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Sample records for s-polarized solitary waves

  1. Two-dimensional s-polarized solitary waves in plasmas. II. Stability, collisions, electromagnetic bursts, and post-soliton evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Arriaga, G.; Lefebvre, E.

    2011-01-01

    The dynamics of two-dimensional s-polarized solitary waves is investigated with the aid of particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. Instead of the usual excitation of the waves with a laser pulse, the PIC code was directly initialized with the numerical solutions from the fluid plasma model. This technique allows the analysis of different scenarios including the theoretical problems of the solitary wave stability and their collision as well as features already measured during laser-plasma experiments such as the emission of electromagnetic bursts when the waves reach the plasma-vacuum interface, or their expansion on the ion time scale, usually named post-soliton evolution. Waves with a single density depression are stable whereas multihump solutions decay to several waves. Contrary to solitons, two waves always interact through a force that depends on their relative phases, their amplitudes, and the distance between them. On the other hand, the radiation pattern at the plasma-vacuum interface was characterized, and the evolution of the diameter of different waves was computed and compared with the ''snow plow'' model.

  2. Solitary waves in fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Grimshaw, RHJ

    2007-01-01

    After the initial observation by John Scott Russell of a solitary wave in a canal, his insightful laboratory experiments and the subsequent theoretical work of Boussinesq, Rayleigh and Korteweg and de Vries, interest in solitary waves in fluids lapsed until the mid 1960's with the seminal paper of Zabusky and Kruskal describing the discovery of the soliton. This was followed by the rapid development of the theory of solitons and integrable systems. At the same time came the realization that solitary waves occur naturally in many physical systems, and play a fundamental role in many circumstances. The aim of this text is to describe the role that soliton theory plays in fluids in several contexts. After an historical introduction, the book is divided five chapters covering the basic theory of the Korteweg-de Vries equation, and the subsequent application to free-surface solitary waves in water to internal solitary waves in the coastal ocean and the atmospheric boundary layer, solitary waves in rotating flows, ...

  3. Brief communication: Multiscaled solitary waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derzho, Oleg G.

    2017-11-01

    It is analytically shown how competing nonlinearities yield multiscaled structures for internal solitary waves in stratified shallow fluids. These solitary waves only exist for large amplitudes beyond the limit of applicability of the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation or its usual extensions. The multiscaling phenomenon exists or does not exist for almost identical density profiles. The trapped core inside the wave prevents the appearance of such multiple scales within the core area. The structural stability of waves of large amplitudes is briefly discussed. Waves of large amplitudes displaying quadratic, cubic and higher-order nonlinear terms have stable and unstable branches. Multiscaled waves without a vortex core are shown to be structurally unstable. It is anticipated that multiscaling phenomena will exist for solitary waves in various physical contexts.

  4. Solitary waves in particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisognano, J.J.

    1996-01-01

    Since space charge waves on a particle beam exhibit both dispersive and nonlinear character, solitary waves or solitons are possible. Dispersive, nonlinear wave propagation in high current beams is found to be similar to ion-acoustic waves in plasmas with an analogy between Debye screening and beam pipe shielding. Exact longitudinal solitary wave propagation is found for potentials associated with certain transverse distributions which fill the beam pipe. For weak dispersion, the waves satisfy the Korteweg-deVries (KdV) equation, but for strong dispersion they exhibit breaking. More physically realizable distributions which do not fill the beam pipe are investigated and shown to also satisfy a KdV equation for weak dispersion if averaging over rapid transverse motion is physically justified. Scaling laws are presented to explore likely parameter regimes where these phenomena may be observed experimentally

  5. Solitary waves and homoclinic orbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balmforth, N.J.

    1994-03-01

    The notion that fluid motion often organizes itself into coherent structures has increasingly permeated modern fluid dynamics. Such localized objects appear in laminar flows and persist in turbulent states; from the water on windows on rainy days, to the circulations in planetary atmospheres. This review concerns solitary waves in fluids. More specifically, it centres around the mathematical description of solitary waves in a single spatial dimension. Moreover, it concentrates on strongly dissipative dynamics, rather than integrable systems like the KdV equation. One-dimensional solitary waves, or pulses and fronts as they are also called, are the simplest kinds of coherent structure (at least from a geometrical point of view). Nevertheless, their dynamics can be rich and complicated. In some circumstances this leads to the formation of spatio-temporal chaos in the systems giving birth to the solitary waves, and understanding that phenomenon is one of the major goals in the theory outlined in this review. Unfortunately, such a goal is far from achieved to date, and the author assess its current status and incompleteness

  6. Solitary waves and homoclinic orbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balmforth, N.J.

    1994-03-01

    The notion that fluid motion often organizes itself into coherent structures has increasingly permeated modern fluid dynamics. Such localized objects appear in laminar flows and persist in turbulent states; from the water on windows on rainy days, to the circulations in planetary atmospheres. This review concerns solitary waves in fluids. More specifically, it centres around the mathematical description of solitary waves in a single spatial dimension. Moreover, it concentrates on strongly dissipative dynamics, rather than integrable systems like the KdV equation. One-dimensional solitary waves, or pulses and fronts as they are also called, are the simplest kinds of coherent structure (at least from a geometrical point of view). Nevertheless, their dynamics can be rich and complicated. In some circumstances this leads to the formation of spatio-temporal chaos in the systems giving birth to the solitary waves, and understanding that phenomenon is one of the major goals in the theory outlined in this review. Unfortunately, such a goal is far from achieved to date, and the author assess its current status and incompleteness.

  7. Nonlinear positron acoustic solitary waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tribeche, Mouloud; Aoutou, Kamel; Younsi, Smain; Amour, Rabia

    2009-01-01

    The problem of nonlinear positron acoustic solitary waves involving the dynamics of mobile cold positrons is addressed. A theoretical work is presented to show their existence and possible realization in a simple four-component plasma model. The results should be useful for the understanding of the localized structures that may occur in space and laboratory plasmas as new sources of cold positrons are now well developed.

  8. Multi-component optical solitary waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kivshar, Y. S.; Sukhorukov, A. A.; Ostrovskaya, E. A.

    2000-01-01

    We discuss several novel types of multi-component (temporal and spatial) envelope solitary waves that appear in fiber and waveguide nonlinear optics. In particular, we describe multi-channel solitary waves in bit-parallel-wavelength fiber transmission systems for highperformance computer networks......, multi-color parametric spatial solitary waves due to cascaded nonlinearities of quadratic materials, and quasiperiodic envelope solitons due to quasi-phase-matching in Fibonacci optical superlattices. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  9. CFD Analysis of Water Solitary Wave Reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Smida

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A new numerical wave generation method is used to investigate the head-on collision of two solitary waves. The reflection at vertical wall of a solitary wave is also presented. The originality of this model, based on the Navier-Stokes equations, is the specification of an internal inlet velocity, defined as a source line within the computational domain for the generation of these non linear waves. This model was successfully implemented in the PHOENICS (Parabolic Hyperbolic Or Elliptic Numerical Integration Code Series code. The collision of two counter-propagating solitary waves is similar to the interaction of a soliton with a vertical wall. This wave generation method allows the saving of considerable time for this collision process since the counter-propagating wave is generated directly without reflection at vertical wall. For the collision of two solitary waves, numerical results show that the run-up phenomenon can be well explained, the solution of the maximum wave run-up is almost equal to experimental measurement. The simulated wave profiles during the collision are in good agreement with experimental results. For the reflection at vertical wall, the spatial profiles of the wave at fixed instants show that this problem is equivalent to the collision process.

  10. Solitary waves in dimer binary collision model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsan, Zaid; Jayaprakash, K. R.

    2017-01-01

    Solitary wave propagation in nonlinear diatomic (dimer) chains is a very interesting topic of research in the study of nonlinear lattices. Such waves were recently found to be supported by the essentially nonlinear granular lattice and Toda lattice. An interesting aspect of this discovery is attributed to the realization of a spectrum of the mass ratio (the only system parameter governing the dynamics) that supports the propagation of such waves corresponding to the considered interaction potential. The objective of this exposition is to explore solitary wave propagation in the dimer binary collision (BC) model. Interestingly, the dimer BC model supports solitary wave propagation at a discrete spectrum of mass ratios similar to those observed in granular and Toda dimers. Further, we report a qualitative and one-to-one correspondence between the spectrum of the mass ratio corresponding to the dimer BC model and those corresponding to granular and Toda dimer chains.

  11. Solitary wave propagation in solar flux tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdelyi, Robert; Fedun, Viktor

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to investigate the excitation, time-dependent dynamic evolution, and interaction of nonlinear propagating (i.e., solitary) waves on vertical cylindrical magnetic flux tubes in compressible solar atmospheric plasma. The axisymmetric flux tube has a field strength of 1000 G at its footpoint, which is typical for photospheric regions. Nonlinear waves that develop into solitary waves are excited by a footpoint driver. The propagation of the nonlinear signal is investigated by solving numerically a set of fully nonlinear 2.0D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations in cylindrical coordinates. For the initial conditions, axisymmetric solutions of the linear dispersion relation for wave modes in a magnetic flux tube are applied. In the present case, we focus on the sausage mode only. The dispersion relation is solved numerically for a range of plasma parameters. The equilibrium state is perturbed by a Gaussian at the flux tube footpoint. Two solitary solutions are found by solving the full nonlinear MHD equations. First, the nonlinear wave propagation with external sound speed is investigated. Next, the solitary wave propagating close to the tube speed, also found in the numerical solution, is studied. In contrast to previous analytical and numerical works, here no approximations were made to find the solitary solutions. A natural application of the present study may be spicule formation in the low chromosphere. Future possible improvements in modeling and the relevance of the photospheric chromospheric transition region coupling by spicules is suggested

  12. Solitary waves on nonlinear elastic rods. I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads Peter; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Lomdahl, P. S.

    1984-01-01

    Acoustic waves on elastic rods with circular cross section are governed by improved Boussinesq equations when transverse motion and nonlinearity in the elastic medium are taken into account. Solitary wave solutions to these equations have been found. The present paper treats the interaction between...

  13. On the solitary wave paradigm for tsunamis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Per A.; Fuhrman, David R.; Schäffer, Hemming Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Since the 1970s, solitary waves have commonly been used to model tsunamis especially in experimental and mathematical studies. Unfortunately, the link to geophysical scales is not well established, and in this work we question the geophysical relevance of this paradigm. In part 1, we simulate...... of finite amplitude solitary wave theory in laboratory studies of tsunamis. We conclude that order-of-magnitude errors in effective temporal and spatial duration occur when this theory is used as an approximation for long waves on a sloping bottom. In part 3, we investigate the phenomenon of disintegration...... of long waves into shorter waves, which has been observed e.g. in connection with the Indian Ocean tsunami in 2004. This happens if the front of the tsunami becomes sufficently steep, and as a result the front turns into an undular bore. We discuss the importance of these very short waves in connection...

  14. Solitary wave collisions in the regularized long wave equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Kalisch

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The regularized long-wave equation admits families of positive and negative solitary waves. Interactions of these waves are studied, and it is found that interactions of pairs of positive and pairs of negative solitary waves feature the same phase shift asymptotically as the wave velocities grow large as long as the same amplitude ratio is maintained. The collision of a positive with a negative wave leads to a host of phenomena, including resonance, annihilation and creation of secondary waves. A sharp criterion on the resonance for positive-negative interactions is found.

  15. Surf similarity and solitary wave runup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuhrman, David R.; Madsen, Per A.

    2008-01-01

    to a previous parameterization, which was not given in an explicit form. Good coherency with experimental (breaking) runup data is preserved with this simpler parameter. A recasting of analytical (nonbreaking) runup expressions for sinusoidal and solitary waves additionally shows that they contain identical...

  16. Solitary waves on nonlinear elastic rods. II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads Peter; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Lomdahl, P. S.

    1987-01-01

    In continuation of an earlier study of propagation of solitary waves on nonlinear elastic rods, numerical investigations of blowup, reflection, and fission at continuous and discontinuous variation of the cross section for the rod and reflection at the end of the rod are presented. The results...

  17. Bulk solitary waves in elastic solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsonov, A. M.; Dreiden, G. V.; Semenova, I. V.; Shvartz, A. G.

    2015-10-01

    A short and object oriented conspectus of bulk solitary wave theory, numerical simulations and real experiments in condensed matter is given. Upon a brief description of the soliton history and development we focus on bulk solitary waves of strain, also known as waves of density and, sometimes, as elastic and/or acoustic solitons. We consider the problem of nonlinear bulk wave generation and detection in basic structural elements, rods, plates and shells, that are exhaustively studied and widely used in physics and engineering. However, it is mostly valid for linear elasticity, whereas dynamic nonlinear theory of these elements is still far from being completed. In order to show how the nonlinear waves can be used in various applications, we studied the solitary elastic wave propagation along lengthy wave guides, and remarkably small attenuation of elastic solitons was proven in physical experiments. Both theory and generation for strain soliton in a shell, however, remained unsolved problems until recently, and we consider in more details the nonlinear bulk wave propagation in a shell. We studied an axially symmetric deformation of an infinite nonlinearly elastic cylindrical shell without torsion. The problem for bulk longitudinal waves is shown to be reducible to the one equation, if a relation between transversal displacement and the longitudinal strain is found. It is found that both the 1+1D and even the 1+2D problems for long travelling waves in nonlinear solids can be reduced to the Weierstrass equation for elliptic functions, which provide the solitary wave solutions as appropriate limits. We show that the accuracy in the boundary conditions on free lateral surfaces is of crucial importance for solution, derive the only equation for longitudinal nonlinear strain wave and show, that the equation has, amongst others, a bidirectional solitary wave solution, which lead us to successful physical experiments. We observed first the compression solitary wave in the

  18. Partial Differential Equations and Solitary Waves Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Wazwaz, Abdul-Majid

    2009-01-01

    "Partial Differential Equations and Solitary Waves Theory" is a self-contained book divided into two parts: Part I is a coherent survey bringing together newly developed methods for solving PDEs. While some traditional techniques are presented, this part does not require thorough understanding of abstract theories or compact concepts. Well-selected worked examples and exercises shall guide the reader through the text. Part II provides an extensive exposition of the solitary waves theory. This part handles nonlinear evolution equations by methods such as Hirota’s bilinear method or the tanh-coth method. A self-contained treatment is presented to discuss complete integrability of a wide class of nonlinear equations. This part presents in an accessible manner a systematic presentation of solitons, multi-soliton solutions, kinks, peakons, cuspons, and compactons. While the whole book can be used as a text for advanced undergraduate and graduate students in applied mathematics, physics and engineering, Part II w...

  19. From bell-shaped solitary wave to W/M-shaped solitary wave ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These solitary wave solutions may be applied to neuroscience for providing a math- ematical model and explaining electrophysiological responses of visceral nociceptive neurons and sensitization of dorsal root reflexes [10]. The mathematical results we have obtained about the singular travelling wave equation provide a ...

  20. Solitary wave and periodic wave solutions for Burgers, Fisher ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 85; Issue 1. Solitary wave and periodic wave solutions for Burgers, Fisher, Huxley and combined forms of these equations by the (′/)-expansion method. Jalil Manafian Mehrdad Lakestani. Volume 85 Issue 1 July 2015 pp 31-52 ...

  1. Solitary drift waves in the presence of magnetic shear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meiss, J.D.; Horton, W.

    1982-07-01

    The two-component fluid equations describing electron drift and ion acoustic waves in a nonuniform magnetized plasma are shown to possess nonlinear two-dimensional solitary wave solutions. In the presence of magnetic shear, radiative shear damping is exponentially small in L/sub s//L/sub n/ for solitary drift waves, in contrast to linear waves

  2. Microtubules: A network for solitary waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravković Slobodan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper we deal with nonlinear dynamics of microtubules. The structure and role of microtubules in cells are explained as well as one of models explaining their dynamics. Solutions of the crucial nonlinear differential equation depend on used mathematical methods. Two commonly used procedures, continuum and semi-discrete approximations, are explained. These solutions are solitary waves usually called as kink solitons, breathers and bell-type solitons. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. III45010

  3. Localization and solitary waves in solid mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Champneys, A R; Thompson, J M T

    1999-01-01

    This book is a collection of recent reprints and new material on fundamentally nonlinear problems in structural systems which demonstrate localized responses to continuous inputs. It has two intended audiences. For mathematicians and physicists it should provide useful new insights into a classical yet rapidly developing area of application of the rich subject of dynamical systems theory. For workers in structural and solid mechanics it introduces a new methodology for dealing with structural localization and the related topic of the generation of solitary waves. Applications range from classi

  4. Solitary plane waves in an isotropic hexagonal lattice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zolotaryuk, Yaroslav; Savin, A.V.; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    1998-01-01

    of these solitary waves is investigated numerically by their interactions with vacancies and lattice edges. Propagation of solitary plane waves through finite lattice domains with isotopic disorder is extensively studied. Comparison of these results with the soliton propagation in one-dimensional lattices with mass...

  5. Single-peak solitary wave solutions for the variant Boussinesq ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ∈ H1 loc(R). (iii) Similar to the proof of the above (ii),we omit it here. This completes the proof. 3. Smooth and cusped single-peak solitary wave solutions. Theorem 2.4 gives a classification for all single-peak solitary wave solutions for eq. (2.4).

  6. The solitary electromagnetic waves in the graphene superlattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryuchkov, Sergey V.; Kukhar', Egor I.

    2013-01-01

    d’Alembert equation written for the electromagnetic waves propagating in the graphene superlattice is analyzed. The possibility of the propagation of the solitary electromagnetic waves in the graphene superlattice is discussed. The amplitude and the width of the electromagnetic pulse are calculated. The drag current induced by such wave across the superlattice axis is investigated. The numerical estimate of the charge dragged by the solitary wave is made.

  7. Electromagnetic solitary waves in magnetized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazeltine, R.D.; Holm, D.D.; Morrison, P.J.

    1985-03-01

    A Hamiltonian formulation, in terms of noncanonical Poisson bracket, is presented for a nonlinear fluid system that includes reduced magnetohydrodynamics and the Hasegawa-Mima equation as limiting cases. The single-helicity and axisymmetric versions possess three nonlinear Casimir invariants, from which a generalized potential can be constructed. Variation of the generalized potential yields a description of exact nonlinear stationary states. The new equilibria, allowing for plasma flow as well as partial electron adiabaticity, are distinct from those found in conventional magnetohydrodynamic theory. They differ from electrostatic stationary states in containing plasma current and magnetic field excitation. One class of steady-state solutions is shown to provide a simple electromagnetic generalization of drift-solitary waves

  8. Comparison of bed shear under non-breaking and breaking solitary waves

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    JayaKumar, S.; Baldock, T.E.

    New experimental measurements of bed shear under solitary waves and solitary bores that represent tsunamis are presented. The total bed shear stress was measured directly using a shear cell apparatus. The solitary wave characteristics were measured...

  9. Bed failure induced by internal solitary waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Rosario, Gustavo A.; Diamessis, Peter J.; Jenkins, James T.

    2017-07-01

    The pressure field inside a porous bed induced by the passage of an Internal Solitary Wave (ISW) of depression is examined using high-accuracy numerical simulations. The velocity and density fields are obtained by solving the Dubreil-Jacotin-Long Equation, for a two-layer, continuously stratified water column. The total wave-induced pressure across the surface of the bed is computed by vertically integrating for the hydrostatic and nonhydrostatic contributions. The bed is assumed to be a continuum composed of either sand or silt, with a small amount of trapped gas. Results show variations in pore-water pressure penetrating deeper into more conductive materials and remaining for a prolonged period after the wave has passed. In order to quantify the potential for failure, the vertical pressure gradient is compared against the buoyant weight of the bed. The pressure gradient exceeds this weight for weakly conductive materials. Failure is further enhanced by a decrease in bed saturation, consistent with studies in surface-wave induced failure. In deeper water, the ISW-induced pressure is stronger, causing failure only for weakly conductive materials. The pressure associated with the free-surface displacement that accompanies ISWs is significant, when the water depth is less than 100 m, but has little influence when it is greater than 100 m, where the hydrostatic pressure due to the pycnocline displacement is much larger. Since the pore-pressure gradient reduces the specific weight of the bed, results show that particles are easier for the flow to suspend, suggesting that pressure contributes to the powerful resuspension events observed in the field.

  10. Excitation of a surface wave by an s-polarized electromagnetic wave incident upon a boundary of a dense magnetoactive plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragila, R.; Vukovic, S.

    1988-01-01

    The properties of surfave waves that are associated with a boundary between a rare plasma and a dense magnetoactive plasma and that propagate along a dc magnetic field are investigated. It is shown that the presence of the magnetic field introduces symmetry in terms of the polarization of the incident electromagnetic wave that excites the surface waves. A surface wave excited by an incident p-polarized (s-polarized) electromagnetic wave leaks in the form of an s-polarized (p-polarized) electromagnetic wave. The rate of rotation of polarization is independent of the polarization of the incident wave. Because a surface wave can leak in the form of an s-polarized electromagnetic wave, it can also be pumped by such a wave, and conditions were found for excitation of a surface wave by an s-polarized incident electromagnetic wave

  11. Restoration of s-polarized evanescent waves and subwavelength imaging by a single dielectric slab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Gawhary, Omar; Schilder, Nick J; Costa Assafrao, Alberto da; Pereira, Silvania F; Paul Urbach, H

    2012-01-01

    It was predicted a few years ago that a medium with negative index of refraction would allow for perfect imaging. Although no material has been found so far that behaves as a perfect lens, some experiments confirmed the theoretical predictions in the near-field, or quasi-static, regime where the behaviour of a negative index medium can be mimicked by a thin layer of noble metal, such as silver. These results are normally attributed to the excitation of surface plasmons in the metal, which only leads to the restoration of p-polarized evanescent waves. In this work, we show that the restoration of s-polarized evanescent waves and, correspondingly, sub-wavelength imaging by a single dielectric slab are possible. Specifically, we show that at λ = 632 nm a thin layer of GaAs behaves as a superlens for s-polarized waves. Replacing the single-metal slab by a dielectric is not only convenient from a technical point of view, it being much easier to deposit and control the thickness and flatness of dielectric films than metal ones, but also invites us to re-think the connection between surface plasmon excitation and the theory of negative refraction. (paper)

  12. Solitary Wave Generation from Constant Continuous Wave in Asymmetric Oppositely Directed Waveguide Coupler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazantseva E.V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In a model which describes asymmetric oppositely directed nonlinear coupler it was observed in numerical simulations a phenomenon of solitary wave generation from the input constant continuous wave set at the entrance of a waveguide with negative refraction. The period of solitary wave formation decreases with increase of the continuum wave amplitude.

  13. Diffractons: Solitary Waves Created by Diffraction in Periodic Media

    KAUST Repository

    Ketcheson, David I.

    2015-03-31

    A new class of solitary waves arises in the solution of nonlinear wave equations with constant impedance and no dispersive terms. These solitary waves depend on a balance between nonlinearity and a dispersion-like effect due to spatial variation in the sound speed of the medium. A high-order homogenized model confirms this effective dispersive behavior, and its solutions agree well with those obtained by direct simulation of the variable-coefficient system. These waves are observed to be long-time stable, globally attracting solutions that arise in general as solutions to nonlinear wave problems with periodically varying sound speed. They share some properties with known classes of solitary waves but possess important differences as well.

  14. Dust acoustic solitary and shock waves in strongly coupled dusty ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    between nonlinear and dispersion effects can result in the formation of symmetrical solitary waves. Also shock ... et al have studied the effect of nonadiabatic dust charge variation on the nonlinear dust acoustic wave with ..... Figure 5 presents the border between oscillatory- and monotonic-type shock waves as functions of ...

  15. Solitary waves in a magneto-electro-elastic circular rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, C X; Pan, E; Zhang, S Y

    2011-01-01

    A simple nonlinear model is proposed in this paper to study the solitary wave in a circular magneto-electro-elastic rod. Based on the constitutive relation for transversely isotropic piezoelectric and piezomagnetic materials, combined with the differential equations of motion, we derive the longitudinal wave motion equation in a long circular rod. The nonlinearity considered is geometrically associated with the nonlinear normal strain in the longitudinal rod direction and the transverse Poisson's effect is included by introducing the effective Poisson's ratio. The nonlinear solitary wave equation is solved by the Jacobi elliptic function expansion method and numerical examples demonstrate not only the existence of such a wave but also some interesting characteristics of the solitary wave in the rod made of different multiphase coupled materials

  16. Numerical Simulation of Cylindrical Solitary Waves in Periodic Media

    KAUST Repository

    Quezada de Luna, Manuel

    2013-07-14

    We study the behavior of nonlinear waves in a two-dimensional medium with density and stress relation that vary periodically in space. Efficient approximate Riemann solvers are developed for the corresponding variable-coefficient first-order hyperbolic system. We present direct numerical simulations of this multiscale problem, focused on the propagation of a single localized perturbation in media with strongly varying impedance. For the conditions studied, we find little evidence of shock formation. Instead, solutions consist primarily of solitary waves. These solitary waves are observed to be stable over long times and to interact in a manner approximately like solitons. The system considered has no dispersive terms; these solitary waves arise due to the material heterogeneity, which leads to strong reflections and effective dispersion.

  17. Solitary wave solutions of two-dimensional nonlinear Kadomtsev ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-09-13

    Sep 13, 2017 ... Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 89; Issue 3. Solitary wave solutions of ... Nonlinear two-dimensional Kadomtsev–Petviashvili (KP) equation governs the behaviour of nonlinear waves in dusty plasmas with variable dust charge and two temperature ions. By using the reductive ...

  18. An efficient algorithm for computation of solitary wave solutions to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-09-08

    Sep 8, 2017 ... Nonlinear mathematical problems and their solutions attain much attention in solitary waves. In soliton theory, an efficient tool to attain various types of soliton solutions is the exp ( − φ ( ζ ) ) -expansion technique. This article is devoted to find exact travelling wave solutions of Drinfeld–Sokolov equation via a ...

  19. An efficient algorithm for computation of solitary wave solutions to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    KAMRAN AYUB

    2017-09-08

    Sep 8, 2017 ... Abstract. Nonlinear mathematical problems and their solutions attain much attention in solitary waves. In soliton theory, an efficient tool to attain various types of soliton solutions is the exp(−ϕ(ζ))-expansion technique. This article is devoted to find exact travelling wave solutions of Drinfeld–Sokolov equation ...

  20. Electron-acoustic solitary waves in the Earth's inner magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillard, C. S.; Vasko, I. Y.; Mozer, F. S.; Agapitov, O. V.; Bonnell, J. W.

    2018-02-01

    The broadband electrostatic turbulence observed in the inner magnetosphere is produced by large-amplitude electrostatic solitary waves of generally two types. The solitary waves with symmetric bipolar parallel (magnetic field-aligned) electric field are electron phase space holes. The solitary waves with highly asymmetric bipolar parallel electric field have been recently shown to correspond to the electron-acoustic plasma mode (existing due to two-temperature electron population). Through theoretical and numerical analysis of hydrodynamic and modified Korteweg-de Vries equations, we demonstrate that the asymmetric solitary waves appear due to the steepening of initially quasi-monochromatic electron-acoustic perturbation arrested at some moment by collisionless dissipation (Landau damping). The typical steepening time is found to be from a few to tens of milliseconds. The steepening of the electron-acoustic waves has not been reproduced in self-consistent kinetic simulations yet, and factors controlling the formation of steepened electron-acoustic waves, rather than electron phase space holes, remain unclear.

  1. Exact and explicit solitary wave solutions to some nonlinear equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiefang Zhang

    1996-01-01

    Exact and explicit solitary wave solutions are obtained for some physically interesting nonlinear evolutions and wave equations in physics and other fields by using a special transformation. These equations include the KdV-Burgers equation, the MKdV-Burgers equation, the combined KdV-MKdV equation, the Newell-Whitehead equation, the dissipative Φ 4 -model equation, the generalized Fisher equation, and the elastic-medium wave equation

  2. Solitary-wave propagation and interactions for a sixth-order generalized Boussinesq equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-Feng Feng

    2005-01-01

    based on the phase plane analysis around the equilibrium point, is used to construct the solitary-wave solutions for this nonintegrable equation. A symmetric three-level implicit finite difference scheme with a free parameter θ is proposed to study the propagation and interactions of solitary waves. Numerical simulations show the propagation of a single solitary wave of SGBE, and two solitary waves pass by each other without changing their shapes in the head-on collisions.

  3. Solitary wave solution to a singularly perturbed generalized Gardner ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-11-27

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 88; Issue 4. Solitary wave solution to a singularly perturbed generalized ... Proceedings of the International Workshop/Conference on Computational Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science (IWCCMP-2015). Posted on November 27, 2015. Guest Editors: ...

  4. Solitary wave solution to a singularly perturbed generalized Gardner ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-03-24

    Mar 24, 2017 ... which is one model in plasma physics and solid physics. [3]. Hamdi et al [4] obtained an exact solitary wave solution to eq. (1.2). They also derived three conserva- tion laws and three invariants of motion for eq. (1.2). [5]. Antonova and Biswas [6] exploited the soliton perturbation theory to eq. (1.2) with γ = 1.

  5. Periodic and solitary wave solutions of cubic–quintic nonlinear ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    physics pp. 1253–1258. Periodic and solitary wave solutions of cubic–quintic nonlinear reaction-diffusion equation with variable convection coefficients. S B BHARDWAJ1,2,∗ ... 3Department of Mathematics, National Institute of Technology, Delhi 110 040, India. 4Department of .... 3.1 Fractional transform soliton solutions.

  6. An efficient algorithm for computation of solitary wave solutions to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    KAMRAN AYUB

    2017-09-08

    Sep 8, 2017 ... exact solitary wave solutions of nonlinear differential equations is a great achievement. In nonlinear physical sciences, an essential contribution is of exact solutions and because of this we can study physical behaviours and discus more features of the problem which give direction to more applications.

  7. Quantum ion-acoustic solitary waves in weak relativistic plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A linear dispersion relation is also obtained taking into account the relativistic effect. The properties of quantum ion-acoustic solitary waves, obtained from the deformed KdV equation, are studied taking into account the quantum mechanical effects in the weak relativistic limit. It is found that relativistic effects significantly ...

  8. Measurement and modeling of bed shear stress under solitary waves

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jayakumar, S.; Guard, P.A.; Baldock, T.E.

    Direct measurements of bed shear stresses (using a shear cell apparatus) generated by non-breaking solitary waves are presented. The measurements were carried out over a smooth bed in laminar and transitional flow regimes (~ 10 sup (4) < R sub (e...

  9. Periodic and solitary wave solutions of cubic–quintic nonlinear ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    odic, double-kink, bell and antikink-type solutions for cubic–quintic nonlinear reaction-diffusion equation are extracted. Such solutions can be used to explain various biological and physical phenomena. Keywords. Variable coefficient reaction-diffusion equation; solitary wave solution; cubic–quintic nonlinearity. PACS No.

  10. Periodic and solitary wave solutions of cubic–quintic nonlinear ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 86; Issue 6. Periodic and solitary wave solutions of cubic–quintic nonlinear reaction-diffusion equation with variable convection coefficients. BHARDWAJ S B SINGH RAM MEHAR SHARMA KUSHAL MISHRA S C. Regular Volume 86 Issue 6 June 2016 pp 1253-1258 ...

  11. Quantum ion-acoustic solitary waves in weak relativistic plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Small amplitude quantum ion-acoustic solitary waves are studied in an unmagnetized two- species relativistic quantum plasma system, comprised of electrons and ions. The one-dimensional quantum hydrodynamic model (QHD) is used to obtain a deformed Korteweg–de Vries (dKdV) equation by reductive ...

  12. Existence and Stability of Relativistic Solitary Waves in Warm Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maza-Palacios, Marco A.; Herrera-Velazquez, J. Julio E.

    2006-01-01

    A variational mehod for one dimensional relativistic solitons is established, within the two fluid model framework, including finite temperature effects. Our starting point is a Lagrangian for a two species fluid plasma, which allows the deduction of the conserved quantities of the system by means of Noether's theorem, as well as the model equations. At a first stage, travelling wave solutions are studied with the usual shape of envelope solitary waves. It is found that bounded travelling waves (bright solitons) exist for most velocities, if both ions and electrons are assumed to be relativistic, except for a window at small values of v/c. In order to study their stability, we obtain the evolution equations of the solitary wave parameters, along those of radiation

  13. Solitary, explosive and periodic solutions for electron acoustic solitary waves with non-thermal hot ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwakil, S. A.; Abulwafa, E. M.; El-Shewy, E. K.; Abd-El-Hamid, H. M.

    2011-11-01

    A theoretical investigation has been made for electron acoustic waves propagating in a system of unmagnetized collisionless plasma consists of a cold electron fluid and ions with two different temperatures in which the hot ions obey the non-thermal distribution. The reductive perturbation method has been employed to derive the Korteweg-de Vries equation for small but finite amplitude electrostatic waves. It is found that the presence of the energetic population of non-thermal hot ions δ, initial normalized equilibrium density of low temperature ions μ and the ratio of temperatures of low temperature ions to high temperature ions β do not only significantly modify the basic properties of solitary structure, but also change the polarity of the solitary profiles. At the critical hot ions density, the KdV equation is not appropriate for describing the system. Hence, a new set of stretched coordinates is considered to derive the modified KdV equation. In the vicinity of the critical hot ions density, neither KdV nor modified KdV equation is appropriate for describing the electron acoustic waves. Therefore, a further modified KdV equation is derived. An algebraic method with computerized symbolic computation, which greatly exceeds the applicability of the existing tanh, extended tanh methods in obtaining a series of exact solutions of the various KdV-type equations, is used here. Numerical studies have been reveals different solutions e.g., bell-shaped solitary pulses, singular solitary "blowup" solutions, Jacobi elliptic doubly periodic wave, Weierstrass elliptic doubly periodic type solutions, in addition to explosive pulses. The results of the present investigation may be applicable to some plasma environments, such as Earth's magnetotail region.

  14. Existence of solitary waves in dipolar quantum gases

    KAUST Repository

    Antonelli, Paolo

    2011-02-01

    We study a nonlinear Schrdinger equation arising in the mean field description of dipolar quantum gases. Under the assumption of sufficiently strong dipolar interactions, the existence of standing waves, and hence solitons, is proved together with some of their properties. This gives a rigorous argument for the possible existence of solitary waves in BoseEinstein condensates, which originate solely due to the dipolar interaction between the particles. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Slow solitary waves in multi-layered magnetic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruderman, M.S.; Roberts, B.; Pelinovsky, E.N.; Petrukhin, N.S.

    2001-01-01

    The propagation of slow sausage surface waves in a multi-layered magnetic configuration is considered. The magnetic configuration consists of a central magnetic slab sandwiched between two identical magnetic slabs (with equilibrium quantities different from those in the central slab) which in turn are embedded between two identical semi-infinite regions. The dispersion equation is obtained in the linear approximation. The nonlinear governing equation describing waves with a characteristic wavelength along the central slab much larger than the slab thickness is derived. Solitary wave solutions to this equation are obtained in the case where these solutions deviate only slightly from the algebraic soliton of the Benjamin-Ono equation

  16. Propagation of three-dimensional electron-acoustic solitary waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalaby, M.; El-Labany, S. K.; Sabry, R.; El-Sherif, L. S.

    2011-06-01

    Theoretical investigation is carried out for understanding the properties of three-dimensional electron-acoustic waves propagating in magnetized plasma whose constituents are cold magnetized electron fluid, hot electrons obeying nonthermal distribution, and stationary ions. For this purpose, the hydrodynamic equations for the cold magnetized electron fluid, nonthermal electron density distribution, and the Poisson equation are used to derive the corresponding nonlinear evolution equation, Zkharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) equation, in the small- but finite- amplitude regime. The ZK equation is solved analytically and it is found that it supports both solitary and blow-up solutions. It is found that rarefactive electron-acoustic solitary waves strongly depend on the density and temperature ratios of the hot-to-cold electron species as well as the nonthermal electron parameter. Furthermore, there is a critical value for the nonthermal electron parameter, which decides whether the electron-acoustic solitary wave's amplitude is decreased or increased by changing various plasma parameters. Importantly, the change of the propagation angles leads to miss the balance between the nonlinearity and dispersion; hence, the localized pulses convert to explosive/blow-up pulses. The relevance of this study to the nonlinear electron-acoustic structures in the dayside auroral zone in the light of Viking satellite observations is discussed.

  17. Propagation of three-dimensional electron-acoustic solitary waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shalaby, M.; El-Sherif, L. S.; El-Labany, S. K.; Sabry, R.

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical investigation is carried out for understanding the properties of three-dimensional electron-acoustic waves propagating in magnetized plasma whose constituents are cold magnetized electron fluid, hot electrons obeying nonthermal distribution, and stationary ions. For this purpose, the hydrodynamic equations for the cold magnetized electron fluid, nonthermal electron density distribution, and the Poisson equation are used to derive the corresponding nonlinear evolution equation, Zkharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) equation, in the small- but finite- amplitude regime. The ZK equation is solved analytically and it is found that it supports both solitary and blow-up solutions. It is found that rarefactive electron-acoustic solitary waves strongly depend on the density and temperature ratios of the hot-to-cold electron species as well as the nonthermal electron parameter. Furthermore, there is a critical value for the nonthermal electron parameter, which decides whether the electron-acoustic solitary wave's amplitude is decreased or increased by changing various plasma parameters. Importantly, the change of the propagation angles leads to miss the balance between the nonlinearity and dispersion; hence, the localized pulses convert to explosive/blow-up pulses. The relevance of this study to the nonlinear electron-acoustic structures in the dayside auroral zone in the light of Viking satellite observations is discussed.

  18. Rotating solitary wave at the wall of a cylindrical container

    KAUST Repository

    Amaouche, Mustapha

    2013-04-30

    This paper deals with the theoretical modeling of a rotating solitary surface wave that was observed during water drainage from a cylindrical reservoir, when shallow water conditions were reached. It represents an improvement of our previous study, where the radial flow perturbation was neglected. This assumption led to the classical planar Korteweg–de Vries equation for the wall wave profile, which did not account for the rotational character of the base flow. The present formulation is based on a less restricting condition and consequently corrects the last shortcoming. Now the influence of the background flow appears in the wave characteristics. The theory provides a better physical depiction of the unique experiment by predicting fairly well the wave profile at least in the first half of its lifetime and estimating the speed of the observed wave with good accuracy.

  19. Optimal transient growth in thin-interface internal solitary waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passaggia, Pierre-Yves; Helfrich, Karl R.; White, Brian L.

    2018-04-01

    The dynamics of perturbations to large-amplitude Internal Solitary Waves (ISW) in two-layered flows with thin interfaces is analyzed by means of linear optimal transient growth methods. Optimal perturbations are computed through direct-adjoint iterations of the Navier-Stokes equations linearized around inviscid, steady ISWs obtained from the Dubreil-Jacotin-Long (DJL) equation. Optimal perturbations are found as a function of the ISW phase velocity $c$ (alternatively amplitude) for one representative stratification. These disturbances are found to be localized wave-like packets that originate just upstream of the ISW self-induced zone (for large enough $c$) of potentially unstable Richardson number, $Ri < 0.25$. They propagate through the base wave as coherent packets whose total energy gain increases rapidly with $c$. The optimal disturbances are also shown to be relevant to DJL solitary waves that have been modified by viscosity representative of laboratory experiments. The optimal disturbances are compared to the local WKB approximation for spatially growing Kelvin-Helmholtz (K-H) waves through the $Ri < 0.25$ zone. The WKB approach is able to capture properties (e.g., carrier frequency, wavenumber and energy gain) of the optimal disturbances except for an initial phase of non-normal growth due to the Orr mechanism. The non-normal growth can be a substantial portion of the total gain, especially for ISWs that are weakly unstable to K-H waves. The linear evolution of Gaussian packets of linear free waves with the same carrier frequency as the optimal disturbances is shown to result in less energy gain than found for either the optimal perturbations or the WKB approximation due to non-normal effects that cause absorption of disturbance energy into the leading face of the wave.

  20. Stability of negative solitary waves for an integrable modified Camassa-Holm equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Jiuli; Tian Lixin; Fan Xinghua

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we prove that the modified Camassa-Holm equation is Painleve integrable. We also study the orbital stability problem of negative solitary waves for this integrable equation. It is shown that the negative solitary waves are stable for arbitrary wave speed of propagation.

  1. A new model for algebraic Rossby solitary waves in rotation fluid and its solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yao-Deng; Yang, Hong-Wei; Gao, Yu-Fang; Yin, Bao-Shu; Feng, Xing-Ru

    2015-09-01

    A generalized Boussinesq equation that includes the dissipation effect is derived to describe a kind of algebraic Rossby solitary waves in a rotating fluid by employing perturbation expansions and stretching transformations of time and space. Using this equation, the conservation laws of algebraic Rossby solitary waves are discussed. It is found that the mass, the momentum, the energy, and the velocity of center of gravity of the algebraic solitary waves are conserved in the propagation process. Finally, the analytical solution of the equation is generated. Based on the analytical solution, the properties of the algebraic solitary waves and the dissipation effect are discussed. The results point out that, similar to classic solitary waves, the dissipation can cause the amplitude and the speed of solitary waves to decrease; however, unlike classic solitary waves, the algebraic solitary waves can split during propagation and the decrease of the detuning parameter can accelerate the occurrence of the solitary waves fission phenomenon. Project supported by the Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environment and Disaster Prevention and Mitigation Project, China (Grant No. 2012010), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 41205082 and 41476019), the Special Funds for Theoretical Physics of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11447205), and the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions (PAPD), China.

  2. Polarized seismic and solitary waves run-up at the sea bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis, L. C.C.; Zainal, A. A.; Faisal, S. Y. [Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru (Malaysia)

    2012-09-26

    The polarization effects in hydrodynamics are studied. Hydrodynamic equation for the nonlinear wave is used along with the polarized solitary waves and seismic waves act as initial waves. The model is then solved by Fourier spectral and Runge-Kutta 4 methods, and the surface plot is drawn. The output demonstrates the inundation behaviors. Consequently, the polarized seismic waves along with the polarized solitary waves tend to generate dissimilar inundation which is more disastrous.

  3. Linear Stability of the boundary layer under a solitary wave

    OpenAIRE

    Verschaeve, Joris C. G.; Pedersen, Geir K.

    2013-01-01

    A theoretical and numerical analysis of the linear stability of the boundary layer flow under a solitary wave is presented. In the present work, the nonlinear boundary layer equations are solved. The result is compared to the linear boundary layer solution in Liu et al. (2007) reveal- ing that both profiles are disagreeing more than has been found before. A change of frame of reference has been used to allow for a classical linear stability analysis without the need to redefine the notion of ...

  4. Experiments and computation of onshore breaking solitary waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, A.; Mayer, Stefan; Pedersen, G.K.

    2005-01-01

    This is a combined experimental and computational study of solitary waves that break on-shore. Velocities and accelerations are measured by a two-camera PIV technique and compared to theoretical values from an Euler model with a VOF method for the free surface. In particular, the dynamics of a so......-called collapsing breaker is scrutinized and the closure between the breaker and the beach is found to be akin to slamming. To the knowledge of the authors, no velocity measurements for this kind of breaker have been previously reported....

  5. Existence domain of the compressive ion acoustic super solitary wave in a two electron temperature warm multi-ion plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffy, S. V.; Ghosh, S. S.

    2017-10-01

    The transition of an ion acoustic solitary wave into a "supersoliton," or a super solitary wave have been explored in a two electron temperature warm multi-ion plasma using the Sagdeev pseudopotential technique. It is generally believed that the ion acoustic solitary wave can be transformed to a super solitary wave only through a double layer. The present work shows that the transition route of an ion acoustic solitary wave to a super solitary wave is not unique. Depending on the electron temperature ratio, a regular solitary wave may transform to a super solitary wave either via the double layer, or through an extra-nonlinear solitary structure whose morphology differs from that of a regular one. These extra-nonlinear structures are associated with a fluctuation of the charge separation within the potential profile and are named as "variable solitary waves." Depending on these analyses, the upper and lower bounds of a super solitary wave have been deciphered and its existence domain has been delineated in the parametric space. It reveals that super solitary waves are a subset of a more generalized class of extra-nonlinear solitary structures called variable solitary waves.

  6. Asymptotic expansions for solitary gravity-capillary waves in two and three dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ablowitz, M J; Haut, T S

    2010-01-01

    High-order asymptotic series are obtained for gravity-capillary solitary waves, where the first term in the series is the well-known sech 2 solution of the KdV equation. The asymptotic series is used, with nine terms included, to investigate the effects of surface tension on the height and energy of large amplitude waves, and waves close to the solitary version of Stokes' extreme wave. In particular, for surface tension below a critical value, the solitary wave with the maximum energy is obtained. For large surface tension, the series is also used to study the energy related to the solitary waves of depression. Energy considerations suggest that, for large enough surface tension, there are solitary waves that can get close to the fluid bottom. Comparisons are also made with recent experiments.

  7. Solitary Langmuir waves in two-electron temperature plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudkikh, V. V.; Prudkikh

    2014-06-01

    Nonlinear interaction of Langmuir and ion-acoustic waves in two-electron temperature plasma is investigated. New integrable wave interaction regime was discovered, this regime corresponds to the Langmuir soliton with three-hump amplitude, propagating with a speed close to the ion-sound speed in the conditions of strong non-isothermality of electronic components. It was discovered that besides the known analytical solution in the form of one- and two-hump waves, there exists a range of solutions in the form of solitary waves, which in the form of envelope has multi-peak structure and differs from the standard profiles described by hyperbolic functions. In case of fixed plasma parameters, different group velocities correspond to the waves with different number of peaks. It is found that the Langmuir wave package contains both even and uneven numbers of oscillations. Low-frequency potential here has uneven number of peaks. Interrelation of obtained and known earlier results are also discussed.

  8. Solitary Waves of Ice Loss Detected in Greenland Crustal Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, S.; Ivins, E. R.; Larour, E. Y.

    2017-12-01

    The annual cycle and secular trend of Greenland mass loading are well recorded in measurements of solid Earth deformation. While bedrock vertical displacements are in phase with loading as inferred from space observations, horizontal motions have received almost no attention. The horizontal bedrock displacements can potentially track the spatiotemporal detail of mass changes with great fidelity. Our analysis of Greenland crustal motion data reveals that a significant excitation of horizontal amplitudes occurs during the intense Greenland melting. A suite of space geodetic observations and climate reanalysis data cannot explain these large horizontal displacements. We discover that solitary seasonal waves of substantial mass transport traveled through Rink Glacier in 2010 and 2012. We deduce that intense summer melting enhanced either basal lubrication or shear softening, or both, causing the glacier to thin dynamically. The newly routed upstream sublglacial water was likely to be both retarded and inefficient, thus providing a causal mechanism for the prolonged ice transport to continue well into the winter months. As the climate continues to produce increasingly warmer spring and summer, amplified seasonal waves of mass transport may become ever more present in years of future observations. Increased frequency of amplified seasonal mass transport may ultimately strengthen the Greenland's dynamic ice mass loss, a component of the balance that will have important ramifications for sea level rise. This animation shows a solitary wave passing through Rink Glacier, Greenland, in 2012, recorded by the motion of a GPS station (circle with arrow). Darker blue colors within the flow indicate mass loss, red colors show mass gain. The star marks the center of the wave. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

  9. Complex dynamical behaviors of compact solitary waves in the perturbed mKdV equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Jiu-Li; Xing Qian-Qian; Tian Li-Xin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we give a detailed discussion about the dynamical behaviors of compact solitary waves subjected to the periodic perturbation. By using the phase portrait theory, we find one of the nonsmooth solitary waves of the mKdV equation, namely, a compact solitary wave, to be a weak solution, which can be proved. It is shown that the compact solitary wave easily turns chaotic from the Melnikov theory. We focus on the sufficient conditions by keeping the system stable through selecting a suitable controller. Furthermore, we discuss the chaotic threshold for a perturbed system. Numerical simulations including chaotic thresholds, bifurcation diagrams, the maximum Lyapunov exponents, and phase portraits demonstrate that there exists a special frequency which has a great influence on our system; with the increase of the controller strength, chaos disappears in the perturbed system. But if the controller strength is sufficiently large, the solitary wave vibrates violently. (general)

  10. Shoaling internal solitary waves of depression over gentle slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Gustavo; Diamessis, Peter

    2017-11-01

    The shoaling of an internal solitary wave (ISW) of depression over gentle slopes is explored through fully nonlinear and non-hydrostatic simulations using a high resolution/accuracy deformed spectral multidomain penalty method. During shoaling, the wave does not disintegrate as in the case of steeper slope but, instead, maintains its symmetric shape. At the core of the wave, an unstable region forms, characterized by the entrapment of heavier-over-light fluid. The formation of this convective instability is attributed to the vertical stretching by the ISW of the near-surface vorticity layer associated with the baroclinic background current. According to recent field observations in the South China Sea, the unstable region drives localized turbulent mixing within the wave, estimated to be up to four times larger than that in the open ocean, in the form of a recirculating trapped core. In this talk, emphasis is placed on the structure of the unstable region and the persistence of a possible recirculating core using simulations which capture 2D wave propagation combined with 3D representation of the transition to turbulence. As such, a preliminary understanding of the underlying fluid mechanics and the potential broader oceanic significance of ISWs with trapped cores is offered. Financial support gratefully acknowledged to NSF OCE Grant 1634257.

  11. Electrostatic solitary waves in dusty pair-ion plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misra, A. P. [Department of Mathematics, Siksha Bhavana, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan-731 235, West Bengal (India); Adhikary, N. C. [Physical Sciences Division, Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology, Vigyan Path, Paschim Boragaon, Garchuk, Guwahati-781035, Assam (India)

    2013-10-15

    The propagation of electrostatic waves in an unmagnetized collisionless pair-ion plasma with immobile positively charged dusts is studied for both large- and small-amplitude perturbations. Using a two-fluid model for pair-ions, it is shown that there appear two linear ion modes, namely the “fast” and “slow” waves in dusty pair-ion plasmas. The properties of these wave modes are studied with different mass (m) and temperature (T) ratios of negative to positive ions, as well as the effects of immobile charged dusts (δ). For large-amplitude waves, the pseudopotential approach is performed, whereas the standard reductive perturbation technique is used to study the small-amplitude Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) solitons. The profiles of the pseudopotential, the large amplitude solitons as well as the dynamical evolution of KdV solitons, are numerically studied with the system parameters as above. It is found that the pair-ion plasmas with positively charged dusts support the propagation of solitary waves (SWs) with only the negative potential. The results may be useful for the excitation of SWs in laboratory dusty pair-ion plasmas, electron-free industrial plasmas as well as for observation in space plasmas where electron density is negligibly small compared to that of negative ions.

