review is to discuss the evidence coming from epidemiological studies and data from animal models relating the consumption of simple sugars, and specifically fructose, with an increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma and to gain insight into the putative molecular mechanisms involved.

  10. Clastogenicity of landfarming soil treated with sugar cane vinasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Souza, Tatiana; Hencklein, Fabiana Aparecida; de Franceschi de Angelis, Dejanira; Fontanetti, Carmem Silvia

    2013-02-01

    The addition of nutrients and/or soil bulking agents is used in bioremediation to increase microbial activity in contaminated soils. For this purpose, some studies have assessed the effectiveness of vinasse in the bioremediation of soils contaminated with petroleum waste. The present study was aimed at investigating the clastogenic/aneugenic potential of landfarming soil from a petroleum refinery before and after addition of sugar cane vinasse using the Allium cepa bioassay. Our results show that the addition of sugar cane vinasse to landfarming soil potentiates the clastogenic effects of the latter probably due the release of metals that were previously adsorbed into the organic matter. These metals may have interacted synergistically with petroleum hydrocarbons present in the landfarming soil treated with sugar cane vinasse. We recommend further tests to monitor the effects of sugar cane vinasse on soils contaminated with organic wastes.

  11. Sugar Production from Durian Peel by Acid Hydrolysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Valued Acer Customer

    2013-08-14

    Aug 14, 2013 ... Agricultural waste is mainly composed of cellulose and hemicelluloses which can be converted to sugars. The inexpensive sugar from durian peel was hydrolyzed with H2SO4, HCl and H3PO4 at a concentration of 0.5 to 2.0% (v/v). The hydrolysis times ranging from 15 to 60 min were investigated when the ...

  12. Consumption of added sugars is decreasing in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Jean A; Sharma, Andrea J; Grellinger, Lisa; Vos, Miriam B

    2011-09-01

    The consumption of added sugars (caloric sweeteners) has been linked to obesity, diabetes, and heart disease. Little is known about recent consumption trends in the United States or how intakes compare with current guidelines. We examined trends in intakes of added sugars in the United States over the past decade. A cross-sectional study of US residents ≥2 y of age (n = 42,316) was conducted by using dietary data from NHANES 1999-2008 (five 2-y cycles) and data for added-sugar contents from the MyPyramid Equivalents Database. Mean intakes of added sugars (grams and percentage of total energy intake) were weighted to obtain national estimates over time across age, sex, and race-ethnic groups. Linear trends were tested by using Wald's F tests. Between 1999-2000 and 2007-2008, the absolute intake of added sugars decreased from a mean (95% CI) of 100.1 g/d (92.8, 107.3 g/d) to 76.7 g/d (71.6, 81.9 g/d); two-thirds of this decrease, from 37.4 g/d (32.6, 42.1 g/d) to 22.8 g/d (18.4, 27.3 g/d), resulted from decreased soda consumption (P-linear trend sugars to increase over the study period (P-linear trend = 0.003), although the peak consumption reached only 0.15 g/d (0.08, 0.22 g/d). The percentage of total energy from added sugars also decreased from 18.1% (16.9%, 19.3%) to 14.6% (13.7%, 15.5%) (P-linear trend sugars in the United States decreased between 1999-2000 and 2007-2008, primarily because of a reduction in soda consumption, mean intakes continue to exceed recommended limits.

  13. Fermentation of lignocellulosic sugars to acetic acid by Moorella thermoacetica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsanipour, Mandana; Suko, Azra Vajzovic; Bura, Renata

    2016-06-01

    A systematic study of bioconversion of lignocellulosic sugars to acetic acid by Moorella thermoacetica (strain ATCC 39073) was conducted. Four different water-soluble fractions (hydrolysates) obtained after steam pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass were selected and fermented to acetic acid in batch fermentations. M. thermoacetica can effectively ferment xylose and glucose in hydrolysates from wheat straw, forest residues, switchgrass, and sugarcane straw to acetic acid. Xylose and glucose were completely utilized, with xylose being consumed first. M. thermoacetica consumed up to 62 % of arabinose, 49 % galactose and 66 % of mannose within 72 h of fermentation in the mixture of lignocellulosic sugars. The highest acetic acid yield was obtained from sugarcane straw hydrolysate, with 71 % of theoretical yield based on total sugars (17 g/L acetic acid from 24 g/L total sugars). The lowest acetic acid yield was observed in forest residues hydrolysate, with 39 % of theoretical yield based on total sugars (18 g/L acetic acid from 49 g/L total sugars). Process derived compounds from steam explosion pretreatment, including 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (0.4 g/L), furfural (0.1 g/L) and total phenolics (3 g/L), did not inhibit microbial growth and acetic acid production yield. This research identified two major factors that adversely affected acetic acid yield in all hydrolysates, especially in forest residues: (i) glucose to xylose ratio and (ii) incomplete consumption of arabinose, galactose and mannose. For efficient bioconversion of lignocellulosic sugars to acetic acid, it is imperative to have an appropriate balance of sugars in a hydrolysate. Hence, the choice of lignocellulosic biomass and steam pretreatment design are fundamental steps for the industrial application of this process.

  14. Sugar production from durian ( Durio zibethinus Murray) peel by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agricultural waste is mainly composed of cellulose and hemicelluloses which can be converted to sugars. The inexpensive sugar from durian peel was hydrolyzed with H2SO4, HCl and H3PO4 at a concentration of 0.5 to 2.0% (v/v). The hydrolysis times ranging from 15 to 60 min were investigated when the mixture was ...

  15. Children and adolescents' attitudes towards sugar reduction in dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hye-Jong; Machín, Leandro; Arrúa, Alejandra; Antúnez, Lucía; Vidal, Leticia; Giménez, Ana; Curutchet, María Rosa; Ares, Gastón

    2017-04-01

    The development of strategies to reduce sugar intake of children and adolescents has been deemed necessary to cope with the global obesity epidemic. In this context, the aims of the present work were to study attitudes towards sugar reduction in three dairy products of children and adolescents of two income levels and to assess if these attitudes were modulated by the inclusion of the traffic light system on labels. A total of 646 children and adolescents from three primary/secondary schools in Montevideo (Uruguay) participated in the study. A total of twelve labels were designed following a full factorial design with three variables: dairy product (3 levels: yogurt, chocolate-flavoured milk and vanilla milk dessert), sugar reduction claim (2 levels: absent and present "20% less sugar") and traffic light system (2 levels: absent and present). Children had to evaluate their expected liking of the labels and to answer a check-all-that-apply question composed of terms related to tastiness, healthfulness and fun. Sugar claim significantly increased children and adolescents' expected liking scores (p=0.01), suggesting they had a positive attitude towards sugar reduction in the evaluated dairy products. However, the influence of sugar reduction claim on hedonic expectations and healthfulness perception was modulated by the inclusion of the traffic-light system on labels (p=0.01). This front-of-pack nutrition labelling scheme increased their unhealthfulness perception of products with high sugar content and could potentially discourage their consumption. Age and income modulated the influence of these strategies on hedonic and healthfulness perception (p<0.05). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Sugar consumption and dental caries experience in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macigo, Francis Githua; James, Regina Mutave; Ogunbodede, Eyitope; Gathece, Loice Warware

    2016-06-01

    There have been claims that dental caries experience and prevalence in Kenya has been increasing as a result of increased sugar consumption. A review of the literature in 1986 failed to link dental caries experience with an increase in gross national sugar consumption. Subsequently, a number of studies were conducted, necessitating further review to examine trends in dental caries experience and to relate this to changes in per capita sugar consumption. Studies conducted since 1980 for children 3-15 years of age were examined. Dental caries prevalence and experience for 3-5 years' (deciduous teeth) and 12 years' (permanent teeth) age groups were analysed. Calculation of per capita sugar consumption was performed using gross national annual sugar consumption for 1969-2009 national population census years. There was a gradual increase in per capita sugar consumption, from 35.5 g/day in 1969 to 60.8 g/day in 2009. Dental caries experience in deciduous teeth for children 3-5 years of age increased from a decayed, missing and filled teeth/decayed and filled teeth (dmft/dft) index of 1.5 in the 1980s to 2.95 in the 2000s. At 12 years of age, caries experience for permanent teeth increased from a DMFT of 0.2 to a DMFT of 0.92 over the same period. Dental caries prevalence for both deciduous and permanent teeth also increased with time. These observations suggest that dental caries prevalence and experience increased with time, in parallel to an increase in per capita sugar consumption. However, a clearer understanding can be derived from longitudinal studies, based on actual household age-specific sugar consumption and dental caries incidence. © 2016 FDI World Dental Federation.

  17. MICROFLORA OF BEET SUGAR PRODUCTION: PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Kulneva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Sugar beet is one of the strategic crops for food safety of Russia. The lack of specialized warehouse for harvest does not provide storage of roots for a long time. In the case of a thaw roots that have been defrosted unsuitable for processing. Beet and products of its processing is a good object for the development of microorganisms. Permanent microflora of sugar production are: Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium perfringes, Leuconostoc dextranicum, Torula alba, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Sarcina lutea and other kinds of microorganisms, leading to a problem processing of beet root and reduced quality of sugar. The most dangerous is the slimy bacteriosis is a bacterial disease beet caused by heterofermentative cocci of Leuconostoc (Leuconostoc mesenteroides, L. dextranicum. Product of the vital activity of microorganisms is dextran, which is synthesized from sucrose as a result of dextrany or mucous fermentation and leads to significant technological problems in processing of infected beet. Improving the efficiency of sugar production is connected with decrease in loss of quality of raw material preparation, storing and processing of sugar beet. At sugar plants use a variety of drugs that suppress the growth of pathogenic microflora, but there comes a rapid adaptation of microorganisms, therefore there is a need to implement new products to prevent damage to roots and improve the quality of produced sugar. To resolve this problem experimentally selected bactericidal drug, defined its rational concentration and conditions for the use in sugar beet production. The use of antibacterial drug in the process of extraction allows to increase the purity of diffusion juice 1.3 %, reduce the protein content in it (12.5 %; with the purity of the pure juice increases by 1.1 %, its color index is reduced by 44.7 %.

  18. Hydrogenolysis of 6-carbon sugars and other organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werpy, Todd A.; Frye, Jr., John G.; Zacher, Alan H.; Miller, Dennis J.

    2005-01-11

    Methods for hydrogenolysis are described which use a Re-containing multimetallic catalyst for hydrogenolysis of both C--O and C--C bonds. Methods and compositions for reactions of hydrogen over a Re-containing catalyst with compositions containing a 6-carbon sugar, sugar alcohol, or glycerol are described. It has been surprisingly discovered that reaction with hydrogen over a Re-containing multimetallic catalyst resulted in superior conversion and selectivity to desired products such as propylene glycol.

  19. Reducing sugar production of sweet sorghum bagasse kraft pulp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solihat, Nissa Nurfajrin; Fajriutami, Triyani; Adi, Deddy Triyono Nugroho; Fatriasari, Widya; Hermiati, Euis

    2017-01-01

    Kraft pulping of sweet sorghum bagasse (SSB) has been used for effective delignification method for cellulose production. This study was conducted to evaluate the performance pulp kraft of SSB for reducing sugar production. The study intended to investigate the effect of active alkali and sulfidity loading variation of SSB pulp kraft on reducing sugar yield per biomass. The SSB pulp was prepared after pulping using three variations of active alkali (17, 19, and 22%) and sulfidity loading (20, 22, and 24%) at 170°C for 4 h with liquor to wood ratio of 10. A total of 9 pulps were obtained from these pretreatments. Delignification pretreatment has been succesfully removed lignin and hemicellulose more than 90% and 50%, respectively. Increasing active alkali and sulfidity loading has significantly increased lignin removal caused by disruption of the cell wall structure for releasing lignin into black liquor in the cellulose extraction. The enzymatic hydrolysis of pulp was carried out with cellulase loading of 40 FPU per g substrate in the shaking incubator at 50°C and 150 rpm for 78 h. For each 24 h, the reducing sugar yield (DNS assay) has been observed. Even though the lignin and hemicellulose loss occurred along with higher active alkali loading, this condition tends to decrease its yield. The reducing sugar concentration varied between 7-8 g/L. Increasing active alkali and sulfidity was significantly decreased the reducing sugar per biomass. Pulp delignified by 17% active alkali and 20% sulfidity has demonstrated the maximum reducing sugar yield per biomass of 45.57% resulted after 72 h enzymatic hydrolysis. These results indicated that kraft pulping was success to degrade more lignin and hemicellulose content to facilitate the enzyme for breaking down the cellulose into its sugar monomer. A high loss of lignin and hemicellulose are not single factor to improve digestibility of SSB. This sugar has potential for yeast fermented into bioethanol.

  20. Reaction of simple sterile sugar beet hybrids to regulated environmental factors for sugar yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. О. Корнєєва

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sugar yield, an important indicator, is resulting from interaction of two components: the yield and sugar content, both they are controlled by polygenes, and influenced significantly by environment. A.V. Kilchevskyi and L.V. Hotyliova pointed to the fact that in breeding, contrary to evolution, stabilizing forms are dominated by driving ones, which determine the growth response to regulated factors and decreased resistance to non-regulated environmental factors [1]. A relevant breeding trend is to create the genotypes adequate with certain technologies, so to say «low input variety high input variety» i.e. varieties with low and high energy contribution to technology. From this perspective, selection of stable in their manifestation lines against the analyzing backgrounds has become an important element of the breeding process [2]. Home scientists, such as A.L. Mazmulov and M.S. Hrytsyk have contributed greatly to the development and application of the agro-backgrounds [3, 4].

