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Sample records for ryukyu archipelago japan

  1. Potential speciation of morphotypes in the photosymbiotic ascidian Didemnum molle in the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan

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    Hirose, M.; Yokobori, S.; Hirose, E.

    2009-03-01

    Four morphotypes are recognized in the photosymbiotic ascidian Didemnum molle in the Ryukyu Archipelago: three color morphs (white, dark gray, and brown) of small-type colonies and one large-type colony (white with gray patches). The genetic variation among these four morphotypes was investigated by constructing phylogenetic trees based on a 401-bp fragment of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene of 29 specimens collected from five islands (Okinawajima, Sesokojima, Ikeijima, Kumejima, and Ishigakijima). The results support the monophyly of the genus Didemnum and that of the four morphotypes of D. molle. Moreover, the phylogenetic trees discriminated four clades corresponding to each morphotype. The geographic differences of the sequences were much smaller than the differences among the morphotypes, suggesting that the four morphotypes in D. molle are discrete sibling species.

  2. Species composition, diversity and stratification in subtropical evergreen broadleaf forests along a latitudinal thermal gradient in the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan

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    S.M. Feroz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A well-developed evergreen broadleaf forest exists in the northern part of Okinawa and in the central part of the Ishigaki Islands in the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. All woody plants were identified to species level and their heights and diameters were measured in a 750m2 plot in Okinawa and a 400m2 plot in the Ishigaki Islands. Species overlap, dominance, diversity, multi-strata structure, and spatial distribution were calculated. The floristic composition in Okinawa was found to be different from that in Ishigaki. The species overlap between strata was higher in Okinawa than in Ishigaki. Species diversity and evenness tended to increase from the top down in Okinawa and the reverse in Ishigaki. Mean tree weight of each stratum decreased and tree density increased from top down in both forests. This trend resembled the mean weight–density trajectory of self-thinning plant populations. The degree of stand stratification, species richness and species diversity for trees with DBH ⩾4.5  cm increased along the latitudinal thermal gradient in the Ryukyu Archipelago. Thus, trees in the lower strata of Okinawa and upper strata of Ishigaki are important for sustainable maintenance of higher woody species diversity in the Ryukyu Archipelago.

  3. A Revision of the Adult and Larval Mosquitoes of Japan (Including the Ryukyu Archipelago and the Ogasawara Islands) and Korea (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Amami Gun& (I-0284, I-0285, I-1870, I-1893). DISTRIBUTION. RYUKYU ARCHIPELAGO (Amami Gunto). TAIWAN. PHILIPPINES. BORNEO. JAVA . SOUTH CHINA. HONG...Biological data were given by Sakakibara (1960); the larvae were found throughout the year, and hibernate in the first and 2nd instar. It is not known...This species hibernates in the adult stage, and also in the larval stage in the Ryukyus. Harrison and Scanlon (1975) found larvae in Thailand from a

  4. Histological Examination of Precious Corals from the Ryukyu Archipelago

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    Masanori Nonaka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we examined the histology of three commercially valuable species of precious corals (Paracorallium japonicum, Corallium elatius, and C. konojoi from the Ryukyu Archipelago. In order to observe their inner structure, samples were thin sectioned and examined with a digital light microscope. Colonies of C. konojoi had thicker coenenchyme and larger autozooids than those of C. elatius and P. japonicum. The sclerites of the three species tended to be concentrated in the outer layers of coenenchyme. The gastric cavities of autozooids of all three species were found to be relatively empty. Some symbiotic polychates were observed in the axis of P. japonicum. As well, a zoanthid (Corallizoanthus tsukaharai was often observed living on the coenenchyme surface of P. japonicum. It is hoped our observations will provide a good foundation of future study of Japanese Coralliidae corals.

  5. Terrestrial gamma radiation dose rate in Ryukyu Islands, subtropical region of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, M.; Shiroma, M.; Motomura, D.; Fujioka, S.; Kawakami, T.; Yasuda, Y.; Arakawa, K.; Fukahori, K.; Jyunicho, M.; Ishikawa, S.; Ohomoto, T.; Kina, S.; Shiroma, Y.; Masuda, N.; Hiraoka, H.; Shingaki, R.; Akata, N.; Zhuo, W.; Tokonami, S.

    2015-01-01

    In order to explain the distribution of natural radiation level in the Asia, in situ measurements of dose rate in air due to terrestrial gamma radiation have been conducted in a total of 21 islands that belong to Ryukyu Islands (Ryukyu Archipelago), subtropical rejoin of southwest Japan. Car-borne surveys have also been carried out in Okinawa-jima, the biggest island of the archipelago. Based on the results for these measurements, arithmetic mean, the maximum and the minimum of the dose rates at 1 m in height from the unpaved soil ground in the archipelago were estimated to be 47, 165 and 8 nGy h -1 , respectively. A comparative study of car-borne data obtained prior to and subsequent to the 2011 Fukushima nuclear accident, as for Okinawa-jima, indicated that the nuclear accident has no impact on the environmental radiation at the present time. (authors)

  6. Geographical variation in echolocation call and body size of the Okinawan least horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus pumilus (Mammalia: Rhinolophidae), on Okinawa-jima Island, Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan.

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    Yoshino, Hajime; Matsumura, Sumiko; Kinjo, Kazumitsu; Tamura, Hisao; Ota, Hidetoshi; Izawa, Masako

    2006-08-01

    The Okinawan least horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus pumilus, is a cave-dwelling species endemic to the central and southern Ryukyus, Japan. We analyzed variation in the constant frequency (CF) of the echolocation call and in forearm length (FAL) of this species on Okinawa-jima Island on the basis of data for 479 individuals from 11 caves scattered over the island. CF values in samples from six caves, all located in the southwestern half of Okinawa-jima, were significantly higher than those in samples from five caves in the northeastern half of the island. Also, FAL was significantly greater in the latter group than in the former group, although the ranges of variation in this character substantially overlapped between the two groups. These results suggest substantial differentiation between R. pumilus populations on Okinawa-jima. The implications of our findings for the conservation of this endangered bat species are briefly discussed.

  7. Blood meal identification and feeding habits of uranotaenia species collected in the ryukyu archipelago.

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    Toma, Takako; Miyagi, Ichiro; Tamashiro, Mikako

    2014-09-01

    To know the blood meal in the stomach of Uranotaenia species, blood-fed mosquitoes were collected by 4 methods at different sites in the mountain forest of 3 islands, Amamioshima, Okinawajima, and Iriomotejima in the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan from 2005 to 2012. One hundred twenty-four blood-fed Uranotaenia mosquitoes of 7 species (Ur. jacksoni, nivipleura, ohamai, yaeyamana, annandalei, lateralis, and macfarlanei) were collected. The collection rates are 0.26, 0.6, 0.31, and 0.66 by black light trap, black light blue with dry ice trap, frog call trap, and sweeping net, respectively. The blood meals of 107 females (86.3%) were successfully identified by a polymerase chain reaction-based method. All Uranotaenia species fed on cold-blooded animals, especially amphibians (99.1%), and notably on frogs. They would feed readily on available frogs in a given region having no close connection with the breeding (calling) season of each frog. They also fed on reptiles (0.9%), but not on warm-blooded animals.

  8. Hydrological conditions in the straits of the Ryukyu archipelago and adjacent basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroz, V. V.; Bogdanov, K. T.

    2007-10-01

    The structure and dynamics of the water are studied on the basis of hydrological and meteorological long-term data combined with the materials of field observations over a period longer than half a century in the region of the Ryukyu archipelago. New data about the hydrological characteristics of the waters were obtained. Characteristic differences of waters of various modifications in the main straits between the islands are demonstrated. The dependence of the water structure formation in the straits on the seasonal variability of the water exchange through the straits is distinguished.

  9. Geographical Variation in Echolocation Call and Body Size of the Okinawan Least Horseshoe Bat, Rhinolophus pumilus(Mammalia: Rhinolophidae), on Okinawa-jima Island, Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan(Animal Diversity and Evolution)

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    Hajime, Yoshino; Sumiko, Matsumura; Kazumitsu, Kinjo; Hisao, Tamura; Hidetoshi, Ota; Masako, Izawa; Laboratory of Evolution and Ecology, Faculty of Science, University of the Ryukyus; Faculty of Science, Yamaguchi University; Department of Law, Okinawa International University; Asian Bat Research Institute; Tropical Biosphere Research Center, University of the Ryukyus; Laboratory of Evolution and Ecology, Faculty of Science, University of the Ryukyus

    2006-01-01

    The Okinawan least horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus pumilus, is a cave-dwelling species endemic to the central and southern Ryukyus, Japan. We analyzed variation in the constant frequency (CF) of the echolocation call and in forearm length (FAL) of this species on Okinawa-jima Island on the basis of data for 479 individuals from 11 caves scattered over the island. CF values in samples from six caves, all located in the southwestern half of Okinawa-jima, were significantly higher than those in sampl...

  10. First record of the mycoheterotrophic orchid Gastrodia fontinalis (Orchidaceae from Takeshima Island, the Ryukyu Islands, Japan

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    Kenji Suetsugu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We found Gastrodia fontinalis T. P. Lin in a bamboo forest from Takeshima Island, which is the northernmost island of the Ryukyu Islands in Japan. This species is apparently rare and was previously considered to be an endemic Taiwanese species. Because there are a few minor differences between the original description and our specimens collected in Takeshima Island, here we report Gastrodia fontinalis from Takeshima Island as the first record outside of Taiwan, with a description of the specimens from Takeshima Island.

  11. Molecular phylogenies of figs and fig-pollinating wasps in the Ryukyu and Bonin (Ogasawara) islands, Japan.

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    Azuma, Hiroshi; Harrison, Rhett D; Nakamura, Keiko; Su, Zhi-Hui

    2010-01-01

    The interaction between figs (Ficus, Moraceae) and fig-pollinating wasps (Chalcidoidea, Agaonidae) is one of the most specific mutualisms, and thus is a model system for studying coevolution and cospeciation. In this study we focused on figs and their associated fig-wasps found in the Ryukyu and Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands, Japan, because it has been suggested that breakdown in the specificity may occur in islands or at edge of a species' distribution. We collected 136 samples of 15 native fig species and 95 samples of 13 associated fig-wasps from all major islands in the Ryukyu Islands, including two fig species and one fig-wasp species endemic to the Bonin Islands. We performed molecular phylogenetic analyses using plastid DNA and nuclear ITS sequences for the figs and nuclear 28S rRNA and mitochondrial COI genes for the fig-wasps to investigate the interspecific phylogenies and intraspecific variation within the mutualism. Our phylogenetic analyses using multiple samples per species show the single clade of each fig (except the Bonin endemic species) and fig-pollinating wasp species. Fig species belonging to the same subgenera formed well-supported clades in both plastid and ITS trees, except for the subgenus Urostigma. Likewise, fig wasps emerging from host fig species belonging to the same subgenera formed mostly well supported clades in both 28S and COI trees. Host specificity between the figs and fig-wasps functions strictly in these islands. There was very little sequence variation within species, and that no major geographic structure was found. The two Bonin endemic species (F. boninsimae and F. nishimurae) or their common ancestor and the associated fig-wasps (Blastophaga sp.) are apparently derived from F. erecta and its associated fig-wasps (B. nipponica), respectively, and probably migrated from the Ryukyu Islands.

  12. Stratigraphy and geologic age of the Neogene Shimajiri Group in Kumejima Island, Ryukyu Islands, southwestern Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Yodai; Asahara, Yoshihiro; Ozawa, Tomowo; Kameo, Koji

    1999-01-01

    The Neogene Shimajiri Group is distributed sporadically in the Ryukyu islands. This study focuses on the Shimajiri Group in Kumejima Island, central Ryukyu, and clarifies its stratigraphy and geologic age on the basis of 1) lithostratigraphy, 2) calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy, and 3) strontium isotope stratigraphy. The Shimajiri Group in Kumejima Island unconformably overlies the middle Miocene Aradake Formation, and is overlain by the Pleistocene Ryukyu Group. The group is divided into three formations, namely the Maja, the Aka and the Uegusukudake Formations in ascending order, and the first two are redefined in this paper based on the new geologic evidence. The Maja Formation consists mainly of fine-grained sandstone, sandy siltstone and alternating beds of them. The Aka Formation is mainly composed of cross-stratified sandstone, pumiceous sandstone and tuffaceous siltstone, and unconformably overlies the Maja Formation. The Uegusukudake Formation, conformably overlying the Aka Formation, consists of basaltic lava, tuff breccia and andesite. On the basis of calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy, the Maja and Aka Formations can be assigned to Zone CN9 and Zone CN12b of Okada and Bukry (1980) respectively. Strontium isotope ages of the molluscan fossil specimens obtained from the Maja and Aka Formations revealed that the Maja Formation is assigned to the late Miocene (ca. 7.8-7.2 Ma) and the Aka Formation is assigned to the late Pliocene (ca. 3.2-3.1 Ma). These ages are concordant with the nannofossil biostratigraphy. The upper Miocene Maja Formation yields many molluscan fossils in which the characteristic species of the Kakegawa Fauna, such as Amussiopecten praesignis and Mimachlamys satoi are contained. The molluscan fauna of the Maja Formation is significant in understanding the origin of the Kakegawa Fauna, as the characteristic species of the Plio-Pleistocene Kakegawa Fauna already appeared in the Ryukyu Islands in the late Miocene. (author)

  13. Effects of herbicides on coral and seasonal distribution in water and sediments collected from rivers and coral reefs of the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan

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    Kaneshiro, A.; Fujimura, H.; Oomori, T.; Gima, S.; Suzuki, Y.; Casareto, B. E.; Higuchi, T.; Sagawa, T.

    2011-12-01

    Introduction Coral reefs are subjected to artificial chemicals such as herbicide and pesticides. Diuron [N'-(3, 4-dichlorophenyl)-N, N-dimethylurea] is one of the active constituent contained in a herbicide. Although acute effects of diuron on coral are reported by several researchers, longer-period toxicity with lower level concentration and synergistic effect between the herbicide and soil sedimentation from river water have not been studied. We investigated the concentration level, distribution, seasonal variation and accumulation of several herbicides and pesticides in coral reef and river in Ishigaki Island and Okinawa Island, and estimated the rates of carbon production of calcification and photosynthesis to access the effects of herbicides on coral. Materials and Methods Water and sediment samples were collected from Todoroki river and Shiraho coral reef in Ishigaki Island and several rivers from Okinawa Island in August 2010 to August 2011. Diuron and other active constituents were extracted using a solid-phase column and measured with a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Corals for the experiment were collected from Okinawa Island and incubated in glass bottles. Seawater adjusted several concentrations of herbicide was continuously supplied to the bottles. Coral calcification and photosynthesis were estimated based on the change in total alkalinity and pH during a few hours when we temporary cease the water flow. Results and Discussion Higher diuron of 563 ng/L in water and 26 μg/kg in sediment was detected at the headwater of the Todoroki river in Ishigaki. in June. Sugarcane plantation is prevailing in Todoroki river area and rainwater can tend to gather topographically to upstream of the river. The higher concentration at the headwater decreased to 23 ng/L toward the river mouth. On the whole, the concentrations were higher during summer and lower in the other seasons in Ishigaki. On the other hand, seasonal variation was not observed at Okinawa Is., because the volume of the water in rivers is more affluent and usage duration of herbicides is longer in Okinawa than Ishigaki. Some herbicides and pesticides in seawater were slightly detected at the area where the river mouth is connected to the Shiraho coral reef. The concentration has not reached to the acute level at which metabolic activities (i.e. calcification and photosynthesis) of coral colony are degraded. The decrease of calcification and photosynthesis of coral was observed at 1-10μg/L of diuron concentration.

  14. Modeling the Geometry of Plate Boundary and Seismic Structure in the Southern Ryukyu Trench Subduction Zone, Japan, Using Amphibious Seismic Observations

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    Yamamoto, Y.; Takahashi, T.; Ishihara, Y.; Kaiho, Y.; Arai, R.; Obana, K.; Nakanishi, A.; Miura, S.; Kodaira, S.; Kaneda, Y.

    2018-02-01

    Here we present the new model, the geometry of the subducted Philippine Sea Plate interface beneath the southern Ryukyu Trench subduction zone, estimated from seismic tomography and focal mechanism estimation by using passive and active data from a temporary amphibious seismic network and permanent land stations. Using relocated low-angle thrust-type earthquakes, repeating earthquakes, and structural information, we constrained the geometry of plate boundary from the trench axis to a 60 km depth with uncertainties of less than 5 km. The estimated plate geometry model exhibited large variation, including a pronounced convex structure that may be evidence of a subducted seamount in the eastern portion of study area, whereas the western part appeared smooth. We also found that the active earthquake region near the plate boundary, defined by the distance from our plate geometry model, was clearly separated from the area dominated by short-term slow-slip events (SSEs). The oceanic crust just beneath the SSE-dominant region, the western part of the study area, showed high Vp/Vs ratios (>1.8), whereas the eastern side showed moderate or low Vp/Vs (<1.75). We interpreted this as an indication that high fluid pressures near the surface of the slab are contributing to the SSE activities. Within the toe of the mantle wedge, P and S wave velocities (<7.5 and <4.2 km/s, respectively) lower than those observed through normal mantle peridotite might suggest that some portions of the mantle may be at least 40% serpentinized.

  15. Lead isotope ratios in six lake sediment cores from Japan Archipelago: Historical record of trans-boundary pollution sources.

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    Hosono, Takahiro; Alvarez, Kelly; Kuwae, Michinobu

    2016-07-15

    Sediment cores from six lakes situated from north to south on the Japanese Archipelago were collected during 2009-2010 to investigate the hypothesis that deposition of lead (Pb) was coming from East Asia (including China, South Korea and eastern part of Russia). Accumulation rates and ages of the lake sediment were estimated by the (210)Pb constant rate of supply model and (137)Cs inputs to reconstruct the historical trends of Pb accumulation. Cores from four lakes located in the north and central Japan, showed clear evidence of Pb pollution with a change in the (206)Pb/(207)Pb and (208)Pb/(207)Pb ratios in the recent sediment as compared to the deeper sediment. Among the six studied lakes, significant inputs of anthropogenic lead emissions were observed at Lake Mikazuki (north Hokkaido in north Japan), Lake Chokai (north of Honshu), and Lake Mikuriga (central part of Honshu). Pb isotopic comparison of collected core sediment and previously reported data for wet precipitation and aerosols from different Asian regions indicate that, before 1900, Pb accumulated in these three lakes was not affected by trans-boundary sources. Lake Mikazuki started to receive Pb emissions from Russia in early 1900s, and during the last two decades, this lake has been affected by trans-boundary Pb pollution from northern China. Lake Chokai has received Pb pollutant from northern China since early 1900s until 2009, whereas for the Lake Mikuriga the major Pb contaminant was transported from southern China during the past 100years. The results of our study demonstrate that Japan Archipelago has received trans-boundary Pb emissions from different parts of East Asian region depending on location, and the major source region has changed historically. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Tsunami hazard mitigation in tourism in the tropical and subtropical coastal areas: a case study in the Ryukyu Islands, southwest of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, T.

    2006-12-01

    Life and economy (including tourism) in tropical and subtropical coastal areas, such as Okinawa Prefecture (Ryukyu) are highly relying on the sea. The sea has both "gentle" side to give people healing and "dangerous" side to kill people. If we are going to utilise the sea for marine tourism such as constructing resort facilities on the oceanfront, we should know all of the sea, including the both sides of the sea: especially the nature of tsunamis. And also we islanders should issue accurate information about the sea towards outsiders, especially tourists visiting the island. We have already learned a lesson about this issue from the Sumatra tsunami in 2004. However, measures against the tsunami disaster by marine tourism industry are still inadequate in these areas. The goal of tsunami hazard mitigation for those engaged in tourism industry in tropical and subtropical coastal areas should be as follows. (1) Preparedness against tsunamis: "Be aware of the characteristics of tsunamis." "Prepare tsunamis when you feel an earthquake." "Prepare tsunamis when an earthquake takes place somewhere in the world." (2) Maintenance of an exact tsunami hazard map under quantitative analyses of the characteristics of tsunamis: "Flooding areas by tsunami attacks are dependent not only on altitude but also on amplification and inundation due to the seafloor topography near the coast and the onland topographic relief." "Tsunami damage happens repeatedly." (3) Maintenance of a tsunami disaster prevention manual and training after the manual: "Who should do what in case of tsunamis?" "How should the resort hotel employees lead the guests to the safe place?" Such a policy for disaster prevention is discussed in the class of the general education of "Ocean Sciences" in University of the Ryukyus (UR) and summer school for high school students. The students (most of them are from Okinawa Prefecture) consider, discuss and make reports about what to do in case of tsunamis as an islander

  17. Spatial distribution and temporal variation of chemical species in the bulk atmospheric aerosols collected at the Okinawa archipelago, Japan

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    Handa, D.; Somada, Y.; Ijyu, M.; Azechi, S.; Nakaema, F.; Arakaki, T.; Tanahara, A.

    2009-12-01

    The economic development and population growth in recent Asia have been increasing air pollution. A computer simulation study showed that air pollutants emitted from Asian continent could spread quickly within northern hemisphere. We initiated a study to elucidate the special distribution and chemical characterization of atmospheric aerosols around Okinawa archipelago, Japan. Okinawa Island is situated approximately 1500 km south of Tokyo, Japan, 2000 km southeast of Beijing, China, and 1000 km south of South Korea. Its location in Asia is well suited for studying long-range transport of air pollutants in East Asia because maritime air mass prevails during summer, while continental air mass dominates during fall, winter, and spring. The maritime air mass data can be seen as background and can be compared with continental air masses which have been affected by anthropogenic activities. We simultaneously collected bulk aerosol samples by using the same types of high volume air samplers at Cape Hedo Atmosphere and Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS, Okinawa Island), Kume Island (ca. 160 km south-west of CHAAMS) and Minami-daitou Island (ca. 320 km south-east of CHAAMS). We determined the concentrations of water-soluble anions, cations and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) using ion chromatography, atomic absorption spectrometry, and total organic carbon analyzer, respectively. We report and discuss spatial distribution and temporal variation of chemical species concentrations in bulk atmospheric aerosols collected during July, 2008 to July, 2009. We determine “background” concentration of chemical components in Okinawa archipelago. We then compare each chemical component among CHAAMS, Kume Island and Minami-daito Island to elucidate the influence of the long-range transport of chemical species from Asian continent.

  18. Lead isotope ratios in six lake sediment cores from Japan Archipelago: Historical record of trans-boundary pollution sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosono, Takahiro; Alvarez, Kelly; Kuwae, Michinobu

    2016-01-01

    Sediment cores from six lakes situated from north to south on the Japanese Archipelago were collected during 2009–2010 to investigate the hypothesis that deposition of lead (Pb) was coming from East Asia (including China, South Korea and eastern part of Russia). Accumulation rates and ages of the lake sediment were estimated by the "2"1"0Pb constant rate of supply model and "1"3"7Cs inputs to reconstruct the historical trends of Pb accumulation. Cores from four lakes located in the north and central Japan, showed clear evidence of Pb pollution with a change in the "2"0"6Pb/"2"0"7Pb and "2"0"8Pb/"2"0"7Pb ratios in the recent sediment as compared to the deeper sediment. Among the six studied lakes, significant inputs of anthropogenic lead emissions were observed at Lake Mikazuki (north Hokkaido in north Japan), Lake Chokai (north of Honshu), and Lake Mikuriga (central part of Honshu). Pb isotopic comparison of collected core sediment and previously reported data for wet precipitation and aerosols from different Asian regions indicate that, before 1900, Pb accumulated in these three lakes was not affected by trans-boundary sources. Lake Mikazuki started to receive Pb emissions from Russia in early 1900s, and during the last two decades, this lake has been affected by trans-boundary Pb pollution from northern China. Lake Chokai has received Pb pollutant from northern China since early 1900s until 2009, whereas for the Lake Mikuriga the major Pb contaminant was transported from southern China during the past 100 years. The results of our study demonstrate that Japan Archipelago has received trans-boundary Pb emissions from different parts of East Asian region depending on location, and the major source region has changed historically. - Highlights: • Historical trend of Pb pollution was recorded in six Japanese Lakes. • Pb concentration and Pb isotope ratios were determined for sediment cores. • High [Pb] and less radiogenic Pb isotope ratios were observed since

  19. Lead isotope ratios in six lake sediment cores from Japan Archipelago: Historical record of trans-boundary pollution sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosono, Takahiro, E-mail: hosono@kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Priority Organization for Innovation and Excellence, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Alvarez, Kelly [Priority Organization for Innovation and Excellence, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Kuwae, Michinobu [Senior Research Fellow Center, Ehime University, 2-5 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)

    2016-07-15

    Sediment cores from six lakes situated from north to south on the Japanese Archipelago were collected during 2009–2010 to investigate the hypothesis that deposition of lead (Pb) was coming from East Asia (including China, South Korea and eastern part of Russia). Accumulation rates and ages of the lake sediment were estimated by the {sup 210}Pb constant rate of supply model and {sup 137}Cs inputs to reconstruct the historical trends of Pb accumulation. Cores from four lakes located in the north and central Japan, showed clear evidence of Pb pollution with a change in the {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb and {sup 208}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratios in the recent sediment as compared to the deeper sediment. Among the six studied lakes, significant inputs of anthropogenic lead emissions were observed at Lake Mikazuki (north Hokkaido in north Japan), Lake Chokai (north of Honshu), and Lake Mikuriga (central part of Honshu). Pb isotopic comparison of collected core sediment and previously reported data for wet precipitation and aerosols from different Asian regions indicate that, before 1900, Pb accumulated in these three lakes was not affected by trans-boundary sources. Lake Mikazuki started to receive Pb emissions from Russia in early 1900s, and during the last two decades, this lake has been affected by trans-boundary Pb pollution from northern China. Lake Chokai has received Pb pollutant from northern China since early 1900s until 2009, whereas for the Lake Mikuriga the major Pb contaminant was transported from southern China during the past 100 years. The results of our study demonstrate that Japan Archipelago has received trans-boundary Pb emissions from different parts of East Asian region depending on location, and the major source region has changed historically. - Highlights: • Historical trend of Pb pollution was recorded in six Japanese Lakes. • Pb concentration and Pb isotope ratios were determined for sediment cores. • High [Pb] and less radiogenic Pb isotope ratios

  20. Activity of Small Repeating Earthquakes along Izu-Bonin and Ryukyu Trenches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibino, K.; Matsuzawa, T.; Uchida, N.; Nakamura, W.; Matsushima, T.

    2014-12-01

    There are several subduction systems near the Japanese islands. The 2011 Mw9.0 Tohoku-oki megathrust earthquake occurred at the NE Japan (Tohoku) subduction zone. We have revealed a complementary relation between the slip areas for huge earthquakes and small repeating earthquakes (REs) in Tohoku. Investigations of REs in these subduction zones and the comparison with Tohoku area are important for revealing generation mechanism of megathrust earthquakes. Our target areas are Izu-Bonin and Ryukyu subduction zones, which appear to generate no large interplate earthquake. To investigate coupling of plate boundary in these regions, we estimated spatial distribution of slip rate by using REs. We use seismograms from the High Sensitivity Seismograph Network (Hi-net), Full Range Seismograph Network of Japan (F-net), and permanent seismic stations of Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Tohoku University, University of Tokyo, and Kagoshima University from 8 May 2003 (Izu-Bonin) and 14 July 2005 (Ryukyu) to 31 December 2012 to detect REs along the two trenches, by using similarity of seismograms. We mainly follow the procedure adopted in Uchida and Matsuzawa (2013) that studied REs in Tohoku area to compare our results with the REs in Tohoku. We find that the RE distribution along the Ryukyu trench shows two bands parallel to the trench axis. This feature is similar to the pattern in Tohoku where relatively large earthquakes occur between the bands. Along the Izu-Bonin trench, on the other hand, we find much fewer REs than in Tohoku or Ryukyu subduction zones and only one along-trench RE band, which corresponds to the area where the subducting Pacific plate contacts with the crust of the Philippine Sea plate. We also estimate average slip rate and coupling coefficient by using an empirical relationship between seismic moment and slip for REs (Nadeau and Johnson, 1998) and relative plate motion model. As a result, we find interplate slip rate in the deeper band is higher than

  1. The utilization and conservation of mires in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazawa, T

    1992-01-01

    Japan has approximately 200 000 ha of mires (0.5% of the total land area), and peat reserves of ca. 625 million tons. Because of the great diversity in both climatic and topographic conditions various types of mire and wetlands are found. These range from the large coastal mires in Hokkaido to the mangrove forests with surrounding limnogenic mires in subtropical regions of the Ryukyu Archipelago. The majority of Japanese mires are, however, located in regions of recent volcanic activity and on the alluvial plains of Cent Honshu and northwards. Most of the lowland mires have long since been reclaimed for rice culture or have partly been buried under built-up areas. In this paper, different forms of mire utilization are outlined and 30 legally protected mires in Hokkido are briefly described.

  2. Oceanic archipelagos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantis, Kostas A.; Whittaker, Robert James; Fernández-Palacios, José María

    2016-01-01

    Since the contributions of Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace, oceanic archipelagos have played a central role in the development of biogeography. However, despite the critical influence of oceanic islands on ecological and evolutionary theory, our focus has remained limited to either the i...... of the archipelagic geological dynamics that can affect diversity at both the island and the archipelagic level. We also reaffirm that oceanic archipelagos are appropriate spatiotemporal units to frame analyses in order to understand large scale patterns of biodiversity....

  3. Anisotropic structure of the mantle wedge beneath the Ryukyu arc from teleseismic receiver function analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, K. A.; Wirth, E. A.; Long, M. D.

    2011-12-01

    The recycling of oceanic plates back into the mantle through subduction is an important process taking place within our planet. However, many fundamental aspects of subduction systems, such as the dynamics of mantle flow, have yet to be completely understood. Subducting slabs transport water down into the mantle, but how and where that water is released, as well as how it affects mantle flow, is still an open question. In this study, we focus on the Ryukyu subduction zone in southwestern Japan and use anisotropic receiver function analysis to characterize the structure of the mantle wedge. We compute radial and transverse P-to-S receiver functions for eight stations of the broadband F-net array using a multitaper receiver function estimator. We observe coherent P-to-SV converted energy in the radial receiver functions at ~6 sec for most of the stations analyzed consistent with conversions originating at the top of the slab. We also observe conversions on the transverse receiver functions that are consistent with the presence of multiple anisotropic and/or dipping layers. The character of the transverse receiver functions varies significantly along strike, with the northernmost three stations exhibiting markedly different behavior than stations located in the center of the Ryukyu arc. We compute synthetic receiver functions using a forward modeling scheme that can handle dipping interfaces and anisotropic layers to create models for the depths, thicknesses, and strengths of anisotropic layers in the mantle wedge beneath Ryukyu.

  4. On the fourth Diadema species (Diadema-sp) from Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Seinen; Kajigaya, Yoshikazu; Kurogi, Hiroaki; Niwa, Kentaro; Shibuno, Takuro; Nanami, Atsushi; Kiyomoto, Setuo

    2014-01-01

    Four long-spined sea urchin species in the genus Diadema are known to occur around the Japanese Archipelago. Three species (D. savignyi, D. setosum, and D. paucispinum) are widely distributed in the Indo-Pacific Ocean. The fourth species was detected by DNA analysis among samples originally collected as D. savignyi or D. setosum in Japan and the Marshall Islands and tentatively designated as Diadema-sp, remaining an undescribed species. We analyzed nucleotide sequences of the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene in the "D. savignyi-like" samples, and found all 17 individuals collected in the mainland of Japan (Sagami Bay and Kyushu) to be Diadema-sp, but all nine in the Ryukyu Archipelago (Okinawa and Ishigaki Islands) to be D. savignyi, with large nucleotide sequence difference between them (11.0%±1.7 SE). Diadema-sp and D. savignyi shared Y-shaped blue lines of iridophores along the interambulacrals, but individuals of Diadema-sp typically exhibited a conspicuous white streak at the fork of the Y-shaped blue iridophore lines, while this feature was absent in D. savignyi. Also, the central axis of the Y-shaped blue lines of iridophores was approximately twice as long as the V-component in D. savignyi whereas it was of similar length in Diadema-sp. Two parallel lines were observed to constitute the central axis of the Y-shaped blue lines in both species, but these were considerably narrower in Diadema-sp. Despite marked morphological and genetic differences, it appears that Diadema-sp has been mis-identified as D. savignyi for more than half a century.

  5. On the fourth Diadema species (Diadema-sp from Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seinen Chow

    Full Text Available Four long-spined sea urchin species in the genus Diadema are known to occur around the Japanese Archipelago. Three species (D. savignyi, D. setosum, and D. paucispinum are widely distributed in the Indo-Pacific Ocean. The fourth species was detected by DNA analysis among samples originally collected as D. savignyi or D. setosum in Japan and the Marshall Islands and tentatively designated as Diadema-sp, remaining an undescribed species. We analyzed nucleotide sequences of the cytochrome oxidase I (COI gene in the "D. savignyi-like" samples, and found all 17 individuals collected in the mainland of Japan (Sagami Bay and Kyushu to be Diadema-sp, but all nine in the Ryukyu Archipelago (Okinawa and Ishigaki Islands to be D. savignyi, with large nucleotide sequence difference between them (11.0%±1.7 SE. Diadema-sp and D. savignyi shared Y-shaped blue lines of iridophores along the interambulacrals, but individuals of Diadema-sp typically exhibited a conspicuous white streak at the fork of the Y-shaped blue iridophore lines, while this feature was absent in D. savignyi. Also, the central axis of the Y-shaped blue lines of iridophores was approximately twice as long as the V-component in D. savignyi whereas it was of similar length in Diadema-sp. Two parallel lines were observed to constitute the central axis of the Y-shaped blue lines in both species, but these were considerably narrower in Diadema-sp. Despite marked morphological and genetic differences, it appears that Diadema-sp has been mis-identified as D. savignyi for more than half a century.

  6. Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    2013-01-01

    I 1500- og 1600-tallet dannedes tidligt moderne stater i Europa, men samtidig eksisterede der ligeså avancerede statsdannelser uden for Europa, bl.a. i Kina, Indien og Japan. I det følgende ser vi nærmere på dannelsen af den moderne stat i Japan. Hvorfor blev Japan aldrig en europæisk koloni......? Hvordan havde japanske magthavere igennem 300 år forberedt Japan og de mennesker, der boede på de japanske øer, til at kunne udvikle en nation, der skulle blive den stærkeste og rigeste i Asien i mere end 100 år? Hvem bestemte i Japan? Kejseren eller shogunen?...

  7. Intersectional gene flow between insular endemics of Ilex (Aquifoliaceae) on the Bonin Islands and the Ryukyu Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setoguchi, H; Watanabe, I

    2000-06-01

    Hybridization and introgression play important roles in plant evolution, and their occurrence on the oceanic islands provides good examples of plant speciation and diversification. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) and trnL (UAA) 3'exon-trnF (GAA) intergenic spacer (IGS) sequences of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA), and the sequences of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA were examined to investigate the occurrence of gene transfer in Ilex species on the Bonin Islands and the Ryukyu Islands in Japan. A gene phylogeny for the plastid genome is in agreement with the morphologically based taxonomy, whereas the nuclear genome phylogeny clusters putatively unrelated endemics both on the Bonin and the Ryukyu Islands. Intersectional hybridization and nuclear gene flow were independently observed in insular endemics of Ilex on both sets of islands without evidence of plastid introgression. Gene flow observed in these island systems can be explained by ecological features of insular endemics, i.e., limits of distribution range or sympatric distribution in a small land area.

  8. Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, T.

    1975-01-01

    A report is given on the basic research and development in food irradiation in Japan. Two new irradiation facilities are extensively described. Basic research is performed in radiation chemistry of fruits, potatoes, fish products, meat products and model systems. Microbiological research is concerned with Clostridium botulinum and radicidation and radurization studies, as well as effects of combination treatment on Micrococcus radiodurans. Radiation treatment of grain, frutis, vegetables, potatoes, fish, meat and meat products and other commodities is performed. Wholesomeness studies are dealing with the nutritional value and animal feeding studies are carried out with irradiated potatoes, onions, rice, wheat, and sausages. Two short chapters are concerned with legislation and marketing. (MG) [de

  9. Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huttner, Kevin; Suzuki, Tatsujiro

    1987-01-01

    The Japanese nuclear power programme began with reactors imported from the United States. A natural uranium heavy water reactor using domestic materials was started in 1958. Subsequent progress was with light water reactors imported from the United States. Domestic reactor development was of a fast breeder reactor and an advanced thermal reactor. By March 1986 there were 32 commercial power plants in operation which produced approximately 23% of the electricity consumed in Japan. Ten more are under construction and six more are planned. Their location and comparative generating cost are tabulated. Energy demand and targets for nuclear power generation are discussed. The FBR advanced thermal reactor and high temperature reactor programmes are summarized. The Japanese nuclear fuel cycle - uranium prospecting, enrichment, reprocessing, the development of mixed oxide fuels, thermal recycling and radioactive waste management is also discussed. (U.K.)

  10. Intermediate earthquakes in a northern part of the Kyushu-Ryukyu arc. Kyushu-Ryukyu kohokubu iki no shoshinpatsu jishin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakuta, T.; Miyamachi, H.; Takagi, A. (Kagoshima Univ., Kagoshima (Japan). Faculty of Science)

    1991-06-24

    Great improvement has been made in the reduction of errors in the detection accuracy of intermediate earthquake epicenters, particularly of longitude and focal depth, by the analysis of data obtained by the observation network of Kagoshima University deployed for the purpose of observing regional seismic activities in the southern part of Kyushu. The epicenters are redetermined by adding the data observed by Fukuoka Meteorological Observatory to study the source distribution mainly. A chain of earthquakes at the depths from 119km to 177km in a vertical zone from Kaimon-dake volcano to the south and a chain of events branched off from the cluster towards Sakurajima volcano are observed. It is plausible that the existence of these seismic activities in the peripheral areas immediately below volcanos is associated with the supply of volcanic energy in Kyushu. Seismicity gaps of intermediate earthquakes are also noticeable phenomena. Although the number of earthquakes is not enough for the establishment of theories for seismic activities and seismicity gaps in the northern part of the Kyushu-Ryukyu arc, regional features are found out which is considered to be related with the characteristic thermal activity in the area of plate dipping at high angle. 27 refs., 13 figs.

  11. Situation Report--Hong Kong, Malawi, Pakistan, Panama, Philippines, Ryukyu Islands (Okinawa), Sabah, Sarawak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in eight foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Hong Kong, Malawi, Pakistan, Panama, Philippines, Ryukyu Islands (Okinawa), Sabah, and Sarawak. Information is provided where appropriate and available, under two topics, general background and family planning…

  12. Rock magnetic and geochemical analyses of surface sediment characteristics in deep ocean environments: A case study across the Ryukyu Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, N.; Kawamura, K.; Ishikawa, N.

    2008-03-01

    Magnetic minerals in marine sediments are often dissolved or formed with burial depth, thereby masking the primary natural remanent magnetization and paleoclimate signals. In order to clarify the present sedimentary environment and the progressive changes with burial depth in the magnetic properties, we studied seven cores collected from the Ryukyu Trench, southwest Japan. Magnetic properties, organic geochemistry, and interstitial water chemistry of seven cores are described. Bottom water conditions at the landward slope, trench floor, and seaward slope are relatively suboxic, anoxic, and oxic, respectively. The grain size of the sediments become gradually finer with the distance from Okinawa Island and finer with increasing water depth. The magnetic carriers in the sediments are predominantly magnetite and maghemized magnetite, with minor amounts of hematite. In the topmost sediments from the landward slope, magnetic minerals are diluted by terrigenous materials and microfossils. The downcore variations in magnetic properties and geochemical data provided evidence for the dissolution of fine-grained magnetite with burial depth under an anoxic condition.

  13. Holocene emerged coral reef in Takarajima and Kodakarajima, Ryukyu islands, Southwest Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, Takashi; Omoto, Kunio; Koba, Motoharu

    1978-01-01

    Due to the recent development of radiometric dating, coral reefs emerged in Holocene epoch are studied intensively worldwidely in relation to sea level change and coral reef formation. Attempt was made to determine the age, pattern and growth rate of coral reefs in the marginal area of coral sea in the Northwest Pacific. Field observation was made in the emerged coral reefs in Takarajima and Kodakarajima islands and the samples for radiocarbon dating were taken from geological sections across the emerged reefs. These islands are located at about 29 deg 10 min N, 129 deg 15 min E, where warm Kuroshio current pushes the margin of coral sea northward, and furnished with flourishing development of coral reefs emerged in both pleistocence and Holocene epochs. Though without earthquake records, it is assumed that Holocene reefs have been terraced due to sudden uplift associated with major earthquakes. (Mori, K.)

  14. Holocene emerged coral reef in Takarajima and Kodakarajima, Ryukyu islands, Southwest Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakata, T; Omoto, K; Koba, M [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Science

    1978-06-01

    Due to the recent development of radiometric dating, coral reefs emerged in Holocene epoch are studied intensively worldwidely in relation to sea level change and coral reef formation. Attempt was made to determine the age, pattern and growth rate of coral reefs in the marginal area of coral sea in the Northwest Pacific. Field observation was made in the emerged coral reefs in Takarajima and Kodakarajima islands and the samples for radiocarbon dating were taken from geological sections across the emerged reefs. These islands are located at about 29 deg 10 min N, 129 deg 15 min E, where warm Kuroshio current pushes the margin of coral sea northward, and furnished with flourishing development of coral reefs emerged in both pleistocence and Holocene epochs. Though without earthquake records, it is assumed that Holocene reefs have been terraced due to sudden uplift associated with major earthquakes.

  15. Application of tandem accelerator mass spectrometor to the chronological study of archaeological samples on Ryukyu Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taira, Hatsuo; Higa, Kenichi; Nakai, Nobuyuki; Nakamura, Toshio.

    1987-01-01

    Along with the urbanization of rural areas on Ryukyu Islands, many shell mounds and pre-historic sites have been found in resent years. Chrological studies of shell samples from these mounds will lead to the better understanding of cultural background for the pre-historic human activities on the Ryukyu Islands. C-14 dating by beta counting is the common method to obtain the ages of the archaeological samples. It is, however, very limitted in obtaining the absolute ages by the above mehtod due to the large sample sizes required and time consuming. There are many newly obtained archaeological samples left unstudied in detail. The alternate is a method called Tandem Accelerator Mass Spectrometer (AMS) installed at Nagoya University, which is composed of the tandem type accelerator to measure very low concentration of C-14 in archaeological samples. The system has been designed particularly to measure the radio-carbon and has advantages of being small sample size and very little time consuming for C-14 measurement as compared with the beta counting. It is the aim of this work to apply the above AMS for obtaining the absolute ages of the archaeological samples. The results agreed well with those estimated by the Erthenware method (relative method of dating), which ranged from 500 to 6000 y.b.p. The results may be helpful for the chronological arrangement of the samples and for the understanding of pre-historical human activities on the Ryukyu Islands. (author)

  16. Seriatopora Diversity Preserved in Upper Mesophotic Coral Ecosystems in Southern Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic Sinniger

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Coral reefs worldwide are facing increasing stress due to drastic changes in their environment. Mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs have been considered as a potential refuge from several major stressors, such as warm-water bleaching events. However, their role as a subsequent source of larvae remains unclear for many species, particularly as genetic differentiation of corals over depth has frequently been observed. In 1998 and 2001, two severe bleaching events around Okinawa Island in Japan resulted in major changes to the shallow reefs, including the local “extinction” of species such as Seriatopora hystrix at Sesoko Island. However, recently this species was found to be present in abundance at mesophotic depths in the area, despite no clear signs of recovery being observed in the adjacent shallow waters. Here, we assessed the genetic diversity of Seriatopora from this deep population and provide a comparison with populations from shallow to mesophotic depths in other parts of the Ryukyu archipelago, to understand their depth specificity and their importance in genetic diversity conservation of affected shallow populations. High levels of genetic diversity were observed in both shallow and mesophotic Seriatopora populations for both the nuclear (internal transcribed spacer 2, ITS2 and the mitochondrial (hypervariable open reading frame, ORF markers, with no clear partitioning of haplotypes over depth or across locations in the archipelago. Both ITS2 and ORF suggest the presence of potential cryptic species and the discrepancy between the markers could reflect hybridization or incomplete lineage sorting. Although associated endosymbionts (Symbiodinium spp. all shared the same mitochondrial haplotype (cytochrome oxidase subunit 1, COI, the nuclear ribosomal ITS2 revealed slight potential habitat partitioning between the genotypes, with a small decrease of C59 Symbiodinium types below 10 m depth and a mirrored increase in C1/C78a-related types

  17. Nesting biology and life cycle of Nomia (Acunomia chalybeata Smith on Iriomote Island, southernmost Archipelago of Japan, with notes on the simultaneous occurrence of diapausing and non-diapausing prepupae within the same nests (Hymenoptera: Halictidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Abdul Hannan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nesting biology of the nomiine bee, Nomia (Acunomia chalybeata Smith, was studied in Iriomote Island, Japan (N24°15–25′ in 2003 and 2004. Its nesting period extended for 6 months from around the end of April to October. The nest aggregation was found in clay soil under shady conditions. Twenty nests/m2 were present at the highest density spot. Brood numbers in solitary nests were 5–20 (mean ± SD: 11.8 ± 4.7, n = 14, and in communal nests 12–101 (43.0 ± 41.0, n = 3. Each brood cluster in communal nests contained 0–32 brood cells (10.1 ± 8.0, n = 13, suggesting that each cohabitant provisioned independently own brood cells. At least 2 and partially 3 generations were estimated to occur in the year; however each nest produced simultaneously non-diapausing and diapausing prepupae. The percent rate of diapausing prepupae differed seasonally, and was 20.0–37.5% (30.3 ± 7.5%, n = 3 in overwintered generation and 0–100% (50.0 ± 39.8%, n = 9 in first generation, suggesting that the rate of production of dormant prepupae increased toward the later activity season. Production of the diapausing prepupae may function potentially to inhabit widely throughout different climatic zones. Female ratio (females/females + males in overwintered generation was 0.347 (50/144. Nest architecture, occurrence of communal nests and breaking of prepupal diapause are also mentioned.

  18. Source of high tsunamis along the southernmost Ryukyu trench inferred from tsunami stratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Masataka; Kitamura, Akihisa; Tu, Yoko; Ohashi, Yoko; Imai, Takafumi; Nakamura, Mamoru; Ikuta, Ryoya; Miyairi, Yosuke; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Shishikura, Masanobu

    2018-01-01

    Four paleotsunamis deposits are exposed in a trench on the coastal lowland north of the southern Ryukyu subduction zone trench. Radiocarbon ages on coral and bivalve shells show that the four deposits record tsunamis date from the last 2000 yrs., including a historical tsunami with a maximum run-up of 30 m in 1771, for an average recurrence interval of approximately 600 yrs. Ground fissures in a soil beneath the 1771 tsunami deposit may have been generated by stronger shaking than recorded by historical documents. The repeated occurrence of the paleotsunami deposits supports a tectonic source model on the plate boundary rather than a nontectonic source model, such as submarine landslides. Assuming a thrust model at the subduction zone, the seismic coupling ratio may be as low as 20%.

  19. Activated Very Low Frequency Earthquakes By the Slow Slip Events in the Ryukyu Subduction Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, M.; Sunagawa, N.

    2014-12-01

    The Ryukyu Trench (RT), where the Philippine Sea plate is subducting, has had no known thrust earthquakes with a Mw>8.0 in the last 300 years. However, the rupture source of the 1771 tsunami has been proposed as an Mw > 8.0 earthquake in the south RT. Based on the dating of tsunami boulders, it has been estimated that large tsunamis occur at intervals of 150-400 years in the south Ryukyu arc (RA) (Araoka et al., 2013), although they have not occurred for several thousand years in the central and northern Ryukyu areas (Goto et al., 2014). To address the discrepancy between recent low moment releases by earthquakes and occurrence of paleo-tsunamis in the RT, we focus on the long-term activity of the very low frequency earthquakes (VLFEs), which are good indicators of the stress release in the shallow plate interface. VLFEs have been detected along the RT (Ando et al., 2012), which occur on the plate interface or at the accretionary prism. We used broadband data from the F-net of NIED along the RT and from the IRIS network. We applied two filters to all the raw broadband seismograms: a 0.02-0.05 Hz band-pass filter and a 1 Hz high-pass filter. After identification of the low-frequency events from the band-pass-filtered seismograms, the local and teleseismic events were removed. Then we picked the arrival time of the maximum amplitude of the surface wave of the VLFEs and determined the epicenters. VLFEs occurred on the RA side within 100 km from the trench axis along the RT. Distribution of the 6670 VLFEs from 2002 to 2013 could be divided to several clusters. Principal large clusters were located at 27.1°-29.0°N, 25.5°-26.6°N, and 122.1°-122.4°E (YA). We found that the VLFEs of the YA are modulated by repeating slow slip events (SSEs) which occur beneath south RA. The activity of the VLFEs increased to two times of its ordinary rate in 15 days after the onset of the SSEs. Activation of the VLFEs could be generated by low stress change of 0.02-20 kPa increase in

  20. Petrologic perspectives on tectonic evolution of a nascent basin (Okinawa Trough) behind Ryukyu Arc:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Quanshu; SHI Xuefa

    2014-01-01

    Okinawa Trough is a back-arc, initial marginal sea basin, located behind the Ryukyu Arc-Trench System. The formation and evolution of the Okinawa Trough is intimately related to the subduction process of the Philippine Sea Plate beneath the Eurasian Plate since the late Miocene. The tectonic evolution of the trough is similar to other active back-arcs, such as the Mariana Trough and southern Lau Basin, all of which are experiencing the initial rifting and subsequent spreading process. This study reviews all petrologic and geochemical data of mafic volcanic lavas from the Okinawa Trough, Ryukyu Arc, and Philippine Sea Plate, combined with geophysical data to indicate the relationship between the subduction sources (input) and arc or back-arc magmas (output) in the Philippine Sea Plate-Ryukyu Arc-Okinawa Trough system (PROS). The results obtained showed that several components were variably involved in the petrogenesis of the Oki-nawa Trough lavas:sub-continental lithospheric mantle underlying the Eurasian Plate, Indian mid-oceanic ridge basalt (MORB)-type mantle, and Pacific MORB-type mantle. The addition of shallow aqueous fluids and deep hydrous melts from subducted components with the characteristics of Indian MORB-type mantle into the mantle source of lavas variably modifies the primitive mantle wedge beneath the Ryukyu and sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) beneath the Okinawa Trough. In the northeastern end of the trough and arc, instead of Indian MORB-type mantle, Pacific MORB-type mantle dominates the magma source. Along the strike of the Ryukyu Arc and Okinawa Trough, the systematic variations in trace element ratios and isotopic compositions reflect the first-order effect of variable subduction input on the magma source. In general, petrologic data, combined with geophysical data, imply that the Okinawa Trough is experiencing the“seafloor spreading”process in the southwest segment,“rift propagation”process in the middle seg-ment, and

  1. Island Movements: Thinking with the Archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Pugh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Whether in Homer or Plato, Shakespeare or Huxley, throughout history, thinking about islands has shaped how we think about human nature and our place in the world. However, to date archipelagos have received far less attention. This is problematic because we live, increasingly, in a world of island-island movements and not static forms. Not only in the more obvious cases of the Caribbean, Hawaii or the Philippines but, as Stratford et al (2011 say, many ‘continental forms’ like Canada and Australia are in fact archipelagos composed of thousands of island movements. To this list we can add more manufactured archipelagos: wind turbine arrays, industrial oil and military constellations. The key question therefore arises: what does it mean to think with the archipelago? This paper argues firstly that archipelagic thinking denaturalizes the conceptual basis of space and place, and therefore engages ‘the spatial turn’ presently sweeping the social sciences and humanities. Secondly, such thinking highlights the trope of what I call ‘metamorphosis’, of the adaptation and transformation of material, cultural and political practices through island movements. In both cases, I argue that thinking with the archipelago requires an important shift in how we frame analysis and engagement.

  2. Distinct Phylogeographic Structures of Wild Radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. raphanistroides Makino in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingxiang Han

    Full Text Available Coastal plants with simple linear distribution ranges along coastlines provide a suitable system for improving our understanding of patterns of intra-specific distributional history and genetic variation. Due to the combination of high seed longevity and high dispersibility of seeds via seawater, we hypothesized that wild radish would poorly represent phylogeographic structure at the local scale. On the other hand, we also hypothesized that wild radish populations might be geographically differentiated, as has been exhibited by their considerable phenotypic variations along the islands of Japan. We conducted nuclear DNA microsatellite loci and chloroplast DNA haplotype analyses for 486 samples and 144 samples, respectively, from 18 populations to investigate the phylogeographic structure of wild radish in Japan. Cluster analysis supported the existence of differential genetic structures between the Ryukyu Islands and mainland Japan populations. A significant strong pattern of isolation by distance and significant evidence of a recent bottleneck were detected. The chloroplast marker analysis resulted in the generation of eight haplotypes, of which two haplotypes (A and B were broadly distributed in most wild radish populations. High levels of variation in microsatellite loci were identified, whereas cpDNA displayed low levels of genetic diversity within populations. Our results indicate that the Kuroshio Current would have contributed to the sculpting of the phylogeographic structure by shaping genetic gaps between isolated populations. In addition, the Tokara Strait would have created a geographic barrier between the Ryukyu Islands and mainland Japan. Finally, extant habitat disturbances (coastal erosion, migration patterns (linear expansion, and geographic characteristics (small islands and sea currents have influenced the expansion and historical population dynamics of wild radish. Our study is the first to record the robust phylogeographic

  3. Tidal and residual currents across the northern Ryukyu Island chain observed by ferryboat ADCP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao-Jun; Nakamura, Hirohiko; Zhu, Xiao-Hua; Nishina, Ayako; Dong, Menghong

    2017-09-01

    Ferryboat Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) data from 2003 to 2012 are used to estimate the tidal and residual currents across the northern Ryukyu Island chain (RIC) between the islands of Okinawa and Amamioshima. In this region, the M2 tide current is the strongest tidal component, and the K1 tide current is the strongest diurnal tidal component. The corresponding maximum amplitudes are 40 and 34 cm s-1, respectively. After removal of the tidal currents, the mean volume transport, 1.5 ± 2.7 Sv, flows into the East China Sea (ECS) from the western North Pacific through four channels in this area. In an empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis performed to clarify the temporal and spatial variability of currents through the four channels, the first two EOF modes account for 71% and 18% of the total variance, respectively. The EOF1 mode shows a clear bottom-intensified mode through the deep channel, which is likely to be formed by the propagation of bottom-trapped long topographic Rossby wave caused by the impingement of westward-propagating mesoscale eddies upon the eastern slope of the northern RIC. The EOF2 mode has significant seasonal variability and may be driven by the wind stress prevailing over the Kuroshio flow region around the northern RIC in October-November. This study provides observational evidence of the water exchanges across the northern RIC, which is essential for constructing a circulation scheme in the North Pacific subtropical western boundary region.

  4. Cossidae of the Socotra Archipelago (Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Borth

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomy of the family Cossidae (Lepidoptera of the Socotra Archipelago is revised. Five species are recognized, including two new species (Mormogystia brandstetteri and Meharia hackeri, and dubious identifications and records are discussed. Adults and genitalia are illustrated and bionomic details, molecular evidence and a synonymic checklist of Socotra Cossidae genera is provided. A review of their distribution reveals that at least 80 percent of Socotro`s Cossidae species are unique to the archipelago which is renowned for its endemism.

  5. Holothurian (Echinodermata) Diversity in the Glorieuses Archipelago

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Holothuria, Glorieuses Islands, Western Indian Ocean, occurrence, diversity, coral reefs. Abstract—Due to their isolation, ... the Mozambique Channel (Western Indian Ocean). Inventories of several taxa, including the ... associated sandbars that emerge at low tide, complete the archipelago, with a land surface.

  6. The Characteristics of Turbidite Beds of Southwest Ryukyu Trench Floor: A new Approach From the X-ray Fluorescence Core Scanning Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiung, K. H.; Kanamatsu, T.; Ikehara, K.; Usami, K.; Saito, S.; Murayama, M.

    2017-12-01

    The southwest Ryukyu Trench near Taiwan is an ideal place for source-to-sink studies based on the distinctive sediment transport route between the terrestrial sediment source in Taiwan and the marine sink in the Ryukyu Trench. Using the bathymetric and seismic reflection data, we develop a sediment transport routes for understanding the ultimate sink of the southwest Ryukyu Trench floor. The southwest Ryukyu Trench floor can be regarded as the most distal depositional basin and isolated from the Ryukyu forearc basins. In addition, part of sediment from the proximal sources of the Ryukyu Islands and Yaeyama accretionary prism could be transported to the trench floor. We collected the piston core, PC04, from the southwest Ryukyu Trench floor of 6,147 m water depth in 3.23 m core length from cruise KR15-18, 2015. The coring site locates behind the natural levee of an obvious channel in the Ryukyu trench floor. The PC04 is composed of gray silty clay interbedded with numerous silt layers. Most of the silt layers are less than 2 cm in thickness. Based upon the core observation, X-ray fluorescence core scanning analysis and 14C age determinations, thirty-seven individual and thin beds were determined as turbidites. The results of X-ray fluorescence core scanning analysis provide continuous and high-resolution (1.0 mm of each point) assessment of relative change in the elemental ratios. Ca/Fe is a proxy for the terrigenous component of the sediment, indicating the High Ca and low Fe of each turbidite layers. Zr/Rb ratios of the marine sediments commonly used in the reflection of the original grain size variation. A large part of deep-sea turbidite beds are characterized by high Ca/Fe and Zr/Rb ratio values. These turbidite beds can be linked spatially over a distance of ˜200 km via submarine canyons within the Taiwan orogen. However, it is difficult to be linked temporally to certain events.

  7. Catastrophic impact of typhoon waves on coral communities in the Ryukyu Islands under global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongo, Chuki; Kawamata, Hideki; Goto, Kazuhisa

    2012-06-01

    Typhoon-generated storm waves generally cause mechanical damage to coral communities on present-day reefs, and the magnitude and extent of damage is predicted to increase in the near future as a result of global warming. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of potential future scenarios of reef ecosystems is of prime interest. This study assesses the current status of coral communities on Ibaruma reef, Ryukyu Islands, on the basis of field observations, engineering and fluid dynamic models, and calculations of wave motion, and predicts the potential effects of a super-extreme typhoon (incident wave height,H = 20 m; wave period, T = 20 s) on the reef. On the present-day reef, massive corals occur in shallow lagoons and tabular corals occur from the reef crest to the reef slope. The observed distribution of corals, which is frequently attacked by moderate (H = 10 m, T = 10 s) and extreme (H = 10 m, T = 15 s) typhoons, is consistent with the predictions of engineering models. Moreover, this study indicates that if a super-extreme typhoon attacks the reef in the near future, massive corals will survive in the shallow lagoons but tabular corals on the reef crest and reef slope will be severely impacted. The findings imply that super-extreme typhoons will cause a loss of species diversity, as the tabular corals are important reef builders and are critical to the maintenance of reef ecosystems. Consequently, reef restoration is a key approach to maintaining reef ecosystems in the wake of super-extreme typhoons.

  8. Elucidation of Environmental Fate of Artificial Sweetener, Aspartame by Determining Bimolecular Rate Constants with Hydroxyl Radical at Various pH and Temperature Conditions and Reaction By-Products Presentation type:Poster Section:Ocean Sciences Session:General Contribution Authors:Takashi Teraji (1) Takemitsu Arakaki (2) AGU# 10173629 (1) Graduate School of Engineering and Science, University of the Ryukyus, 1 Senbaru Nishihara-cho, Okinawa, 903-0123, Japan (a4269bj@yahoo.co.jp), (2) Department of Chemistry, Biology and Marine Science, Faculty of Science, University of the Ryukyus, 1 Senbaru Nishihara-cho, Okinawa, 903-0123, Japan (arakakit@sci.u-ryukyu.ac.jp)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teraji, T.; Arakaki, T.

    2011-12-01

    Use of artificial sweeteners in drinks and food has been rapidly increasing because of their non-calorie nature. In Japan, aspartame, acesulfame K and sucralose are among the most widely used artificial sweeteners. Because the artificial sweeteners are not metabolized in human bodies, they are directly excreted into the environment without chemical transformations. We initiated a study to better understand the fate of artificial sweeteners in the marine environment. In particular, we focused on the fate of aspartame by determining its bimolecular rate constants with hydroxyl radicals at various pH and temperature conditions and reaction by-products. The hydroxyl radical (OH), the most potent reactive oxygen species, reacts with various compounds and determines the environmental oxidation capacity and the life-time of many compounds. The steady-state OH concentration and the reaction rate constants between the compound and OH are used to estimate the life-time of the compound. In this study, we determine the bimolecular rate constants between aspartame and OH at various pH and temperature conditions using a competition kinetics technique. We use hydrogen peroxide as a photochemical source of OH. Bimolecular rate constant we obtained so far was (2.6±1.2)×109 M-1 s-1 at pH = 3.0. Little effect was seen by changing the temperatures between 15 and 40 °C. Activation energy (Ea) was calculated to be -1.0 kJ mol-1 at pH = 3.0, which could be regarded as zero. We will report reaction rate constants at different pHs and reaction by-products which will be analyzed by GC-MS. We will further discuss the fate of aspartame in the coastal environment.

  9. Shallow earthquake swarms in southern Ryukyu area: manifestation of dynamics of fluid and/or magma plumbing system revealed by teleseismic and regional datasets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špičák, Aleš; Vaněk, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 106, č. 3 (2017), s. 959-965 ISSN 1437-3254 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : earth quake swarms * Southern Ryukyu * Wadati-Benioff zone Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure OBOR OECD: Volcanology Impact factor: 2.283, year: 2016

  10. Tenarife Island, Canary Island Archipelago, Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Tenarife Island is one of the most volcanically active of the Canary Island archipelago, Atlantic Ocean, just off the NW coast of Africa, (28.5N, 16.5W). The old central caldera, nearly filled in by successive volcanic activity culminating in two stratocones. From those two peaks, a line of smaller cinder cones extend to the point of the island. Extensive gullies dissect the west side of the island and some forests still remain on the east side.

  11. Oviposition punctures in cucurbit fruits and their economic damage caused by the sterile female melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyatake, T.; Irabu, T.; Higa, R.

    1993-01-01

    Oviposition punctures caused by sterile females of the tephritid Bactrocera cucurbitae in cucurbit fruits were examined and economic damage was evaluated in Okinawa, Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Cage experiments in the field confirmed that sterile females make punctures (sterile stings) on fruits. The features of sterile stings differed depending on fruit species and were classified into 5 types

  12. NA phylogeny of Ryukyus Leucothoidae (Crustacea: Amphipoda)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    White, K.N.; Reimer, J.D.

    2012-01-01

    Commensal leucothoid amphipods collected from sponges, ascidians, and coral rubble from the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan, were investigated using nuclear 18S ribosomal DNA sequences. Analysis of sequences from 21 species in three genera supported the current morphological species designations and the

  13. Japan 2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørstrup, Finn Rude; Hvass, Sven

    2003-01-01

    Kompendium udarbejdet til en studierejse til Japan  2003 Kunstakademiets Arkitektskole, Studieafdeling 10......Kompendium udarbejdet til en studierejse til Japan  2003 Kunstakademiets Arkitektskole, Studieafdeling 10...

  14. Seismic evidence for arc segmentation, active magmatic intrusions and syn-rift fault system in the northern Ryukyu volcanic arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Ryuta; Kodaira, Shuichi; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Miura, Seiichi; Kaneda, Yoshiyuki

    2018-04-01

    Tectonic and volcanic structures of the northern Ryukyu arc are investigated on the basis of multichannel seismic (MCS) reflection data. The study area forms an active volcanic front in parallel to the non-volcanic island chain in the eastern margin of the Eurasian plate and has been undergoing regional extension on its back-arc side. We carried out a MCS reflection experiment along two across-arc lines, and one of the profiles was laid out across the Tokara Channel, a linear bathymetric depression which demarcates the northern and central Ryukyu arcs. The reflection image reveals that beneath this topographic valley there exists a 3-km-deep sedimentary basin atop the arc crust, suggesting that the arc segment boundary was formed by rapid and focused subsidence of the arc crust driven by the arc-parallel extension. Around the volcanic front, magmatic conduits represented by tubular transparent bodies in the reflection images are well developed within the shallow sediments and some of them are accompanied by small fragments of dipping seismic reflectors indicating intruded sills at their bottoms. The spatial distribution of the conduits may suggest that the arc volcanism has multiple active outlets on the seafloor which bifurcate at crustal depths and/or that the location of the volcanic front has been migrating trenchward over time. Further distant from the volcanic front toward the back-arc (> 30 km away), these volcanic features vanish, and alternatively wide rift basins become predominant where rapid transitions from normal-fault-dominant regions to strike-slip-fault-dominant regions occur. This spatial variation in faulting patterns indicates complex stress regimes associated with arc/back-arc rifting in the northern Okinawa Trough.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  15. Island Movements: Thinking with the Archipelago

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Pugh

    2013-01-01

    Whether in Homer or Plato, Shakespeare or Huxley, throughout history, thinking about islands has shaped how we think about human nature and our place in the world. However, to date archipelagos have received far less attention. This is problematic because we live, increasingly, in a world of island-island movements and not static forms. Not only in the more obvious cases of the Caribbean, Hawaii or the Philippines but, as Stratford et al (2011) say, many ‘continental forms’ like Canada and Au...