  12. Dynamical aspects of various solitary waves and double layers in dusty plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, G.C. [Plasma Physics Division, Institute of Advanced Study in Science Technology, Khanapara, Guwahati-781022, Assam (India); Sarma, J. [Department of Mathematics, R. G. Baruah College, Guwahati-781025, Assam (India); Talukdar, M. [Computer Science Division, Institute of Advanced Study in Science Technology, Khanapara, Guwahati-781022, Assam (India)

    1998-01-01

    Employing quasipotential analysis, the Sagdeev potential equation has been derived in a multicomponent plasma consisting of free and trapped electrons and contaminated by the dust charged grains forming therein by the attachment of electrons to finite-size dust particles. Because of the free and trapped electrons in the dusty plasma, the plasma-acoustic wave exhibits the different features of various solitary waves. The Sagdeev potential equation, at a small-amplitude approximation, leads to the evaluation, by a proposed new formalism of a simple wave solution technique, of the new scenario of solitary wave propagation in a dusty plasma. It has been shown that the ordering of the nonisothermality in the dusty plasma also plays a unique role. In the case of a plasma with first-order nonisothermality, the Sagdeev potential equation derives the compressive solitary wave propagation, while for plasma with higher-order nonisothermality the method might fail to solve the Sagdeev potential equation and, thus, an alternate method is used to reveal the coexistence of compressive and rarefactive solitary waves. In addition, for certain plasma parameters, the solitary waves disappear and a double layer is expected. Again, with the better approximation in the Sagdeev potential, more features of solitary waves, known as spiky and explosive, along with the double layers, are also highlighted. The observations made of the solitary waves could be of further interest in the understanding of laboratory and space plasmas.{copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. Flow and sediment transport induced by a plunging solitary wave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumer, B. Mutlu; Sen, M.Berke; Karagali, Ioanna

    2011-01-01

    affected, by as much as a factor of 2, in the runup and hydraulic jump stages. The pore-water pressure measurements showed that the sediment at (or near) the surface of the bed experiences upward-directed pressure gradient forces during the downrush phase. The magnitude of this force can reach values......Two parallel experiments involving the evolution and runup of plunging solitary waves on a sloping bed were conducted: (1) a rigid-bed experiment, allowing direct (hot film) measurements of bed shear stresses, and (2) a sediment-bed experiment, allowing for the measurement of pore-water pressures...... is explained qualitatively in terms of the measured bed shear stress and the pressure gradient forces....

  14. Scattering of quantized solitary waves in the cubic Schrodinger equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolan, L.

    1976-01-01

    The quantum mechanics for N particles interacting via a delta-function potential in one space dimension and one time dimension is known. The second-quantized description of this system has for its Euler-Lagrange equations of motion the cubic Schrodinger equation. This nonlinear differential equation supports solitary wave solutions. A quantization of these solitons reproduces the weak-coupling limit to the known quantum mechanics. The phase shift for two-body scattering and the energy of the N-body bound state is derived in this approximation. The nonlinear Schrodinger equation is contrasted with the sine-Gordon theory in respect to the ideas which the classical solutions play in the description of the quantum states

  15. Solitary wave and periodic wave solutions for Burgers, Fisher ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the travelling wave solutions plays an important role in nonlinear sciences. Many power- ful methods have been presented, including the inverse scattering transform [1], Hirota's bilinear method [2], homotopy analysis method [3–5], variational iteration method [6,7], homotopy perturbation method [8–10], Painlevé expansion ...

  16. Formation and dynamics of electrostatic solitary waves associated with relativistic electron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moslem, W. M.; Bencheriet, F.; Sabry, R.; Djebli, M.

    2012-04-01

    Properties of nonlinear electrostatic solitary waves in a plasma are analyzed by using the hydrodynamic model for electrons, positrons, and relativistic electron beam. For this purpose, the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (KP) equation has been derived and its analytical solution is presented. It is found that the nonlinear solitary structures can propagate as slow and fast modes. The dependence of these modes on the plasma parameters is defined numerically. Furthermore, positive and negative electrostatic solitary structures can exist. In order to show that the characteristics of the solitary wave profile are influenced by the plasma parameters, the relevant numerical analysis of the KP equation is obtained. The electrostatic solitary waves, as predicted here, may be associated with the nonlinear structures caused by the interaction of relativistic jets with plasma medium, such as in the active galactic nuclei and in the magnetosphere of collapsing stars.

  17. Solitary impulse wave run-up and overland flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, H.

    2013-04-01

    Impulse waves are generated by landslides, rockfalls or avalanches impacting a reservoir or natural lake. These long waves generated by the impulse transferred to the water body in combination with the usually short propagation distance within a lake lead to a large damage potential due to wave run-up or dam overtopping. Damages are then caused by (1) direct wave load on structures, (2) driftwood and float impact and (3) their deposits after water retreat. Major historic events occurred at Lituya Bay, Alaska, in 1958, or at the Vaiont Reservoir, Italy, in 1963. Recent events were observed at Lake Chehalis, Canada, or Lake Lucerne, Switzerland, both in 2007, or at the Lower Grindelwald proglacial lake, Switzerland, in 2009. Whereas previous VAW research aimed at the generation phase of landslide-generated impulse waves with a special focus on the wave characteristics, the current research concentrates on the opposite wave-shore interaction. A particular focus is given to the transition point from the shore slope to the horizontal plane where the orbital wave motion is transformed into a shore-parallel flow. As most literature relates only to plain wave run-up on a linearly-inclined plane and the few studies focussing on wave-induced overland flow are case studies considering only a specific bathymetry, currently no general conclusions on wave-induced overland flow can be drawn. The present study therefore intends to fill in this gap by physical modeling. Testing involved a new test-setup including a piston-type wave maker to generate solitary waves, and a smooth impermeable PVC shore of height w = 0.25 m with a connected horizontal overland flow portion. By varying the shore slope tanβ = 1/1.5, 1/2.5 and 1/5.0, the still water depth h = 0.16 - 0.24 m, and the relative wave height H/h = 0.1 -0.7, a wide range of basic parameters was covered. Overland flow depths and front velocities were measured along the shore using Ultrasonic Distance Sensors. Further, flow

  18. Solitary wave solutions as a signature of the instability in the discrete nonlinear Schroedinger equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arevalo, Edward, E-mail: arevalo@temf.tu-darmstadt.d [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Theorie elektromagnetischer Felder, TEMF, Schlossgartenstr. 8, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2009-09-21

    The effect of instability on the propagation of solitary waves along one-dimensional discrete nonlinear Schroedinger equation with cubic nonlinearity is revisited. A self-contained quasicontinuum approximation is developed to derive closed-form expressions for small-amplitude solitary waves. The notion that the existence of nonlinear solitary waves in discrete systems is a signature of the modulation instability is used. With the help of this notion we conjecture that instability effects on moving solitons can be qualitative estimated from the analytical solutions. Results from numerical simulations are presented to support this conjecture.

  19. Existence domain of electrostatic solitary waves in the lunar wake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubia, R.; Singh, S. V.; Lakhina, G. S.

    2018-03-01

    Electrostatic solitary waves (ESWs) and double layers are explored in a four-component plasma consisting of hot protons, hot heavier ions (He++), electron beam, and suprathermal electrons having κ-distribution using the Sagdeev pseudopotential method. Three modes exist: slow and fast ion-acoustic modes and electron-acoustic mode. The occurrence of ESWs and their existence domain as a function of various plasma parameters, such as the number densities of ions and electron beam, the spectral index, κ, the electron beam velocity, the temperatures of ions, and electron beam, are analyzed. It is observed that both the slow and fast ion-acoustic modes support both positive and negative potential solitons as well as their coexistence. Further, they support a "forbidden gap," the region in which the soliton ceases to propagate. In addition, slow ion-acoustic solitons support the existence of both positive and negative potential double layers. The electron-acoustic mode is only found to support negative potential solitons for parameters relevant to the lunar wake plasma. Fast Fourier transform of a soliton electric field produces a broadband frequency spectrum. It is suggested that all three soliton types taken together can provide a good explanation for the observed electrostatic waves in the lunar wake.

  20. Landau damping of dust acoustic solitary waves in nonthermal plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghai, Yashika; Saini, N. S.; Eliasson, B.

    2018-01-01

    Dust acoustic (DA) solitary and shock structures have been investigated under the influence of Landau damping in a dusty plasma containing two temperature nonthermal ions. Motivated by the observations of Geotail spacecraft that reported two-temperature ion population in the Earth's magnetosphere, we have investigated the effect of resonant wave-particle interactions on DA nonlinear structures. The Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation with an additional Landau damping term is derived and its analytical solution is presented. The solution has the form of a soliton whose amplitude decreases with time. Further, we have illustrated the influence of Landau damping and nonthermality of the ions on DA shock structures by a numerical solution of the Landau damping modified KdV equation. The study of the time evolution of shock waves suggests that an initial shock-like pulse forms an oscillatory shock at later times due to the balance of nonlinearity, dispersion, and dissipation due to Landau damping. The findings of the present investigation may be useful in understanding the properties of nonlinear structures in the presence of Landau damping in dusty plasmas containing two temperature ions obeying nonthermal distribution such as in the Earth's magnetotail.

  1. Nonlinear Wave Propagation and Solitary Wave Formation in Two-Dimensional Heterogeneous Media

    KAUST Repository

    Luna, Manuel

    2011-05-01

    Solitary wave formation is a well studied nonlinear phenomenon arising in propagation of dispersive nonlinear waves under suitable conditions. In non-homogeneous materials, dispersion may happen due to effective reflections between the material interfaces. This dispersion has been used along with nonlinearities to find solitary wave formation using the one-dimensional p-system. These solitary waves are called stegotons. The main goal in this work is to find two-dimensional stegoton formation. To do so we consider the nonlinear two-dimensional p-system with variable coefficients and solve it using finite volume methods. The second goal is to obtain effective equations that describe the macroscopic behavior of the variable coefficient system by a constant coefficient one. This is done through a homogenization process based on multiple-scale asymptotic expansions. We compare the solution of the effective equations with the finite volume results and find a good agreement. Finally, we study some stability properties of the homogenized equations and find they and one-dimensional versions of them are unstable in general.

  2. Nonlinear wave modulation of cylindrical and spherical quantum ion-acoustic solitary waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabry, R.; El-Labany, S. K.; Shukla, P. K.

    2008-12-01

    Cylindrical and spherical amplitude modulation of quantum ion-acoustic (QIA) envelope solitary waves in a dense quantum plasma comprised of electrons and ions is investigated. For this purpose, a one-dimensional quantum hydrodynamic model and the Poisson equation are considered. By using the standard reductive perturbation technique, a modified nonlinear Schrödinger equation with the geometrical and the quantum effects is derived. The effect of quantum corrections and the effect due to the cylindrical and spherical geometries on the propagation of the QIA envelope solitary waves are examined. It is shown that there exists a modulation instability period depending on the quantum parameter, which does not exist for the one-dimensional classical case.

  3. Large amplitude ion-acoustic solitary waves and double layers in multicomponent plasma with positrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabry, R.

    2009-01-01

    A finite amplitude theory for ion-acoustic solitary waves and double layers in multicomponent plasma consisting of hot positrons, cold ions, and electrons with two-electron temperature distributions is presented. Conditions are obtained under which large amplitude stationary ion-acoustic solitary waves and double layers can exist. For the physical parameters of interest, the ion-acoustic solitary wave (double layers) profiles and the relationship between the maximum soliton (double layers) amplitude and the Mach number are found. Also, we have presented the region of existence of the large amplitude ion-acoustic waves by analyzing the structure of the pseudopotential. For the selected range of parameters, it is found that only positive solitary waves and double layers can exist. An analysis for the small amplitude limit through the Sagdeev pseudopotential analysis and the reductive perturbation theory shows the existence of positive and negative ion-acoustic solitary waves and double layers. The effects of positron concentration and temperature ratio on the characteristics of the solitary ion-acoustic waves and double layers (namely, the amplitude and width) are discussed in detail. The relevance of this investigation to space and laboratory plasmas is pointed out.

  4. Large amplitude ion-acoustic solitary waves and double layers in multicomponent plasma with positrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabry, R.

    2009-07-01

    A finite amplitude theory for ion-acoustic solitary waves and double layers in multicomponent plasma consisting of hot positrons, cold ions, and electrons with two-electron temperature distributions is presented. Conditions are obtained under which large amplitude stationary ion-acoustic solitary waves and double layers can exist. For the physical parameters of interest, the ion-acoustic solitary wave (double layers) profiles and the relationship between the maximum soliton (double layers) amplitude and the Mach number are found. Also, we have presented the region of existence of the large amplitude ion-acoustic waves by analyzing the structure of the pseudopotential. For the selected range of parameters, it is found that only positive solitary waves and double layers can exist. An analysis for the small amplitude limit through the Sagdeev pseudopotential analysis and the reductive perturbation theory shows the existence of positive and negative ion-acoustic solitary waves and double layers. The effects of positron concentration and temperature ratio on the characteristics of the solitary ion-acoustic waves and double layers (namely, the amplitude and width) are discussed in detail. The relevance of this investigation to space and laboratory plasmas is pointed out.

  5. Dynamics of Solitary Wave Pulses Near the Zero-Dispersion Wavelength in Optical Fibers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Akylas, Triantaphyllos

    1998-01-01

    .... Near the zero-dispersion wavelength (ZDW), the borderline between normal and anomalous dispersion, however, dispersive effects are relatively weak and it would seem most efficient to operate there, assuming that one can launch solitary wave...

  6. Space-charge solitary waves and double layers in n-type compensated semiconductor quantum plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, S.; Ghosh, B.

    2018-03-01

    Using quantum hydrodynamic (QHD) model and standard reductive perturbation method, we have investigated the formation and characteristics of space-charge solitary waves and double layers in n-type compensated drifting semiconductor plasma with varying doping profiles. Through numerical analysis, it is shown that the structures of space-charge solitary waves and double layers depend significantly on electron drift and compensation parameter which measures a comparative proportion of the donor, acceptor and intrinsic ion concentrations.

  7. Anomalous width variation of rarefactive ion acoustic solitary waves in the context of auroral plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Ghosh

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of dynamic, large amplitude solitary waves in the auroral regions of space is well known. Since their velocities are of the order of the ion acoustic speed, they may well be considered as being generated from the nonlinear evolution of ion acoustic waves. However, they do not show the expected width-amplitude correlation for K-dV solitons. Recent POLAR observations have actually revealed that the low altitude rarefactive ion acoustic solitary waves are associated with an increase in the width with increasing amplitude. This indicates that a weakly nonlinear theory is not appropriate to describe the solitary structures in the auroral regions. In the present work, a fully nonlinear analysis based on Sagdeev pseudopotential technique has been adopted for both parallel and oblique propagation of rarefactive solitary waves in a two electron temperature multi-ion plasma. The large amplitude solutions have consistently shown an increase in the width with increasing amplitude. The width-amplitude variation profile of obliquely propagating rarefactive solitary waves in a magnetized plasma have been compared with the recent POLAR observations. The width-amplitude variation pattern is found to fit well with the analytical results. It indicates that a fully nonlinear theory of ion acoustic solitary waves may well explain the observed anomalous width variations of large amplitude structures in the auroral region.

  8. New family of solitary waves in granular dimer chains with no precompression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaprakash, K R; Starosvetsky, Yuli; Vakakis, Alexander F

    2011-03-01

    In the present paper we report the existence of a new family of solitary waves in general one-dimensional dimer chains with elastic interactions between beads obeying a strongly nonlinear Hertzian force law. These dimers consist of pairs of "heavy" and "light" beads with no precompression. The solitary waves reported herein can be considered as analogous to the solitary waves in general homogeneous granular chains studied by Nesterenko, in the sense that they do not involve separations between beads, but rather satisfy special symmetries or, equivalently antiresonances in their intrinsic dynamics. We conjecture that these solitary waves are the direct products of a countable infinity of antiresonances in the dimer. An interesting finding is that the solitary waves in the dimer propagate faster than solitary waves in the corresponding homogeneous granular chain obtained in the limit of no mass mismatch between beads (i.e., composed of only heavy beads). This finding, which might seem counterintuitive, indicates that under certain conditions nonlinear antiresonances can increase the speed of disturbance transmission in periodic granular media, through the generation of different ways for transferring energy to the far field of these media. From a practical point of view, this result can have interesting implications in applications where granular media are employed as shock transmitters or attenuators.

  9. Integrability: mathematical methods for studying solitary waves theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wazwaz, Abdul-Majid

    2014-03-01

    In recent decades, substantial experimental research efforts have been devoted to linear and nonlinear physical phenomena. In particular, studies of integrable nonlinear equations in solitary waves theory have attracted intensive interest from mathematicians, with the principal goal of fostering the development of new methods, and physicists, who are seeking solutions that represent physical phenomena and to form a bridge between mathematical results and scientific structures. The aim for both groups is to build up our current understanding and facilitate future developments, develop more creative results and create new trends in the rapidly developing field of solitary waves. The notion of the integrability of certain partial differential equations occupies an important role in current and future trends, but a unified rigorous definition of the integrability of differential equations still does not exist. For example, an integrable model in the Painlevé sense may not be integrable in the Lax sense. The Painlevé sense indicates that the solution can be represented as a Laurent series in powers of some function that vanishes on an arbitrary surface with the possibility of truncating the Laurent series at finite powers of this function. The concept of Lax pairs introduces another meaning of the notion of integrability. The Lax pair formulates the integrability of nonlinear equation as the compatibility condition of two linear equations. However, it was shown by many researchers that the necessary integrability conditions are the existence of an infinite series of generalized symmetries or conservation laws for the given equation. The existence of multiple soliton solutions often indicates the integrability of the equation but other tests, such as the Painlevé test or the Lax pair, are necessary to confirm the integrability for any equation. In the context of completely integrable equations, studies are flourishing because these equations are able to describe the

  10. Rational solitary wave and rogue wave solutions in coupled defocusing Hirota equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Xin, E-mail: 14491558@qq.com

    2016-06-03

    Highlights: • The M/W shape rational solitary wave solutions and rogue wave solutions of coupled Hirota equations are given. • The baseband modulational stability theory is established in the defocusing coupled Hirota model. • The M/W shape rational solitary wave can be explained by the baseband modulational stability theory. - Abstract: We derive and study a general rational solution of a coupled defocusing Hirota equation which can be used to describe evolution of light in a two-mode fiber with defocusing Kerr effect and some certain high-order effects. We find some new excitation patterns in the model, such as M-shaped soliton, W-shaped soliton, anti-eye-shaped rogue wave and four-petaled flower rogue wave. The results are compared with the solutions obtained in other coupled systems like vector nonlinear Schrödinger equation, coupled focusing Hirota and Sasa–Satsuma equations. We explain the new characters by modulational instability properties. This further indicates that rational solution does not necessarily correspond to rogue wave excitation dynamics and the quantitative relation between nonlinear excitations and modulational instability should exist.

  11. Viscous damping of solitary waves in the mud banks of Kerala, West coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shenoi, S.S.C.; Murty, C.S.

    Analysis of wave damping in mud bank region following the process of transfer of wave energy to the interior of fluid column through the boundary layer and the energy loss computations owing to viscous shear beneath the solitary wave over a smooth...

  12. Head-on collision of large amplitude internal solitary waves of the first mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terletska, Kateryna; Maderich, Vladimir; Brovchenko, Igor; Jung, Kyung Tae; Talipova, Tatiana

    2016-04-01

    The dynamics and energetics of a frontal collision of internal solitary waves of depression and elevation of moderate and large amplitudes propagating in a two-layer stratified fluid are studied numerically in frame of the Navier-Stokes equations. It was considered symmetric and asymmetric head-on collisions. We propose the dimensionless characteristic of the wave collision ξ that is the ratio of the wave steepnesses. Wave runup normalized on the amplitude of incoming wave as function of the waves steepness is proposed. Interval 01 corresponds to the larger wave in the case of asymmetric collision. Results of modeling were compared with the results of laboratory experiments [1]. It was shown that the frontal collision of internal solitary waves of moderate amplitude leads to a small phase shift and to the generation of dispersive wavetrain trailing behind transmitted solitary wave. The phase shift grows with increasing amplitudes of the interacting waves and approaches the limiting value when amplitudes of the waves are equal to the upper/lower layer for waves of depression/elevation. The deviation of the maximum wave height during collision from the twice the amplitude are maximal when wave amplitudes are equal to the upper/lower layer for waves of depression/elevation, then it decays with growth of amplitudes of interacting waves. It was found that the interaction of waves of large amplitude leads to the shear instability and the formation of Kelvin - Helmholtz vortices in the interface layer, however, subsequently waves again become stable. References [1] R.-C. Hsu, M. H. Cheng, C.-Y. Chen, Potential hazards and dynamical analysis of interfacial solitary wave interactions. Nat Hazards. 65 (2013) 255-278

  13. Solitary Wave Solutions to a Class of Modified Green-Naghdi Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchêne, Vincent; Nilsson, Dag; Wahlén, Erik

    2017-12-01

    We provide the existence and asymptotic description of solitary wave solutions to a class of modified Green-Naghdi systems, modeling the propagation of long surface or internal waves. This class was recently proposed by Duchêne et al. (Stud Appl Math 137:356-415, 2016) in order to improve the frequency dispersion of the original Green-Naghdi system while maintaining the same precision. The solitary waves are constructed from the solutions of a constrained minimization problem. The main difficulties stem from the fact that the functional at stake involves low order non-local operators, intertwining multiplications and convolutions through Fourier multipliers.

  14. Travelling Solitary Wave Solutions for Generalized Time-delayed Burgers-Fisher Equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Xijun; Han Libo; Li Xi

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, travelling wave solutions for the generalized time-delayed Burgers-Fisher equation are studied. By using the first-integral method, which is based on the ring theory of commutative algebra, we obtain a class of travelling solitary wave solutions for the generalized time-delayed Burgers-Fisher equation. A minor error in the previous article is clarified. (general)

  15. Collaborative Research: Dynamics of Electrostatic Solitary Waves on Current Layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickett, Jolene S.

    2012-10-31

    The research carried out under the subject grant has provided insight into the generation of Electrostatic Solitary Waves (ESWs), which are nonlinear structures observed in space plasma data. These ESWs, appearing as pulses in the electric field time series data, represent the presence of several hundred meters to kilometer size positive potential structures, similar to champagne bubbles, where the electrons have been depleted, and which travel along Earth's magnetic field lines. The laboratory experiments carried out at the UCLA LAPD under the grant allowed us the opportunity to change various plasma and field conditions within the plasma device, and experiment with injection of suprathermal electron beams, in order to create ESWs. This then allowed us to determine the most likely method of generation of the ESWs. By comparing the properties of the ESWs observed in the LAPD to those observed in space and the plasma and field conditions under which those ESWs were observed in both locations, we were able to evaluate various ESW generation mechanisms. The findings of the laboratory experiments are that ESWs are generated through a lower hybrid instability. The ESWs observed in Earth's auroral current regions have similar characteristics to those generated by the laboratory when referenced to basic plasma and field characteristics, leading us to the conclusion that the lower hybrid drift instability is certainly a possibility for generation of the ESWs, at least in the auroral (northern/southern lights) regions. Due to space instrumentation insufficiencies and the limitations on telemetry, and thus poor time resolution, it is not possible to determine absolutely what generates these bubbles in space, but the laboratory experiments and supporting simulations have helped us to further our understanding of the processes under which they are generated. The public benefits from the findings of this research because the research is focused on current layers

  16. Transformation of internal solitary waves at the "deep" and "shallow" shelf: satellite observations and laboratory experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. D. Shishkina

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available An interaction of internal solitary waves with the shelf edge in the time periods related to the presence of a pronounced seasonal pycnocline in the Red Sea and in the Alboran Sea is analysed via satellite photos and SAR images. Laboratory data on transformation of a solitary wave of depression while passing along the transverse bottom step were obtained in a tank with a two-layer stratified fluid. The certain difference between two characteristic types of hydrophysical phenomena was revealed both in the field observations and in experiments. The hydrological conditions for these two processes were named the "deep" and the "shallow" shelf respectively. The first one provides the generation of the secondary periodic short internal waves – "runaway" edge waves – due to change in the polarity of a part of a soliton approaching the shelf normally. Another one causes a periodic shear flow in the upper quasi-homogeneous water layer with the period of incident solitary wave. The strength of the revealed mechanisms depends on the thickness of the water layer between the pycnocline and the shelf bottom as well as on the amplitude of the incident solitary wave.

  17. Arbitrary amplitude dust kinetic Alfvén solitary waves in the presence of polarization force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manpreet; Kaur, Nimardeep; Saini, N. S.

    2018-02-01

    In this investigation, the effect of polarization force on dust kinetic Alfvén solitary waves (DKASWs) in a magnetized dusty plasma consisting of dust fluid, electrons, and positively charged ions is studied. By incorporating density non-uniformity and polarization force in the fluid model equations, the energy balance equation is derived, and from the expression for Sagdeev pseudopotential, the existence conditions for solitary structures in terms of Mach number are determined. From the numerical analysis of Sagdeev pseudopotential, compressive and rarefactive DKASWs at sub- and super-Alfvénic speeds are observed. These waves are significantly affected by varying polarization force, angle of propagation, plasma beta, and Mach number.

  18. Solitary waves on inclined films: their characteristics and the effects on wall shear stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tihon, J. [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Institute of Chemical Process Fundamentals, Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Serifi, K.; Argyriadi, K.; Bontozoglou, V. [University of Thessaly, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Volos (Greece)

    2006-07-15

    The properties of solitary waves, developing from inlet disturbances of controlled frequency along an inclined film flow, are systematically studied experimentally and computationally. Time-variations of film height and wall shear stress are measured, using respectively a capacitance probe and an electrodiffusion sensor. Computational data are provided from simulations performed by a Galerkin finite element scheme. The height and spacing of solitary humps, their phase velocity and the wavelength of the preceding capillary ripples are reported as functions of the Reynolds number (10solitary waves is studied experimentally and computationally as a function of Re. Distinct nonlinear characteristics are noted, including a steep maximum and a negative minimum, with the effects intensifying at intermediate Re. All computer predictions are found to be in good quantitative agreement with the experimental data. (orig.)

  19. Advection of pollutants by internal solitary waves in oceanic and atmospheric stable stratifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. W. Haarlemmer

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available When a pollutant is released into the ocean or atmosphere under turbulent conditions, even a steady release is captured by large eddies resulting in localized patches of high concentration of the pollutant. If such a cloud of pollutant subsequently enters a stable stratification-either a pycnocline or thermocline-then internal waves are excited. Since large solitary internal waves have a recirculating core, pollutants may be trapped in the sclitary wave, and advected large distances through the waveguide provided by the stratification. This paper addresses the mechanisms, through computer and physical simulation, by which a localized release of a dense pollutant results in solitary waves that trap the pollutant or disperse the pollutant faster than in the absence of the waves.

  20. Nonlinear wave propagation of large amplitude ion-acoustic solitary waves in negative ion plasmas with superthermal electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Labany, S. K.; Sabry, R.; El-Shamy, E. F.; Khedr, D. M.; Khedr

    2013-10-01

    Investigation of arbitrary amplitude nonlinear ion-acoustic solitary waves which accompany collisionless positive-negative ion plasmas with high-energy electrons (represented by kappa distribution) is presented. Arbitrary amplitude solitary waves are investigated by deriving an energy-integral equation involving a Sagdeev-like pseudopotential. The existence regions of solitary pulses are, defined precisely, modified by the superthermality of energetic electrons. Furthermore, numerical calculations reveal that both compressive and rarefactive pulses may exist for negative ion mass groups in Titan's atmosphere. The superthermality of energetic electrons are found to modify the existence domains of large amplitude ion-acoustic waves in Titan's atmosphere. The dependence of solitary excitation characteristics on the superthermal parameter, the negative ion concentration, the positive-to-negative ions mass ratio, and the Mach number have been investigated. The present study might be helpful to understand the excitation of fully nonlinear ion-acoustic solitary pulses that may appear in the interplanetary medium and/or in the astrophysical plasmas in general.

  1. Nonlinear propagation of dust-acoustic solitary waves in a dusty ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Lecture Workshops · Refresher Courses · Symposia · Live Streaming. Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 80; Issue 6. Nonlinear propagation of dust-acoustic solitary waves in a dusty plasma with arbitrarily charged dust and trapped electrons. O Rahman A A Mamun. Volume 80 Issue 6 June 2013 pp ...

  2. Furthering our understanding of electrostatic solitary waves through Cluster multispacecraft observations and theory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pickett, J. S.; Chen, L. J.; Mutel, R. L.; Christopher, I. W.; Santolík, Ondřej; Lakhina, G. S.; Singh, S. V.; Reddy, R. V.; Gurnett, D. A.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Lucek, E.; Lavraud, B.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 10 (2008), s. 1666-1676 ISSN 0273-1177 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Electrostatic solitary waves * ESW propagation * Cluster * Magnetosheath * Auroral acceleration region * Cluster wideband data Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.860, year: 2008

  3. Electrostatic solitary waves observed at Saturn by Cassini inside 10 Rs and near Enceladus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pickett, J. S.; Kurth, W. S.; Gurnett, D. A.; Huff, R. L.; Faden, J. B.; Averkamp, T. F.; Píša, David; Jones, G. H.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 8 (2015), s. 6569-6580 ISSN 2169-9380 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : electrostatic solitary waves * Saturn * Enceladus * plasma instabilities Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.318, year: 2015 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2015JA021305/full

  4. Space-charge solitary waves and double layers in n-type ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S BANERJEE

    2018-02-20

    Feb 20, 2018 ... Abstract. Using quantum hydrodynamic (QHD) model and standard reductive perturbation method, we have investigated the formation and characteristics of space-charge solitary waves and double layers in n-type compen- sated drifting semiconductor plasma with varying doping profiles. Through ...

  5. Analytical electron acoustic solitary wave solution for the forced KdV equation in superthermal plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Rustam; Saha, Asit; Chatterjee, Prasanta

    2017-12-01

    Analytical electron acoustic solitary wave (EASW) solution is investigated in the presence of periodic force for an unmagnetized plasma consisting of cold electron fluid, superthermal hot electrons, and stationary ions. Employing the reductive perturbation technique, the forced Korteg-de Vries (KdV) equation is derived for electron acoustic waves. For the first time, an analytical solution for EASWs is derived in the presence of periodic force. The effects of the ratio between hot electron and cold electron number densities at equilibrium (α), spectral index (κ), speed of the traveling wave (M), strength (f0), and frequency (ω) of the periodic force are studied on the analytical solution of EASWs. It is observed that the parameters α, κ, M, f0, and ω affect significantly the structures of the electron acoustic solitary waves. The results may have relevance in laboratory plasmas as well as in space plasma environments.

  6. Electron acoustic solitary waves in a magnetized plasma with nonthermal electrons and an electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, S. V., E-mail: satyavir@iigs.iigm.res.in; Lakhina, G. S., E-mail: lakhina@iigs.iigm.res.in [Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, New Panvel (W), Navi Mumbai (India); University of the Western Cape, Belville (South Africa); Devanandhan, S., E-mail: devanandhan@gmail.com [Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, New Panvel (W), Navi Mumbai (India); Bharuthram, R., E-mail: rbharuthram@uwc.ac.za [University of the Western Cape, Belville (South Africa)

    2016-08-15

    A theoretical investigation is carried out to study the obliquely propagating electron acoustic solitary waves having nonthermal hot electrons, cold and beam electrons, and ions in a magnetized plasma. We have employed reductive perturbation theory to derive the Korteweg-de-Vries-Zakharov-Kuznetsov (KdV-ZK) equation describing the nonlinear evolution of these waves. The two-dimensional plane wave solution of KdV-ZK equation is analyzed to study the effects of nonthermal and beam electrons on the characteristics of the solitons. Theoretical results predict negative potential solitary structures. We emphasize that the inclusion of finite temperature effects reduces the soliton amplitudes and the width of the solitons increases by an increase in the obliquity of the wave propagation. The numerical analysis is presented for the parameters corresponding to the observations of “burst a” event by Viking satellite on the auroral field lines.

  7. New theory of the Great Red Spot from solitary waves in the Jovian atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxworthy, T.; Redekopp, L.G.

    1976-01-01

    It is stated that the nature of the Great Red Spot on Jupiter is a persistent problem. It is considered here that 'solitary' waves on a horizontally sheared zonal flow in a rotating stratified atmosphere would explain many of the known GRS characteristics and also other features that have been observed on Jupiter. 'Solitary' waves are isolated permanent waves in which non-linear steepening balances dispersive spreading effects, and they can arise from arbitrary distrurbances and interact non-linearly without changing their shape. The only memory of such an interaction is a finite spatial phase shift between the fast- and the pre-interaction trajectories; the interaction looks like a rapid acceleration of one wave through another. The matter is here treated mathematically. A number of examples similar to Jupiter's GRS are mentioned in the discussion. (U.K.)

  8. Forced solitary Rossby waves under the influence of slowly varying topography with time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Hong-Wei; Yin Bao-Shu; Yang De-Zhou; Xu Zhen-Hua

    2011-01-01

    By using a weakly nonlinear and perturbation method, the generalized inhomogeneous Korteweg—de Vries (KdV)—Burgers equation is derived, which governs the evolution of the amplitude of Rossby waves under the influence of dissipation and slowly varying topography with time. The analysis indicates that dissipation and slowly varying topography with time are important factors in causing variation in the mass and energy of solitary waves. (general)

  9. Characteristics of solitary waves in a relativistic degenerate ion beam driven magneto plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deka, Manoj Kr.; Dev, Apul N.; Misra, Amar P.; Adhikary, Nirab C.

    2018-01-01

    The nonlinear propagation of a small amplitude ion acoustic solitary wave in a relativistic degenerate magneto plasma in the presence of an ion beam is investigated in detail. The nonlinear equations describing the evolution of a solitary wave in the presence of relativistic non-degenerate magnetized positive ions and ion beams including magnetized degenerate relativistic electrons are derived in terms of Zakharov-Kuznetsov (Z-K) equation for such plasma systems. The ion beams which are a ubiquitous ingredient in such plasma systems are found to have a decisive role in the propagation of a solitary wave in such a highly dense plasma system. The conditions of a wave, propagating with typical solitonic characteristics, are examined and discussed in detail under suitable conditions of different physical parameters. Both a subsonic and supersonic wave can propagate in such plasmas bearing different characteristics under different physical situations. A detailed analysis of waves propagating in subsonic and/or supersonic regime is carried out. The ion beam concentrations, magnetic field, as well as ion beam streaming velocity are found to play a momentous role on the control of the amplitude and width of small amplitude perturbation in both weakly (or non-relativistic) and relativistic plasmas.

  10. On the Dynamics of Two-Dimensional Capillary-Gravity Solitary Waves with a Linear Shear Current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dali Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The numerical study of the dynamics of two-dimensional capillary-gravity solitary waves on a linear shear current is presented in this paper. The numerical method is based on the time-dependent conformal mapping. The stability of different kinds of solitary waves is considered. Both depression wave and large amplitude elevation wave are found to be stable, while small amplitude elevation wave is unstable to the small perturbation, and it finally evolves to be a depression wave with tails, which is similar to the irrotational capillary-gravity waves.

  11. PIC simulation of compressive and rarefactive dust ion-acoustic solitary waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhong-Zheng; Zhang, Heng; Hong, Xue-Ren; Gao, Dong-Ning; Zhang, Jie; Duan, Wen-Shan, E-mail: duanws@nwnu.edu.cn [College of Physics and Electronic Engineering and Joint Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Physics of NWNU & IMP CAS, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Yang, Lei, E-mail: lyang@impcas.ac.cn [College of Physics and Electronic Engineering and Joint Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Physics of NWNU & IMP CAS, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Department of Physics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2016-08-15

    The nonlinear propagations of dust ion-acoustic solitary waves in a collisionless four-component unmagnetized dusty plasma system containing nonextensive electrons, inertial negative ions, Maxwellian positive ions, and negatively charged static dust grains have been investigated by the particle-in-cell method. By comparing the simulation results with those obtained from the traditional reductive perturbation method, it is observed that the rarefactive KdV solitons propagate stably at a low amplitude, and when the amplitude is increased, the prime wave form evolves and then gradually breaks into several small amplitude solitary waves near the tail of soliton structure. The compressive KdV solitons propagate unstably and oscillation arises near the tail of soliton structure. The finite amplitude rarefactive and compressive Gardner solitons seem to propagate stably.

  12. Doubly periodic wave and folded solitary wave solutions for (2 + 1)-dimensional higher-order Broer-Kaup equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Wenhua; Liu Yulu; Lu Zhiming

    2007-01-01

    A general solution including three arbitrary functions is obtained for the (2 + 1)-dimensional high-order Broer-Kaup equation by means of WTC truncation method. From the general solution, doubly periodic wave solutions in terms of the Jacobian elliptic functions with different modulus and folded solitary wave solutions determined by appropriate multiple valued functions are obtained. Some interesting novel features and interaction properties of these exact solutions and coherent localized structures are revealed

  13. Algebraic method for constructing singular steady solitary waves: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clamond, Didier; Dutykh, Denys; Galligo, André

    2016-07-01

    This article describes the use of algebraic methods in a phase plane analysis of ordinary differential equations. The method is illustrated by the study of capillary-gravity steady surface waves propagating in shallow water. We consider the (fully nonlinear, weakly dispersive) Serre-Green-Naghdi equation with surface tension, because it provides a tractable model that, at the same time, is not too simple, so interest in the method can be emphasized. In particular, we analyse a special class of solutions, the solitary waves, which play an important role in many fields of physics. In capillary-gravity regime, there are two kinds of localized infinitely smooth travelling wave solutions-solitary waves of elevation and of depression. However, if we allow the solitary waves to have an angular point, then the `zoology' of solutions becomes much richer, and the main goal of this study is to provide a complete classification of such singular localized solutions using the methods of the effective algebraic geometry.

  14. Nonlocal symmetries, solitary waves and cnoidal periodic waves of the (2+1)-dimensional breaking soliton equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Li; Tian, Shou-Fu; Feng, Lian-Li

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we consider the (2+1)-dimensional breaking soliton equation, which describes the interaction of a Riemann wave propagating along the y-axis with a long wave along the x-axis. By virtue of the truncated Painlevé expansion method, we obtain the nonlocal symmetry, Bäcklund transformation and Schwarzian form of the equation. Furthermore, by using the consistent Riccati expansion (CRE), we prove that the breaking soliton equation is solvable. Based on the consistent tan-function expansion, we explicitly derive the interaction solutions between solitary waves and cnoidal periodic waves.

  15. Quantum ion-acoustic solitary waves in weak relativistic plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ion-acoustic waves. Recently, Stenflo et al [24] observed two new low-frequency elec- trostatic modes in ultra-cold unmagnetized quantum dusty plasmas. Ali and Shukla ... waves in a nonuniform ultra-cold Fermi dusty gas composed of inertialess electrons, and ions as well ... the Van Allen radiation belts [34] etc. Streaming ...

  16. Solitary Alfven wave envelopes and the modulational instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennel, C.F.

    1987-06-01

    The derivative nonlinear Schroedinger equation describes the modulational instability of circularly polarized dispersive Alfven wave envelopes. It also may be used to determine the properties of finite amplitude localized stationary wave envelopes. Such envelope solitons exist only in conditions of modulational stability. This leaves open the question of whether, and if so, how, the modulational instability produces envelope solitons. 12 refs

  17. Dust acoustic solitary and shock waves in strongly coupled dusty ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mal vortex-like ion distribution and strongly correlated grains in a liquid-like state and discussed about the properties of shock ... shock waves in coupled dusty plasma with Boltzmann distribution of ions. Ghosh et al have studied the effect of ... ues of parameters where the nonlinear term is zero. Also new kind of shock wave.

  18. Ship-induced solitary Riemann waves of depression in Venice Lagoon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parnell, Kevin E.; Soomere, Tarmo; Zaggia, Luca; Rodin, Artem; Lorenzetti, Giuliano; Rapaglia, John; Scarpa, Gian Marco

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that ships of moderate size, sailing at low depth Froude numbers (0.37–0.5) in a navigation channel surrounded by shallow banks, produce depressions with depths up to 2.5 m. These depressions (Bernoulli wakes) propagate as long-living strongly nonlinear solitary Riemann waves of depression substantial distances into Venice Lagoon. They gradually become strongly asymmetric with the rear of the depression becoming extremely steep, similar to a bore. As they are dynamically similar, air pressure fluctuations moving over variable-depth coastal areas could generate meteorological tsunamis with a leading depression wave followed by a devastating bore-like feature. - Highlights: • Unprecedently deep long-living ship-induced waves of depression detected. • Such waves are generated in channels with side banks under low Froude numbers. • The propagation of these waves is replicated using Riemann waves. • Long-living waves of depression form bore-like features at rear slope

  19. Ship-induced solitary Riemann waves of depression in Venice Lagoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parnell, Kevin E. [College of Marine and Environmental Sciences and Centre for Tropical Environmental and Sustainability Sciences, James Cook University, Queensland 4811 (Australia); Institute of Cybernetics at Tallinn University of Technology, Akadeemia tee 21, 12618 Tallinn (Estonia); Soomere, Tarmo, E-mail: soomere@cs.ioc.ee [Institute of Cybernetics at Tallinn University of Technology, Akadeemia tee 21, 12618 Tallinn (Estonia); Estonian Academy of Sciences, Kohtu 6, 10130 Tallinn (Estonia); Zaggia, Luca [Institute of Marine Sciences, National Research Council, Castello 2737/F, 30122 Venice (Italy); Rodin, Artem [Institute of Cybernetics at Tallinn University of Technology, Akadeemia tee 21, 12618 Tallinn (Estonia); Lorenzetti, Giuliano [Institute of Marine Sciences, National Research Council, Castello 2737/F, 30122 Venice (Italy); Rapaglia, John [Sacred Heart University Department of Biology, 5151 Park Avenue, Fairfield, CT 06825 (United States); Scarpa, Gian Marco [Università Ca' Foscari, Dorsoduro 3246, 30123 Venice (Italy)

    2015-03-06

    We demonstrate that ships of moderate size, sailing at low depth Froude numbers (0.37–0.5) in a navigation channel surrounded by shallow banks, produce depressions with depths up to 2.5 m. These depressions (Bernoulli wakes) propagate as long-living strongly nonlinear solitary Riemann waves of depression substantial distances into Venice Lagoon. They gradually become strongly asymmetric with the rear of the depression becoming extremely steep, similar to a bore. As they are dynamically similar, air pressure fluctuations moving over variable-depth coastal areas could generate meteorological tsunamis with a leading depression wave followed by a devastating bore-like feature. - Highlights: • Unprecedently deep long-living ship-induced waves of depression detected. • Such waves are generated in channels with side banks under low Froude numbers. • The propagation of these waves is replicated using Riemann waves. • Long-living waves of depression form bore-like features at rear slope.

  20. On the generation and evolution of internal solitary waves in the southern Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Daquan

    2015-04-01

    Satellite observations recently revealed the existence of trains of internal solitary waves in the southern Red Sea between 16.0°N and 16.5°N, propagating from the centre of the domain toward the continental shelf [Da silva et al., 2012]. Given the relatively weak tidal velocity in this area and their generation in the central of the domain, Da Silva suggested three possible mechanisms behind the generation of the waves, namely Resonance and disintegration of interfacial tides, Generation of interfacial tides by impinging, remotely generated internal tidal beams and for geometrically focused and amplified internal tidal beams. Tide analysis based on tide stations data and barotropic tide model in the Red Sea shows that tide is indeed very weak in the centre part of the Red Sea, but it is relatively strong in the northern and southern parts (reaching up to 66 cm/s). Together with extreme steep slopes along the deep trench, it provides favourable conditions for the generation of internal solitary in the southern Red Sea. To investigate the generation mechanisms and study the evolution of the internal waves in the off-shelf region of the southern Red Sea we have implemented a 2-D, high-resolution and non-hydrostatic configuration of the MIT general circulation model (MITgcm). Our simulations reproduce well that the generation process of the internal solitary waves. Analysis of the model\\'s output suggests that the interaction between the topography and tidal flow with the nonlinear effect is the main mechanism behind the generation of the internal solitary waves. Sensitivity experiments suggest that neither tidal beam nor the resonance effect of the topography is important factor in this process.

  1. An efficient algorithm for computation of solitary wave solutions to nonlinear differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayub, Kamran; Khan, M. Yaqub; Mahmood-Ul-Hassan, Qazi; Ahmad, Jamshad

    2017-09-01

    Nonlinear mathematical problems and their solutions attain much attention in solitary waves. In soliton theory, an efficient tool to attain various types of soliton solutions is the \\exp (-φ (ζ ))-expansion technique. This article is devoted to find exact travelling wave solutions of Drinfeld-Sokolov equation via a reliable mathematical technique. By using the proposed technique, we attain soliton wave solution of various types. It is observed that the technique under discussion is user friendly with minimum computational work, and can be extended for physical problems of different nature in mathematical physics.

  2. Electron-acoustic solitary waves in a magnetized plasma with hot electrons featuring Tsallis distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribeche, Mouloud; Sabry, Refaat

    2012-10-01

    Nonlinear dynamics of electron-acoustic solitary waves in a magnetized plasma whose constituents are cold magnetized electron fluid, hot electrons featuring Tsallis distribution, and stationary ions are examined. The nonlinear evolution equation (i.e., Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) equation), governing the propagation of EAS waves in such plasma is derived and investigated analytically and numerically, for parameter regimes relevant to the dayside auroral zone. It is revealed that the amplitude, strength and nature of the nonlinear EAS waves are extremely sensitive to the degree of the hot electron nonextensivity. Furthermore, the obtained results are in good agreement with the observations made by the Viking satellite.

  3. Measurement and modelling of bed shear induced by solitary waves

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    JayaKumar, S.

    horizontal continental shelf. Measurements of bed shear stress, surface elevation and flow velocities were carried out. Periodic waves were also generated and the bed shear stresses measured over a horizontal bed were found to be comparable with the earlier...

  4. Comment on “Effects of damping solitary wave in a viscosity bounded plasma” [Phys. Plasmas 21, 022118 (2014)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Uday Narayan, E-mail: unghosh1@rediffmail.com; Chatterjee, Prasanta; Roychoudhury, Rajkumar [Department of Mathematics, Siksha Bhavana, Visva Bharati, Santiniketan 731235 (India)

    2015-07-15

    Recently Gun Li et al. discussed “Effects of damping solitary wave in a viscosity bounded plasma” [Phys. Plasmas 21, 022118 (2014)]. The paper contains some serious errors which have been pointed out in this Comment.

  5. Head-on collision of ion-acoustic solitary waves in multicomponent plasmas with positrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shamy, E. F.; Sabry, R.; Moslem, W. M.; Shukla, P. K.

    2010-08-01

    The head-on collision between two ion-acoustic solitary waves in an unmagnetized multicomponent plasma consisting of hot ions, hot positrons, and two-electron temperature distributions is investigated using the extended Poincaré-Lighthill-Kuo method. The Kortwege-de Vries equations and the analytical phase shifts after the head-on collision of two solitary waves in this multicomponent plasma are obtained. The effects of two different types of isothermal electrons, the ratio of the hot ion temperature to the effective temperature, the ratio of the effective temperature to the positron temperature, the ratio of the number density of positrons to that of electrons species, and the physical processes (either isothermal or adiabatic) on the phase shifts are studied. It is found that these parameters can significantly influence the phase shifts of the solitons. The relevance of this investigation to space and laboratory plasmas is pointed out.

  6. Solitary waves under the competition of linear and nonlinear periodic potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapti, Z; Kevrekidis, P G; Konotop, V V; Jones, C K R T

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we study the competition of the linear and nonlinear lattices and its effects on the stability and dynamics of bright solitary waves. We consider both lattices in a perturbative framework, whereby the technique of Hamiltonian perturbation theory can be used to obtain information about the existence of solutions, and the same approach, as well as eigenvalue count considerations, can be used to obtain detailed conditions about their linear stability. We find that the analytical results are in very good agreement with our numerical findings and can also be used to predict features of the dynamical evolution of such solutions. A particularly interesting result of these considerations is the existence of a tunable cancellation effect between the linear and nonlinear lattices that allows for increased mobility of the solitary wave

  7. Time evolution of nonplanar dust ion-acoustic solitary waves in a charge varying dusty plasma with superthermal electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayout, Saliha; Tribeche, Mouloud, E-mail: mouloudtribeche@yahoo.fr [Plasma Physics Group (PPG), Theoretical Physics Laboratory (TPL), Faculty of Sciences- Physics, University of Bab-Ezzouar, U.S.T.H.B, B.P. 32, El Alia, Algiers 16111 (Algeria); Sahu, Biswajit [Department of Mathematics, West Bengal State University, Barasat, Kolkata-700126 (India)

    2015-12-15

    A theoretical study on the nonlinear propagation of nonplanar (cylindrical and spherical) dust ion-acoustic solitary waves (DIASW) is carried out in a dusty plasma, whose constituents are inertial ions, superthermal electrons, and charge fluctuating stationary dust particles. Using the reductive perturbation theory, a modified Korteweg-de Vries equation is derived. It is shown that the propagation characteristics of the cylindrical and spherical DIA solitary waves significantly differ from those of their one-dimensional counterpart.

  8. Solitary Waves on Inclined Films: Their Characteristics and the Effect on Wall Shear Stress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tihon, Jaroslav; Serifi, K.; Argyriadi, K.; Bontozoglou, V.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 1 (2006), s. 79-89 ISSN 0723-4864 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA4072914 Grant - others:HPMT(XE) CT/2000/00074 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : wavy film flow * solitary waves * wall shear stress Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.112, year: 2006

  9. Combined solitary-wave solution for coupled higher-order nonlinear Schroedinger equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Jinping; Tian Huiping; Li Zhonghao; Zhou Guosheng

    2004-01-01

    Coupled nonlinear Schroedinger equations model several interesting physical phenomena. We used a trigonometric function transform method based on a homogeneous balance to solve the coupled higher-order nonlinear Schroedinger equations. We obtained four pairs of exact solitary-wave solutions including a dark and a bright-soliton pair, a bright- and a dark-soliton pair, a bright- and a bright-soliton pair, and the last pair, a combined bright-dark-soliton pair

  10. Diverging probability-density functions for flat-top solitary waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Avner; Chung, Yeojin; Dohnal, Tomáš; Nguyen, Quan M.

    2009-08-01

    We investigate the statistics of flat-top solitary wave parameters in the presence of weak multiplicative dissipative disorder. We consider first propagation of solitary waves of the cubic-quintic nonlinear Schrödinger equation (CQNLSE) in the presence of disorder in the cubic nonlinear gain. We show by a perturbative analytic calculation and by Monte Carlo simulations that the probability-density function (PDF) of the amplitude η exhibits loglognormal divergence near the maximum possible amplitude ηm , a behavior that is similar to the one observed earlier for disorder in the linear gain [A. Peleg , Phys. Rev. E 72, 027203 (2005)]. We relate the loglognormal divergence of the amplitude PDF to the superexponential approach of η to ηm in the corresponding deterministic model with linear/nonlinear gain. Furthermore, for solitary waves of the derivative CQNLSE with weak disorder in the linear gain both the amplitude and the group velocity β become random. We therefore study analytically and by Monte Carlo simulations the PDF of the parameter p , where p=η/(1-ɛsβ/2) and ɛs is the self-steepening coefficient. Our analytic calculations and numerical simulations show that the PDF of p is loglognormally divergent near the maximum p value.

  11. Solitary wave solutions to nonlinear evolution equations in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    where u(x,y,t) is a travelling wave solution of nonlinear partial differential equation. We use the ... The ordinary differential equation (9) is then integrated as long as all terms contain derivatives, where we neglect ...... In addition to deterministic perturbation terms, stochastic perturbation terms will also be taken into account.

  12. Bacterial population solitary waves can defeat rings of funnels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, Ryan J; Phan, Trung V; Austin, Robert H; Black, Matthew; Bos, Julia A; Lin, Ke-Chih; Kevrekidis, Ioannis G

    2017-01-01

    We have constructed a microfabricated circular corral for bacteria made of rings of concentric funnels which channel motile bacteria outwards via non-hydrodynamic interactions with the funnel walls. Initially bacteria do move rapidly outwards to the periphery of the corral. At the edge, nano-slits allow for the transport of nutrients into the device while keeping the bacteria from escaping. After a period of time in which the bacteria increase their cell density in this perimeter region, they are then able to defeat the physical constrains of the funnels by launching back-propagating collective waves. We present the basic data and some nonlinear modeling which can explain how bacterial population waves propagate through a physical funnel, and discuss possible biological implications. (paper)

  13. Solitary wave solution to a singularly perturbed generalized Gardner ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-03-24

    Mar 24, 2017 ... This paper is concerned with the existence of travelling wave solutions to a singularly perturbed gen- eralized Gardner equation .... will be used in §3 for our purpose. For convenience, we use a version of this theory due to Jones [2]. For the system. { x (t) = f (x, y, ε), y (t) = εg(x, y, ε),. (2.1) where x ∈ Rn, y ...