  1. Evaluation of a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography design space for sugars and sugar alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetrick, Evan M; Kramer, Timothy T; Risley, Donald S

    2017-03-17

    Based on a column-screening exercise, a column ranking system was developed for sample mixtures containing any combination of 26 sugar and sugar alcohol analytes using 16 polar stationary phases in the HILIC mode with acetonitrile/water or acetone/water mobile phases. Each analyte was evaluated on the HILIC columns with gradient elution and the subsequent chromatography data was compiled into a statistical software package where any subset of the analytes can be selected and the columns are then ranked by the greatest separation. Since these analytes lack chromophores, aerosol-based detectors, including an evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD) and a charged aerosol detector (CAD) were employed for qualitative and quantitative detection. Example qualitative applications are provided to illustrate the practicality and efficiency of this HILIC column ranking. Furthermore, the design-space approach was used as a starting point for a quantitative method for the trace analysis of glucose in trehalose samples in a complex matrix. Knowledge gained from evaluating the design-space led to rapid development of a capable method as demonstrated through validation of the following parameters: specificity, accuracy, precision, linearity, limit of quantitation, limit of detection, and range. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Reliability of a sugar consumption questionnaire for rural Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psoter, Walter J; Gebrian, Bette; Katz, Ralph V

    2008-03-01

    Studies of dental caries should account for sugar consumption as a potential confounder or effect modifier of other exposure-caries associations. The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability of a sugar consumption score for rural Haiti through correlation of test-retest scores derived from a structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire. A structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire of sugar consumption was developed for rural Haiti to achieve contextual validity. The resulting questionnaire had two parts; one part captures the child's consumption of sugar products frequency; the second part captures sugar additions to the child's food preparation. A test-retest, one week apart, was conducted on a sample of 30 mother-child pairs (children ages 9-17). Test-retest correlations and paired t-testing was conducted to assess the questionnaire's reliability. All test-retest (Part 1, children's questions; Part 2, mother's questions; the combined scores) had Pearson product correlation coefficients of 0.7 or greater, respectively. All test-retest scores had paired t-test p-values3 0.95. A reliable, contextually valid relative sugar consumption questionnaire specific for rural Haiti is presented. The questionnaire and methodology employed in its development and testing may have utility for dental caries researchers in investigations in less developed countries.

  3. Miracle fruit: An alternative sugar substitute in sour beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Jéssica Ferreira; Andrade, Rafaela da Silva; Bastos, Sabrina Carvalho; Coelho, Sandra Bragança; Pinheiro, Ana Carla Marques

    2016-12-01

    High sugar consumption has been related to several chronic diseases and thus, many alternative sweeteners have been extensively researched. However, there is still controversy regarding the harmful effects of their consumption, mainly regarding the use of artificial sweeteners, controversy which increases the demand for natural sweeteners, such as miracle fruit. This tropical plant grows in West Africa is named for its unique ability of changing a sour taste into sweet. Therefore, this study aimed to characterize the temporal profile of miracle fruit and assess its sugar substitute power in sour beverages through time-intensity and temporal dominance of sensations tests. For this, unsweetened lemonade and lemonades with sugar, sucralose and previous miracle fruit ingestions were evaluated. We noted that the dynamic profile of lemonade ingested after miracle fruit ingestion indicates that it seems to be a good sugar substitute, since it provides high sweetness intensity and persistence, reduced product sourness and an absence of aftertastes. The miracle fruit also provided a sensory profile similar to that of sucralose, an established and recognized sugar substitute. The results of this study provide important information for future applications of miracle fruit as a sugar substitute in sour beverages, providing an alternative use for a natural substance as a sweetening agent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effective production of fermentable sugars from brown macroalgae biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Damao; Kim, Do Hyoung; Kim, Kyoung Heon

    2016-11-01

    Brown macroalgae are renewable and sustainable biomass resources for the production of biofuels and chemicals, owing to their high levels of carbohydrates and low levels of lignin. To increase the biological usage of brown macroalgae, it is necessary to depolymerize the polysaccharides that generate macroalgal monomeric sugars or sugar derivatives and to convert them into fermentable sugars for the production of biofuels and chemicals. In this review, we discuss the chemical and enzymatic saccharification of the major carbohydrates found in brown macroalgae and the use of the resulting constituents in the production of biofuels and chemicals, as well as high-value health-benefiting functional oligosaccharides and sugars. We also discuss recently reported experimental results, novel enzymes, and technological breakthroughs that are related to polysaccharide depolymerization, fermentable sugar production, and the biological conversion of non-favorable sugars for fermentation using industrial microorganisms. This review provides a comprehensive perspective of the efficient utilization of brown macroalgae as renewable resources for the production of biofuels and chemicals.

  5. AGRIBUSINESS COMPETITIVENESS SUGAR IN THE XXI CENTURY (2002-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulises Pacheco-Feria

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The competitiveness of sugar agroindustry is an eminently practical problem. Seven years after initiate the Program of re-sizing of the sector in Cuba, they have not obtained results that they evidence a change at companies’s position. In order to transform the situation a theoretic interpretation is essential that he make the construction of an analytical frame in mail, with present-day tendencies of production and the commercialization of sugar possible. The present work has like objective to elaborate the theoretic frame that he base the change in the competitive structure of sugar agroindustry and the world market of sugar in the present century. The proposed objective was obeyed, as from the analysis of the factors that they have transformed the competitive structure of the sugar industry among the 2002-2010. It was defined besides, than only competitiveness a productive model’s model can reach, in the frame that he tend to the attainment of maximum economic efficiency in all the manufacturing process of sugar; and that he consider like an important premise for the overtaking, the instability of international fair market values. 

  6. Reducing calories and added sugars by improving children's beverage choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briefel, Ronette R; Wilson, Ander; Cabili, Charlotte; Hedley Dodd, Allison

    2013-02-01

    Because childhood obesity is such a threat to the physical, mental, and social health of youth, there is a great need to identify effective strategies to reduce its prevalence. The objective of this study was to estimate the mean calories from added sugars that are saved by switching sugar-sweetened beverages (including soda, fruit-flavored drinks, and sport drinks) and flavored milks consumed to unflavored low-fat milk (students participating in the National School Lunch Program, to estimate changes in mean calories from added sugars both at and away from school. Overall, these changes translated to a mean of 205 calories or a 10% savings in energy intake across all students (8% among children in elementary school and 11% in middle and high schools). Eighty percent of the daily savings were attributed to beverages consumed away from school, with results consistent across school level, sex, race/ethnicity, and weight status. Children's consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages at home contributed the greatest share of empty calories from added sugars. Such findings indicate that parental education should focus on the importance of reducing or eliminating sugar-sweetened beverages served at home. This conclusion has implications for improving children's food and beverage environments for food and nutrition educators and practitioners, other health care professionals, policy makers, researchers, and parents. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Discrimination of genetically modified sugar beets based on terahertz spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Li, Zhi; Yin, Xianhua; Hu, Fangrong; Hu, Cong

    2016-01-15

    The objective of this paper was to apply terahertz (THz) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics techniques for discrimination of genetically modified (GM) and non-GM sugar beets. In this paper, the THz spectra of 84 sugar beet samples (36 GM sugar beets and 48 non-GM ones) were obtained by using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) system in the frequency range from 0.2 to 1.2 THz. Three chemometrics methods, principal component analysis (PCA), discriminant analysis (DA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS), were employed to classify sugar beet samples into two groups: genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and non-GMOs. The DPLS method yielded the best classification result, and the percentages of successful classification for GM and non-GM sugar beets were both 100%. Results of the present study demonstrate the usefulness of THz spectroscopy together with chemometrics methods as a powerful tool to distinguish GM and non-GM sugar beets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. 76 FR 50285 - Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... under Presidential Proclamation 6763 (60 FR 1007). On August 1, 2011, the Secretary of Agriculture... countries in the amounts specified below: FY 2012 Raw cane sugar Country allocations (MTRV) Argentina 46,154...

  9. Development of an Exterior-Mount Real Time Sugar Beet Yield Monitoring System for a Sugar Beet Harvester

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    H. Bagherpour; S. Minaei; M. Abdollahian Noghabi; M. Esmail Khorasani Fardavani

    2015-01-01

    .... Precision farming is the best practice to approach these goals. For real time measurement of sugar beet yield, a yield monitor was developed, and installed on the exterior side of the harvester’s chassis...

  10. Anaerobic co-digestion of by-products from sugar production with cow manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Cheng; Boe, Kanokwan; Angelidaki, Irini

    2011-01-01

    Sugar beet leaves (SBL), sugar beet top (SBT), sugar beet pulp (SBP) and desugared molasses (DM) are by-products from the sugar production. In the present study we investigated the potential of SBL, SBT and SBP as feedstock for biogas production. The maximum methane potential of SBL, SBT and SBP...

  11. 76 FR 61074 - USDA Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota for Refined Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ... Office of the Secretary USDA Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota for Refined Sugar AGENCY... increase in the fiscal year (FY) 2011 refined sugar tariff-rate quota (TRQ) of 136,078 metric tons raw... MTRV for sugars, syrups, and molasses (collectively referred to as refined sugar) described in...

  12. Habitual sugar intake and cognitive function among middle-aged and older Puerto Ricans without diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intake of added sugars, mainly fructose and sucrose, has been associated with risk factors for cognitive impairment, such as obesity, the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. The objective of this analysis was to examine whether habitual intakes of total sugars, added sugars, sugar-sweetened bev...

  13. Effect Of Sugar Beet Seed Treatments With Some Growth Regulators On Damping Off Incidence, Total Soluble Sugars And Yield

    OpenAIRE

    El Nasr, H. I. Shif [حمدي ابراهيم سيف النصر; Badawy, M. F.; El-Ghaffar, F. M. Abd; Arab, Y. A.

    1989-01-01

    Seven seed borne fungi were isolated from sugar beet seeds viz. Alternaria alternata, Helminthosponum sp., Rhizopus stolonifer, Epicoccum sp., Rhizoctonia solani, Phoma betae and Fusarium oxysporium f. sp. befae. The last three fungi were found internal, while the others were external on seed surface. The internal fungi caused root-rot disease to sugar beet plants. Treatment of seeds with each of gibh-rellic acid (GA3), indole acetic acid (IAA) and Q -naphthol ( ff -N) as 50 and 100 ppm gave ...

  14. Thirteen years of observations on primary sugars and sugar alcohols over remote Chichijima Island in the western North Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Verma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the atmospheric transport of bioaerosols, we conducted long-term observations of primary sugars and sugar alcohols over remote Chichijima Island in the western North Pacific from 2001 to 2013. Our results showed that concentrations of total sugar compounds for 13 years ranged from 1.2 to 310 ng m−3 (average of 46 ± 49 ng m−3. We found that atmospheric circulations significantly affect the seasonal variations of bioaerosol distributions over the western North Pacific. The primary sugars (glucose and fructose maximized in summer, possibly due to an increased emission of the vegetation products from local vascular plants in Chichijima. We also found higher concentrations of sugar components (arabitol, mannitol, and trehalose in more recent years during summer and autumn, suggesting an enhanced emission of fungal and microbial species over the island. Sucrose peaked in late winter to early spring, indicating a springtime pollen contribution by long-range atmospheric transport, while elevated concentrations of sucrose in early summer could be explained by long-range transport of soil dust from Southeast Asia to Chichijima. Sucrose and trehalose were found to present increasing trends from 2001 to 2013, while total sugar components did not show any clear trends during the 13-year period. Positive matrix factorization analyses suggested the locally emitted sugar compounds as well as long-range-transported airborne pollen grains, microbes, and fungal spores are the major contributors to total sugar compounds in the Chichijima aerosols. Backward air mass trajectories support the atmospheric transport of continental aerosols from the Asian continent during winter and spring over Chichijima.

  15. Added sugar intake and cardiovascular diseases mortality among US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Quanhe; Zhang, Zefeng; Gregg, Edward W; Flanders, W Dana; Merritt, Robert; Hu, Frank B

    2014-04-01

    IMPORTANCE Epidemiologic studies have suggested that higher intake of added sugar is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Few prospective studies have examined the association of added sugar intake with CVD mortality. OBJECTIVE To examine time trends of added sugar consumption as percentage of daily calories in the United States and investigate the association of this consumption with CVD mortality. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, 1988-1994 [III], 1999-2004, and 2005-2010 [n = 31,147]) for the time trend analysis and NHANES III Linked Mortality cohort (1988-2006 [n = 11 733]), a prospective cohort of a nationally representative sample of US adults for the association study. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Cardiovascular disease mortality. RESULTS Among US adults, the adjusted mean percentage of daily calories from added sugar increased from 15.7% (95% CI, 15.0%-16.4%) in 1988-1994 to 16.8% (16.0%-17.7%; P = .02) in 1999-2004 and decreased to 14.9% (14.2%-15.5%; P sugar (71.4%) and approximately 10% consumed 25% or more in 2005-2010. During a median follow-up period of 14.6 years, we documented 831 CVD deaths during 163,039 person-years. Age-, sex-, and race/ethnicity-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of CVD mortality across quintiles of the percentage of daily calories consumed from added sugar were 1.00 (reference), 1.09 (95% CI, 1.05-1.13), 1.23 (1.12-1.34), 1.49 (1.24-1.78), and 2.43 (1.63-3.62; P sugar with those who consumed less than 10.0% of calories from added sugar. These findings were largely consistent across age group, sex, race/ethnicity (except among non-Hispanic blacks), educational attainment, physical activity, health eating index, and body mass index. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Most US adults consume more added sugar than is recommended for a healthy diet. We observed a significant relationship between added sugar consumption and increased risk for CVD

  16. Sugar Price Supports and Taxation: A Public Health Policy Paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilk, Abby; Savaiano, Dennis A