  16. Volcanic Aggregates from Azores and Madeira Archipelagos (Portugal): An Overview Regarding the Alkali Silica Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Sara; Ramos, Violeta; Fernandes, Isabel; Nunes, João Carlos; Fournier, Benoit; Santos Silva, António; Soares, Dora

    2017-12-01

    Alkali-silica reaction (ASR) is a type of deterioration that has been causing serious expansion, cracking and durability/operational issues in concrete structures worldwide. The presence of sufficient moisture, high alkali content in the cement paste and reactive forms of silica in the aggregates are the required conditions for this reaction to occur. Reactive aggregates of volcanic nature have been reported in different countries such as Japan, Iceland and Turkey, among others. The presence of silica minerals and SiO2-rich volcanic glass is regarded as the main cause for the reactivity of volcanic rocks. In Portugal, volcanic aggregates are mainly present in Azores and Madeira Archipelagos and, for several years, there was no information regarding the potential alkali-reactivity of these rocks. Since the beginning of this decade some data was obtained by the work of Medeiros (2011) and Ramos (2013) and by the national research projects ReAVA, (Characterization of potential reactivity of the volcanic aggregates from the Azores Archipelago: implications on the durability of concrete structures) and IMPROVE (Improvement of performance of aggregates in the inhibition of alkali-aggregate reactions in concrete), respectively. In order to investigate the potential alkali-reactivity of aggregates from both archipelagos, a total of sixteen aggregates were examined under the optical microscope and, some of them, also under the Scanning Electron Microscope with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy. A set of geochemical analyses and laboratory expansion tests were also performed on those volcanic aggregates. The main results showed that the presence of volcanic glass is rare in both archipelagos and that the samples of Madeira Archipelago contain clay minerals (mainly from scoria/tuff formations inter-layered with the lava flows), which can play a role in concrete expansion. The results of the laboratory tests showed that one of the samples performed as potentially reactive

  17. Modelling the Wake of the Marquesas Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raapoto, H.; Martinez, E. C.; Petrenko, A. A.; Doglioli, A. M.; Maes, C.

    2017-12-01

    In this study, a high-resolution ( 2.5 km) numerical model was set up to investigate the fine-scale activity within the region of the Marquesas archipelago where a strong biological enhancement occurs. This has never been performed before. The robustness of the model results is assessed by comparison with remote sensing and in situ observations. Our results highlight regions of warm waters leeward of the different islands with high eddy kinetic energy (EKE) on their sides. The analysis of energy conversion terms reveals contributions to EKE variability by wind, baroclinic and barotropic instabilities. The use of a geometry-based eddy detection algorithm reveals eddy generation in the wake of the largest islands, with both an inshore and offshore effect. Maximum eddy activity occurs in austral winter following the seasonality of both wind stress and EKE intensity. Most eddies have a radius between 20 and 30 km and are generally cyclonic rather than anticyclonic. Significant vertical velocities are observed in the proximity of the islands, associated with topography induced flow separation. Eddy trapping inshore waters are advected offshore in the wake of the islands. The overall influence of these fine-scale dynamics could explain the strong biological enhancement of the archipelago.

  18. Modeling the Wake of the Marquesas Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raapoto, H.; Martinez, E.; Petrenko, A.; Doglioli, A. M.; Maes, C.

    2018-02-01

    In this study, a high-resolution (˜2.5 km) numerical model was set up to investigate the fine-scale activity within the region of the Marquesas archipelago. This has never been performed before. The robustness of the model results is assessed by comparison with remote sensing and in situ observations. Our results highlight regions of warm waters leeward of the different islands with high eddy kinetic energy (EKE) on their sides. The analysis of energy conversion terms reveals contributions to EKE variability by wind, baroclinic, and barotropic instabilities. The use of a geometry-based eddy detection algorithm reveals the generation of cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies in the wake of the largest islands, with both an inshore and offshore effect. Maximum eddy activity occurs in austral winter following the seasonality of both wind stress and EKE intensity. Most eddies have a radius between 20 and 30 km and are generally cyclonic rather than anticyclonic. Significant vertical velocities are observed in the proximity of the islands, associated with topographically induced flow separation. Eddy trapping inshore waters are advected offshore in the wake of the islands. The overall influence of these fine-scale dynamics could explain the strong biological enhancement of the archipelago.

  19. Material culture across the Aleutian archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Virginia L

    2010-12-01

    The material evidence from sites across the Aleutian Islands reflects colonization events, subsequent adaptations, and influxes of ideas and/or people from the east. The occurrence in the eastern Aleutians of bifacial technology around 7000 BP, of artifacts similar to the Arctic Small Tool tradition between 4000 and 3500 BP, and of slate and jet objects around 1000 BP reflects repeated surges of influence or movement of peoples from further east into the eastern end of the chain. In the central and western Aleutians, influence or perhaps colonization from east of the Aleutians is also marked by the occurrence of bifacial technology about 6500 BP and the appearance of slate artifacts after 1000 BP, suggesting the movement of ideas or people from further east. Basic trends across the archipelago include a decrease in formal chipped-stone tools, an increase in the use and the complexity of bone technology, and the increase in use and variety of ground-stone tools. In addition, increasing village site sizes and denser midden deposits are seen later in time throughout the archipelago. The similarity in sites and assemblages, albeit with regional variations, reflects trends that are seen across the chain and indicates that these island communities were not isolated from one another or from mainland Alaska.

  20. REST Service - Resource Assessment Investigation of the Mariana Archipelago (RAIOMA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data service represents a subset of fisheries research carried out by the Pacific Island Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) in the Mariana Archipelago. Specific...

  1. The Gulag Archipelago: From Inferno to Paradiso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Matual

    1982-09-01

    Full Text Available It is apparent from the title of his novel The First Circle and from various details there and in other works that Alexander Solzhenitsyn is familiar with at least the imagery of Dante's Divine Comedy . One direct and several indirect references to it also suggest a Dantean subtext in his longest and most ambitious project, The Gulag Archipelago . Indeed, the loci of the Comedy — Inferno , Purgatorio , and Paradiso —are transformed in the Gulag into metaphorical representations of the various stages in the development of man's consciousness—and especially Solzhenitsyn's consciousness—during the ordeals of arrest, inquest, imprisonment, and exile. The Inferno is surely the most prominent and in some ways the most memorable part of Solzhenitsyn's work. It is the phase in which most of the zeks live—the phase of unremitting hatred, cynicism, and selfishness caused by the cruelty and degradation of their experiences in prisons and labor camps. It is a life among rapacious thieves and police informers, a life in which only the self matters. The Purgatorio is the stage reached by those who, like Solzhenitsyn himself, begin to question the validity of all ideologies and who recognize and admire the strength of those whose personality derives from an uncompromisingly spiritual worldview. But in the Purgatorio the light of understanding is just beginning to penetrate the darkness; the process of spiritual rebirth is in an embryonic state. When a zek crosses the threshold of the Paradiso (as Solzhenitsyn clearly does—notably in Part IV, he attains a wisdom and understanding not yet accessible to the majority of men. He realizes that attachments to property, possessions, and even loved ones only add to the sufferings of the prisoners. He now knows that the life of the spirit, divorced from earthly preoccupations, is the only life that is eternal and inviolate. With that realization he has achieved the ultimate knowledge and the ultimate

  2. Networking Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    Human Resource Development was the first and remains an important pillar in Japanese foreign aid. I will argue that Japan has access to a global network of alumni who will co-define Japanese foreign aid in the future, because Japan has encouraged alumni societies and networking since 1965. A total...... of more than a million people in more than 100 countries have attended courses in Japan funded fully or partly by Japanese ODA since the inception of the technical assistance programs in 1954 through the Colombo Plan and since 1959 through the Association of Overseas Technical Scholarships (AOTS from 2009...... HIDA). Many of these alumni have and will in the future exchange ideas and keep contact not only to Japan, but also to fellow alumni around the globe and, thereby, practice south-south exchanges, which are made possible and traceable by their established alumni network and the World Network of Friends...

  3. Large-scale slope failure and active erosion occurring in the southwest Ryukyu fore-arc area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Matsumoto

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The southwestern Ryukyu area east of Taiwan Island is an arcuate boundary between Philippine Sea Plate and Eurasian Plate. The topographic features in the area are characterised by (1 a large-scale amphitheatre off Ishigaki Island, just on the estimated epicentre of the tsunamigenic earthquake in 1771, (2 lots of deep sea canyons located north of the amphitheatre, (3 15–20 km wide fore-arc basin, (4 15–20 km wide flat plane in the axial area of the trench, (5 E-W trending half grabens located on the fore-arc area, etc., which were revealed by several recent topographic survey expeditions. The diving survey by SHINKAI6500 in the fore-arc area on a spur located 120 km south of Ishigaki Island was carried out in 1992. The site is characterised dominantly by rough topography consisting of a series of steep slopes and escarpments. A part of the surface is eroded due to the weight of the sediment itself and consequently the basement layer is exposed. The site was covered with suspended particles during the diving, due to the present surface sliding and erosion. The same site was resurveyed in 1997 by ROV KAIKO, which confirmed the continuous slope failure taking place in the site. Another example that was observed by KAIKO expedition in 1997 is a largescale mud block on the southward dipping slope 80 km south of Ishigaki Island. This is apparently derived from the shallower part of the steep slope on the southern edge of the fan deposit south of Ishigaki Island. The topographic features suggest N-S or NE-SW tensional stress over the whole study area. In this sense, the relative motion between the two plates in this area is oblique to the plate boundary. So, the seaward migration of the plate boundary may occur due to the gravitational instability at the boundary of the two different lithospheric structures. This is evidenced by a lack of accretionary sediment on the fore-arc and the mechanism of a recent earthquake which occurred on 3 May 1998 in

  4. The Compositae of the Malay Archipelago. I. Vernonieae and Eupatorieae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, Joséphine Th.

    1935-01-01

    The region, from which the Vernonieae and the Eupatorieae have been worked out, includes the Greater Sunda Islands, the Lesser Sunda Islands and the Moluccas. It is a well-known fact, that the Malay Peninsula and the Philippines have a flora, which is related to that of the Malay Archipelago, sensu

  5. The flow of radionuclides through the Canadian archipelago

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, K.; Smith, J.N.

    1999-01-01

    The transport of contaminants to the Canadian Arctic by air and in water and their concentration through the marine food web has lead to enhanced levels of contaminants in several foods of Canadian northern inhabitants. Artificial radionuclides in the marine water can be used to determine water circulation and to trace contaminant transport through the Canadian Archipelago

  6. Herpetology of the American Madrean Archipelago and adjacent valleys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence L. C. Jones

    2005-01-01

    Approximately 110 species of amphibians (18 frogs and toads, and 1 salamander) and reptiles (47 snakes, 39 lizards, and 5 turtles) are known from the American Madrean Archipelago and adjacent valleys. The high diversity of the herpetofauna comes from a variety of factors, including a convergence of biotic communities representing deserts, grasslands, and mountains....

  7. Irreversible mass loss of Canadian Arctic Archipelago glaciers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenaerts, J.T.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314850163; van Angelen, J.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/325922470; van den Broeke, M.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073765643; Gardner, A.S.; Wouters, Bert|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304120146; van Meijgaard, E.

    2013-01-01

    The Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA) contains the largest volume of glacier ice on Earth outside of Antarctica and Greenland. In the absence of significant calving, CAA glacier mass balance is governed by the difference between surface snow accumulation and meltwater runoff—surface mass balance.

  8. Jawi Writing in Malay Archipelago Manuscript: A General Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haji Harun Makmur

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Jawi writing is the main form of writing in various manuscripts recovered around the Archipelago, especially during the early arrival of Islam. These manuscripts are found to record history, art, culture, language, social, as well as ancient knowledge. The usage of Jawi writings had covered a number of calligraphy which are high in value with deep philosophical meaning, are full with creative notion as well as countless of patterns that went along with the call to Islam around the Archipelago in a relatively short period of time. The development of Jawi writing had been immortalized in various genres such as books, manuscripts and letters written by individual writers and in groups as a local way of living. This writing was also introduced through a long process using certain methods of writing and reading, and kept as individual as well as institutional collections all around the Archipelago. This article is focused in various manuscripts that not only were exclusively used as learning and teaching aids, but were also garnished as beautiful symbols and philosophical Islamic art that deserves a high degree of honour. This article’s objective is to deeply analyze the usage of this writing from manuscripts found around the Archipelago as a proof on the importance of this form of writing. The methodology of this article is library study, through a number of theories and methods. The implication of this article is hoped to form a certain standard as well as its own identity for the local society through their acceptance of this writing form, especially during the early arrival of Islam in the Archipelago thus deemed as a national treasure.

  9. Japan 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Finn

    2014-01-01

    In March 2014 a group of teachers and students from the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts Schools of Architecture, Design and Conservation, School of Architecture, Study Dept. 3 went on a study trip to Japan. This publication collects observations and reflections that the participants of the trip...

  10. Fundamental structure model of island arcs and subducted plates in and around Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, T.; Sato, H.; Ishiyama, T.; Shinohara, M.; Hashima, A.

    2015-12-01

    The eastern margin of the Asian continent is a well-known subduction zone, where the Pacific (PAC) and Philippine Sea (PHS) plates are being subducted. In this region, several island arcs (Kuril, Northeast Japan, Southwest Japan, Izu-Bonin and Ryukyu arcs) meet one another to form a very complicated tectonic environment. At 2014, we started to construct fundamental structure models for island arcs and subducted plates in and around Japan. Our research is composed of 6 items of (1) topography, (2) plate geometry, (3) fault models, (4) the Moho and brittle-ductile transition zone, (5) the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary, and (6) petrological/rheological models. Such information is basic but inevitably important in qualitative understanding not only for short-term crustal activities in the subduction zone (particularly caused by megathrust earthquakes) but also for long-term cumulative deformation of the arcs as a result of strong plate-arc/arc-arc interactions. This paper is the first presentation of our research, mainly presenting the results of items (1) and (2). The area of our modelling is 12o-54o N and 118o-164o E to cover almost the entire part of Japanese Islands together with Kuril, Ryukyu and Izu-Bonin trenches. The topography model was constructed from the 500-m mesh data provided from GSJ, JODC, GINA and Alaska University. Plate geometry models are being constructed through the two steps. In the first step, we modelled very smooth plate boundaries of the Pacific and Philippine Sea plates in our whole model area using 42,000 earthquake data from JMA, USGS and ISC. For 7,800 cross sections taken with several directions to the trench axes, 2D plate boundaries were defined by fitting to the earthquake distribution (the Wadati-Benioff zone), from which we obtained equi-depth points of the plate boundary. These equi-depth points were then approximated by spline interpolation technique to eliminate shorter wave length undulation (75-150 km), but provide a

  11. The Fukushima Nuclear Accident and a Long-Term Energy Vision for Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuhara, Tetsuo

    2012-04-01

    Ifri and the Canon Institute for Global Studies are launching a series of policy papers presenting the analyses of senior Japanese researchers on how the triple disasters that hit the archipelago last March have impacted Japan's economic, environmental and energy policies as well as country's crisis management system. This paper presents the author's opinion regarding the media coverage of the Fukushima accident and the consequences of this serious accident for the Japanese energy policy

  12. Underground dams for irrigation supplies in coastal limestone aquifer, Okinawa, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasumoto, J.; Nakano, T.; Nawa, N.

    2011-12-01

    The use of underground dams to store water in regions with arid or tropical climates is a method that has received considerable attention in the last few decades. And now, for the tropical and subtropical islands that are highly vulnerable to climate change underground dams have been attracting attention again as a method of groundwater management. Okinawa Prefecture is Japan's southernmost prefecture, which consists of hundreds of islands in a chain over 1,000 km long, called the Ryukyu Islands which extend southwest from Kyushu to Taiwan. The national irrigation project of the Ryukyu Islands has been carried out, and several underground dams have been constructed. The Komesu and Giiza underground dams are first full scale underground dam facilities constructed for irrigation in Japan. The Komesu underground dam is a salt-water proof type. It prevents salt-water intrusion and provides storage fresh-water for irrigation in coastal limestone aquifer. Giiza underground dam is a dam up type for storage of fresh-water. These groundwater reservoirs are located in the coastal region of southern part of Okinawa (main island), where Ryukyu limestone is extensively distributed. We studied the behaviour of groundwater flow, saltwater intrusion and nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N) in groundwater in this region by using observation data of groundwater and springs through long term (from 1993 to 2010) monitoring. And, a groundwater flow and salt-water intrusion analysis have been conducted with three dimensional numerical model applied to these dam reservoir areas. The MODFLOW-NWT with SWI code and PEST was used to simulate the complex groundwater flow patterns. Through the comparison with simulation and observed data, it was concluded that the cut off wall of underground dams effectively stores the groundwater and prevents the salt-water intrusion in the reservoir areas. The observed groundwater levels at the reservoir areas were almost reproduced by the numerical model, but there

  13. Documenting the biodiversity of the Madrean Archipelago: An analysis of a virtual flora and fauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas S. Deyo; Thomas R. Van Devender; Alex Smith; Edward. Gilbert

    2013-01-01

    The Madrean Archipelago Biodiversity Assessment (MABA) of Sky Island Alliance is an ambitious project to document the distributions of all species of animals and plants in the Madrean Archipelago, focusing particularly on northeastern Sonora and northwestern Chihuahua, Mexico. The information is made available through MABA’s online database (madrean.org). The sources...

  14. Seismological observations of glaciers dynamic on the Spitsbergen archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedorov A. V.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides a brief description of results of Spitsbergen glacier observations by the seismic method. The study has been carried out both by permanent and temporary stations data. Characteristic features of glacier-related seismic events have been shown. Main areas of glacier seismic activity on the Archipelago have been revealed. A detailed study of Horsund-fjord glacier activity has been carried out using local seismic station HSPB data. Temporal and spatial distributions of glacier-related events have been obtained for the area. Season variations in temporal distribution of the events have been found

  15. Wind Energy Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsubara, Kazuyo [Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-06-15

    An overview is given of wind energy in Japan: Background; Wind Energy in Japan; Japanese Wind Energy Industry; Government Supports; Useful Links; Major Japanese Companies; Profiles of Major Japanese Companies; Major Wind Energy Projects in Japan.

  16. Euler-Vector Clustering of GPS Velocities Defines Microplate Geometry in Southwest Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, J. C.

    2018-02-01

    I have used Euler-vector clustering to assign 469 GEONET stations in southwest Japan to k clusters (k = 2, 3,..., 9) so that, for any k, the velocities of stations within each cluster are most consistent with rigid-block motion on a sphere. That is, I attempt to explain the raw (i.e., uncorrected for strain accumulation), 1996-2006 velocities of those 469 Global Positioning System stations by rigid motion of k clusters on the surface of a spherical Earth. Because block geometry is maintained as strain accumulates, Euler-vector clustering may better approximate the block geometry than the values of the associated Euler vectors. The microplate solution for each k is constructed by merging contiguous clusters that have closely similar Euler vectors. The best solution consists of three microplates arranged along the Nankaido Trough-Ryukyu Trench between the Amurian and Philippine Sea Plates. One of these microplates, the South Kyushu Microplate (an extension of the Ryukyu forearc into the southeast corner of Kyushu), had previously been identified from paleomagnetic rotations. Relative to ITRF2000 the three microplates rotate at different rates about neighboring poles located close to the northwest corner of Shikoku. The microplate model is identical to that proposed in the block model of Wallace et al. (2009, https://doi.org/10.1130/G2522A.1) except in southernmost Kyushu. On Shikoku and Honshu, but not Kyushu, the microplate model is consistent with that proposed in the block models of Nishimura and Hashimoto (2006, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tecto.2006.04.017) and Loveless and Meade (2010, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008JB006248) without the low-slip-rate boundaries proposed in the latter.

  17. Submerged Humid Tropical Karst Landforms Observed By High-Resolution Multibeam Survey in Nagura Bay, Ishigaki Island, Southwestern Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, H.; Urata, K.; Nagao, M.; Hori, N.; Fujita, K.; Yokoyama, Y.; Nakashima, Y.; Ohashi, T.; Goto, K.; Suzuki, A.

    2014-12-01

    Submerged tropical karst features were discovered in Nagura Bay on Ishigaki Island in the South Ryukyu Islands, Japan. This is the first description of submerged humid tropical karst using multibeam bathymetry. We conducted a broadband multibeam survey in the central area of Nagura Bay (1.85 × 2.7 km) and visualized the high-resolution bathymetric results with a grid size of 1 m over a depth range of 1.6-58.5 m. Various types of humid tropical karst landforms were found to coexist within the bay, including fluviokarst, doline karst, cockpit karst, polygonal karst, uvalas, and mega-dolines. We assume that Nagura Bay was a large karst basin in which older limestone remained submerged, thus preventing corrosion and the accumulation of reef sediments during periods of submersion, whereas the limestone outcropping on land was corroded during multiple interglacial and glacial periods. Based on our bathymetric result together with aerial photographs of the coastal area, we conclude that the submerged karst landscape has likely developed throughout the whole of Nagura Bay, covering an area of ~6 × 5 km. Accordingly, this area hosts the largest submerged karst in Japan. We also observed abundant coral communities during our SCUBA observations. The present marine conditions of Nagura Bay are characterized by low energy (calm sea) and low irradiance owing to the terrestrial influence. Such conditions have been emphasized by the presence of large undulating landforms, which cause decreases in wave intensity and irradiance with depth. These characteristics have acted to establish unique conditions compared to other coral reef areas in the Ryukyu Islands. It may play an important role in supporting the regional coral reef ecosystem.

  18. Optimizing velocities and transports for complex coastal regions and archipelagos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Patrick J.; Agarwal, Arpit; Lermusiaux, Pierre F. J.

    2015-05-01

    We derive and apply a methodology for the initialization of velocity and transport fields in complex multiply-connected regions with multiscale dynamics. The result is initial fields that are consistent with observations, complex geometry and dynamics, and that can simulate the evolution of ocean processes without large spurious initial transients. A class of constrained weighted least squares optimizations is defined to best fit first-guess velocities while satisfying the complex bathymetry, coastline and divergence strong constraints. A weak constraint towards the minimum inter-island transports that are in accord with the first-guess velocities provides important velocity corrections in complex archipelagos. In the optimization weights, the minimum distance and vertical area between pairs of coasts are computed using a Fast Marching Method. Additional information on velocity and transports are included as strong or weak constraints. We apply our methodology around the Hawaiian islands of Kauai/Niihau, in the Taiwan/Kuroshio region and in the Philippines Archipelago. Comparisons with other common initialization strategies, among hindcasts from these initial conditions (ICs), and with independent in situ observations show that our optimization corrects transports, satisfies boundary conditions and redirects currents. Differences between the hindcasts from these different ICs are found to grow for at least 2-3 weeks. When compared to independent in situ observations, simulations from our optimized ICs are shown to have the smallest errors.

  19. Complex Patterns of Admixture across the Indonesian Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudjashov, Georgi; Karafet, Tatiana M.; Lawson, Daniel J.; Downey, Sean; Savina, Olga; Sudoyo, Herawati; Lansing, J. Stephen; Hammer, Michael F.; Cox, Murray P.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Indonesia, an island nation as large as continental Europe, hosts a sizeable proportion of global human diversity, yet remains surprisingly undercharacterized genetically. Here, we substantially expand on existing studies by reporting genome-scale data for nearly 500 individuals from 25 populations in Island Southeast Asia, New Guinea, and Oceania, notably including previously unsampled islands across the Indonesian archipelago. We use high-resolution analyses of haplotype diversity to reveal fine detail of regional admixture patterns, with a particular focus on the Holocene. We find that recent population history within Indonesia is complex, and that populations from the Philippines made important genetic contributions in the early phases of the Austronesian expansion. Different, but interrelated processes, acted in the east and west. The Austronesian migration took several centuries to spread across the eastern part of the archipelago, where genetic admixture postdates the archeological signal. As with the Neolithic expansion further east in Oceania and in Europe, genetic mixing with local inhabitants in eastern Indonesia lagged behind the arrival of farming populations. In contrast, western Indonesia has a more complicated admixture history shaped by interactions with mainland Asian and Austronesian newcomers, which for some populations occurred more than once. Another layer of complexity in the west was introduced by genetic contact with South Asia and strong demographic events in isolated local groups. PMID:28957506

  20. The Idea of the Archipelago: Contemplating Island Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Stratford

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Creative, innovative, and timely research on islands and island futures is warranted and pressing, not least because island(ers are poorly served by established tropes of them as subordinate to continents or mainlands. Opportunities exist to provide a more thoroughgoing account of island life and island relations, and the seven papers in this special issue address that task. In works that consider islands in the Timor Sea, the Caribbean, the Pacific, Atlantic and Southern Oceans, and that span several different disciplinary frames—archival-historical, critical theoretical, literary, cultural, geopolitical, sociological and artistic—these papers evidence both the diversity of approach to thinking with the archipelago, and numerous points in common. Among the latter is an understanding that island relations are built on connection, assemblage, mobility, and multiplicity, and a commitment to critically examine the ways in which these entanglements affect and give effect to island life. The models of island relationality brought to light by this collective focus on the archipelago reveal new and diverse connections of island peoples with their physical and cultural environments, and with the world beyond; create spaces for growing resilience, association and engagement; and invite further study.

  1. Current status of tropical fruit breeding and genetics for three tropical fruit species cultivated in Japan: pineapple, mango, and papaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Tatsushi; Yamanaka, Shinsuke; Shoda, Moriyuki; Urasaki, Naoya; Yamamoto, Toshiya

    2016-01-01

    Tropical fruit crops are predominantly produced in tropical and subtropical developing countries, but some are now grown in southern Japan. Pineapple (Ananas comosus), mango (Mangifera indica) and papaya (Carica papaya) are major tropical fruits cultivated in Japan. Modern, well-organized breeding systems have not yet been developed for most tropical fruit species. Most parts of Japan are in the temperate climate zone, but some southern areas such as the Ryukyu Islands, which stretch from Kyushu to Taiwan, are at the northern limits for tropical fruit production without artificial heating. In this review, we describe the current status of tropical fruit breeding, genetics, genomics, and biotechnology of three main tropical fruits (pineapple, mango, and papaya) that are cultivated and consumed in Japan. More than ten new elite cultivars of pineapple have been released with improved fruit quality and suitability for consumption as fresh fruit. New challenges and perspectives for obtaining high fruit quality are discussed in the context of breeding programs for pineapple. PMID:27069392

  2. Stenichnus lackneri sp. n. of Japan (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Scydmaeninae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jałoszyński, Paweł

    2016-03-29

    Stenichnus Thomson, 1859 is a species-rich and common genus in the western Palaearctic, but only a few species are known from the Far East. Six species have been so far recorded from Japan (Sharp 1886; Jałoszyński 2004, 2006; Jałoszyński, Arai 2009). Interestingly, the Japanese species occur in the temperate or cool climate of Hokkaido in the north-east (Stenichnus minipollens Jałoszyński, 2004) and in subtropical forests of the south-western Yaeyama Archipelago (St. bellulus Jałoszyński, 2004 and St. totoro Jałoszyński, 2004), showing a broader range of ecological plasticity than their western Palaearctic congeners. Two more species are known to occur in the Japan mainland, i.e., St. pollens (Sharp, 1886) in Kyushu and St. sakurayamanus Jałoszyński & Arai, 2009 in the central part of Honshu, and one species, St. mitai Jałoszyński, 2006, was discovered on the small Nakanoshima Island of the Tokara Archipelago. Only the species that occur in the Yaeyama Islands are relatively common, all remaining species are known from holotypes only. Interestingly, St. pollens and St. minipollens, which occur on different islands separated by nearly 1500 km, share very similar aedeagi with a unique long ventral projection (Jałoszyński 2004).

  3. Seismic Hazard Maps for the Maltese Archipelago: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, S.; Panzera, F.; Galea, P. M.

    2013-12-01

    The Maltese islands form an archipelago of three major islands lying in the Sicily channel at about 140 km south of Sicily and 300 km north of Libya. So far very few investigations have been carried out on seismicity around the Maltese islands and no maps of seismic hazard for the archipelago are available. Assessing the seismic hazard for the region is currently of prime interest for the near-future development of industrial and touristic facilities as well as for urban expansion. A culture of seismic risk awareness has never really been developed in the country, and the public perception is that the islands are relatively safe, and that any earthquake phenomena are mild and infrequent. However, the Archipelago has been struck by several moderate/large events. Although recent constructions of a certain structural and strategic importance have been built according to high engineering standards, the same probably cannot be said for all residential buildings, many higher than 3 storeys, which have mushroomed rapidly in recent years. Such buildings are mostly of unreinforced masonry, with heavy concrete floor slabs, which are known to be highly vulnerable to even moderate ground shaking. We can surely state that in this context planning and design should be based on available national hazard maps. Unfortunately, these kinds of maps are not available for the Maltese islands. In this paper we attempt to compute a first and preliminary probabilistic seismic hazard assessment of the Maltese islands in terms of Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) and Spectral Acceleration (SA) at different periods. Seismic hazard has been computed using the Esteva-Cornell (1968) approach which is the most widely utilized probabilistic method. It is a zone-dependent approach: seismotectonic and geological data are used coupled with earthquake catalogues to identify seismogenic zones within which earthquakes occur at certain rates. Therefore the earthquake catalogues can be reduced to the

  4. Terrestrial invasion of pomatiopsid gastropods in the heavy-snow region of the Japanese Archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kato Makoto

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastropod mollusks are one of the most successful animals that have diversified in the fully terrestrial habitat. They have evolved terrestrial taxa in more than nine lineages, most of which originated during the Paleozoic or Mesozoic. The rissooidean gastropod family Pomatiopsidae is one of the few groups that have evolved fully terrestrial taxa during the late Cenozoic. The pomatiopsine diversity is particularly high in the Japanese Archipelago and the terrestrial taxa occur only in this region. In this study, we conducted thorough samplings of Japanese pomatiopsid species and performed molecular phylogenetic analyses to explore the patterns of diversification and terrestrial invasion. Results Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that Japanese Pomatiopsinae derived from multiple colonization of the Eurasian Continent and that subsequent habitat shifts from aquatic to terrestrial life occurred at least twice within two Japanese endemic lineages. Each lineage comprises amphibious and terrestrial species, both of which are confined to the mountains in heavy-snow regions facing the Japan Sea. The estimated divergence time suggested that diversification of these terrestrial lineages started in the Late Miocene, when active orogenesis of the Japanese landmass and establishment of snowy conditions began. Conclusions The terrestrial invasion of Japanese Pomatiopsinae occurred at least twice beside the mountain streamlets of heavy-snow regions, which is considered the first case of this event in the area. Because snow coverage maintains stable temperatures and high humidity on the ground surface, heavy-snow conditions may have paved the way for these organisms from freshwater to land via mountain streamlets by preventing winter desiccation in mountain valleys. The fact that the terrestrialization of Pomatiopsidae occurred only in year-round wet environments, but not in seasonally dried regions, provides new insight into ancient

  5. Competition in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Michael E. Porter; Mariko Sakakibara

    2004-01-01

    This article examines competition in Japan and its link to postwar economic prosperity. While Japan's industrial structure and competition policy seem to indicate that competition in Japan has been less intense, the empirical evidence does not support this conclusion. The sectors in which competition was restricted prove to be those where Japan was not internationally successful. In the internationally successful sectors, internal competition in Japan was invariably fierce. While the level of...

  6. Forecast Development of Electricity Supply in the Indonesian Archipelago

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soedyartomo, T. M.; Widayanti, E.; Hartati, R. S.; Giriantari, I. A.

    2015-01-01

    Indonesia is an archipelago consisting of 17 000 islands, of which some are heavily populated and others have no inhabitants or even a name. The country’s population is growing by 1.1% per year, so the demand for electricity has been increasing as well. The Indonesian archipelago — as a location for renewable energy sources such as micro-hydro, wind, solar, geothermal and biomass—presents unique opportunities to invest in expanding power production. In the industrialised regions and on large islands, such as Kalimantan, the electricity demand is highest. Most of the electricity is supplied by large power plants using fossil fuel — coal, oil and gas — which causes an increase in the volume and concentration of greenhouse gases. Moreover, the currently installed power plants do not meet the energy needs of Indonesia’s population of two hundred million. As a solution, within the next five years, the Indonesian Government plans to build power plants adding 35 000 MWe. The electricity demand forecast for 2050 will be around 200 GWe, with 160 GWe coming from renewable and conventional energy sources and 40 GWe from alternative sources such as nuclear power. To meet the demand for electricity in Indonesia, an expansion strategy is needed for alternative sources of energy on the islands around the Java Sea and on the island of Kalimantan at locations safe from earthquakes. The Indonesian Government has provided some guidelines for commercial nuclear power plants, such as those contained in Government regulations No. 5 and No. 43 of 2006. (author)

  7. Patterns in reef fish assemblages: Insights from the Chagos Archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoilys, Melita; Roche, Ronan; Koldewey, Heather; Turner, John

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the drivers of variability in the composition of fish assemblages across the Indo-Pacific region is crucial to support coral reef ecosystem resilience. Whilst numerous relationships and feedback mechanisms between the functional roles of coral reef fishes and reef benthic composition have been investigated, certain key groups, such as the herbivores, are widely suggested to maintain reefs in a coral-dominated state. Examining links between fishes and reef benthos is complicated by the interactions between natural processes, disturbance events and anthropogenic impacts, particularly fishing pressure. This study examined fish assemblages and associated benthic variables across five atolls within the Chagos Archipelago, where fishing pressure is largely absent, to better understand these relationships. We found high variability in fish assemblages among atolls and sites across the archipelago, especially for key groups such as a suite of grazer-detritivore surgeonfish, and the parrotfishes which varied in density over 40-fold between sites. Differences in fish assemblages were significantly associated with variable levels of both live and recently dead coral cover and rugosity. We suggest these results reflect differing coral recovery trajectories following coral bleaching events and a strong influence of 'bottom-up' control mechanisms on fish assemblages. Species level analyses revealed that Scarus niger, Acanthurus nigrofuscus and Chlorurus strongylocephalos were key species driving differences in fish assemblage structure. Clarifying the trophic roles of herbivorous and detritivorous reef fishes will require species-level studies, which also examine feeding behaviour, to fully understand their contribution in maintaining reef resilience to climate change and fishing impacts.

  8. Genetic characterization of brown bears of the Kodiak Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Sandra L.; Gust, Judy R.; Sage, George K.; Fischbach, Anthony S.; Amstrup, Kristin S.; Leacock, William; Van Daele, Larry

    2006-01-01

    Here we examine genetic characteristics of brown bears of Kodiak and Afognak islands, using 14 variable nuclear microsatellite loci and nucleotide sequence information including the hypervariable domain I of the mtDNA control region (Wakely 1993). Because these markers, or a subset of them, have been used to characterize brown bears of the Kenai Peninsula (Jackson et al. 2005), Katmai National Park, Seward Peninsula, and nine other populations in Alaska (Talbot, unpublished data), we compared levels of genetic diversity and relationships among populations when possible. In addition, we obtained preliminary comparative information from class II DQA and DQB genes of the brown bear MHC, to examine levels of variation at this important immunology-mediating supergene. These data were used to answer the following questions: 1) are earlier findings of extremely low levels of variability at nuclear (biparentallyinherited) microsatellite loci from a small geographic area (Paetkau et al. 1998b) representative of Kodiak Archipelago populations as a whole? 2) Is the level and type of variation at the maternally-inherited mtDNA lower, or similar to, levels found in other populations in Alaska? 3) Is there concordance between low levels of genetic variation observed at neutral markers with levels of variation observed at functional genes? 4) Is there population substructuring within Kodiak and Afognak islands? 5) What is the connectivity between populations on Afognak Island and Kodiak Island? 6) What are the phylogeographic relationships between bears of the Kodiak Archipelago with brown bears on mainland Alaskan and other western Beringian populations? We also test whether these markers will provide an appropriate baseline for designing genetic tagging studies for use in future research and management activities, such as mark-recapture efforts, on the Refuge.

  9. Coexistence of reef organisms in the Abrolhos Archipelago, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica M Lins de Barros

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The first study on coexistence of reef benthic organisms in Brazilian coral reefs was done in three localities of the Abrolhos Archipelago. Organisms were recorded in concentric circle samples (10 and 20 cm in diameter randomly laid on transects. Type and frequency of "coexistence events" between pairs of organisms were determined. Most frequent organisms (massive and branched coralline algae, Favia gravida, and Agaricia agaricites also had many significant positive coexistence events. These results might be related to the abundances of these organisms. The most frequent coral (Siderastrea stellata, however, exhibited only a few significant coexistence events (9% of 32 tests. Since the great majority of events were positive, and since there was high variation in the species/groups involved in significant events in different localities, benthic communities of Abrolhos Archipelago may well be structured primarily by abiotic rather than biotic factors.Se hizo el primer estudio de coexistencia de organismos bénticos de arrecifes brasileños en tres localidades del Archipiélago de Abrolhos, registrando la presencia de organismos en círculos de 10 y 20 cm de diametro, distribuidos al azar en transectos. La mayoría de los organismo frecuentes (algas coralinas macizas y ramificadas, Favia gravida y Agaricia agaricites mostraron la más alta "coexistencia positiva", tal vez por su abundancia. El coral más frecuente (Siderastrea stellata, sin embargo, mostró apenas algunos eventos de coexistencia significativos (9% de 32 ensayos. Debido a que la mayor parte de los eventos fue positiva, y considerando que existe una alta variabilidad en las interacciones significativas en diferentes localidades, las comunidades bénticas del Archipiélago de Abrolhos pueden haber sido estructuradas principalmente por factores abióticos, mas que por factores bióticos.

  10. Patterns in reef fish assemblages: Insights from the Chagos Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Ronan; Koldewey, Heather; Turner, John

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the drivers of variability in the composition of fish assemblages across the Indo-Pacific region is crucial to support coral reef ecosystem resilience. Whilst numerous relationships and feedback mechanisms between the functional roles of coral reef fishes and reef benthic composition have been investigated, certain key groups, such as the herbivores, are widely suggested to maintain reefs in a coral-dominated state. Examining links between fishes and reef benthos is complicated by the interactions between natural processes, disturbance events and anthropogenic impacts, particularly fishing pressure. This study examined fish assemblages and associated benthic variables across five atolls within the Chagos Archipelago, where fishing pressure is largely absent, to better understand these relationships. We found high variability in fish assemblages among atolls and sites across the archipelago, especially for key groups such as a suite of grazer-detritivore surgeonfish, and the parrotfishes which varied in density over 40-fold between sites. Differences in fish assemblages were significantly associated with variable levels of both live and recently dead coral cover and rugosity. We suggest these results reflect differing coral recovery trajectories following coral bleaching events and a strong influence of ‘bottom-up’ control mechanisms on fish assemblages. Species level analyses revealed that Scarus niger, Acanthurus nigrofuscus and Chlorurus strongylocephalos were key species driving differences in fish assemblage structure. Clarifying the trophic roles of herbivorous and detritivorous reef fishes will require species-level studies, which also examine feeding behaviour, to fully understand their contribution in maintaining reef resilience to climate change and fishing impacts. PMID:29351566

  11. Submerged karst landforms observed by multibeam bathymetric survey in Nagura Bay, Ishigaki Island, southwestern Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Hironobu; Urata, Kensaku; Nagao, Masayuki; Hori, Nobuyuki; Fujita, Kazuhiko; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Nakashima, Yosuke; Ohashi, Tomoya; Goto, Kazuhisa; Suzuki, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    Submerged tropical karst features were discovered in Nagura Bay on Ishigaki Island in the southern Ryukyu Islands, Japan. The coastal seafloor at depths shallower than ~ 130 m has been subjected to repeated and alternating subaerial erosion and sedimentation during periods of Quaternary sea-level lowstands. We conducted a broadband multibeam survey in the central area of Nagura Bay (1.85 × 2.7 km) and visualized the high-resolution bathymetric results over a depth range of 1.6-58.5 m. Various types of humid tropical karst landforms were found to coexist within the bay, including fluviokarst, doline karst, cockpit karst, polygonal karst, uvalas, and mega-dolines. Although these submerged karst landforms are covered by thick postglacial reef and reef sediments, their shapes and sizes are distinct from those associated with coral reef geomorphology. The submerged landscape of Nagura Bay likely formed during multiple glacial and interglacial periods. According to our bathymetric results and the aerial photographs of the coastal area, this submerged karst landscape appears to have developed throughout Nagura Bay (i.e., over an area of approximately 6 × 5 km) and represents the largest submerged karst in Japan.

  12. Mission in the strategic territory management (on the example of the Solovetsky Archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Y. Tsvetkov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the main aspects of the territory mission development in the context of strategic management of the territory. The paper shows the role and importance of the mission in the management of the territory and reflects the main issues and the principles of its formation. Using the example of the Solovetsky Archipelago the author analyzes the mission, gives recommendations for its improvement and provides the model of the Solovetsky archipelago mission development.

  13. Nuclear energy in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillemard, B.

    1978-01-01

    After having described the nuclear partners in Japan, the author analyzes the main aspects of Japan's nuclear energy: nuclear power plants construction program; developping of light water reactors; fuel cycle politics [fr

  14. Mass Balance of Novaya Zemlya Archipelago from 2002 to Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciraci, E.; Velicogna, I.; Fettweis, X.

    2017-12-01

    We employ satellite gravimetry from NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) using a least-squares fit mascon approach to evaluate the mass balance of the glaciers of the Novaya Zemlya Archipelago (NZA) from 2002 to present. Our results reveal a mean mass loss 8±5 Gt/yr (gigatons per year), which makes NZA the largest contributor to sea level rise in the Russian Arctic (total Russian Arctic contributes 16±7Gt/yr). We then use Surface Mass Balance (SMB) estimates from the Modèle Atmosphérique Régional (MAR) and ice elevation change rates from NASA ICESat (2003-2009) and ESA CryoSat-2 (2010-present) altimetry data to gain insight about the physical processes driving the observed mass loss. We find that the inter-annual variability in SMB displays a significant correlation (0.6, p-val sea level rise. Elevation change from satellite altimetry reveals substantial thinning at low altitudes for both marine and land terminating glaciers. This result is consistent with the negative cumulative SMB values found at those sites. Yet, altimetry-derived thinning rates for the marine terminating glaciers are on average two times larger than those for land-terminating glaciers. We conclude that both SMB and ice dynamics play important roles in the regional ice mass loss.

  15. Landslides density map of S. Miguel Island, Azores archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadão, P.; Gaspar, J. L.; Queiroz, G.; Ferreira, T.

    The Azores archipelago is located in the Atlantic Ocean and is composed of nine volcanic islands. S. Miguel, the largest one, is formed by three active, E-W trending, trachytic central volcanoes with caldera (Sete Cidades, Fogo and Furnas). Chains of basaltic cinder cones link those major volcanic structures. An inactive trachytic central volcano (Povoação) and an old basaltic volcanic complex (Nordeste) comprise the easternmost part of the island. Since the settlement of the island early in the 15th century, several destructive landslides triggered by catastrophic rainfall episodes, earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occurred in different areas of S. Miguel. One unique event killed thousands of people in 1522. Houses and bridges were destroyed, roads were cut, communications, water and energy supply systems became frequently disrupted and areas of fertile land were often buried by mud. Based on (1) historical documents, (2) aerial photographs and (3) field observations, landslide sites were plotted on a topographic map, in order to establish a landslide density map for the island. Data obtained showed that landslide hazard is higher on (1) the main central volcanoes where the thickness of unconsolidated pyroclastic deposits is considerable high and (2) the old basaltic volcanic complex, marked by deep gullies developed on thick sequences of lava flows. In these areas, caldera walls, fault scarps, steep valley margins and sea cliffs are potentially hazardous.

  16. The coastal fishes and fisheries of the Socotra Archipelago, Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajonz, Uwe; Lavergne, Edouard; Klaus, Rebecca; Krupp, Friedhelm; Aideed, Moteah Sheikh; Saeed, Fouad Naseeb

    2016-04-30

    The Socotra Archipelago is situated in the Gulf of Aden where tropical and "pseudo-temperate" conditions combine to create a unique marine ecosystem. The diversity, ecology, productivity and fisheries of the coastal fish assemblages are still relatively understudied and no update of the scientific knowledge existed. The islands support unique coastal and coral-associated fish assemblages in spite of the limited biogenic reef frameworks. Fish diversity is the highest among comparable Arabian eco-regions, and fish biomass productivity high too by Indian Ocean standards. The production of the once traditionally-managed small-scale fishery is severely declining and whether it is sustainable nowadays is extremely doubtful. At a time when Yemen is torn apart by a severe political and humanitarian crisis it is timely to review and update the current state of knowledge for scientists and managers, and thereby ease access to existing information, facilitating follow-on studies and evidence-based conservation and fisheries management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessment of Satellite Precipitation Products in the Philippine Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, M. D.; Tendencia, E.; Espana, K.; Sabido, J.; Bagtasa, G.

    2016-06-01

    Precipitation is the most important weather parameter in the Philippines. Made up of more than 7100 islands, the Philippine archipelago is an agricultural country that depends on rain-fed crops. Located in the western rim of the North West Pacific Ocean, this tropical island country is very vulnerable to tropical cyclones that lead to severe flooding events. Recently, satellite-based precipitation estimates have improved significantly and can serve as alternatives to ground-based observations. These data can be used to fill data gaps not only for climatic studies, but can also be utilized for disaster risk reduction and management activities. This study characterized the statistical errors of daily precipitation from four satellite-based rainfall products from (1) the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), (2) the CPC Morphing technique (CMORPH) of NOAA and (3) the Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation (GSMAP) and (4) Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed information using Artificial Neural Networks (PERSIANN). Precipitation data were compared to 52 synoptic weather stations located all over the Philippines. Results show GSMAP to have over all lower bias and CMORPH with lowest Mean Absolute Error (MAE) and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). In addition, a dichotomous rainfall test reveals GSMAP and CMORPH have low Proportion Correct (PC) for convective and stratiform rainclouds, respectively. TRMM consistently showed high PC for almost all raincloud types. Moreover, all four satellite precipitation showed high Correct Negatives (CN) values for the north-western part of the country during the North-East monsoon and spring monsoonal transition periods.

  18. Promotional archipelagoes of change. Spatial analysis of Dinosauro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fratini, Noemi; Nieto, Silvia

    2009-01-01

    During the last decades, the post industrial Latin American cities have become important economic centers in the world. Their integration into the world economy helped those cities become in the favorite places for the linking functions and activities to the world nets of commerce, productions culture, etc. These urban centers which are expanding gradually into segmented developing areas have caused an apparent space duality between the private and public activities as it can be seen though the differential access to goods and services by the society. At present, there has been an increase in cultural activities which form change promoting archipelagoes subject to several dimensions of analysis. The inequity in the distribution of economic and educational resources causes unequal ways of access to consumption of these areas of cultural production, and of goods and services, what gives place to situations of social exclusion and inclusion. To understand this fact related to money behavior, we have selected an area situated in the northwest of Cordoba capital city, in Argentina, which is a shopping mall called Dinosaurio Group. In this essay we present an exploration into the conflicts caused to the cities through the expansion of the segmented urban centers, promoters of change, and its relationship with the public and private space.

  19. DNA barcode of Acropora hyacinthus of Karimunjawa Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayanti, D. P.; Indrayanti, E.; Nuryadi, H.; Rintiantono, S. A.; Sabdono, A.

    2018-03-01

    Karimunjawa is one of the earliest marine parks in Indonesia. Karimunjawa National Park (KNP) was designated as a marine conservation area to conserve marine resources from destructive fishing activities. Scleractinian corals in the genus Acropora are among the most dominant distributed in the KNPs, including the species of Acropora hyacinthus. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of intra- and interspecific COI variabilities in A. hyacinthus to analyze genetic diversity and to describe the kinship relationship of the coral between 5 localities of the reefs. Genetic marker Cytochrome Oxidase I of the mitochondrial genome DNA (mtDNA) was used to analyze genetic diversity. Reconstruction of phylogenetic tree and genetic diversity were made by using software MEGA 5.05 (Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis). The results indicate corals A. hyacinthus from five localities of Karimunjawa Archipelago are in the high category of genetic diversity. However, the five populations showed a close genetic relationship of kinship. This is likely due to the small size of the population and few numbers of samples that may not represent the population. The results may aid managers of the park in the selection of appropriate propagules sources which can help to restore important data for conservation and sustain coral reef resources.

  20. Transnational Mortality Comparisons Between Archipelago and Mainland Puerto Ricans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colón-Ramos, Uriyoán; Rodríguez-Ayuso, Idania; Gebrekristos, Hirut T; Roess, Amira; Pérez, Cynthia M; Simonsen, Lone

    2017-10-01

    Puerto Ricans in the US experience higher deaths from diabetes and other causes compared to non-Hispanic Whites and other Hispanic groups. We compared mortality in Puerto Rico to that of Puerto Ricans in the US as a first step to investigate if similar or worse mortality patterns originate from the sending country (Puerto Rico). Age-adjusted death rates were generated using national vital statistics databases in the US and territories for all-cause and the top ten causes of death among Hispanics in 2009. Mortality ratios in the archipelago of Puerto Rico (APR) were compared to mainland US Puerto Ricans (MPR). Rates for other ethnic/racial groups (Mexican Americans, Cubans, and non-Hispanic Whites, Blacks, American Indians, and Asians) were calculated to provide a context. APR had significantly higher all-cause mortality and death rates for diabetes, nephritis, pneumonia/influenza, and homicide/assault compared to MPR (APR/MPR ratio for all-cause: 1.08, diabetes: 2.04, nephritis: 1.84, pneumonia/influenza: 1.33, homicide/assault: 3.15). Death rates for diabetes and homicide/assault (particularly among men) were higher among APR compared to any other racial/ethnic groups in the US. In contrast, deaths from heart disease, cancer, and chronic liver disease were significantly lower for APR compared to MPR (MPR/APR ratio 0.72, 0.91, 0.41, respectively). Among APR women, death rates for these causes were also lower compared to any other group in the US. Substantial mortality variability exists between Puerto Ricans in Puerto Rico and those in the US, re-emphasizing the need to study of how socio-environmental determinants of health differ in sending and receiving countries. Explanations for disparate rates include access to and availability of healthcare and unique factors related to the migration experience of this group.

  1. Viticultural zoning of Graciosa island of the Azores archipelago - Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madruga, João; Reis, Francisco; Felipe, João; Azevedo, Eduardo; Pinheiro, Jorge

    2016-04-01

    The management and sustainability of the traditional vineyards of the Azores settled on lava field terrains is strongly affected by practical limitations of mechanization and high demand on man labor imposed by the typical micro parcel structure of the vineyards. In a recent macrozoning approach study Madruga et al (2015) showed that besides the traditional vineyards there are significant areas in some of the Azores islands whose soils, climate and physiographic characteristics indicate a potential for the development of new vineyard areas offering conditions for better management and sustainability. The objective of this study was to conduct a detailed viticultural zoning at the level of the small mapscale (smaller than 1:25,000), for the island of Graciosa where, besides the traditional lava field terroir, there are also some localized experiences of grapevine production over normal soils, offering thus some comparative information on this type of production conditions. The zoning approach for the present study was based in a geographic information system (GIS) analysis incorporating factors related to climate and topography which was then combined with the soil mapping units fulfilling the suitable criteria concerning the soil properties taken as the most relevant for viticulture, being the result a map of homogeneous environmental units. The climatic zoning examined the direct quantitative variables (precipitation, temperature, evaporation) in relation to climate index, bioclimatic and viticultural specific values. Topography (elevation, slope, aspect, orientation) was analyzed based on the tridimensional models of the islands in GIS to include the best slopes for the mechanization of the vineyard cultural operations (0-15%). Soils were analyzed based on data and soil map units as defined in the soil surveys of the Azores archipelago. The soil properties taken for the analysis and definition of the potential vineyard areas were drainage, water holding capacity

  2. Elevation Changes of Ice Caps in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalati, W.; Krabill, W.; Frederick, E.; Manizade, S.; Martin, C.; Sonntag, J.; Swift, R.; Thomas, R.; Yungel, J.; Koerner, R.

    2004-01-01

    Precise repeat airborne laser surveys were conducted over the major ice caps in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago in the spring of 1995 and 2000 in order to measure elevation changes in the region. Our measurements reveal thinning at lower elevations (below 1600 m) on most of the ice caps and glaciers, but either very little change or thickening at higher elevations in the ice cap accumulation zones. Recent increases in precipitation in the area can account for the slight thickening where it was observed, but not for the thinning at lower elevations. For the northern ice caps on the Queen Elizabeth Islands, thinning was generally less than 0.5 m/yr , which is consistent with what would be expected from the warm temperature anomalies in the region for the 5-year period between surveys and appears to be a continuation of a trend that began in the mid 1980s. Further south, however, on the Barnes and Penny ice caps on Baffin Island, this thinning was much more pronounced at over 1 m/yr in the lower elevations. Here temperature anomalies were very small, and the thinning at low elevations far exceeds any associated enhanced ablation. The observations on Barnes, and perhaps Penny are consistent with the idea that the observed thinning is part of a much longer term deglaciation, as has been previously suggested for Barnes Ice Cap. Based on the regional relationships between elevation and elevation-change in our data, the 1995-2000 mass balance for the region is estimated to be 25 cu km/yr of ice, which corresponds to a sea level increase of 0.064 mm/ yr . This places it among the more significant sources of eustatic sea level rise, though not as substantial as Greenland ice sheet, Alaskan glaciers, or the Patagonian ice fields.

  3. ASSESSMENT OF SATELLITE PRECIPITATION PRODUCTS IN THE PHILIPPINE ARCHIPELAGO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Ramos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Precipitation is the most important weather parameter in the Philippines. Made up of more than 7100 islands, the Philippine archipelago is an agricultural country that depends on rain-fed crops. Located in the western rim of the North West Pacific Ocean, this tropical island country is very vulnerable to tropical cyclones that lead to severe flooding events. Recently, satellite-based precipitation estimates have improved significantly and can serve as alternatives to ground-based observations. These data can be used to fill data gaps not only for climatic studies, but can also be utilized for disaster risk reduction and management activities. This study characterized the statistical errors of daily precipitation from four satellite-based rainfall products from (1 the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM, (2 the CPC Morphing technique (CMORPH of NOAA and (3 the Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation (GSMAP and (4 Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed information using Artificial Neural Networks (PERSIANN. Precipitation data were compared to 52 synoptic weather stations located all over the Philippines. Results show GSMAP to have over all lower bias and CMORPH with lowest Mean Absolute Error (MAE and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE. In addition, a dichotomous rainfall test reveals GSMAP and CMORPH have low Proportion Correct (PC for convective and stratiform rainclouds, respectively. TRMM consistently showed high PC for almost all raincloud types. Moreover, all four satellite precipitation showed high Correct Negatives (CN values for the north-western part of the country during the North-East monsoon and spring monsoonal transition periods.

  4. The peopling of Madeira Archipelago (Portugal) according to HLA genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaiz-Villena, A; Reguera, R; Ferri, A; Barbolla, L; Abd-El-Fatah-Khalil, S; Bakhtiyarova, N; Millan, P; Moscoso, J; Mafalda, A; Serrano-Vela, J I

    2009-02-01

    The Madeira-Porto Santo Archipelago was officially colonized in 1420 by Portuguese settlers. Its importance in Columbus' information for the American discovery and for slave traffic across the Atlantic is unquestionable. Thus, a complex peopling may have given rise to a present-day high admixture of ethnicities according to HLA genes. A sample of 173 healthy unrelated Madeirans was analysed and compared with 6986 HLA chromosomes from other worldwide populations. Genetic distances, neighbour-joining dendrograms and correspondence analyses were used for comparisons. Southern European, North African (including Canary Islands), Jewish and Mediterranean typical HLA alleles were found and genetic distances from Madeirans to these populations were the closest ones. In addition A*24-B*65-DRB1*0102-DQB1*0501 and A*68-B*08-DRB1*0301-DQB1*0201 haplotypes were newly found in Madeira and not found in any other population. Jewish-Armenian-Middle East haplotype (A*33-B*65-DRB1*0102-DQB1*0501) is one of the most common haplotypes; this haplotype is also present in Spaniards and North Africans. Quantitatively, Portuguese, North Africans (Algerians), Spaniards and Canary Islanders (in this order) are the most important parental populations to Madeirans. Results are discussed on the basis of the recorded historical peopling which does not show a noticeable African gene input in present-day Madeiran population according to our data; one of the closest related populations found is the Canary Islanders, suggesting that Guanche (Canary Islands first inhabitants) slaves gene flow is still noticed at present, both in Madeira and in Canary Islands populations.

  5. Liquid natural gas. Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Kooij, E.

    1998-01-01

    An overview is given of the technical know-how and expertise in Japan with respect to the supply, transport, storage and use of LNG. First the overall energy supply in Japan is outlined. Next, the reasons for the use of LNG as an energy source in Japan are discussed. As an example of a typical LNG-installation in Japan the construction of the Himeji Terminal of Osaka Gas Company is described. Finally, attention is paid to the world's largest and modern below-surface LNG-tanks (capacity of 200,000 m 3 ), installed at the Negishi Terminal of Tokyo Gas Company

  6. IRBA SERIES : Accounting In Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Arai, Kiyomitsu

    1994-01-01

    Preface / Legal and Conceptual Framework of Accounting in Japan / Setting Accounting Standards in Japan - The American Influence and The Present Status / Accounting Education and Profession in Japan / The International Harmonization of Accounting Standards / The Accounting Standard Setting in Japan and Its Responses to International Accounting Standards / Selected Bibliography for Accounting in Japan

  7. Risk Factors of Typhoid Infection in the Indonesian Archipelago.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Alba

    Full Text Available Knowledge of risk factors and their relative importance in different settings is essential to develop effective health education material for the prevention of typhoid. In this study, we examine the effect of household level and individual behavioural risk factors on the risk of typhoid in three Indonesian islands (Sulawesi, Kalimantan and Papua in the Eastern Indonesian archipelago encompassing rural, peri-urban and urban areas.We enrolled 933 patients above 10 years of age in a health facility-based case-control study between June 2010 and June 2011. Individuals suspected of typhoid were tested using the typhoid IgM lateral flow assay for the serodiagnosis of typhoid fever followed by blood culture testing. Cases and controls were defined post-recruitment: cases were individuals with a culture or serology positive result (n = 449; controls were individuals negative to both serology and culture, with or without a diagnosis other than typhoid (n = 484. Logistic regression was used to examine the effect of household level and individual level behavioural risk factors and we calculated the population attributable fraction (PAF of removing each risk significant independent behavioural risk factor.Washing hands at critical moments of the day and washing hands with soap were strong independent protective factors for typhoid (OR = 0.38 95% CI 0.25 to 0.58 for each unit increase in hand washing frequency score with values between 0 = Never and 3 = Always; OR = 3.16 95% CI = 2.09 to 4.79 comparing washing hands with soap sometimes/never vs. often. These effects were independent of levels of access to water and sanitation. Up to two thirds of cases could be prevented by compliance to these practices (hand washing PAF = 66.8 95% CI 61.4 to 71.5; use of soap PAF = 61.9 95%CI 56.7 to 66.5. Eating food out in food stalls or restaurant was an important risk factor (OR = 6.9 95%CI 4.41 to 10.8 for every unit increase in frequency score.Major gains could

  8. Tsunami hazard assessment for the Azores archipelago: a historical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Nuno; Ferreira, Teresa; Queiroz, Maria Gabriela

    2010-05-01

    The Azores islands due to its complex geographical and geodynamic setting are exposed to tsunamigenic events associated to different triggering mechanisms, local or distant. Since the settlement of the Azores, in the fifteenth century, there are several documents that relate coastal areas flooding episodes with unusually high waves which caused death and destruction. This work had as main objective the characterization of the different events that can be associated with tsunamigenic phenomena, registered in the archipelago. With this aim, it was collected diverse documentation like chronics, manuscripts, newspaper articles and magazines, scientific publications, and international databases available online. From all the studied tsunami events it was identified the occurrence of some teletsunamis, among which the most relevant was triggered by the 1st November 1755 Lisbon earthquake, with an epicenter SW of Portugal, which killed 6 people in Terceira island. It is also noted the teletsunami generated by the 1761 earthquake, located in the same region as the latest, and the one generated in 1929 by an earthquake-triggered submarine landslide in the Grand Banks of Newfoundland. From the local events, originated in the Azores, the most significant were the tsunamis triggered by 1757 and 1980 earthquakes, both associated with the Terceira Rift dynamics. In the first case the waves may also be due to earthquake-triggered. With respect to tsunamis triggered by sea cliffs landslides it is important to mention the 1847 Quebrada Nova and the 1980 Rocha Alta events, both located in the Flores Island. The 1847 event is the deadliest tsunami recorded in Azores since 10 people died in Flores and Corvo islands in result of the propagated wave. The developed studies improve knowledge of the tsunami sources that affected the Azores during its history, also revealing the importance of awareness about this natural phenomenon. The obtained results showed that the tsunami hazard in the

  9. Investigating Coral Disease Spread Across the Hawaiian Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sziklay, Jamie

    Coral diseases negatively impact reef ecosystems and they are increasing worldwide; yet, we have a limited understanding of the factors that influence disease risk and transmission. My dissertation research investigated coral disease spread for several common coral diseases in the Hawaiian archipelago to understand how host-pathogenenvironment interactions vary across different spatial scales and how we can use that information to improve management strategies. At broad spatial scales, I developed forecasting models to predict outbreak risk based on depth, coral density and temperature anomalies from remotely sensed data (chapter 1). In this chapter, I determined that host density, total coral density, depth and winter temperature variation were important predictors of disease prevalence for several coral diseases. Expanding on the predictive models, I also found that colony size, wave energy, water quality, fish abundance and nearby human population size altered disease risk (chapter 2). Most of the model variation occurred at the scale of sites and coastline, indicating that local coral composition and water quality were key determinants of disease risk. At the reef scale, I investigated factors that influence disease transmission among individuals using a tissue loss disease outbreak in Kane'ohe Bay, O'ahu, Hawai'i as a case study (chapter 3). I determined that host size, proximity to infected neighbors and numbers of infected neighbors were associated with disease risk. Disease transmission events were very localized (within 15 m) and rates changed dramatically over the course of the outbreak: the transmission rate initially increased quickly during the outbreak and then decreased steadily until the outbreak ended. At the colony scale, I investigated disease progression between polyps within individual coral colonies using confocal microscopy (chapter 4). Here, I determined that fragmented florescent pigment distributions appeared adjacent to the disease front

  10. Littoral Decapods of Socorro Island, Revillagigedo Archipelago, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Mille-Pagaza

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Decapod community inhabiting the rocky littoral of eight bays from Socorro island, Revillagigedo Archipelago, was studied during March 1992. Samples were collected from one-square meter plots placed following transects drawn perpendicularly to the shoreline along the intertidal zone. Species richness and abundance were determined in each bay, as well as the similarity between bays using Morisita’s index. Organisms collected belong to six families, 20 genera and 26 species of the Brachyura and Anomura infraorders. Xanthidae was the family with the highest number of species, and the highest species richness was recorded at the V. Lozano bay. Pachygrapsus transversus, Xanthodius cooksoni and Calcinus explorator were the most abundant species in nearly all localities. Dendrogram obtained define two groups of bays at a similarity level above 0.67, given the similarity in the crab’s species richness and their abundance between bays in the island.Se estudió la comunidad de cangrejos del litoral rocoso de ocho bahías de la Isla Socorro, Archipiélago Revillagigedo en marzo de 1992. Las muestras fueron colectadas en cuadrantes de un m² a lo largo de transectos perpendiculares a la costa en la zona intermareal. Se determinó la riqueza específica, la abundancia por especie para cada bahía, así como la similitud entre bahías mediante el índice de Morisita. Los organismos colectados pertenecen a seis familias, 20 géneros y 26 especies de los infraordenes Brachyura y Anomura. La familia con el mayor número de especies fue Xanthidae y la mayor riqueza específica se registró en la bahía V. Lozano. Pachygrapsus transversus, Xanthodius cooksoni y Calcinus explorator fueron las más abundantes en casi todas las localidades. En el dendrograma se definen dos agrupaciones con nivel de similitud superior a 0.67, dada la semejanza en la riqueza específica de cangrejos y las abundancias entre las bahías.