  14. Effect of Different Size Dust Grains on the Properties of Solitary Waves in Space Environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elwakil, S.A.; Zahran, M.A.; El-Shewy, E.K.; Abdelwahed, H.G.

    2009-01-01

    Propagation of nonlinear dust-acoustic (DA) waves in an unmagnetized collisionless dusty plasma consisting of dust grains obey power law dust size distribution and nonthermal ions are investigated. For nonlinear DA waves, a reductive perturbation method was employed to obtain a Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation for the first-order potential. The effects of a dust size distribution, dust radius and the non-thermal distribution of ions on the soliton amplitude, width and energy of electrostatic solitary structures are presented

  15. Propagation of cylindrical and spherical electron-acoustic solitary wave packets in unmagnetized plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabry, R.; Omran, M. A.

    2013-04-01

    Investigation of nonlinear wave modulation of electron-acoustic solitary wave packets in planar as well as nonplanar geometry is carried out for an unmagnetized two temperature plasma composed of cold and hot (featuring q-nonextensive distribution) electrons with stationary ions. It is shown that in such plasma, propagation of EA wave packets is governed by a modified NLSE which accounts for the geometrical effect and the nonextensivity of the hot electron species. It is found that the nature of the modulational instabilities would be significantly modified due to the geometrical effects, density ratio α of the hot-to-cold electrons species as well as their temperature ratio θ. Also, there exists a modulation instability period for the cylindrical and spherical envelope excitations, which does not exist in the one-dimensional case. Furthermore, spherical EA solitary wave packets are more structurally stable to perturbations than the cylindrical ones. The relevance of the current study to EA wave modulation in auroral zone plasma is highlighted.

  16. Solitary-wave families of the Ostrovsky equation: An approach via reversible systems theory and normal forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy Choudhury, S.

    2007-01-01

    The Ostrovsky equation is an important canonical model for the unidirectional propagation of weakly nonlinear long surface and internal waves in a rotating, inviscid and incompressible fluid. Limited functional analytic results exist for the occurrence of one family of solitary-wave solutions of this equation, as well as their approach to the well-known solitons of the famous Korteweg-de Vries equation in the limit as the rotation becomes vanishingly small. Since solitary-wave solutions often play a central role in the long-time evolution of an initial disturbance, we consider such solutions here (via the normal form approach) within the framework of reversible systems theory. Besides confirming the existence of the known family of solitary waves and its reduction to the KdV limit, we find a second family of multihumped (or N-pulse) solutions, as well as a continuum of delocalized solitary waves (or homoclinics to small-amplitude periodic orbits). On isolated curves in the relevant parameter region, the delocalized waves reduce to genuine embedded solitons. The second and third families of solutions occur in regions of parameter space distinct from the known solitary-wave solutions and are thus entirely new. Directions for future work are also mentioned

  17. Propagation of three-dimensional ion-acoustic solitary waves in magnetized negative ion plasmas with nonthermal electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Labany, S. K.; Sabry, R.; El-Taibany, W. F.; Elghmaz, E. A.

    2010-04-01

    Properties of small amplitude nonlinear ion-acoustic solitary waves in a warm magneto plasma with positive-negative ions and nonthermal electrons are investigated. For this purpose, the hydrodynamic equations for the positive-negative ions, nonthermal electron density distribution, and the Poisson equation are used to derive the corresponding nonlinear evolution equation; Zkharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) equation, in the small amplitude regime. The ZK equation is analyzed to examine the existence regions of the solitary pulses. It is found that compressive and rarefactive ion-acoustic solitary waves strongly depend on the mass and density ratios of the positive and negative ions as well as the nonthermal electron parameter. Also, it is found that there are two critical values for the density ratio of the negative-to-positive ions (υ), the ratio between unperturbed electron-to-positive ion density (μ), and the nonthermal electron parameter (β), which decide the existence of positive and negative ion-acoustic solitary waves. The present study is applied to examine the small amplitude nonlinear ion-acoustic solitary excitations for the (H+, O2-) and (H+, H-) plasmas, where they are found in the D- and F-regions of the Earth's ionosphere. This investigation should be helpful in understanding the salient features of the nonlinear ion-acoustic solitary waves in space and in laboratory plasmas where two distinct groups of ions and non-Boltzmann distributed electrons are present.

  18. Exact periodic and solitary waves and their interactions for the (2+1)-dimensional KdV equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Yanze

    2006-01-01

    A general solution involving three arbitrary functions is first obtained for a (2+1)-dimensional KdV equation by means of WTC truncation method. Then exact periodic wave solutions are expressed in terms of rational functions of the Jacobi elliptic functions. Limit cases are studied and some interesting, new solitary structures are revealed. The interaction properties between Jacobi elliptic waves (various limit cases) are investigated numerically. The fusion and fission of y-periodic solitary waves is for the first time reported

  19. Solitary wave solutions to the modified form of Camassa-Holm equation by means of the homotopy analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasbandy, S.

    2009-01-01

    Solitary wave solutions to the modified form of Camassa-Holm (CH) equation are sought. In this work, the homotopy analysis method (HAM), one of the most effective method, is applied to obtain the soliton wave solutions with and without continuity of first derivatives at crest

  20. Elastic wavelets and their application to problems of solitary wave propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cattani, Carlo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper can be referred to that direction in the wavelet theory, which was called by Kaiser "the physical wavelets". He developed the analysis of first two kinds of physical wavelets - electromagnetic (optic and acoustic wavelets. Newland developed the technique of application of harmonic wavelets especially for studying the harmonic vibrations. Recently Cattani and Rushchitsky proposed the 4th kind of physical wavelets - elastic wavelets. This proposal was based on three main elements: 1. Kaiser's idea of constructing the physical wavelets on the base of specially chosen (admissible solutions of wave equations. 2. Developed by one of authors theory of solitary waves (with profiles in the form of Chebyshov-Hermite functions propagated in elastic dispersive media. 3. The theory and practice of using the wavelet "Mexican Hat" system, the mother and farther wavelets (and their Fourier transforms of which are analytically represented as the Chebyshov-Hermite functions of different indexes. An application of elastic wavelets to studying the evolution of solitary waves of different shape during their propagation through composite materials is shown on many examples.

  1. Polarons as stable solitary wave solutions to the Dirac-Coulomb system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comech, Andrew; Zubkov, Mikhail

    2013-11-01

    We consider solitary wave solutions to the Dirac-Coulomb system both from physical and mathematical points of view. Fermions interacting with gravity in the Newtonian limit are described by the model of Dirac fermions with the Coulomb attraction. This model also appears in certain condensed matter systems with emergent Dirac fermions interacting via optical phonons. In this model, the classical soliton solutions of equations of motion describe the physical objects that may be called polarons, in analogy to the solutions of the Choquard equation. We develop analytical methods for the Dirac-Coulomb system, showing that the no-node gap solitons for sufficiently small values of charge are linearly (spectrally) stable.

  2. Electrostatic Solitary Waves in the Solar Wind: Evidence for Instability at Solar Wind Current Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaspina, David M.; Newman, David L.; Wilson, Lynn Bruce; Goetz, Keith; Kellogg, Paul J.; Kerstin, Kris

    2013-01-01

    A strong spatial association between bipolar electrostatic solitary waves (ESWs) and magnetic current sheets (CSs) in the solar wind is reported here for the first time. This association requires that the plasma instabilities (e.g., Buneman, electron two stream) which generate ESWs are preferentially localized to solar wind CSs. Distributions of CS properties (including shear angle, thickness, solar wind speed, and vector magnetic field change) are examined for differences between CSs associated with ESWs and randomly chosen CSs. Possible mechanisms for producing ESW-generating instabilities at solar wind CSs are considered, including magnetic reconnection.

  3. Semi-analytic variable charge solitary waves involving dust phase-space vortices (holes)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tribeche, Mouloud; Younsi, Smain; Amour, Rabia; Aoutou, Kamel [Plasma Physics Group, Faculty of Sciences-Physics, Theoretical Physics Laboratory, University of Bab-Ezzouar, USTHB BP 32, El Alia, Algiers 16111 (Algeria)], E-mail: mtribeche@usthb.dz

    2009-09-15

    A semi-analytic model for highly nonlinear solitary waves involving dust phase-space vortices (holes) is outlined. The variable dust charge is expressed in terms of the Lambert function and we take advantage of this transcendental function to investigate the localized structures that may occur in a dusty plasma with variable charge trapped dust particles. Our results which complement the previously published work on this problem (Schamel et al 2001 Phys. Plasmas 8 671) should be of basic interest for experiments that involve the trapping of dust particles in ultra-low-frequency dust acoustic modes.

  4. Semi-analytic variable charge solitary waves involving dust phase-space vortices (holes)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tribeche, Mouloud; Younsi, Smain; Amour, Rabia; Aoutou, Kamel

    2009-01-01

    A semi-analytic model for highly nonlinear solitary waves involving dust phase-space vortices (holes) is outlined. The variable dust charge is expressed in terms of the Lambert function and we take advantage of this transcendental function to investigate the localized structures that may occur in a dusty plasma with variable charge trapped dust particles. Our results which complement the previously published work on this problem (Schamel et al 2001 Phys. Plasmas 8 671) should be of basic interest for experiments that involve the trapping of dust particles in ultra-low-frequency dust acoustic modes.

  5. On the generation of solitary waves observed by Cluster in the near-Earth magnetosheath

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pickett, J. S.; Chen, L. J.; Kahler, S. W.; Santolík, Ondřej; Goldstein, M. L.; Lavraud, B.; Décréau, P. M. E.; Kessel, R.; Lucek, E.; Lakhina, G. S.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Gurnett, D. A.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.; Fazakerley, A.; Rème, H.; Balogh, A.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 12, - (2005), s. 181-193 ISSN 1023-5809 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ME 650; GA ČR(CZ) GA202/03/0832; GA MŠk(CZ) 1P05ME811 Grant - others: NASA GSFC(US) NAG5-9974; NASA GSFC(US) NNG04GB98G; NSF(US) ATM 03-27450; NSF(US) 0307319; ESA PECS(XE) 98025 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : solitary waves * Cluster * near-Earth magnetosheath Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.464, year: 2005

  6. Nonlinear propagation of dust-acoustic solitary waves in a dusty ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dust-acoustic solitary waves in a dusty plasma. Now, using eqs (13)–(15) one can easily eliminate (∂n(2) d /∂ξ), (∂u(2) d /∂ξ), and. (∂φ(2)/∂ξ), and obtain. ∂φ(1). ∂τ. + A. √ φ(1). ∂φ(1). ∂ξ. + B. ∂3φ(1). ∂ξ3. = 0,. (16) where. A = 3γ. 4 vp. (μe + αμi). ,. (17). B = vp. 2(μe + αμi) . (18). Equation (16) is a mKdV equation for ...

  7. Kinematics and dynamics of a solitary wave interacting with varying bathymetry and/or a vertical wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoutsellis, Christos; Athanassoulis, Gerassimos; Charalampopoulos, Alexis-Tzianni

    2017-04-01

    In this work, we investigate the transformations that solitary surface waves undergo during their interaction with uneven seabed and/or fully reflective vertical boundaries. This is accomplished by performing simulations using a non-local Hamiltonian formulation, taking into account full nonlinearity and dispersion, in the presence of variable seabed [1]. This formulation is based on an exact coupled-mode representation of the velocity potential, leading to efficient and accurate computations of the Dirichlet to Neumann operator, required in Zakharov/Craig-Sulem formulation [2], [3]. In addition, it allows for the efficient computation of wave kinematics (velocity, acceleration) and the pressure field, in the time-dependent fluid domain, up to its physical boundaries. Such computations are performed for the case of high-amplitude solitary waves interacting with varying bathymetry and/or a vertical wall, shedding light to their kinematics and dynamics. More specifically, we first consider two benchmark cases, namely the transformation of solitary waves over a plane beach [4], and the reflection of solitary waves on a vertical wall [5]. As a further step, results on the scattering/reflection of a solitary wave due to an undulating seabed, and on the disintegration of a solitary wave travelling form shallow to deep water are also presented. References:[1] G.A. Athanassoulis. & Ch.E. Papoutsellis, in Volume 7: Ocean Engineering, ASME, OMAE2015-41452, p. V007T06A029 (2015)[2] W. Craig, C. Sulem, J. Comp. Phys. 108, 73-83 (1993) [3] V. Zakharov, J. Appl. Mech. Tech. Phys 9, 86-94 (1968)[4] S. Grilli, R. Subramanya, T. Svendsen. & J. Veeramony, J. Waterway, Port, Coastal, Ocean Eng. 120(6), 609-628. (1994)[5] Y.Y. Chen, C. Kharif , J.H. Yang, H.C. Hsu, J. Touboul & J. Chambarel, Eur. J. Mech B-Fluid 49, 20-28 (2015)

  8. Experimental Study of Solitary Waves Run-up on Rough Slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kang-wei; Wu, Yun-Ta; Hwung, Hwung-Hweng; Yang, Ray-Yeng

    2017-04-01

    Long waves close to the shore caused damage were a crucial issue for coastal engineering community. There is a classic issue of long-wave run-up on smooth beaches, which has been extensively studied in literature, using different research methodologies, but in reality, coastal beaches should have surface roughness instead of being hydraulically smooth. Run-up of roughness effect is rarely discussed. In this study, new experiment has been carried out in a laboratory tank (21m x 0.7m x 0.5m) to investigate the physical process of long-wave on a 1:20 slope. Long-wave is with infinite wavelength and wave period. Solitary-wave is employed to represent the characteristic. There are four slopes including smooth, sandpaper, marble, and carpet, the water depths are 16cm (on marble slope), 15cm, 14cm, 12cm and 10cm. The nonlinearity (H/ho) are from 0.04 to 0.451. Firstly, the run-up of long-wave was observed on different slopes. From the comparison in terms of maximum run-up height (R) with different wave-height-to-water-depth ratios were generally categorized into two groups, marble and carpet slopes led to the similar run-up trend. The run up values were by using image processing method to compare average interval 0.05cm and the point at the maximum run-up to find out the sidewall effect. Also using run-up values describe the roughness effect of the run-up reduction. Secondly, the effect of slope roughness was limited on the free surface elevations. The last result, through using a state-of-the-art measuring technique Bubble Image Velocimetry, which features non-intrusive and image-based measurement, the wave kinematics in the highly aerated region with different roughness slopes due to solitary-wave shoaling, breaking and uprush can be quantitated. In order to observe more detail, the high speed camera is used capture the run-up and rundown process. This study can give a reference to the long-wave run-up at the shoreline. It is hoped that more run-up studies will be

  9. Solitary wave solutions of the fourth order Boussinesq equation through the exp(-Ф(η))-expansion method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, M Ali; Hj Mohd Ali, Norhashidah

    2014-01-01

    The exp(-Ф(η))-expansion method is an ascending method for obtaining exact and solitary wave solutions for nonlinear evolution equations. In this article, we implement the exp(-Ф(η))-expansion method to build solitary wave solutions to the fourth order Boussinesq equation. The procedure is simple, direct and useful with the help of computer algebra. By using this method, we obtain solitary wave solutions in terms of the hyperbolic functions, the trigonometric functions and elementary functions. The results show that the exp(-Ф(η))-expansion method is straightforward and effective mathematical tool for the treatment of nonlinear evolution equations in mathematical physics and engineering. 35C07; 35C08; 35P99.

  10. Fully nonlinear ion-acoustic solitary waves in a plasma with positive-negative ions and nonthermal electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabry, R.; Moslem, W. M.; Shukla, P. K.

    2009-03-01

    Properties of fully nonlinear ion-acoustic solitary waves in a plasma with positive-negative ions and nonthermal electrons are investigated. For this purpose, the hydrodynamic equations for the positive-negative ions, nonthermal electron density distribution, and the Poisson equation are used to derive the energy integral equation with a new Sagdeev potential. The latter is analyzed to examine the existence regions of the solitary pulses. It is found that the solitary excitations strongly depend on the mass and density ratios of the positive and negative ions as well as the nonthermal electron parameter. Numerical solution of the energy integral equation clears that both positive and negative potentials exist together. It is found that faster solitary pulses are taller and narrower. Furthermore, increasing the electron nonthermality parameter (negative-to-positive ions density ratio) decreases (increases) the localized excitation amplitude but increases (decreases) the pulse width. The present model is used to investigate the solitary excitations in the (H+,O2-) and (H+,H-) plasmas, where they are presented in the D- and F-regions of the Earth's ionosphere. This investigation should be helpful in understanding the salient features of the fully nonlinear ion-acoustic solitary waves in space and in laboratory plasmas where two distinct groups of ions and non-Boltzmann distributed electrons are present.

  11. Vortex shedding induced by a solitary wave propagating over a submerged vertical plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Chang; Ho, T.-C.; Chang, S.-C.; Hsieh, S.-C.; Chang, K.-A.

    2005-01-01

    Experimental study was conducted on the vortex shedding process induced by the interaction between a solitary wave and a submerged vertical plate. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) was used for quantitative velocity measurement while a particle tracing technique was used for qualitative flow visualization. Vortices are generated at the tip of each side of the plate. The largest vortices at each side of the plate eventually grow to the size of the water depth. Although the fluid motion under the solitary wave is only translatory, vortices are shed in both the upstream and downstream directions due to the interaction of the generated vortices as well as the vortices with the plate and the bottom. The process can be divided into four phases: the formation of a separated shear layer, the generation and shedding of vortices, the formation of a vertical jet, and the impingement of the jet onto the free surface. Similarity velocity profiles were found both in the separated shear layer and in the vertical jet

  12. Dust-acoustic solitary waves and double layers in a magnetized dusty plasma with nonthermal ions and dust charge variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Taibany, W.F.; Sabry, R.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of nonthermal ions and variable dust charge on small-amplitude nonlinear dust-acoustic (DA) waves is investigated. It is found that both compressive and rarefactive solitons exist and depend on the nonthermal parameter a. Using a reductive perturbation theory, a Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) equation is derived. At critical value of a, a c , a modified ZK equation with third- and fourth-order nonlinearities, is obtained. Depending on a, the solution of the evolution equation reveals whether there is coexistence of both compressive and rarefactive solitary waves or double layers (DLs) with the possibility of their two kinds. In addition, for certain plasma parameters, the solitary wave disappears and a DL is expected. The variation of dust charge number, wave velocity, and soliton amplitude and its width against system parameters is investigated for the DA solitary waves. It is shown that the incorporation of both the adiabatic dust-charge variation and the nonthermal distributed ions modifies significantly the nature of DA solitary waves and DA DLs. The findings of this investigation may be useful in understanding the ion acceleration mechanisms close to the Moon and also enhances our knowledge on pickup ions around unmagnetized bodies, such as comets, Mars, and Venus

  13. Planar and nonplanar ion-acoustic envelope solitary waves in a very dense electron-positron-ion plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabry, R.; Moslem, W. M.; Shukla, P. K.

    2009-02-01

    Ion-acoustic envelope solitary waves in a very dense plasma comprised of the electrons, positrons and ions are investigated. For this purpose, the quantum hydrodynamic model and the Poisson equation are used. A modified nonlinear Schrödinger equation is derived by employing the reductive perturbation method. The effects of the quantum correction and of the positron density on the propagation and stability of the envelope solitary waves are examined. The nonplanar (cylindrical/spherical) geometry gives rise to an instability period. The latter cannot exist for planar case and it affected by the quantum parameters, as well as the positron density. The present investigation is relevant to white dwarfs.

  14. Seismic, satellite, and site observations of internal solitary waves in the NE South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qunshu; Wang, Caixia; Wang, Dongxiao; Pawlowicz, Rich

    2014-06-20

    Internal solitary waves (ISWs) in the NE South China Sea (SCS) are tidally generated at the Luzon Strait. Their propagation, evolution, and dissipation processes involve numerous issues still poorly understood. Here, a novel method of seismic oceanography capable of capturing oceanic finescale structures is used to study ISWs in the slope region of the NE SCS. Near-simultaneous observations of two ISWs were acquired using seismic and satellite imaging, and water column measurements. The vertical and horizontal length scales of the seismic observed ISWs are around 50 m and 1-2 km, respectively. Wave phase speeds calculated from seismic observations, satellite images, and water column data are consistent with each other. Observed waveforms and vertical velocities also correspond well with those estimated using KdV theory. These results suggest that the seismic method, a new option to oceanographers, can be further applied to resolve other important issues related to ISWs.

  15. Solitary Wave Solutions of the Boussinesq Equation and Its Improved Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Abazari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the general case study of previous works on generalized Boussinesq equations, (Abazari, 2011 and (Kılıcman and Abazari, 2012, that focuses on the application of G′/G-expansion method with the aid of Maple to construct more general exact solutions for the coupled Boussinesq equations. In this work, the mentioned method is applied to construct more general exact solutions of Boussinesq equation and improved Boussinesq equation, which the French scientist Joseph Valentin Boussinesq (1842–1929 described in the 1870s model equations for the propagation of long waves on the surface of water with small amplitude. Our work is motivated by the fact that the G′/G-expansion method provides not only more general forms of solutions but also periodic, solitary waves and rational solutions. The method appears to be easier and faster by means of a symbolic computation.

  16. Dispersive solitary wave solutions of Kadomtsev-Petviashvili and modified Kadomtsev-Petviashvili dynamical equations in unmagnetized dust plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seadawy, A. R.; El-Rashidy, K.

    2018-03-01

    The Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (KP) and modified KP equations are two of the most universal models in nonlinear wave theory, which arises as a reduction of system with quadratic nonlinearity which admit weakly dispersive waves. The generalized extended tanh method and the F-expansion method are used to derive exact solitary waves solutions of KP and modified KP equations. The region of solutions are displayed graphically.

  17. SAR Observation and Numerical Simulation of Internal Solitary Wave Refraction and Reconnection Behind the Dongsha Atoll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, T.; Liang, J. J.; Li, X.-M.; Sha, J.

    2018-01-01

    The refraction and reconnection of internal solitary waves (ISWs) around the Dongsha Atoll (DSA) in the northern South China Sea (SCS) are investigated based on spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) observations and numerical simulations. In general, a long ISW front propagating from the deep basin of the northern SCS splits into northern and southern branches when it passes the DSA. In this study, the statistics of Envisat Advanced SAR (ASAR) images show that the northern and southern wave branches can reconnect behind the DSA, but the reconnection location varies. A previously developed nonlinear refraction model is set up to simulate the refraction and reconnection of the ISWs behind the DSA, and the model is used to evaluate the effects of ocean stratification, background currents, and incoming ISW characteristics at the DSA on the variation in reconnection locations. The results of the first realistic simulation agree with consecutive TerraSAR-X (TSX) images captured within 12 h of each other. Further sensitivity simulations show that ocean stratification, background currents, and initial wave amplitudes all affect the phase speeds of wave branches and therefore shift their reconnection locations while shapes and locations of incoming wave branches upstream of the DSA profoundly influence the subsequent propagation paths. This study clarifies the variation in reconnection locations of ISWs downstream of the DSA and reveals the important mechanisms governing the reconnection process, which can improve our understanding of the propagation of ISWs near the DSA.

  18. Oblique propagation of solitary waves in weakly relativistic magnetized plasma with kappa distributed electrons in the presence of negative ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmanpoor, H.; Sharifian, M.; Gholipour, S.; Borhani Zarandi, M.; Shokri, B.

    2018-03-01

    The oblique propagation of nonlinear ion acoustic solitary waves (solitons) in magnetized collisionless and weakly relativistic plasma with positive and negative ions and super thermal electrons has been examined by using reduced perturbation method to obtain the Korteweg-de Vries equation that admits an obliquely propagating soliton solution. We have investigated the effects of plasma parameters like negative ion density, electrons temperature, angle between wave vector and magnetic field, ions velocity, and k (spectral index in kappa distribution) on the amplitude and width of solitary waves. It has been found out that four modes exist in our plasma model, but the analysis of the results showed that only two types of ion acoustic modes (fast and slow) exist in the plasma and in special cases only one mode could be propagated. The parameters of plasma for these two modes (or one mode) determine which one is rarefactive and which one is compressive. The main parameter is negative ions density (β) indicating which mode is compressive or rarefactive. The effects of the other plasma parameters on amplitude and width of the ion acoustic solitary waves have been studied. The main conclusion is that the effects of the plasma parameters on amplitude and width of the solitary wave strongly depend on the value of the negative ion density.

  19. Bedforms induced by solitary waves: laboratory studies on generation and migration rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    la Forgia, Giovanni; Adduce, Claudia; Falcini, Federico; Paola, Chris

    2017-04-01

    This study presents experiments on the formation of sandy bedforms, produced by surface solitary waves (SSWs) in shallow water conditions. The experiments were carried out in a 12.0 m long, 0.15 m wide and 0.5 m high flume, at Saint Anthony Falls Laboratory in Minneapolis. The tank is filled by fresh water and a removable gate, placed at the left hand-side of the tank, divides the flume in two regions: the lock region and the ambient fluid region. The standard lock-release method generates SSWs by producing a displacement between the free surfaces that are divided by the gate. Wave amplitude, wavelength, and celerity depend on the lock length and on the water level difference between the two regions. Natural sand particles (D50=0.64) are arranged on the bottom in order to form a horizontal flat layer with a thickness of 2 cm. A digital pressure gauge and a high-resolution acoustic velocimeter allowed us to measure, locally, both pressure and 3D water velocity induced on the bottom by each wave. Image analysis technique is then used to obtain the main wave features: amplitude, wavelength, and celerity. Dye is finally used as vertical tracer to mark the horizontal speed induced by the wave. For each experiment we generated 400 waves, having the same features and we analyzed their action on sand particles placed on the bottom. The stroke, induced by each wave, entails a shear stress on the sand particles, causing sediment transport in the direction of wave propagation. Immediately after the wave passage, a back flow occurs near the bottom. The horizontal pressure gradient and the velocity field induced by the wave cause the boundary layer separation and the consequent reverse flow. Depending on the wave features and on the water depth, the boundary shear stress induced by the reverse flow can exceed the critical value inducing the back motion of the sand particles. The experiments show that the particle back motion is localized at particular cross sections along the

  20. A Solitary Wave-Based Sensor to Monitor the Setting of Fresh Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piervincenzo Rizzo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a proof-of-principle study about the use of a sensor for the nondestructive monitoring of strength development in hydrating concrete. The nondestructive evaluation technique is based on the propagation of highly nonlinear solitary waves (HNSWs, which are non-dispersive mechanical waves that can form and travel in highly nonlinear systems, such as one-dimensional particle chains. A built-in transducer is adopted to excite and detect the HNSWs. The waves are partially reflected at the transducer/concrete interface and partially transmitted into the concrete. The time-of-flight and the amplitude of the waves reflected at the interface are measured and analyzed with respect to the hydration time, and correlated to the initial and final set times established by the penetration test (ASTM C 403. The results show that certain features of the HNSWs change as the concrete curing progresses indicating that it has the potential of being an efficient, cost-effective tool for monitoring strengths/stiffness development.

  1. Response of internal solitary waves to tropical storm Washi in the northwestern South China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. H. Xu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on in-situ time series data from an array of temperature sensors and an acoustic Doppler current profiler on the continental shelf of the northwestern South China Sea, a sequence of internal solitary waves (ISWs were observed during the passage of tropical storm Washi in the summer of 2005, which provided a unique opportunity to investigate the ISW response to the tropical cyclone. The passing tropical storm is found to play an important role in affecting the stratification structure of the water column, and consequently leading to significant variability in the propagating features of the ISWs, such as the polarity reversal and amplitude variations of the waves. The response of the ISWs to Washi can be divided into two stages, direct forcing by the strong wind (during the arrival of Washi and remote forcing via the near-inertial internal waves induced by the tropical storm (after the passage of Washi. The field observations as well as a theoretical analysis suggest that the variations of the ISWs closely coincide with the changing stratification structure and shear currents in accompanied by the typhoon wind and near-inertial waves. This study presents the first observations and analysis of the ISW response to the tropical cyclone in the South China Sea.

  2. Roles of positively charged heavy ions and degenerate plasma pressure on cylindrical and spherical ion acoustic solitary waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossen, M. R.; Nahar, L.; Sultana, S.; Mamun, A. A.

    2014-09-01

    The properties of heavy-ion-acoustic (HIA) solitary structures associated with the nonlinear propagation of cylindrical and spherical electrostatic perturbations in an unmagnetized, collisionless dense plasma system has been investigated theoretically. Our considered model contains degenerate electron and inertial light ion fluids, and positively charged static heavy ions, which is valid for both of the non-relativistic and ultra-relativistic limits. The Korteweg-de Vries (K-dV) and modified K-dV (mK-dV) equations have been derived by employing the reductive perturbation method, and numerically examined in order. It has been found that the effect of degenerate pressure and number density of electron and inertial light ion fluids, and positively charged static heavy ions significantly modify the basic features of HIA solitary waves. It is also noted that the inertial light ion fluid is the source of dispersion for HIA waves and is responsible for the formation of solitary waves. The basic features and the underlying physics of HIA solitary waves, which are relevant to some astrophysical compact objects, are briefly discussed.

  3. Mapping Electrostatic Solitary Wave Activity in the Bursty Bulk Flow Braking Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansel, P. J.; Wilder, F. D.; Malaspina, D.; Ergun, R.; Holmes, J.; Ahmadi, N.; Goodrich, K.; Burch, J.; Torbert, R. B.; Giles, B. L.; Fuselier, S. A.; Russell, C. T.; Strangeway, R. J.; Lindqvist, P. A.; Khotyaintsev, Y. V.

    2017-12-01

    Electrostatic solitary waves (ESWs) are plasma structures generally defined by their uniquely bipolar electric fields and propagation parallel to the local magnetic field at approximately the electron thermal velocity. Formation mechanisms for ESWs in the magnetotail have been studied extensively in the past, and are associated with the braking and diversion of bursty bulk flows (BBFs) arising from reconnection at the distant tail region X-line (>25 Re). However, the brief timescales over which ESWs occur (braking region. Proton bulk velocities from the Hot Plasma Composition Analyzer (HPCA) appear to agree with these results. Preliminary analysis additionally shows an unexpectedly high ESW occurrence rate on the dawn side, for which the mechanism is less well-understood.

  4. Lie symmetry analysis, conservation laws, solitary and periodic waves for a coupled Burger equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mei-Juan; Tian, Shou-Fu; Tu, Jian-Min; Zhang, Tian-Tian

    2017-01-01

    Under investigation in this paper is a generalized (2 + 1)-dimensional coupled Burger equation with variable coefficients, which describes lots of nonlinear physical phenomena in geophysical fluid dynamics, condense matter physics and lattice dynamics. By employing the Lie group method, the symmetry reductions and exact explicit solutions are obtained, respectively. Based on a direct method, the conservations laws of the equation are also derived. Furthermore, by virtue of the Painlevé analysis, we successfully obtain the integrable condition on the variable coefficients, which plays an important role in further studying the integrability of the equation. Finally, its auto-Bäcklund transformation as well as some new analytic solutions including solitary and periodic waves are also presented via algebraic and differential manipulation.

  5. Variational methods in nonlinear field equations solitary waves, hylomorphic solitons and vortices

    CERN Document Server

    Benci, Vieri

    2014-01-01

    The book analyzes the existence of solitons, namely of finite energy solutions of field equations which exhibit stability properties. The book is divided in two parts. In the first part, the authors give an abstract definition of solitary wave and soliton and we develop an abstract existence theory for hylomorphic solitons, namely for those solitons which minimize the energy for a given charge. In the second part, the authors apply this theory to prove the existence of hylomorphic solitons for some classes of field equations (nonlinear Klein-Gordon-Maxwell equations, nonlinear Schrödinger-Maxwell equations, nonlinear beam equation,..). The abstract theory is sufficiently flexible to be applied to other situations, like the existence of vortices. The books is addressed to Mathematicians and Physicists.

  6. Dynamical barrier for the formation of solitary waves in discrete lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kevrekidis, P.G.; Espinola-Rocha, J.A.; Drossinos, Y.; Stefanov, A.

    2008-01-01

    We consider the problem of the existence of a dynamical barrier of 'mass' that needs to be excited on a lattice site to lead to the formation and subsequent persistence of localized modes for a nonlinear Schroedinger lattice. We contrast the existence of a dynamical barrier with its absence in the static theory of localized modes in one spatial dimension. We suggest an energetic criterion that provides a sufficient, but not necessary, condition on the amplitude of a single-site initial condition required to form a solitary wave. We show that this effect is not one-dimensional by considering its two-dimensional analog. The existence of a sufficient condition for the excitation of localized modes in the non-integrable, discrete, nonlinear Schroedinger equation is compared to the dynamics of excitations in the integrable, both discrete and continuum, version of the nonlinear Schroedinger equation

  7. Dynamical barrier for the formation of solitary waves in discrete lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevrekidis, P.G. [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)], E-mail: kevrekid@math.umass.edu; Espinola-Rocha, J.A. [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Drossinos, Y. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, I-21020 Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See,) (Italy); School of Mechanical and Systems Engineering, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Stefanov, A. [Department of Mathematics, University of Kansas, 1460 Jayhawk Blvd., Lawrence, KS 66045-7523 (United States)

    2008-03-24

    We consider the problem of the existence of a dynamical barrier of 'mass' that needs to be excited on a lattice site to lead to the formation and subsequent persistence of localized modes for a nonlinear Schroedinger lattice. We contrast the existence of a dynamical barrier with its absence in the static theory of localized modes in one spatial dimension. We suggest an energetic criterion that provides a sufficient, but not necessary, condition on the amplitude of a single-site initial condition required to form a solitary wave. We show that this effect is not one-dimensional by considering its two-dimensional analog. The existence of a sufficient condition for the excitation of localized modes in the non-integrable, discrete, nonlinear Schroedinger equation is compared to the dynamics of excitations in the integrable, both discrete and continuum, version of the nonlinear Schroedinger equation.

  8. Dust ion acoustic solitary waves in a magnetized dusty plasma with anisotropic ion pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Cheong Rim; Ryu, Chang-Mo; Lee, D.-Y.; Lee, Nam C.; Kim, Y.-H.

    2007-01-01

    The influence of anisotropic ion pressure on the dust ion acoustic solitary wave (DIASW) and the double layer (DL) obliquely propagating to a magnetic field are investigated by using the Sagdeev potential. The anisotropic ion pressure is defined by applying the Chew-Goldberger-Low (CGL) theory, p-perpendicular=p-perpendicular 0 n and p-parallel=p-parallel 0 n 3 , where n is the normalized ion density. The solutions of DIASWs and DLs obliquely propagating to an external magnetic field are obtained in the small amplitude limit. It is found that the perpendicular component of anisotropic ion pressure works differently from that of the parallel component on the DIASWs in a magnetized dusty plasma, deviating from a straight extension of the isotropic pressure effect

  9. Solitary waves in morphogenesis: Determination fronts as strain-cued strain transformations among automatous cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Brian N.; Landis, Chad M.

    2018-02-01

    We present a simple theory of a strain pulse propagating as a solitary wave through a continuous two-dimensional population of cells. A critical strain is assumed to trigger a strain transformation, while, simultaneously, cells move as automata to tend to restore a preferred cell density. We consider systems in which the strain transformation is a shape change, a burst of proliferation, or the commencement of growth (which changes the shape of the population sheet), and demonstrate isomorphism among these cases. Numerical and analytical solutions describe a strain pulse whose height does not depend on how the strain disturbance was first launched, or the rate at which the strain transformation is achieved, or the rate constant in the rule for the restorative cell motion. The strain pulse is therefore very stable, surviving the imposition of strong perturbations: it would serve well as a timing signal in development. The automatous wave formulation is simple, with few model parameters. A strong case exists for the presence of a strain pulse during amelogenesis. Quantitative analysis reveals a simple relationship between the velocity of the leading edge of the pulse in amelogenesis and the known speed of migration of ameloblast cells. This result and energy arguments support the depiction of wave motion as an automatous cell response to strain, rather than as a response to an elastic energy gradient. The theory may also contribute to understanding the determination front in somitogenesis, moving fronts of convergent-extension transformation, and mitotic wavefronts in the syncytial drosophila embryo.

  10. Topographically induced internal solitary waves in a pycnocline: Ultrasonic probes and stereo-correlation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dossmann, Yvan; Paci, Alexandre; Auclair, Francis; Lepilliez, Mathieu; Cid, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Internal solitary waves (ISWs) are large amplitude stable waves propagating in regions of high density gradients such as the ocean pycnocline. Their dynamics has often been investigated in two-dimensional approaches, however, their three-dimensional evolution is still poorly known. Experiments have been conducted in the large stratified water tank of CNRM-GAME to study the generation of ISWs in two academic configurations inspired by oceanic regimes. First, ultrasonic probes are used to measure the interfacial displacement in the two configurations. In the primary generation case for which the two layers are of constant density, the generation of ISWs is investigated in two series of experiments with varying amplitude and forcing frequency. In the secondary generation case for which the lower layer is stratified, the generation of ISWs from the impact of an internal wave beam on the pycnocline and their subsequent dynamics is studied. The dynamics of ISWs in these two regimes accords well with analytical approaches and numerical simulations performed in analogous configurations. Then, recent developments of a stereo correlation technique are used to describe the three-dimensional structure of propagating ISWs. In the primary generation configuration, small transverse effects are observed in the course of the ISW propagation. In the secondary generation configuration, larger transverse structures are observed in the interfacial waves dynamics. The interaction between interfacial troughs and internal waves propagating in the lower stratified layer are a possible cause for the generation of these structures. The magnitude of these transverse structures is quantified with a nondimensional parameter in the two configurations. They are twice as large in the secondary generation case as in the primary generation case

  11. Interactions of solitary waves and compression/expansion waves in core-annular flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiden, Michelle; Anderson, Dalton; El, Gennady; Franco, Nevil; Hoefer, Mark

    2017-11-01

    The nonlinear hydrodynamics of an initial step leads to the formation of rarefaction waves and dispersive shock waves in dispersive media. Another hallmark of these media is the soliton, a localized traveling wave whose speed is amplitude dependent. Although compression/expansion waves and solitons have been well-studied individually, there has been no mathematical description of their interaction. In this talk, the interaction of solitons and shock/rarefaction waves for interfacial waves in viscous, miscible core-annular flows are modeled mathematically and explored experimentally. If the interior fluid is continuously injected, a deformable conduit forms whose interfacial dynamics are well-described by a scalar, dispersive nonlinear partial differential equation. The main focus is on interactions of solitons with dispersive shock waves and rarefaction waves. Theory predicts that a soliton can either be transmitted through or trapped by the extended hydrodynamic state. The notion of reciprocity is introduced whereby a soliton interacts with a shock wave in a reciprocal or dual fashion as with the rarefaction. Soliton reciprocity, trapping, and transmission are observed experimentally and are found to agree with the modulation theory and numerical simulations. This work was partially supported by NSF CAREER DMS-1255422 (M.A.H.) and NSF GRFP (M.D.M.).

  12. Numerical simulation of the solitary wave interacting with an elastic structure using MPS-FEM coupled method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Chengping; Zhang, Youlin; Wan, Decheng

    2017-12-01

    Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) caused by fluid impacting onto a flexible structure commonly occurs in naval architecture and ocean engineering. Research on the problem of wave-structure interaction is important to ensure the safety of offshore structures. This paper presents the Moving Particle Semi-implicit and Finite Element Coupled Method (MPS-FEM) to simulate FSI problems. The Moving Particle Semi-implicit (MPS) method is used to calculate the fluid domain, while the Finite Element Method (FEM) is used to address the structure domain. The scheme for the coupling of MPS and FEM is introduced first. Then, numerical validation and convergent study are performed to verify the accuracy of the solver for solitary wave generation and FSI problems. The interaction between the solitary wave and an elastic structure is investigated by using the MPS-FEM coupled method.

  13. Novel optical solitary waves and modulation instability analysis for the coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equation in monomode step-index optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inc, Mustafa; Aliyu, Aliyu Isa; Yusuf, Abdullahi; Baleanu, Dumitru

    2018-01-01

    This paper addresses the coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equation (CNLSE) in monomode step-index in optical fibers which describes the nonlinear modulations of two monochromatic waves, whose group velocities are almost equal. A class of dark, bright, dark-bright and dark-singular optical solitary wave solutions of the model are constructed using the complex envelope function ansatz. Singular solitary waves are also retrieved as bye products of the in integration scheme. This naturally lead to some constraint conditions placed on the solitary wave parameters which must hold for the solitary waves to exist. The modulation instability (MI) analysis of the model is studied based on the standard linear-stability analysis. Numerical simulation and physical interpretations of the obtained results are demonstrated. It is hoped that the results reported in this paper can enrich the nonlinear dynamical behaviors of the CNLSE.

  14. Collaborative research: Dynamics of electrostatic solitary waves and their effects on current layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Li-Jen

    2014-04-18

    The project has accomplished the following achievements including the goals outlined in the original proposal. Generation and measurements of Debye-scale electron holes in laboratory: We have generated by beam injections electron solitary waves in the LAPD experiments. The measurements were made possible by the fabrication of the state-of-the-art microprobes at UCLA to measure Debye-scale electric fields [Chiang et al., 2011]. We obtained a result that challenged the state of knowledge about electron hole generation. We found that the electron holes were not due to two-stream instability, but generated by a current-driven instability that also generated whistler-mode waves [Lefebvre et al., 2011, 2010b]. Most of the grant supported a young research scientist Bertrand Lefebvre who led the dissemination of the laboratory experimental results. In addition to two publications, our work relevant to the laboratory experiments on electron holes has resulted in 7 invited talks [Chen, 2007, 2009; Pickett et al., 2009a; Lefebvre et al., 2010a; Pickett et al., 2010; Chen et al., 2011c, b] (including those given by the co-I Jolene Pickett) and 2 contributed talks [Lefebvre et al., 2009b, a]. Discovery of elecctron phase-space-hole structure in the reconnection electron layer: Our theoretical analyses and simulations under this project led to the discovery of an inversion electric field layer whose phase-space signature is an electron hole within the electron diffusion layer in 2D anti-parallel reconnection [Chen et al., 2011a]. We carried out particle tracing studies to understand the electron orbits that result in the phase-space hole structure. Most importantly, we showed that the current density in the electron layer is limited in collisionless reconnection with negligible guide field by the cyclotron turning of meandering electrons. Comparison of electrostatic solitary waves in current layers observed by Cluster and in LAPD: We compared the ESWs observed in a supersubstorm

  15. An extreme internal solitary wave event observed in the northern South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaodong; Chen, Zhaohui; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Zhiwei; Zhou, Chun; Yang, Qingxuan; Tian, Jiwei

    2016-07-21

    With characteristics of large amplitude and strong current, internal solitary wave (ISW) is a major hazard to marine engineering and submarine navigation; it also has significant impacts on marine ecosystems and fishery activity. Among the world oceans, ISWs are particular active in the northern South China Sea (SCS). In this spirit, the SCS Internal Wave Experiment has been conducted since March 2010 using subsurface mooring array. Here, we report an extreme ISW captured on 4 December 2013 with a maximum amplitude of 240 m and a peak westward current velocity of 2.55 m/s. To the authors' best knowledge, this is the strongest ISW of the world oceans on record. Full-depth measurements also revealed notable impacts of the extreme ISW on deep-ocean currents and thermal structures. Concurrent mooring measurements near Batan Island showed that the powerful semidiurnal internal tide generation in the Luzon Strait was likely responsible for the occurrence of the extreme ISW event. Based on the HYCOM data-assimilation product, we speculate that the strong stratification around Batan Island related to the strengthening Kuroshio may have contributed to the formation of the extreme ISW.

  16. Landau damping effects on dust-acoustic solitary waves in a dusty negative-ion plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barman, Arnab; Misra, A. P., E-mail: apmisra@visva-bharati.ac.in, E-mail: apmisra@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, Siksha Bhavana, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan 731 235, West Bengal (India)

    2014-07-15

    The nonlinear theory of dust-acoustic waves (DAWs) with Landau damping is studied in an unmagnetized dusty negative-ion plasma in the extreme conditions when the free electrons are absent. The cold massive charged dusts are described by fluid equations, whereas the two-species of ions (positive and negative) are described by the kinetic Vlasov equations. A Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation with Landau damping, governing the dynamics of weakly nonlinear and weakly dispersive DAWs, is derived following Ott and Sudan [Phys. Fluids 12, 2388 (1969)]. It is shown that for some typical laboratory and space plasmas, the Landau damping (and the nonlinear) effects are more pronounced than the finite Debye length (dispersive) effects for which the KdV soliton theory is not applicable to DAWs in dusty pair-ion plasmas. The properties of the linear phase velocity, solitary wave amplitudes (in presence and absence of the Landau damping) as well as the Landau damping rate are studied with the effects of the positive ion to dust density ratio (μ{sub pd}) as well as the ratios of positive to negative ion temperatures (σ) and masses (m)

  17. Large-amplitude internal tides, solitary waves, and turbulence in the central Bay of Biscay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, X. H.; Cuypers, Y.; Bouruet-Aubertot, P.; Ferron, B.; Pichon, A.; LourençO, A.; Cortes, N.

    2013-06-01

    and fine-scale measurements collected in the central Bay of Biscay during the MOUTON experiment are analyzed to investigate the dynamics of internal waves and associated mixing. Large-amplitude internal tides (ITs) that excite internal solitary waves (ISWs) in the thermocline are observed. ITs are dominated by modes 3 and 4, while ISWs projected on mode 1 that is trapped in the thermocline. Therein, ITs generate a persistent narrow shear band, which is strongly correlated with the enhanced dissipation rate in the thermocline. This strong dissipation rate is further reinforced in the presence of ISWs. Dissipation rates during the period without ISWs largely agree with the MacKinnon-Gregg scaling proposed for internal wavefields dominated by a low-frequency mode, while they show poor agreement with the Gregg-Henyey parameterization valid for internal wavefields close to the Garrett-Munk model. The agreement with the MacKinnon-Gregg scaling is consistent with the fact that turbulent mixing here is driven by the low-frequency internal tidal shear.

  18. A Variational Reduction and the Existence of a Fully Localised Solitary Wave for the Three-Dimensional Water-Wave Problem with Weak Surface Tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffoni, Boris; Groves, Mark D.; Wahlén, Erik

    2017-12-01

    Fully localised solitary waves are travelling-wave solutions of the three- dimensional gravity-capillary water wave problem which decay to zero in every horizontal spatial direction. Their existence has been predicted on the basis of numerical simulations and model equations (in which context they are usually referred to as `lumps'), and a mathematically rigorous existence theory for strong surface tension (Bond number {β} greater than {1/3} ) has recently been given. In this article we present an existence theory for the physically more realistic case {0 < β < 1/3} . A classical variational principle for fully localised solitary waves is reduced to a locally equivalent variational principle featuring a perturbation of the functional associated with the Davey-Stewartson equation. A nontrivial critical point of the reduced functional is found by minimising it over its natural constraint set.

  19. On the generation and evolution of internal solitary waves in the southern Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Daquan

    2016-11-28

    Satellite observations recently revealed trains of internal solitary waves (ISWs) in the off-shelf region between 16.0 degrees N and 16.5 degrees N in the southern Red Sea. The generation mechanism of these waves is not entirely clear, though, as the observed generation sites are far away (50 km) from the shelf break and tidal currents are considered relatively weak in the Red Sea. Upon closer examination of the tide properties in the Red Sea and the unique geometry of the basin, it is argued that the steep bathymetry and a relatively strong tidal current in the southern Red Sea provide favorable conditions for the generation of ISWs. To test this hypothesis and further explore the evolution of ISWs in the basin, 2-D numerical simulations with the nonhydrostatic MIT general circulation model (MITgcm) were conducted. The results are consistent with the satellite observations in regard to the generation sites, peak amplitudes and the speeds of first-mode ISWs. Moreover, our simulations suggest that the generation process of ISWs in the southern Red Sea is similar to the tide-topography interaction mechanism seen in the South China Sea. Specifically, instead of ISWs arising in the immediate vicinity of the shelf break via a hydraulic lee wave mechanism, a broad, energetic internal tide is first generated, which subsequently travels away from the shelf break and eventually breaks down into ISWs. Sensitivity runs suggest that ISW generation may also be possible under summer stratification conditions, characterized by an intermediate water intrusion from the strait of Bab el Mandeb.

  20. Evidence for two-dimensional solitary sound waves in a lipid controlled interface and its implications for biological signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Shamit; Schneider, Matthias F

    2014-08-06

    Biological membranes by virtue of their elastic properties should be capable of propagating localized perturbations analogous to sound waves. However, the existence and the possible role of such waves in communication in biology remain unexplored. Here, we report the first observations of two-dimensional solitary elastic pulses in lipid interfaces, excited mechanically and detected by FRET. We demonstrate that the nonlinearity near a maximum in the susceptibility of the lipid monolayer results in solitary pulses that also have a threshold for excitation. These experiments clearly demonstrate that the state of the interface regulates the propagation of pulses both qualitatively and quantitatively. Finally, we elaborate on the striking similarity of the observed phenomenon to nerve pulse propagation and a thermodynamic basis of cell signalling in general. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  1. The order parameter of glass transition: Spontaneously delocalized nanoscale solitary wave with transverse ripplon-like soft wave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Lin Wu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In macromolecular self-avoiding random walk, movement of each chain-particle accompanies an instantaneous spin system with de Gennes n = 0 that provides extra energy, extra vacancy volume and relaxation time needed for chain-particles co-movement. Using these additional and instantaneous spin systems not only directly yields the same Brownian motion mode in glass transition (GT and reptation-tube model, but also proves that the entangled chain length corresponding to the Reynolds number in hydrodynamics and the inherent diffusion - delocalization mode of entangled chains, from frozen glass state to melt liquid state, is a chain-size solitary wave with transverse ripplon-like soft wave. Thus, the order parameter of GT is found. The various currently available GT theories, such as Static Replica, Random First-Order Transition, Potential Energy Landscape, Mode-Coupling and Nanoscale Heterogeneity, can be unified using the additional and instantaneous spin system. GT served as an inspiration and continues to serve as the paradigm in the universal random delocalization transitions from disorder to more disorder until turbulence.

  2. Painleve analysis for a forced Korteveg-de Vries equation arisen in fluid dynamics of internal solitary waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, Painleve analysis is used to test the Painleve integrability of a forced variable-coefficient extended Korteveg-de Vries equation which can describe the weakly-non-linear long internal solitary waves in the fluid with continuous stratification on density. The obtained results show that the equation is integrable under certain conditions. By virtue of the truncated Painleve expansion, a pair of new exact solutions to the equation is obtained.

  3. Novel solitary wave solution in shallow water and ion acoustic plasma waves in-terms of two nonlinear models via MSE method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harun-Or Roshid

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available By using modified simple equation method, we study the generalized RLW equation and symmetric RLW equation, the subsistence of solitary wave, periodic cusp wave, periodic bell wave solutions are obtained. We establish some conditions on the parameters for which the obtained solutions are dark or bright soliton. The proficiency of the methods for constructing exact solutions has been established. Finally, the variety of structure and graphical representation makes the dynamics of the equations visible and provides the mathematical foundation in shallow water, plasma and ion acoustic plasma waves.

  4. Solitary waves in dusty plasmas with weak relativistic effects in electrons and ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalita, B. C., E-mail: bckalita123@gmail.com [Gauhati University, Department of Mathematics (India); Choudhury, M., E-mail: choudhurymamani@gmail.com [Handique Girls’ College, Department of Mathematics (India)

    2016-10-15

    Two distinct classes of dust ion acoustic (DIA) solitary waves based on relativistic ions and electrons, dust charge Z{sub d} and ion-to-dust mass ratio Q’ = m{sub i}/m{sub d} are established in this model of multicomponent plasmas. At the increase of mass ratio Q’ due to increase of relativistic ion mass and accumulation of more negative dust charges into the plasma causing decrease of dust mass, relativistic DIA solitons of negative potentials are abundantly observed. Of course, relativistic compressive DIA solitons are also found to exist simultaneously. Further, the decrease of temperature inherent in the speed of light c causes the nonlinear term to be more active that increases the amplitude of the rarefactive solitons and dampens the growth of compressive solitons for relatively low and high mass ratio Q’, respectively. The impact of higher initial streaming of the massive ions is observed to identify the point of maximum dust density N{sub d} to yield rarefactive relativistic solitons of maximum amplitude.