    2017-05-01

    Domestic US sugar production has been protected by government policy for the past 82 years, resulting in elevated domestic prices and an estimated annual (2013) $1.4 billion dollar "tax" on consumers. These elevated prices and the simultaneous federal support for domestic corn production have ensured a strong market for high-fructose corn syrup. Americans have dramatically increased their consumption of caloric sweeteners during the same period. Consumption of "empty" calories (ie, foods with low-nutrient/high-caloric density)-sugar and high-fructose corn syrup being the primary sources-is considered by most public health experts to be a key contributing factor to the rise in obesity. There have been substantial efforts to tax sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) to both reduce consumption and provide a source of funds for nutrition education, thereby emulating the tobacco tax model. Volume-based SSB taxes levy the tax rate per ounce of liquid, where some are only imposed on beverages with added sugar content exceeding a set threshold. Nonetheless, volume-based taxes have significant limitations in encouraging consumers to reduce their caloric intake due to a lack of transparency at the point of purchase. Thus, it is hypothesized that point-of-purchase, nutrient-specific excise taxes on SSBs would be more effective at reducing sugar consumption. However, all SSB taxes are limited by the possibility that consumers may compensate their decreased intake from SSBs with other high-calorie junk foods. Furthermore, there are no existing studies to provide evidence on how SSB taxes will impact obesity rates in the long term. The paradox of sugar prices is that Americans have paid higher prices for sugar to protect domestic production for more than 80 years, and now, Americans are being asked to pay even more to promote public health. The effective use of sugar taxes should be considered based on their merits in reducing sugar consumption and making available a new source of

  17. A rapid review examining purchasing changes resulting from fiscal measures targeted at high sugar foods and sugar-sweetened drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Katharine E; Ells, Louisa J; McGowan, Victoria J; Machaira, Theodora; Targett, Victoria C; Allen, Rachel E; Tedstone, Alison E

    2017-12-15

    To aim of the review was to examine the most recent (2010 onwards) research evidence on the health and behavioural impacts, in adults and children, of fiscal strategies that target high sugar foods and sugar-sweetened drinks (SSDs). A pragmatic rapid review was undertaken using a systematic search strategy. The review was part of a programme of work to support policy development in relation to high sugar food and SSDs. A total of 11 primary research publications were included, describing evidence from France (n = 1), the Netherlands (n = 3), and the United States of America (n = 7), assessed through a variety of study designs, with the majority in adult populations (n = 10). The evidence reviewed focused on consumer behaviour outcomes and suggested that fiscal strategies can influence purchases of high sugar products. Although the majority of studies (n = 10), including three field studies, demonstrated that an increase in the price of high sugar foods and SSDs resulted in a decrease in purchases, eight studies were conducted in a laboratory or virtual setting which may not reflect real-life situations.Findings from this review support evidence from the broader literature that suggests that fiscal measures can be effective in influencing the purchasing of high sugar foods and SSDs.

  18. Intake of added sugar and sugar-sweetened drink and serum uric acid concentration in US men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiang; Qi, Lu; Qiao, Ning; Choi, Hyon K; Curhan, Gary; Tucker, Katherine L; Ascherio, Alberto

    2007-08-01

    Fructose-induced hyperuricemia might have a causal role in metabolic syndrome, hypertension, and other chronic disease. However, no study has investigated whether sugar added to foods or sugar-sweetened beverages, which are major sources of fructose, are associated with serum uric acid concentration in free-living populations. We examined the relationship between the intakes of added sugars and sugar-sweetened beverages and serum uric acid concentrations in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2002, a nationally representative sample of men and women. We included 4073 subjects (1988 men and 2085 women) >18 years of age in the current study. Dietary intake was assessed by a single 24-hour recall. We used multivariate linear regression to adjust for age, gender, intake of energy and alcohol, body mass index, use of diuretics, beta-blockers, and other covariates. Male subjects in the highest intake quartile of estimated intake of added sugars or sugar-sweetened drinks had higher plasma uric acid concentrations than those in the lowest intake quartiles (P0.2; P for interaction <0.01). Further research is needed to confirm causality of these associations and the observed difference by gender.

  19. Pozzolanic evaluation of the sugar cane leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guzmán, A.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the evaluation of the sugarcane leaf, burnt under controlled conditions in order to obtain a reactive ash with pozzolanic properties. Chemical analysis, amorphousity and surface structure of the sugar cane straw ash (SCSA were studied by X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM. The results of this research showed that SCSA has significant presence of amorphous material and a high content of silica (81.0%. The pozzolanic activity of the SCSA was evaluated by the Fratini test and the pozzolanic activity index. In order to interpretate the pozzolan activity, the Feret method was used. It is conclude that the SCSA presents pozzolanic characteristics for blending Portland cement.

    En el siguiente artículo se presenta una evaluación de la hoja de caña de azúcar calcinada bajo condiciones controladas en aras a obtener ceniza reactiva (con propiedades puzolánicas. La ceniza fue analizada mediante las técnicas de difracción de rayos X, fluorescencia de rayos X y microscopía electrónica de barrido. Los resultados del estudio mostraron que la ceniza de hoja de caña de azúcar sí contiene una significante presencia de material amorfo y un alto porcentaje de sílice (81,0%. Se valoró la aptitud de las cenizas obtenidas como puzolana mediante métodos químicos, como el ensayo de Frattini y métodos mecánicos, como el índice de actividad puzolánica. Como modelo a seguir para la interpretación de la puzolanicidad de la ceniza de hoja de caña se utilizó el método de Feret. Se concluye que la ceniza de hoja de caña sí es apta para ser utilizada como adición puzolánica.

  20. Diversely substituted sugar-linked alpha,beta-unsaturated gamma-lactones from sugar-derived Baylis-Hillman adducts via a RCM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Palakodety Radha; Narsingam, M

    2007-01-01

    A versatile protocol for the production of sugar-linked alpha,beta-unsaturated gamma-lactones with stereochemical and functional group diversity is described starting from sugar-derived Baylis-Hillman adducts via ring-closing metathesis.

  1. Sugar Allocation to Metabolic Pathways is Tightly Regulated and Affects the Virulence of Streptococcus mutans

    OpenAIRE

    Miki Kawada-Matsuo; Yuichi Oogai; Hitoshi Komatsuzawa

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria take up and metabolize sugar as a carbohydrate source for survival. Most bacteria can utilize many sugars, including glucose, sucrose, and galactose, as well as amino sugars, such as glucosamine and N-acetylglucosamine. After entering the cytoplasm, the sugars are mainly allocated to the glycolysis pathway (energy production) and to various bacterial component biosynthesis pathways, including the cell wall, nucleic acids and amino acids. Sugars are also utilized to produce several vi...

  2. Performance of the biogas project in Ziyang sugar factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dezhao He [Chengdu Biogas Research Inst., Chengdu (China)

    2000-07-01

    Located in Houjiaping town, Ziyang county, Ziyang Sugar Factory was installed in 1958 as a state enterprise, which mainly processes sugar cane to produce sugar. Sideline products include alcohol and paper. Nowadays, its daily capacity of sugar cane extraction is 1,000 tons and potable alcohol production is 15 - 20 tons. Its annual output value is 25 million Yuan. This plant is one of the backbones in Sichuan sugar cane processing enterprises. The biogas project of the Ziyang Sugar Factory was one of the large biogas installations in China, completed during the Seventh Five-year Plan. The distillery wastewater (slops) from the alcoholic fermentation process of starch (fresh potato, dry potato, kernel and Chinese sorghum) and sugar molasses as substrates is disposed of. The slop has a low pH, a high organic concentration, a high content of suspended solids, a dark colour and a high temperature. Its daily discharge quantity is 200 tons corresponding to 2/3 of total wastewater in that plant. It is a serious source of water pollution when it is directly discharged into Tuojiang River. Therefore, due to its high concentration of polluting substances, anaerobic treatment of distillery wastewater has been decided. This is the first case of wastewater treatment in Nudging city. The construction of this biogas installation started in July 1987. On November 25, 1988, the digester began to produce biogas. Up to now, the digesters have properly operated for more than one year. Besides its use as daily household fuel for the 810 employees, biogas is also supplied to the plant cafeteria as cooking fuel and to some production purposes within the plant, which has achieved obvious economic benefits. The designed capacity of daily biogas production for this biogas plant is 3,000 - 4,000 m{sup 3}. (orig.)

  3. Luminal leptin inhibits intestinal sugar absorption in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iñigo, C; Patel, N; Kellett, G L; Barber, A; Lostao, M P

    2007-08-01

    We have previously demonstrated that leptin inhibits galactose absorption in rat intestinal everted rings and that leptin receptors are present in the apical membrane of the enterocytes. This adipocyte-derived hormone is also secreted by gastric mucosal cells and is able to reach the intestinal lumen. The goal of the present study was to prove whether luminal leptin acts on intestinal sugar absorption in vivo both at low (basal state) and high sugar concentration (post-prandial state). In vivo intestinal sugar absorption in rat was measured with recirculating and single-pass perfusion systems. Sugar disappearance in the perfusate was measured by radioactivity and biochemical methods. Luminal leptin effect on intestinal absorption mediated by sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1) and glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) as well as intestinal permeability (mannitol absorption) was determined. Luminal leptin inhibited intestinal sugar absorption at low galactose concentrations, which indicates that leptin regulates SGLT1 activity in vivo. The inhibition was reversed in the absence of hormone in the intestinal lumen, suggesting that it was produced by post-translational regulation processes. At high luminal glucose concentrations, leptin also inhibited the phloretin-insensitive component of sugar absorption mediated by SGLT1. There was no significant effect on the apical GLUT2 component of absorption. Leptin did not modify in vivo intestinal permeability determined with (14)C-mannitol. These observations support the view that gastric leptin exerts a regulatory role on intestinal sugar absorption in the postprandial state by modifying the active component of absorption.

  4. Activating and Elucidating Metabolism of Complex Sugars in Yarrowia lipolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Seunghyun; Hipp, Julie; Trinh, Cong T

    2015-12-18

    The oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica is an industrially important host for production of organic acids, oleochemicals, lipids, and proteins with broad biotechnological applications. Albeit known for decades, the unique native metabolism of Y. lipolytica for using complex fermentable sugars, which are abundant in lignocellulosic biomass, is poorly understood. In this study, we activated and elucidated the native sugar metabolism in Y. lipolytica for cell growth on xylose and cellobiose as well as their mixtures with glucose through comprehensive metabolic and transcriptomic analyses. We identified 7 putative glucose-specific transporters, 16 putative xylose-specific transporters, and 4 putative cellobiose-specific transporters that are transcriptionally upregulated for growth on respective single sugars. Y. lipolytica is capable of using xylose as a carbon source, but xylose dehydrogenase is the key bottleneck of xylose assimilation and is transcriptionally repressed by glucose. Y. lipolytica has a set of 5 extracellular and 6 intracellular β-glucosidases and is capable of assimilating cellobiose via extra- and intracellular mechanisms, the latter being dominant for growth on cellobiose as a sole carbon source. Strikingly, Y. lipolytica exhibited enhanced sugar utilization for growth in mixed sugars, with strong carbon catabolite activation for growth on the mixture of xylose and cellobiose and with mild carbon catabolite repression of glucose on xylose and cellobiose. The results of this study shed light on fundamental understanding of the complex native sugar metabolism of Y. lipolytica and will help guide inverse metabolic engineering of Y. lipolytica for enhanced conversion of biomass-derived fermentable sugars to chemicals and fuels. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Chemical characteristics of zircon from A-type granites and comparison to zircon of S-type granites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breiter, Karel; Lamarão, Claudio Nery; Borges, Régis Munhoz Krás; Dall'Agnol, Roberto

    2014-04-01

    fractionated Cínovec cupola (Erzgebirge), the Zr/Hf value decreases from 33-51 in the protolithionite granite at a depth of 1255 m to 7.5-25 in the zinnwaldite granite at a depth of 40 m. At the scale of individual crystals, the Zr/Hf value decreases from 86 to 68 from the cores to the rims of the zircons from the Teplice rhyolite and from 64 to 33 in the zircons from the biotite granite at Krupka, Erzgebirge. The contents of Hf and U in zircon are dependent mainly on the degree of granite fractionation and the nature and volume of the volatile phases and are independent of the A- or S-character of the parental melt. The zircon Zr/Hf ratios 55 and 25 are proposed to approximately distinguish common, moderately evolved and highly evolved granites. Zircons from the moderately and highly evolved granites of A- and S-type can be discriminated on the basis of their HREE content and the U/Th ratios. Nb, Ta, and W are present in zircon from the highly evolved granites from all studied areas, while high As, Bi, and Sc contents are typical only for the Erzgebirge.