  11. Japan and LPG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    About 20 million metric tonnes of Liquefied Petroleum Gases (LPG) are consumed each year in Japan, of which 14,5 million metric tonnes are imported from Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates. This paper presents LPG industry in Japan and gives informations on the present status: supply and demand, imports, market, distribution

  12. Hydrology, ecology, and management of riparian areas in the Madrean Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel G. Neary; Peter F. Ffolliott; Leonard F. DeBano

    2005-01-01

    Riparian areas in the Madrean Archipelago have historically provided water necessary for people, livestock, and agricultural crops. European settlers were attracted to these areas in the 1880s, where they enjoyed shade and forage for themselves and their livestock and existed on the readily available wildlife and fish. Trees growing along stream banks were harvested...

  13. Plant speciation in continental island floras as exemplified by Nigella in the Aegean Archipelago

    OpenAIRE

    Comes, Hans Peter; Tribsch, Andreas; Bittkau, Christiane

    2008-01-01

    Continental shelf island systems, created by rising sea levels, provide a premier setting for studying the effects of geographical isolation on non-adaptive radiation and allopatric speciation brought about by genetic drift. The Aegean Archipelago forms a highly fragmented complex of mostly continental shelf islands that have become disconnected from each other and the mainland in relatively recent geological times (ca

  14. Dispersion of radionuclides potentially released from the Atolls of Mururoa and Fangataufa to neighboring archipelagos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osvath, I.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a compartmental model developed to simulate dispersion of radionuclides released to the ocean from the atolls of Mururoa and Fangataufa on a scale of 3000 x 1700 km (150 deg. to 300 deg. S latitude, 130 deg. to 160 deg. W longitude), including the Tuamotu, Cook, Society, Gambier and Austral archipelagos

  15. Preliminary checklist of Cetacea in the Indonesian Archipelago and adjacent waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudolph, P.; Smeenk, C.; Leatherwood, S.

    1997-01-01

    Records of 29 species of cetaceans from the Indonesian Archipelago have been gleaned from published and unpublished sources, representing five families: Phocoenidae (1 species), Delphinidae (16), Ziphiidae (3), Physeteridae (3), and Balaenopteridae (6). The presence of 26 species could be confirmed

  16. Patch-based generative shape model and MDL model selection for statistical analysis of archipelagos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganz, Melanie; Nielsen, Mads; Brandt, Sami

    2010-01-01

    We propose a statistical generative shape model for archipelago-like structures. These kind of structures occur, for instance, in medical images, where our intention is to model the appearance and shapes of calcifications in x-ray radio graphs. The generative model is constructed by (1) learning ...

  17. Emergence of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus 2 in the archipelago of Madeira, Portugal (2016-2017).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Carina Luísa; Silva, Sara; Gouveia, Paz; Costa, Margarida; Duarte, Elsa Leclerc; Henriques, Ana Margarida; Barros, Sílvia Santos; Luís, Tiago; Ramos, Fernanda; Fagulha, Teresa; Fevereiro, Miguel; Duarte, Margarida Dias

    2017-12-01

    We report the detection of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus 2 (RHDV2) in the Madeira archipelago, Portugal. Viral circulation was confirmed by RT-qPCR and vp60 sequencing. Epidemiological data revealed the outbreak initiated in October 2016 in Porto Santo affecting wild and domestic rabbits. It was then detected three months later on the island of Madeira. Five haplotypes were identified and a genetic overall similarity of 99.54 to 99.89% was observed between the two viral populations. Unique single nucleotide polymorphisms were recognised in the Madeira archipelago strains, two of which resulting in amino acid substitutions at positions 480 and 570 in the VP60 protein. Phylogenetic investigation by Maximum Likelihood showed all the vp60 sequences from the Madeira archipelago group together with high bootstraps. The analysis also showed that the Madeira archipelago strains are closely related to the strains detected in the south of mainland Portugal in 2016, suggesting a possible introduction from the mainland. The epidemiological data and high genetic similarity indicate a common source for the Porto Santo and Madeira RHDV2 outbreaks. Human activity related to hunting was most probably at the origin of the Madeira outbreak.

  18. Conus (Gastropoda, Conidae) from the Marquesas Archipelago: Description of a new endemic offshore fauna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moolenbeek, R.G.; Zandbergen, A.; Bouchet, P.

    2008-01-01

    Based on surveys conducted in the 1980s-1990s, especially the MUSORSTOM 9 expedition, we report on the bathymetric occurences of 35 species of Conus in the Marquesas Archipelago. Four are new records of shallow-water tropical Indo-Pacific species, and six are new species that were dredged,

  19. Mitigation options for futurewater scarcity : A case study in Santa Cruz Island (Galapagos Archipelago)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reyes, Maria Fernanda; Trifunović, Nemanja; Sharma, Saroj Kumar; Behzadian, Kourosh; Kapelan, Zoran; Kennedy, M.D.

    2017-01-01

    Santa Cruz Island (Galápagos Archipelago), like many other tourist islands, is currently experiencing an exponential increase in tourism and local population growth, jeopardizing current and future water supply. An accurate assessment of the future water supply/demand balance is crucial to

  20. Okinawa, Japan: Geologic Battleground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waymack, S. W.; Carrington, M. P.; Harpp, K. S.

    2005-12-01

    One of our main goals as instructors, particularly in introductory courses, is to impart students with an appreciation of how geology has influenced the course of human events. Despite the apparent accessibility of such topics, communicating this in a lively, relevant, and effective way often proves difficult. We use a series of historical events, the Pacific island hopping campaign of WWII, to engage students in an active, guided inquiry exercise to explore how terrain and the underlying geology of an area can shape historical events. Teams of students are assigned the role of planning either the defense or occupation of Okinawa Island, in the Ryukyu arc, in a theoretical version of the 1945 conflict. Students are given a package of information, including geologic and topographic maps, a list of military resources available to them at the time, and some historical background. Students also have access to "reconnaissance" images, 360o digital panoramas of the landscape of Okinawa, keyed to their maps. Each team has a week to plan their strategies and carry out additional research, which they subsequently bring to the table in the form of a written battle plan. With an instructor as arbiter, teams alternate drawing their maneuvers on a map of the island, to which the other team then responds. This continues one move at a time, until the instructor declares a victor. Throughout the exercise, the instructor guides students through analysis of each strategic decision in light of the island's structure and topography, with an emphasis on the appropriate interpretation of the maps. Students soon realize that an understanding of the island's terrain literally meant the difference between life and death for civilians and military participants alike in 1945. The karst landscape of Okinawa posed unique obstacles to both the Japanese and the American forces, including difficult landing sites, networks of natural caves, and sequences of hills aligned perpendicular to the

  1. Multi Hazard Assessment: The Azores Archipelagos (PT) case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aifantopoulou, Dorothea; Boni, Giorgio; Cenci, Luca; Kaskara, Maria; Kontoes, Haris; Papoutsis, Ioannis; Paralikidis, Sideris; Psichogyiou, Christina; Solomos, Stavros; Squicciarino, Giuseppe; Tsouni, Alexia; Xerekakis, Themos

    2016-04-01

    The COPERNICUS EMS Risk & Recovery Mapping (RRM) activity offers services to support efficient design and implementation of mitigation measures and recovery planning based on EO data exploitation. The Azores Archipelagos case was realized in the context of the FWC 259811 Copernicus EMS RRM, and provides potential impact information for a number of natural disasters. The analysis identified population and assets at risk (infrastructures and environment). The risk assessment was based on hazard and vulnerability of structural elements, road network characteristics, etc. Integration of different hazards and risks was accounted in establishing the necessary first response/ first aid infrastructure. EO data (Pleiades and WV-2), were used to establish a detailed background information, common for the assessment of the whole of the risks. A qualitative Flood hazard level was established, through a "Flood Susceptibility Index" that accounts for upstream drainage area and local slope along the drainage network (Manfreda et al. 2014). Indicators, representing different vulnerability typologies, were accounted for. The risk was established through intersecting hazard and vulnerability (risk- specific lookup table). Probabilistic seismic hazards maps (PGA) were obtained by applying the Cornell (1968) methodology as implemented in CRISIS2007 (Ordaz et al. 2007). The approach relied on the identification of potential sources, the assessment of earthquake recurrence and magnitude distribution, the selection of ground motion model, and the mathematical model to calculate seismic hazard. Lava eruption areas and a volcanic activity related coefficient were established through available historical data. Lava flow paths and their convergence were estimated through applying a cellular, automata based, Lava Flow Hazard numerical model (Gestur Leó Gislason, 2013). The Landslide Hazard Index of NGI (Norwegian Geotechnical Institute) for heavy rainfall (100 year extreme monthly rainfall

  2. Microelectronics in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton, William R.

    1995-02-01

    The purpose of this JTEC study is to evaluate Japan's electronic manufacturing and packaging capabilities within the context of global economic competition. To carry out this study, the JTEC panel evaluated the framework of the Japanese consumer electronics industry and various technological and organizational factors that are likely to determine who will win and lose in the marketplace. This study begins with a brief overview of the electronics industry, especially as it operates in Japan today. Succeeding chapters examine the electronics infrastructure in Japan and take an in-depth look at the central issues of product development in order to identify those parameters that will determine future directions for electronic packaging technologies.

  3. [A new stream of the next disaster response with a variety of hospital ship in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Soichiro; Yamaguchi, Yoshihiro

    2016-02-01

    In Japan, experience from an earthquake has always provided an opportunity to reconsider measures of disaster preparedness. To facilitate decision-making and its enforcement in a large-scale disaster response, a cross-agency organization and tough infrastructure are required as a foundation of crisis management. In the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident, the Fukushima Nuclear Disaster Management Center could not perform their mission due to the collapse of various infrastructure caused by the earthquake. The archipelago structure of Japan is easy terrain that provides approach from the shore to any place in the country; this makes it possible to plan effective relief operations. Therefore, in preparing for the next large-scale disaster, the use of a hospital ship has been discussed as one of the strong bases to combat collapse of infrastructure. For effective utilization of the ship, we will discuss the main points collated from experience of past disaster responses and training.

  4. Kirishima, Japan Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The shield volcano consists of more than 20 eruptive centers over a 20 x 30 km area that also includes Japan's first national park. Sixty-nine eruptions have been...

  5. Mobile Marketing in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Noah H. N. Lynn; Paul D. Berger

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we describe the state of mobile marketing in Japan. We consider the various aspects of mobile marketing in Japan and what has led to the overwhelming adoption by Japanese youth, and to a degree Japanese society as a whole, of social media and associated activities. This growth of mobile marketing has dramatic, positive implications for marketing, in general, as well as for the sale of selected product classes. We also consider markers for suggesting what the future of mobile mar...

  6. In Defense of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-03

    potential addition of F-35B STOVL aircraft to their Izumo class helicopter destroyers is a good example. Japan’s conduct during World War II remain locked ...antiwar and antinuclear identity . But after sixty years, Japan’s neighbors still see bayoneted babies. Relations between Japan and its former victims...and the world order Robert Cooper defines Japan as the lone post-modern country surrounded by states firmly locked into an earlier age and that if

  7. Industrial lasers in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karube, Norio

    1991-03-01

    I am to report on some aspects of industrial lasers in Japan. Mostly centering on the market. In Japan, the history of laser developnent is rather profound. And long. Ever since the first invention of the laser in this country in 1960. This is partly because of the fact that in Japan the spectroscopic studies of the ruby was very popular in the late 1950's. Ever since niost of the work has been done in the research laboratories of the industry, not in the universities or not in the governmental laboratories. And since that time our first activity was mainly centering on the basic research, but after that time we have the evolution of the technology. One of the features in Japan is that the activity of developement and research of laser technology from the very basic phase up to the present commercialization has been done by the same group of people, including ine. We had a national project which ended about six years ago which was sponsored by MITI. MITI is Ministry of International Trade and Industry in Japan. And because of this national project, the effect of this project had a very enlightening effect in Japan. And after that our Japanese laser market became very flourishing.

  8. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Towed-diver Surveys of Large-bodied Fishes of the Hawaiian Archipelago in 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The towed-diver method is used to conduct surveys of large-bodied (> 50 cm) fishes in the Hawaiian and Mariana Archipelagos, American Samoa, and the Pacific...

  9. Integrated hard and soft bottom seafloor substrate maps at select islands in American Samoa and the Mariana Archipelago

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Seafloor substrate (i.e., hard vs. soft bottom) from 0 to 50 m depths around islands in American Samoa and Mariana Archipelago produced by the NOAA Coral Reef...

  10. CRED SVP Drifting Buoy Argos_ID 28638 Data, Saipan in the Marianas Archipelago, 200308-200503 (NODC Accession 0067473)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED SVP drifter Argos_ID 28638 was deployed in the region of Marianas Archipelago to assess ocean currents and sea surface temperature. SVP drifter data files...

  11. CRED SVP Drifting Buoy Argos_ID 29099 Data, Rota in the Marianas Archipelago, 200309-200402 (NODC Accession 0067473)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED SVP drifter Argos_ID 29099 was deployed in the region of Marianas Archipelago to assess ocean currents and sea surface temperature. SVP drifter data files...

  12. Inferring the population expansions in peopling of Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Sheng Peng

    Full Text Available Extensive studies in different fields have been performed to reconstruct the prehistory of populations in the Japanese archipelago. Estimates the ancestral population dynamics based on Japanese molecular sequences can extend our understanding about the colonization of Japan and the ethnogenesis of modern Japanese.We applied Bayesian skyline plot (BSP with a dataset based on 952 Japanese mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA genomes to depict the female effective population size (N(ef through time for the total Japanese and each of the major mtDNA haplogroups in Japanese. Our results revealed a rapid N(ef growth since ∼5 thousand years ago had left ∼72% Japanese mtDNA lineages with a salient signature. The BSP for the major mtDNA haplogroups indicated some different demographic history.The results suggested that the rapid population expansion acted as a major force in shaping current maternal pool of Japanese. It supported a model for population dynamics in Japan in which the prehistoric population growth initiated in the Middle Jomon Period experienced a smooth and swift transition from Jomon to Yayoi, and then continued through the Yayoi Period. The confounding demographic backgrounds of different mtDNA haplogroups could also have some implications for some related studies in future.

  13. Analysis of genetic variation and phylogeny of the predatory bug, Pilophorus typicus, in Japan using mitochondrial gene sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Katsura; Nishikawa, Hiroshi; Shimada, Takuji; Ogawa, Kohei; Minamiya, Yukio; Tomoda, Masafumi; Nakahira, Kengo; Kodama, Rika; Fukuda, Tatsuya; Arakawa, Ryo

    2011-01-01

    Pilophorus typicus (Distant) (Heteroptera: Miridae) is a predatory bug occurring in East, Southeast, and South Asia. Because the active stages of P. typicus prey on various agricultural pest insects and mites, this species is a candidate insect as an indigenous natural enemy for use in biological control programs. However, the mass releasing of introduced natural enemies into agricultural fields may incur the risk of affecting the genetic integrity of species through hybridization with a local population. To clarify the genetic characteristics of the Japanese populations of P. typicus two portions of the mitochondrial DNA, the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) (534 bp) and the cytochrome B (cytB) (217 bp) genes, were sequenced for 64 individuals collected from 55 localities in a wide range of Japan. Totals of 18 and 10 haplotypes were identified for the COI and cytB sequences, respectively (25 haplotypes over regions). Phylogenetic analysis using the maximum likelihood method revealed the existence of two genetically distinct groups in P. typicus in Japan. These groups were distributed in different geographic ranges: one occurred mainly from the Pacific coastal areas of the Kii Peninsula, the Shikoku Island, and the Ryukyu Islands; whereas the other occurred from the northern Kyushu district to the Kanto and Hokuriku districts of mainland Japan. However, both haplotypes were found in a single locality of the southern coast of the Shikoku Island. COI phylogeny incorporating other Pilophorus species revealed that these groups were only recently differentiated. Therefore, use of a certain population of P. typicus across its distribution range should be done with caution because genetic hybridization may occur.

  14. Japan steel mill perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murase, K. [Kobe Steel Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    The international and Japan's steel industry, the coking coal market, and Japan's expectations from Canada's coal industry are discussed. Japan's steel mills are operating at full capacity. Crude steel production for the first half of 2004 was 55.8 million tons. The steel mills are profitable, but costs are high, and there are difficulties with procuring raw materials. Japan is trying to enhance the quality of coke, in order to achieve higher productivity in the production of pig iron. Economic growth is rising disproportionately in the BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, and China), with a large increase in coking coal demand from China. On the supply side, there are several projects underway in Australia and Canada to increase production. These include new developments by Elk Valley Coal Corporation, Grande Cache Coal, Western Canadian Coal, and Northern Energy and Mining in Canada. The Elga Mine in the far eastern part of Russia is under development. But the market is expected to remain tight for some time. Japan envisions Canadian coal producers will provide a stable coal supply, expansion of production and infrastructure capabilities, and stabilization of price. 16 slides/overheads are included.

  15. About peculiarities of hydrocarbons deposits location in the productive series of the Baku archipelago area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasanov, V.T.

    2002-01-01

    Full text : In Azerbaijan domestic and foreign companies hold wide-scaled prospecting operations in the central and southern parts of the Baku Archipelago and also in the Kobystan. There are hydrocarbons deposits determined in the northern of the Baku Archipelago. Deposits location by phase condition of hydrocarbons mainly follows the general regularity determined on many oil and gas bearing areas, pass of oil deposits to oil-gas and gas-condensate ones in the direction of increase of layers occurrence depth. There is also a considerable influence of a tectonic factor on the area location of deposits observed, expressing in difference of deposits height on different tectonic blocks and also there is an influence of a lithological factor. Results of works conducted on drilling and wells testing are still not enough for judging about lack of oil and gas content.

  16. The blowflies of the Madeira Archipelago: species diversity, distribution and identification (Diptera, Calliphoridae s. l.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado e Castro, Catarina; Szpila, Krzysztof; Martínez-Sánchez, Anabel; Rego; Silva, Isamberto; Serrano, Artur R.M.; Boieiro, Mário

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Knowledge on the taxonomic diversity and distribution of blowflies from the Madeira Archipelago is updated. New and interesting findings are reported for poorly studied islands and islets of this archipelago, together with a brief analysis of the diversity of Macaronesian Calliphoridae s. l. Seven blowfly species were collected during this study, including the first records of Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830, Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819), Lucilia sericata (Meigen, 1826), Pollenia rudis (Fabricius, 1794) and Stomorhina lunata (Fabricius, 1805) from Porto Santo, and of Calliphora vicina, Lucilia sericata and Stomorhina lunata from Desertas Islands. The presence of Calliphora loewi Enderlein, 1903 in Madeira Laurisilva forest is discussed and its first instar larva is redescribed, revealing important differences in relation to its original description. An identification key to the adult Madeiran blowflies is provided for the first time. PMID:27917052

  17. At the edge: Heritage and tourism development in Vietnam’s Con Dao archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Hayward

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article outlines the development of Vietnam’s Con Dao archipelago (and Con Son island in particular as tourism destinations since the formal reunification of Vietnam in 1975. In particular it examines the nature of the area’s two main tourism attractions, Con Son’s prison sites and memorials and the archipelago’s natural environment, and how these have been marketed to and experienced by national and international tourists. This discussion also involves considerations of the concept of thanatourism and how the latter might be understood to operate in a Vietnamese context. The final sections of the article consider development plans and options for the archipelago; how these can be understood within national political contexts; and what problems there might be with their implementation.

  18. New insights on the petrology of submarine volcanics from the Western Pontine Archipelago (Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, A. M.; Perinelli, C.; Bianchini, G.; Natali, C.; Martorelli, E.; Chiocci, F. L.

    2016-11-01

    The Pontine Islands form a volcanic archipelago in the Tyrrhenian Sea. It consists of two edifices, the islands of Ponza, Palmarola and Zannone and the islands of Ventotene and Santo Stefano, respectively. The Archipelago developed during two main volcanic cycles in the Plio-Pleistocene: 1) the Pliocene episode erupted subalkaline, silica-rich volcanic units, which constitute the dominant products in the western edifice (Ponza and Zannone Islands); 2) the Pleistocene episode erupted more alkaline products, represented by evolved rocks (trachytes to peralkaline rhyolites) in the islands of Ponza and Palmarola and by basic to intermediate rocks in the eastern edifice (Ventotene and Santo Stefano Islands). In this paper we present new geochemical and petrological data from submarine rock samples collected in two oceanographic cruises and a scuba diving survey. The main result is the recovery of relatively undifferentiated lithotypes that provide further insights on the magmatic spectrum existing in the Pontine Archipelago, allowing modelling of the whole suite of rocks by fractional crystallization processes. New major and trace element data and thermodynamic constrains (by the software PELE) indicate the existence of three distinct evolutionary trends corresponding to a HK calcalkaline series in the Pliocene, followed by a transitional and then by a shoshonite series in the Pleistocene. In particular, the transitional series, so far overlooked in the literature, is required in order to explain the genesis of several peralkaline felsic rocks recognized in the Archipelago. On the whole, the new geochemical data i) confirm the orogenic signature of the suites, ii) allow to rule out an anatectic origin for both subalkaline and peralkaline rhyolites and iii) indicate highly heterogeneous mantle sources, due to crustal components variously recycled in the mantle via subduction.

  19. Parallel responses of bees to Pleistocene climate change in three isolated archipelagos of the southwestern Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Groom, Scott V. C.; Stevens, Mark I.; Schwarz, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    The impacts of glacial cycles on the geographical distribution and size of populations have been explored for numerous terrestrial and marine taxa. However, most studies have focused on high latitudes, with only a few focused on the response of biota to the last glacial maximum (LGM) in equatorial regions. Here, we examine how population sizes of key bee fauna in the southwest Pacific archipelagos of Fiji, Vanuatu and Samoa have fluctuated over the Quaternary. We show that all three island fa...

  20. Sharply increased mass loss from glaciers and ice caps in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Alex S; Moholdt, Geir; Wouters, Bert; Wolken, Gabriel J; Burgess, David O; Sharp, Martin J; Cogley, J Graham; Braun, Carsten; Labine, Claude

    2011-05-19

    Mountain glaciers and ice caps are contributing significantly to present rates of sea level rise and will continue to do so over the next century and beyond. The Canadian Arctic Archipelago, located off the northwestern shore of Greenland, contains one-third of the global volume of land ice outside the ice sheets, but its contribution to sea-level change remains largely unknown. Here we show that the Canadian Arctic Archipelago has recently lost 61 ± 7 gigatonnes per year (Gt yr(-1)) of ice, contributing 0.17 ± 0.02 mm yr(-1) to sea-level rise. Our estimates are of regional mass changes for the ice caps and glaciers of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago referring to the years 2004 to 2009 and are based on three independent approaches: surface mass-budget modelling plus an estimate of ice discharge (SMB+D), repeat satellite laser altimetry (ICESat) and repeat satellite gravimetry (GRACE). All three approaches show consistent and large mass-loss estimates. Between the periods 2004-2006 and 2007-2009, the rate of mass loss sharply increased from 31 ± 8 Gt yr(-1) to 92 ± 12 Gt yr(-1) in direct response to warmer summer temperatures, to which rates of ice loss are highly sensitive (64 ± 14 Gt yr(-1) per 1 K increase). The duration of the study is too short to establish a long-term trend, but for 2007-2009, the increase in the rate of mass loss makes the Canadian Arctic Archipelago the single largest contributor to eustatic sea-level rise outside Greenland and Antarctica.

  1. New paleomagnetic data from late Paleozoic sedimentary rocks of Novaya Zemlya Archipelago: tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abashev, Victor V.; Metelkin, Dmitry V.; Mikhaltsov, Nikolay E.; Vernikovsky, Valery A.; Matushkin, Nikolay Yu.

    2017-04-01

    New paleomagnetic data for Novaya Zemlya archipelago were obtained by processing the samples collection gathered during the 2014 field season. The paleomagnetic directions and paleomagnetic poles were determined from the Paleozoic sedimentary complexes located on the Southern Island (Upper Permian) and the Northern Island (Lower and Upper Devonian, Upper Carboniferous) of the archipelago. Positive fold and reversal tests indicate that the isolated paleomagnetic directions correspond to the primary magnetization components. The corresponding paleomagnetic pole are in good agreement with poles obtained earlier in the 1980s by E.L. Gurevich and I.A. Pogarskaya. Considering the confidence ovals, the paleomagnetic poles obtained for the sites of the Northern Island are located close to the corresponding path segment of the APWP of Europe. This means that at least since the early Devonian, the northern part of Novaya Zemlya Archipelago had a position that was close to its current position relatively to the Arctic margin of Europe and has not undergone significant shifts or rotations. However, the upper Permian paleomagnetic pole for the Southern Island is very different from the corresponding part of the European APWP. We are considering this pole position within a model, involving significant intraplate movement between the structures of the European and Siberian tectonic provinces until the Late Cretaceous. The sinistral strike-slips inferred by the model could have caused or were accompanying the opening of the Mesozoic rift system in Western Siberia. This event has reached its maximum within the South Kara basin and resulted in the north-westward (in geographic coordinates) displacement of the southern part of the Novaya Zemlya Archipelago in relation to the Arctic margin of Europe and in the deformation of the Pay-Khoy-Novaya Zemlya margin, which caused its modern curved form. The study was supported by the Russian Science Foundation, grant No. 14-37-00030 and the

  2. [Taxonomy and distribution of the hermatypic corals (Scleractinia) of the Revillagigedo Archipelago, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketchum, J T; Reyes Bonilla, H

    2001-01-01

    In spite of some recent detailed accounts about the scleractinian corals of the Archipiélago de Revillagigedo, taxonomic work on this fauna has been sparse. Consequently, solid taxonomic background is needed, especially to support further studies at community level. During five field trips (between 1990 and 1995) collections were made at different depths on three of the archipelago islands: Socorro, Clarión and San Benedicto. A total of 250 specimens were collected. Coral identifications were made using co-occurrence methods concomitant with their descriptions, diagnosis and illustrations from a number of publications, and with morphological analysis. Coral distributions were taken from literature. Twenty-two species of zooxanthellate scleractinian corals are described, with their local and world-wide geographic distribution, and each illustrated with macro and microphotographs. Keys to the genera and species of the archipelago are also included. Porites and Pocillopora exhibit the highest species richness with a great intraspecific variation, as well as a number of morphological convergences within and between species which form species complexes, and several new species and morphs. Clarion, the oldest and most isolated island of the archipelago, harbors a number of coral morphs that are probable new species. More than half of the species found at the Revillagigedos are distributed exclusively on oceanic islands of the eastern Pacific and close to one third exist only at this archipelago. The Revillagigedos have strong faunal similarities and share a number of endemics with Clipperton Atoll, all of which support the idea that these islands constitute a separate biogeographic subregion within the eastern Pacific. Lastly, the present document substantiates the hypothesis that the Revillagigedos are important stepping-stone islands for the migration of in-shore marine species from the Central to the eastern Pacific.

  3. Japan's nuclear juggernaut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richner, S.

    1984-01-01

    A summary of nuclear energy in Japan is presented. Nuclear energy provides 17% of Japan's electricity but could provide much more. 25 more reactors (to add to the existing 27) are planned by 1995. The cooperation between Japanese government and industry and the economic assistance in building new plants means that these are not likely to be cancelled. Public acceptance of new plants has often been obtained by large cash employment inducements. Now, however, there is growing disillusionment when short-term well paid employment building the reactors is followed by unemployment when the reactor is in operation. Also there is a growing opposition to the storage of the nuclear waste. To maintain the growth of its nuclear industry Japan needs to export to provide a steady flow of big orders. (U.K.)

  4. Japan's advanced medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sho, Ri; Narimatsu, Hiroto; Murakami, Masayasu

    2013-10-01

    Like health care systems in other developed countries, Japan's health care system faces significant challenges due to aging of the population and economic stagnation. Advanced medicine (Senshin Iryou) is a unique system of medical care in Japan offering highly technology-driven medical care that is not covered by public health insurance. Advanced medicine has recently developed and expanded as part of health care reform. Will it work? To answer this question, we briefly trace the historical development of advanced medicine and describe the characteristics and current state of advanced medical care in Japan. We then offer our opinions on the future of advanced medicine with careful consideration of its pros and cons. We believe that developing advanced medicine is an attempt to bring health care reform in line rather than the goal of health care reform.

  5. Projected polar bear sea ice habitat in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen G Hamilton

    Full Text Available Sea ice across the Arctic is declining and altering physical characteristics of marine ecosystems. Polar bears (Ursus maritimus have been identified as vulnerable to changes in sea ice conditions. We use sea ice projections for the Canadian Arctic Archipelago from 2006 - 2100 to gain insight into the conservation challenges for polar bears with respect to habitat loss using metrics developed from polar bear energetics modeling.Shifts away from multiyear ice to annual ice cover throughout the region, as well as lengthening ice-free periods, may become critical for polar bears before the end of the 21st century with projected warming. Each polar bear population in the Archipelago may undergo 2-5 months of ice-free conditions, where no such conditions exist presently. We identify spatially and temporally explicit ice-free periods that extend beyond what polar bears require for nutritional and reproductive demands.Under business-as-usual climate projections, polar bears may face starvation and reproductive failure across the entire Archipelago by the year 2100.

  6. Projected polar bear sea ice habitat in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Stephen G; Castro de la Guardia, Laura; Derocher, Andrew E; Sahanatien, Vicki; Tremblay, Bruno; Huard, David

    2014-01-01

    Sea ice across the Arctic is declining and altering physical characteristics of marine ecosystems. Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) have been identified as vulnerable to changes in sea ice conditions. We use sea ice projections for the Canadian Arctic Archipelago from 2006 - 2100 to gain insight into the conservation challenges for polar bears with respect to habitat loss using metrics developed from polar bear energetics modeling. Shifts away from multiyear ice to annual ice cover throughout the region, as well as lengthening ice-free periods, may become critical for polar bears before the end of the 21st century with projected warming. Each polar bear population in the Archipelago may undergo 2-5 months of ice-free conditions, where no such conditions exist presently. We identify spatially and temporally explicit ice-free periods that extend beyond what polar bears require for nutritional and reproductive demands. Under business-as-usual climate projections, polar bears may face starvation and reproductive failure across the entire Archipelago by the year 2100.

  7. Patterns of diversification in islands: A comparative study across three gecko genera in the Socotra Archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Porta, Joan; Morales, Hernán E; Gómez-Díaz, Elena; Sindaco, Roberto; Carranza, Salvador

    2016-05-01

    In this study we used the complete fauna of geckos of the Socotra Archipelago to test whether the three gecko genera co-occurring in the islands (Pristurus, Hemidactylus and Haemodracon) produced similar outcomes of morphological and climatic diversification. To test this, we produced a time-calibrated tree of 346 geckos including all 16 endemic species of the archipelago and 26 potential close-relatives in the continent. Our dating estimates revealed that most of the diversity of geckos in the archipelago was the consequence of in situ diversification. However not all genera shared similar patterns of diversification. While in Hemidactylus and Haemodracon this involved great differences in body size and low levels of climatic diversification (mostly involving sympatric distributions), an opposite pattern appeared in Pristurus in which most of the diversification involved shifts in climatic envelopes (mostly involving allopatric and parapatric distributions) but almost no size differentiation. Consistently with this, Pristurus was the only genus in which rates of size diversification in islands were substantially lower than in the continent. This illustrates how different groups can greatly differ in their patterns of intra-island diversification and highlights the importance of taxon-dependent factors at determining different patterns of diversification in the same insular context. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Characterization of mangrove forest types based on ALOS-PALSAR in overall Indonesian archipelago

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darmawan, S; Takeuchi, W; Vetrita, Y; Winarso, G; Wikantika, K; Sari, D K

    2014-01-01

    Indonesia has largest mangrove forest in the world, total area around 3.5 million ha or 17% – 23% from mangrove forest in the world. Mangrove forest provides products and services, such as carbon balance of the coastal zone. Mapping and monitoring biomass of mangrove is very important but field survey of mangrove biomass and productivity in overall Indonesia is very difficult. Global-scale mosaics with HH and HV backscatter of Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) which is 50-m spatial resolution has been generated. This image available for identification and monitoring mangrove forest. The Objective of this research to investigate characterization of mangrove forest types based on ALOS-PALSAR in overall Indonesian archipelago. Methodology consists of collecting ALOS-PALSAR image for overall Indonesian archipelago, preprocessing and mosaicking, collecting region of interest of mangrove forest, plotting, ground survey, characterization and classification. The result of this research has showed characterization of mangrove forest types based on ALOS-PALSAR. Indonesian mangrove forest types has HH value around -10 dB until -7 dB and HV value around -17 dB until -13 dB. Higher of HH and HV backscatters value indicated higher of level biomass. Based on scatter plot of HH and HV, Indonesian mangrove forest can be classified in three level biomass. Generally level biomass of mangrove forest in Indonesia archipelago is moderate

  9. The internationalization of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroki, T.E.

    1989-01-01

    There are growing tensions and frictions between the U.S. and Japan. Among them are science and technology issues that relate to the development of superconductor technology, as well as economic, trade and agricultural issues. The structure of this friction is very complex. There are many interconnected issues that cannot be resolved one by one. This article focuses on the relationship between the U.S. and Japan. Some of the complexities behind the issues are discussed by defining different notions of internationalization and by presenting the positive and negative aspects of the Japanese approach that affects the future cooperation and competition between our nations in the area of superconductivity

  10. Divorce in contemporary Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukurai, H; Alston, J

    1990-10-01

    Data from the 1985-86 Japanese census are analysed to explore the determinants of the divorce rates in Japan's forty-seven prefectures, using two theoretical models: (a) the social integration model, which is shown to have a greater utility in predicting Japanese divorce levels than (b), the human capital model. Female emigration patterns play a significant role in affecting the divorce rate. Population increase and net household income are also important predictors of the Japanese divorce rate and urbanization has a great influence in modern Japan. Demographic and aggregate variables such as migration, urbanization, and socioeconomic factors are useful when organized under a social integration model.

  11. Liquid hydrogen in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasumi, S. [Iwatani Corp., Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Overseas Business Development

    2009-07-01

    Japan's Iwatani Corporation has focused its attention on hydrogen as the ultimate energy source in future. Unlike the United States, hydrogen use and delivery in liquid form is extremely limited in the European Union and in Japan. Iwatani Corporation broke through industry stereotypes by creating and building Hydro Edge Co. Ltd., Japan's largest liquid hydrogen plant. It was established in 2006 as a joint venture between Iwatani and Kansai Electric Power Group in Osaka. Hydro Edge is Japan's first combined liquid hydrogen and ASU plant, and is fully operational. Liquid oxygen, liquid nitrogen and liquid argon are separated from air using the cryogenic energy of liquefied natural gas fuel that is used for power generation. Liquid hydrogen is produced efficiently and simultaneously using liquid nitrogen. Approximately 12 times as much hydrogen in liquid form can be transported and supplied as pressurized hydrogen gas. This technology is a significant step forward in the dissemination and expansion of hydrogen in a hydrogen-based economy.

  12. Language Testing in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James Dean, Ed.; Yamashita, Sayoko Okada, Ed.

    Papers on second language testing in Japan include: "Differences Between Norm-Referenced and Criterion-Referenced Tests" (James Dean Brown); "Criterion-Referenced Test Construction and Evaluation" (Dale T. Griffe); "Behavioral Learning Objectives as an Evaluation Tool" (Judith A. Johnson); "Developing Norm-…

  13. Dutch surgery in Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gulik, Thomas M.; Nimura, Yuji

    2005-01-01

    An isolation policy was adopted in feudal Japan from 1639 to 1853 owing to the fear of foreign influence. During those 200 years of isolation, all foreigners were withheld from the country with the exception of the Dutch, who were permitted to establish a trading post on a small island in the Bay of

  14. Globalization in Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesgaard, Marie Højlund

    2014-01-01

    Abstract for Nichibunken Copenhagen Symposium August 2012 Globalization in Japan – the case of moral education. 日本とグローバル化 - 道徳教育の件 Marie H. Roesgaard, Department of Cross-Cultural and Regional Studies, University of Copenhagen. This paper attempts to trace the history of global influence on Japan......Abstract for Nichibunken Copenhagen Symposium August 2012 Globalization in Japan – the case of moral education. 日本とグローバル化 - 道徳教育の件 Marie H. Roesgaard, Department of Cross-Cultural and Regional Studies, University of Copenhagen. This paper attempts to trace the history of global influence...... adjusting to those of the global currents that cannot be ignored. Further, I would suggest that global, or at least Western, influence is not a new thing in regard to moral education in Japan. The paper will provide an historical overview of the development of moral education since Meiji times and focus...

  15. China, South Korea, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    Intended for Canadian readers, this popular account was suggested by the Sixth Pacific Basin Nuclear Conference. Economic, political, geographic, sociological and historical aspects of the nuclear programmes of China, South Korea and Japan are discussed. The importance of past, present and future Canadian nuclear trade with the area is indicated

  16. Japan's electronic packaging technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummala, Rao R.; Pecht, Michael

    1995-02-01

    The JTEC panel found Japan to have significant leadership over the United States in the strategic area of electronic packaging. Many technologies and products once considered the 'heart and soul' of U.S. industry have been lost over the past decades to Japan and other Asian countries. The loss of consumer electronics technologies and products is the most notable of these losses, because electronics is the United States' largest employment sector and is critical for growth businesses in consumer products, computers, automobiles, aerospace, and telecommunications. In the past there was a distinction between consumer and industrial product technologies. While Japan concentrated on the consumer market, the United States dominated the industrial sector. No such distinction is anticipated in the future; the consumer-oriented technologies Japan has dominated are expected to characterize both domains. The future of U.S. competitiveness will, therefore, depend on the ability of the United States to rebuild its technological capabilities in the area of portable electronic packaging.

  17. Japan's plutonium economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecht, M.M.

    1994-01-01

    Japan's plutonium economy is based on the most efficient use of nuclear energy, as envisioned under the Atoms for Peace program of the 1950s and 1960s. The nuclear pioneers assumed that all nations would want to take full advantage of atomic energy, recycling waste into new fuel to derive as much energy as possible from this resource

  18. Nuclear power development in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugawara, A.

    1994-01-01

    Energy situation in Japan and Japan's strategy for stable supply of energy are discussed. Benefits of nuclear power in comparison with other energy sources is considered. History of nuclear power development in Japan, modern status and future trends are described. 6 figs

  19. Japan's energy sector beyond Fukushima. What direction for a sustainable energy future?; Japans Energiesektor nach Fukushima. Welche nachhaltige Energiezukunft ist moeglich?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldhoff, Thomas [Frankfurt Univ., Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Inst. fuer Humangeographie (IHG) und Interdisziplinaeres Zentrum fuer Ostasienstudien (IZO)

    2013-03-15

    The 11 March 2011 Fukushima nuclear power plant disaster will create long-term challenges for Japans energy security. Energy shortage is a major threat because all facets of the archipelago's economy and society are dependent upon reliable energy supply. Within this context and based on a historical institutionalist approach, this paper reflects on the long-term implications of the disaster for Japan's post-Fukushima energy policies. It argues that institutional change is incremental and path dependent for four major reasons: the massive costs of a major move to alternative energy sources; the rising importance of emission reduction and climate change mitigation policies; vested interests in the status quo of a centralised large-scale energy supply system; and the massive increase in resource nationalism in East Asia as a result of continuing geopolitical tensions. However, promoting energy efficiency, encouraging energy-saving behaviour and focusing on decentralized renewable energy development could help to reduce Japan's energy vulnerability.

  20. Major earthquake of Friday March 11, 2011, magnitude 8.9 at 5:46 UT, off Honshu island (Japan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    On Friday March 11, 2011, at 5:46 UT (2:46 PM local time), a magnitude 8.9 earthquake took place at 80 km east of Honshu island (Japan). The earthquake affected a large part of the Honshu territory and led to the automatic emergency shutdown of all nuclear power plants of the east coast. This paper recalls first the seismo-tectonic and historical seismic context of the Japan archipelago and the first analyses of the Tohoku earthquake impact on nuclear facilities. At the time of publication of this information report, no radioactive release in the environment and no anomaly at the Tokai-Mura and Rokkasho-Mura sites were mentioned. However, the evacuation of populations in a 3 to 10 km area around the Fukushima-Dai-ichi power plant had been ordered by the Governor as preventive measure, which made one think that the situation at this specific site was particularly worrying. (J.S.)

  1. Tohoku's earthquake of Friday March 11, 2011 (5:46 UT), magnitude 9.0, off Honshu island (Japan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    On Friday March 11, 2011, at 5:46 UT (2:46 PM local time), a magnitude 9.0 earthquake took place at 80 km east of Honshu island (Japan). The earthquake generated a tsunami which led to the loss of the cooling systems of the Fukushima Dai-ichi and Fukushima Daini power plants. This paper describes the seismo-tectonic and historical seismic context of the Japan archipelago and the first analyses of the Tohoku earthquake impact: magnitudes of first shock and of aftershocks, impact on nuclear facilities (maximum acceleration values detected with respect to design basis values, subsidence of coastal areas and submersion of power plant platforms). (J.S.)

  2. Use of microbial analysis to evaluate denitrification in the karstic aquifer of Okinawa, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasumoto, J.

    2014-12-01

    Denitrification, a microbial process in the nitrogen cycle, is a facultative respiratory pathway in which nitrate (NO3-), nitrite (NO2-), nitric oxide (NO), and nitrous oxide (N2O), successively, are reduced to nitrogen gas (N2). This study explores the use of microbial analysis to evaluate the processes involved in nitrate attenuation in groundwater. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) is used to identify denitrifiers based only on their 16SrRNA gene sequences, and Real-Time PCR analysis is used to quantify nitrite reducing genes (nirK and nirS), this suggest that a new methods for detecting denitrification activity by comparing the gene dosage that has been detected by RT-PCR and the value of the δ15NNO3- and δ18ONO3-. This study focuses on a zone of significant NO3- attenuation occurring at underground dam catchment area in the karstic Ryukyu limestone aquifer, which is located southern part of Okinawa, Japan. As a result of microbial analysis, the bacteria were detected at all observation points which have been reported to have denitrification ability. And it has been confirmed that the bacteria has a gene nirS which is related to denitrification. In addition, many bacteria related to denitrification have been extracted from suspended solids more than from groundwater in the aquifer. And, the correlation was high between nirK /nirS gene dosage that has been detected by RT-PCR and the value of the δ15N and δ18O; therefore, this study demonstrates the effectiveness of using Real-Time PCR analysis for providing insights into the processes affecting nitrate attenuation in ground water.

  3. [Gambling disorder in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Hitoshi

    2015-09-01

    Gambling disorder is a psychiatric disorder characterized by persistent and recurrent problematic gambling behavior, associated with impaired functioning, reduced quality of life, and frequent divorce and bankruptcy. Gambling disorder is reclassified in the category Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders in the DSM-5 because its clinical features closely resemble those of substance use disorders, and gambling activates the reward system in brain in much the same way drugs do. Prevalence of gambling disorder in Japan is high rate because of slot machines and pachinko game are very popular in Japan. The author recommend group psychotherapy and self-help group (Gamblers Anonymous), because group dynamics make them accept their wrongdoings related to gambling and believe that they can enjoy their lives without gambling.

  4. Future accelerators in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toge, Nobu

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a brief report on the present status of future accelerator projects at the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics (KEK), Japan. The KEK laboratory has been successfully operating the TRISTAN accelerator complex since 1986. It consists of a 2.5 GeV electron/positron linac, an 8 GeV Accumulation Ring (AR) and a 29 GeV Main Ring (MR). Concurrently with this operation, in response to recommendations by the Japanese High Energy Physics Committee, survey studies have been continued on new accelerator facilities at KEK. They have two major future projects, namely, the asymmetric e + e - B-factory based on TRISTAN (TRISTAN-II) and the Japan Linear Collider (JLC). The purpose of this paper is to outline those research activities and to present an update on their status

  5. Safeguards activities in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osabe, Takeshi

    1998-01-01

    Current Japanese State System for Accountancy and Control (SSAC) has been developing and fully satisfies requirements of both IAEA Safeguards and bilateral partners. However, the public attention on the national and international safeguards activities were increased and the safeguards authorities were required to promote the objective assessment of safeguards implementation to avoid mistrust in safeguards activities which directly influence the public acceptance of nuclear energy in itself. Additionally, since Japan has promoted to complete nuclear fuel cycle including spent fuel reprocessing, enrichment and mixed oxide fuel fabrication this would require further assurance of Japanese non-proliferation commitment. Japan supports the introduction of strengthened safeguards. In this context it is particularly important to strengthen the relationship between national and the IAEA safeguards to contribute actively to the IAEA safeguards in development and utilization of new technologies towards more effective and efficient IAEA safeguards

  6. Japan Accelerator Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    At the international level, the high energy accelerator scene evolves rapidly and the International Conference on High Energy Accelerators is where its strong pulse can best be felt. This year, the Conference was held for the first time in Japan, with the 14th meeting in the series having been hosted in August by the Japanese KEK National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba. The venue was a recognition of the premier accelerator physics and technology status achieved by this diligent nation

  7. Japan Accelerator Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1989-11-15

    At the international level, the high energy accelerator scene evolves rapidly and the International Conference on High Energy Accelerators is where its strong pulse can best be felt. This year, the Conference was held for the first time in Japan, with the 14th meeting in the series having been hosted in August by the Japanese KEK National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba. The venue was a recognition of the premier accelerator physics and technology status achieved by this diligent nation.

  8. Nuclear situation in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This analysis takes stock on the nuclear situation in Japan. It discusses the ambitious equipment program in collaboration with the France, the destabilization of the japanese nuclear industry following the accidents and the energy policy evolutions. It presents the projects of the japanese nuclear industry: the Monju reactor restart, the Pluthermal project, the reprocessing power plant of Rokkasho Mura, the new reactors, the russian weapons dismantling, the ITER site selection and the buy out of Westinghouse by Toshiba. (A.L.B.)

  9. Japan's fuel recycling policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) has formulated Japanese nuclear fuel recycling plan for the next 20 years, based on the idea that the supply and demand of plutonium should be balanced mainly through the utilization of plutonium for LWRs. The plan was approved by AEC, and is to be incorporated in the 'Long term program for development and utilization of nuclear energy' up for revision next year. The report on 'Nuclear fuel recycling in Japan' by the committee is characterized by Japanese nuclear fuel recycling plan and the supply-demand situation for plutonium, the principle of the possession of plutonium not more than the demand in conformity with nuclear nonproliferation attitude, and the establishment of a domestic fabrication system of uranium-plutonium mixed oxide fuel. The total plutonium supply up to 2010 is estimated to be about 85 t, on the other hand, the demand will be 80-90 t. The treatment of plutonium is the key to the recycling and utilization of nuclear fuel. By around 2000, the private sector will commercialize the fabrication of the MOX fuel for LWRs at the annual rate of about 100 t. Commitment to nuclear nonproliferation, future nuclear fuel recycling program in Japan, MOX fuel fabrication system in Japan and so on are reported. (K.I.)

  10. Psychology in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imada, Hiroshi; Tanaka-Matsumi, Junko

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide information about Japan and its psychology in advance of the 31st International Congress of Psychology (ICP), to be held in Yokohama, Japan, in 2016. The article begins with the introduction of the Japanese Psychological Association (JPA), the hosting organization of the ICP 2016, and the Japanese Union of Psychological Associations consisting of 51 associations/societies, of which the JPA is a member. This is followed by a brief description of a history of psychology of Japan, with emphasis on the variation in our approach to psychology in three different periods, that is, the pre- and post-Pacific War periods, and the post-1960 period. Next, the international contributions of Japanese psychology/psychologists are discussed from the point of view of their visibility. Education and training in psychology in Japanese universities is discussed with a final positive remark about the long-awaited enactment of the Accredited Psychologist Law in September, 2015. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  11. Microbiological and mycological beach sand quality in a volcanic environment: Madeira archipelago, Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Elisabete; Figueira, Celso; Aguiar, Nuno; Vasconcelos, Rita [Universidade da Madeira, Caminho da Penteada, 9020-105 Funchal (Portugal); Vasconcelos, Sílvia [Laboratório Regional de Veterinária e Segurança Alimentar, Caminho das Quebradas de Baixo n° 79, 9000-254 Funchal (Portugal); Calado, Graça [Laboratório de Saúde Pública, IASaúde, Rua das Pretas n° 1, 9004-515 Funchal (Portugal); Brandão, João [Instituto Nacional de Saúde Dr. Ricardo Jorge, Avenida Padre Cruz, 1649-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Prada, Susana, E-mail: susana@uma.pt [Universidade da Madeira, Caminho da Penteada, 9020-105 Funchal (Portugal); Centro de Vulcanologia e Avaliação de Riscos Geológicos, Universidade dos Açores, Rua da Mãe de Deus, Edifício do Complexo Científico, 3° Andar — Ala Sul, 9500-321 Ponta Delgada (Portugal)

    2013-09-01

    Madeira forms a mid-Atlantic volcanic archipelago, whose economy is largely dependent on tourism. There, one can encounter different types of sand beach: natural basaltic, natural calcareous and artificial calcareous. Microbiological and mycological quality of the sand was analyzed in two different years. Bacterial indicators were detected in higher number in 2010 (36.7% of the samples) than in 2011 (9.1%). Mycological indicators were detected in a similar percentage of samples in 2010 (68.3%) and 2011 (75%), even though the total number of colonies detected in 2010 was much higher (827 in 41 samples) than in 2011 (427 in 66 samples). Enterococci and potentially pathogenic and allergenic fungi (particularly Penicillium sp.) were the most common indicators detected in both years. Candida sp. yeast was also commonly detected in the samples. The analysis of the 3rd quartile and maximum numbers of all indicators in samples showed that artificial beaches tend to be more contaminated than the natural ones. However, a significant difference between the variables was lacking. More monitoring data (number of bathers, sea birds, radiation intensity variation, and a greater number of samples) should be collected in order to confirm if these differences are significant. In general, the sand quality in the archipelago's beaches was good. As the sand may be a vector of diseases, an international common set of indicators and values and a compatible methodologies for assessing sand contamination, should be defined, in order to provide the bather's with an indication of beach sand quality, rather than only the water. - Highlights: • Microbial indicators were studied in the beach sands of Madeira archipelago. • Differences between years may be attributed to extreme weather. • Sand of artificial beaches has higher levels of microbial contamination. • Microbial analysis of the sand showed that the beaches have mainly good quality.

  12. Microbiological and mycological beach sand quality in a volcanic environment: Madeira archipelago, Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Elisabete; Figueira, Celso; Aguiar, Nuno; Vasconcelos, Rita; Vasconcelos, Sílvia; Calado, Graça; Brandão, João; Prada, Susana

    2013-01-01

    Madeira forms a mid-Atlantic volcanic archipelago, whose economy is largely dependent on tourism. There, one can encounter different types of sand beach: natural basaltic, natural calcareous and artificial calcareous. Microbiological and mycological quality of the sand was analyzed in two different years. Bacterial indicators were detected in higher number in 2010 (36.7% of the samples) than in 2011 (9.1%). Mycological indicators were detected in a similar percentage of samples in 2010 (68.3%) and 2011 (75%), even though the total number of colonies detected in 2010 was much higher (827 in 41 samples) than in 2011 (427 in 66 samples). Enterococci and potentially pathogenic and allergenic fungi (particularly Penicillium sp.) were the most common indicators detected in both years. Candida sp. yeast was also commonly detected in the samples. The analysis of the 3rd quartile and maximum numbers of all indicators in samples showed that artificial beaches tend to be more contaminated than the natural ones. However, a significant difference between the variables was lacking. More monitoring data (number of bathers, sea birds, radiation intensity variation, and a greater number of samples) should be collected in order to confirm if these differences are significant. In general, the sand quality in the archipelago's beaches was good. As the sand may be a vector of diseases, an international common set of indicators and values and a compatible methodologies for assessing sand contamination, should be defined, in order to provide the bather's with an indication of beach sand quality, rather than only the water. - Highlights: • Microbial indicators were studied in the beach sands of Madeira archipelago. • Differences between years may be attributed to extreme weather. • Sand of artificial beaches has higher levels of microbial contamination. • Microbial analysis of the sand showed that the beaches have mainly good quality

  13. Seismicity Pattern Changes before the M = 4.8 Aeolian Archipelago (Italy Earthquake of August 16, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Gambino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the seismicity patterns associated with an M=4.8 earthquake recorded in the Aeolian Archipelago on 16, August, 2010, by means of the region-time-length (RTL algorithm. This earthquake triggered landslides at Lipari; a rock fall on the flanks of the Vulcano, Lipari, and Salina islands, and some damages to the village of Lipari. The RTL algorithm is widely used for investigating precursory seismicity changes before large and moderate earthquakes. We examined both the spatial and temporal characteristics of seismicity changes in the Aeolian Archipelago region before the M=4.8 earthquake. The results obtained reveal 6-7 months of seismic quiescence which started about 15 months before the earthquake. The spatial distribution shows an extensive area characterized by seismic quiescence that suggests a relationship between quiescence and the Aeolian Archipelago regional tectonics.

  14. Number of endemic and native plant species in the Galapagos Archipelago in relation to geographical parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev, Eske; Hansen, Anders J.; Nielsen, Kirstine Klitgaard

    2002-01-01

    By simple and multiple regression analyses we investigate updated species numbers of endemic and native vascular plants and seed plants in the Galapagos Archipelago in relation to geographical parameters. We find that the best models to describe species numbers are regression models with log......-transformed species numbers as dependent and log-transformed modified area (i.e. area not covered with barren lava) as an independent variable. This holds both for total species number, for native species number, for endemic species number and for total number of seed plants as well as number of endemic seed plants...

  15. Hybridization occurs between Drosophila simulans and D. sechellia in the Seychelles archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matute, D R; Ayroles, J F

    2014-06-01

    Drosophila simulans and D. sechellia are sister species that serve as a model to study the evolution of reproductive isolation. While D. simulans is a human commensal that has spread all over the world, D. sechellia is restricted to the Seychelles archipelago and is found to breed exclusively on the toxic fruit of Morinda citrifolia. We surveyed the relative frequency of males from these two species in a variety of substrates found on five islands of the Seychelles archipelago. We sampled different fruits and found that putative D. simulans can be found in a variety of substrates, including, surprisingly, M. citrifolia. Putative D. sechellia was found preferentially on M. citrifolia fruits, but a small proportion was found in other substrates. Our survey also shows the existence of putative hybrid males in areas where D. simulans is present in Seychelles. The results from this field survey support the hypothesis of current interbreeding between these species in the central islands of Seychelles and open the possibility for fine measurements of admixture between these two Drosophila species to be made. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  16. Present situation and future prospects of electricity generation in Aegean Archipelago islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaldellis, J.K.; Zafirakis, D.

    2007-01-01

    The Aegean Archipelago is a remote Hellenic area, including several hundreds of scattered islands of various sizes. In these islands more than 600,000 people are living mainly in small remote communities. The main economical activities of the islanders are apart from tourism, seafaring, fishery, agriculture and stock farming. One of the major problems of the area is the insufficient infrastructure, strongly related with the absence of an integrated and cost-effective electrification plan. In this context, the present work is concentrated on analyzing the present situation and demonstrating the future prospects of electricity generation in the Aegean Archipelago islands. For this purpose, one should first investigate the time evolution of the corresponding electricity generation parameters (i.e. annual electricity consumption, peak power demand, capacity factor, specific fuel consumption) for the last 30 years. Subsequently, the corresponding diesel and heavy-oil consumption along with the electricity production cost for every specific autonomous power station of the area are investigated. Special attention is paid in order to estimate the contribution of renewable energy sources (RES) in the energy balance of each island. Finally, an attempt is made to describe in brief the most realistic electricity production solutions available, including the operation of hybrid RES-based power plants in collaboration with appropriate energy storage facilities. Additionally, the idea of connecting the islands of the area with the mainland and interconnecting them is also taken into consideration

  17. Carbon neutral archipelago – 100% renewable energy supply for the Canary Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gils, Hans Christian; Simon, Sonja

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A pathway to a 100% renewable energy supply for the Canary Islands is presented. • Hourly system operation is analysed, considering flexibility options and sector linkage. • Results show feasibility of a carbon neutral energy supply with local resources. • High resolution power system model highlights importance of grid connections. - Abstract: As many other small islands and archipelagos, the Canary Islands depend to a high degree on energy imports. Despite its small surface, the archipelago has a high potential for renewable energy (RE) technologies. In this paper, we present a scenario pathway to a 100% RE supply in the Canary Islands by 2050. It relies on a back-casting approach linking the bottom-up accounting framework Mesap-PlaNet and the high resolution power system model REMix. Our analysis shows that locally available technology potentials are sufficient for a fully renewable supply of the islands’ power, heat, and land transport energy demands. To follow the pathway for achieving a carbon neutral supply, expansion of RE technology deployment needs to be accelerated in the short-term and efforts towards greater energy efficiency must be increased. According to our results, an extended linkage between energy sectors through electric vehicles as well as electric heating, and the usage of synthetic hydrogen can contribute notably to the integration of intermittent RE power generation. Furthermore, our results highlight the importance of power transmission in RE supply systems. Supply costs are found 15% lower in a scenario considering sea cable connections between all islands.

  18. Species conservation profiles of endemic spiders (Araneae) from Madeira and Selvagens archipelagos, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Luís C; Silva, Isamberto; Borges, Paulo AV; Boieiro, Mário

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background The North Atlantic archipelagos of Madeira and Selvagens present a unique biological diversity including, presently, 56 endemic spider species. Several recent projects provide valuable information on their distribution across most islands and habitats. To date, the only endemic spider assessed according to the IUCN Red List criteria is Hogna ingens. The objective of this paper is to assess all remaining endemic species and advise on possible future conservation actions critical for the survival of endangered species. New information Seven species were found to have a continuing decline in either range or population size. Their decline can be mostly attributed to habitat destruction or degradation, invasive plant species that reduce quality of habitat, forest fires at high mountain regions and possible competition for resources from invasive congeners. The tetragnathid M. barreti is considered as possibly extinct due to the suspected impact of a competing species. Although most endemic spiders from the Madeira and Selvagens archipelagos have relatively low extinction risk due to the good condition and protection of the laurisilva forests where many live, there are a number of species requiring urgent attention and protection measures. These include all cave and mountain-restricted species as well as those threatened by competing congeners or invasive plants. Extending current protected areas, restoring original habitats of threatened species and the control of invasive taxa should remain a priority for species survival. PMID:29104441

  19. Mercury concentrations of a resident freshwater forage fish at Adak Island, Aleutian Archipelago, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Leah A; von Hippel, Frank A; Willacker, James J; O'Hara, Todd M

    2012-11-01

    The Aleutian Archipelago is an isolated arc of over 300 volcanic islands stretching 1,600 km across the interface of the Bering Sea and North Pacific Ocean. Although remote, some Aleutian Islands were heavily impacted by military activities from World War II until recently and were exposed to anthropogenic contaminants, including mercury (Hg). Mercury is also delivered to these islands via global atmospheric transport, prevailing ocean currents, and biotransport by migratory species. Mercury contamination of freshwater ecosystems is poorly understood in this region. Total Hg (THg) concentrations were measured in threespine stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus) collected from eight lakes at Adak Island, an island in the center of the archipelago with a long military history. Mean THg concentrations for fish whole-body homogenates for all lakes ranged from 0.314 to 0.560 mg/kg dry weight. Stickleback collected from seabird-associated lakes had significantly higher concentrations of THg compared to non-seabird lakes, including all military lakes. The δ(13)C stable isotope ratios of stickleback collected from seabird lakes suggest an input of marine-derived nutrients and/or marine-derived Hg. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  20. Gastrointestinal parasites in feral cats and rodents from the Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Fernando Santana Lima

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Gastrointestinal parasites are important pathogens affecting animals, some of them are of medical and veterinary concern. Although the dynamic of parasitic infections is a complex phenomenon that has been studied under experimental conditions, it shows several gaps in knowledge, especially in insular regions where a confined population of animals and parasites co-exists. In this study was assessed the parasitism by endoparasite gastrointestinal in feral cats (n = 37 and rodents (n = 30 from the Fernando de Noronha Archipelago; in addition, the risk of human infection and ecological implications of these findings were discussed. Out of all samples analysed, 100% scored positive for the presence of gastrointestinal parasites in both feral cats and rodents. A total 17 genera and/or species of endoparasite gastrointestinal were identified, Ancylostoma sp., Strongyloides sp., Trichuris campanula and Toxocara cati were the parasites more frequently in feral cats. In rodents Eimeria sp., Strongyloides sp. and Trichuris muris were parasites more frequently herein detected. Human population living in this area are at risk of parasite infections due to the population of rodents and feral cats in the archipelago.

  1. Gastrointestinal parasites in feral cats and rodents from the Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Victor Fernando Santana; Ramos, Rafael Antonio Nascimento; Lepold, Raphael; Borges, João Carlos Gomes; Ferreira, Carlos Diógenes; Rinaldi, Laura; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Alves, Leucio Câmara

    2017-01-01

    Gastrointestinal parasites are important pathogens affecting animals, some of them are of medical and veterinary concern. Although the dynamic of parasitic infections is a complex phenomenon that has been studied under experimental conditions, it shows several gaps in knowledge, especially in insular regions where a confined population of animals and parasites co-exists. In this study was assessed the parasitism by endoparasite gastrointestinal in feral cats (n = 37) and rodents (n = 30) from the Fernando de Noronha Archipelago; in addition, the risk of human infection and ecological implications of these findings were discussed. Out of all samples analysed, 100% scored positive for the presence of gastrointestinal parasites in both feral cats and rodents. A total 17 genera and/or species of endoparasite gastrointestinal were identified, Ancylostoma sp., Strongyloides sp., Trichuris campanula and Toxocara cati were the parasites more frequently in feral cats. In rodents Eimeria sp., Strongyloides sp. and Trichuris muris were parasites more frequently herein detected. Human population living in this area are at risk of parasite infections due to the population of rodents and feral cats in the archipelago.

  2. Copepod distribution and production in a Mid-Atlantic Ridge archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEDRO A.M.C. MELO

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago (SPSPA are located close to the Equator in the Atlantic Ocean. The aim of this study was to assess the spatial variations in the copepod community abundance, and the biomass and production patterns of the three most abundant calanoid species in the SPSPA. Plankton samples were collected with a 300 µm mesh size net along four transects (north, east, south and west of the SPSPA, with four stations plotted in each transect. All transects exhibited a tendency toward a decrease in copepod density with increasing distance from the SPSPA, statistically proved in the North. Density varied from 3.33 to 182.18 ind.m−3, and differences were also found between the first perimeter (first circular distance band and the others. The total biomass varied from 15.25 to 524.50 10−3 mg C m−3 and production from 1.19 to 22.04 10−3 mg C m−3d−1. The biomass and production of Undinula vulgaris (Dana, 1849, Acrocalanus longicornis Giesbrecht, 1888 and Calocalanus pavo (Dana, 1849 showed differences between some transects. A trend of declining biodiversity and production with increasing distance from archipelago was observed, suggesting that even small features like the SPSPA can affect the copepod community in tropical oligotrophic oceanic areas.

  3. Marine tunicates from Sangkarang Archipelago Indonesia: recent finding and bio-prospecting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litaay, Magdalena

    2018-03-01

    Tunicate belongs to urochordata that inhabit benthic area of coral reefs. This paper attempts to compile result of several studies on diversity of marine tunicates from Sangkarang Archipelago of South Sulawesi Indonesia. Method for tunicates sample collection was line transect method that applied at two 3 and 7 m depth. A 50 m line transect was applied parallel to a shore line in each depth and was done in duplicate. A 2.5 m plot was places side by side of transect, in which all tunicate inside plot was counted, identified, and photographed, respectively. Tunicates identification was based on morphological characteristics. The latest finding shows that eighteen species of tunicates were recorded in Samalona waters as also the same number of species in Barrang Caddi waters. The result from this finding was compared to previous studies done at other part of Sangkarang area. This study concluded that this archipelago is rich in tunicates and these resources can be utilized for various purposes. Bioprospect of marine tunicates is also discus in the present study.