  5. Vector dark-antidark solitary waves in multicomponent Bose-Einstein condensates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danaila, I.; Khamehchi, M. A.; Gokhroo, V.; Engels, P.; Kevrekidis, P. G.

    2016-11-01

    Multicomponent Bose-Einstein condensates exhibit an intriguing variety of nonlinear structures. In recent theoretical work [C. Qu, L. P. Pitaevskii, and S. Stringari, Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 160402 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.160402], the notion of magnetic solitons has been introduced. Here we examine a variant of this concept in the form of vector dark-antidark solitary waves in multicomponent Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs). We first provide concrete experimental evidence for such states in an atomic BEC and subsequently illustrate the broader concept of these states, which are based on the interplay between miscibility and intercomponent repulsion. Armed with this more general conceptual framework, we expand the notion of such states to higher dimensions presenting the possibility of both vortex-antidark states and ring-antidark-ring (dark soliton) states. We perform numerical continuation studies, investigate the existence of these states, and examine their stability using the method of Bogoliubov-de Gennes analysis. Dark-antidark and vortex-antidark states are found to be stable for broad parametric regimes. In the case of ring dark solitons, where the single-component ring state is known to be unstable, the vector entity appears to bear a progressively more and more stabilizing role as the intercomponent coupling is increased.

  6. Variable charge dust acoustic solitary waves in a dusty plasma with a q-nonextensive electron velocity distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amour, Rabia; Tribeche, Mouloud

    2010-01-01

    A first theoretical work is presented to study variable charge dust acoustic solitons within the theoretical framework of the Tsallis statistical mechanics. Our results reveal that the spatial patterns of the variable charge solitary wave are significantly modified by electron nonextensive effects. In particular, it may be noted that for -1 d becomes more negative and the dust grains localization (accumulation) less pronounced. The electrons are locally expelled and pushed out of the region of the soliton's localization. This electron depletion becomes less effective as the electrons evolve far away from their thermal equilibrium. The case q>1 provides qualitatively opposite results: electron nonextensivity makes the solitary structure more spiky. Our results should help in providing a good fit between theoretical and experimental results.

  7. Solitary traveling wave solutions of pressure equation of bubbly liquids with examination for viscosity and heat transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khater, Mostafa M. A.; Seadawy, Aly R.; Lu, Dianchen

    2018-03-01

    In this research, we investigate one of the most popular model in nature and also industrial which is the pressure equation of bubbly liquids with examination for viscosity and heat transfer which has many application in nature and engineering. Understanding the physical meaning of exact and solitary traveling wave solutions for this equation gives the researchers in this field a great clear vision of the pressure waves in a mixture liquid and gas bubbles taking into consideration the viscosity of liquid and the heat transfer and also dynamics of contrast agents in the blood flow at ultrasonic researches. To achieve our goal, we apply three different methods which are extended tanh-function method, extended simple equation method and a new auxiliary equation method on this equation. We obtained exact and solitary traveling wave solutions and we also discuss the similarity and difference between these three method and make a comparison between results that we obtained with another results that obtained with the different researchers using different methods. All of these results and discussion explained the fact that our new auxiliary equation method is considered to be the most general, powerful and the most result-oriented. These kinds of solutions and discussion allow for the understanding of the phenomenon and its intrinsic properties as well as the ease of way of application and its applicability to other phenomena.

  8. Quasiparticles of widely tuneable inertial mass: The dispersion relation of atomic Josephson vortices and related solitary waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie S. Shamailov, Joachim Brand

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Superconducting Josephson vortices have direct analogues in ultracold-atom physics as solitary-wave excitations of two-component superfluid Bose gases with linear coupling. Here we numerically extend the zero-velocity Josephson vortex solutions of the coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations to non-zero velocities, thus obtaining the full dispersion relation. The inertial mass of the Josephson vortex obtained from the dispersion relation depends on the strength of linear coupling and has a simple pole divergence at a critical value where it changes sign while assuming large absolute values. Additional low-velocity quasiparticles with negative inertial mass emerge at finite momentum that are reminiscent of a dark soliton in one component with counter-flow in the other. In the limit of small linear coupling we compare the Josephson vortex solutions to sine-Gordon solitons and show that the correspondence between them is asymptotic, but significant differences appear at finite values of the coupling constant. Finally, for unequal and non-zero self- and cross-component nonlinearities, we find a new solitary-wave excitation branch. In its presence, both dark solitons and Josephson vortices are dynamically stable while the new excitations are unstable.

  9. Outcome of shock wave lithotripsy as monotherapy for large solitary renal stones (>2 cm in size without stenting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanmugasundaram Rajaian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To evaluate the outcome of shock wave lithotripsy (SWL as monotherapy for solitary renal stones larger than 2 cm without ureteral stenting. Materials and Methods : Our retrospective study included patients with solitary renal radio opaque stones larger than 2 cm treated with SWL using electromagnetic Dornier Compact S lithotripter device (Wessling, Germany for a period of 3 years (September 2002-2005. Stone clearance was assessed at 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months with plain X-rays of kidney, ureter, and bladder region, ultrasonography, and tomograms. Stone-free status, morbidity of the procedure, and fate of clinically insignificant residual fragments (CIRF were studied. A stone-free state was defined as no radiologic evidence of stone. Success was defined as complete clearance + CIRF. Results : Fifty-five patients, aged 11-65 years (mean 49.8 underwent SWL. Of them, only two were children. Male-to-female ratio was 3:1. The stone size was 21-28 mm (average 24 mm. The mean number of shocks were 3732 (range 724-12,100 and average energy level was 14 kV (range 11-16 kV. The mean follow-up was 18 months (range 3-22 months. Over all, stone-free status was achieved in 50% and success in 81% at 3 months. Stone clearance was not affected by stone location. Stones 26 mm (P = -0.10. Of 54 patients, 39 developed steinstrasse with mean length of 3.2 cm (range 1.4-6.2 cm and only four required intervention. Effectiveness quotient (EQ for SWL monotherapy for solitary renal stones more than 2 cm was 25.3%. The EQ for stones <25 mm and those more than 25 mm were 28.4% and 10% (P = -0.12, respectively. There was a lesser trend of difference between stones with size <25 and more than 25 mm. During the last review, the overall stone-free rate was 67.2%. Conclusions : SWL monotherapy was safe but significantly less effective for solitary renal stones larger than 2 cm. It can only be suggested to those who refuse surgical intervention. Pretreatment DJ

  10. Internal solitary waves on the Saya de Malha bank of the Mascarene Plateau: SAR observations and interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    New, A. L.; Magalhaes, J. M.; da Silva, J. C. B.

    2013-09-01

    Energetic Internal Solitary Waves (ISWs) were recently discovered radiating from the central region of the Mascarene Plateau in the south-western Indian Ocean (da Silva et al., 2011). SAR imagery revealed the two-dimensional structure of the waves which propagated for several hundred kilometres in deep water both to the east and west of a sill, located near 12.5°S, 61°E between the Saya de Malha and Nazareth banks. These waves were presumed to originate from the disintegration of a large lee wave formed on the western side of the sill at the time of maximum barotropic flow to the west. In the present paper we focus instead on ISWs propagating in the shallow water above the Saya da Malha (SM) bank (to the north of the sill), rather than on those propagating in deep water (here denominated as type-I or -II waves if propagating to the west or east respectively). Analysis of an extended SAR image dataset reveals strong sea surface signatures of complex patterns of ISWs propagating over the SM bank arising from different sources. We identify three distinct types of waves, and propose suitable generation mechanisms for them using synergy from different remotely sensed datasets, together with analyses of linear phase speeds (resulting from local stratification and bathymetry). In particular, we find a family of ISWs (termed here A-type waves) which results from the disintegration of a lee wave which forms on the western slopes of SM. We also identify two further wave trains (B- and C-type waves) which we suggest result from refraction of the deep water type-I and -II waves onto the SM bank. Therefore, both B- and C-type waves can be considered to result from the same generation source as the type-I and -II waves. Finally, we consider the implications of the ISWs for mixing and biological production over the SM bank, and provide direct evidence, from ocean colour satellite images, of enhanced surface chlorophyll over a shallow topographic feature on the bank, which is

  11. Investigation of nonextensivity trapped electrons effect on the solitary ion-acoustic wave using fractional Schamel equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazari-Golshan, A., E-mail: nazarigolshan@yahoo.com [Physics Department, Shahed University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    Ion-acoustic (IA) solitary wave propagation is investigated by solving the fractional Schamel equation (FSE) in a homogenous system of unmagnetized plasma. This plasma consists of the nonextensive trapped electrons and cold fluid ions. The effects of the nonextensive q-parameter, electron trapping, and fractional parameter have been studied. The FSE is derived by using the semi-inverse and Agrawal's methods. The analytical results show that an increase in the amount of electron trapping and nonextensive q-parameter increases the soliton ion-acoustic amplitude in agreement with the previously obtained results. However, it is vice-versa for the fractional parameter. This feature leads to the fact that the fractional parameter may be used to increase the IA soliton amplitude instead of increasing electron trapping and nonextensive parameters.

  12. The interaction of two nonplanar solitary waves in electron-positron-ion plasmas: An application in active galactic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-Labany, S. K.; Khedr, D. M.; El-Shamy, E. F.; Sabry, R.

    2013-01-01

    In the present research paper, the effect of bounded nonplanar (cylindrical and spherical) geometry on the interaction between two nonplanar electrostatic solitary waves (NESWs) in electron–positron–ion plasmas has been studied. The extended Poincaré–Lighthill–Kuo method is used to obtain nonplanar phase shifts after the interaction of the two NESWs. This study is a first attempt to investigate nonplanar phase shifts and trajectories for NESWs in a two-fluid plasma (a pair-plasma) consisting of electrons and positrons, as well as immobile background positive ions in nonplanar geometry. The change of phase shifts and trajectories for NESWs due to the effect of cylindrical geometry, spherical geometry, the physical processes (either isothermal or adiabatic), and the positions of two NESWs are discussed. The present investigation may be beneficial to understand the interaction between two NESWs that may occur in active galactic nuclei.

  13. The interaction of two nonplanar solitary waves in electron-positron-ion plasmas: An application in active galactic nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EL-Labany, S. K.; Khedr, D. M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Damietta University, Damietta El-Gedida 34517 (Egypt); El-Shamy, E. F. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Damietta University, Damietta El-Gedida 34517 (Egypt); Department of Physics, College of Science, King Khalid University, P.O. 9004, Abha (Saudi Arabia); Sabry, R. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Damietta University, Damietta El-Gedida 34517 (Egypt); Department of Physics, College of Science and Humanitarian Studies, Salman bin Abdulaziz University, Alkharj (Saudi Arabia)

    2013-01-15

    In the present research paper, the effect of bounded nonplanar (cylindrical and spherical) geometry on the interaction between two nonplanar electrostatic solitary waves (NESWs) in electron-positron-ion plasmas has been studied. The extended Poincare-Lighthill-Kuo method is used to obtain nonplanar phase shifts after the interaction of the two NESWs. This study is a first attempt to investigate nonplanar phase shifts and trajectories for NESWs in a two-fluid plasma (a pair-plasma) consisting of electrons and positrons, as well as immobile background positive ions in nonplanar geometry. The change of phase shifts and trajectories for NESWs due to the effect of cylindrical geometry, spherical geometry, the physical processes (either isothermal or adiabatic), and the positions of two NESWs are discussed. The present investigation may be beneficial to understand the interaction between two NESWs that may occur in active galactic nuclei.

  14. The interaction of two nonplanar solitary waves in electron-positron-ion plasmas: An application in active galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    EL-Labany, S. K.; EL-Shamy, E. F.; Sabry, R.; Khedr, D. M.

    2013-01-01

    In the present research paper, the effect of bounded nonplanar (cylindrical and spherical) geometry on the interaction between two nonplanar electrostatic solitary waves (NESWs) in electron-positron-ion plasmas has been studied. The extended Poincaré-Lighthill-Kuo method is used to obtain nonplanar phase shifts after the interaction of the two NESWs. This study is a first attempt to investigate nonplanar phase shifts and trajectories for NESWs in a two-fluid plasma (a pair-plasma) consisting of electrons and positrons, as well as immobile background positive ions in nonplanar geometry. The change of phase shifts and trajectories for NESWs due to the effect of cylindrical geometry, spherical geometry, the physical processes (either isothermal or adiabatic), and the positions of two NESWs are discussed. The present investigation may be beneficial to understand the interaction between two NESWs that may occur in active galactic nuclei.

  15. Propagation of nonplanar dust-acoustic envelope solitary waves in a two-ion-temperature dusty plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Jukui

    2004-01-01

    The evolution of the cylindrical and spherical dust-acoustic envelope solitary wave (DAESW) in an unmagnetized dusty plasma consisting of negatively charged dust fluid and ions of two different temperatures is investigated. By using the reductive perturbation method, the cylindrical and spherical geometry-modified nonlinear Schroedinger equation (GMNLSE) is obtained. The change of the DAESW amplitude due to the cylindrical and spherical geometry effects is deduced analytically. It is shown that there exist two time ranges. On the other hand, the wave amplitude changes with time τ as (τ 0 /τ) m/2 when the geometry effect is stronger and as (τ 0 /τ) m when the geometry effect is weaker, where τ 0 is the initial time, and m=1 (2) refers to the cylindrical (spherical) case. The theoretical results are verified by the numerical calculation for the GMNLSE. The modulational instability of dust-acoustic waves governed by the GMNLSE is also presented. It is shown that the propagation of the DAESW in cylindrical geometry, spherical geometry, and planar one-dimensional geometry are very different. The presence of a second component of ions would modify the nature of the modulation instabilities

  16. Electron-acoustic solitary waves and double layers with an electron beam and phase space electron vortices in space plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Taibany, W. F.

    2005-01-01

    The nonlinear propagation of electron acoustic waves (EAWs) in a plasma composed of a cold electron fluid, hot electrons obeying trapped/vortex-like distribution, warm electron beam, and stationary ions is considered. The streaming velocity of the beam, uo, plays the dominant role in changing the topology of the linear dispersion relation. For small but finite amplitude EAWs, a modified Korteweg de Vries (MKdV) equation is derived. It is found that the MKdV supports EAWs having a positive potential, which corresponds to a hole (hump) in the cold (hot) electron number density. The energy soliton amplitude decreases, though its width increases for any increase in the beam parameters. In the vicinity of the isothermal population, a nonlinear evolution equation with mixed nonlinearity is obtained. Its solution gives a (compressive/rarefactive) soliton or a compressive double layer (DL) depending on the system parameters. For arbitrary amplitude EAWs, the exact Sagdeev potential has been derived. The admitted Mach number regime widens due to an increase of the beam parameters. With a better approximation in the Sagdeev potential, more features of solitary waves, e.g., spiky and explosive, are also highlighted. The introduced effects modify significantly the wave velocity, the amplitude, and the width of the EAWs investigated numerically. This theoretical model is in good agreement with the broadband noise emission observed by Geotail spacecraft in the plasma sheet boundary layer of the Earth's magnetosphere.

  17. Solitary waves of surface plasmon polariton via phase shifts under Doppler broadening and Kerr nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, S.; Ahmad, A.; Bacha, B. A.; Khan, A. A.; Abdul Jabar, M. S.

    2017-12-01

    Surface Plasmon Polaritons (SPPs) are theoretically investigated at the interface of a dielectric metal and gold. The output pulse from the dielectric is used as the input pulse for the generation of SPPs. The SPPs show soliton-like behavior at the interface. The solitary form of a SPP is maintained under the effects of Kerr nonlinearity, Doppler broadening and Fresnel dragging whereas its phase shift is significantly modified. A 0.3radian phase shift is calculated in the presence of both Kerr nonlinearity and Fresnel dragging in the absence of plasma motion. The phase shift is enhanced to 60radian due to the combined effect of Doppler broadening, Kerr nonlinearity and Fresnel dragging. The results may have significant applications in nano-photonics, optical tweezers, photovoltaic devices, plasmonster and sensing technology.

  18. Elliptic and solitary wave solutions for Bogoyavlenskii equations system, couple Boiti-Leon-Pempinelli equations system and Time-fractional Cahn-Allen equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa M.A. Khater

    Full Text Available In this article and for the first time, we introduce and describe Khater method which is a new technique for solving nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs.. We apply this method for each of the following models Bogoyavlenskii equation, couple Boiti-Leon-Pempinelli system and Time-fractional Cahn-Allen equation. Khater method is very powerful, Effective, felicitous and fabulous method to get exact and solitary wave solution of (PDEs.. Not only just like that but it considers too one of the general methods for solving that kind of equations since it involves some methods as we will see in our discuss of the results. We make a comparison between the results of this new method and another method. Keywords: Bogoyavlenskii equations system, Couple Boiti-Leon-Pempinelli equations system, Time-fractional Cahn-Allen equation, Khater method, Traveling wave solutions, Solitary wave solutions

  19. Quantum ion acoustic solitary waves in electron-ion plasmas: A Sagdeev potential approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, S.; Mushtaq, A.

    2008-01-01

    Linear and nonlinear ion acoustic waves are studied in unmagnetized electron-ion quantum plasmas. Sagdeev potential approach is employed to describe the nonlinear quantum ion acoustic waves. It is found that density dips structures are formed in the subsonic region in a electron-ion quantum plasma case. The amplitude of the nonlinear structures remains constant and the width is broadened with the increase in the quantization of the system. However, the nonlinear wave amplitude is reduced with the increase in the wave Mach number. The numerical results are also presented

  20. Nonlinear 1-D stationary flows in multi-ion plasmas – sonic and critical loci – solitary and "oscillatory" waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Dubinin

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available One-dimensional stationary flows of a plasma consisting of two ion populations and electrons streaming against a heavy ion cloud are studied. The flow structure is critically governed by the position of sonic and critical points, at which the flow is shocked or choked. The concept of sonic and critical points is suitably generalized to the case of multi-ion plasmas to include a differential ion streaming. For magnetic field free flows, the sonic and critical loci in the (upx, uhx space coincide. Amongst the different flow patterns for the protons and heavy ions, there is a possible configuration composed of a "heavy ion shock" accompanied by a proton rarefaction. The magnetic field introduces a "stiffness" for the differential ion streaming transverse to the magnetic field. In general, both ion fluids respond similarly in the presence of "ion obstacle"; the superfast (subfast flows are decelerated (accelerated. The collective flow is choked when the dynamic trajectory (upx, uhx crosses the critical loci. In specific regimes the flow contains a sequence of solitary structures and as a result, the flow is strongly bunched. In each such substructure the protons are almost completely replaced by the heavies. A differential ion streaming is more accessible in the collective flows oblique to the magnetic field. Such a flexibility of the ion motion is determined by the properties of energy integrals and the Bernoulli energy functions of each ion species. The structure of flows, oblique to the magnetic field, depends critically on the velocity regime and demonstrates a rich variety of solitary and oscillatory nonlinear wave structures. The results of the paper are relevant to the plasma and field environments at comets and planets through the interaction with the solar wind.

  1. Solitary waves for a coupled nonlinear Schrodinger system with dispersion management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panayotis Panayotaros

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available We consider a system of coupled nonlinear Schrodinger equations with periodically varying dispersion coefficient that arises in the context of fiber-optics communication. We use Lions's Concentration Compactness principle to show the existence of standing waves with prescribed L^2 norm in an averaged equation that approximates the coupled system. We also use the Mountain Pass Lemma to prove the existence of standing waves with prescribed frequencies.

  2. New solitary wave solutions of (3 + 1)-dimensional nonlinear extended Zakharov-Kuznetsov and modified KdV-Zakharov-Kuznetsov equations and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Dianchen; Seadawy, A. R.; Arshad, M.; Wang, Jun

    In this paper, new exact solitary wave, soliton and elliptic function solutions are constructed in various forms of three dimensional nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs) in mathematical physics by utilizing modified extended direct algebraic method. Soliton solutions in different forms such as bell and anti-bell periodic, dark soliton, bright soliton, bright and dark solitary wave in periodic form etc are obtained, which have large applications in different branches of physics and other areas of applied sciences. The obtained solutions are also presented graphically. Furthermore, many other nonlinear evolution equations arising in mathematical physics and engineering can also be solved by this powerful, reliable and capable method. The nonlinear three dimensional extended Zakharov-Kuznetsov dynamica equation and (3 + 1)-dimensional modified KdV-Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation are selected to show the reliability and effectiveness of the current method.

  3. Head-on collision of dust-acoustic solitary waves in an adiabatic hot dusty plasma with external oblique magnetic field and two-temperature ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Labany, S. K.; El-Shamy, E. F.; Sabry, R.; Shokry, M.

    2010-02-01

    In the present paper, the characteristics of the head-on collision between two dust-acoustic solitary waves (DASWs) in an adiabatic dusty plasma consisting of variable negatively charged dust grains, isothermal electrons and two-temperature isothermal ions in the presence of an external oblique magnetic field are investigated. Using the extended Poincaré-Lighthill-Kuo (PLK) method, the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equations and the analytical phase shifts after the head-on collision of two solitary waves are derived. The effects of the magnetic field and its obliqueness, two different type of isothermal ions and the dust particles adiabaticity are discussed. It is found that these factors significantly affect the phase shifts.

  4. New solitary wave solutions of (3 + 1-dimensional nonlinear extended Zakharov-Kuznetsov and modified KdV-Zakharov-Kuznetsov equations and their applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianchen Lu

    Full Text Available In this paper, new exact solitary wave, soliton and elliptic function solutions are constructed in various forms of three dimensional nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs in mathematical physics by utilizing modified extended direct algebraic method. Soliton solutions in different forms such as bell and anti-bell periodic, dark soliton, bright soliton, bright and dark solitary wave in periodic form etc are obtained, which have large applications in different branches of physics and other areas of applied sciences. The obtained solutions are also presented graphically. Furthermore, many other nonlinear evolution equations arising in mathematical physics and engineering can also be solved by this powerful, reliable and capable method. The nonlinear three dimensional extended Zakharov-Kuznetsov dynamica equation and (3 + 1-dimensional modified KdV-Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation are selected to show the reliability and effectiveness of the current method. Keywords: Modified extended direct algebraic method, Solitons, Solitary wave solutions, Jacobi and Weierstrass elliptic function solutions, Three dimensional extended Zakharov-Kuznetsov dynamical equation, (3 + 1-Dim modified KdV-Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation

  5. Dust-acoustic solitary waves in a dusty plasma with two-temperature ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    acoustic waves in a dusty plasma (containing a negatively charged dust fluid, Boltzmann distributed electrons and two-temperature nonthermal ions) is investigated. The effects of two-temperature nonthermal ions on the basic properties of small but ...

  6. Solitary heat waves in nonlinear lattices with squared on-site potential

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A model Hamiltonian is proposed for heat conduction in a nonlinear lattice with squared on-site potential using the second quantized operators and averaging the same using a suitable wave function, equations are derived in discrete form for the field amplitude and the prop- erties of heat transfer are examined ...

  7. Flow and Turbulence at Rubble-Mound Breakwater Armor Layers under Solitary Wave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bjarne; Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Sumer, B. Mutlu

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation of the flow and turbulence at the armor layer of rubble-mound breakwaters during wave action. The study focused on the details of the flow and turbulence in the armor layer and on the effect of the porous core on flow and stability....

  8. Dust-acoustic solitary waves in a dusty plasma with two-temperature ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. By using reductive perturbation method, the nonlinear propagation of dust-acoustic waves in a dusty plasma (containing a negatively charged dust fluid, Boltzmann distributed electrons and two-temperature nonthermal ions) is investigated. The effects of two-temperature nonthermal ions on the basic properties of ...

  9. Solitary waves, steepening and initial collapse in the Maxwell-Lorentz system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads Peter; Brio, Moysey; Webb, Garry

    2002-01-01

    We present a numerical study of Maxwell's equations in nonlinear dispersive optical media describing propagation of pulses in one Cartesian space dimension. Dispersion and nonlinearity are accounted for by a linear Lorentz model and an instantaneous Kerr nonlinearity, respectively. The dispersion......–Rosales weakly dispersive system. The weak dispersion in general cannot prevent the wave breaking with instantaneous or delayed nonlinearities....

  10. Degenerate pressure driven self-gravito-acoustic solitary waves in a self-gravitating degenerate quantum plasma system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamun, A. A.

    2018-02-01

    A general (but realistic) self-gravitating degenerate quantum plasma system (SG-DQPS) containing inertialess degenerate electron species, inertial degenerate light, and heavy ion/nucleus species is considered to examine the possibility for the existence of degenerate pressure driven self-gravito-acoustic (DPD-SGA) solitary waves (SWs) formed in such a SG-DQPS. The pseudo-potential approach, which is valid for the arbitrary amplitude DPD-SGA SWs, is employed. It is found that depending on the value of the number density of heavy ion/nucleus species, the SG-DQPS under consideration supports the existence of positive or the coexistence of positive and negative DPD-SGA SWs. The basic features (polarity, amplitude, and width) of both positive and negative DPD-SGA SWs are found to be significantly modified by the dynamics of heavy ion/nucleus species. The theoretical investigation presented here is so general that it can be applied not only in astrophysical SG-DQPSs (such as white dwarf and neutron star SG-DQPSs), but also in laboratory SG-DQPSs (viz., solid density and laser-produced SG-DQPSs) to identify the salient features of the DPD-SGA SWs formed in them.

  11. Markov Chain Monte Carlo inversion of temperature and salinity structure of an internal solitary wave packet from marine seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qunshu; Hobbs, Richard; Zheng, Chan; Biescas, Berta; Caiado, Camila

    2016-06-01

    Marine seismic reflection technique is used to observe the strong ocean dynamic process of nonlinear internal solitary waves (ISWs or solitons) in the near-surface water. Analysis of ISWs is problematical because of their transient nature and limitations of classical physical oceanography methods. This work explores a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach to recover the temperature and salinity of ISW field using the seismic reflectivity data and in situ hydrographic data. The MCMC approach is designed to directly sample the posterior probability distributions of temperature and salinity which are the solutions of the system under investigation. The principle improvement is the capability of incorporating uncertainties in observations and prior models which then provide quantified uncertainties in the output model parameters. We tested the MCMC approach on two acoustic reflectivity data sets one synthesized from a CTD cast and the other derived from multichannel seismic reflections. This method finds the solutions faithfully within the significantly narrowed confidence intervals from the provided priors. Combined with a low frequency initial model interpreted from seismic horizons of ISWs, the MCMC method is used to compute the finescale temperature, salinity, acoustic velocity, and density of ISW field. The statistically derived results are equivalent to the conventional linearized inversion method. However, the former provides us the quantified uncertainties of the temperature and salinity along the whole section whilst the latter does not. These results are the first time ISWs have been mapped with sufficient detail for further analysis of their dynamic properties.

  12. Effects of ionization and ion loss on dust ion-acoustic solitary waves in a collisional dusty plasma with suprathermal electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayout, Saliha; Gougam, Leila Ait [Faculty of Physics, Theoretical Physics Laboratory, Plasma Physics Group, University of Bab-Ezzouar, USTHB, B.P. 32, El Alia, Algiers 16111 (Algeria); Tribeche, Mouloud, E-mail: mouloudtribeche@yahoo.fr, E-mail: mtribeche@usthb.dz [Faculty of Physics, Theoretical Physics Laboratory, Plasma Physics Group, University of Bab-Ezzouar, USTHB, B.P. 32, El Alia, Algiers 16111 (Algeria); Algerian Academy of Sciences and Technologies, Algiers (Algeria)

    2016-03-15

    The combined effects of ionization, ion loss, and electron suprathermality on dust ion-acoustic solitary waves in a collisional dusty plasma are examined. Carrying out a small but finite amplitude analysis, a damped Korteweg-de Vries (dK–dV) equation is derived. The damping term decreases with the increase of the spectral index and saturates for Maxwellian electrons. Choosing typical plasma parameters, the analytical approximate solution of the dK-dV equation is numerically analyzed. We first neglect the ionization and ion loss effects and account only for collisions to estimate the relative importance between these damping terms which can act concurrently. Interestingly, we found that as the suprathermal character of the electrons becomes important, the strength of the collisions related dissipation becomes more important and causes the dust ion-acoustic solitary wave amplitude to decay more rapidly. Moreover, the collisional damping may largely prevail over the ionization and ion loss related damping. The latter becomes more effective as the electrons evolve far away from their thermal equilibrium. Our results complement and provide new insights into previously published work on this problem.

  13. Nonlinear ion-acoustic solitary waves with warm ions and non-Maxwellian electrons in space plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain Shah, Khalid; Qureshi, Nouman

    2017-04-01

    Electrons velocity distributions are often observed with non-Maxwellian features such flat tops at low energies and/or superthermal tails at high energies from different regions of near Earth plasmas such as Earth's bow shock, auroral zone and magnetosphere by numerous satellites. Such non-Maxwellian distributions are well modelled by generalized (r,q) distribution or Cairns distribution. Solitons are nonlinear solitary structures and are integral part of space plasmas. In this paper, we present a fluid model containing Cairns (r,q) distributed non-Maxwellian electrons and derive the Sagdeev potential for fully nonlinear fluid equations. We found that compressive solitons can be developed in such a plasma. The results from our model can be used to interpret solitary structures in space plasmas when electrons are obeying the non-Maxwellian flat tops along with the high energy tails.

  14. Solitary pulmonary nodule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung cancer - solitary nodule; Infectious granuloma - pulmonary nodule; SPN ... More than half of all solitary pulmonary nodules are noncancerous ... infections. Infectious granulomas (which are formed by cells as ...

  15. The higher-dimensional Ablowitz–Ladik model: From (non-)integrability and solitary waves to surprising collapse properties and more exotic solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kevrekidis, P.G.; Herring, G.J.; Lafortune, S.; Hoq, Q.E.

    2012-01-01

    We propose a consideration of the properties of the two-dimensional Ablowitz–Ladik discretization of the ubiquitous nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) model. We use singularity confinement techniques to suggest that the relevant discretization should not be integrable. More importantly, we identify the prototypical solitary waves of the model and examine their stability, illustrating the remarkable feature that near the continuum limit, this discretization leads to the absence of collapse and complete spectral wave stability, in stark contrast to the standard discretization of the NLS. We also briefly touch upon the three-dimensional case and generalizations of our considerations therein, and also present some more exotic solutions of the model, such as exact line solitons and discrete vortices. -- Highlights: ► The two-dimensional version of the Ablowitz–Ladik discretization of the nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation is considered. ► It is found that near the continuum limit the fundamental discrete soliton is spectrally stable. ► This finding is in sharp contrast with the case of the standard discretization of the NLS equation. ► In the three-dimensional version of the model, the fundamental solitons are unstable. ► Additional waveforms such as exact unstable line solitons and discrete vortices are also touched upon.

  16. Oblique propagation of dust ion-acoustic solitary waves in a magnetized dusty pair-ion plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misra, A. P., E-mail: apmisra@visva-bharati.ac.in, E-mail: apmisra@gmail.com; Barman, Arnab [Department of Mathematics, Siksha Bhavana, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan-731 235, West Bengal (India)

    2014-07-15

    We investigate the propagation characteristics of electrostatic waves in a magnetized pair-ion plasma with immobile charged dusts. It is shown that obliquely propagating (OP) low-frequency (in comparison with the negative-ion cyclotron frequency) long-wavelength “slow” and “fast” modes can propagate, respectively, as dust ion-acoustic (DIA) and dust ion-cyclotron (DIC)-like waves. The properties of these modes are studied with the effects of obliqueness of propagation (θ), the static magnetic field, the ratios of the negative to positive ion masses (m), and temperatures (T) as well as the dust to negative-ion number density ratio (δ). Using the standard reductive perturbation technique, we derive a Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation which governs the evolution of small-amplitude OP DIA waves. It is found that the KdV equation admits only rarefactive solitons in plasmas with m well below its critical value m{sub c} (≫ 1) which typically depends on T and δ. It is shown that the nonlinear coefficient of the KdV equation vanishes at m = m{sub c}, i.e., for plasmas with much heavier negative ions, and the evolution of the DIA waves is then described by a modified KdV (mKdV) equation. The latter is shown to have only compressive soliton solution. The properties of both the KdV and mKdV solitons are studied with the system parameters as above, and possible applications of our results to laboratory and space plasmas are briefly discussed.

  17. Solitary black pigment stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolpers, C.; Wosiewitz, U.

    1986-01-01

    Solitary pigment stones of the gall-bladder are rare (1.7%). 82,5% are radiopaque, 17.5% radiolucent. 64,8% of radiopaque solitary pigment stones have the structure of a cockade. Such cockades take years to develop. Solitary cholesterol stones with a nucleus of a radiopaque pigment stone should not be treated for litholysis. 8% of solitary cholesterol stones with a cross diameter below 15 mm. possess a radiolucent pigment stone nucleus. X-ray diagnosis for selecting litholytic treatment remains the safest method, especially if the radiologist compares his films regularly with the specimens after surgery. (orig.) [de

  18. Bumblebees and solitary bees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Casper Christian I

    organic fields than in those bordering conventional fields. This was due to the absence of herbicides and to practices inherent to organic farming systems, such as use of clover (a high value bee plant) as a green manure and fodder crop. Solitary bees responded with significantly higher numbers......Summary: The effects of farming system, flower resources and semi-natural habitats on bumblebees and solitary bees in intensively cultivated landscapes in Denmark were investigated in two sets of studies, in 2011 and 2012. The pan trap colour preferences of bumblebees and solitary bees were also...... use as a proxy at four different scales (250, 500, 750 and 1000 m). In 2012, the effect of a four-fold larger area of organic arable fields in simple, homogeneous landscapes on bumblebees and solitary bees was investigated in eight circular landscapes (radius 1000 m). Bumblebees and solitary bees were...

  19. Bumblebees and solitary bees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Casper Christian I

    Summary: The effects of farming system, flower resources and semi-natural habitats on bumblebees and solitary bees in intensively cultivated landscapes in Denmark were investigated in two sets of studies, in 2011 and 2012. The pan trap colour preferences of bumblebees and solitary bees were also...... assessed. In 2011, bumblebees and solitary bees were trapped in road verges bordering 14 organic (organic sites) and 14 conventional (conventional sites) winter wheat fields. The quantity and quality of local flower resources in the road verge and adjacent field headland were estimated as overall density...... use as a proxy at four different scales (250, 500, 750 and 1000 m). In 2012, the effect of a four-fold larger area of organic arable fields in simple, homogeneous landscapes on bumblebees and solitary bees was investigated in eight circular landscapes (radius 1000 m). Bumblebees and solitary bees were...

  20. Elliptic function and solitary wave solutions of the higher-order nonlinear Schrödinger dynamical equation with fourth-order dispersion and cubic-quintic nonlinearity and its stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, M.; Seadawy, Aly R.; Lu, Dianchen

    2017-08-01

    The higher-order nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) with fourth-order dispersion, cubic-quintic terms, self-steepening and nonlinear dispersive terms describes the propagation of extremely short pulses in optical fibers. In this paper, the elliptic function, bright and dark solitons and solitary wave solutions of higher-order NLSE are constructed by employing a modified extended direct algebraic method, which has important applications in applied mathematics and physics. Furthermore, we also present the formation conditions of the bright and dark solitons for this equation. The modulation instability is utilized to discuss the stability of these solutions, which shows that all solutions are exact and stable. Many other higher-order nonlinear evolution equations arising in applied sciences can also be solved by this powerful, effective and reliable method.

  1. Solitary magnetohydrodynamic vortices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silaev, I.I.; Skvortsov, A.T.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the analytical description of fluid flow by means of localized vortices which is traditional for hydrodynamics, oceanology, plasma physics. Recently it has been widely applied to different structure turbulence models. Considerable results involved have been presented where it was shown that in magnetohydrodynamics alongside with the well-known kinds of localized vortices (e.g. Hill's vortex), which are characterized by quite a weak decrease of disturbed velocity or magnetic field (as a power of the inverse distance from vortex center), the vortices with screening (or solitary vortices) may exist. All disturbed parameters either exponentially vanish or become identically zero in outer region in the latter case. (In a number of papers numerical simulations of such the vortices are presented). Solutions in a form of solitary vortices are of particular interest due to their uniformity and solitonlike behavior. On the basis of these properties one can believe for such structures to occur in real turbulent flows

  2. Solitary waves of the Kadomstev-Petviashvili equation in warm dusty plasma with variable dust charge, two temperature ion and nonthermal electron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakzad, Hamid Reza

    2009-01-01

    The propagation of nonlinear waves in warm dusty plasmas with variable dust charge, two temperature ion and nonthermal electron is studied. By using the reductive perturbation theory, the Kadomstev-Petviashivili (KP) equation is derived. Existence of rarefactive and compressive solitons is analyzed.

  3. Vlasov Simulation of Electrostatic Solitary Structures in Multi-Component Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeda, Takayuki; Ashour-Abdalla, Maha; Pickett, Jolene S.; Goldstein, Melvyn L.

    2012-01-01

    Electrostatic solitary structures have been observed in the Earth's magnetosheath by the Cluster spacecraft. Recent theoretical work has suggested that these solitary structures are modeled by electron acoustic solitary waves existing in a four-component plasma system consisting of core electrons, two counter-streaming electron beams, and one species of background ions. In this paper, the excitation of electron acoustic waves and the formation of solitary structures are studied by means of a one-dimensional electrostatic Vlasov simulation. The present result first shows that either electron acoustic solitary waves with negative potential or electron phase-space holes with positive potential are excited in four-component plasma systems. However, these electrostatic solitary structures have longer duration times and higher wave amplitudes than the solitary structures observed in the magnetosheath. The result indicates that a high-speed and small free energy source may be needed as a fifth component. An additional simulation of a five-component plasma consisting of a stable four-component plasma and a weak electron beam shows the generation of small and fast electron phase-space holes by the bump-on-tail instability. The physical properties of the small and fast electron phase-space holes are very similar to those obtained by the previous theoretical analysis. The amplitude and duration time of solitary structures in the simulation are also in agreement with the Cluster observation.

  4. Solitary intraosseous neurofibroma of mandible.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek N

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Solitary intraosseous neurofibroma is a rare benign non-odontogenic tumor. Although neurofibromas occur predominantly as a feature of neurofibromatosis affecting the soft tissue, a few cases of solitary intraosseous neurofibromas of the jaw have been reported. We herewith report a case of solitary intraosseous neurofibroma of mandible in a middle-aged woman with a discussion on its clinical, radiological, and histopathological presentation along with review of cases.

  5. Observation of the Near-seabed Velocity and Particles Resuspension During Nonlinear Internal Solitary Wave Events near the Dongsha Plateau at the Northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Observation of the Near-seabed Velocity and Particles...turbulence interaction and/or the dynamic pressure perturbation induced by ISWs cause the resuspension and redistribution of sediment particles and...likely form the continuous sediment waves on the seafloor [Ma et al., 2008 and Reeder et al., 2011]. To our knowledge, there are no direct observations

  6. African Journal of Science and Technology (AJST) SOLITARY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Physics, University of Yaounde 1, Yaoundé, Cameroon. E-mail: lenouo@yahoo.fr. ABSTRACT: Weakly nonlinear .... By using a multiple scale method, we can write a stream function ψ in the form of a ..... applicable to description of Rossby solitary waves. This requires the choice of additional wind speed C1.

  7. Is DNA a nonlinear dynamical system where solitary conformational ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    DNA is considered as a nonlinear dynamical system in which solitary conformational waves can be excited. The history of the approach, the main results, and arguments in favour and against are presented. Perspectives are discussed pertaining to studies of DNA's nonlinear properties. 1. Introduction. In recent years, many ...

  8. Interaction of solitary pulses in single mode optical fibres | Usman ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two solitary waves launched, by way of incidence, into an optical fibre from a single pulse if the pulses are in-phase as understood from results of inverse scattering transform method applied to the cubic nonlinear Schrödinger equations, (CNLSE\\'s). The single CNLSE is then understood to describe evolution of coupled ...

  9. Is DNA a nonlinear dynamical system where solitary conformational ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    DNA is considered as a nonlinear dynamical system in which solitary conformational waves can be excited. The history of the approach, the ..... nucleotides; K is the coupling constant along each strand;. R0 is the radius of DNA; a is .... Let us note that the system of equations (12)–(17) can be divided into two independent ...

  10. Solitary eyelid schwannoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renu M Magdum

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Schwannomas are rare benign tumors arising from Schwann cells of peripheral nerves that form the neural sheath. While there have been reports of such tumors in the orbit, solitary schwannomas arising from the eyelids are very rare. There are reports of schwannomas being erroneously diagnosed as chalazion, inclusion cysts or even eyelid malignancy. We are reporting a case of a 20-year-old female who presented with a painless, non-tender, slow-growing mass in the upper eyelid of the right eye. The external appearance of the mass was suggestive of an implantation cyst of the eyelid and it could be completely excised as it had a well-defined capsule. Histopathological examination showed characteristic hypercellular and hypocellular areas with fusiform nuclei that tended to form palisades. The purpose of reporting this case of schwannoma in a young female is to recommend the inclusion of this entity as a differential diagnosis of well-defined lid tumors.

  11. Solitary solution for the Kadomstev- Petviashvili equation at critical density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elhanbly, A.M.; El-shawey, E.K.; Radwan, N.K.; El-kamash, I.S.

    2011-01-01

    The nonlinear properties of small amplitude electron-acoustic solitary waves ( EASWs) in a homogeneous system of unmagnetized collisionless plasma consisted of a cold electron fluid and isothermal ions with two different temperatures obeying Boltzmann type distributions have been investigated.A reductive perturbation method was employed to obtain the Kadomstev-Petviashvili (KP) equation.At the critical density, the KP equation is not appropriate for describing the system. Hence, a new set of stretched coordinates is considered to derive the modified KP equation. The present investigation can be of relevance to the electrostatic solitary structures observed in various space plasma environments

  12. Exact travelling wave solutions for the generalized shallow water wave equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elwakil, S.A.; El-labany, S.K.; Zahran, M.A.; Sabry, R.

    2003-01-01

    Using homogeneous balance method an auto-Baecklund transformation for the generalized shallow water wave equation is obtained. Then solitary wave solutions are found. Also, modified extended tanh-function method is applied and new exact travelling wave solutions are obtained. The obtained solutions include rational, periodical, singular and solitary wave solutions

  13. Exact travelling wave solutions for the generalized shallow water wave equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elwakil, S.A.; El-labany, S.K.; Zahran, M.A.; Sabry, R

    2003-07-01

    Using homogeneous balance method an auto-Baecklund transformation for the generalized shallow water wave equation is obtained. Then solitary wave solutions are found. Also, modified extended tanh-function method is applied and new exact travelling wave solutions are obtained. The obtained solutions include rational, periodical, singular and solitary wave solutions.

  14. Bifurcation analysis and the travelling wave solutions of the Klein ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    dynamical system approach, Zhang et al obtained the travelling wave solutions in terms of bright and dark optical solitons and the cnoidal waves. The authors found that eq. (1.5) has only three types of bounded travelling wave solutions, namely, bell-shaped solitary wave solutions, kink-shaped solitary wave solutions and ...

  15. Dust ion acoustic solitary structures in the presence of isothermal positrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, A. [Jadavpur University, Department of Mathematics (India); Das, A. [B. N. S. U. P. School (India); Bandyopadhyay, A., E-mail: abandyopadhyay1965@gmail.com [Jadavpur University, Department of Mathematics (India)

    2017-02-15

    The Sagdeev potential technique has been employed to study the dust ion acoustic solitary waves and double layers in an unmagnetized collisionless dusty plasma consisting of negatively charged static dust grains, adiabatic warm ions, isothermally distributed electrons, and positrons. A computational scheme has been developed to draw the qualitatively different compositional parameter spaces or existence domains showing the nature of existence of different solitary structures with respect to any parameter of the present plasma system. The present system supports both positive and negative potential double layers. The negative potential double layer always restricts the occurrence of negative potential solitary waves, i.e., any sequence of negative potential solitary waves having monotonically increasing amplitude converges to a negative potential double layer. However, there exists a parameter regime for which the positive potential double layer is unable to restrict the occurrence of positive potential solitary waves. As a result, in this region of the parameter space, there exist solitary waves after the formation of positive potential double layer, i.e., positive potential supersolitons have been observed.

  16. Solitary waves in nematic liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panayotaros, Panayotis; Marchant, T. R.

    2014-02-01

    We study soliton solutions of a two-dimensional nonlocal NLS equation of Hartree-type with a Bessel potential kernel. The equation models laser propagation in nematic liquid crystals. Motivated by the experimental observation of spatially localized beams, see Conti et al. (2003), we show existence, stability, regularity, and radial symmetry of energy minimizing soliton solutions in R2. We also give theoretical lower bounds for the L2-norm (power) of these solitons, and show that small L2-norm initial conditions lead to decaying solutions. We also present numerical computations of radial soliton solutions. These solutions exhibit the properties expected by the infinite plane theory, although we also see some finite (computational) domain effects, especially solutions with arbitrarily small power.

  17. Solitary eccrine syringofibroadenoma - Case Report*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottino, Caroline Bertolini; Guimarães, Tais Ferreira; Gomes, Flávio Rezende; D'Acri, Antonio Macedo; Lima, Ricardo Barbosa; Martins, Carlos José

    2015-01-01

    Eccrine syringofibroadenoma is a rare benign adnexal neoplasm derived from cells of the acrosyringium of eccrine sweat glands. ESFA usually manifests as a solitary nodule on the extremities of elderly patients, but it may also present as papules, nodules or plaques. Its clinical appearance is nonspecific and malignant neoplasms should beconsidered in the differential diagnosis. However, histopathological findings are typical. The main treatment is surgical excision. In order to illustrate a typical presentation of the tumor, we report a case of solitary eccrine syringofibroadenoma, including the surgical treatment used and its result. PMID:26312727

  18. Aging and body size in solitary bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solitary bees are important pollinators of crops and non-domestic plants. Osmia lignaria is a native, commercially-reared solitary bee used to maximize pollination in orchard crops. In solitary bees, adult body size is extremely variable depending on the nutritional resources available to the develo...

  19. Optimization of s-Polarization Sensitivity in Apertureless Near-Field Optical Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuika Saito

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is a general belief in apertureless near-field microscopy that the so-called p-polarization configuration, where the incident light is polarized parallel to the axis of the probe, is advantageous to its counterpart, the s-polarization configuration, where the incident light is polarized perpendicular to the probe axis. While this is true for most samples under common near-field experimental conditions, there are samples which respond better to the s-polarization configuration due to their orientations. Indeed, there have been several reports that have discussed such samples. This leads us to an important requirement that the near-field experimental setup should be equipped with proper sensitivity for measurements with s-polarization configuration. This requires not only creation of effective s-polarized illumination at the near-field probe, but also proper enhancement of s-polarized light by the probe. In this paper, we have examined the s-polarization enhancement sensitivity of near-field probes by measuring and evaluating the near-field Rayleigh scattering images constructed by a variety of probes. We found that the s-polarization enhancement sensitivity strongly depends on the sharpness of the apex of near-field probes. We have discussed the efficient value of probe sharpness by considering a balance between the enhancement and the spatial resolution, both of which are essential requirements of apertureless near-field microscopy.

  20. New solitary solutions and non-elastic interactions of the (2 + 1)-dimensional variable-coefficient Broer-Kaup system with symbolic computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng Tao; Shan Wenrui; Lue Xing; Cai Kejie; Zhang Cheng; Tian Bo

    2009-01-01

    Fusion and fission phenomena for solitary waves have been discovered theoretically and experimentally. In this paper, the (2 + 1)-dimensional variable-coefficient Broer-Kaup system is symbolically investigated. By employing the bilinear method, new solitary solutions with arbitrary functions are obtained. At the same time, the non-elastic interactions of solitary solutions are graphically studied. Furthermore, soliton fusion and fission phenomena are revealed by choosing appropriate functions.

  1. EXTRACORPOREAL SHOCK WAVE LITHOTRIPSY AS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective To evaluate extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) as a monotherapy for urolithiasis in patients with solitary kidney and to determine the factors that may affect its results. Patients and Methods Using the Dornier MFL 5000 lithotriptor, 106 patients with solitary kidney (80 men and 26 women) were treated for ...

  2. From bell-shaped solitary wave to W/M-shaped solitary wave

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Technology, Guilin, Guangxi, 541004, People's Republic of China. 3Foundation Department, Southwest Forestry University, Kunming, Yunnan, 650224,. People's Republic of China. *Corresponding author. E-mail: aiyongchen@163.com. MS received 7 October 2008; revised 1 July 2009; accepted 9 September 2009.

  3. From bell-shaped solitary wave to W/M-shaped solitary wave ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Center of Nonlinear Science Studies, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, Yunnan, 650093, People's Republic of China; School of Mathematics and Computing Science, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin, Guangxi, 541004, People's Republic of China; Foundation Department, ...

  4. Solitary Intraosseous Neurofibroma of the Mandible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamideh Kadeh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Neurofibroma is a benign neoplasm derived from peripheral nerve cells. Neurofibroma can occur as a solitary tumor also it may associate with neurofibromatosis. Intraosseous neurofibroma is a rare tumor particularly in the oral cavity. So far, few cases of solitary intraosseous neurofibroma of the mandible have been reported. In the present study, a 39 years old woman which has a diagnosis of solitary intraosseous neurofibroma of the mandible is reported. Clinical, radiographic, histopathologic and immunohistochemical features are described.

  5. Solitary wave and periodic wave solutions for Burgers, Fisher ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-11-27

    Proceedings of the International Workshop/Conference on Computational Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science (IWCCMP-2015). Posted on November 27, 2015. Guest Editors: Anurag Srivastava, C. S. Praveen, H. S. Tewari. © 2015 Indian Academy of Sciences, Bengaluru. Contact | Site index.

  6. Solitary odontodysplasia: A rare entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Gurunathan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Odontodysplasia is a rare, non-hereditary developmental anomaly affecting dental tissues derived from both the mesoderm and ectoderm which results in a bizarre clinical and radiographic appearance. Regional odontodysplasia describes the segmental and localized nature of the condition. Odontodysplasia occurring in a single tooth is a rare occurrence. A case of Solitary odontodysplasia in an eleven year and half old male whose chief complaint was the absence of eruption of permanent maxillary right central incisor teeth is presented. Clinical, radiographic and histological findings of a single tooth, odontodysplasia are described in this case report.

  7. Laboratory Measurements of Electrostatic Solitary Structures Generated by Beam Injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefebvre, Bertrand; Chen, Li-Jen; Gekelman, Walter; Pribyl, Patrick; Vincena, Stephen; Kintner, Paul; Pickett, Jolene; Chiang, Franklin; Judy, Jack

    2010-01-01

    Electrostatic solitary structures are generated by injection of a suprathermal electron beam parallel to the magnetic field in a laboratory plasma. Electric microprobes with tips smaller than the Debye length (λ De ) enabled the measurement of positive potential pulses with half-widths 4 to 25λ De and velocities 1 to 3 times the background electron thermal speed. Nonlinear wave packets of similar velocities and scales are also observed, indicating that the two descend from the same mode which is consistent with the electrostatic whistler mode and result from an instability likely to be driven by field-aligned currents.