  6. The circumstellar envelope around the S-type AGB star W Aql. Effects of an eccentric binary orbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramstedt, S; Mohamed, S; Vlemmings, W H T; Danilovich, T; Brunner, M; De Beck, E; Humphreys, E M L; Lindqvist, M; Maercker, M; Olofsson, H; Kerschbaum, F; Quintana-Lacaci, G

    2017-09-21

    Recent observations at subarcsecond resolution, now possible also at submillimeter wavelengths, have shown intricate circumstellar structures around asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, mostly attributed to binary interaction. The results presented here are part of a larger project aimed at investigating the effects of a binary companion on the morphology of circumstellar envelopes (CSEs) of AGB stars. AGB stars are characterized by intense stellar winds that build CSEs around the stars. Here, the CO(J = 3→2) emission from the CSE of the binary S-type AGB star W Aql has been observed at subarcsecond resolution using ALMA. The aim of this paper is to investigate the wind properties of the AGB star and to analyse how the known companion has shaped the CSE. The average mass-loss rate during the creation of the detected CSE is estimated through modelling, using the ALMA brightness distribution and previously published single-dish measurements as observational constraints. The ALMA observations are presented and compared to the results from a 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) binary interaction model with the same properties as the W Aql system and with two different orbital eccentricities. Three-dimensional radiative transfer modelling is performed and the response of the interferometer is modelled and discussed. The estimated average mass-loss rate of W Aql is Ṁ = 3.0×10(-6) M⊙ yr(-1) and agrees with previous results based on single-dish CO line emission observations. The size of the emitting region is consistent with photodissociation models. The inner 10″ of the CSE is asymmetric with arc-like structures at separations of 2-3″ scattered across the denser sections. Further out, weaker spiral structures at greater separations are found, but this is at the limit of the sensitivity and field of view of the ALMA observations. The CO(J = 3→2) emission is dominated by a smooth component overlayed with two weak arc patterns with different separations

  7. Distributed Gaussian basis sets : Variationally optimized s-type sets for the open-shell systems HeH and BeH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glushkov, VN; Wilson, S

    2004-01-01

    Distributed basis sets of s-type Gaussian functions are determined by invoking the variation principle for the restricted open-shell matrix Hartree-Fock ground states of the open-shell molecular systems HeH and BeH for nuclear separations of 1.500 bohr and 2.500 bohr, respectively. The calculated

  8. A review of sugar consumption from nationally representative dietary surveys across the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newens, K J; Walton, J

    2016-04-01

    Government and health organisations worldwide have recently reviewed the evidence on the role of dietary sugars in relation to health outcomes. Hence, it is timely to review current intakes of dietary sugars with respect to this guidance and as a benchmark for future surveillance. This review collates data from nationally representative dietary surveys across the world and reports estimates of intakes of total and added sugars, and sucrose in different population subgroups. Total sugars includes all mono- and disaccharides; namely, glucose, fructose, lactose, sucrose and maltose. Added and free sugars differ in the quantity of natural sugars included in their definitions. Free sugars include sugars naturally present in honey, syrups, fruit juices and fruit juice concentrates, whereas added sugars typically only refer to those added during processing. Most countries reported intakes of total sugars, with fewer reporting intakes of added sugars and sucrose. No country reported intakes of free sugars. The available data suggest that total sugars as a percentage of energy were highest in the infant (total energy) compared to younger children or adults. Further research into the dietary patterns contributing to added sugars intake in children and adolescents is warranted. It would also be beneficial to policy guidance if future dietary surveys employed a uniform way of expressing sugars that is feasible to measure and has public health significance. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  9. Sugar Cane: A Bitter-Sweet Legacy. A Study of the Disappearing African-American Worker on the Sugar Cane Plantations in Southern Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, John A., Jr.; And Others

    This resource/study guide is designed to accompany the instructional video, "Sugar Cane: A Bitter-Sweet Legacy," which explores the significance of cultivating, harvesting, and refining sugar cane. It is also a brief study of the disappearing African-American workers on the sugar cane plantations in southern Louisiana. Seven main ideas…

  10. Savoring Sweet: Sugars in Infant and Toddler Feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Robert D

    2017-01-01

    During the first years of life, the sweetness of sugars has a capacity to hinder or to help in laying a strong nutritional foundation for food preferences that often extend over a lifetime. Aside from supplying 4 g/kcal of energy, sugars are non-nutritive. However, sugars have a powerful attribute, sweetness, which strongly influences human food preference. A child's first relationship with sweet taste begins even before birth and continues to evolve throughout complementary feeding. The sweetness of breastmilk encourages consumption and soothes the neonate. Conversely, inappropriate introduction of non-milk solids and beverages that are sweet at 0-4 months of age raises the newborn's risk for later obesity and may discourage the acceptance of other bitter or sour foods. Although cereals, fruits, 100% fruit juices, and some grains have naturally occurring sugars that impart sweet flavor notes, there is no clear role for added sugars between 6 and 12 months of age. Yet, 60% of infants are introduced to foods and beverages containing added sugars, threatening diet quality. Pairing foods with naturally occurring sugars, such as fruits, with foods that tend to be resisted initially, such as vegetables, can mask bitterness and promote acceptance. Utilizing the infants' extraordinary capacity for sensory-motor exploration is another strategy to expose them repeatedly to challenging tastes and flavors. The transitional year, as breast milk and infant formula are withdrawn, is a time when nutritional needs are high and diet quality often precarious. Rapid growth, along with brain and cognitive development, demand high-quality nutrition. Snacks are necessary both for energy and valuable nutrients. However, the selection of snack foods often exposes toddlers to items that offer concentrated energy with low nutrient value. Recent trends suggest a rapid fall in added sugars among infants and toddlers. Parenting practices that use small amounts of sugars to promote nutrient

  11. Nucleotide-sugar transporters: structure, function and roles in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handford M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The glycosylation of glycoconjugates and the biosynthesis of polysaccharides depend on nucleotide-sugars which are the substrates for glycosyltransferases. A large proportion of these enzymes are located within the lumen of the Golgi apparatus as well as the endoplasmic reticulum, while many of the nucleotide-sugars are synthesized in the cytosol. Thus, nucleotide-sugars are translocated from the cytosol to the lumen of the Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum by multiple spanning domain proteins known as nucleotide-sugar transporters (NSTs. These proteins were first identified biochemically and some of them were cloned by complementation of mutants. Genome and expressed sequence tag sequencing allowed the identification of a number of sequences that may encode for NSTs in different organisms. The functional characterization of some of these genes has shown that some of them can be highly specific in their substrate specificity while others can utilize up to three different nucleotide-sugars containing the same nucleotide. Mutations in genes encoding for NSTs can lead to changes in development in Drosophila melanogaster or Caenorhabditis elegans, as well as alterations in the infectivity of Leishmania donovani. In humans, the mutation of a GDP-fucose transporter is responsible for an impaired immune response as well as retarded growth. These results suggest that, even though there appear to be a fair number of genes encoding for NSTs, they are not functionally redundant and seem to play specific roles in glycosylation.

  12. Sugar transporters for intercellular exchange and nutrition of pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Qing; Hou, Bi-Huei; Lalonde, Sylvie; Takanaga, Hitomi; Hartung, Mara L; Qu, Xiao-Qing; Guo, Woei-Jiun; Kim, Jung-Gun; Underwood, William; Chaudhuri, Bhavna; Chermak, Diane; Antony, Ginny; White, Frank F; Somerville, Shauna C; Mudgett, Mary Beth; Frommer, Wolf B

    2010-11-25

    Sugar efflux transporters are essential for the maintenance of animal blood glucose levels, plant nectar production, and plant seed and pollen development. Despite broad biological importance, the identity of sugar efflux transporters has remained elusive. Using optical glucose sensors, we identified a new class of sugar transporters, named SWEETs, and show that at least six out of seventeen Arabidopsis, two out of over twenty rice and two out of seven homologues in Caenorhabditis elegans, and the single copy human protein, mediate glucose transport. Arabidopsis SWEET8 is essential for pollen viability, and the rice homologues SWEET11 and SWEET14 are specifically exploited by bacterial pathogens for virulence by means of direct binding of a bacterial effector to the SWEET promoter. Bacterial symbionts and fungal and bacterial pathogens induce the expression of different SWEET genes, indicating that the sugar efflux function of SWEET transporters is probably targeted by pathogens and symbionts for nutritional gain. The metazoan homologues may be involved in sugar efflux from intestinal, liver, epididymis and mammary cells.

  13. Sugar Transporters in Plants: New Insights and Discoveries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julius, Benjamin T; Leach, Kristen A; Tran, Thu M; Mertz, Rachel A; Braun, David M

    2017-09-01

    Carbohydrate partitioning is the process of carbon assimilation and distribution from source tissues, such as leaves, to sink tissues, such as stems, roots and seeds. Sucrose, the primary carbohydrate transported long distance in many plant species, is loaded into the phloem and unloaded into distal sink tissues. However, many factors, both genetic and environmental, influence sucrose metabolism and transport. Therefore, understanding the function and regulation of sugar transporters and sucrose metabolic enzymes is key to improving agriculture. In this review, we highlight recent findings that (i) address the path of phloem loading of sucrose in rice and maize leaves; (ii) discuss the phloem unloading pathways in stems and roots and the sugar transporters putatively involved; (iii) describe how heat and drought stress impact carbohydrate partitioning and phloem transport; (iv) shed light on how plant pathogens hijack sugar transporters to obtain carbohydrates for pathogen survival, and how the plant employs sugar transporters to defend against pathogens; and (v) discuss novel roles for sugar transporters in plant biology. These exciting discoveries and insights provide valuable knowledge that will ultimately help mitigate the impending societal challenges due to global climate change and a growing population by improving crop yield and enhancing renewable energy production. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Sugar cane stillage: a potential source of natural antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caderby, Emma; Baumberger, Stéphanie; Hoareau, William; Fargues, Claire; Decloux, Martine; Maillard, Marie-Noëlle

    2013-11-27

    Biorefinery of sugar cane is the first economic activity of Reunion Island. Some sugar cane manufactured products (juice, syrup, molasses) have antioxidant activities and are sources of both phenolic compounds and Maillard Reaction Products (MRP). The study aimed to highlight the global antioxidant activity of sugar cane stillage and understand its identity. Chromatographic fractionation on Sephadex LH-20 resin allowed the recovery of a MRP-rich fraction, responsible for 58 to 66% of the global antioxidant activity according to the nature of the sugar cane stillage (DPPH test), and a phenolic compounds-rich fraction for 37 to 59% of the activity. A good correlation was recorded between the antioxidant activity of the sugar cane stillage and its content in total reducing compounds amount (Folin-Ciocalteu assay), among them 2.8 to 3.9 g/L of phenolic compounds (in 5-caffeoylquinic acid equivalent). Preliminary experiments by HPLC-DAD-MS allowed to identify several free phenolic acids and gave clues to identify esters of quinic acids.

  15. Broadening the scope of glycosyltransferase-catalyzed sugar nucleotide synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantt, Richard W; Peltier-Pain, Pauline; Singh, Shanteri; Zhou, Maoquan; Thorson, Jon S

    2013-05-07

    We described the integration of the general reversibility of glycosyltransferase-catalyzed reactions, artificial glycosyl donors, and a high throughput colorimetric screen to enable the engineering of glycosyltransferases for combinatorial sugar nucleotide synthesis. The best engineered catalyst from this study, the OleD Loki variant, contained the mutations P67T/I112P/T113M/S132F/A242I compared with the OleD wild-type sequence. Evaluated against the parental sequence OleD TDP16 variant used for screening, the OleD Loki variant displayed maximum improvements in k(cat)/K(m) of >400-fold and >15-fold for formation of NDP-glucoses and UDP-sugars, respectively. This OleD Loki variant also demonstrated efficient turnover with five variant NDP acceptors and six variant 2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl glycoside donors to produce 30 distinct NDP-sugars. This study highlights a convenient strategy to rapidly optimize glycosyltransferase catalysts for the synthesis of complex sugar nucleotides and the practical synthesis of a unique set of sugar nucleotides.

  16. Mineral nutrition plants in function of stabile sugar beet production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đulaković Vladan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study presents results of a three year research on sugar beet yield and technological value of root in the conditions of increased mineral fertilizers. Research was carried out on chernozem in the climatic conditions of South Banat. Subject of studies were four varieties (Chiara, Irina, Laetitia and Severina and ten variants mineral nutrition of plants with different amounts and ratios of NPK fertilizers. The results are shown root traits that have the most important role in the creation of yield (average root weight, digestion, root yield and crystal sugar yield. The results obtained were compared by years of research. The variation caused by changing weather conditions, are determined by the coefficient of variation. The study results showed that proper mineral nutrition of plants and variety characteristics significantly affect the stability productive traits of sugar beet. The yield of crystal sugar in the overall average was the highest in the variant with 50 kg ha-1 of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Variety Chiara had the biggest roots and the highest root yield, but the slightest digestion. The best production results were obtained variety Severina. This variety had the smallest roots, but had the largest digestion. Therefore, the biggest crystal sugar yield was achieved by Severina variety and the lowest coefficient of variation according to years of investigation.

  17. Sugar-Fat Seesaw: A Systematic Review of the Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Michele Jeanne; McNulty, Helene; Gibson, Sigrid

    2015-01-01

    Further to reports of a reciprocal relationship between sugar and fat intakes, this review aimed to provide an in-depth analysis and to determine the likely influence of this relationship on the achievement of population dietary guidelines. Using systematic methods, relevant literature was selected according to preset criteria. A strong and consistent inverse association was found between total sugars and total fat intakes expressed as percentage energy. Fewer studies considered absolute intakes and these reported a positive relationship, which may be influenced by confounding with energy intakes. Evidence for an inverse relationship between percentage energy from fat and extrinsic sugars was weaker and less consistent than for fat and total sugars. Reciprocal relationships were also observed for sugar-saturated fat, sugar−protein, sugar−alcohol, and sugar−starch expressed as percentage energy. Under-reporting of dietary intakes had no major influence on the findings. This review confirms the existence of the sugar−fat seesaw on a percentage energy basis and concludes that it is most likely explained by a combination of mathematical and food compositional effects. This finding is relevant because dietary guidelines are expressed as percentage energy and implies that at the population level multiple guidelines may be difficult to achieve in practice. PMID:24915391

  18. Acidogenic Potential of Plain Milk, Milk with Sugar, Milk with Cornflakes and Milk Cornflakes with Sugar: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Sham S; Hegde, Sundeep K; Bhat, Vidya S; Ramya, K M; Jodalli, Praveen S

    2016-01-01

    To compare the acidogenic potential of plain milk, milk with sugar, milk with cornflakes, and milk cornflakes with sugar by assessing the salivary pH. The study was carried out on 40 school children of 8 to 12 years; 20 boys and 20 girls were randomly selected. The salivary pH was assessed before and after the consumption of milk; milk and sugar; milk and cornflakes; and milk, sugar, and cornflakes. Baseline unstimulated saliva was collected in sterile plastic tube and the pH was recorded. The change in the salivary pH from the respective groups after consuming the test meal was recorded as follows: (1) after 5 minutes; (2) after 10 minutes; (3) after 15 minutes; (4) after 30 minutes; (5) 120 minutes. Statistical analysis was done using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences 18.0 (SPSS). The average baseline salivary pH among all the groups was 7.26. A fall in pH at 5 minutes was seen in all the four groups. However, at different time intervals 5, 10, 15, 30, and 120 minutes, the pH values between the groups showed a significant difference at p < 00.7, 0.005, 0.001, 0.010, and 0.028 respectively. The fall in pH in all the groups was not significant to a limit of critical pH. Milk when added with sugar and/or cornflakes as a meal did not pose a threat as there was not significant decrease in pH. Bhat SS, Hegde SK, Bhat VS, Ramya KM, Jodalli PS. Acidogenic Potential of Plain Milk, Milk with Sugar, Milk with Cornflakes, and Milk Cornflakes with Sugar: A Comparative Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(3):218-221.