  4. Abundance and composition of near surface microplastics and plastic debris in the Stockholm Archipelago, Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gewert, Berit; Ogonowski, Martin; Barth, Andreas; MacLeod, Matthew

    2017-07-15

    We collected plastic debris in the Stockholm Archipelago using a manta trawl, and additionally along a transect in the Baltic Sea from the island of Gotland to Stockholm in a citizen science study. The samples were concentrated by filtration and organic material was digested using hydrogen peroxide. Suspected plastic material was isolated by visual sorting and 59 of these were selected to be characterized with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Polypropylene and polyethylene were the most abundant plastics identified among the samples (53% and 24% respectively). We found nearly ten times higher abundance of plastics near central Stockholm than in offshore areas (4.2×10 5 plastics km -2 compared to 4.7×10 4 plastics km -2 ). The abundance of plastic debris near Stockholm was similar to urban areas in California, USA, and the overall abundance in the Stockholm Archipelago was similar to plastic abundance reported in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Species conservation profiles of endemic spiders (Araneae) from Madeira and Selvagens archipelagos, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Pedro; Crespo, Luís C; Silva, Isamberto; Borges, Paulo Av; Boieiro, Mário

    2017-01-01

    The North Atlantic archipelagos of Madeira and Selvagens present a unique biological diversity including, presently, 56 endemic spider species. Several recent projects provide valuable information on their distribution across most islands and habitats. To date, the only endemic spider assessed according to the IUCN Red List criteria is Hogna ingens. The objective of this paper is to assess all remaining endemic species and advise on possible future conservation actions critical for the survival of endangered species. Seven species were found to have a continuing decline in either range or population size. Their decline can be mostly attributed to habitat destruction or degradation, invasive plant species that reduce quality of habitat, forest fires at high mountain regions and possible competition for resources from invasive congeners. The tetragnathid M. barreti is considered as possibly extinct due to the suspected impact of a competing species. Although most endemic spiders from the Madeira and Selvagens archipelagos have relatively low extinction risk due to the good condition and protection of the laurisilva forests where many live, there are a number of species requiring urgent attention and protection measures. These include all cave and mountain-restricted species as well as those threatened by competing congeners or invasive plants. Extending current protected areas, restoring original habitats of threatened species and the control of invasive taxa should remain a priority for species survival.

  6. Diversity of fruit-feeding butterflies in a mountaintop archipelago of rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Geanne Carla Novais; Coelho, Marcel Serra; Beirão, Marina do Vale; Braga, Rodrigo Fagundes; Fernandes, Geraldo Wilson

    2017-01-01

    We provide the first description of the effects of local vegetation and landscape structure on the fruit-feeding butterfly community of a natural archipelago of montane rainforest islands in the Serra do Espinhaço, southeastern Brazil. Butterflies were collected with bait traps in eleven forest islands through both dry and rainy seasons for two consecutive years. The influence of local and landscape parameters and seasonality on butterfly species richness, abundance and composition were analyzed. We also examined the partitioning and decomposition of temporal and spatial beta diversity. Five hundred and twelve fruit-feeding butterflies belonging to thirty-four species were recorded. Butterfly species richness and abundance were higher on islands with greater canopy openness in the dry season. On the other hand, islands with greater understory coverage hosted higher species richness in the rainy season. Instead, the butterfly species richness was higher with lower understory coverage in the dry season. Butterfly abundance was not influenced by understory cover. The landscape metrics of area and isolation had no effect on species richness and abundance. The composition of butterfly communities in the forest islands was not randomly structured. The butterfly communities were dependent on local and landscape effects, and the mechanism of turnover was the main source of variation in β diversity. The preservation of this mountain rainforest island complex is vital for the maintenance of fruit-feeding butterfly community; one island does not reflect the diversity found in the whole archipelago.

  7. Use of finite mixture distribution models in the analysis of wind energy in the Canarian Archipelago

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta, Jose Antonio; Ramirez, Penelope

    2007-01-01

    The statistical characteristics of hourly mean wind speed data recorded at 16 weather stations located in the Canarian Archipelago are analyzed in this paper. As a result of this analysis we see that the typical two parameter Weibull wind speed distribution (W-pdf) does not accurately represent all wind regimes observed in that region. However, a Singly Truncated from below Normal Weibull mixture distribution (TNW-pdf) and a two component mixture Weibull distribution (WW-pdf) developed here do provide very good fits for both unimodal and bimodal wind speed frequency distributions observed in that region and offer less relative errors in determining the annual mean wind power density. The parameters of the distributions are estimated using the least squares method, which is resolved in this paper using the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. The suitability of the distributions is judged from the probability plot correlation coefficient plot R 2 , adjusted for degrees of freedom. Based on the results obtained, we conclude that the two mixture distributions proposed here provide very flexible models for wind speed studies and can be applied in a widespread manner to represent the wind regimes in the Canarian archipelago and in other regions with similar characteristics. The TNW-pdf takes into account the frequency of null winds, whereas the WW-pdf and W-pdf do not. It can, therefore, better represent wind regimes with high percentages of null wind speeds. However, calculation of the TNW-pdf is markedly slower

  8. [Helminth fauna of the bank vole myodes glareolus (Schreber, 1780) in the Kizhi Archipelago].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugmyrin, S V; Korosov, A V; Bespyatova, L A; Ieshko, E P

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed to examine the specific features of the helminth fauna in insular populations of the bank vole (Myodes glareolus) in the north of the species range. The material was collected in and nearby the Kizhi Archipelago (Lake Onega, 62°1' N 35°12' E) during August 1997, 2005-2007, 2012 and 2013. Small mammals were trapped on 23 islands (varying from 2 to 15,000 ha) and on the mainland. Helminthological met- hods were applied to examine 301 specimens of M glareolus. Fourteen helminth species were found: trematodes--Skrjabinoplagiorchis vigisi; cestodes--Paranoplocephala omphalodes, P. gracilis, Catenotaenia henttoneni, Taenia mustelae, Cladotaenia globife- ra, Spirometra erinacei; nematodes--Trichocephalus muris, Aonchotheca murissylvatici, Hepaticola hepatica, Heligmosomum mixtum, Heligmosomoides glareoli, Longistriata minuta, Syphacia petrusewiczi. The parasites S. vigisi, S. erinaci, H. hepatica and T. muris were identified in the bank vole in Karelia for the first time. Significant differences were detected between the helminth faunas of local insular populations of the bank vole. A distinctive feature of all small islands was that samples from them lacked the widespread pa- rasitic nematode Heligmosomum mixtum. The studies have confirmed the general trends observed in the parasite fauna of most isolated populations of small mammals: a poorer species diversity and high infestation rates with certain species of parasites. The Kizhi Archipelago is characterized by the specific high abundance of regionally rare parasite species (H hepatica, A. murissylvatici), and by the absence of common parasites (H. mixtum, H. glareoli).

  9. Reduced Genetic Diversity in the Clown Anemonefish Amphiprion ocellaris in Exploited Reefs of Spermonde Archipelago, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawis H. Madduppa

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Populations of the clown anemonefish in Spermonde Archipelago, one of the main collection sites for ornamental fish in Indonesia, are potentially overfished, which might lead to a reduction in population size and genetic diversity. Loss of genetic diversity can reduce the adaptability, population persistence and productivity of the targeted species. Therefore, a study investigating the genetic diversity and its potential correlation to population densities of A. ocellaris was conducted. Two islands were chosen as study sites that differed in the degree of exploitation. Barrang Lompo has a high fishing pressure, whereas Samalona has less. Underwater visual censuses showed that population densities in Samalona were threefold higher than in Barrang Lompo (p = 0.005. Analysis of eight microsatellite loci in 364 tissue samples of A. ocellaris revealed that genetic diversity (numbers of alleles, private alleles, and allelic richness was significantly reduced at the island with high fishing pressure. Allelic richness was also positively correlated with fish density (p < 0.05. These results indicate that ornamental fishery might be a factor contributing to the loss of genetic diversity in A. ocellaris. Therefore, the marine ornamental trade in Spermonde Archipelago needs to be managed (e.g., management of the fishing strategy, implementation of marine protected areas, regular monitoring, and quota determination. Otherwise the populations of A. ocellaris might collapse.

  10. The graying of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, L G

    1989-07-01

    Japan's rapidly aging population has become a top policy issue, especially as the increasing costs of pensions and medical care are debated. With the highest life expectancy on earth, the Japanese potentially face long periods of retirement, as well as the possibility of long periods of disability. Although family support of the elderly is thought to have been strong traditionally, the recent decline in co-residence with children is 1 indication that the way support is given may be changing. This issue is of particular concern to the government, which wants to avoid any greater responsibility for the elderly than is necessary given the dramatic population aging yet to come. The government is also encouraging employers to provide more employment opportunities for the elderly at the same time that it is trying to raise the eligibility age for the receipt of public pensions. There is resistance on the part of employers, however, because wages and retirement allowances in Japan are positively related to length of employment. Furthermore, it is not clear whether elderly Japanese of the future will be as willing to work, if they learn to enjoy increased leisure early in their careers. Nevertheless, it is unlikely that population aging will lead to Japan's economic decline. Although the savings rate may decline somewhat, restructuring of the economy and continued overseas investment should keep the economy growing in the long run. Important in both the care of the frail elderly and the continued growth of the economy will be the roles played by middle-aged Japanese women.

  11. Skiing research in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, K

    1981-01-01

    Skiing and skiing techniques were introduced by the Austrians to Japanese soldiers in 1911. After that, skiing spread beyond the original purpose and recently produced the ski sciences. From a sports biomechanical aspect, the development of the study of ski jumping, alpine skiing, and the basic movement in skiing is introduced in this paper. One of the characteristic points of these studies in Japan was that the ski sciences were supported not only by biomechanists and physiologists, but also basically by physicists and engineers. The fundamental research and studies from divergent fields are supporting each other and being integrated into ski science.

  12. Nuclear services for Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, B.

    1991-01-01

    The UK Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) became AEA Technology in April 1990. The commercial interests are focussed through 4 business units: AEA Reactor Services, with whom several contracts have been won from Japanese customers for high resolution Field Emission Gun Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (FEGSTEM); AEA Fuel Services, a contract is being negotiated with an existing Japanese customer; AEA Decommissioning and Radwaste, with whom further development of an alternative approach to evaporation of liquid waste effluent for specific application in Japan is in progress; AEA Fusion. 1 fig

  13. Nyheder i Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejrup, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Kan man stole på, hvad folk siger, når man ikke ved, hvem de er? Forholdet mellem kildeanonymitet og troværdighed er forskelligt i mediesystemer rundt om i verden. Troværdighed er ingen universel størrelse, men en retorisk effekt der opstår på baggrund af faktorer som er kulturelt og systemisk in...... indlejret. I Japan har seriøse nyhedsmedier et specielt forhold til udsagn fra anonyme kilder, og udstrakt brug af uidentificerede informanter står ikke i modsætning til journalistisk kvalitet og pålidelighed....

  14. Japan country report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morisaki, Rieko [Energy Communication Planning, 3-9-16 Aobadai, 818-0137 Dazaifu (Japan)

    2008-07-01

    1. Nuclear 2007 highlights: - A magnitude 6.8 earthquake occurred in Niigata on July 16 2007. Owing to this earthquake, 3 units operating and 1 unit during start-up were shutdown automatically at TEPCO's Kashiwazaki-Kariwa NPS. Now, all 7 units of the NPS are in an outage for investigation. This influenced the capacity factor of Japanese NPPs in FY 2007, which stood at just 60.7%. - Debate on global warming is more and more active in Japan, as it is the host country of the G8 Hokkaido Toyako Summit in July. The Japan Atomic Energy Commission released 'White Paper on Nuclear Energy 2007' in March 2008. In the paper, they first expressed the view that the expansion of the peaceful use of nuclear energy is indispensable. 2. Nuclear overview: a. Energy policy: Electricity share: 25.4% of nuclear. The energy policy of Japan aims at nuclear power generation being maintained at the current level (30 to 40% of the total electricity generation) or increasing even after 2030, for stable energy supply and as a countermeasure against global warming. - Nuclear Fuel Cycle: The active tests at the JNFL reprocessing plant in Rokkasho-mura are in the final phase for commercial operation in 2008. By FY 2010 Plutonium utilization in LWRs in 16 to 18 NPP units. Around FY 2010 Installment of new centrifuges at the uranium enrichment plant at Rokkasho-mura. In FY 2012 Start of commercial operation of MOX fuel fabrication plant. Fast-breeder reactor cycle: Operation of the prototype reactor 'MONJU' has been suspended since a secondary sodium leak in 1995. JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency) completed full-scale remodeling work and is implementing various tests to confirm the capabilities and soundness of MONJU. They aim to start its operation within FY 2008. Around 2025 Building a demonstration FBR. Before 2050 Development of a commercial FBR. - Electricity production (Operating): BWR: 32 units (including 4 units of APWR), PWR: 23 units. - Electricity production

  15. Northward dispersal of sea kraits (Laticauda semifasciata beyond their typical range.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaejin Park

    Full Text Available Marine reptiles are declining globally, and recent climate change may be a contributing factor. The study of sea snakes collected beyond their typical distribution range provides valuable insight on how climate change affects marine reptile populations. Recently, we collected 12 Laticauda semifasciata (11 females, 1 male from the waters around southern South Korea-an area located outside its typical distribution range (Japan, China including Taiwan, Philippines and Indonesia. We investigated the genetic origin of Korean specimens by analyzing mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (Cytb sequences. Six individuals shared haplotypes with a group found in Taiwan-southern Ryukyu Islands, while the remaining six individuals shared haplotypes with a group encompassing the entire Ryukyu Archipelago. These results suggest L. semifasciata moved into Korean waters from the Taiwan-Ryukyu region via the Taiwan Warm Current and/or the Kuroshio Current, with extended survival facilitated by ocean warming. We highlight several contributing factors that increase the chances that L. semifasciata establishes new northern populations beyond the original distribution range.

  16. Positioning Indian Emigration to Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Costa, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    as other IT-strong developing countries, are to supply technical talent, whose availability in Japan is constrained by the secular demographic crisis and changing educational and occupational preferences. The challenges for India are the institutional barriers, in particular, Japanese business practices...... that act as significant barriers to the entry of foreign skilled professionals. The paper brings out the source and pattern of foreign professionals and students in Japan as a proxy for talent. Though India’s presence in Japan is currently limited, its share of technical professionals to the total number....... For Japan, it means access to technical professionals and managed interfacing with the global economy....

  17. Origins of Semisulcospira libertina (gastropoda: semisulcospiridae) in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yuh-Wen; Bor, Hor; Kuo, Po-Hsun; Hsu, Kui-Ching; Tan, Mian-Shin; Wang, Wei-Kuang; Lin, Hung-Du

    2017-07-01

    The most accepted hypothesis has suggested that the fauna in Taiwan Island originated from South China, but some studies supported the Japan, Ryukyu Archipelago, and Taiwan Islands as a unique biogeographical district. This study examines whether the populations of freshwater snail Semisulcospira libertina in Taiwan are closer to those in Japan based on the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequences. Our study shows the populations in North Taiwan originated from Japan and the cyclic glacial caused the migrations among islands and continent repeatedly; the populations in South Taiwan might originate from South China or South Asia. Our results will not only affect the conclusions in phylogeography of freshwater species in Taiwan but also change the sampling plans in the future studies about evolutionary of freshwater species in East Asia.

  18. Japan's energy sector beyond Fukushima. What direction for a sustainable energy future?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldhoff, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The 11 March 2011 Fukushima nuclear power plant disaster will create long-term challenges for Japans energy security. Energy shortage is a major threat because all facets of the archipelago's economy and society are dependent upon reliable energy supply. Within this context and based on a historical institutionalist approach, this paper reflects on the long-term implications of the disaster for Japan's post-Fukushima energy policies. It argues that institutional change is incremental and path dependent for four major reasons: the massive costs of a major move to alternative energy sources; the rising importance of emission reduction and climate change mitigation policies; vested interests in the status quo of a centralised large-scale energy supply system; and the massive increase in resource nationalism in East Asia as a result of continuing geopolitical tensions. However, promoting energy efficiency, encouraging energy-saving behaviour and focusing on decentralized renewable energy development could help to reduce Japan's energy vulnerability.

  19. Legalized abortion in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, T M

    1967-10-01

    The enactment of the Eugenic Protection Act in Japan was followed by many changes. The population explosion was stemmed, the birth rate was halved, and while the marriage rate remained steady the divorce rate declined. The annual total of abortions increased until 1955 and then slowly declined. The highest incidence of abortions in families is in the 30 to 34 age group when there are four children in the family. As elsewhere abortion in advanced stages of pregnancy is associated with high morbidity and mortality. There is little consensus as to the number of criminal abortions. Reasons for criminal abortions can be found in the legal restrictions concerning abortion: Licensing of the abortionist, certification of hospitals, taxation of operations and the requirement that abortion be reported. Other factors are price competition and the patient's desire for secrecy. Contraception is relatively ineffective as a birth control method in Japan. Oral contraceptives are not yet government approved. In 1958 alone 1.1 per cent of married women were sterilized and the incidence of sterilization was increasing.

  20. Food irradiation in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hitoshi

    1995-01-01

    The basic research on food irradiation in Japan was begun around 1955 by universities and national laboratories. In 1967, food irradiation was designated to the specific general research on atomic energy, and the national project on large scale was continued until 1983. As the result, the treatment of germination prevention for potatoes was approved by the Ministry of Health and Welfare in 1972. The Co-60 gamma ray irradiation facility of Shihoro Agricultural Cooperative is famous as the facility that succeeded in the practical use of food irradiation for the first time in the world. But the practical use of food irradiation stagnates and the research activities were reduced in Japan due to the circumstances thereafter. The effect of radiation to foods and living things is explained. The features of the radiation treatment of foods are small temperature rise, large transmissivity, no residue, the small loss of nutrition and large quantity, continuous treatment. The safety of irradiated foods is explained. The subjects for hereafter are discussed. (K.I.)

  1. Food Irradiation in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawabata, T.

    1981-09-15

    Since 1967 research activities on food irradiation in Japan have been carried out under the National Food Irradiation Programme by the Japanese Atomic Energy Commission. The programme has been concentrated on the technological and economical feasibility and wholesomeness testings of seven irradiated food items of economic importance to the country, i.e. potatoes, onions, wheat, rice, 'kamaboko' (fish-paste products), 'Vienna' sausages and mandarin oranges. By now most studies, including wholesomeness testings of these irradiated food items, have been completed. In Japan, all foods or food additives for sale are regulated by the Food Sanitation Law enforced in 1947. Based on studies made by the national programme, irradiated potatoes were given 'unconditional acceptance' for human consumption in 1972. At present, irradiated potatoes are the only food item which has so far been approved by the Minister of Health and Welfare. Unless the Minister of Health and Welfare has declared that items are not harmful to human health on obtaining comments from the Food Sanitation Investigation Council, no irradiated food can be processed or sold. In addition, the import of irradiated foodstuffs other than potatoes from foreign countries is prohibited by law.

  2. Future changes in summer mean and extreme precipitation frequency in Japan by d4PDF regional climate simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Y.; Ishii, M.; Endo, H.; Kawase, H.; Sasaki, H.; Takayabu, I.; Watanabe, S.; Fujita, M.; Sugimoto, S.; Kawazoe, S.

    2017-12-01

    Precipitation in summer plays a vital role in sustaining life across East Asia, but the heavy rain that is often generated during this period can also cause serious damage. Developing a better understanding of the features and occurrence frequency of this heavy rain is an important element of disaster prevention. We investigated future changes in summer mean and extreme precipitation frequency in Japan using large ensemble dataset which simulated by the Non-Hydrostatic Regional Climate Model with a horizontal resolution of 20km (NHRCM20). This dataset called database for Policy Decision making for Future climate changes (d4PDF), which is intended to be utilized for the impact assessment studies and adaptation planning to global warming. The future climate experiments assume the global mean surface air temperature rise 2K and 4K from the pre-industrial period. We investigated using this dataset future changes of precipitation in summer over the Japanese archipelago based on observational locations. For mean precipitation in the present-day climate, the bias of the rainfall for each month is within 25% even considering all members (30 members). The bias at each location is found to increase by over 50% on the Pacific Ocean side of eastern part of Japan and interior locations of western part of Japan. The result in western part of Japan depends on the effect of the elevations in this model. The future changes in mean precipitation show a contrast between northern and southern Japan, with the north showing a slight increase but the south a decrease. The future changes in the frequency of extreme precipitation in the national average of Japan increase at 2K and 4K simulations compared with the present-day climate, respectively. The authors were supported by the Social Implementation Program on Climate Change Adaptation Technology (SI-CAT), the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology (MEXT), Japan.

  3. Conference summary: Biodiversity and management of the Madrean Archipelago III: Closing remarks and notes from the concluding session

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale S. Turner; Alejandro Castellanos

    2013-01-01

    During the first week of May 2012, the Third Conference on Biodiversity and Management of the Madrean Archipelago brought together more than 300 people with an interest in this region. It included scientists, land managers, activists, and land owners from both sides of the international border. After three and a half days of presentations, the participants gathered for...

  4. Decapod crustaceans inhabiting live and dead colonies of three species of Acropora in the Roques Archipelago, Venezuela

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grajal, P. Alejandro; Laughlin, G. Roger

    1984-01-01

    A systematic account is given of the decapod crustaceans found in live and dead colonies of three species of the scleractinian coral Acropora (A. cervicornis, A. palmata, A. prolifera), collected during a 9 month period in a shallow reef flat in the southwestern portion of the Archipelago Los

  5. New data on the genus Albinaria (Pulmonata: Clausiliidae) from the island of Astypalea and neighboring islets (Dodecanese Archipelago, Greece)

    OpenAIRE

    Liberto, Fabio; Grano, Mauro; Cattaneo, Cristina; Colomba, Maria Stella; Sparacio, Ignazio; 4th International Congress on Biodiversity “Man, Natural Habitats and Euro-Mediterranean Biodiversity”

    2017-01-01

    The highly diverse genus Albinaria Vest, 1867 (Pulmonata: Clausiliidae) is present in the Dodecanese archipelago with 12 species and 32 subspecies. Species identification is almost exclusively based on shell morphology and recent molecular studies have largely confirmed species classification based on shell morphology. In this communication A. brevicollis astropalia from the South-West of the island is redescribed and discussed in detail.

  6. Barbarian medicine in feudal Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodstad, Harald; Hariz, Marwan I; Hirabayashi, Hidehiro; Ohye, Chihiro

    2002-10-01

    THE FIRST EUROPEANS to discover Japan were Portuguese traders who arrived in 1542. Fifteen years later, the Portuguese Jesuit priest and surgeon Luis De Almeida (1525-1583) founded the first Western hospital in Japan, for the care of lepers, syphilitics, and orphans. Because the hospital had a negative influence on the spread of Christianity, the Jesuits closed it in 1586. During the Tokugawa Shogunate (1600-1868), when Japan was secluded from the rest of the world, the only foreign physicians allowed to enter Japan were those employed by the Dutch factory at Dejima in Nagasaki. Only four of those physicians left behind seeds for the foundation of Western medicine in Japan, namely Caspar Schambergen, who founded a Japanese school of surgery in 1650; Engelbert Kämpfer, who visited Japan in 1691 to 1692; Carl Peter Thunberg, who botanically explored Japan in 1775 to 1776; and Philipp Franz Balthasar von Siebold, who practiced medicine in Nagasaki in 1823 to 1829 and 1859 to 1861. On the whole, Western medicine and surgery never established a real foothold in Japan until the fall of the shogunate and the restoration of the emperor in 1868.

  7. Recent developments: Japan and Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Recent developments in the nuclear industry in Japan and Australia are briefly reviewed. Topics discussed include: the world energy situation; and nuclear power generation trends and completion the nuclear fuel cycle in Japan. Recent events that suggest possible policy changes in Australia are briefly discussed

  8. Generic antibiotics in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Shigeru; Watanabe, Akira

    2012-08-01

    Generic drugs have been used extensively in many developed countries, although their use in Japan has been limited. Generic drugs reduce drug expenses and thereby national medical expenditure. Because generic drugs provide advantages for both public administration and consumers, it is expected that they will be more widely used in the future. However, the diffusion rate of generic drugs in Japan is quite low compared with that of other developed countries. An investigation on generic drugs conducted by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare in Japan revealed that 17.2 % of doctors and 37.2 % of patients had not used generic drugs. The major reasons for this low use rate included distrust of off-patent products and lower drug price margin compared with the brand name drug. The generic drugs available in the market include external drugs such as wet packs, antihypertensive agents, analgesics, anticancer drugs, and antibiotics. Among them, antibiotics are frequently used in cases of acute infectious diseases. When the treatment of these infections is delayed, the infection might be aggravated rapidly. The pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics (PK-PD) theory has been adopted in recent chemotherapy, and in many cases, the most appropriate dosage and administration of antibiotics are determined for individual patients considering renal function; high-dosage antibiotics are used preferably for a short duration. Therefore, a highly detailed antimicrobial agent is necessary. However, some of the generic antibiotics have less antibacterial potency or solubility than the brand name products. We showed that the potency of the generic products of vancomycin and teicoplanin is lower than that of the branded drugs by 14.6 % and 17.3 %, respectively. Furthermore, we confirmed that a generic meropenem drug for injection required about 82 s to solubilize in saline, whereas the brand product required only about 21 s. It was thought that the cause may be the difference in size of bulk

  9. Spent fuel management in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirahashi, K.; Maeda, M.; Nakai, T.

    1996-01-01

    Japan has scarce energy resources and depends on foreign resources for 84% of its energy needs. Therefore, Japan has made efforts to utilize nuclear power as a key energy source since mid-1950's. Today, the nuclear energy produced from 49 nuclear power plants is responsible for about 31% of Japan's total electricity supply. The cumulative amount of spent fuel generated as of March 1995 was about 11,600 Mg U. Japan's policy of spent fuel management is to reprocess spent nuclear fuel and recycle recovered plutonium and uranium as nuclear fuel. The Tokai reprocessing plant continues stable operation keeping the annual treatment capacity or around 90 Mg U. A commercial reprocessing plant is under construction at Rokkasho, northern part of Japan. Although FBR is the principal reactor to use plutonium, LWR will be a major power source for some time and recycling of the fuel in LWRs will be prompted. (author). 3 figs

  10. The Influence of Migration on Population Ageing in the Cres-Lošinj Archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Podgorelec

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Demographic research in regard to the islands of Cres and Lošinj belongs in the domain of small population studies. Throughout history, and especially after World War II, the islands experienced very strong emigration and later immigration processes. After fifty or more years of continual emigration, immigration began on the island of Lošinj in the 1960s, and on Cres in the 1970s. This reversal from strong depopulation to a significant increase in the size of the population, if the islands are examined as a whole, reveals certain demographic particularities in comparison with other Croatian islands. The long-term reduction of the birth rate and prolonged emigration from settlements in the interior of Cres and from all the islands of the Lošinj archipelago has been the cause of many elderly, single-person and abandoned households. All the analytical indicators pertaining to the age structure are above the threshold which marks the beginning of population ageing. The average age on all the islands has for over thirty years been well above 30, whereas in the Lošinj archipelago it has been above the reproductive age – i.e. about 50. The age coefficient varies between 14.02 for Lošinj and 49.22 for Ilovik. The island of Lošinj itself has the youngest population, and hence the lowest indicators of ageing. The burden on the working-age contingent on each island has changed at a different rate and in a different direction during the last three inter-census periods. The co-efficient of dependency of the young is increasing on all the islands, while the co-efficient of dependency of the elderly age groups is falling on Lošinj, Ilovik, Unije and Cres. The reduction of the birth rate and the negative migration balance caused by high emigration of mainly young, unmarried males has caused a seks ratio imbalance in favour of females. The general co-efficient of females, according to the 1991 census was between 105.7 on Lošinj and 145.5 on Unije. The

  11. 21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Japan wax. 186.1555 Section 186.1555 Food and Drugs... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1555 Japan wax. (a) Japan wax (CAS Reg. No. 8001-39-6), also known as Japan... fruits of the oriental sumac, Rhus succedanea (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera (Japan...

  12. Japan and the global environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.S.; Moore, C.

    1993-01-01

    In many areas, the word most often used to describe Japanese policy is open-quotes enigma.close quotes In some ways, Japan's record on environmental policy also has elements of mystery and contradiction. On the one hand, Japan's history and culture often are associated with a reverence for nature. Indeed, Japan does lead the world in certain environmental areas, such as reduction of conventional air pollutants and compensation of air pollution victims. On the other hand, Japan has been widely criticized for its poor record in preserving its domestic environment, contribution to tropical deforestation, and unwillingness to protect endangered species. Today, the international community clamors for Japan to take its share of responsibility, as an economic superpower, for the global environment. To secure its place in world affairs, Japan slowly has begun to respond to this pressure on issues ranging from ivory importation to reduction of CFC emissions. There is some hope that the government's particular willingness to address global warming may be a sign of significant changes to come in Japanese environmental policy. However, international pressure remains on the many environmental issues Japan has yet to resolve, including tropical deforestation and financing of Third World development projects that harm the environment. Japan's environmental policy is most effective when government and industry cooperate to find technical solutions to environmental problems. Although in recent years Japan's energy consumption has risen sharply, the Japanese have developed numerous technologies to reduce pollution and increase economic growth by improving energy efficiency. It is in these technologies that Japan has made the greatest strides and has the most to offer the global environment

  13. Moral Education in Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesgaard, Marie Højlund

    ‘religion’ is not a subject in schools. So, how do the Japanese go about the business of teaching values and morality? Using the Japanese example, this volume looks at moral education from the basic point of view of universal and common human values, with due attention given to culture-specific traits...... in the legal frame work (the Fundamental Law on Education was revised in 2006) and the ministerial guidelines and policies (new curriculum guidelines have been issued after the law change, and new proposals for strengthening the position of moral education come on a regular basis) have reflected the increased......What is a ‘good’ person and how do we educate ‘good’ persons? This question of morality is central to any society and its government and educational system including the Japanese. In many societies it has been customary to teach about morality from a religious standpoint, but not so in Japan, where...

  14. Will Japan Rearm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-06-10

    Faculty Accepte d th is _________ day of~~~U)~4 l977~c~y.11 -~~~~~~~~~~~~D i rector , Master of Militar y Art Science . The opinions and...j~ s’ri : ‘~~~~ ~ IC . _ __~~~~~~ i 1~~~~~n Unhi ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 150 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ L~ MASTER OF MILITARY ART ... SCIENCE THESIS APPROVAL PAGE Name of Candidate Joseph Bertrand Berger, Jr. Major, Air Defense Artillery T it le of Thes i s W i l l Japan Rearm

  15. Typhoon Chataan off Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Slowly winding its way down, Typhoon Chataan had dropped to tropical storm status by Thursday, July 11, 2002, when this image from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was captured. In the image, the storm is located off the east coast of central Japan in the Pacific Ocean. The storm is much less organized than it was in the previous day's image. Through a gap in the clouds to the southwest of the storm's eye, Tokyo can be seen as a grayish cluster of pixels surrounding a small bay or inlet that protrudes into the island of Honshu. Credit: Image courtesy Jesse Allen, NASA Earth Observatory; data provided by the MODIS Land Rapid Response Team

  16. Dosimetry studies in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, T.; Kumamoto, Y.; Hashizume, T.

    1982-01-01

    In 1967 the National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Chiba estimated the radiation doses in air from the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by using some building materials exposed to the nuclear explosions in both cities. These estimated doses were in good agreement with the doses estimated on the basis of the Ichiban project by the research group at Oak Ridge National Laboratory which were the basis for the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission's tentative 1965 radiation dose (T65D). Recently the radiation doses in Hiroshima and Nagasaki have been reevaluated by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. In Japan a new research group was started last August, with the intention of making new estimates of doses from the atomic bombs in cooperation with US research groups

  17. Radiation processing in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makuuchi, Keizo

    2001-01-01

    Economic scale of radiation application in the field of industry, agriculture and medicine in Japan in 1997 was investigated to compare its economic impacts with that of nuclear energy industry. Total production value of radiation application accounted for 54% of nuclear industry including nuclear energy industry and radiation applications in three fields above. Industrial radiation applications were further divided into five groups, namely nondestructive test, RI instruments, radiation facilities, radiation processing and ion beam processing. More than 70% of the total production value was brought about by ion beam processing for use with IC and semiconductors. Future economic prospect of radiation processing of polymers, for example cross-linking, EB curing, graft polymerization and degradation, is reviewed. Particular attention was paid to radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex and also to degradation of natural polymers. (S. Ohno)

  18. Radiation processing in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makuuchi, Keizo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    Economic scale of radiation application in the field of industry, agriculture and medicine in Japan in 1997 was investigated to compare its economic impacts with that of nuclear energy industry. Total production value of radiation application accounted for 54% of nuclear industry including nuclear energy industry and radiation applications in three fields above. Industrial radiation applications were further divided into five groups, namely nondestructive test, RI instruments, radiation facilities, radiation processing and ion beam processing. More than 70% of the total production value was brought about by ion beam processing for use with IC and semiconductors. Future economic prospect of radiation processing of polymers, for example cross-linking, EB curing, graft polymerization and degradation, is reviewed. Particular attention was paid to radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex and also to degradation of natural polymers. (S. Ohno)

  19. SCWR Concepts in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-08-15

    Two SCWR concepts are being developed in Japan, one corresponding to the thermal spectrum reactor and the other to the fast spectrum reactor. Yamada et al. described the thermal-spectrum reactor concept referred to as the Japan SCWR (or JSCWR). This concept was developed under the financial support of the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI). The basic philosophy of the JSCWR development is to utilize proven light water reactor and supercritical fossil-fired power plant technologies as much as possible to minimize the R&D cost, time and risks. Therefore, the JSCWR is designed as a thermal neutron spectrum reactor using light water as moderator and reactor coolant. The JSCWR plant consists of a pressure-vessel type, once-through reactor and a direct Rankine cycle system. Reactor coolant fed through inlet nozzles is heated up in the core and flows through outlet nozzles with no recirculation in the vessel. Other options to the JSCWR core design are being investigated at the University of Tokyo. The electric output of the JSCWR is assumed to range from 600 MWe to 1700 MWe class to fulfill user’s requirements as much as possible. In this section, the reference value is selected to 1725 MWe, which corresponds to a reactor thermal output of 4039 MWth. Nakatsuka et al. described the core design for the fast-spectrum reactor, which is based on a similar plant system compared to that of the thermal-spectrum reactor. The fast-spectrum reactor, however, would produce higher power rating than the thermal-spectrum one of the same reactor pressure-vessel size. Since the fast-spectrum reactor does not require the moderator, its unit capital cost would be lower than the thermal-spectrum reactor.

  20. Sailing the Archipelago in a boat of rhymes Pantun in the Malay world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Haji Salleh

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The extremely popular poetic form from Insular Southeast Asia, the pantun, travelled from its unknown source throughout the Malay Archipelago, first in Malay, then in the languages of Southeast Asia. In the ports and states where they were received, local colour, other idiosyncrasies, references, and linguistic characteristics have been added, and in fact, special forms with special names developed. This basic form is known, composed, and loved in at least 40 dialects of Malay, and 35 non-Malay languages, in the Peninsula and many of the islands of Malaysia and Indonesia. It spread through trade routes, ports, and also via diasporas and colonial economic projects which caused numerous peoples to move, who in turn brought the pantun along with them. It is now the most dynamic single literary form and has the longest history.

  1. Local Culture as a Resource in Regional Development in the Southwest-Finland Archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katriina Siivonen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In cultural and regional politics in the European Union, and in practice for instance in the Southwest-Finland Archipelago, local culture and cultural heritage are considered resources. Global boundlessness, heterogeneity and change are basic qualities of culture. However, in regional development, culture is seen and used as a number of different local cultures with their own essential cultural heritage. The culture of local everyday life is opposite to, and in tension with, the construct of cultures used in regional development. Accordingly, culture should primarily be safeguarded as a heterogenic, dynamic and interactive process of everyday life. This process is the most important resource of local culture. In addition, culture should be safeguarded as value-based cultural constructions, such as brands or common identities of certain cultures, with for instance cultural heritage as a part of it. In the latter case, a common, transparent definition of these brands, identities and cultural heritages with their different values, is needed.

  2. Morphology and it structures of the coralline formations of San Bernardo's archipelago, Colombian Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Victoria, Mateo; Diaz, Juan M.

    2000-01-01

    The archipelago of San Bernardo is an extensive reef complex of coralline origin located off the Caribbean coast of Colombia. In order to determine the distribution, morphological features, structure, and zonation patterns of the bottom environments of this area, employing aerial photography and observations in the field, thematic maps were produced and a series of data upon the structure of the sessile benthic biota was gathered. The complex comprises an area of more than 250 km 2; of which more than 60% corresponds to bottoms with notable coral cover (> 60% of the bottom) extending to depths of nearly 30m. Three geomorphological units and seven main types of habitats or ecological units were recognized

  3. Liberalism in the Islamic World and its influence in the Malay Archipelago: Model in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Mansur Tamam

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Liberalism means here Orientalist attempt to attract even Islam conformity with the principles of Western liberalism in form and substance. Hence Zhardha in the Islamic world have to do Orientalism, which under his leadership became the U.S. currently wants Islam that corresponds to the values of modernity and secularism and Western liberalism. And this phenomenon coincides appearance in the Islamic world with its appearance Malay archipelago and Indonesia to face particular Alholanda since colonial days, and then taking this trend develops even have an influence on contemporary history in these islands. So this includes talking on two things: Orientalist role for the emergence of liberalism in the Islamic world, and its influence in the Malay islands.

  4. New contribution to the reproductive features of bluemouth Helicolenus dactylopterus dactylopterus from northeast Atlantic (Azores Archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mendonça

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This work describes and identifies the macroscopic and corresponding microscopic changes of the gonads of an important commercial fish species, Helicolenus dactylopterus dactylopterus, from Azores Archipelago. The new contribution relates the macroscopic scale with the histological stages. The annual changes in the gonad, together with the analysis of the monthly gonadosomatic indices, and complementary observations with scanning electron microscopy, allow us to conclude that the females are internally inseminated between July and November and spawn between January and March. There is a separation between female and male reproductive cycles. The overall sex-ratio observed was 1:1, but seasonal and length related differences were observed. This suggests differences and changes in availability, probably related to the annual reproductive cycle and changes in feeding behaviour

  5. Models of oceanic island biogeography: changing perspectives on biodiversity dynamics in archipelagoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence R Heaney

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Models of biogeographic processes can both enhance and inhibit our ability to ask questions that guide our understanding of patterns and processes. The two ‘traditional’ models of island biogeography, the Equilibrium Model and the Vicariance Model, raise important and insightful questions about relevant processes, but both fail to raise many crucial questions. An example involving the non-volant mammals of the Philippine archipelago shows that both models highlight some, but not all, relevant patterns and processes. The more recently proposed General Dynamic Model successfully combines many of the positive aspects of the two traditional models, but leaves some important questions unasked. We pose a number of questions here that may help guide further development of models of island biogeography.

  6. Bacterial community composition and potential driving factors in different reef habitats of the Spermonde Archipelago, Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kegler, Hauke F.; Lukman, Muhammad; Teichberg, Mirta

    2017-01-01

    Coastal eutrophication is a key driver of shifts in bacterial communities on coral reefs. With fringing and patch reefs at varying distances from the coast the Spermonde Archipelago in southern Sulawesi, Indonesia offers ideal conditions to study the effects of coastal eutrophication along...... a spatially defined gradient. The present study investigated bacterial community composition of three coral reef habitats: the water column, sediments, and mucus of the hard coral genus Fungia, along that cross shelf environmental and water quality gradient. The main research questions were: (1) How do water....../Shigella (Gammaproteobacteria) and Raistonia (Betaproteobacteria), respectively, both dominated the bacterial community composition of the both size fractions of the water column and coral mucus. The sampled reef sediments were more diverse, and no single OTUs was dominant. There was no gradual shift in bacterial classes...

  7. Comparison of Two Independent Mapping Exercises in the Primeiras and Segundas Archipelago, Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Teixeira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of coral reef habitat maps from high spatial resolution multispectral imagery is common practice and benefits from standardized accuracy assessment methods and many informative studies on the merits of different processing algorithms. However, few studies consider the full production workflow, including factors such as operator influence, visual interpretation and a-priori knowledge. An end-user might justifiably ask: Given the same imagery and field data, how consistent would two independent production efforts be? This paper is a post-study analysis of a project in which two teams of researchers independently produced maps of six coral reef systems of the archipelago of the Primeiras and Segundas Environmental Protected Area (PSEPA, Mozambique. Both teams used the same imagery and field data, but applied different approaches—pixel based vs. object based image analysis—and used independently developed classification schemes. The results offer a unique perspective on the map production process. Both efforts resulted in similar merged classes accuracies, averaging at 63% and 64%, but the maps were distinct in terms of scale of spatial patterns, classification disparities, and in other aspects where the mapping process is reliant on visual interpretation. Despite the difficulty in aligning the classification schemes clear patterns of correspondence and discrepancy were identified. The maps were consistent with respect to geomorphological level mapping (17 out of 30 paired comparisons at more than 75% agreement, and also agreed in the extent of coral containing areas within a difference of 16% across the archipelago. However, more detailed benthic habitat level classes were inconsistent. Mapping of deep benthic cover was the most subjective result and dependent on operator visual interpretation, yet this was one of the results of highest interest for the PSEPA management since it revealed a continuity of benthos between the islands

  8. Looking inside the Panarea Island (Aeolian Archipelago, Italy by gravity and magnetic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Greco

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we show and discuss the results of gravity and magnetic surveys of Panarea Island and its archipelago. The most recent volcanic manifestation occurred in November 2002 with a shallow submarine gas eruption between the islets of Dattilo, Panarelli, Lisca Bianca, Bottaro and Lisca Nera. Currently, the activity of Panarea is monitored through a multidisciplinary study under the umbrella of the Italian Department of Civil Protection with the goal of defining the hazard of this area. With this aim, in May 2006 the first gravity and magnetic surveys of Panarea Island and its archipelago were performed. The offshore magnetic data were obtained using a marine magnetometer, a Geometrics G880, from the Istituto Idrografico dell Marina (IIM. Onshore and offshore magnetic data were integrated into an unique dataset for complete magnetic coverage of the study area. By using two micro-gravimeters (LaCoste & Romberg, gravity data were collected along tracks every 250 meters. The gravity dataset was processed using the standard method. A Bouguer reduction was applied to the free-air gravity dataset using a detailed digital elevation model of the island and the neighbouring sea after evaluation of the optimal Bouguer density to reduce the topographic effect. The result is a Bouguer anomaly map that shows lateral variations in density distribution and the relationships between the shallow volcanic/crustal features and tectonic lineaments. This evidence is also highlighted by the magnetic pattern, which suggests the importance of the youngest volcanic deposits with respect to the magnetic features of the island.

  9. The terrestrial reptile fauna of the Abrolhos Archipelago: species list and ecological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, C F D; Dutra, G F; Vrcibradic, D; Menezes, V A

    2002-05-01

    We have studied the terrestrial reptile fauna of the Abrolhos Archipelago (a group of five islands located ca. 70 km off the southern coast of the State of Bahia, Brazil) and analyze here some of its ecological aspects such as diet, thermal ecology, activity, and some reproductive parameters. Three lizards comprise the archipelago's terrestrial reptile fauna: Tropidurus torquatus (Tropiduridae), Mabuya agilis (Scincidae), and Hemidactylus mabouia (Gekkonidae). The first two are diurnal and the latter is crepuscular/nocturnal (initiating activity at ca. 17:30). The activity period of T. torquatus extended from 5:30 to 18:30 h. Mean field body temperatures of active T. torquatus, M. agilis, and H. mabouia were, respectively, 34.0 +/- 3.7 degrees C (range 23.8-38.0 degrees C; N = 75), 34.5 +/- 2.2 degrees C (range 30.8-37.0 degrees C; N = 6), and 26.3 +/- 1.1 degrees C (range 24.8-28.0 degrees C; N = 8). The predominant prey items in the diet of T. torquatus were ants, coleopterans, and hemipterans. In the diet of M. agilis, coleopterans were the most frequent prey items. For H. mabouia, the most important dietary items were orthopterans. Clutch size of T. torquatus averaged 4.1 +/- 1.1 (range 2-6; N = 15) and was significantly related to female size (R2 = 0.618; p = 0.001; N = 15). Clutch size for H. mabouia was fixed (two) and mean litter size of the viviparous M. agilis was 3.3 +/- 0.6 (range 3-4; N = 3). Tropidurus torquatus and H. mabouia deposit their eggs under rocks in the study area, with the former burying them but not the latter; in both species, more than one female often oviposit under the same rock.

  10. A comprehensive investigation of mesophotic coral ecosystems in the Hawaiian Archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard L. Pyle

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Although the existence of coral-reef habitats at depths to 165 m in tropical regions has been known for decades, the richness, diversity, and ecological importance of mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs has only recently become widely acknowledged. During an interdisciplinary effort spanning more than two decades, we characterized the most expansive MCEs ever recorded, with vast macroalgal communities and areas of 100% coral cover between depths of 50–90 m extending for tens of km2 in the Hawaiian Archipelago. We used a variety of sensors and techniques to establish geophysical characteristics. Biodiversity patterns were established from visual and video observations and collected specimens obtained from submersible, remotely operated vehicles and mixed-gas SCUBA and rebreather dives. Population dynamics based on age, growth and fecundity estimates of selected fish species were obtained from laser-videogrammetry, specimens, and otolith preparations. Trophic dynamics were determined using carbon and nitrogen stable isotopic analyses on more than 750 reef fishes. MCEs are associated with clear water and suitable substrate. In comparison to shallow reefs in the Hawaiian Archipelago, inhabitants of MCEs have lower total diversity, harbor new and unique species, and have higher rates of endemism in fishes. Fish species present in shallow and mesophotic depths have similar population and trophic (except benthic invertivores structures and high genetic connectivity with lower fecundity at mesophotic depths. MCEs in Hawai‘i are widespread but associated with specific geophysical characteristics. High genetic, ecological and trophic connectivity establish the potential for MCEs to serve as refugia for some species, but our results question the premise that MCEs are more resilient than shallow reefs. We found that endemism within MCEs increases with depth, and our results do not support suggestions of a global faunal break at 60 m. Our findings enhance

  11. Microbiological and mycological beach sand quality in a volcanic environment: Madeira archipelago, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Elisabete; Figueira, Celso; Aguiar, Nuno; Vasconcelos, Rita; Vasconcelos, Sílvia; Calado, Graça; Brandão, João; Prada, Susana

    2013-09-01

    Madeira forms a mid-Atlantic volcanic archipelago, whose economy is largely dependent on tourism. There, one can encounter different types of sand beach: natural basaltic, natural calcareous and artificial calcareous. Microbiological and mycological quality of the sand was analyzed in two different years. Bacterial indicators were detected in higher number in 2010 (36.7% of the samples) than in 2011 (9.1%). Mycological indicators were detected in a similar percentage of samples in 2010 (68.3%) and 2011 (75%), even though the total number of colonies detected in 2010 was much higher (827 in 41 samples) than in 2011 (427 in 66 samples). Enterococci and potentially pathogenic and allergenic fungi (particularly Penicillium sp.) were the most common indicators detected in both years. Candida sp. yeast was also commonly detected in the samples. The analysis of the 3rd quartile and maximum numbers of all indicators in samples showed that artificial beaches tend to be more contaminated than the natural ones. However, a significant difference between the variables was lacking. More monitoring data (number of bathers, sea birds, radiation intensity variation, and a greater number of samples) should be collected in order to confirm if these differences are significant. In general, the sand quality in the archipelago's beaches was good. As the sand may be a vector of diseases, an international common set of indicators and values and a compatible methodologies for assessing sand contamination, should be defined, in order to provide the bather's with an indication of beach sand quality, rather than only the water. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparing spatial diversification and meta-population models in the Indo-Australian Archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmandrier, Loïc; Albouy, Camille; Descombes, Patrice; Sandel, Brody; Faurby, Soren; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Zimmermann, Niklaus E; Pellissier, Loïc

    2018-03-01

    Reconstructing the processes that have shaped the emergence of biodiversity gradients is critical to understand the dynamics of diversification of life on Earth. Islands have traditionally been used as model systems to unravel the processes shaping biological diversity. MacArthur and Wilson's island biogeographic model predicts diversity to be based on dynamic interactions between colonization and extinction rates, while treating islands themselves as geologically static entities. The current spatial configuration of islands should influence meta-population dynamics, but long-term geological changes within archipelagos are also expected to have shaped island biodiversity, in part by driving diversification. Here, we compare two mechanistic models providing inferences on species richness at a biogeographic scale: a mechanistic spatial-temporal model of species diversification and a spatial meta-population model. While the meta-population model operates over a static landscape, the diversification model is driven by changes in the size and spatial configuration of islands through time. We compare the inferences of both models to floristic diversity patterns among land patches of the Indo-Australian Archipelago. Simulation results from the diversification model better matched observed diversity than a meta-population model constrained only by the contemporary landscape. The diversification model suggests that the dynamic re-positioning of islands promoting land disconnection and reconnection induced an accumulation of particularly high species diversity on Borneo, which is central within the island network. By contrast, the meta-population model predicts a higher diversity on the mainlands, which is less compatible with empirical data. Our analyses highlight that, by comparing models with contrasting assumptions, we can pinpoint the processes that are most compatible with extant biodiversity patterns.

  13. Comparing spatial diversification and meta-population models in the Indo-Australian Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmandrier, Loïc; Albouy, Camille; Descombes, Patrice; Sandel, Brody; Faurby, Soren; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Zimmermann, Niklaus E.

    2018-01-01

    Reconstructing the processes that have shaped the emergence of biodiversity gradients is critical to understand the dynamics of diversification of life on Earth. Islands have traditionally been used as model systems to unravel the processes shaping biological diversity. MacArthur and Wilson's island biogeographic model predicts diversity to be based on dynamic interactions between colonization and extinction rates, while treating islands themselves as geologically static entities. The current spatial configuration of islands should influence meta-population dynamics, but long-term geological changes within archipelagos are also expected to have shaped island biodiversity, in part by driving diversification. Here, we compare two mechanistic models providing inferences on species richness at a biogeographic scale: a mechanistic spatial-temporal model of species diversification and a spatial meta-population model. While the meta-population model operates over a static landscape, the diversification model is driven by changes in the size and spatial configuration of islands through time. We compare the inferences of both models to floristic diversity patterns among land patches of the Indo-Australian Archipelago. Simulation results from the diversification model better matched observed diversity than a meta-population model constrained only by the contemporary landscape. The diversification model suggests that the dynamic re-positioning of islands promoting land disconnection and reconnection induced an accumulation of particularly high species diversity on Borneo, which is central within the island network. By contrast, the meta-population model predicts a higher diversity on the mainlands, which is less compatible with empirical data. Our analyses highlight that, by comparing models with contrasting assumptions, we can pinpoint the processes that are most compatible with extant biodiversity patterns. PMID:29657753

  14. Genetic tests for ecological and allopatric speciation in anoles on an island archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Roger S; Surget-Groba, Yann; Johansson, Helena

    2010-04-29

    From Darwin's study of the Galapagos and Wallace's study of Indonesia, islands have played an important role in evolutionary investigations, and radiations within archipelagos are readily interpreted as supporting the conventional view of allopatric speciation. Even during the ongoing paradigm shift towards other modes of speciation, island radiations, such as the Lesser Antillean anoles, are thought to exemplify this process. Geological and molecular phylogenetic evidence show that, in this archipelago, Martinique anoles provide several examples of secondary contact of island species. Four precursor island species, with up to 8 mybp divergence, met when their islands coalesced to form the current island of Martinique. Moreover, adjacent anole populations also show marked adaptation to distinct habitat zonation, allowing both allopatric and ecological speciation to be tested in this system. We take advantage of this opportunity of replicated island coalescence and independent ecological adaptation to carry out an extensive population genetic study of hypervariable neutral nuclear markers to show that even after these very substantial periods of spatial isolation these putative allospecies show less reproductive isolation than conspecific populations in adjacent habitats in all three cases of subsequent island coalescence. The degree of genetic interchange shows that while there is always a significant genetic signature of past allopatry, and this may be quite strong if the selection regime allows, there is no case of complete allopatric speciation, in spite of the strong primae facie case for it. Importantly there is greater genetic isolation across the xeric/rainforest ecotone than is associated with any secondary contact. This rejects the development of reproductive isolation in allopatric divergence, but supports the potential for ecological speciation, even though full speciation has not been achieved in this case. It also explains the paucity of anole species

  15. Fishery of the Green Jack Caranx caballus (Osteichytes: Carangidae in Las Perlas Archipelago, Pacific Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M. Mair

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Green Jacks, Caranx caballus, are distributed along the Eastern Pacific coast. In Panama, C. caballus was heavily fished around Las Perlas Archipelago to sustain local markets until 2007, when the archipelago was declared a marine protected area. This first study in Panama, analyzed a sample of 4 990 individuals from Las Perlas, obtained monthly from June 2005 to June 2006, from landings at the central fish market. Average total length was 36.1±6.4cm and optimum length 38.9cm. Approximately 68% of fish lengths were within ±10% of the optimal length but only six (15% were considered mega-spawners. The von Bertalanffy parameters describe a long-lived and fast growing species, while mortality rates revealed that C. caballus is under high fishing pressure. Standard length at which half of the population is mature was 38.8cm, and the size at which individuals matured massively, 33cm. Only 10-13% of the fish were immature. C. caballus reproduces two to three times per year, with peaks in December, April, and probably September, and recruits to the population at least twice per year. Catch per unit effort (CPUE was best predicted by minimum annual values of the Multivariate ENSO/ LNSO Index (MEI (R²=0.54. Results show that C. caballus in Pacific Panama is overfished. We recommend the raising of the minimum capture/landing size of this species in order to increase the proportion of megaspawners in the population and guarantee the sustainability of this resource.

  16. Origin and in situ diversification in Hemidactylus geckos of the Socotra Archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Díaz, Elena; Sindaco, Roberto; Pupin, Fabio; Fasola, Mauro; Carranza, Salvador

    2012-08-01

    The Socotra Archipelago is an ancient continental fragment of Gondwanan origin and one of the most isolated landforms on Earth and a biodiversity hot spot. Yet, the biogeography and evolutionary history of its endemic fauna still remain largely overlooked. We investigate the origin, tempo and mode of diversification in the Hemidactylus geckos of the Socotra Archipelago. Concatenated and multilocus species coalescent analyses of Hemidactylus from Arabia and North Africa indicate that the Hemidactylus from Socotra do not form a monophyletic group and branch as three independent and well-supported clades instead. Both the chronogram inferred using the gene tree approach of BEAST and the age-calibrated multilocus species tree obtained using *BEAST suggest that the origin of Hemidactylus from Socotra may have involved a first vicariance event that occurred in the Early Miocene, followed by two independent transoceanic dispersal events that occurred more recently, during the Pliocene. Within Socotra, we analysed patterns of genetic diversity, the phylogeography and the demographic history in all seven nonintroduced species of Hemidactylus. Results based on two mitochondrial and two nuclear loci from 144 individuals revealed complex patterns of within-island diversification and high levels of intra-species genetic divergence. The interplay of both historical and ecological factors seems to have a role in the speciation process of this group of geckos. Interestingly, the case of H. forbesii and H. oxyrhinus, which inhabit the island of Abd al Kuri with an area of 133 km(2), may represent one of the most extreme cases of intra-island speciation in reptiles ever reported. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. The Cogema group in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    The partnership between the Cogema group and Japan in the domain of fuel cycle started about 20 years ago and the 10 Japanese nuclear operators are all clients of the Cogema group. The 1997 turnover realized with Japan reached 3.6 billions of francs (11% of the total turnover of the group). This short paper presents briefly the nuclear program of Japan (nuclear park, spent fuels reprocessing-recycling strategy) and the contracts between Cogema and the Japanese nuclear operators (natural uranium, uranium conversion and enrichment, spent fuel reprocessing, plutonium recycle and MOX fuel production markets). (J.S.)

  18. An Attempt at Captive Breeding of the Endangered Newt Echinotriton andersoni, from the Central Ryukyus in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Sumida

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Anderson’s crocodile newt (Echinotriton andersoni is distributed in the Central Ryukyu Islands of southern Japan, but environmental degradation and illegal collection over the last several decades have devastated the local populations. It has therefore been listed as a class B1 endangered species in the IUCN Red List, indicating that it is at high risk of extinction in the wild. The species is also protected by law in both Okinawa and Kagoshima prefectures. An artificial insemination technique using hormonal injections could not be applied to the breeding of this species in the laboratory. In this study we naturally bred the species, and tested a laboratory farming technique using several male and female E. andersoni pairs collected from Okinawa, Amami, and Tokunoshima Islands and subsequently maintained in near-biotopic breeding cages. Among 378 eggs derived from 17 females, 319 (84.4% became normal tailbud embryos, 274 (72.5% hatched normally, 213 (56.3% metamorphosed normally, and 141 (37.3% became normal two-month-old newts; in addition, 77 one- to three-year-old Tokunoshima newts and 32 Amami larvae are currently still growing normally. Over the last five breeding seasons, eggs were laid in-cage on slopes near the waterfront. Larvae were raised in nets maintained in a temperature-controlled water bath at 20 °C and fed live Tubifex. Metamorphosed newts were transferred to plastic containers containing wet sponges kept in a temperature-controlled incubator at 22.5 °C and fed a cricket diet to promote healthy growth. This is the first published report of successfully propagating an endangered species by using breeding cages in a laboratory setting for captive breeding. Our findings on the natural breeding and raising of larvae and adults are useful in breeding this endangered species and can be applied to the preservation of other similarly wild and endangered species such as E. chinhaiensis.

  19. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Coral Demography (Adult and Juvenile Corals) across the Hawaiian Archipelago since 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data described here result from benthic coral demographic surveys for two life stages (juveniles, adults) across the Hawaiian archipelago since 2013. Juvenile...

  20. Evidence of stable genetic structure across a remote island archipelago through self-recruitment in a widely dispersed coral reef fish

    KAUST Repository

    Priest, Mark; Halford, Andrew R; McIlwain, Jennifer L

    2012-01-01

    We used microsatellite markers to assess the population genetic structure of the scribbled rabbitfish Siganus spinus in the western Pacific. This species is a culturally important food fish in the Mariana Archipelago and subject to high fishing

  1. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Towed-diver Surveys of Large-bodied Fishes of the Hawaiian Archipelago in 2016 (NCEI Accession 0157567)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The towed-diver method is used to conduct surveys of large-bodied (> 50 cm) fishes in the Hawaiian and Mariana Archipelagos, American Samoa, and the Pacific...

  2. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Coral Demography (Adult and Juvenile Corals) across the Mariana Archipelago since 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data described here result from benthic coral demographic surveys for two life stages (juveniles, adults) across the Mariana archipelago since 2014. Juvenile...

  3. CRED SVP Drifting Buoy Argos_ID 29103 Data, Pathfinder Reef in the Marianas Archipelago, 200309-200406 (NODC Accession 0067473)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED SVP drifter Argos_ID 29103 was deployed in the region of Marianas Archipelago to assess ocean currents and sea surface temperature. SVP drifter data files...

  4. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Reef Fish, including Benthic Estimate Data of the Hawaiian Archipelago since 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The stationary point count (SPC) method is used to conduct reef fish surveys in the Hawaiian and Mariana Archipelagos, American Samoa, and the Pacific Remote Island...

  5. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Reef Fish, including Benthic Estimate Data of the Mariana Archipelago since 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The stationary point count (SPC) method is used to conduct reef fish surveys in the Hawaiian and Mariana Archipelagos, American Samoa, and the Pacific Remote Island...

  6. Whistleblowing in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Anne J; Konishi, Emiko

    2007-03-01

    This article, written from research data, focuses on the possible meaning of the data rather than on detailed statistical reporting. It defines whistleblowing as an act of the international nursing ethical ideal of advocacy, and places it in the larger context of professional responsibility. The experiences, actions, and ethical positions of 24 Japanese nurses regarding whistleblowing or reporting a colleague for wrongdoing provide the data. Of these respondents, similar in age, educational level and clinical experience, 10 had previously reported another nurse and 12 had reported a physician for a wrongful act. These data raise questions about overt actions to expose a colleague in a culture that values group loyalty and saving face. Additional research is needed for an in-depth understanding of whistleblowing, patient advocacy and professional responsibility across cultures, especially those that value group loyalty, saving face and similar concepts to the Japanese Ishin Denshin, where the value is on implicit understanding requiring indirect communication. Usually, being direct and openly discussing sensitive topics is not valued in Japan because such behavior disrupts the most fundamental value, harmony (wa).

  7. Outage planning in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedderman, John.

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear plant operators in Japan are constrained to keep refuelling and maintenance outages to a minimum by the regulation limiting operating cycles to no longer than 13 months. Outage planning by two contrasting operators is described. Hokkaido Electric, which operates only one plant, Tomari, with two PWRs, plans to reduce outage time from the present 65 days in two stages. Detailed review of previous outage schedules has shown that a reduction to 59 days should be achievable by careful planning without any fundamental changes. The second reduction to 49 days will require such measures as relaxing water purity standards, rescheduling fuel unloading and loading shifts and speeding up eddy current testing of primary equipment by using steam generator nozzle dams. Kansai Electric, operating 11 PWRs at three plants, has scope for reducing outages at all of its units using a range of measures. Steam generator replacement in the seven oldest reactors, completed in July 1997, is by far the most significant of these and is expected to save 64 days repair time in a previous average outage time of 131 days. (UK)

  8. Radioactivity survey data in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-06-01

    Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in Japan were determined in rain and dry fallout, airborne dust, service water, total diet, rice, milk, vegetables, sea fish, shellfish, and seaweeds. The results were shown in tables. (J.P.N.)

  9. Nuclear power development in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugawara, A.

    1994-01-01

    The energy situation in Japan is briefly outlined. Vulnerability in energy structure of the country is shown by a comparison of primary energy supply patterns of Japan and Western countries. Japan's energy policy consists in reducing dependence on oil, promoting efficient use of energy and increasing use of non-fossil fuels. Nuclear power is a core of alternative energy for petroleum because of stable supply of nuclear fuel, low detrimental emissions and less dependence on the fuel. A short historical review of nuclear power development in Japan is presented. Some future issues as development of entire nuclear fuel cycle, social acceptance, reactor safety and nuclear power economics are also discussed. 6 figs. (R.T.)

  10. Japan Sports Arbitration Agency (JSAA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina P. Rusakova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article author analyzes the activities of Japan Sports Arbitration Agency. Author considers the goals, objectives and procedure for dealing with disputes relating to the use of performance-enhancing drugs by athletes. Author study the regulation of Japan Sports Arbitration Agency, to resolve disputes relating to the use of doping, as well as the procedure for application and acceptance of its agency, the choice of arbitrators, counterclaim, protection of evidence.

  11. The photovoltaic energy in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgel, O.

    2005-07-01

    Today the Japan is the leader of the photovoltaic energy. The first reason of this success is an action of the government integrating subventions for the installation of photovoltaic systems and a support of the scientific research. To explain this success, the author presents the energy situation in Japan, details the national programs, the industrial sector (market, silicon needs, recycling, manufacturers, building industry) and presents the main actors. (A.L.B.)

  12. Japan's approach to monetary policy

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni P. Olivei

    2002-01-01

    The goal of monetary policy as conducted by the Bank of Japan is to contribute to the sound development of the national economy through the pursuit of price stability. The objective of price stability, however, is not precisely defined as it has been for other central banks. Following the implementation of the new Bank of Japan Law in 1998, the monetary policy framework is characterized by central bank independence, the primacy of the price stability objective, instrument independence, and po...

  13. Competing Notions of Diversity in Archipelago Tourism: Transport Logistics, Official Rhetoric and Inter-Island Rivalry in the Azores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Costa Duarte Ferreira

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Contending and competing geographies are often implicitly involved in archipelagic spaces. Various small island states and territories with multi-island geographies have flourishing tourism industries that presuppose an archipelagic experience: visitors are encouraged to explore and sample different island constituents of the territory. This strategy taps into different tourism niche markets, improves local value added, and shares tourism revenue beyond key nodes and urban centers. The organization of such an important economic activity however often reflects a ‘one-size-fits-all’, tightly coordinated, frequently contrived process that does not necessarily speak to the cultural and biogeographical forms of diversity that reside in the archipelago. This paper offers the notion of archipelago as a new way of rethinking problems and challenges encountered in island tourism, and then assesses the implications of this conceptualization on the representation of ‘the archipelago’ in the Azores, Portugal, and reviews what this approach means and implies for sustainable tourism policy.