  8. Management of a solitary thyroid nodule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, R.S.

    1999-01-01

    Solitary nodule in the thyroid is a common clinical entity. A careful clinical assessment is the crucial first step in deciding the modality of treatment. The only worthwhile investigation is FNAC. Other investigations are done merely for the sake of a complete academic work up and can usually be dispensed with in most of the cases. Not every solitary nodule requires surgery. The optimum surgery for a solitary nodule is a total lobectomy. The specimen should be subjected to histological examination before recommending further treatment

  9. Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Uterus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Wei Chu

    2006-12-01

    Conclusion: The behavior of solitary fibrous tumors arising from the uterus is difficult to evaluate; therefore, complete surgical excision featuring clear margins and comprehensive follow-up is recommended.

  10. Periodic folded waves for a (2+1)-dimensional modified dispersive water wave equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen-Hua, Huang

    2009-01-01

    A general solution, including three arbitrary functions, is obtained for a (2+1)-dimensional modified dispersive water-wave (MDWW) equation by means of the WTC truncation method. Introducing proper multiple valued functions and Jacobi elliptic functions in the seed solution, special types of periodic folded waves are derived. In the long wave limit these periodic folded wave patterns may degenerate into single localized folded solitary wave excitations. The interactions of the periodic folded waves and the degenerated single folded solitary waves are investigated graphically and found to be completely elastic. (general)

  11. The cytology of giant solitary trichoepithelioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnamurthy Jayashree

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Giant solitary trichoepithelioma (GST is a rare trichogenic tumor, which may present as a pigmented lesion. An 80-year-old man was diagnosed to have giant solitary trichoepithelioma on fine-needle aspiration cytology. The cytological findings represented the histological features. The recognition of GST is important because of its close resemblance to basal cell carcinoma and other skin adnexal tumors - clinically, cytologically and histologically.

  12. Solitary sternal lesions in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, R.; Cano, R.; Mendoza, G.; Guzman, C.; Cotrina, M.; Aguilar, C.

    1993-01-01

    In a retrospective review of bone scans performed in 1740 patients with breast cancer from January 1988 to April 1993, twenty had a solitary sternal lesion. Etiology was found correlating this finding with pathology, x-rays and/or final outcome. Nineteen lesions were due to metastases and one to infection. This experience suggests that solitary sternal lesions in breast cancer patients are uncommon and are most frequently (95%) associated with malignant etiology. (Authors). 10 refs., 2 figs

  13. Wave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2008-01-01

    Estimates for the amount of potential wave energy in the world range from 1-10 TW. The World Energy Council estimates that a potential 2TW of energy is available from the world’s oceans, which is the equivalent of twice the world’s electricity production. Whilst the recoverable resource is many...

  14. Solitary restriction endonucleases in prokaryotic genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ershova, Anna S; Karyagina, Anna S; Vasiliev, Mikhail O; Lyashchuk, Alexander M; Lunin, Vladimir G; Spirin, Sergey A; Alexeevski, Andrei V

    2012-11-01

    Prokaryotic restriction-modification (R-M) systems defend the host cell from the invasion of a foreign DNA. They comprise two enzymatic activities: specific DNA cleavage activity and DNA methylation activity preventing cleavage. Typically, these activities are provided by two separate enzymes: a DNA methyltransferase (MTase) and a restriction endonuclease (RE). In the absence of a corresponding MTase, an RE of Type II R-M system is highly toxic for the cell. Genes of the R-M system are linked in the genome in the vast majority of annotated cases. There are only a few reported cases in which the genes of MTase and RE from one R-M system are not linked. Nevertheless, a few hundreds solitary RE genes are present in the Restriction Enzyme Database (http://rebase.neb.com) annotations. Using the comparative genomic approach, we analysed 272 solitary RE genes. For 57 solitary RE genes we predicted corresponding MTase genes located distantly in a genome. Of the 272 solitary RE genes, 99 are likely to be fragments of RE genes. Various explanations for the existence of the remaining 116 solitary RE genes are also discussed.

  15. Dust acoustic solitary and shock excitations in a Thomas-Fermi magnetoplasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahim, Z.; Qamar, A.; Ali, S.

    2014-01-01

    The linear and nonlinear properties of dust-acoustic waves are investigated in a collisionless Thomas-Fermi magnetoplasma, whose constituents are electrons, ions, and negatively charged dust particles. At dust time scale, the electron and ion number densities follow the Thomas-Fermi distribution, whereas the dust component is described by the classical fluid equations. A linear dispersion relation is analyzed to show that the wave frequencies associated with the upper and lower modes are enhanced with the variation of dust concentration. The effect of the latter is seen more strongly on the upper mode as compared to the lower mode. For nonlinear analysis, we obtain magnetized Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) and Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) equations involving the dust-acoustic solitary waves in the framework of reductive perturbation technique. Furthermore, the shock wave excitations are also studied by allowing dissipation effects in the model, leading to the Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers (KdVB) and ZKB equations. The analysis reveals that the dust-acoustic solitary and shock excitations in a Thomas-Fermi plasma are strongly influenced by the plasma parameters, e.g., dust concentration, dust temperature, obliqueness, magnetic field strength, and dust fluid viscosity. The present results should be important for understanding the solitary and shock excitations in the environments of white dwarfs or supernova, where dust particles can exist

  16. Solitary neurofibroma of eyelid masquerading as chalazion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nancy; Hsu, Yung-Hsiang; Lee, Yuan-Chieh

    2017-01-01

    Neurofibroma, a benign peripheral nerve sheath tumor, usually appears together with café-au-lait spots, iris nodules, and other tumors within the scope of neurofibromatosis von Recklinghausen type 1 tumors. A solitary neurofibroma of the eyelid is relatively rare. In this case report, we present a 39-year-old woman who had a lesion on the eyelid crease, previously treated as a chalazion. Due to persistent wound crusting, the lesion was excised above the tarsus. Pathological examination revealed a solitary neurofibroma. The patient did not have other clinical symptoms of neurofibromatosis, and there was no recurrence of the nodule during the 1-year follow-up.

  17. Solitary gastric melanotic schwannoma: sonographic findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang-Yuan; Yen, Hsu-Heng; Soon, Maw-Soan

    2007-01-01

    Solitary gastric schwannoma is rare, and solitary melanotic schwannoma is even rarer, posing a dilemma in diagnosis and treatment. We report the case of a 69-year-old woman with gastric melanotic schwannoma who presented with nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Abdominal sonographic examination revealed a 5-cm hypoechoic mass in the epigastric area that was confirmed to be a gastric submucosal tumor on endoscopic examination. The diagnosis of melanotic schwannoma was confirmed via sonographically guided percutaneous core biopsy. The tumor was resected, and no recurrence has occurred in a 3-year follow-up.

  18. Solitary extramedullary plasmacytoma of the sinonasal region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Produl; Balakrishnan, R; Singh, Rohit; Pujary, Kailesh; Aziz, Benazim

    2011-07-01

    Less than 10% of the patients with plasma cell neoplasms present with a solitary plasmacytoma. Though the nasal cavity is a common extramedullary site, the occurrence is extremely rare. Two cases of solitary extramedullary plasmacytoma of the sinonasal region are reported. The first of which is sinonasal plasmacytoma with concomitant HIV, an association that has been reported rarely in literature to date and is matter of much debate. In the second case report, we present an instance of surgical excision of the tumor using KTP 532 laser. The diagnosis was established using immunohistochemical techniques and multiple myeloma workups were negative in all cases.

  19. Solitary eccrine syringofibroadenoma--Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottino, Caroline Bertolini; Guimarães, Tais Ferreira; Gomes, Flávio Rezende; D'Acri, Antonio Macedo; Lima, Ricardo Barbosa; Martins, Carlos José

    2015-01-01

    Eccrine syringofibroadenoma is a rare benign adnexal neoplasm derived from cells of the acrosyringium of eccrine sweat glands. ESFA usually manifests as a solitary nodule on the extremities of elderly patients, but it may also present as papules, nodules or plaques. Its clinical appearance is nonspecific and malignant neoplasms should be considered in the differential diagnosis. However, histopathological findings are typical. The main treatment is surgical excision. In order to illustrate a typical presentation of the tumor, we report a case of solitary eccrine syringofibroadenoma, including the surgical treatment used and its result.

  20. Numerical Solution of the Modified Equal Width Wave Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seydi Battal Gazi Karakoç

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerical solution of the modified equal width wave equation is obtained by using lumped Galerkin method based on cubic B-spline finite element method. Solitary wave motion and interaction of two solitary waves are studied using the proposed method. Accuracy of the proposed method is discussed by computing the numerical conserved laws 2 and ∞ error norms. The numerical results are found in good agreement with exact solution. A linear stability analysis of the scheme is also investigated.

  1. Jacobian elliptic wave solutions in an anharmonic molecular crystal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teh, C.G.R.; Lee, B.S.; Koo, W.K.

    1997-07-01

    Explicit Jacobian elliptic wave solutions are found in the anharmonic molecular crystal model for both the continuum limit and discrete modes. This class of wave solutions include the famous pulse-like and kink-like solitary modes. We would also like to report on the existence of some highly discrete staggered solitary wave modes not found in the continuum limit. (author). 9 refs, 1 fig

  2. Formation and Coalescence of Electron Solitary Holes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saeki, K.; Michelsen, Poul; Pécseli, H. L.

    1979-01-01

    Electron solitary holes were observed in a magnetized collisionless plasma. These holes were identified as Bernstein-Green-Kruskal equilibria, thus being purely kinetic phenomena. The electron hole does not damp even though its velocity is close to the electron thermal velocity. Two holes attract...

  3. Electrophysiological effects of the solitary bee "Anthophora

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt. ABSTRACT. Effects of the crude venom of the solitary bee (Anthophora pauperata) on cardiac, skeletal and smooth muscles were studied to reveal the mechanism of action of this venom. The main toxic effects on the ECG of isolated toads'.

  4. Peptide Toxins in Solitary Wasp Venoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuhiro Konno

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Solitary wasps paralyze insects or spiders with stinging venom and feed the paralyzed preys to their larva. Accordingly, the venoms should contain a variety of constituents acting on nervous systems. However, only a few solitary wasp venoms have been chemically studied despite thousands of species inhabiting the planet. We have surveyed bioactive substances in solitary wasp venoms found in Japan and discovered a variety of novel bioactive peptides. Pompilidotoxins (PMTXs, in the venoms of the pompilid wasps Anoplius samariensis and Batozonellus maculifrons, are small peptides consisting of 13 amino acids without a disulfide bond. PMTXs slowed Na+ channel inactivation, in particular against neuronal type Na+ channels, and were rather selective to the Nav1.6 channel. Mastoparan-like cytolytic and antimicrobial peptides are the major components of eumenine wasp venoms. They are rich in hydrophobic and basic amino acids, adopting a α-helical secondary structure, and showing mast cell degranulating, antimicrobial and hemolytic activities. The venom of the spider wasp Cyphononyx fulvognathus contained four bradykinin-related peptides. They are hyperalgesic and, dependent on the structure, differently associated with B1 or B2 receptors. Further survey led to the isolation of leucomyosuppressin-like FMRFamide peptides from the venoms of the digger wasps Sphex argentatus and Isodontia harmandi. These results of peptide toxins in solitary wasp venoms from our studies are summarized.

  5. Histoplasmosis presenting with solitary pulmonary nodule: Two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pulmonary histoplasmosis is a granulomatous disease, whose diagnosis is not always easy, as it may simulate metastatic lesions due to similar radiographic findings. We herein report two cases of histoplasmosis with solitary pulmonary nodule in asymptomatic patients with histories of cancer surgeries, whose diagnoses ...

  6. Position of solitary thyroid nodules by gammagraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basteris M, J.; Gomez D, R.

    2007-01-01

    In this work it is presented which it is the position more frequent of the solitary thyroid nodules. It was used the method of retrospective longitudinal observational investigation in 125 patients that went to the laboratory for realization of detection of thyroid nodules in the years 2004 and 2005 through gammagraphy. (Author)

  7. Is percutaneous nephrolithotomy in solitary kidneys safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kathie Alexina; Sahai, Arun; Patel, Amit; Thomas, Kay; Bultitude, Matthew; Glass, Jonathan

    2013-11-01

    To review our experience from a high volume stone center with a focus on efficacy, safety, and renal function. Stones requiring percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) in patients with solitary kidneys can pose significant anxiety to the urologist. Limited data are available in published reports in this setting. A comprehensive retrospective review of medical records was performed on patients who underwent PCNL and had a solitary kidney or a single functioning renal unit. Data were collected on patient demographics, stone burden, outcomes, complications, and renal function. Of 378 PCNLs performed between January 2003 and September 2011, 22 were performed in 17 patients with a single functioning kidney. Three procedures were performed in a transplanted kidney. In those with solitary calculus, the longest mean length and stone surface area were 37 mm and 825 mm(2), respectively. Stone-free rate was 59%. Auxiliary procedures were required in 6 cases, resulting in a stone-free rate of 77%. Median inpatient stay was 4 days. Serum creatinine values improved from 144 to 126 umol/L before and after the procedure and mean estimated glomerular filtration rate improved similarly from 51 to 59 mls/minute, respectively. Blood transfusion was required in 1 patient, sepsis developed in 3, and 2 patients required a stent for obstruction. PCNL in solitary kidneys is safe with an acceptable complication rate if performed in a high volume center. Outcomes are good, although auxiliary procedures may be necessary. Renal function remains stable or improves after procedure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Clinical implications of the solitary functioning kidney

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westland, Rik; Schreuder, Michiel F.; van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Sanna-Cherchi, Simone; van Wijk, Joanna A. E.

    2014-01-01

    Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract are the major cause of ESRD in childhood. Children with a solitary functioning kidney form an important subgroup of congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract patients, and a significant fraction of these children is at risk for

  9. The solitary sellar plasmacytoma: a diagnostic challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soejbjerg, Anne; Dyve, Suzan; Baerentzen, Steen

    2016-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Solitary sellar plasmacytomas are exceedingly rare and difficult to distinguish from other pituitary tumors. We report a case of a 62-year-old woman presenting with blurred vision of the right eye and tenderness of the right temporal region, which was interpreted as temporal arteritis...

  10. Non-linear high-frequency waves in the magnetosphere

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    forms of solitary bipolar electric field pulses which are called electrostatic solitary waves. (ESW) [1]. Karovsky et al [5] have used a BGK analysis to theoretically describe the high-frequency. ESW. Using counter-streaming electron and ion beams in a computer simulation experi- ment, Omura et al [6] have shown that the ...

  11. Nonlinear waves in solar plasmas - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballai, I

    2006-01-01

    Nonlinearity is a direct consequence of large scale dynamics in the solar plasmas. When nonlinear steepening of waves is balanced by dispersion, solitary waves are generated. In the vicinity of resonances, waves can steepen into nonlinear waves influencing the efficiency of energy deposition. Here we review recent theoretical breakthroughs that have lead to a greater understanding of many aspects of nonlinear waves arising in homogeneous and inhomogeneous solar plasmas

  12. Qualitative analysis and traveling wave solutions for the perturbed nonlinear Schroedinger's equation with Kerr law nonlinearity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zaiyun; Liu Zhenhai; Miao Xiujin; Chen Yuezhong

    2011-01-01

    In this Letter, we investigate the perturbed nonlinear Schroedinger's equation (NLSE) with Kerr law nonlinearity. All explicit expressions of the bounded traveling wave solutions for the equation are obtained by using the bifurcation method and qualitative theory of dynamical systems. These solutions contain bell-shaped solitary wave solutions, kink-shaped solitary wave solutions and Jacobi elliptic function periodic solutions. Moreover, we point out the region which these periodic wave solutions lie in. We present the relation between the bounded traveling wave solution and the energy level h. We find that these periodic wave solutions tend to the corresponding solitary wave solutions as h increases or decreases. Finally, for some special selections of the energy level h, it is shown that the exact periodic solutions evolute into solitary wave solution.

  13. Cnoidal waves governed by the Kudryashov–Sinelshchikov equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randrüüt, Merle, E-mail: merler@cens.ioc.ee [Tallinn University of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Mechatronics, Ehitajate tee 5, 19086 Tallinn (Estonia); Braun, Manfred [University of Duisburg–Essen, Chair of Mechanics and Robotics, Lotharstraße 1, 47057 Duisburg (Germany)

    2013-10-30

    The evolution equation for waves propagating in a mixture of liquid and gas bubbles as proposed by Kudryashov and Sinelshchikov allows, in a special case, the propagation of solitary waves of the sech{sup 2} type. It is shown that these waves represent the solitary limit separating two families of periodic waves. One of them consists of the same cnoidal waves that are solutions of the Korteweg–de Vries equation, while the other one does not have a corresponding counterpart. It is pointed out how the ordinary differential equations governing traveling-wave solutions of the Kudryashov–Sinelshchikov and the Korteweg–de Vries equations are related to each other.

  14. Arbitrary amplitude magnetosonic solitary and shock structures in spin quantum plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahu, Biswajit [Department of Mathematics, West Bengal State University, Barasat, Kolkata-700126 (India); Sinha, Anjana; Roychoudhury, Rajkumar; Khan, Manoranjan [Department of Instrumentation Science, Jadavpur University, Kolkata-700 032 (India)

    2013-11-15

    A nonlinear analysis is carried out for the arbitrary amplitude magnetosonic solitary and shock structures in spin quantum plasmas. A quantum magnetohydrodynamic model is used to describe the magnetosonic quantum plasma with the Bohm potential and the pressure like spin force for electrons. Analytical calculations are used to simplify the basic equations, which are then studied numerically. It is shown that the magnetic diffusivity is responsible for dissipation, which causes the shock-like structures rather than the soliton structures. Additionally, wave speed, Zeeman energy, and Bohm potential are found to have significant impact on the shock wave structures.

  15. A large solitary liver metastasis of thymoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Si Won; Shinn, Kyung Sub

    1997-01-01

    Extrathoracic metastasis of a thymoma is rare ; we report a case of metastasis to the liver of a large solitary thymoma. Biopsy of the mass showed it to be predominantly lymphocytic and histologically the same as a primary thymoma operated on four years previously. On ultrasound and CT scan, the majority of the metastatic tumor was hemorrhagic, necrotic and/or cystic, with a peripheral, irregularly thick solid component and rather thin, smooth encapsulation

  16. A large solitary liver metastasis of thymoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Si Won; Shinn, Kyung Sub [Catholic Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-01-01

    Extrathoracic metastasis of a thymoma is rare ; we report a case of metastasis to the liver of a large solitary thymoma. Biopsy of the mass showed it to be predominantly lymphocytic and histologically the same as a primary thymoma operated on four years previously. On ultrasound and CT scan, the majority of the metastatic tumor was hemorrhagic, necrotic and/or cystic, with a peripheral, irregularly thick solid component and rather thin, smooth encapsulation.

  17. The superposition method in seeking the solitary wave solutions to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Department of Engineering Mechanics, Hunan University, Changsha 410 082, China. E-mail: xieyuanxi88@163.com. MS received 24 September 2004; revised 18 September 2005; accepted 24 January 2006. Abstract. In this paper, starting from the careful analysis on the characteristics of the Burgers equation and the KdV ...

  18. Solitary wave solutions of two-dimensional nonlinear Kadomtsev ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aly R Seadawy

    2017-09-13

    Sep 13, 2017 ... [13] M M Lin and W S Duan, Chaos, Solitons and Fractals. 33, 1189 (2007). [14] S Singh and T Honzawa, Phys. Fluids B 5, 2093 (1993). [15] A R Seadawy, Eur. Phys. J. Plus, 130 (2015). [16] T S Gill, N S Saini and H Kaur, Chaos, Solitons and. Fractals 28, 1106 (2006). [17] A R Seadawy, Comput. Math.

  19. Solitary wave solutions to nonlinear evolution equations in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2Department of Engineering Sciences, Faculty of Technology and Engineering, East of Guilan,. University of Guilan, P.C. ... to investigate various tools of integration that extract various forms of analytical solutions to these ... The two subsequent sections will devote to integrate these equations sequentially. The integration ...

  20. Single-peak solitary wave solutions for the variant Boussinesq ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zhang and Chen [6] obtained new types of cusped solitons of a partial differential equation by setting the partial differential equation under inhomogeneous .... (ii) For g = 0. If ψ(0) = 0, by eq. (2.8) we know ψ (0) exists. According to the definition of peak point, we have ψ (0) = 0. However, by eq. (2.8) we must have ψ(0) = A, ...

  1. Solitary wave solutions of selective nonlinear diffusion-reaction ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ods are of general nature in the sense that they can be employed to any NLPDE, others are equation-specific. In this paper, using the homogeneous balance ..... investigated in the literature in a localized space-time domain using the so-called approximation methods [3], the exact solutions obtained here, of course by using.

  2. Solitary wave solutions of two-dimensional nonlinear Kadomtsev ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aly R Seadawy

    2017-09-13

    Sep 13, 2017 ... We considered the two-dimensional DASWs in colli- sionless, unmagnetized cold plasma consisting of dust fluid, ions and electrons. The dynamics of DASWs is governed by the normalized fluid equations of nonlin- ear continuity (1), nonlinear motion of system (2) and. (3) and linear Poisson equation (4) as.

  3. Solitary Wave Effects North of Strait of Messina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    including suggestions for reducing the burden, to the Department of Defense, Executive Services and Communications Directorate (0704-0188). Respondents... Elman , H.C., Schultz, M.H., 1983. Variational iterative methods for nonsymmetric systems of linear equations. SIAM Journal of Numerical Analysis 20, 345

  4. Solitary wave solutions to nonlinear evolution equations in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper obtains solitons as well as other solutions to a few nonlinear evolution equations that appear in various areas of mathematical physics. The two analytical integrators that are applied to extract solutions are tan–cot method and functional variable approaches. The soliton solutions can be used in the further study of ...

  5. Solitary Rossby waves in the lower tropical troposphere | Lenouo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Weakly nonlinear approximation is used to study the theoretical comportment of large-scale disturbances around the inter-tropical mid-tropospheric jet. We show here that the Korteweg de Vries (KdV) theory is appropriated to describe the structure of the streamlines around the African easterly jet (AEJ) region.

  6. Solitary wave solutions of selective nonlinear diffusion-reaction ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An auto-Bäcklund transformation derived in the homogeneous balance method is employed to obtain several new exact solutions of certain kinds of nonlinear diffusion-reaction (D-R) equations. These equations arise in a variety of problems in physical, chemical, biological, social and ecological sciences.

  7. Solitary wave solutions of selective nonlinear diffusion-reaction ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An auto-Bäcklund transformation derived in the homogeneous balance method is employed to obtain several new exact solutions of certain kinds of nonlin- ear diffusion-reaction (D-R) equations. These equations arise in a variety of problems in physical, chemical, biological, social and ecological sciences. Keywords.

  8. Stable complex solitary waves of Sasa Satsuma equation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    dispersion (TOD), self-steeping (SS) related to Kerr effect and the self frequency shifting via stimulated Raman scattering. It is the last term, which plays an important role in the propagation of distortionless optical pulses over a long distance. But the contribution from the last three terms becomes appreciable only for the very ...

  9. Questions about elastic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Engelbrecht, Jüri

    2015-01-01

    This book addresses the modelling of mechanical waves by asking the right questions about them and trying to find suitable answers. The questions follow the analytical sequence from elementary understandings to complicated cases, following a step-by-step path towards increased knowledge. The focus is on waves in elastic solids, although some examples also concern non-conservative cases for the sake of completeness. Special attention is paid to the understanding of the influence of microstructure, nonlinearity and internal variables in continua. With the help of many mathematical models for describing waves, physical phenomena concerning wave dispersion, nonlinear effects, emergence of solitary waves, scales and hierarchies of waves as well as the governing physical parameters are analysed. Also, the energy balance in waves and non-conservative models with energy influx are discussed. Finally, all answers are interwoven into the canvas of complexity.

  10. Strongly nonlinear waves in a chain of Teflon beads

    OpenAIRE

    Daraio, C.; Nesterenko, V. F.; Herbold, E. B.; Jin, S.

    2005-01-01

    One-dimensional “sonic vacuum” type phononic crystals were assembled from a chain of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE,Teflon) spheres with different diameters in a Teflon holder. It was demonstrated that this polymer-based sonic vacuum, with exceptionally low elastic modulus of particles, supports propagation of strongly nonlinear solitary waves with a very low speed. These solitary waves can be described using the classical nonlinear Hertz law despite the viscoelastic nature of the polymer and ...

  11. Malignant solitary fibrous tumor metastatic to the orbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazer-Hockstein, Carolyn; Syed, Nasreen A; Warhol, Michael; Gausas, Roberta E

    2004-11-01

    A 61-year-old man with a history of malignant solitary fibrous tumor of the chest had development of unusual sites of metastasis involving the sphenoid wing of the orbit and soft tissues of the cheek. He was found to have a solitary fibrous tumor, an uncommon type of spindle cell neoplasm that most often arises in the pleura, which was metastatic to the orbit. This is the first reported case of malignant solitary fibrous tumor metastatic to the orbit. The clinical and histopathologic findings of metastatic malignant solitary fibrous tumor are described.

  12. The cruel and unusual phenomenology of solitary confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Shaun

    2014-01-01

    What happens when subjects are deprived of intersubjective contact? This paper looks closely at the phenomenology and psychology of one example of that deprivation: solitary confinement. It also puts the phenomenology and psychology of solitary confinement to use in the legal context. Not only is there no consensus on whether solitary confinement is a "cruel and unusual punishment," there is no consensus on the definition of the term "cruel" in the use of that legal phrase. I argue that we can find a moral consensus on the meaning of "cruelty" by looking specifically at the phenomenology and psychology of solitary confinement.

  13. Recovery of Stokes waves from velocity measurements on an axis of symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matioc, Bogdan-Vasile

    2015-01-01

    We provide a new method to recover the profile of Stokes waves, and more generally of waves with smooth vorticity, from measurements of the horizontal velocity component on a vertical axis of symmetry of the wave surface. Although we consider periodic waves only, the extension to solitary waves is straightforward. (paper)

  14. Solitary structures in an inhomogeneous plasma with pseudo-potential approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Shaukat Ali; Saleem, Hamid

    2017-11-01

    The set of nonlinear partial differential equations for the coupled ion acoustic and drift waves is reduced to the KdV equation, which is finally transformed into the form of energy integral equation of a pseudo particle in small amplitude limit. It is pointed out that this approach is convenient for choosing appropriate plasma parameters and numerically obtaining drift solitary wave profiles as compared to the solution of the KdV equation, particularly, in non-uniform plasmas. Electrons are assumed to follow the Kappa distribution function. It is found that the solitons amplitude decreases corresponding to steeper density and temperature gradients because of the restriction on the validity of local approximation. Deviation of electrons from thermal equilibrium distribution is supportive for the formation of electrostatic solitary structures by the coupled nonlinear ion acoustic and drift waves. The estimates of the width of the solitons formed by these coupled nonlinear electrostatic waves in the F-region ionosphere are found to be a few meters in agreement with the satellite observations.

  15. A Multiscale Nested Modeling Framework to Simulate the Interaction of Surface Gravity Waves with Nonlinear Internal Gravity Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Interaction of Surface Gravity Waves with Nonlinear Internal Gravity Waves Lian Shen St. Anthony Falls Laboratory and Department of Mechanical...on studying surface gravity wave evolution and spectrum in the presence of surface currents caused by strongly nonlinear internal solitary waves...interaction of surface and internal gravity waves in the South China Sea. We will seek answers to the following questions: 1) How does the wind-wave

  16. Time-dependent cylindrical and spherical ion-acoustic solitary structures in relativistic degenerate multi-ion plasmas with positively-charged heavy ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossen, M. R.; Nahar, L.; Mamun, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    The properties of time-dependent cylindrical and spherical, modified ion-acoustic (mIA) solitary structures in relativistic degenerate multi-ion plasmas (containing degenerate electron fluids, inertial positively-, as well as negatively-, charged light ions, and positively-charged static heavy ions) have been investigated theoretically. This investigation is valid for both non-relativistic and ultra-relativistic limits. The well-known reductive perturbation method has been used to derive the Korteweg-de Vries (K-dV) and the mK-dV equations for studying the basic features of solitary waves. The fundamental characteristics of mIA solitary waves are found to be significantly modified by the effects of the degenerate pressures of the electron and the ion fluids, their number densities, and the various charge states of heavy ions. The relevance of our results in astrophysical compact objects like white dwarfs and neutron stars, which are of scientific interest, is briefly discussed.

  17. Solitary lucent epiphyseal lesions in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, D.J.; Azouz, E.M.

    1988-10-01

    We evaluated retrospectively the varying radiographic appearances of 15 solitary lucent epiphyseal lesions occurring in children. Imaging modalities used included plain films, conventional tomography, nuclear scintigraphy, and computed tomography. 40% of the lesions (6) were due to osteomyelitis. The remaining lesions included tuberculosis (1), foreign body granuloma (1), chondroblastoma (2), chondromyoxid fibroma (1), enchondroma (1), osteoid osteoma (2), and eosinophilic granuloma (1). Although the radiographic appearances of such lesions may be particularly characteristic, pathologic correlation is frequently necessary. The high incidence of osteomyelitis in our cases emphasizes its importance as a cause for a lucent epiphyseal lesion.

  18. Solitary osteoma of body of the mandible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Khan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteomas are relatively rare benign osteogenic neoplasm′s characterized by the proliferation of compact or cancellous bone. Osteomas can develop as peripheral (periosteal masses attached to the cortical plates or as central lesions arising from endosteal bone surfaces. Although multiple osteomas of the jaws are a hallmark of Gardner′s syndrome (familial adenomatous polyposis, non-syndromic cases are typically solitary. The purpose of this paper is to present a large peripheral osteoma originating from the buccal surface of the mandible and causing asymmetry in a 35-year-old woman.

  19. Analytical travelling wave solutions and parameter analysis for the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    By using dynamical system method, this paper considers the (2+1)-dimensional Davey–Stewartson-type equations. The analytical parametric representations of solitary wave solutions, periodic wave solutions as well as unbounded wave solutions are obtained under different parameter conditions. A few diagrams ...

  20. Analytical travelling wave solutions and parameter analysis for the

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    By using dynamical system method, this paper considers the (2+1)-dimensional Davey–Stewartson-type equations. The analytical parametric representations of solitary wave solutions, periodic wave solutions as well as unbounded wave solutions are obtained under different parameter conditions. A few diagrams ...

  1. Occurrence of submarine canyons, sediment waves and mass ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    For example, frontally confined slide complexes could have been influenced by high sedimentation rates and high pore pressures. A series of very large subaqueous sediment waves, which record wavelengths of 1.4–2 km and wave heights of 30–50 m, were likely produced by interactions between internal solitary waves ...

  2. 3+1 dimensional envelop waves and its stability in magnetized dusty plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Wenshan

    2006-01-01

    It is well known that there are envelope solitary waves in unmagnetized dusty plasmas which are described by a nonlinear Schrodinger equation (NLSE). A three dimension nonlinear Schrodinger equation for small but finite amplitude dust acoustic waves is first obtained for magnetized dusty plasma in this paper. It suggest that in magnetized dusty plasmas the envelope solitary waves exist. The modulational instability for three dimensional NLSE is studied as well. The regions of stability and instability are well determined in this paper

  3. Giant Solitary Hepatocellular Carcinoma. A Case Report. | Asuquo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary malignancy of the liver, among indigenous inhabitants of Africa and it may present as solitary or multiple lesions often running a rapidly fatal course. Presented is a case of a 25 year female in apparent general good health with a giant solitary hepatocellular ...

  4. Intramuscular cysticercosis – The solitary reaper | Singh | Annals of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Occurrence of solitary intramuscular cysticercosis without involvement of the central nervous system is rare. We report a case of solitary cysticercosis of the brachioradialis muscle in a 35-year-old woman who presented with discomfort and pain in the right elbow and arm after trivial trauma. There were no systemic or ...

  5. Solitary Plasmacytoma: A Review Of Clinical, Ocular, Neurological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solitary plasmacytomas are defined as proliferation of monoclonal plasma cells without evidence of significant bone-marrow plasma-cell infiltration. They are classified according to location into solitary plasmacytoma of bone if they occur in bone, and extramedullary plasmacytoma if they arise in soft tissues. They are more ...

  6. Solitary neurofibroma of eyelid masquerading as chalazion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen N

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Nancy Chen,1 Yung-Hsiang Hsu,2 Yuan-Chieh Lee1,3 1Department of Ophthalmology, Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital, Hualien, Taiwan; 2Department of Pathology, Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital, Hualien, Taiwan; 3Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan Abstract: Neurofibroma, a benign peripheral nerve sheath tumor, usually appears together with café-au-lait spots, iris nodules, and other tumors within the scope of neurofibromatosis von Recklinghausen type 1 tumors. A solitary neurofibroma of the eyelid is relatively rare. In this case report, we present a 39-year-old woman who had a lesion on the eyelid crease, previously treated as a chalazion. Due to persistent wound crusting, the lesion was excised above the tarsus. Pathological examination revealed a solitary neurofibroma. The patient did not have other clinical symptoms of neurofibromatosis, and there was no recurrence of the nodule during the 1-year follow-up. Keywords: neurofibroma, eyelid tumor, chalazion

  7. Radiation therapy for the solitary plasmacytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esengül Koçak

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Plasma-cell neoplasms are classically categorized into four groups as: multiple myeloma (MM, plasma-cell leukemias, solitary plasmacytomas (SP of the bone (SPB, and extramedullary plasmacytomas (EMP. These tumors may be described as localized or diffuse in presentation. Localized plasma-cell neoplasms are rare, and include SP of the skeletal system, accounting for 2-5% of all plasma-cell neoplasms, and EMP of soft tissue, accounting for approximately 3% of all such neoplasms. SP is defined as a solitary mass of neoplastic plasma cells either in the bone marrow or in various soft tissue sites. There appears to be a continuum in which SP often progresses to MM. The main treatment modality for SP is radiation therapy (RT. However, there are no conclusive data in the literature on the optimal RT dose for SP. This review describes the interrelationship of plasma-cell neoplasms, and attempts to determine the minimal RT dose required to obtain local control.

  8. The solitary sellar plasmacytoma: a diagnostic challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Soejbjerg

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Solitary sellar plasmacytomas are exceedingly rare and difficult to distinguish from other pituitary tumors. We report a case of a 62-year-old woman presenting with blurred vision of the right eye and tenderness of the right temporal region, which was interpreted as temporal arteritis. MRI revealed a pituitary mass lesion (20mm×14mm×17mm without compression of the optic chiasm and her pituitary function was normal. Pituitary surgery was undertaken due to growth of the lesion, and histopathological examination showed a highly cellular neoplasm composed of mature monoclonal plasma cells. Subsequent examinations revealed no evidence of extrasellar myeloma. The patient received pituitary irradiation and has remained well and free of symptoms apart from iatrogenic central diabetes insipidus. Until now, only eight cases of solitary sellar plasmacytoma have been reported. Most frequent symptoms stem from compression of the cranial nerves in the cavernous sinus (III, IV, V, whereas the anterior pituitary function is mostly intact.

  9. The effects of geometrical configurations on the head collision on nonlinear solitary pulses in a quantum semiconductor plasma: A case study on GaAs semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    EL-Shamy, E. F.; Gohman, F. S.; Alqahtani, M. M.; AlFaify, S.

    2018-01-01

    An investigation is presented to examine nonlinear electrostatic waves in a quantum semiconductor plasma. A quantum semiconductor plasma model consisting of electrons and holes is going to be used, which includes exchange-correlation potentials, the quantum recoil effect, and degenerate pressures of electrons and holes. Actually, a nonlinear solitary pulse can be used to represent the intrinsic coherent electrostatic wave in a quantum semiconductor plasma. The propagation and the collision of nonlinear solitary pulses are examined by the extended Poincaré-Lighthill-Kuo method. Typical values for the GaAs semiconductors are employed to investigate the basic characteristics of solitary pulses. The numerical studies show that the energies and then the trajectories of nonlinear solitary pulses after the collision are significantly changed due to the effects of the exchange and correlation potentials and the variety in the studied system's geometry. The results obtained here may be useful for gaining a better understanding of the basic features of the nonlinear solitary pulses in quantum semiconductor plasmas.

  10. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy for complex caliceal and staghorn stones in patients with solitary kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resorlu, Berkan; Kara, Cengiz; Oguz, Ural; Bayindir, Mirze; Unsal, Ali

    2011-06-01

    Treatment of patients with solitary kidney having complex stones is one of the most challenging problem in urology. We present our experience with percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) in treating 16 patients with staghorn stones in a solitary kidney to determine long-term renal functional results. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 16 patients with complex caliceal or staghorn stones in a solitary kidney treated with PCNL. Demographic data, number and location of accesses, hemoglobin values, stone analyses, and complications were studied. Serum creatinine, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, new onset hypertension, and kidney morphology were determined preoperatively and postoperatively at 1 month and 1 year. Male to female ratio was 14:2 and mean age was 49.6 years (range 31-55). Of these, 10 (62.5%) patients required a single tract, while 6 (37.5%) required multiple tracts. The calculi were extracted or fragmented successfully in 13 (81.3%) patients and complete stone clearance was achieved after the first stage. In two patients with residual calculi, a double-J catheter was inserted and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) was performed. There were no significant intraoperative problems except in one patient, who had bleeding from an infundibular tear attributable to torquing. During the 1-year study period, none of the patients progressed to end-stage renal disease requiring dialysis. We demonstrated a significant improvement in creatinine and GFR levels from preoperatively to 1-year follow-up. The number of patients with hypertension before PCNL was 5 and by the end of follow-up there was no new onset hypertension. The demonstrated effectiveness, small number of complications at short-term, not any poorly effect on renal function and blood pressure at the long-term follow-up confirm that PCNL is not only effective but is also safe in the solitary kidney with staghorn calculi.

  11. Solitary and blow-up electrostatic excitations in rotating magnetized electron-positron-ion plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moslem, W. M.; Sabry, R.; Abdelsalam, U. M.; Kourakis, I.; Shukla, P. K.

    2009-03-01

    The nonlinear dynamics of a rotating magnetoplasma consisting of electrons, positrons and stationary positive ions is considered. The basic set of hydrodynamic and Poisson equations are reduced to a Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) equation for the electric potential. The ZK equation is solved by applying an improved modified extended tanh-function method (2008 Phys. Lett. A 372 5691) and its characteristics are investigated. A set of new solutions are derived, including localized solitary waves, periodic nonlinear waveforms and divergent (explosive) pulses. The characteristics of these nonlinear excitations are investigated in detail.

  12. Solitary and blow-up electrostatic excitations in rotating magnetized electron-positron-ion plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moslem, W M; Sabry, R; Abdelsalam, U M; Shukla, P K [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik IV, Fakultaet fuer Physik und Astronomie, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Kourakis, I [Centre for Plasma Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Queen' s University Belfast, BT7 1 NN Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)], E-mail: wmmoslem@hotmail.com, E-mail: wmm@tp4.rub.de, E-mail: sabryphys@yahoo.com, E-mail: refaatsabry@mans.edu.eg, E-mail: maths_us@hotmail.com, E-mail: i.kourakis@qub.ac.uk, E-mail: ps@tp4.rub.de

    2009-03-15

    The nonlinear dynamics of a rotating magnetoplasma consisting of electrons, positrons and stationary positive ions is considered. The basic set of hydrodynamic and Poisson equations are reduced to a Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) equation for the electric potential. The ZK equation is solved by applying an improved modified extended tanh-function method (2008 Phys. Lett. A 372 5691) and its characteristics are investigated. A set of new solutions are derived, including localized solitary waves, periodic nonlinear waveforms and divergent (explosive) pulses. The characteristics of these nonlinear excitations are investigated in detail.

  13. [Solitary stones of the lower renal calyx: how to treat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martov, A G; Ergakov, D V; Andronov, A S; Dutov, S V; Takhaev, R A; Kil'chukov, Z I; Moskalenko, S A

    2017-06-01

    The choice of treatment for the stones of the lower renal calyx is one of the challenging issues of modern urology. The aim of this retrospective and prospective study was to investigate the clinical effectiveness and safety of 3 modern minimally invasive techniques for treating renal stones: percutaneous (PNL) and transurethral (TNL) nephrolithotripsy and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) in patients with solitary lower calyx stones sized from 10 to 15 mm. The study included 136 patients with symptomatic stones of the lower calyces, who underwent ESWL, PNL and TNL from November 2010 to the present day. The criteria for inclusion in the study were: the presence of a solitary stone of the lower calyx, the stone size of 10 mm to 15 mm, the performance of the classical (standard) PNL in the prone position (puncture access 28-30 Fr) and the follow-up examination at 3 months after the operation. Forty-six patients underwent ESWL, 49 - PNL, and 41 - TNL. Postoperative follow-up was done at 3 months and included a plain radiography, ultrasound and non-contrast-enhanced computed tomography. The stone free rate (SFR) was used as a criterion for the effectiveness of the intervention, where the stone size of 3 mm was taken as the upper limit for the possible presence of fragments. Besides, the rate of repeat interventions, complications and subjective assessment of patients treatment satisfaction (0 to 10) by using visual analogue scale (VAS) were investigated. The effectiveness analysis of the three methods for treating the lower calyx stones sized 10-15 mm showed that PNL was no more effective than TNL (SFR 95.9% and 85.4%, respectively), but both methods were significantly more effective than ESWL (SFR 69.5%). 29.3% of patients who underwent TNL required repeat interventions (TNL or ESWL), while among those treated with ESWL, 45.6% required repeat ESWL sessions. PNL resulted in stone clearance in one stage. Postoperative inflammatory complications were most

  14. Solitary magnetic perturbations at the ELM onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenninger, R. P.; Zohm, H.; Boom, J. E.; Burckhart, A.; Dunne, M. G.; Dux, R.; Eich, T.; Fischer, R.; Fuchs, C.; Garcia-Munoz, M.; Igochine, V.; Hölzl, M.; Luhmann N., C., Jr.; Lunt, T.; Maraschek, M.; Müller, H. W.; Park, H. K.; Schneider, P. A.; Sommer, F.; Suttrop, W.; Viezzer, E.; the ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2012-11-01

    Tokamak H-mode plasmas frequently exhibit edge-localized modes (ELMs). ELMs allow maintaining sufficient plasma purity and thus enable stationary H-mode. On the other hand in a future device ELMs may cause divertor power flux densities far in excess of tolerable material limits. The size of the energy loss per ELM is determined by saturation effects in the non-linear phase of the ELM, which at present is hardly understood. ASDEX Upgrade is now equipped with a set of fast sampling diagnostics, which is well suited to investigate the chain of events around the ELM crash with appropriate temporal resolution (⩽10 µs). Solitary magnetic perturbations (SMPs) are identified as dominant features in the radial magnetic fluctuations below 100 kHz. They are typically observed close (±100 µs) to the onset of pedestal erosion. SMPs are field aligned structures rotating in the electron diamagnetic drift direction with perpendicular velocities of about 10 km s-1. A comparison of perpendicular velocities suggests that the perturbation evoking SMPs is located at or inside the separatrix. Analysis of very pronounced examples showed that the number of peaks per toroidal turn is 1 or 2, which is clearly lower than the corresponding numbers in linear stability calculations. In combination with strong peaking of the magnetic signals this results in a solitary appearance resembling modes like palm tree modes, edge snakes or outer modes. This behaviour has been quantified as solitariness and correlated with main plasma parameters. SMPs may be considered as a signature of the non-linear ELM phase originating at the separatrix or further inside. Thus they provide a handle to investigate the transition from linear to non-linear ELM phase. By comparison with data from gas puff imaging processes in the non-linear phase at or inside the separatrix and in the scrape-off layer (SOL) can be correlated. A connection between the passing of an SMP and the onset of radial filament propagation has

  15. Solitary plasmacytoma of spine with amyloidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui-yun SUN

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To report the diagnosis and treatment of one case of solitary plasmacytoma of spine with amyloidosis and investigate the clinicopathological features combined with literatures. Methods and Results The patient was a 46-year-old woman. She suffered from weakness of both lower limbs, unsteady gait and numbness of toes for 20 d. MRI examination revealed an irregular mass behind the spinal cord at T5-7 level and T6-7 vertebral body accessory. The enhanced MRI showed obvious heterogeneous enhancement. The border was clear and spinal dura mater was compressed to shift forward. During operation, T5-7 processus spinosus and vertebral laminae were eroded, and the cortex of bone showed "moth-eaten" erosion. The intraspinal and extradural lesion had rich blood supply, loose bone structure and intact spinal dura mater. Histologically, tumor cells were composed of intensive small cells, and focal plasmacytoid cells were seen. Flake pink staining substance was among them. Artificial cracks were common and multinuclear giant tumor cells were scatteredly distributed. Immunohistochemical analysis showed the cytoplasm of tumor cells were diffusely positive for CD138, CD38 and vimentin (Vim,scatteredly positive for leukocyte common antigen (LCA, and negative for immune globulin κ light chain(IgGκ and λ light chain (IgGλ, CD99, S-100 protein (S-100, pan cytokeratin (PCK, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA, HMB45 and CD34. The Ki-67 labeling index was 1.25%. Congo red staining showed the pink staining substance was brownish red. Hybridization in situ examination showed the DNA content of IgGκ was more than that of IgGλ. The final pathological diagnosis was solitary plasmacytoma of spine with amyloidosis. The patient was treated with postoperative chemotherapy, and there was no recurrence or metastasis during 18-month follow-up period. Conclusions Solitary plasmacytoma of spine with amyloidosis is a rare tumor. The imaging features can offer a few

  16. Quantum positron acoustic waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metref, Hassina; Tribeche, Mouloud [Plasma Physics Group (PPG), Theoretical Physics Laboratory (TPL), Faculty of Physics, University of Bab-Ezzouar, USTHB, B.P. 32, El Alia, Algiers 16111 (Algeria)

    2014-12-15

    Nonlinear quantum positron-acoustic (QPA) waves are investigated for the first time, within the theoretical framework of the quantum hydrodynamic model. In the small but finite amplitude limit, both deformed Korteweg-de Vries and generalized Korteweg-de Vries equations governing, respectively, the dynamics of QPA solitary waves and double-layers are derived. Moreover, a full finite amplitude analysis is undertaken, and a numerical integration of the obtained highly nonlinear equations is carried out. The results complement our previously published results on this problem.

  17. $X_{b}$ Search and Measurement of the $Y(1)$, $(2S)$ and $Y(3S)$ Polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marino, Claudia [Karlsruhe Inst. of Technology (KIT) (Germany)

    2009-10-30

    There are two studies presented in this analysis. The rst one is the measurement of the Υ(1S), Υ(2S) and Υ(3S) polarization in two orthogonal frames: the helicity and the Collins-Soper frame. The second is the search for a possible bottom counterpart of the X(3872) which would show up as a narrow resonance in the Υ(1S)π+ π- nal state.

  18. Solitary Plasmacytoma of the Chest Wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Servet Kayhan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A previously healthy 55-year-old man with right sided lateral chest pain admitted to clinic. It was found a solid and painful mass at the right 4th rib in physical examination. Chest X-ray and thoracic computarized tomography showed an opacity measured 60x33 mm within the right chest wall destructing the 4th rib. Needle aspiration was performed from tumor and cytologic examination showed atypic plasma cell infiltration. The patient was scheduled for a chest wall resection and reconstructive surgery. Examination of a permanent section showed that the chest wall tumor was solitary plasmacytoma. There was no evidence of multiple myeloma recurrence after two years from the operation.

  19. A solitary fibrous tumor of the kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuruddha M Abeygunasekera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A solitary fibrous tumor (SFT is an uncommon spindle cell neoplasm that usually occurs in the pleura, but may occur in extrapleural sites. Its occurrence in the kidney is rare. We report a SFT, clinically thought to be a renal cell carcinoma arising in the kidney of a 68-year-old female. The tumor was well-circumscribed and composed of a mixture of spindle cells and dense collagenous bands. Immunohistochemical studies revealed reactivity for CD34, CD99, and Bcl-2 protein, with no staining for keratin or muscle markers, confirming the diagnosis. The immunohistochemical study was the key to diagnosis. Several younger members of her family had colorectal and lung cancers suggesting the possibility of a familial or genetic susceptibility.

  20. Benign solitary solid cold thyroid nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing, Helle; Bennedbaek, Finn Noe; Karstrup, Steen

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of ultrasonography (US)-guided interstitial laser photocoagulation (ILP) on the volume of benign solitary solid cold thyroid nodules and any nodule-related symptoms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: ILP was performed in 16 patients with normal thyroid function and a solid...... benign thyroid nodule. None of the patients had uptake on a radionuclide scan. Patients underwent one ILP session. A needle was positioned in the thyroid nodule with US guidance, and the laser fiber was placed in the lumen of the needle. Patients were treated for 287-1,200 seconds with an output power...... of 1-3 W. ILP was performed with continuous US guidance and terminated when the echogenic changes were stationary. Thyroid nodule volume and thyroid function were evaluated before and 1, 3, and 6 months after treatment. During the same period, 15 untreated patients (control group) were followed up...

  1. Periodic Folded Wave Patterns for (2+1)-Dimensional Higher-Order Broer-Kaup Equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Wenhua

    2008-01-01

    A general solution including three arbitrary functions is obtained for the (2+1)-dimensional higher-order Broer-Kaup equation by means of WTC truncation method. Introducing proper multiple valued functions and Jacobi elliptic functions in the seed solution, special types of periodic folded waves are derived. In long wave limit these periodic folded wave patterns may degenerate into single localized folded solitary wave excitations. The interactions of the periodic folded waves and their degenerated single folded solitary waves are investigated graphically and are found to be completely elastic

  2. Solitary Rectal Ulcer Syndrome: A Biopsychosocial Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Daghaghzadeh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome (SRUS is a chronic disorder of the gastrointestinal tract and its etiology is not well understood. There is no specific treatment for this syndrome and patients with SRUS may, for years, experience many complications. The aim of the present research was the biopsychosocial study of patients with SRUS.Methods: The study participants consisted of 16 patients with SRUS (7 men and 9 women. Their medical records were reviewed retrospectively to evaluate the clinical spectrum of the patients along with the endoscopic and histological findings. Moreover, psychiatric and personality disorders [based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed, Text Revision (DSM IV-TR], psychosocial stressors, early life traumas, and coping mechanisms were assessed through structured interviews.Results: At presentation, mean age of the patients was 39 years (16 to 70. Common symptoms reported included rectal bleeding (93.8%, rectal self-digitations (81.2%, passage of mucous (75%, anal pain (75%, and straining (75%. Endoscopically, solitary and multiple lesions were present in 9 (60% and 4 (26.7% patients, respectively, and 87% of lesions were ulcerative and 13.3% polypoidal. The most common histological findings were superficial ulceration (92.85% and intercryptic fibromuscular obliteration (87.71%. Common psychosocial findings included anxiety disorders (50%, depression (37.5%, obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD or traits (62.5%, interpersonal problems (43.75%, marital conflicts (43.75%, occupational stress (37.5%, early life traumas, physical abuse (31.25%, sexual abuse (31.25%, dysfunctional coping mechanisms, emotional inhibition (50%, and non-assertiveness (37.5%.Conclusion: Given the evidence in this study, we cannot ignore the psychosocial problems of patients with SRUS and biopsychosocial assessment of SRUS is more appropriate than biomedical evaluation alone.