  19. The Role of Carbohydrate-Metabolizing Enzymes in Sugar Sensing and Differentiation in Sugar Beet Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Hagége

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant development is influenced by changes in the levels and types of sugars produced metabolically. The normal (N, habituated organogenic (HO and habituated nonorganogenic (HNO sugar beet cell lines originate from the same mother plant but exhibit distinct levels of morphogenesis and differentiation, and contain different levels of simple carbohydrates. We aim to elucidate whether differences in the abundance and activity of enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism and sugar sensing/signalling help explain the different carbohydrate profiles and differentiation states of the cell lines. Using 13C NMR spectroscopy to analyze cultures of the cell lines over 28 days, we found that N cells accumulated sucrose; HO cells sucrose, glucose and fructose; and HNO cells glucose and fructose. Of three invertase isoforms, the activity of cell wall invertase (CWI was highest in all the cell lines, and CWI activity was greatest in HNO line. The specific accumulation of intracellular carbohydrates during subculture correlated strongly with CWI activity but less so with the vacuolar and cytoplasmic invertase isoforms, or with sucrose synthase activity. Cell lines showed differences in how sugars regulated invertase and sucrose synthase activity. The role of sugar sensing in the regulation of CWI activity was investigated in the cell lines using glucose and sucrose, as well as carbohydrate analogues such as mannitol, 2-O-deoxyglucose and 3-O-methylglucose. Differences in the regulation of CWI activity by carbohydrates across the three cell lines suggest that CWI can be fine-tuned according to the specific carbohydrate requirements of each line during growth. Differences in sugar signalling pathways across the cell lines were explored using glucose and sucrose in the presence of inhibitors of protein kinases or phosphatases. Taken together, our findings suggest that specific regulation of CWI activity plays an important role in determining the intracellular

  20. Polysaccharides enriched in rare sugars: bacterial sources, production and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe eRoca

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Microbial extracellular polysaccharides (EPS, produced by a wide range of bacteria, are high molecular weight biopolymers, presenting an extreme diversity in terms of chemical structure and composition. They may be used in many applications, depending on their chemical and physical properties. A rather unexplored aspect is the presence of rare sugars in the composition of some EPS. Rare sugars, such as rhamnose or fucose, may provide EPS with additional biological properties compared to those composed of more common sugar monomers.This review gives a brief overview of these specific EPS and their producing bacteria. Cultivation conditions are summarized, demonstrating their impact on the EPS composition, together with downstream processing. Finally, their use in different areas, including cosmetics, food products, pharmaceuticals and biomedical applications, are discussed.

  1. Enzymatic saccharification of brown seaweed for production of fermentable sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sandeep; Horn, Svein Jarle

    2016-08-01

    This study shows that high drying temperatures negatively affect the enzymatic saccharification yield of the brown seaweed Saccharina latissima. The optimal drying temperature of the seaweed in terms of enzymatic sugar release was found to be 30°C. The enzymatic saccharification process was optimized by investigating factors such as kinetics of sugar release, enzyme dose, solid loading and different blend ratios of cellulases and an alginate lyase. It was found that the seaweed biomass could be efficiently hydrolysed to fermentable sugars using a commercial cellulase cocktail. The inclusion of a mono-component alginate lyase was shown to improve the performance of the enzyme blend, in particular at high solid loadings. At 25% dry matter loading a combined glucose and mannitol concentration of 74g/L was achieved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Method of performing sugar dehydration and catalyst treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianli [Kennewick, WA; Holladay, Johnathan E [Kennewick, WA; Zhang, Xinjie [Burlington, MA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA

    2010-06-01

    The invention includes a method of treating a solid acid catalyst. After exposing the catalyst to a mixture containing a sugar alcohol, the catalyst is washed with an organic solvent and is then exposed to a second reaction mixture. The invention includes a process for production of anhydrosugar alcohol. A solid acid catalyst is provided to convert sugar alcohol in a first sample to an anhydrosugar alcohol. The catalyst is then washed with an organic solvent and is subsequently utilized to expose a second sample. The invention includes a method for selective production of an anhydrosugar. A solid acid catalyst is provided within a reactor and anhydrosugar alcohol is formed by flowing a starting sugar alcohol into the reactor. The acid catalyst is then exposed to an organic solvent which allows a greater amount of additional anhydrosugar to be produced than would occur without exposing the acid catalyst to the organic solvent.

  3. A Drosophila model of high sugar diet-induced cardiomyopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianbo Na

    Full Text Available Diets high in carbohydrates have long been linked to progressive heart dysfunction, yet the mechanisms by which chronic high sugar leads to heart failure remain poorly understood. Here we combine diet, genetics, and physiology to establish an adult Drosophila melanogaster model of chronic high sugar-induced heart disease. We demonstrate deterioration of heart function accompanied by fibrosis-like collagen accumulation, insulin signaling defects, and fat accumulation. The result was a shorter life span that was more severe in the presence of reduced insulin and P38 signaling. We provide evidence of a role for hexosamine flux, a metabolic pathway accessed by glucose. Increased hexosamine flux led to heart function defects and structural damage; conversely, cardiac-specific reduction of pathway activity prevented sugar-induced heart dysfunction. Our data establish Drosophila as a useful system for exploring specific aspects of diet-induced heart dysfunction and emphasize enzymes within the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway as candidate therapeutic targets.

  4. Sugar-sweetened beverages, vascular risk factors and events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Amelie; Heitmann, Berit L; Olsen, Nanna

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A high intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) has been linked to weight gain, obesity and type 2 diabetes; however, the influence on CVD risk remains unclear. Therefore, our objective was to summarize current evidence for an association between SSB consumption and cardiovascular risk...... or blood sugar, or CVD events such as stroke or myocardial infarction. Only intervention and longitudinal studies were included. SUBJECTS: Only studies in adults (aged 18+ years old) were considered. RESULTS: Two of four prospective studies found clear direct associations between SSB consumption and CHD...... pressure, blood lipid or blood sugar. CONCLUSIONS: The reviewed studies generally showed that SSB intake was related to vascular risk factors, whereas associations with vascular events were less consistent. Due to a limited number of published papers, especially regarding vascular events, the strength...

  5. Feeding behavior and nutrition of the sugar glider (Petaurus breviceps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierenfeld, Ellen S

    2009-05-01

    Despite the sugar glider's popularity as a pet and a long-term history of captive management in zoologic institutions, little is known concerning their specific nutritional requirements, apart from low basal energy and protein needs. Sugar gliders feed on plant and insect exudates-saps, gums, nectar, manna, honeydew, and lerp-as energy sources and rely on pollen and arthropods for dietary protein. Captive diets based on nutritionally balanced, commercially available products developed for other species, with added produce, have been fed successfully in zoo and private glider colonies, but these diets may not promote optimal gut function or feeding behaviors. Diets commonly fed by private owners were examined in feeding trials and were found to be highly digestible, but contained excess protein that was likely imbalanced in amino acids, as well as in calcium and phosphorus, because of improper supplementation. Suggestions are outlined for areas of relevant research to improve nutritional husbandry of sugar gliders.

  6. Composition of sugar cane, energy cane, and sweet sorghum suitable for ethanol production at Louisiana sugar mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Misook; Day, Donal F

    2011-07-01

    A challenge facing the biofuel industry is to develop an economically viable and sustainable biorefinery. The existing potential biorefineries in Louisiana, raw sugar mills, operate only 3 months of the year. For year-round operation, they must adopt other feedstocks, besides sugar cane, as supplemental feedstocks. Energy cane and sweet sorghum have different harvest times, but can be processed for bio-ethanol using the same equipment. Juice of energy cane contains 9.8% fermentable sugars and that of sweet sorghum, 11.8%. Chemical composition of sugar cane bagasse was determined to be 42% cellulose, 25% hemicellulose, and 20% lignin, and that of energy cane was 43% cellulose, 24% hemicellulose, and 22% lignin. Sweet sorghum was 45% cellulose, 27% hemicellulose, and 21% lignin. Theoretical ethanol yields would be 3,609 kg per ha from sugar cane, 12,938 kg per ha from energy cane, and 5,804 kg per ha from sweet sorghum.

  7. The effect of sugar-free versus sugar-sweetened beverages on satiety, liking and wanting: an 18 month randomized double-blind trial in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janne C de Ruyter

    Full Text Available Substituting sugar-free for sugar-sweetened beverages reduces weight gain. A possible explanation is that sugar-containing and sugar-free beverages cause the same degree of satiety. However, this has not been tested in long-term trials.We randomized 203 children aged 7-11 years to receive 250 mL per day of an artificially sweetened sugar-free beverage or a similarly looking and tasting sugar-sweetened beverage. We measured satiety on a 5-point scale by questionnaire at 0, 6, 12 and 18 months. We calculated the change in satiety from before intake to 1 minute after intake and 15 minutes after intake. We then calculated the odds ratio that satiety increased by 1 point in the sugar-group versus the sugar-free group. We also investigated how much the children liked and wanted the beverages.146 children or 72% completed the study. We found no statistically significant difference in satiety between the sugar-free and sugar-sweetened group; the adjusted odds ratio for a 1 point increase in satiety in the sugar group versus the sugar-free group was 0.77 at 1 minute (95% confidence interval, 0.46 to 1.29, and 1.44 at 15 minutes after intake (95% CI, 0.86 to 2.40. The sugar-group liked and wanted their beverage slightly more than the sugar-free group, adjusted odds ratio 1.63 (95% CI 1.05 to 2.54 and 1.65 (95% CI 1.07 to 2.55, respectively.Sugar-sweetened and sugar-free beverages produced similar satiety. Therefore when children are given sugar-free instead of sugar-containing drinks they might not make up the missing calories from other sources. This may explain our previous observation that children in the sugar-free group accumulated less body fat than those in the sugar group.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00893529 http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00893529.

  8. Clarification properties of trash and stalk tissues from sugar cane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleston, Gillian; Grisham, Michael; Antoine, April

    2010-01-13

    The effect of the U.S. and worldwide change from burnt to unburnt (green) sugar cane harvesting on processing and the use of sugar cane leaves and tops as a biomass source has not been fully characterized. Sugar cane whole-stalks were harvested from the first ratoon (repeat) crop of five commercial, Louisiana sugar cane varieties (LCP 85-384, HoCP 96-540, L 97-128, L 99-226, and L 99-233). Replicated sample tissues of brown, dry leaves (BL), green leaves (GL), growing point region (GPR), and stalk (S) were separated. Composite juice from each tissue type was clarified following a hot lime clarification process operated by most U.S. factories. Only GPR and GL juices foamed on heating and followed the normal settling behavior of factory sugar cane juice, although GL was markedly slower than GPR. GPR juice aided settling. S juice tended to thin out rather than follow normal settling and exhibited the most unwanted upward motion of flocs. Most varietal variation in settling, mud, and clarified juice (CJ) characteristics occurred for GL. The quality rather than the quantity of impurities in the different tissues mostly affected the volume of mud produced: After 30 min of settling, mud volume per unit tissue juice degrees Brix (% dissolved solids) varied markedly among the tissues (S 1.09, BL 11.3, GPR 3.0, and GL 3.1 mL/degrees Brix). Heat transfer properties of tissue juices and CJs are described. Clarification was unable to remove all BL cellulosic particles. GL and BL increased color, turbidity, and suspended particles in CJs with BL worse than GL. This will make the future attainment of very high pol (VHP) raw sugar in the U.S. more difficult. Although optimization of factory unit processes will alleviate extra trash problems, economical strategies to reduce the amount of green and brown leaves processed need to be identified and implemented.