  14. Nuclear power in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishida, J.

    1990-01-01

    The Japanese movement against nuclear energy reached a climax in its upsurge in 1988 two years after the Chernobyl accident. At the outset of that year, this trend was triggered by the government acknowledgement that the Tokyo market was open to foods contaminated by the fallout from Chernobyl. Anti-nuclear activists played an agitating role and many housewives were persuaded to join them. Among many public opinion surveys conducted at that time by newspapers and broadcasting networks, I would like to give you some figures of results from the poll carried out by NHK: Sixty percent of respondents said that nuclear power 'should be promoted', either 'vigorously' 7 or 'carefully' 53%). Sixty-six percent doubted the 'safety of nuclear power', describing it as either 'very dangerous' 20%) or 'rather dangerous' (46%). Only 27% said it was 'safe'. In other words, those who acknowledged the need for nuclear power were almost equal in number with those who found it dangerous. What should these figures be taken to mean? I would take note of the fact that nearly two-thirds of valid responses were in favor of nuclear power even at the time when public opinion reacted most strongly to the impact of the Chernobyl accident. This apparently indicates that the majority of the Japanese people are of the opinion that they would 'promote nuclear power though it is dangerous' or that they would 'promote it, but with the understanding that it is dangerous'. But the anti-nuclear movement is continuing. It remains a headache for both the government and the electric utilities. But we can regard the anti-nuclear movement in Japan as not so serious as that faced by other industrial nations

  15. Nuclear power in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishida, J [Japan Research Institute, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1990-07-01

    The Japanese movement against nuclear energy reached a climax in its upsurge in 1988 two years after the Chernobyl accident. At the outset of that year, this trend was triggered by the government acknowledgement that the Tokyo market was open to foods contaminated by the fallout from Chernobyl. Anti-nuclear activists played an agitating role and many housewives were persuaded to join them. Among many public opinion surveys conducted at that time by newspapers and broadcasting networks, I would like to give you some figures of results from the poll carried out by NHK: Sixty percent of respondents said that nuclear power 'should be promoted', either 'vigorously' 7 or 'carefully' 53%). Sixty-six percent doubted the 'safety of nuclear power', describing it as either 'very dangerous' 20%) or 'rather dangerous' (46%). Only 27% said it was 'safe'. In other words, those who acknowledged the need for nuclear power were almost equal in number with those who found it dangerous. What should these figures be taken to mean? I would take note of the fact that nearly two-thirds of valid responses were in favor of nuclear power even at the time when public opinion reacted most strongly to the impact of the Chernobyl accident. This apparently indicates that the majority of the Japanese people are of the opinion that they would 'promote nuclear power though it is dangerous' or that they would 'promote it, but with the understanding that it is dangerous'. But the anti-nuclear movement is continuing. It remains a headache for both the government and the electric utilities. But we can regard the anti-nuclear movement in Japan as not so serious as that faced by other industrial nations.

  16. The alien terrestrial invertebrate fauna of the High Arctic archipelago of Svalbard: potential implications for the native flora and fauna

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen J. Coulson

    2015-01-01

    Experience from the Antarctic indicates that the establishment of alien species may have significant negative effects on native flora and fauna in polar regions and is considered to be amongst the greatest threats to biodiversity. But, there have been few similar studies from the Arctic. Although the terrestrial invertebrate inventory of the Svalbard Archipelago is amongst the most complete for any region of the Arctic, no consideration has yet been made of alien terrestrial invertebrate spec...

  17. Assessment of island beach erosion due to sea level rise: the case of the Aegean archipelago (Eastern Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monioudi, Isavela N.; Velegrakis, Adonis F.; Chatzipavlis, Antonis E.; Rigos, Anastasios; Karambas, Theophanis; Vousdoukas, Michalis I.; Hasiotis, Thomas; Koukourouvli, Nikoletta; Peduzzi, Pascal; Manoutsoglou, Eva; Poulos, Serafim E.; Collins, Michael B.

    2017-03-01

    The present contribution constitutes the first comprehensive attempt to (a) record the spatial characteristics of the beaches of the Aegean archipelago (Greece), a critical resource for both the local and national economy, and (b) provide a rapid assessment of the impacts of the long-term and episodic sea level rise (SLR) under different scenarios. Spatial information and other attributes (e.g., presence of coastal protection works and backshore development) of the beaches of the 58 largest islands of the archipelago were obtained on the basis of remote-sensed images available on the web. Ranges of SLR-induced beach retreats under different morphological, sedimentological and hydrodynamic forcing, and SLR scenarios were estimated using suitable ensembles of cross-shore (1-D) morphodynamic models. These ranges, combined with empirically derived estimations of wave run-up induced flooding, were then compared with the recorded maximum beach widths to provide ranges of retreat/erosion and flooding at the archipelago scale. The spatial information shows that the Aegean pocket beaches may be particularly vulnerable to mean sea level rise (MSLR) and episodic SLRs due to (i) their narrow widths (about 59 % of the beaches have maximum widths Report (AR5) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate change (IPCC) - a storm-induced sea level rise of 0.6 m is projected to result in a complete erosion of between 31 and 88 % of all beaches (29-87 % of beaches are currently fronting coastal infrastructure and assets), at least temporarily. Our results suggest a very considerable risk which will require significant effort, financial resources and policies/regulation in order to protect/maintain the critical economic resource of the Aegean archipelago.

  18. Listening to a Sense of Place: Acoustic Ethnography with Billy Proctor in the Broughton Archipelago, British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Schine, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    The thesis explores soundwalking, memory and aural history through participatory exploration. My ethnographic work involves extensive documentation of a private museum in Echo Bay, a remote fishing and logging community in the Broughton Archipelago, BC. This museum houses artifacts, many of which have acoustic components. The proprietor and elder, Billy Proctor, has many stories to tell about his collection and how it reflects the history and ecology of the area. My work aims to show how appr...

  19. Integrating paleoecology and genetics of bird populations in two sky island archipelagos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, John E; Bowen, Bonnie S; Smith, Thomas B

    2008-06-27

    Genetic tests of paleoecological hypotheses have been rare, partly because recent genetic divergence is difficult to detect and time. According to fossil plant data, continuous woodland in the southwestern USA and northern Mexico became fragmented during the last 10,000 years, as warming caused cool-adapted species to retreat to high elevations. Most genetic studies of resulting 'sky islands' have either failed to detect recent divergence or have found discordant evidence for ancient divergence. We test this paleoecological hypothesis for the region with intraspecific mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite data from sky-island populations of a sedentary bird, the Mexican jay (Aphelocoma ultramarina). We predicted that populations on different sky islands would share common, ancestral alleles that existed during the last glaciation, but that populations on each sky island, owing to their isolation, would contain unique variants of postglacial origin. We also predicted that divergence times estimated from corrected genetic distance and a coalescence model would post-date the last glacial maximum. Our results provide multiple independent lines of support for postglacial divergence, with the predicted pattern of shared and unique mitochondrial DNA haplotypes appearing in two independent sky-island archipelagos, and most estimates of divergence time based on corrected genetic distance post-dating the last glacial maximum. Likewise, an isolation model based on multilocus gene coalescence indicated postglacial divergence of five pairs of sky islands. In contrast to their similar recent histories, the two archipelagos had dissimilar historical patterns in that sky islands in Arizona showed evidence for older divergence, suggesting different responses to the last glaciation. This study is one of the first to provide explicit support from genetic data for a postglacial divergence scenario predicted by one of the best paleoecological records in the world. Our results

  20. Revisiting Caveiro Lake sediment record: the Holocene NAO and AMO impact on Pico Island (Azores archipelago)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, A.; Giralt, S.; Raposeiro, P. M.; Gonçalves, V. M.; Pueyo, J. J.; Trigo, R. M.; Bao, R.; Sáez, A.

    2017-12-01

    Northern Hemisphere climate is partly conditioned by a number of atmospheric and oceanic patterns which occur in the North Atlantic sector. The favourable location of the Azores Archipelago (37°-40° N, 25°-31° W) results in a privileged place to generate high-resolution Holocene climatic proxy data that can contribute to deep our understanding on the evolution of these atmospheric and oceanic patterns. In the frame of three research projects, namely PALEONAO (CGL2010-15767), RAPIDNAO (CGL2013-40608-R) and PALEOMODES (CGL2016-75281-C2), high-resolution proxy-based reconstructions from Azores Archipelago have recently shown a combined impact of atmospheric and oceanic patterns at multiannual and decadal time-scales (Rubio-Inglés et al. 2016; Hernández et al. 2017). However, the long-term evolution coupling/uncoupling of these patterns is not well-determined yet. Here, we present a new high-resolution climate reconstruction based on the Caveiro Lake sedimentary sequence in order to fill this gap. Previously, Björck et al. (2006) studied a section of this sequence (the uppermost 4.6 m covering last 6 Ka cal BP) concluding that changes in the thermohaline circulation and the SST were the main drivers in the long-term precipitation variability, whereas the NAO impact was the main atmospheric driver of short-term precipitation changes. However, they only distinguished the NAO impact for the last 600 years owing to the low resolution of the study for the lower portion of the core. The new studied sequence (8.40 m long, 8.2 Ka cal BP) has been analysed at decadal-to centennial time-scale resolution for X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) core scanning and elemental and isotope geochemistry on bulk organic matter. The statistical multivariate analysis of the data highlights the main drivers triggering the sedimentary infill of the lake would be the NAO and AMO by controlling the lacustrine productivity via nutrients input. This new high

  1. Japan`s civil use of foreign military plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, A. [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Quantum Engineering and Systems Sciences

    1995-12-31

    This paper is intended to propose one of the MOX options of international cooperation for safer and more secured management of excess military plutonium. The proposal was made with special reference to the Japanese public`s view. Owing to the domestic plutonium shortage anticipated soon after the 200 in Japan, some specific reactors will be available to get rid of foreign excess weapon plutonium. According to the Japan AEC`s new long-term programme, the shortage will be approximately 0.5 tonne of plutonium per annum, which is a sort of the least amount that Japan can buy from a certain external source. With international requests for a more positive Japanese contribution, however, the amount of Japanese purchase would be increased. It follows from the preliminary estimate shown in this paper that roughly 2 tonnes of plutonium can be burned annually in the reactors without any major modifications concerning safe reactor operation. (author) 10 refs.

  2. Shirataki obsidian exploitation and circulation in prehistoric northern Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyuki Yakushige

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Presently, the total number of archaeological obsidian sources in Japan is more than 80, and among them, 21 are in Hokkaido, northern part of the Japanese archipelago (Izuho and Sato 2007. Obsidian was the dominant of lithic raw material in the Upper Paleolithic Hokkaido (35-10 ka cal BP. Out of 21 archaeological obsidian sources in Hokkaido, 4 sources: Shirataki, Oketo, Tokachi, and Akaigawa are the major obsidian sources and the others are minor sources. Shirataki is one of the largest obsidian sources in Northeast Asia and it is well known that Shirataki obsidian was transported outside Hokkaido to Sakhalin and the Paleo-Honshu Island from the Late Upper Paleolithic period.We compiled data of obsidian source analyses conducted to artefacts from Paleolithic sites in Hokkaido, and it became clear that the ratio of Shirataki obsidian in all analyzed materials is more than half (Sato and Yakushige in press.We examined how far Shirataki obsidian was transported in each period: the Early Upper Paleolithic (35-25 ka cal BP and the Late Upper Paleolithic (25-10 ka cal BP. The Late Upper Paleolithic is divided into three stage, the early Early Microblade Industry (Stage 1: 25-21 ka cal BP, the late Early Microblade Industry (Stage 2: 19-16 ka cal BP, and the Late Microblade Industry (Stage 3: 16-10 ka cal BP. As a result, it is revealed that the distribution areas of Shirataki obsidian did not expand gradually over time, but are different in different lithic industries. In the background of this situation lay the difference of ecological adaptation strategies adopted by the prehistoric people of the time and their movement behavioral strategies.

  3. Radar Image, Hokkaido, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The southeast part of the island of Hokkaido, Japan, is an area dominated by volcanoes and volcanic caldera. The active Usu Volcano is at the lower right edge of the circular Lake Toya-Ko and near the center of the image. The prominent cone above and to the left of the lake is Yotei Volcano with its summit crater. The city of Sapporo lies at the base of the mountains at the top of the image and the town of Yoichi -- the hometown of SRTM astronaut Mamoru Mohri -- is at the upper left edge. The bay of Uchiura-Wan takes up the lower center of the image. In this image, color represents elevation, from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest. The radar image has been overlaid to provide more details of the terrain. Due to a processing problem, an island in the center of this crater lake is missing and will be properly placed when further SRTM swaths are processed. The horizontal banding in this image is a processing artifact that will be removed when the navigation information collected by SRTM is fully calibrated. This image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC. Size: 100 by 150 kilometers (62

  4. Urgent Safety Measures in Japan after Great East Japan Earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniura, W.; Otani, H.

    2012-01-01

    Due to tsunami triggered by the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, the operating and refueling reactor facilities at Fukushima Dai-ichi and Dai-ni Nuclear Power Plants of Tokyo Electric Power Co. caused a nuclear hazard. Japanese electric power companies voluntarily began to compile various urgent measures against tsunami within the week the hazard was caused. As for the urgent safety measures of each licensee, it is clarified that effective measures have been appropriately implemented as a result of the inspection of the national government, the verification based on the guideline of the Japan Society of Maintenology and the stress test. (author)

  5. Paleomagnetism of Early Paleozoic Rocks from the de Long Archipelago and Tectonics of the New Siberian Islands Terrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metelkin, D. V.; Chernova, A. I.; Matushkin, N. Y.; Vernikovskiy, V. A.

    2017-12-01

    The De Long archipelago is located to the north of the Anjou archipelago as a part of a large group between the Laptev Sea and the East Siberian Sea - the New Siberian Islands and consists of Jeannette Island, Bennett Island and Henrietta Island. These islands have been shown to be part of a single continental terrane, whose tectonic history was independent of other continental masses at least since the Ordovician. Paleomagnetic and precise geological data for the De Long archipelago were absent until recently. Only in 2013 special international field trips to the De Long Islands could be organized and geological, isotope-geochronological and paleomagnetic studies were carried out.On Jeannette Island a volcanic-sedimentary sequence intruded by mafic dikes was described. The age of these dikes is more likely Early Ordovician, close to 480 Ma, as evidenced by the results of our 40Ar/39Ar and paleomagnetic investigations of the dolerites as well as the result from detrital zircons in the host rocks published before. On Bennett Island, there are widespread Cambrian-Ordovician mainly terrigenous rocks. Paleomagnetic results from these rocks characterize the paleogeographic position of the De Long archipelago at 465 Ma and perhaps at 530 Ma, although there is no evidence for the primary origin of magnetization for the latter. On Henrietta Island the Early Cambrian volcanic-sedimentary section was investigated. A paleomagnetic pole for 520 Ma was obtained and confirmed by new 40Ar/39Ar results. Adding to our previous paleomagnetic data for the Anjou archipelago the extended variant of the apparent polar wander path for the New Siberian Island terrane was created. The established paleolatitudes define its location in the equatorial and subtropical zone no higher than 40 degrees during the Early Paleozoic. Because there are no good confirmations for true polarity and related geographic hemisphere we present two possibilities for tectonic reconstruction. But both these

  6. Isolation of Salmonella spp. in cattle egrets (Bubulcus ibis) from Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Marcio A; Fernandes, Érika F S T; Santana, Sandra C; Marvulo, Maria Fernanda V; Barros, Mércia R; Vilela, Sineide M O; Reis, Eliane M F; Mota, Rinaldo A; Silva, Jean C R

    2018-03-03

    The growth of the population of cattle egrets (Bubulcus ibis) in the archipelago of Fernando de Noronha constitutes a threat to public health and biological diversity because of their competition with and predation on native species and the possibility of transmission of pathogens to human beings, livestock and native wildlife. The aim here was to search for, isolate and identify serovars of Salmonella in clinically healthy local cattle egrets. Cloacal swabs were obtained from 456 clinically healthy cattle egrets of both sexes and a variety of ages. The swabs were divided into 51 pools. Six of these (11.7%) presented four serovars of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica: Salmonella serovar Typhimurium; Salmonella serovar Newport; Salmonella serovar Duisburg; and Salmonella serovar Zega. One sample was identified as S. enterica subspecies enterica O16:y:-. Results in this study suggest that cattle egrets may be reservoirs of this agent on Fernando de Noronha and represent a risk to public health and biological diversity. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  7. Parallel responses of bees to Pleistocene climate change in three isolated archipelagos of the southwestern Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groom, Scott V C; Stevens, Mark I; Schwarz, Michael P

    2014-06-22

    The impacts of glacial cycles on the geographical distribution and size of populations have been explored for numerous terrestrial and marine taxa. However, most studies have focused on high latitudes, with only a few focused on the response of biota to the last glacial maximum (LGM) in equatorial regions. Here, we examine how population sizes of key bee fauna in the southwest Pacific archipelagos of Fiji, Vanuatu and Samoa have fluctuated over the Quaternary. We show that all three island faunas suffered massive population declines, roughly corresponding in time to the LGM, followed by rapid expansion post-LGM. Our data therefore suggest that Pleistocene climate change has had major impacts across a very broad tropical region. While other studies indicate widespread Holarctic effects of the LGM, our data suggest a much wider range of latitudes, extending to the tropics, where these climate change repercussions were important. As key pollinators, the inferred changes in these bee faunas may have been critical in the development of the diverse Pacific island flora. The magnitude of these responses indicates future climate change scenarios may have alarming consequences for Pacific island systems involving pollinator-dependent plant communities and agricultural crops.

  8. [Changes in fish communities of coral reefs at Sabana-Camagüey Archipelago, Cuba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claro, Rodolfo; Cantelar, Karel; Amargós, Fabián Pina; García-Arteaga, Juan P

    2007-06-01

    A comparison of fish community structure in the Sabana-Camagüey Archipelago (1988-1989 and 2000) using visual census surveys (eight belt transects 2x50 m in each site) suggests a notable decrease on species richness, and a two thirds reduction in fish density and biomass on coral reefs. This decrease in fish populations may be related to the alarming decrease of scleractinian coral cover, and an enormous proliferation of algae, which currently covers 70-80% of the hard substrate, impeding the recovery of corals and other benthic organisms. High coral mortalities occurred between the study periods, which correlate with the high temperatures caused by the ENSO events of 1995, 1997 and 1998. These events caused massive bleaching of corals and subsequent algae overgrowth. Evidence of nutrient enrichment from the inner lagoons and overfishing are also present. Collectively, these effects have provoked a marked degradation of reef habitats. These changes appear to have affected the availability of refuges and food for fishes, and may be constraining individual growth potential and population size.

  9. Earthquake Magnitude Relationships for the Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago, Equatorial Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Guilherme W. S.; do Nascimento, Aderson F.

    2018-03-01

    We have investigated several relationships between ML, M(NEIC) and Mw for the earthquakes locally recorded in the Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago (SPSPA), Equatorial Atlantic. Because we only have one station in the area, we could not derive attenuation relations for events recorded at different distances at different stations. Our approach was then to compare our ML estimates with magnitudes reported by NEIC. This approach produced acceptable results particularly for epicentral distance smaller than 100 km. For distances greater that 100 km, there is a systematic increase in the residuals probable due to the lack of station correction and our inability to accurately estimate Q. We also investigate the Mw—M(NEIC) relationship. We find that Mw estimates using S-wave produce smaller residuals when compared with both M(NEIC). Finally, we also investigate the ML—Mw relationship and observe that given the data set we have, the 1:1 holds. We believe that the use of the present methodologies provide consistent magnitude estimates between all the magnitudes investigated that could be used to better assess seismic hazard in the region.

  10. Trophic relationships of the spinner dolphin at Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, SW Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Martins Silva-Jr

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available We present an overview of predator-prey and other trophic relationships of spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris around Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, off northeastern Brazil, with use of original data and a brief review of data published elsewhere. Records were made while snorkelling among the dolphins in daytime. Individual fish pursuit and coordinated school herding were the two hunting tactics recorded. Three small prey types (oceanic squids, fishes, and prawns were recovered from vomits collected in situ and from stomachs of two stranded dolphins. In their turn, spinners were preyed on by the cookiecutter sharks (Dalatiidae as evidenced by round and crater-like wounds and circular scars. Additionally, the dolphins were preyed on by large sharks (Lamnidae, Carcharhinidae, as evidenced by crescent-shaped wounds and scars. Unidentified fishes bit fin pieces, as evidenced by variably-shaped marks. On the other hand, dolphins’ particulate faeces, vomits and live roundworms were eaten by plankton-feeding fishes. Thus, the trophic role of the spinner dolphins of Fernando de Noronha may be summarised as that of : 1 a predator of small oceanic squids, fishes, and prawns; 2 a prey for the small, piece-eating cookiecutter sharks and other unidentified fishes; 3 a prey for large sharks able to kill a dolphin; and 4 a particulate food supplier for plankton-eating fishes.

  11. Epidemiological survey of zoonotic helminths in feral cats in Gran Canaria island (Macaronesian archipelago-Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ponce, Eligia; González, Jorge F; Conde de Felipe, Magnolia; Hernández, Julia N; Raduan Jaber, J

    2016-09-01

    The presence of zoonotic parasites in feral cats have been widely considered all over the world. In Gran Canaria (Macaronesian archipelago, Canary Islands, Spain) the number of feral cats has grown out of control in urban and rural areas. 48 of Felis catus captured in different Gran Canaria areas were studied. Animals were necropsied and several organs were systematically examined in order to collect and identify macroscopic parasites. In addition, coprological tests were done in 28 cats. There were no statistically significant differences in the prevalence rate among sex, age or capture area, showing an overall prevalence of helminths of 77.1%. The most common tapeworms were Dipylidium caninum (64.6%) and Taenia taeniaeformis (31.3%), followed by the nematodes Toxocara cati (20.8%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (18.8%), Aelurostrongylusabstrusus (10.4%) and Trichuris vulpis (2.08%). We also find several eggs of Alaria alata in the small intestine of one cat (2.08%), being the first description of this trematode in cats in the Canary Islands. Aproximatelly, 40% of the studied cats harboured more than one parasite. High rates of zoonotic species found in these animals suggest the need of controling parasitic infections and preventive measures against them.

  12. Geochemistry of the alkaline volcanicsubvolcanic rocks of the Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, southern Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Peporine Lopes

    Full Text Available The Fernando de Noronha Archipelago presents, on its main island, a centrally-located stratigraphic unit, the Remédios Formation (age around 8 - 12 Ma constituted by basal pyroclastic rocks intruded by dikes, plugs and domes of varied igneous rocks, capped by flows and pyroclastics of mafic to ultramafic rocks of the Quixaba Formation (age around 1 - 3 Ma, which is limited from the underlying unit by an extensive irregular erosion surface. A predominant sodic Remédios series (basanites, tephrites, tephriphonolites, essexite, phonolites can be separated from a moderately potassic Remédios sequence (alkali basalts, trachyandesites, trachytes, both alkaline series showing mostly continuous geochemical trends in variation diagrams for major as well as trace elements, indicating evolution by crystal fractionation (mainly, separation of mafic minerals, including apatites and titanites. There are textural and mineralogical evidences pointing to hybrid origin of some intermediate rocks (e.g., resorbed pyroxene phenocrysts in basaltic trachyandesites, and in some lamprophyres. The primitive Quixaba rocks are mostly melanephelinites and basanites, primitive undersaturated sodic types. Geology (erosion surface, stratigraphy (two distinct units separated by a large time interval, petrography (varied Remédios Formation, more uniform Quixaba unit and geochemistry indicate that the islands represent the activity of a protracted volcanic episode, fueled by intermittent melting of an enriched mantle, not related to asthenospheric plume activity.

  13. 137Cs dating of laminated sediments in Swedish archipelago areas of the Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meili, M.; Jonsson, P.; Carman, R.

    1998-01-01

    In deep off-shore areas of the Baltic Sea, sediment accumulation rates are typically on the order of one or a few millimeters per year, and even less in consolidated sediments, based on laming counts and radiometric dating. In lacustrine and marine basins, the highest sedimentation rates are usually found in the deepest part, since sediments and associated contaminants are known to be gradually 'focused' from shallow to deep areas by resuspension. Accordingly, net sedimentation in coastal areas is usually low or absent due to strong erosion forces. On the other hand, coastal sediments are likely to be important in controlling the fate and turnover of contaminants that are released into coastal waters. Since little is known about the turnover of coastal sediments, in particular for heterogeneous semi-enclosed areas such as the Baltic archipelagos, a study of sediment accumulation rates has been initaited, with a focus on areas where erosion is likely to be minimal. The study is part of a project focusing on the relationship between eutrophication and contaminant cycling (EUCON). 88 sediment cores were collected during summer 1996 from accumulation bottoms of 18 more or less protected bays in archipalgo areas along the swedish coast of the Baltic Sea

  14. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air from Nisyros Island (Dodecanese Archipelago, Greece): Natural versus anthropogenic sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tassi, F.; Capecchiacci, F.; Giannini, L.; Vougioukalakis, G.E.; Vaselli, O.

    2013-01-01

    This study presents the chemical composition of VOCs in air and gas discharges collected at Nisyros Island (Dodecanese Archipelago, Greece). The main goals are i) to discriminate between natural and anthropogenic VOC sources and ii) to evaluate their impact on local air quality. Up to 63 different VOCs were recognized and quantitatively determined in 6 fumaroles and 19 air samples collected in the Lakki caldera, where fumarolic emissions are located, and the outer ring of the island, including the Mandraki village and the main harbor. Air samples from the crater area show significant concentrations of alkanes, alkenes, cyclic, aromatics, and S- and O-bearing heterocycles directly deriving from the hydrothermal system, as well as secondary O-bearing compounds from oxidation of primary VOCs. At Mandraki village, C 6 H 6 /Σ(methylated aromatics) and Σ(linear)/Σ(branched) alkanes ratios 2 O–CO 2 –H 2 S rich and discharge a large variety of VOC species. •Benzene/toluene ratios identify anthropogenic and natural sources of VOCs in air. •Aldehydes in air are produced by oxidation of alkanes and alkenes. •Geogenic furans and hydrogenated halocarbons in air are recalcitrant. -- Anthropogenic and natural VOCs in air are distinguished on the basis of aromatic, O-substituted, S-substituted and halogenated compounds

  15. Basic Physical-Geographical Characteristics of Rava Island in the Zadar Archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Magaš

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The island of Rava (3,62 km2, 120 inhabitants 1991, which makes part of the Zadar archipelago, belongs to the South Croatian (Dalmatian group of islands. In this paper, the features of its natural basis are elaborated as a part of the project connected with the geographical study of small Croatian islands. The authors anlyse its position, size and extent, geomorphology, geological composition and structure, climatovegetable properties, pedological and biogeographical features and waters. Attention has been paid to the importance of its dolomitic structure, favourable climatic conditions (precipitation, temperatures, winds, etc., lack of water and significance of its autochthonous vegetation. Special heed has been given to the properties of the sea surrounding the island (physical, chemical and biological parametres. Inhabitability and valuation depended on its physicogeographical potential, and the contemporary possibilities are based on it too. The paper offers a detailed list of texts published up to the present and some unpublished ones, which deal with the island that has not been specially treated so far.

  16. Sustainable development? Salmon aquaculture and late modernity in the archipelago of Chiloé, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan R. Barton

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Chiloé is an archipelago that has, since the 1980s, become one of the motors of the Chilean economy. Salmon aquaculture swiftly transformed the tradition of isolation and poverty that had defined the local identity and livelihoods. This is now changing due to the rapid experience of modernity. This modernity is driven by transnational capital and large-scale state intervention in the promotion of salmon aquaculture and its current central role in defining development in the islands. While this sector has generated private and public employment and infrastructure, there has also been an important shift in the expectations and aspirations of the local population, towards increased hybridization and also a mercantilization of island culture. The success of salmon production reveals that the conditions of isolation can be transformed, and even benefits reaped from integration into the modern world –globalised, capitalist and rational, rather than traditional– however it also entails risks for the sustainability of fragile socio-ecological systems, including the existence of traditional and alternative livelihoods.

  17. Antioxidant Capacity, Cytotoxicity and Antimycobacterial Activity of Madeira Archipelago Endemic Helichrysum Dietary and Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra C. Gouveia-Figueira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The potential bioactivity of dietary and medicinal endemic Helichrysum plants from Madeira Archipelago was explored, for the first time, in order to supply new information for the general consumer. In vitro antioxidant properties were investigated using DPPH, ABTS•+, FRAP and β-Carotene assays, and the total phenolic content (TPC and total flavonoid content (TFC were also determined. Although the results generally showed a large variation among the three analyzed plants, the methanolic extracts showed the highest antioxidant capacity. Exception is made for H. devium n-hexane extract that showed good radical scavenger capacity associated to compounds with good reducing properties. In the Artemia salina toxicity assay and antimycobaterial activity, H. devium was the most potent plant with the lowest LD50 at 216.7 ± 10.4 and MIC ≤ 50 μg·mL−1. Chemometric evaluation (Principal Component Analysis—PCA showed close interdependence between the ABTS, TPC and TFC methods and allowed to group H. devium samples.

  18. Antioxidant Capacity, Cytotoxicity and Antimycobacterial Activity of Madeira Archipelago Endemic Helichrysum Dietary and Medicinal Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra C; Gouveia, Carla A; Carvalho, Maria J; Rodrigues, Ana I; Nording, Malin L; Castilho, Paula C

    2014-10-31

    The potential bioactivity of dietary and medicinal endemic Helichrysum plants from Madeira Archipelago was explored, for the first time, in order to supply new information for the general consumer. In vitro antioxidant properties were investigated using DPPH, ABTS(•+), FRAP and β-Carotene assays, and the total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) were also determined. Although the results generally showed a large variation among the three analyzed plants, the methanolic extracts showed the highest antioxidant capacity. Exception is made for H. devium n-hexane extract that showed good radical scavenger capacity associated to compounds with good reducing properties. In the Artemia salina toxicity assay and antimycobaterial activity, H. devium was the most potent plant with the lowest LD50 at 216.7 ± 10.4 and MIC ≤ 50 μg·mL(-1). Chemometric evaluation (Principal Component Analysis-PCA) showed close interdependence between the ABTS, TPC and TFC methods and allowed to group H. devium samples.

  19. Environmental factors affecting large-bodied coral reef fish assemblages in the Mariana Archipelago.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin L Richards

    Full Text Available Large-bodied reef fishes represent an economically and ecologically important segment of the coral reef fish assemblage. Many of these individuals supply the bulk of the reproductive output for their population and have a disproportionate effect on their environment (e.g. as apex predators or bioeroding herbivores. Large-bodied reef fishes also tend to be at greatest risk of overfishing, and their loss can result in a myriad of either cascading (direct or indirect trophic and other effects. While many studies have investigated habitat characteristics affecting populations of small-bodied reef fishes, few have explored the relationship between large-bodied species and their environment. Here, we describe the distribution of the large-bodied reef fishes in the Mariana Archipelago with an emphasis on the environmental factors associated with their distribution. Of the factors considered in this study, a negative association with human population density showed the highest relative influence on the distribution of large-bodied reef fishes; however, depth, water temperature, and distance to deep water also were important. These findings provide new information on the ecology of large-bodied reef fishes can inform discussions concerning essential fish habitat and ecosystem-based management for these species and highlight important knowledge gaps worthy of additional research.

  20. Ichthyophonus in Puget Sound rockfish from the San Juan Islands archipelago and Puget Sound, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halos, D.; Hart, S.A.; Hershberger, P.; Kocan, R.

    2005-01-01

    In vitro explant cultures identified Ichthyophonus in 10.9% of 302 Puget Sound rockfish Sebastes emphaeus sampled from five sites in the San Juan Islands archipelago and Puget Sound, Washington, in 2003. None of the infected fish exhibited visible lesions and only a single fish was histologically positive. Significantly more females were infected (12.4%) than males (6.8%), and while infected males were only detected at two of the five sites, infected females were identified at all sites, with no significant differences in infection prevalence. Genomic sequences of Ichthyophonus isolates obtained from Puget Sound rockfish, Pacific herring Clupea pallasii, and Yukon River Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha were identical in both the A and B regions of the small subunit 18S ribosomal DNA but were different from Ichthyophonus sequences previously isolated from four different species of rockfish from the northeastern Pacific Ocean. Ichthyophonus in Puget Sound rockfish may not have been previously detected because the infection is subclinical in this species and earlier investigators did not utilize in vitro techniques for diagnosis of ichthyophoniasis. However, since clinical ichthyophoniasis has recently been identified in several other species of northeast Pacific rockfishes, it is hypothesized that this either is an emerging disease resulting from changing marine conditions or the result of introduction by infected southern species that appear during periodic El Nin??o events. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  1. Semi volatile organic compounds in the snow of Russian Arctic islands: Archipelago Novaya Zemlya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, A T; Mazur, D M; Polyakova, O V; Kosyakov, D S; Kozhevnikov, A Yu; Latkin, T B; Andreeva Yu, I; Artaev, V B

    2018-04-18

    Environmental contamination of the Arctic has widely been used as a worldwide pollution marker. Various classes of organic pollutants such as pesticides, personal care products, PAHs, flame retardants, biomass burning markers, and many others emerging contaminants have been regularly detected in Arctic samples. Although numerous papers have been published reporting data from the Canadian, Danish, and Norwegian Arctic regions, the environmental situation in Russian Arctic remains mostly underreported. Snow analysis is known to be used for monitoring air pollution in the regions with cold climate in both short-term and long-term studies. This paper presents the results of a nontargeted study on the semivolatile organic compounds detected and identified in snow samples collected at the Russian Artic Archipelago Novaya Zemlya in June 2016. Gas chromatography coupled to a high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer enabled the simultaneous detection and quantification of a variety of pollutants including those from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) priority pollutants list, emerging contaminants (plasticizers, flame retardants-only detection), as well as the identification of novel Arctic organic pollutants, (e.g., fatty acid amides and polyoxyalkanes). The possible sources of these novel pollutants are also discussed. GC-HRMS enabled the detection and identification of emerging contaminants and novel organic pollutants in the Arctic, e.g., fatty amides and polyoxyalkanes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Identification and phenotypic plasticity of Pseudanabaena catenata from the Svalbard archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Zoya

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A filamentous benthic cyanobacteria, strain USMAC16, was isolated from the High Arctic Svalbard archipelago, Norway, and a combination of morphological, ultrastructural and molecular characterisation (16S rRNA gene sequence used to identify to species level. Cell dimensions, thylakoid arrangement and apical cell shape are consistent with the Pseudanabaena genus description. The molecular characterisation of P. catenata gave 100% similarity with Pseudanabaena catenata SAG 1464-1, originally reported from Germany. Strain USMAC16 was cultured under a range of temperature and photoperiod conditions, in solid and liquid media, and harvested at exponential phase to examine its phenotypic plasticity. Under different culture conditions, we observed considerable variations in cell dimensions. The longest cell (5.91±0.13 μm was observed at 15°C under 12:12 light:dark, and the widest cell (3.24±0.06 μm at 4°C under 12:12 light: dark in liquid media. The study provides baseline data documenting the morphological variation of P. catenata in response to changing temperature regimes.

  3. Testing the island effect on phenotypic diversification: insights from the Hemidactylus geckos of the Socotra Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Porta, Joan; Šmíd, Jiří; Sol, Daniel; Fasola, Mauro; Carranza, Salvador

    2016-04-01

    Island colonization is often assumed to trigger extreme levels of phenotypic diversification. Yet, empirical evidence suggests that it does not always so. In this study we test this hypothesis using a completely sampled mainland-island system, the arid clade of Hemidactylus, a group of geckos mainly distributed across Africa, Arabia and the Socotra Archipelago. To such purpose, we generated a new molecular phylogeny of the group on which we mapped body size and head proportions. We then explored whether island and continental taxa shared the same morphospace and differed in their disparities and tempos of evolution. Insular species produced the most extreme sizes of the radiation, involving accelerated rates of evolution and higher disparities compared with most (but not all) of the continental groups. In contrast, head proportions exhibited constant evolutionary rates across the radiation and similar disparities in islands compared with the continent. These results, although generally consistent with the notion that islands promote high morphological disparity, reveal at the same time a complex scenario in which different traits may experience different evolutionary patterns in the same mainland-island system and continental groups do not always present low levels of morphological diversification compared to insular groups.

  4. Background mortality rates for recovering populations of Acropora cytherea in the Chagos Archipelago, central Indian Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratchett, M S; Pisapia, C; Sheppard, C R C

    2013-05-01

    This study quantified background rates of mortality for Acropora cytherea in the Chagos Archipelago. Despite low levels of anthropogenic disturbance, 27.5% (149/541) of A. cytherea colonies exhibited some level of partial mortality, and 9.0% (49/541) of colonies had recent injuries. A total of 15.3% of the overall surface area of physically intact A. cytherea colonies was dead. Observed mortality was partly attributable to overtopping and/or self-shading among colonies. There were also low-densities of Acanthaster planci apparent at some study sites. However, most of the recent mortality recorded was associated with isolated infestations of the coral crab, Cymo melanodactylus. A. cytherea is a relatively fast growing coral and these levels of mortality may be biologically unimportant. However, few studies have measured background rates of coral mortality, especially in the absence of direct human disturbances. These data are important for assessing the impacts of increasing disturbances, especially in projecting likely recovery. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. The educational system in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1986-01-01

    The rapid economic growth of Japan since World War II has resulted in Japan becoming a reference point for developing nations and the West. This remarkable growth results from a combination of factors, one of which has been unyielding attention to education in order to cultivate the human talent necessary to provide the productivity for economic growth. The Japanese education system emphasizes quality of instruction and rewards hard work. Some of the principles of the system are outlined together with a summary of the content of the curriculum, the quantity and quality of instruction, and the influence of culture and environment.

  6. Datafile: [nuclear power in] Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    Japan is third after the USA and France in terms of the Western World's installed nuclear capacity, but it has by far the largest forward programme. Great effort is also being put into the fuel cycle and advanced reactors. There is close co-operation between the government, utilities and manufacturers, but Japan has not sought to export reactors. The government has responded to the growing public opposition to nuclear power with a massive increase in its budget for public relations. Details of the nuclear power programme are given. (author)

  7. Local Government System in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir V. Redko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the issues of the activities of the local government of Japan. Particular attention is drawn to the legal framework and the material basis for the functioning of local self-government bodies. The system of local self-government is considered as a special form of self-government with a specific functional and meaning; system of municipal management and delegation of authority, as well as features of interaction between civil and imperious levels. The allocation of the city with a special status, as well as the financial structure of the local government of Japan, is considered in detail.

  8. Comparing the two Greek archipelagos plant species diversity and endemism patterns highlight the importance of isolation and precipitation as biodiversity drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliadou, Eleni; Kallimanis, Athanasios S; Dimopoulos, Panayotis; Panitsa, Maria

    2014-12-01

    Greece has two island archipelagos, the Aegean and the Ionian, which host a rich array of plants and wildlife, particularly endemic and threatened plant species. Despite the long history of island biogeographic studies in the Aegean, similar studies in the Ionian remain limited, with the two island archipelagos rarely being compared. The Aegean and Ionian archipelagos share many features, especially regarding total plant diversity, but exhibit different patterns of endemism. For instance, when considering similarly sized islands, those in the Ionian host as many as, if not more, species compared to the Aegean. In contrast, the Ionian Islands are poor in endemics (particularly narrow range endemics, such as single island or regional endemics) and threatened taxa, compared to the Aegean Islands. In the Ionian, endemics only persist on the largest islands, and form a very small proportion of the species pool, compared to the Aegean archipelago. The lack of endemism might be attributed to the more recent separation of the Ionian Islands from the mainland and the shorter distance separating them from the mainland. In addition, the Ionian Islands receive higher levels of precipitation and are typically covered by denser and higher vegetation than the Aegean Islands. These conditions favour greater total species richness, but tend to lead to higher numbers of common species compared to threatened and endemic taxa. This study demonstrates that both isolation and precipitation serve as biodiversity drivers, influencing plant species diversity and endemism patterns, of the two Greek archipelagos.

  9. JPRS Report, East Asia, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-02

    May 87) 17 Amada Technical Center 17 Punch-press Production in France, by Andreas Gandow 17 Study on Dynamics of Foreign Exchange Rates (Kenichi...468 20 ECONOMIC STUDY ON DYNAMICS OF FOREIGN EXCHANGE RATES Tokyo THE JAPAN TIMES in English 29 Jul 87 pp 7-9 (Article by Kenichi Ohmae] [Text

  10. Organic photovoltaic energy in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Japan finances research programs on photovoltaic conversion since 1974. Research in this domain is one of the 11 priorities of NEDO, the agency of means of the ministry of economy, trade and industry of Japan. The search for an abatement of production costs and of an increase of cells efficiency is mentioned in NEDO's programs as soon as the beginning of the 1990's. A road map has been defined which foresees photovoltaic energy production costs equivalent to the ones of thermal conversion by 2030, i.e. 7 yen/kWh (4.4 cents of euro/kWh). The use of new materials in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) or organic solar cells, and of new structures (multi-junctions) is explored to reach this objective. The organic photovoltaic technology is more particularly considered for small generation units in mobile or domestic technologies. Japan is particularly in advance in the improvement of DSSC cells efficiency, in particular in the domain of the research on solid electrolytes. Europe seems more in advance in the domain of the new generation of organic solar cells. Therefore, a complementarity may be found between Japan and French teams in the domain of organic solar cells improvement through collaboration programs. (J.S.)

  11. Entrepreneurship and unemployment in Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Stel, A.; Thurik, R.; Verheul, I.; Baljeu, L.

    2008-01-01

    We examine the relationship between entrepreneurship (as measured by fluctuations in the business ownership rate) and unemployment in Japan for the period between 1972 and 2002. We find that, although Japan’s unemployment rate has been influenced by specific exogenous shocks, the effects of

  12. Superconducting magnet development in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasukochi, K.

    1983-01-01

    The present state of R and D works on the superconducting magnet and its applications in Japan are presented. On electrical rotating machines, 30 MVA superconducting synchronous rotary condenser (Mitsubishi and Fuji) and 50 MVA generator are under construction. Two ways of ship propulsion by superconducting magnets are developing. A superconducting magnetically levitated and linear motor propelled train ''MAGLEV'' was developed by the Japan National Railways (JNR). The superconducting magnet development for fusion is the most active field in Japan. The Cluster Test program has been demonstrated on a 10 T Nb 3 Sn coil and the first coil of Large Coil Task in IEA collaboration has been constructed and the domestic test was completed in JAERI. These works are for the development of toroidal coils of the next generation tokamak machine. R and D works on superconducting ohmic heating coil are in progress in JAERI and ETL. The latter group has constructed 3.8 MJ pulsed coil. A high ramp rate of changing field in pulsed magnet, 200 T/s, has been tested successfully. High Energy Physics Laboratory (KEK) are conducting active works. The superconducting μ meson channel and π meson channel have been constructed and are operating successfully. KEK has also a project of big accelerator named ''TRISTAN'', which is similar to ISABELLE project of BNL. Superconducting synchrotron magnets are developed for this project. The development of superconducting three thin wall solenoid has been started. One of them, CDF, is progressing under USA-Japan collaboration

  13. Radioactivity survey data in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in Japan were determined in rain and dry fallout, airborne dust, service water, freshwater, soils, total diet, milk, vegetables, tea, sea fish, freshwater fish, shellfish, and seaweeds. The results were shown in tables. (J.P.N.)

  14. Geothermal country update of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higo, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the status of geothermal energy in Japan. Topics covered include: present and planned production of electricity, present utilization of geothermal energy for direct heat, information about geothermal localities, and wells drilled for electrical utilization of geothermal resources to January 1, 1990

  15. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-06

    Sought ( Nobuaki Teraoka; PUROMETEUSU, Nov 87) 62 IPCR Molecular Laser Uranium Enrichment Method Discussed (GENSHIRYOKU IINKAI GEPPO, Nov 87... Kobayashi ) Investigation of Tokyo University character of winter (Professor Tatsuo thunder on Japan Kawamura, Sea side by new Assistant...PUROMETEUSU in Japanese Nov 87 pp 78-81 [Article by Nobuaki Teraoka, Technology Development Division, Atomic Energy Bureau, Science and Technology Agency

  16. [Marriage and divorce in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haderka, J

    1986-01-01

    Marriage patterns in Japan are analyzed using data from secondary sources. The author notes that although legislation affecting marriage and the family is derived from European models, traditional Japanese attitudes concerning the subservient role of women have a significant impact. The problems faced by women experiencing divorce are noted. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND RUS)

  17. U.S. Forces Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okinawa Fri, 25 May 2018 02:07:00 GMT Scuba Savior: 3d MLG Marine saves life in Okinawa Fri, 25 May 2018 by @USForcesJapan Facebook Facebook Followers, We hope you've brushed up on your USFJ knowledge over the weekend, b... Followers, We hope you've brushed up on your USFJ knowledge over the weekend

  18. July 1993 Hokkaido, Japan Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — On July 12, 1993, a magnitude 7.6 Ms (7.7 Mw) (HRV) earthquake at 13:17 UT in the Sea of Japan near Hokkaido caused a back-arc tsunami that caused damage in all of...

  19. Japan's new basic energy plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffield, John S.; Woodall, Brian

    2011-01-01

    In June 2010, the Japanese cabinet adopted a new Basic Energy Plan (BEP). This was the third such plan that the government has approved since the passage of the Basic Act on Energy Policy in 2002, and it represents the most significant statement of Japanese energy policy in more than four years, since the publication of the New National Energy Strategy (NNES) in 2006. Perhaps more than its predecessors, moreover, the new plan establishes a number of ambitious targets as well as more detailed measures for achieving those targets. Among the targets are a doubling of Japan's 'energy independence ratio,' a doubling of the percentage of electricity generated by renewable sources and nuclear power, and a 30 percent reduction in energy-related CO 2 emissions, all by 2030. This paper explains the origins of the 2010 BEP and why it was adopted. It then describes the content of the plan and how it differs from the NNES. A third section analyzes the appropriateness of the new goals and targets contained in the BEP and their feasibility, finding that achievement of many of the targets was likely to be quite challenging even before the March 2011 earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear crisis. - Highlights: → Origins of Japan's new Basic Energy Plan. → Content of Japan's new Basic Energy Plan. → Feasibility of achieving the targets in Japan's new Basic Energy Plan. → Impact of 2011 earthquake and tsunami on Japanese energy policy.

  20. 75 FR 38119 - Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Rubber From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of a five-year review concerning the antidumping duty finding on polychloroprene rubber from Japan. SUMMARY: The... on polychloroprene rubber from Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  1. Legislative Basis of Pedagogical Education in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchai, Tetiana

    2014-01-01

    Legal framework policy of Japan in the field of education has been analyzed. The problem of influence of legislative materials on the development of education in Japan, its legislative support has been considered. It has been defined that directive materials affect the development of education system in Japan. Legislation policy of the country is…

  2. Urban and spatial planning in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Tominaga

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to introduce the urban and spatial planning inJapan. According to the national planning system of Japan, chapter 2, the planning system has 3 administrative levels and each territorial region has its own regulation. This paper introduces especially about planning and regulation system in city region in Japan.

  3. Ciguatera fish poisoning: Incidence, health costs and risk perception on Moorea Island (Society archipelago, French Polynesia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Ewen; Gatti, Clémence; Bambridge, Tamatoa; Chinain, Mireille

    2016-12-01

    Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) is a non-bacterial seafood poisoning well characterized in the remote archipelagos of French Polynesia, yet poorly documented in the Society archipelago, most notably on Moorea, the second most populated island in French Polynesia, which counts a high proportion of fishermen fishing on a regular basis. To address this knowledge gap, a holistic study of the ciguatera issue was conducted on Moorea. First, ciguatera risk was analysed in terms of incidence rate, fish species most commonly involved and risk stratification in Moorea lagoon based on 2007-2013 epidemiological data. A mean incidence rate of 8 cases per 10,000 inhabitants for the study period and an average under-reporting rate of 54% were found. Taking into account hospitalization and medication fees, and loss of productive days, the health-related costs due to CFP were estimated to be USD $1613 and $749 for each reported and unreported case, respectively, with an overall cost of USD $241,847 for the study period. Comparison of the present status of CFP on Moorea with a risk map established in the late 1970's showed that the spatial distribution of the risk has stayed relatively stable in time, with the north shore of the island remaining the most prone to ciguatera. Evaluation of the current knowledge on CFP among different populations groups, i.e. fishermen, residents and visitors, was also conducted through direct and indirect interviews. About half of the fishermen interviewed were actually able to identify risky fishing areas. While, overall, the CFP risk perception in the fishing community of Moorea seemed accurate, although not scientifically complete, it was sufficient for the safe practice of their fishing activities. This may be due in part to adaptive responses adopted by 36% of the fishermen interviewed, such as the avoidance of either high-risk fishing sites or toxic species. At the residents and visitors' level, the study points out a striking lack of awareness

  4. Towards Stochastic Optimization-Based Electric Vehicle Penetration in a Novel Archipelago Microgrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingyu Yang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the advantage of avoiding upstream disturbance and voltage fluctuation from a power transmission system, Islanded Micro-Grids (IMG have attracted much attention. In this paper, we first propose a novel self-sufficient Cyber-Physical System (CPS supported by Internet of Things (IoT techniques, namely “archipelago micro-grid (MG”, which integrates the power grid and sensor networks to make the grid operation effective and is comprised of multiple MGs while disconnected with the utility grid. The Electric Vehicles (EVs are used to replace a portion of Conventional Vehicles (CVs to reduce CO 2 emission and operation cost. Nonetheless, the intermittent nature and uncertainty of Renewable Energy Sources (RESs remain a challenging issue in managing energy resources in the system. To address these issues, we formalize the optimal EV penetration problem as a two-stage Stochastic Optimal Penetration (SOP model, which aims to minimize the emission and operation cost in the system. Uncertainties coming from RESs (e.g., wind, solar, and load demand are considered in the stochastic model and random parameters to represent those uncertainties are captured by the Monte Carlo-based method. To enable the reasonable deployment of EVs in each MGs, we develop two scheduling schemes, namely Unlimited Coordinated Scheme (UCS and Limited Coordinated Scheme (LCS, respectively. An extensive simulation study based on a modified 9 bus system with three MGs has been carried out to show the effectiveness of our proposed schemes. The evaluation data indicates that our proposed strategy can reduce both the environmental pollution created by CO 2 emissions and operation costs in UCS and LCS.

  5. Towards Stochastic Optimization-Based Electric Vehicle Penetration in a Novel Archipelago Microgrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qingyu; An, Dou; Yu, Wei; Tan, Zhengan; Yang, Xinyu

    2016-06-17

    Due to the advantage of avoiding upstream disturbance and voltage fluctuation from a power transmission system, Islanded Micro-Grids (IMG) have attracted much attention. In this paper, we first propose a novel self-sufficient Cyber-Physical System (CPS) supported by Internet of Things (IoT) techniques, namely "archipelago micro-grid (MG)", which integrates the power grid and sensor networks to make the grid operation effective and is comprised of multiple MGs while disconnected with the utility grid. The Electric Vehicles (EVs) are used to replace a portion of Conventional Vehicles (CVs) to reduce CO 2 emission and operation cost. Nonetheless, the intermittent nature and uncertainty of Renewable Energy Sources (RESs) remain a challenging issue in managing energy resources in the system. To address these issues, we formalize the optimal EV penetration problem as a two-stage Stochastic Optimal Penetration (SOP) model, which aims to minimize the emission and operation cost in the system. Uncertainties coming from RESs (e.g., wind, solar, and load demand) are considered in the stochastic model and random parameters to represent those uncertainties are captured by the Monte Carlo-based method. To enable the reasonable deployment of EVs in each MGs, we develop two scheduling schemes, namely Unlimited Coordinated Scheme (UCS) and Limited Coordinated Scheme (LCS), respectively. An extensive simulation study based on a modified 9 bus system with three MGs has been carried out to show the effectiveness of our proposed schemes. The evaluation data indicates that our proposed strategy can reduce both the environmental pollution created by CO 2 emissions and operation costs in UCS and LCS.

  6. Microseismic noise in the Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago, equatorial Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Queiroz, Daniel É.; do Nascimento, Aderson F.; Schimmel, Martin

    2017-12-01

    Microseismic noise, also known as ambient seismic noise, are continuous vibrations mostly composed of Rayleigh waves pervasively recorded in the mili Hertz to 1 Hz frequency range. Their precise source mechanisms are under investigations and related to atmospheric perturbations and ocean gravity waves. Our purpose is to show the behavior of the microseismic noise recorded in the Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago (SPSPA) with respect to wind intensity and ocean waves height in this region, between the North and South Atlantic Ocean. We have recorded both primary microseisms (PM) 0.04-0.12 Hz and the secondary microseisms (SM) 0.12-0.4 Hz during almost four years (2012-2015) and we used frequency, temporal, spatial and statistical correlation analysis to do qualitative and quantitative analysis with respect to wind speed intensity and significant wave height for the same periods. The results indicate a good correlation between the PM and the SM noise in the region particularly during the winter in the Northern Hemisphere and a poor correlation during the summer. We have also shown that probably most of the PM are generated in the SPSPA itself. We note that the intensity of SM recorded in SPSPA appears to have a seasonal behavior with the summer and winter in the Northern Hemisphere, and seems to influence the correlation between the PM and the SM, suggesting that the sources of the PM and the SM are not related to the same atmospheric event and from different places. PM generation would occur near the SPSPA whilst the SM would have distant sources towards the North Atlantic.

  7. Temporal variation in fish mercury concentrations within lakes from the western Aleutian Archipelago, Alaska.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah A Kenney

    Full Text Available We assessed temporal variation in mercury (Hg concentrations of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus from Agattu Island, Aleutian Archipelago, Alaska. Total Hg concentrations in whole-bodied stickleback were measured at two-week intervals from two sites in each of two lakes from June 1 to August 10, 2011 during the time period when lakes were ice-free. Across all sites and sampling events, stickleback Hg concentrations ranged from 0.37-1.07 µg/g dry weight (dw, with a mean (± SE of 0.55 ± 0.01 µg/g dw. Mean fish Hg concentrations declined by 9% during the study period, from 0.57 ± 0.01 µg/g dw in early June to 0.52 ± 0.01 µg/g dw in mid-August. Mean fish Hg concentrations were 6% higher in Loon Lake (0.56 ± 0.01 µg/g dw than in Lake 696 (0.53 ± 0.01 µg/g dw, and 4% higher in males (0.56 ± 0.01 µg/g dw than in females (0.54 ± 0.01 µg/g dw. Loon Lake was distinguished from Lake 696 by the presence of piscivorous waterbirds during the breeding season. Mercury concentrations in stickleback from Agattu Island were higher than would be expected for an area without known point sources of Hg pollution, and high enough to be of concern to the health of piscivorous wildlife.

  8. Temporal variation in fish mercury concentrations within lakes from the western Aleutian Archipelago, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Leah A.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; von Hippel, Frank A.

    2014-01-01

    We assessed temporal variation in mercury (Hg) concentrations of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) from Agattu Island, Aleutian Archipelago, Alaska. Total Hg concentrations in whole-bodied stickleback were measured at two-week intervals from two sites in each of two lakes from June 1 to August 10, 2011 during the time period when lakes were ice-free. Across all sites and sampling events, stickleback Hg concentrations ranged from 0.37–1.07 µg/g dry weight (dw), with a mean (± SE) of 0.55±0.01 µg/g dw. Mean fish Hg concentrations declined by 9% during the study period, from 0.57±0.01 µg/g dw in early June to 0.52±0.01 µg/g dw in mid-August. Mean fish Hg concentrations were 6% higher in Loon Lake (0.56±0.01 µg/g dw) than in Lake 696 (0.53±0.01 µg/g dw), and 4% higher in males (0.56±0.01 µg/g dw) than in females (0.54±0.01 µg/g dw). Loon Lake was distinguished from Lake 696 by the presence of piscivorous waterbirds during the breeding season. Mercury concentrations in stickleback from Agattu Island were higher than would be expected for an area without known point sources of Hg pollution, and high enough to be of concern to the health of piscivorous wildlife.

  9. Multi-event behavior of El Golfo landslide (El Hierro Island, Canary Archipelago)

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Ricardo; Biain, Ander; Urgeles, Roger; Somoza, Luis; Ferrer, Mercedes; García-Crespo, Jesús; Francisco Mediato, José; Galindo, Inés; Yepes, Jorge; Gimenez-Moreno, Julia

    2017-04-01

    Based on the re-interpretation of a vast onshore-offshore data set, a new morpho-structural characterization of the El Golfo giant landslide in the island of El Hierro (Canary Archipelago, Spain) is presented. Offshore multibeam echosounder data, chirp sub-bottom profiles, multichannel seismic reflection data and onshore information from water wells and galleries have been analyzed to determine the nature of the event. The subaerial headscarp shows a non-continuous arcuate profile formed by two nested semi-circular amphitheaters that extend offshore along a smooth chute, suggesting the occurrence of at least two large retrogressive events. Channels/gullies and escarpments developed along the submarine sector of the scar also indicate smaller-scale events and predominance of sediment bypass. At the base of submerged island, two subunits within the related submarine mass transport deposit (MTD) are identified on multichannel seismic reflection profiles confirming the multi-event nature of the landslide. The MTD, identified as a debris avalanche, has a total estimated volume of 318 km3: 84 km3 and 234 km3, for the lower and upper subunits respectively. Data from wells and galleries show abrasion platforms with beach deposits at sea-level (0 masl) formed after the landslide scar and buried by the El Golfo post-collapse infill lavas, suggesting an age at least older than 23.5-82.5 ka for the landslide. This work has been supported by the projects IGCP-640 S4SLIDE, High resolution seabed mapping EASME/EMFF/2016/005 and CTM2010-09496-E. Keywords: Submarine landslides, volcanic islands, debris avalanche, Canary Islands

  10. Late Pliocene and Quaternary Eurasian locust infestations in the Canary Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meco, J.; Muhs, D.R.; Fontugne, M.; Ramos, A.J.; Lomoschitz, A.; Patterson, D.

    2011-01-01

    The Canary Archipelago has long been a sensitive location to record climate changes of the past. Interbedded with its basalt lavas are marine deposits from the principal Pleistocene interglacials, as well as aeolian sands with intercalated palaeosols. The palaeosols contain African dust and innumerable relict egg pods of a temperate-region locust (cf. Dociostaurus maroccanusThunberg 1815). New ecological and stratigraphical information reveals the geological history of locust plagues (or infestations) and their palaeoclimatic significance. Here, we show that the first arrival of the plagues to the Canary Islands from Africa took place near the end of the Pliocene, ca. 3Ma, and reappeared with immense strength during the middle Late Pleistocene preceding MIS (marine isotope stage) 11 (ca. 420ka), MIS 5.5 (ca. 125ka) and probably during other warm interglacials of the late Middle Pleistocene and the Late Pleistocene. During the Early Holocene, locust plagues may have coincided with a brief cool period in the current interglacial. Climatically, locust plagues on the Canaries are a link in the chain of full-glacial arid-cold climate (calcareous dunes), early interglacial arid-sub-humid climate (African dust inputs and locust plagues), peak interglacial warm-humid climate (marine deposits with Senegalese fauna), transitional arid-temperate climate (pedogenic calcretes), and again full-glacial arid-cold climate (calcareous dunes) oscillations. During the principal interglacials of the Pleistocene, the Canary Islands recorded the migrations of warm Senegalese marine faunas to the north, crossing latitudes in the Euro-African Atlantic. However, this northward marine faunal migration was preceded in the terrestrial realm by interglacial infestations of locusts. ??? Locust plagues, Canary Islands, Late Pliocene, Pleistocene, Holocene, palaeoclimatology. ?? 2010 The Authors, Lethaia ?? 2010 The Lethaia Foundation.

  11. Landfast ice thickness in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago from observations and models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Stephen E. L.; Laliberté, Frédéric; Kwok, Ron; Derksen, Chris; King, Joshua

    2016-07-01

    Observed and modelled landfast ice thickness variability and trends spanning more than 5 decades within the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA) are summarized. The observed sites (Cambridge Bay, Resolute, Eureka and Alert) represent some of the Arctic's longest records of landfast ice thickness. Observed end-of-winter (maximum) trends of landfast ice thickness (1957-2014) were statistically significant at Cambridge Bay (-4.31 ± 1.4 cm decade-1), Eureka (-4.65 ± 1.7 cm decade-1) and Alert (-4.44 ± 1.6 cm -1) but not at Resolute. Over the 50+-year record, the ice thinned by ˜ 0.24-0.26 m at Cambridge Bay, Eureka and Alert with essentially negligible change at Resolute. Although statistically significant warming in spring and fall was present at all sites, only low correlations between temperature and maximum ice thickness were present; snow depth was found to be more strongly associated with the negative ice thickness trends. Comparison with multi-model simulations from Coupled Model Intercomparison project phase 5 (CMIP5), Ocean Reanalysis Intercomparison (ORA-IP) and Pan-Arctic Ice-Ocean Modeling and Assimilation System (PIOMAS) show that although a subset of current generation models have a "reasonable" climatological representation of landfast ice thickness and distribution within the CAA, trends are unrealistic and far exceed observations by up to 2 orders of magnitude. ORA-IP models were found to have positive correlations between temperature and ice thickness over the CAA, a feature that is inconsistent with both observations and coupled models from CMIP5.

  12. Insecticide susceptibility of Aedes aegypti populations from Senegal and Cape Verde Archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dia, Ibrahima; Diagne, Cheikh Tidiane; Ba, Yamar; Diallo, Diawo; Konate, Lassana; Diallo, Mawlouth

    2012-10-22

    Two concomitant dengue 3 (DEN-3) epidemics occurred in Cape Verde Archipelago and Senegal between September and October 2009. Aedes aegypti was identified as the vector of these epidemics as several DEN-3 virus strains were isolated from this species in both countries. The susceptibility to pyrethroids, organochlorine, organophosphates and carbamate was investigated in two field strains of Aedes aegypti from both countries using WHO diagnostic bioassay kits in order to monitor their the current status of insecticide susceptibility. The two tested strains were highly resistant to DDT. The Cape Verde strain was found to be susceptible to all others tested insecticides except for propoxur 0.1%, which needs further investigation. The Dakar strain was susceptible to fenitrothion 1% and permethrin 0.75%, but displayed reduced susceptibility to deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin and propoxur. As base-line results, our observations stress a careful management of insecticide use for the control of Ae. aegypti. Indeed, they indicate that DDT is no longer efficient for the control of Ae. aegypti populations in Cape Verde and Dakar and further suggest a thorough follow-up of propoxur susceptibility status in both sites and that of deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin in Ae. aegypti populations in Dakar. Thus, regular monitoring of susceptibility is greatly needed as well as the knowing if this observed resistance/susceptibility is focal or not and for observed resistance, the use of biochemical methods is needed with detailed comparison of resistance levels over a large geographic area. Aedes aegypti, Insecticides, Susceptibility, Cape Verde, Senegal.

  13. Aesthetics and Empire: The Sense of Feminine Beauty in the Making of the US Imperial Archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson, Lanny

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the “sense of beauty” in the United States imperial archipelago, composed of the island territories of Cuba, Hawai`i, Philippines, and Puerto Rico, all acquired in 1898. The theoretical connection among these two elements –aesthetics and empire– is provided by a revision of the concepts “economy of colonial desire” and “complex of visuality.” This paper analyzes the most advanced visual technology of the late nineteenth century: the mass- produced, printed photograph. In particular, it focuses upon the representations of feminine beauty as found the illustrated “new-possessions” books which described recent island acquisitions of the United States. The connections between aesthetics and the forms of governance in each territory will also be elucidated.Este artículo examina el “sentido de belleza” en el archipiélago imperial estadounidense, compuesto de los territorios isleños de Cuba, Hawai`i, Filipinas y Puerto Rico, todos adquiridos en 1898. La conexión teórica entre estos dos elementos –estética e imperio– se establece mediante una revisión de los conceptos de “economía de deseo colonial” y el “complejo de visualidad”. Este artículo analiza la tecnología visual más avanzada del siglo diecinueve tardío: la fotografía impresa. En particular, se enfoca en las representaciones de belleza femenina en los libros ilustrados de las “nuevas posesiones” los cuales describían las adquisiciones recientes de los Estados Unidos. También, se dilucidarán las conexiones entre estética y las formas de gobernanza en cada territorio.