  3. Widespread occurrence of honey bee pathogens in solitary bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravoet, Jorgen; De Smet, Lina; Meeus, Ivan; Smagghe, Guy; Wenseleers, Tom; de Graaf, Dirk C

    2014-10-01

    Solitary bees and honey bees from a neighbouring apiary were screened for a broad set of putative pathogens including protists, fungi, spiroplasmas and viruses. Most sampled bees appeared to be infected with multiple parasites. Interestingly, viruses exclusively known from honey bees such as Apis mellifera Filamentous Virus and Varroa destructor Macula-like Virus were also discovered in solitary bees. A microsporidium found in Andrena vaga showed most resemblance to Nosema thomsoni. Our results suggest that bee hives represent a putative source of pathogens for other pollinators. Similarly, solitary bees may act as a reservoir of honey bee pathogens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Solitary fibrous tumor of the orbit with intracranial involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Thomas K; Hardy, Thomas G

    2011-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor of the orbit is a rare neoplasm that often follows a benign course. Additional involvement beyond the orbit is even rarer, having only been reported in 2 cases previously. The authors describe a 62-year-old patient with a primarily intracranial lesion including orbital extension which was debulked and initially diagnosed as meningioma. Two recurrences 3 and 4 years later disclosed a solitary fibrous tumor, with the initial histopathology being revised to the same diagnosis. This rare presentation of an orbital solitary fibrous tumor highlights the surgical challenge faced when the tumor straddles the cranio-orbital junction and demonstrates the potential for rapid regrowth after incomplete excision.

  5. Saturn's polar ionospheric flows and their relation to the main auroral oval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. W. H. Cowley

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available We consider the flows and currents in Saturn's polar ionosphere which are implied by a three-component picture of large-scale magnetospheric flow driven both by planetary rotation and the solar wind interaction. With increasing radial distance in the equatorial plane, these components consist of a region dominated by planetary rotation where planetary plasma sub-corotates on closed field lines, a surrounding region where planetary plasma is lost down the dusk tail by the stretching out of closed field lines followed by plasmoid formation and pinch-off, as first described for Jupiter by Vasyliunas, and an outer region driven by the interaction with the solar wind, specifically by reconnection at the dayside magnetopause and in the dawn tail, first discussed for Earth by Dungey. The sub-corotating flow on closed field lines in the dayside magnetosphere is constrained by Voyager plasma observations, showing that the plasma angular velocity falls to around half of rigid corotation in the outer magnetosphere, possibly increasing somewhat near the dayside magnetopause, while here we provide theoretical arguments which indicate that the flow should drop to considerably smaller values on open field lines in the polar cap. The implied ionospheric current system requires a four-ring pattern of field-aligned currents, with distributed downward currents on open field lines in the polar cap, a narrow ring of upward current near the boundary of open and closed field lines, and regions of distributed downward and upward current on closed field lines at lower latitudes associated with the transfer of angular momentum from the planetary atmosphere to the sub-corotating planetary magnetospheric plasma. Recent work has shown that the upward current associated with sub-corotation is not sufficiently intense to produce significant auroral acceleration and emission. Here we suggest that the observed auroral oval at Saturn instead corresponds to the ring of

  6. Exact Solutions of a High-Order Nonlinear Wave Equation of Korteweg-de Vries Type under Newly Solvable Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiguo Rui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available By using the integral bifurcation method together with factoring technique, we study a water wave model, a high-order nonlinear wave equation of KdV type under some newly solvable conditions. Based on our previous research works, some exact traveling wave solutions such as broken-soliton solutions, periodic wave solutions of blow-up type, smooth solitary wave solutions, and nonsmooth peakon solutions within more extensive parameter ranges are obtained. In particular, a series of smooth solitary wave solutions and nonsmooth peakon solutions are obtained. In order to show the properties of these exact solutions visually, we plot the graphs of some representative traveling wave solutions.

  7. Solitary osteochondroma arising from cervical spina bifida occulta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofluoglu, Ali Ender; Abdallah, Anas; Gokcedag, Akin

    2013-01-01

    Solitary osteochondromas are common benign long bone tumors originating from cartilage. They may produce a wide variety of symptoms and complications depending on their spinal location. These may include compressive myelopathy, nerve root compression, pathologic fracture and malignant degeneration, or in some cases only pain. Solitary cervical spine osteochondromas have been reported mostly in the neural arch or vertebral body. This report describes a patient presenting with neck pain, with a benign osteochondroma arising in the right bifid C5 lamina.

  8. [Adenocarcinoma of lung cancer with solitary metastasis to the stomach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Sung Ae; Lee, Kyung Hee

    2014-09-25

    Although hematogenous metastasis of cancer to the gastrointestinal track is rare, it sometime has been reported in patients with malignant melanoma and breast cancer. However, it is extremely rare for lung cancer to metastasize to the stomach, not to mention solitary gastric metastasis. Herein, the authors report a case of a 69-year-old man who was initially diagnosed with lung cancer with synchronous primary gastric cancer which proved to be lung cancer with solitary gastric metastasis after the operation.

  9. Reducing the use and impact of solitary confinement in corrections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahalt, Cyrus; Haney, Craig; Rios, Sarah; Fox, Matthew P; Farabee, David; Williams, Brie

    2017-03-13

    Purpose Although the reform of solitary confinement is underway in many jurisdictions around world, isolation remains in widespread use in many jails and prisons. The purpose of this paper is to discuss opportunities for reform in the USA that could also be applied globally. Design/methodology/approach A review of the evidence on solitary confinement policies and practices in the USA to develop recommendations for reform with global application. Findings Focusing on this evidence, the authors argue that solitary confinement is overused and recommend a multi-level approach available to correctional systems worldwide including: immediately limiting solitary confinement to only those cases in which a violent behavioral infraction has been committed for which safety cannot otherwise be achieved, ensuring the briefest terms of isolation needed to achieve legitimate and immediate correctional goals, prohibiting its use entirely for some populations, regularly reviewing all isolated prisoners for as-soon-as-possible return to general population, including the immediate return of those showing mental and physical health risk factors, assisting individuals who are transitioning out of isolation (either to the general population or to the community), and partnering with medical, public health, and criminal justice experts to develop evidence-based alternatives to solitary confinement for nearly all prisoners. Originality/value This paper provides an overview of the evidence supporting an overhaul of solitary confinement policy in the USA and globally where solitary confinement remains in wide use and offers recommendations for immediate steps that can be taken toward achieving evidence-based solitary confinement reform.

  10. Spontaneous Remission of Solitary-Type Infantile Myofibromatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Kikuchi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Infantile myofibromatosis is a rare fibrous tumor of infancy. The cutaneous solitary type has typically an excellent prognosis. However, histologically, it is important to rule out leiomyosarcoma, which has a poor prognosis. The low frequency of mitosis was definitive for a diagnosis of infantile myofibromatosis. We present a cutaneous solitary-type case of infantile myofibromatosis. Following incisional biopsy, the tumor remitted spontaneously.

  11. THE STUDY OF CLINICAL PRESENTATION OF SOLITARY NODULE THYROID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmikanthan Premalatha

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Thyroid disorders are the most common endocrine disorder seen in clinical practice and solitary thyroid nodule is one of the common presentations of thyroid disease. A discrete swelling in an otherwise impalpable gland is termed isolated or solitary nodule of thyroid.1 The prevalence of thyroid nodule increases from near zero at 15 years to 50% by about 60 to 65 years on sonography. At most 10% of these nodules are palpable even by experienced clinicians. This study is about the clinical presentation, histopathology and management of solitary nodule thyroid in MGM GH Tiruchirappalli. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES- To determine the age and sex incidence among the cases of solitary nodule thyroid. To study the percentage of euthyroid, hypothyroid or hyperthyroid state in patients presenting with solitary nodule thyroid. To study the proportion of malignant and benign cases among the solitary nodule thyroid at M.G.M. Govt. Hospital, Tiruchirappalli. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study includes 58 cases of solitary nodule of thyroid noted during the period Jan 2016-Dec 2016. Factors were tabulated and analysed statistically. RESULTS From the present study, the mean age at presentation found to be 42.5 years with preponderance to females. Because of periods of fluctuations in the demands of the hormonal requirement in female in their life cycle (puberty, menstrual cycles, pregnancy, menopause, the chances of thyroid nodule formation are very high as compared with male counterparts. From the study, distribution of malignancy is about 10.34. The incidence of malignancy found to be 12%, sensitivity is 87.5%, specificity is 100% for FNAC and HPE. CONCLUSION Majority of the patients are between 30-49 years of age. Incidence of solitary thyroid nodule is more common in female. Female: male ratio is almost about 15:1 Commonest symptom is swelling over anterior or lateral aspect of neck Among the benign lesion dominant nodule is most common and papillary and

  12. Solitary necrotic nodule of the liver: parasitic origin?

    OpenAIRE

    Tsui, W. M.; Yuen, R. W.; Chow, L. T.; Tse, C. C.

    1992-01-01

    AIMS: To report further cases of solitary necrotic nodule of the liver and to study its nature. METHODS: Seven nodules were retrieved from 4000 necropsy and surgical liver specimens coming to light over the past five years. All of them satisfied the diagnostic criteria of solitary necrotic nodule: a solid lesion with a central necrotic core and a hyalinised fibrotic capsule containing elastic fibres. Their clinicopathological features were reviewed. RESULTS: The nodules were incidental findin...

  13. Comparison of solitary cerebral metastasis and glioblastoma multiform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Cheol; Choi, Woo Suk; Kim, Eui Jong; Oh, Joo Hyeong; Yoon, Yup

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the MR images of solitary cerebral metastasis and glioblastoma multiform to determine the differential findings. Ten cases of solitary cerebral metastasis and 14 cases of glioblastoma multiform were retrospectively reviewed, all of which were proved by pathologically. The MR findings were compared in regard to tumor size and location, degree of edema, enhancement pattern, and shape of rime enhancement. Mean maximum diameter or solitary cerebral metastasis was 3.85 cm(s.d. 1.47). Metastatic lesions were located in corticomedullary junction(70%) with cerebellum in 2 cases. The locations of glioblastoma multiform were white matter(64%) without cerebellar involvement and the mean maximum diameter was 5.43 cm(s.d. 0.99). In solitary cerebral metastasis, the size of edema was larger than the tumor diameter in 50%, but glioblastoma multiform did not show severe degree of edema. Rim enhancement seen in 7 cases of solitary cerebral metastasis showed unilocular shape and complete rim in 6 cases, and even thickness and smooth inner margine in 5 cases. However, rim enhancement seen in 11 cases of glioblastoma multiform showed multilocular appearance with septa in all cases, incomplete rim in 5 cases, and uneven thickness and irregular inner margin in 10 cases. Tumor location, degree of edema, and rim enhancement pattern on Gd-enhanced MR may be useful in differentiation between solitary cerebral metastasis and glioblastoma multiform

  14. TRPM5-expressing solitary chemosensory cells respond to odorous irritants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Weihong; Ogura, Tatsuya; Margolskee, Robert F; Finger, Thomas E; Restrepo, Diego

    2008-03-01

    Inhaled airborne irritants elicit sensory responses in trigeminal nerves innervating the nasal epithelium, leading to protective reflexes. The sensory mechanisms involved in the detection of odorous irritants are poorly understood. We identified a large population of solitary chemosensory cells expressing the transient receptor potential channel M5 (TRPM5) using transgenic mice where the promoter of TRPM5 drives the expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP). Most of these solitary chemosensory cells lie in the anterior nasal cavity. These GFP-labeled solitary chemosensory cells exhibited immunoreactivity for synaptobrevin-2, a vesicle-associated membrane protein important for synaptic transmission. Concomitantly, we found trigeminal nerve fibers apposed closely to the solitary chemosensory cells, indicating potential transmission of sensory information to trigeminal fibers. In addition, stimulation of the nasal cavity with high concentrations (0.5-5 mM) of a variety of odorants elicited event-related potentials (ERPs) in areas rich in TRPM5-expressing solitary chemosensory cells. Furthermore, odorous chemicals and trigeminal stimuli induced changes in intracellular Ca(2+) levels in isolated TRPM5-expressing solitary chemosensory cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Together, our data show that the TRPM5-expressing cells respond to a variety of chemicals at high exposure levels typical of irritants and are positioned in the nasal cavity appropriately to monitor inhaled air quality.

  15. Integrability Test and Spatiotemporal Feature of Breather-Wave to the (2+1)-Dimensional Boussinesq Equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Hongying; Liu Jun; Wang Chuanjian; Dai Zhengde

    2013-01-01

    Painlevé integrability has been tested for (2+1)D Boussinesq equation with disturbance term using the standard WTC approach after introducing the Kruskai's simplification. New breather solitary solutions depending on constant equilibrium solution are obtained by using Extended Homoclinic Test Method. Moreover, the spatiotemporal feature of breather solitary wave is exhibited. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  16. Transfer Matrix for Obliquely Incident Electromagnetic Waves Propagating in One Dimension Plasma Photonic Crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Bin

    2009-01-01

    Based on the electromagnetic theory and by using an analytical technique-the transfer matrix method, the obliquely incident electromagnetic waves propagating in one-dimension plasma photonic crystals is studied. The dispersion relations for both the P-polarization waves and S-polarization waves, depending on the plasma density, plasma thickness and period, are discussed. (basic plasma phenomena)

  17. Nonlinear localized dust acoustic waves in a charge varying dusty plasma with nonthermal ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tribeche, Mouloud; Amour, Rabia

    2007-01-01

    A numerical investigation is presented to show the existence, formation, and possible realization of large-amplitude dust acoustic (DA) solitary waves in a charge varying dusty plasma with nonthermal ions. These nonlinear localized structures are self-consistent solutions of the collisionless Vlasov equation with a population of fast particles. The spatial patterns of the variable charge DA solitary wave are significantly modified by the nonthermal effects. The results complement and provide new insights into previously published results on this problem

  18. Travelling wave solutions of generalized coupled Zakharov–Kuznetsov and dispersive long wave equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arshad

    Full Text Available In this manuscript, we constructed different form of new exact solutions of generalized coupled Zakharov–Kuznetsov and dispersive long wave equations by utilizing the modified extended direct algebraic method. New exact traveling wave solutions for both equations are obtained in the form of soliton, periodic, bright, and dark solitary wave solutions. There are many applications of the present traveling wave solutions in physics and furthermore, a wide class of coupled nonlinear evolution equations can be solved by this method. Keywords: Traveling wave solutions, Elliptic solutions, Generalized coupled Zakharov–Kuznetsov equation, Dispersive long wave equation, Modified extended direct algebraic method

  19. Giant solitary fibrous tumour of the liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eggermont Alexander MM

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Solitary fibrous tumour (SFT is an uncommon mesenchymal neoplasm that most frequently affects the pleura, although it has been reported with increasing frequency in various other sites such as in the peritoneum, pericardium and in non-serosal sites such as lung parenchyma, upper respiratory tract, orbit, thyroid, parotid gland, or thymus. Liver parenchyma is rarely affected. Clinically, SFTs cause symptoms after having reached a certain size or when vital structures are involved. In recent years, SFTs are more often identified and distinguished from other tumours with a similar appearance due to the availability of characteristic immunohistochemical markers. Case presentation In this manuscript we report the case of a large tumour of the liver, which was histologically diagnosed as a SFT, and showed involvement of a single hepatic segment. Because of the patient's presentation and clinical course, it may represent a radiation-induced lesion. Conclusion When a SFT has been diagnosed, surgery is the treatment of choice. The small number of patients with a SFT of the liver and its unknown natural behaviour creates the need to a careful registration and follow-up of all identified cases

  20. Food searching and superparasitism in solitary parasitoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirot, Etienne; Bernstein, Carlos

    Optimality theory predicts that, provided that a larva resulting from superparasitism has some chance of winning the competition with the other larvae present in the host, under certain conditions, solitatry parasitoids should resort to superparasitism. Both theoretical and experimental studies have shown that the life expectancy of the parasitoid has a strong influence on the decision to reject or to accept superparasitism. In many species, life expectancy on its turn depends on the feeding behaviour of the parasitoids, which have to forage for non-host food (mainly plant materials), for the maintenance of their energy reseves. As many solitary parasitoids do not find non-host food in their host patches, they have to choose at each instant whether to search for food or to search for hosts. In this paper, we develop a stochastic dynamic programming model to study the behavioural choice between host and food searching, and its consequences for the acceptance and rejection of superparasitism. We study the influence of habitat quality and parasitoid physiological state on the optimal choice. The model predicts that the crucial point determining the optimal strategy is the balance between egg-and time-limitation.

  1. Guideline on management of solitary pulmonary nodule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez Martínez, Carlos J; Bastarrika Alemañ, Gorka; Disdier Vicente, Carlos; Fernández Villar, Alberto; Hernández Hernández, Jesús R; Maldonado Suárez, Antonio; Moreno Mata, Nicolás; Rosell Gratacós, Antoni

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the proposed recommendations is be a tool to facilitate decision-making in patients with a solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN). For an optimal decision, accessibility to the different diagnostics techniques and patient preferences need to be incorporated. The first assessment, which includes a chest computed tomography scan, separates a group of patients with extrapulmonary neoplasm or a high surgical risk who require individualized management. Another two groups of patients are patients with SPN up to 8mm and those who have a subsolid SPN, for which specific recommendations are established. SPN larger than 8mm are classified according to their probability of malignancy into low (less than 5%), where observation is recommended, high (higher than 65%), which are managed with a presumptive diagnosis of localized stage carcinoma, and intermediate, where positron emission tomography-computed tomography has high yield for reclassifying them into high or low probability. In cases of intermediate or high probability of malignancy, transbronchial needle aspiration or biopsy of the nodule may be an option. Radiologic observation with low radiation computed tomography without contrast is recommended in SPN with low probability of malignancy, and resection with videothoracoscopy in undiagnosed cases with intermediate or high probability of malignancy. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Solid solitary hamartoma of the spleen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grubor Nikica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Hamartoma of the spleen is a rare, sometimes asymptomatic similar to hemangioma benign tumor of the spleen, which, owing to the new diagnostic imaging methods, is discovered with increasing frequency. It appears as solitary or multiple tumorous lesions. Case Outline. We present a 48-year-old woman in whom, during the investigation for Helicobacter pylori gastric infection and rectal bleeding, with ultrasonography, a mass 6.5×6.5 cm in diameter was discovered by chance within the spleen. Splenectomy was performed due to suspected lymphoma of the spleen. On histology, tumor showed to be of mixed cellular structure, with areas without white pulp, at places with marked dilatation of sinusoids and capillaries to the formation of „blood lakes“ between which broad hypercellular Billroth’s zones were present. Extramedullary hematopoiesis was found focally. The cells that covered vascular spaces were CD34+ and CD31+ and CD8- and CD21-. Conclusion. Hamartoma has to be taken into consideration always when well circumscribed hypervascular tumor within the spleen is found, particularly in children. Although the diagnosis of hamartoma may be suspected preoperatively, the exact diagnosis is established based on histological and immunohystochemistry examinations. Treatment is most often splenectomy and rarely a partial splenectomy is possible, which is recommended particularly in children.

  3. TERT promoter mutations and prognosis in solitary fibrous tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Armita; Lee, Seungjae; Schaefer, Inga-Marie; Boland, Jennifer M; Patton, Kurt T; Pounds, Stanley; Fletcher, Christopher D

    2016-12-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor is a mesenchymal neoplasm exhibiting a broad spectrum of biological behavior and harboring the NAB2-STAT6 fusion. Clinicopathologic parameters are currently used in risk-prediction models for solitary fibrous tumor, but the molecular determinants of malignancy in solitary fibrous tumors remain unknown. We proposed that the activation of telomere maintenance pathways confers a perpetual malignant phenotype to these tumors. Therefore, we investigated telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) reactivation induced by promoter mutations as a potential molecular mechanism for aggressive clinical behavior in solitary fibrous tumor. The retrospective study included tumor samples from 94 patients with solitary fibrous tumor (31 thoracic and 63 extra-thoracic). Follow-up information was available for 68 patients (median, 46 months). TERT promoter mutation analysis was performed by PCR and Sanger sequencing, and TERT mRNA expression was assessed by real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Patients were stratified into clinicopathologic subgroups (high-risk (n=20), moderate-risk (n=28), and low-risk (n=46)) according to the risk-stratification model proposed by Demicco et al. TERT promoter mutations were identified in 26 of 94 (28%) solitary fibrous tumors: -124C>T in 23 tumors (88%), -124C>A in 1 tumor (4%), and -146C>T in 2 tumors (8%). Real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR revealed that TERT mRNA expression was higher in all solitary fibrous tumors with the mutant TERT promoter than those with the wild-type TERT promoter. TERT promoter mutations were strongly associated with high-risk clinicopathologic characteristics and outcome. An adverse event (relapse, death) occurred in 16 of 68 (24%) patients, 12 with solitary fibrous tumors with TERT promoter mutations and 4 with the wild-type TERT promoter. TERT promoter mutations were strongly associated with older age (P=0.006), larger tumor size (P=0.000002), higher risk classifications

  4. Success of electromagnetic shock wave lithotripter asmonotherapy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To evaluate the success of shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) as monotherapy for solitary renalstones larger than 2 cm without ureteral stenting. Hence, if our study result demonstrates acceptable successand safety, we can recommend ESWL as a treatment option for patients with large renal calculi. Subjects and ...

  5. New exact wave solutions for Hirota equation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    than other traditional techniques. The study indicates the validity and great potential of the first integral method in solving complicated solitary wave problems. References. [1] W M Taha, M S M Noorani and I Hashim, J. King Saud University-Science 26, 75 (2014). [2] G Ebadi and A Biswas, Commun. Nonlinear Sci. Numer.

  6. Bifurcations of traveling wave solutions for an integrable equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jibin; Qiao Zhijun

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the following equation m t =(1/2)(1/m k ) xxx -(1/2)(1/m k ) x , which is proposed by Z. J. Qiao [J. Math. Phys. 48, 082701 (2007)] and Qiao and Liu [Chaos, Solitons Fractals 41, 587 (2009)]. By adopting the phase analysis method of planar dynamical systems and the theory of the singular traveling wave systems to the traveling wave solutions of the equation, it is shown that for different k, the equation may have infinitely many solitary wave solutions, periodic wave solutions, kink/antikink wave solutions, cusped solitary wave solutions, and breaking loop solutions. We discuss in a detail the cases of k=-2,-(1/2),(1/2),2, and parametric representations of all possible bounded traveling wave solutions are given in the different (c,g)-parameter regions.

  7. Solitary pancreas retransplant: Study of 22 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tércio Genzini

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To present our experience with pancreas retransplantin patients previously submitted to simultaneous pancreas-kidneytransplant, pancreas after kidney transplant and pancreastransplant alone. Methods: Between January/1996 and December/2005, 330 pancreas transplants were performed: 308 primarytransplants and 22 (6% retransplants of solitary pancreas. Thefollowing variables were analyzed: patient age; time elapsedbetween the first and the second transplant; causes of loss of thefirst graft; technical characteristics of the transplant andretransplant and the criteria for selecting donors for retransplant.These clinical data were submitted to statistical analysis. Results:The mean age of patients was 34.3 years and the mean elapsedtime between the first and second transplant was 19.3 months.The causes of the first graft loss were venous (8; 35% and arterial(5; 23% thrombosis, chronic rejection (4; 18%, ischemia/reperfusion injury (2, reflux pancreatitis (1, primary non-function(1 and sepsis (1. A second transplant was performed in thesame iliac fossa in 16 patients (72%. Venous drainage wasperformed in the iliac vein in 16 patients (72%, in the inferior venacava in 5 patients (22% and in the portal vein in one patient. 6 allbladder drainage was the technique used in 18 (82% cases andenteric drainage, in 4 patients (18%. Immunosuppressive regimenapplied to all cases was quadruple therapy with antilymphocyteinduction, tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and steroids. Therewas one early death due to sepsis. One-year patient and pancreasgraft survival rates for retransplants were, respectively, 95% and85%. There was no additional risk for removing the pancreas graftat retransplant. Conclusion: Pancreas retransplant was technicallyfeasible in all cases and results similar to those described in theliterature were found for primary pancreas transplant.

  8. Imaging features of intracranial solitary fibrous tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Shuilian; Man Yuping; Ma Longbai; Liu Ying; Wei Qiang; Zhu Youkai

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To summarize the imaging features of intracranial solitary fibrous tumors (ISFT). Methods: Ten patients with ISFT proven histopathologically were collected. Four cases had CT data and all cases had MR data. The imaging features and pathological results were retrospectively analyzed. Results: All cases were misdiagnosed as meningioma at pre-operation. All lesions arose from intracranial meninges including 5 lesions above the tentorium, 4 lesions beneath the tentorium and 1 lesion growing around the tentorium. The margins of all the masses were well defined, and 8 lesions presented multilobular shape. CT demonstrated hyerattenuated masses in all 4 lesions, smooth erosion of the basicranial skull in 1 lesion, and punctiform calcification of the capsule in 1 lesion. T 1 WI showed most lesions with isointense or slight hyperintense signals including homogeneous in 4 lesions and heterogeneous in 6 lesions. T 2 WI demonstrated isointense or slight hyperintense in 2 lesions, mixed hypointense and hyperintense signals in 4, cystic portion in 2, and two distinct portion of hyperintense and hypointense signal, so called 'yin-yang' pattern, in 2. Strong enhanced was found in all lesions, especially in 8 lesion with heterogeneous with the low T 2 signal. 'Dural tail' was found in 4 lesions. Conclusions: ISFI has some specific CT and MR features including heterogeneous signal intensity on T 2 WI, strong enhancement of areas with low T 2 signal intensity, slight or no 'dural tail', without skull thickening, and the typical 'yin-yang' pattern. (authors)

  9. Solitary median maxillary central incisor (SMMCI syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hall Roger K

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Solitary median maxillary central incisor syndrome (SMMCI is a complex disorder consisting of multiple, mainly midline defects of development resulting from unknown factor(s operating in utero about the 35th–38th day(s from conception. It is estimated to occur in 1:50,000 live births. Aetiology is uncertain. Missense mutation in the SHH gene (I111F at 7q36 may be associated with SMMCI. The SMMCI tooth differs from the normal central incisor, in that the crown form is symmetric; it develops and erupts precisely in the midline of the maxillary dental arch in both primary and permanent dentitions. Congenital nasal malformation (choanal atresia, midnasal stenosis or congenital pyriform aperture stenosis is positively associated with SMMCI. The presence of an SMMCI tooth can predict associated anomalies and in particular the serious anomaly holoprosencephaly. Common congenital anomalies associated with SMMCI are: severe to mild intellectual disability, congenital heart disease, cleft lip and/or palate and less frequently, microcephaly, hypopituitarism, hypotelorism, convergent strabismus, oesophageal and duodenal atresia, cervical hemivertebrae, cervical dermoid, hypothyroidism, scoliosis, absent kidney, micropenis and ambiguous genitalia. Short stature is present in half the children. Diagnosis should be made by eight months of age, but can be made at birth and even prenatally at 18–22 weeks from the routine mid-trimester ultrasound scan. Management depends upon the individual anomalies present. Choanal stenosis requires emergency surgical treatment. Short stature may require growth hormone therapy. SMMCI tooth itself is mainly an aesthetic problem, which is ideally managed by combined orthodontic, prosthodontic and oral surgical treatment; alternatively, it can be left untreated.

  10. Acute solitary localized pneumonia: CT diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Tieyi

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate CT in the differential diagnosis of solitary localized pneumonia. Method: Only plain CT without contrast study was done because of different types of CT scanners weed. There were 25 cases with localized pneumonia with initial diagnosis as suspected peripheral bronchogenic carcinoma. All patients were over forty years of age, 84% 50-80 years, 13(52%) patients were asymptomatic, 5(20%) patients had bloody sputum. Results: The CT features were divided into three patterns: (1) irregular nodule with relatively well-defined margin, ground-glass opacity and a few punctuate high densities. (2) irregular nodule with sharply circumscribed, spiculate border and homogeneous density. (3) regular nodule with relatively well-defined margin, and homogeneous density. The third type was most frequent (60%) with predilection for the dorsal segments of the lower lobes, or the posterior basal segments. Of the 25 patients 3 had operation, the remaining cases were treated as pneumonia, the lesions were resolved in 18(82%) patients in 2-3 weeks. Conclusions: Sometimes it is very difficult to differentiate localized pneumonia from peripheral lung cancer on the basis of clinical presentation and imaging. The spiculate margins of irregular nodule shown on CT could be indeterminate on chest radiography, and as a result chest radiograph is helpful in differential diagnosis of localized pneumonia. Change in size of the lesion as observed at the same cross-section scan, smaller at mediastinal window than at lung window is in favor of localized pneumonia, however, with the exception of alveolar carcinoma, treatment with antibiotic therapy for a period of 2-3 weeks, helps differentiate these diseases

  11. Effect of magnetic field on nonlinear interactions of electromagnetic and surface waves in a plasma layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, Sh.M.; El-Sherif, N.; El-Siragy, N.M.; Tanta Univ.; El-Naggar, I.A.; Alexandria Univ.

    1985-01-01

    Investigation is made for nonlinear interaction between incident radiation and a surface wave in a magnetized plasma layer. Both interacting waves are of P polarization. The generated currents and fields at combination frequencies are obtained analytically. Unlike the S-polarized interacting waves, the magnetic field affects the fundamental waves and leads to an amplification of generated waves when their frequencies approach the cyclotron frequency. (author)

  12. Auroral ion acceleration from lower hybrid solitary structures: A summary of sounding rocket observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, K. A.; Arnoldy, R. L.; Kintner, P. M.; Schuck, P.; Bonnell, J. W.; Coffey, V.

    In this paper we present a review of sounding rocket observations of the ion acceleration seen in nightside auroral zone lower hybrid solitary structures. Observations from Topaz3, Amicist, and Phaze2 are presented on various spatial scales, including the two-point measurements of the Amicist mission. From this collection of observations we will demonstrate the following characteristics of transverse acceleration of ions (TAI) in lower hybrid solitary structures (LHSS). The ion acceleration process is narrowly confined to 90° pitch angle, in spatially confined regions of up to a few hundred meters across B. The acceleration process does not affect the thermal core of the ambient distribution and does not directly create a measurable effect on the ambient ion population outside the LHSS themselves. This precludes observation with these data of any nonlinear feedback between the ion acceleration and the existence or evolution of the density irregularities on which these LHSS events grow. Within the LHSS region the acceleration process creates a high-energy tail beginning at a few times the thermal ion speed. The ion acceleration events are closely associated with localized wave events. Accelerated ions bursts are also seen without a concurrent observation of a localized wave event, for two possible reasons. In some cases, the pitch angles of the accelerated tail ions are elevated above perpendicular; that is, the acceleration occurred below the observer and the mirror force has begun to act upon the distribution, moving it upward from the source. In other cases, the accelerated ion structure is spatially larger than the wave event structure, and the observation catches only the ion event. The occurrence rate of these ion acceleration events is related to the ambient environment in two ways: its altitude dependence can be modeled with the parameter B2/ne, and it is highest in regions of intense VLF activity. The cumulative ion outflow from these LHSS TAI is

  13. Exact periodic waves and their interactions for the (2+1 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The interaction properties of the periodic waves are in- vestigated numerically and found to be nonelastic. The long wave limit yields some new types of solitary wave solutions. Especially the dromion and the solitoff solutions obtained in this paper possess new types of solution structures which are quite different from the.

  14. Wave-Breaking Phenomena and Existence of Peakons for a Generalized Compressible Elastic-Rod Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolian Ai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Consideration in this paper is the Cauchy problem of a generalized hyperelastic-rod wave equation. We first derive a wave-breaking mechanism for strong solutions, which occurs in finite time for certain initial profiles. In addition, we determine the existence of some new peaked solitary wave solutions.

  15. Nonlinear dust-ion-acoustic waves in a multi-ion plasma with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The basic features of such dust-ion-acoustic solitary and shock waves have been identified. The implications of our ... ion plasmas because of its vital role in understanding different types of collective processes in space ... cannot support the usual ion-acoustic waves, but can support the DIA waves of Shukla and. Silin [15].

  16. Jacobian elliptic wave solutions for the Wadati-Segur-Ablowitz equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teh, C.G.R.; Koo, W.K.; Lee, B.S.

    1996-07-01

    Jacobian elliptic travelling wave solutions for a new Hamiltonian amplitude equation determining some instabilities of modulated wave train are obtained. By a mere variation of the Jacobian elliptic parameter k 2 from zero to one, these solutions are transformed from a trivial one to the known solitary wave solutions. (author). 9 refs

  17. Giant solitary trichoepithelioma with desmoplasia on histopathology: An unusual finding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundeep Chowdhry

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Trichoepithelioma is a well-recognized hamartoma of hair germ clinically presenting as solitary or multiple papules. Uncommonly, it may present as a large solitary lesion, termed as giant solitary trichoepithelioma (GST. A 50-year old man presented with a large, pedunculated mass over the root of nose obstructing visual field. It was excised and sent for histopathological examination. H&E staining revealed in addition to characteristic features of trichoepithelioma, a desmoplastic hypocellular stroma. After taking into account the clinical and histopathological features, a diagnosis of GST was made. This case is the first case to the best of authors’ knowledge describing desmoplastic stroma in a case of GST. It is also noteworthy because it reports the largest GST described so far over the nose.

  18. Ulcerative giant solitary trichoepithelioma of scalp: a rare presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundeep Chowdhry

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Trichoepithelioma is a trichogenic tumor which arises from the inferior segment of hair follicle epithelium as hamartoma. Giant solitary trichoepithelioma (GST has been defined as a solitary trichoepithelioma with a diameter greater than 2 cm. A 49-year-old female presented with a slow growing skin coloured swelling on the scalp of 8 years duration with recent history of ulceration and occasional bleeding. The local examination revealed a single well defined nodular swelling which was irregular in shape measuring approximately 2 × 2.5 cm. Histopathology from biopsy specimen revealed dark basaloid cells with scanty cytoplasm and darkly stained nucleus arranged in nests with horn cysts lacking high-grade atypia and mitosis, which was consistent with features of trichoepithelioma. Giant solitary trichoepithelioma of scalp is itself a rare entity and the present case is being reported with the additional component of ulceration in the lesion.

  19. An Uncommon Case of Solitary Peripheral Osteoma in the Mandible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Agrawal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoma is a benign osteogenic lesion which is composed of well differentiated mature compact and/or cancellous bone that proliferates continuously. Its prevalence is 4%. Its pathogenesis is still controversial. Solitary peripheral osteoma of craniofacial region is a rare finding. We report a case of 30-year-old female having solitary peripheral osteoma present on the lingual cortex of the left posterior mandible which was initially asymptomatic but now is causing discomfort while chewing and not associated with Gardner’s syndrome. We also laid emphasis on its clinical, differential diagnosis, radiological, surgical, and histopathological features. The aim of this paper is to present an uncommon case of solitary peripheral osteoma in the mandible along with analysis of literature for peripheral osteomas of jaws and to contribute to the knowledge concerning the pathogenesis, differential diagnosis, and management of these lesions.

  20. Public Health and Solitary Confinement in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloud, David H; Drucker, Ernest; Browne, Angela; Parsons, Jim

    2015-01-01

    The history of solitary confinement in the United States stretches from the silent prisons of 200 years ago to today's supermax prisons, mechanized panopticons that isolate tens of thousands, sometimes for decades. We examined the living conditions and characteristics of the populations in solitary confinement. As part of the growing movement for reform, public health agencies have an ethical obligation to help address the excessive use of solitary confinement in jails and prisons in accordance with established public health functions (e.g., violence prevention, health equity, surveillance, and minimizing of occupational and psychological hazards for correctional staff). Public health professionals should lead efforts to replace reliance on this overly punitive correctional policy with models based on rehabilitation and restorative justice.

  1. A solitary fibrous tumor of the retroperitoneum: CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Min; Kim, Chong Soo; Lee, Dong Keun; Cho, Baek Hwan [Chonbuk National Univ. College of Medicine, Chunju (Korea, Republic of); Han, Hyun Young [Euljy Mecical School, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-01-01

    The solitary fibrous tumor is a rare spindle cell neoplasm of mesodermal origin. It usually arises in the pleura, though has recently been reported in the peritoneum and at nonserosal sites ; it is, however, extremely rare in the retroperitonum. The authors describe one case of a solitary fibrous tumor that occurred as a huge complex mass in the retroperitoneum of an adult. Preenhanced CT scans showed that the mass was sharply delineated from surrounding organs and that tumor density was the same as that of surrounding musculature. Peripheral Calcifications were noted, and postenhanced scans showed intense, gradual enhancement of solid portions of the mass, with nonenhanced cystic portions. Although not specific, solitary fibrous tumors must be included in the differential diagnosis of a large retroperitoneal tumor of complex consistency and with internal calcification.

  2. Comparison of shockwave lithotripsy and flexible ureteroscopy for the treatment of kidney stones in patients with a solitary kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuruk, Emrah; Binbay, Murat; Ozgor, Faruk; Sekerel, Levent; Berberoglu, Yalcin; Muslumanoglu, Ahmet Yaser

    2015-04-01

    To compare the outcomes of these minimally invasive procedures in this patient population. The database of our institution has been retrospectively reviewed, and medical records of urolithiasis patients with a solitary kidney who underwent flexible ureteroscopy (F-URS) or extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) between January 2009 and December 2012 were examined. Retreatment rates, complications, changes in estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs), chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages, and stone-free rates were compared between the two groups. Stones of 48 patients (mean age: 48.8±15.4, range: 14-76) with solitary kidneys were treated with SWL (n=30, 62.5%) or F-URS (n=18, 37.5%). Patient demographics and stone related parameters were similar. The most common stone location was the pelvis in the SWL group (36.6%), whereas it was the pelvis and a calix in the F-URS group (38.8%). Complications and success rates were similar in both groups, however, patients in the SWL group needed more sessions to achieve stone clearance (2.2±0.89 vs 1.06±0.24, p=0.0001). Preoperative and postoperative eGFR and CKD stage changes were also similar. Both SWL and F-URS are effective and safe techniques, which can be used for the treatment of stones in patients with solitary kidneys. However, patients treated with SWL need more sessions to achieve stone clearance.

  3. Solitary splenic metastasis from ovarian carcinosarcoma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillespie Thomas

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Metastatic tumors to the spleen are rare but are usually found in conjunction with metastasis to other organs. The most common sources of splenic metastasis are breast, lung and colorectal cancers as well as melanoma and ovarian carcinoma. A solitary carcinosarcoma metastasis to the spleen of any origin is very rare. To the best of our knowledge, there are fewer than 30 reported cases of ovarian primary tumors with solitary metastasis to the spleen, and only three solitary primary carcinosarcomas to the spleen have been reported, of which one is female. We present what is, to the best of our knowledge, the first case of a solitary metastatic carcinosarcoma to the spleen arising from a primary ovarian carcinsarcoma. Case presentation A 72-year-old Hispanic woman status post-total abdominal hysterectomy for ovarian carcinosarcoma presented with complaints of early satiety and abdominal pain for the past two months with a 30-lb unintentional weight loss. An initial computed tomographic scan of her abdomen and pelvis revealed a 30 cm × 27 cm splenic mass with displacement of the left kidney, stomach and liver. The patient was found to have a solitary metastatic carcinosarcoma of the spleen with biphasic epithelial (carcinomatous and mesenchymal (sarcomatous elements consistent with carcinosarcoma. Conclusion Carcinosarcoma of the spleen is a rare tumor. Carcinosarcomas are a biphasic neoplasm comprising malignant epithelial and mesenchymal components arising from a stem cell capable of differentiation. They can arise anywhere in the female genital tract, most commonly from the endometrium. Even though it is rare, carcinosarcomas can metastasize to the spleen. This unique case of a solitary splenic metastasis from ovarian carcinosarcoma has particular interest in medicine, especially for the specialties of surgical oncology, pathology and hematology/oncology.

  4. Direct bed stress measurements under solitary tsunami-type waves and breaking tsunami wave fronts

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    JayaKumar, S.; Baldock, T.E.

    steepen and eventually break, thereby generating large pressure gradients that could enhance the likelihood of liquefaction of the seabed. In the drawdown, high shear stresses could trigger debris flow in submarine canyons and on steep ridges. Therefore...

  5. A case of congenital solitary Langerhans cell histiocytoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ricciardo, Bernadette

    2012-02-01

    A newborn baby boy was referred to the Paediatric Dermatology Unit with a solitary asymptomatic nodule overlying his right nasolabial fold. Complete physical examination, full blood count, serum chemistry, liver function tests and baseline imaging were unremarkable. Histopathological examination showed an atypical dermal infiltrate of mononuclear cells that stained positive with CD1a and S100. A diagnosis of congenital solitary Langerhans cell histiocytoma was made. The lesion completely resolved by 4 months of age. The baby is now 15 months old and repeat systemic evaluation has remained normal.

  6. Solitary peripheral osteoma of the mandible: Report of 2 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanat Kumar Bhuyan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteomas are benign slow-growing lesions. A very few cases of the peripheral type arising from periosteum have been reported. In the facial region, periosteal osteomas mostly occur in the paranasal sinuses; thus, solitary osteomas of the jaws bones are rare. The etiology is unknown although it could be attributed to as a developmental anomaly, due to trauma or infection. Herein, we have reported two cases of large solitary peripheral osteoma discussing the clinical, radiological, and histological features of the lesion located in the buccal and lingual surface in the left posterior part of mandible causing facial asymmetry and the other being asymptomatic.

  7. Solitary cellular neurofibroma of alveolar mucosa unassociated with neurofibromatosis-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxmidevi B Lankesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurofibromas (NFs are rare neurogenic tumors of the oral cavity. They can present as solitary, or multiple when associated with neurofibromatosis-1 (NF-1/von Recklinghausen′s disease. Solitary intraoral NFs unassociated with NF-1 are sporadic and mimic any other soft tissue tumors of the oral cavity. Hence, final diagnosis can only be rendered after histopathological examination although they exhibit numerous microscopic variants. They show numerous mast cells and immunopositive for S-100 protein. Here, we are presenting one such case of NF in a 55-year-old male patient.

  8. Solitary schwannoma of sciatic nerve. Diagnosis by CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, M.; Handa, J. (Shiga Univ. of Medical Science, Ohtsu, Shiga (Japan)); Koyama, T.

    1982-05-01

    A solitary schwannoma of the peripheral nerve may arise sporadically in patients who have no evidence of a genetic predetermination of von Recklinghausen's disease. In the leg, schwannomas usually appear on the flexor aspect, especially near the elbow, wrist and knee, and the feet are usually spared. A solitary schwannoma of the sciatic nerve is very rare as a case of a sciatic pain, and the CT diagnosis of such a lesion has not been previously reported. In the present case, the deeply situated, small lesion was clearly delineated with high resolution CT.

  9. Asymptomatic solitary mediastinal cystic lymphangioma: a rare entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misthos, Panagiotis; Sepsas, Evangelos; Kokotsakis, Ioannis; Skottis, Ion

    2006-12-01

    Solitary mediastinal cystic lymphangioma is an extremely rare tumor-like abnormality of the lymphatic system, of congenital origin. From 1996 to 2003, 4 cases of solitary mediastinal cystic lymphangioma were managed in our department. The clinicopathologic characteristics were recorded and analyzed. The incidence proved to be 1.2% among all cases of mediastinal masses admitted to our department. All patients were asymptomatic, they shared common radiologic features, and all were managed by radical surgical excision. No recurrence or mortality were noted during follow-up ranging from 2 to 7 years. Complete excision of this benign entity has an excellent prognosis.

  10. CT-guided percutaneous treatment of solitary pyogenic splenic abscesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pombo, F. [Dept. of Radiology, Hospital Juan Canalejo, La Coruna (Spain); Suarez, I. [Dept. of Radiology, Hospital Juan Canalejo, La Coruna (Spain); Marini, M. [Dept. of Radiology, Hospital Juan Canalejo, La Coruna (Spain); Arrojo, L. [Dept. of Radiology, Hospital Juan Canalejo, La Coruna (Spain); Echaniz, A. [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Hospital Juan Canalejo, La Coruna (Spain)

    1991-08-01

    Six patients with solitary pyogenic splenic abscesses treated by CT-guided percutaneous drainage (by catheter or needle), are presented. There were 3 unilocular, purely intrasplenic abscesses and 3 complex lesions with loculations and perisplenic involvement. Percutaneous drainage and intravenous antibiotics were curative in 4 patients. In the other 2, who had multiloculated abscesses, despite initially successful drainage, splenectomy was performed because of intractable left upper quadrant pain in one case and persistent fever and drainage of pus after 30 days in the other. These patients also developed large, sterile left pleural effusions. Solitary pyogenic splenic abscesses - particularly if uniloculated - can be effectively treated by CT-guided percutaneous drainage. (orig.)

  11. Solitary Eccrine Syringofibroadenoma and Successful Treatment with Cryotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkaya, Dilek Biyik; Su, Ozlem; Bahalı, Anıl Gülsel; Topukçu, Bugce; Dizman, Didem; Tosuner, Zeynep; Demirkesen, Cuyan; Onsun, Nahide

    2016-05-01

    First described in 1963, eccrine syringofibroadenoma (ESFA) is a rare benign tumor that proliferates with differentiation toward ductal eccrine structures. There are many clinical presentations, including plaques, papules, verrucous plaques, keratotic tumors, and solitary tumors. The age of onset varies, with presentation between 16 and 80 years; however, solitary lesions are seen most commonly in the seventh and eighth decades. Here, we present the case of a 72-year-old woman referred to our outpatient clinic with a nodule on her leg. The histopathology result was ESFA. The lesion regressed after six cryotherapy sessions. Physicians should consider the possibility of ESFA and must remember its malignant potential in elderly patients.

  12. A Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Pleura Revealed by Hiccups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chafik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Solitary fibrous tumors of the pleura are rare and benign primary localized tumors; they possess a malignant potential and thus should be excised. We report a case of a 43-year-old woman, who had suffered for 5 years from right basithoracic pain associated with progressive dyspnea and persistent hiccups during the last 6 months. We have not found any similar case in the literature. Further testing after excision by thoracotomy revealed a solitary fibrous pleural tumor. A brief discussion of the clinical presentation and incidence of these tumors is included.

  13. Runge-Kutta Integration of the Equal Width Wave Equation Using the Method of Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Banaja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The equal width (EW equation governs nonlinear wave phenomena like waves in shallow water. Numerical solution of the (EW equation is obtained by using the method of lines (MOL based on Runge-Kutta integration. Using von Neumann stability analysis, the scheme is found to be unconditionally stable. Solitary wave motion and interaction of two solitary waves are studied using the proposed method. The three invariants of the motion are evaluated to determine the conservation properties of the generated scheme. Accuracy of the proposed method is discussed by computing the L2 and L∞ error norms. The results are found in good agreement with exact solution.

  14. Observation of sound focusing and defocusing due to propagating nonlinear internal waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, J; Badiey, M; Karjadi, E A; Katsnelson, B; Tskhoidze, A; Lynch, J F; Moum, J N

    2008-09-01

    Fluctuations of the low frequency sound field in the presence of an internal solitary wave packet during the Shallow Water '06 experiment are analyzed. Acoustic, environmental, and on-board ship radar image data were collected simultaneously before, during, and after a strong internal solitary wave packet passed through the acoustic track. Preliminary analysis of the acoustic wave temporal intensity fluctuations agrees with previously observed phenomena and the existing theory of the horizontal refraction mechanism, which causes focusing and defocusing when the acoustic track is nearly parallel to the front of the internal waves [J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 122(2), pp. 747-760 (2007)].

  15. Evolution Of Nonlinear Waves in Compressing Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P.F. Schmit, I.Y. Dodin, and N.J. Fisch

    2011-05-27

    Through particle-in-cell simulations, the evolution of nonlinear plasma waves is examined in one-dimensional collisionless plasma undergoing mechanical compression. Unlike linear waves, whose wavelength decreases proportionally to the system length L(t), nonlinear waves, such as solitary electron holes, conserve their characteristic size {Delta} during slow compression. This leads to a substantially stronger adiabatic amplification as well as rapid collisionless damping when L approaches {Delta}. On the other hand, cessation of compression halts the wave evolution, yielding a stable mode.

  16. Solitary Secondary Malignant Melanoma of Clavicle Two Years after Enuclation for Ocular Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Tozum

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Solitary metastasis of uveal melanoma to bone is extremely rare and usually associated with other organ involvement. We present a rare case of an ocular melanoma patient presenting with solitary metastasis to the clavicle two years after enucleation, without any other organ involvement. In this report, we tried to present our treatment strategy for the solitary metastasis of bone.

  17. Traveling waves and conservation laws for highly nonlinear wave equations modeling Hertz chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przedborski, Michelle; Anco, Stephen C.

    2017-09-01

    A highly nonlinear, fourth-order wave equation that models the continuum theory of long wavelength pulses in weakly compressed, homogeneous, discrete chains with a general power-law contact interaction is studied. For this wave equation, all solitary wave solutions and all nonlinear periodic wave solutions, along with all conservation laws, are derived. The solutions are explicitly parameterized in terms of the asymptotic value of the wave amplitude in the case of solitary waves and the peak of the wave amplitude in the case of nonlinear periodic waves. All cases in which the solution expressions can be stated in an explicit analytic form using elementary functions are worked out. In these cases, explicit expressions for the total energy and total momentum for all solutions are obtained as well. The derivation of the solutions uses the conservation laws combined with an energy analysis argument to reduce the wave equation directly to a separable first-order differential equation that determines the wave amplitude in terms of the traveling wave variable. This method can be applied more generally to other highly nonlinear wave equations.

  18. Nonlinear wave breaking in self-gravitating viscoelastic quantum fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitra, Aniruddha, E-mail: anibabun@gmail.com [Center for Plasma Studies, Department of Instrumentation Science, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, 700 032 (India); Roychoudhury, Rajkumar, E-mail: rajdaju@rediffmail.com [Advanced Centre for Nonlinear and Complex Phenomena, 1175 Survey Park, Kolkata 700075 (India); Department of Mathematics, Bethune College, Kolkata 700006 (India); Bhar, Radhaballav [Center for Plasma Studies, Department of Instrumentation Science, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, 700 032 (India); Khan, Manoranjan, E-mail: mkhan.ju@gmail.com [Center for Plasma Studies, Department of Instrumentation Science, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, 700 032 (India)

    2017-02-12

    The stability of a viscoelastic self-gravitating quantum fluid has been studied. Symmetry breaking instability of solitary wave has been observed through ‘viscosity modified Ostrovsky equation’ in weak gravity limit. In presence of strong gravitational field, the solitary wave breaks into shock waves. Response to a Gaussian perturbation, the system produces quasi-periodic short waves, which in terns predicts the existence of gravito-acoustic quasi-periodic short waves in lower solar corona region. Stability analysis of this dynamical system predicts gravity has the most prominent effect on the phase portraits, therefore, on the stability of the system. The non-existence of chaotic solution has also been observed at long wavelength perturbation through index value theorem. - Highlights: • In weak gravitational field, viscoelastic quantum fluid exhibits symmetry breaking instability. • Gaussian perturbation produces quasi-periodic gravito-acoustic waves into the system. • There exists no chaotic state of the system against long wavelength perturbations.

  19. Traveling wave behavior for a generalized fisher equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Zhaosheng

    2008-01-01

    There is the widespread existence of wave phenomena in physics, chemistry and biology. This clearly necessitates a study of traveling waves in depth and of the modeling and analysis involved. In the present paper, we study a nonlinear reaction-diffusion equation, which can be regarded as a generalized Fisher equation. Applying the Cole-Hopf transformation and the first integral method, we obtain a class of traveling solitary wave solutions for this generalized Fisher equation

  20. Reconstructive surgery in eight children with solitary kidneys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Jørgen Mogens

    1989-01-01

    Within a 10-year period reconstructive urinary tract surgery has been carried out in eight children with solitary kidneys. The children were 0-5 years old. Six had unilateral renal agenesis and two had unilateral multicystic kidney. In five children ureteroneocystostomy was performed, in two...

  1. Observations of Solitary Structures in a Magnetized, Plasma Loaded Waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynov, Jens-Peter; Michelsen, Poul; Pécseli, Hans

    1979-01-01

    Two types of solitary structure were investigated experimentally and numerically in a magnetized, plasma-loaded waveguide. One was identified as an ordinary KdV soliton and its properties were investigated with particular attention to the damping by resonant particles. The other type of pulse was...