  9. Analytical color analysis of irradiated sugar cane spirit with grapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Juliana A.; Delabio, Aline S., E-mail: jujuba_angelo@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: aline_sd_timao@hotmail.com [Faculdade de Tecnologia em Piracicaba (FATEP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Harder, Marcia N.C.; Moraes, Liz M.B.; Silva, Lucia C.A.; Arthur, Paula B.; Arthur, Valter, E-mail: mnharder@terra.com.br, E-mail: lizmarybueno@gmail.com, E-mail: lcasilva@cena.usp.br, E-mail: paula.arthur@hotmail.com, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this work was to irradiate a Sugar Cane Spirit with grapes by gamma radiation (Co60) aiming the color alteration like an aging parameter. The Sugar Cane Spirit is a distilled beverage and in order that bouquet and flavor are enhanced, usually the Sugar Cane Spirit goes through a process of maturation in wooden barrels or in bottles with the presence of wood chips, which alters their appearance. However, is possible to get this same result with the use of gamma radiation from Co60 and there is a possibility of indicative the premature aging by the Sugar Cane Spirit color change, through the extraction of grape phenolic compounds. The Sugar Cane Spirit samples were prepared with grapes type Crimson in polypropylene bottles. The samples was irradiated at doses of 0 (control); 0.3KGy; 2kGy and 6kGy, subsequently were performed the colorimetric analyzes in periods of 5; 10; 20 and 50 days after the irradiation treatment. There was no significant statistical difference for the parameters L; a; b; Chrome and Hue-Angle, at 5; 10 and 20 days. On the 50th day only the parameter a shows significant statistical difference at the dose of 0.3kGy, that was higher than 2kGy and 6kGy doses, but not differ the between the control sample. So by the showed results was concluded that the irradiation at doses of 0.3Gy, 2kGy and 6kGy, do not change the color of the Sugar Cane Spirit. (author)

  10. Monitoring the health of sugar maple, Acer saccharum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Martha

    The sugar maple, Acer saccharum, is projected to decline and die in 88 to 100 percent of its current range in the United States. An iconic symbol of the northeastern temperate forest and a dominant species in this forest, the sugar maple is identified as the most sensitive tree in its ecosystem to rising temperatures and a warming climate. This study measures the health of sugar maples on 12 privately owned forests and at three schools in New Hampshire. Laboratory quantitative analyses of leaves, buds and sap as well as qualitative measures of leaf and bud indicate that record high beat in 2012 stressed the sugar maple. The study identifies several laboratory and qualitative tests of health which seem most sensitive and capable of identifying stress early when intervention in forest management or public policy change might counter decline of the species. The study presents evidence of an unusual atmospheric pollution event which defoliated sugar maples in 2010. The study examines the work of citizen scientists in Forest Watch, a K-12 school program in which students monitor the impacts of ozone on white pine, Pinus strobus, another keystone species in New Hampshire's forest. Finally, the study examines three simple measurements of bud, leaf and the tree's acclimation to light. The findings of these tests illuminate findings in the first study. And they present examples of what citizen scientists might contribute to long-term monitoring of maples. A partnership between science and citizens is proposed to begin long-term monitoring and to report on the health of sugar maples.

  11. MODIFIED BAGASSE, ITS POTENTIAL AS DECOLORANT IN THE SUGAR INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian León Fernández

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the conditions for obtaining an anionic exchanger based on the chemical modification of the fibrous fraction of bagasse by etherification in basic medium are studied. It evaluates the influence parameters concentration of sodium hydroxide, the molar ratio cellulose/diethylaminoethylamine hydrochloride and the reaction time in the substitution. In each case a degree of substitution estimated by determining the nitrogen content was obtained. It has been demostrated that the product removed 40-60 % of color in sugar solutions, therefore can be used in the sugar industry for the removal of ionic compounds.

  12. The Sugar Model: Autocatalytic Activity of the Triose Ammonia Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Arthur L.

    2007-04-01

    Reaction of triose sugars with ammonia under anaerobic conditions yielded autocatalytic products. The autocatalytic behavior of the products was examined by measuring the effect of the crude triose ammonia reaction product on the kinetics of a second identical triose ammonia reaction. The reaction product showed autocatalytic activity by increasing both the rate of disappearance of triose and the rate of formation of pyruvaldehyde, the product of triose dehydration. This synthetic process is considered a reasonable model of origin-of-life chemistry because it uses plausible prebiotic substrates, and resembles modern biosynthesis by employing the energized carbon groups of sugars to drive the synthesis of autocatalytic molecules.

  13. Low-Temperature Catalytic Process To Produce Hydrocarbons From Sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortright, Randy D.; Dumesic, James A.

    2005-11-15

    Disclosed is a method of producing hydrogen from oxygenated hydrocarbon reactants, such as methanol, glycerol, sugars (e.g. glucose and xylose), or sugar alcohols (e.g. sorbitol). The method takes place in the condensed liquid phase. The method includes the steps of reacting water and a water-soluble oxygenated hydrocarbon in the presence of a metal-containing catalyst. The catalyst contains a metal selected from the group consisting of Group VIIIB transitional metals, alloys thereof, and mixtures thereof. The disclosed method can be run at lower temperatures than those used in the conventional steam reforming of alkanes.

  14. Atmospheric sugar alcohols: evaporation rates and saturation vapor pressures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilde, Merete; Zardini, Alessandro Alessio; Hong, Juan

    volatile organic molecules. Saturation vapor pressure and the associated temperature dependence (dH) are key parameters for improving predictive atmospheric models. In this work we combine experiments and thermodynamic modeling to investigate these parameters for a series of polyols, so-called sugar...... are allowed to evaporate in a laminar flow reactor, and changes in particle size as function of evaporation time are determined using a scanning mobility particle sizer system. In this work saturation vapor pressures of sugar alcohols at several temperatures have been inferred from such measurements using...

  15. Raman spectroscopic determination of norbixin and tartrazine in sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlemann, Ute; Strelau, Katharina K; Weber, Karina; Da Costa Filho, Paulo Augusto; Rösch, Petra; Popp, Jürgen

    2012-08-01

    In this paper, a method for the detection of norbixin and tartrazine in sugar by means of resonance Raman spectroscopy is presented. The extraction was done in four steps using methanol and the measurements were performed in aqueous solution. The excitation wavelength was 514 nm for norbixin and 488 nm for tartrazine samples. The characteristic resonance Raman signals of the dyes were fitted by different functions. Depending on the R² values of the different fits, each spectrum was classified as positive or negative response. A detection limit of 250 ng g⁻¹ for norbixin and 989 ng g⁻¹ for tartrazine in solid sugar samples could be reached by logistic regression.

  16. Giant optical activity of sugar in thin soap films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emile, Janine; Emile, Olivier; Ghoufi, Aziz; Moréac, Alain; Casanova, Federico; Ding, Minxia; Houizot, Patrick

    2013-10-15

    We report on enhanced experimental optical activity measurements of thin soap films in the presence of sugar. This unusual optical activity is linked to the intramolecular chiral conformation of the glucose molecules at the air/liquid interface. Choosing sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) as a model surfactant and glucose as model sugar, favorable interactions between the anionic group -OSO3(-)- and the glucose molecules are highlighted. This induces an interfacial anchoring of glucose molecules leading to a perturbing influence of the asymmetric chiral environment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Implications of WHO Guideline on Sugars for dental health professionals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moynihan, Paula; Makino, Yuka; Petersen, Poul Erik

    2018-01-01

    health professionals receive adequate education in diet and nutrition, and there is a need for dental educational regulating bodies to define the content of the dental curriculum with respect to nutrition. All patients, or their parents or carers, should receive dietary advice to reduce free sugars...... within the context of a healthy diet for the prevention of all NCDs. Dietary advice should: (i) focus on reducing the amount of free sugars consumed; (ii) be tailored according to the patient's body mass status (eg underweight, overweight, normal weight); (iii) encourage the consumption of fresh fruits...

  18. Use of a urinary sugars biomarker to assess measurement error in self-reported sugars intake in the nutrition and physical activity assessment study (NPAAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasevska, Natasha; Midthune, Douglas; Tinker, Lesley F; Potischman, Nancy; Lampe, Johanna W; Neuhouser, Marian L; Beasley, Jeannette M; Van Horn, Linda; Prentice, Ross L; Kipnis, Victor

    2014-12-01

    Measurement error in self-reported sugars intake may be obscuring the association between sugars and cancer risk in nutritional epidemiologic studies. We used 24-hour urinary sucrose and fructose as a predictive biomarker for total sugars, to assess measurement error in self-reported sugars intake. The Nutrition and Physical Activity Assessment Study (NPAAS) is a biomarker study within the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Observational Study that includes 450 postmenopausal women ages 60 to 91 years. Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQ), four-day food records (4DFR), and three 24-hour dietary recalls (24HRs) were collected along with sugars and energy dietary biomarkers. Using the biomarker, we found self-reported sugars to be substantially and roughly equally misreported across the FFQ, 4DFR, and 24HR. All instruments were associated with considerable intake- and person-specific bias. Three 24HRs would provide the least attenuated risk estimate for sugars (attenuation factor, AF = 0.57), followed by FFQ (AF = 0.48) and 4DFR (AF = 0.32), in studies of energy-adjusted sugars and disease risk. In calibration models, self-reports explained little variation in true intake (5%-6% for absolute sugars and 7%-18% for sugars density). Adding participants' characteristics somewhat improved the percentage variation explained (16%-18% for absolute sugars and 29%-40% for sugars density). None of the self-report instruments provided a good estimate of sugars intake, although overall 24HRs seemed to perform the best. Assuming the calibrated sugars biomarker is unbiased, this analysis suggests that measuring the biomarker in a subsample of the study population for calibration purposes may be necessary for obtaining unbiased risk estimates in cancer association studies. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  19. Combination of sugar analysis and stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry to detect the use of artificial sugars in royal jelly production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wytrychowski, Marine; Daniele, Gaëlle; Casabianca, Hervé

    2012-05-01

    The effects of feeding bees artificial sugars and/or proteins on the sugar compositions and (13)C isotopic measurements of royal jellies (RJs) were evaluated. The sugars fed to the bees were two C4 sugars (cane sugar and maize hydrolysate), two C3 sugars (sugar beet, cereal starch hydrolysate), and honey. The proteins fed to them were pollen, soybean, and yeast powder proteins. To evaluate the influence of the sugar and/or protein feeding over time, samples were collected during six consecutive harvests. (13)C isotopic ratio measurements of natural RJs gave values of around -25 ‰, which were also seen for RJs obtained when the bees were fed honey or C3 sugars. However, the RJs obtained when the bees were fed cane sugar or corn hydrolysate (regardless of whether they were also fed proteins) gave values of up to -17 ‰. Sugar content analysis revealed that the composition of maltose, maltotriose, sucrose, and erlose varied significantly over time in accordance with the composition of the syrup fed to the bees. When corn and cereal starch hydrolysates were fed to the bees, the maltose and maltotriose contents of the RJs increased up to 5.0 and 1.3 %, respectively, compared to the levels seen in authentic samples (i.e., samples obtained when the bees were fed natural food: honey and pollen) that were inferior to 0.2% and not detected, respectively. The sucrose and erlose contents of natural RJs were around 0.2 %, whereas those in RJs obtained when the bees were fed cane or beet sugar were as much as 4.0 and 1.3 %, respectively. The combination of sugar analysis and (13)C isotopic ratio measurements represents a very efficient analytical methodology for detecting (from early harvests onward) the use of C4 and C3 artificial sugars in the production of RJ.

  20. Central functions of bicarbonate in S-type anion channel activation and OST1 protein kinase in CO 2 signal transduction in guard cell

    KAUST Repository

    Xue, Shaowu

    2011-03-18

    Plants respond to elevated CO(2) via carbonic anhydrases that mediate stomatal closing, but little is known about the early signalling mechanisms following the initial CO(2) response. It remains unclear whether CO(2), HCO(3)(-) or a combination activates downstream signalling. Here, we demonstrate that bicarbonate functions as a small-molecule activator of SLAC1 anion channels in guard cells. Elevated intracellular [HCO(3)(-)](i) with low [CO(2)] and [H(+)] activated S-type anion currents, whereas low [HCO(3)(-)](i) at high [CO(2)] and [H(+)] did not. Bicarbonate enhanced the intracellular Ca(2+) sensitivity of S-type anion channel activation in wild-type and ht1-2 kinase mutant guard cells. ht1-2 mutant guard cells exhibited enhanced bicarbonate sensitivity of S-type anion channel activation. The OST1 protein kinase has been reported not to affect CO(2) signalling. Unexpectedly, OST1 loss-of-function alleles showed strongly impaired CO(2)-induced stomatal closing and HCO(3)(-) activation of anion channels. Moreover, PYR/RCAR abscisic acid (ABA) receptor mutants slowed but did not abolish CO(2)/HCO(3)(-) signalling, redefining the convergence point of CO(2) and ABA signalling. A new working model of the sequence of CO(2) signalling events in gas exchange regulation is presented.

  1. Estimating the Sugars Content of Diets that Follow Eating Well with Canada's Food Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colapinto, Cynthia K; Elvidge Munene, Lisa-Anne; St-Pierre, Sylvie

    2017-12-01

    This research aimed to estimate the percent energy (%E) contribution from total and free sugars in the Eating Well with Canada's Food Guide (CFG) dietary pattern. The sugar-containing foods in the Canadian Nutrient File were assigned to 1 of 2 categories: total sugars or free sugars based on the source. The total sugars content of foods containing any amount of free sugars was assigned to the free sugars category. We estimated free sugars content from 8000 simulated diets (500 for each of the 16 age and sex groups), consistent with the CFG dietary pattern. Descriptive statistics were used to examine distributions of %E from total and free sugars by age and sex. The mean %E from total and free sugars of all simulated diets was 21%E and 7%E, respectively. For simulated diets for males and females, 9-18 years of age, the %E from free sugars exceeded 10% at the 75th percentile. Simulated diets for all other age and sex groups exceeded 10%E from free sugars at the 95th percentile. The majority of the simulated CFG diets met the WHO recommendations to limit free sugars consumption to <10%E. These results will be used to inform future dietary guidance policy development.

  2. Free proline, soluble sugars and soluble proteins concentration as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the effects of salt stress on free proline, soluble sugars and soluble proteins accumulation were investigated in two sugarcane (Saccharum sp.) cultivars: CP66-346 (salt- tolerant) and CP65-357 (salt-sensitive). Young plants of these cultivars were exposed, in a hydroponic system, to four concentrations of NaCl ...

  3. The role of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate with simple sugars on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology ... The objective of the present study is to assess the effect of different dietary simple sugars (sucrose, glucose and fructose) on the prediction of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, with regard to supplementation with high dose of vitamin B6 (500 mg/100 g diet) ...