  14. Winds of time: Lessons from Utö in the Stockholm Archipelago, 1990–2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fjaestad, Maja

    2013-01-01

    When investigating the success or failure of different wind power projects, it is essential to take into account how they were historically situated. This study focuses on attempts to develop wind power in an archipelago setting, at Utö in Sweden. It has been argued that the development of Swedish wind power slowed during the 1990s; by revisiting the early days of wind power, looking at resistance and support, and connecting success factors, this can be further investigated. Whereas earlier research pointed out institutional conditions and site-specific conditions as crucial for successful wind power development and acceptance, the picture can be made more complete by discussing how wind power projects are affected by time-specific historical conditions. In the case of Utö, these can partly be associated with a newly launched political support program that gave the project political legitimacy and added a “pioneering spirit” to the endeavor. Conversely, when wind power is not seen as “pioneering” or “experimental” any more, but as a mere industrial activity, other incentives may need to be offered to municipalities. -- Highlights: •When evaluating wind power projects, the historical context is important to complement the picture. •The case of Utö is tells important lessons of the Swedish early 1990s. •Success factors in this case: political legitimacy, local support, pioneering spirit, promising technology. •This wind power establishment was not seen as a threat to recreation or landscape. •Lessons for today: how to deal with socio-political acceptance when wind power becomes “industrial”

  15. Population Abundance of the Endangered Galapagos Sea Lion Zalophus wollebaeki in the Southeastern Galapagos Archipelago.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjorie Riofrío-Lazo

    Full Text Available There is great concern regarding the population status of the endangered Galapagos sea lion (GSL because it has drastically decreased over the last 30 years. We determined the population size and growth trend of the GSL in the Galapagos southeastern region (SER at three population levels based on the available census data: 1 SER (2011-2015, including 13 rookeries on the four islands San Cristóbal (SC, Española, Floreana, and Santa Fe, comprising 58% of the archipelago's population; 2 SC (2011-2015, including five rookeries, comprising 52% of the SER population; and 3 El Malecón (2005-2015, the largest rookery on SC and in the SER (43% of the population on SC and 22% in the SER. We also analyzed the influence of environmental variability on pup abundance in these rookeries. The current GSL population size in the SER, after applying correction factors to the counts, is estimated at approximately 2300-4100 individuals and has declined at an average annual rate (ʎ of 8.7% over the last five years. A similar trend was determined for SC but at ʎ = 1.4% during the same period. For El Malecón, a count-based population viability analysis using a diffusion approximation approach showed that the population increased from 2005 to 2015 at ʎ = 2%. The interannual variability in pup abundance was associated with anomalies in sea surface temperature linked to oceanographic-atmospheric events, which impact the abundance and availability of prey, and ultimately may determine the population's reproductive success. Since rookeries in the SER had different population trends, management actions should be implemented based on their specific conditions, giving priority to rookeries such as El Malecón, which, despite showing a slightly increasing population trend, still faces a high risk of extinction due to anthropogenic disturbances and environmental variability that may affect its growth and survival.

  16. Nitrates in Groundwater Discharges from the Azores Archipelago: Occurrence and Fluxes to Coastal Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Virgílio Cruz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater discharge is an important vector of chemical fluxes to the ocean environment, and as the concentration of nutrients is often higher in discharging groundwater, the deterioration of water quality in the receiving environment can be the result. The main objective of the present paper is to estimate the total NO3 flux to coastal water bodies due to groundwater discharge in the volcanic Azores archipelago (Portugal. Therefore, 78 springs discharging from perched-water bodies have been monitored since 2003, corresponding to cold (mean = 14.9 °C and low mineralized (47.2–583 µS/cm groundwater from the sodium-bicarbonate to sodium-chloride water types. A set of 36 wells was also monitored, presenting groundwater with a higher mineralization. The nitrate content in springs range between 0.02 and 37.4 mg/L, and the most enriched samples are associated to the impact of agricultural activities. The total groundwater NO3 flux to the ocean is estimated in the range of 5.23 × 103 to 190.6 × 103 mol/km2/a (∑ = ~523 × 103 mol/km2/a, exceeding the total flux associated to surface runoff (∑ = ~281 × 103 mol/km2/a. In the majority of the islands, the estimated fluxes are higher than runoff fluxes, with the exception of Pico (47.2%, Corvo (46% and Faial (7.2%. The total N-NO3 flux estimated in the Azores (~118.9 × 103 mol/km2/a is in the lower range of estimates made in other volcanic islands.

  17. Seasonal-dial shifts of ichthyoplankton assemblages and plastic debris around an Equatorial Atlantic archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Araújo Lima

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Seasonality was a stronger influence in the ichthyoplankton assemblages around the Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago (SPSPA than distance from the islands. Plastic debris were ubiquitous and although it presented diel trends, no other spatiotemporal patterns was showed. Larval Oxyporhamphus micropterus was the most important taxa (29.37% of the total catch, followed by Ceratoscopelus warmingii and Entomacrodus vomerianus. Exocoetidae eggs represented 41.01%. Mesopelagic fish larvae dominated the community. Myctophidae had the highest species richness (15. Four larval fish assemblages occured: (1 nighttime demersal/bathydemersal (Anguillidae, Congridae; (2 daytime mesopelagic/bathypelagic/epipelagic (Myctophidae, Cyclothone acclinidens; (3 daytime epipelagic (Exocoetidae, Coryphaena hippurus, Thunnus albacares and (4 nighttime reef and demersal (Blennidae, Pomacentridae, Lutjanidae. The dry season (lower temperature, higher chlorophyll a and higher SW wind velocity influenced the first two assemblages. The rainy season (higher temperatures and lower NW wind velocity influenced the last two. Nighttime abundance of dominant species in the rainy season suggests diel vertical migration nearshore. Plastics were 2.12 times more abundant than the most abundant fish larvae. Comparable amounts of larvae and plastics in the water column increase the chances of interaction between these two compartments and might disturb the local marine food web and promote the transfer of microplastic from one habitat to another, especially when smaller taxa contaminated by ingested fragments are preyed by migratory animals such as marine birds and tuna. A study around the area concluded that at least a part of the plastic debris can have local source due to fishing activities. Small-scale oceanographic mechanisms such as the interaction between the topography and currents (SEC and EUC seem to be responsible for the retention of fish eggs, fish larvae and plastics

  18. Patterns of coral disease across the Hawaiian archipelago: relating disease to environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta S Aeby

    Full Text Available In Hawaii, coral reefs occur across a gradient of biological (host abundance, climatic (sea surface temperature anomalies and anthropogenic conditions from the human-impacted reefs of the main Hawaiian Islands (MHI to the pristine reefs of the northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI. Coral disease surveys were conducted at 142 sites from across the Archipelago and disease patterns examined. Twelve diseases were recorded from three coral genera (Porites, Montipora, Acropora with Porites having the highest prevalence. Porites growth anomalies (PorGAs were significantly more prevalent within and indicative of reefs in the MHI and Porites trematodiasis (PorTrm was significantly more prevalent within and indicative of reefs in the NWHI. Porites tissue loss syndrome (PorTLS was also important in driving regional differences but that relationship was less clear. These results highlight the importance of understanding disease ecology when interpreting patterns of disease occurrence. PorTrm is caused by a parasitic flatworm that utilizes multiple hosts during its life cycle (fish, mollusk and coral. All three hosts must be present for the disease to occur and higher host abundance leads to higher disease prevalence. Thus, a high prevalence of PorTrm on Hawaiian reefs would be an indicator of a healthy coral reef ecosystem. In contrast, the high occurrence of PorGAs within the MHI suggests that PorGAs are related, directly or indirectly, to some environmental co-factor associated with increased human population sizes. Focusing on the three indicator diseases (PorGAs, PorTrm, PorTLS we used statistical modeling to examine the underlying associations between disease prevalence and 14 different predictor variables (biotic and abiotic. All three diseases showed positive associations with host abundance and negative associations with thermal stress. The association with human population density differed among disease states with PorGAs showing a positive and Por

  19. Patterns of coral disease across the Hawaiian Archipelago: Relating disease to environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeby, G.S.; Williams, G.J.; Franklin, E.C.; Kenyon, J.; Cox, E.F.; Coles, S.; Work, Thierry M.

    2011-01-01

    In Hawaii, coral reefs occur across a gradient of biological (host abundance), climatic (sea surface temperature anomalies) and anthropogenic conditions from the human-impacted reefs of the main Hawaiian Islands (MHI) to the pristine reefs of the northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI). Coral disease surveys were conducted at 142 sites from across the Archipelago and disease patterns examined. Twelve diseases were recorded from three coral genera (Porites, Montipora, Acropora) with Porites having the highest prevalence. Porites growth anomalies (PorGAs) were significantly more prevalent within and indicative of reefs in the MHI and Porites trematodiasis (PorTrm) was significantly more prevalent within and indicative of reefs in the NWHI. Porites tissue loss syndrome (PorTLS) was also important in driving regional differences but that relationship was less clear. These results highlight the importance of understanding disease ecology when interpreting patterns of disease occurrence. PorTrm is caused by a parasitic flatworm that utilizes multiple hosts during its life cycle (fish, mollusk and coral). All three hosts must be present for the disease to occur and higher host abundance leads to higher disease prevalence. Thus, a high prevalence of PorTrm on Hawaiian reefs would be an indicator of a healthy coral reef ecosystem. In contrast, the high occurrence of PorGAs within the MHI suggests that PorGAs are related, directly or indirectly, to some environmental co-factor associated with increased human population sizes. Focusing on the three indicator diseases (PorGAs, PorTrm, PorTLS) we used statistical modeling to examine the underlying associations between disease prevalence and 14 different predictor variables (biotic and abiotic). All three diseases showed positive associations with host abundance and negative associations with thermal stress. The association with human population density differed among disease states with PorGAs showing a positive and PorTrm showing

  20. Geological hazards in the Azores archipelago: Volcanic terrain instability and human vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malheiro, A.

    2006-08-01

    The islands of the Azores archipelago are geologically young and located in a tectonically and volcanically active region. Not surprisingly, the islands are subject to many geological hazards, including earthquakes, landslides, and coastal erosion; some selected examples are discussed in this paper. As demonstrated by two recent earthquakes (1980, Terceira; 1998, Faial), the principal damage was related to one or more of these factors: (1) unsafe location of structures near faults; (2) unstable foundation soils; (3) poor quality of building materials and construction methods; (4) disregard of building codes; and (5) lack of building maintenance. Major landsliding events in the Azores (e.g., Ponta da Fajã, Ribeira Quente, and Fajã dos Cubres) typically are triggered by intense, long-duration precipitation and (or) earthquake-induced ground shaking. The loose, unconsolidated nature of the rocks and soils of these volcanic islands is another significant contributing factor, sometimes aggravated by ground instability caused by human activity. Coastal erosion is prevalent on the north coast of São Miguel and the south coast of Faial, mostly resulting from natural circumstances (e.g., steepness of cliffs, differential erosion, intense wave action during storms) and also from human activity (e.g., poorly engineered drainage works on cliff faces). Where severe, coastal erosion can pose a risk to populations and societal infrastructures situated near the tops of the seacliffs. To mitigate the risk of these and other geological hazards in the Azores, it is necessary to (1) prepare hazards and risks maps of the affected areas; (2) adopt prudent land-use planning that considers the hazards; (3) upgrade the building codes in the hazardous areas; (4) initiate slope-stabilization programs; (5) preserve the natural environmental integrity of the regions; and (6) educate the affected populace and governmental officials about the possibilities and consequences of hazardous

  1. Mangrove forest composition and structure in Las Perlas Archipelago, Pacific Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Tom; Cunningham, Sarah L; Guzmán, Héctor M; Mair, James M; Guevara, José M; Betts, Tanja

    2010-09-01

    Mangrove forest is an important ecosystem that provides many services, but in Panama, as in other countries, they are under threat due to a variety of human activities. Nowadays, large areas of mangroves continue to be lost without been described and lack of management strategies. This study focused on the mangrove structure in the two largest islands, Isla del Rey and Isla San Jose, of Las Perlas Archipelago (LPA), Pacific Panama. Assessment of Landsat satellite imagery revealed loss of mangroves in the LPA of 965ha in the period 1974-1986, and 248ha in the period 1986-2000. The majority of the loss (>77%) from the two study islands was due to timber extraction and agricultural development. In May 2006, permanent plots following the CARICOMP protocol were established at two sites on Isla del Rey (R1 and R2) and one site on Isla San Jose (SJ) where standardized metrics such as species, height and diameter at breast height of adult trees and seedlings were recorded. Forest structure differed at the three sites, although R1 and R2 were most similar. At R1, Laguncularia racemosa was the important species and R2 was dominated by Pelliciera rhizophorae. Examination of the forest structure and classified imagery indicated that these sites are spatially dynamic and appear to be rejuvenating. The forest structure would indicate that the sites have been growth-limited previously by human activities and possibly by other factors. SJ was dominated by Rhizophora mangle and appears to have a mature forest with large adult trees and few seedlings. It does not appear to have shown the same extent of spatial regrowth as the other two sites between 1986 and 2000 and is relatively static. The establishment of permanent plots and monitoring will be useful as part of the management plan, as the LPA shows a variety of mangrove structures and could be subject to further coastal development.

  2. Drivers of shoreline change in atoll reef islands of the Tuamotu Archipelago, French Polynesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvat, Virginie K. E.; Salvat, Bernard; Salmon, Camille

    2017-11-01

    This paper increases by around 30% the sample of atoll reef islands studied from a shoreline change perspective, and covers an under-studied geographical area, i.e. the French Tuamotu Archipelago. It brings new irrefutable evidences on the persistence of reef islands over the last decades, as 77% of the 111 study islands exhibited areal stability while 15% and 8% showed expansion and contraction, respectively. This paper also addresses a key research gap by interpreting the major local drivers controlling recent shoreline and island change, i.e. tropical cyclones and seasonal swells, sediment supply by coral reefs and human activities. The 1983 tropical cyclones had contrasting impacts, depending on the shoreline indicator considered. While they generally caused a marked retreat of the stability line, the base of the beach advanced at some locations, as a result of either sediment reworking or fresh sediment inputs. The post-cyclone fair weather period was characterised by reversed trends indicating island morphological readjustment. Cyclonic waves contributed to island upwards growth, which reached up to 1 m in places, through the transfer of sediments up onto the island surface. However, the steep outer slopes of atolls limited sediment transfers to the reef flat and island system. We found that 57% of the study islands are disturbed by human activities, including 'rural' and uninhabited islands. Twenty-six percent of these islands have lost the capacity to respond to ocean-climate related pressures, including the 'capital' islands concentrating atolls' population, infrastructures and economic activities, which is preoccupying under climate change.

  3. La Galite Archipelago (Tunisia, North Africa): Stratigraphic and petrographic revision and insights for geodynamic evolution of the Maghrebian Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belayouni, Habib; Brunelli, Daniele; Clocchiatti, Roberto; Di Staso, Angelida; El Hassani, Iz-Eddine El Amrani; Guerrera, Francesco; Kassaa, Samia; Ouazaa, Nejia Laridhi; Martín, Manuel Martín; Serrano, Francisco; Tramontana, Mario

    2010-01-01

    The location of the La Galite Archipelago on the Internal/External Zones of the Maghrebian Chain holds strong interest for the reconstruction of the geodynamic evolution of the Mesomediterranean Microplate-Africa Plate Boundary Zone. New stratigraphic and petrographic data on sedimentary successions intruded upon by plutonic rocks enabled a better definition of the palaeogeographic and palaeotectonic evolutionary model of the area during the early-middle Miocene. The lower Miocene sedimentary units ( La Galite Flysch and Numidian-like Flysch) belong to the Mauritanian (internal) and Massylian (external) sub-Domains of the Maghrebian Chain, respectively. These deposits are related to a typical syn-orogenic deposition in the Maghrebian Flysch Basin Domain, successively backthrusted above the internal units. The backthrusting age is post-Burdigalian (probably Langhian-Serravallian) and the compressional phase represents the last stage in the building of the accretionary wedge of the Maghrebian orogen. These flysch units may be co-relatable to the similar well-known formations along the Maghrebian and Betic Chains. The emplacement of potassic peraluminous magmatism, caused local metamorphism in the Late Serravallian-Early Tortonian (14-10 Ma), after the last compressional phase (backthrusting), during an extensional tectonic event. This extensional phase is probably due to the opening of a slab break-off in the deep subduction system. La Galite Archipelago represents a portion of the Maghrebian Flysch Basin tectonically emplaced above the southern margin of the "Mesomediterranean Microplate" which separated the Piemontese-Ligurian Ocean from a southern oceanic branch of the Tethys (i.e. the Maghrebian Flysch Basin). The possible presence of an imbricate thrust system between La Galite Archipelago and northern Tunisia may be useful to exclude the petroleum exploration from the deformed sectors of the offshore area considered.

  4. Diversity and distribution of symbiodinium associated with seven common coral species in the Chagos Archipelago, central Indian Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Yin Yang

    Full Text Available The Chagos Archipelago designated as a no-take marine protected area in 2010, lying about 500 km south of the Maldives in the Indian Ocean, has a high conservation priority, particularly because of its fast recovery from the ocean-wide massive coral mortality following the 1998 coral bleaching event. The aims of this study were to examine Symbiodinium diversity and distribution associated with scleractinian corals in five atolls of the Chagos Archipelago, spread over 10,000 km(2. Symbiodinium clade diversity in 262 samples of seven common coral species, Acropora muricata, Isopora palifera, Pocillopora damicornis, P. verrucosa, P. eydouxi, Seriatopora hystrix, and Stylophora pistillata were determined using PCR-SSCP of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1, PCR-DDGE of ITS2, and phylogenetic analyses. The results indicated that Symbiodinium in clade C were the dominant symbiont group in the seven coral species. Our analysis revealed types of Symbiodinium clade C specific to coral species. Types C1 and C3 (with C3z and C3i variants were dominant in Acroporidae and C1 and C1c were the dominant types in Pocilloporidae. We also found 2 novel ITS2 types in S. hystrix and 1 novel ITS2 type of Symbiodinium in A. muricata. Some colonies of A. muricata and I. palifera were also associated with Symbiodinium A1. These results suggest that corals in the Chagos Archipelago host different assemblages of Symbiodinium types then their conspecifics from other locations in the Indian Ocean; and that future research will show whether these patterns in Symbiodinium genotypes may be due to local adaptation to specific conditions in the Chagos.

  5. Colonization and diversification of aquatic insects on three Macaronesian archipelagos using 59 nuclear loci derived from a draft genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutschmann, Sereina; Detering, Harald; Simon, Sabrina; Funk, David H; Gattolliat, Jean-Luc; Hughes, Samantha J; Raposeiro, Pedro M; DeSalle, Rob; Sartori, Michel; Monaghan, Michael T

    2017-02-01

    The study of processes driving diversification requires a fully sampled and well resolved phylogeny, although a lack of phylogenetic markers remains a limitation for many non-model groups. Multilocus approaches to the study of recent diversification provide a powerful means to study the evolutionary process, but their application remains restricted because multiple unlinked loci with suitable variation for phylogenetic or coalescent analysis are not available for most non-model taxa. Here we identify novel, putative single-copy nuclear DNA (nDNA) phylogenetic markers to study the colonization and diversification of an aquatic insect species complex, Cloeon dipterum L. 1761 (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae), in Macaronesia. Whole-genome sequencing data from one member of the species complex were used to identify 59 nDNA loci (32,213 base pairs), followed by Sanger sequencing of 29 individuals sampled from 13 islands of three Macaronesian archipelagos. Multispecies coalescent analyses established six putative species. Three island species formed a monophyletic clade, with one species occurring on the Azores, Europe and North America. Ancestral state reconstruction indicated at least two colonization events from the mainland (to the Canaries, respectively Azores) and one within the archipelago (between Madeira and the Canaries). Random subsets of the 59 loci showed a positive linear relationship between number of loci and node support. In contrast, node support in the multispecies coalescent tree was negatively correlated with mean number of phylogenetically informative sites per locus, suggesting a complex relationship between tree resolution and marker variability. Our approach highlights the value of combining genomics, coalescent-based phylogeography, species delimitation, and phylogenetic reconstruction to resolve recent diversification events in an archipelago species complex. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A complex evolutionary history in a remote archipelago: phylogeography and morphometrics of the Hawaiian endemic Ligia isopods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A Santamaria

    Full Text Available Compared to the striking diversification and levels of endemism observed in many terrestrial groups within the Hawaiian Archipelago, marine invertebrates exhibit remarkably lower rates of endemism and diversification. Supralittoral invertebrates restricted to specific coastal patchy habitats, however, have the potential for high levels of allopatric diversification. This is the case of Ligia isopods endemic to the Hawaiian Archipelago, which most likely arose from a rocky supralittoral ancestor that colonized the archipelago via rafting, and diversified into rocky supralittoral and inland lineages. A previous study on populations of this isopod from O'ahu and Kaua'i revealed high levels of allopatric differentiation, and suggested inter-island historical dispersal events have been rare. To gain a better understanding on the diversity and evolution of this group, we expanded prior phylogeographic work by incorporating populations from unsampled main Hawaiian Islands (Maui, Moloka'i, Lana'i, and Hawai'i, increasing the number of gene markers (four mitochondrial and two nuclear genes, and conducting Maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses. Our study revealed new lineages and expanded the distribution range of several lineages. The phylogeographic patterns of Ligia in the study area are complex, with Hawai'i, O'ahu, and the Maui-Nui islands sharing major lineages, implying multiple inter-island historical dispersal events. In contrast, the oldest and most geographically distant of the major islands (Kaua'i shares no lineages with the other islands. Our results did not support the monophyly of all the supralittoral lineages (currently grouped into L. hawaiensis, or the monophyly of the terrestrial lineages (currently grouped into L. perkinsi, implying more than one evolutionary transition between coastal and inland forms. Geometric-morphometric analyses of three supralittoral clades revealed significant body shape differences among them

  7. Characterization of hepatitis B virus infection in illicit drug users in the Marajó Archipelago, northern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Andréia P; Pacheco, Suzy D B; Silva, Fabricio Q; Pinheiro, Luiz M L; Castro, Jairo A A; Amaral, Carlos E M; Hermes, Renata B; Fischer, Benedikt; Pinho, João R R; Lemos, José Alexandre R; Oliveira-Filho, Aldemir B

    2017-01-01

    South America is considered to have a low prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, although areas with a relatively high prevalence have been identified in northern Brazil. Few epidemiological studies of populations at risk of HBV infection are available for this region. Given this, in the present study, we investigated the prevalence of HBV and the factors associated with infection among illicit drug users (DUs) in the Marajó Archipelago, northern Brazil. In this cross-sectional study, we collected samples and epidemiological information from DUs in 11 municipalities of the Marajó Archipelago. The diagnosis was established by ELISA and real-time PCR; and genotyping was done by multiplex real-time PCR. Statistical modeling was based on simple and multiple logistical regressions with the Hosmer-Lemeshow test. The mean age of the 466 DUs was 28.4 years, and most were male. The most-consumed illicit drugs were crack cocaine and marijuana. In all, 171 DUs were exposed to HBV, with genotypes A, D and F being identified. The factors associated with higher frequencies of HBV infection were (i) male gender, (ii) age above 35 years, (iii) anti-HIV positivity, (iv) tattoos, (v) the use of injected drugs, (vi) the use of illicit drugs for more than 3 years, (vii) sexual relations without protection, (viii) sexual relations with another DU, and (ix) more than 10 sexual partners in the past 24 months. In summary, this study provides important insights into the dynamics of HBV infection among DUs in the Marajó Archipelago. We hope that these findings will contribute to the development of strategies, actions and public health policies aimed at preventing and controlling this viral infection more effectively.

  8. Applying Fishers' ecological knowledge to construct past and future lobster stocks in the Juan Fernandez Archipelago, Chile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler D Eddy

    Full Text Available Over-exploited fisheries are a common feature of the modern world and a range of solutions including area closures (marine reserves; MRs, effort reduction, gear changes, ecosystem-based management, incentives and co-management have been suggested as techniques to rebuild over-fished populations. Historic accounts of lobster (Jasus frontalis on the Chilean Juan Fernández Archipelago indicate a high abundance at all depths (intertidal to approximately 165 m, but presently lobsters are found almost exclusively in deeper regions of their natural distribution. Fishers' ecological knowledge (FEK tells a story of serial depletion in lobster abundance at fishing grounds located closest to the fishing port with an associated decline in catch per unit effort (CPUE throughout recent history. We have re-constructed baselines of lobster biomass throughout human history on the archipelago using historic data, the fishery catch record and FEK to permit examination of the potential effects of MRs, effort reduction and co-management (stewardship of catch to restore stocks. We employed a bioeconomic model using FEK, fishery catch and effort data, underwater survey information, predicted population growth and response to MR protection (no-take to explore different management strategies and their trade-offs to restore stocks and improve catches. Our findings indicate that increased stewardship of catch coupled with 30% area closure (MR provides the best option to reconstruct historic baselines. Based on model predictions, continued exploitation under the current management scheme is highly influenced by annual fluctuations and unsustainable. We propose a community-based co-management program to implement a MR in order to rebuild the lobster population while also providing conservation protection for marine species endemic to the Archipelago.

  9. Urgent Safety Measures in Japan after Great East Japan Earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniura, Wataru; Otani, Hiroyasu

    2012-01-01

    Due to tsunami triggered by the Great East Japan Earthquake, the operating and refueling reactor facilities at Fukushima Dai-ichi and Dai-ni Nuclear Power Plants caused a nuclear hazard. Given the fact, Japanese electric power companies voluntarily began to compile various urgent measures against tsunami. And then the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) ordered the licensees to put into practice the voluntarily compiled urgent safety measures, in order to ensure the effectiveness of the means for recovering cooling functions along with avoiding the release of radioactive substances to the possible minimum, even if a huge tsunami following a severe earthquake hits nuclear power plants. The following describes the state and the effect of the urgent safety measures implemented for 44 reactors (under operation) and 1 reactor (under construction) in Japan and also describes the measures to be implemented by the licensees of reactor operation in the future.

  10. First records of aphid-pathogenic Entomophthorales in the sub-Antarctic archipelagos of Crozet and Kerguelen

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard Papierok; Charles-Antoine Dedryver; Maurice Hullé

    2016-01-01

    Since the 20th century, the sub-Antarctic islands have suffered an increasing number of biological invasions. Despite the large number of publications on this topic, there is a lack of knowledge on parasitism rates of invasive species and on the role of parasites and pathogens to regulate their populations. Six aphid species have been introduced in the archipelagos of Crozet (Île de la Possession, 46° 25’ S–51° 51’ E) and Kerguelen (49° 21’ S–70° 13’ E). Five of these species were found infec...

  11. A five million year record of compositional variations in mantle sources to magmatism on Santiago, southern Cape Verde archipelago

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barker, Abigail K.; Holm, Paul Martin; Peate, David W.

    2010-01-01

    High-precision Pb isotope data and Sr-Nd-Hf isotope data are presented together with major and trace element data for samples spanning the 4.6 Ma history of volcanism at Santiago, in the southern Cape Verde islands. Pb isotope data confirm the positive ¿8/4 signature of the southern islands...... indicating that the north-south compositional heterogeneity in the Cape Verde archipelago has persisted for at least 4.6 Ma. The Santiago volcanics show distinct compositional differences between the old, intermediate and young volcanics, and suggest greater involvement of an enriched mantle (EM1)-like...

  12. Japan reforms its nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2013-01-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident deeply questioned the bases of nuclear safety and nuclear safety regulation in Japan. It also resulted in a considerable loss of public confidence in the safety of nuclear power across the world. Although the accident was caused by natural phenomena, institutional and human factors also largely contributed to its devastating consequences, as shown by the Japanese Diet's and Government's investigation reports. 'Both regulators and licensees were held responsible and decided to fully reconsider the existing approaches to nuclear safety. Consequently, the regulatory system underwent extensive reform based on the lessons learned from the accident,' Yoshihiro Nakagome, the President of Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organisation, an ETSON member TSO, explains. (orig.)

  13. Japan og Singapore i Arktis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonami, Aki; Watters, Stewart

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing awareness in the Nordic region of Asia’s increased interest in the Arctic region and Arctic affairs, including in relation to Greenland. However, with the possible exception of China, there has been little Western scholarly work to analyze exactly why Asian countries...... are interested in the Arctic. Looking at the Arctic engagement of Japan and Singapore, this paper finds that their interest in the Polar Regions is not necessarily a new phenomenon and that Arctic policy, as with the development of other foreign policy objectives, is a complex mix of national, bureaucratic...... and group interests. For Greenlandic and Danish policymakers, it may be useful to understand the genesis of Japan and Singapore’s Arctic policies and that their interest is complex and multi-faceted....

  14. Another Neolithic in Holocene Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Nishida

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Japanese Islands, small sedentary villages sustained by hunting, gathering, fish- ing and cultivation emerged around 10 000 years ago. This life style of the Jomon people continued for around 7000 years without any drastic changes in material culture, subsistence strategy and vil- lage size until the diffusion of continental civilization into Japan approximately 2500 years ago. This indicates that the incipient sedentary society of the Jomon Period was very stable, a state which is not indicative of civilized society after that time. After the prehistoric situation in Japan, we are able to classify sedentary society into two phases; sedentism with stability and sedentism with instability (civilized society. Therefore it is possible to say that the emergence of sedentism and cultivation are not direct factors which promote the emergence of civilization.

  15. WDC Activities in Japan, 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Watanabe

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper briefly reviews the activities of the International Council for Science (ICSU World Data Centers (WDCs in Japan at a time of great change in the data and information structures of the ICSU ? the creation of the World Data System (WDS in 2009. Seven WDCs are currently operating in Japan: the WDC for Airglow, the WDC for Cosmic Rays, the WDC for Geomagnetism, Kyoto, the WDC for Ionosphere, the WDC for Solar Radio Emission, and the WDC for Space Science Satellites. Although these WDCs are highly active, along-term support system must be established to ensure the stewardship and provision of quality-assessed data and data services to the international science community.

  16. Accelerator business in Japan expanding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Accelerators have become to be used increasingly in Japan in such fields as medicine, physics research and industry. This has caused stiff competition for market share by the manufacturers of accelerators. Electron beam accelerators for industrial use provide an indispensable means for adding values to products, for example, electric cables with incombustible insulators. Linear accelerators for the nondestructive inspection of nuclear components have been widely installed at equipment manufacturing plants. Active efforts have been exerted to develop small synchrotron radiation accelerators for next generation electronic industry. Cyclotrons for producing short life radioisotopes for medical diagnosis and electron beam accelerators for radiation therapy are also used routinely. The suppliers of accelerators include the companies manufacturing heavy electric machinery, heavy machinery and the engineering division of steelmakers. Accelerator physics is being formed, but universities do not yet offer the course regarding accelerators. Accelerator use in Japan and the trend of accelerator manufacturers are reported. (K.I.)

  17. The japan a nuclear power?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cumin, D.; Joubert, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    This work analyzes the Japan nuclear policy, in the frame of its foreign and safety policy in Pacific Asia, since the end of the cold war, especially the relations with the Usa and China. The Japan is a civil power because it has submitted the military institution to juridical restrictions and because it does not rely on the armed force to promote its national interests. The anti nuclear speech is joined with the acknowledgement of the dissuasion necessity, of the control of industrial processes and energy channels susceptible of military applications. Cultivating the ambiguity, the Japanese government can send a dissuasive message, perfectly legible, kind of communication of latent intimidation constituted by the virtual nuclear power of a state that takes part to the non proliferation treaty. (N.C.)

  18. Use of radioisotopes in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foeldiak, G.

    1974-01-01

    A survey of the following general data on the use of radioisotopes in Japan is given (from the material of the 11th Japan Conference on Radioisotopes): 1. number of the organizations using radioactive isotopes, grouped according to special working fields and instruments; 2. amount of the unsealed sources (Ci) used in the different special working fields in 1971, 4. amount of the sealed sources (Ci) used between 1966 and 1971. 5. number of the institutions using sealed sources, grouped according to special working fields (March, 1972), 6. number of the accelerators applied, grouped according to special working fields (March, 1972), 7. number of the nuclear instruments in the education and research institutes (March, 1972), 8. amount of the collected radioactive waste material between 1960 and 1971 (number of containers). (K.A.)

  19. Japan's Trade Policy with Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Shujiro Urata

    2014-01-01

    Japan's economic relations with Asian countries have rapidly become increasingly close in recent years, mainly through trade and direct investment. In Asia, Japanese companies have pursued a gfragmentation strategy, h which refers to breaking down production processes and assigning each process, through direct investment, to the country or region suited to implement it most efficiently. As a result, when a certain product is manufactured, its intermediate materials and parts are actively trad...

  20. Supply of radiopharmaceuticals in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genka, Tsuguo

    2006-01-01

    Detailed statistics of the application of radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine in Japan are summarized. They are the amount of supply in terms of monetary value and radioactivity, categorized usages of in vivo and in vitro, number of facilities using the radiopharmaceuticals for the time span of 5 years (1998-2002). Obvious tendency of decrease for in vitro use can be seen while the total amount of radiopharmaceuticals is almost unchanged. (author)

  1. Japan Hadron Facility (JHF) project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagamiya, S.

    1999-01-01

    The Japan Hadron Facility (JHF) is the next accelerator project proposed at KEK to promote exciting sciences by utilising high-intensity proton beams. The project is characterised by three unique features: hadronic beams of the world's highest intensity; a variety of beams from one accelerator complex; frontier sciences to cover a broad research area including nuclear physics, particle physics, material sciences and life sciences by utilising a common accelerator complex. (author)

  2. Reactor construction programme in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1959-04-15

    In September last year, the Japanese Government requested the International Atomic Energy Agency to supply three tons of natural uranium for a research reactor, and the Agency has now arranged for its sale to Japan. The metal will be supplied in ingot form and after fabrication it will be used as fuel in a reactor of the natural uranium, heavy water type. The uranium will be obtained from Canada and sold to Japan by IAEA. The Agency had invited tenders for its supply, and after considering the tenders received, the Agency's Board of Governors decided that the Canadian offer to the Agency of three tons of natural uranium free of charge should be accepted and that the selling price to Japan should be US $35. 50 per kilogramme. The price takes into account Article XIV/E of the Agency's Statute which says that the Agency shall establish a scale of charges (including those for storage and handling) for materials furnished to Member States, and that the scale shall be designed to produce revenues to meet expenses in connexion with materials acquired by the Agency and costs of materials and services provided by it under agreements with one or more members. This is the first operation of its kind to be undertaken by the Agency, and the reactor for which the supply is being made will be the first in Japan to be constructed by Japanese scientists and technicians. IAEA's Board of Governors has given the necessary approval to the reactor project for which the Agency is providing assistance

  3. Romanticising Shinsengumi in Contemporary Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa Lee

    2011-01-01

    Shinsengumi, a group of young men recruited by the Bakufu to protect Kyoto from radical Imperial House loyalists in the tumultuous Bakumatsu period, is romanticised and idolised in Japan despite its limited place in history. This article attempts to comprehend this phenomenon by locating the closest crystallisation of popularly imagined Shinsengumi in Moeyo ken, a popular historical fiction by Shiba Ryōtarō. Antonio Gramsci explains readers are attracted to popular literature because it refle...

  4. Japan Report - Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-10-17

    Stock of Bacillus Subtilis Bacillus subtilis is a relative of bacillus natto that has been in use in Japan from the ancient times. It is safe and...addition to the advantages of this combination of personal styles, the two had great confidence in each other. Chairman Kaneo is the so-called "fair...sixth year of his presidency. That has been just the right age for a president, and given these advantages Sunagane has a good chance of becoming

  5. Potato irradiation technology in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takehisa, M.

    1981-01-01

    After the National research program on potato irradiation, the public consumption of potatoes irradiated to a maximum of 15 krad was authorized by the Ministry of Welfare. Shihoro Agricultural Cooperative Association, one of the largest potato producers in Japan with an annual production of 200,000 tons, intended an application of the irradiation to their potato storage system. This paper describes the technological background of the potato irradiation facility and operational experience. (author)

  6. Japan: 45 Years of INIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonezawa, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    I would like to congratulate INIS on its 45th anniversary. Japan is a founding member of this international cooperation program, and the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (formerly, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute — JAERI) was appointed as the national center of INIS by the Japanese government. We have contributed to the collection, classification, indexing, abstracting and submission of nuclear literature published in our country, as well as promoted the INIS database within our country. I have been engaged in INIS activities for many years and have a lot of experience with INIS. On the occasion of INIS’ 45th anniversary, I would like to look back on this experience. I started my career at JAERI in 1984. The first regional training seminar for the Far East was held in Tokyo in October 1984. I was assigned to the Library Division of JAERI, but I worked as support staff for the regional training seminar. During the seminar, I had an opportunity to attend the technical tour with the seminar participants to the University of Library and Information Science, research laboratories, etc., in Tsukuba Science City. This was my first involvement with INIS. It was a very impressive and interesting experience

  7. Eosinophilic Chronic Rhinosinusitis in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junichi Ishitoya

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Chronic rhinosinusitis is a heterogeneous disease. In Europe and the United States, it has recently been divided into two subgroups: chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP and chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps (CRSsNP. The majority of CRSwNP cases have a strong tendency to recur after surgery and show eosinophil-dominant inflammation. However, this definition has proved difficult to apply in Japan and East Asia, because more than half of the CRSwNP cases do not exhibit eosinophil-dominant inflammation in these areas of the world. In Japan in the 1990s, refractory CRSwNP to the standard treatment was focused on in clinical studies and the term ''eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis'' (ECRS was introduced to identify this subgroup of chronic rhinosinusitis in 2001.ECRS is different from non-ECRS in terms of many clinical features: symptom appearance, occurrence site of nasal polyps, CT scan findings, the histology of nasal polyps, blood examination findings, clinical course after surgery, and co-morbid asthma, etc. In this review, we describe these clinical features and mention how to make a clinical diagnosis of ECRS as well as how to treat it. Finally, we discuss the pathophysiology of ECRS. The concept of ECRS in Japan would be applicable for CRSwNP in other countries including Europe and the United States. KEY WORDS: chronic rhinosinusitis, clinical feature, diagnosis, eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis, eosinophils

  8. Microsatellite variation suggests a recent fine-scale population structure of Drosophila sechellia, a species endemic of the Seychelles archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrand, Delphine; Vautrin, Dominique; Lachaise, Daniel; Cariou, Marie-Louise

    2011-07-01

    Drosophila sechellia is closely related to the cosmopolitan and widespread model species, D. simulans. This species, endemic to the Seychelles archipelago, is specialized on the fruits of Morinda citrifolia, and harbours the lowest overall genetic diversity compared to other species of Drosophila. This low diversity is associated with a small population size. In addition, no obvious population structure has been evidenced so far across islands of the Seychelles archipelago. Here, a microsatellite panel of 17 loci in ten populations from nine islands of the Seychelles was used to assess the effect of the D. sechellia's fragmented distribution on the fine-scale population genetic structure, the migration pattern, as well as on the demography of the species. Contrary to previous results, also based on microsatellites, no evidence for population contraction in D. sechellia was found. The results confirm previous studies based on gene sequence polymorphism that showed a long-term stable population size for this species. Interestingly, a pattern of Isolation By Distance which had not been described yet in D. sechellia was found, with evidence of first-generation migrants between some neighbouring islands. Bayesian structuring algorithm results were consistent with a split of D. sechellia into two main groups of populations: Silhouette/Mahé versus all the other islands. Thus, microsatellites suggest that variability in D. sechellia is most likely explained by local genetic exchanges between neighbouring islands that have recently resulted in slight differentiation of the two largest island populations from all the others.

  9. Extent of mangrove nursery habitats determines the geographic distribution of a coral reef fish in a South-Pacific archipelago.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christelle Paillon

    Full Text Available Understanding the drivers of species' geographic distribution has fundamental implications for the management of biodiversity. For coral reef fishes, mangroves have long been recognized as important nursery habitats sustaining biodiversity in the Western Atlantic but there is still debate about their role in the Indo-Pacific. Here, we combined LA-ICP-MS otolith microchemistry, underwater visual censuses (UVC and mangrove cartography to estimate the importance of mangroves for the Indo-Pacific coral reef fish Lutjanus fulviflamma in the archipelago of New Caledonia. Otolith elemental compositions allowed high discrimination of mangroves and reefs with 83.8% and 98.7% correct classification, respectively. Reefs were characterized by higher concentrations of Rb and Sr and mangroves by higher concentrations of Ba, Cr, Mn and Sn. All adult L. fulviflamma collected on reefs presented a mangrove signature during their juvenile stage with 85% inhabiting mangrove for their entire juvenile life (about 1 year. The analysis of 2942 UVC revealed that the species was absent from isolated islands of the New Caledonian archipelago where mangroves were absent. Furthermore, strong positive correlations existed between the abundance of L. fulviflamma and the area of mangrove (r = 0.84 for occurrence, 0.93 for density and 0.89 for biomass. These results indicate that mangrove forest is an obligatory juvenile habitat for L. fulviflamma in New Caledonia and emphasize the potential importance of mangroves for Indo-Pacific coral reef fishes.

  10. Effects of habitat and substrate complexity on shallow sublittoral fish assemblages in the Cyclades Archipelago, North-eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. GIAKOUMI

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This is the first study to explore fish community structure and its relations to habitat and topographic complexity in the shallow coastal waters of the Cyclades Archipelago, North-eastern Mediterranean Sea. In situ visual surveys were carried out at 233 sampling sites in 26 islands of the Cyclades Archipelago. Fish community parameters and biomass were estimated across seven substrate types: sand, seagrass, vertical walls, boulders, horizontal/subhorizontal continuous rock, rocky substrate with patches of sand, and rocky substrate with patches of sand and Posidonia oceanica. Topographic complexity and percentage of algal cover were estimated on hard substrate. Substrate type was found to be a determining factor affecting the structure and composition of fish assemblages. Species number, abundance and biomass were significantly lower in sandy areas and always higher on hard substrates, with seagrass habitats presenting intermediate values. Topographic complexity in rocky bottoms did not seem to affect species richness, density or biomass. This study provides a baseline for future evaluation of changes produced by potential management actions such as the creation of marine protected areas in the study region.

  11. Geology of the Severnaya Zemlya Archipelago and the North Kara Terrane in the Russian high Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Henning; Männik, Peep; Gee, David; Proskurnin, Vasilij

    2008-05-01

    The Severnaya Zemlya Archipelago is located at 80°N near the continental shelf break, between the Kara and Laptev seas. Sedimentary successions of Neoproterozoic and Palaeozoic age dominate the bedrock geology. Together with Northern Tajmyr, Severnaya Zemlya constitutes the main land areas of the North Kara Terrane (NKT), which is inferred here to have been a part of the Timanide margin of Baltica, i.e. an integral part of Baltica at least since the Vendian. Vendian turbidites derived from the Timanide Orogen are inferred to have been deposited on Neoproterozoic greenschist facies, granite-intruded basement. Shallow-water siliclastic deposition in the Early to Mid-Cambrian was followed by highly organic-rich shales in the Late Cambrian and influx of more turbidites. An episode of folding, the Kan’on River deformation, separates these formations from the overlying Tremadocian conglomerates and sandstones. In the Early Ordovician, rift-related magmatic rocks accompanied the deposition of variegated marls, sandstones, carbonates and evaporites. Dark shales and gypsiferous limestones characterise the Mid-Ordovician. Late Ordovician quartz-sandstones mark a hiatus, followed by carbonate rocks that extend up into and through most of the Silurian. The latter give way upwards into Old Red Sandstones, which are inferred to have been deposited in a Caledonian foreland basin. Deformation, reaching the area in the latest Devonian or earliest Carboniferous and referred to as the Severnaya Zemlya episode, is thought to be Caledonian-related. The dominating E-vergent structure was controlled by décollement zones in Ordovician evaporite-bearing strata; detachment folds and thrusts developed in the west and were apparently impeded by a barrier of Ordovician igneous rocks in the east. Below the décollement zones, the Neoproterozoic to Early Ordovician succession was deformed into open to close folds. The exposed strata in the lower structural level have been juxtaposed with

  12. [Hurricane Paloma's effects on seagrasses along Jardines de la Reina Archipelago, Cuba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarais, Mayrene; Zúñiga, Adán; Pina, Fabián; Matos, Felipe

    2013-09-01

    Seagrasses are one of the most important coastal ecosystems since they promote organic matter flow, nutrient cycling, food availability and refuge. Until now, reports on damages caused by storms and hurricanes on seagrass beds are uncommon and highly variable. The seagrass meadows of the East end of Jardines de la Reina archipelago were surveyed from Nov. 29th to Dec. 5th of 2008, in order to determinate the effects from the passing of Hurricane Paloma: a category three storm on the Saffir-Simpsom scale. A rapid field assessment of the affected areas was carried out using the manta tow technique. In six sites, seagrass was quantitatively evaluated using a 15cm diameter core (four sampling units per site) and shoot density was calculated. Remote sensing techniques were used to estimate seagrass cover. To estimate the percentage of affected areas, a Region of Interest (ROI) was first created over a Landsat image. The percentage of seagrass affected within the ROI was estimated through direct georeferentiation of the contours of the damaged area and with a comparison to the total seagrass extension. To find possible explanations for damages, a false colour image was created using the near infrared band, to highlight the differences between emerged and submerged zones. The direction of winds was estimated using ArcGis 9.2 creating circular buffers, from the centre of the hurricane and generating lines tangent to the buffers. Seagrass in the region was dominated by the angiosperm Thalassia testudinum. Regional mean density was 1 321 +/- 721 shoots/m2, a value regarded as high for the Caribbean area. Seagrass meadows were partly affected by sediment accumulation on the shoots of T. testudinum and uprooting rhizomes. The 7.6 km2 disturbed area represented 1% of the total seagrass area. Other sites, closer to the centre of the hurricane, did not show any damages on the marine vegetation. The keys location with respect to the hurricane track was the most likely cause of the

  13. Preliminary results of teleseismic double-difference relocation of earthquakes around Indonesian archipelago region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nugraha, Andri Dian, E-mail: andridn104@gmail.com; Widiyantoro, Sri [Global Geophysical Research Group, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia); Shiddiqi, Hasbi Ash [Earth Sciences Graduate Program, Faculty of Earth Sciences and Technology, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia); Ramdhan, Mohamad; Wandono,; Sutiyono,; Handayani, Titi; Nugroho, Hendro [Agency for Meteorology, Climatology, and Geophysics (BMKG), Jakarta (Indonesia)

    2015-04-24

    Indonesian archipelago region is located in active tectonic setting and high seismicity zone. During the last decade, Indonesian was experienced with destructive major earthquakes causing damage and victims. The information of precise earthquake location parameters are very important in partular for earthquake early warning to the society and for advance seismic studies. In this study, we attempted to improve hypocenter location compiled by BMKG for time periods of April, 2009 up to June, 2014 for about 22,000 earthquake events around Indonesian region. For the firts time, we applied teleseismic double-difference relocation algorithm (teletomoDD) to improve hypocenter region in Indonesia region combining regional and teleseismic stations. Hypocenter relocation was performed utilizing local, regional, and teleseismic P-wave arrival time data. Our relocation result show that travel-time RMS errors were greatly reduced compared to the BMKG catalog. Seismicity at shallower depth (less than 50 km) shows significantly improvement especially in depth, and refined shallow geological structures, e.g. trench and major strike slip faults. Clustered seismicity is also detected beneath volcanic region, and probably related volcano activities and also major faults nearby. In the Sunda arc region, seismicity at shallower depth centered at two major distributions parallel to the trench strike direction, i.e. around fore-arc and in mainland that related to major fault, e.g. the Sumatran fault, and volcanic fronts. Below Central Java region, relocated hypocenter result showed double seismic zone pattern. A seismic gap is detected around the Sunda-Banda transition zone where transition between oceanic subduction to continental crust collision of Australian plate occurs. In Eastern Indonesia region, shallow earthquakes are observed related to major strike slip faults, e.g. Sorong and Palu-Koro fault, volcanism, and shallow part of subduction and collision zones. We also compare our

  14. Mangrove forest composition and structure in Las Perlas Archipelago, Pacific Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom McGowan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove forest is an important ecosystem that provides many services, but in Panama, as in other countries, they are under threat due to a variety of human activities. Nowadays, large areas of mangroves continue to be lost without been described and lack of management strategies. This study focused on the mangrove structure in the two largest islands, Isla del Rey and Isla San Jose, of Las Perlas Archipelago (LPA, Pacific Panama. Assessment of Landsat satellite imagery revealed loss of mangroves in the LPA of 965ha in the period 1974-1986, and 248ha in the period 1986-2000. The majority of the loss (>77% from the two study islands was due to timber extraction and agricultural development. In May 2006, permanent plots following the CARICOMP protocol were established at two sites on Isla del Rey (R1 and R2 and one site on Isla San Jose (SJ where standardized metrics such as species, height and diameter at breast height of adult trees and seedlings were recorded. Forest structure differed at the three sites, although R1 and R2 were most similar. At R1, Laguncularia racemosa was the important species and R2 was dominated by Pelliciera rhizophorae. Examination of the forest structure and classified imagery indicated that these sites are spatially dynamic and appear to be rejuvenating. The forest structure would indicate that the sites have been growth-limited previously by human activities and possibly by other factors. SJ was dominated by Rhizophora mangle and appears to have a mature forest with large adult trees and few seedlings. It does not appear to have shown the same extent of spatial regrowth as the other two sites between 1986 and 2000 and is relatively static. The establishment of permanent plots and monitoring will be useful as part of the management plan, as the LPA shows a variety of mangrove structures and could be subject to further coastal development. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (3: 857-869. Epub 2010 September 01.

  15. Outstanding Universal Values of the Korean Archipelago Getbol: Its potential for World Heritage Nomination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, K. S.; Chun, S. S.; Moon, K. O.

    2017-12-01

    The `Korean Archipelago Getbol (KAG; Getbol means tidal flat deposits in Korean)' has developed due to the decreasing accommodation space during the Holocene sea-level rise on the broad epicontinental shelf of the southeastern part of the Yellow Sea. Sedimentation and evolution show a variety of quite distinctive tidal flat patterns with intertidal and subtidal drainage systems depending upon the location and orientation of rocky shores. The following KAG`s Outstanding Universal Values are suggested to support the WH: 1) It is the unique coastal sedimentary environment formed by special geological and oceanographic setting in the world. It is the only place in the world where tide-controlled sedimentation processes have produced special tidal flats surrounding numerous rocky islands on a broad epicontinental shelf near convergent tectonic boundary. Macrotidal currents combined with waves and typhoons in this semi-closed oceanographic setting have provided unique geological and oceanographic conditions for their formation. 2) It diplays the most dynamic and complicated, but stable coastal depositional system in the world. Even though the property has been constantly influenced by strong microtidal currents combined with East Asian Monsoon climate (winter erosion and summer deposition) with occasional typhoons during summer, Getbol has maintained its stable depositional system and tidal flat sediments have been accumulated for the past 9,000 years. Sufficient supply of suspended load through Geumgang River provides sustainable depositional system within the property. Complicated island-topography also produced the most complicated and divese depositional systems as well as the deepest tidal channels in the world. (3) The KAG shows the thickest tidal flat sediments protected by numerous islands. Aggradation of tidal sediments has caught up with the rapid Holocene sealevel rise and produced the thickest tidal flat sediments in the world. As a results, numerous former

  16. A new marine interstitial Psammogammarus (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Melitidae from Gura Ici Island, off western Halmahera (North Moluccas, Indonesia, and an overview of the genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Vonk

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Psammogammarus wallacei sp. n. is described from the shallow marine interstitial of a sand and coral rubble beach on the Gura Ici islands (North Moluccas; Indonesia. This is the first record of this circum-tropical genus from SE Asia, with the geographically closest relative inhabiting the Ryukyu archipelago in Japan. The new species is highly distinctive by the display of sexual dimorphism on pleopod II, with the medial margin of the male proximal article of exopod provided with a comb of short, blunt curved spinules; no other representative of the genus is known to display sexually-dimorphic appendages aside of the gnathopods. The new species is also noteworthy by the outline of the palm margin of male gnathopod II, hardly excavated, and by showing a carpus broader than long. An overview of the genus Psammogammarus with 14 species to date is provided.

  17. The Evolution of Japan’s Constitution and Implications for U.S. Forces on Okinawa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    with tales of farmers repulsing invaders, engendering the art of karate . Okinawa, the main island of the Ryukyu (Liu-ch’iu in Chinese) island chain... injuries ; and finally a U.S. military airplane’s crash into an 61 Eleven percent of all the islands which comprise the Prefecture of Okinawa are...elementary school in June 1959, resulting in the deaths and injuries of many Okinawan children.63 The “connect-the-dots” experience

  18. Implementation of the Additional Protocol in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, T.

    2001-01-01

    The Additional Protocol between Japan and the IAEA entered into force in December 1999. To come into force a series of implementation trials of Additional Protocol was carried out at two Japanese representative nuclear research centers, i.e. Tokai Research Establishment of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and Oarai Engineering Center of Japan Nuclear Fuel Cycle Development Institute (JNC). These trials were proposed by Japan and were conducted in cooperation with the IAEA Secretariat. In addition, Japan amended 'the Law for the Regulation of Reactors etc.', to collect adequate information to submit to the IAEA, to arrange the surrounding for the complementary access, etc. In addition, Japan Submitted the Initial Declaration of the Additional Protocol within 180 days of the entry into force of the Protocol, in the middle of June, 2000

  19. The Causality Study of External Environment Analysis (EEA), Internal Environment Analysis (IEA), Strategy Implementation on Study Program Performance at Vocational High School (VHS) in Nias Archipelago, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waruwu, Binahati; Sitompul, Harun; Manullang, Belferik

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this study are to find out the significant effect of: (1) EEA on strategy implementation, (2) IEA on strategy implementation, (3) EEA on study program performance, (4) IEA on study program performance, and (5) strategy implementation on study program performance of Vocational High School (VHS) in Nias Archipelago. The population of…

  20. Brucellosis seroprevalence in Bali cattle with reproductive failure in South Sulawesi and Brucella abortus biovar 1 genotypes in the Eastern Indonesian archipelago

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muflihanah, Hanah; Hatta, Mochammad; Rood, Ente; Scheelbeek, Pauline; Abdoel, Theresia H.; Smits, Henk L.

    2013-01-01

    Brucellosis is a major cause of infertility and reproductive failure in livestock. While cattle in the Eastern Indonesian archipelago suffers from reproductive problems information on bovine brucellosis in the region is fragmentary. The control of brucellosis requires a major and prolonged effort

  1. Early warning indicators for river nutrient and sediment loads in tropical seagrass beds: A benchmark from a near-pristine archipelago in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Katwijk, M.; Van der Welle, M.E.W.; Lucassen, E.C.H.E.T.; Vonk, J.A.; Christianen, M.J.A.; Kiswara, W.; Inayat al Hakim, I.; Arifin, A.; Bouma, T.J.; Roelofs, J.G.M.; Lamers, L.P.M.

    2011-01-01

    In remote, tropical areas human influences increase, potentially threatening pristine seagrass systems. We aim (i) to provide a bench-mark for a near-pristine seagrass system in an archipelago in East Kalimantan, by quantifying a large spectrum of abiotic and biotic properties in seagrass meadows

  2. First record of Cephenniitae in the Bismarck Archipelago, Papua New Guinea, with description of new species of Cephennodes and Cephennomicrus of Mussau and Manus Islands (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Scydmaeninae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jałoszyński, Paweł

    2017-05-17

    The supertribe Cephenniitae and the tribe Cephenniini are for the first time recorded from the Bismarck Archipelago, Papua New Guinea. Cephennodes (s. str.) mussauinsularis sp. n. and Cephennomicrus manusianus sp. n. are described, based on specimens collected respectively on Mussau Island (New Ireland Province) and Manus Island (Manus Province).

  3. Understanding Great Earthquakes in Japan's Kanto Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Reiji; Curewitz, Daniel

    2008-10-01

    Third International Workshop on the Kanto Asperity Project; Chiba, Japan, 16-19 February 2008; The 1703 (Genroku) and 1923 (Taisho) earthquakes in Japan's Kanto region (M 8.2 and M 7.9, respectively) caused severe damage in the Tokyo metropolitan area. These great earthquakes occurred along the Sagami Trough, where the Philippine Sea slab is subducting beneath Japan. Historical records, paleoseismological research, and geophysical/geodetic monitoring in the region indicate that such great earthquakes will repeat in the future.

  4. Institutionalisation of Japan Identity Construction Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zadvornaya Elena S.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the development of the modern politics of identity construction in Japan, which actively refers to the practice of designing self-image in international relations. This trend dates back to the 19th century, when there was the end of Sakoku (Japan’s policy of isolation. It is now possible to talk about the institutionalization of the identity construction policy to organized structures and regulations. Enhanced efforts in the field of Japanese traditional and popular culture, education and creative content has led to a number of institutions appearance (like Japan Foundation Fund, Japan Creative Agency, Japan Culture Fund, Agency for Cultural Affairs, Cool Japan Fund, Japan brand Fund and changing idea about the role of culture in foreign policy realization (it is fixed the documents of the Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, as well as a number of projects (Cool Japan, Visit Japan, Japan Culture Power, Japan Manga Awards, Kawaii Ambassadors, Cosplay International Fest and etc.. These efforts are aimed at forming Japan identity abroad to solve a number of foreign policy challenges of the future and the development of economic cooperation. The Japanese government nearest plans is to increase funding in order to create a positive image of Japan in the region of East Asia. All of these allows us to speak about the policy of the Japanese construction of identity as an institutionalized process in which there was clearance of organizations and regulatory activities.

  5. Public information activities in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ijima, Kazunori

    1998-01-01

    This is a slide presentation dealing with the public information (PI) activities in Japan. At present in Japan 51 nuclear power plants are in commercial operation contributing with a capacity of about 440 G We, i.e. 1/3 of the total electricity is produced by nuclear power. An investigation conducted by Advisory Committee for Energy resulted in the following guidelines in the advancing the Nuclear Power Policy: - maintain transparency in determining policy and reflect the voice of people, making information available to the public; - promote mutual understanding between areas that produce electricity by nuclear power and those that consume electricity; - cultivate an awareness of energy issues amongst the public to encourage them to take issues regarding Japan's energy policy to heart. Concerning the current PI, the following actions are undertaken at a nationwide scale: - for all people, supplying information by mass media, internet and holding lecture meetings and panel discussions etc; - for women, advertisements in journals; - for youth, educational materials, exhibition of energy etc; - for teachers, seminars; for opinion leaders, sending newsletters on nuclear energy. In areas for planned or constructed nuclear plants the PI actions are addressed to all people, women, fishermen, farmers and opinion leaders. There are given the responses to the following three questions addressed to the public concerning the nuclear power: - do you think whether we need nuclear power plants? - do you think whether nuclear power plants are safe? - what mechanism do you think generates energy during the production of nuclear power. A discussion of the results is presented. As future objectives of PI activities the following are in view: to cultivate reliability, to aware of information about nuclear power, to promote awareness of nuclear power, to promote mutual understanding of nuclear power. In conclusion, the need is stressed to make the PI activities more effective, to find

  6. Children in Japan and multimedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimauchi, Y

    1999-01-01

    Many parents in Japan today are very concerned and have daily problems with their children over the following kind of issues concerning video games, multimedia, and similar devices. 1) Is children's enthusiasm for video games actually harming their growth (physically or mentally)? 2) Is there any way that video games can help children in the future? For example, will playing these games help children learn to use computers or develop their power of thought? 3) Will excessive enthusiasm for TV games undermine our basic lifestyle? Is the time they spend studying at home or playing outside actually decreasing? 4) Will the methods of communication brought about by computers, pagers, and cellular phones weaken human relations among children? 5) Will being immersed in a virtual world created by computers result in a diminished sense of reality? The causes of this uneasiness may be traced to parents' own anxieties and concerns about the exceedingly rapid growth of the "information society" of today, together with the fact that their children are directly caught up in the deluge of this information and multimedia society. The development of media has coincided with the growth of today's adults, but children are immersed in a media-filled environment from the day they are born. In Japan, there are now children who can play video games before even learning to write. No one can predict what kind of adults these children will grow to be in the future, and it is fair to say that the most parents and children in Japan are being tossed about on the waves of this information explosion. At this international symposium, we hope to hear the many views that are held around the world concerning children and multimedia.

  7. Bone marrow transplantation in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masaoka, Tohru

    1989-01-01

    BMT in Japan was started in 1975. From 1981 Japan BMT study group was organized by the grant of ministry of health and welfare Japan. A rapid increase of number of BMT parallel to the improvement of results was observed in the 489 patients by the registry of this group. The major causes of failure of BMT were interstitial pneumonitis (IP), relapse of leukemia, infection, and graft versus host disease (GVHD). The incidence of IP decreased very rapidly by fractionation of total body irradiation and anti-cytomegalovirus (CMV) antibody negative platelet transfusion. Prophylactic administration of anti-CMV immunoglobulin produced also significant reduction of IP. In the double blind controled study oral administration of aciclovir revealed significant reduction of herpes stomatitis, followed by the reduction of other infections including sepsis. For the decontamination of bioclean room we have developed ozone decontamination, which revealed to be very effective for fungus. Colony stimulating factor was found to shorten the period of granulocytopenia. The patients with GVHD showed lower incidence of relapse of leukemia than those without GVHD. In the patients who received BMT during their first remission of ALL. Long survival rate was 63 %, for ANLL in the first remission, 64 % and for CML in the chronic phase, 40 %. Out of the first 20 BMT patients of the center for adult diseases Osaka, only three are living now, while out of the next 25 patients 22 are living disease free. Major items of modification of BMT procedures between those two groups were cyclosporine A, colony stimulating factor, fractionated TBI, CMV-negative platelet donar, BMT in first remission for acute leukemia or chronic phase in CML. BMT seemed to be a very reliable and promising treatment of leukemia with a very high possibility of complete cure. (author)

  8. Japan nuclear ship sea trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Kitamura, Toshikatus; Mizushima, Toshihiko

    1992-01-01

    The sea trial of the first Japan nuclear Ship 'MUTSU' was conducted from the end of October to December in 1990. The purpose of the sea trial was to verify the nuclear propulsive performances and maneuverabilities. The present report describes the results of the sea trial. These results are classified into four items: 1. Speed test and engineering performance tests 2. Maneuvering performance tests 3. Vibration tests 4. Other tests. Acceptable performances were demonstrated, as expected in the original design. The experience of the use of the Global Positioning System (GPS), which were newly adopted for the sea trial, is also reported. (author)

  9. Photovoltaic electricity production in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Destruel, P.

    2009-01-01

    The author first recalls the early investment of Japan in the solar energy which gave a leadership position to this country. However, it has been recently over-taken by Germany and Spain in terms of installed power. The share of the different technologies for the manufacturing of photovoltaic panels (polycrystalline silicon, mono-crystalline silicon, amorphous silicon, copper-indium-selenium cells) of different sizes, is presented, together with the current measures which are aimed at giving a new boost to this sector. The author tries then to foresee the evolutions of this sector during the next years and in a longer term (market prospective evolutions, factory projects, power station projects)

  10. Japan's technology and manufacturing infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton, William R.; Meieran, Eugene S.; Tummala, Rao R.

    1995-02-01

    The JTEC panel found that, after four decades of development in electronics and manufacturing technologies, Japanese electronics companies are leaders in the development, support, and management of complex, low-cost packaging and assembly technologies used in the production of a broad range of consumer electronics products. The electronics industry's suppliers provide basic materials and equipment required for electronic packaging applications. Panelists concluded that some Japanese firms could be leading U.S. competitors by as much as a decade in these areas. Japan's technology and manufacturing infrastructure is an integral part of its microelectronics industry's success.

  11. Japanese History, Post-Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Lazopoulos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Jason Ānanda Josephson, The Invention of Religion in Japan. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2012. 408 pp. $90 (cloth, $30 (paper. Hwansoo Ilmee Kim, Empire of the Dharma: Korean and Japanese Buddhism, 1877–1912. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2012. 444 pp. $50 (cloth. Jung-Sun N. Han, An Imperial Path to Modernity: Yoshino Sakuzō and a New Liberal Order in East Asia, 1905–1937. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2012. 244 pp. $40 (cloth.