  2. The frequency of carcinoma in solitary thyroid nodules and in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Muhimbili Medical Centre, Dar es Salaam was made to determine the frequency of malignancy in patients with solitary non-toxic thyroid nodule (STN) and in those with multinodular goitre (MNG). There were 60 cases of STN and. 178 with MNG. Nodular goitre was found to be predominantly a disease of females with sex.

  3. Acute inflammation at a mandibular solitary horizontal incompletely impacted molar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoru Yamaoka

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Minoru Yamaoka, Yusuke Ono, Masahide Ishizuka, Yoko Hasumi-Nakayama, Ryosuke Doto, Kouichi Yasuda, Takashi Uematsu, Kiyofumi FurusawaOral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Matsumoto Dental University School of Dentistry, Shiojiri, Nagano, JapanAbstract: Acute inflammation is frequently seen in the elderly around incompletely impacted molars located apart from molars or premolars. To identify the factors causing acute inflammation in the solitary molars without second molars or without second and first molars, ages of patients and rates of acute inflammation in 75 horizontal incompletely impacted mandibular molars in contact or not in contact with molars in subjects 41 years old or older were studied using orthopantomographs. Acute inflammation was seen in nine third molars out of 48 third molars in contact with second molars (18.8%, whereas acute inflammation was seen in 11 molars out of 19 solitary molars without second molars or without first and second molars (57.9% (p < 0.01. The mean age of 48 subjects with third molars in contact with the second molar was 50.42 ± 7.62 years, and the mean age of 19 subjects with isolated molars was 65.16 ± 10.41 years (p < 0.0001. These indicate that a solitary horizontal incompletely impacted molar leads more frequently to acute inflammation along with aging due to possible bone resorption resulting from teeth loss.Keywords: mandible, third molar, impaction, elderly, acute inflammation, solitary molar

  4. Accelerated processing of solitary and clustered abasic site DNA ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The stimulatory effect of the aqueous extract of G. lucidum, a basidiomycetes class fungus in the APE1-enzyme-mediated processing of solitary and bistranded clustered abasic sites DNA damages is presented. Abasic sites are considered the most common type of DNA damage lesions. Our study shows enhanced activity ...

  5. Solitary Extramedullary Plasmacytoma of the Cricoid Cartilage—Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Krebs

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Solitary plasmacytoma (SP is an extremely rare form of hematologic malignancy that can be classified as solitary bone plasmacytoma or solitary extramedullary plasmacytoma. Here, we report a patient who presented with progressive shortness of breath and foreign body sensation in his throat. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG-PET/CT demonstrated an abnormal FDG-avid soft tissue mass arising from the larynx involving the cricoid cartilage without additional suspicious lesions. Histology revealed an abundance of plasma cells; immunohistochemistry was positive for CD138 expression and lambda chains, and negative for CD20. Comprehensive imaging studies and panendoscopy of the ENT tract confirmed solitary disease involvement. Following additional systemic work-up, a diagnosis of extramedullary plasmacytoma was rendered. The patient underwent definitive radiotherapy using intensity-modulated radiation therapy (total dose of 46 Gy, divided in 23 fractions of 200 cGy. Serial PET/CT showed the stepwise resolution of abnormal FDG uptake and resolution of the cricoid cartilage lesion. With 22 months of follow-up, the patient remains free of disease. We describe the rare case of SP presenting as a FDG-avid hypermetabolic soft tissue mass in the cricoid cartilage, which should be considered in the differential diagnosis of laryngeal tumors. Of note, SP is radiosensitive; favorable outcome can be expected once treated with doses of 40–50 Gy. FDG PET/CT is helpful in diagnosis and response assessment for this disease.

  6. Accelerated processing of solitary and clustered abasic site DNA ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... The stimulatory effect of the aqueous extract of G. lucidum, a basidiomycetes class fungus in the APE1-enzyme-mediated processing of solitary and bistranded clustered abasic sites DNA damages is presented. Abasic sites are considered the most common type of DNA damage lesions. Our study shows ...

  7. Novel antimicrobial peptides from the venom of solitary bees

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čeřovský, Václav; Cvačka, Josef; Voburka, Zdeněk; Hovorka, Oldřich; Slaninová, Jiřina; Fučík, Vladimír; Bednárová, Lucie

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 8 (2008), s. 92-92 ISSN 1075-2617. [European Peptide Symposium /30./. 31.08.2008-05.09.2008, Helsinki] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : antimicrobial peptides * solitary bees * melectin * isolation and characterization Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  8. Giant solitary fibrous tumor of the lung: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Ping; Sun, Linlin; Zhong, Diansheng; Lian, Linjuan; Xu, Dongbo

    2014-01-01

    A solitary fibrous tumor arising from the lung parenchyma is rarely described. Here, we present the clinical, imaging, and histological features of a case of a 54-year-old woman with an incidental lung mass of the right lower lobe on a chest radiograph.

  9. Solitary pulmonary nodule: radiologic features and diagnostic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Cambronero, Luis Enrique

    2012-01-01

    A literature review is conducted on the solitary pulmonary nodule, to determine the diagnostic methods and specific characteristics. The diagnostic methods used have been: chest radiography, computed tomography, positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. The radiological features are defined: location, size, definition of contours or edges (margins), densitometric and attenuation characteristics, cavitation, air bronchogram, growth, doubling time, satellite nodules, nutrient vessels [es

  10. Sonographic Appearance of a Solitary Intramuscular Cysticercosis: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Ju Hee; Joo, Seung Ho; Shim, Joo Eun; Kim, Yee Jeong; Oh, Hyun Cheol; Kim, Tae Hwan

    2009-01-01

    The development of antiparasitic drugs and public health strategies has reduced the prevalence of cysticercosis in South Korea. In contrast, the disease is still endemic in Southeast Asia. The influx of immigrants from endemic areas has been on the increase. We report the sonographic and pathological findings of cysticercosis that presented as an intramuscular solitary mass in a 27-year-old Philippine woman

  11. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy in patients with a solitary kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tufan Süelözgen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Material and method: The results of percutaneous nephrolithotomy applied to 716 patients in our clinic between January 2008 and January 2014 were retrospectively evaluated. Age, gender, urinary calculi size (mm2, urinary calculi localization, ESWL history, operation duration (min, fluoroscopy duration (sec, access type, reason of solitary kidney, hemoglobin drawdown (g/dl and operation success of the patients with a solitary kidney were recorded. The patients having no preoperative and postoperative non contrast abdominal tomography were excluded from the study. Results: Fifteen of nineteen patients (79% were men and 4 of them (21% were women. The average age of the patients was 42.52 ± 16.72 (14-72. Ten patients had anatomical solitary kidney and nine patients had physiological solitary kidney. In fact counter kidney was non functional in 9 patients (47% whereas there was agenesis in 2 (11% and outcome of nephrectomy in 8 (42% patients. In our study, presence of residual stone less than 4 mm at 1st month postoperative non contrast abdominal tomography was accepted as a successful result and accordingly our success rate was detected as 84%. Mean urinary calculi size was 405 ± 252.9 mm2; urinary calculi localization was pelvic, lower pole, upper-middle pole, middle-lower pole and staghorn in 11 (58%, 4 (21%, 1 (5%, 1 (5% and 1 (5% patients, respectively; previous ESWL history was 16%; operation duration was 55.47-± 28.1 min and fluoroscopy duration 131.10 ± 87.6 sec; access type was subcostal in 79%, supracostal in 10.5% and multiple in 10.5%; hemoglobin drawdown was 1.75 ± 0.97 mg/dl. Conclusions: PNL can be effectively and safely administered for the treatment of solitary kidney. In the treatment of large urinary calculi in patients with a solitary kidney, PNL has some advantages such as short surgery duration, less complication, acceptable hemoglobin drawdown and high success rates. According to our study, PNL operation in patients with a

  12. New soliton solution to the longitudinal wave equation in a magneto-electro-elastic circular rod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aly R. Seadawy

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effectiveness of an integration scheme which called the extended trial equation method (ETEM in exactly solving a well-known nonlinear equation of partial differential equations (PDEs. In this respect, the longitudinal wave equation (LWE that arises in mathematical physics with dispersion caused by the transverse Poisson’s effect in a magneto-electro-elastic (MEE circular rod, which a series of exact traveling wave solutions for the aforementioned equation is formally extracted. Explicit new exact solutions are derived in different form such as dark solitons, bright solitons, solitary wave, periodic solitary wave, rational function, and elliptic function solutions of the longitudinal wave equation. The movements of obtained solutions are shown graphically, which helps to understand the physical phenomena of this longitudinal wave equation. Many other such types of nonlinear equations arising in non-destructive evaluation of structures made of the advanced MEE material can also be solved by this method. Keywords: Extended trial equation method, Longitudinal wave equation in a MEE circular rod, Dark solitons, Bright solitons, Solitary wave, Periodic solitary wave

  13. Traveling waves of the regularized short pulse equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Y; Horikis, T P; Kevrekidis, P G; Frantzeskakis, D J

    2014-01-01

    The properties of the so-called regularized short pulse equation (RSPE) are explored with a particular focus on the traveling wave solutions of this model. We theoretically analyze and numerically evolve two sets of such solutions. First, using a fixed point iteration scheme, we numerically integrate the equation to find solitary waves. It is found that these solutions are well approximated by a finite sum of hyperbolic secants powers. The dependence of the soliton's parameters (height, width, etc) to the parameters of the equation is also investigated. Second, by developing a multiple scale reduction of the RSPE to the nonlinear Schrödinger equation, we are able to construct (both standing and traveling) envelope wave breather type solutions of the former, based on the solitary wave structures of the latter. Both the regular and the breathing traveling wave solutions identified are found to be robust and should thus be amenable to observations in the form of few optical cycle pulses. (paper)

  14. Energetics of borelike internal waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henyey, Frank S.; Hoering, Antje

    1997-02-01

    The net integrated energy flux into a train of internal waves is evaluated in a two-layer model. The nonzero value for this integral results from the difference in the stratification between the initial and final state, similar to the energy supply to a surface bore. We apply this expression to waves measured by Wesson and Gregg [1988] in the Strait of Gibraltar and to waves measured by Farmer and Smith [1980] in Knight Inlet. We find the energy supply to be important to the energetics, but the data do not allow a definitive test of the conjecture that the primary energy balance is between this supply and dissipation. We contrast our conjecture to the solitary-wave considerations of Bogucki and Garrett [1993].

  15. Epilepsy, electroacupuncture and the nucleus of the solitary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmak, Yusuf Ozgur

    2006-12-01

    Vagal nerve stimulation and electroacupuncture have some promise as neuroprotective therapies for patients with poorly controlled epilepsy. It has been demonstrated that stimulation of acupuncture points on the extremities results in stimulation of the vagus nerve. It is possible that the antiepileptic effects of these two applications might be targeting the same centre in the brain. The nucleus of the solitary tract, which is a primary site at which vagal afferents terminate, is also the site for afferent pathways of facial, scalp and auricular acupuncture via trigeminal, cervical spinal and glossopharyngeal nerves. Taken together with laboratory findings, the neuroprotective pathways of electroacupuncture in epileptic models may stem from the collaboration of its anti-inflammatory and neurotrophic actions through the nucleus of the solitary tract via vagus nerve stimulation.

  16. Diagnosis, treatment, and response assessment in solitary plasmacytoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caers, J; Paiva, B; Zamagni, E

    2018-01-01

    Solitary plasmacytoma is an infrequent form of plasma cell dyscrasia that presents as a single mass of monoclonal plasma cells, located either extramedullary or intraosseous. In some patients, a bone marrow aspiration can detect a low monoclonal plasma cell infiltration which indicates a high ris......, but studies exploring the potential benefit of systemic therapies for high-risk patients are urgently needed. In this review, a panel of expert European hematologists updates the recommendations on the diagnosis and management of patients with solitary plasmacytoma....... of early progression to an overt myeloma disease. Before treatment initiation, whole body positron emission tomography-computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging should be performed to exclude the presence of additional malignant lesions. For decades, treatment has been based on high-dose radiation...

  17. Solitary eccrine syringofibroadenoma with prominent plasma cell infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Yeon; Kim, You Chan; Lee, Eun-So

    2007-02-01

    Eccrine syringofibroadenoma (ESFA) is a rare, benign, adnexal neoplasm thought to be eccrine ductal differentiation displaying variable clinical findings and characteristic histological features. It usually occurs as a solitary nodule on the extremities of an elderly person. Histological findings typically show a proliferation of anastomosing strands, cords, and columns of monomorphous epithelial cells that harbor eccrine duct formations embedded in a fibrovascular stroma. Acrosyringial nevus, though usually regarded as an identical lesion, is sometimes regarded as a different entity showing prominent plasma cell infiltration. We report two cases of solitary ESFA with prominent plasma cell infiltration. Clinicopathological features of both cases suggest that acrosyringeal nevus and ESFA may be of the same disease entity. Prominent plasma cell infiltration may be just one of the common histological features of ESFA.

  18. Propagation of nonlinear waves in bi-inductance nonlinear transmission lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kengne, Emmanuel; Lakhssassi, Ahmed

    2014-10-01

    We consider a one-dimensional modified complex Ginzburg-Landau equation, which governs the dynamics of matter waves propagating in a discrete bi-inductance nonlinear transmission line containing a finite number of cells. Employing an extended Jacobi elliptic functions expansion method, we present new exact analytical solutions which describe the propagation of periodic and solitary waves in the considered network.

  19. Solitary central osteoma of the jaws: a diagnostic dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Ilana; Nicolaou, Zoe; Hatuel, Dorian; Calderon, Shlomo

    2008-09-01

    Osteomas are relatively rare benign osteogenic neoplasms, characterized by the proliferation of compact and/or cancellous bone. Osteomas can develop as peripheral (periosteal) masses attached to the cortical plates or as central lesions arising from endosteal bone surfaces. Although multiple osteomas of the jaws are a hallmark of Gardner syndrome (familial adenomatous polyposis), nonsyndromic cases are typically solitary. A search of the literature identified 91 well documented cases of solitary osteoma of the jaws published since 1955: 93.4% were peripheral and only 6.6% central, a ratio of 14:1 in favor of peripheral osteomas. Solitary central osteomas of the jaws seem to be very rare, with only 6 such cases reported since 1955. Adding the 4 new cases described here brings the total to 10 central osteomas, 30% occurring in the maxilla and 70% in the mandible. Whereas peripheral osteomas are fairly easy to diagnose, central osteomas pose a more challenging diagnostic problem and need to be differentiated from other similar lesions of the jaws, such as central ossifying fibroma, condensing osteitis, idiopathic osteosclerosis, osteoblastoma, cementoblastoma, and complex odontoma. With such a low number of cases of central osteoma reported, the objectives of the present report are to describe 4 new cases, analyze the clinical and radiographic characteristics, and discuss the features which distinguish these lesions from other similar lesions of the jaws.

  20. Laparoscopic warm renal ischemia in the solitary porcine kidney model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, D Duane; Maynes, Lincoln J; Berger, Kenneth A; Desai, Premal J; Zuppan, Craig W; Zimmerman, Grenith J; Winkielman, Ada M; Sterling, Todd H; Tsai, Christopher K; Ruckle, Herbert C

    2004-09-01

    To determine the effect of a laparoscopic approach on warm renal ischemia in the pig with a solitary kidney. Although the maximal safe duration for warm ischemia during open partial nephrectomy is commonly accepted to be 30 minutes, the maximal safe ischemic time during laparoscopic partial nephrectomy has not been previously determined. Sixteen farm pigs underwent unilateral laparoscopic right nephrectomy. Two weeks later, the pigs underwent complete laparoscopic mobilization of the remaining left kidney and were randomized to complete hilar clamp times of 0, 30, 60, or 90 minutes. Serum creatinine was evaluated before right nephrectomy and at days 0, 2, 4, 7, 14, and 30 after renal ischemia during laparoscopy. All renal specimens were evaluated by an experienced nephropathologist in a blinded fashion. The serum creatinine remained stable at all points in the control and 30-minute ischemia groups. The serum creatinine level rose initially on days 2 and 4 in the 60-minute and 90-minute ischemia groups but returned to baseline by day 7. At harvest, no statistically significant difference was found among the groups in serum creatinine or histologic features. Renal ischemic times up to 90 minutes during laparoscopy were well tolerated by the solitary porcine kidney. Possible explanations for this finding include the protective effect of a solitary kidney and the potential protective effect of relative ischemic preconditioning provided by the pneumoperitoneum.

  1. Distress tolerance in social versus solitary college student drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Catherine L; Vik, Peter W; Wong, Maria M

    2015-11-01

    Low distress tolerance has been an inconsistent predictor of alcohol-related consequences in college students, but its relationships to depression and coping motives for alcohol have received stronger support. Research on college students who drink heavily in isolation suggests that this population is more likely to have a greater number and severity of alcohol-related problems, depression, and coping motives. Solitary heavy drinkers were therefore hypothesized to have lower distress tolerance than other drinkers. This study examined differences in self-reported and behavioral distress tolerance across two groups of university students: those who endorsed heavy solitary drinking (20.1%) versus those who endorsed other types of drinking. Students completed a self-report measure (Distress Intolerance Self-Report, or DISR) and behavioral measure of distress tolerance (Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test, or PASAT). Students who reported drinking heavily in isolation differed from other students on the DISR, F(1, 132) = 4.645, p = .033, η(2) = .034, but not on the PASAT, F(1, 132) = 0.056, p = .813. These students also endorsed more coping motives for alcohol. Distress tolerance did not predict drinking consequences directly, yet a mediation model linking distress tolerance to consequences through coping motives supports previous findings of distress tolerance as a distal, indirect predictor of drinking problems. The unique characteristics of solitary binge drinkers and the significance of distress tolerance as an indirect predictor of alcohol-related consequences are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Strip waves in vibrated shear-thickening wormlike micellar solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, T; Deegan, R D

    2010-06-01

    We present an instability in vertically vibrated dilute wormlike micellar solutions. Above a critical driving acceleration the fluid forms elongated solitary domains of high amplitude waves. We model this instability using a Mathieu equation modified to account for the non-Newtonian character of the fluid. We find that our model successfully reproduces the observed transitions.

  3. Dynamical behaviours and exact travelling wave solutions of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-12-13

    Dec 13, 2016 ... 2School of Mathematics and Statistics, Guizhou University of Finance and Economics, Guiyang,. Guizhou 550025 ... By using the bifurcation theory of planar dynamical systems and the qualitative theory of differential equations, we .... system (5): a solitary wave solution corresponds to a homoclinic orbit at a ...

  4. Spherical Kadomtsev–Petviashvili equation for dust acoustic waves ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the last term in the left-hand side of eq. (5) disappears and the SKP equation (5) reduces to the ordinary spherical KdV equation. We can find an exact solitary wave solution for the SKP equation (5) by using a suitable variable transformation. In eq. (5), the two terms with variable coefficient can be cancelled if we assume ζ ...

  5. Nonlinear propagation of weakly relativistic ion-acoustic waves in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-10-06

    Oct 6, 2016 ... Abstract. This work presents theoretical and numerical discussion on the dynamics of ion-acoustic solitary wave for weakly relativistic regime in unmagnetized plasma comprising non-extensive electrons, Boltzmann positrons and relativistic ions. In order to analyse the nonlinear propagation phenomena, ...

  6. Symbolic computation and abundant travelling wave solutions to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The method is reliable and useful, and gives more general exact travelling wave solutions than the existing methods. The solutions obtained are in the form of hyperbolic, trigonometricand rational functions including solitary, singular and periodic solutions which have many potential applications in physical science and ...

  7. Success of electromagnetic shock wave lithotripter as monotherapy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    K.S. Meitei

    Abstract. Objectives: To evaluate the success of shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) as monotherapy for solitary renal stones larger than 2 cm without ureteral stenting. Hence, if our study result demonstrates acceptable success and safety, we can recommend ESWL as a treatment option for patients with large renal calculi.

  8. Nonlinear waves in collisionless gravitating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyachenko, V.L.; Shukhman, I.G.

    1979-09-01

    Nonlinear equations are derived for the gravitational potential in collisionless systems modeling galaxies. Solutions in the form of solitary waves (solitons) are obtained and their stability is tested. Systems composed of both stars and gas are also discussed. The dependence of the critical wavelength on the perturbation amplitude is established for the classical Jeans problem (an infinite, homogeneous world model) and for its two- and one-dimensional analogs in the collisionless case.

  9. Differences between endocrinologists and endocrine surgeons in management of the solitary thyroid nodule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walsh, John P; Ryan, Simon A; Lisewski, Dean

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is not known whether management of the solitary thyroid nodule differs between endocrinologists and endocrine surgeons. METHODS: A questionnaire containing a hypothetical case (a 42-year-old euthyroid woman with a 2-x-3-cm solitary thyroid nodule) and 13 clinical variations was sent...... Thyroid Association members (predominantly endocrinologists) demonstrated considerable international differences in management. CONCLUSION: There are clinically significant differences between Australian endocrinologists and endocrine surgeons in management of the solitary thyroid nodule...

  10. Peakons and compactons on the background of periodic wave

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    For convenience, here we only give the periodic solution from eqs (7), (5) and solution. (10) in table 1. G = Hy = −2χx ψy. [. 1 sin(χ + ψ) + cos(χ + ψ). ]2. ,. (8) where χ and ψ are arbitrary functions of {x, t} and {y}, respectively. 3. Novel solitary wave structures in the background of Jacobian elliptic waves. All rich localized ...

  11. Perturbation series for the double cnoidal wave of the Korteweg-de Vries equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, John P.

    1984-12-01

    By means of the theorems proved earlier by the author, the problem of the double cnoidal wave of the Korteweg-de Vries equation is reduced to four algebraic equations in four unknowns. Two of the unknowns are the nonlinear phase speeds c1 and c2. Another is a physically irrelevant integration constant. The fourth unknown is the off-diagonal element of the symmetric, 2×2 theta matrix, which in turn gives the explicit coefficients of the Riemann theta function. The double cnoidal wave u(x,t) is then obtained by taking the second x-derivative of the logarithm of the theta function. Two separate forms of these four nonlinear ``residual'' equations are given. One is obtained from the Fourier series of the theta function and is useful for small wave amplitude. The other is based on the Gaussian series of the theta function and is highly efficient in the large amplitude regime where the double cnoidal wave is the sum of two solitary waves. Both sets of residual equations can be solved via perturbation theory and results are given to fourth order in the Fourier case and second order in the Gaussian case. The Gaussian-based perturbation series has the remarkable property that it converges more and more rapidly as the wave amplitude increases; the zeroth-order solution is the familiar double solitary wave. Numerical comparisons show that the two complementary perturbation series give accurate results in all the important regions of parameter space. (The ``unimportant'' regions are those in which the double cnoidal wave is an ordinary cnoidal wave subject to a very weak perturbation.) This is turn implies that even for moderate wave amplitude where the nonlinear interactions are not weak, and yet the solitary wave peaks are not well separated, at least to the eye, it is still qualitatively legitimate to describe the double cnoidal wave as either the sum of two sine waves or of two solitary waves of different heights.

  12. SOLITARY PARAGANGLIOMA OF THE HYPOGLOSSAL NERVE: CASE REPORT.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-01

    SOLITARY PARAGANGLIOMA OF THE HYPOGLOSSAL NERVE:: Case Report BACKGROUND AND IMPORTANCE:: We report the case history of solitary hypoglossal paraganglioma in a 64-year-old woman. The surgical difficulties encountered in the removal of this challenging tumour are discussed with literature review. CLINICAL PRESENTATION:: A 64-year-old woman presented with a short history of dysphonia, occasional dysphagia, tinnitus, altered taste, and unilateral left sided tongue wasting. On examination there was left lower motor hypoglossal paralysis. Imaging showed a discrete enhancing lobulated mass, measuring 2cm x 2cm, in the region of the hypoglossal nerve extending into the hypoglossal canal suggestive of hypoglossal paraganglioma. A left dorsolateral sub occipital craniotomy was carried out in the sitting position. The hypoglossal nerve appeared to be enlarged and the jugular foramen was normal. Complete surgical debulking of the tumour was not attempted due to its vascular nature. The nerve was decompressed and neuropathology confirmed a low grade paraganglioma arising from the hypoglossal nerve. The patient is scheduled to receive stereotactic radiation for further management. CONCLUSION:: When a case of solitary hypoglossal paraganglioma is encountered in clinical practice, the aim of management should be mainly focussed on achieving a diagnosis and preserving the hypoglossal nerve function. If there is evidence of vascularity in the lesion noted in the MRI scan, a pre-operative angiogram should be performed with a view for embolisation.We decompressed the hypoglossal canal and achieved a good improvement in the patient\\'s symptoms. We recommend stereotactic radiosurgery for remnant and small hypoglossal tumours and regular follow up with MRI scans.

  13. SOLITARY PARAGANGLIOMA OF THE HYPOGLOSSAL NERVE: CASE REPORT.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Raza, Kazim

    2011-01-25

    SOLITARY PARAGANGLIOMA OF THE HYPOGLOSSAL NERVE:: Case Report BACKGROUND AND IMPORTANCE:: We report the case history of solitary hypoglossal paraganglioma in a 64-year-old woman. The surgical difficulties encountered in the removal of this challenging tumour are discussed with literature review. CLINICAL PRESENTATION:: A 64-year-old woman presented with a short history of dysphonia, occasional dysphagia, tinnitus, altered taste, and unilateral left sided tongue wasting. On examination there was left lower motor hypoglossal paralysis. Imaging showed a discrete enhancing lobulated mass, measuring 2cm x 2cm, in the region of the hypoglossal nerve extending into the hypoglossal canal suggestive of hypoglossal paraganglioma. A left dorsolateral sub occipital craniotomy was carried out in the sitting position. The hypoglossal nerve appeared to be enlarged and the jugular foramen was normal. Complete surgical debulking of the tumour was not attempted due to its vascular nature. The nerve was decompressed and neuropathology confirmed a low grade paraganglioma arising from the hypoglossal nerve. The patient is scheduled to receive stereotactic radiation for further management. CONCLUSION:: When a case of solitary hypoglossal paraganglioma is encountered in clinical practice, the aim of management should be mainly focussed on achieving a diagnosis and preserving the hypoglossal nerve function. If there is evidence of vascularity in the lesion noted in the MRI scan, a pre-operative angiogram should be performed with a view for embolisation.We decompressed the hypoglossal canal and achieved a good improvement in the patient\\'s symptoms. We recommend stereotactic radiosurgery for remnant and small hypoglossal tumours and regular follow up with MRI scans.

  14. Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome: demographic, clinical, endoscopic and histological panorama

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, A.; Bhutto, K. A.R.; Baloch, A.

    2015-01-01

    To assess the demographic, clinical, endoscopic and histological spectrum of Solitary Rectal Ulcer Syndrome (SRUS). Study Design: Cross-sectional observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Medical Unit-III, Civil Hospital Karachi (CHK) and Ward 7, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre (JPMC), Karachi, from January 2009 to June 2012. Methodology: Patients with SRUS, based on characteristic endoscopic and histological findings, were enrolled. Patients were excluded if they had other causes of the rectal lesions (neoplasm, infection, inflammatory bowel disease, and trauma). Endoscopically, lesions were divided on the basis of number (solitary or multiple) and appearance (ulcerative, polypoidal/nodular or erythematous mucosa). Demographic, clinical and endoscopic characteristics of subjects were evaluated. Results: Forty-four patients met the inclusion criteria; 21 (47.7%) were females and 23 (52.3%) were males with overall mean age of 33.73 ±13.28 years. Symptom-wise 41 (93.2%) had bleeding per rectum, 39 (88.6%) had mucous discharge, 34 (77.3%) had straining, 34 (77.3%) had constipation, 32 (72.7%) had tenesmus, 5 (11.4%) had rectal prolapse and 2 (4.5%) had fecal incontinence. Twelve (27.27%) patients presented with hemoglobin less 10 gm/dl, 27 (61.36%) with 10 - 12 gm/dl and 05 (11.36%) subjects had hemoglobin more than 12 gm/dl. Endoscopically, 26 (59.1%) patients had mucosal ulceration, 11 (25.0%) had mucosal ulceration with polypoid characteristics; while only polypoid features were found in 7 (15.9%) subjects. Conclusion: Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome affects adults of both genders with diverse clinical presentation and nonspecific endoscopic features. (author)

  15. Solitary Rectal Ulcer Syndrome: Demographic, Clinical, Endoscopic and Histological Panorama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Amanullah; Bhutto, Abdul Rabb; Taj, Ali; Aurangzaib; Baloch, Akhtar; Masroor, Muhammad; Munir, S M

    2015-12-01

    To assess the demographic, clinical, endoscopic and histological spectrum of Solitary Rectal Ulcer Syndrome (SRUS). Cross-sectional observational study. Medical Unit-III, Civil Hospital Karachi (CHK) and Ward 7, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre (JPMC), Karachi, from January 2009 to June 2012. Patients with SRUS, based on characteristic endoscopic and histological findings, were enrolled. Patients were excluded if they had other causes of the rectal lesions (neoplasm, infection, inflammatory bowel disease, and trauma). Endoscopically, lesions were divided on the basis of number (solitary or multiple) and appearance (ulcerative, polypoidal/nodular or erythematous mucosa). Demographic, clinical and endoscopic characteristics of subjects were evaluated. Forty-four patients met the inclusion criteria; 21 (47.7%) were females and 23 (52.3%) were males with overall mean age of 33.73 ±13.28 years. Symptom-wise 41 (93.2%) had bleeding per rectum, 39 (88.6%) had mucous discharge, 34 (77.3%) had straining, 34 (77.3%) had constipation, 32 (72.7%) had tenesmus, 5 (11.4%) had rectal prolapse and 2 (4.5%) had fecal incontinence. Twelve (27.27%) patients presented with hemoglobin less 10 gm/dl, 27 (61.36%) with 10 - 12 gm/dl and 05 (11.36%) subjects had hemoglobin more than 12 gm/dl. Endoscopically, 26 (59.1%) patients had mucosal ulceration, 11 (25.0%) had mucosal ulceration with polypoid characteristics; while only polypoid features were found in 7 (15.9%) subjects. Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome affects adults of both genders with diverse clinical presentation and nonspecific endoscopic features.

  16. Solitary fibrous tumor arising in an intrathoracic goiter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Stine Rosenkilde; Godballe, Christian; Krogdahl, Annelise

    2010-01-01

    . CONCLUSION: The histological appearance and immunohistochemical reaction pattern of SFT is characteristic. The entity should be considered when dealing with a spindle cell lesion in the thyroid gland. All cases of this site of origin reported have had a benign clinical course. As only a small number of cases......BACKGROUND: Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare spindle cell tumor most often found in the mediastinal pleura. Nineteen cases of SFT arising in the thyroid gland have been reported. We report a case of SFT of the thyroid gland with immunohistochemical and cytogenetic investigation. SUMMARY: A 58...

  17. A case of solitary fibrous tumor of the kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H N Naveen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A solitary fibrous tumor (SFT is an unusual spindle cell neoplasm that usually occurs in the pleura but has recently been described in diverse extrapleural sites. Urogenital localization is rare and to our knowledge, only 39 cases of SFT of the kidney have been described. Although SFT of the kidney is extremely rare, this tumor must be included in the differential diagnosis, whenever a renal tumor consisting of mesenchymal elements is encountered. We report a case of a large SFT of the right kidney which was clinically and radiologically thought to be renal cell carcinoma and a final diagnosis of SFT was made only after immunohistochemical study.

  18. Solitary fibrous tumor of the orbit presenting in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Jayanta K; Sharma, Angshuman Sen; Deka, Akshay Ch; Das, Dipankar

    2009-01-01

    A 32-year-old woman, three months pregnant, reported with the complaint of protrusion of the right eye for six months. She gave history of rapid protrusion of eyeball for the last two months along with the history of double vision for the last one month. Computer tomography (CT) scan revealed a well-defined mass lesion in the intraconal space of the right orbit which was excised through a lateral orbitotomy approach. Histological examination and immunohistochemistry revealed a solitary fibrous tumor, which showed a rapid progression in pregnancy.

  19. Imaging of painful solitary lesions of the sacrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peh, W. C. G.; Koh, W. L.; Kwek, J. W.; Htoo, M. M.; Tan, P. H.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: In patients with sacral pain, the painful symptoms may be caused by a variety of bony and soft tissue lesions. Benign lesions include giant cell tumour, neurogenic tumour, insufficiency fracture, infection and giant bone island. Malignant lesions include primary bone tumours, Ewing sarcoma, plasmacytoma, lymphoma and chordoma. Soft tissue tumours adjacent to or involving the sacrum may cause painful symptoms. A multimodality approach to imaging is required for full assessment of these lesions. This pictorial essay describes a range of common solitary sacral lesions that may cause pain, with emphasis on imaging features

  20. Metastatic melanoma mimicking solitary fibrous tumor: report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekers, Elise M; van Engen-van Grunsven, Adriana C H; Groenen, Patricia J T A; Westdorp, Harm; Koornstra, Rutger H T; Bonenkamp, Johannes J; Flucke, Uta; Blokx, Willeke A M

    2014-02-01

    Malignant melanomas are known for their remarkable morphological variation and aberrant immunophenotype with loss of lineage-specific markers, especially in recurrences and metastases. Hot spot mutations in BRAF, NRAS, GNAQ, and GNA11 and mutations in KIT are oncogenic events in melanomas. Therefore, genotyping can be a useful ancillary diagnostic tool. We present one case each of recurrent and metastatic melanoma, both showing histological and immunohistochemical features of solitary fibrous tumor (SFT). Mutational analysis detected BRAF and NRAS mutations in the primary and secondary lesions, respectively. This result confirmed the diagnosis of recurrent/metastastic melanoma.

  1. Explosive and solitary excitations in a very dense magnetoplasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabry, R. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik IV, Fakultaet fuer Physik und Astronomie, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)], E-mail: refaatsabry@mans.edu.eg; Moslem, W.M. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik IV, Fakultaet fuer Physik und Astronomie, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)], E-mail: wmmoslem@hotmail.com; Shukla, P.K. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik IV, Fakultaet fuer Physik und Astronomie, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)], E-mail: ps@tp4.rub.de

    2008-08-25

    A two-component dense magnetoplasma consisting of ions and degenerate electrons is considered. The basic set of hydrodynamic and Poisson equations are reduced to the Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) equation by using the reductive perturbation technique. The basic features of the electrostatic excitations are investigated by applying a new direct method to the ZK equation. It is found that the latter has new solutions, which admit the propagation of either solitary or explosive pulses. The relevance of the new direct method to other nonlinear partial differential equations is also discussed.

  2. Burned-out seminoma revealed by solitary rib bone metastasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishisho, Toshihiko; Miyagi, Ryo; Sairyo, Koichi [Tokushima University Graduate School, Department of Orthopedics, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Tokushima-city, Tokushima (Japan); Sakaki, Mika [Saitama Medical University International Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Hidaka-city, Saitama (Japan); Takao, Shoichiro [Tokushima University Graduate School, Department of Radiology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Tokushima-city, Tokushima (Japan)

    2017-10-15

    Burned-out tumor is a rare phenomenon in which a testicular tumor regresses in the primary lesion and progresses in a metastatic lesion. We report the case of a 30-year-old male with burned-out seminoma revealed by open biopsy of solitary 10th rib bone metastasis. He underwent inguinal orchiectomy, which revealed hyalinization, indicating a spontaneously regressed testicular tumor. Chemotherapy for seminoma was administered in three cycles of bleomycin + etoposide + cisplatin therapy. The chemotherapy was effective, and wide resection of the rib was subsequently performed. No postoperative chemotherapy was performed, and there has been no evidence of recurrence for 3 years postoperatively. (orig.)

  3. Splenectomy for solitary splenic metastasis of ovarian cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Yang Seok; Kim, Jung Chul; Cho, Chol Kyoon

    2004-01-01

    Splenic metastases occur in rare cases with a few case reports of patients in the literature. Generally, splenic metastases mean late dissemination of a disease. Solitary splenic metastases from solid tumors are extremely unusual. We report a case of a patient with ovarian mucinous cystadenocarcinoma who underwent splenectomy for isolated parenchymal metastasis. Ovarian epithelial tumors comprised most of isolated splenic metastases from gynecologic tumor. When isolated splenic recurrence is suspected on image studies and serum tumor markers, intraabdominal gross findings should be examined to exclude peritoneal carcinomatosis. If only spleen was under suspicion of recurrence of ovarian cancer, splenectomy may play a therapeutic role

  4. An exponential expansion method and its application to the strain wave equation in microstructured solids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Hafez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The modeling of wave propagation in microstructured materials should be able to account for various scales of microstructure. Based on the proposed new exponential expansion method, we obtained the multiple explicit and exact traveling wave solutions of the strain wave equation for describing different types of wave propagation in microstructured solids. The solutions obtained in this paper include the solitary wave solutions of topological kink, singular kink, non-topological bell type solutions, solitons, compacton, cuspon, periodic solutions, and solitary wave solutions of rational functions. It is shown that the new exponential method, with the help of symbolic computation, provides an effective and straightforward mathematical tool for solving nonlinear evolution equations arising in mathematical physics and engineering.

  5. High-order Boussinesq-type modelling of nonlinear wave phenomena in deep and shallow water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Per A.; Fuhrman, David R.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we start with a review of the development of Boussinesq theory for water waves covering the period from 1872 to date. Previous reviews have been given by Dingemans,1 Kirby,2,3 and Madsen & Schäffer.4 Next, we present our most recent high-order Boussinesq-type formulation valid...... for fully nonlinear and highly dispersive waves traveling over a rapidly varying bathymetry. Finally, we cover applications of this Boussinesq model, and we study a number of nonlinear wave phenomena in deep and shallow water. These include (1) Kinematics in highly nonlinear progressive deep-water waves; (2......) Kinematics in progressive solitary waves; (3) Reflection of solitary waves from a vertical wall; (4) Reflection and diffraction around a vertical plate; (5) Quartet and quintet interactions and class I and II instabilities; (6) Extreme events from focused directionally spread waveelds; (7) Bragg scattering...

  6. New soliton solution to the longitudinal wave equation in a magneto-electro-elastic circular rod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seadawy, Aly R.; Manafian, Jalil

    2018-03-01

    This paper examines the effectiveness of an integration scheme which called the extended trial equation method (ETEM) in exactly solving a well-known nonlinear equation of partial differential equations (PDEs). In this respect, the longitudinal wave equation (LWE) that arises in mathematical physics with dispersion caused by the transverse Poisson's effect in a magneto-electro-elastic (MEE) circular rod, which a series of exact traveling wave solutions for the aforementioned equation is formally extracted. Explicit new exact solutions are derived in different form such as dark solitons, bright solitons, solitary wave, periodic solitary wave, rational function, and elliptic function solutions of the longitudinal wave equation. The movements of obtained solutions are shown graphically, which helps to understand the physical phenomena of this longitudinal wave equation. Many other such types of nonlinear equations arising in non-destructive evaluation of structures made of the advanced MEE material can also be solved by this method.

  7. Rare case of solitary plasmacytoma of the skull in a young male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solitary plasmacytoma of bone without signs of multiple myeloma is a rare entity. It usually presents as an osteolytic lesion in the axial skeleton of an elderly patient. Here, we report a case of solitary plasmacytoma in the skull of a young male patient which emphasises the need to consider it in the differential diagnosis of a ...

  8. Risk factors for renal injury in children with a solitary functioning kidney.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westland, R.; Kurvers, R.A.; Wijk, J.A. van; Schreuder, M.F.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The hyperfiltration hypothesis implies that children with a solitary functioning kidney are at risk to develop hypertension, proteinuria, and chronic kidney disease. We sought to determine the presenting age of renal injury and identify risk factors for children with a solitary

  9. Solitary cysticercosis of the biceps brachii in a vegetarian: a rare and unusual pseudotumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelwahab, Ibrahim Fikry [Department of Radiology, New York Methodist Hospital Affiliated with Weill Medical College of Cornell University, 506 Sixth Street, Brooklyn, NY 11215 (United States); Klein, Michael J. [Department of Pathology, Mount Sinai Medical Center, 1 Gustave Levy Place, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Hermann, George [Department of Radiology, Mount Sinai Medical Center, 1 Gustave Levy Place, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Abdul-Quader, Mohammed [Department of Radiology, Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center, 177 Fort Washington Avenue, New York, NY 10032 (United States)

    2003-07-01

    We report a 40-year-old man with cysticercosis presenting as a solitary tumor in the biceps brachii muscle. Physical examination revealed an intramuscular mass and magnetic resonance imaging suggested a cyst. The histologic diagnosis was a cysticercus. Such solitary presentation of muscular cysticercosis is extremely rare with only a handful of sporadic reports in the literature. (orig.)

  10. Differential Properties of Venom Peptides and Proteins in Solitary vs. Social Hunting Wasps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Si Hyeock; Baek, Ji Hyeong; Yoon, Kyungjae Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The primary functions of venoms from solitary and social wasps are different. Whereas most solitary wasps sting their prey to paralyze and preserve it, without killing, as the provisions for their progeny, social wasps usually sting to defend their colonies from vertebrate predators. Such distinctive venom properties of solitary and social wasps suggest that the main venom components are likely to be different depending on the wasps’ sociality. The present paper reviews venom components and properties of the Aculeata hunting wasps, with a particular emphasis on the comparative aspects of venom compositions and properties between solitary and social wasps. Common components in both solitary and social wasp venoms include hyaluronidase, phospholipase A2, metalloendopeptidase, etc. Although it has been expected that more diverse bioactive components with the functions of prey inactivation and physiology manipulation are present in solitary wasps, available studies on venom compositions of solitary wasps are simply too scarce to generalize this notion. Nevertheless, some neurotoxic peptides (e.g., pompilidotoxin and dendrotoxin-like peptide) and proteins (e.g., insulin-like peptide binding protein) appear to be specific to solitary wasp venom. In contrast, several proteins, such as venom allergen 5 protein, venom acid phosphatase, and various phospholipases, appear to be relatively more specific to social wasp venom. Finally, putative functions of main venom components and their application are also discussed. PMID:26805885

  11. A Rare third ventricle solitary tuberculoma | N'da | Pan African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The authors report a case of third ventricle solitary Tuberculoma which has occurred in a 10 year old patient and revealed by a syndrome of intracranial hypertension without tuberculosis stigma. This lesion ... The authors insist on the diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties in front of a third ventricle solitary tuberculoma.

  12. Male solitary drinking and hazardous alcohol use in nine countries of the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickley, Andrew; Koyanagi, Ai; Roberts, Bayard; Murphy, Adrianna; Kizilova, Kseniya; McKee, Martin

    2015-05-01

    Despite evidence that many people engage in solitary drinking and that it might be associated with negative consequences, to date, little research has focused on this form of drinking behaviour. This study examined the prevalence and factors associated with solitary drinking, and assessed whether it is linked with hazardous alcohol use among males in nine countries of the former Soviet Union (fSU). Data came from a cross-sectional population-based survey undertaken in 2010/11 in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine. Information was obtained on the frequency of solitary drinking among male regular drinkers (i.e., those consuming alcoholic drinks at least once a month), and on problem drinking (CAGE) and heavy episodic drinking (HED). Logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations between the variables. The prevalence of occasional and frequent solitary drinking ranged from 8.4% (Georgia) to 42.4% (Azerbaijan), and 3.1% (Kazakhstan) to 8.2% (Armenia), respectively. Solitary drinking was associated with being older, divorced/widowed, living alone, having a bad/very bad household financial situation, lower levels of social support, and poor self-rated health. Occasional solitary drinking was linked to problem drinking and HED, while frequent solitary alcohol use was related to problem drinking. Solitary drinking is relatively common among male regular drinkers in the fSU and is linked to older age, social and economic disadvantage, and hazardous alcohol use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Numerical study of the wave-induced slamming force on the elastic plate based on MPS-FEM coupled method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Cheng-ping; Wan, De-cheng

    2018-02-01

    Slamming is the phenomenon of structure impacting the water surface. It always results in the extremely high load on the structure. This paper is mainly concerned with the slamming force caused by the wave-plate interaction. In this paper, the process of solitary wave impacting onto the horizontal plate is simulated with the help of the moving particle semi-implicit and finite element coupled method (MPS-FEM). The MPS method is adopted to calculate the fluid domain while the structural domain is solved by FEM method. In the first series of simulations, the profiles of the solitary waves with various amplitudes, which are generated in the numerical wave tank, are compared with the theoretical results. Thereafter the interaction between the solitary waves and a rigid plate is simulated. The effects of wave amplitude, as well as the elevation of the plate above the initial water level, on the slamming force are numerically investigated. The calculated results are compared with the available experimental data. Finally, the interactions between the solitary waves and the elastic plate are also simulated. The effects of the structural flexibility on the wave-induced force are analyzed by the comparison between the cases with elastic and the rigid plate.

  14. Measurement of Ultra-Short Solitary Electromagnetic Pulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Gescheidtova

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In connection with the events of the last few years and with the increased number of terrorist activities, the problem of identification and measurement of electromagnetic weapons or other systems impact occurred. Among these are also microwave sources, which can reach extensive peak power of up to Pmax = 100 MW. Solitary, in some cases several times repeated, impulses lasting from tp E <1, 60>ns, cause the destruction of semiconductor junctions. These days we can find scarcely no human activity, where semiconductor structures are not used. The problem of security support of the air traffic, transportation, computer nets, banks, national strategic data canter’s, and other applications crops up. Several types of system protection from the ultra-short electromagnetic pulses present itself, passive and active protection. The analysis of the possible measuring methods, convenient for the identification and measurement of the ultra-short solitary electromagnetic pulses in presented in this paper; some of the methods were chosen and used for practical measurement. This work is part of Research object MSM262200022 "Research of microelectronic systems".

  15. Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome: clinical findings, surgical treatment, and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Carlos; Khaikin, Marat; Bracho, Jorge; Luo, Cheng Hua; Weiss, Eric G; Sands, Dana R; Cera, Susan; Nogueras, Juan J; Wexner, Steven D

    2007-11-01

    Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome (SRUS) is a rare disorder often misdiagnosed as a malignant ulcer. Histopathological features of SRUS are characteristic and pathognomonic; nevertheless, the endoscopic and clinical presentations may be confusing. The aim of the present study was to assess the clinical findings, surgical treatment, and outcomes in patients who suffer from SRUS. A retrospective chart review was undertaken, from January 1989 to May 2005 for all patients who were diagnosed with SRUS. Data recorded included: patient's age, gender, clinical presentation, past surgical history, diagnostic and preoperative workup, operative procedure, complications, and outcomes. During the study period, 23 patients were diagnosed with SRUS. Seven patients received only medical treatment, and in three patients, the ulcer healed after medical treatment. Sixteen patients underwent surgical treatment. In four patients, the symptoms persisted after surgery. Two patients presented with postoperative rectal bleeding requiring surgical intervention. Three patients developed late postoperative sexual dysfunction. One patient continued suffering from rectal pain after a colostomy was constructed. Median follow-up was 14 (range 2-84) months. The results of this study show clearly that every patient with SRUS must be assessed individually. Initial treatment should include conservative measures. In patients with refractory symptoms, surgical treatment should be considered. Results of anterior resection and protocolectomy are satisfactory for solitary rectal ulcer.

  16. Dispersal of solitary bees and bumblebees in a winter oilseed rape field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calabuig, Isabel

    2000-01-01

    Dispersal distributions of solitary bees and bumblebees were studied in a winter oilseed rape field. Window-traps were placed in the rape field along a line transect perpendicular to the field edge. 19 species of solitary bees were recorded and all but four species are polylectic, including...... Brassicaceae as host-plant family. Through non-linear regression, the decline in solitary bee individuals versus distance from field edge significantly fitted a steep two-parameter exponential decay function. Activity of solitary bees was clearly highest within 30 metres from the field edge. Apparently......, solitary bees do not play any noteworthy role in the pollination of winter oilseed rape in Denmark. The traps yielded ten species of bumblebees, and a significant linear correlation was found between numbers of individuals and distance from the field edge. This result is attributed to bumblebee foraging...

  17. Effects of nonextensivity on the electron-acoustic solitary structures in a magnetized electron−positron−ion plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafat, A., E-mail: rafat.plasma@gmail.com; Rahman, M. M.; Alam, M. S.; Mamun, A. A. [Jahangirnagar University, Department of Physics (Bangladesh)

    2016-08-15

    Obliquely propagating electron-acoustic solitary waves (EASWs) in a magnetized electron−positron−ion plasma (containing nonextensive hot electrons and positrons, inertial cold electrons, and immobile positive ions) are precisely investigated by deriving the Zakharov–Kuznetsov equation. It is found that the basic features (viz. polarity, amplitude, width, phase speed, etc.) of the EASWs are significantly modified by the effects of the external magnetic field, obliqueness of the system, nonextensivity of hot positrons and electrons, ratio of the hot electron temperature to the hot positron temperature, and ratio of the cold electron number density to the hot positron number density. The findings of our results can be employed in understanding the localized electrostatic structures and the characteristics of EASWs in various astrophysical plasmas.

  18. Rotation-induced nonlinear wavepackets in internal waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitfield, A. J., E-mail: ashley.whitfield.12@ucl.ac.uk; Johnson, E. R., E-mail: e.johnson@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Mathematics, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-15

    The long time effect of weak rotation on an internal solitary wave is the decay into inertia-gravity waves and the eventual formation of a localised wavepacket. Here this initial value problem is considered within the context of the Ostrovsky, or the rotation-modified Korteweg-de Vries (KdV), equation and a numerical method for obtaining accurate wavepacket solutions is presented. The flow evolutions are described in the regimes of relatively-strong and relatively-weak rotational effects. When rotational effects are relatively strong a second-order soliton solution of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation accurately predicts the shape, and phase and group velocities of the numerically determined wavepackets. It is suggested that these solitons may form from a local Benjamin-Feir instability in the inertia-gravity wave-train radiated when a KdV solitary wave rapidly adjusts to the presence of strong rotation. When rotational effects are relatively weak the initial KdV solitary wave remains coherent longer, decaying only slowly due to weak radiation and modulational instability is no longer relevant. Wavepacket solutions in this regime appear to consist of a modulated KdV soliton wavetrain propagating on a slowly varying background of finite extent.

  19. On exact solutions of the regularized long-wave equation: A direct approach to partially integrable equations. II. Periodic solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, A.

    1995-07-01

    In this second of two articles (designated I and II), the bilinear transformation method is used to obtain stationary periodic solutions of the partially integrable regularized long-wave (RLW) equation. These solutions are expressed in terms of Riemann theta functions, and this approach leads to a new and compact expression for the important dispersion relation. The periodic solution (or cnoidal wave) can be represented as an infinite sum of sech2 ``solitary waves'': this remarkable property may be interpreted in the context of a nonlinear superposition principle. The RLW cnoidal wave approximates to a sinusoidal wave and a solitary wave in the limits of small and large amplitudes, respectively. Analytic approximations and error estimates are given which shed light on the character of the cnoidal wave in the different parameter regimes. Similar results are presented in brief for the related RLW Boussinesq (RLWB) equation.

  20. General traveling wave solutions of the strain wave equation in microstructured solids via the new approach of generalized (G′/G-expansion method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Nur Alam

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The new approach of generalized (G′/G-expansion method is significant, powerful and straightforward mathematical tool for finding exact traveling wave solutions of nonlinear evolution equations (NLEEs arise in the field of engineering, applied mathematics and physics. Dispersive effects due to microstructure of materials combined with nonlinearities give rise to solitary waves. In this article, the new approach of generalized (G′/G-expansion method has been applied to construct general traveling wave solutions of the strain wave equation in microstructured solids. Abundant exact traveling wave solutions including solitons, kink, periodic and rational solutions have been found. These solutions might play important role in engineering fields.

  1. Non-linear Alfvén waves in spin-1/2 quantum plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Qasim; Mushtaq, A.; Ikram, M.