  4. Corrosion of Modified Concrete with Sugar Cane Bagasse Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. Núñez-Jaquez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Concrete is a porous material and the ingress of water, oxygen, and aggressive ions, such as chlorides, can cause the passive layer on reinforced steel to break down. Additives, such as fly ash, microsilica, rice husk ash, and cane sugar bagasse ash, have a size breakdown that allows the reduction of concrete pore size and, consequently, may reduce the corrosion process. The objective of this work is to determine the corrosion rate of steel in reinforced concrete by the addition of 20% sugar cane bagasse ash by weight of cement. Six prismatic specimens (7×7×10 cm with an embedded steel rod were prepared. Three contained 20% sugar cane bagasse ash by weight of cement and the other three did not. All specimens were placed in a 3.5% NaCl solution and the corrosion rate was determined using polarization resistance. The results showed that reinforced concrete containing sugar cane bagasse ash has the lowest corrosion rates in comparison to reinforced concrete without the additive.

  5. Fermentation and epiphytic microflora dynamics in sugar cane silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedroso André de Faria

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar cane silages are characterized by extensive yeast activity, alcohol production and great dry matter - DM - losses. Better knowledge of the fermentation process is fundamental to the development of efficient ensilage techniques for this forage. This study evaluates temporal changes in chemical composition, DM losses and epiphytic microflora in sugar cane silage. Mature sugar cane, variety RB835486 (12 months of vegetative growth, was hand harvested, processed in a stationary chopper and ensiled in 20-L plastic buckets provided with valves for gas release and a device for effluent collection. Laboratory silos were kept at ambient temperature and sampled after fraction one-half, 1, 2, 3, 7, 15, 45, 90, 120 and 180 days. Ethanol concentration reached 6.4% in DM after 15 days of ensilage, followed by 71% water soluble carbohydrates - WSCs - disappearance. Gas and total DM losses reached a plateau on day 45 (16% and 29% of DM, respectively. Yeast count was higher on the second day (5.05 log cfu g-1. Silage pH declined to below 4.0 on the third day. Effluent yield was negligible (20 kg t-1. DM content in the forage decreased (35% to 26% from day 0 to day 45. The increase in ethanol concentration showed an opposite trend to WSCs and true in vitro dry matter digestibility reductions in the silage. Developing methods to control yeasts, most probably through the use of additives, will enable more efficient production of sugar cane silage by farmers.

  6. Sugar-sweetened beverages, vascular risk factors and events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Amelie; Heitmann, Berit L; Olsen, Nanna

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A high intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) has been linked to weight gain, obesity and type 2 diabetes; however, the influence on CVD risk remains unclear. Therefore, our objective was to summarize current evidence for an association between SSB consumption and cardiovascular risk...

  7. Transformation of Sugar Maple Bark through Catalytic Organosolv Pulping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Koumba-Yoya

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic organosolv pulping of sugar maple bark was performed adopting the concept of forest biorefinery in order to transform bark into several valuable products. Our organosolv process, consisting of pre-extracting the lignocellulosic material followed by pulping with ferric chloride as a catalyst, was applied to sugar maple bark. The pre-extraction step has yielded a mixture of phenolic extractives, applicable as antioxidants. The organosolv pulping of extractives-free sugar maple bark yielded a solid cellulosic pulp (42.3% and a black liquor containing solubilized bark lignin (24.1% and products of sugars transformation (22.9% of hemicelluloses, mainly represented by furfural (0.35% and 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF, 0.74%. The bark cellulosic pulp was determined to be mainly constituted of glucose, with a high residual lignin content, probably related to the protein content of the original bark (containing cambium tissue. The biorefinery approach to the transformation of a solid bark residue into valuable biopolymers (lignin and cellulose along with phenolic antioxidants from pre-extraction and the HMF derivatives from black liquor (applicable for 2,5-diformylfuran production is an example of a catalytic process reposing on sustainable engineering and green chemistry concepts.

  8. Optimisation of power generation in the Local Cane Sugar Factories ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... contribution of electricity using the Biomass Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (BIG-CC) technology with bagasse, cane tops and leaves (CTL) in the Mauritian Sugar Industry. The contribution of the energy of bagasse for 1996 represented 10.34% of the islands electricity requirements (CEB Annual Report, 1996).

  9. Foliar nutrient analysis of sugar maple decline: retrospective vector diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor R. Timmer; Yuanxin Teng

    1999-01-01

    Accuracy of traditional foiiar analysis of nutrient disorders in sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh) is limited by lack of validation and confounding by nutrient interactions. Vector nutrient diagnosis is relatively free of these problems. The technique is demonstrated retrospectively on four case studies. Diagnostic interpretations consistently...

  10. Keeping Track of Your Blood Sugar (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... remember your blood sugar readings, it's still important to write down your results — and to write down all of them, not just the normal ... You or your mom or dad might need to write down other info, too, such as what you ...

  11. Phase field simulations of ice crystal growth in sugar solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sman, Van Der R.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    We present the first model ever, that describes explicitly ice crystal growth in a sugar solution during freezing. This 2-D model uses the phase field method, supplemented with realistic, and predictive theories on the thermodynamics and (diffusion) kinetics of this food system. We have to make

  12. ROOT YIELD AND QUALITY OF SUGAR BEET INVESTIGATED HYBRIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrija Kristek

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The research of the production values of 10 sugar beet hybrids was conducted at the location Dalj from 2009-2012. Hybrids included in the experiment are owned by four selection houses and represented in wide production. Weather conditions in the years of investigation differed greatly. One was an average, one with increased, and two with small amounts of rainfall in relation to long-term average. Monthly air temperatures during the vegetation were increased in all four years. Root yield and quality of sugar beet varied considerably depending on the year and the hybrid. The best hybrid on the average of the investigation, by the highest root, was Severina (86.66 t ha-1. Three more hybrids: Coyote, Boomerang and Predator are in the same range. There are no significant differences in this indicator. Hybrid Colonia KWS (15.40% had the highest content of sugar in the root and Asketa, Gazeta, Severina and Protecta with no significant differences. Hybrid Colonia KWS was known for the low content of AmN and Na. Sugar yield, significantly higher than other hybrids in the study, has been realized with hybrids Severina (11.05 t ha-1 and Colonia KWS (10.78 t ha-1.

  13. Sugar, Uric Acid, and the Etiology of Diabetes and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Richard J.; Nakagawa, Takahiko; Sanchez-Lozada, L. Gabriela; Shafiu, Mohamed; Sundaram, Shikha; Le, Myphuong; Ishimoto, Takuji; Sautin, Yuri Y.; Lanaspa, Miguel A.

    2013-01-01

    The intake of added sugars, such as from table sugar (sucrose) and high-fructose corn syrup has increased dramatically in the last hundred years and correlates closely with the rise in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes. Fructose is a major component of added sugars and is distinct from other sugars in its ability to cause intracellular ATP depletion, nucleotide turnover, and the generation of uric acid. In this article, we revisit the hypothesis that it is this unique aspect of fructose metabolism that accounts for why fructose intake increases the risk for metabolic syndrome. Recent studies show that fructose-induced uric acid generation causes mitochondrial oxidative stress that stimulates fat accumulation independent of excessive caloric intake. These studies challenge the long-standing dogma that “a calorie is just a calorie” and suggest that the metabolic effects of food may matter as much as its energy content. The discovery that fructose-mediated generation of uric acid may have a causal role in diabetes and obesity provides new insights into pathogenesis and therapies for this important disease. PMID:24065788

  14. 1 Determinants of Sugar Market Performance under Imperfect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    2011-01-18

    Jan 18, 2011 ... Abstract. This study investigates market (supply and demand) factors causing high pricing, which influences ... developing countries participating in trade blocs arrangements, Kenya has experienced an influx of ... critical for academia and policy makers in the sugar sub-sector in the East. African region and ...

  15. The dynamics of fat, protein and sugar metabolism during walnut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    Key words: Walnut (Juglans regia L.), fruit development, sugar, fat, protein, invertase. INTRODUCTION. The 'hidden hunger' .... mixture, and then determined by KDY-9820 Kjeldahl apparatus. (Beijing Huawei Science and ... Where, V2, Vl, is the measure value at two measure time; T2 – T1is the days between two measure ...

  16. Review of Hosein Aabad Sugar Factory (HASF) Wastewater and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    The pollution emission factor of this factory based on COD and TSS of wastewater is shown in table 3. The results of cluster analysis are presented in a dendrogram (Fig. 1). There are several studies, which estimated the quality parameters as BOD5, COD and TDS of effluent from various sugar industries in countries around ...

  17. Providing Base Line Data for the Treatment of Mauritian Sugar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cistvr

    their medium to high strength wastewater so that they can comply with the existing environmental law. Since sugar cane factory effluent has been characterised as a non-toxic organic source of pollution (Wong Sak Hoi, 1994), a biological treatment system is desirable. The conventional aerobic wastewater treatment method ...

  18. Sugar, Vitamin C, And Mineral Contents In Indigenous And Foreign ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Sugar, Vitamin C and Mineral contents in some indigenous and foreign fruit juices marketed in Nigeria were investigated. Some indigenous fruit juices namely Chivita pineapple, Funman orange, Delight orange and Tampico orange, while foreign fruit juices, such as Pure Heaven, Five Alive, Don Simon and Just Juice, ...

  19. Alterations in reducing sugar in Triticum aestivum under irrigated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    2012-03-13

    Mar 13, 2012 ... showed that stress tolerant varieties accumulated more glucose than sensitive ones. On the contrary,. CIM-48 ... stress. Key words: Reducing sugars, water stress, tolerant and susceptible genotypes, Triticum aestivum. INTRODUCTION ..... institutes which provided germplasm; CIMMYT (Mexico) and NARC ...

  20. Making More of Milk Sugar by Engineering Lactic Acid Bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Willem M. de; Hols, Pascal; Kranenburg, Richard van; Luesink, Evert; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Oost, John van der; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Hugenholtz, Jeroen

    1998-01-01

    By exploiting their genetic and metabolic capacity, lactic acid bacteria can be used to generate a variety of products from milk sugar lactose other than the archetypical lactic acid. This review will outline the different genetic and metabolic engineering strategies that can be applied to lactic

  1. Effect of maturity stages, variety and storage environment on sugar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study clearly demonstrated the importance of integrated agro-technology of combining cultivar, maturity stage and storage environment in shelf life improvement of tomato by reducing the rate of ripening and utilization of sugar, reducing water loss and maintaining marketability. Key words: Tomato, maturity stage, ...

  2. Quantitative evaluation of sugars in some fruits consumed by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... disease. The fruits were obtained from the Jos environment after considering a questionnaire administered to the patients in Jos, and analyses of the sugars were performed using established standard procedures. The result of the study indicates that garden egg, pawpaw, orange, water melon and apple were relatively ...

  3. Sugar and macrominerals composition of sap produced by Raphia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The exudates (saps) were collected and the sugars and macromineral composition were determined. Maximum sucrose quantity (9.5%) was obtained about 28 days after initiation of tapping. The sucrose concentration was correlated with the sap volume. Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and nitrogen ...

  4. The most important pathogens transmitted by sugar beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Mirjana B.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenic fungi and viruses transmitted by sugar beet seed represent a complex group of organisms. Detection of these pathogens is an important issue in sugar beet protection. Their identification is a difficult task because the most available methods rely on the growth characteristics morphological and biochemical criteria. Three domestic and eight foreign sugar beet varieties, from Germany, Italy and Greece were included in the investigation. Seed health testing was performed in laboratory and in field conditions. During the trials, the following methods were used: blotter method, agar plate method and ELISA test for viruses. Seeds were incubated in "Conviron" aparatus at 22°C which is suitable for sporulation of different kind of fungi (light and temperature were adjustable. The appereance of following fungi was noted during incubation: Pleospora bjoerlingii (Phoma betae, Fusarium spp., Pythium spp. Aphanomyces cochlioides and Cercospora beticola. Viruses tested by ELISA test were beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV and beet yellows virus (BYV. Viruses were tested in sugar beet seedlings grown in laboratory conditions and on leaves of individual plants from the field. The disease index was calculated on the basis of intensity of infection of plants for Cercospora beticola and Phoma betae according to Mc Kinney's formula. Results were presented by graphs, tables and original photos.

  5. Seedling damping-off in sugar beet in Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    A number of pathogens can cause early season stand loss in sugar beet. In an ongoing survey, the most commonly identified damping-off pathogens were Rhizoctonia solani, Aphanomyces cochlioides, and Fusarium species. Pythium and Phoma also were isolated every year, but never as the sole or most commo...

  6. LOUISIANA STORY, 1964, THE SUGAR SYSTEM AND THE PLANTATION WORKERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MYERS, ROBIN

    BASED UPON THE FINDINGS OF A RURAL EDUCATION AND WELFARE SURVEY OF MORE THAN 900 SUGARCANE WORKERS IN THE NINE LOUISIANA COUNTIES WHERE SUGARCANE CULTIVATION IS CONCENTRATED, THIS DOCUMENT TELLS OF THE LIVES OF THE WORKERS AND EXPLAINS THE NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL "SUGAR SYSTEM" UNDER WHICH THEY LIVE. DISCUSSED ARE THE EFFECTS OF…

  7. Sugar maple seed production in northern New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter W. Garrett; Raymond E. Graber

    1995-01-01

    Large numbers of sugar maple seed are dispersed every second or third year. Very little seed was damaged by insects or mammals prior to dispersal. The trapping methods used prevented major losses following seed fall. Seed production was positively correlated with tree diameter but not with age of seed trees.

  8. Intraspecific diversity of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarnitsky, I K; Samoylov, A M; Red'ko, V V; Peretyayko, V G; Gleba, Y Y

    1990-08-01

    Mitochondrial (mt) DNA, isolated from different sugar beet populations, was analyzed using BamHI and EcoRI restriction enzymes. It was shown that plants possessing the new mtDNA types are revealed among O-type fertilizers quite frequently. Among cytoplasmic male sterile (cms) plants, which evolved during cultivation of O-type fertilizers, plants with altered mt genome were found.