  12. Neurosurgeons in Japan Are Exclusively Brain Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asamoto, Shunji

    2017-03-01

    In Japan, neurosurgeons have traditionally mainly treated brain diseases, with most cases involving the spine and spinal diseases historically being treated by orthopedists. Nowadays, spinal surgery is 1 of the many subspecialties in the neurosurgical field in Japan. Most patients with neurological deficits or suspected neurological diseases see board-certified neurosurgeons directly in Japan, not through referrals from family physicians or specialists in other fields. Problems originating in the spine and spinal cord have been overlooked or misdiagnosed in these situations. Neurosurgeons in Japan must rethink the educational program to include advanced trauma life support and spinal surgery. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Detailed magnetic and gravity surveys around the hydrothermal area off Kumejima Island in the Mid-Okinawa Trough, southwestern Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitada, K.; Kasaya, T.; Iwamoto, H.; Nogi, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The Okinawa Trough is an active back-arc basin formed by the rifting associated with extension of the continental margin behind the Ryukyu trench. New hydrothermal sites were recently discovered off Kumejima Island in the Mid-Okinawa Trough and the hydrothermal mineral deposits were identified by seafloor surveys and rock samplings by ROV (e.g., JOGMEC, 2015). In order to characterize the sub-seafloor structures and the spatial distribution of the magmatic activity around the sites, we conducted the dense magnetic, gravity and bathymetric surveys with a line spacing of 0.5 nmi aboard the R/Vs Yokosuka and Kairei, operated by the Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) in 2016. The geophysical data collected during the previous cruises in the area by JAMSTEC were additionally used for this study. Magnetic anomaly was calculated by subtracting the IGRF model and the magnetization intensity was estimated by the method of Parker and Huestis (1974). Free-air gravity anomaly was calculated with subtracting the normal gravity field and with corrections of the drift and of the Eötvös effect. Bouguer gravity anomaly was calculated based on the method of Parker (1972). The magnetization intensity and the Bouguer gravity anomaly reveal three characteristics of the hydrothermal area off Kumejima Island: 1) The distribution of magnetization around the hydrothermal sites shows two different types of sub-seafloor magnetic features. One is corresponded to the submarine knolls with a relatively high magnetization of 4 A/M. The other is an ENE-WSW trending magnetization distribution with relatively high and low intensities, which is consistent with the trend of the bathymetric lineament. These features are considered to be formed by magmatism associated with submarine volcanoes and back-arc rifting. 2) The reduced magnetization zone corresponding to the hydrothermal area probably attributes to hydrothermal alteration of the host rock. 3) The hydrothermal

  14. Diffuse CO2 fluxes from Santiago and Congro volcanic lakes (São Miguel, Azores archipelago)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, César; Cruz, José; Viveiros, Fátima; Branco, Rafael

    2017-04-01

    Diffuse CO2 degassing occurring in Santiago and Congro lakes, both located in depressions associated to maars from São Miguel Island (Azores, Portugal), was studied through detailed flux measurements. Four sampling campaigns were developed between 2013 and 2016 in each water body, split by the cold and wet seasons. São Miguel has an area of 744.6 km2, being the largest island of the archipelago. The geology of the island is dominated by three quiescent central volcanoes (Sete Cidades, Fogo and Furnas), linked by volcanic fissural zones (Picos and Congro Fissural Volcanic systems). The oldest volcanic systems of the island are located in its eastern part (Povoação-Nordeste). Santiago lake, with a surface area of 0.26 km2 and a depth of 30.5 m, is located inside a maar crater in the Sete Cidades volcano at an altitude of 355 m. The watershed of the lake has an area of 0.97 km2 and a surface flow estimated as 1.54x10 m3/a. A total of 1612 CO2 flux measurements using the accumulation chamber method were made at Santiago lake, 253 in the first campaign (November 2013), and 462, 475 and 422 in the three other campaigns, respectively, in April 2014, September 2016 and December 2016. The total CO2 flux estimated for this lake varies between 0.4 t d-1 and 0.59 t d-1, for the surveys performed, respectively, in November 2013 and September 2016; higher CO2 outputs of 1.57 and 5.87 t d-1 were calculated for the surveys carried out in April 2014 and December 2016. These higher CO2 emissions were associated with a period without water column stratification. Similarly to Santiago lake, Congro lake is located inside a maar, in the Congro Fissural Volcanic system, and has a surface area of 0.04 km2 with 18.5 m depth and a storage of about 2.4x105 m3/a. The lake, located at an altitude of 420 m, is fed by a watershed with an area of 0.33 km2 and a runoff estimated as about 8x104 m3/a. In Congro lake a total of 713 CO2 flux measurements were performed during four surveys from

  15. Geomorphological map of a coastal stretch of north-eastern Gozo (Maltese archipelago, Mediterranean Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldati, Mauro; Micallef, Anton; Biolchi, Sara; Chelli, Alessandro; Cuoghi, Alessandro; Devoto, Stefano; Gauci, Christopher; Graff, Kevin; Lolli, Federico; Mantovani, Matteo; Mastronuzzi, Giuseppe; Pisani, Luca; Prampolini, Mariacristina; Restall, Brian; Roulland, Thomas; Saliba, Michael; Selmi, Lidia; Vandelli, Vittoria

    2017-04-01

    Geomorphological investigations carried out along the north-eastern coast of the Island of Gozo (Malta) have led to the production of a detailed geomorphological map. Field surveys, accompanied by aerial photo-interpretation, were carried out within the framework of the EUR-OPA Major Hazards Agreement Project ``Developing Geomorphological mapping skills and datasets in anticipation of subsequent Susceptibility, Vulnerability, Hazard and Risk Mapping'' (Council of Europe). In particular, this geomorphological map is the main output of a `Training Course on Geomorphological Mapping in Coastal Areas' held within the Project in November 2016. The study area selected was between Ramla Bay and Dacrhlet Qorrot Bay on the Island of Gozo (67 km2), part of the Maltese archipelago in the central Mediterranean Sea. From a geological viewpoint, the stratigraphic sequence includes Late Oligocene (Chattian) to Late Miocene (Messinian) sedimentary rocks. The hard limestones of the Upper Coralline Limestone Formation, the youngest lithostratigraphic unit, dominate the study area. Underlying this formation, marls and clays belonging to the Blue Clay Formation extensively outcrop. The oldest lithostratigraphic unit observed in the study area is the Globigerina Limestone Formation, a fine-grained limestone. The lithostructural features of the outcropping units clearly condition the morphography of the landscape. The coast is characterised by the alternation of inlets and promontories. Worthy of notice is the large sandy beach of Ramla Bay partly backed by dunes. From a geomorphological perspective, the investigated coastal stretch is characterised by limestone plateaus bounded by steep structural scarps which are reshaped by gravitational and/or degradation processes, and milder slopes in Blue Clays at their foot comprising of numerous rock block deposits (rdum in Maltese) and active or abandoned terraced fields used for agricultural purposes. Landforms and processes related to

  16. Transformer Efficiency Assessment - Okinawa, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas L. Baldwin; Robert J. Turk; Kurt S. Myers; Jake P. Gentle; Jason W. Bush

    2012-08-01

    The US Army Engineering & Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH), and the US Marine Corps Base (MCB), Okinawa, Japan retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a Transformer Efficiency Assessment of “key” transformers located at multiple military bases in Okinawa, Japan. The purpose of this assessment is to support the Marine Corps Base, Okinawa in evaluating medium voltage distribution transformers for potential efficiency upgrades. The original scope of work included the MCB providing actual transformer nameplate data, manufacturer’s factory test sheets, electrical system data (kWh), demand data (kWd), power factor data, and electricity cost data. Unfortunately, the MCB’s actual data is not available and therefore making it necessary to de-scope the original assessment. Note: Any similar nameplate data, photos of similar transformer nameplates, and basic electrical details from one-line drawings (provided by MCB) are not a replacement for actual load loss test data. It is recommended that load measurements are performed on the high and low sides of transformers to better quantify actual load losses, demand data, and power factor data. We also recommend that actual data, when available, be inserted by MCB Okinawa where assumptions have been made and then the LCC analysis updated. This report covers a generalized assessment of modern U.S. transformers in a three level efficiency category, Low-Level efficiency, Medium-Level efficiency, and High-Level efficiency.

  17. Transformer Efficiency Assessment - Okinawa, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas L. Baldwin; Robert J. Turk; Kurt S. Myers; Jake P. Gentle; Jason W. Bush

    2012-05-01

    The US Army Engineering & Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH), and the US Marine Corps Base (MCB), Okinawa, Japan retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a Transformer Efficiency Assessment of “key” transformers located at multiple military bases in Okinawa, Japan. The purpose of this assessment is to support the Marine Corps Base, Okinawa in evaluating medium voltage distribution transformers for potential efficiency upgrades. The original scope of work included the MCB providing actual transformer nameplate data, manufacturer’s factory test sheets, electrical system data (kWh), demand data (kWd), power factor data, and electricity cost data. Unfortunately, the MCB’s actual data is not available and therefore making it necessary to de-scope the original assessment. Note: Any similar nameplate data, photos of similar transformer nameplates, and basic electrical details from one-line drawings (provided by MCB) are not a replacement for actual load loss test data. It is recommended that load measurements are performed on the high and low sides of transformers to better quantify actual load losses, demand data, and power factor data. We also recommend that actual data, when available, be inserted by MCB Okinawa where assumptions have been made and then the LCC analysis updated. This report covers a generalized assessment of modern U.S. transformers in a three level efficiency category, Low-Level efficiency, Medium-Level efficiency, and High-Level efficiency.

  18. Thorium research activities in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasa, Toshinobu

    2015-01-01

    The nuclear energy policy in Japan is based on the Uranium-Plutonium fuel cycle with Light Water Reactors (LWR) and Fast Breeder Reactors (FBR). After the accident at Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, the Japanese government recognizes the importance to ensure the flexibility for future nuclear power generation and then, it was specified in the latest Japanese strategic energy plan. Two research groups related to thorium fuelled nuclear systems and fuel cycle was set up in the Atomic Energy Society of Japan in 2013. One is a 'Research Committee on Nuclear Applications of Molten Salt'. The committee was established to discuss the current molten-salt technology including molten-salt cooled reactor, molten-salt fuelled reactor, accelerator driven system, fusion reactor blankets and dry reprocessing processes. Throughout two years discussion, the committee summarizes a current state of the art and issues of molten-salt application systems. Committee also discussed the handling technologies for molten-salt reactors especially in China and United Kingdom, issues of molten-salt application to fusion reactor, dry reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel, and non-nuclear application of molten-salt. Term of the committee will be extended for further research activities

  19. Laser precision microfabrication in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Isamu; Ooie, Toshihiko; Takeno, Shozui

    2000-11-01

    Electronic devices such as handy phones and micro computers have been rapidly expanding their market recent years due to their enhanced performance, down sizing and cost down. This has been realized by the innovation in the precision micro- fabrication technology of semiconductors and printed wiring circuit boards (PWB) where laser technologies such as lithography, drilling, trimming, welding and soldering play an important role. In phot lithography, for instance, KrF excimer lasers having a resolution of 0.18 micrometers has been used in production instead of mercury lamp. Laser drilling of PWB has been increased up to over 1000 holes per second, and approximately 800 laser drilling systems of PWB are expected to be delivered in the world market this year, and most of these laser processing systems are manufactured in Japan. Trend of laser micro-fabrication in Japanese industry is described along with recent topics of R&D, government supported project and future tasks of industrial laser precision micro-fabrication on the basis of the survey conducted by Japan laser Processing Society.

  20. Food irradiation development in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabata, T.

    1981-01-01

    In Japan, the first food irradiation research was carried out on the preservation of fish and fishery products. In 1966, the Atomic Energy Commission of the Japanese Government (JAEC) decided to promote the National Project on Food Irradiation and, in 1967, the Steering Committee on food irradiation research in the Atomic Energy Bureau, Science and Technology Agency, selected the following food items as of economic importance to the country, i.e., potatoes, onions, rice, wheat, ''Vienna'' sausage, ''kamaboko'' (fish meat jelly products) and mandarin oranges. The National Project is expected to finish at the end of the 1981 fiscal year. Based on the studies by the National Project, irradiated potatoes were given ''unconditional acceptance'' for human consumption in 1972. Already in 1973, a commercial potato irradiator was built at Shihoro, Hokkaido. In 1980, the Steering Committee submitted a final report on the effectiveness and wholesomeness studies on irradiated onions to the JAEC. This paper gives a brief explanation of the legal aspects of food irradiation in Japan, and the present status of wholesomeness studies on the seven items of irradiated foods. In addition, topics concerning food irradiation research on ''kamaboko'', especially on the effectiveness and a new detecting method for the irradiation treatment of these products, are outlined. (author)

  1. Medical facility statistics in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Sugimoto, Takuya; Hasebe, Ryo; Myat Cho, Su; Khaing, Moe; Kariya, Tetsuyoshi; Mon Saw, Yu; Yamamoto, Eiko

    2017-11-01

    Medical facility statistics provide essential information to policymakers, administrators, academics, and practitioners in the field of health services. In Japan, the Health Statistics Office of the Director-General for Statistics and Information Policy at the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare is generating these statistics. Although the statistics are widely available in both Japanese and English, the methodology described in the technical reports are primarily in Japanese, and are not fully described in English. This article aimed to describe these processes for readers in the English-speaking world. The Health Statistics Office routinely conduct two surveys called the Hospital Report and the Survey of Medical Institutions. The subjects of the former are all the hospitals and clinics with long-term care beds in Japan. It comprises a Patient Questionnaire focusing on the numbers of inpatients, admissions, discharges, and outpatients in one month, and an Employee Questionnaire, which asks about the number of employees as of October 1. The Survey of Medical Institutions consists of the Dynamic Survey, which focuses on the opening and closing of facilities every month, and the Static Survey, which focuses on staff, facilities, and services as of October 1, as well as the number of inpatients as of September 30 and the total number of outpatients during September. All hospitals, clinics, and dental clinics are requested to submit the Static Survey questionnaire every three years. These surveys are useful tools for collecting essential information, as well as providing occasions to implicitly inform facilities of the movements of government policy.

  2. The electronuclear program of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Kazuhisa

    1978-01-01

    Japan, depending on imports for 80% of its energy supply, introduced a nuclear power program, which now comprises 14 reactors in operation (8,000 MW., that is 8% of its electricity production), and 15 reactors (14,000MW) under construction or being investigated. The objective for 1985 is from 26,000 to 33,000 MW. Japanese industry committed the error of placing too much confidence in its American licensers and not undertaking enough of its own research. This resulted in having a too small number of nuclear stations available, approximately 50%. Japan secured its uranium supply (Niger), its enrichment facilities (U.S.A. and Eurodif), while studying the centrifugation process, and facilities for reprocessing irradiated fuels (France and U.K.) while, at the same time, seeking national independence regarding its entire fuel cycle. The siting of nuclear power stations comes up against local opposition, which is being overcome by a taxation on electricity used to subsidize local collectivities favorable to the construction of a power station, whether hydro-electric, thermal or nuclear [fr

  3. Nuclear power development in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishiro, M.

    2000-01-01

    This article describes the advantages of nuclear energy for Japan. In 1997 the composition of the total primary energy supply (TPES) was oil 52.7%, coal 16.5%, nuclear 16.1% and natural gas 10.7%. Nuclear power has a significant role to play in contributing to 3 national interests: i) energy security, ii) economic growth and iii) environmental protection. Energy security is assured because a stable supply of uranium fuel can be reasonably expected in spite of dependence on import from abroad. Economic growth implies the reduction of energy costs. As nuclear power is capital intensive, the power generation cost is less affected by the fuel cost, therefore nuclear power can realize low cost by favoring high capacity utilization factor. Fossil fuels have substantial impacts on environment such as global warming and acid rain by releasing massive quantities of CO 2 , so nuclear power is a major option for meeting the Kyoto limitations. In Japan, in 2010 nuclear power is expected to reach 17% of TPES and 45% of electricity generated. (A.C.)

  4. Fusion tritium program in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, M.; Yoshida, H.; Naruse, Y.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear Fusion Council, Atomic Energy Commission of Japan, has started to review the nuclear fusion R and D plan for the next stage, post JT-60. The council launched a subcommittee on fundamental issues in the nuclear fusion development in 1985, for review of the basic strategy of a development plan. The subcommittee presented an interim report in Feb. 1986 after 6 months discussion and the report was approved by the Nuclear Fusion Council. Two major R and D programs described in the interim report are the development of a Tokamak type large facility and the comprehensive development of the fusion reactor technology. The latter means to promote the reactor technologies which will be essential in the future to construct not only a D/T burning but also a DEMO reactor. The Nuclear Fusion Development Program in Japan is shown. The interim report recommended to organize two subcommittees to establish an integrated national R and D plan; one was for the design of the next step large facility and the other was for the R and program of the fusion technology. The subcommittee for the latter consisted of 7 working groups; one of them was organized for the tritium technology

  5. A revision of the Australian species of Trimma (Actinopterygii, Gobiidae), with descriptions of six new species and redescriptions of twenty-three valid species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterbottom, Richard; Hoese, Douglass F

    2015-03-17

    The gobiid genus Trimma currently contains 75 valid species, with another 20-30 known but undescribed species. There are 29 species in Australian waters (six undescribed). This paper describes the six new species, and provides redescriptions of most of the 23 previously described species known from the region, as well as a key for all the species. The six new species are: T. insularum (endemic to Cocos (Keeling) Islands), T. kitrinum (Fiji to Great Barrier Reef), T. meristum (Cape York to the Bismark Archipelago and Fiji), T. pentherum (Great Barrier Reef to Fiji and the South-West Islands of Palau), T. readerae (Australia to Japan), and T. xanthum (Palau to Fiji, Great Barrier Reef to Christmas Island). The following 23 species have been recorded from Australian waters, and most are redescribed here: T. anaima (Comores to Fiji), T. annosum (Maldives to the Phoenix Islands, Taiwan to the southern Great Barrier Reef), T. benjamini (southern Vietnam to the Marshall Islands, Samoa and southern Barrier Reef), T. caesiura (Ryukyus through the Marshall Islands to Samoa and Elizabeth Reef on the Lord Howe Rise), T. capostriatum (New Caledonia to eastern Australia and Papua New Guinea), T. maiandros (Java to the Ryukyus, Marshalls to Great Barrier Reef), T. emeryi (Comores to Ryukyus and Samoa), T. fangi (western South China Sea through to the Solomons), T. flavatrum (Ryukyu Islands to Western Australia and Samoa), T. hoesei (Chagos Archipelago, central Indian Ocean to Palau and Solomons), T. lantana (Australia, Solomons, northern New Guinea, South-West Islands of Palau), T. macrophthalmus (Ryukyu Islands to Cocos (Keeling) Islands and Samoa), T. milta (Taiwan to Western Australia, Society Islands and Hawaii), T. nasa (Sumbawa, Indonesia to Fiji), T. necopinum (northern tip of Cape York to Sydney), T. nomurai (Japan to northern Australia and New Caledonia), T. okinawae (western Thailand to Japan and the Phoenix Islands, north-west Australia to the Great Barrier Reef), T

  6. Analysis Of Conservation Experience Of Heritage Objects In Lithuania (The Curonian Spit And Norway (The Vega Archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nijolė Piekienė

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Curonian Spit (Lithuania and Vega Archipelago (Norway are objects on the UNESCO World Heritage List because of their special kind of landscapes that have been formed not without human intervention. Landscapes created by nature itself or with human help are exceptional works which, as determined by the legal acts in regulation of these processes, have to be referred to as objects of cultural heritage. The cultural heritage must be protected, exhibited and viewed as objects of science and cognition. Lithuania and Norway have different conditions formed for identification, conservation and protection of these works, but both countries have recognized that protection of cultural heritage, passing it on for future generations is the duty of the state. Prospects of heritage management and development, and exchange of experience should be the top priorities for action in Lithuania.

  7. A new chromosomal race of the house mouse, Mus musculus domesticus, in the Vulcano Island-Aeolian Archipelago, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, Emanuela; Castiglia, Riccardo; Corti, Marco

    2007-07-01

    In this paper we describe a new Robertsonian (Rb) race of the house mouse from Vulcano (Aeolian archipelago) through the identification of the metacentric chromosomes. We analysed fifteen mice. All the specimens were found to have the same karyotype 2n=26. This karyotype is characterized by Rb(1.2), Rb(3.9), Rb(4.13), Rb(5.14), Rb(8.12), Rb(10.16) and Rb(15.17). The differences between the race of Vulcano and the races in a neighbour island (Lipari) consist in the presence of Rb(10.16) and Rb(15.17) in the former and Rb(6.16) and Rb(10.15) in the latter. We discuss the possible hypotheses regarding the origin between these two races including the possible occurrence of a whole arm reciprocal translocation (WART) on the Vulcano island.

  8. Plastic litter in sediments from a marine area likely to become protected (Aeolian Archipelago's islands, Tyrrhenian sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fastelli, Paolo; Blašković, Andrea; Bernardi, Giulia; Romeo, Teresa; Čižmek, Hrvoje; Andaloro, Franco; Russo, Giovanni F; Guerranti, Cristiana; Renzi, Monia

    2016-12-15

    This research aims to define for the first time levels and patterns of different litter groups (macro, meso and microplastics) in sediments from a marine area designed for the institution of a new marine protected area (Aeolian Archipelago, Italy). Microplastics resulted the principal group and found in all samples analyzed, with shape and colours variable between different sampling sites. MPs levels measured in this study are similar to values recorded in harbour sites and lower than reported in Adriatic Sea, while macroplastics levels are notably lower than in harbor sites. Sediment grain-size and island extent resulted not significant in determining levels and distribution of plastic debris among islands. In the future, following the establishment of the MPA in the study area, these basic data will be useful to check for potential protective effects on the levels and distribution of plastic debris. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Reconstructing the colonisation and diversification history of the endemic freshwater crab (Seychellum alluaudi) in the granitic and volcanic Seychelles Archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Savel R

    2011-11-01

    The endemic, monotypic freshwater crab species Seychellum alluaudi was used as a template to examine the initial colonisation and evolutionary history among the major islands in the Seychelles Archipelago. Five of the "inner" islands in the Seychelles Archipelago including Mahé, Praslin, Silhouette, La Digue and Frégate were sampled. Two partial mtDNA fragments, 16S rRNA and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) was sequenced for 83 specimens of S. alluaudi. Evolutionary relationships between populations were inferred from the combined mtDNA dataset using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inferences. Analyses of molecular variance (AMOVA) were used to examine genetic variation among and within clades. A haplotype network was constructed using TCS while BEAST was employed to date the colonisation and divergence of lineages on the islands. Phylogenetic analyses of the combined mtDNA data set of 1103 base pairs retrieved a monophyletic S. alluaudi group comprised three statistically well-supported monophyletic clades. Clade one was exclusive to Silhouette; clade two included samples from Praslin sister to La Digue, while clade three comprised samples from Mahé sister to Frégate. The haplotype network corresponded to the three clades. Within Mahé, substantial phylogeographic substructure was evident. AMOVA results revealed limited genetic variation within localities with most variation occurring among localities. Divergence time estimations predated the Holocene sea level regressions and indicated a Pliocene/Pleistocene divergence between the three clades evident within S. alluaudi. The monophyly of each clade suggests that transoceanic dispersal is rare. The absence of shared haplotypes between the three clades, coupled with marked sequence divergence values suggests the presence of three allospecies within S. alluaudi. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A diverse assemblage of reef corals thriving in a dynamic intertidal reef setting (Bonaparte Archipelago, Kimberley, Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoe T Richards

    Full Text Available The susceptibility of reef-building corals to climatic anomalies is well documented and a cause of great concern for the future of coral reefs. Reef corals are normally considered to tolerate only a narrow range of climatic conditions with only a small number of species considered heat-tolerant. Occasionally however, corals can be seen thriving in unusually harsh reef settings and these are cause for some optimism about the future of coral reefs. Here we document for the first time a diverse assemblage of 225 species of hard corals occurring in the intertidal zone of the Bonaparte Archipelago, north western Australia. We compare the environmental conditions at our study site (tidal regime, SST and level of turbidity with those experienced at four other more typical tropical reef locations with similar levels of diversity. Physical extremes in the Bonaparte Archipelago include tidal oscillations of up to 8 m, long subaerial exposure times (>3.5 hrs, prolonged exposure to high SST and fluctuating turbidity levels. We conclude the timing of low tide in the coolest parts of the day ameliorates the severity of subaerial exposure, and the combination of strong currents and a naturally high sediment regime helps to offset light and heat stress. The low level of anthropogenic impact and proximity to the Indo-west Pacific centre of diversity are likely to further promote resistance and resilience in this community. This assemblage provides an indication of what corals may have existed in other nearshore locations in the past prior to widespread coastal development, eutrophication, coral predator and disease outbreaks and coral bleaching events. Our results call for a re-evaluation of what conditions are optimal for coral survival, and the Bonaparte intertidal community presents an ideal model system for exploring how species resilience is conferred in the absence of confounding factors such as pollution.

  11. Population structure and accompanying biota of the snail Turbo (Callopoma funiculosus (Gastropoda: Turbinidae, on Socorro Island, Revillagigedo Archipelago, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar E Holguin Quiñones

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The porcelain snail, Turbo funiculosus, is a potential fishery resource that almost has not been studied or used commercially. In March of 1992, we sampled T. funiculosus in Bahía Binners and Bahía Blanca, Socorro Island, Revillagigedo Archipelago, using 25 m² quadrants. We found that total length varies between 3.0 and 85 mm, proportional weight between 3.0 and 228 g, and density between 6.21 and 9.87 ind/m². The largest organisms (over 50 mm contain 30.6 % of soft parts. Porcelain snail populations remain unexploited on Revillagedo Archipelago and could be a potential resource under an adequate management strategy. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (4: 1079-1084. Epub 2006 Dec. 15.El caracol porcelana, Turbo funiculosus, es un recurso pesquero potencial que casi no ha sido estudiado ni se ha utilizado comercialmente. En marzo de 1992, se realizó un muestreo de T. funiculosus en Bahía Binners y Bahía Blanca, isla Socorro, archipiélago Revillagigedo, empleando cuadrantes de 25 m2. Se encontraron variaciones en la longitud total entre 3.0 y 85 mm, el peso proporcional entre 3.0 y 228 g, y la densidad entre 6.21 y 9.87 ind/m2. Los organismos de mayor tamaño (más de 50 mm contienen 30.6 % de partes suaves. Las poblaciones del caracol porcelana siguen siendo inexplotadas en el archipiélago Revillagedo y podrían ser un recurso potencial de la industria pesquera bajo un adecuado plan de manejo.

  12. [Species, functional, structural diversity of typical plant communities and their responses to environmental factors in Miao Archipelago, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Li Ting; Su, Tian; Liu, Xiang Yu; Yin, Fang; Guo, Chao; Tuo, Bin; Yan, En Rong

    2018-02-01

    Island vegetation plays an important role in biodiversity research across the world. The study of plant diversity in island is helpful for understanding the mechanism of plant diversity maintenance under land-sea interaction. Here, four typical plant communities (Quercus acutissima community, Robinia pseudoacacia community, Pinus thunbergii community and Vitex negundo community) in Miao Archipelago were selected to examine the species, functional and structural diversities and their responses to environmental factors at the community scale by using species diversity indices, functional diversity indices, as well as structural diversity indices. The results showed that the species richness and Rao index of P. thunbergii community was higher than that of Q. acutissima community and R. pseudoacacia community, but the structural diversity was lower. The species diversity and structural diversity of V. Negundo shrub were lower than that of forest community, but the functional diversity was higher than some forest communities. The relationship between the diversity of typical plant communities in island area illustrated a significant positive correlation between species richness with Rao index and tree height diversity, however the correlation with functional evenness was significantly negative. The structural diversity and functional evenness were determined by slope with negative and positive relationships, respectively. Functional heterogeneity, functional divergence and species diversity were affected largely by soil physical and chemical properties, displaying the positive relationship with soil bulk density and soil total carbon content, and a negative relationship with soil water content. In conclusion, diversity pattern of plant community in Miao Archipelago reflected not only the characteristics in mainland vegetation but also the special nature of the sea island.

  13. Migration ecology and stopover population size of Red Knots Calidris canutus rufa at Mingan Archipelago after exiting the breeding grounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, James E.; Baker, Allan J.; González, Patricia M.; Aubry, Yves; Buidin, Christophe; Rochepault, Yann

    2018-01-01

    Populations of migratory birds present unique conservation challenges given the often vast distances separating critical resources throughout the annual cycle. Migration areas close to the breeding grounds represent a link between two key stages of the annual cycle, and understanding migration ecology as birds exit the breeding grounds may be particularly informative for successful conservation. We studied migration phenology and stopover ecology of an endangered subspecies of the Red Knot Calidris canutus rufa at a migration area relatively close to its breeding range. Using mark-recapture/resight data and a Jolly-Seber model for open populations, we described the arrival and departure schedules, stopover duration, and passage population size at the Mingan Archipelago, Quebec, Canada. Red Knots arrived at the study area in two distinct waves of birds separated by approximately 22 days. Nearly 30% of the passage population arrived in the first wave of arrivals during 15–18 July, and approximately 22% arrived in a second wave during 8–11 August. The sex-ratio in the stopover population at the time of the first wave was slightly skewed toward females, whereas the second wave was heavily skewed toward males. Because males remain on the breeding grounds to care for young, this may reflect successfulbreeding in the year of our study. The estimated stopover duration (population mean) was 11 days (95% credible interval: 10.3–11.7 days), but stopover persistence was variable throughout the season. We estimated a passage population size of 9,450 birds (8,355–10,710), a minimum estimate for reasons related to the duration of our sampling. Mingan Archipelago is thus an important migration area for this endangered subspecies and could be a priority in conservation planning. Our results also emphasize the advantages of mark-recapture/resight approaches for estimating migration phenology and stopover persistence.

  14. Diversity, relationships, and biogeography of the lambeosaurine dinosaurs from the European Archipelago, with description of the New Aralosaurin Canardia garonnensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Prieto-Márquez

    Full Text Available We provide a thorough re-evaluation of the taxonomic diversity, phylogenetic relationships, and historical biogeography of the lambeosaurine hadrosaurids from the European Archipelago. Previously published occurrences of European Lambeosaurinae are reviewed and new specimens collected from upper Maastrichtian strata of the south-central Pyrenees are described. No support is found for the recognition of European saurolophines in the available hadrosaurid materials recovered so far from this area. A new genus and species of basal lambeosaurine, Canardia garonnensis, is described on the basis of cranial and appendicular elements collected from upper Maastrichtian strata of southern France. C. garonnensis differs from all other hadrosaurids, except Aralosaurus tuberiferus, in having maxilla with prominent subrectangular rostrodorsal flange; it differs from A. tuberiferus in a few maxillary and prefrontal characters. Together with A. tuberiferus, C. garonnensis integrates the newly recognized tribe Aralosaurini. Inference of lambeosaurine interrelationships via maximum parsimony analysis indicates that the other three known European lambeosaurines are representatives of two additional subclades (tribes of these hadrosaurids: Tsintaosaurini (Pararhabdodon isonensis and Lambeosaurini (the Arenysaurus ardevoli-Blasisaurus canudoi clade. The tribes Aralosaurini, Tsintaosaurini, Lambeosaurini, and Parasaurolophini are formally defined and diagnosed for the first time. Three event-based quantitative methods of ancestral range reconstruction were implemented to infer the historical biogeography of European lambeosaurines: Dispersal-Vicariance Analysis, Bayesian Binary MCMC, and Dispersal-Extinction-Cladogenesis. The results of these analyses, coupled with the absence of pre-Maastrichtian lambeosaurines in the Mesozoic vertebrate fossil record of Europe, favor the hypothesis that aralosaurins and tsintaosaurins were Asian immigrants that reached the Ibero

  15. Development of clean coal technologies in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, M. [Electric Power Research Industry, Yokosuka (Japan). Central Research Inst.

    2013-07-01

    In Japan, we have to import almost of primary energy resources from all over the world. We depend on foreign countries for 96% of our primary energy supply. Following the two oil crises in the 1970s, Japan has diversified its energy resources through increased use of nuclear energy, natural gas and coal as well as the promotion of energy efficiency and conservation.

  16. Japan mellem øst og vest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted; Ipsen, Lene

    Skildrer Japans historie gennem de sidste 200 år inklusiv et kapitel om historiebrug ift. Nanjingmassakren i 1937-1938.......Skildrer Japans historie gennem de sidste 200 år inklusiv et kapitel om historiebrug ift. Nanjingmassakren i 1937-1938....

  17. 75 FR 57980 - Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. AA1921-129 (Third Review)] Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Termination of five-year... of the antidumping duty finding on polychloroprene rubber from Japan would be likely to lead to...

  18. Internet Ethics Issues and Actions in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    江澤, 義典

    2013-01-01

    The International Symposium on Internet Ethics 2012 was planned and organized by the Korea Internet Security Agency and was held in September 2012 at the Lotte Hotel World in Seoul. This note relates to the presentation in Japan, it outlines current Internet ethics issues and actions in Japan. Moreover, four aspects of Japanese civilization were introduced as the bases of these ethics issues.

  19. Business Ownership and Unemployment in Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van Acht; J. Stam; A.R. Thurik (Roy); I. Verheul (Ingrid)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThe influence of industrial structure, more specifically of business ownership, is investigated on the level of unemployment in Japan. The question is to what extent business ownership, i.e., entrepreneurship, can reduce the level of unemployment. It will be concluded that Japan is

  20. Getah Virus Infection among Racehorses, Japan, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannai, Hiroshi; Tsujimura, Koji; Kobayashi, Minoru; Kikuchi, Takuya; Yamanaka, Takashi; Kondo, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    An outbreak of Getah virus infection occurred among racehorses in Japan during September and October 2014. Of 49 febrile horses tested by reverse transcription PCR, 25 were positive for Getah virus. Viruses detected in 2014 were phylogenetically different from the virus isolated in Japan in 1978. PMID:25898181

  1. On recycling of nuclear fuel in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    In Japan, atomic energy has become to accomplish the important role in energy supply. Recently the interest in the protection of global environment heightened, and the anxiety on oil supply has been felt due to the circumstances in Mideast. Therefore, the importance of atomic energy as an energy source for hereafter increased, and the future plan of nuclear fuel recycling in Japan must be promoted on such viewpoint. At present in Japan, the construction of nuclear fuel cycle facilities is in progress in Rokkasho, Aomori Prefecture. The prototype FBR 'Monju' started the general functional test in May, this year. The transport of the plutonium reprocessed in U.K. and France to Japan will be carried out in near future. This report presents the concrete measures of nuclear fuel recycling in Japan from the long term viewpoint up to 2010. The necessity and meaning of nuclear fuel recycling in Japan, the effort related to nuclear nonproliferation, the plan of nuclear fuel recycling for hereafter in Japan, the organization of MOX fuel fabrication in Japan and abroad, the method of utilizing recovered uranium and the reprocessing of spent MOX fuel are described. (K.I.)

  2. Japan's oil situation and relationship with the Middle East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on Japan's energy supply structure and the demand for energy in the country. It focuses on oil relations between Japan and the Middle Eastern oil countries, and Japan's attempt to enhance energy supply-security policy measures

  3. Characteristics of Wet Deposition in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, A.; Arakaki, T.

    2017-12-01

    Acid deposition survey in Japan has started since 1991 by Japan Environmental Laboratories Association (JELA). The JELA has about 60 monitoring sites for wet deposition including remote, rural and urban area. The measured constituents of wet deposition are; precipitation, pH, electric conductivity, major Anions, and major Cations. From those data, we analyze spatial and temporal variations of wet deposition components in Japan. Among the 60 monitoring sites, 39 sampling sites were selected in this study, which have kept sampling continuously between 2003JFY and 2014JFY. All samples were collected by wet-only samplers. To analyze area characteristics, all the areas were divided into 6 regions; Northern part of Japan (NJ), Facing the Japan Sea (JS), Eastern part of Japan (EJ), Central part of Japan (CJ), Western part of Japan (WJ) and Southern West Islands (SW). NO3- and non-sea-salt-SO42- (nss-SO42-) are major components of rain acidification. Especially, between December and February (winter) the air mass from west affected the temporal variations of those acid components and the concentrations were higher in JS and WJ regions than those in other regions. Japanese ministry of the Environment reported that mixing ratio of NO2 in Japan has been less than 0.04ppm since 1976, and that of SO2 has been less than 0.02ppm since 1978. Their concentrations in Japan have remained flat or slowly decreased recently. However the temporal variations of NO3-/nss-SO42- ratio in winter in JS region were significantly increased on average at 2.2% y-1 from 2003JFY to 2014JFY. The results suggest that long-range transboundary air pollutants increased NO3- concentrations and NO3-/nss-SO42- ratio.

  4. National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

    CERN Document Server

    Haubold, Hans J; UN/ESA/NASA Workshop on the International Heliophysical Year 2007 and Basic Space Science, hosted by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

    2010-01-01

    This book represents Volume II of the Proceedings of the UN/ESA/NASA Workshop on the International Heliophysical Year 2007 and Basic Space Science, hosted by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Tokyo, 18 - 22 June, 2007. It covers two programme topics explored in this and past workshops of this nature: (i) non-extensive statistical mechanics as applicable to astrophysics, addressing q-distribution, fractional reaction and diffusion, and the reaction coefficient, as well as the Mittag-Leffler function and (ii) the TRIPOD concept, developed for astronomical telescope facilities. The companion publication, Volume I of the proceedings of this workshop, is a special issue in the journal Earth, Moon, and Planets, Volume 104, Numbers 1-4, April 2009.

  5. Japan. Superconductivity for Smart Grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, K.

    2012-11-15

    Currently, many smart grid projects are running or planned worldwide. These aim at controlling the electricity supply more efficiently and more stably in a new power network system. In Japan, especially superconductivity technology development projects are carried out to contribute to the future smart grid. Japanese cable makers such as Sumitomo Electric and Furukawa Electric are leading in the production of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) power cables. The world's largest electric current and highest voltage superconductivity proving tests have been started this year. Big cities such as Tokyo will be expected to introduce the HTS power cables to reduce transport losses and to meet the increased electricity demand in the near future. Superconducting devices, HTS power cables, Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) and flywheels are the focus of new developments in cooperations between companies, universities and research institutes, funded by the Japanese research and development funding organization New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO)

  6. Application of EB in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunaga, Hiromi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2003-02-01

    Radiation processing using electron beam (EB) facilities other than gamma-ray facilities in Japan is introduced. After briefly presented the features of EB compared with gamma ray, present status of EB application is described. Polymerized materials for use of wire, cable, radial tire, heat shrinkable tube, foam polyethylene, PTFE, battery separator, and adsorbent material are known to be resulting from cross-linking, decomposition, and graft polymerization reactions. Environmental preservation includes electron flue gas treatment in the coal- or oil-fired power plants, research for volatile organic compounds (VOC) and dioxins, as well as wastewater and sludge treatment. Finally activity of JAERI in the related fields is overviewed with the authors prospects for utilization of low energy EB with low cost for surface treatment and functional materials. (S. Ohno)

  7. Application of EB in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunaga, Hiromi

    2003-01-01

    Radiation processing using electron beam (EB) facilities other than gamma-ray facilities in Japan is introduced. After briefly presented the features of EB compared with gamma ray, present status of EB application is described. Polymerized materials for use of wire, cable, radial tire, heat shrinkable tube, foam polyethylene, PTFE, battery separator, and adsorbent material are known to be resulting from cross-linking, decomposition, and graft polymerization reactions. Environmental preservation includes electron flue gas treatment in the coal- or oil-fired power plants, research for volatile organic compounds (VOC) and dioxins, as well as wastewater and sludge treatment. Finally activity of JAERI in the related fields is overviewed with the authors prospects for utilization of low energy EB with low cost for surface treatment and functional materials. (S. Ohno)

  8. The gas industry in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jego, H.

    2000-01-01

    Though oil is the most widely used primary energy in Japan, its market share is decreasing steadily in favour of other energies such as natural gas. Around 80 % of the gas consumed in Japan is imported in the form of LNG, with locally produced natural gas accounting for 5 % and LPG 12%. Annual LNG supplies now total 48 million tons (720 TWh) and are forecast to rise to 57 million tons over the next ten years. However, only on third of the total volume of LNG, i.e., 242 TWh, is distributed to final consumers. The rest is imported directly by power companies to produce electricity. The 245 gas distribution companies, 70 in the public sector and 175 in the private sector (including three large firms: Tokyo Gas, Osaka Gas and Toho Gas) carry the gas through their own non-interconnected networks to around 25 million customers, though the gas supply area covers only 5 % of the country. This small percentage can be explained partly by Japan's topography: 80 % of the land is covered by mountains. This means that only 20 % of the country is suitable for industrial and residential development. Populations living outside the gas supply areas mainly use LPG. The number of LPG customers totals around 25 million, a similar number to those using mains gas. However, the share of mains gas is increasing each year due to the population increase in urban zones. Though gas represents only 11 % of the energy consumed in Japan, it is nevertheless present on practically all markets and holds the leading position for domestic hot water and cooking in the residential sector. However, for heating, it lags well behind oil. In industry, mains gas covers only 5% of energy needs. However, with the expansion of the pipeline network and market liberalization, the share of gas is set to increase. The price of gas for the residential sector is 2 to 3 times higher than in western countries. This can be attributed to the following factors: most natural gas is imported LNG; unit consumption in the

  9. Japan - From Hiroshima to Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pons, Philippe; Guillain, Robert; Pedroletti, Brice; Bouc, Alain; Vichney, Nicolas; Izraelewicz, Erik; Mesmer, Philippe; Fenoglio, Jerome

    2013-01-01

    This publication proposes a set of articles published by Le Monde and which addressed some important events of the history of the Japanese society since the destruction of Hiroshima by the first atomic bomb until the Fukushima accident. The addressed facts and events are: the destruction of Hiroshima, the surrender of Japan, the end of the peculiar status of the emperor, the strong growth period from the 1950's to the 1980's (the revival of Japanese trusts, industrial pollution in Minamata, the activists of Zengakuren, the Osaka exhibition, Mishima's suicide, nuclear and data processing are defined as national priorities), the lost decades 1990-2010 (a new emperor, the Kobe earthquake, the increasing gap between the society and the political class, life and death in Toyota, demographic decline, etc.). The last articles address the Fukushima accident, and propose some photos and an interview with the Japanese Prime Minister

  10. 78 FR 78338 - Japan-U.S. Decommissioning and Remediation Fukushima Recovery Forum Tokyo, Japan February 18-19...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Japan-U.S. Decommissioning and Remediation Fukushima Recovery Forum Tokyo, Japan February 18-19, 2014 AGENCY: International Trade... Japan-United States Decommissioning and Remediation Fukushima Recovery Forum (``Fukushima Recovery Forum...

  11. Forest medicine research in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Yoshifumi; Ikei, Harumi; Song, Chorong

    2014-01-01

    There has been growing attention on the effects of forest on physiological relaxation and immune recovery, particularly in forest medicine research, from a perspective of preventive medicine. Japan is a world leader in the accumulation of scientific data on forest medicine research. In this review, we summarize the research that has been conducted in this area since 1992. We conducted field experiment, involving 420 subjects at 35 different forests throughout Japan. After sitting in natural surroundings, these subjects showed decrease in the following physiological parameters compared with those in an urban control group: 12.4% decrease in the cortisol level, 7.0% decrease in sympathetic nervous activity, 1.4% decrease in systolic blood pressure, and 5.8% decrease in heart rate. This demonstrates that stressful states can be relieved by forest therapy. In addition, it should be noted that parasympathetic nervous activity was enhanced by 55.0%, indicating a relaxed state. The results of walking experiments provided similar results. Li et al. demonstrated that immune function was enhanced by forest therapy in middle-aged employees who volunteered to participate in these experiments. Natural killer cell activity, an indicator of immune function, was enhanced by 56% on the second day and returned to normal levels. A significant increase of 23% was maintained for 1 month even after returning to urban life, clearly illustrating the preventive benefits of forest therapy. In an indoor room experiment, we conducted tests with the following: 1) olfactory stimulation using wood smell, 2) tactile stimulation using wood, and 3) auditory stimulation using forest sounds. These indoor stimulations also decreased the blood pressure and pulse rate, and induced a physiological relaxation effect. We anticipate that forest medicine will play an increasingly important role in preventive medicine in the future.

  12. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Benthic Cover Derived from Analysis of Benthic Images Collected during Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) across the Mariana Archipelago from 2014-03-25 to 2014-05-07 (NCEI Accession 0159148)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data described here result from benthic photo-quadrat surveys conducted along transects at stratified random sites across the Mariana archipelago in 2014 as a...

  13. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from SEDCO / BP 471 using BT and XBT casts in the East Indian Archipelago and TOGA Area - Pacific Ocean from 14 November 1988 to 20 December 1988 (NODC Accession 8900043)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT casts from the SEDCO / BP 471 in the East Indian Archipelago. and TOGA Area - Pacific Ocean....

  14. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Reef Fish, including Benthic Estimate Data of the Mariana Archipelago from 2017-05-03 to 2017-06-20 (NCEI Accession 0166381)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The stationary point count (SPC) method is used to conduct reef fish surveys in the Hawaiian and Mariana Archipelagos, American Samoa, and the Pacific Remote Island...

  15. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Reef Fish, including Benthic Estimate Data of the Hawaiian Archipelago from 2015-0614 to 2015-08-13 (NCEI Accession 0157591)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The stationary point count (SPC) method is used to conduct reef fish surveys in the Hawaiian and Mariana Archipelagos, American Samoa, and the Pacific Remote Island...

  16. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Reef Fish, including Benthic Estimate Data of the Hawaiian Archipelago from 2016-07-13 to 2016-09-27 (NCEI Accession 0157590)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The stationary point count (SPC) method is used to conduct reef fish surveys in the Hawaiian and Mariana Archipelagos, American Samoa, and the Pacific Remote Island...

  17. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Reef Fish, including Benthic Estimate Data of the Hawaiian Archipelago from 2013-08-02 to 2013-10-31 (NCEI Accession 0157589)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The stationary point count (SPC) method is used to conduct reef fish surveys in the Hawaiian and Mariana Archipelagos, American Samoa, and the Pacific Remote Island...

  18. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: benthic cover derived from analysis of benthic images collected during stratified random surveys (StRS) across the Hawaiian Archipelago from 2016-07-13 to 2016-09-27 (NCEI Accession 0164295)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data described here result from benthic photo-quadrat surveys conducted along transects at stratified random sites across the Hawaiian archipelago in 2016 as a...

  19. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Benthic Cover Derived from Analysis of Benthic Images Collected during Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) across the Hawaiian Archipelago in 2013 (NCEI Accession 0159140)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data described here result from benthic photo-quadrat surveys conducted along transects at stratified random sites across the Hawaiian archipelago in 2013 as a...

  20. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Coral Demography (Adult and Juvenile Corals) across the Mariana Archipelago from 2014-03-25 to 2014-05-07 (NCEI Accession 0159166)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data described here result from benthic coral demographic surveys for two life stages (juveniles, adults) across the Mariana Archipelago in 2014. Juvenile colony...

  1. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Coral Demography (Adult and Juvenile Corals) across the Hawaiian Archipelago from 2016-07-13 to 2016-09-27 (NCEI Accession 0159163)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data described here result from benthic coral demographic surveys for two life stages (juveniles, adults) across the Hawaiian archipelago in 2016. Juvenile...

  2. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Coral Demography (Adult and Juvenile Corals) across the Mariana Archipelago from 2017-05-05 to 2017-06-21 (NCEI Accession 0166383)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data described here result from benthic coral demographic surveys for two life stages (juveniles, adults) across the Mariana archipelago in 2017. Juvenile colony...

  3. Mangrove forest composition and structure in Las Perlas Archipelago, Pacific Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom McGowan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove forest is an important ecosystem that provides many services, but in Panama, as in other countries, they are under threat due to a variety of human activities. Nowadays, large areas of mangroves continue to be lost without been described and lack of management strategies. This study focused on the mangrove structure in the two largest islands, Isla del Rey and Isla San Jose, of Las Perlas Archipelago (LPA, Pacific Panama. Assessment of Landsat satellite imagery revealed loss of mangroves in the LPA of 965ha in the period 1974-1986, and 248ha in the period 1986-2000. The majority of the loss (>77% from the two study islands was due to timber extraction and agricultural development. In May 2006, permanent plots following the CARICOMP protocol were established at two sites on Isla del Rey (R1 and R2 and one site on Isla San Jose (SJ where standardized metrics such as species, height and diameter at breast height of adult trees and seedlings were recorded. Forest structure differed at the three sites, although R1 and R2 were most similar. At R1, Laguncularia racemosa was the important species and R2 was dominated by Pelliciera rhizophorae. Examination of the forest structure and classified imagery indicated that these sites are spatially dynamic and appear to be rejuvenating. The forest structure would indicate that the sites have been growth-limited previously by human activities and possibly by other factors. SJ was dominated by Rhizophora mangle and appears to have a mature forest with large adult trees and few seedlings. It does not appear to have shown the same extent of spatial regrowth as the other two sites between 1986 and 2000 and is relatively static. The establishment of permanent plots and monitoring will be useful as part of the management plan, as the LPA shows a variety of mangrove structures and could be subject to further coastal development. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (3: 857-869. Epub 2010 September 01.Los bosques de manglar

  4. Analysis of energy intensity in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okajima, Shigeharu; Okajima, Hiroko

    2013-01-01

    This study discusses the causes of the increase in Japan's energy intensity, defined as energy consumption divided by GDP, since the early 1990s. The significant reduction in Japan's energy intensity ceased in the early 1980s and has even slightly increased since the early 1990s, indicating that Japan seemingly stopped taking aggressive action to improve energy use. However, further analysis at prefecture level and sector level provides additional insight on energy intensity trends. To analyze the causes of the increase in Japan's energy intensity, energy intensity is decomposed into energy efficiency (improvements in energy efficiency) and energy activity (structural changes from the secondary sector to the tertiary sector of the economy). Our result indicates that the non-uniform energy intensity trends between prefectures are attributed to a high variability in energy efficiency. At sector level, we estimate the income elasticity of energy consumption in each sector and find that a structural change in energy consumption behaviors occurred in all sectors at different time points. The industrial sector and commercial sector became less energy efficient after 1981 and 1988, respectively, which is presumably responsible for the deterioration of Japan's energy intensity since the early 1990s. - Highlights: • We examine why the reduction in Japan's energy intensity increased in the early 1990s. • There is a high variability in energy intensity trends between regions. • The structural changes in energy consumption behaviors occurred in sector level. • These changes may be responsible for the deterioration of Japan's energy intensity

  5. Japan's new energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-11-01

    Japan's energy policy is undergoing fundamental changes. The accident at TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant questions the future contribution of nuclear power in the national energy mix. Growing imports of fossil fuels to replace the lost nuclear capacity inflated energy prices and raise economic and energy security challenges. At the same time, the US shale gas and oil revolution is reshaping the global energy scene. Japan expects to take advantage of the trend to eliminate the 'Asian premium' on natural gas prices and expand cheaper natural gas consumption. These developments have driven the Government of Japan to review its energy policy from scratch and adopt a new Strategic Energy Plan. This new policy has far reaching implications for gas and coal development in Japan but also for the international markets as Japan is the world's largest LNG importer and the second largest coal importer. This document summarizes the key findings of a new report by CEDIGAZ 'Japan's new energy policy: In search for stable and competitive energy supply'. The report analyzes the current changes taking place on the gas and coal markets in Japan, in light of the new energy policy adopted in April 2014, and in particular the decision to restart safe nuclear power plants and push forward electricity market reforms

  6. [Building epilepsy care network in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuki, Taisuke

    2012-01-01

    Number of epilepsy patient in Japan officially surveyed by our government in 2008 is 219,000, which is only 0.17% of the total population and less than one third of the prevalence rate reported in Western countries. Number of epilepsy surgery per year in Japan is also low and less than half of other countries such as US, UK and Korea. These numbers may suggest that epilepsy care in Japan is not sufficient to cover all hidden medical needs of people with epilepsy at present. To solve this issue, our research group funded by the government have started to build an epilepsy care network among primary care physicians, secondary care neurology specialists and tertiary care epilepsy centers by utilizing a web site: Epilepsy Care Network-Japan (http://www.ecn-japan.com/) from July 2012. We are also proposing an epilepsy care algorithm suitable for our complex medical community consisted with various neurology specialists such as pediatric and adult neurologists, neurosurgeons and psychiatrists. Building Epilepsy Care Network in Japan may facilitate better medical and social support for people with epilepsy in Japan.

  7. Japan's National Security: Structures, norms, and policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katzenstein, P.J.; Okawara, N.

    1993-01-01

    Japan's national security policy has two distinctive aspects that deserve analysis. First, Japan's definition of national security goes far beyond traditional military notions. National security is viewed in comprehensive terms that also include economic and political dimensions. The second feature of Japan's security policy worth explanation is a distinctive mixture of flexibility and rigidity in the process of policy adaptation to change: flexibility on issues of economic security, rigidity on issues of military security, and flexibility combined with rigidity on issues of political security. With the end of the Cold War and changes in the structure of the international system, it is only natural that we ask whether and how Japan's national security policy will change as well. Optimists insist that the Asian balance of power and the US-Japan relationship will make Japan aspire to be a competitive, noninterventionist trading state that heeds the universal interest of peace and profit rather than narrow aspirations for national power. Pessimists warn us instead that the new international system will finally confirm Herman Kahn's prediction of 1970: Japan will quickly change to the status of a nuclear superpower, spurred perhaps by what some see as a dangerous rise of Japanese militarism in the 1970s and 1980s

  8. Electronic manufacturing and packaging in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael J.; Boulton, William R. (Editor); Kukowski, John A.; Meieran, Eugene S.; Pecht, Michael; Peeples, John W.; Tummala, Rao R.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the status of electronic manufacturing and packaging technology in Japan in comparison to that in the United States, and its impact on competition in electronic manufacturing in general. In addition to electronic manufacturing technologies, the report covers technology and manufacturing infrastructure, electronics manufacturing and assembly, quality assurance and reliability in the Japanese electronics industry, and successful product realization strategies. The panel found that Japan leads the United States in almost every electronics packaging technology. Japan clearly has achieved a strategic advantage in electronics production and process technologies. Panel members believe that Japanese competitors could be leading U.S. firms by as much as a decade in some electronics process technologies. Japan has established this marked competitive advantage in electronics as a consequence of developing low-cost, high-volume consumer products. Japan's infrastructure, and the remarkable cohesiveness of vision and purpose in government and industry, are key factors in the success of Japan's electronics industry. Although Japan will continue to dominate consumer electronics in the foreseeable future, opportunities exist for the United States and other industrial countries to capture an increasingly large part of the market. The JTEC panel has identified no insurmountable barriers that would prevent the United States from regaining a significant share of the consumer electronics market; in fact, there is ample evidence that the United States needs to aggressively pursue high-volume, low-cost electronic assembly, because it is a critical path leading to high-performance electronic systems.

  9. Fukushima accident: the consequences in Japan, France and in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foucher, N.; Sorin, F.

    2011-01-01

    This document begins with a description of the Fukushima accident, the second article reviews the main consequences in Japan of the accident: setting of a forbidden zone around the plant, restriction of the exports of food products, or the shutdown of the Hamaoka plant. The third article is the reporting of an interview of L. Oursel, deputy general director of the Areva group, this interview deals mainly with the safety standard of the EPR and with the issue of passive safety systems. The last part of the document is dedicated to the consequences in France (null sanitary impact, cooperation between Areva, EdF, CEA and the Japanese plant operator Tepco...) and in the rest of the world: the organization of resistance tests in the nuclear power plants operating in the European Union, the decision about the agreement of EPR and AP1000 reactor has been delayed in United-Kingdom, acceleration of the German program for abandoning nuclear energy, Italy suspends its nuclear program, China orders a general overhaul of the safety standard of its nuclear power plants, Poland and Romania reaffirm their trust in nuclear energy, France wishes a 'mechanism' allowing a quick international intervention in case of major nuclear accident, Russia proposes measures to improve nuclear safety. (A.C.)

  10. Childbirth in aristocratic households of Heian Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, Anna

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on childbirth in Japan's aristocratic households during the Heian period (794-1185). Drawing on various sources, including court diaries, visual sources, literary records, and Japan's first medical collection, with its assortment of gynaecological and obstetric prescriptions, as well as Buddhist and other ritual texts, this short excursion into the cultural history of childbirth offers an insight into how childbirth was experienced and managed in Heian Japan. In particular, it addresses the variety of ideas, knowledge systems and professionals involved in framing and supporting the process of childbirth in elite households. In so doing, it casts light on the complex background of early Japanese medicine and healthcare for women.

  11. The scale of biomass production in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumura, Yukihiko [School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, 1-4-1 Kagamiyama, Higashihiroshima-shi 739-8527 (Japan); Inoue, Takashi; Fukuda, Katsura [Global Warming Research Department, Mitsubishi Research Institute, Inc., 2-3-6 Ohtemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8141 (Japan); Komoto, Keiichi; Hada, Kenichiro [Renewable energy Team, Environment, Natural Resources and Energy Division, Mizuho Information and Research Institute, Inc., 2-3 Kanda-nishikicho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8443 (Japan); Hirata, Satoshi [Technical Institute, Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., 1-1 Kawasakicho, Akashi-shi, Hyogo 673-8666 (Japan); Minowa, Tomoaki [Biomass Recycle Research Laboratory, National Institute of Advanced and Industrial Science and Technology, 2-2-2 Hiro, Suehiro, Kure-shi, Hiroshima 737-0197 (Japan); Yamamoto, Hiromi [Socioeconomic Research Center, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, 1-6-1 Ohtemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8126 (Japan)

    2005-11-01

    Policymakers working to introduce and promote the use of bioenergy in Japan require detailed information on the scales of the different types of biomass resources generated. In this research, the first of its type in Japan, the investigators reviewed various statistical resources to quantify the scale distribution of forest residues, waste wood from manufacturing, waste wood from construction, cattle manure, sewage sludge, night soil, household garbage, and waste food oil. As a result, the scale of biomass generation in Japan was found to be relatively small, on the average is no more than several tons in dry weight per day. (author)

  12. THE DEVELOPMENT OF INSTRUCTION BOOK ABOUT ARCHIPELAGO CAKE MAKING IN STUDY OF COOK AND FOOD PREPARATION FOR STUDENTS WITH HEARING IMPAIRMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dienda Nurmaisitha

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to develop instruction book of archipelago cake making for students with hearing impairment. The research adapted the Sugiyono (2011 model which consists of 7 stages: (1 potential problems, (2 data collection, (3 product design, (4 validation of the design, (5 design revisions, (6 product testing, and (7 the revision of the product. The results of matter experts was 97%, media experts was 92%, and practitioners (teachers was 98%. The individual experimental result was 90% for student I, 95% for student II, and 80% for student III. The result of field experimental from the evaluation to the students were 82,66 in average scoring. The research result showed that the instruction book about archipelago cake making in study of cook and food preparation for students with hearing impairment in state SMPLB was proper and effective.

  13. Tohoku's earthquake of Friday March 11, 2011 (5:46 UT), magnitude 9.0, off Honshu island (Japan); Seisme de Tohoku au large de l'Ile d'Honshu (Japon) du vendredi 11 mars 2011 (5h46 TU) Magnitude = 9,0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    On Friday March 11, 2011, at 5:46 UT (2:46 PM local time), a magnitude 9.0 earthquake took place at 80 km east of Honshu island (Japan). The earthquake generated a tsunami which led to the loss of the cooling systems of the Fukushima Dai-ichi and Fukushima Daini power plants. This paper describes the seismo-tectonic and historical seismic context of the Japan archipelago and the first analyses of the Tohoku earthquake impact: magnitudes of first shock and of aftershocks, impact on nuclear facilities (maximum acceleration values detected with respect to design basis values, subsidence of coastal areas and submersion of power plant platforms). (J.S.)

  14. Major earthquake of Friday March 11, 2011, magnitude 8.9 at 5:46 UT, off Honshu island (Japan); Seisme majeur au large de l'Ile d'Honshu (Japon) du vendredi 11 mars 2011 Magnitude = 8,9 a 5h46 (TU)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    On Friday March 11, 2011, at 5:46 UT (2:46 PM local time), a magnitude 8.9 earthquake took place at 80 km east of Honshu island (Japan). The earthquake affected a large part of the Honshu territory and led to the automatic emergency shutdown of all nuclear power plants of the east coast. This paper recalls first the seismo-tectonic and historical seismic context of the Japan archipelago and the first analyses of the Tohoku earthquake impact on nuclear facilities. At the time of publication of this information report, no radioactive release in the environment and no anomaly at the Tokai-Mura and Rokkasho-Mura sites were mentioned. However, the evacuation of populations in a 3 to 10 km area around the Fukushima-Dai-ichi power plant had been ordered by the Governor as preventive measure, which made one think that the situation at this specific site was particularly worrying. (J.S.)

  15. Abundance and Distribution of Sperm Whales in the Canary Islands: Can Sperm Whales in the Archipelago Sustain the Current Level of Ship-Strike Mortalities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Fais

    Full Text Available Sperm whales are present in the Canary Islands year-round, suggesting that the archipelago is an important area for this species in the North Atlantic. However, the area experiences one of the highest reported rates of sperm whale ship-strike in the world. Here we investigate if the number of sperm whales found in the archipelago can sustain the current rate of ship-strike mortality. The results of this study may also have implications for offshore areas where concentrations of sperm whales may coincide with high densities of ship traffic, but where ship-strikes may be undocumented. The absolute abundance of sperm whales in an area of 52933 km2, covering the territorial waters of the Canary Islands, was estimated from 2668 km of acoustic line-transect survey using Distance sampling analysis. Data on sperm whale diving and acoustic behaviour, obtained from bio-logging, were used to calculate g(0 = 0.92, this is less than one because of occasional extended periods when whales do not echolocate. This resulted in an absolute abundance estimate of 224 sperm whales (95% log-normal CI 120-418 within the survey area. The recruitment capability of this number of whales, some 2.5 whales per year, is likely to be exceeded by the current ship-strike mortality rate. Furthermore, we found areas of higher whale density within the archipelago, many coincident with those previously described, suggesting that these are important habitats for females and immature animals inhabiting the archipelago. Some of these areas are crossed by active shipping lanes increasing the risk of ship-strikes. Given the philopatry in female sperm whales, replacement of impacted whales might be limited. Therefore, the application of mitigation measures to reduce the ship-strike mortality rate seems essential for the conservation of sperm whales in the Canary Islands.

  16. Abundance and Distribution of Sperm Whales in the Canary Islands: Can Sperm Whales in the Archipelago Sustain the Current Level of Ship-Strike Mortalities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fais, Andrea; Lewis, Tim P; Zitterbart, Daniel P; Álvarez, Omar; Tejedor, Ana; Aguilar Soto, Natacha

    2016-01-01

    Sperm whales are present in the Canary Islands year-round, suggesting that the archipelago is an important area for this species in the North Atlantic. However, the area experiences one of the highest reported rates of sperm whale ship-strike in the world. Here we investigate if the number of sperm whales found in the archipelago can sustain the current rate of ship-strike mortality. The results of this study may also have implications for offshore areas where concentrations of sperm whales may coincide with high densities of ship traffic, but where ship-strikes may be undocumented. The absolute abundance of sperm whales in an area of 52933 km2, covering the territorial waters of the Canary Islands, was estimated from 2668 km of acoustic line-transect survey using Distance sampling analysis. Data on sperm whale diving and acoustic behaviour, obtained from bio-logging, were used to calculate g(0) = 0.92, this is less than one because of occasional extended periods when whales do not echolocate. This resulted in an absolute abundance estimate of 224 sperm whales (95% log-normal CI 120-418) within the survey area. The recruitment capability of this number of whales, some 2.5 whales per year, is likely to be exceeded by the current ship-strike mortality rate. Furthermore, we found areas of higher whale density within the archipelago, many coincident with those previously described, suggesting that these are important habitats for females and immature animals inhabiting the archipelago. Some of these areas are crossed by active shipping lanes increasing the risk of ship-strikes. Given the philopatry in female sperm whales, replacement of impacted whales might be limited. Therefore, the application of mitigation measures to reduce the ship-strike mortality rate seems essential for the conservation of sperm whales in the Canary Islands.