    2018-02-01

    Nonlinear circularly polarized Alfvén waves are studied in Fermionic spin-1/2 quantum plasmas. Using the basic equations for Hall magnetohydrodynamics including quantum corrections, the set of Zakharov-like equations are obtained for circularly polarized nonlinear Alfvén waves. In order to investigate the properties of the Alfvén solitary structure in the presence of spin magnetization and quantum plasma beta, the Sagdeev potential approach is employed. For the case of right-handed circularly polarized Alfvén waves, the amplitude of the Sagdeev potential and the associated solitary profile is observed to enhance with the increase of quantum plasma beta and magnetization energy due to electron spin-1/2 effects. However, it is found that the amplitude of the Sagdeev potential and the related solitary profile decrease with the increasing values of quantum plasma beta and magnetization energy for the case of left-handed circularly polarized Alfvén waves. An increase in the width of the solitary structure is also observed with the increase in the value of magnetization energy for the case of the left-handed circularly polarized wave. An investigation of the modulational instability is also inspected with the effects of spin magnetization and quantum plasma beta.

  2. Young children's preference for solitary play: Implications for socio-emotional and school adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Laura L; Baldwin, Danielle; Coplan, Robert J; Rose-Krasnor, Linda

    2018-01-22

    The purpose of this study was to provide additional psychometric support for the Preference for Solitary Play Interview (PSPI) and to examine the associations between self-reported preference for solitary play and indices of adjustment in early childhood. Participants were N = 340 children attending kindergarten and grade 1. Children completed the PSPI, and teachers provided assessments of children's socio-emotional and school adjustment. In support of the validity of the PSPI, preference for solitary play was positively associated with asocial behaviours. Further, preference for solitary play displayed an indirect (but not direct) association with peer exclusion via asocial behaviours. Findings are discussed in terms of the social and behavioural implications of preference for solitary play in early childhood. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Children who spend more time alone are at increased risk of adjustment difficulties. However, some individuals desire to spend time alone because of an appreciation for solitude. A preference for solitude is not associated with negative adjustment in adults and older youth. What does this study add? This study is among the first to examine self-reported preference for solitary in early childhood. Preference for solitude may not be related to emotional or school difficulties in young children. However, a heightened display of solitary behaviours may still evoke negative responses from peers. © 2018 The British Psychological Society.

  3. Solitary plexiform neurofibroma determining pyloric obstruction: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Cambruzzi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Solitary gastric plexiform neurofibroma (PN is a very rare tumor that originates from the peripheral nerves. PN is a rare cause of pyloric obstruction. A 58 year-old man, reported epigastric discomfort, nausea, and vomiting for two months. Upper digestive endoscopy showed a moderate/accentuated pyloric stenosis. Computed tomography (CT and echoendoscopy revealed a pyloric nodule. The patient underwent to distal gastrectomy. Macroscopically, a gray nodule measuring 1.1 × 1.0 × 1.0 cm was identified. Using microscopy, a benign tumor composed of enlarged tortuous nerve fascicles showing a neurofibromatous proliferation with mild atypia and myxoid matrix was found. The lesion showed positive immunoexpression for S100, Leu7, and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA, and was negative for CD117, DOG-1, desmin, and smooth muscle actin. The diagnosis of PN was then determined.

  4. Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perito, Emily R; Mileti, Elizabeth; Dalal, Deepal H; Cho, Soo-Jin; Ferrell, Linda D; McCracken, Marjorie; Heyman, Melvin B

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the presenting symptoms, endoscopic and histologic findings, and clinical courses of pediatric patients diagnosed with solitary rectal ulcer syndrome (SRUS). We describe 15 cases of SRUS diagnosed at our institution during a 13-year period. Cases were identified by review of a pathology database and chart review and confirmed by review of biopsies. Data were collected by retrospective chart review. Presenting symptoms were consistent but nonspecific, most commonly including blood in stools, diarrhea alternating with constipation, and abdominal/perianal pain. Fourteen of 15 patients had normal hemoglobin/hematocrit, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and albumin at diagnosis. Endoscopic findings, all limited to the distal rectum, ranged from erythema to ulceration and polypoid lesions. Histology revealed characteristic findings. Stool softeners and mesalamine suppositories improved symptoms, but relapse was common. SRUS in children presents with nonspecific symptoms and endoscopic findings. Clinical suspicion is required, and diagnosis requires histologic confirmation. Response to present treatments is variable.

  5. Solitary Large Intestinal Diverticulitis in Leatherback Turtles (Dermochelys coriacea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy, B A; Innis, C J; Daoust, P-Y; Wyneken, J; Miller, M; Harris, H; James, M C; Christiansen, E F; Foley, A

    2015-07-01

    Leatherback sea turtles are globally distributed and endangered throughout their range. There are limited data available on disease in this species. Initial observations of solitary large intestinal diverticulitis in multiple leatherbacks led to a multi-institutional review of cases. Of 31 subadult and adult turtles for which complete records were available, all had a single exudate-filled diverticulum, as large as 9.0 cm in diameter, arising from the large intestine immediately distal to the ileocecal junction. All lesions were chronic and characterized by ongoing inflammation, numerous intralesional bacteria, marked attenuation of the muscularis, ulceration, and secondary mucosal changes. In three cases, Morganella morganii was isolated from lesions. Diverticulitis was unrelated to the cause of death in all cases, although risk of perforation and other complications are possible. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. A Rare Differential Diagnosis of a Solitary Anterior Neck Mass

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    Jeyasakthy Saniasiaya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Patients with anterior neck masses commonly present to otorhinolaryngology clinics, but there are limited differential diagnoses for such lesions. Common ones include thyroid nodule and thyroglossal duct cyst. In an elderly patient, a differentiated thyroid carcinoma should be suspected especially if it moves with swallowing. We encountered a typical presentation of a solitary thyroid nodule-like mass with the exception of pulsation in a 65-year-old female. Further investigation, using neck ultrasonography, revealed that it was a variant of right common carotid artery arising from the left common carotid artery. Knowledge of such variants is of great importance as ignorance of such a variation may lead to inadvertent surgical complications during procedures.

  7. The imaging diagnosis of costal solitary eosinophilic granuloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Fa; Feng Shiting

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the imaging features of costal eosinophilic granuloma so as to improve diagnosis accuracy of the disease. Methods: The clinical and imaging materials of 6 patients with costal solitary eosinophilic granuloma which were proved by surgery or histopathology were analyzed retrospectively. X-ray plain films were performed in all the cases, CT in 3 cases, 2 cases were received CT plain scan and I case received both CT plain scan and enhanced CT scan. Results: 4 cases of them located in the anterior ribs. All the lesions were round-like and 5 were single cavity and 1 was multiple cavities. 3 of them were expansile destruction and 3 were cystic destruction. Soft tissue mass around the lesion was identified. Conclusion: X-ray plain films integrating CT play an important role in diagnosis and differential diagnosis of the costal eosinophilic granuloma. (authors)

  8. Sadness and happiness are amplified in solitary listening to music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinfan; Yang, Taoxi; Bao, Yan; Li, Hui; Pöppel, Ernst; Silveira, Sarita

    2018-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that music is a powerful means to convey affective states, but it remains unclear whether and how social context shape the intensity and quality of emotions perceived in music. Using a within-subject design, we studied this question in two experimental settings, i.e. when subjects were alone versus in company of others without direct social interaction or feedback. Non-vocal musical excerpts of the emotional qualities happiness or sadness were rated on arousal and valence dimensions. We found evidence for an amplification of perceived emotion in the solitary listening condition, i.e. happy music was rated as happier and more arousing when nobody else was around and, in an analogous manner, sad music was perceived as sadder. This difference might be explained by a shift of attention in the presence of others. The observed interaction of perceived emotion and social context did not differ for stimuli of different cultural origin.

  9. Solitary, spontaneous cervical and large bone fractures in aluminium osteodystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundaram, M.; Dessner, D.; Ballal, S.

    1991-01-01

    Aluminum-induced bone disease in uremic patients receiving dialysis was first described a little more than 10 years ago. The epidemic form of the disease was seen in centers where there was a high aluminum content in the water dialysate. Although this problem has been corrected, sporadic forms of the disease continue to be noted in dialyzed and nondialyzed patients. Multiple fractures are a radiological feature of aluminum-related bone disease. We present four patients whose nontraumatic fractures involved large bones, without evidence of multiple fractures. Healing was not seen in any of the fractures. In patients receiving dialysis the presence of spontaneous fractures of large bones or cervical vertebrae, which may be clinically silent or vaguely symptomatic, should raise the possibility of aluminum-induced osteomalacia even if these fractures are solitary. (orig./GDG)

  10. Solitary fibrous tumor of the liver: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Li-Xiong

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hepatic solitary fibrous tumor (SFT is a rare tumor originating from the mesenchyme. Here we report a new case of SFT in the liver and review the clinical presentation, radiological and operative findings, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome. The patient was a 59-year-old man who presented with progressive fatigue for 3 months and an abdominal mass for 3 days. On laboratory tests, no abnormality was detected except that abdominal ultrasonography revealed a 9.0 × 6.2 cm hypoechogenic mass in the left lobe of the liver. A computed tomographic scan confirmed a hypodense lesion in the left lobe of the liver. The patient underwent left hepatectomy. SFT was diagnosed on the basis of histopathological findings. The patient was free from all symptoms and had no signs of local recurrence after 24 months' follow up.

  11. Giant Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Parotid Gland

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    Octavian Chis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs are rare tumors that are mostly found arising from the pleura. SFT of the parotid gland is a rare tumor; only a few cases have been described in the literature. SFTs are benign in most cases. Clinically, SFTs usually manifest as well circumscribed, slow-growing, smooth, and painless masses. CT-Scan and MRI are the most sensitive imaging procedures used. The treatment of choice is complete surgical excision of the lesion. Since recurrence and metastasis can take place after several years, a lifelong clinical and imaging regular follow-up is compulsory. In this paper, we describe the diagnostic and therapeutic challenges of the up-to-now biggest parotid SFT. The clinical presentation, surgical management, and pathological and immunohistochemistry findings are described.

  12. Solitary fibrous tumor of the pleura: 3 case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Amorim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary Introduction: solitary fibrous tumor of the pleura (SFTP is a rare tumor arising from mesenchymatous cells in submesothelial pleural tissue which, unlike mesothelioma, is not related to asbestos or smoking. Methods: report of four patients who underwent surgical treatment for giant SFTP and review of the pertinent literature. Results: of the four patients operated, two presented symptoms including cough, chest pain and feeling of compression, whereas the other two subjects were asymptomatic. All patients underwent complete surgical resection by wide posterolateral thoracotomy, and surgical specimens removed with minimum bleeding. None of the cases required complementary lobectomy or segmentectomy. All tumors were histologically benign. Conclusion: complete resection of the lesion is the treatment of choice in all SFTP cases. Prognosis of the benign lesion is excellent, although close follow-up is necessary. In the rarer, more aggressive forms, treatment may be complemented by adjunctive chemotherapy or radiotherapy, the benefits of which have yet to be confirmed.

  13. Hypoglyceamia in a Patient with a Solitary Fibrous Tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Okpe

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To illustrate an unusual mechanism causing hypoglycaemia. Material and methods: A 76-year-old man presented with episodes of agitation and confusion and was resuscitated with oral glucose gel when found to be hypoglycaemic. Results: A CT scan for an abdominal mass confirmed a solitary fibrous tumour (SFT. The sarcoma multidisciplinary team suggested conservative management. The patient's episodic hypoglycaemia was managed with diet modification including corn-based starch, scheduled snacks and dexamethasone. Glucose levels were within normal range at discharge from hospital. The patient was referred to the palliative care team for follow-up. Conclusion: SFTs causing non-islet cell tumour hypoglycaemia are difficult to treat.

  14. SOLITARY SPLENIC METASTASIS OF COLON CANCER: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Hashemzadeh M. Safari

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Although splenic metastasis is fairly common in disseminated cancer, solitary splenic metastasis in the absence of diffuse dissemination is rare. We report a case of 44 year-old man who developed isolated splenic metastasis of colon cancer. The patient had undergone right sided hemicolectomy for colon cancer in 1988. In 2001, he underwent reoperation because of local recurrence of tumor in the anastomotic site. The patient was admitted to our hospital on Sep 2003 with abdominal pain. Chest X-ray was normal. Abdominal CT scan showed a large cystic lesion in the spleen. Splenectomy was performed for the patient. The spleen was enlarged, firm and irregular. Histological examination showed metastatic mucinous adenocarcinoma. Based on this case, we recommend that clinicians consider possibility of metastasis in cystic lesions of spleen, especially in patients with a history of a malignant disease.

  15. Solitary paraganglioma of the hypoglossal nerve: case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Raza, Kazim

    2011-04-01

    BACKGROUND AND IMPORTANCE: We report the case history of solitary hypoglossal paraganglioma in a 64-year-old woman. The surgical difficulties encountered in the removal of this challenging tumor are discussed and as a literature review provided. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 64-year-old woman presented with a short history of dysphonia, occasional dysphagia, tinnitus, altered taste, and unilateral left-sided tongue wasting. On examination, there was left lower motor hypoglossal paralysis. Imaging showed a discrete enhancing lobulated mass, measuring 2 × 2 cm, in the region of the hypoglossal nerve extending into the hypoglossal canal suggestive of hypoglossal paraganglioma. A left dorsolateral suboccipital craniotomy was performed with the patient in the sitting position. The hypoglossal nerve appeared to be enlarged, and the jugular foramen was normal. Complete surgical debulking of the tumor was not attempted because of its vascular nature. The nerve was decompressed, and neuropathology confirmed a low-grade paraganglioma arising from the hypoglossal nerve. The patient was scheduled to receive stereotactic radiation for further management. CONCLUSION: When a case of solitary hypoglossal paraganglioma is encountered in clinical practice, the aim of management should be mainly focused on achieving a diagnosis and preserving the hypoglossal nerve function. If there is evidence of vascularity in the lesion noted on magnetic resonance imaging, a preoperative angiogram should be obtained with a view for embolization. We decompressed the hypoglossal canal and achieved good improvement in the patient\\'s symptoms. We recommend stereotactic radiosurgery for remnant and small hypoglossal tumors and regular follow-up with magnetic resonance imaging scans.

  16. Solitary paraganglioma of the hypoglossal nerve: case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Raza, Kazim

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND AND IMPORTANCE: We report the case history of solitary hypoglossal paraganglioma in a 64-year-old woman. The surgical difficulties encountered in the removal of this challenging tumor are discussed and as a literature review provided. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 64-year-old woman presented with a short history of dysphonia, occasional dysphagia, tinnitus, altered taste, and unilateral left-sided tongue wasting. On examination, there was left lower motor hypoglossal paralysis. Imaging showed a discrete enhancing lobulated mass, measuring 2 x 2 cm, in the region of the hypoglossal nerve extending into the hypoglossal canal suggestive of hypoglossal paraganglioma. A left dorsolateral suboccipital craniotomy was performed with the patient in the sitting position. The hypoglossal nerve appeared to be enlarged, and the jugular foramen was normal. Complete surgical debulking of the tumor was not attempted because of its vascular nature. The nerve was decompressed, and neuropathology confirmed a low-grade paraganglioma arising from the hypoglossal nerve. The patient was scheduled to receive stereotactic radiation for further management. CONCLUSION: When a case of solitary hypoglossal paraganglioma is encountered in clinical practice, the aim of management should be mainly focused on achieving a diagnosis and preserving the hypoglossal nerve function. If there is evidence of vascularity in the lesion noted on magnetic resonance imaging, a preoperative angiogram should be obtained with a view for embolization. We decompressed the hypoglossal canal and achieved good improvement in the patient\\'s symptoms. We recommend stereotactic radiosurgery for remnant and small hypoglossal tumors and regular follow-up with magnetic resonance imaging scans.

  17. Convergence of cranial visceral afferents within the solitary tract nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Stuart J; Peters, James H; Andresen, Michael C

    2009-10-14

    Primary afferent axons within the solitary tract (ST) relay homeostatic information via glutamatergic synapses directly to second-order neurons within the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). These primary afferents arise from multiple organ systems and relay multiple sensory modalities. How this compact network organizes the flow of primary afferent information will shape central homeostatic control. To assess afferent convergence and divergence, we recorded ST-evoked synaptic responses in pairs of medial NTS neurons in horizontal brainstem slices. ST shocks activated EPSCs along monosynaptic or polysynaptic pathways. Gradations in shock intensity discriminated multiple inputs and stimulus recruitment profiles indicated that each EPSC was unitary. In 24 pairs, 75% were second-order neurons with 64% receiving one direct ST input with the remainder receiving additional convergent ST afferent inputs (22% two; 14% three monosynaptic ST-EPSCs). Some (34%) second-order neurons received polysynaptic EPSCs. Neurons receiving only higher-order inputs were uncommon (13%). Most ST-EPSCs were completely independent, but 4 EPSCs of a total of 81 had equal thresholds, highly correlated latencies, and synchronized synaptic failures consistent with divergence from a single source ST axon or from a common interneuron producing a pair of polysynaptic EPSCs. We conclude that ST afferent inputs are remarkably independent with little evidence of substantial shared information. Individual cells receive highly focused information from the viscera. Thus, afferent excitation of second-order NTS neurons is generally dominated by single visceral afferents and therefore focused on a single afferent modality and/or organ region.

  18. VATS intraoperative tattooing to facilitate solitary pulmonary nodule resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boutros Cherif

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS has become routine and widely accepted for the removal of solitary pulmonary nodules of unknown etiology. Thoracosopic techniques continue to evolve with better instruments, robotic applications, and increased patient acceptance and awareness. Several techniques have been described to localize peripheral pulmonary nodules, including pre-operative CT-guided tattooing with methylene blue, CT scan guided spiral/hook wire placement, and transthoracic ultrasound. As pulmonary surgeons well know, the lung and visceral pleura may appear featureless on top of a pulmonary nodule. Case description This paper presents a rapid, direct and inexpensive approach to peripheral lung lesion resection by marking the lung parenchyma on top of the nodule using direct methylene blue injection. Methods In two patients with peripherally located lung nodules (n = 3 scheduled for VATS, we used direct methylene blue injection for intraoperative localization of the pulmonary nodule. Our technique was the following: After finger palpation of the lung, a spinal 25 gauge needle was inserted through an existing port and 0.1 ml of methylene blue was used to tattoo the pleura perpendicular to the localized nodule. The methylene blue tattoo immediately marks the lung surface over the nodule. The surgeon avoids repeated finger palpation, while lining up stapler, graspers and camera, because of the visible tattoo. Our technique eliminates regrasping and repalpating the lung once again to identify a non marked lesion. Results Three lung nodules were resected in two patients. Once each lesion was palpated it was marked, and the area was resected with security of accurate localization. All lung nodules were resected in totality with normal lung parenchymal margins. Our technique added about one minute to the operative time. The two patients were discharged home on the second postoperative day, with no morbidity. Conclusion

  19. Spiky soliton in circular polarized Alfven wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Y.H.; Sanuki, H.; Konno, K.; Wadati, M.

    1979-06-01

    A new type of nonlinear evolution equation for the Alfven waves, propagating parallel to the magnetic field, is now registered to the completely integrable family of nonlinear evolution equations. In spite of the extensive studies of Kaup and Newell, and of Kawata and Inoue, these analysis have been dealing with solutions for restricted boundary conditions. The present paper presents full account of stationary solitary wave solutions for the plane wave boundary condition. The obtained results exhibit peculiar structure of spiky modulation of amplitude and phase, which arises from the derivative nonlinear coupling term. A nonlinear equation for complex amplitude associated with the carrier wave is shown to be a mixed type of nonlinear Schroedinger equation, having and ordinary cubic nonlinear term and the derivative of cubic nonlinear term. (author)

  20. A Plaque-Type Solitary Reticulohistiocytoma in a Two-Year-Old Boy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuya, Rintaro; Tanizaki, Hideaki; Kaku, Yo; Yonezawa, Masao; Ryu, Yuri; Otsuka, Atsushi; Kabashima, Kenji; Miyachi, Yoshiki

    2015-01-01

    Reticulohistiocytoma (RH) is a dermal histiocytic infiltration composed of large histiocytes with eosinophilic glassy cytoplasm. RH is classified into three clinical forms: solitary RH, diffuse cutaneous RH without systemic involvement and multicentric reticulohistiocytosis with systemic diseases. Solitary RH generally manifests as a nodular lesion in adults without accompanying systemic diseases. Herein, we describe a case of solitary RH with an atypical clinical manifestation as a red-brown-colored plaque in a 2-year-old boy. Atypical presentations of RH may pose diagnostic difficulty unless RH is considered. A correct diagnosis of RH can ensure avoidance of unnecessary invasive procedures. PMID:25759651

  1. A Plaque-Type Solitary Reticulohistiocytoma in a Two-Year-Old Boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rintaro Shibuya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Reticulohistiocytoma (RH is a dermal histiocytic infiltration composed of large histiocytes with eosinophilic glassy cytoplasm. RH is classified into three clinical forms: solitary RH, diffuse cutaneous RH without systemic involvement and multicentric reticulohistiocytosis with systemic diseases. Solitary RH generally manifests as a nodular lesion in adults without accompanying systemic diseases. Herein, we describe a case of solitary RH with an atypical clinical manifestation as a red-brown-colored plaque in a 2-year-old boy. Atypical presentations of RH may pose diagnostic difficulty unless RH is considered. A correct diagnosis of RH can ensure avoidance of unnecessary invasive procedures.

  2. Solitary Intra-Osseous Myofibroma of the Jaw: A Case Report and Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhupar, Anita; Carvalho, Karla; Sawant, Poonam; Spadigam, Anita; Syed, Shaheen

    2017-10-24

    Myofibroma is a rare benign spindle cell neoplasm in children that usually affects both soft tissue and bone in the head and neck region. Approximately one third of these cases are seen within jaw bones as solitary lesions. Solitary intra-osseous myofibroma of the jaw bone shares its clinical, radiographic and histological features with other spindle cell tumors. The rarity of this lesion can make diagnosis difficult for clinicians and pathologists. We report a case of a solitary intra-osseous myofibroma in the mandible of a nine-year-old child.

  3. Solitary submucous neurofibroma of the mandible: review of the literature and report of a rare case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kübler Norbert R

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Solitary neurofibroma is a rare benign non-odontogenic tumor. Particularly in the oral cavity, neurogenic tumors are rare, especially if they are malignant. Neurofibromas may present either as solitary lesions or as part of the generalised syndrome of neurofibromatosis or von Recklinghausen's disease of the skin. Clinically, oral neurofibromas usually appear as pediculated or sessile nodules, with slow growth and mostly without pain. The diagnosis can be confirmed by histological examination. Neurofibromas are immunopositive for the S-100 protein, indicating its neural origin. Treatment is surgical and the prognosis is excellent. For illustration a rare case of a solitary neurofibroma in the mandible is presented.

  4. Malignant conversion of a solitary papilloma in the distal trachea: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lioulias, Achilleas; Misthos, Panagiotis; Papagiannakis, Georgios; Mermigkis, Dimitrios; Karagianidis, Napoleon; Neofotistos, Kostas; Kokotsakis, John

    2008-10-01

    A solitary papilloma versus the usual multiple lesions of papillomatosis is extremely rare. Even more infrequent is a solitary papilloma of the trachea in an adult patient. In the present report, a case of a solitary papilloma in the distal trachea is presented. After two unsuccessful sessions of laser ablation, resection of the lower one-third of the trachea was performed through a right posterolateral thoracotomy. Postoperative histology results disclosed a malignant degeneration into squamous cell carcinoma. The patient had an excellent outcome after resection of the affected portion of the trachea. There was no evidence of recurrence after 20 months of follow-up.

  5. Malignant Conversion of a Solitary Papilloma in the Distal Trachea: Report of a Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achilleas Lioulias

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A solitary papilloma versus the usual multiple lesions of papillomatosis is extremely rare. Even more infrequent is a solitary papilloma of the trachea in an adult patient. In the present report, a case of a solitary papilloma in the distal trachea is presented. After two unsuccessful sessions of laser ablation, resection of the lower one-third of the trachea was performed through a right posterolateral thoracotomy. Postoperative histology results disclosed a malignant degeneration into squamous cell carcinoma. The patient had an excellent outcome after resection of the affected portion of the trachea. There was no evidence of recurrence after 20 months of follow-up.

  6. Case report 437: Solitary (unicameral, simple) bone cyst of the scapula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruggieri, P.; Biagnini, M.; Picci, P.

    1987-08-01

    A case has been presented of an expanding, aggressive bone cyst in the scapula of an 11-year-old girl. The lesion had the appearance of a highly aggressive, cyst-like disorder that appeared to be benign. Biopsy and histological preparation confirmed the presence of a solitary bone cyst. The clinical, radiological, and pathological criteria associated with a solitary bone cyst, particularly in the scapula, were discussed and the literature was reviewed. The differential diagnosis was stressed and a number of examples of scapular lesions was presented radiologically, particularly lesions that might be confused with solitary bone cyst. (orig./SHA).

  7. Boundary control of long waves in nonlinear dispersive systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasan, Agus; Foss, Bjarne; Aamo, Ole Morten

    2011-01-01

    orders of the nonlinearity, the equation may have unstable solitary wave solutions. Although it is a one dimensional problem, achieving a global result for this equation is not trivial due to the nonlinearity and the mixed partial derivative. In this paper, two sets of nonlinear boundary control laws......Unidirectional propagation of long waves in nonlinear dispersive systems may be modeled by the Benjamin-Bona-Mahony-Burgers equation, a third order partial differential equation incorporating linear dissipative and dispersive terms, as well as a term covering nonlinear wave phenomena. For higher...... that achieve global exponential stability and semi-global exponential stability are derived for both linear and nonlinear cases....

  8. Bulk nonlinear elastic strain waves in a bar with nanosize inclusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gula, Igor A.; Samsonov (†), Alexander M.

    2018-01-01

    We propose a mathematical model for propagation of the long nonlinearly elastic longitudinal strain waves in a bar, which contains nanoscale structural inclusions. The model is governed by a nonlinear doubly dispersive equation (DDE) with respect to the one unknown longitudinal strain function. We...... obtained the travelling wave solutions to DDE, and, in particular, the strain solitary wave solution, which was shown to be significantly affected by parameters of the inclusions. Moreover we found some critical inaccuracies, committed in papers by others in the derivation of a constitutive equation...... for the long strain waves in a microstructured medium, revised them, and showed an importance of improvements for correct estimation of wave parameters....

  9. Abundant soliton and periodic wave solutions for the coupled Higgs field equation, the Maccari system and the Hirota-Maccari system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wazwaz, Abdul-Majid

    2012-06-01

    In this work, we explore a variety of solitary wave ansatze and periodic wave ansatze to some nonlinear equations. Three complex systems of nonlinear equations that appear in mathematical physics are investigated. We derive abundant soliton and periodic wave solutions for the coupled Higgs field equation, the Maccari system and the Hirota-Maccari system. The results obtained show that these three coupled equations exhibit the richness of explicit solutions: solitons, periodic and rational wave solutions.

  10. Spectrum of congenital mitral valve abnormalities associated with solitary undifferentiated papillary muscle in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagdish C. Mohan

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: In adult patients, a high index of suspicion is required to detect congenital mitral stenosis/regurgitation with large solitary PM (resembling a parachute mitral valve which may masquerade as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy or rheumatic mitral valve disease.

  11. The phylogenetic position of the solitary zoanthid genus Sphenopus (Cnidaria: Hexacorallia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reimer, J.D.; Lin, M.; Fujii, T.

    2012-01-01

    The zoanthid genus Sphenopus (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Zoantharia), like many other brachycnemic zoanthids, is found in shallow subtropical and tropical waters, but is uniquely unitary (solitary, monostomatous), azooxanthellate, and free-living. With sparse knowledge of its phylogenetic position, this

  12. Propagation of ion-acoustic waves in a dusty plasma with non ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    isothermality of electrons, Mach numbers etc. have considerable impact on the amplitude as well as the width of the solitary waves. Dependence of soliton profiles ... great deal of interest in numerous collective processes in a plasma contaminated by the charged dust grains encountered very often in space and laboratory ...

  13. Nonlinear propagation of ion-acoustic waves in a degenerate dense ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    both non-relativistic and ultrarelativistic limits. Therefore, in this paper, we consider a degenerate dense plasma containing non-relativistic degenerate cold ion fluid and both non-relativistic and ultrarelativistic degenerate electrons for studying the basic features of solitary waves in such a degenerate dense plasma.

  14. Planar dust-acoustic waves in electron–positron–ion–dust plasmas ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-09-19

    Sep 19, 2014 ... Abstract. Propagation of small but finite nonlinear dust-acoustic solitary waves are investigated in a planar unmagnetized dusty plasma, which consists of electrons, positrons, ions and negatively charged dust particles with different sizes and masses. A Kadomtsev–Petviashvili (KP) equation is obtained by ...

  15. Three-dimensional electromagnetic solitary waves in an underdense plasma in PIC simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulanov, Sergei; Esirkepov, Timur; Nishihara, Katsunobu; Pegoraro, Francesco

    2002-01-01

    A three-dimensional sub-cycle relativistic electromagnetic soliton has been observed for the first time in a 3D Particle-in-Cell simulation of the propagation of an intense short laser pulse in an underdense plasma. The structure of the 3D soliton is identified. It resembles an oscillating electric dipole and has a strong charge separation and toroidal magnetic field component. We call this structure a TM-soliton (transverse magnetic). The 3D TM-soliton resembles a 2D P-soliton in the plane of electric field polarization, and a 2D S-soliton in the perpendicular plane. The core of the soliton is positively charged on average in time, and this results in its Coulomb explosion and in ion heating. Then the soliton evolves into a post-soliton, which is a slowly expanding quasi-neutral cavity in the plasma

  16. Numerical study of solitary wave stability in cubic nonlinear Dirac equations in 1D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakoba, T. I.

    2018-02-01

    Recently there has occurred a controversy between the semi-analytical prediction of linear stability of the soliton of the massive Gross-Neveu model and direct numerical observations of its instability for small values of the frequency. We revisit the problem of numerical computation of this soliton, find a mechanism behind the numerical instability observed in earlier studies, and propose methods to stably compute the soliton over long times. Thus, we confirm the semi-analytical prediction of the soliton's being linearly stable.

  17. Effect of Internal Solitary Waves on Mine Detection in the Western Philippine Sea East of Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    energy in the ray tube at a reference range. Different from the 49 classical ray theory , the Gaussian ray bundle amplitude of the v th test ray at...dolphins, called echolocation , makes them uniquely effective at locating sea mines. Other marine mammals, such as California sea lions, also have the...The physical mechanisms causing these different effects need to be further explored. B. ACOUSTIC DETECTION The ray theory based CASS/GRAB

  18. Space-charge solitary waves and double layers in n-type ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S BANERJEE

    2018-02-20

    Feb 20, 2018 ... modern nanoscale electronic devices, optical sensors, phase shifters, delay lines etc. Some recent experi- .... expansion for field quantities ne,ue and φ about their equilibrium values: ne = Cp + εne1 + ε2 ... (6) and (14) and then linearising and considering that all field quantities are varying as ei(kx−ωt).

  19. On the study of ion-acoustic solitary waves and double-layers in a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Using the pseudopotential method, theoretical investigation has been made on the first- order Korteweg-deVries ion-acoustic solitons in a multicomponent plasma consisting of warm pos- itive ions, negative ions and isothermal electrons. The effects of electron-inertia and drift motion of the ions on the amplitudes ...

  20. Nonlinear propagation of dust-acoustic solitary waves in a dusty ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    component unmag- netized dusty plasma consisting of trapped electrons, Maxwellian ions, and arbitrarily charged cold mobile dust was done. It has been found that, owing to the departure from the Maxwellian elec- tron distribution to a vortex-like ...

  1. Solitary heat waves in nonlinear lattices with squared on-site potential

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    resulting nonlinear equation in its natural form is very difficult to solve because of its high nonlinearity and discreteness. Hence we analyse it numerically and in addition we go for the continuum limit. Since the on-site potential is sufficient to ensure the validity of Fourier's law, we analyse the nature of heat conduction in ...

  2. Factors influencing malignant evolution and long-term survival in solitary fibrous tumours of the pleura

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-González, Marta; Novoa, Nuria M.; Gomez, Maria T.; García, Juan L.; Ludeña, María Dolores

    2014-01-01

    Solitary pleuro-pulmonary fibrous tumours are relatively uncommon neoplasms that are difficult to manage therapeutically and which, cytogenetically, have been poorly studied. The aim of the present work was to analyse the characteristics of a series of consecutive operated solitary pleural fibrous tumours in an attempt to discover a malignant pattern of evolution. This was a retrospective observational study of 19 cases. Samples were studied for clinical, histological, immunohistochemical and...

  3. Construction of solitary solution and compacton-like solution by variational iteration method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jihuan; Wu Xuhong

    2006-01-01

    Variational iteration method is used to construct solitary solutions and compacton-like solutions for nonlinear dispersive equations. The chosen initial solution (trial function) can be in compacton form or in soliton form with some unknown parameters which can be determined in the solution procedure. The compacton-like solution can be converted to solitary solution by suitable choice of a parameter, and vice versa

  4. Solitary cystic lymph neck node metastasis of occult thyroid papillary carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    González García, R.; Román Romero, Leticia; Sastre Pérez, Jesús; Rodríguez Campo, Francisco José; Naval Gias, Luis

    2008-01-01

    The appearance of a solitary lateral cervical cystic mass as the only initial presenting symptom of occult thyroid carcinoma is uncommon. Its presence is often misdiagnosed due to the more frequent branchial cyst in young people. Although oronasopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma has been reported as the main cause of lymph neck node metastasis, thyroid papillary carcinoma may be responsible for solitary cervical cystic masses as the initial manifestation of the disease. This situation ha...

  5. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato bacteremia in Slovenian children with solitary and multiple erythema migrans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnež, Maja; Ružić-Sabljić, Eva

    2011-11-01

    To establish the frequency and characteristics of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato bacteremia in Slovenian children with solitary and multiple erythema migrans, 1164 patients were included in this prospective study. Bacteremia was established in 11.4% of all patients, 15.8% of patients with multiple erythema migrans, and in 7.6% of patients with solitary erythema migrans. Bacteremia can be detected in children, with untreated erythema migrans, up to 39 days after the onset of skin rash.

  6. Solitary splenic metastasis from nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a case report and systematic review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Genova, Pietro; Brunetti, Francesco; Bequignon, Emilie; Landi, Filippo; Lizzi, Vincenzo; Esposito, Francesco; Charpy, Cecile; Calderaro, Julien; Azoulay, Daniel; de?Angelis, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Background Solitary splenic metastases are a rare occurrence, and the nasopharyngeal carcinoma represents one of the most uncommon primary sources. The present study aimed to describe a rare case of a solitary single splenic metastasis from nasopharyngeal carcinoma and to assess the number of cases of isolated nasopharyngeal carcinoma metastases to the spleen reported in the literature. Main body We describe the case of a 56-year-old man with a history of nasopharyngeal carcinoma and complete...

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging findings of solitary infantile myofibromatosis of the skull: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Eun; Cho, Kil Ho; Suh, Jang Ho; Choi, Joon Hyuk [College of Medicine, Yeungnam University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    Infantile myofibromatosis is a rare, benign mesenchymal disorder of early childhood characterized by solitary or multiple benign myofibroblastic tumors. The tumors may involve the skin, subcutaneous tissue, muscle, bone and visceral organs. We report magnetic resonance imaging findings of solitary infantile myofibromatosis arising in the temporal bone of a ten-month-old boy, and the diagnosis was confirmed by surgical excision and histopathological examination.

  8. A rare cause of severe rectal bleeding: solitary rectal ulcer syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urganc, Nafiye; Kalyoncu, Derya; Usta, Merve; Eken, Kamile Gulcin

    2014-10-01

    Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome is a rare benign disorder in children which often goes unrecognized or easily misdiagnosed with other common diseases. It usually presents with rectal bleeding, constipation, mucous discharge, prolonged straining, tenesmus, and lower abdominal pain. The rectal bleeding varies from a little fresh blood to severe hemorrhage that requires blood transfusion. We report herein a pediatric case of solitary rectal ulcer syndrome who admitted to pediatric emergency department with severe rectal bleeding for reminding this rare syndrome.

  9. Solitary cannabis use frequency mediates the relationship between social anxiety and cannabis use and related problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Julia D; Ecker, Anthony H; Dean, Kimberlye E

    2016-03-01

    Individuals with elevated social anxiety are seven times more likely to meet criteria for cannabis use disorders, yet social anxiety is unrelated to more frequent cannabis use. The lack of relation to cannabis use frequency may be at least partially due to lack of attention to cannabis use context. It may be that socially anxious persons engage in frequent solitary cannabis use, perhaps using before social situations in the hope that being intoxicated during the social event will help them feel less anxious. In fact, using cannabis alone has been associated with experiencing more cannabis-related problems in prior work. The current study sought to identify whether solitary cannabis use frequency mediated the relationship between social anxiety and cannabis-related problems among 276 current cannabis using undergraduates who completed an online survey of putative predictors of substance use. Social anxiety was robustly related to more frequent solitary (but not social) cannabis use and solitary cannabis use frequency uniquely mediated the relation of social anxiety to cannabis use and related problems. Frequent solitary use appears to play an important role in the experience of cannabis-related problems among socially anxious persons. Intervention strategies may benefit from targeting frequent solitary cannabis use, particularly among at-risk users such as those with elevated social anxiety. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  10. Solitary Cannabis Use Frequency Mediates the Relationship Between Social Anxiety and Cannabis Use and Related Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Julia D.; Ecker, Anthony H.; Dean, Kimberlye E.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Individuals with elevated social anxiety are seven times more likely to meet criteria for cannabis use disorders, yet social anxiety is unrelated to more frequent cannabis use. The lack of relation to cannabis use frequency may be at least partially due to lack of attention to cannabis use context. It may be that socially anxious persons engage in frequent solitary cannabis use, perhaps using before social situations in the hope that being intoxicated during the social event will help them feel less anxious. In fact, using cannabis alone has been associated with experiencing more cannabis-related problems in prior work. Methods The current study sought to identify whether solitary cannabis use frequency mediated the relationship between social anxiety and cannabis-related problems among 276 current cannabis using undergraduates who completed an online survey of putative predictors of substance use. Results Social anxiety was robustly related to more frequent solitary (but not social) cannabis use and solitary cannabis use frequency uniquely mediated the relation of social anxiety to cannabis use and related problems. Discussion and Conclusions Frequent solitary use appears to play an important role in the experience of cannabis-related problems among socially anxious persons. Scientific Significance Intervention strategies may benefit from targeting frequent solitary cannabis use, particularly among at-risk users such as those with elevated social anxiety. PMID:26890064

  11. Solitary cannabis use in adolescence as a correlate and predictor of cannabis problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, Kasey G; Chung, Tammy; Clark, Duncan B; Martin, Christopher S

    2015-11-01

    Most adolescent cannabis use occurs in social settings among peers. Solitary cannabis use during adolescence may represent an informative divergence from normative behavior with important implications for understanding risk for cannabis problems. This longitudinal study examined associations of adolescent solitary cannabis use with levels of cannabis use and problems in adolescence and in young adulthood. Cannabis using-adolescents aged 12-18 were recruited from clinical programs (n=354; 43.8% female; 83.3% Caucasian) and community sources (n=93; 52.7% female; 80.6% Caucasian). Participants reported on cannabis use patterns and diagnostic symptoms at baseline and multiple follow-ups into young adulthood. Compared to social-only users, adolescent solitary cannabis users were more likely to be male and reported more frequent cannabis use and more DSM-IV cannabis use disorder (CUD) symptoms. Regression analyses showed that solitary cannabis use in adolescence predicted CUD symptom counts in young adulthood (age 25) after controlling for demographic variables and the frequency of adolescent cannabis use. However, solitary adolescent cannabis use was no longer predictive of age 25 CUD symptoms after additionally controlling for adolescent CUD symptoms. Solitary cannabis use is associated with greater cannabis use and problems during adolescence, but evidence is mixed that it predicts young adult cannabis problems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Nonlinear wave time dependent dynamic evolution in solar flux tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedun, V.; Erdelyi, R.

    2005-12-01

    The aim of the present work is to investigate the excitation, time dependent dynamic evolution and interaction of weakly nonlinear propagating (i.e. solitary) waves on vertical cylindrical magnetic flux tubes in a compressible solar atmospheric plasma. The axisymmetric flux tube has a field strength of 1000 G at its footpoint what is typical for photospheric regions. Solitons are excited by a footpoint driver. The propagation of the nonlinear signal is investigated by solving numerically a set of fully nonlinear 2D MHD equations in cylindrical coordinates. For the initial conditions the solutions of the linear dispersion relation for wave modes (in the present case we focus on the sausage mode) in a magnetic flux tube is applied. This dispersion relation is solved numerically for a range of plasma parameters. We compare our results with the works of Roberts [1], Wilson [2] (dispersion relation), Molotovshchikov [3] (nonlinear slow sausage waves) and Weisshaar [4] (numerical solutions of the Leibovich-Prichard-Roberts equation). (1) We found solitary solutions and investigate solitary propagating with external sound speed by solving the full MHD equations. (2) We also found a solitary wave propagating with the tube speed. A natural application of our studies may be spicule formation in the chromosphere, as suggested by Roberts [5], where it was demonstrated theoretically, that a solar photospheric magnetic flux tube can support the propagation of solitons governed by the Benjamin-Ono (slow mode) equations. Future possible improvements in modeling and the relevance of the photospheric chromospheric transition region coupling by spicules is suggested. [1] B. Roberts and A. Webb, Sol. Phys., 1978, v. 56, p. 5 [2] P.R. Wilson, Astron. Astrophys., 1980, v. 87, p. 121 [3] A.L. Molotovshchikov and M.S. Ruderman, Sol. Phys., 1987, v. 109, p. 247 [4] E. Weisshaar, Phys. Fluids A, 1989, v. 1(8), p. 1406 [5] B. Roberts and A. Mangeney, Royal Astronomical Society, Monthly

  13. MRI diagnosis of solitary fibrous tumor in the orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Jiyong; Yang Bentao; Zhang Wu; Wang Zhenchang; Xian Junfang

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the MRI features of solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) in the orbit. Methods: The MRI findings of 7 patients with SFT in the orbit confirmed by histopathology were analyzed retrospectively. Results: Of the 7 lesions,5 occurred in the right orbit and 2 in the left orbit. Six lesions were located in the extraconal space near the lacrimal gland fossa, including 5 in the superomedial region and 1 in the inferolateral region. The other one was located in the retrobulbar intraconal space. The lesions with well-defined margin showed elliptic shape in 6 cases and lobulated configuration in 1. The maximum diameter of the lesions ranged from 18 to 40 mm (mean, 31 mm). The lesions showed homogeneous isointense relative to gray matter on T 1 -weighted images in 6 patients. On T 2 -weighted images, the lesions showed heterogeneous hypointense in 5 patients, isointense and hyperintense in one patient respectively. SFT demonstrated markedly homogeneous enhancement in 6 patients and inhomogeneous enhancement in one patient. The time-intensity curves (TIC) of 7 patients exhibited a rapidly enhancing and rapid washout pattern on dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI. Conclusion: Hypointense signal on T 2 WI, marked enhancement on contrast-enhanced T 1 WI, and a rapidly enhancing and rapid washout pattern TIC on DCE MRI are the typical MRI features of orbital SFT. (authors)

  14. Antecubital Fossa Solitary Osteochondroma with Associated Bicipitoradial Bursitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Ng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Antecubital fossa lesions are uncommon conditions that present to the orthopaedic clinic. Furthermore, the radius bone is an uncommonly reported location for an osteochondroma, especially when presenting with a concurrent reactive bicipitoradial bursitis. Osteochondromas are a type of developmental lesion rather than a true neoplasm. They constitute up to 15% of all bone tumours and up to 50% of benign bone tumours. They may occur as solitary or multiple lesions. Multiple lesions are usually associated with a syndrome known as hereditary multiple exostoses (HME. Malignant transformation is known to occur but is rare. Bicipitoradial bursitis is a condition which can occur as primary or secondary (reactive pathology. In our case, the radius bone osteochondroma caused reactive bicipitoradial bursitis. The differential diagnosis of such antecubital fossa masses is vast but may be narrowed down through a targeted history, stepwise radiological investigations, and histological confirmation. Our aim is to ensure that orthopaedic clinicians keep a wide differential in mind when dealing with antecubital fossa mass lesions.

  15. Differential expression of estrogen receptor α and β isoforms in multiple and solitary leiomyomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Ruyue; Fang, Liaoqiong [State Key Laboratory of Ultrasound Engineering in Medicine Co-Founded by Chongqing and The Ministry of Science and Technology, Chongqing Key Laboratory of Biomedical Engineering, College of Biomedical Engineering, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Xing, Ruoxi [Institute of Life Science, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Xiong, Yu [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Chongqing Hifu Hospital, Chongqing 401121 (China); Fang, Liaoqiong, E-mail: lqfang06@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Ultrasound Engineering in Medicine Co-Founded by Chongqing and The Ministry of Science and Technology, Chongqing Key Laboratory of Biomedical Engineering, College of Biomedical Engineering, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Wang, Zhibiao, E-mail: wangzb@cqmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Ultrasound Engineering in Medicine Co-Founded by Chongqing and The Ministry of Science and Technology, Chongqing Key Laboratory of Biomedical Engineering, College of Biomedical Engineering, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China)

    2015-12-04

    Uterine leiomyomas are benign myometrial neoplasms that function as one of the common indications for hysterectomy. Clinical and biological evidences indicate that uterine leiomyomas are estrogen-dependent. Estrogen stimulates cell proliferation through binding to the estrogen receptor (ER), of which both subtypes α and β are present in leiomyomas. Clinically, leiomyomas may be singular or multiple, where the first one is rarely recurring if removed and the latter associated to a relatively young age or genetic predisposition. These markedly different clinical phenotypes indicate that there may different mechanism causing a similar smooth muscle response. To investigate the relative expression of ERα and ERβ in multiple and solitary uterine leiomyomas, we collected samples from 35 Chinese women (multiple leiomyomas n = 20, solitary leiomyoma n = 15) undergoing surgery to remove uterine leiomyomas. ELISA assay was performed to detect estrogen(E{sub 2}) concentration. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis was performed to detect ERα and ERβ mRNA expression. Western blot and immunohistochemical analysis were performed to detect ERα and ERβ protein expression. We found that ERα mRNA and protein levels of in multiple leiomyomas were significantly lower than those of solitary leiomyomas, whereas ERβ mRNA and protein levels in multiple leiomyomas were significantly higher than those in solitary leiomyomas, irrespectively of the menstrual cycle stage. In both multiple and solitary leiomyomas, ERα expression was higher than that of ERβ. E{sub 2} concentration in multiple and solitary leiomyomas correlated with that of ERα expression. ERα was present in nuclus and cytoplasma while estrogen receptor β localized only in nuclei in both multiple and solitary leiomyomas. Our findings suggest that the difference of ERα and ERβ expression between multiple and solitary leiomyomas may be responsible for the course of the disease subtypes. - Highlights: • In both

  16. Differential expression of estrogen receptor α and β isoforms in multiple and solitary leiomyomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao, Ruyue; Fang, Liaoqiong; Xing, Ruoxi; Xiong, Yu; Fang, Liaoqiong; Wang, Zhibiao

    2015-01-01

    Uterine leiomyomas are benign myometrial neoplasms that function as one of the common indications for hysterectomy. Clinical and biological evidences indicate that uterine leiomyomas are estrogen-dependent. Estrogen stimulates cell proliferation through binding to the estrogen receptor (ER), of which both subtypes α and β are present in leiomyomas. Clinically, leiomyomas may be singular or multiple, where the first one is rarely recurring if removed and the latter associated to a relatively young age or genetic predisposition. These markedly different clinical phenotypes indicate that there may different mechanism causing a similar smooth muscle response. To investigate the relative expression of ERα and ERβ in multiple and solitary uterine leiomyomas, we collected samples from 35 Chinese women (multiple leiomyomas n = 20, solitary leiomyoma n = 15) undergoing surgery to remove uterine leiomyomas. ELISA assay was performed to detect estrogen(E 2 ) concentration. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis was performed to detect ERα and ERβ mRNA expression. Western blot and immunohistochemical analysis were performed to detect ERα and ERβ protein expression. We found that ERα mRNA and protein levels of in multiple leiomyomas were significantly lower than those of solitary leiomyomas, whereas ERβ mRNA and protein levels in multiple leiomyomas were significantly higher than those in solitary leiomyomas, irrespectively of the menstrual cycle stage. In both multiple and solitary leiomyomas, ERα expression was higher than that of ERβ. E 2 concentration in multiple and solitary leiomyomas correlated with that of ERα expression. ERα was present in nuclus and cytoplasma while estrogen receptor β localized only in nuclei in both multiple and solitary leiomyomas. Our findings suggest that the difference of ERα and ERβ expression between multiple and solitary leiomyomas may be responsible for the course of the disease subtypes. - Highlights: • In both multiple

  17. Exact traveling wave solutions of the bbm and kdv equations using (G'/G)-expansion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saddique, I.; Nazar, K.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we construct the traveling wave solutions involving parameters of the Benjamin Bona-Mahony (BBM) and KdV equations in terms of the hyperbolic, trigonometric and rational functions by using the (G'/G)-expansion method, where G = G(zeta) satisfies a second order linear ordinary differential equation. When the parameters are taken special values, the Solitary was are derived from the traveling waves. (author)

  18. Convective cells of internal gravity waves in the earth's atmosphere with finite temperature gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Onishchenko

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have investigated vortex structures (e.g. convective cells of internal gravity waves (IGWs in the earth's atmosphere with a finite vertical temperature gradient. A closed system of nonlinear equations for these waves and the condition for existence of solitary convective cells are obtained. In the atmosphere layers where the temperature decreases with height, the presence of IGW convective cells is shown. The typical parameters of such structures in the earth's atmosphere are discussed.

  19. Waves and particles two essays on fundamental physics

    CERN Document Server

    Newton, Roger G

    2014-01-01

    The book consists of two separate parts, the first part is on waves and the second part on particles. In part 1, after describing the awesome power of tsunami and the history of their occurrences, the book turns to the history of explaining phenomena by means of mathematical equations. Then it describes other wave phenomena and the laws governing them: the vibration of strings and drums in musical instruments, the sound waves making them audible, ultrasound and its uses, sonar, and shock waves; electromagnetic waves: light waves, refraction, diffraction, why the sky is blue, the rainbow, and the glory; microwaves and radio waves: radar, radio astronomy, the discovery of the cosmic microwave background radiation, microwave ovens and how a radio works, lasers and masers; waves in modern physics: the Schrödinger wave function and gravitational waves in general relativity; water waves in the ocean, tides and tidal waves, and the quite different solitary waves, solitons discovered in canals. Finally we return to ...

  20. Solitons and double-layers of electron-acoustic waves in magnetized plasma; an application to auroral zone plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Labany, S. K.; Shalaby, M.; Sabry, R.; El-Sherif, L. S.

    2012-07-01

    A theoretical investigation is carried out for understanding the properties of electron-acoustic potential structures (i.e., solitary waves and double-layers) in a magnetized plasma whose constituents are a cold magnetized electron fluid, hot electrons obeying a nonthermal distribution, and stationary ions. For this purpose, the hydrodynamic equations for the cold magnetized electron fluid, nonthermal electron density distribution, and the Poisson equation are used to derive the corresponding nonlinear evolution equation; modified Zakharov-Kuznetsov (MZK) equation, in the small amplitude regime. The MZK equation is analyzed to examine the existence regions of the solitary pulses and double-layers. It is found that rarefactive electron-acoustic solitary waves and double-layers strongly depend on the density and temperature ratios of the hot-to-cold electron species as well as the nonthermal electron parameter.