  9. Fermentable sugars and microbial inhibitors formation from two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... two-stage pretreatment of corn stalk, hydrothermal followed by oxalic acid, under low severity factor and its enzymatic degradability was investigated in this study to identify fermentable sugar production and corresponding microbial inhibitors formation. Additionally, effect of equivalent severity factors of 2 to 3.5 and particle ...

  10. Gene regulation: hacking the network on a sugar high.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Tom; Wang, Xiao; Collins, James J

    2008-04-11

    In a recent issue of Molecular Cell, Kaplan et al. (2008) determine the input functions for 19 E. coli sugar-utilization genes by using a two-dimensional high-throughput approach. The resulting input-function map reveals that gene network regulation follows non-Boolean, and often nonmonotonic, logic.

  11. Cytokinins enhance sugar-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Prasanta Kumar; Shin, Dong Ho; Choi, Sang-Bong; Yoo, Sang-Dong; Choi, Giltsu; Park, Youn-Il

    2012-07-01

    In higher plants, the regulation of anthocyanin synthesis by various factors including light, sugars and hormones is mediated by numerous regulatory factors acting at the transcriptional level. Here, the association between sucrose and the plant hormone, cytokinin, in the presence of light was investigated to elucidate cytokinin signaling cascades leading to the transcriptional activation of anthocyanin biosynthesis genes in Arabidopsis seedlings. We showed that cytokinin enhances anthocyanin content and transcript levels of sugar inducible structural gene UDPglucose: flavonoid 3-O-glucosyl transferase (UF3GT) and regulatory gene PRODUCTION OF ANTHOCYANIN PIGMENT 1 (PAP1). Genetic analysis showed that cytokinin signaling modulates sugar-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis through a two-component signaling cascade involving the type-B response regulators ARR1, ARR10 and ARR12 in a redundant manner. Genetic, physiological and molecular biological approaches demonstrated that cytokinin enhancement is partially dependent on phytochrome and cryptochrome downstream component HY5, but mainly on photosynthetic electron transport. Taken together, we suggest that cytokinin acts down-stream of the photosynthetic electron transport chain in which the plastoquinone redox poise is modulated by sugars in a photoreceptor independent manner.

  12. Enzymatic Browning in Sugar Beet Leaves (Beta vulgaris L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, Anne; Kiskini, Alexandra; Hilgers, Roelant; Marinea, Marina; Wierenga, Peter Alexander; Gruppen, Harry; Vincken, Jean Paul

    2017-01-01

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) leaves of 8 month (8m) plants showed more enzymatic browning than those of 3 month (3m). Total phenolic content increased from 4.6 to 9.4 mg/g FW in 3m and 8m, respectively, quantitated by

  13. Schistosoma mansoni Infection in Finchaa Sugar Estate: Public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The survey of Schistosoma mansoni (S. mansoni) in Finchaa Sugar Estate, Western Ethiopia, was conducted to investigate the prevalence and health problems of schistosomiasis with some of the risk factors. The examination was undertaken based on the analysis of retrospective clinical data from the health center and a ...

  14. 279 Department of Agronomy/Sugar Research Institute, University of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2014-04-09

    Apr 9, 2014 ... Department of Agronomy/Sugar Research Institute, University of Ilorin, P.M.B. 1515, Ilorin,. Nigeria. Abstract. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of some sugarcane varieties against natural weed infestation. The trials were laid out in a randomized complete block design with split-plot ...

  15. Measurement of the moisture content of the granulated sugar by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The moisture content of granulated sugar is a critical parameter for its transformation into cubes. To the best of our knowledge there is no easy-to-use method for the determination of this parameter. To resolve this, a new method using infrared transphotometry technique based on the attenuation of an infrared radiation ...

  16. Amino sugars in suspended particulate matter from the Bay of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amino sugars (AS)are important constituents of organic matter.However,very little is known about their cycling in marine waters.In this research,we assessed the distribution and cycling of these compounds in waters of the Bay of Bengal.For this purpose,samples of suspended particulate matter (SPM)were collected from 8 ...

  17. EFFECT OF SUGAR CANE JUICE ON SLUMP VALUES FFECT OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Water/Sugar Cane Juice/cement ratio was held constant at 0.45. The concrete cubes were prepared by replacing water with SCJ in the following proportions 0, 25, 50 and 100%. The cubes were cured, tested and the physical properties of interest in this study were determined. The slump values of the concrete decreased ...

  18. Correlation of the association of serum lactate, random blood sugar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-09-21

    Sep 21, 2015 ... Alonge T. Correlation of the association of serum lactate, random blood sugar, and revised trauma score as predictors of outcome in hemodynamically unstable abdominal emergencies. Niger J Clin Pract 2016;19:196-200. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative. Commons ...

  19. Leuckart-Wallach Approach to Sugar Isocyanides and Its IMCRs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neochoritis, Dinos; Zhang, Ji; Dömling, Alex

    We utilize our recently introduced Leuckart-Wallach approach to synthesize anomeric sugar isocyanides in good overall yields and two steps. Moreover, we show the general usage of these isocyanides in isocyanide-based multicomponent reactions (IMCRs) to produce eight different compounds/scaffolds.

  20. Production of mono sugar from acid hydrolysis of seaweed | Jang ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this work was to optimize the process conditions for the saccharification of macroalgae (seaweed) into mono sugar using the following parameters such as: Amount of biomass, catalyst concentration, temperature and reaction time. The major component of Ulva pertusa (green seaweed), Laminaria japonica ...

  1. Value addition to lignocellulosics and biomass-derived sugars: An ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    For the synthesis of important platform chemicals such as sugars (xylose and arabinose) and furans (furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF)) from carbohydrates (hemicellulose and fructose) solid acid catalysts are employed. Similarly, over solid acid catalysts, conversion of lignin into aromatic monomers is performed.

  2. Sugar cane juice for polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clarified sugar cane juice was evaluated as an alternative substrate for the batch production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) by Alcaligenes latus, and a mineral salt broth was used as the control. The study included the physicochemical characterization of the juice, measurement of the fermentation kinetic parameters and ...

  3. Sugar as a potential vehicle for vitamin A fortification: Experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Despite measures put in place by the Uganda Government ten years ago to combat Vitamin A deficiency, the number of children suffering from this deficiency remains high. Objective: To determine whether sugar may be used as a vehicle for vitamin A fortification. Design: Cross - sectional descriptive study

  4. Comparative Study of the Protective Effect of Granulated Sugar and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    8362. All rights reserved. J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Manage. April. 2017. Vol. 21 (2) 314-319. Full-text Available Online at www.ajol.infoand www.bioline.org.br/ja. Comparative Study of the Protective Effect of Granulated Sugar and Garri Meal on.

  5. Biofuel from D-xylose-the Second Most Abundant Sugar

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 5. Biofuel from D-xylose – the Second Most Abundant Sugar. Anil Lachke. General Article Volume 7 Issue 5 May 2002 pp 50-58. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/007/05/0050-0058 ...

  6. Acceptance of sugar reduction in yoghurt among Moroccan population

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Morocco has recently developed a plan of reducing sugar consumption to reinforce prevention of non-communicable diseases and to contribute to the achievement of global voluntary targets for non-communicable diseases set by ICN2 by 2025. The objective of the present study was to assess acceptance of ...

  7. Composting of sugar cane bagasse by Bacillus strains

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mamita

    2017-01-18

    Jan 18, 2017 ... Composting of sugar cane bagasse with Bacillus sp. CMAGI2 and Bacillus subtilis JCM 1465. T strains was carried out during five months at horticultural center. Chemical, biochemical and microbial parameters were followed during this process. There was a difference between inoculated composts.

  8. Structure and properties of a family of sugar vanadates incorporating ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 112; Issue 3. Structure and properties of a family of sugar vanadates incorporating VO3+. Kajal Krishna Rajak Sankar Prasad Rath. Volume 112 Issue 3 June 2000 pp 380-380. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  9. Structure and properties of a family of sugar vanadates incorporating ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Structure and properties of a family of sugar vanadates incorporating VO. 3+. KAJAL KRISHNA RAJAKa and SANKAR PRASAD RATHb. aDepartment of Chemistry, Jadavpur University, Calcutta 700 032, India. bDepartment of Inorganic Chemistry, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Calcutta 700 032, India.

  10. Effect Of Germination On Nitrogen, Lipids, Total Sugar And Tannins ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of germination on nitrogen, lipids, total sugar and tannins content of lima bean seeds (Phaseolus Lunatus L) were investigated. Five cultivars of lima beans were bought from Department of Crop Science, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. The grains were picked cleaned, soaked in water in a ratio of 1:3 w/v for 12h ...

  11. Preparation and Characterization of Sugar Cane Wax Microspheres ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    associated with indomethacin adverse effects due to drug accumulation [8]. CONCLUSION. The test and reference formulations were bioequivalent based on both the in vitro and in vivo data obtained, Thus, indomethacin microspheres encapsulated in sugar wax microspheres by melt method showed good potential for ...

  12. Fermentable sugars and microbial inhibitors formation from two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2015-09-30

    Sep 30, 2015 ... hydrothermal followed by oxalic acid, under low severity factor and its enzymatic degradability was investigated in this study to identify fermentable sugar production and corresponding microbial inhibitors formation. Additionally, effect of equivalent severity factors of 2 to 3.5 and particle sizes of 1 to 35 mm ...

  13. Effect Of Import Tariff Implementation Policy On Refined Sugar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research is set out to determine the effect of welfare distribution the respect to import duty on the government revenue, consumer expenditures, producer revenues, and efficiency losses (in production, in consumption and net effect), and the level of competitiveness of cane sugar in Indonesia by calculating the Domestic ...

  14. Effects of import tariff implementation policy of refined sugar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was aimed at determining the effects of applied import tariff on welfare distribution, consumer expenditures, producer revenues, and efficiency losses (in production, consumption and net effect), as well as the level of competitiveness of cane sugar in Indonesia by calculating the Domestic Resource Cost (DRC).

  15. Effect of Import Tariff Implementation Policy on Refined Sugar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research is aimed at determining: (a) the effect of welfare distribution with applied import tariff on the government revenue, consumer expenditures, producer revenues, and efficiency losses (in production, in consumption and net effect), and (b) the level of competitiveness of sugar cane in Indonesia by calculating the ...

  16. Effect of sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum) wastes on the quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of S. officinarum (sugar cane) rinds–contaminated water sample and its effect on the quality of Nworie River (West-end) Owerri, Nigeria, was investigated. The results of the physicochemical and microbiological parameters were compared to those of two other samples: the free flowing point of the same river three ...

  17. Impacts of the EU sugar policy reforms on developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkum, van S.; Roza, P.; Tongeren, van F.W.

    2005-01-01

    This report analyses the impacts of the Commission's July 2004 proposal for sugar policy reforms on developing countries. The study uses three approaches that complement each other: model simulations, literature review and country case studies. Model simulations indicate that the consequences of the

  18. The sugar model: catalysis by amines and amino acid products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, A. L.

    2001-01-01

    Ammonia and amines (including amino acids) were shown to catalyze the formation of sugars from formaldehyde and glycolaldehyde, and the subsequent conversion of sugars to carbonylcontaining products under the conditions studied (pH 5.5 and 50 degrees C). Sterically unhindered primary amines were better catalysts than ammonia, secondary amines, and sterically hindered primary amines (i.e. alpha-aminoisobutyric acid). Reactions catalyzed by primary amines initially consumed formaldehyde and glycolaldehyde about 15-20 times faster than an uncatalyzed control reaction. The amine-catalyzed reactions yielded aldotriose (glyceraldehyde), ketotriose (dihydroxyacetone), aldotetroses (erythrose and threose), ketotetrose (erythrulose), pyruvaldehyde, acetaldehyde, glyoxal, pyruvate, glyoxylate, and several unindentified carbonyl products. The concentrations of the carbonyl products, except pyruvate and ketotetrose, initially increased and then declined during the reaction, indicating their ultimate conversion to other products (like larger sugars or pyruvate). The uncatalyzed control reaction yielded no pyruvate or glyoxylate, and only trace amounts of pyruvaldehyde, acetaldehyde and glyoxal. In the presence of 15 mM catalytic primary amine, such as alanine, the rates of triose and pyruvaldehyde of synthesis were about 15-times and 1200-times faster, respectively, than the uncatalyzed reaction. Since previous studies established that alanine is synthesized from glycolaldehyde and formaldehyde via pyruvaldehyde as its direct precursor, the demonstration that the alanine catalyzes the conversion of glycolaldehyde and formaldehyde to pyruvaldehyde indicates that this synthetic pathway is capable of autocatalysis. The relevance of this synthetic process, named the Sugar Model, to the origin of life is discussed.

  19. Alterations in reducing sugar in Triticum aestivum under irrigated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was conducted with the objective of observing alterations in reducing sugars, which may play a part in distinguishing tolerant and susceptible genotypes. The experimental material consisted of thirteen wheat genotypes including eleven bread wheat advanced lines, one synthetic hexaploid and its durum ...

  20. Energy-saving technologies of cultivation of sugar sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashapov, N. F.; Nafikov, M. M.; Gilmanshin, I. R.; Gazetdinov, M. Kh; Nafikova, M. M.; Nigmatzyanov, A. R.

    2017-09-01

    The article describes the main elements of energy-saving technologies of cultivation of sugar sorghum, which, in particular, is the introduction of the combined units. Integrated units allow for one pass across the field to perform up to eight operations, thereby ensuring a significant reduction in energy costs, but there are certain negative points.