  17. Abundance and Distribution of Sperm Whales in the Canary Islands: Can Sperm Whales in the Archipelago Sustain the Current Level of Ship-Strike Mortalities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fais, Andrea; Lewis, Tim P.; Zitterbart, Daniel P.; Álvarez, Omar; Tejedor, Ana; Aguilar Soto, Natacha

    2016-01-01

    Sperm whales are present in the Canary Islands year-round, suggesting that the archipelago is an important area for this species in the North Atlantic. However, the area experiences one of the highest reported rates of sperm whale ship-strike in the world. Here we investigate if the number of sperm whales found in the archipelago can sustain the current rate of ship-strike mortality. The results of this study may also have implications for offshore areas where concentrations of sperm whales may coincide with high densities of ship traffic, but where ship-strikes may be undocumented. The absolute abundance of sperm whales in an area of 52933 km2, covering the territorial waters of the Canary Islands, was estimated from 2668 km of acoustic line-transect survey using Distance sampling analysis. Data on sperm whale diving and acoustic behaviour, obtained from bio-logging, were used to calculate g(0) = 0.92, this is less than one because of occasional extended periods when whales do not echolocate. This resulted in an absolute abundance estimate of 224 sperm whales (95% log-normal CI 120–418) within the survey area. The recruitment capability of this number of whales, some 2.5 whales per year, is likely to be exceeded by the current ship-strike mortality rate. Furthermore, we found areas of higher whale density within the archipelago, many coincident with those previously described, suggesting that these are important habitats for females and immature animals inhabiting the archipelago. Some of these areas are crossed by active shipping lanes increasing the risk of ship-strikes. Given the philopatry in female sperm whales, replacement of impacted whales might be limited. Therefore, the application of mitigation measures to reduce the ship-strike mortality rate seems essential for the conservation of sperm whales in the Canary Islands. PMID:26999791

  18. New species of Rissoidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda) from the Archipelago of the Azores (northeast Atlantic) with an updated regional checklist for the family

    OpenAIRE

    Cordeiro,Ricardo; Ávila,Sérgio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Four new species of shallow-water marine gastropods belonging to the family Rissoidae are described from the Archipelago of the Azores: Setia alexandrae sp. n., Setia ermelindoi sp. n., Setia netoae sp. n., and Manzonia martinsi sp. n. These novelties increase the regional rissoid fauna to 39 species, of which 29 live in shallow-water habitats. A list of the species of Rissoidae from the Azores is presented based on data from the literature and new material examined.

  19. New species of Rissoidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda) from the Archipelago of the Azores (northeast Atlantic) with an updated regional checklist for the family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Ricardo; Ávila, Sérgio P

    2015-01-01

    Four new species of shallow-water marine gastropods belonging to the family Rissoidae are described from the Archipelago of the Azores: Setiaalexandrae sp. n., Setiaermelindoi sp. n., Setianetoae sp. n., and Manzoniamartinsi sp. n. These novelties increase the regional rissoid fauna to 39 species, of which 29 live in shallow-water habitats. A list of the species of Rissoidae from the Azores is presented based on data from the literature and new material examined.

  20. New species of Rissoidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda from the Archipelago of the Azores (northeast Atlantic with an updated regional checklist for the family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Cordeiro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Four new species of shallow-water marine gastropods belonging to the family Rissoidae are described from the Archipelago of the Azores: Setia alexandrae sp. n., S. ermelindoi sp. n., S. netoae sp. n., and Manzonia martinsi sp. n. These novelties increase the regional rissoid fauna to 39 species, of which 29 live in shallow-water habitats. A list of the species of Rissoidae from the Azores is presented based on data from the literature and new material examined.

  1. New species of Rissoidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda) from the Archipelago of the Azores (northeast Atlantic) with an updated regional checklist for the family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Ricardo; Ávila, Sérgio P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Four new species of shallow-water marine gastropods belonging to the family Rissoidae are described from the Archipelago of the Azores: Setia alexandrae sp. n., Setia ermelindoi sp. n., Setia netoae sp. n., and Manzonia martinsi sp. n. These novelties increase the regional rissoid fauna to 39 species, of which 29 live in shallow-water habitats. A list of the species of Rissoidae from the Azores is presented based on data from the literature and new material examined. PMID:25685020

  2. Bioprospecting Anticancer Compounds from the Marine-Derived Actinobacteria Actinomadura sp. Collected at the Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago (Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Amaro E. T.; Guimarães, Larissa A.; Ferreira, Elthon G.; Torres, Maria da Conceição M.; Silva, Alison B. da; Branco, Paola C.; Oliveira, Francisca Andréa S.; Silva, Genivaldo G. Z.; Wilke, Diego V.; Silveira, Edilberto R.; Pessoa, Otília Deusdenia L.; Jimenez, Paula C.; Costa-Lotufo, Leticia V.

    2017-01-01

    The actinomycete strain BRA 177 was recovered from sediment samples collected at the St. Peter and St. Paul Archipelago, Brazil. This work accessed the ability of this strain, identified as Actinomadura sp., to produce bioactive metabolites by exploring the genome and characterizing chemistry and cytotoxicity of isolated compounds. From the crude ethyl acetate extract, the pigments nonylprodigiosin, cyclononylprodigiosin and methylcyclooctilprodigiosin were isolated and displayed cytotoxicity...

  3. Archipelago-wide island restoration in the Galápagos Islands: reducing costs of invasive mammal eradication programs and reinvasion risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Carrion

    Full Text Available Invasive alien mammals are the major driver of biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation on islands. Over the past three decades, invasive mammal eradication from islands has become one of society's most powerful tools for preventing extinction of insular endemics and restoring insular ecosystems. As practitioners tackle larger islands for restoration, three factors will heavily influence success and outcomes: the degree of local support, the ability to mitigate for non-target impacts, and the ability to eradicate non-native species more cost-effectively. Investments in removing invasive species, however, must be weighed against the risk of reintroduction. One way to reduce reintroduction risks is to eradicate the target invasive species from an entire archipelago, and thus eliminate readily available sources. We illustrate the costs and benefits of this approach with the efforts to remove invasive goats from the Galápagos Islands. Project Isabela, the world's largest island restoration effort to date, removed >140,000 goats from >500,000 ha for a cost of US$10.5 million. Leveraging the capacity built during Project Isabela, and given that goat reintroductions have been common over the past decade, we implemented an archipelago-wide goat eradication strategy. Feral goats remain on three islands in the archipelago, and removal efforts are underway. Efforts on the Galápagos Islands demonstrate that for some species, island size is no longer the limiting factor with respect to eradication. Rather, bureaucratic processes, financing, political will, and stakeholder approval appear to be the new challenges. Eradication efforts have delivered a suite of biodiversity benefits that are in the process of revealing themselves. The costs of rectifying intentional reintroductions are high in terms of financial and human resources. Reducing the archipelago-wide goat density to low levels is a technical approach to reducing reintroduction risk in the short

  4. Archipelago-wide island restoration in the Galápagos Islands: reducing costs of invasive mammal eradication programs and reinvasion risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrion, Victor; Donlan, C Josh; Campbell, Karl J; Lavoie, Christian; Cruz, Felipe

    2011-05-11

    Invasive alien mammals are the major driver of biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation on islands. Over the past three decades, invasive mammal eradication from islands has become one of society's most powerful tools for preventing extinction of insular endemics and restoring insular ecosystems. As practitioners tackle larger islands for restoration, three factors will heavily influence success and outcomes: the degree of local support, the ability to mitigate for non-target impacts, and the ability to eradicate non-native species more cost-effectively. Investments in removing invasive species, however, must be weighed against the risk of reintroduction. One way to reduce reintroduction risks is to eradicate the target invasive species from an entire archipelago, and thus eliminate readily available sources. We illustrate the costs and benefits of this approach with the efforts to remove invasive goats from the Galápagos Islands. Project Isabela, the world's largest island restoration effort to date, removed >140,000 goats from >500,000 ha for a cost of US$10.5 million. Leveraging the capacity built during Project Isabela, and given that goat reintroductions have been common over the past decade, we implemented an archipelago-wide goat eradication strategy. Feral goats remain on three islands in the archipelago, and removal efforts are underway. Efforts on the Galápagos Islands demonstrate that for some species, island size is no longer the limiting factor with respect to eradication. Rather, bureaucratic processes, financing, political will, and stakeholder approval appear to be the new challenges. Eradication efforts have delivered a suite of biodiversity benefits that are in the process of revealing themselves. The costs of rectifying intentional reintroductions are high in terms of financial and human resources. Reducing the archipelago-wide goat density to low levels is a technical approach to reducing reintroduction risk in the short-term, and is being

  5. Extensive lake sediment coring survey on Sub-Antarctic Indian Ocean Kerguelen Archipelago (French Austral and Antarctic Lands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, Fabien; Fanget, Bernard; Malet, Emmanuel; Poulenard, Jérôme; Støren, Eivind; Leloup, Anouk; Bakke, Jostein; Sabatier, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    Recent paleo-studies revealed climatic southern high latitude climate evolution patterns that are crucial to understand the global climate evolution(1,2). Among others the strength and north-south shifts of westerlies wind appeared to be a key parameter(3). However, virtually no lands are located south of the 45th South parallel between Southern Georgia (60°W) and New Zealand (170°E) precluding the establishment of paleoclimate records of past westerlies dynamics. Located around 50°S and 70°E, lost in the middle of the sub-Antarctic Indian Ocean, Kerguelen archipelago is a major, geomorphologically complex, land-mass that is covered by hundreds lakes of various sizes. It hence offers a unique opportunity to reconstruct past climate and environment dynamics in a region where virtually nothing is known about it, except the remarkable recent reconstructions based on a Lateglacial peatbog sequence(4). During the 2014-2015 austral summer, a French-Norwegian team led the very first extensive lake sediment coring survey on Kerguelen Archipelago under the umbrella of the PALAS program supported by the French Polar Institute (IPEV). Two main areas were investigated: i) the southwest of the mainland, so-called Golfe du Morbihan, where glaciers are currently absent and ii) the northernmost Kerguelen mainland peninsula so-called Loranchet, where cirque glaciers are still present. This double-target strategy aims at reconstructing various independent indirect records of precipitation (glacier advance, flood dynamics) and wind speed (marine spray chemical species, wind-borne terrigenous input) to tackle the Holocene climate variability. Despite particularly harsh climate conditions and difficult logistics matters, we were able to core 6 lake sediment sites: 5 in Golfe du Morbihan and one in Loranchet peninsula. Among them two sequences taken in the 4km-long Lake Armor using a UWITEC re-entry piston coring system by 20 and 100m water-depth (6 and 7m-long, respectively). One

  6. Spent fuel treatment in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, K.

    1999-01-01

    In Japan, 52 nuclear power reactors are operating with a total power generation capacity of 45 GWe. The cumulative amount of spent fuel arising, as of March 1998, is about 14,700 W. Spent fuel is reprocessed and recovered nuclear materials are to be recycled in LWRs and FBRs. Pu utilization in LWRs will commence in 1999. In January 1997, short-term policy measures were announced by the Atomic Energy Commission, which addressed promotion of the reprocessing programme in Rokkasho, plutonium utilization in LWRs, spent fuel management, back-end measures and FBR development. With regard to the spent fuel management, the policy measures included expansion of spent fuel storage capacity at reactor sites and a study on spent fuel storage away-from-reactor sites, considering the increasing amount of spent fuel arising. Valuable experience was been accumulated at the Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP), from the start of hot operation in 1977 up to now. The role of the TRP will be changed from an operation-oriented to a more R and D oriented facility, when PNC is reorganized into the new organization JNC. The Rokkasho reprocessing plant is under construction and is expected to commence operation in 2003. R and D of future recycling technologies is also continued for the establishment of a nuclear fuel cycle based on FBRs and LWRs. (author)

  7. Nuclear Forensics Technologies in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinohara, N.; Kimura, Y.; Okubo, A.; Tomikawa, H.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear forensics is the analysis of intercepted illicit nuclear or radioactive material and any associated material to provide evidence for nuclear attribution by determining origin, history, transit routes and purpose involving such material. Nuclear forensics activities include sampling of the illicit material, analysis of the samples and evaluation of the attribution by comparing the analysed data with database or numerical simulation. Because the nuclear forensics methodologies provide hints of the origin of the nuclear materials used in illegal dealings or nuclear terrorism, it contributes to identify and indict offenders, hence to enhance deterrent effect against such terrorism. Worldwide network on nuclear forensics can lead to strengthening global nuclear security regime. In the ESARDA Symposium 2015, the results of research and development of fundamental nuclear forensics technologies performed in Japan Atomic Energy Agency during the term of 2011-2013 were reported, namely (1) technique to analyse isotopic composition of nuclear material, (2) technique to identify the impurities contained in the material, (3) technique to determine the age of the purified material by measuring the isotopic ratio of daughter thorium to parent uranium, (4) technique to make image data by observing particle shapes with electron microscope, and (5) prototype nuclear forensics library for comparison of the analysed data with database in order to evaluate its evidence such as origin and history. Japan’s capability on nuclear forensics and effective international cooperation are also mentioned for contribution to the international nuclear forensics community.

  8. From the Jura to Japan...

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Fifty years ago, a week-long school for physicists took place in Saint Cergue, in the Jura mountains not far from CERN. Its focus was on using emulsion techniques, but its legacy was much more far reaching. Last week I was in Fukuoka, Japan, on the last day of a direct descendent – the first Asia–Europe–Pacific School of High-Energy Physics (AEPSHEP).   That first small school in 1962 was the precursor to the annual European Schools of High-Energy Physics, which are organised jointly by CERN and the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in countries that are a member state of either (or both) of the organisations. They led in turn to the CERN–Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics, first held in Brazil in 2001. The aim of these schools is not only to give young particle physicists the opportunity to learn from leading experts in the field, but also to nurture from the start communication among researchers from different regions. CERN and JI...

  9. Spent fuel management in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mineo, H.; Nomura, Y.; Sakamoto, K.

    1998-01-01

    In Japan 52 commercial nuclear power units are now operated, and the total power generation capacity is about 45 GWe. The cumulative amount of spent fuel arising is about 13,500 tU as of March 1997. Spent fuel is reprocessed, and recovered nuclear materials are to be recycled in LWRs and FBRs. In February 1997 short-term policy measures were announced by the Atomic Energy Commission, which addressed promotion of reprocessing programme in Rokkasho, plutonium utilization in LWRs, spent fuel management, backend measures and FBR development. With regard to the spent fuel management, the policy measures included expansion of spent fuel storage capacity at reactor sites and a study on spent fuel storage away from reactor sites, considering the increasing amount of spent fuel arising. Research and development on spent fuel storage has been carried out, particularly on dry storage technology. Fundamental studies are also conducted to implement the burnup credit into the criticality safety design of storage and transportation casks. Rokkasho reprocessing plant is being constructed towards its commencement in 2003, and Pu utilization in LWRs will be started in 1999. Research and development of future recycling technology are also continued for the establishment of nuclear fuel cycle based on FBRs and LWRs. (author)

  10. Romanticising Shinsengumi in Contemporary Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Lee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Shinsengumi, a group of young men recruited by the Bakufu to protect Kyoto from radical Imperial House loyalists in the tumultuous Bakumatsu period, is romanticised and idolised in Japan despite its limited place in history. This article attempts to comprehend this phenomenon by locating the closest crystallisation of popularly imagined Shinsengumi in Moeyo ken, a popular historical fiction by Shiba Ryōtarō. Antonio Gramsci explains readers are attracted to popular literature because it reflects their ‘philosophies of the age’, which may be discovered by examining popular heroes with their subsequent replications. This article will identify why Shinsengumi is appealing by comparing Shiba’s hero in Moeyo ken with its twenty-first century reincarnation in Gintama, a popular manga series, and by discerning reader response to Moeyo ken from customer reviews on Amazon.co.jp. It will be demonstrated from these studies that a likely reason for the Japanese public’s romanticisation of Shinsengumi in recent years could be their attraction to autonomous, self-determining heroes who also appreciate the value of community.

  11. Diagnostics in Japan's microgravity experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadota, Toshikazu

    1995-01-01

    The achievement of the combustion research under microgravity depends substantially on the availability of diagnostic systems. The non-intrusive diagnostic systems are potentially applicable for providing the accurate, realistic and detailed information on momentum, mass and energy transport, complex gas phase chemistry, and phase change in the combustion field under microgravity. The non-intrusive nature of optical instruments is essential to the measurement of combustion process under microgravity which is very nervous to any perturbation. However, the implementation of the non-intrusive combustion diagnostic systems under microgravity is accompanied by several constraints. Usually, a very limited space is only available for constructing a highly sophisticated system which is so sensitive that it is easily affected by the magnitude of the gravitational force, vibration and heterogeneous field of temperature and density of the environments. The system should be properly adjusted prior to the experiment. Generally, it is quite difficult to tune the instruments during measurements. The programmed sequence of operation should also be provided. Extensive effort has been toward the development of non-intrusive diagnostic systems available for the combustion experiments under microgravity. This paper aims to describe the current art and the future strategy on the non-intrusive diagnostic systems potentially applicable to the combustion experiments under microgravity in Japan.

  12. Exotic freshwater planarians currently known from Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluys, R.; Kawakatsu, M.; Yamamoto, K.

    2010-01-01

    Biogeographical and taxonomic information on the four non-indigenous freshwater planarians of Japan is reviewed, viz. Dugesia austroasiatica Kawakatsu, 1985, Girardia tigrina (Girard, 1850), G. dorotocephala (Woodworth, 1897), and Rhodax evelinae? Marcus, 1947. The occurrence of Girardia

  13. United States - Japan - European Union probe data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The U.S., Japan, and Europe have a long : history of sharing information on ITS : activities. These efforts include both bilateral : and trilateral relationships. International : coordination is underway in several areas, : including: : 1. Internatio...

  14. Summary of the Day Observations - Misawa Japan

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Summary of the Day Observations - Misawa Japan is a collection of data summarizing daily weather observations taken at Misawa Naval Air Station, near the north end...

  15. Remilitarization of Japan - Prospects and Impacts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yee, Tay

    1997-01-01

    ...? Also, there have always been concerns, especially among older Southeast Asians, who still have vivid memories of Japanese military atrocities during the Japanese Occupation, that Japan may trend towards militarism...

  16. Japan's System of Official Development Assistance | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Today, and since 1989, Japan is the largest donor of ODA in the world. ... New Dutch-Canadian funding for the Climate and Development Knowledge Network ... (RRF) for Ebola Virus Disease Outbreaks will fund social science, population and ...

  17. May 1983 Akita, Honshu, Japan Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The tsunami generated by a magnitude 7.9 (Mw) earthquake destroyed 700 boats and 59 houses for a total of $800 million in property damage in Japan (1983 dollars)....

  18. Pulse radiolysis facilities and activities in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogasawara, M.

    1995-01-01

    Pulse radiolysis studies in Japan have been reviewed in special reference to the facilities and the people who have engaged in the experiments. Main achievement is summarized with the list of selected publications. (author)

  19. Should Japan Become a Normal Country

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yildiz, Ahmet

    2005-01-01

    This thesis evaluates Japanese geopolitical change in the post-Cold War era. It does so by analyzing Japan's history, its foreign policy since 1945, its reasons for becoming a normal country, and the impact of its normalization...

  20. Food Irradiation In Vietnam And Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamikazy Kume

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, Japan Atomic Energy Commission of Cabinet Office performed the study of current status of food irradiation in the world. The results showed that the total quantity of irradiated foods in 2005 was 405,000 tons. Seven main countries for food irradiation were China, USA, Ukraine, Brazil, South Africa, Vietnam and Japan. In Japan, only the potato irradiation for sprout inhibition is continued more than 35 years since 1974 but the quantity is decreasing. On the other hand, the food irradiation of Vietnam has been developed rapidly in a short time to export the frozen seafood and fruit. This paper shows the status of food irradiation in Vietnam and Japan, and the progress in both countries after 2005. (author)

  1. ITER on display at Yokohama, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, B.

    1998-01-01

    During the 17th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference, held in Yokohama, Japan, from 19-24 October 1998, the ITER Project exhibited a display, primarily of the research and development which has taken place to support the design of ITER

  2. Japan's contribution to nuclear medical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M.; Sakamoto, Junichi; Fukui, Tsuguya

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the degree of Japan's contribution to the nuclear medical research in the last decade. Articles published in 1991-2000 in highly reputed nuclear medical journals were accessed through the MEDLINE database. The number of articles having affiliation with a Japanese institution was counted along with publication year. In addition, shares of top-ranking countries were determined along with their trends over time. Of the total number of articles (7,788), Japan's share of articles in selected nuclear medical journals was 11.4% (889 articles) and ranked 2nd in the world after the USA (2,645 articles). The recent increase in the share was statistically significant for Japan (p=0.02, test for trend). Japan's share in nuclear medical research output is much higher than that in other biomedical fields. (author)

  3. The history of human populations in the Japanese Archipelago inferred from genome-wide SNP data with a special reference to the Ainu and the Ryukyuan populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinam, Timothy; Nishida, Nao; Hirai, Momoki; Kawamura, Shoji; Oota, Hiroki; Umetsu, Kazuo; Kimura, Ryosuke; Ohashi, Jun; Tajima, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Toshimichi; Tanabe, Hideyuki; Mano, Shuhei; Suto, Yumiko; Kaname, Tadashi; Naritomi, Kenji; Yanagi, Kumiko; Niikawa, Norio; Omoto, Keiichi; Tokunaga, Katsushi; Saitou, Naruya

    2012-12-01

    The Japanese Archipelago stretches over 4000 km from north to south, and is the homeland of the three human populations; the Ainu, the Mainland Japanese and the Ryukyuan. The archeological evidence of human residence on this Archipelago goes back to >30 000 years, and various migration routes and root populations have been proposed. Here, we determined close to one million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for the Ainu and the Ryukyuan, and compared these with existing data sets. This is the first report of these genome-wide SNP data. Major findings are: (1) Recent admixture with the Mainland Japanese was observed for more than one third of the Ainu individuals from principal component analysis and frappe analyses; (2) The Ainu population seems to have experienced admixture with another population, and a combination of two types of admixtures is the unique characteristics of this population; (3) The Ainu and the Ryukyuan are tightly clustered with 100% bootstrap probability followed by the Mainland Japanese in the phylogenetic trees of East Eurasian populations. These results clearly support the dual structure model on the Japanese Archipelago populations, though the origins of the Jomon and the Yayoi people still remain to be solved.

  4. The influences of the AMO and NAO on the sedimentary infill in an Azores Archipelago lake since ca. 1350 CE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Armand; Sáez, Alberto; Bao, Roberto; Raposeiro, Pedro M.; Trigo, Ricardo M.; Doolittle, Sara; Masqué, Pere; Rull, Valentí; Gonçalves, Vítor; Vázquez-Loureiro, David; Rubio-Inglés, María J.; Sánchez-López, Guiomar; Giralt, Santiago

    2017-07-01

    The location of the Azores Archipelago in the North Atlantic makes this group of islands an excellent setting to study the long-term behavior of large oceanic and atmospheric climate dynamic patterns, such as the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Here, we present the impacts of these patterns on Lake Empadadas (Azores Archipelago) from the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) - Little Ice Age (LIA) transition to the present based on sedimentological, geochemical and biological characterizations of the sedimentary record. Multivariate analyses of a number of proxies including X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), total organic and inorganic carbon (TOC and TIC) and diatom life forms abundance reveal that the sedimentary infill evolution has been controlled by (i) fluctuations in the lake level and (ii) variations in organic matter accumulation. Both processes are governed by climate variability and modulated by anthropogenic activities associated with changes on the lake catchment. Changes in these two sedimentary processes have been used to infer five stages: (i) the MCA-LIA transition (ca. 1350-1450 CE) was characterized by a predominantly positive AMO phase, which led to intermediate lake levels and high organic matter concentration; (ii) the first half of the LIA (ca. 1450-1600 CE) was characterized by predominant lowstand conditions and intermediate organic matter deposition mainly related to negative AMO phases; (iii) the second half of the LIA (ca. 1600-1850 CE) was characterized by negative AMO and NAO phases, implying intermediate lake levels and high organic matter deposition; (iv) the Industrial era (ca. 1850-1980 CE) was characterized by the lowest lake level and organic matter accumulation associated with negative AMO phases; and (v) the period spanning between 1980 CE and the present reveals the highest lake levels and low organic matter deposition, being associated with very positive AMO

  5. Gravitational, erosional and sedimentary processes on volcanic ocean islands: Insights from the submarine morphology of Madeira archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quartau, R.; Ramalho, R.; Madeira, J.; Santos, R.; Rodrigues, A.; Roque, C.; Carrara, G.; da Silveira, A. B.

    2017-12-01

    In this work we report detailed observations of high-resolution bathymetric and backscatter mosaics of Madeira archipelago covering from the nearshore to the deep sea and relate them with the physical and geological setting of the islands. Our observations reveal that the submarine flanks of the archipelago are deeply dissected by large landslide scars and that most of them have involved subaerial material. Below the shelf break, landslide chutes develop downslope forming poorly defined depositional lobes. Around the islands, a large tributary system composed of gullies and channels develop where no significant rocky/ridge outcrops are present. This system is likely formed by turbidity currents that are triggered by hyperpicnal flows in Madeira or by storm-induced offshore sediment transport on Porto Santo and Desertas islands. At the lower part of the flanks (-3000 to -4300 m), where seafloor gradients decrease to 0.5º-3º, several scour and sediment wave fields are present, with the former normally occurring upslope of the latter. Sediment waves are often associated with the depositional lobes of the landslides but also occur offshore poorly-developed tributary systems. Sediment wave fields and scours are mostly absent on areas where the tributary systems are well developed and/or are dominated by rocky outcrops. Our study suggests that scours and sediment wave fields are probably formed by turbidity currents that suffer hydraulic jumps where the seafloor gradients are significantly reduced and where the currents become unconfined. The largest scours were found in areas without upslope channel systems and independently of wave fields, although also related to unconfined turbidity currents. Our observations show that tributary systems are better developed in prominent and rainy islands such as Madeira. On low and dry islands such as Porto Santo and Desertas, these are poorly developed and unconfined turbidite currents favour the development of scours and sediment

  6. High connectivity in the deepwater snapper Pristipomoides filamentosus (Lutjanidae) across the Indo-Pacific with isolation of the Hawaiian archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaither, Michelle R; Jones, Shelley A; Kelley, Christopher; Newman, Stephen J; Sorenson, Laurie; Bowen, Brian W

    2011-01-01

    In the tropical Indo-Pacific, most phylogeographic studies have focused on the shallow-water taxa that inhabit reefs to approximately 30 m depth. Little is known about the large predatory fishes, primarily snappers (subfamily Etelinae) and groupers (subfamily Epinephelinae) that occur at 100-400 m. These long-lived, slow-growing species support fisheries across the Indo-Pacific, yet no comprehensive genetic surveys within this group have been conducted. Here we contribute the first range-wide survey of a deepwater Indo-Pacific snapper, Pristipomoides filamentosus, with special focus on Hawai'i. We applied mtDNA cytochrome b and 11 microsatellite loci to 26 samples (N=1,222) collected across 17,000 km from Hawai'i to the western Indian Ocean. Results indicate that P. filamentosus is a highly dispersive species with low but significant population structure (mtDNA Φ(ST)=0.029, microsatellite F(ST)=0.029) due entirely to the isolation of Hawai'i. No population structure was detected across 14,000 km of the Indo-Pacific from Tonga in the Central Pacific to the Seychelles in the western Indian Ocean, a pattern rarely observed in reef species. Despite a long pelagic phase (60-180 days), interisland dispersal as adults, and extensive gene flow across the Indo-Pacific, P. filamentosus is unable to maintain population connectivity with Hawai'i. Coalescent analyses indicate that P. filamentosus may have colonized Hawai'i 26 K-52 K y ago against prevailing currents, with dispersal away from Hawai'i dominating migration estimates. P. filamentosus harbors low genetic diversity in Hawai'i, a common pattern in marine fishes, and our data indicate a single archipelago-wide stock. However, like the Hawaiian Grouper, Hyporthodus quernus, this snapper had several significant pairwise comparisons (F(ST)) clustered around the middle of the archipelago (St. Rogatien, Brooks Banks, Gardner) indicating that this region may be isolated or (more likely) receives input from Johnston Atoll to

  7. High connectivity in the deepwater snapper Pristipomoides filamentosus (Lutjanidae across the Indo-Pacific with isolation of the Hawaiian archipelago.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle R Gaither

    Full Text Available In the tropical Indo-Pacific, most phylogeographic studies have focused on the shallow-water taxa that inhabit reefs to approximately 30 m depth. Little is known about the large predatory fishes, primarily snappers (subfamily Etelinae and groupers (subfamily Epinephelinae that occur at 100-400 m. These long-lived, slow-growing species support fisheries across the Indo-Pacific, yet no comprehensive genetic surveys within this group have been conducted. Here we contribute the first range-wide survey of a deepwater Indo-Pacific snapper, Pristipomoides filamentosus, with special focus on Hawai'i. We applied mtDNA cytochrome b and 11 microsatellite loci to 26 samples (N=1,222 collected across 17,000 km from Hawai'i to the western Indian Ocean. Results indicate that P. filamentosus is a highly dispersive species with low but significant population structure (mtDNA Φ(ST=0.029, microsatellite F(ST=0.029 due entirely to the isolation of Hawai'i. No population structure was detected across 14,000 km of the Indo-Pacific from Tonga in the Central Pacific to the Seychelles in the western Indian Ocean, a pattern rarely observed in reef species. Despite a long pelagic phase (60-180 days, interisland dispersal as adults, and extensive gene flow across the Indo-Pacific, P. filamentosus is unable to maintain population connectivity with Hawai'i. Coalescent analyses indicate that P. filamentosus may have colonized Hawai'i 26 K-52 K y ago against prevailing currents, with dispersal away from Hawai'i dominating migration estimates. P. filamentosus harbors low genetic diversity in Hawai'i, a common pattern in marine fishes, and our data indicate a single archipelago-wide stock. However, like the Hawaiian Grouper, Hyporthodus quernus, this snapper had several significant pairwise comparisons (F(ST clustered around the middle of the archipelago (St. Rogatien, Brooks Banks, Gardner indicating that this region may be isolated or (more likely receives input from Johnston

  8. Epidemiology of diabetes mellitus in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackard, W G; Omori, Yoshiaki; Freedman, L R

    1964-03-12

    The clinical and epidemiological features of diabetes mellitus in Japan have been compiled and compared with data from other countries. Diabetes is basically the same in Japan as elsewhere: however, consideration of important differences has led to the following conclusions: The rarity of ketoacidosis in Japan is due to the mild carbohydrate defect present in most diabetics. The mild carbohydrate intolerance in diabetics is probably in part due to a high carbohydrate intake. Diabetic retinopathy is more common in women than in men in Japan; there are limited and conflicting data from the West on this point, but retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy occur about as frequently in Japan as in the West. Because of marked dietary differences between Japan and Western countries, these findings suggest that dietary fat has no significance in the pathogenesis of these lesions. Peripheral gangrene is distinctly unusual in Japanese diabetics. This suggests that either: the responsible vascular lesions are different from those responsible for nephropathy and retinopathy; or that small vessel lesions are the same but the lack of large vessel atherosclerosis in the population accounts for the decreased incidence of gangrene. Men have diabetes 2 or 3 times as commonly as women in Japan. If sex-limited inheritance is discarded as a possible reason, it is likely that adult-onset diabetes is more common in men than women except in those countries (the West) where women gain relatively large amounts of weight. The rarity of juvenile diabetes in Japan is best explained by the infrequency of responsible genetic factors. As a consequence, it is likely that juvenile diabetes is caused by different or additional genetic factors which are not significant in adult-onset diabetes. Diabetes prevalance varies sufficiently between different localities in the same country to render the concept of national prevalance of doubtful usefulness. 55 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  9. Explaining Meiji Japans Top Down Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction...Modernization in Japanese Culture, ed. Donald H. Shively (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1971), 93–97. 24 David J. Lu, Japan: A Documentary ...but also took advantage of international developments. Japan managed to alter the unequal treaties with his oversight. The Japanese began to study an

  10. Revitalizing US electronics lessons from Japan

    CERN Document Server

    Sprague, John

    1993-01-01

    Written by one of the few executives who have extensive experience in the electronics industry in both the US and Japan, this book compares market research, design, and manufacturing techniques as used in both countries. Unlike other books on theJapanese business culture, Sprague gives specific advice and recommendations about what companies can do now to compete with Japan, clearly pointing out what is and what is not adaptable from the Japanese approach to business.

  11. Testing the Nuclear Will of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    particularly the United States. This was significant because a soured economic relationship would undoubtedly affect the U.S.-Japan security...around the world, has sometimes soured its image as a serious international player.136 This is because many of the world’s great powers have extended...for International Exchange, 2005. Beer , Lawrence W. “Japan Turning the Corner.” Asian Survey 11, no. 1 (January 1971): 74 – 85. Bueno de Mesquita

  12. Explaining Meiji Japan's top-down revolution

    OpenAIRE

    McClain, Kendra M.

    2017-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Meiji Japanese leaders consisted of an oligarchy that strived to overcome Western imperialist pressures in Asia. They did so by overturning some deeply rooted Tokugawa-Era traditions in Japanese society and replaced them with Western ones. They understood that Western norms dictated world affairs, so they sought to make Japan strong along Western norms. Modeling the West provided enough traction for Japan to meet Western threats and ma...

  13. Theorizing School Bullying: Insights from Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Shoko Yoneyama

    2015-01-01

    This paper identifies a lacuna in the existing paradigms of bullying: a gap caused by the frame of reference being largely limited to the highly industrialized societies of the 'west': Europe, North America and Oceania. The paper attempts to address this gap by presenting research developed in Japan. In Japan, sociological discourse on school bullying, i.e. the analysis of institutional factors relevant to understanding bullying was established relatively early, as was the epistemology now re...

  14. Japan's Fiscal Policy and Fiscal Reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Ihori, Toshihiro; Nakamoto, Atsushi

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the macroeconomic effects of fiscal policy and the fiscal reconstruction movement in Japan. We first summarize Japan's fiscal policy in recent years and discuss advantages and disadvantages of government deficits. Next, we investigate the macroeconomic effects of Japanese fiscal policy and evaluate the plausibility of non-Keynesian effects. We also analyze the possibility of the crowding-in effect of fiscal policy and investigate the spillover effects of deregulation. ...

  15. The disappointments for nuclear energy in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Several dysfunctions are reported in this paper: A reactor (Onagawa) closed after a nitrogen leakage; a small leakage of radioactive water in the nuclear power plant of Mihama assessment raised to five deaths, the operator stops its nuclear power plants for inspection, the Japan face to its ageing nuclear power plants, the truth about the cost of M.O.X., the seven reactors of Japan closed for inspection after cracks and leaks hidden to authorities, Tokai MURA accident. (N.C.)

  16. Proto-Industrialization in Tokugawa Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Martin J.

    2012-01-01

    This research examines the process of early capitalism in Japanese history. Generally it is thought that capitalism developed in the years leading to the Meiji Restoration. Like European models of early capitalist development in handicraft and cottage industries, Japan went through a similar process. Development of rural trade and small-scale capitalism sowed the seeds that broke feudal bonds and resulted in the mass factory system that made modern capitalist Japan.

  17. [History of pandemic influenza in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Keizo

    2010-09-01

    In Japan, influenza like epidemics were described many times since Heian era. However, Spanish flu as the modern medicine invaded Japan in 1918, thus almost infected 390,000 patients died with associated pneumonia. After the discovery of influenza virus in 1933, Japan experienced pandemic influenza--Asian flu(H2N2) in 1957. After about 10 years, Hong Kong flu (H3N2) came to Japan at 1968. However, we had many reliable antibiotics but had not any antiviral drug at the early time. After year 2000, we fortunately obtained reliable three antiviral drugs such as amantadine, oseltamivir and zanamivir. Moreover, very useful rapid test kits for influenza A and B viruses were developed and used in Japan. 2009 H1N1 influenza epidemic occured in Japan after the great epidemic in Mexico and North America but elderly patient was few. With together, host conditions regarding with high risk are changing. Lessons from past several pandemic influenza are those that many issues for changing high risk conditions, viral genetic changes, developing antiviral agents, developing new useful vaccins and determinating bacterial secondary pathogens are important.

  18. Future Accelerators Seminar in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    ICFA, the International Committee for Future Accelerators, was set up by the Particles and Fields Commission of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) in 1976. Its mandate was 'To organize workshops for the study of problems related to an international super-high energy accelerator complex (VBA) and to elaborate the framework of its construction and of its use. To organize meetings for the exchange of information on future plans of regional facilities and for the formulation of advice on joint studies and uses.' In the seven years of its existence (it first met in August 1977), ICFA has organized three workshops on the first topic — t w o on 'Possibilities and Limitations of Accelerators and Detectors' (Fermilab, 1978 and Les Diablerets, 1979) and one on 'Possibilities and Limitations for Superconducting Accelerator Magnets' (Protvino, 1981). At an ICFA meeting at Fermilab in August 1983, it was realized that the second topic had been somewhat neglected. It was therefore decided to postpone a fourth workshop scheduled at the Japanese National Laboratory for High Energy Physics (KEK) and to organize instead a Seminar on 'Future Perspectives in High Energy Physics' similar to that held in New Orleans in 1975, which had in fact led to the creation of ICFA.The Seminar (jointly hosted by the Institute of Nuclear Study of Tokyo University and KEK, with support from the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture, the Yamada Science Foundation and the Nishina Memorial Foundation) took place from 14-20 May. There were about a hundred participants, mostly senior scientists from Western and Eastern Europe, USA, USSR and Japan (including the Directors of almost all the major high energy physics Laboratories) and representatives from Australia, Canada, China, India, Mexico, South Korea and Vietnam

  19. Future Accelerators Seminar in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1984-10-15

    ICFA, the International Committee for Future Accelerators, was set up by the Particles and Fields Commission of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) in 1976. Its mandate was 'To organize workshops for the study of problems related to an international super-high energy accelerator complex (VBA) and to elaborate the framework of its construction and of its use. To organize meetings for the exchange of information on future plans of regional facilities and for the formulation of advice on joint studies and uses.' In the seven years of its existence (it first met in August 1977), ICFA has organized three workshops on the first topic — t w o on 'Possibilities and Limitations of Accelerators and Detectors' (Fermilab, 1978 and Les Diablerets, 1979) and one on 'Possibilities and Limitations for Superconducting Accelerator Magnets' (Protvino, 1981). At an ICFA meeting at Fermilab in August 1983, it was realized that the second topic had been somewhat neglected. It was therefore decided to postpone a fourth workshop scheduled at the Japanese National Laboratory for High Energy Physics (KEK) and to organize instead a Seminar on 'Future Perspectives in High Energy Physics' similar to that held in New Orleans in 1975, which had in fact led to the creation of ICFA.The Seminar (jointly hosted by the Institute of Nuclear Study of Tokyo University and KEK, with support from the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture, the Yamada Science Foundation and the Nishina Memorial Foundation) took place from 14-20 May. There were about a hundred participants, mostly senior scientists from Western and Eastern Europe, USA, USSR and Japan (including the Directors of almost all the major high energy physics Laboratories) and representatives from Australia, Canada, China, India, Mexico, South Korea and Vietnam.

  20. Research of fault activity in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nohara, T.; Nakatsuka, N.; Takeda, S.

    2004-01-01

    Six hundreds and eighty earthquakes causing significant damage have been recorded since the 7. century in Japan. It is important to recognize faults that will or are expected to be active in future in order to help reduce earthquake damage, estimate earthquake damage insurance and siting of nuclear facilities. Such faults are called 'active faults' in Japan, the definition of which is a fault that has moved intermittently for at least several hundred thousand years and is expected to continue to do so in future. Scientific research of active faults has been ongoing since the 1930's. Many results indicated that major earthquakes and fault movements in shallow crustal regions in Japan occurred repeatedly at existing active fault zones during the past. After the 1995 Southern Hyogo Prefecture Earthquake, 98 active fault zones were selected for fundamental survey, with the purpose of efficiently conducting an active fault survey in 'Plans for Fundamental Seismic Survey and Observation' by the headquarters for earthquake research promotion, which was attached to the Prime Minister's office of Japan. Forty two administrative divisions for earthquake disaster prevention have investigated the distribution and history of fault activity of 80 active fault zones. Although earthquake prediction is difficult, the behaviour of major active faults in Japan is being recognised. Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) submitted a report titled 'H12: Project to Establish the. Scientific and Technical Basis for HLW Disposal in Japan' to the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) of Japan for official review W. The Guidelines, which were defined by AEC, require the H12 Project to confirm the basic technical feasibility of safe HLW disposal in Japan. In this report the important issues relating to fault activity were described that are to understand the characteristics of current fault movements and the spatial extent and magnitude of the effects caused by these movements, and to

  1. Distinguishing between natural and aquaculture-derived sediment concentrations of heavy metals in the Broughton Archipelago, British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, T.F.; Petersen, S.A.; Levings, C.D.; Martin, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    Marine sediment samples were collected in the Broughton Archipelago, British Columbia, to assess the use of a geochemical normalization technique in the identification of a chemical tracer of aquaculture waste material. Zinc and copper were suggested as tracers of feed pellets, while copper was considered an indicator of anti-foulant agents used on netpen systems. The sediment samples were analyzed for carbon, nitrogen, organic matter, water, trace-element, and free sulfide concentrations, and sediment grain-size distribution. Sediment texture analysis revealed a wide range of substrate types from sand to silty loam categories. Strong relationships between sediment texture, sediment porosity, and organic content were observed across both near-field and far-field stations. Excess zinc and copper sediment concentrations, identified using a lithium-normalization technique, were restricted to near-field sampling stations (0 and 30 m from netpen systems). The relationships between these metal tracers and organic content and sulfur concentrations were explored to account for variations in sediment concentrations of zinc and copper

  2. Effect of lipid extraction on analyses of stable carbon and stable nitrogen isotopes in coastal organisms of the Aleutian archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricca, M.A.; Miles, A.K.; Anthony, R.G.; Deng, X.; Hung, S.S.O.

    2007-01-01

    We tested whether extracting lipids reduced confounding variation in ??13C and ??15N values by analyzing paired lipid-extracted (LE) and non-lipid-extracted (NLE) samples of bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus (L., 1766)) whole eggs, muscle tissue from nine seabird and one terrestrial bird species, muscle tissue from four marine fish species, and blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L., 1758) collected from the Aleutian archipelago, Alaska. Lipid extraction significantly increased ??13C by an average of 2.0??? in whole eggs, 0.8??? in avian muscle, 0.2??? in fish muscle, and 0.6??? in blue mussels. Lower ??13C values in NLE samples covaried positively with lipid content across all sample types. Lower ??13C values in NLE samples were not correlated with lipid content within bald eagle eggs and blue mussels, but covaried positively with percent lipid in avian and fish muscles. Neither lipid extraction nor percent lipid significantly changed ??15N values for any sample type. Lower ??13C values in most NLE avian and fish muscle tissues should not confound interpretation of pelagic versus nearshore sources of primary production, but lipid extraction may be necessary when highly precise estimates of ??13C are needed. Lipid extraction may not be necessary when only ??15N is of interest. ?? 2007 NRC.

  3. Distribution and bioavailability of cadmium in ornithogenic coral-sand sediments of the Xisha archipelago, South China Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaodong; Lou Chuangneng; Xu Liqiang; Sun Liguang

    2012-01-01

    Total cadmium (Cd) concentrations in four ornithogenic coral-sand sedimentary profiles displayed a strong positive correlation with guano-derived phosphorus, but had no correlation with plant-originated organic matter in the top sediments. These results indicate that the total Cd distributions were predominantly controlled by guano input. Bioavailable Cd and zinc (Zn) had a greater input rate in the top sediments with respect to total Cd and total Zn, and a positive correlation with total organic carbon (TOC) derived from plant humus. Multi-regression analysis showed that the total Cd and TOC explained over 80% of the variation of bioavailable Cd, suggesting that both guano and plant inputs could significantly influence the distribution of bioavailable Cd, and that plant biocycling processes contribute more to the recent increase of bioavailable Cd. A pollution assessment indicates that the Yongle archipelago is moderately to strongly polluted with guano-derived Cd. - Guano and plant biocycling processes can exert different influences on the distributions of total Cd and bioavailable Cd in coral-sand ornithogenic sediments.

  4. Willingness-To-Pay for Improving Marine Biodiversity: A Case Study of Lastovo Archipelago Marine Park (Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Getzner

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The sustainable financing of marine protected areas is still an important issue on the conservation agenda even in European countries with strong governance and regulatory frameworks. With the example of the Lastovo Archipelago Marine Park in Croatia, this paper discusses options for funding based on visitors’ willingness-to-pay to conserve marine biodiversity. The site is attractive to general tourists coming by ferries and sailors with private boats alike, which is at the same time a challenge and an opportunity for designing an efficient and effective funding scheme. The authors investigate the willingness-to-pay (WTP of these two groups of visitors for the conservation of characteristic habitats and species based on the visualization of three different scenarios. In the statistical analysis, the authors find a significant WTP that could contribute to the long-term management and financing of the site, taking into account the perceptions and attitudes of the different groups of tourists. All in all, this study provides several conclusions for levying entry fees depending on a segmentation of tourists with respect to their preferences, behavior, socio-economic characteristics, and alternative destinations.

  5. First records of aphid-pathogenic Entomophthorales in the sub-Antarctic archipelagos of Crozet and Kerguelen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Papierok

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the 20th century, the sub-Antarctic islands have suffered an increasing number of biological invasions. Despite the large number of publications on this topic, there is a lack of knowledge on parasitism rates of invasive species and on the role of parasites and pathogens to regulate their populations. Six aphid species have been introduced in the archipelagos of Crozet (Île de la Possession, 46° 25’ S–51° 51’ E and Kerguelen (49° 21’ S–70° 13’ E. Five of these species were found infected by entomopathogenic fungi of the order Entomophthorales. All these fungal species are cosmopolitan. Conidiobolus obscurus and Entomophthora planchoniana were the most frequently observed on Île de la Possession and in Archipel des Kerguelen, respectively. This is the first report of pathogenic fungi of aphids on the sub-Antarctic islands. We discuss these results in the light of our current knowledge of these insect pathogens. Their introduction by aphids surviving on plants during transportation is the most likely hypothesis to explain their presence on these remote islands.

  6. Revisiting the ants of Melanesia and the taxon cycle: historical and human-mediated invasions of a tropical archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economo, Evan P; Sarnat, Eli M

    2012-07-01

    Understanding the historical evolution of biotas and the dynamics of contemporary human-mediated species introductions are two central tasks of biology. One hypothesis may address both-the taxon cycle. Taxon cycles are phases of range expansion and contraction coupled to ecological and evolutionary niche shifts. These historical invasion processes resemble human-mediated invasions in pattern and possibly mechanism, but both the existence of historical cycles and the roles of recent introductions are in question. We return to the system that originally inspired the taxon cycle-Melanesian ants-and perform novel tests of the hypothesis. We analyze (i) the habitat distributions of Fiji's entire ant fauna (183 species), (ii) ecological shifts associated with the in situ radiation of Fijian Pheidole in a phylogenetic context, and (iii) the ecological structure of a massive exotic ant invasion of the archipelago. Our analyses indicate lineages shift toward primary habitats, higher elevation, rarity, and ecological specialization with increasing level of endemism, consistent with taxon cycle predictions. The marginal habitats that historically formed a dispersal conduit in the Pacific are now mostly replaced by human-modified habitats dominated by a colonization pulse of exotic species. We propose this may represent the first phase of an incipient global cycle of human-mediated colonization, ecological shifts, and diversification.

  7. Detection of rabbit Haemorrhagic disease virus 2 during the wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) eradication from the Berlengas archipelago, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abade Dos Santos, F A; Carvalho, C; Nuno, Oliveira; Correia, J J; Henriques, M; Peleteiro, M C; Fevereiro, M; Duarte, M D

    2017-11-15

    In the regular wildlife monitoring action carried out in the summer of the past few years at the Berlenga Island, wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) have been repeatedly found dead. However, the origin of those deaths was never investigated. Our aim was to investigate the cause of death of 11 rabbits collected between April and May 2016. While screening samples from rabbit carcasses for the major viral rabbit pathogens, five tested positive to RHDV2 but all were negative for RHDV and myxoma virus (MYXV). For six RHDV2-negative specimens, emaciation and parasitism were considered the most probable cause of death. Lesions identified in the RHDV2-positive rabbits included non-suppurative diffuse hepatic necrosis and pulmonary lesions varying from congestion and oedema of the lungs to interstitial pneumonia. Sequencing analysis of the vp60 gene obtained from two specimens showed identical vp60 sequences. Comparison with other known RHDV2 strains from public databases through BLAST analysis revealed a closer similarity with strains from Alentejo collected during 2013. Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analysis showed that the 2016 strains from the archipelago have a higher resemblance with a group of strains mostly collected in the South of Portugal between 2013 and 2014. The results suggest that RHDV2 may have been introduced on the Berlenga Island a few years ago, having evolved separately from mainland strains due to insularity.

  8. Hawaiʻi Coral Disease database (HICORDIS: species-specific coral health data from across the Hawaiian archipelago

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    Jamie M. Caldwell

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Hawaiʻi Coral Disease database (HICORDIS houses data on colony-level coral health condition observed across the Hawaiian archipelago, providing information to conduct future analyses on coral reef health in an era of changing environmental conditions. Colonies were identified to the lowest taxonomic classification possible (species or genera, measured and assessed for visual signs of health condition. Data were recorded for 286,071 coral colonies surveyed on 1819 transects at 660 sites between 2005 and 2015. The database contains observations for 60 species from 22 genera with 21 different health conditions. The goals of the HICORDIS database are to: i provide open access, quality controlled and validated coral health data assembled from disparate surveys conducted across Hawaiʻi; ii facilitate appropriate crediting of data; and iii encourage future analyses of coral reef health. In this article, we describe and provide data from the HICORDIS database. The data presented in this paper were used in the research article “Satellite SST-based Coral Disease Outbreak Predictions for the Hawaiian Archipelago” (Caldwell et al., 2016 [1]. Keywords: Marine biology, Coral, Reefs, Disease, Hawaii

  9. Understanding and mapping local conflicts related to protected areas in small islands: a case study of the Azores archipelago

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    Chiara Bragagnolo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Establishing Protected Areas (PAs is considered one of the most appropriate ways to conserve nature and cultural landscapes. However, conservation constraints can generate social conflicts, especially at a local level. In small islands (SIs, local conflicts may escalate due to an increase in competition for limited space and resources. Pico island in the Azores Archipelago (Portugal, part of the Outermost European region, was considered a good case to study conservation-development conflicts due to the amount of designated protected land (> 35% of its surface and the approval of a new Azorean PA network in 2007. This paper presents a new approach to understanding and mapping local conflicts within PAs in SIs by integrating qualitative data and spatially explicit information. This research takes stock of the benefits, needs and constraints related to Pico Natural Park as perceived by local stakeholders through face-to-face semi-structured interviews; it subsequently identifies and transposes the conflicts distilled from stakeholder discourse into spatially representative visual maps via GIS. Research outcomes show that PAs are perceived mainly as constraints to local development, showing inconsistency between local expectations and regional conservation policy. This highlights the importance of including public participation processes prior to any implementation of conservation strategies. The proposed method provides a springboard towards effective conflict management for PAs on Pico island, showing a relatively low-cost and straightforward approach to minimising future local conflicts which could be adapted to other similar Outermost European regions and SIs.

  10. Using ecological function to develop recovery criteria for depleted species: Sea otters and kelp forests in the Aleutian archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, James A.; Tinker, M. Tim; Bodkin, James L.

    2010-01-01

    Recovery criteria for depleted species or populations normally are based on demographic measures, the goal being to maintain enough individuals over a sufficiently large area to assure a socially tolerable risk of future extinction. Such demographically based recovery criteria may be insufficient to restore the functional roles of strongly interacting species. We explored the idea of developing a recovery criterion for sea otters (Enhydra lutris) in the Aleutian archipelago on the basis of their keystone role in kelp forest ecosystems. We surveyed sea otters and rocky reef habitats at 34 island-time combinations. The system nearly always existed in either a kelp-dominated or deforested phase state, which was predictable from sea otter density. We used a resampling analysis of these data to show that the phase state at any particular island can be determined at 95% probability of correct classification with information from as few as six sites. When sea otter population status (and thus the phase state of the kelp forest) was allowed to vary randomly among islands, just 15 islands had to be sampled to estimate the true proportion that were kelp dominated (within 10%) with 90% confidence. We conclude that kelp forest phase state is a more appropriate, sensitive, and cost-effective measure of sea otter recovery than the more traditional demographically based metrics, and we suggest that similar approaches have broad potential utility in establishing recovery criteria for depleted populations of other functionally important species.

  11. Links between ocean properties, ice cover, and plankton dynamics on interannual time scales in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, James M.; Collins, Kate; Prinsenberg, Simon J.

    2013-10-01

    A decade of instrumented mooring data from Barrow Strait in the eastern Canadian Arctic Archipelago reveals connections between sea ice, water characteristics, and zooplankton dynamics on interannual time scales. On the North side of the Strait, the timing of breakup is positively related to the timing of freezeup in the previous year and negatively related to spring water temperature. This suggests that an early freezeup insulates the ocean from a cold autumn atmosphere, allowing heat to be retained until spring when it contributes to early sea ice erosion. There is also a very strong negative association between the timing of freezeup and late summer salinity, suggesting that monitoring of salinity in real time could be used to predict freezeup. A zooplankton biomass index derived from acoustic Doppler current profiler echo intensity data is used to demonstrate that on the North side there are also strong connections between early summer water temperature and the start, length, and productivity of the zooplankton growth season. On the South side of the Strait where currents are stronger, the relationships seen on the North side were not observed. But here integrated zooplankton biomass index and measured currents are used to identify interannual variability in the zooplankton biomass being delivered downstream into Lancaster Sound. Also on the South side, two yearlong records of daily fluorescence profiles reveal a large difference in the phytoplankton biomass being delivered downstream between years and demonstrate a strong relationship between the timing of the spring phytoplankton bloom and that of breakup.

  12. Plectranthias lamillai, a new Anthiine fish species (Perciformes, Serranidae from the Juan Fernández Archipelago, Chile

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    José Rodrigo Rojas M.

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Plectranthias lamillai new species, is described and illustrated as a new anthiine serranid fish from Alejandro Selkirk Island, the westernmost island of the Juan Fernández Archipelago, about 700 km west of Chile at 33°45´S, 80°51´W. The following combination of characters distinguishes it from all other serranids: dorsal fin rays X,16; principal caudal-fin rays 17 (8+9; pectoral-fin rays 16; gillrakers 28 (8+20; tubed lateral-line scales 40-41; 10 rows of scales on cheek; maxilla narrow and rounded; posterior margin of bony opercle with three spinous processes, the middle one largest; subopercle 2-6 small serrae; pseudobranch with 24 filaments; circumpeduncular scales 16; pelvic fin inserted beneath base of pectoral fin, the tip reaching a vertical through base of tenth dorsal-fin spine, falling short of the anus; a broad red bar from sixth dorsal-fin spine to base of fifth ray, extending to anus and above anal fin as a narrow band that widens on the peduncle and then bifurcates over the upper and lower margins of the caudal fin; rest of the caudal fin yellowish. Pectoral fins orange; pelvic and anal fins whitish.

  13. Persistent organic pollutants in marine biota of São Pedro and São Paulo Archipelago, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Patrick S; Cipro, Caio V Z; Taniguchi, Satie; Montone, Rosalinda C

    2013-09-15

    Remote islands, such as the São Pedro and São Paulo Archipelago (SPSPA), Brazil, are pristine areas. However, these locations are not exempt from the arrival of anthropogenic agents, such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The present study aimed to determine the occurrence and distribution of POPs in the marine biota of the SPSPA. Sample extractions were performed using a microwave-assisted method. The predominant compounds were PCBs and DDTs, which respectively had mean wet weight concentrations of 62.23 and 9.23 ng g(-1) in the tropical two-wing flying fish (Exocoetus volitans), 78.66 and 6.81 ng g(-1) in the brown booby (Sula leucogaster) and 43.40 and 3.03 ng g(-1) in the red rock crab (Grapsus grapsus). Low levels of contaminants suggest a relative degree of isolation. Occurrence and distribution profiles of PCBs support long-range atmospheric transport as the main source of contamination and demonstrate the ubiquity of these pollutants in the marine environment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Relationship of cyanobacterial and algal assemblages with vegetation in the high Arctic tundra (West Spitsbergen, Svalbard Archipelago

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    Richter Dorota

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a study of cyanobacteria and green algae assemblages occurring in various tundra types determined on the basis of mosses and vascular plants and habitat conditions. The research was carried out during summer in the years 2009-2013 on the north sea-coast of Hornsund fjord (West Spitsbergen, Svalbard Archipelago. 58 sites were studied in various tundra types differing in composition of vascular plants, mosses and in trophy and humidity. 141 cyanobacteria and green algae were noted in the research area in total. Cyanobacteria and green algae flora is a significant element of many tundra types and sometimes even dominate there. Despite its importance, it has not been hitherto taken into account in the description and classification of tundra. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the legitimacy of using phycoflora in supplementing the descriptions of hitherto described tundra and distinguishing new tundra types. Numeric hierarchical-accumulative classification (MVSP 3.1 software methods were used to analyze the cyanobacterial and algal assemblages and their co-relations with particular tundra types. The analysis determined dominant and distinctive species in the communities in concordance with ecologically diverse types of tundra. The results show the importance of these organisms in the composition of the vegetation of tundra types and their role in the ecosystems of this part of the Arctic.

  15. Unexpectedly High Levels of Cryptic Diversity Uncovered by a Complete DNA Barcoding of Reptiles of the Socotra Archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Raquel; Montero-Mendieta, Santiago; Simó-Riudalbas, Marc; Sindaco, Roberto; Santos, Xavier; Fasola, Mauro; Llorente, Gustavo; Razzetti, Edoardo; Carranza, Salvador

    2016-01-01

    Few DNA barcoding studies of squamate reptiles have been conducted. Due to the significance of the Socotra Archipelago (a UNESCO Natural World Heritage site and a biodiversity hotspot) and the conservation interest of its reptile fauna (94% endemics), we performed the most comprehensive DNA barcoding study on an island group to date to test its applicability to specimen identification and species discovery. Reptiles constitute Socotra's most important vertebrate fauna, yet their taxonomy remains under-studied. We successfully DNA-barcoded 380 individuals of all 31 presently recognized species. The specimen identification success rate is moderate to high, and almost all species presented local barcoding gaps. The unexpected high levels of intra-specific variability found within some species suggest cryptic diversity. Species richness may be under-estimated by 13.8-54.4%. This has implications in the species' ranges and conservation status that should be considered for conservation planning. Other phylogenetic studies using mitochondrial and nuclear markers are congruent with our results. We conclude that, despite its reduced length (663 base pairs), cytochrome c oxidase 1, COI, is very useful for specimen identification and for detecting intra-specific diversity, and has a good phylogenetic signal. We recommend DNA barcoding to be applied to other biodiversity hotspots for quickly and cost-efficiently flagging species discovery, preferentially incorporated into an integrative taxonomic framework.

  16. How Tourist Destinations Could Be Stereotyped and Misplaced by Structural Forces? - A Case of Penghu Archipelago, Taiwan

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    Tu Han-Chun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourist destination image is important for strategic marketing and tourist choice. While many studies focus on images and their influencing factors, images are wrongly considered only for sale, compromising local authenticity and local life. With a critical review of development plans and the results of a questionnaire survey, this paper argues that images often stereotype and misplace tourist destination, in particularly for images brought about by structural forces. Islands are lands surrounded by ocean and often taken as full of marine and coastal resources and sceneries. In Penghu archipelago, marine environment is important for local livelihood and tourist destination. However, with the case of Erkan, we realize that, along with the evidence from interviews and surveys, most Erkan tourists do not come for its marine or natural resources. Erkan, as a fishing village, was turned into a tourism destination for tis vernacular architecture and folklore products irrelevant to its marine environment. With structural endeavours and official makeover of places, places are stereotyped and often become out of place.

  17. Madrean Archipelago Ecoregion: Chapter 28 in Status and trends of land change in the Western United States--1973 to 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhlman, Jana; Gass, Leila; Middleton, Barry

    2012-01-01

    The Madrean Archipelago Ecoregion (Omernik, 1987; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1997), also known as the “Madrean Sky Islands” or “Sky Islands,” covers an area of approximately 40,536 km2 (15,651 mi2) in southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico (fig. 1). The ecoregion is bounded on the west by the Sonoran Basin and Range Ecoregion, on the east by the Chihuahuan Deserts Ecoregion, and on the north by the Arizona/New Mexico Mountains Ecoregion. This area of basin-and-range topography is one of the most biologically diverse in the world (Koprowski, 2005; Skroch, 2008). Although the mountains in the ecoregion bridge the Rocky Mountains to the north and the Sierra Madre Occidental in Mexico to the south (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1997), the lower elevations act as a barrier to species dispersal. Nevertheless, the geographic convergence of these two major continental mountain ranges, as well as of the Chihuahuan Desert to the east and the Sonoran Desert to the west, forms the foundation for ecological interactions found nowhere else on Earth (Skroch, 2008).

  18. First record of black band disease in the Hawaiian archipelago: response, outbreak status, virulence, and a method of treatment.

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    Greta S Aeby

    Full Text Available A high number of coral colonies, Montipora spp., with progressive tissue loss were reported from the north shore of Kaua'i by a member of the Eyes of the Reef volunteer reporting network. The disease has a distinct lesion (semi-circular pattern of tissue loss with an adjacent dark band that was first observed in Hanalei Bay, Kaua'i in 2004. The disease, initially termed Montipora banded tissue loss, appeared grossly similar to black band disease (BBD, which affects corals worldwide. Following the initial report, a rapid response was initiated as outlined in Hawai'i's rapid response contingency plan to determine outbreak status and investigate the disease. Our study identified the three dominant bacterial constituents indicative of BBD (filamentous cyanobacteria, sulfate-reducing bacteria, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria in coral disease lesions from Kaua'i, which provided the first evidence of BBD in the Hawaiian archipelago. A rapid survey at the alleged outbreak site found disease to affect 6-7% of the montiporids, which is higher than a prior prevalence of less than 1% measured on Kaua'i in 2004, indicative of an epizootic. Tagged colonies with BBD had an average rate of tissue loss of 5.7 cm2/day over a two-month period. Treatment of diseased colonies with a double band of marine epoxy, mixed with chlorine powder, effectively reduced colony mortality. Within two months, treated colonies lost an average of 30% less tissue compared to untreated controls.

  19. Unexpectedly High Levels of Cryptic Diversity Uncovered by a Complete DNA Barcoding of Reptiles of the Socotra Archipelago.

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    Raquel Vasconcelos

    Full Text Available Few DNA barcoding studies of squamate reptiles have been conducted. Due to the significance of the Socotra Archipelago (a UNESCO Natural World Heritage site and a biodiversity hotspot and the conservation interest of its reptile fauna (94% endemics, we performed the most comprehensive DNA barcoding study on an island group to date to test its applicability to specimen identification and species discovery. Reptiles constitute Socotra's most important vertebrate fauna, yet their taxonomy remains under-studied. We successfully DNA-barcoded 380 individuals of all 31 presently recognized species. The specimen identification success rate is moderate to high, and almost all species presented local barcoding gaps. The unexpected high levels of intra-specific variability found within some species suggest cryptic diversity. Species richness may be under-estimated by 13.8-54.4%. This has implications in the species' ranges and conservation status that should be considered for conservation planning. Other phylogenetic studies using mitochondrial and nuclear markers are congruent with our results. We conclude that, despite its reduced length (663 base pairs, cytochrome c oxidase 1, COI, is very useful for specimen identification and for detecting intra-specific diversity, and has a good phylogenetic signal. We recommend DNA barcoding to be applied to other biodiversity hotspots for quickly and cost-efficiently flagging species discovery, preferentially incorporated into an integrative taxonomic framework.

  20. The alien terrestrial invertebrate fauna of the High Arctic archipelago of Svalbard: potential implications for the native flora and fauna

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    Stephen J. Coulson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Experience from the Antarctic indicates that the establishment of alien species may have significant negative effects on native flora and fauna in polar regions and is considered to be amongst the greatest threats to biodiversity. But, there have been few similar studies from the Arctic. Although the terrestrial invertebrate inventory of the Svalbard Archipelago is amongst the most complete for any region of the Arctic, no consideration has yet been made of alien terrestrial invertebrate species, their invasiveness tendencies, threat to the native biology or their route of entry. Such baseline information is critical for appropriate management strategies. Fifteen alien invertebrate species have established in the Svalbard environment, many of which have been introduced via imported soils. Biosecurity legislation now prohibits such activities. None of the recorded established aliens yet show invasive tendencies but some may have locally negative effects. Ten species are considered to be vagrants and a further seven are classified as observations. Vagrants and the observations are not believed to be able to establish in the current tundra environment. The high connectivity of Svalbard has facilitated natural dispersal processes and may explain why few alien species are recorded compared to isolated islands in the maritime Antarctic. The vagrant species observed are conspicuous Lepidoptera, implying that less evident vagrant species are also arriving regularly. Projected climate change may enable vagrant species to establish, with results that are difficult to foresee.